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Full text of "Sacred Books East Various Oriental Scholars with Index. 50 vols Max Muller Oxford 1879.1910."

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The New York Public Library 

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THE 



SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST 



TRANSLATED 



BY VARIOUS ORIENTAL SCHOLARS 



AND EDITED BY 



F. MAX MULLER 



VOL. XLIV 



AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1900 

[All rights resetyidy*. I ; *. „*•"# ;•. . * 

■*,-* . . - * * * * * 1 \ 

* - * * * „ . ^ * • " I - « 

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©jrfert 



PRINTED AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 

■V HORACE HART, M.A. 
PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY 



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THE 



SATAPATHA-BRAHMAjVA 



ACCORDING TO THE TEXT OF THE 



MADHYANDINA school 



TRANSLATED BY 



JULIUS EGGELING 



PART V 



BOOKS XI, XII, XIII, AND XIV 



Worto 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1900 

[All rights reserved] 



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CONTENTS. 

FACE 

Introduction xiii 

ELEVENTH KAM>A. 

The Full and New-Moon Sacrifice (Supplementary Remarks). 

Time of Sacrifice i 

Additional oblations to lndra Vimrtdh and Aditi . 5 
Expiatory oblations (to Agni, lndra, Vishnu) at New Moon 7 
Birth of Pra^ipati from golden egg . . . .12 
He creates Gods (Agni, lndra, Soma, ParameshMin) 

andAsuras 13 

Sacrifice representing universe and man . . .18 
Brahman (n.), the origin and immortal element, 

of gods and universe 27 

Sacrifice, the Year 38 

The Agnihotra (esoteric doctrines) .... 46 

The Brahma&rin 48 

Uddalaka Aruni and Svaid&yana . 50 

.Saulvayana and Ayasthuna 61 

The Mitravindd Sacrifice 62 

Sd dismembered 62 

Pururavas and Urvarf 68 

The Seasonal Sacrifices (ATiturmasya) . . . -74 
.Saufoya Prllf nayogya and Uddalaka Aru»i on the 

Agnihotra . . . . . . 79 

The Upanayana, or Initiation of the Brahmamcal Student . 86 

The S&vitrt formula 87 

The .Sat&tir&tra Sattra 91 

The Morning-Litany (prataranuvaka) of the Atirfitra 9 2 

The SvSdhySya, or Daily Study of the Veda ... 95 

The three Vedas, or triple science . • .102 



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Vlll 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

The Adabhya Cup of Soma 105 

Varuwa and his son Bhri'gu (on future states of 

existence) 108 

Ganaka of Videha on the Agnihotra . . .112 

Ya^flavalkya and S&kalya (on the gods and the 

supreme deity) 115 

The Animal Sacrifice, of two kinds . . . .118 

The Sacrificial stake (yfipa) 123 

The Victim and its deity 127 

The King of the Kerin and his Samra^-cow . -131 



TWELFTH KAA"Z>A. 



The Sacrificial Session (Sattra) . 
Man, the Year 
The T&psu/Kta Sattra 
Expiatory Ceremonies of the Agnihotra 
The going out of one of the fires 
The death of the Agnihotrin 
The burying of the dead body . 
Expiatory Oblations of Soma-sacrifice 
The Sautramant .... 
Namu& slain by Indra . 
Preparation of the Sura-liquor . 
Oblations of milk and Surd 
Oblations to the Fathers . 
The Ajvina, S&rasvata, and Aindra cups 
Indra assisted and healed by the Ajvins 

vatt 

Consecration of Sacrificer 
Cakes to Indra, Savitrs', and Varuxa 
The Avabhr/tha, or purificatory bath 
iTakra Sthapati performs Sautrama«i for 
Pau/wsayana . 



and 



• 135 

• M4 

• 171 

. 178 

. 187 

• 197 
. 200 

• 205 
. 213 

216, 222 

• a«3 

• 23' 
■ 234 

• 245 



Saras- 
223, 249 
. 249 
247, 260 
264 
Dush/arttu 

. 269 



THIRTEENTH KAA*Z>A. 

The Axvamedha, or Horse-sacrifice . 

Fettering and sprinkling of Horse . 
Stokfya oblations .... 



274 
276 
280 



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CONTENTS. IX 



PACE 

Prakrama oblations 282 

Three cake-offerings to Savitri' . . . .284 

Dhnti oblations 285 

Lute-playing by Brahmana and Ra^anya . .285 

Diksha, or Initiation 289 

Vaixvadeva oblations 289 

Audgrabhawa oblations 291 

First Soma-day (Agnish/oma) 295 

Annahomas (food oblations) 296 

Second Soma-day (Ukthya) 298 

Fettering of victims 298 

Bahishpavam£na-stotra 304 

Setting free of the wild victims ..... 307 
Sacrificer drives with Horse to pond of water and back 311 
Horse anointed and adorned by Sacrificer' s wives . 312 
Brahmodya of Hotn' and Brahman . . . .314 
Sprinkling of Horse by Adhvaryu (and Sacrificer) . 316 
Killing of Horse on cloths and plate of gold . .320 
Wives led up to circumambulate and fan the Horse . 322 

Mahishf addresses the Horse 323 

Priests' colloquy with wives 324 

The Knife-paths made with needles . . . .326 
The two Mahiman Cups of Soma . . . . 327 
The Chanting of the Xatush/oma . . . .329 

Ara»ye*nuAya oblations 336 

Svish&krtt oblations of blood 337 

Oblations to the Deaths 340 

Ajvastomiya" oblations 341 

Dvipada oblations 342 

Expiatory Offerings 345 

Right time for performing the Afvamedha . . 347 

Preliminary Ceremonies : — the mess of rice . . .348 
Sacrificer and wives pass the night in the sacrificial 

hall 349 

Offering to Agni Pathikrrt — the mouth of the Sacrifice 3 50 

Offering to Pushan 352 

Leading up of the Horse, assisted by its noble keepers . 353 
Three Savitra offerings (performed daily for a year) . 355 
Brahman lute-player sings three githis . . . 356 
Horse and keepers sent to range the quarters . . 359 



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CONTENTS. 



avwwa 



The Pariplava Akhyana, or revolving legend 

Prakrama and Dhn'ti oblations 

Ra^anya lute-player sings three gathas 
Diksha, or Initiation (at end of year) 
Sutya-days 

The set of twenty-one sacrificial stakes 

The chanting of Gotama's jfatush/oma . 

The .Sastras and Stotras of the Central (Ek 
day 

The animal sacrifices of that day 

The Adhrigu litany .... 

The Mahishi and the Horse . 

Colloquy of priests, chamberlain and women 

Brahmodya of priests .... 

The first Mahiman Cup of Soma 

The offering of the omenta (vapa) . 

The second Mahiman Cup of Soma 

The Stotras of the third (Athitra) day . 
Various Arrangements of the Afvamedha Chants 

Offering of barren cows .... 

Animal sacrifices performed in following year 
The Purushamedha, or Human Sacrifice 

Animal sacrifices 

The (symbolical) human victims 

Purusha-Narayawa litany (Purusha-sukta) . 

Traidhatavt offering .... 

Uttara-Nir&yana litany .... 

Enumeration of the human victims . 
The Sarvamedha, or All-Sacrifice . 

The ten SutyS-days thereof 
Funeral Ceremonies 

Burial-ground (jmaxana) .... 

Locality of the tomb .... 

Form and size of the tomb 

Preparation (sweeping, ploughing, sowing) of the site 

Depositing of charred bones . 

Arranging of bones limb by limb 

Body completed by bricks, like bird-shaped altar 

Height of sepulchral mound . 

Driving in of pins marking site of mound 



361-370 
3 6 3 
3 6 4 
37' 
372 
373 
375 



377 
382 

385 
386 

386 
388 
39' 
392 
394 
395 
396 
402 
402 

403 
404 

407 
410 
412 
412 
413 
417 
418 
421 
421 

424 
428 
429 
433 
434 
435 
435 
436 



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CONTENTS. XI 



HAGE 



Furrows, dug south and north, filled with (milk and) 

water 437 

Passing the northern ones on three stones thrown in 

by each 437 

Purification by Apamarga plants and bath . . 438 

Home-going, and offering to Agni Ayushmat on house- 
fire 439 

Depositing of clod midway between grave and village 440 

FOURTEENTH kAAZ>A. 

The Pravargya 441 

Sacrificial session performed by the gods at Kuru- 

kshetra 441 

Vishmi excels and becomes overweening . . . 442 

Bowstring, gnawed by ants, cuts off his head . . 442 
The names ' Gbarma, Pravargya, Mahavfra, Samra^ ' 

explained 442 

Vishmi's body divided between the gods . . -443 
Dadhya&i Atharva»a warned by Indra not to teach 

the sweet doctrine 444 

His head cut off by Indra, and restored by the Arvins 445 
Rule of abstinence observed when teaching the 

Pravargya 446 

Collecting materials for making the Mahavfra pot . 447 

Pra^apati, as the boar Emusha, raises the Earth . 451 

The making of the Mahavfra vessels in shed . . 453 

The fumigating and baking of the vessels . . 456 
Depositing of vessels and implements in front of 

Garhapatya 458 

The Hotn's recitation 459 

Sprinkling of pot with lustral water . . . .460 
The Mahavfra's (imperial) Throne-seat south of Aha- 

vanfya 461 

The pot anointed with ghee 462 

The pot set down on mound upon burning reed- 
sheaths 463 

The Sacrificer invoking blessings upon the earth . 464 
Pieces of Vikankata wood laid round, and a gold 

plant upon the pot 466 



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Xll 



CONTENTS. 



Fanning of the fire with three pieces of antelope-skin 

till aglow 467 

Revering of the heated pot with the Avaka*a verses . 469 
Offering of the first Rauhiwa cake . . . .472 

Samra^-cow tied and milked 474 

The pot lifted from the fire and placed on the tray . 476 
Cooling of pot with goat's milk ; and pouring in of 

cow's milk 477 

Oblations made by (muttering) the (twelve) wind-names 478 

Pouring of spilt milk and ghee from tray into pot . 481 

Oblation to Arvins 482 

Anumantrana to the rising milk . . . .484 

Mahavira pot placed on mound .... 485 

Offering ofthe steeped Vikahkata chips (to Pushan,&c.) 486 

Pouring of remaining milk from pot into tray . . 488 

Offering of the second Rauhi»a cake . . . 489 

Sacrificer drinks the remaining Gharma . . . 489 

Cleansing, and performance of Upasad . . . 490 
Rules for priests as to how and for whom to perform 

the Pravargya 490 

Pravargyotsddana, or ' setting out' of the implements 493 

Kindling of bundles of faggots, and offering thereon . 494 

Procession led by Prastotr;' singing a S&man . . 496 

Arrangement of apparatus in form of human body . 498 
Singing of V&rshahara-sSman and departure . .501 

Mode of performance at continued Soma-sacrifices . 502 

Dakshinis, or sacrificial fees 503 

Expiatory ceremonies in case of breaking of pot . 504 

Laudation of Pravargya 507 

Index to Parts III, IV, and V (Vols. XLI, XLIII, and XLI V) 5 1 1 

Additions and Corrections .591 



Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the Trans- 
lations ofthe Sacred Books of the East 



593 



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INTRODUCTION. 



The present volume completes the theoretic exposition 
of the sacrificial ceremonial, and thus brings us to the end 
of our task. The remaining six chapters of the last book 
of the Brahmawa form the so-called Br*had-ara«yaka, or 
great forest-treatise, which, as one of the ten primitive 
Upanishads, is included in Professor F. Max Miiller's 
translation of those old theosophic treatises, published in 
the present series. The portion of the work contained in this 
volumeforms practically a continuation of the first five ka«</as, 
the intervening five books being devoted to the consideration 
of the Agni^ayana, or construction of the sacred brick-altar, 
which had come to be recognised as an important pre- 
liminary to the Soma-sacrifice. The circumstances which 
seem to have led to this somewhat peculiar distribution of 
the different sections of the work have been explained in 
the introduction to the first volume of the translation. As 
was there shown, the inclusion of the Agni^ayana in the 
sacrificial system of the Va^asaneyins, or theologians of the 
White Ya^us, appears to have resulted in a definite settle- 
ment of the sacrificial texts of the ordinary ritual, as con- 
tained in the first eighteen adhyayas of the Va^asaneyi- 
samhita, as well as of the dogmatic explanation of that 
ritual as given in the first nine kawaas of the .Satapatha- 
brahmawa. Considerable portions of the remaining sections 
of both works may have been, and very likely were, already 
in existence at the time of that settlement, but, being ex- 
cluded from the regular ceremonial, they were naturally 
more liable to subsequent modifications and additions than 



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xiv SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

those earlier sections which remained in constant use. 
Whilst the tenth kaWa, included in the preceding volume 
of the translation, consisted of speculations on the sacred 
fire-altar, as representing Purusha-Pra^Apati and the divine 
body of the Sacrificer — whence that book is called the 
Agnirahasya, or mystery of the fire-altar — the present 
volume contains the supplementary sections connected with 
the sacrificial ceremonial proper. 

The eleventh and twelfth k&ndas are mainly taken up 
with additional remarks and directions on most of the 
sacrifices treated of in the first four ki«</as, especially with 
expiatory ceremonies and oblations in cases of mishaps or 
mistakes occurring during the performance, or with esoteric 
speculations regarding the significance and mystic effect of 
certain rites. In this way the eleventh book deals with the 
New and Full-moon sacrifices ; the Seasonal offerings 
(XI, 5, a), the Agnihotra (XI, 5, 3 ; 6, 2), the Soma-sacrifice 
(XI, 5, 5 ; 9), and the Animal-sacrifice (XI, 7, a-8, 4) ; 
whilst the twelfth Vknda. treats of the • Gav&m ayanam ' — 
or most common sacrificial session lasting for a year, thus 
offering a convenient subject for dilating upon the nature 
of Pra^lpati, as the Year, or Father Time ; — of additional 
expiatory rites for Soma-sacrifices (XII, 6), and of the 
Sautr&ma#l, consisting of oblations of milk and spirituous 
liquor, supposed to obviate or remove the unpleasant effects 
of any excess in the consumption of Soma-juice (XII, 7-9). 
Though supplementary notes and speculations on such 
ceremonial topics cannot but be of a somewhat desultory 
and heterogeneous character, they nevertheless offer wel- 
come opportunities for the introduction of much valuable 
and interesting matter. It is here that we find the famous 
myth of PurAravas and Urvart (XI, 5, 1) ; and that of 
Bhr*gu, the son of Varuwa, vividly illustrating the notions 
prevalent at the time regarding retribution after death 
(XI, 6, 1) ; as also the important cosmogonic legend of the 
golden egg from which Pra^lpati is born at the beginning 
of the evolution of the universe (XI, 1, 6). Of considerable 
interest also are the chapters treating of the way in which 



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INTRODUCTION. XV 



the dead body of the pious performer of the Agnihotra, or 
daily milk-offering, is to be dealt with (XII, 5, 1-2) ; of the 
initiation and the duties of the Brahmanical student (XI, 
3> 3 ; 5» 4) '* and, last not least, of the study of the Vedas 
(XI, 5, 6-7) and their subsidiary texts amongst which we 
meet, for the first time, with the Atharvangiras as a special 
collection of texts recommended for systematic study. 

With the commencement of the thirteenth ka»<?a, we enter 
once more upon a regular exposition of a series of great 
sacrifices like those discussed in the early books ; the first 
and most important of them being the Asvamedha, or 
Horse-sacrifice. Like the Ra^-asuya, or inauguration of 
a king, the A^vamedha is not a mere sacrifice or series of 
offerings, but it is rather a great state function in which 
the religious and sacrificial element is closely and deftly 
interwoven with a varied programme of secular ceremonies. 
But whilst the Ra^asuya was a state ceremonial to which 
any petty ruler might fairly think himself entitled, the 
Asvamedha, on the contrary, involved an assertion of power 
and a display of political authority such as only a monarch 
of undisputed supremacy could have ventured upon without 
courting humiliation x ; and its celebration must therefore 
have been an event of comparatively rare occurrence. 
Perhaps, indeed, it is owing to this exceptional character 
of the Arvamedha rather than to the later origin of its 
ritual and dogmatic treatment that this ceremony was 
separated from the Ra^asuya which one would naturally 
have expected it to succeed. It is worthy of remark, in 
this respect, that, in Katyayana's Anukramawi to the 
Va^asaneyi-sawhita, the term ' khila,' or supplement, is not 
applied to the Ajvamedha section 2 (Adhy. XXII-XXV), 
while the subsequent sections are distinctly characterised as 
such. As a matter of fact, however, the Ajvamedha has 

1 Cf. Taitt. Br. Ill, 8, 9, 4, — pari va esha stfyate yoibaloi-fvamedhena 
jagaXe : — ' Verily, poured away (dislodged) is he who, being weak, performs 
the Arvamedha;' Ap. St. XX, I, I, ' a king ruling the whole land (s&rvabhauma) 
may perform the Arvamedha ; — also one not ruling the whole land.' 

' Cf. Weber, History of Indian Literature, p. 107 ; Max Muller, History of 
Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 358. 



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XVI SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

received a very unequal treatment in the different rituals. Of 
the two recensions of the Brahma«a of the Rig-veda. priests, 
the Aitareya-brahmawa takes no account whatever of the 
Horse-sacrifice, whilst its last two books (VII, VIII) — 
generally regarded as a later supplement, though probably 
already attached to the work in Pacini's time — are mainly 
taken up with the discussion of the Ra^asflya. The 
Kaushitaki-brahmawa, on the other hand, passes over both 
ceremonies, their explanation being only supplied by the 
.Sankhayana-sutra, along with that of some other sacrifices, in 
two of its chapters (15 and J 6), composed in Brahmawa style, 
and said to be extracted from the Maha-Kaushltaki-brah- 
mana l . In the principal Brahmawa of the Saman priests, 
the Pa»£avi»wa-brahma«a, the A-rvamedha, as a triratra, or 
triduum, is dealt with in its proper place (XXI, 4), among 
the Ahinas, or several days' performances. As regards the 
Black Ya^s, both the Ka/Aaka and the Maitrayawt Saw 
hita give merely the mantras of the Ajvamedha 2 , to which 
they assign pretty much the same place in the ritual 
as is done in the White Yaj-us. In the Taittiriya-sawthita, 
on the other hand, the mantras are scattered piecemeal over 
the last four kktidas ; whilst, with the exception of a short 
introductory vidhi-passage, likewise given in the Sawmita 
(V, 3, 1 a), the whole of the exegetic matter connected 
with this ceremony is contained, in a continuous form, in 
the Taittirtya-brahmawa (VIII and IX). Lastly, in the 
Vaitana-sutra of the Atharva-veda — doubtless a compara- 
tively late work, though probably older than the Gopatha- 

1 Besides the two chapters referred to, nothing more than quotations are 
known of this work. Possibly, however, the difference between it and the 
Kaushitaki-brahmana consisted merely of such supplements which would thus 
be very much of the same character as the last two paft£ikas of the Aitareya- 
br&hmaxa, except that they never became so generally recognised. 

* Though this circumstance seems to favour the supposition of the more 
recent ritualistic treatment of the Ajvamedha, it may not be out of place to notice 
that, in the Maitr&yan! Samhita, the Awamedha section is followed by several 
Brahmawa sections ; amongst them that of the R&£asuya which is not found in 
the KaMaka at all. .Sat. Br. XIII, 3, 3, 6, calls the Arvamedha an ' utsanna- 
yajfta ' ; but it is not quite clear what is meant thereby, seeing that the same 
term is applied to the Aatunnasyani, or Seasonal offerings (II, 5, 2, 48). 



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INTRODUCTION. XVtl 



brahma/ta 1 — the A^vamedha is treated immediately after 
the Ra^asuya, and followed by the Purushamedha and 
Sarvamedha; these four ceremonies being characterised 
at the end as the Kshatriya's sacrifices a (medha). 

With regard to the earliest phase of Vedic religion, there 
is no direct evidence to show that the horse-sacrifice was 
already at that time a recognised institution. Two hymns 
of the Rig-veda. (I, 162 ; 163), it is true, relate to that 
sacrifice 3 , but they evidently belong to the latest pro- 
ductions* of that collection, though still sufficiently far 
removed from the time of the oldest of the ritual works 
just referred to. Seeing, however, that animal sacrifices 
generally are not alluded to in the Rik sawhita *, whilst 
there is every reason to believe that they were commonly 
practised from remote antiquity, this absence of earlier 
positive evidence regarding the horse-sacrifice cannot be 
taken as proving the later origin of that institution. As 
will be seen further on, there are sufficient indications to 
show that even human sacrifices were at one time practised 
amongst the Aryans of India, as they were amongst their 

1 See Professor M. Bloomfield's paper on ' The Position of the Gopafha- 
brahmana in Vedic Literature,' Journ. Am. Or. Soc, vol. xix. 

1 Cf. Mahabh. XIV, 48, where these four sacrifices are specially recom- 
mended by Vyasa to Yudhish/Aira as worthy of being performed by him as 
King. 

* Possibly also, the hymn A7g-veda 1, 164 (Ath.-v. IX, 9, 10) — on which see 
P. Deussen, Allg. Geschichte der Philosophic, I, 1, p. 105 seq. — may have been 
placed after the two Arvamedha hymns to supply topics for the priests' colloquy 
(brahmodya) at the Arvamedha. Cf. XIII, a, 6, 9 seqq. ; 5, 3, 11 seqq. The 
fact that the Axvamedha is not treated of in the Aitareya-brahmana cannot, of 
course, be taken to prove the later origin of the hymns referred to, though 
it might, no doubt, fairly be used as an argument in favour of assuming that 
those parts of the Axvamedha ceremonial in which the Hotrt takes a prominent 
part were probably not introduced till a later time. 

* Haug, Ait Br. I, introd., p. 12 seqq., argues against the assumption of 
a comparatively late origin of the hymn I, 169 ; but his argument meets with 
serious lexical and other difficulties. 

5 We may leave out of account here one or two vague allusions, such as 
X, 155, 5 ' these have led around the cow (or bull) and have carried around 
the lire ; with the gods they have gained for themselves glory : who dares 
to attack them?' The question also as to whether the so-called Aprt-hymns, 
used at the fore-offerings of the animal sacrifice, were from the very beginning 
composed for this purpose, cannot be discussed here. 

[44] b 



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XV1U SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

European kinsmen. The fundamental idea which underlay 
this practice doubtless was the notion that man, as the 
highest attainable living being, could not but be the most 
acceptable gift that could be offered to the gods, and, at the 
same time, the most appropriate substitute for the human 
Sacrificer himself. For the same reason no doubt only 
domesticated animals were considered suitable for sacrifice ; 
and amongst these the horse was naturally looked upon as 
ranking next to man (Sat. Br. VI, 2, i, 2), although con- 
siderations of practical expediency and even of social distinc- 
tion might prevent its use for ordinary sacrificial purposes. 
In the speculations of the Brahmawas, a deep mystic 
significance is attached to the Horse-sacrifice. In the last 
two chapters of the ' Mystery of the Fire-altar ' (Sat. Br. X, 
6, 4, 1 ; 4), the Ajvamedha — i. e. the sacrificial horse 
itself — is coupled with the Arka, the mysterious name of 
the sacred fire, as the representative of Agni-Pra^Apati, the 
Sun. The horse-sacrifice is called the bull (XIII, 1, 2, 2), 
and the king (XIII, 2, 2, i), of sacrifices, just as the horse 
itself is the highest and most perfect of animals x (XIII, 
3, 3, 1 ; Taitt. Br. Ill, 8, 7 ; 8, 9, 1) ; the horse selected for 
sacrifice, in particular, being said to be worth a thousand 
cows (XIII, 4, 2, 1). The connection of the sacrificial horse 
with ' the lord of creatures ' is, of course, fully accounted for 
by the theory of the identity of the sacrifice generally with 
Purusha-Pra,fipati, discussed in the introduction to part iv 
of this translation. The sacrificial horse accordingly belongs 
to Pra^apati,or rather is of Pra^apati's nature (pra^apatya) ; 
nay, as the Taitt. Br. (Ill, 9, 17, 4) puts it, it is a form of 
Pra^apati himself (pra^apate rupam asvaA), and is, of all 
animals, the one most conformable (anurupatamaA) to 
Pra^apati. Hence also, in the cosmogonic account at the 
commencement of the Agni£ayana section (VI, 1, 1, 11), 
the horse is represented as having originated, immediately 
after the Brahman (sacred lore) and Agni, directly from the 

1 ' They (the Massagetae) worship the sun only of all the gods, and sacrifice 
horses to him ; and the reason for this custom is that they think it right to 
offer the swiftest of all animals to the swiftest of all the gods.' Herod. I, a 16. 



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INTRODUCTION. XIX 



egg produced by Pra^apati from the cosmic waters ; whilst, 
according to other accounts (VII, 5, a, 6 ; XIII, 3, 1, 1), 
the horse originated from Pra^apati's eye. But, since the 
offering also represents the offerer himself, or rather his 
divine self awaiting him in the other world (XI, 1, 8, 6 ; 2, 
2, 6), the sacrificial horse is also identified with the Sacrificer 
(ya^-amano va asvaA, Taitt. Br. Ill, 9, 17, 4) who thereby 
obtains the fellowship of the Lord of creatures and a place 
in his world (ib. Ill, 9, 20, 2). 

Besides Pra^apati, there is, however, another deity who 
lays claim to the possession of the sacred steed ; for the 
horse is Varuwa's sacrificial animal (Sat. Br. V, 3, 1,5 ; VI, 
2, 1, 5 ; Taitt. Br. Ill, 9, 16, 1); nay, Varu«a is even the 
lord of all one-hoofed cattle (Va^-. S. XIV, 30 ; Sat. Br. 
VIII, 4, 3, 13). This connection of the horse with Varuwa 
seems natural enough, seeing that this god, as the king of 
heaven and the upholder of the law, is the divine represen- 
tative of the earthly king ; whence the Ra^asuya, or corona- 
tion-ceremony, is called Varu«a's consecration (Sat. Br. V, 
4, 3, 2i ; cf. II, 2, 3, 1). For this reason the barley also is 
sacred to Varuwa l (XIII, 3, 8, 5) ; and accordingly, during 
the same ceremony, the king offers a barley-mash to 
Varu«a, in the house of his Suta, or charioteer and herald ; 
a horse being the sacrificial fee for this offering (V, 3, 1, 5). 
In the Vedic hymns, this association of the god Varu«a 
with the noble quadruped finds a ready, if rather common- 
place, explanation in a common natural phenomenon: 
Varuwa's horse is none other than the fiery racer who 
pursues his diurnal course across the all-encompassing arch 
of heaven, the sphere of Varu«a i , the all-ruler. It is ih the 



' Dr. Hillebrandt, ' Varn«a and Milra,' p. 65, is inclined to refer this con- 
nection to Vamna's character as the god of waters and the rains, as favouring 
the crops and fertility generally. 

" Whilst it may be a matter of opinion whether, with Professor Brugmann 
(Grondr. II, p. 154), we have to take the original form of this name to be 
• vorvanos,* or whether the 'u' of the Sanskrit word is merely due to the 
dulling influence of the preceding r (cf. taruna, dh&runa, karuna), the etymo- 
logical identity of ' varunas ' and oipavos is now probably questioned by 
few scholars. The ethical attributes of this mythological conception seem to 

b2 



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XX SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

form of the horse that the Sun is thus lauded in the hymn 
Jtig-v. I, 163, recited by the Hotrz on the second Soma- 
day of the A^vamedha, after the horse has been led up to 
the sacrificial stake, and to the slaughtering-place 1 : — 1. 
' When, first born (just born), thou didst neigh, uprising 
from the sea, or from the vapoury region, the falcon's wings 
and the deer's feet — praiseworthy greatness was innate in 
thee, O steed I ' . . . 4. ' Three fetterings 2 , they say, are 
thine in the sky, three in the waters, three within the sea ; 
and like unto Varu«a, O steed, dost thou appear to me, 
where, they say, thy highest birth-place is.' And since, as 
in these verses, the upper regions commonly present them- 
selves to the eye of the Vedic singer under the semblance 
of a heavenly sea, Varu«a also comes to be looked upon as 
the divine representative of the waters ; whilst the horse, 
for the same reason, is supposed to have sprung from the 
waters. Of any connection of the sacrificial horse with 
Pra^&pati, on the other hand, as of the Pra^pati theory 
of the sacrifice generally, clearly shadowed forth in the 
Purusha-sukta, and so decidedly dominant during the 
Brahmana period, no trace is to be found in the earlier 
hymns. Indeed, if we have any right to assume that the 
horse-sacrifice was known and practised in the earlier times, 
it can scarcely be doubted that King Varuwa must have been 
the deity to whom this victim was chiefly consecrated. 

The close and natural relations between the sun and the 
heavens find their hallowed expression in the divine duad 
Mitra and Varuwa. Though, judged by the number of 



me to find a sufficiently intelligible explanation without resorting to outside 
influence to account for them. Indeed, Dr. Hillebrandt's ' Varu»a and Mitra' 
gives a fairly complete and satisfactory account of this figure of the Indian 
pantheon in all its relations. 

1 See .Sat. Br. XIII, 5. 1, 17, 18. 

* That is, probably, three halting-places (? the points of rising, culminating, 
and setting). Perhaps also the three statements are merely meant as an 
emphatic repetition of one and the same locality — the sky, the sea of waters ; 
though, possibly, three different strata of the upper region may be intended. 
Professor Ludwig, on the other hand, takes ' trlwi bandhanani ' in the sense 
of * three fetters,' and Professor Hillebrandt, L c, in that of ' three relations 
(or connections, Beztehungen).' 



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INTRODUCTION. XXI 



hymns addressed to them, singly or jointly, this pair of 
deities occupies a somewhat subordinate position in the 
Vedic pantheon, there is reason to believe that it formed 
a more prominent feature of a phase of belief lying beyond 
the period reflected in the hymns of the i?fg-veda. Judging 
from the peculiar character of these deities, one might indeed 
be inclined to claim for the people that formed religious 
conceptions such as these a long period of peaceful dwell- 
ing and normal intellectual growth. If such was the case, 
the occupation of the land of the seven rivers and the 
gradual eastward drift certainly proved a turning-point in 
the development of this Aryan people. But, in any case, 
the decided change of climate \ and the close contact with 
aboriginal tribes of inferior culture, could hardly fail, along 
with the changed conditions of life, to influence consider- 
ably the character of the people, and to modify their 
religious notions and intellectual tendencies. As, in their 
struggles against hostile tribes, the people would naturally 
look to leaders of deed and daring rather than to mild and 
just rulers, so the violent war of elements, periodically con- 
vulsing the heavens in these regions, after long and anxious 
seasons of heat and drought, and striking awe" and terror 
into the minds of men, might seem to them to call for 
a heavenly champion of a different stamp than the even- 
headed and even-tempered Varuwa, — it would need a divine 
leader of dauntless, and even ferocious, spirit to fight the 
worshipper's battle against his earthly and unearthly foes. 
Such a champion the Vedic Aryans indeed created for 
themselves in the person of Indra, the divine representative, 
as it were, of their warlike kings, and the favourite subject 
of their song. And side by side with him, and sharing 
with him the highest honours — nay, even taking precedence 
of him — we find the divine priest, Agni, the deified fire of 
sacrifice, as representing the all-pervading, all-supporting 



1 Whilst the climate of Baluchistan is regulated, as in Europe, by the 
succession of four seasons, the climate of the districts east of the Indus, as 
of India generally, shows the characteristic threefold division of rainy, cool, 
and hot seasons (S. Pottinger, Beloochistan, p. 319 seqq.). 



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XXU SATAPATHA-BRAHMAYA. 

light of heaven ; just as we found Mitra, the sun, by the 
side of Varuwa, the god of the all-encompassing heaven. 
Not as if Agni and Indra had ever entirely superseded 
Mitra and Varu»a. On the contrary, all these gods con- 
tinue to share, in a greater or less degree, the affections of 
the Vedic singers ; and as regards Varuwa and Indra in 
particular, their relations are well expressed by Vasish/Aa 
when he says (Jiig-v. VII, 82, 2 ; 5), that the one (Varu»a) 
is ' samra^ - ' (universal ruler, overlord) ; and the other (Indra) 
'svara^-' (self-ruler, independent lord) ; — and that, ever since 
the time when these two, by their power, created all the 
beings in the world, Mitra serves Varu«a in peace, whilst the 
mighty (Indra) goes forth with the Maruts in quest of glory. 
Even in the sacrificial ritual, Mitra and Varu«a continue to 
play an important part, seeing that one of the priests — the 
Maitravaru«a — is named after them, that they receive 
various oblations, and that at the end of every Soma- 
sacrifice at least one sterile cow is offered to them, apparently 
as an expiatory victim, for shortcomings in the sacrifice 1 , 
thus accentuating once more the ethical character of these 
deities. It is thus not to be wondered at that, whilst Agni 
and Indra are most commonly referred to in the Brahmawas 
as the divine representatives of the Brahman and Kshatra, 
or the spiritual and the political powers — the high priest 
and king — respectively, the very same is the case as regards 
Mitra and Varu«a s ; and the Maruts, representing the 
common people, are accordingly associated with Varuwa, 



1 Taitt. S. VI, 6, 7, 4, explains this offering as symbolically smoothing down 
the sacrifice torn np by recited verses and chanted hymns, even as a field, torn 
op by the plough, is levelled by a roller (' matya,' taken however by Say. in 
the sense of ' cow-dung '). The .Sat. Br. does not allude to the expiatory 
character of the offering, but there can be no donbt that it is of an essentially 
piacular significance. It need scarcely be mentioned that the ' avabhritha,' or 
lustral bath, at the end of Soma- and other sacrifices, is distinctly explained 
(II, 5, a, 46; IV, 4, 5, 10) as intended to clear the Sacrificer of all guilt for 
which he is liable to Varuwa. Cf. Taitt Br. Ill, 9, 15, ' At the lustral bath 
he offers the last oblation with " To Cumbaka hail I " for Gnmbaka is Vanuia : 
he thus finally frees himself from Varuna by offering.' 

* See, for instance, Sat. Br. IV, 1, 4, a; V, 3, a, 4; IX, 4, a, 16; Maitr. 
S. IV, 5, 8 ; Taitt Br. Ill, 1, a, 7 (kshatrasya ra^a Varuwo » dhirSgiA). 



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INTRODUCTION. XXlll 



as their king or ruler (Sat. Br. II, ,5, a, 34), just as they are 
with Indra (II, 5, a, 27). One might thus expect that 
Indra would claim the same special connection 1 with the 
sacrificial horse as that which is conceded to Varuwa. 
The reason why this is not the case probably is that, in the 
Brahmawa period, the notion of the horse having, like 
the sun, originated from the cosmic waters had become as 
firmly established as was the traditional connection — 
nay, even identity s — of Varuwa with the element of water 
generally. 

As regards Varuwa's and Pra^apati's joint connection 
with the sacrificial horse, the Taitt. S. (II, 3, ia, 1) records 
the following legend which may perhaps have some bearing 
on this point : — Pra^apatir Varuwaylsvam anayat, sa svawt 
devatam irkhzt, sa pary adiryata, sa etaw* varuwaw* £atush- 
kapalam aparyat, tarn nir avapat, tato vai sa varuwaplrad 
amu£yata, Varuwo va etaw* grjhwati yo*sv&tn pratigr*h»ati, 
yavato*.rvan pratigrjhwiyat tavato varuwaw £atushkapalan 
nir vaped, Varuwam eva svena bhagadheyenopa dhavati, 
sa evainaw* varuwapajan muw£ati : — ' Pra^apati led up the 
horse to Varuwa : he (thereby) impaired his own godhead, 
and became racked all over with dropsy. He beheld that 
four-kapala (cake) sacred to Varuwa, and offered it, and 
thereupon was freed from Varuwa's noose ; for Varuwa 
seizes him who takes (receives) a horse, — as many horses 
as one takes so many four-kapala (cakes) one ought to offer 
to Varuwa: one (thereby) hastens up to Varuwa with his 
(V.'s) own share, and he (V.) frees him from Varuwa's 
noose.' 

The interpretation of this legend presents, however, some 
difficulties. Dr. Hillebrandt, ' Varuwa und Mitra ' (p. 64), 
translates the first sentence by — ' Pra^apati fiihrte dem 



1 Since all the gods are concerned in the A jvamedha — whence the horse is 
called ' vairvadeva ' — Indra would of course have a general interest in it. 
Indra is also associated with the horse in so far as he is said to have first 
mounted it, ^rg-veda I, 163, a, 9. India's two bays (hart) of coarse belong 
to a different conception. 

* Apo vai VarnxaA, Maltr. S. IV, 8, 5. 



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xxiv satapatha-brahmajva. 

Varuwa das Ross fort 1 ' — 'Pra^apati led the horse away 
from Varu«a ' : this would undoubtedly make better sense, 
but, unfortunately, the construction of ' nl ' with the dative 
in this sense would involve a decided solecism. Saya«a, 
on the other hand, takes it in the same sense as we have 
done, and he explains that it is just by giving away the 
horse whose deity he himself is that Pra^apati forfeits his 
godhead 1 . He feels, however, afterwards constrained to 
assign to ' pratigrjhwati ' the causal force of ' he causes it to 
be taken, he gives it away,' which is clearly impossible. 
But whatever the correct interpretation of the opening 
clause may be, it seems at all events clear that the sacrificial 
horse is represented in the legend as undergoing a change 
of ownership from the one deity to the other. 

When one compares the ceremonial of the Arvamedha, 
as expounded in the Brahmawa, with the ritual indications 
contained in the two hymns already referred to, one is 
struck by the very marked contrast between the two. 
For whilst, on the central day of the A-rvamedha alone, 
the ritual requires the immolation of not less than 349 
victims bound to twenty-one stakes (p. 311, n. 1) — not 
counting two sets of eleven Savaniya victims (p. 383, n. 3) 
subsequently added thereto — the hymns (I, 162, 2-4; 163, 
1 2) seem only to mention two victims, viz. the horse itself, 
and a he-goat. This latter animal which is to precede the 
horse when led to the sacrificial ground (and stake), and to 

' This, no doubt, might possibly be taken to mean ' Pra^Spati led away the 
horse for Varuwa,' but Dr. Hillebrandt could hardly have meant it in this 
sense, since his argument apparently is that the horse (like Varnna himself) 
represents the aqueous element, and that thus, by taking to himself <he horse, 
Pra^apati incurs dropsy. The exact point which interests us here, viz. the 
• relation between Pra^ipati and Varuna as regards the sacrificial horse, lies outside 
Dr. Hillebrandt's inquiry. 

' In Dr. Hillebrandt's interpretation, it is also not quite easy to see in what 
way Pra^apati, by carrying off Varuna's horse, impaired — ' griff an,' attacked, 
assailed — his own godhead. One might possibly refer ' sv&m ' to the horse, 
but this would make the construction rather harsh. The verb ' nt ' here would 
seem to refer to the leading up of the sacrificial horse to the offering-ground, 
either for being set free for a year's roaming, or for sacrifice, for both of which 
acts the verb < ud-ft-ni ' — i. e. to lead up the horse from the water where it was 
washed— is used (.Sat. Br. XIII, 4, a, 1 ; 5, 1, 16). 



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INTRODUCTION. XXV 



be slaughtered first in order to carry the welcome news of 
the sacrifice to the gods, is in one place referred to as 
Pushan 's share, and in another as going forward to the 
dear seat of Indra and Pushan 1 . Sankhayana (Srautas. 
XVI, 3, 27-30), however, takes these statements of the 
J?*shi to refer to two different he-goats, both of which he 
includes amongst the victims tied to the horse's limbs, viz. 
one, sacred to Pushan, tied to the forehead, and another, 
sacred to Indra and Ptishan, fastened to the navel, of the 
horse 2 . The corresponding ' paryangya' victims recognised 
by the Maitrayawi Sawhita (III, 13) and the White Ya.g-us 
(V&g: S. XXIV, 1), on the other hand, are a black-necked 
he-goat for Agni, tied to the forehead, and a black or grey 
(sy&ma) one, bound to the navel, and consecrated by the 
one authority to Pushan, and by the other to Soma and 
Pushan. But, curiously enough, the Taittiriya school 
(Taitt. Br. Ill, 8, 23 ; Ap. Sr. XX, 13, 12) recognises not 
only .Sahkhayana's two victims, but also the one for Agni ; 
whilst in regard to the other victims also it differs con- 
siderably from the other schools of the Ya^ur-veda. Seeing, 
then, that there is so little agreement on these points even 
amongst different branches of the same Veda, one can 
hardly escape the inference that, in this respect at least, 
there was no continuity of ritual practice since the time 
of those two hymns. As regards the other points 
therein alluded to, the he-goat and horse are referred to 



' Xig-veda. S. I, 16a, 2. 'When, held by the mouth (by the bridle), they 
lead round the offering of the (horse) covered with rich . trappings, the all- 
coloured he-goat goes bleating in front right eastwards to the dear seat of 
Indra and Pushan. 3. This he-goat, fit for all the gods, is led in front of the 
swift horse as Pushan's share ; like (?) the welcome cake, Tvash/r*' promotes 
it, along with the .steed, to great glory. 4. When thrice the men duly lead 
around the horse meet for offering along the way to the gods, then the he-goat 
walks first, announcing the sacrifice to the gods. ... 16. The cloth which they 
spread (for the horse to lie upon) and the upper cloth and the gold, the halter, 
the steed, the shackle — these they bring up as acceptable to the gods.' — I, 163, 
12. ' Forth came the swift steed to the slaughter, musing with reverent mind ; 
bis mate, the he-goat, is led in front ; and behind go the wise singers.' 

* According to the Taittirtyas, this second he-goat is tied to the cord 
surrounding the horse's limbs somewhere above the neck of the horse. 



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XXVI SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

as being led round thrice in accordance with the sacred 
ordinance. Now, this ceremony is quite foreign to the 
later practice in animal sacrifices. Saya»a accordingly 
takes it to refer to the rite of ' paryagnikarana,' or carrying 
fire round the victims x ; but the text of the passage 
evidently does not admit of such an interpretation ; and, 
besides, in Rig-v. X, 155,5, the sacrificial cow is apparently 
referred to as first being led round, and then fire being carried 
round it. It is therefore more probable that the victims 
were in the first place made to circumambulate the fire, or 
the fire and stake combined. 

Further, the allusion to the para-punx/aras, or cakes 
offered in connection with the victims, as well as to the 
two cloths and the piece of gold placed on the ground, as 
they are in the later practice, for the dead horse to lie upon, 
might seem to suggest that even then this sacrifice was 
not performed in quite so simple a manner, but somewhat 
more in accordance with the later ceremonial than the scanty 
allusions in the hymns might lead one to suppose. At all 
events, however, we shall probably not be far wrong in 
assuming that, from the very beginning, the performance of 
the horse-sacrifice must have had connected with it a certain 
amount of ceremonial of a purely secular and popular 
character. Even at the time of the fully developed ritual 
this was almost certainly the case to a larger extent than 
would appear from the exposition of it given in the Brah- 
mawas and Sutras which, indeed, are mainly concerned with 
the religious side of the ceremonial. For this reason 
considerable interest attaches to the description of the 
horse-sacrifice given in the Arvamedhika-parvan of the 
Mahabharata in which much greater stress is laid on 
the popular and chivalrous aspect of this religious observance. 
Though this epic account manifestly emanates from a much 
later period 3 , it seems, upon the whole, to present the 

1 See p. 307, note 5. 

* It has even been supposed to be merely a condensed version of a com- 
paratively modern work ascribed to Gaimini, the (Arvamedha-parvan of the) 
Caimini-Bharata, 



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INTRODUCTION. XXVll 



traditional features of this royal ceremony, embellished no 
doubt by all the exercise of that poetic fancy to which the 
occasion so readily lends itself. 

On the completion of the great war between the 
P&wrfava and Kaurava princes, Yudhish/Aira, having re- 
ascended the throne of his fathers, resolves on per- 
forming the horse-sacrifice, as calculated to cleanse him 
of all guilt 1 incurred by the slaughter of his Kaurava 
kinsmen. Having been initiated on the day of the 
Aaitra full-moon (beginning of spring), 'the king, clad in 
a linen (? silk) garment and the skin of a black antelope, 
bearing a staff in his hand, and wearing a gold wreath, and 
a round gold plate 2 round his neck, shone like a second 
Pra^ipati at the holy cult.' The chosen steed 8 , of black 
and white colour like the black buck, is then led up, and 
is set free by the sage Vyasa himself ; and that model of 
knightly perfection, Ar^una, the king's second brother, is 
appointed to guard the priceless victim during its year's 
roaming. He accordingly starts after it on his chariot 
yoked with white steeds, attended by a picked body-guard *, 
amidst the rejoicings and fervent blessings of all Hasti- 
napura — men, women, and children. Thus followed by its 
martial escort, the noble steed roams at will over the lands 



' Vyfisa remarks to YudhishMira (XIV, 1071), ' For the Afvamedha, O king 
of kings, cleanses away all ill-deeds: by performing it thou wilt without 
doubt become free from sin.' Cf. .Sat. Br. XIII, 3, 1, 1, 'Thereby the gods 
redeem all sin, yea, even the slaying of a Brahman they thereby redeem ; and 
he who performs the Axvamedha redeems all sin, he redeems even the slaying 
of a Brahman.' As a rale, however, greater stress is laid in the Brahma «a 
on the efficacy of the ceremonial in ensuring supreme sway to the king, and 
security of life and property to bis subjects. 

' The ' rukma ' is borne by the Agniiit, or builder of a fire-altar, which is 
required for the Aivamedha; cf. VI, 7, 1, 1. 

' It is carefully selected by charioteers and priests, Mahabh. XIV, 2087. 

• Whilst, according to the Brahmana (XIII, 4, a, 5), the body of ' keepers ' 
is to consist of 100 royal princes clad in armour, 100 noblemen armed with 
swords, 100 sons of heralds and headmen bearing quivers and arrows, and 
100 sons of attendants and charioteers bearing staves; the epic gives no 
details, except that ft states that 'a disciple of Ya^Xavalkya, skilled in sacrificial 
rites, and well-versed in the Veda, went along with the son of Prftha to 
perform the propitiatory rites,' and that 'many Brahmanas conversant with 
the Veda, and many Kshatriyas followed him at the king's behest.' 



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XXVM SATAPATHA-BkAHMAJVA. 

over which sovereign sway is claimed by the PaWava 
king — to wit, the whole of India from sea to sea — first 
pressing eastwards towards the sea, then turning southwards 
along the eastern shore as far as the extreme point of the 
peninsula, and finally northwards again, on its homeward 
way, along the western coast. Time after time the 
determined attempts to impede its progress, or even to 
capture and retain it as a precious trophy and token of 
national independence, are successfully repelled by the 
dauntless son of Pri'tha ; but, mindful of his brother's 
injunctions, he spares the lives of the kings and princes who 
oppose him, and, having obtained their submission, he 
invites them to attend the sacrifice of the horse at Hasti- 
napura. On the other hand, not to take up the challenge 
implied in the progress of the horse was considered a sign 
of weakness or cowardice. Thus the king of Mawipura is 
censured severely by Ar^una for receiving him meekly, 
accompanied only by Brahmans and with presents to offer 
to the intruder, being told that he had lamentably fallen 
away from the status of a Kshatriya, and acted the part of 
a woman. At length tidings of the approach of the horse 
reach the king, and forthwith preparations are made for 
getting ready the sacrificial ground, and to provide ac- 
commodation, on a right royal scale, for the numerous 
guests expected to witness the ceremonial. Specimens of all 
available species of animals are brought together to serve 
as victims I along with the sacred horse ; and dialecticians, 

1 That is, real or symbolic, only the domesticated animals being offered, whilst 
the wild ones are set free after the ceremony of ' paryagnikarana.' Amongst 
these animals the poet curiously enough also mentions (XIV, 2542) ' vritfdha- 
strt'yaA,' which Pratapa Chandra Ray translates by ' old women.' This is of 
course impossible ; if it is not a wrong reading, it has doubtless to be taken in 
the sense of ' old female (kine),' probably the (21) barren cows offered at the 
end of the Axvamedha to Mitra-Varuwa, the Virve Devai, and Brxhaspati 
(XIII, 5, 4, 35) being intended. In its enumeration of the victims, the 
Taitt. Samhita (V, 6, 21) indeed mentions ' vaira/t punish!,' taken by the com- 
mentator to mean ' two human females consecrated to Vir%-.' If it be for this 
or a similar purpose that the ' vrrddha-stnyaA ' were intended, we may refer to 
Taitt. Br. Ill, 9, 8, where it is distinctly stated that 'the man' and the wild 
animals are to be released as soon as the ' paryagnikaranam ' has been per- 
formed on them. But no ' man ' being mentioned amongst the victims, Saya» a 



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INTRODUCTION. XXIX 



eager to vanquish one another, foregather to discuss the 
nature and origin of things. At last Ar^-una arrives, and, 
having met with an enthusiastic welcome, he ' takes repose 
like a seafaring man who has reached the shore after crossing 
the ocean.' Then commences the performance of the 
sacrifice, the general outline of which, as sketched in the 
epic 1 , fairly corresponds to the ordinary ceremonial ; the 
chief points of difference being the form and material of the 
altar, which is described as three-cornered, like the heavenly 
bird Garurfa, and as being composed of a ' trunk,' measuring 
eighteen cubits, and made, like the wings, of gold bricks, — 
the structure thus shining like the altar of Daksha Pra^apati. 
The sacrifice over, a great public festival ensues for which 
' mountains of food and sweetmeats, rivers of spirituous 
and other beverages, and lakes of ghee ' are provided, and 
the feasting goes on through day and night till every one 
has had his fill, — a festival, indeed, of which the poet 
remarks people continued to talk to his day. 

From the fanciful narrative of Aiguna's martial exploits 
whilst following his precious charge, one could not of course 
venture to draw any conclusion as to the kind of adventures 
the sacred horse might have met with, at the time of 
the Brahmawa, during the period of its roaming at large. 
As a rule, however, the closely-watched animal would 
probably not range very far from the place where the sacri- 
fice was to be performed ; and though its body of guardians 
were not permitted at any time to force it to retrace its 
steps, they could have had little difficulty in keeping it 
within a certain range of grazing. Indeed, on the occasion 
of King Dajaratha's Ajvamedha 2 , described in the first 
canto of the Ramayawa, no mention whatever is made of 



takes the ' pnrosham ' here to refer to the ' vaira^l purnshl ' mentioned in the 
Samhita. Perhaps, however, this passage has rather a wider sense, referring to 
human victims generally at any sacrifice. 

1 Draupadi's Arva-upasamvearaam is referred to, but no further particulars 
are mentioned. 

* The king's object, in performing the sacrifice, was to obtain the birth 
of a son. Cf. -Sat Br. XIII, i, 9, 9, 'for from of old a hero was born to him 
who had performed'the (Ajvamedha) sacrifice.' . 



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xxx satapatha-brAhma.ya. 

anything having happened to the horse during its time of 
grace. The expedient mentioned in the Brahmana (XIII, 4, 
2, 5) that a hundred worn-out horses should be sent along 
with the horse to keep it company would doubtless, as a rule, 
prove a sufficient check ; but seeing that neither the Taitt. 
Brahma»a nor Sankhayana alludes to this expedient, it 
is probably meant as a practical suggestion rather than 
as a positive injunction. That the horse intended for 
sacrifice was by no means always safe from violent assaults l 
is clear from the directions given in the Brahmanas as to 
what should be done in the event of foes getting possession 
of it s . Even more pointed, in this respect, are the stanzas 
quoted in our Brahma#a (XIII, 5, 4, 2 J. 22), — 'Satanika 
Satra^gita seized a sacrificial horse in the neighbourhood, 
the sacrifice of the Kajis, even as Bharata (seized that) of 
the Satvats. The mighty Satanika having seized, in the 
neighbourhood, Dhrrtarashfra's white sacrificial horse, 
whilst roaming at will in its tenth month 8 , the son of 
Satra^ita performed the Govinata (form of) sacrifice.' As 
a rule, however, the fortunes of the roaming horse would 
doubtless depend largely on personal circumstances. Whilst 
a strong ruler who had already made his power felt 
amongst his neighbours would probably run little risk of 
having his consecrated victim kidnapped even though it 
were to stray beyond its master's boundaries, a prince of 
greater pretensions than resources might find it very 
difficult to secure the safety of his horse even if it kept 
well within the territory over which he ruled. In any case, 
however, the capture of the noble beast would doubtless 

1 Whilst cattle-lifting generally, such as formed the object of the invasion 
of the land of the Matsyas by the Trigartas (as related in the VirS/a-parvan), 
was probably a practice pretty prevalent from ancient times, the stealing of the 
sacrificial horse would offer an additional temptation, from the political point 
of view, on account of the exceptional character of the animal as the symbol 
of its master's claim to paramountcy. 

• Sat Br. XIII, 1, 6, 3 ; Taitt. Br. Ill, 8, 9, 4. 

* One might feel inclined to take this specification of that month as implying 
the existence, at the poet's time, of the practice of confining the horse in a pen 
or shed (made of Arvattha palings) daring the last two months, mentioned 
Taitt Br. Ill, 8, la, a. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXXI 



cause not a little bad blood, and might lead to complica- 
tions and struggles not less serious than those occasioned 
by Vasish/Aa's cow, or, in Irish legend, by the brown bull 
of Queen Medb (Mab) of Connaught. 

Whilst the epic account of the Arvamedha thus presents 
an instructive, though extravagant, illustration of possible 
occurrences during the preliminary period of the sacrifice, 
some items of the ceremonial on which further information 
might have been acceptable are altogether ignored in it. 
Two of these at least one might have expected to find 
mentioned there, seeing that they are of special interest 
to Kshatriyas, viz. the practice of a Brahmawa and a 
Kshatriya lute- player singing \ morning and night, stanzas 
composed by themselves in honour of the king ; and the 
so-called ' revolving legend ' (XIII, 4, 3, 1 seqq.) related by 
the Hotri, in a ten days' cycle all the year round. It is 
especially in regard to this latter point that the statements 
of the ritualistic works might with advantage have been 
supplemented. During the ten days' cycle a different god, 
or some mythic personage, is assumed, on each successive 
day, to be king, having some special class of beings 
assigned to him as his subjects, and a certain body of texts 
as his Veda from which a section is then recited. But from 
the particulars given it even remains uncertain whether 
any legend connected with the respective deity was actually 
related; whilst regarding the form and nature of some 
of the specified texts — such as the sarpavidya (snake- 
science), deva^anavidya (demonology), maya (or asuravidya, 
magic art) — we really know next to nothing. Nay, even 
regarding the Itihasas and Purawas, likewise figuring, as 
distinct texts, additional knowledge would by no means 
be unwelcome. And though regarding some of the divin- 
ities referred to the Hotri might easily have made up 
some kind of short tale, others would have required some 



1 See XIII, 1, 5, 1 seqq. ; 4, 2, 8 seqq. ; Taitt. Br. Ill, 9, 14. In connection 
with the ' revolving legend,' the conductors of bands of late-players seem to 
have sung additional stanzas in which the royal Sacrificer was associated with 
pious kings of old ; see XIII, 4, 3, 3. 



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XXXII SATAPATHA-BRAHMAYA. 

exercise of ingenuity, unless he had at his disposal materials 
other than those accessible to us. As a rule, however, 
legends of this kind would seem to have been of the 
simplest possible description, as may be gathered from the 
particulars regarding the ' Narajaw/sini,' or recitals in praise 
of (pious) men, which, according to .Sankhayana (XVI, n), 
take the place of the ' revolving legend ' in the ten days' 
cycle of the Purushamedha. The Hotri's recitals on that 
occasion consist simply of certain verses, or hymns, of the 
/?*g-veda, generally celebrating the liberality shown by some 
patron to his priest, preceded by a brief statement merely 
consisting, it would seem, of a prose paraphrase of the 
respective verses recited thereafter. This latter set of 
recitations and legends thus consists entirely of matter taken 
from, or based on, the ^«g-veda, which is indeed the proper 
source for the Hotr* priest to resort to for his utterings. 
The recitations required for the Ajvamedha, on the other 
hand, consist of matter drawn not even from the three 
older Vedas alone, but also from the Atharvans and Angiras 
whose names combined usually make up the old designation 
of the hymns and spells of the Atharva-veda, whilst they 
are here taken separately as if still representing two different 
collections of texts ; — nay, the materials, as we have seen, 
are even drawn from other, probably still later, sources 1 . 
This circumstance, added to the fact that the texts of the 
Black Ya^us make no mention of this item of the cere- 
monial 2 , might well make one suspect its comparatively late 
introduction into the Ayvamedha ritual ; though even this 
would not, of course, make it any the less strange that no 
allusion should be made, in the epic account, to this by 
no means the least interesting feature of the performance. 
One must, however, bear in mind that the poet's mind was 
evidently more intent on telling about the wonderful deeds 



1 It is hardly likely that some of the texts mentioned (deva^anavidya, 
sarpavidya, &c) refer merely to portions of the Vedic texts. 

* The singing of stanzas in honour of the king, by a Brihmana and 
a Kshatriya, with the accompaniment of lutes, on the other hand, does form 
part of the Taittirtya ritual. Taitt. Br. HI, 9, 14. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXX1U 



of the semi-divine bowman in foreign lands than on recording 
the regularly recurring rites performed, in the meantime, at 
home in the presence of the royal sacrificer himself. Even in 
cases where the horse was kept within a convenient distance 
from the sacrificial compound all the year round, its warders, 
themselves partly of royal blood, could hardly have had 
an opportunity of attending the performance of these rites ; 
though the popular character of some of these rites, as 
well as certain expressions used in connection with the 
' revolving legend,' would lead one to suppose that they 
were meant to be witnessed by at least representatives 
of the various classes of the population. 

The ritual arrangements of the Purushamedha, or 
human sacrifice, of which the Brahmawa treats next, seem 
to have been developed out of those of the Ajvamedha. 
Its first three Soma-days are essentially the same as the 
three days of the horse-sacrifice, except as regards the 
difference of victims on the second day. To these the 
authorities of the White Ya^ur-veda — and apparently also 
those of the Black Ya^gns l — add two more days, whilst the 
.Sankhayana-sQtra *, on the other hand, recognises but one 
additional day. Like the Vaitana-sutra, .Sankhayana also 
differs from the other authorities in giving an entirely 
different character to the central feature of this performance, 
inasmuch as he makes it a real human sacrifice instead of 
a merely symbolic one. A peculiar interest thus attaches 
to this difference of theory, seeing that it involves the 
question as to how far down the practice of human sacrifices 
can be traced in India 3 . That such sacrifices were prac- 



1 Whilst the three Sawhitas contain no section relating to the Purusha- 
medha, the Taittirtya-brahmawa (III, 4) enumerates the (symbolic) human 
victim* in much the same way as does the Va£asaneyi-sa»>hit& (see the present 
vol. p. 413 seqq.) ; and the Apastamba-sutra makes the performance similar 
to what it is in the White Ya^us texts. The Vaitana-sutra of the Atharva-veda 
also makes it a five days' performance. 

' Like the chapter on the Asvamedha, that on the Purushamedha is stated 
to be taken from the Mahi-Kaosbttaki-brahmana. 

' On this question see especially A. Weber, Zeitsch. d. D. M. G. 18, p. 26a ff., 
repr. in Indische Streifen, II, p. 54 B. 

[44] C 



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xxxiv satapatha-brAhmaya. 

tised in early times is clearly shown by unmistakable 
traces of them in the ritualistic works ; but in this respect 
India only shares a once almost universal custom. The 
question, then, which chiefly interests us here is whether 
or not this practice was still kept up at the time with which 
we are here concerned. Now, as regards the texts of the 
Ya^ur-veda — that is, the text-books of the sacrificial priest 
tear i$o\TJv — it seems pretty clear that they no longer 
recognise the sacrifice of human beings ; and the same may 
be said of the remaining ritualistic literature with the 
exception of the two works above referred to with regard 
to this particular sacrifice. The points bearing on this 
question, being very few in number, may be briefly 
reviewed here. 

First as regards the story of .SunaArepa which is recited 
at the Ra^asuya sacrifice 1 , and has been several times treated 
before*. King Harir£andra, being childless, prays to 
Varuna to grant him a son, vowing to sacrifice him to the 
god. A son is born to him, and is called Rohita ; but, in spite 
of the god's repeated demands, the fulfilment of the vow 
is constantly deferred ; till at last the youth, having been 
invested in armour, is told of the fate awaiting him. He, 
however, refuses to be sacrificed, and escapes to the forest. 
The king thereupon is seized with dropsy; and the son, 
hearing of this, hastens homeward to save his father. On 
the way he is met by Indra who urges him to wander, 
and he accordingly does so for a year. The same is 
repeated five different times. In the sixth year, the prince, 
while wandering in the forest, comes across a starving 
Brahman, A^igarta, who lives there with his wife and three 
sons, and who consents to sell him one of his sons for 
a hundred cows to serve him as a ransom to Varuwa. The 
Brahman wishing to keep his eldest son, whilst the mother 
refuses to part with the youngest, the choice falls upon 



1 See part Hi, p. 95. 

* Cf. Max Muller, History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 108 ft ; 
M. Hang, Aitareya-brabmaxa, II, p. 460 ff. ; R. Roth, Weber's Ind. Stud. 
I, 475 if.; II, 11 J ff. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXXV 



the second boy, called SunaArepa. Rohita now returns 
to his father who, having been told of the transaction, then 
proposes to Varuwa to offer the Brahman youth in lieu of 
his son ; and the god, deeming a Brahman better than a 
Kshatriya, consents to the exchange, and orders the king 
to perform the Ra^asuya sacrifice, and to make the youth 
the chief victim on the Abhishe£antya, or day of conse- 
cration. Four renowned /?*shis officiate as offering-priests ; 
but when the human sacrifice is to be consummated, no one 
will undertake to bind the victim. The boy's own father, 
A^tgarta, then volunteers to do so for another hundred 
cows; and subsequently he even undertakes to slay his 
son for a similar reward. But when the poor lad sees his 
own father coming towards him, whetting his knife, and 
becomes aware that he is really to be slain, 'as if he were 
not a man,' he bethinks himself of calling upon the gods 
for help ; and by them he is successively referred from 
one to another, till by uttering three verses in praise of 
Ushas, the Dawn, he is released from his fetters, whilst the 
king is freed from his malady. Subsequently one of the 
four priests, the royal sage Vuvamitra, receives SunaArepa 
as his son, conferring upon him the name of Devarata 
(Theodotos), and refuses to give him up to A^igarta ; and 
when the latter calls on his son to return to him, and not to 
desert his ancestral race, he replies, * What has never been 
found even amongst .Sudras, thou hast been seen with 
a knife in thy hand, and hast taken three hundred cows 
for me, O Ahgiras ! ' And on his father avowing his guilt, 
and promising to make over the cattle to him, he again 
replies, ' He who has once done wrong will commit another 
sin ; thou hast not abandoned the ways of a Sudra : what 
thou hast done is irremediable ' ; and ' is irremediable,' 
echoes Virvamitra, who then formally adopts him as his 
son. 
This legend *, so far from bearing witness to the existence 



1 The earliest reference to the myth or story of 5unaArepa is in .AVg-veda I, 
34, 11-13 » V, 3, 7 1 where he is apparently alluded to as having been actually 

C 2 



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XXXVI SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

of human sacrifices as a generally recognised practice, at 
the time when it originated, would rather seem to mark- 
this particular case as an exceptional one. For, if it were 
not so, how comes it that the king's four high-priests— who, 
if any, must have been looked upon as thorough masters 
of the sacrificial science — should have refused to assist in 
the immolation of the human victim ordered by the deity, 
leaving it to be accomplished by the sullied hands of the 
wretched father ? But there is another feature of the story 
which cannot but strike one as very peculiar. Why should 
the childless king pray for the birth of a son only to make 
a sacrifice of him ? He has been told to do so by the holy 
sageNarada: is one then to understand that the sage's advice, 
as well as Varuwa's consent, is given merely to try the king's 
faith and truthfulness ? If so, the case is similar to that of 
Abraham's sacrifice in the land of Moriah, only that the 
king's faith proves less intense and exalted — perhaps more 
humanly faint-hearted — than that of the Jewish patriarch. 
But the most striking feature of the legend doubtless is the 
part played in it by the unnatural father ; and this feature 
seems indeed to impart to the tale something of the 
character of an allegorical representation of the contrast 
between a barbarous (and perhaps earlier) and a more 
civilised phase of life and moral feeling 1 . In this respect 
two points deserve to be noticed, viz. the coarseness of 
the synonymous names ('dog's tail') of the three sons of 
the Brahman * ; and the fact that the latter belongs to the 
Angiras stock, a name intimately associated with super- 



rescued from the stake, or from (three) stakes to which he was bound either for 
sacrifice, or, as Roth prefers, for torture. 

1 In the Sabhaparvan of the MahSbharata (II, 6275 seqq.), as was first 
pointed out by Lassen, Krishna accuses CarSsandha, king of Magadha and 
Aedi, residing at Mai hurt, of having carried off numerous vanquished kings 
and princes to his city, and keeping them confined in his mountain stronghold 
with a view to afterwards sacrificing them (at his Ra^asuya) to the lord of 
Um4 (Rudra) ; adding subsequently (v. 864) that ' the immolation of men was 
never seen at any time.' 

* His own name ' A^tgarta,' on the other hand, is taken by the St. Petersburg 
Dictionary to mean 'one who has nothing to swallow,' and would thus be 
merely descriptive of his condition of life. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXXVU 



stitious rites T on the one hand, and with the ritual of the 
fire-altar * on the other. 

Now, it is exactly in connection with the building of 
the fire-altar that the clearest, and most unmistakable 
trace of an old practice of human sacrifices — or rather of 
the slaying of men for sacrificial purposes — occurs. In 
laying down the bottom layer of the altar, the pan which 
had been used by the Sacrificer for carrying about the 
sacred fire for a year is built into this layer, with heads 
of the five recognised sacrificial animals* — man, horse, ox, 
sheep, and goat — put therein, in order to impart stability to 
the altar (.Sat. Br. VII, 5, 2, 1 seqq.). In a previous passage 
of the Br&hmawa * (I, 2, 3, 6 seq.) where the relative value 
of non-animal offering-materials and the five sacrificial 
animals is discussed, it was stated that, whilst the gods 
were making use of one after another of these animals, the 
sacrificial essence gradually passed from one to the other, 
thus rendering the previous one useless for sacrifice, until 
it finally passed into the earth whence it entered the rice 
and barley afterwards used for sacrificial dishes. The 
general purport of this passage would seem to be to indicate 
a gradual tendency towards substituting the lower for the 
higher animals, and ultimately vegetable for animal offer- 
ings ; though, as a matter of fact, animals continued of 



' Viz. in their connection with the Atharva-veda. In Mahabh. V, 548-51 
Angiras praises India by means of ' AtharvaredamantraU.' Cf. Weber, Ind. 
Stud. I, p. 197. 

2 Both in making the fire-pan (ukha) and in laying down the bricks of the 
fire-altar, the expression ' ahgirasvat ' (as in the case of Angiras) frequently 
occurs in the formulas; cf. VI, I, 2, 28 ; 3, I, 38 ff. ; 4, I, I ff. 

* All that is said in the Brahma»a regarding the headless bodies of the five 
victims is (VI, 2, I, 7 seqq.) that Prajipati, having cut off the heads, and put 
them on (the altar, i. e. on himself), plunged four of the trunks into the water, 
and brought the sacrifice to a completion by (offering) the he-goat (not a he- 
goat, as translated), and that he subsequently gathered up the water and mud 
v clay) in which those corpses had lain, and used them for making bricks for 
the altar. The view that the other four bodies should likewise be offered 
is rejected by the author, who rather seems to suggest that they should be 
allowed to float away on the water. 

4 A very similar passage occurs in Ait Br. VI, 8, on which cp. Max Miiller, 
History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 420. 



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XXXV111 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

course to be commonly sacrificed in later times. Now as 
regards the heads of the five victims, the author subsequently 
(VI, 2, I, 37 seqq.) makes some further remarks which 
go far to show that his previous statements referred only 
to the traditional practice which, however, was no longer 
in use in his own day, and had probably not been so for 
generations past. He mentions various expedients adopted 
by some priests with a view to keeping up at least some 
semblance of the old custom, — viz. either by procuring 
real heads from some source or other, or by using heads 
made of gold or clay ; but they are summarily dismissed as 
profane and fraudulent counterfeits ; and the author then 
remarks somewhat vaguely and diplomatically that 'one 
may slay those five victims as far as one may be able (or 
inclined) to do so, for Pra^apati was the first to slaughter 
them, and 5ydpar«a S&yakayana the last, and in the 
interval also people used to slaughter them ; but at the 
present day people slaughter only (one of 1 ) those two, 
the (he-goat) for Pra^apati, and the one for VAyu ; ' after 
which he proceeds to explain in detail the practice then 
in ordinary use. Later on (VII, 5, 2, 1 seqq.), the Brahmawa 
expounds in the usual way the formulas used in the tra- 
ditional, and theoretically still available procedure, though 
in the actual performance perhaps only the formulas relat- 
ing to the particular heads 2 used would be muttered. 

While Ya^fwavalkya thus, at least in theory, deals rather 
cautiously with this feature of the traditional custom, the 
theologians of the Black Ya^ns 8 take up a somewhat 
bolder position. Indeed it is evidently against this older 
school of ritualists that some of the censure of our Brahmawa 
is directed. For though they too allow, as an alternative 
practice, the use of a complete set of five heads, they make 



* This doubtless is what is meant (cf. Katy. XVI, i, 38) ; and ' atha ' at the 
beginning of VI, 2, 2, 6 ought accordingly to have been taken in the rather 
unusual sense of or' (? ' or rather *), instead of ' then.' Cf. VI, a, 3, 15. 

* According to Ap. St. XVI, 17, 19-20, however, even if there is only one 
head (that of VSyu's he-goat) all the formulas are to be pronounced over it. 

' The Maitr. SamhitS, however, does not seem to refer to this particular 
point in its BrShmana sections. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXXIX 



no mention of a man being killed for this purpose, but enjoin 
that a dead man's head is to be bought for twenty-one 
beans 1 , which is then to be laid against an ant-hill with seven 
holes in order to again supply it with the seven * vital airs of 
the head ' ; whereupon three stanzas relating to Yama are to 
be sung round about it to redeem it from the god of death. 
Besides the four animals, there is also to be a he-goat 
sacred to Pragapati, the offering of which is to complete 
the animal sacrifice 2 . In this school also s , the ordinary 
practice, however, is to kill only a he-goat for Vayu 
Niyutvat, and to use its head for putting it in the pan 
placed in the bottom layer of the altar. As regards the 
^j'g-veda ritual, the Kaushitaki-brahmana, as Prof. Weber 
has pointed out, leaves a choice between a he-goat for 
Pra^apati and one for Vayu ; whilst the -Sankhayana-sOtra, 
curiously enough, again adds the alternative course of using 
the set of five heads. 

The same scholar has drawn attention to another rite 
in the sacrificial ceremonial which seems to him to show 
clear traces of human sacrifice. At the purificatory bath 
at the end of the Ajvamedha, the Sacrificer is to be purged 
of any guilt he may have committed against Varuwa by an 
oblation made to Cumbaka (Varuwa) on the bald head of 
a man possessed of certain repulsive features, whilst standing 
in the water. To these particulars, — as given in the present 
work (XIII, 3, 6, 5), the Taitt. Brahmawa (III, 9, 15), and 
Katyayana's Sutra (XX, 8, 16),— .Sankhayana (XVI, 18) 



1 Or, according to Apastamba, for seven beans; the bead to be that of 
a Kshatriya or a Vairya killed either by an arrow-shot or by lightning, and 
apparently to be severed from the body at the time of purchase (which, as 
Professor Weber rightly remarks, is a merely symbolic one). As, however, the 
particulars given by Apastamba are not mentioned in the older works, they 
may not unlikely have been introduced by him to meet some of the objections 
raised by the Vafasaneyins to whose views he generally pays some attention. 
Otherwise the transaction might seem rather suspicious. 

' Taitt. S. V, 1, 83, indeed, seems to speak of the other four animals being 
set free after fire has been carried round, so that their sacrificial use would be 
merely symbolical. Whether in that case only the head of the one animal would 
be used, or the man's head along with it, seems doubtful. 

' Cf. Taitt. S. V, 5. 



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xl satapatiia-brAhma.va. 

again adds further particulars, viz. that the man is to be 
a Brahmawa of the Atreya family, bought (or hired) for 
a thousand cows, and that he is to enter the river till the 
water flows into his mouth. Now Prof. Weber is of opinion 
that this ceremony would be meaningless if the man were 
not actually drowned. I fail, however, to see the necessity 
of this assumption, seeing that even a purely symbolical 
interpretation of the ceremony will give it all the sig- 
nificance of the real act. That the Ya^us texts contain 
nothing that could make one suspect that the man was 
actually drowned is beyond doubt ; but even 5arikhayana's 
statement that the water is to flow into his mouth is probably 
only meant to suggest the nearness and semblance of death 
by drowning. Otherwise the oblation could hardly have 
been performed in anything like a decent form. Besides, 
■S'aiikhayana further states that, after the completion of the 
oblation, ' they drive him (the man) out, thinking that the 
guilt of the village-outcasts is (thereby) driven out V Here 
the verb ' ni//-sidh' could hardly have been used if the man 
was to be driven farther into the water. What is meant is 
probably that the man was to be driven out from the water, 
and possibly also from the village, to live an anchorite's 
life in the forest. 

If now we turn our attention to the Purushamedha, or 
' human sacrifice ' proper, we find that the Ya^us texts, as 
far as they deal with this ceremony at all 2 , treat it as 



1 The compound ' nUshiddhap&pmSnaA (apagrSm&A) 'may possibly be meant 
in the sense that the evil deeds of the outcasts are driven out (prevented from 
troubling the peace of the village) ; Katy. XX, 8, 17-18, however, states that 
when the Sacrihcer has stepped out (of the water), evil-doers enter (to bathe in 
the water) without having performed any (other) rites, and that they are then 
said to be ' purified by the Axvamedha.' 

* Besides the description of the ceremony in the present work (XIII, 6, 
1-2, 20), only the Taittiriya-brihmana (III, 4) seems to refer to it, enumerat- 
ing merely the would-be victims who, according to Apastamba, as quoted by 
Sayana, are eventually set free. Professor Weber's suggestion that they may 
possibly at one time have been intended to be all of them slaughtered can 
hardly have been meant seriously. One might as well suppose that, at the 
A^vamedha, all the * evil-doers ' who, according to KStjayana, are to bathe in 
the river, weie meant to be drowned. 



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INTRODUCTION. xli 



a purely symbolical performance. A large number of men 
and women, apparently intended to represent all classes of 
the community, are bound to eleven sacrificial posts, and 
after the necessary rites, concluding with the 'paryagnt- 
kara/ra ' — or the carrying of fire round the oblations — have 
been performed on them, they are one and all set free ; 
the sacrifice then proceeding with the offering of the set 
of eleven animal victims. That the ceremony in this form, 
with its pedantically elaborate array of symbolic human 
victims, cannot possibly lay claim to any very great antiquity 
is self-evident; the only question is whether it has not come 
to take the place of some other form of human sacrifice. 
Now, after the foregoing statement of facts, it would be 
idle to deny that the existence, at one time, of a simple 
form of human sacrifice is not only quite possible, but is 
indeed highly probable ; and it would be no more than 
might be expected, if such a practice should eventually 
have revolted the moral sense of the more refined classes 
of the community \ just as it happened, little more than 
a hundred years ago, in the case of the scarcely less odious 
practice of the burning of witches in Christian lands. 

The practice of human sacrifices seems, however, to 
receive evidence of a yet more direct and unmistakable 
kind than the facts hitherto mentioned, from the ceremonial 
of the Purushamedha, as set forth in the Sankhayana and 
Vaitana Sutras. If this evidence has been reserved here to 
the last, it is because there seems reason to believe that, 
in the form in which it is presented in those works, 
the sacrifice was never actually performed, and probably 
never meant to be performed, but that we have here to do 
with a mere theoretical scheme intended to complete the 
sacrificial system. The importance of the subject makes it, 
however, desirable that we should take a somewhat closer 
view of the procedure of the 'human sacrifice,' as laid down 
in those two Sutras. 

1 When the practice became generally recognised that the Sacrificer (and 
priests) should eat a portion of the offered victim, this alone would, as Professor 
Weber suggests, have tended to make human sacrifices impracticable. 



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xlii SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

>Sankh. XVI, 10, i. Pra^-apati, having offered the A^va- 
medha, beheld the Purushamedha : what he had not gained 
by the Ajvamedha, all that he gained by the Purusha- 
medha l ; and so does the sacrificer now, in performing the 
Purushamedha, gain thereby all that he had not gained by 
the Ajvamedha. a, 3. The whole of the Ajvamedha 
ceremonial (is here performed) ; and an addition thereto. 
4-8. First oblations to Agni Kama (desire), A. Datr* (the 
giver), and A. Pathikrj't (the path-maker) ... 9. Having 
bought a Brahmana or a Kshatriya for a thousand (cows) 
and a hundred horses, he sets him free for a year to do as 
he pleases in everything except breaches of chastity. 10. 
And they guard him accordingly. 11. For a year there 
are (daily) oblations to Anumati (approval), Pathyi Svasti 
(success on the way), and Aditi. ia. Those (three daily 
oblations) to Savitr* 2 in the reverse order. 1 3. By way of 
revolving legends (the Hotr* recites) Nirajawsani . . . — 
XVI, 1 1, 1-33 enumerate the Narajarasani 3 , together with 
the respective Vedic passages. — XVI, ia, 1-7. There are 
twenty-five stakes, each twenty-five cubits long . . . ; and 
twenty-five Agnishomiya victims. 8. Of the (three) 
Ajvamedha days the first and last (are here performed). 
9-1 1. The second (day) is a pa*£avi»«a-stoma one... 
12. The Man, a Gomriga, and a hornless (polled) he-goat — 
these are the Pra^apatya * (victims). 13. A Bos Gaums, 
a Gayal, an elk (jarabha), a camel, and a Mayu Kimpurusha 
(? shrieking monkey) are the anustarawaA. 14-16. And the 
(other) victims in groups of twenty-five for the twenty-five 
seasonal deities ... 17. Having made the adorned Man 
smell (kiss) the chanting-ground, (he addresses him) with 
the eleven verses (Htg-v. X, 15, 1-11) without 'om,' — 'Up 
shall rise (the Fathers worthy of Soma), the lower, the 



1 The Arvamedha section of the same work begins: — Pra,?apati desired, 
' May I gain all my desires, may I attain all attainments.' He beheld this 
three days' sacrificial performance, the Axramedha, and took it, and offered 
with it; and by offering with it he gained all his desires, and attained all 
attainments. 

* See XIII, 4, 2, 6-17. ' See p. xixii. 

* See XIII, 1, 2, 2 seqq. 



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INTRODUCTION. xIHi 



higher, and the middle ones.' 18. The Apri verses are 
' Agnir nWtyuA ' . . . ao. They then spread a red cloth, 
woven of kuja grass, for the Man to lie upon. 21. The 
Udgatr* approaches the suffocated Man with (the chant of) 
a Saman to Yama (the god of death). — XVI, 13, 1. The 
Hotr* with (the recitation of) the Purusha Narayawa (litany). 
2. Then the officiating priests — Hotr*, Brahman, Udgatn, 
Adhvaryu — approach him each with two verses of the hymn 
(on Yama and the Fathers) JZig-v. X, 14, ' Revere thou 
with offering King Yama Vaivasvata, the gatherer of men, 
who hath walked over the wide distances tracing out the 
path for many.' $-6. They then heal the Sacrificer (by 
reciting hymns X, 137; 161; 163; 186; 59; VII, 35). 
7-18. Ceremonies analogous to those of the Ajvamedha 
(cf. XIII, 5, 2, 1 seqq.), concluding with the Brahmavadya 
(brahmodya). — XVI, 14, 1-20. Details about chants, &c. ; 
the fourth (and last) day of the Furushamedha to be 
performed like the fifth of the Przsh/^ya-sha</aha. 

Vait. S. XXXVII, 10. The Purushamedha (is performed) 
like the Ajvamedha ... 12. There are offerings to Agni 
Kama, Datrs, and Pathikr/t. 13. He causes to be publicly 
proclaimed, 'Let all that is subject to the Sacrificer as- 
semble together 1* 14. The Sacrificer says, 'To whom 
shall I give a thousand (cows) and a hundred horses to be 
the property of his relatives ? Through whom shall I gain 
my object ? ' 15. If a Brahma«a or a Kshatriya comes 
forward, they say, ' The transaction is completed.' 16. If 
no one comes forward, let him conquer his nearest enemy, 
and perform the sacrifice with him. 1 7. To that (chosen 
man) he shall give that (price) for his relatives. 18. Let 
him make it be publicly known that, if any one's wife were 
to speak 1 , he will seize that man's whole property, and kill 
herself, if she be not a Brahmawa woman. 19. When, after 
being bathed and adorned, he (the man) is set free, he (the 
priest) recites the hymns A.V. XIX, 6 ; X, 2. — 20. For 
a year (daily) offerings to Pathya Svasti, Aditi, and 



1 That is, as it would seem, with a view to dissuading her husband from 
offering himself as a victim. 



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xliv satapatha-brAhmaya. 

Anumati. 21. At the end of the year an animal offering 
to Indra-Pushan. 22. The third day is a Mahavrata. 
23. When (the man ') is bound to the post, he repeats the 
three verses, 'Up shall rise' . . .; and when he is un- 
loosened, the utthapani- verses. 24-26. When he is taken 
to the slaughtering-place (the priest repeats) the harini- 
verses ; when he is made to lie down, the two verses, ' Be 
thou soft for him, O Earth ' ; and when he has been 
suffocated, (he repeats) the Sahasrabahu (or Purusha 
Narayawa) litany, and hymns to Yama and Sarasvati — 
XXXVIII, 1-9 treat of the subsequent ceremonies, 
including the recitation, by the Brahman, of hymns with 
the view of healing the Sacrificer. 

Now, even a slight consideration of the ritual of the 
Purushamedha, as sketched out in these two works, must, 
I think, convince us that this form of human sacrifice 
cannot possibly be recognised — any more than the one 
propounded in the Satapatha and Taittiriya Brahmanas — 
as having formed part of the traditional sacrificial cere- 
monial ; and that, in fact, it is nothing more than what 
.Sankhayana appears to claim for it, viz. an adaptation, and 
that a comparatively modern adaptation, of the existing 
Ajvamedha ritual. Indeed, it seems to me by no means 
unlikely that the two different schemes of the Puru- 
shamedha originated at about the same time, and that they 
were intended to fill up a gap in the sacrificial system 
which seemed to require for Man, as the chief sacrificial 
animal, a more definite and, so to speak, a more dignified 
place in the ceremonial than was up to that time accorded 
to him. The circumstance that the account of this sacrifice, 
as given in the Sankhayana-sutra, presents some of the 
ordinary features of Brahma/ta diction, and that it is indeed 
actually assigned by the commentary to the Maha-Kaushi- 
taka, should not be allowed to weigh with us, since this, is 
most likely done for the very purpose of securing for this 
scheme some sort of authoritative sanction of respectable 

1 Di. Garbe, in his translation, makes this and the subsequent rules refer 
(erroneously I think) to the animal victims of rule 21. 



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INTRODUCTION. xlv 



antiquity 1 . For seeing that the older ritualistic works 
know nothing of it, it seems sufficiently evident that this 
human sacrifice could not possibly have been rite performed 
in 6arikhayana's time, since no proper priest — no genuine 
Adhvaryu and Udgitr*, at all events — could have been 
found to perform it. And, indeed, it can scarcely be 
without significance that the Atharva-sutra is the only 
other work which recognises the ceremony ; and that nearly 
all the hymns and verses used in connection with the 
immolation of the human victim are taken from the 
Atharvan and the tenth mani/ala of the Rik. Nay, 
the very fact that, in both Sutra works, this sacrifice is 
represented as being undertaken, not for the great object 
of winning immortal life, but for the healing of the 
Sacrificer's bodily infirmities, might seem sufficient to 
stamp the ceremony as one partaking more of the nature 
of the superstitious rites of the Atharvan priests than of 
that of the great sacrifices of the traditional JSrauta ritual. 

If thus we find it impossible to recognise the Puru- 
shamedha as a genuine member of the sacrificial system, 
this is still more the case as regards the Sarvamedha, 
or all-sacrifice, a ten days' performance which includes 
amongst its component parts, not only the Purushamedha, 
but also the Ajvamedha, the Va^apeya, and the Vi.rva.g-it 
with all the Stomas and Pr*sh///as, — it thus being the very 
ceremonial performance that might seem calculated to fitly 
crown the edifice of the sacrificial theory. As regards the 
ritualistic treatment of this sacrifice, the number of autho- 
rities dealing with it shows a further diminution from that 
of the Purushamedha. For whilst the .Satapatha-brahmana 
agrees with the 5ankhayana and Vaitana Sutras on the 
general features of its ritual — with the exception, of course, 
of the radical difference as to the character of the human 
sacrifice — the Taittiriya-brahma«a, which gave at least the 
list of the symbolic victims of the Purushamedha, is alto- 
gether silent on the Sarvamedha ; this ceremony being, 

' On this and other passages referred to the Mah&-Kanshttaka, cp. Professor 
Aafrecht's judicious remarks, Ait. Br., p. v. 



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xlvi satapatha-brAhmajva. 

however, dealt with in some of the Sutra works connected 
with the Black Ya,£-us. 

The concluding chapter of the thirteenth kknda. contains 
a valuable and interesting account of the preparation of the 
burial-place or sepulchral mound, and the interment of 
the charred bones previously preserved, in an urn or jar, 
for some indefinite period since the burning of the dead 
body. Of especial interest, in this account, is the statement 
that the bones, when committed to the grave, are to be 
arranged in accordance with their natural position, the 
spaces between them being then filled up with bricks in 
such a way as to present, as in the case of the fire-altar, 
a fancied resemblance to the shape of a bird. It is difficult 
to see what explanation could be offered for this feature of 
the obsequies, except a vague belief in some form of future 
resurrection. 

The fourteenth ka«dfe, up to the beginning of the Bnhad- 
arawyaka, is entirely taken up with the exposition of the 
Pravargya, an important, though optional and subsidiary, 
ceremony performed on the Upasad-days ofSoma-sacrifices. 
Whilst the central feature of this sacrificial performance 
consists of a ceremony of an apparently simple and un- 
pretending character, viz. the preparation of a hot draught 
of milk and ghee, the Gharma, which the Sacrificer has to 
take, after oblations have been made thereof to various 
deities, the whole rite is treated with a considerable amount 
of mystic solemnity calculated to impart to it an air of 
unusual significance. A special importance is, however, 
attached to the rough clay pot, used for boiling the draught, 
and manufactured and baked in the course of the perform- 
ance itself; it is called Mahavtra, i.e. the great man or 
hero, and Samra^-, or sovereign lord, and is made the object 
of fervid adoration as though it were a veritable deity of 
well-nigh paramount power. 

Although the history of this ceremony is somewhat 
obscure, the place assigned to it in the Soma-ritual would 
lead one to suppose that its introduction must have taken 
place at a time when the main procedure of the Soma- 
sacrifice had already been definitely settled. This con- 



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INTRODUCTION. xlvii 



elusion is also borne out by the position taken up towards 
this ceremony by the authorities of the Black Ya^ur-veda. 
For whilst the Maitrayawiya Sawhita gives at least the 
formulas used for it, the Kanaka, on the other hand, takes 
no notice whatever of it, and the Taittirlya school only 
deals with it in its Arawyaka. Nevertheless, this cere- 
mony can boast of a respectable antiquity, seeing that it 
is treated of at some length in the Brahma«as of the 
Rik— viz. Ait. Br. 1, 18-22; Kaush. Br. VIII, 3-7; and this 
circumstance alone might almost seem to justify the 
inference that it was in that very school of ritualists that 
this item of the sacrificial ceremonial was first elaborated. 
It is very doubtful, however, whether such an inference 
would find any support in the dogmatic explanation of the 
ceremony offered by some of the theologians of the /?*g-veda. 
At the end of the Pravargya section, in a passage which has 
a somewhat disconnected appearance, and seems hardly in 
consonance with previous dogmatic explanations, the 
Aitareya - brahma«a makes the secret import of the 
ceremony to be that of a mystic union of the gods resulting 
in the generation of a new, divine body for the Sacrificer. 
This explanation, having been previously adopted by 
Haug and Garbe, was recorded without question in a note 
to part ii (p. 104) of this translation. Further con- 
sideration of this matter has, however, convinced me that 
the theory referred to fails altogether to account for the 
origin of the ceremony, as well as for important points in its 
performance which find a ready explanation in the theory 
applied to it by the present work, as well as by the Tait- 
tiriya-Arawyaka and the Kaushitaki-brihmawa. For seeing 
that the main object of sacrificial performances generally 
is the reconstruction of Pra,fapati, the personified universe, 
and (the divine body of) the Sacrificer, it is difficult to see 
why, for this latter purpose, a new and special ceremony 
should have been thought necessary ; and, besides, the 
rejected theory, if it is at all to account for the high honour 
rendered to the Mahavira pot, would almost involve the 
recognition of a form of Linga-worship which surely would 
require very much stronger evidence than the isolated and 



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xlviii satapatha-brAhmajva. 

(to my mind) somewhat suspicious passage on which this 
theory is based. 

Now, as regards the rival theory underlying the exposition 
of the Pravargya, as given in the 5atapatha-brahma*a, it 
makes the Mahavira pot a symbol of the sun, whilst the hot 
milk draught represents the divine flood of life and light 
with which the performer of the ceremony becomes imbued. 
These symbolic interpretations, whatever we may think of 
them otherwise, certainly adapt themselves admirably to 
the general sacrificial imagery. As the sun is the head 
of the universe — or, in figurative language, the head of 
Pra^apati, the world-man — so its earthly, and earthen, 
counterpart, the Mahavira. pot, is the head of Vish«u, the 
sacrificial man, and the Sacrificer ; and this ceremony is 
thus performed in order to complete the universe and 
sacrifice, as well as the divine body of the Sacrificer, by 
supplying them with their head, their crowning-piece, so to 
speak ; and to imbue them with the divine essence of life 
and light. For this purpose the theory rather ingeniously 
avails itself of certain myths vaguely alluded to in the 
^/*g-veda, according to which (X, 171, a) Indra cut off" the 
head of Makha (here identified with Vishwu, the sacrifice 
and the sun-god); and (I, 116, 12; 117, 22; 119, 9) 
Dadhya«/6, the son of Atharvan, was fitted by the Arvins 
with a horse's head, and this hippocephalous creature then 
communicated to them the Madhu, or sweet thing, — that 
is, as would appear, the sweet doctrine of the Soma, the 
drink of immortality. This symbolism readily explains 
some points connected with the Pravargya ceremony, for 
which no obvious reason seems otherwise to suggest itself. 
For one thing, it accounts for the deep reverence shown to 
the Gharma vessel, which, in fact, is no other than the 
giver of light and life himself; whilst the optional character 
of the ceremony explains itself from the fact that the 
Soma-cup, of which the Sacrificer will subsequently 
partake, might of itself be expected to supply him with 
the blessings which he hopes to derive from the Pravargya. 
And, finally, it also becomes clear why the Pravargya must 
not form part of a man's first performance of a Soma- 



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INTRODUCTION. xll'x 



sacrifice. For the Pravargya, as we have seen, is performed 
on the preliminary days of the Soma-sacrifice, before the 
pressing of the Soma has taken place ; and it obviously is 
only after he has actually partaken of the Soma-drink, and 
has thereby potentially ' put on immortality,' that he can 
partake of the Gharma, and thus become imbued with the 
celestial light 1 . The dogmatical explanation of this 
ceremony thus puts, as it were, the finishing touch to that 
strange allegory by which the Indian theologians sought 
to make the sacrificial ceremonial a practical illustration of 
that unity of the All which speculation had been striving 
to compass since the days when the emptiness of the Vedic 
pantheon had dawned upon the thinking mind, and when 
critically inclined bards ventured to sing of the national 
god 2 : ' Not for a single day hast thou fought, nor hast thou 
any. enemy, O Maghavan : illusion is what they say con- 
cerning thy battles ; no foe hast thou fought either to-day ' 
or aforetime.' 

As regards the optional and somewhat recondite 
character of the Pravargya ceremony, it is probably not 
without significance that the section dealing therewith is 
combined with the speculative Br/hadararcyaka so as to 
make up with it the last book of the Brahmana, — the 
Aranyaka-kan^a, or forest section. Such, at least, is 
the case in the Madhyandina text, where the Pravargya 
section occupies the first three adhyayas of the last (four- 
teenth) book ; whilst the Kknva. text presents a slight 
difficulty in this respect. What passes generally as the 
seventeenth (and last) k&nda of that version, consists of 
the Brzhadara»yaka ; whilst the sixteenth k&nda. begins 
with the section on funeral rites, corresponding to the last 

1 The Kaushltaki-brahmawa (VIII, 3), on the other hand, seems lo justify 
the prohibition on the ground that, piior to the first complete Soma-sacrifice, 
the body of the Sacrifice (and Sacrificer) is incomplete, and therefore not 
ready to receive its head, in the shape of the Pravargya. Hence also the same 
work allows the Pravargya to be performed at the first Soma-sacrifice of one 
who is thoroughly versed in the scriptures, since such a one is himself the 
body, or self, of the sacrifice. 

* See XI, 1,6, 10. 

[44] d 

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1 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

(eighth) adhyaya of kaWa XIII of the Madhyandina re- 
cension, and is stated 1 to include also the Pravargya section 
(Madhy. XIV, 1-3). Now it is a strange fact that the six 
adhylyas of the Brehadarawyaka (XIV, 4-9 in the Madh- 
yandina text) are counted 3-8 in the K&nva. text, — a 
circumstance which manifestly can only be explained by 
the Pravargya section being taken to form the first two 
adhyayas of the last book of that version. This, indeed, is 
probably implied in the remark added to the description of 
a MS. of the Kawva text in the catalogue of the MSS. 
of the Sanskr/t College, Benares (p. 44), according to which 
' PravargyakaWasya patram ' are ' bhinnaprama«4kshara7/i,' 
— that is, ' the leaves of the Pravargya section have a special 
pagination ' (? i. e. they are numbered independently of the 
section on funeral rites preceding them). 

And now my task is done, and I must take leave of this 
elaborate exposition of the sacrificial ordinances of Indian 
theology. For well-nigh a score of years the work has 
' dragged its slow length along,' and during that time it 
has caused me — and, I doubt not, has caused some of my 
readers, too — not a few weary hours. In the early stages 
of the work, my old teacher, Professor Albrecht Weber, 
than whom no one is more deeply versed in the intricacies 
of the sacrificial ritual, wrote to me : ' You have undertaken 
a difficult, a most difficult task ; and I can only hope that 
your courage and patience will not fail you before you are 
through with it.' And, indeed, I must confess that many 
a time I felt as if I should never be able to get through my 
task ; and but for Professor Max M tiller's timely exhorta- 
tions and kindly encouragement, the work might perhaps 
never have been completed. ' I know,' he once wrote to 
me, ' you will thank me one day for having pressed you 
to go on with your work ; ' and now I do indeed thank 
him most sincerely and with all my heart for the kindness 
and patience he has shown me these many years. But, 
strange to say, now that the work is completed, I feel as if 
I could not do without working at it ; and certainly, if 

1 Cf. A. Weber, .S'atapatha-brahmana, p. xi. 



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INTRODUCTION. li 



a second edition could ever have been required of a work 
of this kind, it would have found me ready once more to 
work my way through the bewildering maze of rites ; and 
I know only too well that I should have to correct many 
a mistake, and could improve many an awkwardly ex- 
pressed passage. In conclusion, a word of cordial thanks 
is due to the staff of the University Press, whose patience 
must often have been severely tried in the course of the 
printing of this work, and who, by the excellence of their 
presswork, and by their careful supervision, have materially 
lightened my task, and saved me much tedious and irksome 
labour. 

J. EGGELING. 
Edinburgh, Dectmkr 30, 1899. 



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SATAPATHA-BRAHMA^VA. 

ELEVENTH KANDA. 



THE FULL AND NEW- MOON SACRIFICE. 



First AdhyAya. First Brahmaya. 

i. Verily, Pra^apati, the Sacrifice, is the Year: the 
night of new moon is its gate, and the moon itself is 
the bolt of the gate. 

2. And when one lays down the two fires at new 
moon 1 , — even as one would enter a stronghold by 
the gate, when the gate is open, and would thence 
reach the world of heaven, so it is when one lays 
down the fires at new moon. 

3. And if one lays down the fires under a (special) 
asterism 2 , — just as if one tried to enter a stronghold, 
when the gate is closed, in some other way than 
through the gate, and failed to get inside the strong- 
hold, so it is when one lays down the fires under an 
asterism : let him therefore not lay down the fires 
under an asterism. 

4. On the same day on which that one (the moon) 
should not be seen either in the east or in the west, 

1 For the performance of the Agnyadhana, or setting up the 
sacrificial fires, see part i, p. 274 seqq. 

' For the Nakshatras, or lunar mansions, under which the 
Agnyadhana may be performed, see II, 1, 2, 1 seqq., and especially 
II, 1, 2, 19, where the practice of regulating the time of the 
ceremony by the Nakshatras is discouraged. 

[44] B 



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SATAPATHA-BRAHMAWA. 



let him fast, for it is then that he (the moon) comes 
to this world 1 , and on that (day) he abides here (on 
the sacrificial ground). 

5. And all the gods abide (here), all the spirits, all 
the deities, all the seasons, all the Stomas (hymn- 
forms), all the VrishtAas*, and all the metres. 

6. And, verily, it is for all the gods, for all spirits, 
for all deities, for all seasons, for all Stomas, for all 
PWsh/^as, and for all metres that the fires of him 
are laid down who lays them down at new moon : 
he should therefore lay them down at new moon. 

7. He may lay down the fires on the new moon 
which falls in the (month) Vatrakha, for that coincides 
with the Rohi»t (asterism); for the Rohi«i means 
the self, offspring and cattle 3 : he thus becomes 
established in a self, in offspring and cattle. But, 
indeed, the new moon is the form of the Agnya- 
dheya : let him therefore lay down the fires at new 
moon ; — let him perform the preliminary ceremony 4 
at full moon, and the initiation ceremony at new 
moon. 

Second Brahmajva. 

1. Now when they spread (and perform) the sac- 
rifice, they kill it; and when they press out king 
Soma, they kill him ; and when they ' quiet ' and cut 
up the victim, they kill it, — it is by means of the 
mortar and pestle, and by the two mill-stones that 
they kill the Havirya^»a (grain-offering). 

1 See I, 6, 4, 5- 

* For the six Pmh/Aa-simans, see part iii, introd., p. xx seqq. 

* See II, 1, 2, 6. 7. 

* For the AnvirambhawtyS-ish/i, lit. ' taking-hold offering,' see 
part ii, p. 40, note 1. 



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xi kA-mda, i adhyAya, 2 brAhmajva, 6. 3 

2. And having killed the sacrifice, he pours it, as 
seed, into the fire as its womb, for, indeed, the fire is 
the womb of the sacrifice, from out of it it is pro- 
duced : let him therefore perform those ten oblations 1 
for which the Vasha/ is uttered. 

3. And, indeed, this sacrifice is the blowing 
(wind): he blows here, as it were, as a single one, 
but when he has entered into man, he is divided into 
ten parts ; — with the vital airs thus distributed, it 
(the sacrifice) is born from out of its womb, the fire : 
this is that Vira^f of ten syllables, this is that per- 
fection, the sacrifice. 

4. There may, however, be nine (oblations) 2 ; — he 
thus forms a defective (lesser, lower) Vir&f with 
a view to production; for from the lesser 3 , indeed, 
creatures are produced here : this is that perfection, 
the sacrifice. 

5. But there may be one additional (oblation) 4 , — 
that one remains over for Pra^apati : this is that 
perfection, the sacrifice. 

6. And there may be two additional (oblations) 5 , 

1 These ten oblations of the New and Full-moon sacrifice (as 
the model for Havirya^nas generally), as enumerated by S&yana, 
are (a) at full moon — five fore-offerings, two butter-portions, two 
cake-offerings to Agni, and Agni-Soma, and a low-voiced offering 
to Agni-Soma, (£) at new moon — five fore-offerings, two butter- 
portions, a cake to Agni, a low-voiced offering to Vishnu, and an 
offering of (sweet and sour) milk, or Sanniyya, to Indra. 

* Viz. inasmuch as, according to Sayana, at the Full-moon 
sacrifice the offering to Agni-Soma only takes place in the' case 
of one who is a Soma-offerer. I find, however, no authority for this. 

* Or, from the lower part (nyuna); cf. II, 1, 1, 13 ; 5, 1, 20. 

* That is, if the oblation to Agni Svish/akn't (part i, p. 199 seqq.) 
is taken into account. 

* According to Sayana, the second additional offering is the 
oblation of clotted ghee to Vanaspati (the lord of the forest, or 

B 2 



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satapatha-brAhmajva. 



— a productive pair consists of two : thus a productive 
pair is produced ; this is that perfection, the sacrifice. 

7. And there may be three additional ones 1 , — 
a productive pair consists of two, and that which is 
produced is the third: this is that perfection, the 
sacrifice. 

8. And there may be four additional ones*, — as 
the one so the four. There are these three worlds : 
these worlds he thus gains by three (oblations); and 
Pra^apati, indeed, is the fourth beyond these worlds : 
by the fourth (oblation) he thus gains Pra^apati, — 
this is that perfection, the sacrifice. 

9. That (sacrifice) which is defective in two (obla- 
tions) 8 is indeed defective, it is not a sacrifice; and 
that which is excessive in respect of five (oblations) 
is indeed excessive, it is not a sacrifice : this is that 
perfection as regards the ten, the twenty, thus up to 
a thousand*. 

10. Verily, they who perform the Full and New- 
moon sacrifice, run a race 5 . One ought to perform 
it during fifteen years ; — in these fifteen years there 
are three hundred and sixty full moons and new 



the tree, i. e. the sacrificial stake, or Soma) at the animal sacrifice. 
Cf. part ii, p. 208. 

1 These three oblations, according to Slyawa, are the three 
after-offerings (to the Barhis, to Narswawsa, and to Agni), see 
part i, p. 230 seqq. 

* Viz. either the Svish/akrrt and the three after-offerings; or 
the four Patntsa«yS^as (to Soma, Tvash/r», the wives of the gods, 
and Agni Grshapati), cf. part i, p. 256 seqq. 

* That is, if it includes only eight oblations, see paragraph 4. 

4 That is, counting every ten (oblations) one Viritf , or metrical 
pada of ten syllables. 

* Viz. running along, as they do, with the revolutions of the 
moon and the sun. 



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XI KAlfDA, I ADHY&YA, 3 BRAHMAJVA, I. 5 

moons ; and there are in a year three hundred and 
sixty nights : it is the nights he thus gains. 

u. He should then offer for another fifteen years ; 
m these fifteen years there are three hundred and 
sixty full moons and new moons ; and there are in 
a year three hundred and sixty days : it is the days 
he thus gains, and the year itself he thus gains. 

1 2. Now, indeed, the gods were at first mortal ; 
and only when they had gained the year they were 
immortal ; for the year is everything, and the im- 
perishable means everything : thereby then accrues 
to him imperishable merit, the imperishable world. 

13. He who, knowing this, offers (the Full and 
New-moon sacrifice) for thirty years, becomes one 
of the race-runners, whence one ought to offer sacri- 
fice for not less than thirty years. But if he be 
a performer of the Dakshaya#a sacrifice', he need only 
offer for fifteen years, for therein that perfection is 
brought about, since he performs (every month) two 
Full-moon and two New-moon offerings, and thus 
that perfection is indeed brought about therein. 

Third BrAhmajva. 

1. When he has performed the Full-moon sacri- 
fice, he prepares an additional (cake) for Indra 
VimWdh (the repeller of scorners), and offers it 
in accordance with the procedure of an ish/i 2 ; and 
when he has performed the New-moon sacrifice, he 
prepares an additional rice-pap. for Aditi 8 , and offers 
it in accordance with the procedure of an ishri. 

1 For this modification of the New and Full-moon sacrifice, see 
part i, p. 374 seqq. 
1 That is to say, after the model of the Full-moon sacrifice. 
• See part i, p. 375, where read ' Aditi ' for * Aditye.' 



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SATAPATHA-BRAHMA2VA. 



2. And as to why, after performing the Full-moon 
sacrifice, he prepares (a cake) for Indra Vimrz'dh, it 
is because Indra is the deity of the sacrifice ; but the 
chief oblation of the Full-moon sacrifice belongs to 
Agni and Soma, and nothing is offered there with 
the formula 'To Indra (I offer) thee !' Hereby then 
that oblation comes to be shared by Indra, and so 
does the sacrifice come to be shared by Indra. And 
as to why (he offers) with 'To (Indra) Vinwz'dh!' 
it is that by the Full-moon sacrifice he slays all 
scorners (mrz'dh), all evil spirits. 

3. And as to why, after performing the New-moon 
sacrifice, he prepares a pap for Aditi, — that moon 
doubtless is the same as King Soma, the food of the 
gods : when on that night he is not seen either in 
the east or in the west, the oblation becomes, as it 
were, uncertain and unfirm. Now Aditi is this earth, 
and she, indeed, is certain and firmly established : 
thereby, then, that oblation of his becomes certain 
and firmly established. Such, then, is the reason 
why he prepares additional oblations; now as to 
why he should not prepare them. 

4. When, after performing the Full-moon sacri- 
fice, he prepares an additional (cake) for Indra 
Vimridh, he does so in order that his sacrifice should 
become shared in by Indra, for every sacrifice 
belongs to Indra. But inasmuch as every sacrifice 
belongs to Indra, thereby that oblation of his, and 
that sacrifice, is already shared in by Indra. 

5. And when, after performing the New-moon 
sacrifice, he prepares an additional pap for Aditi, — 
surely the New-moon sacrifice is itself an additional 
one; for by the Full-moon sacrifice Indra slew 
VWtra, and for him who had slain VWtra, the gods 



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XI KAJVDA, I ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAivA, I. 7 

then prepared that additional oblation, the New- 
moon sacrifice : why, then, should he prepare an 
oblation to be added to an additional offering ? Let 
him, therefore, not prepare the additional oblations. 

6. When, after performing the Full-moon sacrifice, 
he afterwards prepares another oblation ; and when, 
after performing the New-moon sacrifice, he after- 
wards prepares another oblation, he rises and defies 
his malicious enemy; and, indeed, unassailed and 
undisturbed is the prosperity of him who at full moon 
performs the Full-moon sacrifice, and at new moon 
the New-moon sacrifice 1 . 

7. For by performing the Full-moon sacrifice at 
full moon, and the New-moon sacrifice at new moon, 
the gods forthwith dispelled evil, and were forthwith 
reproduced ; and, verily, he who, knowing this, per- 
forms the Full-moon sacrifice at full moon, and the 
New-moon sacrifice at new moon, forthwith dispels 
evil, and is forthwith reproduced. If he offer an 
additional oblation, let him give a sacrificial fee (to 
the priests); for no oblation, they say, should be 
without a dakshi«a ; and for the Full and New-moon 
sacrifices there is that dakshi«a, to wit, the Anva- 
harya (mess of rice 8 ). Thus much as to the addi- 
tional oblations; now as to (the sun) rising over him. 

Fourth BkAhmava. 
1 . Now, some people enter upon the fast 3 when 

1 That is, he who performs these sacrifices without additional obla- 
tions : — ataA paur»am£syaydm axn&v&sy&m £a dareapurnamSsay&g&v 
eva kartavyau, nanyat kimiid dhavir anunirvipyam, Say. Whilst 
favouring this view, the author, however, also admits the other as 
ensuring the same benefits. 

1 See part i, p. 49, note 1. 

* As, for the Full-moon offering, the Sacrificer should enter on 



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8 DATAPATH A-BRAhma^A. 

they (still) see (the moon, on the fourteenth day of 
the half-month), thinking, 'To-morrow he will not 
rise,' — either on account of clouds or not having 
ascertained properly, they enter upon the fast, and 
(in the morning) he rises over him. Now if he (the 
moon) should rise on (the material for) the oblation 
being not yet taken out, then that approved (pro- 
cedure is followed) and the same fasting-observance. 
The sour curds from last night's milking they use for 
coagulating the sacrificial food 1 ; they let the calves 
join (their mothers), and drive them away again 2 . 

2. In the afternoon he drives them away with the 
parrca-branch ; and as there that approved oblation 
of the New-moon offering (is prepared) so here. But 
if he should not care to undergo (again) the fasting- 
observance, or if (the moon) were to rise over (the 
material for) the oblation already taken out, then let 
him do otherwise : having properly cleansed the rice- 
grains of the husks, he cooks the smaller ones as a 
cake on eight potsherds for Agni Datr i (the Giver). 

3. And the sour curds (from the milk) milked on 
the day before (he prepares) for Indra Pradatr* 

the fast at the very time of full moon (I, 6, 3, 34), so, for the 
New-moon offering, he should do so at the time when the last 
sign of the moon has disappeared, cf. I, 6, 4, 14. 

1 Literally, they make it the means of coagulating the havis; 
that is to say, they put the sour-milk (of last night's milking) into 
the milk obtained from the milking of this, the second, day so as 
to produce the sour curds required on the next, or offering-day. 
See I, 6, 4, 6 seq. ; — purvedyuA sayamdugdham payo yad dadhy 
atmani vidyate parasmin divase punaA karawiyasya sayawdoharu- 
pasya havisha £ta#£anirtham kuryuA, Say. 

• See I, 7, 1, 1 seq. The milk of the evening milking will be 
required for the sour curds and whey to be mixed with the sweet 
(boiled) milk of the following morning in the preparation of the 
Sannayya. 



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XI KAXDA, I ADHYAYA, 5 BRAHMAJVA, I. 9 

(the Bestower); and those (larger) rice-grains 1 he 
cooks in boiled fresh milk as a pap for Vish»u 
Sipivish/a (the Bald); for a pap it is whenever rice- 
grains are thrown (into milk or sour curds). 

4. And as to this being so, it is because that 
moon is no other than King Soma, the food of the 
gods; — he (the Sacrificer) at that time sought to 
secure him*, and missed him : Agni, the Giver, gives 
that (moon) to him, and Indra, the Bestower, bestows 
that one upon him ; Indra and Agni give that (moon, 
Soma) as a sacrifice to him, and that sacrifice given 
by Indra and Agni he offers. And as to why (he 
offers) to Vish»u, the Bald, it is because Vish»u is 
the sacrifice ; and as to why to the Bald 3 (.ripivish/a), 
— it is that his missing him whom he sought to 
secure is the bald part (? ^ipita) of the sacrifice, 
hence to the Bald one. And on this occasion he 
should give (to the priests) as much as he is able to 
give, for no oblation, they say, should be without 
a dakshiwa. And let him observe the fast just (on 
the day) when he (the moon) does not rise. 

Fifth BrAhmajva. 

1. He observes the fast thinking, 'To-day is the 
day of new moon 4 ; ' and then that (moon) is seen in 

1 According to Katy. Jrautas. XXV, 4, 40, the rice-grains are 
sorted in three different sizes ; those of medium size being used 
for Agni Datr*, the largest for Indra Pradatr*, and the smallest for 
Vishnu .Sipivish/a. 

1 That is, at the time of new moon when Soma is supposed to 
stay on earth. 

* The native dictionaries also assign the meaning ' affected by 
a skin-disease ' to ' ripivish/a.' 

* Amavasy&, lit. the night of their (the sun and moon's) staying 
together. 



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IO SATAPATHA-BRAHMAYA. 

the west. But, indeed, he (the moon) is that heavenly 
dog : he watches the Sacrificer's cattle (to seize them), 
and that would not be good for cattle if amends were 
not made to them ' ; and through fear of that ' down- 
coming moon 2 / as they think him to be, — 

2. They steal away into the shade. And there- 
fore, indeed, people call that burning pain '•yvalu&ta' 
(dog's clutch); — and therefore they also call that 
one — 

3. ' The hare in the moon 8 .' Soma, the food of 
the gods, indeed, is the moon : at full moon they 
press him ; and in the subsequent half of the month 
he enters the waters and plants; and, the cattle 
feeding on the water and the plants, he then during 
that night (of new moon) collects him from the cattle. 

4. He keeps the fast thinking, ' To-day is the day 
of new moon ;' and then that (moon) is seen in the 
west, and the Sacrificer departs from the path of 
sacrifice. As to this they say, 'What should one 
do when he has departed from the path of the 
sacrifice ? Should he sacrifice, or should he not 
sacrifice ? ' He should certainly sacrifice, for there 
is no other way out of it : day after day that (moon) 
rises larger. Having performed offering after the 
manner of the New-moon sacrifice, he takes out 
material for an additional offering either on the 
same, or on the following day. 

5. There are three chief oblations for this (offer- 
ing), — (he prepares) a cake on eight potsherds for 

1 Apray&?/Kttikr;'te (or -krrtaA), — ? in the case of (the owner) who 
did not make amends to, and quiet, them. 

* Avakn'sh/o nikrish/feu iandrami ava&ndramasaA, Siy. 

8 Sayana takes this to mean that for this reason the moon is 
called ' jaranka,' ' he who is marked with a hare.' 



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XI KAJfDA, I ADHYAYA, 5 BRAHMAATA, II. II 

Agni PathikWt (the path-maker), one on eleven, 
potsherds for Indra VWtrahan (the slayer of 
VWtra), and a cake on twelve potsherds for Agni 
Vai^vanara. 

6. Now as to why he prepares (an oblation) for 
Agni PathikWt, — it is that Agni, being the maker 
of the path, leads the Sacrificer (back) to the path 
of sacrifice, from which he now departs. 

7. And as to why to Indra VWtrahan, — VWtra is 
sin: with the help of Indra, the slayer of VWtra, 
he thus slays sin, VWtra, which ever keeps him 
from well-being, from virtue, and from the good 
work : this is why he (offers) to Indra VWtrahan. 

8. And as to why he prepares a cake on twelve 
potsherds for Agni Vawvinara, — when Indra had 
slain VWtra, he burnt him completely by means 
of Agni VaLrvanara, and thereby burnt all his 
(VWtra's) sin ; and in like manner does that (Sacri- 
ficer) now, after slaying sin, VWtra, with the help of 
Indra VWtrahan, burn him, and all that sin of his, 
by means of Agni Vaisvanara ; and, verily, not the 
slightest sin remains in him who, knowing this, 
performs this offering. 

9. For this (offering) there are seventeen kindling- 
verses. He offers to the deities in a low voice, and 
makes any (verses) he pleases his invitatory and offer- 
ing-formulas. In like manner (those of) the two 
butter-portions and the two formulas of the Svi- 
sh/akWt. 

10. A bow with three arrows he gives as dakshi»a ; 
for with the bow a dog is driven away: he thus 
drives away that (dog, the moon) when he gives 
a bow with three arrows as dakshina. 

11. A staff he gives as dakshi»a; for with a staff 



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1 2 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAVA. 

a dog is driven away : he thus drives away that 
(dog) when he gives a staff as dakshiwi. This, 
indeed, is the prescribed dakshi»a ; but he may give 
anything else besides, of such other (objects meet 
for) dakshi«as as may be at his disposal. This, 
doubtless, is an offering relating to cattle: he may 
perform it even though (the moon) was not seen 
(at his New-moon sacrifice). 

Sixth BrAhmajva. 

i. Verily, in the beginning this (universe) was 
water, nothing but a sea of water. The waters 
desired, ' How can we be reproduced ? ' They 
toiled and performed fervid devotions 1 , when 
they were becoming heated, a golden egg was 
produced. The year, indeed, was not then in 
existence : this golden egg floated about for as long 
as the space of a year. 

2. In a year's time a man, this Prafipati, was 
produced therefrom ; and hence a woman, a cow, or 
a mare brings forth within the space of a year ; for 
Pra^apati was born in a year. He broke open this 
golden egg. There was then, indeed, no resting- 
place : only this golden egg, bearing him, floated 
about for as long as the space of a year. 

3. At the end of a year he tried to speak. He 
said ' bhM ' : this (word) became this earth ; — 
' bhuva^ ' : this became this air ; — ' svadt ' : this 
became yonder sky. Therefore a child tries to 

1 Or, they toiled and became heated (with fervid devotion). For 
this cosmological legend, see J. Muir, Original Sanskrit Texts, iv, 
p. 24. 



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xi k&nda, i adhyAya, 6 brAhmajva, 9. 13 

speak at the end ef a year, for at the end of a year 
Pra^apati tried to speak. 

4. When he was first speaking Pra^apati spoke 
(words) of one syllable and of two syllables ; whence 
a child, when first speaking, speaks (words) of one 
syllable and of two syllables. 

5. These (three words consist of) five syllables : 
he made them to be the five seasons, and thus 
there are these five seasons. At the end of the 
(first) year, Pra^apati rose to stand on these worlds 
thus produced ; whence a child tries to stand up 
at the end of a year, for at the end of a year 
Pra^apati stood up. 

6. He was born with a life of a thousand years : 
even as one might see in die distance the opposite 
shore, so did he behold the opposite shore (the end) 
of his own life. 

7. Desirous of offspring, he went on singing 
praises and toiling. He laid the power of repro- 
duction into his own self. By (the breath of) his 
mouth he created the gods : the gods were created 
on entering the sky ; and this is the godhead of the 
gods (deva) that they were created on entering the 
sky (div). Having created them, there was, as it 
were, daylight for him ; and this also is the godhead 
of the gods that, after creating them, there was, 
as it were, daylight (diva) for him. 

8. And by the downward breathing he created 
the Asuras : they were created on entering this 
earth. Having created them there was, as it were, 
darkness for him. 

9. He knew, 'Verily, I have created evil for 
myself since, after creating, there has come to be, as 
it were, darkness for me.' Even then he smote 



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T4 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAWA. 

them with evil, and owing to this it was that they 
were overcome ; whence people say, ' Not true is 
that regarding (the fight between) the gods and 
Asuras which is related partly in the tale and partly 
in the legend ; for it was even then that Pra^apati 
smote them with evil, and it was owing to this that 
they were overcome.' 

10. Therefore it is with reference to this that the 
J&shi has said, ' Not for a single day hast thou 
fought, nor hast thou any enemy, O Maghavan : 
illusion is what they say concerning thy battles ; no 
foe hast thou fought either to-day or aforetime.' 

1 1 . Now what daylight, as it were, there was for 
him, on creating the gods, of that he made the 
day; and what darkness, as it were, there was for 
him, on creating the Asuras, of that he made the 
night : they are these two, day and night 

1 2. Pra/apati bethought himself, ' Everything 
(sarva), indeed, I have obtained by stealth (tsar) 
who have created these deities:' this became the 
' sarvatsara,' for ' sarvatsara,' doubtless, is the same 
as 'samvatsara (year).' And, verily, whosoever 
thus knows ' sawvatsara ' to be the same as ' sarvat- 
sara 1 ,' is not overcome by any evil which, by 
magic art, steals upon him (tsar) ; and whosoever 
thus knows ' sawvatsara ' to be the same as 'sar- 
vatsara,' overcomes against whomsoever he practises 
magic art 

13. Pra^apati bethought himself, 'Verily, I have 
created here a counterpart of myself, to wit the 
year ; ' whence they say, ' Prafapati is the year ; ' 
for he created it to be a counterpart of himself: 

1 Or, whosoever knows the 'all-stealing' power of the year. 



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XI KAJVBA, I ADHYAYA, 6 BRAHMAJVA, 1 7. 15 

inasmuch as 'sa»*vatsara (year),' as well as 'Pra^a- 
pati,' consists of four syllables, thereby it (the year) 
is a counterpart of him. 

14. Now, these are the deities who were created 
out of Pra^apati, — Agni, Indra, Soma, and 
ParameshMin Pra^apatya. 

15. They were born with a life of a thousand 
years: even as one would see in the distance the 
opposite shore, so did they behold the opposite 
shore of their own life 

16. They went on singing praises and toiling. 
Then ParameshMin, son of Prafapati, saw that 
sacrifice, the New and Full-moon offerings, and 
performed these offerings. Having performed them, 
he desired, ' Would I were everything here ! ' He 
became the waters, for the waters are everything 
here, inasmuch as they abide in the furthest place ; 
for he who digs here on earth finds indeed water ; 
and, in truth, it is from that furthest place, to wit, 
from yonder sky that he l rains, whence the name 
Paramesh/Ain (abiding in the furthest, highest place). 

17. Paramesh/^in spake unto his father Prafa- 
pati, ' I have discovered a sacrifice which fulfils 
wishes : let me perform this for thee ! ' — ' So be it ! ' 
he said. He accordingly performed it 2 for him. 
Having sacrificed, he (Pra^apati) desired, 'Would 
I were everything here ! ' He became the breath 
(vital air), for breath is everything here : Pra/apati 
is that breath which blows here (the wind) ; and 
whatsoever knows that it is thus he blows is his 
(Pra^apati's) eyesight; and whatsoever is endowed 



1 Viz. Paiganya, the rain-god, according to S4ya»a. 
* Viz. officiating as his, Pra^&pati's, priest. 



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1 6 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

with breath is Prafapati. And, verily, whosoever 
thus knows that eyesight of Prafapati becomes, 
as it were, manifest. 

1 8. Pra^apati spake unto his son Indra, ' Let me 
perform for thee this wish-fulfilling sacrifice which 
ParameshAfcin has just performed for me.' — ' So be 
it ! ' he said. He accordingly performed it for him. 
Having sacrificed, he (Indra) desired, ' Would that 
I were everything here ! ' He became speech (va£), 
for speech is everything here ; whence they say, 
* Indra is Va£.' 

19. Indra spake unto his brothers Agni and 
Soma, ' Let me perform for you this wish-fulfilling 
sacrifice which our father Pra^apati has just per- 
formed for me.' — ' So be it !' they said. He accord- 
ingly performed it for them. Having sacrificed, 
those two desired, 'Would that we were every- 
thing here!' One of them became the eater of 
food, and the other became food : Agni became 
the eater of food, and Soma food ; and die eater of 
food, and food, indeed, are everything here. 

20. These five deities, then, performed that wish- 
fulfilling sacrifice; and for whatever wish they 
sacrificed, that wish of theirs was fulfilled; and, 
verily, for whatever wish one performs that sacrifice, 
that wish of his is fulfilled. 

2i. When they had sacrificed they beheld (dis- 
covered) the eastern quarter, and made it the 
eastern (front) quarter ; as it now is that eastern 
(front) quarter: therefore creatures here move in 
a forward direction, for they (the gods) made that 
the front quarter. ' Let us improve it 1 from here ! ' 

1 Or, perhaps, raise it, bring it nearer. The St. Petersb. Diet. 



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xi KkrrDA, i adhyAya, 6 brAhmana, 23. 17 

they said, and made it to be strength. 'May we 
see 1 this strength !' they said ; and it became yonder 
sky 2 . 

22. They then beheld the southern quarter, 
and made it the southern quarter ; and it now is 
that southern (right, dakshi«a) quarter : whence 
the dakshi»a (cows) stand to the south (of 
the altar) 8 , and are driven up from the south, for 
they made that the southern one (dakshi«4). ' Let 
us improve it from here!' they said, and made it 
to be space. 'May we see this space!' they said; and 
it became this air, for that (air) is space ; for even 
as the resting-place here in this world is clearly the 
earth, so the resting-place there in yonder world 
is clearly this air ; and because, whilst being here on 
earth, one does not see that space, therefore people 
say, ' That space (or, yonder world) is invisible.' 

23. They then beheld the western quarter, and 
made it (to represent) hope, — wherefore it is only 
when*, after going forwards (to the east), one 

takes ' upa-kurute ' here in the sense of ' to cherish (hegen, pflegen) ;' 
Professor Delbrilck, Altind. Syntax, p. 238, doubtfully in that of 
'worship, revere (verehren);' — enam praifw dLram upetya itaA 
param kurvimahi ktry&ntaram srigemahi, Say. 

1 The particle ' khalu ' might perhaps be rendered by ' really,' 
' or — ' could we but see it,' ' were it but (really) visible to us.' 

* That is, it was moved up to them. 

s See IV, 3, 4, 14. 

4 It seems hardly possible to take ' yad — tena ' here in the usual 
causal sense, — it is only because (or, inasmuch as) one obtains (one's 
object) after going forwards that one goes to the western quarter. 
What is implied, in any case, is that first some hope, or desire, is 
conceived the accomplishment of which is only brought about by 
a forward movement, or by action ; and that success in attaining 
the object sought for is followed by the conception of fresh desires. 
For the same force of ' yad — tena ' (when — then) see XI, 3, 3, 4-6. 
[44] C* 



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18 jatapatha-brAhmajva. 

obtains (his object) that he goes (back) to that 
(western) quarter; for they (the gods) made that 
(quarter to represent) hope. ' Let us improve it 
from here ! ' they said, and made it to be prosperity 
(or distinction). ' May we see this prosperity ! ' they 
said; and it became this earth, for this (earth) is 
indeed (the source of) prosperity; whence he who 
obtains most therefrom becomes the most pros- 
perous. 

24. They then beheld the northern quarter, and 
made it the waters. * Let us improve it from here ! ' 
they said, and made it (to represent) the law, for 
the waters are the law : hence whenever the 
waters come (down) to this (terrestrial) world 
everything here comes to be in accordance with 
the law; but whenever there is drought, then the 
stronger seizes upon the weaker, for the waters 
are the law. 

25. These then are eleven deities 1 , — there are 
five fore-offerings, two butter-portions, the Svish/a- 
krh, and three after-offerings : — 

26. These are eleven offerings, — it was, indeed, 
by these offerings that the gods gained these worlds, 
and these quarters ; and in like manner does this 
(Sacrificer), by these offerings, gain these worlds, 
and these quarters. 

27. And the four Patntsazwya^as are the four 
intermediate quarters; and, indeed, it was by the 
four Patnlsawya^as that the gods gained the inter- 
mediate quarters; and by means of them this 
(Sacrificer) now gains the intermediate quarters. 

1 Viz. the four quarters and the objects enumerated as repre- 
sented by them. 



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XI KAIfDA, I ADHYAYA, 6 BRAhMAYA, 32. 19 

28. And as to the ld(L, — thereby the gods gained 
food ; and in like manner does this (Sacrificer) 
thereby gain food. This, then, is the completeness 
of the New and Full-moon sacrifices as regards 
the gods. 

29. Now as to the body : — there are in man these 
five breathings, not including the eyes; they are 
the five fore-offerings, and the two butter-portions 
are the eyes. 

.30. The Svish/akrzt is the same as this downward 
breathing ; and because he offers that (oblation), as 
it were, apart from the other oblations 1 , therefore 
all the breathings recoil from that breathing; and 
because for the Svish/akrVt he cuts portions from all 
the sacrificial dishes, therefore everything that enters 
these (channels of the other) breathings meets in 
(the channel of) that breathing. 

31. The three after-offerings are the three male 
organs * ; and that which is the chief after-offering is, 
as it were, the chief organ. ' He should offer it 
without drawing breath 3 ,' they say, 'for thus it 
becomes unfailing for him.' 

32. He may, however, draw breath once, for that 
(organ) has one joint; but if it were jointless, it 

1 See I, 7, 3, si, where I would now translate, He offers apart 
(sideways), as it were, from the other oblations, — the oblation to 
Agni Svish/akrtt being poured out on the north side of the fire, so 
as not to come in contact with the chief oblations and the butter- 
portions. 

1 That is, including the testicles. 

* Or, rather, — at the third after-offering (viz. that to Agni 
Svish/akrtt), — the Hotr* should (according to some authorities) 
pronounce the offering-formula, which is considerably longer than 
those of the two other offerings, without making a pause ; whilst 
others allow him to pause once. 

C 2 



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20 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

either would only stand erect, or it would hang 
down ; whilst now it both becomes erect and hangs 
down : he may therefore draw breath once. 

33. The four Patnlsamya^as are the two arms (or 
front legs) and the two thighs — the support, in fact 1 ; 
and the Ida is this vital air (in the centre) ; and 
inasmuch as that (Ida) is not offered in the fire, but 
remains as unburnt, therefore this (central) vital air 
is undivided. 

34. The invitatory and offering-formulas are the 
bone, and the offering-material is the flesh. The 
invitatory and offering-formulas are (in) measured 
metre, whence the bones of a fat and a lean person 
are alike : but inasmuch as he takes now more, now 
less, offering-material, therefore the flesh of a fat 
person is fat, and the flesh of a lean person is lean. 
This sacrifice he performs to any deity he pleases 
and for whom there is a sacrificial dish. 

35. Now, these are offerings from which nothing 
must be omitted ; but were one to omit anything of 
them, it would be as if he were to break off some 
limb, or knock out some (channel of the) vital air. 
Other oblations, indeed, are either added to or 
omitted. 

36. These, then, are sixteen offerings, for man 
consists of sixteen parts, and the sacrifice is the 
Man (Purusha) : hence there are sixteen offerings. 

Seventh BrAhmajva. 

1. Now there, on the occasion of the entering on 
the fast, it is said J , ' If he does not eat, he becomes 

1 Bahudvayam tirudvayaat yiatvaraA patntsamyi^&A, atas te pra- 
tish/ftatmakiA ; ayam eva madhyamaA prima i<a£, Say. 
* See I, 1, 1, 9. 10. 



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XI KANDA, I ADHYAYA, 7 BRAHMAJVA, 4. 21 

consecrated to the Fathers ' ; and if he does eat he 
eats whilst passing over the gods ; ' and, in this 
respect, they lay down the rule, ' Let him therefore 
eat what grows in the forest' 

2. If he eats cultivated plants he eats the sacri- 
ficial essence of the offering-cake ; and if he eats 
forest plants he eats the essence of the barhis 2 ; and 
if he eats aught of trees he eats the essence of the 
fuel (for the sacrificial fire) ; and if he drinks milk he 
consumes the essence of the Sannayya 8 ; and if he 
drinks water he consumes the essence of the lustral 
waters * ; and if he eats nothing he becomes con- 
secrated to the Fathers. 

3. As to this they say, ' What course of procedure 
is there ?' Well, let him, on those two nights (of full 
and new moon), himself offer the Agnihotra : inas- 
much as, after offering, he takes food he does not 
become consecrated to the Fathers, for that (libation) 
is an offering ; and inasmuch as he performs that 
offering in his own self he does not eat of those 
sacrificial essences. 

4. Now all the nights concentrate themselves in 
these two nights: all the nights of the waxing moon 
concentrate in the night of full moon, and all the 
nights of the waning moon concentrate in the night 
of new moon ; and, verily, for him who, knowing 
this, offers (the Agnihotra) himself on the day of 

1 That is, be would be liable to die, and join the departed 
ancestors. 

1 The layer of sacrificial grass spread on the Vedi, serving as 
a seat for the deities to whom offering is made. 

* For this dish, prepared of sweet and sour milk, and offered at 
the New-moon sacrifice, see part i, p. 1 78, note 4. 

4 For the PranitlA, see I, 1, 1, 12. 



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22 satapatha-brahmava. 

the entrance on the fast, offering is always made by 
himself \ 

Eighth BrAhmaya. 

i. Now, the gods and the Asuras, both of them 
sprung from Pra^apati, once strove together. Then 
the Asuras, even through arrogance, thinking, ' Unto 
whom, forsooth, should we make offering ? ' went 
on offering into their own mouths. They came to 
naught, even through arrogance : wherefore let 
no one be arrogant, for verily arrogance is the 
cause of ruin 8 . 

2. But the gods went on offering unto one 
another. Pra^apati gave himself up to them, and 
the sacrifice became theirs ; for, indeed, the sacrifice 
is the food of the gods. 

3. Having given himself up to the gods, he created 
that counterpart of himself, to wit, the sacrifice: 
whence people say, ' The sacrifice is Pra^apati ;' for 
he created it as a counterpart of himself. 

4. By this (Full and New-moon) sacrifice he 
redeemed himself from the gods. Now when he 
(the Sacrificer) enters on the fast, he thereby gives 
himself up to the gods, even as Pra^apati thereby 
gave himself up to the gods. Let him therefore 
endeavour to pass that night (with his mind) com* 
pletely restrained 8 , in the same way as he would 

1 That is to say, even though on other nights the Agnihotra were 
performed for him by a priest, it would always count as being per- 
formed by himself. 

- See V, 1, 1, 1. a. 

* Professor Delbrflck, Altind. Syntax, p. 350, takes this injunction, 
and apparently also the illustration, to refer to sexual intercourse. 
Cf. I, 1, 1, 11. 



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xi KAitDA, 2 adhyAya, i brAhma/ta, i. 23 

proceed with (material for) an oblation, for he 
becomes an oblation to the gods. 

5. And when (on the following day) he performs 
the sacrifice, then he redeems himself by sacrifice 
from the gods, even as Pra^apati thereby redeemed 
himself: when he takes out the material for (the 
chief) sacrificial dish, he redeems the sacrifice by the 
material for the sacrificial dish ; the sacrificial dish 
(he redeems) by the invitatory formula, the invitatory 
formula by the portion cut (from the sacrificial dish), 
the portion by the offering-formula, the offering- 
formula by the Vasha/-call, and the Vasha/-call by 
the oblation. His oblation itself is still unre- 
deemed, — 

6. And that sacrifice of his is like a tree with its 
top broken off. He redeems the oblation by the 
Anvaharya (mess of rice) 1 ; and because he thereby 
supplies (anv-a-harati) what is wanting in the sacri- 
fice, therefore it is called Anvaharya. Thus, then, 
that entire sacrifice of his comes to be redeemed ; 
and that sacrifice becomes the Sacrificer's self in 
yonder world. And, verily, the Sacrificer who, 
knowing this, performs that (offering of) redemption 
comes into existence in yonder world with a com- 
plete body. 

Second AdhyAya. First BrAhma^a. 

1. Verily, man is born thrice, namely in this 
way : — first he is born from his mother and father ; 
and when he to whom the sacrifice inclines performs 
offering he is born a second time ; and when he 
dies, and they place him on the fire, and when he 

' See part i, p. 49, note 1. 



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24 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAtfA. 

thereupon comes into existence again, he is born 
a third time ;— wherefore they say, 'Man is born 
thrice.' 

2. He (the Hotri) recites those eleven kindling- 
verses \ — there are these ten vital airs in man, and 
the body in which these vital airs are established is 
the eleventh, — so great, indeed, is man : he thus 
causes him to be born complete. And what comes 
after the kindling-verses that is the foundation : 
thus, having caused him to be born, he establishes 
him. 

3. There are nine utterances of impulsion (or 
quickening) 2 , — there are these nine vital airs in 
man : he thereby causes him to be born a second 
time; and the (Adhvaryu's) call and (the Agnidhra's) 
response s are the foundation. And when there, on 
the occasion of the throwing 4 (of the grass-bunch 

1 See part i, p. 95 seqq. 

* According to Sayawa, this refers either to the formula by which 
the Adhvaryu calls on the Hotri' to recite the kindling-verses, and 
which, he says, consists of nine syllables (samidhyamanayanubruhi); 
or to nine preliminary formulas (forming a nigada) pronounced by 
the Hotn" before the performance of the fore-offerings, see I, 5, 2, 
1 seqq. These latter formulas are probably those intended by the 
author ; the former formula being the less likely to be referred to, 
as, in its above form of nine syllables, it is indeed allowed to be 
used optionally by the Apastambasutra, but not by the authorities 
of the white Ya^us, who use the formula ' (Hotar) Agnaye samidh- 
yamanayanubruhi;' see .Sat. Br. I, 3, 5, 2. 3. 

* Viz. the two calls— ' Om jravaya' and 'Astu jrausha/,' see 
part i, p. 132, note. 

4 The word 'srishA' usually means 'creation,' but in accord- 
ance with the primary meaning of the verb ' srig,' it apparently 
refers here (as Sayana seems to think) to the throwing of the 
anointed Prastara, as the representative of the Sacrificer, into 
the Ahavanfya fire, thus insuring for the Sacrificer his despatch 
to, and renewed life in, the heavenly world. With reference to 



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xi kXnda, 2 adhyAya, i brAhmaya, 6. 25 

into the fire), birth is spoken of, he thereby causes 
him to be born a third time : on this occasion the 
Patnlsawya^as 1 are the foundartion. 

4. For thrice, indeed, man is born, and it is just in 
this way that he causes him to be born thrice from 
the sacrifice. Of those eleven (kindling-verses) he 
recites thrice the first and last : — 

5. This makes fifteen kindling-verses, — there are 
two libations of ghee (aghara *), five fore-offerings, 
the Ia&, three after-offerings, the Suktavaka, and 
.Samyorvaka 3 — that makes thirteen oblations. And 
when there, at the Patnlsawyi^as, he takes up at 
the same time (the two spoons) ; and the Samish/a- 
yafus * : — 

6. That makes fifteen oblations: — for these fifteen 
oblations those fifteen kindling-verses (serve, as it 
were, as) invitatory formulas; and for these invitatory 
formulas these (serve as) offering-formulas — what- 
ever formula (is used) there (at those oblations) and 
what Nigada (is used at the invocation of the \dk 6 ) 
that is of the form of offering-formulas. Thereby, 
then, those oblations of his come to be supplied with 
invitatory formulas through those kindling-verses ; 
and through those oblations those invitatory formulas 
come to be supplied with both offering-formulas and 
oblations. 



this throwing of the grass-bunch into the fire (I, 8, 3, 1 1 seq. ; 9, 
2, 19) some of the Sutras use, indeed, the verb ' srig,' cf. Hillebrand, 
Das Altindische Neu- und Vollmondsopfer, p. 146. 

1 See part i, p. 356 seqq. * See part i, p. 124 seqq. 

* Part i, p. 236 seqq. * See I, 9, 2, 19 ; 25 seqq. 

5 See part i, p. 222 seqq. 



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26 satapatha-brAhmajva. 



Second BrAhmaya. 

i. He recites a gayatrl invitatory formula 1 : the 
gayatrl consisting of three feet, these worlds being 
three in number 2 , it is these worlds the gods thereby 
established. 

2. He offers with a trish/ubh (verse): thetrishAibh 
consisting of four feet, and cattle being four-footed, 
it is cattle the gods thereby established in these 
established worlds. 

3. The Vasha/-call consists of two syllables (vau- 
sha/) : man being two-footed, it is two-footed man 
they thereby established among the established 
cattle. 

4. Two-footed man, then, is established here 
among cattle. In like manner this (Sacrificer) 
establishes thereby the worlds; and in the esta- 
blished worlds he establishes cattle, and among the 
established cattle he establishes himself: thus, 
indeed, is that man established among cattle, who, 
knowing this, offers sacrifice. 

5. And when he offers, after the Vasha/ has been 
uttered, — that Vasha/-call being yonder shining 
(sun), and he being the same as Death 8 — he thereby 
consecrates him (the Sacrificer) after death, and 
causes him to be born from out of it, and he is 

1 The anuvakyas recited prior to the principal oblations (pra- 
dhana-havis) are in the gayatrl metre ; whilst the ya£yas (referred to 
in the next paragraph), at the end of which the Vausha/ ! is uttered 
and the oblation poured into the fire, consist of trish/ubh verses ; 
cf. I, 7, 2, 15. 

1 These inserted clauses with ' vai ' supply the reason for what 
follows, not for what precedes, them. 

» See X, 5, 1, 4. 



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xi kAjvba, 2 adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, 3. 27 

delivered from that death. And the sacrifice, indeed, 
becomes his body : thus, having become the sacri- 
fice, he is delivered from that death, and all his 
chief offerings are thereby delivered from that 
death 1 . 

6. And, verily, whatever offering he there per- 
forms, that offering becomes his body in yonder 
world; and when he who knows this departs this 
world then that offering, being behind him, calls out 
to him, ' Come hither, here I am, thy body ; ' and 
inasmuch as it calls out (invokes, ahvayati), it is 
called ' ahuti ' (offering or invocation). 

Third BrAhmajta. 

1. Verily, in the beginning, this (universe) was 
the Brahman (neut) 8 . It created the gods ; and, 
having created the gods, it made them ascend these 
worlds : Agni this (terrestrial) world, Vayu the air, 
and Surya the sky. 

2. And the deities who are above these he made 
ascend the worlds which are above these ; and, 
indeed, just as these (three) worlds and these (three) 
deities are manifest, so are those (higher) worlds and 
those (higher) deities manifest — (the worlds) which 
he made those deities ascend. 

3. Then the Brahman itself went up to the sphere 
beyond. Having gone up to the sphere beyond, it 
considered, ' How can I descend again into these 
worlds?' It then descended again by means of these 
two — Form and Name. Whatever has a name, 

1 Viz. inasmuch as the oblation is made with the Vasha/. 
1 On this speculative myth, see John Muir, Orig. S. Texts, vol. v, 
pp. 387-89. 



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28 satapatha-brahmaata. 

that is name ; and that again which has no name, 
and which one knows by its form, ' This is (of a certain) 
form,' that is form : as far as there are Form and 
Name so far, indeed, extends this (universe). 

4. These, indeed, are the two great forces of the 
Brahman; and, verily, he who knows these two 
great forces of the Brahman becomes himself a 
great force. 

5. These, indeed, are the two great manifestations 1 
of the Brahman ; and, verily, he who knows these 
two great manifestations of the Brahman becomes 
himself a great manifestation. One of these two is 
the greater, namely Form ; for whatever is Name, 
is indeed Form ; and, verily, he who knows the 
greater of these two, becomes greater than he whom 
he wishes to surpass in greatness. 

6. In the beginning, indeed, the gods were mortal, 
and only when they had become possessed 2 of the 
Brahman they were immortal. Now, when he makes 
the libation to Mind 3 — form being mind, inasmuch 
as it is by mind that one knows, ' This is form ' — 
he thereby obtains Form ; and when he makes the 
libation to Speech — name being speech, inasmuch 
as it is by speech that he seizes (mentions) the 
name — he thereby obtains Name ; — as far as there 
are Form and Name, so far, indeed, extends this 
whole (universe) : all this he obtains ; and — the 



1 Or, phantasmagories, illusive representations. 

1 The use of ' ap ' with the instrumental (brahma»a apuA) is 
peculiar, — brahmawa vyapt&A, Say. 

* The two libations (aghira) of ghee, forming the first oblations 
of an ish/i, made on the newly kindled fire, are offered to Mind and 
Speech respectively ; cf. part i, p. 1 24 seqq. 



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xi kAmda, 2 adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, 9. 29 

all being the imperishable — imperishable merit and 
the imperishable world thus accrue to him. 

7. There, on the occasion of the offering to Agni 1 , 
it has been told how the sacrifice then pleased the 
.tf/shis, and how they performed it. Now, when 
the /?«shis were performing the sacrifice, the Gan- 
dharvas came nigh to them. They looked on, 
thinking, ' Here, surely, they have done too much, 
— here they have done too little.' And when their 
sacrifice was completed, they pointed it out to them, 
saying, ' Here, surely, ye have done too much, — 
here ye have done too little.' 

8. Now, wherever they had done too much it was 
like a hill ; and wherever they had done too little it 
was like a pit. 

9. Now, when he pronounces the .Samyos (all- 
hail and blessing), he touches (the earth 2 ) with 
(Va/. S. II, 19), 'O Sacrifice, homage be unto 
thee: mayest thou complete thy course up 
to the success of the sacrifice and up to 
mine own right offering!' Wherever (in the 
course of the sacrifice) he has committed any 
excess, he makes amends for it by doing homage ; 
and wherever he has left anything defective, it 
ceases to be defective by his saying, 'up to.' In 
saying, ' Mayest thou complete thy course up to the 
success of the sacrifice,' — success being whatever 
in the sacrifice is neither defective nor excessive — 
he thereby makes amends for both of these (mis- 
takes) ; and in saying, ' Mayest thou complete thy 

1 SSyaaa explains this by ' 4dblnakarane ' ; but the passage 
referred to occurs I, 6, 2, 3. 4, in connection with the first butter- 
portion (a^yabhdga), that of Agni. 

* Or, perhaps, the altar ; see I, 9, 1, 29. 



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30 jatapatha-brAhmajva. 

course up to mine own right offering,' — right offering 
being whatever in the sacrifice is neither defective 
nor excessive — he thereby also makes amends for 
both of these (mistakes) ; and thus that sacrifice of 
his comes to be performed as one that is neither 
defective nor excessive by whosoever, knowing 
this, thus touches (the earth): let him therefore 
touch it just in this way. But, indeed, those 
Gandharvas were Yavaman (rich in barley), the 
winnowing-basket ; Uddalavan (rich in paspalum 
frumentaceum), husbandry; and Antarvan (the 
pregnant), grain 1 . 

Fourth BrAhmawa. 

i. The full moon, doubtless, is the same as that 
burning (sun), for he, indeed, is full day by day; 
and the new moon (darsa) is the same as the moon, 
for he appears (daw), as it were. 

2. But they also say inversely, ' The full moon is 
the same as the moon, for after the filling up of 
the latter there is the night of full moon ; ' and the 
new moon (dana) is the same as that burning (sun), 
for the latter appears, as it were. 

3. The full moon, indeed, is this (earth), for she 
is, as it were, full ; and the new moon is yonder sky, 
for yonder sky appears (or, is seen), as it were. 

4. The full moon, indeed, is the night, for this 

1 On these names, S4ya«a merely remarks, — te gandliarvSA 
.rurpidibh&vam ipannd babhflvuA, yavaman ityidyds teshfixn sa/n- 
gii&h. — Mahtdbara, on the other hand, on Va^. S. II, 19, makes 
them to be five names, Yavamat, .Surpa (n.), Uddilavat, Krz'shi (f.), 
and Dh&n&ntarvat. This is very improbable ; the last name, espe- 
cially, being accented on the first syllable, showing it to be two 
words. 



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xi kAnda, 2 adhyAya, 4 brAhmam, 8. 3 1 

night is, as it were, full ; and the new moon is the 
day, for this day appears, as it were. This, then, 
is the theory regarding the full and new moon in 
respect of the gods. 

5. Then as to the body. The full moon is the 
up-breathing, for it is by the up-breathing 1 that this 
man is, as it were, filled; and the new moon is 
the out (and in)-breathing •, for this out-breathing 
appears, as it were: thus, the full and new moon 
are these two, the eater and the giver of food. 

6. The out (and in)-breathing (the mouth) is the 
eater of food, for by means of the out (and in- 
breathing this food is eaten; and the up-breathing 
is the giver of food, for by the up-breathing* this 
food is given to him. 

7. The full moon is the mind, for full, as it were, 
is this mind ; and the new moon is speech, for this 
speech appears, as it were. Thus these two are 
clearly the full and new moon, as regards the body ; 
and inasmuch as on the day of fasting he eats the 
(food) suitable for eating on the vow, he thereby 
clearly gratifies these two in regard to the body ; 
and on the morrow (he gratifies them) as gods by 
sacrifice. 

8. As to this they say, — ' Seeing that no offering- 
material is taken out " for the full moon," nor any 
offering-material "for the new moon," and seeing 
that he does not say, " Recite the invitatory formula 
for the full moon," nor " Recite the invitatory for- 

1 The udana is explained by SSyawa as the breath passing (up 
into the head, and) through the nose. 

1 The p ran a is the breath of the mouth. 

* That is, by (the vital air of) the head (hence of the eyes, 
ears, &c). 



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32 5ATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

mula for the new moon ; " nor " Recite the offering- 
formula for the full moon," nor " Recite the offering- 
formula for the new moon," how, then, is offering 
made to this full and new moon ? ' Well, when 
he makes a libation of ghee to the Mind — the 
full moon being the Mind — he thereby makes 
offering to the full moon ; and when he makes 
a libation of ghee to Speech — the new moon being 
Speech — he thereby makes offering to the new 
moon : and thus offering is made by him to the 
full and new moon. 

9. Now, some prepare two messes of rice, one for 
Sarasvat on the full moon, and one for Sarasvatl 
on the new moon, saying, 'We thus clearly make 
offering to the full and new moon.' But let him 
not do this ; for Sarasvat is the Mind, and Sarasvat! 
is Speech ; and thus, in making libations of ghee 
to these two, offering is made by him to the full 
and new moon : let him therefore not prepare these 
two messes of rice. 

10. As to this they say, ' Surely, he who performs 
the Full and New-moon offerings becomes a (mere) 
utterer of the Agur 1 ; for, when he has performed 

1 Or, one who has only had the Agur-formulas uttered for him 
(by the priests). Agur is the technical term of two formulas, viz. of 
the formula ' (Agnim) ya^a ' (recite the offering-formula to Agni, or 
to whatever deity offering is made), by which the Adhvaryu calls on 
the Hotr» to recite ; and of the formula ' Ye ya^&nahe (Agnim),' 
by which the Hot/-*' introduces the yigy&, or offering-verse. At 
the Soma-sacrifice the former formula is modified to ' Hoti yakshat,' 
uttered by the Maitr&varuwa priest. See Haug, Transl. of Ait. Br., 
p. 133, note. — In comparing these Agur-formulas with the per- 
formances of the Full and New-moon offerings, the author thus 
seems to imply that, just as the utterance of these formulas is 
merely the preliminary to the oblation itself, so each fortnightly 



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XI K&NDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 5 BRAHMAtfA, I. 33 

the Full-moon offering, he knows that he will per- 
form the New-moon offering; and when he has 
performed the New-moon offering, he knows that 
he will again perform the Full-moon offering ; thus 
when he goes to the other world he goes thither 
as an utterer of the Agur: how, then, does he 
become one who has not (merely) uttered the 
Agur?' Well, when, on both occasions, he makes 
those two libations of ghee (to Mind and Speech), 
then his Full and New-moon offerings become com- 
plete ; and he goes to the other world after his Full 
and New-moon offerings are completed, and thus 
becomes one who has not (merely) uttered the 
Agur. 

Fifth BrAhmajva. 
1. And, verily, even on this occasion', they 
slaughter the sacrificial horse (Axvamedha) as 
a sacrifice to the gods : of this (New and Full- 
moon sacrifice) they say, ' It is the original (normal) 
A^vamedha;' and that (real A.rvamedha), indeed, 
is just the other (modified one) ; for, indeed, the 
Asvamedha is the same as the moon. 

performance is only the preliminary to the next performance ; but 
that the Sacrificer never actually completes the sacrifice. Sivawa, 
on the other hand, takes ' agurtin ' to mean ' one who has formed 
a resolution (agurta, agura*am=sa«nkalpa);' and native dictionaries, 
indeed, give ' igur ' as a synonym of ' pratijtfa ' (promise, agree- 
ment ; Zuruf, Zusage). But, even if this were the right meaning 
of the word, the general drift of the passage would remain the 
same, viz. that such a sacrificer would ultimately die as one who had 
merely promised or intended to offer sacrifice, without his having 
actually performed it, or brought it to a proper conclusion, and 
thus without reaping the ultimate benefit from it, viz. citizenship in 
the heavenly abodes. 

1 Viz. in performing the Full and New-moon sacrifice, for which 
all the benefits accruing from the Ajvamedha are here claimed. 

[44] D 



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34 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

2. As to this, they say, ' For each foot of the 
sacrificial horse they offer an oblation ; ' — when he 
performs the Agnihotra in the evening and morn- 
ing, he offers two oblations in the evening, and two 
in the morning — that makes four oblations : thus — 
the horse being four-footed — an oblation is offered 
for each of its feet. 

3. As to this, they say, 'On the starting off of 
the horse he performs an offering l ; for the moon, 
doubtless, is the same as King Soma, the food of 
the gods : when, during that night (of new moon), 
he does not appear either in the east or in the west, 
then he comes to this world, and starts for this 
world 2 . 

4. Now, when he performs the New-moon sacri- 
fice, he thereby performs the (same) offering (as) on 
the starting of that (horse), and when he per- 
forms the Full-moon sacrifice he slaughters the 
sacrificial horse itself, and, having slaughtered it, 
he presents it to the gods. The other (real) horse- 
sacrifice they indeed perform (only) a year after 
(the starting offering), but this month (of the Full 
and New-moon sacrifice), revolving, makes up a 
year s : thus the sacrificial horse comes to be 
slaughtered for him year after year. 

1 According to Asv. X, 6, 2 seqq., having chosen the horse to be 
sacrificed, he performs two isb/is, to Agni Murdhanvat and Pftshan ; 
whereupon he sets free the horse, and for a year performs three 
ish/is daily at the three pressings, viz. to Savitri Satyaprasava, 
Prasavitri, and Asavitr*. 

* Or, he disappears in this world ; the same verb (vi-vrrt) being 
used for the disappearance as for the starting off of the horse when 
set free. 

* The syntactic construction of the last two sentences is that 
frequently alluded to before, viz. that of parenthetic causal clauses. 



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xi kAjtda, 2 adhyAya, 6 brAhmajva, 3. 35 

5. Verily, then, for him who, knowing this, offers 
both the Agnihotra and the Full and New-moon 
sacrifices, they slaughter the sacrificial horse month 
by month ; and month by month the A^vamedha is 
offered for him, and his Agnihotra and Full and 
New-moon sacrifices come to pass into the A^va- 
medha. 

Sixth BrAhmajva. 

1. The Pranita water, doubtless, is the head of 
the sacrifice 1 ; and when he leads forward the 
Prawtta water, it is the head of the sacrifice he 
thereby forms, and he should know that it is that 
head of his own that is then being formed. 

2. The fuel, indeed, is its breath (of the mouth), 
for it is by the breath that everything here is 
kindled (animated) that has breath and moves 
twinkling with its eyelids: let him know that it 
is he himself that is that fuel. 

3. The kindling-verses, indeed, are its spine : let 
him therefore say (to the Hotri) regarding them, 
' Recite for me, making them, as it were, con- 
tinuous 2 ;' for continuous, as it were, is this spinal 
column. And the two libations of ghee are its 
mind and speech, Sarasvat and Sarasvatl 8 : let 

1 Ya£#a, the sacrifice, is here, as so often, to be understood as 
the abstract representation of the victim (here the horse), as well 
as of the Purusha, — i. e. Pra^apati, and the Sacrifices 

* The kindling-verses, being in the Gayatrt metre, consist of 
three octosyllabic padas each. Whilst after each verse a kindling- 
stick (samidh) is thrown into the fire by the Adhvaryu, the Hotrt 
does not make any pause in his recitation at this point, but he does 
so after the second pada of each verse, thus connecting the last 
pada with the first two padas of the next verse. 

» See XI, a, 5, 9. 

D 2 



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36 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

him know that the two libations of ghee are his 
mind and speech, Sarasvat and Sarasvatl. 

4. The five fore-offerings are these its five (out- 
lets of the) vital airs in the head ; — the first fore- 
offering is its mouth, the second the right nostril, 
the third the left nostril, the fourth the right ear, 
and the fifth the left ear. And inasmuch as at the 
fourth fore-offering he pours together (the ghee 1 ), 
therefore this ear is, on the inner side, connected 
by a channel (with the other). The two butter- 
portions are the eyes : let him know that these 
are his own eyes. 

5. And that cake which is offered to Agni is its 
right flank ; and the low- voiced offering is its heart ; 
and inasmuch as they perform this in a low voice, 
this heart is, as it were, in secret 

6. And that cake which is offered to Agni and 
Soma (at full moon), or Indra's Sannayya (at new 
moon), is its left flank ; the Svish/akWt is that part 
between its shoulders; and the (Brahman's) fore- 
portion 2 is the poison*. 

7. And when he cuts off the fore-portion, — even 
as there they cut out what was injured 4 in Pra^apati, 
so do they now thereby cut out what in this (body) 
is clogged and hardened, and affected by Varu«a : 

1 See I, 5, 3, 16. • See I, 7, 4, 10 seqq. 

* Instead of ' visham,' the MS. of Sayawa's commentary reads 
' dvishan ' (hater, enemy), which is explained as meaning ' xatru- 
buddhi '; the ' cutting out' of the fore-portion being compared with 
the annihilation of enemies (ratrunirasan&rtham), — all this is, how- 
ever, manifesdy fanciful. What is intended would seem to be the 
poison (real or figurative) caused by the enemies' (or Rudra's, or 
Vanuia's) shafts, in accordance with the myth regarding Pra^ipati 
and his daughter, 1, 7, 4, 1 seqq. 

* Literally, what was pierced (by an arrow), cf. I, 7, 4, 3. 9. 



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xi kAjvda, 2 adhyAya, 6 brAhma^a, 12. 37 

let him know that, as there they cut out what was 
injured in Praflpati, so they now cut out what in him 
is clogged and hardened and affected by Varu«a. 

8. The Iaa, indeed, is the belly: even as there, 
at (the invocation of) the L& 1 they cut off portions 
(and put them) together, so now food of all kinds 
is put together in the belly. 

9. The three after-offerings are these its three 
downward breathings ; and the Suktavaka and .5am- 
yorvaka its arms (or fore-feet); the four Patntsaw- 
ya/as the four supports — the two thighs and the two 
knee-bones; and the Samish/ayafus is the two 
(hind) feet 

10. These are twenty-one offerings; — two libations 
of ghee, five fore-offerings, two butter-portions, and 
Agni's cake : this makes ten ; Agni and Soma's low- 
voiced offering, Agni and Soma's cake, the Agni 
Svish/akm, the \dk, three after-offerings, the Stikta- 
vaka, the .Samyorvaka, further his seizing (the two 
spoons) at the same time there at the Patni- 
sawyi/as*, and (last) the Samish/ayafus. 

11. These are twenty-one offerings, — there are 
twelve months and five seasons in a year ; and three 
worlds — that makes twenty; and yonder burning 
(sun) is the twenty-first — that is the goal 8 , that the 
resting-place : he thus reaches that goal, that resting- 
place. 

12. Now, as to this Aru»i said, 'Every half- 
month, indeed, I become a sharer of the same world 
with yonder sun : that is the perfection of the Full 
and New-moon sacrifices which I know.' 

1 See I, 8, 1, 12 seqq. ' See I, 9, 2, 19. 

• Saisha sflryartipaiva gatiA gantavyabhfaniA; eshaiva pratish/Aa 
kr/tsnaphalasylnajaA, Say. 



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38 satapatha-brAhmawa. 

i 3. As to this they ask, 'Who is the better one, the 
self-offerer, or the god-offerer ?' Let him say, ' The 
self-offerer;' for a self-offerer, doubtless, is he who 
knows, ' This my (new) body is formed by that (body 
of Ya^wa, the sacrifice), this my (new) body is 
procured 1 thereby.' And even as a snake frees 
itself from its skin, so does he free himself from his 
mortal body, from sin ; and made up of the Rik, the 
Ya^us, the Saman, and of offerings, does he pass on 
to the heavenly world. 

14. And a god-offerer, doubtless, is he who knows, 
' I am now offering sacrifice to the gods, I am 
serving the gods,' — such a one is like an inferior who 
brings tribute to his superior, or like a man of the 
people who brings tribute to the king: verily, he 
does not win such a place (in heaven) as the other. 

Seventh BrAhmava. 

1. The Sacrifice is the Year ; and, verily, sacrifice 
is offered at the end of the year of him whoso knows 
that the sacrifice is the year ; and all that is done in 
the year comes to be gained, secured, and won 
for him. 

2. The officiating priests are the seasons; and, 
verily, sacrifice is offered at the end of the seasons 
of him whoso knows that the officiating priests are 
the seasons; and all that is done in the seasons 
comes to be gained, secured, and won for him. 

3. The oblations are the months; and, verily, 
sacrifice is offered at the end of the months of him 
whoso knows that the oblations are the months; 

1 Upadhiyate upasthapyate, Say. 



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xi kAnda, 2 adhyAya, 7 brAhmajva, 8. 39 

and all that is done in the months comes to he 
gained, secured, and won for him. 

4. The oblation-vessels are the half-months ; and, 
verily, sacrifice is offered at the end of the half- 
months of him whoso knows that the oblation-vessels 
are the half-months; and all that is done in the 
half-months comes to be gained, secured, and won 
for him. 

5. The two attendants 1 are the day and night; 
and, verily, sacrifice is offered at the end of the day 
and night of him whoso knows that the two atten- 
dants are the day and night ; and all that is done in 
the day and night comes to be gained, secured, and 
won for him. 

6. The first kindling-verse is this (earth), the 
second the fire, the third the wind, the fourth 
the air, the fifth the sky, the sixth the sun, the 
seventh the moon, the eighth the mind, the ninth 
speech, the tenth fervid devotion, and the eleventh 
the Brahman; for it is these that kindle all this 
(universe), and by them all this (universe) is kindled, 
whence they are called kindling-verses. 

7. Thrice he recites the first (kindling- verse) : by 
reciting it the first time he gains the eastern region, 
by the second time he gains the southern region, 
and by the third time he gains the upper region. 

8. And thrice he recites the last(verse): by reciting 
it the first time he gains the western region, by the 
second time he. gains the northern region, by the third 
time he gains this same (earth as a) resting-place ; 



1 Sayana seems to take the two attendants (parivesh/rt, preparers 
or servers-up of food) to mean the pair of fire-tongs (dhrish/f) : — 
ye parivesha/ia-s&dhane dhn'sh/t tayor ahor&trabuddhim vidhatte. 



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40 satapatha-brAhmaata. 

and by those (kindling-verses) he thus gains these 
worlds, and these regions. 

9. The first libation of ghee is the sacred law, and 
the second the truth ; and, verily, he secures for 
himself law and truth, and whatsoever is to be gained 
by law and truth all that he now gains. 

10. The first fore-offering is brilliance, the second 
honour, the third fame, the fourth holy lustre, the 
fifth food (prosperity). 

11. After the first fore-offering let him utter (the 
anumantrawa '), 'May I become brilliant;' after 
the second, 'May I become honoured;' after the 
third, 'May I become glorious;' after the fourth, 
' May I become endowed with holy lustre ;' after the 
fifth, 'May I become prosperous;' — and, verily, 
whosoever knows this becomes brilliant, and ho- 
noured, and glorious, and endowed with holy lustre, 
and prosperous. 

1 2. Now, .Svetaketu Aru«eya *, who knew this, 
said once, ' To him who will thus know that glory of 
the fore-offerings, people will in days to come be 
flocking from all sides as if wishing to see some 
great serpent.' 

13. The first butter-portion, doubtless, is the past, 
and the second the future: verily, he secures for 
himself both the past and the future ; and whatever 
is to be gained by the past and the future, all that 
he now gains. 

1 Each of the offering-formulas of the PrayS^as has after it the 
anumantraaa 'might is speech, might is energy, in me the in- 
breathing and off-breathing ; ' which, according to our paragraph 
(and Kity. Ill, 3, 5), is to be supplemented by these special 
prayers. 

* See X, 3, 4, 1, with note. 



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xi kXnda, 2 adhyaya, 7 brAhmaya, 18. 41 

14. The cake offered to Agni is the Brahman 
(priesthood) ; and, verily, whosoever knows Agni's 
cake to be the priesthood secures for himself the 
priesthood; and whatever is to be gained by the 
priesthood all that he now gains. 

15. The low-voiced offering is the Kshatra (no- 
bility) ; and, verily, whosoever knows the low-voiced 
offering to be the nobility secures for himself the 
nobility ; and whatever is to be gained by the nobility 
all that he now gains. And inasmuch as some per- 
form the low-voiced offering, and others do not, 
therefore people speak (give information) to the 
noble both in a loud voice and in a low voice. 

16. The second cake is the Vis (people); and, 
verily, whosoever knows the second cake to be the 
people secures for himself the people; and what- 
ever is to be gained by the people all that he gains. 
And inasmuch as Agni's cake and the low-voiced 
offering come first therefore the priesthood and 
nobility are established upon the people. 

17. The Sannayya 1 is royal dignity; and, verily, 
whosoever knows the Sannayya to be royal dignity 
secures for himself royal dignity ; and whatever is to 
be gained by royal dignity all that he gains. And 
inasmuch as some pour (sweet and sour milk) to- 
gether 8 , and others do not, therefore the royal dignity 
both (combines) together and (keeps) asunder*. 

18. The Svish/akrtt is fervid devotion ; and, verily, 
whosoever knows the Svish/akrzt to be fervid devo- 

1 For this sacrificial dish of the New-moon sacrifice, prepared 
from fresh milk and sour curds, see part i, p. 1 78, note 4. 

* That is, they prepare the Sannayya. 

* That is to say, different kings either combine or keep separate 
from each other. 



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42 tfATAPATHA-BRAHMAYA. 

tion secures for himself fervid devotion ; and what- 
ever is to be gained by fervid devotion all that he 
now gains. 

19. The fore-portion is the place (in heaven); and, 
verily, whosoever knows the fore-portion to be the 
place (in heaven) secures for himself the place (in 
heaven); and whatever is to be gained by the place 
(in heaven) all that he now gains ; and, indeed, he 
does not by ever so little fall from his place, for it is 
by ever so little that in yonder world men fall from 
their place ; and whosoever knows this does not fall 
from his place however much evil he may have 
done. 

20. The Idk is faith ; and, verily, whosoever knows 
the Ifla to be faith secures for himself faith, and 
whatever is to be gained by faith all that he now 
gains. 

21. The first after-offering is the thunderbolt, the 
second the hail-stone, the third the (heavenly) fire- 
brand (meteor). 

22. After the first after-offering let him utter 
(the anumantra#a), ' O thunderbolt, smite N. N. ! ' 
(naming) him whom he hates; after the second, 
' O hail-stone, smite N. N. ! ' after the third, ' O fire- 
brand, smite N. N. ! ' 

23. And if such a one dies suddenly, then, indeed, 
it is that after-offering, the thunderbolt, that smites 
him ; and if he is, as it were, covered with out- 
flowing (blood), then it is that after-offering, the 
hail-stone, that smites him ; and if he is, as it were, 
covered with scorching, then it is that after-offering, 
the (heavenly) firebrand, that smites him. 

24. Such is the bolt of the sacrifice : it was by 
that bolt, indeed, that the gods overcame the Asuras; 



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xi kAnda, 2 adhyAya, 7 brAhmajva, 27. 43 

and in like manner does the Sacrificer who knows 
this overcome his wicked, spiteful enemy. 

25. And if the sacrifice were to end with after- 
offerings, then it would end with the thunderbolt, 
the hail-stone, and the (heavenly) firebrand : there- 
fore the sacrifice of the gods ends either with the 
Ida or with the .Samyos. 

26. By the fore-offerings, indeed, the gods reached 
the world of heaven. The Asuras tried to get thither 
after them; and by the after-offerings they (the gods) 
drove them back : thus, when the after-offerings are 
performed, the Sacrificer drives back his wicked, 
spiteful enemy. 

27. The fore-offerings, indeed, are the out-breath- 
ings 1 , and the after-offerings the off-breathings : 
wherefore the fore-offerings are poured out in a forward 
direction*, for that is the form of the out-breathing; 
and the after-offerings (are poured out) in a backward 
direction 8 , for that is the form of the off-breathing. 
The after-offerings, indeed, are the Upasads 4 of the 

1 That is, the breath (out and in-breathing) of the mouth (prawa), 
in comparing which with the fore-offerings (praya^a) the stress is 
laid on the preposition ' pra.' 

1 According to Kilty. Ill, 2, 18 seqq., the five prayi£a libations 
are to be made either on the part of the fire burning the brightest, 
or so that each subsequent libation is poured further east of the 
preceding one. 

* According to Katy. Ill, 5, 10, the three anuya^a libations are 
to be made on the forepart, the middle, and the back (western) 
part of a burning log respectively. 

* For the three days' libations, called UpasadaA (homages or 
sieges), at the Soma-sacrifice, see part ii, p. 104 seqq. I do not 
quite understand the reference to the ' backward direction ' (pratyag- 
apavargatvaw vopasad-dharmaA, Say.) of the Upasads, unless it 
be that the libations are offered to Agni, Soma and Vish«u, who 
are compared with the point, barb and socket (?) of an arrow 



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44 satapatha-brAhmamv. 

Full and New-moon sacrifices, whence they are 
performed in a backward direction after the manner 
of the Upasads. 

28. The Suktavaka is the completion ; and, verily, 
whosoever knows the Suktavaka to be the completion 
secures for himself the completion ; and whatever is 
to be gained by the completion all that he now gains : 
he obtains the completion of his (full) lifetime. 

29. The »Samyorvdka is the resting-place; and, 
verily, whosoever knows the .Samyuvaka to be the 
resting-place secures for himself a resting-place; 
and whatever is to be gained by a resting-place all 
that he now gains : he reaches a resting-place. 

30. The gods fortified the Patntsaaiya^as by a 
mound from behind', and placed a couple thereon 
for the sake of procreation : thus when the Patnt- 
sawya^as are performed, he places a couple thereon 
for the sake of procreation ; for, indeed, after the 
procreation of the gods offspring is produced, and 
offspring is produced by pair after pair (of men 
and beasts) for him who knows this. 

3 1 . The Samish/aya^us is food ; and, verily, who- 
soever knows the Samish/aya/us to be food secures 
for himself food ; and whatever is to be gained by 
food all that he now gains. 

32. The Sacrificer is the Year; and the Seasons 
officiate for him. The Agnldhra is the Spring, 

respectively (III, 4, 4, 14), or that in filling the spoons with ghee, the 
procedure is the reverse of that usually followed (III, 4, 4, 7. 8). 

1 The PatnisawyS^as (by which offering is made to Soma, 
Tvash/ri', and Agni, along with the wives of the gods) are performed 
on the Garhapatya fire, and hence at the back (western) part of the 
sacrificial ground where the Sacrificer's wife is seated. For the 
symbolical import of the rite see I, 9, 2, 5. 



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XI KklfDA, 2 ADHYAYA, J BRAhMAJVA, 33. 45 

whence forest-fires take place in spring, for that 
is a form of Agni. The Adhvaryu is the Summer, 
for summer is, as it were, scorched ; and the Adh- 
varyu comes forth (from the sacrificial ground) like 
something scorched l . The Udgatr* is the Rainy 
season; whence, when it rains hard, a sound as 
that of a chant is produced. The Brahman is the 
Autumn; whence, when the corn ripens, they say, 
•The creatures are rich in growth (brahmawvat).' 
The Woiri is the Winter, whence in winter cattle 
waste away, having the Vasha/ uttered over them. 
These, then, are the divinities that officiate for him ; 
and even if Aishavlra^ * were to officiate for him, 
let him think in his mind of those divinities, and 
those deities, indeed, officiate for him. 

33. Now, as to that balance, the right (south) 
edge of the Vedi '. Whatever good deed man 
does that is inside the Vedi; and whatever evil 
deed he does that is outside the Vedi. Let him 
therefore sit down, touching the right edge of the 
Vedi ; for, indeed, they place him on the balance 
in yonder world ; and whichever of the two will 
rise* that he will follow, whether it be the good 
or the evil. And, verily, whosoever knows this, 
mounts the balance even in this world, and escapes 
being placed on the balance in yonder world ; for 
his good deed rises, and not his evil deed. 

1 Viz. from his constant aUendance on the sacrificial fires. 

* According to Sayana, Eshavira is the name of a Brahmamcal 
family held in general contempt. See Weber, Ind. Stud. I, p. 228. 

* That is, the altar-ground covered with sacrificial grass, serving 
as a seat for the gods. 

4 Literally, will force down (the other). On this ordeal see 
E. Schlagintweit, Die Gottesurtheile der Indier, Nachtrage ; 
A. Weber, Ind. Streifen I, p. 21 ; II, p. 363. 



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46 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

Third AdhyAya. First BrAhmaya. 
The Agnihotra. 
i. Verily, the Agnihotrl cow is the speech of the 
Agnihotra, and her calf is its mind. Now these 
two, mind and speech, whilst being one and the 
same, are, as it were, distinct from each other: 
therefore they tie up the calf and its mother with 
one and the same rope; and the fire 1 , indeed, is 
faith, and the ghee truth. 

2. Now, as to this (kanaka of Videha once 
asked Ya^wavalkya, ' Knowest thou the Agni- 
hotra, Y^fwavalkya ? ' — ' I know it, O king,' he said. 
— ' What is it ? '— ' Milk, indeed.' 

3. ' If there were no milk, wherewith wouldst 
thou sacrifice ? ' — ' With rice and barley.' — ' If there 
were no rice and barley, wherewith wouldst thou 
sacrifice ? ' — ' With what other herbs there are.' — 
' If there were no other herbs, wherewith wouldst 
thou sacrifice?' — 'With what forest herbs there are.' 
— ' If there were no forest herbs, wherewith wouldst 
thou sacrifice?' — 'With fruit of trees.' — 'If there 
were no fruit of trees, wherewith wouldst thou 
sacrifice ?' — ' With water.' — 'If there were no water, 
wherewith wouldst thou sacrifice ? ' 

4. He spake, 'Then, indeed, there would be 
nothing whatsoever here, and yet there would be 
offered — the truth in faith.' — ' Thou knowest the 
Agnihotra, Ya^*»avalkya : I give thee a hundred 
cows,' said kanaka. 

5. Concerning this point there are also these 

1 That is, according to Sayaaa, the fire, or heat, produced by the 
rope. Instead of 'tcg-a eva iraddha,' one would rather expect 
' xraddhaiva tqpaA.' 



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xi kAatoa, 3 adhyAya, i brAhmana, 8. 47 

verses : — ' Knowing what 1 , does the offerer of the 
Agnihotra stay away from his house ? how is his 
wisdom (manifested) 2 ? how is he kept up by his 
fires 8 ?' — whereby he means to say, ' How, then, is 
there no staying away from home on his part * ? ' 

6. ' He who is the swiftest in the worlds 8 , that 
wise one is found staying abroad : thus (is mani- 
fested) his wisdom, thus he is kept up by his fires ; ' 
— he thereby means the mind: it is owing to his 
mind that there is no staying away from home on 
his part. 

7. ' When, having gone far away, he heedeth not 
there his duty, wherein is that offering of his offered; 
(and wherein) do they, at his house, perform the 
offering of the progress ? ' — that is to say, — ' When, 
having gone far away, he there heeds not his 
duty, wherein does that offering of his come to 
be offered ? ' 

8. ' He who waketh in the worlds and sustaineth 
all beings, in him that offering of his is offered, (and 
in him) do they, at his house, perform the offering 



1 That is, according to Saya*a, — What form of Agnihotra does 
he recognise, when he goes to stay abroad ? 

* That is, — How does he show his knowledge of the sacred 
obligation that one ought to perform the Agnihotra regularly twice 
a day for life ? 

' That is to say, How is the continuity in the constant attendance 
to his sacred fires kept up by him ? 

4 Literally, ' How is non-staying abroad (brought about) ? ' that 
is to say, — How, though having to stay abroad, does he ensure the 
spiritual benefits of remaining at home ? or, as Siyana puts it, How 
is the fault of staying abroad, avoided?— asya pravasato ya^ama- 
nasya anapaproshitam pravasadoshSbblvaA. 

* Or, among (or in) beings. Siyamt supplies 'ya^amanaA' to 
' yo jfavish/AaA,' 



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48 satapatha-brAhmawa. 

of the progress ; ' — he thereby means the breath ; 
whence they say, ' The Agnihotra is breath.' 

Second BrAhmawa. 

i. Verily, whos6ever knows the six pairs in the 
Agnihotra, has offspring born to him by pair after 
pair, by all generations. The Sacrificer and his 
wife — this is one pair: through it his Agnihotra 
would be possessed of a wife, — * May I obtain this 
pair ! ' he thinks l . The calf and the Agnihotra-cow 
— this is another pair: through it his Agnihotra- 
cow would become possessed of a male calf, — ' May 
I obtain this pair!' he thinks. The pot and the 
coals — this is another pair; the offering-spoon and 
the dipping-spoon — this is another pair ; the Ahava- 
nlya fire and the log — this is another pair; the 
libation and the Svaha-call — this is another pair: 
these, doubtless, are the six pairs in the Agnihotra ; 
and he who thus knows them, has offspring born to 
him by pair after pair, by all generations. 

Third BrAhmajva. 

i. The Brahman delivered the creatures over to 
Death, the Brahmaiarin (religious student) alone 
it did not deliver over to him. He (Death) said, 
' Let me have a share in this one also.' — * Only the 
night on which he shall not bring his 2 fire-wood,' 
said (the Brahman). On whatever night, therefore, 
the Brahma^arin does not bring fire-wood, that 

1 Or, perhaps, it (the Agnihotra) thinks. 

* Prof. Delbrttck, Altind. Syntax, p. 260, doubtless rightly takes 
the middle form (aharatai) here to imply 'for his own self/ i.e. 
for his own protection from death. 



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xi KANDA, 3 adhyAya, 3 brAhmaata, 5. 49 

(night) he passes * cutting it off from his own life : 
therefore the Brahmaiarin should bring fire-wood, 
lest he should pass (his nights) cutting off (as much) 
from his life. 

2. He who enters on a Brahmaiarin's life, indeed, 
enters on a long sacrificial session : the log he puts 
on the fire in entering thereon is the opening (offer- 
ing), and that which (he puts on the fire) when he 
is about to bathe 2 is the concluding (offering) ; and 
what (logs) there are between these, are just his 
(logs) of the sacrificial session. When a Brahma'wa 
enters on a Brahmaiarin's life — 

3. He enters beings in four parts: with one 
fourth part (he enters) the fire, with another part 
death, with another part his religious teacher ; and 
his fourth part remains in his own self. 

4. Now, when he brings a log for the fire, he 
redeems that fourth part of his which is in the fire ; 
and having cleansed s it, he takes it to his own self, 
and it enters him. 

5. And when, having made himself poor, as it 
were, and become devoid of shame, he begs alms, 
then he redeems that part of his which is in death ; 

1 Or, perhaps better, — that (night) he keeps cutting off from his 
life,— in which case the verb 'vas' would be construed with the 
gerund in much the same way as ' sth& ' commonly is. This 
construction would suit tven better the second passage (without 
the object ' tim ') at the end of the paragraph. In any case we 
have to understand that, during every night passed with his teacher 
without his having brought fire-wood, he cuts off a night, or day, 
from (the latter end of) his life. Cf. Delbrtlck, Altind. Syntax, 
pp. 260, 334, 405. 

* That is, prior to his leaving the house of his teacher and 
returning to his own family. 

* Samskrt'tya=utkrfsh/ax» krrtvd, Sayawa. 

[44] E 



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50 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAtfA. 

and, having cleansed it, he takes it to himself, and 
it enters him. 

6. And when he does the teacher's bidding, and 
when he does any work for the teacher, he redeems 
that part of his which is in the teacher ; and, having 
cleansed it, he takes it to himself, and it enters him. 

7. Let him not beg alms after he has bathed (at 
the end of his studentship), for by bathing he drives 
off beggary, and drives off hunger from his kinsmen 
and his deceased ancestors, ' Let him who knows 
this beg alms only from her in whom he has the 
greatest confidence V they say, ' for that makes for 
heaven.' And should he find no other woman from 
whom alms could be begged, he may even beg from 
his own teacher's wife, and thereafter from his own 
mother 2 . The seventh (night) should not pass by 
for him without begging : him who knows this and 
practises this all the Vedas enter ; for, verily, even 
as the fire shines when kindled, so does he, after 
bathing, shine, who, knowing this, lives a Brahma- 
Darin's life. 

Fourth Adhyaya. First BrAhmajva. 

1. Now Uddilaka Aru»i s was driving about*, 
as a chosen (offering-priest), amongst the people of 

1 That is, from whom he is perfectly sure of getting something. 
Saya»a, however, takes it in the sense of ' from whom he feels sure 
he will get most,' — Sa brahma&lrf yasya eva bhikshitayaA striyaA 
sakirad bhuyish/ftam bahutaram annam labhyata iti .rlagheta t&m 
bhikshetety ahuA, Say. 

* That is, after leaving his teacher's house and returning home. 
' For another version of this legend see Gopatha-Brahmawa I, 

3, 6. See also Prof. Geldner's translation in Pischel and G.'s 
Yedische Studien II, p. 185. 

* Prof. Geldner takes 'dhivayam £akara' in a causal sense 



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xi kXnda, 4 adhvAya, i brAhmajva, 3. 5 1 

the northern country. By him a gold coin was 
offered ; for in the time of our forefathers a prize 
used to be offered by chosen (priests) when driving 
about, for the sake of calling out the timid 1 to 
a disputation. Fear then seized the Brahma«as of 
the northern people : — 

2. 'This fellow is a Kurupaȣala Brahman, 
and son of a Brahman — let us take care lest he 
should deprive us of our domain : come, let us 
challenge him to a disputation on spiritual matters.' 
— 'With whom for our champion?' — 'With Svai- 
dayana.' Svaidayana, to wit, was .Saunaka. 

3. They said, 'Svaidayana, with thee as our 
champion we will fight this fellow.' He said, 
' Well, then, stay ye here quietly : I will just make 
his acquaintance V He went up to him, and when 
he had come up, he (Uddalaka) greeted him saying, 



' er verursachte einen Anflauf ' (he caused people to crowd together, 
or to come to him in crowds). S&ya«a, however, takes it in the 
same sense as we have done, — Srtvi^yaya vrtXah sann udagdejan 
^aglma. The Gopatha-Br., further on, has the remark 'sa vai 
gotamasya putra urdhvam v/7to»dhavit'(l). 

1 It is by no means certain whether the interpretation of the 
paragraph as here adapted is the right one. Prof. Geldner takes it 
thus, — ' He (Udd.) had taken a gold piece with him ; for in times 
of old the chosen (priests) who caused a crowd to gather round 
them, used to take a single gold piece with them with a view to 
their proposing a riddle (or problem) whenever they were afraid.' 
The Gopatha-Br. has a different reading, which is likewise far 
from clear : — tasya ha nishka upahito babhuva, upavadad bibhyato 
yo ma brahmano « nu£ina upavadishyati tasma etam praddsyam- 
iti ; — by him a gold coin was offered (? by him a gold plate had 
been put on, L e. was worn round the neck) being afraid of 
obloquy (?) : 'I shall give this to any learned Brahman who will 
speak up against me,' thus (he thought). 

* Or, I'll just find out what kind of man he is. 

E 2 



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52 tfATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

' Svaidayana ! ' — ' Halloo, son of Gautama!' replied 
the other, and straightway began to question him. 

4. ' He alone, O son of Gautama, may drive 
about amongst people as chosen (offering-priest), 
who knows in the Full and New-moon sacrifices 
eight butter-portions (offered) previously, five por- 
tions of sacrificial food in the middle, six (portions) 
of Pra^apati, and eight butter-portions (offered) 
subsequently. 

5. ' He alone, O son of Gautama, may drive 
about amongst people as chosen (priest), who knows 
from the Full and New-moon sacrifices 1 whereby 
it is that creatures here are born toothless, whereby 
they (the teeth) grow with them, whereby they 
decay with them, whereby they come to remain 
permanently with them ; whereby, in the last stage 
of life, they all decay again with them; whereby 
the lower ones grow first, then the upper ones; 
whereby the lower ones are smaller, and the upper 
ones broader ; whereby the incisors are larger, and 
whereby the molars are of equal size. 

6. 'He alone, O son of Gautama, may drive 
about amongst people as chosen (priest), who knows 
from the Full and New-moon sacrifices, whereby 
creatures here are born with hair; whereby, for 
the second time, as it were, the hair of the beard 
and the arm-pits and other parts of the body 2 grow 
on them ; whereby it is on the head that one first 

1 Literally, who knows that (element) in the Full and New-moon 
sacrifices whereby . . . 

* The word ' durbtrinani ' is of doubtful meaning, the etymology 
proposed by Saya»a having little claim to being seriously considered. 
In the St. Petersb. Diet, the meaning ' bristly ' is assigned to it, as 
applied to the hair of the beard. 



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XI KANDA, 4 ADHYAYA, I BRAhmAYA, 9. 53 

becomes grey, and then, again, in the last stage of 
life, one becomes grey all over. 

7. ' He alone, O son of Gautama, may drive 
about amongst people as chosen (priest), who knows 
from the Full and New-moon sacrifices whereby 
the seed of the boy is not productive, whereby in 
his middle age it is productive, and whereby again 
in his last stage of life it is not productive ; — 

8. 'And he who knows the golden, brilliant- 
winged Gayatri who bears the Sacrificer to the 
heavenly world.' Then he (Uddalaka) gave up 
to him the gold coin, saying, 'Thou art learned, 
Svaidiyana; and, verily, gold is given unto him 
who knows gold;' and he (Svaidayana), having 
concealed it \ went away. They asked him, ' How 
did that son of Gautama behave ? ' 

9. He said, ' Even as a Brahman, and the son of 
a Brahman : the head would fly off of whosoever 
should (dare to) challenge him to a disputation 2 .' 
They then went away in all directions. He 
(Uddalaka) then came back to him, with fire-wood 

1 Ssiyawa takes ' upaguhya ' in the sense of ' having embraced 
(him),' that being the meaning the verb has in classical Sanskrit ; 
— tarn Svaidayanam upaguhya Slingya Uddaiakas tasmat sthanSn 
nijfakrama nishkrantavan. The Gopatha-Br. has ' tad upayamya ' 
(having taken it) instead. Svaidiyana evidently did not wish the 
other Brahmans to know that he had had the better of the 
Kurupad&Ua. 

* ? Or, to catechize him ; Brahma 1 svaya/w ved&dyaA brahmaputro 
brahmish/Aasya Gotamasya putra ity etad yath&vr/ttam eva, api tu 
ya/i purusha enam Uddalakam upavalheia pradhinam jresh/Ayaw 
(? fresh/flaw) kuryat — varha valha pradhanya iti dhatuA — asya 
purushasya mftrdha vipatet, alpa^-flanasya idhikyena viparyayagra- 
ha«it tannimitta-^ira^patanam bhavattty arthaA, SSy. — Prof. Geld- 
ner translates, — ' He must rack his brains (muss sich den Kopf 
zerbrechen) who wants to outdo him in questions (uberfragen).' 



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54 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

in his hand \ and said, * I want to become thy 
pupil.' — ' What wouldst thou study ? ' — ' Even those 
questions which thou didst ask me — explain them 
to me ! ' He said, ' I will tell them to thee even 
without thy becoming my pupil.' 

10. And he then spoke thus to him: — The two 
libations of ghee, the five fore-offermgs, and, eighth, 
Agni's butter-portion — these are the eight butter- 
portions (offered) previously. Soma's butter-portion, 
being the first of the portions of sacrificial food — 
for Soma is sacrificial food, — Agni's cake, Agni- 
Soma's low-voiced offering, Agni-Soma's cake, 
and (the offering to) Agni Svishfokr/t — these are 
the five portions of sacrificial food in the middle. 

ii. The fore-portion, the ld&, what he hands to 
the Agnidh 2 , the Brahman's portion, the Sacrificer's 
portion, and the Anviharya (mess of rice) — these 
are the six (portions) of Pra^apati. The three 
after-offerings, the four Patntsawya^as, and, eighth, 
the Samish/ayafus — these are the eight butter- 
portions (offered) subsequently. 

1 2. And inasmuch as the fore-offerings are with- 
out invitatory formulas 8 , therefore creatures are 
born here without teeth ; and inasmuch as the chief 
oblations have invitatory formulas, therefore they 
(the teeth) grow in them ; and inasmuch as the 
after-offerings are without invitatory formulas, there- 
fore they (the teeth) decay in them; and inasmuch 
as the Patntsawyifas have invitatory formulas, 

1 That is, as a pupil (brahmaMrin) would to his teacher. 

* Viz. the ' sharfavatta,' or share consisting of six ' cuttings,' for 
which see I, 8, i, 41 with note. 

' With these oblations there is no puro-nuvakya, but only 
a yagyS, or offering-formula. 



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xi kXnda, 4 adhyAya, i brAhmamv, 14. 55 

therefore they (the teeth) come to remain perma- 
nently with them ; and inasmuch as the Samish/a- 
yafus is without invitatory formula, therefore they 
all decay again in the last stage of life. 

13. And inasmuch as, after uttering the invitatory 
formula, he offers with the offering-formula, there- 
fore the lower (teeth) grow first, then the upper ones ; 
and inasmuch as, after uttering a gayatrt verse as 
invitatory formula, he offers with a trish/ubh verse \ 
therefore the lower (teeth) are smaller, and the 
upper ones broader ; and inasmuch as he pours out 
the two libations of ghee in a forward direction 2 , 
therefore the incisors are larger; and inasmuch as 
the two samy&g yas s are in the same metre, therefore 
the molars are of equal size. 

14. And inasmuch as he spreads a cover of sacri- 
ficial grass (on the Vedi), therefore creatures here 
are born with hair ; and inasmuch as he for the 
second time, as it were, spreads the Prastara-bunch *, 
therefore, for the second time, as it were, the hair 
of the beard and the arm-pits, and other parts of the 
body grow ; and inasmuch as at first he only throws 
the Prastara-bunch after (the oblations into the fire), 
therefore it is on the head that one first becomes 
grey ; and inasmuch as he then throws after it all 
the sacrificial grass of the altar-ground, therefore, 

1 Whilst the gayatrt verse consists of 3 x 8 syllables, the trish/ubh 
has 4 x 1 1 syllables. 

1 That is, pouring the second into the fire at a place immediately 
to the front, or eastward, of the first. 

* That is, the invitatory and offering-formulas used for the 
oblation to Agni Svish/akm ; see part i, p. 307, note 1. 

* For this bunch taken from the sacrificial grass before it is 
spread on the altar-ground, and symbolically representing the Sacri- 
ficer, see I, 3, 3, 4 seqq. ; and part i, p. 84, note 2. 



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56 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAJVA. 

in the last stage of life, one again becomes grey all 
over. 

1 5. And inasmuch as the fore-offerings have ghee 
for their offering-material, a boy's seed is not pro- 
ductive, but is like water, for ghee is like water ; 
and inasmuch as, in the middle of the sacrifice, they 
sacrifice with sour curds 1 and with cake, therefore 
it is productive in his middle stage of life, for 
thick-flowing, as it were, is (that havis), and thick- 
flowing, as it were, is seed ; and inasmuch as the 
after-offerings have ghee for their offering-material, 
it again is not productive in his last stage of life, and 
is like water, for ghee, indeed, is like water. 

16. The Vedi (altar-ground), doubtless, is the 
Gayatrl : the eight butter-portions (offered) pre- 
viously are her right wing, and the eight butter- 
portions (offered) subsequently are her left wing : 
that same golden, brilliant-winged Gayatri, indeed, 
bears the Sacrificer who knows this to the heavenly 
world. 

Second BrAhmajva. 

1. Now, then, as to the taking up of the two 
offering-spoons 2 . Now, in this respect, some people, 

1 That is, at the New-moon sacrifice, with the Sannayya, or 
mixture of sour curds with sweet boiled milk. The * iti * after 
' puro</arena* is taken by Sayana in the sense of ' k&' ; and though 
this cannot be accepted, it is not very easy to see what force it can 
have here. 

2 At the time when the sacrificial food (havis) is to be placed on 
the Vedi, the two offering-spoons, ^uhu and upabhru, are filled 
with ghee, and then placed, the former on the Prastara-bunch (lying 
on the Vedi) with the bowl towards the east, and the latter north of 
it on the grass-cover of the Vedi ; a third spoon, the dhruvi, being 
again placed north of the upabhru. The first libation of ghee 
(aghara) is made from the dipping-spoon (sruva) ; but when about 



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XI KAffDA, 4 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAhmAA'A, 3. 57 

thinking themselves clever, take up the (fuhu) with 
the right, and the upabh/7't with the left (hand) ; 
but let him not do so ; for if, in that case, any one 
were to say of him, ' Surely, this Adhvaryu has 
made the Sacrificer's spiteful enemy equal to him, 
and able to cope with him,' then that would indeed 
be likely to come to pass. 

2. Let him rather do it in this way; — having 
taken the £uhu with both hands, let him lay it down 
on the upabhm ; there is no question about this : it 
is good for (securing) cattle and life. Let him take 
them up without clinking them together,— were he 
to let them clink together, insecurity of property 
would befall the Sacrificer : let him, therefore, take 
them up without clinking them together. 

3. Now as to the stepping past (the Vedi). By 
a thunderbolt, indeed, one Adhvaryu scatters the 
Sacrificer's cattle, and by a thunderbolt another 
drives them together for him. Now that Adhvaryu, 
doubtless, scatters the Sacrificer's cattle by a thunder- 
bolt, who steps past with his right (foot) l when he is 

to make the second libation, as also prior to each of the two butter- 
portions, to the first of the five fore-offerings, as well as before each 
of the chief offerings (when, however, portions of the respective 
sacrificial dishes are added to the ghee in the guhti), the Adhvaryu 
takes up the two spoons in the manner mentioned, viz. holding 
them together with both hands so as to be parallel to each other, the 
bowl of the^uhu being just above that of the upabhr/'t without touch- 
ing it. While thus holding them he goes forward to the Ahavantya, 
and, after the other necessary rites, pours the oblation from theftihu, 
over the spout of the upabhr/'t, into the fire. At the fourth fore- 
offering the ghee contained in the upabhr/'t is for the first lime 
made use of, half of it being poured into the gubh for the last two 
fore-offerings, whilst the remainder is used for the after-offerings. 

1 When the Adhvaryu betakes himself from his place behind the 
Vedi (on which the sacrificial material is laid out) to the Ahavantya 



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58 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

about to call (on the Agnldhra) for the .SVausha/, and 
with his left (foot) when he has called for the Smu- 
sha/ ; and that (other) one drives them together for 
him who steps past with his left (foot) when he is 
about to call for the 6Vausha/, and with his right 
(foot) when he has called for the .Srausha/ ; for he 
does indeed drive them together for him. 

4. Now as to the holding (of the spoons). In this 
respect, some people, thinking themselves clever, 
hold the two spoons whilst stretching forward both 
arms ; but let him not do so, for if, in that case, 
any one were to say of him, 'Surely, this Sacrificer 
has made two spears of his arms : he will become 
a spear-holder,' then that would indeed be likely 
to come to pass. But that (navel is the channel of 
the) central breathing : let him therefore hold (the 
spoon) by lowering them ' to that (breathing). 

5. Now as to calling for the ^SVausha/ * : there are 
six (modes of) calling for the ^SVausha/, — the de- 
scending, the level, the ascending, the feeble, the 
outward-tending, and the inward-tending. 

6. Now the descending mode, indeed, it is when he 
begins in a high tone and concludes in a low tone : 
whoever should wish that any one s should be poorer, 

in order to perform an offering, he is to proceed in such a way as 
constantly to keep his left foot before the right one; whilst 
in returning to his place he keeps the right foot before the left. Of 
the two ways of procedure mentioned in the paragraph, the second 
way is thus the right one. 

1 Whilst the Adhvaryu is standing by the side of the Ahavanfya, 
ready to make the offering, he holds the spoons to his navel till the 
moment when he has to pour the oblation into the fire. 
, * The Adhvaryu's call is ' om jravaya ' (make him hear I) where- 
upon the Agntdhra responds 'astu jrausha/' (yea, may he hear!). 

s Viz. any one for whom he (the Adhvaryu) performs a sacrifice, 



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xi kXnda, 4 adhyAya, 2 brAhmajva, ix. 59 

let him begin for him in a high tone and conclude 
in a low tone ; and he will thereby become poorer. 

7. And the level one, indeed, it is when he 
concludes in the same tone in which he has begun : 
whoever should wish that any one should be neither 
more prosperous nor poorer, let him conclude for 
him in the same tone in which he has begun ; and 
he will thereby become neither more prosperous 
nor poorer. 

8. And the ascending one, indeed, it is when he 
begins in a low tone and concludes in a high tone : 
whoever should wish that any one should be more 
prosperous, let him begin for him in a low tone and 
conclude in a high tone ; and he will thereby become 
more prosperous. 

9. And the feeble one, indeed, it is when he calls 
for the -SVausha/ in a thin, long-drawn, toneless way : 
if, in that case, any one were to say of him, ' Surely, 
this Adhvaryu has made the Sacrificer feeble, and 
submissive to his spiteful enemy,' then that would 
indeed be likely to come to pass. 

10. And the outward-tending (bahi^-sri) one, 
indeed, it is when he opens his lips wide and utters 
his call at a high, toneless pitch : tone being pros- 
perity, he thereby puts prosperity (srl) outside 
(bah is) himself, and becomes hungry (poor). 

11. And the inward-tending (anta^-sri) one, 
indeed, it is when he closes his lips, and utters 
his call at a loud, toneful pitch : tone being pros- 
perity, he thereby puts prosperity (srl) inside (anta^) 
himself, and becomes an eater of food (rich). 

in case he (the priest) thinks he has not been treated liberally 
enough by his patron, or for some other reason. 



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60 satapatha-brAhmawa. 

12. Having kept back (the tone) deep in the 
breast, as it were, let him (keep up the middle pitch 
of) the Brzhat (saman) in both (words 'om .nravaya'), 
and finally leave off at a high pitch ; there is no ques- 
tion about this : it is good for (securing) cattle and life. 

13. Now as to the oblation. In this respect, 
some people, thinking themselves clever, having 
turned down the spoon eastwards, and poured out 
the oblation, turn it round and place it over the 
upabhrz't. But let him not do this ; for if, in that 
case, any one were to say of him, ' Surely, this 
Adhvaryu has made the Sacrificer dependent on, and 
submissive to, his spiteful enemy,' then that would 
indeed be likely to come to pass. 

14. And some, having turned down the spoon 
sideways, and poured out the oblation, turn it round 
and place it over the upabhm. But let him not 
do so ; for if, in that case, any one were to say of 
him, ' Surely, this Advaryu has stopped the obla- 
tions by (following) the wrong way, he (the Sacrificer) 
will either be shattered, or become worm-eaten,' 
then that would indeed be likely to come to pass. 

1 5. Let him rather do it in this way : — having 
turned down the spoon eastwards, and poured out 
the oblation, let him carry it up in the same way 
and place it over the upabhm ; — there is no question 
about this : it is good for (securing) cattle and life. 

16. One Adhvaryu, indeed, burns the oblations, 
and another satisfies the oblations ; and that Adh- 
varyu, assuredly, burns the oblations who, having 
offered ghee, offers portions (of sacrificial dishes) : 
indeed, it is with reference to him that an invisible 
voice has said, 'Surely, this Adhvaryu burns the 
oblations.' And he, indeed, satisfies them who 



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xi kAatba, 4 adhyAya, 2 brAhmam, 20. 61 

having offered ghee, offers sacrificial portions, and 
finally again offers ghee thereon : such a one 
certainly satisfies them ; and, these (oblations) 
having been satisfied, the gods fill gold cups 
(for him) 1 . 

1 7. Concerning this, YSf »avalkya said 2 , ' When, 
after making an underlayer (of ghee), and cutting 
portions (from the sacrificial dish), he bastes 
them (with ghee), then, indeed, he satisfies them ; 
and, they being satisfied, the gods fill (for him) gold 
cups V Now 6aulvayana was Adhvaryu to those 
who had Ayasthu»a 4 for their Grzhapati 6 . 

18. He said, 'Surely, this sacrificial session is 
supplied with lean cattle and scanty ghee ; and yet 
this one, forsooth, thinks himself a Grehapati ! ' 

19. He (Ayasthu»a) said, 'Adhvaryu, thou hast 
insulted us ; and there now are those two spoons 
which, for a whole year, thou hast not been able 
to take up (in the proper manner) : if I were to 
instruct thee in (the use of) them, thou wouldst 
become multiplied in offspring and cattle, and wouldst 
lead (the Sacrificer) to heaven.' 

20. He said, ' Let me become thy pupil.' He 
answered, ' Even now, indeed, art thou worthy (of 
being instructed), who hast been our Adhvaryu for 
a year: I will teach thee this even without thy 

1 Tasaw samtrspt&nim ahutinaw bhoktaro deviA prit&A santo 
hirawnayan hirawyavikaranw £amasan ya^amanaya datuw yena 
purayante, Siy. 

* Cf. I, 7, 2, 7-10; and part i, p. 192, note 1, where the 
procedure is explained. 

* One would expect an ' iti ' here. 

* According to Styawa, Ayasthuwa is the name of a ^*'shi. 

* Literally, ' house-lord ' or householder — the title of the Sacrificer 
at sacrificial sessions. 



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62 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

becoming my pupil.' And so, indeed, he taught him 
that taking up of the two spoons as we have here 
explained it : hence one ought only to make one 
who knows this his Adhvaryu, and not one who 
does not know it. 

Third Brahmajva. 

The MitravindA Sacrifice. 

i. Pra^apati was becoming heated (by fervid 
devotion), whilst creating living beings 1 . From 
him, worn out and heated, Sri (Fortune and Beauty) 
came forth. She stood there resplendent, shining, 
and trembling 2 . The gods, beholding her thus 
resplendent, shining, and trembling, set their minds 
upon her. 

2. They said to Pra^apati, ' Let us kill her and 
take (all) this from her.' He said, ' Surely, that vS"rl 
is a woman, and people do not kill a woman, but 
rather take (anything) from her (leaving her) alive.' 

3. Agni then took her food, Soma her royal 
power, Varu«a her universal sovereignty, Mitra 
her noble rank, Indra her power, Brz'haspati her 
holy lustre, Savitr* her dominion, Pushan her 
wealth, Sarasvatl her prosperity, and Tvash/rz 
her beautiful forms. 

4. She said to Pra/apati, 'Surely, they have 
taken (all) this from me ! ' He said, ' Do thou 
ask it back from them by sacrifice ! ' 

1 That is, gods, men, &c, Say. 

* Saya*a apparently takes 'lelayantf' in the sense of 'all- 
embracing ' (from liyate, to nestle against), — dipyamina avayavaiA 
jobhamana bhra^amana sarvam ^agat svate^asa prakixayanti 
svakiyena te^a^pu%ena sarvam Idishyantf atish/ftat sthitavatf. 



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xi KAifDA, 4 adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, io. 63 



5. She perceived this offering with ten sacrificial 
dishes — a cake on eight potsherds for Agni, a pap 
for Soma, a cake on ten potsherds for Varima, a 
pap for Mitra, a cake on eleven potsherds for Indra, 
a pap for Br/haspati, a cake on twelve or eight 
potsherds for SavitW, a pap for Pushan, a pap for 
Sarasvatt, and a cake on ten potsherds for Tvashtrt. 

6. She invited them by means of this invitatory 
formula, — 'May Agni, Soma, Varu#a, Mitra, 
Indra, Brzhaspati, and the thousandfold- 
bestowing Savitr/, — May Pushan, for our 
Sacrifices, unite us with cattle, Sarasvat! with 
favour, Tvash/r? with beautiful forms ! ' They 
accordingly made their appearance again. 

7. By this offering-formula she then approached 
them in inverted order (beginning) from the last : — 
* May Tvash/rz grant me forms, and the 
bountiful Sarasvatl, and Pushan good fortune, 
and may Savitr? bestow gifts on me, and 
Indra power, and Mitra noble rank, and 
Varu»a, and Soma and Agni!' They were 
ready to restore them to her. 

8. She perceived these additional oblations : — 
'May Agni, the food-eater, the food-lord, 
bestow food upon me at this sacrifice, svaha !' 
Agni, taking the oblation, departed and restored 
her food to her. 

9. 'May Soma, the king, the lord of kings, 
bestow royal power upon me at this sacrifice, 
svaha!' Soma, taking the oblation, departed and 
restored her royal power to her. 

10. ' May Varu«a, the universal sovereign, 
the lord of universal sovereigns, bestow uni- 
versal sovereignty upon me at this sacrifice, 



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64 jatapatha-brAhmajva. 

svaha!' Varu«a, taking the oblation, departed 
and restored her universal sovereignty to her. 

ii. 'May Mitra, the Kshatra (nobility), the 
lord of the Kshatra, bestow noble rank upon 
me at this sacrifice, svaha!' Mitra, taking 
the oblation, departed and restored her noble rank 
to her. 

12. 'May Indra, the power, the lord of 
power, bestow power upon me at this sacri- 
fice, svaha ! ' Indra, taking the oblation, departed 
and restored her power to her. 

13. 'May Brzhaspati, the Brahman (priest- 
hood), the lord of the Brahman, bestow holy 
lustre' upon me at this sacrifice, svaha!' 
Brzhaspati, taking the oblation, departed and re- 
stored her holy lustre to her. 

14. 'May Savitri, the kingdom, the lord of 
the kingdom, bestow the kingdom upon me at 
this sacrifice, svaha ! ' SavitW, taking the oblation, 
departed and restored her kingdom to her. 

15. ' May Pfishan, wealth, the lord of wealth, 
bestow wealth upon me at this sacrifice, 
svaha ! ' Ptishan, taking the oblation, departed 
and restored her wealth to her. 

16. 'May Sarasvati, prosperity 1 , the lord of 
prosperity, bestow prosperity upon me at 
this sacrifice, svaha!' Sarasvati, taking the 
oblation, departed and restored her prosperity to 
her. 

17. -May Tvashtri, the fashioner of forms, 



1 I read ' push/iA ' instead of ' pusb/im.' Saya«a takes it thus, — 
whatever prosperity Sarasvati, the lord of prosperity, took from me, 
may he bestow that prosperity upon me 1 



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XI K&NDA, 4 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAtfA, 1 9. 65 

the lord of forms, bestow cattle with form 1 
upon me at this sacrifice, svaha!' Tvash/r*, 
taking the oblation, departed and restored her cattle 
with (beautiful) form to her. 

18. These, then, are ten deities, ten sacrificial 
dishes, ten offerings, ten presents to priests, — the 
Vira^ - consists of decad after decad (of syllables), 
and the Vir&g- (shining one) is Sri (beauty, pros- 
perity) : he thus establishes (the Sacrificer) in the 
Vira^ - , in prosperity and food. 

19. For this (sacrifice) there are fifteen kindling- 
verses s : he offers to the deities in a low voice 3 . 
There are five fore-offerings, three after-offerings, 
and one Samish/ayafus. The (formulas of the) 
two butter-portions contain the word ' affluence ' : — 
(Rig-veda. S. I, i, 3), 'Through Agni may he 
obtain wealth and affluence day by day, famous 
and abounding in heroes;' — (AYg-veda S. I, 91, 
12), 'An increaser of the house, a remover of 
trouble, a procurer of wealth, an augmenter 
of affluence, a kind friend be thou unto us, 
O Soma!' The two formulas of the Svish/akrz't 
contain the word ' thousand ' : — (./?*g-veda S. Ill, 13, 
7), ' Grant thou unto us wealth, a thousandfold, 
with offspring and affluence, and glorious 
manhood, O Agni, most excellent and never 



1 Saya»a supplies ' virish/Sn,' — cattle endowed with form. 

* That is, the ordinary number of sSmidhenfs at an ish/i, viz. 
eleven verses, the first and last of which are recited three times 
each. See part i, p. 102, note 1 ; p. 112, note 1. 

* That is, the formulas — with the exception of the final ' om ' of 
the invitatory formulas, and the introduction ' ye ya^amahe ' and 
the final 'vausha/' of the offering-formulas — are pronounced in 
a low voice. 

[44] F 



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66 satapatha-brahmajva. 

failing!' — (/ftg-veda S. Ill, 13, 6), 'Favour thou 
our prayer, as the best invoker of the gods 
for our hymns: blaze up auspiciously for 
us, wind-fanned, O Agni, the dispenser of a 
thousand bounties!' 

20. Now, indeed, it was Gotama Rahuga«a 
who discovered this (sacrifice). It went away to 
kanaka of Videha, and he searched for it in the 
Brihmawas versed in the Ahgas 1 (limbs of the Veda), 
and found it in Yif«avalkya. He said, 'A 
thousand we give thee, O Yi^«avalkya, in whom 
we have found that Mitravinda.' He finds (vind) 
Mitra, and his is the kingdom, he conquers recur- 
ring death * and gains all life, whosoever, knowing 
this, performs this sacrifice; or whosoever thus 
knows it. 

Fourth BrAhmaata. 

1. Now, as to the successful issue of the sacrificial 
food. Now, indeed, there are six doors to the 
Brahman s , — to wit, fire, wind, the waters, the moon, 
lightning, and the sun. 

2. He who offers with slightly burnt sacrificial 
food, enters through the fire-door * of the Brahman ; 

1 That is, the Ved&ngas, Le. the limbs, or supplementary 
sciences, of the Veda. 

* That is to say, his approaching death will deliver him once for 
all from mundane existence and its constantly repeated round of 
birth and death. 

* That is, of the (impersonal) world-spirit. 

* In the text the two words are not compounded, but stand in 
apposition to each other (with the fire as the door of B.), with, how- 
ever, much the same force as a compound word. Cf. XII, 2, 1, a 
gddham (eva) pratish/Ad (a foothold consisting of a ford), and ib. 9 
gadha-pratish/M, ' ford-foothold.' 



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th kXnda, 4 adhyAya, 4 brAhmajva, 8. 67 

and, by entering through the fire-door of the 
Brahman, he wins his union with, and participation 
in the world of, the Brahman. 

3. And he who offers with sacrificial food that 
has fallen (on the ground) enters through the wind- 
door of the Brahman; and, by entering through 
the wind-door of the Brahman, he wins his union 
with, and participation in the world of, the Brahman. 

4. And he who offers with uncooked sacrificial 
food, enters through the water-door of the Brahman ; 
and, by entering through the water-door of the 
Brahman, he wins his union with, and participation 
in the world of, the Brahman. 

5. And he who offers with slightly browned 
sacrificial food, enters through- the moon-door of 
the Brahman, and, by entering through the moon- 
door of the Brahman, he wins his union with, and 
participation in the world of, the Brahman.- 

6. And he who offers with browned sacrificial 
food, enters through the lightning-door of the 
Brahman, and, by entering through the lightning- 
door of the Brahman, he wins his union with, and 
participation in the world of, the Brahman. 

7. And he who offers with well-cooked sacrificial 
food, enters through the sun-door of the Brahman ; 
and, by entering through the sun-door of the 
Brahman, he wins his union with, and participation 
in the world of, the Brahman. This, then, is the 
successful issue of the sacrificial food, and, verily, 
whosoever thus knows this to be the successful 
issue of the sacrificial food, by him offering is made 
with wholly successful sacrificial food. 

8. Then, as to the successful issue of the sacrifice. 
Now, whatever part of the sacrifice is incomplete 

f 2 



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68 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

(nyuna) that part of it is productive for him x ; and 
what is redundant in it that is favourable to cattle ; 
and what is broken (disconnected) 2 in it that makes 
for prosperity; and what is perfect in it that is 
conducive to heaven. 

9. And if he think, 'There has been that which 
was incomplete in my sacrifice,' let him believe, 
' That is productive for me : I shall have offspring 
produced (in men and cattle).' 

10. And if he think, 'There has been that which 
was redundant in my sacrifice,' let him believe, 
' That is favourable to cattle for me : I shall become 
possessed of cattle.' 

11. And if he think, 'There has been that which was 
disconnected in my sacrifice,' let him believe, ' That 
makes for my prosperity : Prosperity, surrounded by 
splendour, fame and holy lustre, will accrue to me.' 

1 2. And if he think, ' There has been that which 
was perfect in my sacrifice,' let him believe, ' That is 
conducive to heaven for me : I shall become one of 
those in the heavenly world.' This then is the 
successful issue of the sacrifice; and, verily, who- 
soever thus knows this to be the successful issue 
of the sacrifice, by him offering is made by a wholly 
successful sacrifice. 

Fifth Adhyaya. First BrAhmaya. 
1. The nymph Urva^l loved Pururavas 8 , the 
son of Ida. When she wedded him, she said, 

" See XI, 1, 2, 4; — tad asya yagfasyz pra^ananam pra^otpatti- 
sadhanam. 

* Siyawa's explanation of the term ' sawkasuka ' (? broken, affected 
with gaps) is not available owing to an omission in the MS. Ind. 
Off. 107 1. 

* King Purflravas, of the lunar race of kings, is considered the 



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xi kajvz>a, 5 adhyaya, i brAhmajva, 4. 69 

' Thrice a day shalt thou embrace ' me ; but do not 
lie with me against my will s , and let me not see 
thee naked, for such is the way to behave to us 
women.' 

2. She then dwelt with him a long time, and was 
even with child of him, so long did she dwell with 
him. Then the Gandharvas 3 said to one another, 
' For a long time, indeed, has this Urvarf dwelt 
among men : devise ye some means how she may 
come back to us.' Now, a ewe with two lambs was 
tied to her couch : the Gandharvas then carried off 
one of the lambs. 

3. 'Alas,' 'she cried, 'they are taking away my 
darling 4 , as if I were where there is no hero and 
no man ! ' They carried off the second, and she 
spake in the selfsame manner. 

4. He then thought within himself, ' How can 
that be (a place) without a hero and without a man 
where I am ? ' And naked, as he was, he sprang 

son of Budha (the planet Mercury, and son of Soma). On this 
myth (based on the hymn .fl/'g-veda S. X, 95) see Prof. Max 
MilUer, Oxford Essays (1856), p. 61 seqq. ; (reprinted in Chips from 
a German Workshop, II, p. 102 seqq.); A. Kuhn, Herabkunft 
des Feuers und des Gottertranks, p. 81 seqq. (2nd ed. p. 73 seqq.) ; 
Weber, Ind. Streifen I, p. 16 seqq.; K. F. Geldner, in Pischel 
and Geldner's Vedische Studien I, p. 244 seqq. ; cf. H. Olden- 
berg, Religion des Veda, p. 253. 

1 Vaitasena damfena hatad, — vaitaso danrfaA puravyad^anasya 
nama; uktam hi Yaskena, jepo vaitasa iti pumspra^ananasyeti 
(Nir.III, 21), SSy. 

* Akamam kamarahitam suratabhilasharahit&m Aa mam mi sma 
nipadyasai nignbya mam prapnuyaA, Say. 

5 The Gandharvas are the natural companions and mates of the 
Apsaras, or nymphs. 

4 Literally, 'my son,' — madryam putratvena svlkrrtam urawa- 
dvayam, Say. 



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70 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAYA. 

up after them : too long he deemed it that he 
should put on his garment. Then the Gandharvas 
produced a flash of lightning, and she beheld him 
naked even as by daylight Then, indeed, she 
vanished : ' Here I am back,' he said, and lo ! she 
had vanished l . Wailing with sorrow he wandered 
all over Kurukshetra. Now there is a lotus-lake 
there, called Anyata^plaksha : He walked along 
its bank ; and there nymphs were swimming about 
in the shape of swans 2 . 

5. And she (Urva>rf), recognising him, said, ' This 
is the man with whom I have dwelt.' They then 
said, ' Let us appear to him ! ' — ' So be it ! ' she 
replied ; and they appeared to him \ 

6. He then recognised her and implored her 
(Rig-veda. X, 95, 1), 'Oh, my wife, stay thou, cruel 
in mind 4 : let us now exchange words! Untold, 
these secrets of ours will not bring us joy in days to 

1 Cf. C. Gaedicke, Der Accusativ im Veda (1880), p. 211. 
Previous translators had assigned the words ' punar emi ' (I come 
back) to Urvaxi; and in view of the corresponding passage in 
paragraph 13, the new interpretation is just a little doubtful. 

* The text has 'ati,' some kind of water-bird — ^ala/tarapakshi- 
vueshaA, Say. — (probably Gr. i^aaa; Lat. anas, anat-is; Anglo-S. 
aened, Germ. Ente). 

* That is, they became visible, or rather recognisable to him by 
showing themselves in their real forms, — pakshirupam vihaya 
svakfyena rupewa pradur babhuvuA, Say. — In Kalidasa's plays, both 
Urvajf and SakuntalS become invisible by means of a magic veil 
(tiraskarinf, ' making invisible ') with which has been compared the 
magic veil by which the swan-maidens change their form. A.Weber, 
Ind. Stud. I, p. 197; A. Kuhn, Herabkunft, p. 91. 

* Manasi tish/fla ghore, — possibly it may mean, 'O cruel 
one, be thou constant in (thy) mind;' or, as Kuhn takes 
it, 'pay attention, O cruel one.' Sayaaa, however, takes it as 
above. 



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xi kAjvda, 5 adhyAya, i brahmajta, 9. 71 

come;' — 'Stop, pray, let us speak together!' this 
is what he meant to say to her. 

7. She replied (X, 95, 2), ' What concern have 
I with speaking to thee ? I have passed away like 
the first of the dawns. Pururavas, go home again : 
I am like the wind, difficult to catch ;' — 'Thou didst 
not do what I had told thee ; hard to catch I am for 
thee, go to thy home again ! ' this is what she meant 
to say. 

8. He then said sorrowing (X, 95, 14), 'Then 
will thy friend 1 rush away * this day never to come 
back, to go to the farthest distance : then will he 
lie in Nirmi's 8 lap, or the fierce wolves will devour 
him ; ' — ' Thy friend will either hang himself, or 
start forth ; or the wolves, or dogs, will devour him ! ' 
this is what he meant to say. 

9. She replied (X, 95, 15), 'Pururavas, do not 
die! do not rush away! let not the cruel wolves 
devour thee! Truly, there is no friendship with 
women, and theirs are the hearts of hyenas 4 ;' — 

1 This is a doubtful rendering (Max M tiller ; Gespiele, A. Weber) 
of ' sudeva,' — GOttergenoss (the companion of the gods), Kuhn ; 
' dem die Gdtter einst hold waren ' (he who was formerly favoured 
by the gods), Grassmann ; Sudeva, Ludwig. 

* Or, will fall down (Max Mttller, Weber) ; sich in's Verderben 
sturzen (will rush to his destruction), Kuhn; — forteilen (hasten 
away), Grassmann; verloren gehen (get lost), Ludwig; sich in den 
Abgrund sturzen, Geldner; — ' mahaprasthanaiw kuryat' (he will 
set out on the great journey, i. e. die), Sayawa. The Brahmana 
seems to propose two different renderings, — to throw oneself down 
(hang oneself), or, to start forth. 

' Nirrtti is the goddess of decay or death. 

* The meaning of ' salavrrka," also spelled '.ralavr/'ka' (? house- 
wolves), is doubtful; cf. H. Zimtner, Altindisches Leben, p. 8. 
Prof. Weber, Ind. Stud. I, p. 413, makes the suggestion that 
' wehrwolves ' may be intended. 



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72 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

' Do not take this to heart ! there is no friendship 
with women : return home ! ' this is what she meant 
to say. 

10. (/?%-veda X, 95, 16), 'When changed in 
form, I walked among mortals, and passed the 
nights there during four autumns 1 I ate a little 
ghee, once a day, and even now I feel satisfied 
therewith 2 .' — This discourse in fifteen verses has 
been handed down by the Bahvnias 8 . Then her 
heart took pity on him *. 

11. She said, 'Come here the last night of the 
year from now 6 : then shalt thou lie with me for 
one night, and then this son of thine will have been 
born.' He came there on the last night of the year, 
and lo, there stood a golden palace 6 ! They then 

1 The words 'ratrM xarada-r AatasraA' may also be taken in the 
sense of ' four nights of the autumn ' (Max Mtlller, A. Kuhn). It 
needs hardly to be remarked that ' nights ' means days and nights, 
and ' autumns ' years. — Sayana takes the passage in the sense of 
' four delightful (ratrfA ramayitri^) autumns or years.' 

* Literally, I walk (or go on, keep) being satisfied therewith. 
Prof. Geldner, however, takes it in an ironical sense, ' das Bischen 
liegt mir jetzt noch schwer im Magen ' ( ' even now I have quite 
enough of that little '). 

* That is, the theologians of the ^/g-veda. As Prof. Weber 
points out, the hymn referred to, in the received version, consists* not 
of fifteen but of eighteen verses, three of which would therefore 
seem to be of later origin (though they might, of course, belong to 
a different recension from that referred to by the Brihmana). 

4 Or, according to Prof. Geldner, ' Then he touched her heart 
(excited her pity).' 

* Literally, the yearliest night, i. e. the 360th night, the last night 
of a year from now, or, this night next year : it is the night that 
completes the year, just as 'the fifth' completes the number 
'five,' — samvatsaratamfm samvatsarapura»tm antimaat ratrim, Say. 
Cf. Delbrtlck, Altind. Syntax, p. 195. 

* Hirawyavimitlni hira»yanirmitani saudhani, Say. 



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xi kXnda, 5 adhyAya, i brahmajva, 14. 73 

said to him only this (word) 1 , 'Enter!' and then 
they bade her go to him. 

12. She then said, ' To-morrow morning the Gan- 
dharvas will grant thee a boon, and thou must make 
thy choice.' He said, ' Choose thou for me ! ' — She 
replied, 'Say, Let me be one of yourselves!' In 
the morning the Gandharvas granted him a boon ; 
and he said, ' Let me be one of yourselves ! ' 

1 3. They said, ' Surely, there is not among men 
that holy form of fire by sacrificing wherewith one 
would become one of ourselves.' They put fire 
into a pan, and gave it to him saying, ' By sacrificing 
therewith thou shalt become one of ourselves.' He 
took it (the fire) and his boy, and went on his way 
home. He then deposited the fire in the forest, 
and went to the village with the boy alone. [He 
came back and thought] 'Here I am back;' and 
lo! it had disappeared 2 : what had been the fire 
was an Asvattha tree (ficus religiosa), and what 
had been the pan was a Sami tree (mimosa suma). 
He then returned to the Gandharvas. 

14. They said, ' Cook for a whole year a mess 
of rice sufficient for four persons ; and taking each 
time three logs from this A>rvattha tree, anoint 
them with ghee, and put them on the fire with 

1 Thus also A. Kuhn, and Sayawa, tato hainam ekam u£ur etat, 
prapadyasveti,— enam Purtiravasaw tatratya g and idam ekam hkuh, 
Say. — The word ' ekam ' might also be taken along with ' enam ' 
(Max Mailer, Weber, Geldner), — 'they said this to him alone' 
(? they bade him enter alone without his attendants). 

■ See above, paragraph 4 and note 1 on p. 70. According to the 
other interpretation we should have to translate: — He then de- 
posited the fire in the forest, and went to the village with the boy 
alone, thinking, ' I (shall) come back.' [He came back] and lo 1 
it had disappeared. 



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74 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAAA. 

verses containing the words "log" and "ghee": the 
fire which shall result therefrom will be that very 
fire (which is required).' 

1 5. They said, ' But that is recondite (esoteric), 
as it were. Make thyself rather an upper ara«i 1 
of A^vattha wood, and a lower ara»i of £ami wood : 
the fire which shall result therefrom will be that 
very fire.' 

16. They said, ' But that also is, as it were, 
recondite. Make thyself rather an upper ara«i of 
A^vattha wood, and a lower ara»i of Ayvattha 
wood : the fire which shall result therefrom will be 
that very fire.' 

17. He then made himself an upper aram of 
A.rvattha wood, and a lower ara«i of A^vattha 
wood ; and the fire which resulted therefrom was 
that very fire : by offering therewith he became one 
of the Gandharvas. Let him therefore make 
himself an upper and a lower arawi of A^vattha 
wood, and the fire which results therefrom will be 
that very fire : by offering therewith he becomes 
one of the Gandharvas. 

Second BrAhmajva. 

The Seasonal Sacrifices (A'aturmasya). 

i . By means of the Seasonal sacrifices, Pra^apati 
fashioned for himself a body. The sacrificial food 
for the Vai^vadeva 2 sacrifice he made to be this 

1 That is, a churning-stick used for producing fire ; see part i, 
p. 275; p. 294, note 3. 

* The Vaifvadeva, or first of the four seasonal sacrifices, 
requires the following oblations: — 1. a cake on eight potsherds to 
Agni; 2. a pap to Soma; 3. a cake on twelve or eight potsherds to 



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xi kAjvca, 5 adhyAya, 2 brAhmaya, 3. 75 

right arm of his ; the oblation to Agni thereof this 
thumb ; that to Soma this (fore-finger) ; and that to 
Savitr? this (middle finger). 

2. That cake (to Savit^'), doubtless, is the largest, 
and hence this (middle finger) is the largest of these 
(fingers). That (oblation) to Sarasvatt is this (third) 
finger ; and that to Pushan this (little finger). And 
that (oblation) to the Maruts is this joint above the 
hand (the wrist) ; and that to the VLrve Dev&A is 
this (elbow'); and that to Heaven and Earth is this 
arm : this (oblation) is indistinct 2 , whence that limb 
also is indistinct 3 . 

3. The Varu»apraghasa 4 offerings are this right 
leg, — the five oblations which this has in common 
(with the other Seasonal offerings) are these five 
toes; and the oblation to Indra and Agni is the 
knuckles : this (oblation) belongs to two deities 

Savitr/'; 4. a pap to Sarasvatt ; 5. a pap to Pushan — these first five 
oblations recur at all seasonal offerings; — 6. a cake on seven 
potsherds to the Maruts ; 7. a dish of clotted curds to the Vwve 
DevaA ; 8. a cake on one potsherd to Heaven and Earth. 

1 It would rather seem that what is intended here by ' samdbi ' is 
not the joints themselves, but the limbs (in the anatomical sense) 
between the articulations. Similarly in ' trishandhi ' in parag. 7. 

' That is to say, it is a low-voiced offering, the two formulas, 
with the exception of the final Om and Vausha/, being pronounced 
in a low voice. All cakes on one potsherd are (except those to 
Vanwa) of this description ; Katy. Si. IV, 5, 3 ; Asv. St. II, 15, 5 ; 
cf. Sat. Br. II, 4, 3, 8. 

* That is, not clearly defined; the word 'dos,' which is more 
usually restricted to the fore-arm, being also us.-d for the whole 
arm, and even the upper arm. 

4 The VarunapraghisaA, or second seasonal sacrifice, has the 
following oblations : — 1-5. the common oblations ; 6. a cake on 
twelve potsherds to Indra and Agni ; 7. 8. two dishes of clotted 
curds for Varuna and the Maruts respectively ; 9. a cake on one 
potsherd for Ka (Pra^apati). 



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76 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

whence there are these two knuckles. That (obla- 
tion) to Varuwa is this (shank) ; that to the Maruts 
this (thigh) ; and that (cake) to Ka is this back-bone : 
this (oblation) is indistinct, whence that (back-bone) 
is indistinct. 

4. The offering to (Agni) Anlkavat (of the Saka- 
medha^ 1 ), doubtless, is his (Pra^apati's) mouth, for 
the mouth is the extreme end (anlka) of the vital 
airs; the Siwtapaniya (pap) is the chest, for by 
the chest one is, as it were, confined* (saw-tap); 
the Grzhamedhtya (pap) is the belly — to serve as 
a foundation, for the belly is a foundation ; the 
KraidTma oblation is the male organ, for it is there- 
with that (man) sports (krld), as it were; and the 
offering to Aditi 8 is this downward breathing. 

5. The Great Oblation, indeed, is this left leg, — 
the five oblations which it has in common (with the 
other Seasonal offerings) are these five toes; and 
the oblation to Indra and Agni is the knuckles : this 
(oblation) belongs to two deities whence there are 

1 The SakamedhaA, or third seasonal sacrifice, consists of the 
following oblations: — 1. a cake on eight potsherds to Agni 
Antkavat ; 2. 3. paps to the MarutaA SawtapanaA and MarutaA 
Gr/hamedhinaA ; 4. a cake on seven potsherds to the MarutaA 
KrtainaA ; 5. a pap to Aditi. Then follows the Great Oblation 
consisting of 6-io, the five common oblations; n. a cake on 
twelve potsherds to Indra and Agni ; 1 2. a pap to Mahendra ; and 
13. a cake on one potsherd to VLrvakarman. Then follows the 
Pitriya^fla. 

* Or, according to Saya»a, one gets oppressed or heated on 
account of the close proximity of the heart and the digestive fire, — 
urasa hr/'daya-sambandha^ £ r a/Aarasannive.ra4 4a sawtapana-visha- 
yatvam. 

• This offering of a cake to Aditi, mentioned in Katy. Sr. V, 7, 2, 
is not referred to in the Brahmawa's account of the SakamedhaA, 
see II, 5, 3, 20. 



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xi kajvz>a, 5 adhyAya, 2 brahmajva, 8. 77 

these two knuckles. The (oblation) to Mahendra is 
this (shank) ; that to Vwvakarman this (thigh) : this 
(oblation) is indistinct, whence this (thigh) also is 
indistinct 

6. The .Sunastrtya 1 , doubtless, is this left arm, — 
the five oblations which it has in common (with the 
other Seasonal offerings) are these five fingers; 
the .Sunaslriya is that joint of his above the hand ; 
that (oblation) to Vayu is this (elbow) ; that to Surya 
this arm : this (oblation) is indistinct, whence this 
(limb) also is indistinct. 

7. Now these Seasonal offerings are tripartite and 
furnished with two joints 2 , whence these limbs of 
man are tripartite and furnished with two joints. 
Two of these four (sacrifices) have each three indis- 
tinct (low-voiced) oblations ; and two of them have 
two each s . 

8. At all four of them they churn out the fire, 

1 The .Sunisfrfya, or last Seasonal offering, consists of — 1-5. 
the common oblations; 6. the .Sunasiriya cake on twelve pot- 
sherds ; 7. a milk oblation to Vayu ; 8. a cake on one potsherd to 
Surya. 

* The Seasonal offerings are performed so as to leave an interval 
of four months between them ; the fourth falling exactly a year 
after the first ; hence the whole performance consists, as it were, of 
three periods of four months each, with two joints between them ; — 
corresponding to the formation of the arms and legs. 

* Of the five oblations common to the four sacrifices, one — viz. 
the cake to Savitn* — is a low-voiced offering (KSty. St. IV, 5, 5 ; 
Ajv. Si. II, 15, 7), as are also the one-kap&la cakes of which there 
is one in each sacrifice. According to Sayawa the first and last 
Seasonal sacrifices have only these two Upamruya^as, whilst the 
second and third have each one additional low-voiced oblation, but 
he does not specify them. This is, however, a mistake, as Katy&- 
yana, Sr. IV, 5, 6. 7, states distinctly, that the two additional low- 
voiced oblations are the Vauvadev! payasya* in the first, and the 
oblation to Vayu in the last, ATaturmasya. 



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78 .SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

whence (the draught animal) pulls with all four limbs. 
At two of them they lead (the fire) forward 1 , whence 
it (the animal) walks on two (feet at a time) 2 . Thus, 
then, Pra^apati fashioned for himself a body by 
means of the Seasonal sacrifices ; and in like manner 
does the Sacrificerwho knows this fashion for himself 
a (divine) body by means of the Seasonal sacrifices. 

9. As to this they say, ' The VaLrvadeva oblation 
(should have) all (its formulas) in the Gayatrl, the 
Varuwapraghasa^ all in the Trish/ubh, the Great 
Oblation all in the Gagati, and the .Sunaslrfya all in 
the Anush/ubh metre, so as to yield a A'atush/oma V 
But let him not do this, for inasmuch as (his formulas) 
amount to these (metres) even thereby that wish is 
obtained. 

10. Now, indeed, (the formulas of) these Seasonal 
offerings amount to three hundred and sixty-two 
Br/hati verses 4 : he thereby obtains both the year 6 

1 According to Sayawa this refers to the first and last Seasonal 
sacrifices, inasmuch as there is no uttaravedi required for these, 
and hence only the simple leading forward of the fire to the 
Ahavaniya hearth ; whilst the commentary on Katy. V, 4, 6, on the 
contrary, refers it just to the other two, because a double leading 
forth takes place there. 

* Or, as Saya»a takes it, man walks on two feet. 

* The ifetush/oma, properly speaking, is the technical term for 
such an arrangement of the Stotras of a Soma-sacrifice by which 
they are chanted on stomas, or hymn-forms, increasing successively 
by four verses. Two such arrangements (of four and six different 
stomas respectively) are mentioned, one for an Agnish/oma sacrifice, 
and the other for a Shodarin. See note on XIII, 3, 1,4. 

4 These 362 Br/hatt verses (of 36 syllables each) would amount 
to 13,032 syllables; and, verses of the four metres referred to 
amounting together to 148 syllables, this amount is contained in 
the former 88 times, leaving only eight over ; so slight a discrepancy 
being considered of no account in such calculations. 

* That is, a year of 360 days; and if, as is done by Sayana (in 



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xi kKnda, 5 adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, 2. 79 

and the Mahavrata 1 ; and thus, indeed, this Sacrificer 
also has a twofold* foundation, and he thus makes 
the Sacrificer reach the heavenly world, and estab- 
lishes him therein. 

Third BrAhmajva. 

1. Saukeya. Pra^tnayogya came to Udda- 
laka Aru»i for a disputation on spiritual matters 3 , 
thinking, * I desire to know the Agnihotra.' 

2. He said, ' Gautama, what like is thy Agnihotra 
cow? what like the calf? what like the cow joined 
by the calf? what like their meeting ? what like (the 
milk) when being milked? what like when it has 
been milked? what like when brought (from the 
stable) ? what like when put on the fire ? what like 
when the light is thrown on it 4 ; what like when water 
is poured thereto ? what like when being taken off 
(the fire) ? what like when taken off ? what like when 



accordance with the calculations in Book X), the year is identified 
with the fire-altar, a mahavedi containing 360 Ya^ushmati bricks. 

1 Sayawa reminds us that the Mahavrata-saman consists of five 
parts in five different stomas (Trivr*'t, Ac, see part iv, p. 282, 
note 4), the verses of which, added up (9, 15, 17, 25, 21), make 
87, which amount is apparently, in a rough way, to be taken as 
identical with that of 88 obtained in note 4 of last page. 

* Viz. inasmuch as the total amount of Br/hatts (362) exceeds 
by two the number of days in the year. 

* Siyana takes ' brahmodyam agnihotram ' together, in the sense 
' the sacred truth ' regarding (or, in the form of) the Agnihotra, — 
agnihotravishayam brahmodyam brahmatattvasya rfipam prati- 
padyate yena tad vividish&mi tadvishayaw vedane££M/n karishyimf- 
tyidinibhiprayenigataA. Unless ' brahmodyam ' could be taken as 
an adjective, I do not see how it is possible to adopt Sayaaa's inter- 
pretation. 

4 For letting the light of a burning straw fall on the milk to see 
whether it is done, see II, 3, 1, 16. 



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80 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

being ladled out 1 ? what like when ladled out ? what 
like when lifted up (to be taken to the Ahavanlya) ? 
what like when being taken there ? what like when 
held down 2 ? 

3. ' What like is the log thou puttest on ? what 
like the first libation ? why didst thou put it down 
(on the Vedi 3 ) ? why didst thou look away (towards 
the Garhapatya 4 ) ? what like is the second libation ? 

4. ' Why, having offered, dost thou shake it (the 
spoon) ? why, having cleansed the spoon all round 
(the spout), didst thou wipe it on the grass-bunch ? 
why, having cleansed it a second time all over, 
didst thou place thy hand on the south (part of the 
Vedi) ? why didst thou eat (of the milk) the first 
time, and why the second time ? why, on creeping 
away (from the Vedi), didst thou drink (water) ? why, 
having poured water into the spoon, didst thou 
sprinkle therewith ? why didst thou sprinkle it away 
a second time, and why a third time in that (northerly) 
direction ? why didst thou pour down water behind 
the Ahavanlya ? why didst thou bring (the offering) 
to a close ? If thou hast offered the Agnihotra know- 
ing this, then it has indeed been offered by thee; 

1 Viz. by the dipping-spoon (sruva) into the ladle (agnihotra- 
havani), see II, 3, 1, 17. 

* Whilst taking the oblation to the Ahavanlya, he holds the 
spoon level with his mouth, except when he is in a line between 
the two fires, when for a moment he lowers the spoon so as to be 
level with his navel. 

' This refers to the putting down of the spoon containing the 
milk on the grass-bunch prior to the second libation ; cf. II, 3, 1, 
17. One might also translate, ' what is that (or does it mean) that 
thou didst put it down ? ' 

4 Thus Sayawa, — apaikshish/MA garhapatasyaikshanam kr»- 
tavan asi. 



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xi k&nda, 5 adhyAya, 3 brAhma^a, 7. 81 

but if (thou hast offered it) not knowing this, then it 
has not been offered by thee.' 

5. He (Uddalaka) said, 'My Agnihotra cow is 
Ida, Manu's daughter 1 ; my calf is of Vayu's nature ; 
the (cow) joined by the calf is in conjunction there- 
with 8 ; their meeting is the Vira^ - ; (the milk) when 
being milked belongs to the. A^vins, and when it has 
been milked, to the Vlrve Deva^; when brought 
(from the stable) it belongs to Vayu ; when put on 
(the fire), to Agni; when the light is thrown on it, it 
belongs to Indra and Agni ; when water is poured 
thereto it belongs to Varu«a ; when being taken off 
(the fire), to Vayu ; when it has been taken off, to 
Heaven and Earth ; when being ladled out, to the 
Aivins ; when it has been ladled out, to the VLrve 
Deva^ ; when lifted up, to Mahadeva ; when being 
taken (to the Ahavanlya), to Vayu ; when held down, 
to Vish»u. 

6. 'And the log I put on (the fire) is the resting- 
place of the libations ; and as to the first libation, 
I therewith gratified the gods; and when I laid 
down (the spoon with the milk), that belongs to 
BWhaspati ; and when I looked away, then I joined 
together this and yonder world ; and as to the second 
libation, I thereby settled myself in the heavenly 
world. 

7. 'And when, having offered, I shake (the spoon), 
that belongs to Vayu ; and when, having cleansed 
the spoon all round (the spout), I wiped it on the 
grass-bunch, then I gratified the herbs and trees; 



1 See the legend, I, 8, 1, 1 seqq. 

1 That is, according to Sayawa, ' the sky allied with Vayu, the 
wind,' — vayuni samsrssh/a dyauA. 

[44] G 



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82 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

and when, having cleansed it a second time all over, 
I placed my hand on the south (part of the altar- 
ground), then I gratified the Fathers 1 ; and when 
I ate (of the milk) the first time, then I gratified 
myself; and when (I ate) a second time, then 
I gratified my offspring; and when, having crept 
away (from the altar-ground), I drank (water), then 
I gratified the cattle ; and when, having poured water 
into the spoon, I sprinkled therewith, then I gratified 
the snake-deities; and when (I sprinkled) a second 
time, then (I gratified) the Gandharvas and Apsaras ; 
and when, a third time, I sprinkled it away in that 
(northerly) direction, then I opened the gate of 
heaven ; and when I poured down water behind the 
altar, then I bestowed rain on this world ; and when 
I brought (the sacrifice) to a close, then I filled up 
whatever there is deficient in the earth.' — 'This much, 
then, reverend sir, we two (know) in common *,' said 
(.SaUifceya). 

8. .Sau-fceya, thus instructed, said, ' I would yet 
ask thee a question, reverend sir.' — 'Ask then, Prait- 
nayogya ! ' he replied. He (.Sauieya) said, ' If, at 
the time when thy fires are taken out, and the sacri- 
ficial vessels brought down, thou wert going to offer, 
and the offering-fire were then to go out, dost thou 
know what danger there is in that case for him who 
offers ?' 'I know,' he replied ; ' before long the 
eldest son would die in the case of him who would 

1 The departed ancestors are supposed to reside in the southern 
region. 

1 He bhagavann Uddalaka bhavatoktam etat sava (? saha) nav 
avayo^ saha sahitam samanam ekarupam iti •Sau&yo ha bhuk- 
tavan (?hy uktavan) anyaprarnam darrayitaa* prastauti, Santeyo 
jftapta iti, Say. 



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xi kXnda, 5 adhyAya, 3 brAhmaya, 10. 83 

not know this ; but by dint of knowledge I myself 
have prevailed.' — ' What is that knowledge, and what 
the atonement?' he asked. — 'The breath of the 
mouth has entered the upward breathing — such (is 
the knowledge) ; and I should make the offering in 
the Garhapatya fire — that would be the atonement, 
and I should not be committing that sin.' — 
'This much, then, reverend sir, we two (know) in 
common,' said (.Sauieya). 

9. .Sauieya, thus instructed, said, ' I would yet 
ask thee a question, reverend sir.' — ' Ask then, Pra&- 
nayogya!' he replied. He said, 'If, at that very 
time, the Garhapatya fire were to go out, dost thou 
know what danger there is in that case for him who 
offers ? ' — ' I know it,' he replied ; ' before long the 
master of the house 1 would die in the case of him 
who would not know this ; but by dint of knowledge 
I myself have prevailed.' — ' What is that knowledge, 
and what the atonement ? ' he asked. — ' The upward 
breathing has entered the breath of the mouth — this 
(is the knowledge) ; and I would make the offering 
on the Ahavanlya — this would be the atonement, and 
I should not be committing that sin.' — ' This much, 
then, reverend sir, we two (know) in common,'. said 
(.Sau^eya). 

10. .Sau^eya, thus instructed, said, ' I would yet 
ask thee a question, reverend sir.' — 'Ask then, Pri^l- 
nayogya!' he replied. He said, 'If, at that very 
time, the Anvaharyapaiana fire were to go out, dost 
thou know what danger there is in that case for him 
who offers ? ' — • I know it,' he replied ; ' before long 
all the cattle would die in the case of him who would 

1 That is, the Sacrificer himself. 
G 2 



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84 satapatha-brAhmava. 

not know this ; but by dint of knowledge I myself 
have prevailed.' — ' What is that knowledge, and what 
the atonement ?' he asked. — * The through-breathing 
has entered the upward breathing — this (is the know- 
ledge) ; and I would make the offering on the Garha- 
patya fire — this is the atonement ; and I should not 
be committing that sin.' — ' This much, then, reverend 
sir, we two (know) in common,' said (.Sau^eya). 

n. .Sau^eya, thus instructed, said, 'I would yet 
ask thee a question, reverend sir.' — 'Ask, then, Pra£t- 
nayogya!' he replied. He said, 'If, at that very 
time, all the fires were to go out, dost thou know 
what danger there is in that case for him who offers ?' 
— ' I know it,' he replied ; ' before long the family 
would be without heirs in the case of him who would 
not know this ; but by dint of knowledge I myself 
have prevailed.' — ' What is that knowledge, and 
what the atonement ?' he asked. — ' Having, without 
delay, churned out fire, and taken out an offering-fire 
in whatever direction the wind might be blowing, 
I would perform an offering to Vayu (the wind): 
I would then know that my Agnihotra would be 
successful, belonging as it would to all deities ; for 
all beings, indeed, pass over into the wind, and from 
out of the wind they are again produced 1 . This 
would be the atonement, and I should not be 
committing that sin.' — 'This much, then, reverend 
sir, we two (know) in common,' said (.Sauieya). 

12. .Sauieya, thus instructed, said, ' I would yet 
ask thee a question, reverend sir.' — 'Ask then, Pra^l- 

1 At the time of dissolution (layakile) they pass into the wind ; 
and at the time of creation (smh/ikale) they are again created, 
Siy. 



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xi kXnda, 5 adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, 13. 85 

nayogya ! ' he replied. He said, ' If at that very 
time all the fires were to go out, when there should 
be no wind blowing, dost thou know what danger 
there would be for him who offers ? ' — ' I know it,' 
he replied ; ' unpleasant things, indeed, he would see 
in this world, and unpleasant things in yonder world, 
were he not to know this ; but by dint of knowledge 
I myself have prevailed.' — ' What is that knowledge, 
and what the atonement ? ' he asked. — ' Having, 
without delay, churned out fire, and taken out an 
offering-fire towards the east, and sat down behind 
it, I myself would drink (the Agnihotra milk) : 
I should then know that my Agnihotra would be 
successful, belonging as it would to all deities, for all 
beings, indeed, pass into the Brahma«a\ and from 
the Brahmaaa they are again produced. That would 
be the atonement ; and I should not be committing 
that sin.' — 'And, verily, I did not know this,' said 
(•Sau^eya). 

1 3. 5auieya, thus instructed, said, ' Here are logs 
for fuel : I will become thy pupil, reverend sir.' He 
replied, ' If thou hadst not spoken thus, thy head 
would have flown off 8 : come, enter as my pupil ! ' — 
'So be it,' he said. He then initiated him, and 
taught him that pain-conquering utterance, Truth : 
therefore let man speak naught but truth J . 

1 Viz. as the representative of the Brahman, or world-spirit. 

* Yadaivam navakshya^ yadaivam a^anam n&vishkaroshi te 
mur<M vyapatishyat, murdhi(va)patana»/ sva^ft&naprakafonen&tra- 
bhavataA parihrrtam iti, Siy. — Prof. Delbriick, Altind. Syntax, 
p. 366, takes ' vi-pat' in the sense of — (thy head would have) flown 
asunder, or burst ; which is indeed possible ; cf. XI, 4, 1, 9. 

8 Cf. F. Max Mflller, ' India, what can it teach us ? ' p. 65 seqq. 



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86 satapatha-brAhmaata. 



Fourth Brahmaya. 

The Upanatana, or Initiation of the Brahmajvical 
Student '. 

i. He says, 'I have come for Brahma^arya 2 :' 
he thereby reports himself to the Brahman. He 
says, ' Let me be a Brahmav&arin (student) : ' he 
thereby makes himself over to the Brahman. He 
(the teacher) then says, 'What (ka) is thy 
name?' — now Ka is Pra^apati: he thus initiates 
him after making him one belonging to Prafapati. 

2. He then takes his (right) hand with, ' Indra's 
disciple thou art; Agni is thy teacher, I am 
thy teacher, O N. N. !' — now these are two most 
high and most powerful deities : it is to these two 
most high and most powerful deities he commits 
him ; and thus his disciple suffers no harm of any 
kind, nor does he who knows this 8 . 

3. He then commits him to the beings : — ' To 
Pra^apati I commit thee, to the god Savit/-? 
I commit thee;' — now these are two most high 
and most important deities : it is to these two most 
high and most important deities he commits him; 
and thus his disciple suffers no harm of any kind, 
nor does he who knows this. 

1 With this chapter -compare P&raskara Gr/hyasutra II, a, 
17 seqq. ; Afval&yana Gnhyasutra I, 20 seqq.; .Sankh&yana Gri- 
hyasutra II, 1 seqq. 

1 That is, for religious (theological) studentship : ' I have come 
to be a student.' — Siyana takes the aorist ' igfim ' in an optative 
sense 'may I enter (or obtain),' — brahma&riiK) bhavo brahma- 
£aryam tad ig£*t prapnuy&m. 

* Vidushoxpy etat phalam aha, na sa iti, evam uktarthaw yo 
veda £$nati so»py irtim na prSpnotfty arthaA, S&y. 



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XI kAjV7)A, 5 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAhMAJVA, 6. 87 

4. 'To the waters, to the plants I commit 
thee,' — he thus commits him to the waters and 
plants. — 'To Heaven and Earth I commit 
thee,' — he thus commits him to these two, heaven 
and earth, within which all this universe is con- 
tained. — ' To all beings I commit thee for 
security from injury,' — he thus commits him to 
all beings for security from injury; and thus his 
disciple suffers no harm of any kind, nor does he 
who knows this. 

5. 'Thou art a Brahmaiarin,' he says, and 
thus commits him to the Brahman; — 'sip water!' — 
water, doubtless, means ambrosia : ' sip ambrosia ' 
is thus what he tells him ; — ' do thy work ! ' — work, 
doubtless, means vigour : ' exert vigour' is thus what 
he tells him ; — ' put on fuel ! ' — ' enkindle thy mind 
with fire, with holy lustre ! ' is what he thereby tells 
him ; — 'do not sleep 1 !' — 'do not die' is what he 
thereby says to him; — ' sip water!' — water means 
ambrosia : ' sip ambrosia ' is what he thus tells him. 
He thus encloses him on both sides with ambrosia 
(the drink of immortality), and thus the Brah- 
malirin suffers no harm of any kind, nor does he 
who knows this. 

6. He then recites to him (teaches him) the 
Savitri * ; — formerly, indeed, they taught this (verse) 
at the end of a year s , thinking, 'Children, indeed, are 

1 ' Do not sleep in the daytime ! ' Pir., Asv. 

* For this verse, also called the G4yatri(.#/g-vedaS. 111,62, 10), 
see II, 3, 4, 39. 

* S&ya*a takes this in the sense of ' some only teach this (for- 
mula) a year after (or, after the first year),' — pur& pftrvasminn 
upanayanad urdhvabhlvini samvatsarakale*tfte sati t&m etfim g&ya- 
trtm anvahu/i, ke/Hd SJ&ryi upadixantL 



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88 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

born after being fashioned for a year J : thus we lay 
speech (voice) into this one as soon as he has been 
born.' 

7. Or after six months, thinking, ' There are six 
seasons in the year, and children are born after being 
fashioned for a year : we thus lay speech into this 
one as soon as he has been born.' 

8. Or after twenty-four days, thinking, ' There are 
twenty-four half-months m the year, and children are 
born when fashioned for a year : we thus lay speech 
into this one as soon as he has been born.' 

9. Or after twelve' days, thinking, ' There are 
twelve months in the year, and children are born 
when fashioned for a year : we thus lay speech into 
this one as soon as he has been born.' 

10. Or after six days, thinking, 'There are six 
seasons in the year, and children are born when 
fashioned for a year : we thus lay speech into this 
one as soon as he has been born.' 

11. Or after three days, thinking, 'There are 
three seasons in the year, and children are born 
when fashioned for a year : we thus lay speech into 
this one as soon as he has been born.' 

12. Concerning this they also sing the verse, — 
' By laying his right hand on (the pupil), the teacher 
becomes pregnant (with him) : in the third (night) he 
is born as a Brahma«a with the Savitrt *.' Let him, 

1 Literally, made equal, or corresponding, to a year, — Samvat- 
saratmana kilena samyakpariiMinna/i khalu garbM vyaktavayaviA 
santaA pra^ayante utpadyante; ata upanayaninantaram a&rya- 
samipe garbhavad avaAAAinnas taduktaniyamanit saarvatsarakala 
eva punar £&yate, Siy. 

* AMiyo ma»avakam upantya samtpavartina tena garbht bhavati 
garbhavan bhavati, kim krAvi, Strafya* dakshuiam hastaai xishya- 



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xi kAjvba, 5 adhyAya, 4 brAhmawa, i 5. 89 

however, teach a Brahmawa (the Savitri) at once, for 
the Brahma«a belongs to Agni, and Agni is born at 
once J : therefore, he should teach the Brahma»a at 
once. 

13. Now some teach an AnushAibh Savitrt, saying, 
' The Anush/ubh is speech : we thus lay speech into 
him.' But let him not do so; for if, in that case, any 
one were to say of him, ' Surely, this (student) has 
taken away his (the teacher's) speech : he will 
become dumb ; ' then that would indeed be likely to 
come to pass : let him therefore teach him that 
Gayatri Savitrt. 

14. And some recite it to him while he (the 
student) is standing or sitting on (the teacher's) right 
side ; but let him not do this ; for if, in that case, 
any one were to say of him, ' Surely, this (teacher) 
has born this (student) sideways> he will become 
averse to him ; ' then that would indeed be likely to 
come to pass : let him therefore recite it in a forward 
(easterly) direction to (the student) looking at him 
towards the west. 

1 5. He (first) recites it by padas 8 : there being 
three breathings, the out-breathing, the up-breathing 
and the through-breathing ; it is these he thus lays 
into him ; — then by half-verses : there being these 

mastaka idhSya nikshipya; sa garbharupo mawavakas trAtyasy&m 
ratrau vyatMyan giyzle a^arySd utpadyate, git&s ka. &4arye»opa- 
dish/aya sSvitryi sahita san br&hmano bhavatf savitrfrupam ka. 
brahmadhfta iti brahmawa iti vyutpattii, brihmawa^ttitvam asya 
sampannam ity arthaA, Siy. 

1 Viz. immediately on the ' churning-sticks ' being set in motion. 

* The GSyatrt (Sivitrt) consists of three octosyllabic padas, form- 
ing two half-verses of two and one pada respectively; whilst an 
Anush/ubh (SSvitri) would consist of four octosyllabic padas, two 
of which make a half-verse. 



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90 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

two (principal) breathings, the out-breathing and the 
up-breathing 1 , it is the out-breathing and the up- 
breathing he thus lays into him ; — then the whole 
(verse) : there being this one vital air (in man), 
he thus lays the whole vital air into the whole 
of him. 

1 6. As to this they say, ' When one has admitted 
a Brahmawa to a term of studentship, he should not 
carry on sexual intercourse, lest he should gene- 
rate this Brahmana from shed seed ; for, indeed, he 
who enters on a term of studentship becomes an 
embryo.' 

1 7. And concerning this they also say, ' He may 
nevertheless do so, if he chooses; for these creatures 
are of two kinds, divine and human, — these human 
creatures are born from the womb, and the divine 
creatures, being the metres (verses of scripture), are 
born from the mouth : it is therefrom he (the teacher) 
produces him, and therefore he may do so (have 
intercourse) if he chooses.' 

18. And they also say, 'He who is a Brahmaiirin 
should not eat honey, lest he should reach the end 
of food, for honey, doubtless, is the utmost (supreme) 
essence of plants.' But .SVetaketu Aru»eya, when 
eating honey, whilst he was a student, said, * This 
honey, in truth, is the remainder (essential part) of 
the triple science (the Vedas), and he, indeed, who 
has such a remainder, is an essence.' And, indeed, 
if a Brahmajfarin, knowing this, eats honey, it is just 
as if he were to utter either a ^Tc-verse, or Ya^us- 
formula, or a Saman-tune : let him therefore eat 
freely of it. 

1 That is, the breath of the mouth, and that of the nostrils. 



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xi k&nda, 5 adhyAya, 5 brAhmajva, 5. 9 1 

Fifth BrAhmapa. 

The •Satatiratrah, or Sacrificial Session of a 
Hundred Atiratra-Sacrifices. 

i. Now, when the gods were passing upwards to 
the world of heaven, the Asuras enveloped them in 
darkness. They spake, 'Verily, by nothing else 
save a sacrificial session is there any way of dis- 
pelling this (darkness) : well, then, let us perform 
a sacrificial session ! ' 

2. They entered upon a sacrificial session of 
a hundred Agnish/oma (days), and dispelled the 
darkness as far as one may see whilst sitting ; and in 
like manner did they, by (a session of) a hundred 
Ukthya (days), dispel the darkness as far as one 
may see whilst standing. 

3. They spake, ' We do indeed dispel the darkness, 
but not the whole of it: come, let us resort to 
Father Prafapati.' Having come to Father Pra^A- 
pati, they spake, ' Reverend sir, when we were 
passing upwards to the world of heaven the Asuras 
enveloped us in darkness.' 

4. 'We entered upon a sacrificial session of a 
hundred Agnish/omas, and dispelled the darkness 
as far as one may see whilst sitting; and in like 
manner did we dispel the darkness as far as one may 
see whilst standing : do thou teach us, reverend sir, 
how, by dispelling the Asuras and darkness, and all 
evil, we shall find (the way to) the world of 
heaven ! ' 

5. He spake, ' Surely, ye proceeded by means of 
two sacrifices, the Agnish/oma and Ukthya, which 
do not contain all Soma-rites x ; — enter ye upon 

1 Viz. neither the Sho<fcuin which, to (the twelve stotras, and 

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92 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAVA. 

a sacrificial session of a hundred Atiratras : when 
ye have thereby repelled the Asuras and darkness, 
and all evil, ye shall find the world of heaven.' 

6. They entered upon a sacrificial session of 
a hundred Atiratras ; and, having thereby repelled 
the Asuras and darkness, and all evil, they found 
(the way to) the world of heaven. In their first 
fifty days 1 the night-hymns reached into the day, 
and the day-hymns into the night 

7. They spake, 'Verily, we have got into con- 
fusion and know not what to do : come, let us resort 
to Father Pra^apati f ' Having come to Father 
Pra/apati, they spake (the verses), *Our night-hymns 
are (chanted) in daytime, and those of the day at 
night : O sage, being learned and wise, teach thou 
us who are ignorant (how to perform) the sacri- 
fices!' 

8. He then recited to them as follows, 'A stronger, 
pursuing, has, as it were, driven a great snake from 
its own place, the lake r therefore the sacrificial 
session is not carried through.' 

9. ' For your Asvina ($astra), being recited, has 
indeed driven the morning-litany from its place V — 

jastras of the Agnish/oma, and) the fifteen chants of the 
Ukthya, adds a sixteenth; and the Atir&tra which has thirteen 
additional chants (and recitations), viz. three nocturnal rounds of 
four chants each, and one twilight-chant, followed by the Afvina- 
jastra, recited by the Hotr*. No account is here taken of either 
the Atyagnish/oma of thirteen chants, or the Aptoryama, which, 
to those of the Atiritra, adds four more chants. Cf. part ii, p. 397, 
note 2. 

1 Or, perhaps, rather, in their days prior to the fiftieth (arvakpaft- 
Aireshv ahaAsu), St. Petersb. Diet. 

* The Ajvina-jastra, with the recitation of which, by the 
Hotri, the Atir&tra concludes, takes the place, and is, indeed, 



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XI KkNDA, 5 ADHYAYA, 5 BRAHMAJVA, IO. 93 

' What ye, being wise, have unwise-like driven from 
its place, take ye up that gently through the Pra- 
s&stri, reciting so as not to disturb l (the Hotrt).' 

10. They spake, ' How, then, reverend sir, is 
(the Axvina-Jastra properly) recited and how is the 
recitation not disturbed?' He spake, 'When the 
Hotrt, in reciting the Ajvina-sastra, reaches the end 
of the Gayatra metre of the Agneya-kratu ', the 
Pratiprasthatr? s should carry round the Vasatlvart 
water 4 , and bespeak the Pr&tar-anuv&ka for the 
Maitravaruwa (seated) between the two Havirdhana 
(carts containing the offering-material). The Hotrt 
recites (the A-rvina-sastra) in a loud voice, and the 
other (the Maitravaruwa) repeats (the morning- 
litany) in a low voice, only just muttering it : in this 

merely a modification, of ihe Pritar-anuvSka, or morning-litany (see 
part ii, p. 229, note 2), by which an ordinary Soma-sacrifice is 
ushered in. Like it, its chief portion consists of three sections, 
termed kratu, of hymns and detached verses addressed to the 
'early-coming' deities, Agni, Ushas and the two Ajvins. The 
whole is to consist of not less than a thousand Br; hatis, that is 
to say, the whole matter is to amount to at least 36,000 syllables. 
For a full account of this Sastra, see Haug's Transl. of Ait. Br., 
p. 268. 

1 Whilst the Hotrt is reciting the A* vina-jastra, his first assistant, 
the Pra«lstr»'(or,as he is more commonly called, the Maitravaru«a), 
is to repeat the PrStar-anuvaka in a low voice. 

* The hymns and detached verses of each of the three sections — 
the Agneya-, Ushasya- and Awina-kratu — of the Afvina-jastra (as 
of the Pritar-anuvika) are arranged according to the seven prin- 
cipal metres — gayatri, anush/ubh, trish/ubh, br/hatt, ushmh,£agalt, 
and pankti — forming as many subdivisions of the three sections. 

' That is, the first assistant of the Adhvaryu priest ; the latter 
having to respond (pratigara) to the Hotrc's calls (see part ii, 
p. 326, note 1) at the beginning and end of the 5astra, and to sit 
through the recitations (III, 9, 3, n). 

* See III, 9, 2, 13 seqq. 



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94 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAYA. 

way he does not run counter to (the HotWs) speech 
by (his own) speech, nor metre by metre. 

ii. 'When the Pratar-anuvaka has been com- 
pleted, he (the Pratiprasthatrr), having offered, at 
their proper time 1 , the UpS«Mu and Antaryama 
cups *, presses out the straining-cloth and puts it in 
the Dro#akala*a 3 . And when ye have performed 
the (offering of the cups of) fermented Soma *, and 
returned (to the Sadas), ye should drink the 
fermented Soma (remaining in those cups). Having 
then, in the proper form, completed the " tail of the 
sacrifice," and taken up the cups of Soma (drawn) 
subsequent to the Antaryama 6 , and offered the 
oblation of drops •, as well as the Santani-oblation 7 , 
ye should perform the Bahishpavamana chant, and 
enter upon the day (-performance).' 

12. Concerning this there are these verses: — 
4 With four harnessed Saindhava (steeds) the sages 
left behind them the gloom — the wise gods who 
spun out the session of a hundred sacrifices.' 

13. In this (sacrificial session) there are, indeed, 
four harnessed (steeds), — to wit, two Hotrr's and 
two Adhvaryus. — ' Like unto the artificer contriving 
spikes to the spear, the sages coupled the ends of 

1 YathSyatanam eva prakrrtau yasmin kale huyeta tathaiva 
hutvS, Say. 

* See IV, 1, 1, 22 seqq. ; 1, 2, 21 seqq. 
' See II, 1, 2, 3, with note thereon. 

* That is, having, after the completion of the Arvina-jastra, offered 
to the Ajvins some of the Soma that has been standing ' over the 
previous day.' 

• Viz. the AindravSyava, Maitravaruwa, &c, see IV, 1, 3, 1 seqq. 

• See IV, 2, 5, 1 seqq. 

7 Called ' savanasantani ' (? L e. continuity of pressing) by Katy., 
XXIV, 4, 1. 



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XI KkNDA, 5 ADHYAYA, 6 BRAHMAiVA, 2. 95 

two days : now the Danavas, we know \ will not 
disorder the sacrificial thread of them stretched out 
by us. — They leave undone the work of the previous 
day, and carry it through on the following day, — 
difficult to be understood is the wisdom of the 
deities: streams of Soma flow, interlinked with 
streams of Soma ! — Even as they constantly sprinkle 
the equal prize-winning 2 steeds, so (they pour out) 
the cups full of fiery liquor in the palace of ^aname- 
/aya.' Then the Asura-Rakshas went away. 

Sixth BrAhmajva. 
The Study of the Veda. 

i. There are five great sacrifices, and they, indeed, 
are great sacrificial sessions, — to wit, the sacrifice to 
beings, the sacrifice to men, the sacrifice to the 
Fathers, the sacrifice to the gods, and the sacrifice 
to the Brahman. 

2. Day by day one should offer an oblation to 
beings: thus he performs that sacrifice to beings. 
Day by day one should offer (presents to guests) up 
to the cupful of water 3 : thus he performs that 

1 Sayana construes, — we know the extended sacrificial thread of 
these (days), and the Danavas (Asuras) do not henceforth confound 
us. In that case the order of words would be extremely irregular. 

1 Kash/Aabhn'taA, a^yanti (1) kash/Aani tani bibhrattti kash- 
/AabhritaA svadasam (? jMandasaw) purvapadasya hrasvatvam, S^i- 
dhavanam kr/tavato hayan arvan, Say. According to this authority 
the general meaningof the verse is that even as the (king's) horses, 
when they have performed their task, have sweet drinks poured out 
on (? to) them, and thus obtain their hearts' desire, so the gods, by 
performing a sacrificial session of a hundred Atiratras, in accord- 
ance with Pra^ipati's directions, dispel the darkness and gain the 
world of heaven. 

* Or perhaps, from a cupful of water onwards, — aharahar dadyad 



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96 JATAPATHA-BRAHMAYA. 

sacrifice to men. Day by day one should offer with 
Svadhi up to the cupful of water 1 : thus he performs 
that sacrifice to the Fathers. Day by day one 
should perform with Svfihi up to the log of fire- 
wood 2 : thus he performs that sacrifice to the 
gods. 

3. Then as to the sacrifice to the Brahman. The 
sacrifice to the Brahman is one's own (daily) study 
(of the Veda). The .fuhu-spoon of this same sacri- 
fice to the Brahman is speech, its upabhWt the mind, 
its dhruvi the eye, its sruva mental power, its 
purificatory bath truth, its conclusion heaven. And, 
verily, however great the world he gains by giving 
away (to the priests) this earth replete with wealth, 
thrice that and more — an imperishable world does 
he gain, whosoever, knowing this, studies day by 
day his lesson (of the Veda) : therefore let him study 
his daily lesson. 

4. Verily, the Rik-texts are milk-offerings to the 
gods ; and whosoever, knowing this, studies day by 
day the ./fo'k-texts for his lesson, thereby satisfies 
the gods with milk-offerings; and, being satisfied, 
they satisfy him by (granting him) security of 

iti manushyan uddlrya odapitrat udakapuritam p&tram udapatram 
udakapatravadhi yad odanadikam dadyit sa manushyaya^wEa ity 
arthaA, Say. — Cf. J. Muir, Orig. Sanskrit Texts, vol. iii, p. 18 seqq. 

1 In making offering to the (three immediately preceding) 
departed ancestors, water is poured out for them (to wash them- 
selves with) both at the beginning and at the end of the ceremony ; 
see II, 4, 2, 16 ; 23 ; II, 6, 1, 34 ; 41, where each time it is said that 
this is done ' even as one would pour out water for (a guest) who 
is to take (or has taken) food with him ;' — pitrm uddlrya pratyahaw 
svadhakarena ann&dikam udapatraparyantaat dadyit, Say. 

' Apparendy the log of wood placed on the Garhapatya after the 
completion of the offering. 



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xi KkNDA, 5 adhyAya, 6 brAhmaya, 7. 97 

possession 1 , by life-breath, by seed, by his whole 
self, and by all auspicious blessings; and rivers 
of ghee and rivers of honey flow for his (departed) 
Fathers, as their accustomed draughts. 

5. And, verily, the Ya^us-texts are ghee-offerings 
to the gods ; and whosoever, knowing this, studies 
day by day the Ya^us-texts for his lesson thereby 
satisfies the gods with ghee-offerings; and, being 
satisfied, they satisfy him by security of possession, 
by life-breath, by seed, by his whole self, and by 
all auspicious blessings; and rivers of ghee and 
rivers of honey flow for his Fathers, as their accus- 
tomed draughts. 

6. And, verily, the Saman-texts are Soma-offer- 
ings to the gods ; and whosoever, knowing this, 
studies day by day the Saman-texts for his lesson 
thereby satisfies the gods with Soma-offerings ; and, 
being satisfied, they satisfy him by security of 
possession, by life-breath, by seed, by his whole 
self, and by all auspicious blessings ; and rivers 
of ghee and rivers of honey flow for his Fathers, 
as their accustomed draughts. 

7. And, verily, the (texts of the) Atharvangiras 
are fat-offerings to the gods ; and whosoever, know- 
ing this, studies day by day the (texts of the) 
Atharvangiras for his lesson, satisfies the gods with 
fat- offerings ; and, being satisfied, they satisfy him 
by security of possession, by life-breath, by seed, by 
his whole self, and by all auspicious blessings ; and 
rivers of ghee and rivers of honey flow for his 
Fathers, as their accustomed draughts. 

1 Apraptasya phalasya praptir yogaA tasj a paripalanaw kshemaA, 

say. 

[44] H 



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98 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

8. And, verily, the precepts 1 , the sciences 2 , the 
dialogue 3 , the traditional myths and legends 4 , and 
the Nara^awsl Gathas 8 are honey-offerings to 
the gods; and whosoever, knowing this, studies 
day by day the precepts, the sciences, the dialogue, 
the traditional myths and legends, and the Nara- 
samsl Gathas, for his lesson, satisfies the gods with 
honey-offerings ; and, being satisfied, they satisfy 
him by (granting him) security of possession, by 
life-breath, by seed, by his whole self, and by all 
auspicious blessings ; and rivers of ghee and rivers 
of honey flow for his Fathers, as their accustomed 
draughts. 

1 The Anuxasanani, according to Sayawa, are the six Vedangas, 
or rules of grammar, etymology, &c. 

1 By vidyaA, according to Sayawa, the philosophical systems, 
Nyaya, Mfmamsa, &c, are to be understood. More likely, how- 
ever, such special sciences as the ' sarpavidya ' (science of snakes) 
are referred to ; cf. XIII, 4, 3, 9 seqq. 

* Vakovakyam, apparently some special theological discourse, 
or discourses, similar to (if not identical with) the numerous 
Brahmodya, or disputations on spiritual matters. As an example 
of such a dialogue, Sayawa refers to the dialogue between Uddalaka 
Arum and Svaidayawa Gautama, XI, 4, 1, 4 seqq. 

4 Itihasa-purawa: the Itihisa, according to Sayawa, are cos- 
mological myths or accounts, such as 'In the beginning this 
universe was nothing but water,' &c. ; whilst as an instance of the 
Purina (stories of olden times, puratanapurushavrsttanta) he refers 
to the story of Pururavas and Urvarf. Cf. Max Mttller, History of 
Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 41. 

* Or, the Gathas and Narlraaisis. Sayawa, in the first place, 
takes the two as one, meaning ' stanzas (or verses) telling about 
men ;' but he then refers to the interpretation by others, according 
to which the Gathas are such verses as that about ' the great snake 
driven from the lake' (XI, 5, 5, 8) ; whilst the Nar&nuwsfs would be 
(verses ' telling about men ') such as that regarding Ganame^aya 
and his horses (XI, 5, 5, 1 2). On Aitarey&r. II, 3, 6, 8, Sayawa 
quotes ' prataw pratar annta/n te vadanti ' as an instance of a GatM. 



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xi kXnda, 5 adhtAya, 7 brahmava, i. 99 

9. Now, for this sacrifice to the Brahman there 
are four Vasha/-calls \ — to wit, when the wind 
blows, when it lightens, when it thunders, and when 
it rumbles 2 : whence he who knows this should 
certainly study 8 when the wind is blowing, and 
when it lightens, or thunders, or rumbles, so as 
not to lose his Vasha^-calls ; and verily he is freed 
from recurring death, and attains to community of 
nature (or, being) with the Brahman. And should 
he be altogether unable (to study), let him at least 
read a single divine word ; and thus he is not shut 
out from beings 4 . 

Seventh BrAhmajva. 
1. Now, then, the praise of the study (of the 
scriptures). The study and teaching (of the Veda) 
are a source of pleasure to him, he becomes ready- 
minded 8 , and independent of others, and day by 
day he acquires wealth. He sleeps peacefully ; he 
is the best physician for himself; and (peculiar) 
to him are restraint of the senses, delight in the 
one thing', growth of intelligence, fame, and the 
(task of) perfecting the people 7 . The growing 

1 That is, the call 'Vausha/I' with which, at the end of the 
offering-formula, the oblation is poured into the fire. 

* That is, when the rumbling of distant thunder is heard ; or, 
perhaps, when there is a rattling sound, as from hail-stones. 

' Hardly, should only study, — adhfyttaiva. 

* Or, from (the world of) spirits (?). 

* Or, as Sayawa takes it to mean, of intent, undistracted mind, — 
yuktam avikshiptam ekagram mano yasya sa yuktaman&A. 

' Sayawa seems to take 'ekiramata' in the sense of 'remaining 
always the same,' — eka eva sann a samantad bhavattty ekaramas 
tasya bhavaA. 

' Or, perfecting the world, — tadyukto yo lokas tasya paktiA pari- 
piko bhavati, Say. ^ _ ^ . 

537827A 



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IOO DATAPATH A-BRAHMAtfA. 

intelligence gives rise to four duties attaching to the 
Brahma«a — Brahma»ical descent, a befitting deport- 
ment, fame, and the perfecting of the people ; and the 
people that are being perfected guard the Brahmaoa 
by four duties — by (showing him) respect, and 
liberality, (and by granting him) security against 
oppression, and security against capital punishment. 

2. And, truly, whatever may be the toils here 
between heaven and earth, the study (of the scrip- 
tures) is their last stage, their goal (limit) for him 
who, knowing this, studies his lesson: therefore 
one's (daily) lesson should be studied. 

3. And, verily, whatever portion of the sacred 
poetry (Pandas) he studies for his lesson with that 
sacrificial rite , , offering is made by him who, know- 
ing this, studies his lesson : therefore one's (daily) 
lesson should be studied. 

4. And, verily, if he studies his lesson, even 
though lying on a soft couch, anointed, adorned 
and completely satisfied, he is burned (with holy 
fire 2 ) up to the tips of his nails, whosoever, know- 
ing this, studies his lesson : therefore one's (daily) 
lesson should be studied. 

5. The Rtk-texts, truly, are honey, the Saman- 
texts ghee, and the Ya^us-texts ambrosia; and, 
indeed, when he studies the dialogue that (speech 
and reply) is a mess of milk and a mess of meat. 

1 The study of the Veda being ' the sacrifice of the Brahman/ 
the reading of a portion is, as it •were, a special rite, or form of 
offering, belonging to that sacrifice. Sayaaa, on the other hand, 
takes it to mean that the student performs, as it were, the particular 
rite, or offering, to which the portion he reads may refer. It may, 
indeed, be implied, though it certainly is not expressed in the text. 

1 Thus A. Weber, Ind. Stud. X, p. 11a; — rartrapManena tapas- 
tapto bhavati, Say. 



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xi kXnca, 5 adhyAya, 7 brAhmaya, 10. 101 

6. And, indeed, he who, knowing this, studies 
day by day the .tfzk-texts for his lesson, satisfies 
the gods with honey, and, thus satisfied, they satisfy 
him by every object of desire, by every kind of 
enjoyment 

7. And he who, knowing this, studies day by day 
the Saman-texts for his lesson, satisfies the gods 
with ghee ; and, being satisfied, they satisfy him by 
every object of desire, by every kind of enjoyment. 

8. And he who, knowing this, studies day by day 
the Ya^us-texts for his lesson, satisfies the gods with 
ambrosia ; and, being satisfied, they satisfy him by 
every object of desire, by every kind of enjoyment. 

9. And he who, knowing this, studies day by day 
the dialogue, the traditional myths and legends, for 
his lesson, satisfies the gods by messes of milk and 
meat ; and, being satisfied, they satisfy him by every 
object of desire, by every kind of enjoyment. 

10. Moving, indeed, are the waters, moving is the 
sun, moving the moon, and moving the stars ; and, 
verily, as if these deities did not move and act, even 
so will the Brahma«a be on that day on which he 
does not study his lesson : therefore one's (daily) 
lesson should be studied. And hence let him at least 
pronounce either a J&k-verse or a Ya^us-formula, 
or a Saman-verse, or a Gatha, or a Kumbya 1 , to 
ensure continuity of the Vrata *. 

1 A ' Kumbya,' according to Siya«a, is a Brahma»a-passage 
explanatory of some sacrificial precept or rite (vidhyarthav&d&t- 
makam br&hma»a-v£kyam) ; whilst, on Aitarey&r. II, 3, 6, 8, the 
same commentator explains it as a verse (r/'g-vLresha) conveying 
some precept of conduct (Sidrarikshdrupa), such as 'brahma- 
vKuyasy&pcwSna/s karma kuru, divd mi sv&psW,' &c. Cf. Prof. F. 
Max Mailer's transl., Upanishads I, p. 230, note 2. 
' * This is in keeping with the mystic representation of this and" 



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i02 satapatha-brahma2va. 

Eighth Brahmajva. 

i. Verily, in the beginning, Pra^apati alone was 
here. He desired, ' May I exist, may I be generated.' 
He wearied himself and performed fervid devo- 
tions: from him, thus wearied and heated, the 
three worlds were created — the earth, the air, and 
the sky. 

2. He heated these three worlds, and from them, 
thus heated, three lights (^yotis) were produced — 
Agni (the fire), he who blows here (Vayu), and 
Surya (the sun). 

3. He heated these three lights, and from them, 
thus heated, the three Vedas were produced — the 
J&g-veda. from Agni, the Ya^ur-veda from Vayu, 
and the Sama-veda from Surya. 

4. He heated these three Vedas, and from them, 
thus heated, three luminous essences 1 were pro- 

the preceding chapters which represent the daily study of the 
scriptural lessoa as a sacrifice continued day by day. The student, 
as the sacrificer, has accordingly, during the sacrifice (that is, during 
the period of his study of the Vedas, or for life), as it were, to limit 
his daily food to the drinking of the Vrata-milk, which rule he 
obeys symbolically by reciting such a verse or formula. 

1 ? Sayawa takes 'rakra' here in the sense of 'flame, light' 
(vyahr»ltirup£»i te^iwsi) ; whilst the St. Petersb. Diet assigns to it 
the meaning of « sap, juice ' (Saft, Seim, cf. next note). Ait. Br. 
V, 32, contains a very similar passage in which the same process of 
evolution is set forth: — Pra^apati first creates the three worlds, 
earth, air, and heaven. From them, being heated by him, three 
lights (#yotis) are produced — Agni from the earth, Viyu from the 
air, and Aditya from the sky (or heaven). From them, being 
heated, the three Vedas are produced — the i?»g-veda from Agni, the 
Ya^ur-veda from Vayu, and the Sama-veda from Aditya. From 
the Vedas, being heated, three flames (jukra, luminaries, Haug) 
are produced — BhuA from the J?*'g-veda, BhuvaA from the Yagur- 



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xi K&NDA, 5 adhyAya, 8 brAhmajva, 6. 103 

duced — 'bhuA' from the i?/g-veda, 'bhuvaA' from the 
Ya^ur-veda, and ' svar ' from the Sama-veda. And 
with the Rig-veda. they then performed the work of 
the HotW priest, with the Ya/ur-veda the work of 
the Adhvaryu, and with the Sama-veda the work 
of the Udg&trt; and what luminous essence 1 there 
was in the threefold science, therewith the work of 
the Brahman priest then proceeded. 

5. The gods spake unto Pra^apati, ' If our sacri- 
fice were to fail, in respect of either the Rtk, or 
the Ya^us, or the Saman, whereby should we 
heal it?' 

6. He spake, ' If (it were to fail) in respect of the 
Rik, ye should take ghee by four ladlings and offer 
it in the Girhapatya fire with ' Bhu£ ! ' and if in 
respect of the Ya^us, ye should take ghee by four 
ladlings and offer it in the Agnldhrlya — or in the 
Anvaharyapaiana * in the ease of a Havirya£7*a — 
with ' Bhuva^ ! ' and if in respect of the Saman, 
ye should take ghee by four ladlings and offer it in 
the Ahavaniya with ' Svar ! ' But if it should not 
be known (where the mistake has occurred), ye 
should make offering in the Ahavaniya after utter- 



veda, and Svar from the Sama-veda. From these in the same way 
are produced three sounds (or letters, var«a), i, u and m, which 
being combined yield the syllable ' Om.' Cp. J. Muir, Original 
Sanskrit Texts, vol. iii, p. 4. 

1 Here S&ya»a also seems to take ' mkra ' in the sense of ' pure, 
essential part ' — nirmalam rupant s&ratvalibwa/4 (!). 

1 That is, the Dakshimlgm. At the Havirya^ffa (of which class 
of sacrifices, performed in the Pra£inava»wa hall, the full and 
new moon serves as model) there is no Agnfdhrtya, which is, 
however, required for the Soma-sacrifice. See the plan in part ii, 

P- 475- 



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J 04 DATAPATH A-BRAH MAN A. 

ing rapidly all (the three sacred words *) : thus one 
heals the ./fo'g-veda by the i?«'g-veda 8 , the Ya^ur- 
veda by the Yafur-veda, and the Sama-veda by the 
Sama-veda ; — even as one would put together joint 
with joint 3 , so does he put together (the broken 
part of the sacrifice) whoever heals it by means 
of these (three sacred words). But if he heals it 
in any other way than this, it would be just as if 
one tried to put together something that is broken 
with something else that is broken, or as if one 
were to apply some poison as lotion to a broken 
part*. Let him therefore appoint only one who 
knows this (to officiate as) his Brahman, and not 
one who does not know this. 

7. As to this they say, ' Seeing that the work of 
the Hotri is performed with the i?*g-veda, that 
of the Adhvaryu with the Ya/ur-veda, and that of 
the Udgatr* with the Sama-veda, wherewith then 
is the work of the Brahman (performed)?' Let 
him reply, ' With that threefold science.' 



1 According to Sdya«a, offering would be used with the formula 
' Bhflr bhuvaft svaA, sviM !' 

* Viz. by the word ' bhuA,' representing that Veda. 

* Yatha khalu loke bhagnam hastapadSdiparva tatsannihiteni- 
nyena parvaaa' purushaya sawdadhyit samleshayet, evam evinena 
vyShn'ti^flancna tat tad avedoktaw prabhnsb/am anga*r punaA 
sahitaw bhavati, Say. 

* ? Or, as if one were to put some fluid into some broken (vessel ; 
or, on some broken part), — yathS simena. bhagnena anya£ kMmam 
bhagnaw vastu samdhitset sawdhatum iikJiet ; yatha va xtrwe garaw 
bhaktavayave garam abhinidadhyat praAdattipeta (? prakshipet), 

say. 



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xi kXnda, 5 adhyAya, 9 brAhmajva, 5. 105 



Ninth BrAhmajva. 

Thk AdAbhya-Graha. 

1. Now, the Amsu (cup of Soma) 1 , indeed, is no 
other than Pra^apati; and it is the body of this 
(sacrifice), for Pra^apati, indeed, is the body. And 
the Adabhya 2 (cup of Soma) is no other than 
speech. When he draws the Amsu-cup, and then 
the Adabhya-cup, he thereby constructs the body 
of this (sacrifice) and then establishes that speech 
therein. 

2. And, indeed, the Amsu is also the mind, and 
the Adabhya speech ; and the Amsu is the out- 
breathing, and the Adabhya the up-breathing; and 
the Amsu is the eye, and the Adabhya the ear: 
these two cups they draw for the sake of wholeness 
and completeness. 

3. Now; the gods and the Asuras, both of them 
sprung from Pra^apati, were contending, — it was for 
this very sacrifice, for Pra^apati, that they were 
contending, saying, ' Ours he shall be ! ours he 
shall be!' 

4. The gods then went on singing praises, and 
toiling. They saw this cup of Soma, this Adabhya, 
and drew it : they seized upon the (three) Soma- 
services, and possessed themselves of the whole 
sacrifice, and excluded the Asuras from the sacrifice. 

5. They spake, ' Surely, we have destroyed (ada- 
bhama) them ; ' whence (the cup is called) Adabhya ; 
— 'they have not destroyed (dabh) us;' whence 
also (it is called) Adabhya. And the Adabhya 

1 See IV, 1, 1, a; 6, i, i. 
1 See part ii, p. 434, note 1. 



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106 satapatha-brahmaya. 

being speech, this speech is indestructible, whence 
also it is (called) Adibhya; and, verily, in like 
manner does he who knows this possess himself 
of the whole sacrifice of his spiteful enemy, and 
exclude and shut out his spiteful enemy from all 
participation in the sacrifice. 

6. Into the same vessel with which he draws the 
Atrtsu 1 he pours water from the NigrabhyaA 2 , 
and therein puts those Soma-plants s with (Va^f. S. 
VIII, 47)- 

7. 'Thou art taken with a support 4 : for 
Agni I take thee, possessed of the Gayatrl 
metre!' — the morning-service is of Gayatrl nature: 
he thus possesses himself of the morning-service ; — 
'For Indra I take thee, possessed of the 
Trish/ubh metre!' — the midday-service is of 
Trish/ubh nature : he thus possesses himself of 
the midday-service; — 'For the Vijve Devi^ 
I take thee, possessed of the Ga.ga.ti metre!' 
— the evening-service is of GagatfL nature : he thus 
possesses himself of the evening-service; — 'The 
Anush/ubh is thy song of praise;' — whatever 
is subsequent to the (three) services 8 , that is of 
Anush/ubh nature : it is thereof he thus possesses 

1 See IV, 6, 1, 3 seq. 

1 That is, the water originally taken from the Prawita water, and 
poured into the (square) Hotri's cup (made of Udumbara wood), 
to be used for moistening the Soma-plants. 

* For the Adibhya he pats three Soma-plants into the Hotr»"s 
cup. 

4 According to Katy. XII, 6, 15, this portion of the formula — 
the ' upaySma,' or support — is repeated before the formulas of each 
of the three plants, hence also before 'For Indra . . . ,' and 'For the 
Virve DeviA . . .' 

* Viz. the Ukthyas, Shorfarin, &c, in forms of Soma-sacrifice 
other than the Agnish/oma. 



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xi kAmda, 5 adhvAya, 9 brAhmajva, ii. 107 

himself. He does not press this (batch of Soma- 
plants) lest he should injure speech (or, the voice 
of the sacrifice), for the press-stone is a thunderbolt, 
and the Adibhya is speech. 

8. He merely shakes the (cup with the) plants 
with (Va^-. S. VIII, 48), «In the flow of the 
streaming (waters) I waft thee! in the flow 
of the gurgling I waft thee! in the flow of 
the jubilant I waft thee! in the flow of the 
most delightsome I waft thee! in the flow of 
the most sweet I waft thee!' These doubtless 
are the divine waters : he thus bestows sap on him 
(Pra/apati, the sacrifice) by means of both the divine 
and the human waters which there are. 

9. 'Thee, the bright, I waft in the bright,' — 
for he indeed wafts the bright one in the bright ; — 
'in the form of the day, in the rays of the 
sun;' — he thus wafts it both in the form of the 
day and in the rays of the sun. 

10. [Vfy. S. VIII, 49], 'Mightily shineth the 
towering form of the ball,' — for mightily indeed 
shines that towering form of the ball, to wit, yonder 
burning (sun); — 'the bright one, the leader of 
the bright one, Soma, the leader of Soma,' — 
he thereby makes that bright (sun) the leader of 
the bright (Soma), and Soma the leader of the 
Soma; — 'what indestructible, watchful name 
there is of thine, for that do I take thee;' — 
for this, to wit, speech, is indeed his (Soma's) 
indestructible (adabhya), watchful name : it is thus 
speech he thereby takes for speech. 

11. Then, stepping out (from the Havirdhina 
shed 1 ) to (the Ahavanlya), he offers with, 'O 

1 It is there that the Soma-plants are kept. 



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I08 DATAPATH A-BRAhMAJVA. 

Soma, to this thy Soma, hail!' — he thus offers 
Soma to Soma, and so does not throw speech into 
the fire 1 . He breathes over gold 2 : the meaning 
of this is the same as there (on the occasion of 
the Amsu). He gives as many presents (to the 
priests) as for the AflMu-graha. 

12. He then puts the Soma-plants back (on the 
heap of plants in the Havirdhana) with (Va/ - . S. 
VIII, 50), ' Enter thou gladly Agni's dear seat, 
O divine Soma! — Enter thou willingly Indra's 
dear seat, O divine Soma! — As our friend 
enter thou, O divine Soma, the dear seat of 
the Vijve Deva>6!' On that former occasion 
he possessed himself of the (three) Soma services : 
he now restores them again, and causes them to 
be no longer used up ; and with them thus restored 
they perform the sacrifice. 

Sixth Adhyaya. First BrAhmajva. 

1. Now, Bhrtgu, the son of Varuwa, deemed 
himself superior to his father Varu«a in knowledge 3 . 
Varu«a became aware of this : ' He deems himself 
superior to me in knowledge,' he thought 

2. He said, 'Go thou eastward, my boy; and 

1 Though the Adabbya-graha, that is, the water in which the 
three Soma-plants are contained, and which alone is offered, has 
been identified with speech, the wording of the formula is such 
as to protect (the faculty of) speech from being burned in the fire. 

1 Just as, after the offering of the Awju-graha, he smelted at (or 
breathed over) a piece of gold fastened to (? or contained in) the 
spoon, see IV, 6, 1, 6 seqq. 

* On this legend, see Prof. Weber, Indische Streifen, I, p. 34 seqq., 
where the scenes here depicted are taken to be reflections of the 
popular belief of the time as to the punishments awaiting the guihy 
in a future existence. 



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xi kXnda, 6 adhyAya, i brAhmajva, 4. 109 

having seen there what thou shalt see, go thou 
southwards ; and having seen there what thou shalt 
see, go thou westward ; and having seen there what 
thou shalt see, go thou northward ; and having seen 
there what thou shalt see, go thou toward the 
northern of those two intermediate quarters in 
front 1 , and tell me then what thou shalt see there.' 

3. He then went forth from thence eastward, 
and lo, men were dismembering men 2 , hewing off 
their limbs one by one, and saying, ' This to thee, 
this to me ! ' He said, ' Horrible ! woe is me ! men 
here have dismembered men, hewing off their 
limbs one by one ! ' They replied, * Thus, indeed, 
these dealt with us in yonder world, and so we 
now deal with them in return.' He said, ' Is there 
no atonement for this ? ' — ' Yes, there is,' they 
replied. — ' What is it ?' — ' Thy father knows.' 

4. He went forth from thence southward, and 
lo, men were dismembering men, cutting up their 
limbs one by one, and saying, 'This to thee, this 
to me ! ' He said, ' Horrible ! woe is me ! men 
here have dismembered men, cutting up their limbs 
one by one ! ' They replied, ' Thus, indeed, these 
dealt with us in yonder world, and so we now deal 
with them in return.' He said, ' Is there no atone- 
ment for this?' — 'Yes, there is,' they replied. — 
* What is it ? '—' Thy father knows.' 

1 That is to say, in the north-easterly direction. Prof. Weber 
seems to take it in the sense of the northern one of the two regions 
intermediate between the two (regions) first referred to. This, 
however, makes no sense. 

* I think, with Prof. DelbrQck, Altind. Syntax, p. 404, that the 
instrumental ' purushaiA ' stands in lieu of the accusative; this con- 
struction being adopted in order to avoid the double accusative 
and consequent ambiguity. 



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I IO DATAPATH A-BRAHMAYA. 

5. He went forth from thence westward, and lo, 
men, sitting still, were being eaten by men, sitting 
still ! He said, ' Horrible ! woe is me ! men, sitting 
still, are eating men, sitting still!' They replied, 
'Thus, indeed, these have dealt with us in yonder 
world, and so we now deal with them in return.' 
He said, 'Is there no atonement for this?' — 'Yes, 
there is,' they replied. — ' What is it ? ' — ' Thy father 
knows.' 

6. He went forth from thence northward, and lo, 
men, crying aloud, were being eaten by men, crying 
aloud ! He said, ' Horrible ! woe is me ! men, crying 
aloud, here are eating men, crying aloud ! ' They 
replied, ' Thus, indeed, these dealt with us in yonder 
world, and so we now deal with them in return.' 
He said, 'Is there no atonement for this?' — 'Yes, 
there is,' they replied.— ' What is it ?'— ' Thy father 
knows.' 

7. He went forth from thence toward the northern 
of those two intermediate quarters in front, and lo, 
there were two women, one beautiful, one over- 
beautiful 1 : between them stood a man, black, with 
yellow eyes, and a staff in his hand. On seeing 
him, terror seized him, and he went home, and sat 
down. His father said to him, 'Study thy day's 
lesson (of scripture) : why dost thou not study 
thy lesson ? ' He said, ' What am I to study ? 
there is nothing whatever.' Then Varu«a knew, 
' He has indeed seen it ! ' 

8. He spake, ' As to those men whom thou 



1 According to Siyawa ' ati-kalya»t ' means ' not beautiful (afo- 
bhana), ugly.' Perhaps its real meaning is ' one of past beauty,' 
one whose beauty has faded. 



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xi kAjvda, 6 adhyAya, i brAhmajva, 13. 1 1 1 

sawest in the eastern region being dismembered 
by men hewing off their limbs one by one, and 
saying, " This to thee, this to me ! " they were the 
trees : when one puts fire-wood from trees on (the 
fire) he subdues the trees, and conquers the world 
of trees. 

9. ' And as to those men whom thou sawest in 
the southern region being dismembered by men 
cutting up their limbs one by one, and saying, 
" This to thee, this to me 1 " they were the cattle ; 
when one makes offering with milk he subdues 
the cattle, and conquers the world of cattle. 

10. 'And as to those men thou sawest in the 
western' region who, whilst sitting still, were being 
eaten by men sitting still, they were the herbs : 
when one illumines (the Agnihotra milk) with a 
straw 1 , he subdues the herbs, and conquers the 
world of herbs. 

11. 'And as to those men thou sawest in the 
northern region who, whilst crying aloud, were being 
eaten by men crying aloud, they were the waters : 
when one pours water to (the Agnihotra milk), he 
subdues the waters, and conquers the world of 
waters. 

12. 'And as to those two women whom thou 
sawest, one beautiful and one over-beautiful, — the 
beautiful one is Belief: when one offers the first 
libation (of the Agnihotra) he subdues Belief, and 
conquers Belief; and the over-beautiful one is 
Unbelief: when one offers the second libation, he 
subdues Unbelief, and conquers Unbelief. 

1 3. ' And as to the black man with yellow eyes, 

' See II, 3, 1, 16. 



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1 1 2 jatapatha-brAhmaa*a. 

who was standing between them with a staff in his 
hand, he was Wrath : when, having poured water 
into the spoon, one pours (the libation into the fire), 
he subdues Wrath, and conquers Wrath ; and, 
verily, whosoever, knowing this, offers the Agni- 
hotra, thereby conquers everything, and subdues 
everything.' 

Second BrAhmajta. 

i. Now, Canaka of Videha once met some 
Brahmaaas who were travelling about 1 , to wit, 
.SVetaketu Aru#eya, Soma^ushma Satya- 
ya.g'ni, and Ya^wavalkya. He said to them, 
' How do ye each of you perform the Agnihotra ? ' 

2. »Svetaketu Aru«eya replied, ' O great king, I 
make offering, in one another, to two heats, never- 
failing and overflowing with glory.' — ' How is 
that?' asked the king. — 'Well, Aditya (the sun) 
is heat : to him I make offering in Agni in the 
evening ; and Agni, indeed, is heat : to him I make 
offering in the morning in Aditya 2 .' — 'What 
becomes of him who offers in this way ? ' asked the 

1 Or, driving about (and officiating at sacrifices); see XI, 4, i, i. 
For a translation of this story see Max Mttller, History of Ancient 
Sanskrit Literature, p. 421 seqq. 

1 Aditya/s sSyamkale agnav anupravish/aw £iihonu havishi tar- 
payami ; atbignir api gharmaA, sa pratar fidityam anupravitati, tarn 
agni/w prataAkale aditye sthitam havisha prfcayami, Say. — At II, 
3 1 I > 3<>> instead of — ' In the evening he offers Surya in Agni, and 
in the morning he offers Agni in Surya ' — we ought probably to 
translate, — 'In the evening he makes offering to Surya in Agni, 
and in the morning he makes offering to Agni in Surya.' The 
commentary there would admit of either rendering: — Agnir 
gyotu, iti mantrewa ^uhvad agnav eva santaw suryam ^gTihoti, tatha 
/(a gyotiAsaM&A suryava£ana/5 ; prataAkale tu surye santam agniro 
^uhoti. 



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XI KktfDA, 6 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAiVA, 5. II3 

king. — ' He verily becomes never-failing in pros- 
perity and glory, and attains to the fellowship of 
those two deities, and to an abode in their world.' 

3. Then Somajushma Satyaya^asi said, ' I, O king, 
make offering to light in light' — 'How is that?' 
asked the king. — 'Well, Aditya is light: to him 
I make offering in Agni in the evening ; and Agni, 
indeed, is light : to him I make offering in Aditya 
in the morning.' — ' What becomes of him who offers 
in this way ? ' — ' He verily becomes lightsome, and 
glorious, and prosperous ; and attains to the fellow- 
ship of those two deities, and to an abode in their 
world.' 

4. Then YSf«avalkya said, ' When I take out the 
fire (from the Garhapatya), it is the Agnihotra itself, 
I thereby raise , . Now when Aditya (the sun) sets, 
all the gods follow him ; and when they see that 
fire taken out by me, they turn back. Having then 
cleansed the (sacrificial) vessels, and deposited them 
(on the Vedi), and having milked the Agnihotra 
cow, I gladden them, when I see them, and when 
they see me.' — 'Thou, O Ya^»avalkya, hast in- 
quired most closely into the nature of the Agni- 
hotra,' said the king ; ' I bestow a hundred cows 
on thee. But not even thou (knowest) either the 
uprising, or the progress, or the support, or the 
contentment, or the return, or the renascent world 
of those two (libations of the Agnihotra).' Thus 
saying, he mounted his car and drove away. 

5. They said, ' Surely, this fellow of a Ra^anya 
has outtalked us: come, let us challenge him to 

1 Yad yada ahavanfyaw garhapatyad aham uddharami tat tada- 
ntm krrisnam ahgopangasahitam agnihotram eva udyaiitemi 
udvahami, Say. 

[44] I 



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114 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

a theological disputation ! ' Yl/wavalkya said, ' We 
are Brahma#as, and he is a Ri^anya : if we were 
to vanquish him, whom should we say we had 
vanquished ? But if he were to vanquish us, people 
would say of us that a Ra^anya had vanquished 
Brahmawas : do not think of this ! ' They approved 
of his words. But Ya^»avalkya, mounting his car, 
drove after (the king). He overtook him, and he 
(the king) said, ' Is it to know the Agnihotra, Yelfwa- 
valkya ? ' — ' The Agnihotra, O king ! ' he replied. 

6. ' Well, those two libations, when offered, 
rise upwards : they enter the air, and make the air 
their offering-fire, the wind their fuel, the sun-motes 
their pure libation : they satiate the air, and rise 
upwards therefrom. 

7. 'They enter the sky, and make the sky their 
offering-fire, the sun their fuel, and the moon their 
pure libation : they satiate the sky, and return 
from there. 

8. ' They enter this (earth), and make this (earth) 
their offering-fire, the fire their fuel, and the herbs 
their pure libation : they satiate this (earth), and 
rise upwards therefrom. 

9. ' They enter man, and make his mouth their 
offering-fire, his tongue their fuel, and food their 
pure libation : they satiate man ; and, verily, for 
him who, knowing this, eats food the Agnihotra 
comes to be offered. They rise upwards from there. 

10. ' They enter woman, and make her lap their 
offering-fire, her womb the fuel, — for that (womb) 
is called the bearer, because by it Pra^apati bore 
creatures, — and the seed their pure libation : they 
satiate woman ; and, verily, for him who, knowing 
this, approaches his mate, the Agnihotra comes to 



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xi kAjvda, 6 adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, 4. 115 

be offered. The son who is born therefrom is the 
renascent world: this is the Agnihotra, Y4f»a- 
valkya, there is nothing higher than this.' Thus 
he spoke; and Y4^»avalkya granted him a boon. 
He said, ' Let mine be the (privilege of) asking 
questions of thee when I list, Ya^-»avalkya ! ' 
Thenceforth kanaka was a Brahman. 

Third BrAhmajva. 

1. (kanaka of Yideha performed a sacrifice 
accompanied with numerous gifts to the priests. 
Setting apart a thousand cows, he said, ' He who 
is the most learned in sacred writ amongst you, 
O Brahma#as, shall drive away these (cows) 1 ! ' 

2. Ya^avalkya then said, 'This way (drive) 
them ! ' They said, ' Art thou really the most 
learned in sacred writ amongst us, Y&f»avalkya?' 
He replied, ' Reverence be to him who is most 
learned in sacred writ ! We are but hankering 
after cows 2 .' 

3. They then said (to one another), ' Which of 
us shall question him ? ' The shrewd .Sakalya 
said, ' I ! ' When he (Y£f«avalkya) saw him, he 
said, ' Have the Brahma«as made of thee a thing 
for quenching the firebrand, .Sakalya ? ' 

4. He said 3 , ' How many gods are there, Ya^»a- 
valkya ?' — ' Three hundred and three, and three 
thousand and three,' he replied. — ' Yea, so it is !' he 
said. ' How many gods are there really, Ya^»a- 
valkya ?' — ' Thirty-three.' — ' Yea, so it is ! ' he said. 

1 One might also construe, — These are yours, O Br&hmawas: 
he who is the most learned in sacred writ shall drive (them) away. 
Cf. Delbrtlck, Altind. Syntax, pp. 251, 363. 

* Gokama eva kevalam vayam smaA bhavamaA, Say. 

' See XIV, 6, 9, 1 seqq. 

I 2 



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I 1 6 DATAPATH A-BRAHM AA'A . 

' How many gods are there really, Y4f»avalkya ?' — 
' Three.' — ' Yea, so it is ! ' he said. ' How many 
gods are there really, Ya^wavalkya ? ' — ' Two.' — 
' Yea, so it is ! ' he said. ' How many gods are there 
really, Y&f»avalkya ?' — ' One and a half.' — ' Yea, so 
it is!' he said. ' How many gods are there really, 
Y£f»avalkya ?' — 'One.' — 'Yea, so it is!' he said. 
' Who are those three hundred and three, and three 
thousand and three ?' 

5. He replied, ' These are their powers, but 
thirty-three gods indeed there are.' — ' Who are those 
thirty-three ? ' — ' Eight Vasus, eleven Rudras, and 
twelve Adityas, — that makes thirty-one; and Indra 
and Pra^apati make up the thirty-three.' 

6. 'Who are the Vasus ? ' — ' Agni, the Earth, Vayu 
(the wind), the Air, Aditya (the sun), Heaven, the 
Moon, and the Stars : — these are the Vasus, for these 
cause all this (universe) to abide (vas), and hence 
they are the Vasus.' 

7. ' Who are the Rudras ? ' — ' These ten vital airs 
in man, and the self (spirit) is the eleventh : when 
these depart from this mortal body, they cause wail- 
ing (rud), and hence they are the Rudras.' 

8. ' Who are the Adityas ?' — ' The twelve months 
of the year : these are the Adityas, for they pass 
whilst laying hold on everything here ; and inasmuch 
as they pass whilst laying hold (a-da) on everything 
here, they are the Adityas.' 

9. ' Who is Indra, and who Pra,fapati ?' — ' Indra, 
indeed, is thunder 1 , and Pra^apati the sacrifice.' — 
'What is thunder ?'— ' The thunderbolt'—' What is 
the sacrifice ?' — ' Cattle.' 

1 Siyana takes ' stana) itnu ' iu the sense of ' thunder-cloud/ — 
stanayitnuA stananarilo gar^an paiyanya ity arthaA. 



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xi kXnda, 6 adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, ii. 117 

10. 'Who are those three gods?' — 'These three 
worlds, for therein all the gods are contained.' — 
'Who are those two gods?' — 'Food and breath 
(life).' — ' Who is the one and a half?' — ' He who is 
blowing here 1 (Vayu, the wind).' — 'Who is the one 
god ?'— ' Breath.' 

11. He (Y&f»avalkya) said, 'Thou hast gone on 
questioning me beyond the deity *, beyond which there 
must be no questioning : thou shalt die ere such and 
such a day, and not even thy bones shall reach thy 
home !' And so, indeed, did he (.Sakalya) die ; and 
robbers carried off his bones 8 , taking them for some- 
thing else 4 . Wherefore let no man decry* any one, for 
even (by) knowing this, he gets the better of him 6 . 

1 XIV, 6, 9, 10, the use of ' adhyardha (having one half over)' 
in connection with the wind is accounted for by a fanciful 
etymology, viz. because the wind succeeds (or prevails) over 
(adhy-ardh) everything here. 

8 That is, as would seem, Pra^apati, cf. XIV, $, 6, 1, where 
Yi^avalkya tells Gargf how one world is ' woven and rewoven ' 
on another, the last being that of Pra^apati, which was woven on 
that of the Brahman ; and when Gargt asks him as to what world 
the Brahman-world was woven on, he gives the same reply as here, 
viz. that there must be no questioning beyond that deity (Pra^ipati). 

s Prof. Weber, Ind. Streifen, I, p. 21, connects this feature with 
the belief in a strictly personal existence after death prevailing at 
the time of the Brahmaaa, which involved, as a matter of great 
moment, the careful collection of the bones after the corpse had 
been burnt, with a view to their being placed in an earthen vessel 
and buried. — Cf. Axval. Gr/hyas. IV r 5, 1 seqq. ; Katy. Sr. XXI, 
3, 7 seqq. See also J. Muir, Orig. Sanskrit Texts, vol. v, p. 316. 

* That is, mistaking them for gold or some other valuable 
substance, comm., — anyan manyaman&A suvaraadidravyatvena 
j&nantaA. 

* Or, ' revile,' as the St. Petersb. Diet, takes it. Possibly, how- 
ever, 'upa-vad ' has here the sense of ' to speak to,' i.e. ' to question 
or lecture some one.' 

* The commentary is partly corrupt and not very intelligible : — 



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i 1 8 jatapatha-brahma/va. 

Seventh AdhyAya. First Brahmajva. 
The Animal Sacrifice 1 . 

i. He performs the animal sacrifice. Now the 
animal sacrifice means cattle: thus, when he per- 
forms the animal sacrifice (pambandha, the binding 
of the animal), it is in order that he may be pos- 
sessed of cattle. Let him perform it at his home, 
thinking, ' I will bind (attach) cattle to my home.' 
Let him perform it in the season of abundant fodder, 
thinking, ' I will bind to myself cattle in a season of 
abundant fodder. For, -whilst he is offering 2 , the 
Sacrificer's fires become worn out, and so does the 
Sacrificer, along with the worn-out fires, and along 
with the Sacrificer his house and cattle. 

2. And wlien '.he performs the animal sacrifice, he 
renews his fires, and so, along with the renewal of 
his fires, does the Sacrificer (renew himself), and 
along with the Sacrificer his house and cattle. And 
beneficial to life, indeed, is that redemption of his 



YasmSd evawi.tasm&d iti goshu kath&rflpe»a tattvanikr<{ti)m upetya 
vid! na bhavet,*va (? svayam) api tu evamvit paro bhavati, uktapra- 
k&rena. yah pribtasvarupam £&n£ti tarn vidvimsam upetya t£tparye»£ 
savi (?itman&) yukto bhaved ity arthaA, S&y. Cf. Weber, Ind. 
Stud. V, p. 361, note. — Prof Delbrilck, Altind. Syntax, p. 528, 
takes ' paro bhavati' in the sense -of * he becomes one of the other 
side, or shore,' i.e. he dies. 

1 Whilst a full account is given in the third KiWa (part ii, 
p. 162 seqq.) of the animal sacrifice performed on the day before 
the Soma-sacrifice, the Brihmawa, in the last two adhy&yas of the 
present KaWa, touches on certain features in which the perform- 
ance of the animal sacrifice of the pressing-day differs from that of 
the preceding day. 

' Viz. the Agnihotra every morning and evening. 



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xi kAjvda, 7 adhyAya, 2 brAhmam, i. 119 

own self 1 ; for whilst he is offering the Sacrificer's 
fires long for flesh; they set their minds on the 
Sacrificer and harbour designs on him. In other 
fires 2 people do indeed cook any kind of meat, but 
these (sacrificial fires) have no desire for any other 
flesh but this (sacrificial animal), and for him to 
whom they belong. 

3. Now, when he performs the animal offering he 
thereby redeems himself — male by male, for the 
victim is a male, and the Sacrificer is a male. And 
this, indeed, to wit, flesh, is the best kind of food : 
he thus becomes an eater of .the best kind of food. 
Let not a year pass by for him without his offering ; 
for the year means life : it is thus immortal life he 
thereby confers upon himself. 

Second BrAhmajva. 

1. Now there is one animal sacrifice of the Havir- 
ya£#a order 8 , and another of the order of the Soma- 
sacrifice. Of the Havirya^Sa order is that at which 
he (the Adhvaryu) brings him fast-food*, leads water 

1 That is, the ransoming of one's own life from the sacrificial 
fires, by offering an animal victim to them in lieu of his own self. 

* That is, in ordinary, culinary fires. 

* That is, the offering of the Agnishomtya he-goat which takes 
place on the day before the press-day (see part ii, p. 162 seqq.); 
whilst the Savaniya-parubandha is performed on the day of the 
Soma-sacrifice itself; the victim being slaughtered during the 
morning-service, and the flesh-portions cooked during the day and 
offered at the evening-service (cf. part ii, p. 313, note 3 ; p. 356, 
note 3). 

* That is, milk from the Vratadughi cow (which may be mixed 
with some rice or barley; III, 2, 2, 14), the only food to be taken 
by the Sacrificer during his diksM, or period of initiation — in this 
case on the day before the Soma-sacrifice. 



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120 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

forward 1 , and pours out a jarful of water 2 , and at 
which (the Sacrificer) strides the Vish«u-strides 8 ; and 
of the order of the Soma-sacrifice is that (animal 
sacrifice) at which these (rites) are not performed. 

2. Concerning this they ask, ' Is the animal sacri- 
fice an ish/i or a great (Soma-) sacrifice ?' — ' A great 
sacrifice,' let him say ; ' for in that (other) case 4 thou 
hast made the animal sacrifice an ishri, and shattered 
it.' Thus he should say to him. 

3. Its fore-offerings are the morning-service 8 , its 
after-offerings the evening-service, and its sacrificial 
cake 6 the midday-service. 

4. Now, some bring up the Dakshtwas (presents 
to the priests) when the omentum has been offered 7 ; 



1 That is, the so-called ' pramtaA ' used for sacrificial purposes 
generally, and especially for supplying what is required for press- 
ing the Soma. Cf. the comm. on Katy. VI, 7, 19, where the 
' pra«f taprawayana ' is expressly referred to as a necessary element 
of the performance of the Agntshomiya. 

J For the pouring out of the water on the south side of the Vedi, 
at the end of the Havirya^flfa, see I, 9, 3, 1 seqq. 

* The Sacrificer intercepts with his hands some of the water 
poured out, touches his face therewith, and then strides the three 
Vishnu-strides ; cf. I, 9, 3, 8 seqq. 

* Viz. in case of the animal sacrifice being performed on the 
Havirya^fla or Ish/i model ; which, strictly speaking, would involve 
the use of no other offering-material except milk, ghee, and dishes 
made of cereals. 

* The usual order of subject and predicate would require the 
translation, ' the morning-service is its fore-offerings,' which would 
hardly be in accordance with the author's reasoning. 

* For the para-punx/aja, III, 8, 3, 1 seqq. 

7 That is, prior to the offering of the 'animal cake' (paru- 
purorflra), whilst the presentation of the dakshkas — a head of 
cattle, or a milch-cow, or some other desirable object — according 
to Kity. VI, 7, 29, should take place after the offering of the IaS, 
which marks the end of the Paxu-punx&ra-ish/i. 



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xi kAjvda, 7 adhyAya, 2 brAhmaya, 6. 121 

but let him not do so, for if, in that case, any one 
were to say of him, 'Surely, this (Sacrificer) has 
brought the Dakshmas outside of the vital airs (or, 
of life), he has not strengthened his vital airs : he 
will become either blind, or lame, or deaf, or para- 
lyzed on one side ;' then that would indeed be likely 
to come to pass. 

5. Let him perform it in this way: — when the I elk 
of the cake-offering has been invoked, he should 
bring up the Dakshi«as ; for to Indra belongs this 
vital air in the centre (of the body) : by means of the 
Dakshiwas he thus strengthens this vital air in 
the centre (of the body) ; and to Indra also belongs 
the midday Soma-service, and at the midday-service 
the Dakshi«as are brought up : therefore he should 
bring up the Dakshiwas after the invocation of the 
I//a of the cake-offering. 

6. Here now they say, 'Seeing that the want of 
the purificatory bath in the case of the initiated is 
improper, Adhvaryu, when didst thou initiate him?' 
Well, let them 1 sustain him till the purificatory bath, 
— to wit, the Adhvaryu, the PratiprasthatW, the 
Hotrz, the Maitravaruwa, the Brahman, and the 



1 SSya«a supplies ' gan&A,' ' the people ; ' but possibly the text 
of the commentary may be corrupt in this place. The author's 
meaning would seem to be that, as there is no purificatory bath at 
the end of the animal sacrifice performed on the Soma-day, the 
Sacrificer's strength is to be kept up by the SbaddAolri formula 
(representing the six priests themselves) which will carry him as far 
as the purificatory bath at the end of the Soma-sacrifice. I am, 
however, far from sure that this is the real meaning of the passage. 
The ShsiddAotrt is performed (at the animal sacrifice of the pressing- 
day) shortly after the beginning of the ceremonies connected with 
the Parubandha, viz. immediately after the ' yupShuti,' see part ii, 
p. 162 seqq. 



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122 SATAPATHA-BRAHMA.VA. 

Agnidhra, for it is through these that this (formula) 
is called 'shadclAotri 1 ': having rapidly muttered that 
' shaddAotri,' he offers, performing either one or five 
oblations of ghee 2 , — 'The heaven is his 8 back, 
the air his body, O Va^aspati, by his limbs he 
gave rise to the sacrifice, by his forms to the 
earth; by his flawless voice and his flawless 
tongue to the god -gladdening invocation, 
Hail !' This, indeed, is his initiation. 

7. As to this they say, 'Seeing that the want 
of the purificatory bath in the case of the initiated is 
improper, Adhvaryu, when didst thou take him down 
to the purificatory bath ? ' Well, when they perform 
with the heart-spit 4 , that is 'his purificatory bath. 

8. Madhuka Paingya once said, ' Some perform 
the animal sacrifice without Soma, and others do so 
with Soma. Now, Soma was in the heavens, and 
Gayatrt, having become a bird, fetched him ; and in- 
asmuch as one of his leaves (parwa) was cut off 6 , 

1 That is, one containing (mentioning), or requiring, six offering- 
priests, the number required for the animal sacrifice. 

* In either case the offering consists of five ladlings of ghee ; 
and in the case of a single oblation, according to Sayawa, a dif- 
ferent dipping-spoon (sruva) would seem to be used for each 
ladling ; unless, indeed, ' ekaikena sruvena' mean ' with one sruva- 
full each.' According to Katy. VI, 1, 36, the formula is merely 
' run through mentally.' 

* Sayawa interprets 'thy back'; and he apparently supplies 
'prapnoti' at the end of the first half-verse, whilst 'airayat' he 
takes to stand for the second person singular. 

4 That is, when the heart is roasted on the spit prior to its being 
offered ; see III, 8, 3, 16. This use of the spit is to take the place 
of the purificatory bath, the technical term of which is ' spit-bath ' 
(rulavabhrttha), the spit being on that occasion buried at the point 
' where the dry and the moist meet,' see III, 8, 5, 8-10. 

* Either a leaf of Soma or a feather of Gayatri was cut off by an 



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xi kamvda, 7 adhyaya, 3 brAhma^a, 2. 123 

that was how the Par#a-tree arose :' such, indeed, is 
(the passage in) the Brahmana that is told. And 
some, it is true, perform the animal sacrifice without 
Soma, and others with Soma ; for he who makes the 
sacrificial stake other than of Pal&ja wood, performs 
the animal sacrifice without Soma; and he who 
makes the sacrificial stake of Palavra performs the 
animal sacrifice with Soma : therefore let him make 
his sacrificial stake of Pal&a wood. 

Third BrAhma^a. 

1. Such a (sacrificial stake) as has much substance 1 
is not auspicious to cattle, whence he who desires to 
have cattle should not make such a one his sacrificial 
stake : but such a one as is of little hardness is 
auspicious to cattle, whence he who desires to 
have cattle should make such a one his sacrificial 
stake. 

2. And such a one as, while being crooked, has 
a top like a spit, is called 'kapotl 2 '; and whoever 
makes such a one his sacrificial stake certainly goes 
to yonder world before his full measure of life: 
therefore let no one wishing for long life make such 
a one his sacrificial stake. 



arrow shot by an archer pursuing GSyatrf, and, on its falling to the 
earth, a Palara, or Par»a, tree (Butea frondosa) sprang forth, see 
III, 3, 4, 10. 

1 That is, as would seem, made of very hard wood. It cannot 
mean ' pithy,' because at XIII, 4, 4, 9, the Khadira (acacia catechu), 
a tree of very hard, solid wood, is mentioned as ' bahusara.' 

1 Either ' that which has a pigeon (sitting) on it ' (kapotin, viz. 
yupa), or, as Siyaoa takes it, fern, of ' kapota,' — a female pigeon ; 
i. e. a tree too much pointed at the top. 



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1 24 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 



3. And such a one as is bent at the top, and bent 
outwards 1 in the middle, is a type of hunger (poverty); 
and if any one makes such a one his sacrificial stake, 
his dependants will certainly be hungry; therefore 
let no one wishing for food make such a one his 
sacrificial stake. But such a one as is bent at the 
top and bent inwards in the middle, is a type of food 
(prosperity): therefore let him who wishes for food 
make such a one his sacrificial stake. 

Fourth Brahmawa. 

1. Now, when he who is about to perform an 
animal sacrifice makes a stake one cubit long, he 
thereby gains this (terrestrial) world; and when 
(he makes) one two cubits long, he thereby gains the 
air-world ; and when he makes one three cubits long, 
he thereby gains the heavens ; and when he makes 
one four cubits long, he thereby gains the regions. 
But, indeed, that sacrificial stake of the (ordinary) 
animal sacrifice is either three or four cubits long, 
and one that is above that belongs to the Soma- 
sacrifice. 

2. As to this they say, ' Should he offer the butter- 
portions or not ?' — ' Let him offer them,' they say ; 
' for the two butter-portions are the eyes of the sac- 
rifice, and what were man without eyes ? ' For as 
long as a co-sharer is not bought off by (receiving) 
a share of his own, so long does he consider himself 
not bought off; but when he is bought off by a share 
of his own, then, indeed, he considers himself bought 



1 That is, as would seem, bent to the opposite side from that 
towards which the top tends. 



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XI KANDA, 7 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAJVA, 4. 1 25 



off: when the Hotri, on that occasion 1 , recites, 
' Endow the Rakshas with blood ! ' he buys him off 
by (assigning to him) a share of his own. 

3. For on that occasion* the anguish of the victim, 
in being slaughtered, becomes concentrated in the 
heart, and from the heart (it flows) into the spit. 
Thus, if they (were to) cook the animal together 
with the heart, the anguish would again spread all 
over the animal : let him therefore cook it (the heart) 
after spitting it from the side on a stick. 

4. He makes an underlayer of ghee (in the offer- 
ing-ladle) : this he makes a type of the earth ; he 
then puts a chip of gold thereon : this he makes 
a type of fire ; he then puts the omentum thereon : 
this he makes a type of the air ; he then puts a chip 
of gold thereon : this he makes a type of the sun ; 
and what (ghee) he pours upon it, that he makes 
a type of the heavens. This, then, is that five- 
portioned omentum, — fivefold is the sacrifice, fivefold 
the sacrificial animal, and five seasons there are in 
the year : this is why the omentum consists of five 
portions 3 . 



1 Viz. at the time when the victim is cut up. Cf. Ait. Br. II, 7, — 
' Endow ye the Rakshas with blood !' he says ; for by (assigning to 
them) the husks and the sweepings of the grain the gods deprived 
the Rakshas of their share in the Havirya^-fla, and by the blood 
(they deprived them) of that in the great (Soma-) sacrifice : thus by 
saying, ' Endow ye the Rakshas with blood!' he dispossesses the 
Rakshas of the sacrifice by assigning to them their own share. — 
The Adhvaryu then smears a stalk of grass with the blood with, 
' Thou art the Rakshas' share,' throws it on the heap of rubbish, 
and treads on it with, ' Herewith I tread down the Rakshas,' &c» 
Cf. Ill, 8, 2, 13-15. 

* See III, 8, 5, 8. 

' Or, cuttings ; see III, 8, .2, 26. 



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1 26 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 



Eighth Adhyaya. First Brahmaya. 

1. Verily, even as this cart-wheel, or a potter's 
wheel, would creak 1 if not steadied, so, indeed, were 
these worlds unfirm and unsteadied. 

2. Pra^apati then bethought him, ' How may these 
worlds become firm and steadied ? ' By means of 
the mountains and rivers he stablished this (earth), 
by means of the birds and sun-motes 2 the air, and 
by means of the clouds and stars the sky. 

3. He then exclaimed, 'Wealth!' — now, wealth 3 
(mahas) means cattle, whence they (cattle) thrive 
(mahlyante 4 ) exceedingly in the homestead of one 
who possesses many of them ; and this (Sacrificer), 
indeed, possesses many of them, and in his home- 
stead they do thrive exceedingly. Wherefore, if 
people were either to forcibly drive him from his 
home, or to bid him go forth, let him, after performing 
the Agni-hotra, approach (the fires) saying, 'Wealth'; 
and he becomes firmly established by offspring and 
cattle, and is not deprived of his home. 



1 Saya»a apparently takes ' krand ' in the sense of ' to shake, or 
wabble,' — ' even as a cart-wheel or some other wheel, not standing 
on the ground for want of the wooden rest (alambana-kash/Aa, 
? axle-pin) or some other thing, would wabble (hvalet).' What 
Sayawa means to say, probably, is that the verb used by the author 
expresses the effect of the action intended. 

* Or, sun-beams (rajmi), as Sayawa takes ' mari& ' ; cf. Weber, 
Ind. Stud. IX, p. 9, note. 

* Or, joy ; — cp. II, 3, 4, 25, which would seem to be the passage 
referred to in the present paragraph. 

4 Or, perhaps, ' they enjoy themselves, gambol,' as the St. Petersb. 
Diet takes it Differently, again, Sayaxra, — yata ebbJA parubhir 
mahiyate (he thrives?), ata ete mahaA. 



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XI KANDA, 8 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAtfA, 2. 1 27 



Second BrAhmajva. 

1. Verily, there are four kinds of fire, — the one 
laid down, the one taken out, the one taken forward, 
and the one spread (over the three hearths). Now, 
that which is laid down is this very (terrestrial) 
world ; that which is taken out is the air-world, that 
which is taken forward is the sky, and that which is 
spread is the regions. And that which is laid down 
is Agni, that which is taken out is Vayu (the wind), 
that which is taken forward is Aditya (the sun), and 
that which is spread is Aandramas (the moon). 
And that which is laid down is the G&rhapatya, 
that which is taken out is the Ahavanlya, that 
which is taken forward is the (fire) they lead forth 
eastwards from the Ahavanlya; and that which is 
spread is the one they take northwards for the 
cooking of the victim, and that (used) for the by- 
offerings * : let him therefore perform the animal 
sacrifice on a fire taken forward. 

Third BrAhmajva. 

1. Here, now, they say, 'To what deity should 
this victim belong?' — 'It should belong to Pra^a- 
pati,' they say ; ' for it was Pra^apati who first saw 
it: therefore it is to Pra^apati that this victim 
should belong.' 

2. And they also say, ' To Surya (the sun) that 
victim should belong ; ' — whence it is that cattle are 
tied up when he (the sun) has set: some of them 

' See III, 8, 3, 18 ; 8, 4, 9, with note. 



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128 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

they tie up 1 in their, respective stables, and others 
just flock together :— ' therefore,' they say, 'it is to 
Surya that this victim should belong.' 

3. And they also say, ' To Indra and Agni that 
victim should belong ; for behind these two deities 
are (all) the other gods ; — if one who is afflicted 
sacrifices, those two (gods) sustain him ; and if one 
sacrifices with (a desire for) abundance 2 , they sustain 
him : therefore it is to Indra and Agni that this 
victim should belong.' 

4. The animal sacrifice, indeed, is the breath, 
whence, as long as one lives, no other has power 
over his cattle, for they are tied to him. 

5. Pra^apati said to Agni, ' I will perform sacrifice 
with thee : I will lay hands upon thee (as a victim).' 
— 'Nay,' said he, 'speak unto man!' He said to 
man, ' I will perform sacrifice with thee : I will lay 
hands upon thee.' — ' Nay,' said he, ' speak unto the 
cattle ! ' He said to the cattle, ' I will perform 
sacrifice with you : I will lay hands upon you.' — 
' Nay,' said they, ' speak unto the moon ! ' He 
said to the moon, ' I will perform sacrifice with 
thee : I will lay hands upon thee.' — ' Nay,' said he, 
' speak unto the sun ! ' He said to the sun, ' I will 
perform sacrifice with thee : I will lay hands upon 
thee.' ' So be it ! ' said he ; ' but seeing that those 
liked it not (to be slaughtered), what, then, shall 
become mine that now is with these s ? ' — ' What- 



1 Or, perhaps, cattle are shut up — some of them they shut up. 

1 ? Thus, apparently, Saya»a : — Anye tv indragnyoA sarvadevata- 
pradhanyat svodderena yagaw knlavaiam kr.tme»artinlrak(atv)an 
mahataA (? rnahajaA) prapakatvai £a pajur aindragna iti. 

1 Etesham svabhutam vastu Mm labdham bhavet, Say. 



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xi kAjvda, 8 adhyAya, 3 brAhmana, 6. 129 

soever thou mayest desire,' he said. — ' So be it,' he 
replied. He laid hands upon him, and this is that 
animal of his seized (for sacrifice). When slaughtered, 
it swelled, and by means of those Apri-hymns, he 
appeased it ' ; and inasmuch as, by means of these 
Aprl-hymns, he appeased it, they are called Aprls. 
And let him, for that reason, say of the slaughtered 
animal, ' Let it lie for a moment ! ' As great as the 
world is which he gains by performing the horse- 
sacrifice, so great a world does he gain by this 
(animal sacrifice). 

6. The (wind of the) eastern region breathed 
over that (dead victim), saying, ' Breathe forth ! ' 
and thereby laid the breath (of the mouth) into 
it; the southern region breathed over it, saying, 
' Breathe through ! ' and thereby laid the through- 
breathing into it ; the western region breathed over 
it, saying, 'Breathe off!' and thereby laid the off- 
breathing into it ; the northern region breathed 
over it, saying, ' Breathe up ! ' and thereby laid 
the up-breathing (of the nostrils) into it ; the upper 
region breathed over it, saying, ' Breathe all about ! ' 
and thereby laid the circulating breathing into it. 
Therefore, regarding a new-born son, let him say to 
five Brahmattas, before the navel-string has been 
cut, ' Breathe over him in this way 2 ! ' But if he 
should be unable to obtain them he may even 

1 See III, 8, 1, 2 (with note), where ' a-prt ' is apparently taken 
by the Brahmana in the sense of ' to fill up.' 

1 The Brahmans having been placed in the direction of the 
respective quarters, the father makes one after the other breathe 
upon the child, — the first from the east and the child's head, the 
second from the right side, &c, in sunwise succession ; the fifth 
(whose position is not specified) breathing right down upon the child. 
[44] K 



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1 30 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

himself breathe over him whilst walking round 
him ; and that (son of his) attains the full measure 
of life * and lives to old age. 

7. He (the sun) took unto himself Agni's breath ; 
whence that (fire) does not blaze unless fanned or 
kindled, for its breath has been taken from it ; and, 
verily, he who knows this takes away the breath 
of life from his spiteful enemy. 

8. He took to himself Vayu's form ; whence 
people hear it (the wind), as it were, shaking, but 
do not see it, for its form has been taken from it ; 
and, verily, he who knows this takes away the form 
of his spiteful enemy. 

9. He took to himself man's thought ; whence 
people say, ' The divine thought protect thee, man's 
thought me ! ' for his thought has been taken from 
him ; and, verily, he who knows this takes away 
the thought of his spiteful enemy. 

10. He took to himself the eye of cattle ; whence, 
even whilst seeing clearly, as it were, they do not 
know anything, but only know what it is when they 
smell at it, for their eye has been taken from them ; 
and, verily, he who knows this takes away the eye 
of his spiteful enemy. 

11. He took to himself the moon's shine ; whence 
of these two (sun and moon), though being similar, 
the moon shines much less, for its shine has been 
taken from it ; and, verily, he who knows this takes 
away the shine from his spiteful enemy. And inas- 
much as he took these away (a-da), he (the sun) is 
called Aditya. 

1 Viz. a hundred years, Say. See X, 2, 6, 9 ; part iv, introd., 
p. xxiii. 



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xi kXnda, 8 adhyAya, 4 brAhmaya, 3. 131 



Fourth Brahmajva. 

1. Now, once upon a time, a tiger killed the 
samrif-cow 1 of those (who were sacrificing) with 
(the king of the) Ke-rin as their Grzhapati 2 . He 
(the king 8 ) said to his fellow-sacrificers, 'What 
atonement is there for this ? ' They replied, 
'There is no atonement for this: Kha»rfika 
Audbhiri alone knows an atonement for it; but 
he certainly desires as much as this, and worse 
than this *, (to happen) to thee.' 

2. He said, 'Charioteer, put to my horses; I 
shall drive thither : if so be he will tell me, I shall 
succeed (with my sacrifice) ; but if he will have 
me die, I shall be shattered along with the shattered 
sacrifice.' 

3. Having put to the horses, he drove off, and 

1 That is the cow which supplies the milk for the Pravargya; 
this milk, when heated, being called ' gharma (heat) ' or ' samra^ 
(sovereign king).' See part ii, p. 104, note 3. 

! Grzhapati, or house-lord, master of the house, is the title of 
the principal sacrificer at a sacrificial session (sattra). — According 
to Sayawa, the KewnaA were a race of nobles (ra^anaA), who, on 
this occasion, were performing a ' sattra,' and are therefore styled 
'householders' (gri hapati); — ke-rino nama T&g&naA sattrayagam 
anutish/Aanto grt hapataya asuA. Sayawa thus takes ' kcji-gnhapa- 
taya-4,' not as a bahuvrihi, but as a tatpurusha (karmadharaya, ' the 
K&rin householders ') which would, however, require the accent on 
the second member of the compound. — Though all those taking 
part in a sacrificial session ought to be Brahmans, the rule does not 
seem to have been strictly observed. Cf. part iv, introd., p. xxv ; 
Weber, Ind. Stud. X, pp. 25 ; 94. 

* Gr/hapatishu pradhanabhfltaA kerira^aA, Say. 

* That is, that even a greater misfortune should happen to 
thee, — atyantam papayuktaw govadhadidoshayuktam ity arthaA, 
JSiy. 

K 2 



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132 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAtfA. 

came thither \ When he (Khawafika) saw * him, he 
said, ' Seeing that there are those skins on deer, we 
break their ribs and cook them : the skin of the 
black antelope is attached to my neck s — is it with 
thoughts such as these that thou hast dared to drive 
over to me ? ' 

4. 'Not so,' he replied ; ' a tiger has killed my 
samra^-cow, reverend sir; if so be thou wilt tell 
me, I shall succeed ; but if thou wilt have me die, 
I shall be shattered along with the shattered 
sacrifice.' 

5. He said, ' I will take counsel with my coun- 
sellors 4 .' Having called them to counsel, he said, 
' If I tell him, his race, not mine, will prevail here 6 , 

1 Saya»a makes Kh&ndika. the subject of this last verb:— sa ha 
ratham asvaiA samyogya. Kha»</ikasamtpa« yayau ; so*pi Khan- 
dikaJt kwinam a^agama, gatva £a vivaktam (? viviktam) Kes'irtam 
pratikhyaya nirakr/'tya sadayam eva prathamam uvl&a. He thus 
seems not to allow here to ' ya ' the meaning of ' to drive,' but to 
take ' yayau ' in the sense of ' he went thither.' It might, of course, 
also mean ' he set off.' 

2 Sayawa apparently takes ' prati-khyi ' in the sense of ' to refuse 
admittance to, to reject,' ' abweisen.' 

' Sayawa's comment on this passage is as follows : — ' O Kejin, 
the skin of the cow that yields the gharma-milk is worn by thee 
on the neck : those (i. e. suchlike) skins, indeed, are (i. e. are seen) 
on deer; and having broken (i.e. torn to pieces) the "prishA" 
(i. e. the small-sized does) amongst them we cook them : that black- 
antelope skin is fastened on my neck.' Khanrfka having spoken 
thus, the king said, ' No, this is not my intention.' 

4 Literally, those that should be consulted, whom further on 
Sayawa calls ' aptaA ' or trusty men. 

* Or, perhaps, the people here (the Kerins) will become his, not 
mine ; cf. Delbrtick, Altind. Syntax, pp. 32 ; 141 (two different ren- 
derings). Sayawa, on the other hand, takes ' pra^a,' not in the sense 
either of ' family ' or ' people,' but in that of '(sacred) knowledge ' — 
perhaps with reference to the threefold science (the Veda) as the 



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XI KkNDA, 8 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMA^A, 6. 1 33 

but I shall gain the (other) world ; and if I do not 
tell him, my own race, not his, will prevail here, 
but he will gain the (other) world.' They said, 
'Do not tell him, reverend sir, for, surely, this 
(the earth) is the Kshatriya's world V He replied, 
' Nay, I will tell him : there are more nights 2 up 
yonder.' 

6. And, accordingly, he then said to him, — ' Hav- 
ing offered the Spmis s , he (the Adhvaryu) should 
say, " Drive up another (cow) ! " and that one should 
be thy samra^-cow V — ' [Having offered with,] 
"From the moon I take thy mind, hail! — 
From the sun I take thine eye, hail! — From 
the wind I take thy breathings, hail! — From 
the regions I take thine ear, hail! — From the 
waters I take thy blood, hail ! — From the earth 

thousandfold progeny of V&i, speech (cf. IV, 5, 8, 4 ; 6, 7, 3 ; 
V, 5, 5, 12) — which KhaWika would thus lose, whilst, by imparting 
the sacred knowledge, he would gain a seat in heaven. 

1 S&ya«a's comment is not very intelligible, the MS. being more 
than usually corrupt on this last page : — evawvidhe virodha udbhS- 
vit£ sati te iptS MuA, he bhagavo vidy&m ma vo£a^, kshatriyasya 
loko na bhavishyatiti ; nanu tavanujayaA (? appanage, domain, 
following) sa tasya n&sti ; ayam v&va ayam eva khalu kshatriyasya 
lokas tasmit sauspatrater (?) evam ukte sati sadve£enar&patra 
bhav&nti (!) ato vakshyimy evety uva^a. 

* That is, days, — by giving up a brief life of earthly power and 
glory, he gains eternal life. 

3 That is, oblations performed with a view of 'taking hold 
(spn)' of something; cf. Kity. .Srautas. XXV, 6, 11. 12. 

4 The particle ' iti ' here causes some difficulty of construction 
which would be removed by the latter clause being taken as part of 
the Adhvaryu's speech; though KStydyana, it is true, does not 
recognise it as such. Perhaps, however, Khamrtka's speech ends 
here, and what follows up to ' that one shall be thy samra^-cow ' 
has to be taken as a ritualistic insertion, in which case the final 
' iti ' would have some such meaning as ' having been told thus.' 



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1 34 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

I take thy body, hail !" let him then say, " Drive 
up another (cow) ! " and that one shall be thy samrif- 
cow!' He then departed from thence 1 , and, verily, 
members of the Kerin race are born here even to 
this day. 



1 Sayawa takes this thus : — ' Thus instructed, Kef in disappeared 
(or, passed away, vanished, utsasada vinash/aA) from that region 
(tato desit) ' — after which there is a lacuna in the MS. Perhaps, 
however, it is Khamfika, rather than Kejin, to which this refers, — 
he (and his race) then, indeed, passed away from that region, 
whilst the Kerins flourished. 



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xii kXnda, i adhyAya, i brAhmajva, 3. 135 



TWELFTH KkNDA. 



THE SACRIFICIAL SESSION (SATTRA). 



First AdhyAya. First BrAhmajva. 

1. Verily, this sacrifice is the same as this blowing 
(wind) : it is that * they wish to secure who take the 
vow of initiation for a year. Of them the Grtha.- 
pati is initiated first 2 ; for the Grthapati is this 
(terrestrial) world, and upon this world everything 
here is established; and so, indeed, are his fellow- 
sacrificers established in the Grzhapati : it is thus 
after they have become established on a firm 
foundation that they are initiated. 

2. He (the Adhvaryu) then initiates the Brah- 
man (priest). Now the Brahman is the moon, and 
the moon is Soma, and plants belong to Soma 3 : 
he thus connects the plants with this (terrestrial) 
world. Therefore no other person should be 
initiated between those two; for, assuredly,. were 
any one else to be initiated between those two, 
he would separate (tear up) the plants from this 
(terrestrial) world, and they would be liable to dry 
up : let therefore no other person be initiated 
between those two. 

3. He then initiates the Udgatrt, Now, the 
Udgatr* is the thunder-cloud, and from the thunder- 
cloud rain is produced: he thus connects the rain 

1 Viz. the wind as the vital air pervading man ; see paragraph 1 1. 
* He, as well as the first three priests, is initiated by the Adhvaryu. 
' Soma is the king of plants, whence these are called ' soma- 
r%*V II, 3, 4, 4 I V, 4, a, 3 ; ,ff*g-veda S. X, 97, 8. 



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136 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

with the plants. Therefore no other person should 
be initiated between those two ; for, assuredly, were 
any one else to be initiated between those two, he 
would separate the rain from the plants, and (the 
cloud) would be liable to lack rain : let therefore no 
other person be initiated between those two. 

4. He then initiates the Hotrz. Now, the Hotrz 1 
is Agni in respect of the deity, and speech in respect 
of the body ; and rain is food : he thus connects both 
Agni (fire) and speech with food. Therefore no 
other person should be initiated between those two ; 
for, assuredly, were any one else to be initiated 
between those two, he would separate fire and 
speech from food, and (people) would be liable to 
starve : let therefore no other person be initiated 
between those two. 

5. The Pratiprasthatr* then initiates the Adh- 
varyu. Now, the Adhvaryu is the mind 2 , and the 
Uotri is speech : he thus connects mind and speech 
with one another. Therefore no other person should 
be initiated between those two ; for, assuredly, were 
any one else to be initiated between those two, he 
would separate mind and speech, and (people) would 
be liable to perish : let therefore no other person be 
initiated between those two. 

6. He then initiates the Brahmawa^awsin for 
the Brahman, for under him the former is. He then 
initiates the Prastotrt for the Udgatr/, for under 



1 Viz. as the offering-priest <tar ifrxh w , he who, by the recita- 
tion of his ' invitatory ' and ' offering ' verses, like Agni, draws the 
gods to the offering, and causes them to graciously accept it. 

* The Adhvaryu is the head of the sacrifice (IV, 1, 5, 16) ; and, 
as the mind, he marches in front. See also III, 2, 4, 11. 'Mind 
goes before Speech (prompting her), " Speak thus ! say not this ! " ' 



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XII KklfDA, I ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAiVA, IO. 1 37 

him the former is. He then initiates the Maitra- 
varuwa for the HotW, for under him the former is. 
These four the Pratiprasthat?-* initiates. 

7. The Nesh/r? then initiates the Pratipra- 
sthatr* for the Adhvaryu, for under him the former 
is. It is after the fitting out 1 of these nine that the 
others are fitted out ; for there are nine vital airs : 
he thus lays the vital airs into them ; and so they 
attain the full term of life, and so they do not depart 
this world before their (full) term of life. 

8. He then initiates the Potrz for the Brahman, 
for under him the former is. He then initiates the 
Pratihartrz for the Udgatrz, for under him the 
former is. He then initiates the A^^ivaka for 
the Hotri, for under him the former is. These 
four the Nesh/r* initiates. 

9. The Unnetrt then initiates the N esh tri for 
the Adhvaryu, for under him the former is. He 
then initiates the Agnidhra for the Brahman, for 
under him the former is. He then initiates the 
Subrahma#ya for the UdgatW, for under him 
the former is. He then initiates the Gravastut 
for the Hotrz, for under him the former is. These 
four the Unnetr* initiates. 

10. Either a Snataka 2 , or a Brahmaiarin, or 
some one else who is not initiated, then initiates 
the Unnetr?; for they say, 'No pure one should 
purify.' This is the regular order of initiation*; 

1 Or, after getting them ready, or prepared (k/t'pti). 

* That is, one who has completed his course of theological study 
(brahma/iarya), and has taken the bath (snata) marking the end of 
that course, and his return to the bosom of his family. See above, 
pp. 48-50 (esp. XI, 3, 3, 7). 

' Literally, the initiation in the regular succession. 



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1 38 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

and, assuredly, only when, knowing this 1 , they 
become initiated, they make ready the sacrifice 
even whilst being initiated, and along with the 
getting ready of the sacrifice security of property 
accrues to the performers of the sacrificial session 
(Sattra) ; and, along with the accruing of security of 
property to the performers of the session, security 
of property also accrues to that district in which 
they perform the sacrifice. 

11. Now, the Unnetr/ is initiated last of these, 
and when they come out from the purificatory bath 
it is he that comes out first ; for the Unnetr/ is the 
vital air: he thus lays vital air into them on both 
sides ; and so they attain the full term of life, and 
so they do not depart this world before their (full) 
term of life. This is the regular order of initia- 
tion : and, assuredly, he should become initiated 
only where such as know this become initiated. 

Second BrAhmaya. 

1. Verily, from out of faith the gods fashioned 
the initiation, from out of Aditi the opening (sacri- 
fice 2 ), from out of Soma the buying (of Soma- 
plants), from out of Vish»u the guest-offering, from 
out of the sun the Pravargya, from out of the 
Svadhfi (the food of departed ancestors) the Upa- 



1 That is to say, when they become initiated in accordance with 
this knowledge. 

* For the Praya»iyesh/i of the ordinary Soma-sacrifice, see 
part ii, p. 47 seqq. For the subsequent ceremonies, cf. the table 
of contents of the same part. They are here alluded to for the 
reason that they are essential parts of every day's performance 
during the year's session. 



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XII KA.NDA, I ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAWA, 2. 1 39 

sads, from out of Agni and Soma the day of fasting, 
and from out of this world the opening Atiratra \ 

2. From out of the year (they fashioned) the 
A"aturvi»wa day, from out of the priesthood the 
Abhiplava (sha^aha), from out of the nobility 
the VrishtAya. (shaaaha) 2 , from out of Agni the 
Abh^it, from out of the waters the Svarasaman 
days, from out of the sun the Vishuvat, — the Svara- 
saman days have been told ; — from out of Indra the 
Virva/it, — the Prz'shMya and Abhiplava have been 
told ; — from out of Mitra and Varuwa the Go and 

1 The Praya«fya Atiiitra is the first day of the sacrificial session 
called Gavamayanam.the performance of which lasts a year, and in- 
cludes the following sacrificial periods and days (cf. part ii,p. 427): — 
Pr£ya«iya Atiratra, or opening day. 
A'aturviwfa day, an Ukthya, all the stotras of which are in 
the £aturvim.ra-stoma. 
5 months, each consisting of 4 Abhiplava sharfahas, and 

1 Pr»sh/Aya shadaha (=30 days). 
3 Abhiplavas and 1 Pr»sh/Aya. ^ 28 days which, with the 
Abhi^it day (performed with all 
the stomas). 
3 Svarasaman days. 

Vishuvat, or Divakirtya day (Ekaviwwa-stoma). 

3 Svarasaman days. <> 28 days which, with the 
Vijva^it day (performed with all I two concluding days, 

the pmh/Aas). f complete the s e v e n t h 

1 Pr»'sh/j4ya and 3 Abhiplavas. ' month. 

4 months, each consisting of 1 Prish/Aya sha</aha and four 

Abhiplava shadahas. 
3 Abhiplava sharfahas (18 days). * 

1 Gosh/oma (Agnish/oma). I , ,, lfi , ... 

lAyush/oma (Ukthya). 3° days (twelfth month). 

1 Dararatra (10 days). ' 

Mahavrata day (Agnish/oma). 
Udayaniya Atiratra, or concluding day. 
* For the difference between these two sacrificial periods of six 
days, see part iii, introd., p. xxi, note 2. 



two opening days, 
complete the sixth 
month. 



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I40 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAVA. 

Ayus \ from out of the Visve DevaA the Dasa- 
ratra*, from out of the regions the Pr*sh/Aya- 
shaakha of the Dararatra, from out of these worlds 
the A^andoma days. 

3. From out of the year (they fashioned) the 
tenth day, from out of Pra/apati the Mahavrata, 
and from out of the world of heaven the Udayantya 
Atiratra : — such was the birth of the Year ; and, 
verily, whosoever thus knows that birth of the Year 
becomes more (and more) glorious to (the end of) 
it, he becomes possessed of a (new) body, he 
becomes the Year, and, as the Year 3 , he goes to 
the gods. 

Third BrAhmajva. 

1. Now, when they are initiated they indeed offer 
sacrifice to the deities Agni and Vish»u : they 
become the deities Agni and Vish«u, and attain to 
fellowship and co-existence with Agni and Vishwu. 

2. And when they perform the opening sacrifice 
they indeed offer sacrifice to the deity Aditi : they 
become the deity Aditi, and attain to fellowship and 
co-existence with Aditi. 

3. And when they proceed with the buying (of 
Soma-plants) they indeed offer sacrifice to the deity 
Soma : they become the deity Soma, and attain to 
fellowship and co-existence with Soma. 

1 For the differences between the three modes of chanting the 
Stotras of the Agnish/oma and Ukthya Soma-sacrifices — viz. 
Gryotish/oma, Gosh/oma, Ayush/oma — see part iv, p. 287, 
note 2. 

* The DararStra, or central ten days of the Dvadaxaha (twelve 
days' period), consists of a Pr*°sh//iya sharfaha, three A^andoma 
days (of the Ukthya order), and a final (tenth) Atyagnish/oma day 
called Avivakya. 

* For the Sacrificer as father Time, see part iv, introd., p. xxii. 



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XII KANDA, I ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAiVA, 9. 141 

4. And when they perform the guest-offering 
they indeed offer sacrifice to the deity Vish«u : 
they become the deity Vish#u, and attain to fellow- 
ship and co-existence with Vish/m. 

5. And when they perform the Pravargya-offering 1 
they indeed offer sacrifice to the deity Aditya : they 
become the deity Aditya, and attain to fellowship 
and co-existence with Aditya (the sun). 

6. And when they enter upon the Upasads they 
indeed offer sacrifice to those very deities 2 who 
(receive oblations) at the Upasads : they become 
those deities, and attain to fellowship and co-exis- 
tence with those deities. 

7. And when they perform the animal sacrifice 
to Agni and Soma 8 they indeed offer sacrifice to 
the deities Agni and Soma : they become the deities 
Agni and Soma, and attain to fellowship and co-ex- 
istence with Agni and Soma. 

8. And when they perform the opening Atiratra 
(of the sacrificial session) they indeed offer sacrifice 
to those deities, the Day and Night 4 : they become 
those deities, the Day and Night, and attain to 
fellowship and co-existence with the Day and Night. 

9. And when they enter upon the JCatwrvymsa. 
day they indeed offer sacrifice to that deity, the 
Year 6 : they become that deity, the Year, and 
attain to fellowship and co-existence with the Year. 

1 See XIV, 1-3 ; and part ii, p. 104, note 3. 

* Viz. Agni, Soma, and Vishmi; cf. part ii, p. 105, note 1. 
' See part ii, p. 162 seqq. 

4 Viz. inasmuch as the Atiratra includes both a day and a night 
performance. 

* Viz. both because this is the real opening day of the year's 
session, and because Pra^apati (as the Purusha and the Year) is 
' ialurv'imsa,' or 'twenty-four-fold' (e.g. VI, 2, 1, 23). 



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142 ^ATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 



10. And when they enter upon the Abhiplava- 
shaafaha they indeed offer sacrifice to those deities, 
the Half-months and Months: they become those 
deities, the Half-months and Months, and attain to 
fellowship and co-existence with the Half-months 
and Months. 

11. And when they enter upon the P*-*sh/^ya- 
shaofeha they indeed offer sacrifice to those deities, 
the Seasons : they become those deities, the Sea- 
sons, and attain to fellowship and co-existence with 
the Seasons. 

1 2. And when they enter upon the Abhi^it (day) 
they indeed offer sacrifice to the deity Agni : they 
become the deity Agni, and attain to fellowship and 
co-existence with Agni. 

13. And when they enter upon the Svarasaman 
(days) they indeed offer sacrifice to that deity, the 
Waters : they become that deity, the Waters, and 
attain to fellowship and co-existence with the Waters. 

14. And when they enter upon the Vishuvat 
(day) they indeed offer sacrifice to the deity Aditya : 
they become the deity Aditya, and attain to fellow- 
ship and co-existence with Aditya. The Svarasi- 
mans have been told. 

1 5. And when they enter upon the Vuva^it (day) 
they indeed offer sacrifice to the deity Indra : they 
become the deity Indra, and attain to fellowship 
and co-existence with Indra. The PrtshMya and 
Abhiplava (shaaahas) have been told. 

16. And when they enter upon (the performance 
of) the Go and Ayus (stoma) 1 they indeed offer 
sacrifice to the deities Mitra and Varu»a: they 

1 See p. 140, note 1. 



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XII KANDA, I ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAJVA, 22. 1 43 

become the deities Mitra and Varu#a, and attain to 
fellowship and co-existence with Mitra and Varu#a. 

17. And when they enter upon the Dasaratra 
they indeed offer sacrifice to that deity the Virve 
Devi^ : they become that deity, the Virve Deva^, 
and attain to fellowship and co-existence with the 
Virve Deva^. 

18. And when they enter upon the Pr/shMya- 
shaafaha of the Dayaratra they indeed offer sacrifice 
to those deities, the Regions : they become those 
deities, the Regions, and attain to fellowship and 
co-existence with the Regions. 

19. And when they enter upon the A'Aandomas 
they indeed offer sacrifice to those deities, these 
Worlds : they become those deities, these Worlds, 
and attain to fellowship and co-existence with these 
Worlds. 

20. And when they enter upon the tenth day (of 
the Dararatra) they indeed offer sacrifice to that 
deity, the Year : they become that deity, the Year, 
and attain to fellowship and co-existence with the 
Year. 

21. And when they enter upon the Mahavrata 
they indeed offer sacrifice to the deity Prafapati : 
they become the deity Pragapati, and attain to 
fellowship and co-existence with Pra^apati. 

22. And when they enter upon the concluding Ati- 
ratra (of the sacrificial session), then, indeed, having 
gained the Year, they establish themselves in the 
world of heaven. And were any one to ask them, ' To 
what deity are ye offering sacrifice this day ? what 
deity are ye ? with what deity do ye dwell ? ' let them 
name of those (deities) the one to whom they may 
be nearest (in the performance of the Sattra). And, 



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T44 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 



verily, such (sacrificers) are seated (sad) in the 
good 1 (place), for they are for ever seated among 
the good deities ; and the others are mere partakers 
in the sacrificial session 2 ; and if any one were, 
during a sacrificial session, to speak evil of such 
initiates as know this, let them say to him, ' We cut 
thee off from those deities ; ' and he becomes the 
worse, and they themselves become the better for it. 
23. That same year contains three great rites 
(mahavrata) : — the great rite on the Aaturviawa 
day, the great rite on the Vishuvat day, and the 
great rite 3 on the Mahavrata day itself. Now, those 
of old used, indeed, to enter upon (perform) that 
(year's session) with three great rites, and they 
became glorious, truth-speaking, and faithful to 
their vow; but if nowadays any (sattrins) were to 
perform it on this wise, they assuredly would crum- 
ble away even as a jar of unbaked clay would 
crumble away if water were poured into it. They 
(who do so) perform too much : that (object) of 
theirs is gained by truth, by toil, by fervid devotion, 
by faith, by sacrifice, and by oblations. 

Fourth Brahmaaa. 

1 . The Year, indeed, is Man ; — the opening (pra- 
yawlya) Atiratra is his feet, for by means of their 

1 Or, in the true, abiding (place) — sati. 

* That is, those who perform a sacrificial session (sattra) without 
their possessing the esoteric knowledge regarding the several 
ceremonies, set forth in the preceding paragraphs, are mere ' sattra- 
sadaA ' (i. e. merely ' sitting through the sacrificial session ') whilst 
those possessing that knowledge are ' sati sadaA.' 

* That is, more especially, the chanting of the Mahavrata~s4man, 
for which see part iv, p. 282, note 5. 



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xii kanda, 2 adhyAya, i brAhmaya, i. 145 

feet (men) go forward (prayanti) : that part of them 
which is white is of the form of the day, and that 
which is black is (of the form) of the night; the 
nails are of the form of herbs and trees. The 
A'aturviawa day is the thighs, the Abhiplava the 
breast, and the Pr*sh/i4ya the back. 

2. The Abhi,fit is this right arm, the Svarasa- 
man days these three (openings of the) vital airs on 
the right side \ the Vishuvat the head, and the 
(second period of) Svarasaman days these three 
vital airs on the left side. 

3. The Vwva/it is this left arm, — the Pr/sh/Aya 
and Abhiplava have been told, — the Go and Ayus 
those downward vital airs ; the Dararitra the limbs, 
the Mahavrata the mouth ; and the concluding 
(udayantya) Atiratra is the hands, for by means of 
the hands (men) move (reach) upwards (udyanti) : 
that part of them which is white is of the form of 
the day, and that which is black is of that of the 
night ; and the nails are of the form of the stars. 
Thus that year is established in respect of the body ; 
and, verily, whosoever thus knows that year to be 
established in respect of the body, establishes him- 
self by means of offspring and cattle in this, and by 
immortality in the other, world. 

Second AdhyAya. First BrAhmaya. 

1 . Verily, those who become initiated for (a sacri- 
ficial session of) a year cross an ocean : the Praya- 
»lya Atiratra' is a flight of steps 2 , for it is by means 
of a flight of steps that one enters (the water) ; and 

'* Viz. the right eye, ear, and nostril. 
' Or, a descent, a passage leading down to a bathing-place. 
[44] ' L 



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146 satapatha-brAhmaya. 

when they enter on the Praya«tya Atiratra it is 
just as if they were entering the ocean by a flight 
of steps. 

2. The Aaturviw^a day is (in the form of) a 
foothold, a shallow place 1 , such a one as (where the 
water reaches) either to the arm-pits or to the neck, 
whence, having rested, they enter* (the deep water). 
The Abhiplava is (a spot) suitable for swimming; 
and so is the Pr/shMya suitable for swimming. 

3. The Abhifit is a foothold, a shallow place, 
such a one as (where the water reaches) either to the 
arm-pits, or to the neck, whence, having rested, they 
come out (of the water). The first Svarasaman is 
thigh-deep, the second knee-deep, the third knuckle- 
deep. The Vishuvat is a foothold (in the form of) 
an island. The first (Svarasaman) with reversed 
Samans is knuckle-deep, the second knee-deep, and 
the third thigh-deep. 

4. The Vlrva^it is a foothold, a shallow place, 
such a one as (where the water reaches) either to 
the arm-pits or to the neck, whence, having rested, 
he enters (the deep water again). The Pmh/Aya is 
suitable for swimming, and so is the Abhiplava, and 
so are the Go and Ayus, and so is the Dafaratra. 

5. The Mahavrata is a foothold, a shallow place, 
such a one as (where the water reaches) either to 
the arm-pits or to the neck, whence, having rested, 

1 Gadham eva pratish/Aa, — it may be remarked that this is just 
the form in which an appositional compound is analyzed by native 
grammarians, as if it were ' gadha-pratishMa,' a foothold which is 
just a ford, a ford-foothold, as indeed it is written in paragraph 9. 
Cf. p. 66, note 4. 

* Or, bathe, — ' prasnati,' indeed, would really seem to mean here 
' he swims forward.' 



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xn kAnda; 2 adhyAya, i brAhmajva, 9. 147 

they step out (of the water). The Udayanlya (con- 
cluding) Atiratra is a flight of steps, for it is by 
a flight of steps that people step out (of the water) : 
thus, when they perform the Udayanlya Atiratra, 
it is just as if, having entered the sea by a flight 
of steps, they were to step out of it by a flight 
of steps. 

6. Regarding this they say, ' How many Atira- 
tras are there in the year, how many Agnish/omas, 
how many Ukthyas, how many Shodfa-rins, how 
many Sha*&has ? ' — Two Atiratras, a hundred and 
six Agnish/omas, and two hundred and forty Uk- 
thyas, — thus in the case of those who perform the 
Svarasamans as Ukthyas. 

7. But in the case of those who perform them as 
Agnish/omas, a hundred and twelve Agnish/omas, 
two hundred and thirty-four Ukthyas, twelve Sho- 
dasins, and sixty Sha<&has. This, then, is how the 
year is obtained. 

8. There are twelve months in the year, and 
their vital energy and power are the P^'shMas ; and 
by performing the Pr /sh/^as month by month, they 
obtain, in monthly portions 1 , that vital energy of the 
year. — ' And how do they obtain the vital energy of 
the thirteenth (intercalary) month ? ' Well, sub- 
sequent to the Vishuvat day they perform the 
Virvafit Agnish/oma with all the PWshMas 2 , and 
thus indeed they obtain the vital energy of the 
thirteenth month. 

9. Now, concerning this, .SVetaketu Aru»eya, 

1 Lit, by the month, i.e. by monthly instalments; cf. T&ndya.- 
Br. IV, 3, 9. 

8 On Soma-days with all the (six) Pmh/Aa-samans, see part iii, 
introd, p. xxi. 

L 2 



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1 48 jatapatha-brAhmajva. 

knowing this, once said, ' I am now going to get my- 
self initiated for one year.' His father, looking at him, 
said, 'Knowest thou, long-lived one, the fording- 
footholds of the year ? ' — ' I know them,' he replied, 
for, indeed, he said this as one knowing it. 

Second Brahmaata. 

1. Here, now, they say, ' Whereby are the Abhi- 
plavas possessed of light (^fyotis) on both sides 1 , 



1 The difference between the Abhiplava-sharfaha and the 
Pr/'shMya-sharfaha was thus explained in part iii, introd., p. xxi, 
note 2 : — ' In both kinds of sharfaha, the Pr»h/*a-stotras (at the 
Madhyandina-savana) are performed in the ordinary way — viz. 
either in the Agnish/bma or the Ukthya way (see ib., p. xvi, note 2, 
as the correct reference is); — but whilst, in the Abhiplava- 
sha<faha, the Rathantara and Br/hat-samans are used for the 
Hotrfs Prish/fta-stotra on alternate days, the Pr/sh/iiya-sharfaha 
requires a different Pr*'sh/Aa-saman on each of the six days. The 
two kinds of sharfahas also differ entirely in regard to the sequence 
of Stomas prescribed for the performance of the Stotras.' It is this 
difference in the ' sequence of Stomas ' which is referred to in our 
passage. On the six days of the Abhiplava-shat/aha, the 
sequence of Stomas (the first four of which, viz. Trivn't, Pa/Wadara, 
Saptadara, and Ekavmta, are only used) varies from day to day 
in this way: 1. Gyotish/oma ; 2. Gosh/oma ; 3. Ayush/oma; 
4. Gosh/oma ; 5. Ayush/oma ; 6. Gyotish/oma (for the difference 
between these, see part iv, p. 287, note 2). It will thus be seen that 
the Abhiplava has the ' gyotiA (stoma) ' on both sides, on the first 
and the last days. For the Hotri's Pr*sh/Aa-stotra on these succes- 
sive days the Raihantara-saman and Brthat-saman are used ; and, as 
the Gosh/oma and Ayush/oma are Ukthya-days, the usual practice 
which requires the Br;hat-s&man for such days, is not followed; 
just as the final Gyotish/bma in this case requires the Br/hat-sSman. 
— As regards the Pr»'sh/Aya-sha</aha, each successive day 
requires for its stotras a single Stoma, in the ascending order: 
Trivrrt, Paftiad&fa, Saptadam, Ekaviwxa, Triwava, Trayastri»Ma ; 
— a different Prisb/iia-saman being used for the Hotn*s Pnsh/Aa- 



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XII KAATOA, 2 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAhMAATA, 4. 1 49 

and the Przsh/^ya of light on one side only ? ' 
Well, the Abhiplavas are these worlds, and these 
worlds are indeed possessed of light on both sides — 
through the fire on this side, and through the sun 
on yonder side ; and the PrzshMya is the seasons, 
and the seasons are indeed possessed of light on 
one side only : he who burns yonder (the sun) is 
their light 

2. Verily, those two wheels of the gods, established 
on the PmhMya ', revolve crushing 2 the Sacrificer's 
evil ; and, indeed, if during a sacrificial session 
any one speaks evil of such initiates as know this, 
those two wheels of the gods cut off his head : the 
(chariot-) seat is the Dafaratra, and the two wheels 
are the PrsshMya and Abhiplava. 

3. Concerning this they say, ' Seeing that the two 
wheels (of a cart) are alike, and those stomas unlike, 
how are those stomas one after another performed 
alike for him ? ' Let him reply, ' Thereby, that 
there are six of the one, and six of the other.' 

4. ' Let him make the Pr*'sh/>6ya and Abhiplava 
two warps 8 ,' said Paingya; 'let him make their 

stotra on each of the six days. Here only the first day has the 
same Stoma at the beginning, as the Gyotish/bma, — whence it has 
'^yotis ' on one side only. 

1 This ' pr*sh/Ayapratish/4ite ' looks rather strange, — perhaps 
the correct reading is ' pr/sh/4apratish/Aite,' 'established on the 
pn'sh/Aa-samans'; unless, indeed, ' pratish/Aita ' has to be under- 
stood here to refer to the Abhiplava, as the established, or ordinary, 
Sharfaha, which doubtless would make the best sense, — ' those two 
wheels of the gods, the Prt'shMya and the established (Abhiplava-) 
shadaha.' 

' Or, as we would rather say, whilst revolving, crush the 
Sacrificer's eviL 

* ? Or, possibly, two kinds of threads, those of the warp and the 
woof (or weft), which are combined into one web. The St. Petersb. 



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1 50 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAVA. 

Stotras and .Sastras run together : ' inasmuch as he 
makes them run together, these (channels of the) 
vital airs, though separate from one another, run 
together, with one and the same aim 1 , into a common 
web ; but were he not to make them run together, the 
Sacrificer would be liable to perish ; and liable to 
perish, indeed, is one who is either blind or deaf. 

5. The Agnish/omas amount to nine in a month a ; 
— now, there are nine vital airs: it is the vital airs he 
thus lays into them (the Sacrificers) ; and thus they 
attain the full term of life, and so, indeed, they do 
not depart this world before the (full) term of life. 

6. And the Ukthyas (amount) to twenty-one ; — 
now, there are twelve months in the year, five 
seasons, and three worlds, that makes twenty, and 
he who burns yonder (the sun) is the twenty-first 3 , 

Diet, on the other hand, takes 'tantra' here in the sense of 'model 
form, type,' — and, indeed, the one meaning constantly passes into the 
other. The MS. of the comm. is too corrupt to be of much use. 

1 This is a doubtful rendering of 'ekoti.' Though, doubtless, 
the juxtaposition of ' ekoti ' and ' samanam utim ' cannot be 
accidental, the word ' uti ' may probably have a different derivation 
and meaning in the two occurrences. Cf. Kern, Saddharrnapu»</ar!ka, 
introd., p. xvii; Journ. of the Pali Text Society, 1885, pp. 32-38. 

* During five complete months of the first half, and four 
complete months of the second half, of the year four Abhiplava- 
sh&fohas and one Pmh//iya-sha<faha are performed. Now, the 
six days of the Abhiplava-shadaha consist of 1. Agnish/oma; 
2-5. Ukthyas ; 6. Agnish/oma ; and those of the Pr»'shMya-sha<feha 
of 1. Agnish/oma; 2. 3. Ukthya; 4. Sho</arin ; 5. 6. Ukthya. For 
'the four Abhiplavas and the one PrtsbMya of each month this, 
accordingly, gives nine Agnish/omas, twenty Ukthyas, and one 
Sho/arin (counted, however, as an Ukthya in paragraphs 6 and 7). 

5 The reason why the Sun is so often referred to as the twenty- 
first or twenty-one-fold, is not easy to discover. Possibly it may 
be from the fact that the Vishuvat day, or central day of the great 
session and the longest day of the year, is identified with the Sun, 



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XII KAJVDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAhMAIVA, 8. 1 51 

— that consummation (he attains), and by that con- 
summation he ascends month by month to the world 
of heaven, and gains, in monthly portions, the world 
of heaven, and the twenty-one-fold Stoma, and the 
Brihatt metre l . 

7. The Agnish/omas amount to thirty-four in 
a month s — for the obtainment of all the gods ; for 
there are thirty-three gods, and Pra^apati is the 
thirty-fourth. And there is one Ukthya with the 
Sho/arin (stotra) ; for the Ukthya means food, and 
the Shodarin vital strength. 

8. By means of that food and vital strength the 
gods obtained all their desires, and secured all their 
desires ; and in like manner does this (Sacriftcer), 
by means of that food and vital strength, obtain all 
his desires, and secure all his desires : with a view 
to that object he who is initiated for (a sacrificial 
session of) a year should therefore perform the 
PnshMya and Abhiplava (-sha</ahas). 

and that this day is flanked on both sides by ten special days which 
together with the central day, form a special group of twenty-one 
days. But, on the other hand, it may be exactly the other way, 
viz. that this central group was made one of twenty-one days because 
of the already recognised epithet of Aditya as the ' ekaviwwa.' Cf. 
A. Hillebrandt, Die Sonnwendfeste in Alt-Indien, p. 6 seq. 

1 Here the twenty-one Ukthyas are symbolically identified with 
the twenty-one- versed hymn-form ; and the nine Agnish/omas 
(of paragraph 5) with the Brthatt metre which consists of four 
padas of nine syllables each. 

* This number is evidently arrived at by counting the twenty 
Ukthyas as Agnish/omas (hence 9 + 20), and adding thereto five 
more Agnish/omas obtained by the calculation referred to in para- 
graph 12 (see note thereon), according to which the characteristic 
Stotras and •Sastras of the Ukthya make one additional Agnish/oma 
in every four Ukthyas. The Sbxx/axin, thus, is not taken into 
account in this calculation. 



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1 5 2 satapatha-brAhmana. 

9. Now, the Adityas and the Angiras, both of 
them sprung from Prafipati, were contending 
together saying, 'We shall be the fir^t to reach 
heaven, — we shall be the first I ' 

1 o. By means of four Stomas, four Przsh/Aas \ and 
light (simple) hymn-tunes, the Adityas sailed across 
to the heavenly world ; and inasmuch as they 
sailed (abhi-plu) to it, they (these six-days' periods) 
are called Abhiplava. 

1 1 . By means of all the Stomas, all the FrishtAas *, 
and heavy (complicated) hymn-tunes, the Angiras, 
coming after (the gods), as it were 8 , touched (reached) 
the heavenly world ; and inasmuch as they touched 
(sprts) it, it (this six-days' period) is called PreshMya*. 

12. It is a six-days' Abhiplava, because it consists 
of six days ; or a five-days' Abhiplava, because 
it consists of five days, for the last day is the same 
as the first; or a four-days' Abhiplava, for there 
are four Stomas (used) in it — the thrice-threefold 
(trivrzt), the fifteen-versed, the seventeen-versed, and 
the twenty-one-versed one ; or a three-days' Abhi- 
plava, for it is of three orders — Gyotis, Go, and 

1 Besides the Rathantara and BriTiat, used on alternate days 
for the Hotrfs Pr*sh/4a-stotra at the Abhiplava, the VSmadevya 
and Kaleya-simans, used on each day for the Maitravaruna's and 
A&Mav&ka's Pr/'sh/Aa-stotras, seem to be counted here as making 
up the four Pnsh/Aa-samans of the Abhiplava-shadaha. For the 
four Stomas, see p. 148, note. 

* See ib., and part iii, introd., p. xxi. 

• The ' iva ' would seem here (as, indeed, pretty frequently) to 
have the meaning of 'eva,' 'indeed,' thus — coming considerably 
after (the gods). Cf. Ait.-Brahm. IV, 17, 5, where the Angiras are 
said to have reached heaven sixty years after the Adityas. 

4 This etymology is of course not meant to be taken seriously, 
the word 'pmh/Aya' being derived from 'prish/fta,' 'back 
(XII, 1, 4, 1). 



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XII KktfDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAJVA, 1 5. 1 53 

Ayus 1 ; or a two-days' Abhiplava, for there are 
two Samans (used) in it — the Brihzt and the 
Rathantara 2 ; or a one-day's Abhiplava, for it is 
performed with the Stomas of a one-day's (Soma- 
sacrifice 3 ). Twelve Stotras and twelve .Sastras of 
the four Ukthyas are in excess 4 — they make a 
seventh Agnish/oma, and thus the Agnishfomas 
amount to seven. 

13. Now, Proti Kaujimbeya 6 Kausurubindi 
dwelt with Uddalaka Aru»i as a religious student 
The teacher asked him, ' My son, how many days 
did thy father • consider that there are in the 
year ? ' 

14. ' Ten,' he replied. — ' Ten, indeed,' he said ; 
'for the Virijf consists of ten syllables, and the 
sacrifice is of Virdf nature ; — 

15. But how many are there really?' — 'Nine,' 
he replied. — ' Nine, indeed,' he said; 'for there are 
nine vital airs, and by means of the vital airs the 
sacrifice is performed ; — 

1 See p. 148, note; part iv, p. 287, note 2. 

* These two principal Pmh/Aa-s&mans are used on alternate 
days of the Abhiplava-shadaha for the first (or Holn's) Pmh/*a- 
stotra at the midday-service. 

* Viz. with the four Stomas used at the ordinary Agnish/bma- 
sacrifice. 

4 Whilst the Agnish/oma includes twelve Stotras and twelve 
.Sastras, the Ukthya-sacrifice has three additional (Uktha-) Stotras 
and .Sastras, which in the four Ukthya days of the Abhiplava- 
shai/aha make up another twelve chants and twelve recitations. 

* That is, either a descendant of Kwamba ; or, as Harisv&roin 
takes it, a native of the city Kamambi ; cf. Weber, Ind. Stud. I, 
p. 193. — Prakrtsh/abhupati-korSmbtniv&si-kusurabindasy&patyam ; 
MS. comm. 

* Harisvimin applies to the father the epithet ' mahaya£#ika,' or 
performer of the great sacrifices. 



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I 54 DATAPATH A-BRAhMAYA. 

1 6. But how many are there really?' — 'Eight,' 
he replied. — ' Eight, indeed,' he said ; ' for the 
Gayatrt consists of eight syllables, and the sacrifice 
is of Gayatrt nature ; — 

1 7. But how many are there really ? ' — ' Seven,' 
he replied. — ' Seven, indeed,' he said ; ' for there are 
seven metres (successively) increasing by four (syl- 
lables), and by means of the metres the sacrifice 
is performed ; — 

18. But how many are there really?' — 'Six,' 
he replied. — 'Six, indeed,' he said; 'six seasons 
make up a year, and the sacrifice is the year ; and 
one and the same day are those two, the opening 
and concluding (Atiratra *) ; — 

19. But how many are there really?.' — 'Five,' 
he replied. — ' Five, indeed,' he said ; ' the sacrifice is 
fivefold ; the sacrificial animal is fivefold 2 ; there are 
five seasons in the year, and the sacrifice is the year ; 

1 In the scheme of the Gavam ayanam, given above (p. 139, 
note 1), there is one day in excess of the year, viz. either the 
central Vishuvat day (XII, 2, 3, 6) or the final Atiratra; but by 
making this latter day identical with the opening Atiratra, Uddalaka 
would seem to bring the whole within the compass of one year of 
six seasons. In the next paragraph, on the other hand, the same 
result is obtained by the identification of the second and the last 
but one days of the session. Another, and perhaps more probable, 
explanation of Uddalaka's calculation would, however, be this. In 
the scheme of the sacrificial session there occur, as not included in 
the different sacrificial groups or periods (the sha<fohas, svarasamans, 
Ac), seven special days — the opening and final Atiratras, the 
A v aturvi»wa and Mahavrata days, and the Abbjgitj Vishuvat, and 
Virvajit days. These seven days he here successively reduces to six 
and five days. The further reduction of this number by the identifica- 
tion of the Pr/sh/Aya and Abhiplava, as well as of the Svarasaman 
days, requires no explanation. Cf., however, the Addenda. 

1 For the ' pankta' nature of the sacrifice, see III, 1, 4, 19. 20 ; 
XIII, 2, 5, i, for the five kinds of sacrificial animals, VI, 1, a, 3a seqq. 



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xn kKnda, 2 adhyAya, 3 brAhmamv, i. 155 

and one and the same day are those two, the 
Katurvimsa and the Mahavrata ; — 

20. But how many are there really ? ' — ' Four,' 
he replied. — ' Four, indeed,' he said ; ' animals are 
four-footed, and animals constitute a sacrifice ; and 
one and the same day are those two, the PrtshMya 
and Abhiplava ; — 

2 1 . But how many are there really ? ' — ' Three,' 
he replied. — ' Three, indeed,' he said ; ' there are 
three metres, three worlds ; and the (Soma-) sacri- 
fice consists of three services ; and one and the 
same day are those two, the Abhi/it and Vwva/it ; — 

22. But how many are there really ? ' — ' Two,' 
he replied. — ' Two, indeed,' he said ; ' for man is 
two-footed, and the sacrifice is man ; and one and 
the same day are the Svarasamans ; — 

23. But how many are there really ?' — ' One,' he 
replied. — ' A day, indeed,' he said ; ' the whole year 
is just that day after day :' — this is the mystic import 
of the year ; and, verily, whosoever thus knows this 
mystic import 1 of the year grows more (and more) 
glorious up to (the end of) it ; he becomes possessed 
of a (new) body, he becomes the year, and in the 
shape of the year he joins the gods. 

Third Brahma^a. 

1. That year, doubtless, amounts to a B^Tiatl, — 
there are two slWahas ( 1 2) of winning days * ; the 

1 Prof. Oldenberg (Zeitschr. d. Deutschen Morg. Ges., vol. 50, 
p. 460) takes ' upanishad ' in the sense of ' worship ' — ' this is the 
worship to be offered to the year.' Perhaps ' meditation ' might 
be the more appropriate rendering : — ' this is the form in which the 
year should be meditated upon.' Cf. X, 4, 5, 1 ; 5, 1, 1. 

* The term ' arkshyat ' is apparently a future participle of ' 4-ar^,' 



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1 56 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

two, Pr/shA4ya and Abhiplava (12); the Go and 
Ayus, and the Dararatra (ten days) — that makes 
thirty-six ; for the Brzhatt consists of thirty-six 
syllables, and by means of the Bnhatt the gods 
strove to reach heaven, and by the Brzhatt they did 
gain heaven ; and in like manner does this one, 
by means of the Bribatt, now strive to reach 
heaven, and thereby gain heaven ; he who knows 
this secures for himself whatever wish there is in 
the Brzhati. 

2. And as to the Aaturvi»z.ra day, it is the same 
as either the seventh or the ninth (day) of the 
Dasaratra 1 . From out of the Abhiplava the Pr/sh- 
Mya is formed, from the TrtshtAya. the Abhi^it, 

hence ' calculated to procure, or win.' The Ait.-Br. has ' dkshyat ' 
instead. The two Sha</ahas (or periods of six days), here counted 
as such days, would seem to include the six Svarasaman days, and 
the special named days scattered over the session (the opening and 
concluding Atiratra being apparently counted as one). 

1 -ATaturviwwa day is one in which the A'aturviwwa-stoma, or 
twenty-four-fold hymn-form, is exclusively used in the chanting of 
the Stotras. The one usually denoted by that term is the second 
day of the Gavim ayanam. In the Dararatra, or ten-days' period, 
there is, however, likewise a day in which the A'aturvun^a-stoma is 
used exclusively. That period consists of a Pr»shMya-sha</aha 
(six days), three ATAandoma days, and a final Atyagnish/oma, called 
Avivakya. The three A'Aandoma days (i.e. days fashioned after 
metres) have assigned to them as their exclusive Stomas the twenty- 
four-fold, the forty-four-fold, and the forty-eight-fold hymn-forms 
respectively ; the first of them, or the seventh day of the Dajaratra, 
being thus a ATaturvi»wa day. But in the second half of the year's 
session the regular order of the days of the minor sacrificial periods 
— the Sharfahas and Svarasamans — is reversed, the last day being 
performed first; and according to this paragraph the same is 
optionally to be the case in regard to the three Ajiandoma days, 
the A'aturviflwa day being taken either first or last (see, however, 
parag. 9). Cf. also Haug, Ait-Br., Transl., p. 347, note (where, 
in 1. 3, read Dararatra instead of Dvadasaha). 



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xii kAnda, 2 adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, 5. 157 

from the Abhifit the Svarasamans, from the Svara- 
samans the Vishuvat, from the Vishuvat the Svara- 
samans, from the Svarasamans the VLrva^it, from 
the Visvagit the FrishtAya. \ from the Vrishthyz. the 
Abhiplava, from the Abhiplava the Go and Ayus, 
and from the Go and Ayus the Dasaratra. 

3. And that Mahavrata is a winning-day, for its 
Stoma is the Paa^aviw^a, and a metre does not 
collapse from (excess or deficiency of) a syllable — 
neither from one nor from two (syllables) ; neither 
does a Stoma by (an excess of) one hymn-verse 2 . 

4. Prior to the Vishuvat they perform first the 
Abhiplava, and afterwards the Pr/sh/^ya, for the 
Abhiplava represents the sons, and the PWshMya 
the father ; whence in early life the sons subsist on 
(the resources of) their father. Subsequent to the 
Vishuvat they perform first the Przsh/Aya, and after- 
wards the Abhiplava ; whence in later life the father 
subsists on (the resources of) his sons ; and, verily, 
the sons of him who thus knows this subsist on 
him in early life, and he subsists on his sons in 
later life. 

5. Here, now, they ask, ' If he were to die after 
entering on the Aaturviwra day, how does he 
become one who has not merely (uttered) the Agur- 

1 Here, the order of Abhiplava and Pr»'sh/£ya followed in the 
first half of the year is reversed. 

* The author apparently claims for the pa3£avi/»ja-stoma, or 
twenty-five-versed hymn-form, the same efficacy as for the 
£aturviffua-stoma, the hymn-form of what is practically the first 
day of the sacrificial session (cf. Ta«rfya-Br. XXV, 1, 1, where it 
is called ifoturvMua/n prayaniyam), and which by the number of 
its stotriya-verses, being that of the half-months in the course of 
the year (34), is supposed to represent the whole year; cf. Ait. -Br. 
IV, 12. 



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158 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

formula * ? ' Let him say, ' In that they then 
perform the Opening Atiratra, thereby (he becomes 
such a one).' 

6. As to this they ask, ' Seeing that there are the 
twelve months of the year, and that one day, to wit, 
the Vishuvat, is in excess, does this belong to those 
(months) that go before or to those that follow ? ' 
Let him say, ' Both to those that go before and to 
those that follow ; ' for the Vishuvat is the body 
(trunk) of the year, and the months are its limbs ; 
and where the body is there are (or, that includes) 
also the limbs, and where the limbs are there is also 
the body ; and neither is the body in excess of the 
limbs, nor are the limbs in excess of the body : and 
thus, indeed, that (day) belongs both to those 
(months) that go before and to those that follow. 

7. But, indeed, that year is a great eagle : the six 
months which they perform prior to the Vishuvat 
are the one wing, and those which they perform sub- 
sequent thereto are the other ; and the Vishuvat is 
the body ; and, indeed, where the body is there are 
also the wings, and where the wings are there is also 
the body ; for neither is the body in excess of the 
wings, nor are the wings in excess of the body : and 
thus, indeed, that (day) belongs both to those 
(months) that go before and to those that follow. 

8. As to this they ask, 'Seeing that for six 
months prior to the Vishuvat they perform Stomas 
tending upwards, and for six (months) reversed 

1 See XI, a, 5, 10 with note. The JTaturvixara day is, as it were, 
a promise on the part of the Sacrificer to perform the sacrificial 
session; whilst the Praya»tya Atir&tra not only represents the 
actual entering on the performance, but, as it were, implies the 
Udayaniya Atir&tra (XII, 2, 2, 18). 



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xii kAjvda, 2 adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, ii. 159 

(Stomas), how are these latter performed so as 
to tend upwards?' Let him say, 'In that they 
perform that Da.yaratra as one with upward 
tending Stomas, thereby they do so.' Now, the 
Mahavrata did not yield itself to the gods saying, 
' How is it, ye have performed the . Vishuvat with 
upward tending hymns, and me with reversed ones ? ' 

9. The gods said, ' Try ye to find out that sacri- 
ficial performance which has upward tending Stomas, 
and whereby we may gain this.' They saw that 
Dayaratra with upward tending Stomas after the 
manner of the year : what PrishtAya-shadaha there 
is in it that is the seasons, the (three) A^andomas are 
these worlds, and the tenth day is the year. Thereby 
they gained this (Mahavrata), and it yielded itself 
to them ; and, verily, the Mahavrata yields itself to 
him who so knows this. 

10. And in this way, indeed, there is an ascent of 
days : — by means of the Opening Atiratra they 
ascend the concluding Atiratra, by means of the 
A'aturvitfwa the Mahavrata, by means of an Abhi- 
plava a subsequent Abhiplava, by means of 
a PrishtAya a subsequent PrishtAya, by means of 
the Abhifit the VLrvafit, by means of the Svara- 
samans the subsequent Svarasamans — but that one 
day is not ascended, to wit, the Vishuvat : and, 
verily, he who thus knows this ascends to (the state 
of) one more glorious, and no one inferior to him 
ascends (to be equal) to him. 

1 1. And in this way, indeed, there is a descent of 
days : — the Priyawlya Atiratra descends to the 
A'aturvi#wa day, the A'aturvitfwa day to the Abhi- 
plava, the Abhiplava to the PrishtAya, the PrishtAya. 
to the Abhjfit, the Abhi/it to the Svarasamans, the 



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160 satapatha-brAhmava. 

Svarasamans to the Vishuvat, the Vishuvat to the 
Svarasamans, the Svarasamans to the Visvagit, the 
Vi^vajfit to the Prz'shMya, the VrishtAya. to the 
Abhiplava, the Abhiplava to the Go and Ayus, 
the Go and Ayus to the Dararatra, the Dauraratra 
to the Mahavrata, the Mahavrata to the Udayanlya 
Atiratra, the Udayanlya Atiratra to the world of 
heaven, to the resting-place, to plenty. 

12. Such, indeed, are the wilds and ravines of 
sacrifice, and they (take) hundreds upon hundreds 
of days' carriage-drives ; and if any venture into 
them without knowledge, then hunger or thirst, 
evil-doers and fiends harass them, even as fiends 
would harass foolish men wandering in a wild 
forest ; but if those who know this do so, they pass 
from one duty to another, as from one stream into 
another, and from one safe place to another, and 
obtain well-being, the world of heaven. 

13. As to this they say, ' How many onward, and 
how many backward days are there ? ' Well, those 
which are performed once each are onward days, 
and those which are performed repeatedly are 
backward days : let him at least consider these * as 
backward ones, for in accordance with the course of 
the Shadfahas he himself moves. 



Fourth BrAhma^a. 

1. The Year, indeed, is Man ; — the Praya»lya 
Atiritra is his breath, for by means of the breath 
men go forward (prayanti) ; and the Arambhawlya 

* Or, 'meditate upon these' (? worship these); see p. 155, 
note 1. 



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XII KXNDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAWA, 5. l6l 

(opening) day 1 is speech, for by means of speech men 
undertake (arabh) whatever they do undertake. 

2. The Abhiplava-slWaha is this right hand 2 . 
This (little finger) is the first day thereof, — this 
(upper joint 3 ) is its morning-service, this (middle joint) 
its midday-service, and this (lower joint) its evening- 
service : it is in place of the Gayatri, whence this 
(little finger) is the shortest of these (fingers). 

3. This (third finger) is the second day, — this 
(upper joint) is its morning-service, this (middle 
joint) its midday-service, and this (lower joint) its 
evening-service : it is in place of the Trish/ubh, 
whence this (third finger) is larger than this (little 
finger). 

4. This (middle finger) is the third day, — this is 
its morning-service, this its midday-service, and 
this its evening-service : it is in place of the Gagatt, 
whence this is the largest of these (fingers). 

5. This (fore-finger) is the fourth day, — this is its 
morning-service, this its midday-service, and this 
its evening-service : it is in place of the Vira/ - ; for 
the Vira^ - is food, whence this (fore-finger) is the 
most food-eating 4 of these (fingers). 

1 Hereby the iSfaturvwwa day would seem to be meant (as, indeed, 
it is also taken by Harisvamin), see p. 157, note 3 ; p. 167, note 1. 

* The right hand is apparently taken here to represent the four 
limbs-— the arms and legs. In Sanskrit the terms for finger and 
toe (as for thumb and large toe) are the same. 

' That is, apparently the bone joining the palm ; though possibly 
the one forming the extreme end of the finger may be intended. 
But inasmuch as the morning-service has five s to Iras as compared 
with the two of the evening-service the former might be expected 
to be compared with the larger of the two bones. 

* Prof. Weber, Pnui^asuira, p. 97, refers to II, 4, 2, 18, where, 
in his opinion, the passage '(thus) they ladle out (food) for men' 

[44] M 



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1 62 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

6. This (thumb) is the fifth day, — this fs its 
morning-service, this its midday-service, and this 
its evening-service : it is in place of the Pankti, for 
the Pankti is broad 1 , as it were, whence this (thumb) 
is the broadest of these (fingers). 

7. This (right arm) is the sixth day, — this (fore- 
arm 2 ) is its morning-service, this (upper arm) its 
midday-service, and this (shoulder-blade) its evening- 
service : it is in place of the AtLWandas, whence this 
(arm) is larger than those (fingers). That day is a 
Gayatrl one, whence this shoulder-blade is the 
shortest: this Abhiplava-shaaaha (extends) in this, 
in this, in this, and in this, direction 3 ; and the 
PWsh/Aya is the body (trunk). 

8. Now, as to this, Paingya, knowing this, said, 
' The Abhiplavas leap about (plavante), as it were, 
and the PnshMya stands (stha) 4 , as it were; for 

points to the fore-finger as the finger used most in eating. This is 
not improbable, though Sayawa, as well as the commentary on 
Katy. IV, 1, 10, it is true, does not interpret the passage in 
that way. 

1 Viz. inasmuch as it consists of five padas, — instead of three, as 
in the case of the Gayatrf , or four, as in that of the others. 

* Thus also Harisvamin (hardly, the palm ; but see p. 1 6 1, note 3). 

* Viz. in the direction of the two arms and the two legs. 
There being, in nine of the twelve months of the year, four 
Abhiplavas and one P«sh/j4ya in each month, the two kinds of six- 
days' performances as regards numbers, certainly offer an analogy 
to the limbs and the body. 

* This etymological quibble seems to refer to the fact that the 
Abhiplavas are performed before the Vrishlhya. in the first half of 
the year, and after them in the second half; though the same 
feature of change might, vice versi, be applied to the Pr/sh/Aya. It 
is possible, however, that the author may refer here to other 
characteristic features of the two kinds of Shat/ahas ; and it cannot 
be denied that the Abhiplava days are liable to much greater 
change than the Pr/sh/iya days. The constant change in the 



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XII KkXDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAiVA, II. 163 

this (man) leaps about, as it were, with his limbs, 
and he stands, as it were, with his body.' 

9. The Trivrzt (stoma) is its head, whence that 
(head) is threefold (trivm) — skin, bone, and brain. 

10. The Pa»>5ada^a (fifteen-versed hymn-form) is' 
the neck-joints, — for there are fourteen of these 
(joints) *, and the vital force is the fifteenth ; hence 
by means of that (neck), though being small, man 
bears a heavy burden : therefore the Pa»iada^a is 
the neck. 

11. The Saptadara (seven teen- versed hymn-form) 
is the chest ; for there are eight '^atru 2 ' on the one 

' sequence of stomas ' in the Abhiplava has already been referred lo 
(p. 148, note 1). Another source of change, in the Abhiplava, is 
the peculiar way in which the Brahmasaman (or Brahma»aMa»2sin's 
Pr»'sh//4astotra) is varied from day to day. For, whilst during the 
months preceding the Vishuvat day, the Abhtvarta tune is used for 
this stotra on each day, but with different Pragatha verses chanted 
thereto from day to day ; during the second half of the year, on the 
other hand, the same text (Sama-veda II, 806) is used throughout, 
whilst its tune is varied from day to day. Since in the second 
half of the year the order of the days of the Pr»sh/Aya-sha«faha 
must be reversed, whilst this is optionally the case as regards the 
Abhiplava, this feature can hardly be referred to here. 

1 The 'grtvSA' thus, as far as man is concerned, include not 
only the seven cervical vertebrae, but also the upper seven dorsal 
vertebrae, being those to which the true ribs are attached. It is 
worth remarking, however, that in large birds such as the eagle, the 
neck itself consists of fourteen vertebrae. 

1 The St. Petersb. Diet, takes '^atru' in the sense of 'tuberculae 
costarum,' or tubercles of the ribs, the projections near the 'heads ' 
of the ribs where these join the spinal vertebrae ; this conjectural 
meaning being based on VIII, 6, 2, 10, where the ribs are said to 
be fastened on both sides to the kikasaA (? sternum) and the 
^atravaA. Against this conjecture (as the Diet, remarks) is the 
circumstance that the ^atravaA are here said to form part of 
the chest ; and, besides, the tubercle of the rib is not a separate 
bone, and would hardly be likely to be specially singled out in this 

M 2 



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1 64 satapatha-brAhmaya. 

side, and eight on the other, and the chest itself is 
the seventeenth : therefore the Saptadasa (stoma) is 
the chest. 

1 2. The TLkzvimsa. (twenty-one-versed hymn-form) 
is the belly, for inside the belly there are twenty 
' kuntapa V and the belly is the twenty-first : there- 
fore the Ekavi»wa (stoma) is the belly. 

13. The Tri«ava (thrice nine-versed hymn-form) 
is the two sides (paivrva); — there are thirteen ribs 
(parni) on the one side, and thirteen on the other *, 
and the sides make up the thrice ninth : therefore 
the Tri«ava (stoma) is the two sides. 

14. The Trayastri»*ra (thirty-three- versed hymn- 
connection. Perhaps, therefore, the gatra.vaA may rather be the 
costal cartilages connecting the seven true ribs with the sternum, 
and along with them the ligament of the collar-bone where it joins 
the sternum ; in which case the former passage would have to be 
understood in the sense that the ribs are on both (the right and 
left) sides fastened on to the costal cartilages and (through them) 
to the 'kfkasaA,' the breast-bone, or rather the several bones or 
plates of which the sternum consists, as articulated with the 
clavicles and the true ribs. It is possible, however, that ' ktkas&A ' 
may have a different meaning from that here assigned to it, in ace. 
with the St. Petersb. Diet. Indeed, one would expect the ' ktkasaA ' 
and '^atravaA ' on different ends of the ribs. 

1 The meaning of 'kuntapa' is likewise doubtful. The 
St. Petersb. Diet, suggests that certain glands may be intended 
thereby; but possibly the term may refer to the transverse 
processes (forming spikes, so to speak ; cf. kunta) on both sides of 
the ten lower spinal vertebrae below the vertebra of the last true 
rib, — i. e. of the five lower dorsal, and the five lumbar vertebrae. 

* The clavicle, or collar-bone, would thus seem to be classed 
along with the ribs. Rather peculiar, in the anatomical phrase- 
ology employed in the Br&hmana, is the collateral use of ' par.ru ' 
and ' prtsh/i ' for ' rib ' ; and it is by no means clear that there is 
no distinction between the two terms. In connection with the 
RetaAsi/i bricks the term ' prssh/i ' seems to be invariably used, — 
cf. VIII, 6, 2, 7, as against ib. paragraph 10 (par.ru). 



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XII KAIfDA, 3 ADHYAYA, I BrAhMAATA, I. 1 65 

form) is the spine ; for there are thirty-two ' karu- 
kara x ' of that (spine), and the spine itself is the 
thirty-third : therefore the Trayastri»wa (stoma) is 
the spine. 

15. The Abhjfit is the same as this right ear; 
the first Svarasaman is this white part of the eye, the 
second the black part, and the third the pupil ; the 
Vishuvat is the nose, the first backward Svarasaman 
is this pupil of the eye, the second the black, and 
the third the white part thereof. 

16. The Virva^t is the same as this left ear ; the 
Prz'shMya and Abhiplava have been told ; the Go 
and Ayus are the two downward breathings which 
there are (in the body) ; the Dasaratra the limbs, 
the Mahavrata is the mouth; and the Udayaniya 
Atiratra the up-breathing, for by means of the up- 
breathing men go upwards (ud-yanti) : such is that 
year as established in the body ; and, verily, whoso- 
ever thus knows that year as established in the body, 
establishes himself by offspring and cattle in this, 
and by immortality in the other, world. 

Third AdhyAya. First BrAhmajva. 
1. 'Seeing that all this threefold universe keeps 
passing into one another, O Balaki, how is it that 

1 This is another term, the exact meaning of which is somewhat 
doubtful. The St. Petersb. Diet, takes 'karukara' to refer to the 
vertebrae of the spinal column ; and if that be correct, the term 
would seem to include not only the twenty-four joints of the back- 
bone down to the last lumbar vertebrae, but also the appendages 
of the spine, viz. the sacrum with its five, and the coccyx with its 
four pieces : this, it is true, yields thirty-three, instead of thirty-two, 
parts, but it seems scarcely possible in any other way — as, for 
instance, by taking into account the epiphysial plates between the 
vertebrae, along with the latter — to arrive at a total approximating 
that mentioned in the above passage. 



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1 66 satapatha-brAhmava. 

these, — to wit, the sacrifice, Man, and Pra^apati, — 
do not exceed one another ? 

2. Seeing that the upward Stomas follow the 
sacrifice, fitting themselves by repetitions with 
Samans, how do they enter man, and how do they 
become united with the vital airs ? 

3. The Praya»iya Atiratra, the Afaturviawa day, 
the four Abhiplavas, and the PrtshMya (shaa&iha) : — 
how do these enter man, and how do they become 
united with the vital airs ? 

4. Fitted out with the Abhifit, the Svarasamans 
join the Vishuvat on both sides : — how do these 
enter man, and how do they become united with 
the vital airs ? 

5. Setting out with the Trivr/t, fitted out with the 
(Pa.nkada.sa. and) Saptadaxa, and ending with the 
Trayastri»wa ; with (the series of stomas increasing) 
successively by four (syllables *) : — how do these 
enter man, and how do they become united with 
the vital airs ? ' 

6. The TrivWt is his head, the Paasiadasa his 
neck; and the chest, they say, corresponds to the 
Saptadaya ; the Ekaviwwa they make the belly, and 

1 The Trivrrt, or nine-versed stoma, is, however, followed by 
the Pafttadara, or fifteen-versed stoma — the thirteen-versed form 
not being in ordinary use — and these are succeeded by the 
Saptad&ra (17), Ekavimra (21), &c. Possibly, however, this last 
sentence may refer to the six days of the Pr/'sh/Aya-shaa'aha for 
which the stomas consisting of 9, 15, 17, 21, 27 and 33 verses 
respectively are used. On the Abhi^it day, each of the first four 
stomas is used in succession for three stotras, the four hymn-forms 
thus making up the twelve stotras of the Agnish/oma. On the 
VUva^it day, on the other hand, only three stomas are used — 
the Trivr/t, Pa#£ad&ra, and Saptadaja — four stotras being assigned 
to each of these three hymn-forms. 



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xii kKnda, 3 adhyAya, i brAhmamv, 9. 167 

the two sides, by means of the Tri#ava, correspond 
to the ribs. 

7. The Abhiplavas on both sides (of the Vishuvat) 
are his arms, the PrishtAya. is the back, — so say the 
wise ; and his spine the Brahma»as fashion in the 
year by means of the (series of stomas increasing) 
successively by four (syllables). 

8. The Abhifit and VLfvafit are his ears ; and 
his eyes, they say, correspond to the Svarasamans ; 
the Vishuvat, they say, is the breath of the nostrils ; 
and the Go and Ayus are those two downward 
breathings. 

9. The Dasaratra they call his limbs, and the 
Mahavrata the Brahmawas fashion (arrange) so as 
to be the mouth in the year * ; — the Supreme Self 
has entered into that year endowed with all stomas 
and with all samans : having fashioned him alike 
with the body, the sage is seated free from pain 2 on 
the heights of the ruddy one (the sun). 



1 Though the MaEtvrata day is actually the last day but one of 
the one year's sacrificial session, whilst the Aaturviwta day is the 
second, these two days mark really the end and beginning of the 
year, whilst the nominal first and last days of the sessional 
performance may be considered as consisting of mere preliminary 
and concluding (winding-up) rites. The above symbolic identifi- 
cation of the Mahavrata with the mouth of Agni-Pra^&pati, the 
Year, might thus lead one to suppose (as, indeed, is done by 
Prof. Hillebrandt, Die Sonnwendfeste in Alt-Indien, p. 11) that if 
two such annual sessions were immediately to succeed each other, 
the Mahivrata and .faturvinua would fall on one and the same 
day. The Mahivrata, representing (at least symbolically) the 
winter-solstice, would thus mark both the end and the beginning 
of two successive solar periods. 

* Literally, with unborn pain (or, with the pain of one unborn). 



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1 68 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAtfA. 



Second Brahmaata. 

i. The Year is Man ' : — 'Man* is one unit, and 
' year ' is another, and these now are one and the 
same ; — there are in the year the two, day and night, 
and in man there are these two breathings, and 
these now are one and the same ; — there are three 
seasons in the year, and these three breathings in 
man, and these (two) now are one and the same ; — 
' samvatsara (year) ' consists of four syllables, and so 
does ' ya^amana (sacrificer),' and these (two) now are 
one and the same ; — there are five seasons in the 
year, and these five breathings in man, and these (two) 
now are one and the same ; — there are six seasons 
in the year, and these six breathings in man, and 
these (two) now are one and the same ; — there are 
seven seasons in the year, and these seven breathings 
in man, and these (two) now are one and the same. 

2. There are twelve months in the year, and 
these twelve breathings in man, and these (two) 
now are one and the same; — there are thirteen 
months in the (leap-) year, and these thirteen 
(channels of) breathings in man, the navel being 
the thirteenth, and these (two) now are one and the 
same ; — there are twenty-four half-months in the year, 
and this man is twenty-four-fold, being possessed of 
twenty fingers and toes and four limbs; and these 
(two) now are one and the same ; — there are twenty- 
six half-months in the (leap-) year, and this man is 
twenty-six-fold, the two feet making up the twenty- 
six ; and these (two) now are one and the same. 

3. And there are three hundred and sixty nights 



Or, the man, identified with the Sacrificer. 



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xii kAjvda, 3 adhyAya, 2 brAhmajva, 8. 1 69 

in the year, and three hundred and sixty bones in 
man, and these (two) now are one and the same ; — 
there are three hundred and sixty days in the year, 
and three hundred and sixty parts of marrow in man, 
and these (two) now are one and the same. 

4. And there are seven hundred and twenty days 
and nights in the year, and seven hundred and twenty 
bones and parts of marrow in man, and these (two) 
now are one and the same. 

5. And there are ten thousand and eight hundred 
' muhurta ' in the year ; and fifteen times as many 
' kshipras' as there are * muhurta ' ; and fifteen times 
as many ' etarhi ' as there are ' kshipra ' ; and fifteen 
times as many ' idani ' as there are ' etarhi ' ; and 
fifteen times as many breathings as there are 'idani'; 
and as many spirations as there are breathings * ; 
and as many twinklings of the eye as there are 
spirations, and as many hair-pits as there are twink- 
lings of the eye, and as many sweat-pores as there 
are hair-pits ; and as many sweat-pores as there are 
so many drops it rains. 

6. Concerning this, Varkali, knowing this, once 
said, ' I know the raining cloud extending over the 
whole earth, and the drops of that rain.' 

7. It is with reference thereto that this verse is 
told, — Whilst whirling round, be it standing, or 
sitting, or even sleeping, how often does man, 
otherwise than from toil, breathe and expel the air 
regularly 2 by day and night ? 

8. And in answer thereto this verse is told, — 

1 Perhaps the distinction between 'prawa' and 'ana' here is 
that of out-breathing and in-breathing. 

* Or, uniformly (gleichmassig). The St. Petersb. Diet, here takes 
' samena ' in the sense of ' exactly.' 



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1 70 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

Inasmuch as man is what is measured a hundred 
hundred and eight hundred, therefore they say : — so 
often does man regularly 1 breathe and expel the air 
by day and night 

Third Brahmam. 
1 . The gods were once performing the initiation 
ceremony for a (sacrificial session) of a thousand 
years. When five hundred years had passed with 
them, everything here was worn out — to wit, Stomas, 
and Prcsh/Aas, and metres (texts). 

v 2. The gods then perceived that unexhausted 
element of the sacrifice, and by means of that 
unexhausted element they obtained what success 
there was in the Veda ; and, verily, for him who 
thus knows this, the Vedas are unexhausted, and the 
work of the officiating priests is performed with the 
unexhausted threefold science. 

3. Now, this is that unexhausted element of the 
sacrifice : — o-^ravaya, astu jrausha/, ya^a, ye 
y a^a m a h e, and v a u s h a / 2 . In these five utterances 
there are seventeen syllables : — o-tfravaya consists 
of four syllables, astu srausha/ of four syllables, 
ya^a of two syllables, ye ya^amahe of five 
syllables ; 

4. And the V as ha /-call consists of two syllables. 
This is the seventeenfold Pra^apati, as established 
in the deity and in the body, and, verily, whosoever 
thus knows that seventeenfold Pra^apati, as estab- 
lished in the deity and in the body, establishes him- 
self by offspring and cattle in this, and by immortality 
in the other, world. 

1 See note 2 on p. 169. 

* For these sacrificial calls, see part i, p. 142, note 2. 



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xii kXnda, 3 adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, ii. 171 

5. The gods then spake, ' Find ye out that sacri- 
ficial performance which shall be a substitute for one 
of a thousand years ; for what man is equal thereto 
that he could get through with (a performance of) 
a thousand years ?' 

6. They saw the Vi-rva/it with all the Frisht/tas 1 
to be an accelerated Soma-feast in lieu of the Trish- 
/^ya-shadkha, for there are those (same) Stomas, 
those Przsh^as, and those metres. 

7. They saw the Pr?sh^ya-sha</aha to be an 
accelerated Soma-feast in lieu of the Dvadaiaha, for 
there are those (same) Stomas, those Pr«sh/Aas, and 
those metres 8 . 

8. They saw the Dvadasiha to be an accelerated 
Soma-feast in lieu of (a session of) a year 8 , for there 
are those (same) Stomas, those PWshMas, and those 
metres. 

9. They saw the (session of a) year to be an 
accelerated Soma-feast in lieu of the Tapaafcita 4 , for 
there are those (same) Stomas, those Frishtfas, and 
those metres. 

10. They saw the Tapasvfcita to be an accelerated 
Soma-feast in lieu of the thousand years' performance, 
for there are those (same) Stomas, those "Prtshtfas, 
and those metres. 

11. He passes a year with the rites of initiation, 

1 For such a day's performance with all the Pr/'shMa-sSmans, see 
part iii, introd., p. xx seq. 

* The Dvadajaha, or twelve-days' performance, includes a Pn'sh- 
%a~sha<foha as its second to seventh days. 

8 The one year's session includes a Dararatra, or ten-days' 
performance, forming" the central part of the DvSd&raha ; and 
the first and last days of the latter being, like those of the 
Gavlm ayanam, a prayanfya and udayanfya Atiratra. 

' See part iv, p. 317, note 2. 



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172 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

> 

a year with the Upasads, and a year with the 
pressings of Soma. 

12. When he passes a year with the rites of 
initiation he thereby secures for himself the first part 
of the performance of a thousand years ; and when 
he passes a year with the Upasads he thereby 
secures for himself the central part of the perform- 
ance of a thousand years ; and when he passes a year 
with the pressings he thereby secures for himself the 
last part of the performance of a thousand years. 

13. Twelve months he passes with the rites of 
initiation, twelve with the Upasads, and twelve with 
the pressings, — that makes thirty-six. Now the 
Brj'hati (metre) consists of thirty-six syllables, and 
by means of the Brzhatt the gods strove to reach 
heaven, and by means of the Br/hatl they indeed 
attained heaven ; and in like manner does this one, 
by means of the Bn'hatl, now strive to reach heaven, 
and by means of the Brzhati he indeed attains 
heaven ; and whatever object of desire there is in 
the Brz'hatl, that he thereby secures for himself. 

14. But, indeed, there is that triad that is per- 
formed together, — the Agni (fire-altar), the Arkya, 
and the Mahad Uktham (great litany). When he 
passes a year with the rites of initiation, and a year 
with the Upasads, ^hereby the Agni and the Arka 
are secured by him ; and when he passes a year with 
the pressings, thereby the Mahad Uktham is secured 
by him : this, then, to wit, the Tapa&£ita, is the substi- 
tute for the performance of a thousand years, and this, 
to wit, the Tapaafcita, conduces to the procreation of 
creatures. 

Fourth BrAhmaata. 
1. Pra^apati once upon a time spake unto Purusha 



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xii kAnda, 3 adhyAya, 4 brAhmajva, 8. 173 

N4raya»a, 'Offer sacrifice! offer sacrifice!' He 
spake, ' Verily, thou sayest to me, " Offer sacrifice ! 
offer sacrifice ! " and thrice have I offered sacrifice : 
by the morning-service the Vasus went forth, by the 
midday-service the Rudras, and by the evening- 
service the Adityas ; now I have but the offering- 
place 1 , and on the offering-place I am sitting.' 

2. He spake, ' Offer yet sacrifice ! I will tell thee 
such a thing that thy hymns shall be strung as 
a pearl on a thread, or a thread through a pearl.' 

3. And he spake thus unto him, 'At the (chanting 
of the) Bahishpavam&na, at the morning-service, 
thou shalt hold on to the Udg&tri from behind, 
saying, " Thou art a falcon formed of the G&yatrt 
metre, — I hold on to thee : bear me unto well-being!" 

4. ' And at the midday Pavamdna thou shalt hold 
on to the UdgitW from behind, saying, " Thou art 
an eagle formed of the Trish/ubh metre, — I hold on 
to thee : bear me unto well-being ! " 

5. 'And at the Arbhava-pavamana, at the evening- 
service, thou shalt hold on to the Udg&trz from 
behind, saying, " Thou art a I&bhu formed of the 
£agat metre, — I hold on to thee : bear me unto 
well-being ! " 

6. ' And at the close of each pressing thou shalt 
mutter, " In me be light, in me might, in me glory, 
in me everything ! " ' 

7. Now light, indeed, is this (terrestrial) world, 
might the air-world, glory the heavens, and what 
other worlds there are, they are everything (else). 

8. And light, indeed, is Agni, might V&yu (the 



1 ? That is to say, those deities have taken possession of every- 
thing else. Cf. J. Muir, Orig. Sansk. Texts, vol. v, p. 377. 



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1 74 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAtfA. 

wind), glory Aditya (the sun), and what other gods 
there are they are everything. 

9. And light, indeed, is the /?/g-veda, might the 
Ya^ur-veda, glory the Sama-veda, and what other 
Vedas there are they are everything. 

10. And light, indeed, is speech, might the breath, 
glory the eye, and what other vital airs there are 
they are everything. 

11. Let him know this: — 'All the worlds have 
I placed within mine own self, and mine own self 
have I placed within all the worlds ; all the gods 
have I placed within mine own self, and mine own 
self have I placed within all the gods ; all the Vedas 
have I placed within mine own self, and mine own 
self have I placed within all the Vedas ; all the vital 
airs have I placed within mine own self, and mine 
own self have I placed within the vital airs.' For 
imperishable, indeed, are the worlds, imperishable 
the gods, imperishable the Vedas, imperishable the 
vital airs, imperishable is the All : and, verily, who- 
soever thus knows this, passes from the imperishable 
unto the imperishable, conquers recurrent death, and 
attains the full measure of life. 

Fifth Brahmaata. 

1. Of old, indeed, they were wont to seize this 
victim as one dedicated to Savitrz, but now they seize 
it as one dedicated to Pra^apati, saying, 'Savitr?, 
in truth, is the same as Pra^apati.' It is therefore 
after having thrown together the (sacrificial) fires 
that they ought to perform this (animal) sacrifice on 
the Grzhapati's own fires, thinking, ' May we also 
have a share in this tail (of the victim) wherewith 
they are now making offering together to the wives 



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xii kXnda, 3 adhyAya, 5 brAhmajva, 5. 175 

(of the gods).' They then perform the initiation 
ceremony whenever they choose. 

2. Here now they say, 'They ought to have 
separate hearths ; and if one of the initiates were to 
be taken ill let him stay aside offering the Agnihotra. 
If he gets well again, they bring (the fires) together 
and invite him to join them ; but if he dies they 
burn him by his own (three) fires 1 without an (ordi- 
nary) fire for (burning) a dead body; and the other 
sacrificers sit (through the sacrificial session); — such 
at least is the performance in the case of one who 
keeps up his sacrificial fires ; but, indeed, they have 
their hearths in common : the theological explication 
of this is the same as in regard to the preparatory 
ceremonial V 

3. They also say, ' Seeing that the performers of 
a year's session become initiated for a year, how 
does their Agnihotra come to be uninterrupted?' 
Let him reply, ' By the fast-milk.' 

4. They also say, ' Seeing that the performers of 
a year's session become initiated for a year, how 
does their Full-moon oblation come to be uninter- 
rupted?' Let him reply, 'By the ghee and the 
sacrificial cake.' 

5. They also say, ' Seeing that the performers of 
a year's session become initiated for a year, how 
does their New-moon oblation come to be unin- 
terrupted ? ' Let him reply, ' By the sour curds and 
the cake.' 

1 This is the regular procedure in accordance with GrAya rites, 
cf. Asv.Griby. IV, 2, n-13; whilst Paraskara, III, 10, 11, merely 
says, ' with the domestic fire they burn him who has established his 
(sacred) fire.' 

* For the ' pura^arawa,' see part iv, p. 337, note 2. 



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1 76 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

6. They also say, ' Seeing that the performers of 
a year's session become initiated for a year, how 
does their offering to the Fathers come to be unin- 
terrupted ? ' Let him reply, ' By the Aupasana (rites 1 ).' 

7. They also say, ' Seeing that the performers of 
a year's session become initiated for a year, how 
does their offering of firstfruits come to be uninter- 
rupted ? ' Let him' reply, ' By Soma's pap 2 .' 

8. They also say, 'Seeing that the performers 
of a year's session become initiated for a year, how 
do their seasonal offerings come to be uninter- 
rupted ?' Let him reply, ' By the Payasya V 

9. They also say, ' Seeing that the performers of 
a year's session become initiated for a year, how 
does their animal sacrifice come to be uninter- 
rupted ?' Let him reply, ' By the animal and the 
cake *.' 

10. They also say, ' Seeing that the performers of 
a year's session become initiated for a year, how 

1 Viz., by those rites which, during the time for which the Sacri- 
ficer is initiated, may be performed on his domestic (Avasathya or 
Aupasana) fire. Cf. Klty. I, 1, 20. 21. Whether the domestic 
offerings to the Fathers (.rraddha) may be so performed seems 
doubtful. 

1 For the ordinary performance of the Agrayawesh/i, see part i, 
p. 370 seqq. According to Katy. IV, 6, 1 1 seq. the performance 
of a year's sattra is to mark the time at which the offering of first- 
fruits would otherwise have taken place by using new grain for his 
vrata-food, as well as for two Rauhioa cakes at the Upasads, and 
for the cakes offered in the animal sacrifice of the Soma days; 
and that a pap of new jyamaka (millet) is to be offered to Soma at 
the proper season (during the rains, or autumn), and a pap of 
bamboo grain in summer. 

* For this dish, made by the addition of fresh boiled milk to 
sour curds, see part i, p. 381, note 2. 

* That is, by the animal offered on each successive Soma day, and 
the (savaniya) purorfiras offered subsequently; cf. IV, 2, 5, 14-22. 



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xii kAjvda, 3 adhyAya, 5 brAhmajva, 13. 177 

does their Soma come to be uninterrupted ? ' Let 
him reply, ' By the Soma-pressings.' 

11. It is thus that these sacrificial rites enter into 
the year; and, verily, whosoever thus knows this 
entering of the sacrificial rites into the year becomes 
a sharer in the heavenly world. 

12. In the year there should be known to be 
uniformity : — one Atiratra they perform before, and 
one after, the Vishuvat; fifty-three Agnish/omas 
they perform before, and fifty-three after, the Vishu- 
vat; one hundred and twenty Ukthya days they 
perform before, and one hundred and twenty after, 
the Vishuvat, — thus at least in the case of those who 
perform the Svarasamans as Ukthyas. 

1 3. And in the case of those who (perform them) 
as Agnish/omas, they perform fifty-six Agnish/omas 
before, and fifty-six after, the Vishuvat; one hun- 
dred and seventeen Ukthya days they perform 
before, and one hundred and seventeen after, the 
Vishuvat; six Sho^a^ins they perform before, and 
six after, the Vishuvat ; thirty ShWahas * they per- 
form before, and thirty after, the Vishuvat: — such, 
then, is the uniformity of that (year), and, verily, 
he who thus knows this goes through a course of 
sacrificial performance which is uniform, and not 
ineffectual, neither defective nor redundant. 



1 That is, counting the Praya»iya Atiratra, Aaturvizrc.ra, Abhi^it, 
and three Svarasamans as one six-days' performance, before the 
Vishuvat; and the three Svarasamans, the VLrva^it, Gosh/bma, 
Ayush/oma, four days of the D&raratra (preceding and succeeding 
the central Sha<&ha), the Mahavrata, and Udayanlya Atiratra as 
two six-days' performances after the Vishuvat 



[44] N 

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1 78 satapatha-brAhmaya. 

Fourth AdhyAya. First BrAhmajva. 
Expiatory Ceremonies in connection with the Agnibotra. 

1. Verily, they who perform an Agnihotra enter 
upon a long sacrificial session : — the Agnihotra, 
indeed, is a sacrificial session ensuring death in old 
age 1 , for people are set free from it either by old 
age or by death. 

2. Here, now, they say, ' If either a team (yukta) 
were to drive through, or people were to walk to and 
fro, between the two fires of such a one performing 
an Agnihotra, and (being thus) a performer of a long 
session, what rite and what expiation would there be 
in that case ? ' He may, indeed, perform an expia- 
tion, and also offer an ish/i ; but let him disregard 
it, for he who lays down his two fires doubtless 
spreads himself all over these worlds. 

3. His Girhapatya is this (terrestrial) world, his 
Anvaharyapa^ana (or southern fire) the air-world, 
and his Ahavantya yonder (heavenly) world; and 
freely, indeed, birds, both combined (yukta) and 
single, pass to and fro in these worlds ; and even if 
a whole crowd were to pass through between his 
fires, let him know that no harm and no hurt 
will come to him. 

4. 'But, surely, there are three unclean animals, 
a vicious boar, a vicious ram 2 , and a dog : if any 

1 Literally, as would seem, ' old-age-deathed ' (gar&marya), or 
perhaps, 'having old age for its extreme limit (marya).' The 
author apparently takes it in the former sense, though interpreting 
the compound in his own way. 

* According to Molesworth's Dictionary, ' edak& ' and ' memdJfa,' 
in Mara/tf, mean both ' ram,' but the former ' is ordinarily under- 



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xii kAatoa, 4 adhyAva, i brAhmaya, 6. 179 

one of these runs about between (the fires) whilst the 
Agnihotra-offering is put on (the fire), what rite and 
what expiation would there be in that case ? ' Well, 
some poke out the ashes from the Garhapatya, and 
keep throwing it down from the Ahavanlya, with this 
verse (tf/g-veda I, 22, 17)/ Here Vishwu strode 1 ,' 
saying, ' Vishmi is the sacrifice : by the sacrifice we 
thus continue the sacrifice, and with ashes we bestrew 
its track.' But let him not do it in this way, for if, 
in that case, any one were to say of him, ' Surely this 
(priest) has scattered about 2 the Sacrificer's ashes : 
he will soon scatter his last ashes, the chief's house- 
hold will be wailing,' then that would indeed be 
likely to come to pass. 

5. Let him proceed in this way : — Having taken 
either a bowl of water, or a pot of water, let him 
go on pouring it out from in front of the Garhapatya 
up to the Ahavanlya, with this verse, 'Here 
Vish«u strode;' for Vishmi being the sacrifice, he 
thus continues the sacrifice by the sacrifice; and 
whatever is injured or unpropitiated in the sacrifice, 
for all that the water is the means of propitiation, 
and by water, as a means of propitiation, he thus 
propitiates it. Such, then, is the rite performed in 
that case. 

6. They also say, ' If any one's Agnihotra (milk) 
were to be spilled whilst he gets it milked, what 
rite and what expiation would there be in that 

stood of a ram trained to fight, or suffered to live long enough to 
obtain horns.' 

1 See III, 5, 3, 13. 

' ?Or, thrown in (viz. into the pot, or urn). According to 
Asv. Gr*hy. IV, 5, 1 seqq., it is, however, only the bones which are 
collected and placed in the urn. 

N 2 



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l80 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAyA. 

case ? ' Having touched (the spilled milk) with 
the (formula of) expiation for spilling, and poured 
water on it, let him make offering with what (milk) 
is left. But if the bowl were to be turned upside 
down, or if it were to break, let him touch (the 
spilled milk) with the (formula of) expiation, and, 
having poured water on it, let him make offering 
with what other (milk) he can procure. 

7. Now, in case there should be a spilling (of 
milk), let him touch it with, 'It hath been shed, 
it hath been implanted: birth hath ensued;' 
for when (seed) is shed then it is implanted; and 
when it is implanted then birth takes place. And, 
indeed, this (earth) is a womb, and the milk is seed : 
he thus implants seed in that womb, and forthwith 
that shed seed of him who so knows this is born 
forth. And, indeed, it rains from yonder sky, and 
herbs and trees are produced here on earth ; and 
seed flows from man and animals, and therefrom 
everything here is generated : let him therefore 
know that abundant production has accrued unto 
him, that he will be multiplied in offspring and 
cattle, and that he will become more prosperous. 

8. And in case there should be a breaking (of 
the vessel), let him pour out a bowlful or potful of 
water, and, indeed, whatever is injured or unpro- 
pitiated in the sacrifice, for all that water is the 
means of propitiation, and by water, as a means 
of propitiation, he thus propitiates it. He does so 
with these utterances, ' Bhur bhuva^ svar (earth, 
air, sky) ; ' for these utterances are all-expiatory ' : 

1 Or, perhaps, — these (great) utterances are used with the 
' Sarvaprayar£ittam ' (libation for expiating every mistake). Accord- 
ing to KSty. XXV, 1, 10, five verses are also to be muttered after 



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XII KkNDA, 4 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAJVA, 9. l8l 

he thus makes expiation with all this (universe). 
Having collected the potsherds let him throw 
them to where the ashes have been removed. 
This, then, is the rite performed in that case. 

9. They also say, ' If any one's Agnihotra-cow 
were to lie down whilst being milked, what rite 
and what expiation would there be in that case ? ' 
Well, some make her get up by means of the 
Yafus-formula, 'The divine Aditi hath risen,' — 
Aditi, doubtless, is this (earth) : — thus saying, ' It is 
this (earth) we thus raise for him ; ' — 'life hath she 
bestowed upon the lord of sacrifice,' thereby say- 
ing,' It is life we thus bestow upon this (Sacrificer);' — 
'giving unto Indra his share,' thereby saying, 'It 
is Indra's power we thus bestow upon him;' — 'and 
unto Mitra and Varu»a,' — Mitra and Vanma, 
doubtless, are the in-breathing and the up-breathing : 
— thus saying, 'It is the in and up-breathing we thus 
bestow upon him.' At this offering he should 
present that (cow) to a Brahmawa whom he does 
not intend to visit 1 — (thus they enjoin) saying, 'It 
was, indeed, after perceiving the Sacrificer's suffer- 
ing and evil that she lay down : we thus fasten the 
suffering and evil on this (Brahma«a) V 

the libation with the three ' great words.' As regards the libation 
itself, it is to be made in the GSrhapatya with ' bhQA,' in the 
Dakshi/i&gni with 'bhuvaA,' and in the Ahavantya with ' SvaA'; 
cf. ib. sutra 13. 

1 The commentators on Klty. XXV, 1, 15 are divided in 
interpretation of this passage ; whilst some take it in the above 
(and most natural) sense, others take it to mean— to the Br&hma»a 
who will not be coming again to his (the Sacrificer's) house. 

1 The reason why a Brahman is thus chosen to serve as scape- 
goat doubtless is that his holy nature is supposed to be proof against 
such evil influences (cf. Weber, Ind. Stud. X, p. 64). 



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1 82 satapatha-brAhma^ta. 

io. But on this point Ya^w avalkya said, * Surely, 
the cow turns from them as from faithless ones, and 
they smite the offering with trouble ; let him rather 
do it in this way: — Let him make her get up by 
pushing her with a staff.' And, indeed, as in the case 
of one driving about here, his horse, or his mule, 
or his ox yoked (to the car) might become weary, 
and, by its being urged forward by means of a staff 
or a goad, he completes the way he wishes to 
accomplish, even so does he, by that (cow) being 
urged forward by means of a staff or a goad, attain 
that heavenly world which he desires to reach. 

ii. And Aru#i, indeed, said, 'His Agnihotra- 
cow, assuredly, is the sky, her calf is that blowing 
(wind), and the Agnihotra-vessel is this (earth). 
And, verily, the Agnihotra-cow of him who knows 
this does not perish, for how could yonder (sky) 
perish ? Neither does the calf of the Agnihotra- 
cow of him who knows this perish, for how could 
that (wind) perish ? Nor does the Agnihotra-vessel 
of him who knows this break to pieces, for how 
could this (earth) break to pieces ? The rain-cloud 
showers down blessings: let him therefore think, 
" Unable to bear my glory and greatness, she (the 
Agnihotra-cow) has lain down : I shall become more 
glorious." Let him keep her for himself 1 : he there- 
by takes glory (prosperity) to himself,' — thus spake 
Aru»i. This, then, is the rite performed in that 
case. 

12. They also say, 'If any one's Agnihotra-cow 
were to low whilst he gets it milked, what rite and 

1 That is, be is not to give the cow to a Brahmana ; cf. Katy. 
XXV, i, 17. 



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xii kAjvda, 4 adhyAya, 2 brAhmajva, 2. 183 

what expiation would there be in that case ? ' Let 
him pluck a bunch of grass and make her eat 
thereof. This is the rite performed in that case. 



Second BrAhmajva. 

1. They also say, ' If any one's Agnihotra-cow were 
to milk blood, what rite and what expiation would 
there be in that case ? ' Let him say ' Disperse ! ' 
and having made a stirring-spoon, let him order the 
Anvaharya-paiana fire to be enclosed ; and having 
boiled that (blood) thereon, let him silently offer 
it in an undefined (indistinct) way 1 , for Pra^apati is 
undefined, and the Agnihotra is sacred to Pra^apati ; 
and the undefined also means everything: he thus 
makes atonement with everything. At this offering 
he should give that (cow) to a Brahmawa whom he 
does not intend to visit ; for, indeed, she who milks 
blood milks it after perceiving the Sacrificer's 
suffering and evil: he thus fastens that suffering 
and evil upon this (Brahma#a). Let him then 
make offering with what other milk he can procure : 
by that which is not unsound he thus throws out 
what is unsound in the sacrifice. This, then, is the 
rite performed in that case. 

2. They also say, ' If any one's Agnihotra-milk 
were to become impure 2 whilst being milked, what 
rite and what expiation would there be in that 
case ? ' Now some think that it should be offered 



1 According to K&ty. XXV, 2, 2, it is to be offered on hot cinders 
of the Dakshi«i£gni with the formula, ' To Rudra, hail ! ' 

* Or rather, perhaps, — if anything impure were to get (to fall) 
into any one's Agnihotra-milk ; cf. XII, 4, 2, 9. 



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1 84 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

(arguing that) it is ready (for offering), and it would 
be improper if it were not offered; and that the 
gods have no loathing for anything. But the gods 
have indeed loathings : — let him rather proceed 
in the following way. Having shifted some hot 
cinders from the Garhapatya, let him silently pour 
that (milk) on these hot cinders. He then pours 
water thereon, and thus secures (ap) it by means of 
the water (ap). Let him then make offering with 
what other (milk) he can procure. This, then, is the 
rite performed in that case. 

3. They also say, ' If any one's Agnihotra-milk 
were to become impure after he has had it milked, 
what rite and what expiation would there be in that 
case ? ' Let him shift back the coals which were 
shifted away (from the fire) and on which he was 
going to put (the Agnihotra-milk); and let him 
then pour it silently on these hot cinders. He 
then pours water thereon, and secures it by means 
of the water. Let him then make offering with 
what other (milk) he can procure. 

4. They also say, ' If any one's Agnihotra-milk 
were to become impure after being put on the fire, 
what rite and what expiation would there be in that 
case ? ' Let him offer it silently on the coals which 
were shifted away (from the fire), and on which 
it had been placed : thus it is both offered and 
not offered ; for inasmuch as he offers it on those 
(hot coals) it is offered, and inasmuch as he extin- 
guishes it along with them it is not offered. He 
pours water thereon, and secures it by means of 
the water. Let him then make offering with what 
other (milk) he can procure. 

5. They also say, ' If the Sacrificer were to die 



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xh kAmja, 4 adhyAva, 2 brAhmaata, 8. 185 

when the Agnihotra-milk has been put on the fire, 
what rite and what expiation would there be in 
that case?' Having enclosed it, let him pour it 
out : and such, indeed, they say, is the expiation 
(in that case) for every Havirya^wa. This, then, 
is the rite performed in that case. 

6. They also say, ' If any one's Agnihotra-milk 
were to be spilled after being ladled out into the 
offering-spoon, what rite and what expiation would 
there be in that case ? ' Let him touch it with 
the (formula of) atonement for spilling, and, having 
poured water thereon, let him make offering with 
what (milk) there is left. And if the spoon be 
turned upside down, or if it were to break, let him 
touch (the spilled milk) with the (formula of) 
atonement for spilling, and, having poured water 
thereon, let him make offering with what (milk) 
is left in the pot 

7. Now some go back (to the Girhapatya) and 
make offering with what (milk) is left in the pot ; 
but let him not do this, for, indeed, that Agnihotra 
is conducive to heaven, and if any one, in that case, 
were to say of him, ' Surely, this one has descended 
again from the heavenly world : this (offering) will 
be in no wise conducive to heaven for him,' then 
that would indeed be likely to come to pass. 

8. Let him rather do it in this way : — let him 
sit down there and then, and let them ladle out 
and bring to him what (milk) there is left in the 
pot. Now some perplex him, saying, 'Surely, this 
(milk) is the remainder of an offering ; surely, this 
is exhausted : offering should not be made thereof; ' 
but let him give no heed to this ; for, surely, when 
that (milk) is of unexhausted strength it is used for 



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1 86 satapatha-brAhmaya. 

curdling the offering-material 1 : let them therefore 
ladle out and bring to him what (milk) there is left 
in the pot; and if there should not be any in it, 
let him put on the fire what other (milk) he can 
procure; and when he has made the light fall on 
it 2 , and poured water to it, and taken it off (the 
fire), — then on that (former) occasion 3 he (the 
Adhvaryu) says, 'I will ladle out 4 ; ' but on the 
present occasion let them ladle it out in the way 
it is (there) ladled out and bring it to him ; and 
let him by all means make offering therewith. This, 
then, is the rite performed in that case. 

9. They also say, ' If any one's Agnihotra-milk 
were to become impure after it has been ladled into 
the offering-spoon, what rite and what expiation 
would there be in that case ? ' Now some think it 
should be offered, on the ground that it is ready (for 
offering), and it would be improper if it were not 
offered, for the gods have no loathing for anything. 
And some fill it to overflowing and let it flow off 5 ; — 
but let him not do this ; for if, in that case, any one 
were to say of him, ' Surely, this (priest) has poured 
away the Agnihotra : this Sacrificer will be poured 
away,' then that would indeed be likely to come to 
pass. Let him rather do it in this way : — let him put 

1 Literally, they make it the means of curdling the havis ; — cf. 
XI, 1, 4, 1, where the sour milk from last night's milking is 
so used. In the same way the milk not used for the Agnihotra 
might have served for curdling next morning's milk. 

1 Viz. by means of a lighted straw, cf. II, 3, 1, 16. 

' Viz. at the evening-offering of the Agnihotra; the Sacrificer 
then replying, 'Om, ladle out!' At the morning-offering the 
Adhvaryu says, 'I ladle out,' instead. Cf. part i, p. 331, note 1. 

* Or, ' shall I ladle out ? ' as the Paddhati on Katy . I V, 1 4, 8 takes it 

* That is to say, they let the impure matter flow off. 



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xii kAjvda, 4 adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, 2. 187 

fuel on the Ahavanlya, and, having shifted some hot 
cinders away from the Ahavanlya, let him silently 
pour it on these hot cinders. He then pours water 
on it, and secures it by means of the water ; and let 
him then make offering with what other (milk) he can 
procure. This, then, is the rite performed in that case. 
10. They also say, 'If it were to rain upon 
(uparish/at) any one's Agnihotra-milk when it has 
been ladled into the offering-spoon, what rite and 
what expiation would there be in that case ? ' Let 
him know, 'Light (or sap) has come to me from 
above (uparish/at) ; the gods have helped me : 
I shall become more glorious;' and let him by 
all means make offering therewith. This, then, is 
the rite performed in that case. 

Third BrAhma^a. 

1 . They also say, ' If the fire were to go out 
after the first libation has been offered, what rite 
and what expiation would there be in that case ? ' 
Having thrown down (on the fire-place) any log 
of wood he may find lying near by *, let him offer 
thereon, saying, ' In every (piece of) wood there is 
a fire,' for, indeed, there is a fire in every (piece of) 
wood. But if his heart should at all misgive him, 
he may offer upon gold; for gold, doubtless, is 
Agni's seed; and the father is the same as the 
son, and the son is the same as the father : he may 
therefore offer upon gold. This, then, is the rite 
performed in that case. 

2. They also say, ' If, after being taken out (from 
the Garhapatya), the Ahavanlya were to go out 

1 Praty&sanno vimiti prativ&raA samtpastha/4, comm. 



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1 88 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

before the Agnihotra (has been offered), what rite 
and what expiation would there be in that case ? ' 
Let him take it out (again) from the Garhapatya 
(and bring it) forward, and, having laid it down (on 
the Ahavaniya hearth), let him offer the Agnihotra 
thereon. And were it to go out again and again, 
after being taken out even a hundred times, let him 
take it out (again) from the Garhapatya, and, having 
laid it down, let him offer the Agnihotra thereon. 
This, then, is the rite performed in that case. 

3. They also say, ' If the Garhapatya were to go 
out, what rite and what expiation would there be in 
that case ? ' Well, some churn it out from a fire- 
brand, saying, ' Whereby man's (body) is destroyed in 
the end, it is therefrom he desires the expiation of 
this (mishap).' Let him, however, not do this ; but 
let them proceed by taking either a firebrand, or a 
piece from a firebrand; — let him do it in this way: — 
having taken a coal from a firebrand, let him crumble 
it on the two churning-sticks, for (in this way) he 
obtains both that desire which is contained in the 
(fire) churned out of a firebrand, and that which is 
contained in (the fire churned out from) the churning- 
sticks. This, then, is the rite performed in that case. 

4. They also say, ' If they take out fire for any 
one and put it with (the burning Ahavaniya) fire, 
what rite and what expiation would there be in 
that case ? ' When uniting, these two (fires), if 
unappeased, would indeed be liable to burn up the 
Sacrificer's family and catde: let him therefore 
utter upon them the text (Vif. S. XII, 57, 58), 
' Unite ye two, and get ye on together, loving, 
radiant, well disposed, dwelling together for 
food and drink! — Together have I brought 



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xii kAjvda, 4 adhyAya, 3 brahman a, 6. 189 

your minds, together your rites, together 
your thoughts: O Agni Purlshya, be thou 
the overlord, and bestow thou food and drink 
upon our Sacrificer!' He thereby bespeaks 
peace on the part of those two for the safety of 
the Sacrificer's family and cattle. 

5. But if his heart should at all misgive him, let 
him prepare a cake on eight potsherds to Agni 
Agnimat (the fire possessed of a fire). The course 
of procedure thereof (is as follows) : — he should 
recite seventeen kindling-verses; the two butter- 
portions relate to the slaying of VWtra 1 ; the sa*»- 
ya^yas 2 are two Vira.f verses ; and the invitatory 
and offering formulas (of the chief oblation) are as 
follows: — (the anuvakya, JRig-veda. S. I, 12, 6), 
'Agni is kindled by Agni, he, the sage, the 
youthful house-lord, the tongue-mouthed 
bearer of oblations;' and the yifya, * For thou, 
O Agni, art kindled by Agni, priest, as thou 
art, by a priest, friend by friend.' He thereby 
bespeaks peace on the part of those two, for the 
safety of the Sacrificer's family and cattle. This, 
then, is the rite performed in that case. 

6. They also say, ' If any one's Garhapatya were 
to go out when the Ahavanlya has not gone out, 
what rite and what expiation would there be in that 
case ? ' Now, some take (a new fire) out from that 
same (Ahavanlya hearth, and carry it) forwards 3 , 

1 That is, their Anuvakyas refer to VWtrahan. 

* That is, the anuvakya (invitatory formula) and ya^yd (offering- 
formula) recited for the oblation to Agni Svish/akrit. Cf. XIII, 4, 
1, 13 note. 

* That is to say, they make the still burning Ahavaniya their 
Garhapatya and take out a new offering-fire which they lay down 
on a place to the eastward of the former Ahavaniya (the former 



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I9O DATAPATH A-BRAHMAtfA. 

saying, ' The fires are the vital airs : it is the vital 
airs we thus take up for him.' But let him not do 
this, for if, in that case, any one were to say of him, 
' Surely this one has obstructed the forward vital 
airs 1 : this Sacrificer will die,' then that would 
indeed be likely to come to pass. 

7. And some, indeed, take (the Ahavanlya) back 
(to the Garhapatya 2 ), saying, ' These two are the 
out-breathing and the up-breathing.' But let him not 
do this ; for conducive to heaven, indeed, is the Agni- 
hotra ; and if, in that case, any one were to say of 
him, ' Surely, this one has descended again from the 
heavenly world : this (offering) will be in no wise 
conducive to heaven for him,' then that would indeed 
be likely to come to pass. 

8. And some, indeed, churn out another Garha- 
patya ; but let him not do this, for if, in that case, 
any one were to say of him, * Surely, this one has 
raised a spiteful enemy from out of the fire * : 
speedily a spiteful enemy will be raised to him ; he 
(the Sacrificer) will weep 4 for him who is dearest to 
him,' then that would indeed be likely to come to pass. 

9. And some, again, extinguish (the Ahavanlya 
fire) and churn out another ; — let him not yield to a 
desire for this ; (for if, in that case, any one were to 

Dakshiaagni being likewise transferred to a place south of the first 
third of the line between the new Garhapatya and Ahavanlya, 
Katy. XXV, 3, 5 comm.). 

1 ? Or, has forced them forward. 

* That is, they take the burning Ahavanfya fire back to the 
Garhapatya hearth, and then take out therefrom a fresh Ahavanfya. 

' Viz. inasmuch as he takes out a new Ahavanlya from the newly 
kindled Garhapatya, and puts it on the still burning Ahavanlya fire. 

4 Harisvamin takes 'rotsyati ' as from ' rudh ' — rodhena maranam 
lakshyate, marayishyatity arthaA. 



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xii kXnda, 4 adhyaya, 4 brAhmava, i. 191 

say of him '), ' He has caused to be extinguished even 
what was left him : no heir will remain to him,' then 
that would indeed be likely to come to pass. 

10. Let him rather proceed thus: — having lifted 
the two fires on the two churning-sticks 2 , let him 
betake himself northwards, and, having churned out 
(the fire), let him remain there offering ; for in this 
way he passes no censure on any one, and towards 
night offering is made by him at his new resting- 
place. 

Fourth Brahma^a. 

1. And, in the morning, having taken out the 
ashes, and smeared (the fire-places) with cow-dung, 
he lifts the two fires on the churning-sticks, and 
returns (to the offering-ground). Having then 
churned out the Garhapatya, taken out the Aha- 
vanlya, and brought the Anvaharya-pa^ana (to the 
southern hearth), he should prepare a cake on eight 
potsherds to A gni Pathikrz t (the path-maker). The 
course of procedure thereof (is as follows) : — he 
should recite those same seventeen kindling-verses ; 
the two butter-portions relate to the slaying of 
Vntra s ; the sawya^yas are two Virtg' verses 8 ; and 
the invitatory and offering formulas are as follows : 
— (the anuvakya, J?z'g-veda VI, 16, 3), 'For thou, 
most wise Agni, divine disposer, readily 
knowest the ways and paths at sacrifices;' 
and the y^yi (Rt'g-veda. X, 2, 3), 'We have 
entered upon the path of the gods to carry 
on what we can do : the wise Agni shall sacri- 

1 There seems here to be an omission in the printed text, though 
MS. Ind. Off. 311, it is true, has the same reading. 
* That is, by holding the sticks a moment near the fires. 
5 See notes on XIII, 4, 1, 13. 



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1 9* SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJTA. 

fice, he shall be the priest, he shall order the 
sacrifices and their seasons;' for Agni is the 
path-maker, the guide of paths : he, verily, guides 
him upon the path of sacrifice. This, then, is the 
rite performed in that case. 

2. They also say, ' If any one's fires were to come 
in contact with each other, what rite and what expia- 
tion would there be in that case ? ' If this burning 
(fire) were to come (to the other) from behind, he 
may know that light has come to him from beyond ; 
that the gods have helped him, and that he will 
become more glorious. But if his heart should at 
all misgive him, let him prepare a cake on eight 
potsherds for Agni Viviii (the discerning). The 
course of procedure thereof (is as follows) : — he 
should recite those same seventeen kindling-verses ; 
the two butter-portions relate to the slaying of 
VWtra ; the samy&gy&s are two Vira^ - verses ; and 
the invitatory and offering formulas are as follows : 
— (the anuvakya, J&g-veda. VI, 6, 3), 'Thy bril- 
liant, wind-sped flames, bright Agni, spread 
in every direction: the divine ninefold de- 
stroyers overpower the woods, boldly crushing 
them;' and the y&fya (Rtg-veda. V, 8, 3), 'The 
tribes of men glorify thee, Agni, the discern- 
ing knower of offerings, and most liberal 
dispenser of treasures; thee, O wealthy one, 
dwelling in secret, yet visible to all, loud- 
sounding offerer of sacrifice, glorying in 
ghee ! ' And if any one should desire to rid him- 
self of his spiteful enemy, let him, with that object 
in view, perform this offering, and he verily will rid 
himself of him. This, then, is the rite performed 
in that case. 



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XH KANDA, 4 ADHVAYA, 4 BRAHMAATA, 4. 1 93 

3. If, however, this burning (fire) were to come 
from this side, he may know that he will overcome 
his spiteful enemy; that he will become more 
glorious. But if his heart should at all misgive 
him, let him prepare a cake on eight potsherds for 
Agni Sa*»varga (the despoiler). The course of 
procedure thereof (is as follows) : — he should recite 
those same seventeen kindling-verses; the two 
butter-portions relate to the slaying of VWtra, the 
sawya^yas are two Viravf verses ; and the invitatory 
and offering formulas are as follows : — (Rig-veda 
VIII, 75, 15; Va^. S. XI, 71), 'From the far 
region cross thou over to the near: protect 
thou that wherein I am!' and the yi^ya (Rig- 
veda VIII, 75, 12), ' Desert us not in this great 
strife, like as the bearer of a load: win thou 
the spoil (saw va.rga.tn /aya), win riches thou!' 
And if any one desire to despoil his spiteful enemy, 
let him, with that object in view, perform this 
offering, and he verily will despoil him. This, 
then, is the rite performed in that case. 

4. They also say, ' If the lightning were to burn 
any one's (sacrificial fire), what rite and what expia- 
tion would there be in that case ? ' Let him know 
that light has come to him from above; that the 
gods have helped him, and that he will become 
more glorious. But if his heart should at all 
misgive him, let him prepare a cake on eight pot- 
sherds for Agni Apsumat (abiding in the waters). 
The course of procedure thereof (is as follows) : — 
he should recite those same seventeen kindling- 
verses ; the two butter-portions relate to the slaying 
of Vrztra ; the sawya^fyas are two Vira/ verses ; and 
the invitatory and offering formulas are as follows : 

[44] o 



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194 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

— (.fog-veda VIII, 43, 9 ; V$g. S. XII, 36), ' In the 
waters, O Agni, is thy seat; as such thou 
clingest to plants: being in (their) womb, 
thou art born again;' and the ya^yi (Vif. S. 
XII, 37), 'Thou art the child of the herbs, 
the child of the trees, the child of all that is, 
O Agni, thou art the child of the waters;' — he 
thereby bespeaks peace on the part of those two 
(fires) for the safety of the Sacrificer's family and 
cattle. This, then, is the rite performed in that 
case. 

5. They also say, ' If any one's fires were to come 
in contact with impure (profane) fires, what rite and 
what expiation would there be in that case ? ' Let 
him prepare a cake on eight potsherds for Agni 
Su&i (the bright), — the course of procedure thereof (is 
as follows) : — he should recite those same seventeen 
kindling-verses; the two butter-portions relate to 
the slaying of VWtra ; the sawsya^yas are two Vir$f 
verses; and the invitatory and offering formulas 
are as follows: — (Rig-veda. VIII, 44, 21), 'Agni of 
brightest work, the bright priest, the bright 
sage, brightly he shineth with offering fed;' 
and the y&fya (J?*g-veda VIII, 44, 17), 'Up rise 
thy flames, the bright, the pure, the shining, 
thy lights, O Agni ;' — he thereby bespeaks peace 
to those two (kinds of fires) for the safety of the 
Sacrificer's family and cattle. This, then, is the 
rite performed in that case. 

6. They also say, ' If the sun were to set on any 
one's Ahavanlya not yet having been taken out, 
what rite and what expiation would there be in that 
case ? ' Verily, those rays (of the sun) are the All- 
gods : they go from him, and that (Agnihotra) fails 



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xii kAnda, 4 adhyAya, 4 brAhmaya, 7. 195 

him, because the gods go from him ; and after that 
failure — whether he know it or know it not — those 
two (fires) say, ' He (the sun) has set on his unlifted 
(fire).' In such a case let him proceed thus: — 
having fastened a piece of yellow gold to a plant 
of darbha grass, let him order it to be taken towards 
the back (west) : thus it is made of the form of him 
who shines yonder ; and that (sun) being the day, it 
is made of the form of the day. And darbha plants 
are a means of purification * : he thus purifies it 
thereby. Having then kindled some firewood, let 
him order it to be taken forward (to the Ahavaniya 
hearth). A Brahmawa descended from a J&shi 
should take it out, for a Brahma#a descended from 
a ./?*shi represents all the deities: it is thus with 
the help of all the deities that he causes it (the fire) 
to succeed. Having laid it down, he returns, and 
having placed ghee on the Garhapatya, taken it off, 
purified it and looked down on it 2 , he takes ghee by 
four ladlings, and, having seized a log, he hastens up 
to the front ; and, having put the log on the Aha- 
vaniya, he bends his right knee, and offers with, ' To 
the All-gods, hail!' Even as one would call 
(back) to him a Brahmawa staying at one's dwelling, 
when he goes away offended, by (presenting him with) 
a cow longing for the bull, so he thereby calls to him 
the All-gods; and they indeed acknowledge, and 

1 Viz. inasmuch as they are used as strainers; see I, 1, 3, 5; 
cf. also part i, p. 84, note 2. 

* Whilst, on ordinary occasions, in clarifying -butter for offering, 
the priest would first make the lady of the house look down on the 
ghee taken from the fire, before he himself (or the Sacrificer) does 
so (I, 3, 1, 19 ; 26); on the present occasion — as at offerings to 
the Fathers (Katy. II, 7, 4 comm.) — the priest alone does so. 

O 2 



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1 96 satapatha-brahmava. 

turn to, him. This, then, is the rite performed in 

that case. 

7. They also say, ' If the sun were to rise over 

any one's Ahavaniya not having been taken out, 
what rite and what expiation would there be in 
that case ? ' Verily, those rays are the All-gods ; 
and, having dwelt there, they now go from him, 
and that (Agnihotra) fails him, because the gods 
go from him ; and after that failure — whether he 
know it or know it not — those two (fires) say, ' He 
(the sun) has risen on his unlifted (fire).' In such 
a case let him proceed thus : — having fastened 
a piece of white gold (silver) to a plant of darbha 
grass, let him order it to be taken towards the 
front: thus it is made of the form of the moon; 
and, the moon being the night, it is made of the 
form of the night. And darbha plants are a means 
of purification : he thus purifies it thereby. Having 
then kindled some firewood, let him order it to be 
taken after (the piece of silver). A Brahma«a 
descended from a J&shi should take it out, for 
a Brahma#a descended from a J?ish\ represents 
all the deities : it is thus with the help of all the 
deities that he causes it (the fire) to succeed. Hav- 
ing laid it down, he returns, and, having placed 
ghee on the Garhapatya, taken it off, purified it and 
looked down upon it, he takes ghee in the same 
way as it was taken before, and, having seized 
a log, he hastens up to the front ; and, having put 
the log on the Ahavaniya, he bends his right knee 
and offers with, 'To the All-gods, hail!' The 
import is the same as before ; and, verily, no hurt and 
no harm of any kind befalls where that expiation is 
made. This, then, is the rite performed in that case. 



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xii kanda, 5 adhyaya, i brahmava, 3. 1 97 

Fifth Adhyaya. First Brahmaya. 
Ceremonies in connection with the Death of the Agnihotrin. 

1. They also say, 'If that performer of a long 
sacrificial session — to wit, he who (regularly) offers 
the Agnihotra — were to die whilst staying abroad, 
are they to sacrifice for him or not ? ' Now, some 
indeed think that (his Agnihotra) should be offered 
till they get home ' ; but let him not do so, for 
that (fire) does not submit thereto that they should 
offer to it, as for the burning of a dead body : it is 
rather to sacrifice and oblations that it submits, and, 
unable to endure it, it stays by him with impatience. 

2. And some, indeed, say, ' They (the fires) should 
lie in the very same condition, kept up (with fuel) 
but without offering being made on them ; ' but let 
him not do so, for that (fire) does not submit thereto 
that they should kindle it as for the burning of 
a dead body : it is rather to sacrifice and oblations 
that it submits, and, unable to endure it, it stays by 
him with impatience. 

3. And some, indeed, having lifted the two fires 

1 Prof. UelbrOck, Altind. Syntax, p. 430, takes 'aganto^' in the 
sense, — ' (thinking) he may still come ; ' but cf. Katy. XXV, 8, 9 
with coram., according to which, in case of an Agnihotrin dying away 
from home, his people are— if the place of his death be somewhere 
near his home — to take the body there ; but if it be far from home, 
they are to kindle a fire by ' churning ' and burn the body, and 
having collected the bones and taken them home, they are there to 
perform the punardaha, or second cremation ; and in either case 
the Agnihotra is to be performed regularly for the deceased, in the 
evening and morning, ' till the body or the bones arrive at the 
house (gr/hSgamanaparyantam).' The force of ' iti ' here evidently 
is, — (thinking,) * we will do so until the home-coming.' HarisvSmin 
rightly resolves ' aganto/i ' by ' a igantoA.' 



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198 satapatha-brAhmava. 

on the churning-sticks, lay them down, and churn 
it (the new fire) out on his being brought (home) ; 
but let him not do so, for that (fire) does not submit 
thereto that they should churn it out as for the 
burning of a dead body : it is rather to sacrifice and 
oblations that it submits, and, unable to endure it, 
it stays by him with impatience. 

4. Let him rather proceed thus : — let him bid 
them seek for a cow suckling an adopted calf, and 
let him make offering with milk from her; for 
tainted is that milk which comes from a cow 
suckling an adopted calf, and tainted is the Agni- 
hotra of one who is dead : by thus removing the 
tainted by the tainted, he becomes more glorious. 

5. Concerning this there also is a simile : — if two 
smashed cars were to (be made to) unite there would 
be at least one (fit) for driving. 

6. The procedure of this same Agnihotra (is as 
follows) : — He causes her to be milked whilst east- 
ward invested 1 ; for, sacrificially invested, one gets 
(the Agnihotra-cow) milked for the gods, but in the 
case of the Fathers it is done thus. 

7. He does not put (the milk) on the (burning) 
coals 2 ; for were he to put it on coals he would 
be doing (what is done) for the gods : having shifted 
some hot cinders from the Garhapatya towards the 
right (south) side, he puts it thereon, and thus makes 
it to be sacred to the Fathers. 

1 That is, wearing the Br&hmamcal cord over the right shoulder, 
and under the left arm ; instead of over the left shoulder, and under 
the right arm as is done at the sacrifice. 

* For boiling the milk for the Agnihotra burning coals are 
shifted northwards from the Garhapatya, and the pot placed there- 
on ; see part i, p. 330, note. 



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xii kXnda, 5 adhyAya, i brAhmaata, ii. 199 

8. He does not cause the light (of a burning 
straw) to fall upon it, nor does he pour water to it ; 
for were he to make the light fall on it, and to pour 
water to it, he would be doing (what is done) for the 
gods. He does not take it off thrice, setting it down 
each time 1 ; for were he take it off thrice, setting it 
down each time, he would be doing (what is done) 
for the gods : only once he takes it off drawing it down- 
wards 2 , and thus makes it to be sacred to the Fathers. 

9. He does not say, ' I will ladle out 8 ! ' nor does 
he ladle out (the milk) four times ; for were he to 
say ' I will ladle out ! ' and were he to ladle out four 
times, he would be doing (what is done) for the gods : 
only once he silently turns it upside down (into the 
spoon), and thus makes it to be sacred to the Fathers. 

10. He does not take it (to the Aha vaniya) whilst 
holding a kindling-stick over (the handle of the 
spoon 4 ); for were he to take it (there) whilst holding 
a kindling-stick over it, he would be doing (what is 
done) for the gods : he takes it whilst holding 
(a billet) underneath, and thus makes it to be sacred 
to the Fathers. 

n. He does not pass along the north side of the 
Garhapatya 8 , for were he to pass along the north 

1 When a spoonful of water has been added to the Agnihotra- 
milk, and the light of a burning straw again thrown on it, the pot 
is taken up three several times and put down each time further 
north on the hot ashes ; see part i, p. 331, note 1. 

* That is, down from the ashes — towards the south (where the 
Fathers, or departed ancestors, are supposed to reside), — whilst in 
the case of the ordinary Agnihotra he would be shifting the pot more 
and more upwards, or northwards. Cf. Katy. XXV, 8, 10. 

* See XII, 4, a, 8. 4 See part i, p. 331, note 4. 

* Possibly we ought to translate, — he does not go to the north 
side of the Garhapatya (but to the south side) — that is, if he makes 



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20O SATAPATHA-BRAHMAWA. 

side of the Garhapatya he would be doing (what is 
done) for the gods : he passes along the south side 
of the Garhapatya, and thus makes it to be sacred 
to the Fathers. 

12. And that sacrificial grass which (ordinarily) is 
lying with its tops towards the north he lays so as to 
have its tops towards the south, and thus makes (the 
offering) to be sacred to the Fathers. And having 
put a kindling-stick on the Ahavaniya, and bent his 
left knee, he silently turns (the ladle) once upside 
down (pouring the milk into the fire) and thus makes 
it to be sacred to the Fathers. He neither shakes 
(the spoon) upwards 1 , nor wipes it, nor does he eat 
(the milk left in the spoon), nor does he throw it out : 
he thus makes it to be sacred to the Fathers. 

1 3. They also say, ' If that performer of a long sac- 
rificial session — to wit, he who (regularly) offers the 
Agnihotra — were to die whilst staying abroad, how 
would they supply him with his fires ? ' Well, some, 
having burnt him, bring (the bones) home and make 
the fires smell him as he is brought ; but let him not 
do this, for this would be as if he were to seek to 
cause the seed implanted in one womb to be born 
forth from another womb. Having brought home 
the bones, let him throw them on a black antelope 
skin, and arrange them in accordance with man's 
form, and having covered them with wool and 
sprinkled with ghee, let him by burning unite him 

two oblations, not only on the Ahavaniya, but also on the Girha- 
patya (as well as on the Dakshwigni), in which case the Adhvaryu 
would be standing north (or rather north-west) of the fire. Cf. 
KSty. IV, 14, 22-25. 

1 Ordinarily, after the second libation, the priest twice jerks the 
spoon upwards, and then lays it down on a bunch of grass. 



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xii kAnda, 5 adhyAya, 2 brAhmajva, i. 201 



with his fires : he thus causes him to be born from 
his own (maternal) womb. 

14. And some, indeed, burn him in (ordinary) fire 
(procured) in the village ; but let him not do this, for 
such fire is a promiscuous eater, an eater of raw flesh : 
it would be capable of devouring him completely, 
together with his sons and his cattle. 

15. And some, indeed, burn him in a forest-fire; 
but let him not do this ; for such fire is unappeased : 
it would be capable of burning him up together with 
his sons and his cattle. 

16. And some, indeed, burn him in a firebrand; 
but let him not do this ; for such fire belongs to 
Rudra : it would be capable of destroying him 
together with his sons and his cattle. 

1 7. And some, indeed, build up a funeral pile in 
the midst of the (three) fires, and, by burning him, 
unite him with his fires, thinking, ' There, — to wit, in 
the midst of his fires, — assuredly is the Sacrificer's 
abode.' But let him not do this ; for if in that case 
any one were to say of him, ' Verily, this one has 
caused a cutting up in the middle of the village : 
the cutting up of him will speedily come about 1 : 
he will weep for his dearest;' then that would 
indeed be likely to come to pass. 

Second BrAhmana. 
1. Now, Naka Maudgalya once said, 'If he 
believe the Sacrificer to be about to die, let him take 

1 The burning of the dead body seems to be compared here 
with the cutting up of the victim which is done outside the 
sacrificial ground. Harisvamin, indeed, takes 'grama' here, not 
in the sense of ' village,' but in that of ' agnisamuha ' — in the midst 
of the (set of) sacrificial fires — which, if it were possible, would 
certainly make the comparison even more striking. 



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202 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

up the two fires in the churning-sticks, and, having 
churned out (a new fire), let him continue offering 
(the Agnihotra) at whatever place may have com- 
mended itself to him for the immolation *. And if 
the Sacrificer should then depart this world, — 

2. Let him build a pile for him* in the midst 
of his fires, and, by burning him, unite him with his 
fires.' But let him not do this ; for, verily, that (fire) 
does not submit thereto that they should make offer- 
ing to it as for the burning of a dead body : it is 
rather to sacrifice and oblations that it submits, and, 
unable to endure it, it stays by him with impatience. 

3. He should rather proceed thus : — let him bid 
them seek three pots, and, having put therein either 
(dried) cowdung or straw 3 , let him place them 
separately on the (three) fires; and let them then 
burn him by means of the fires produced from that 
blaze: in this way he is indeed burned by (these) 
fires, though not visibly, so to speak. 

4. Wherefore, also, it has been said by the /ftshi 
(Va^ - . S. XIII, 45 4 ), 'The Agni who was born 
from Agni, from the pain of the earth or be 
it of the sky; whereby Visvakarman begat 



1 Literally, at any place at which the cutting up may have com- 
mended itself to him (to take place). Whether this ' cutting up ' 
is here to be taken figuratively of the burning of the corpse (daha- 
sthane, Harisvamin), or of the sacrifice of a barren cow, which 
may be performed in such a case, or of both, is not quite clear. 

* The construction would rather seem to be, — let him build him 
(i. e. the dead body) up as a pile amidst his fires. 

5 The real meaning of ' j umbala ' is not known, — ace. to the St. 
Petersb. Diet., some material which readily takes fire, such as straw 
or oakum. Harisvamin takes it in the former sense, — trin&ny alpa- 
sa«sthitani. Cf. Katy. XXV, 7, 12 (? dried cotton fibre or pods). 

*Cf.VII,5, 2, si. 



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XII KAtfDA, 5 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMA2VA, 7. 203 

living beings, him, O Agni, may thy wrath 
spare ! ' As the verse, so its explanation. 

5. Now, in the first place, he cleanses him of all 
foul matter, and causes the foul matter to settle on 
this (earth); for this (earth) is indeed foul matter: 
he thus consigns foul matter to foul matter. For, 
indeed, from that intestine of his, filled with foul 
matter, when it is burnt, a jackal is produced : (hence 
he removes it), ' lest a jackal should be produced.' 
But let him not do this, or his family will be liable 
to starve. Having washed him out inside, he anoints 
him with ghee, and thus makes it (the body) sacri- 
ficially pure. 

6. He then inserts seven chips of gold in the 
seven seats of his vital airs ; for gold is light and 
immortality : he thus bestows light and immortality 
on him. 

7. Having then built a pile for him in the midst 
of his fires, and spread out a black antelope skin 
with the hairy side upwards, and the neck-part 
towards the east, he lays him down thereon with 
the face looking upwards, and puts the ^uhti-spoon 
filled with ghee on his right, and the upabhr/t on 
his left hand, the dhruva on the breast, the Agni- 
hotra-ladle on the mouth, two dipping-spoons on the 
nostrils, two prasitra-harawas 1 on the ears, the cup 
used for carrying forward the lustral water on the 
head, two winnowing-baskets at the sides, on the 
belly the vessel used for holding the cuttings (of 
the id&), filled with clotted ghee, the wedge (yoke- 
pin) beside the male organ, two mallets beside the 
testicles, and behind them the mortar and pestle, 

1 That is, two bowls used for holding the Brahman's 'fore- 
portions'; see part i, p. 69, note 4. 



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204 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAYA. 

the other sacrificial vessels between the thighs ; and 
the wooden sword on the right hand. 

8. Thus supplied with the sacrificial weapons 
(implements), that Sacrificer passes on to that place 
which has been won by him in heaven, even as 
if one who fears spoliation were to escape it; 
and, verily, those fires (which are) to be enkindled 
(will) lovingly touch him, even as sons lovingly 
touch their father when he comes home after staying 
abroad, and make everything ready for him \ 

9. If the Garhapatya were to reach him first, one 
may know that the permanent fire has reached him 
first : that he will permanently establish himself, and 
that those behind him will permanently establish 
themselves in this world. 

10. And if the Ahavaniya were to do so, one may 
know that the foremost fire has reached him first : that 
he has been foremost in conquering the (other) world, 
and that those behind him will be foremost in this 
world. 

1 1 . And if the Anviharyapa^ana were to do so, 
one may know that the food-eating fire has reached 
him first : that he will eat food, and that those behind 
him will eat food (be prosperous) in this world. 

1 2. And if they all (were to reach him) at the same 
time, one may know that he has conquered a blessed 
world. Such, then, are the distinctions in this respect. 

13. This, then, is that offering of the Sacrificer's 
body which he performs at the end: from out of 
that place which has been won by him in heaven 
he arises immortal in the form of an oblation. 

1 That is, they make everything comfortable for him, make him 
feel at home : — prakrssh/am evainaw svarge kalpayanti pratish/Ai- 
tam; nityasthitatvat pratish//ia garhapatya/i ; coram. 



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XII KAJV2JA, 6 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAiVA, 2. 205 

14. Whatever stone and earthen (vessels of the 
deceased) there are they may be given to a Brah- 
raa»a' ; but, verily, he who accepts them is regarded 
as a remover of corpses. Let them rather throw 
these (vessels) into the water, for the waters are the 
foundation of all this (universe) : he thus establishes 
him firmly on the waters. 

1 5. Either a son (of the deceased), or a brother, 
or some other Brahmawa then performs that offering 2 , 
with (V&f. S. XXXV, 22), ' From out of him thou 
(O Agni) art born : from out of thee let this 
N. N. be born again into the heavenly world, 
hail!' They then go away without looking back, 
and touch water. 

Sixth AdhyAya. First BrAhmajva. 
Expiatory Oblations of Soma-sacrifice. 

1. Verily, Prafipati, the sacrifice, is King Soma; 
and these deities to whom he offers, and these obla- 
tions which he offers, are forms of him. 

2. If any part of the sacrifice were to fail, let him 
make an oblation with regard to that same deity for 
whom he may have intended (that part), — on the 
Ahavanlya, if it is during the initiation and the 

1 According to K&iy. XXV, 7, 32, 33 the stone and earthen 
implements are to be thrown into the water; and metal ones may 
optionally be given to a Brahman (or likewise be thrown into the 
water). 

* According to Katy. XXV, 7, 34-37 a sterile cow may be 
offered prior to (or along with) the burning of the body : in which 
case the victim is to be killed by a blow behind the ear, and its 
kidneys are to be placed in the deceased's hands, whilst his face is 
to be covered with the omentum or membrane enclosing the 
intestines. The final offering referred to in the above passage 
consists of an oblation of ghee. 



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206 satapatha-brahmaata. 

Upasads; on the Agnldhra, if it is at the Soma- 
pressing; — for whatever joint of the sacrifice fails, 
that breaks ; and whichever then is the deity in that 
(part of the sacrifice) through that deity he heals the 
sacrifice, through that one he makes the sacrifice 
complete again x . 

3. If, however, the sacrifice, resolved upon in his 
mind, were not to incline to him 2 , let him perform 
an oblation with, 'To Paramesh/^in hail!' for 
ParameshMin (the most high) he (Soma 3 ) then is : 
he repels evil, and the sacrifice inclines to him. 

4. And if the sacrifice, bespoken by his speech *, 
were not to incline to him, let him perform an 
oblation with, 'To Pra^apati hail!' for Pra^apati 
(the lord of creatures) he then is : he repels evil, 
and the sacrifice inclines to him. 

5. And if any one's (people), having gone in quest 
of the King (Soma), do not come back bringing 
(Soma-plants), let him perform an oblation with, 
' To the plant hail !' for the plant he then is : he 
repels evil, and the sacrifice inclines to him. 

6. And if, when acquired, (his Soma) were to 
meet with any mishap, let him perform an oblation 
with, ' To SavitW hail !' for Savitrz he then is : 
he repels evil, and the sacrifice inclines to him. 

7. And if during the initiation (his Soma) were 

' Cf. IV, 5) 7, 6. 

1 That is to say, if untoward circumstances were to arise 
threatening to prevent the intended Soma-sacrifice. The mental 
resolve (samkalpa), on the part of the Sacrificer, is the first act in 
the performance of a sacrifice. 

' Or, it (the sacrifice), as Harisvamin takes it. 

4 That is, after he has announced his intention to perform 
a Soma-sacrifice, by saying ' Somena yakshye,' ' I will sacrifice by 
means of Soma.' 



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xii kXnda, 6 adhyAya, i brAhmaya, 13. 207 

to meet with any mishap, let him perform an obla- 
tion with, 'To Vuvakarman hail!' for Vi-svakar- 
man he then is : he repels evil, and the sacrifice 
inclines to him. 

8. And if (his Soma) were to meet with any 
mishap in regard to the (cow) given in exchange 
for the Soma, let him perform an oblation with, 
'To Pushan hail!' for Pushan he then is: he 
repels evil, and the sacrifice inclines to him. 

9. And if (his Soma) were to meet with any mis- 
hap when forthcoming for the 'purchase, let him 
perform an oblation with, 'To Indra and the 
Maruts hail ! ' for Indra and the Maruts he (Soma) 
then is : he repels evil, and the sacrifice inclines 
to him. 

10. And if (his Soma) were to meet with any 
mishap whilst being bargained for, let him perform 
an oblation with, 'To the Asura hail!' for the 
Asura he then is : he repels evil, and the sacrifice 
inclines to him. 

11. And if (his Soma) were to meet with any 
mishap after he has been bought, let him perform an 
oblation with, 'To Mitra hail !' for Mitra he then 
is : he repels evil, and the sacrifice inclines to him. 

12. And if (his Soma) were to meet with any 
mishap whilst seated on (the Sacrificer's) lap 1 , let 
him perform an oblation with, ' To Vish»u .Sipi- 
vish/a hail !' for Vish»u .Sipivish/a he then is : he 
repels evil, and the sacrifice inclines to him. 

13. And if (his Soma) were to meet with any 
mishap whilst being driven about, let him perform 

1 See III, 6, 3, 4. This particular ceremony is rather out of 
place here, as in its regular order it should come after paragraph 15. 



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208 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

an oblation with, 'To Vish»u Narandhisha hail!' 
for Vish«u Narandhisha he then is : he repels evil, 
and the sacrifice inclines to him. 

14. And if (his Soma) were to meet with any 
mishap when he has reached (the hall), let him 
perform an oblation with, 'To Soma hail!' for 
Soma he then is: he repels evil, and the sacrifice 
inclines to him. 

15. And if (his Soma) were to meet with any 
mishap when seated on the throne, let him perform 
an oblation with, 'To Varu»a hail!' for Varu»a 
he then is : he repels evil, and the sacrifice inclines 
to him. 

16. And if (his Soma) were to meet with any 
mishap whilst staying in the Agnldhra, let him 
perform an oblation with, 'To Agni hail!' for 
Agni he then is : he repels evil, and the sacrifice 
inclines to him. 

17. And if (his Soma) were to meet with any 
mishap whilst staying in the Havirdhana, let him 
perform an oblation with, 'To Indra hail!' for 
Indra he then is : he repels evil, and the sacrifice 
inclines to him. 

18. And if (his Soma) were to meet with any 
mishap whilst being taken down (from the car), let 
him perform an oblation with, 'To Atharvan 
hail!' for Atharvan he then is: he repels evil, 
and the sacrifice inclines to him. 

19. And if (his Soma) were to meet with any 
mishap when thrown down (on the pressing-board) 
in (the shape of) the Soma-stalks, let him perform 
an oblation with, 'To the All-gods hail!' for 
the All-gods he then is : he repels evil, and the 
sacrifice inclines to him. 



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xii kAnda, 6 adhyAya, i brAhmawa, 26. 209 

20. And if (his Soma) were to meet with any 
mishap whilst being invigorated (moistened), let 
him perform an oblation with, 'To Vishnu Aprt- 
tapi hailP for Vishmi Aprltapa (the protector of 
the appeased) he then is : he repels evil, and the 
sacrifice inclines to him. 

21. And if (his Soma) were to meet with any 
mishap whilst being pressed, let him perform an 
oblation with, ' To Yama hail !' for Yama he then 
is : he repels evil, and the sacrifice inclines to him. 

22. And if (his Soma) were to meet with any 
mishap whilst being gathered together 1 , let him 
perform an oblation with, 'ToVishwu hail!' for 
Vishnu he then is : he repels evil, and the sacrifice 
inclines to him. 

23. And if (his Soma) were to meet with any 
mishap whilst being purified (strained), let him per- 
form an oblation with, 'To Vayu hail!' for VAyu 
he then is : he repels evil, and the sacrifice inclines 
to him. 

24. And if (his Soma) were to meet with any 
mishap when purified, let him perform an oblation 
with, 'To .Sukra hail!' for .Sukra (the clear one) 
he then is : he repels evil, and the sacrifice inclines 
to him. 

25. And if (his Soma) were to meet with any 
mishap when mixed with milk, let him perform an 
oblation with, 'To .Sukra hail!' for .Sukra he 
then is: he repels evil, and the sacrifice inclines 
to him. 

26. And if (his Soma) were to meet with any 

- * See III, 9, 4, 19, 'Thrice he presses, and thrice he gathers 
(the beaten plants) together . . .' 

[44] P 



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2 1 DATAPATH A-BR A H M AJVA. 

mishap when mixed with barley-meal, let him per- 
form an oblation with, 'To Manthin hail!' for 
Manthin (Soma mixed with meal) he then is : he 
repels evil, and the sacrifice inclines to him. 

27. And if (his Soma) were to meet with any 
mishap when drawn into the cups, let him perform 
an oblation with, 'To the All-gods hail !' for the 
All-gods he then is : he repels evil, and the sacrifice 
inclines to him. 

28. And if (his Soma) were to meet with any 
mishap when ready for the libation, let him perform 
an oblation with, 'To Asu hail!' for Asu (the 
breath of life) he then is : he repels evil, and the 
sacrifice inclines to him. 

29. And if (his Soma) were to meet with any 
mishap whilst being offered, let him perform an 
oblation wiih, ' To Rudra hail ! ' for Rudra he then 
is : he repels evil, and the sacrifice inclines to him. 

30. And if (his Soma) were to meet with any 
mishap when he has returned 1 , let him perform an 
oblation with, 'To Vata hail !' for Vita (the wind) 
he then is : he repels evil, and the sacrifice inclines 
to him. 

31. And if, after being looked at, (his Soma) were 
to meet with any mishap, let him perform an obla- 
tion with, ' To Nrz^akshas hail!' for Nrz'^akshas 
(man-viewing) he then is : he repels evil, and the 
sacrifice inclines to him. 

32. And if (his Soma) were to meet with any 
mishap whilst being consumed, let him perform an 
oblation with, 'To Bhaksha hail!' for Bhaksha 

1 Viz. to ihe HavirdhSna where the cups from which libations 
have been made are deposited on the mound (khara) ; cf. Ill, 1, 
2, 24. 



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xii kKnda, 6 adhyAya, i brahmajva, 38. 211 

(drink) he then is : he repels evil, and the sacrifice 
inclines to him. 

33. And if (his Soma) were to meet with any 
mishap when contained in the Narisamsa (cups J ), 
let him perform an oblation with, 'To the Nara- 
samsa. Fathers hail!' for the Narisa/Hsa (man- 
praising) Fathers he then is : he repels evil, and 
the sacrifice inclines to him. 

34. And if (his Soma) were to meet with any 
mishap when ready for the purificatory bath 2 , let 
him perform an oblation with, 'To the Stream 
hail!' for a stream he then is: he repels evil, and 
the sacrifice inclines to him. 

35. And if (his Soma) were to meet with any 
mishap whilst being taken down (to the water), let 
him perform an oblation with, ' To the Sea hail !' 
for a sea he then is : he repels evil, and the sacrifice 
inclines to him. 

36. And if (his Soma) were to meet with any 
mishap when immersed, let him perform an oblation 
with, ' To the Flood hail 1 ' for a flood he then is : 
he repels evil, and the sacrifice inclines to him. 

37. These, then, are the thirty-three oblations he 
performs ; for there are thirty-three gods, and Pra^- 
pati is the thirty-fourth : with the help of all the 
"gods he thus heals the sacrifice, and with the help 
of all the gods he makes it complete again. 

38. The Brahman (superintending priest) himself 
should perform them, and no other than the 
Brahman ; for the Brahman sits on the right (south) 

1 See part ii, p. 154, note 1. 

* The presseit-out Soma-husks are taken down to (and thrown 
into) the water where the Sacrificer is to bathe, see IV, 4, 5, 
1 seqq. 

P 2 



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2' 1 2 SATAPATHA-BRAHMA2VA. 

side of the sacrifice, and protects the sacrifice on 
the right side. If, however, the Brahman should 
not know (these formulas and oblations), any one 
who knows them may perform them ; but (let him 
do so) after applying for leave to the Brahman, and 
with his permission. Now as to the meaning of 
these (formulas). VasishMa knew the Vira^f': 
Indra coveted it. 

39. He spake, ' J&shi, thou knowest the Vira^ - : 
teach me it ! ' He replied, ' What would therefrom 
accrue to me ? ' — ' I would teach thee the expiation 
for the whole sacrifice, I would show thee its form.' 
— He replied, 'Well, but tell me, if thou wert to 
teach me the expiation for the whole sacrifice, what 
would become of him to whom thou wouldst show 
its form?' — 'Verily, he would depart from this 
world to the heaven of the living.' 

40. The J&shi then taught Indra that Viri^ - ; — 
but the Vir&f, they say, is this (earth), whence he 
who possesses most thereof is the most powerful. 

41. And Indra then taught the Rishi this expia- 
tion from the Agnihotra up to the Great Litany. 
And formerly, indeed, the Vasish/>tas alone knew 
these utterances, whence formerly only one of the 
Vasish/Aa family became Brahman ; but since now- 
adays anybody (may) study them, anybody (may)' 
now become Brahman 2 . And, indeed, he who 
thus knows these utterances is worthy to become 

1 That is, the ' far-shining,' or ' far-ruling ' (metre). 

1 Professor Delbrfick, Altindische Syntax, p. 570, takes this 
clause thus : — ' and therefore even now he who remains of them 
(i.e. of the Vasish/ia family) is (? becomes) Brahman.' This 
rendering takes, however, no account of the ' tu ' ; and, indeed, k 
will hardly fit in with the relative clause which precedes it 



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xii kAjvda, 7 adhyAya, i brAhma^a, i. 213 

Brahman, or may reply, when addressed as ' Brah- 
man * I ' 

Seventh AdhyAya. First BrAhmamv. 
The SautramajvI *. 

1. Indra slew Tvash/rzs son, Vi^varupa. Seeing 
his son slain, Tvash/rt exorcized him (Indra), and 

1 That is to say, when, as superintending priest, he is addressed 
by another priest asking whether he may now begin some per- 
formance, or informing him that he is about to do so, he may 
give the desired direction. Such applications by the other priests 
begin with * O Brahman 1 ' cf. XIII, 1, 2, 4 ; and part i, p. 2 2, note 2. 

* The Sautramani is usually classed as one of the seven 
divisions of the Havirya^Sa, though, m Teality, it is much more than 
that ; its peculiarity consisting in a combination of the ordinary 
features of the Havirya^fca, or ish/i (cf. XII, 7, 2, 21), with those 
of the animal sacrifice, whilst a third important element, viz. 
libations of spirituous liquor, imparts to it a certain resemblance, 
and doubtless an intended resemblance, to the Soma-sacrifice. Of 
this sacrifice we have already met with a variation in connection 
with the Rl^asuya (cf. part iii, p. 129 seq.), that form being usually 
called the A'araka-Sautramanf, as being adopted from the ritual of 
the JParaka-adhvaryus ; whilst the form described in the remaining 
portion of the present KWa is, according to L&Vy. Sraut V, 4, 
20, called Kaukili Sautramam (cf. Ajv. .St. Ill, 9, 9 comm.; 
Weber, Ind. Stud. Ill, p. 385). The name itself is derived from 
' sutr&man,' i. e. ' the good guardian,' as which Indra is worshipped 
in this sacrifice (cf. V, 5, 4, 1 seq.). The whole performance takes 
four days, during the first three of which the Surd-liquor is prepared 
and matured, and offerings of a rice-pap to Aditi, and a bull to 
Indra are performed ; whilst the main sacrifice takes place on the 
fourth day — the day of either full moon or new moon — the chief 
oblations offered on that day being three cups of milk, and as 
many of Sura-liquor, to the Aivins, Sarasvatt, and Indra respec- 
tively ; of three animal victims to the same deities ; and of thirty- 
three libations of fat gravy, or liquid fat (vasa), obtained from the 
cooking of the victims, and offered by means of bull's hoofs used 
as cups. At the end of the sacrifice, a third bull is offered to Indra 
in his form of Vayodhas (giver of life), together with another pap 



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2 1 4 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAWA. 

brought Soma-juice suitable for witchery \ and 
withheld from Indra. Indra by force drank off his 
Soma-juice, thereby committing a desecration of the 
sacrifice. He went asunder in every direction, and his 
energy, or vital power 2 , flowed away from every limb. 
2. From his eyes his fiery spirit flowed, and 
became that grey (smoke-coloured) animal, the he- 
goat ; and what (flowed) from his eyelashes became 
wheat, and what (flowed) from his tears became the 
kuvala-fruit 3 . 



(£aru) to Aditi and an oblation of curds to Mitra and Varuaa. 
No mention is made of tlie Agnishomtya he-goat usually offered 
on the day preceding the Soma-pressing, the first bull offered to 
Indra probably taking its place on this occasion, whilst the bull to 
Indra Vayodhas would seem to take the place of the sacrifice of 
a barren cow (to Mitra and Varuwa) which usually takes place at 
the end of a Soma-sacrifice. In an interesting variation (Sautra- 
mawa-yafwa), described in .Sahkh. Sr. XIV, 12-13, ai >d performed 
as a real (Agnish/oma) Soma-sacrifice, the final animal sacrifice 
indeed is that of a barren cow to Indra Sutraman ; only two other 
victims — a reddish he-goat to the Ajvins and a ewe to Sarasvati — 
being mentioned. 

1 ' Exposed (liable) to witching,' Delbrttck, Altindische Syntax, 
p. 401. 
* ' Virya' (virile power) is constantly used to explain ' indriya.' 
' The words ' kuvala, badara, and karkandhu ' are the names of 
three varieties of the jujube, or fruits of Zizyphus Jujuba, for 
a description of which see the comm. on Katy. St. XIX, 17 seqq. 
According to Stewart and Brandis' Forest Flora of North- West and 
Central India (p. 87), ' this species varies exceedingly, in the shape 
and size of the fruits, the shape and tomentum of the leaves, and 
general habit ; ' 'the Zizyphi of North India want more investigation 
on the spot.' . . . ' Lakh is produced on this tree in Sindh, the 
Panjab, and Central India. The bark is used as dye-stuff; the 
root is a febrifuge in native pharmacy. A gum exudes from the 
trunk ; and in Kangra a wild silkworm lives on the tree, the silk of 
which was much employed formerly to tie the barrel to the stock 
of the matchlock. But the tree is mainly cultivated for its fruit, 



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XII KAJV0A, 7 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAtfA, 9. 21 5 

3. From his nostrils his vital power flowed, and 
became that animal, the ram ; and what (flowed) 
from the phlegm became the Indra-grain, and what 
moisture there was that became the badara-fruit '. 

4. From his mouth his strength flowed, it became 
that animal, the bull ; and what foam there was 
became barley, and what moisture there was became 
the karkandhu-fruit *. 

5. From his ear his glory flowed, and became 
the one-hoofed animals, the horse, mule, and ass. 

6. From the breasts his bright (vital) sap flowed, 
and became milk, the light of cattle ; from the heart 
in his breast his courage flowed, and became the 
talon-slaying eagle, the king of birds. 

7. From his navel his life-breath flowed, and 
became lead, — not iron, nor silver; from his seed 
his form flowed, and became gold ; from his gene- 
rative organ his essence flowed, and became parisrut 
(raw fiery liquor) ; from his hips his fire flowed, and 
became surd (matured liquor), the essence of food. 

8. From his urine his vigour flowed, and became 
the wolf, the impetuous rush of wild beasts ; from 
the contents of his intestines his fury flowed, and 
became the tiger, the king of wild beasts ; from his 
blood his might flowed, and became the lion, the 
ruler of wild beasts. 

9. From his hair his thought flowed, and became 
millet ; from his skin his honour flowed, and became 
the a^vattha tree (ficus religiosa) ; from his flesh his 
force flowed, and became the udumbara tree (ficus 
glomerata) ; from his bones his sweet drink flowed, 

which is more or less globose on the wild and commoner sorts, 
and ovoid or oblong on the cultivated and improved kinds.' 
1 See note 3 on preceding page. 



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216 jatapatha-brahmawa. 

and became the nyagrodha tree (ficus indica) ; from 
his marrow his drink, the Soma-juice, flowed, and 
became rice: in this way his energies, or vital 
powers, went from him. 

io. Now at that time he (Indra) had to do with 
Namuii, the Asura. Namuii bethought him, ' He 
has been undone once for all : I will seize upon his 
energy, his vital power, his Soma-drink, his food.' 
By (taking) that Sura-liquor of his he seized upon 
his energy, or vital power, his Soma-drink, his food. 
He lay there dissolved. The gods gathered around 
him, and said, ' Verily, he was the best of us ; evil 
has befallen him : let us heal him ! ' 

1 1. They said to the two A^vins, 'Ye are Brahman 
physicians : heal ye this one ! ' They replied, ' Let 
there be a guerdon for us ! ' They spake, * That 
he-goat there shall be your guerdon.' They said, 
' So be it ! ' and hence the smoke-coloured (he-goat) 
is sacred to the two Axvins. 

12. They (the gods) said to Sarasvatt, 'Verily, 
thou art healing medicine: heal thou this one!' 
She replied, 'Let there be a guerdon for me!' They 
spake, * That ram there shall be thy guerdon ! ' She 
said, 'So be it!' and therefore the ram is sacred 
to Sarasvatl. 

1 3. They then spake, ' Verily, there is even now 
as much in him (Indra) as that bull : that one shall 
belong to him himself.' They said, ' So be it ! ' and 
therefore the bull is sacred to Indra. 

14. The two A^vins and Sarasvatl, having taken 
the energy, or vital power, from Namuii, restored 
them to him (Indra), and saved him from eviL 
' Truly, we have saved him from evil so as to be 
well-saved (sutrata),' they thought, and this became 



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xii kXnda, 7 adhvAya, 2 brahmajva, 4. 217 

the Sautrima#t : and this is the (saving) nature of 
the Sautrama«t — it saves the self from death, and 
repels evil for whosoever thus knows that (saving) 
nature of the Sautramawi. There are (for this 
sacrifice) thirty-three Dakshi«as (presents to priests), 
for thirty-three were the gods who healed him : 
whence they say, ' Dakshioas are healing medicine.' 

Second BrAhma^a. 

1. Verily, his fiery spirit, his energy, or vital 
power, depart from him whom Soma purges either 
upwards or downwards. 

2. As to this they say, ' Truly, the Soma-juice is 
the Brahmawa's food ; and, indeed, it is not owing 
to Soma when a Brahmawa vomits Soma; and he 
who vomits Soma is one who, whilst being fit to 
(gain) prosperity, does not gain prosperity, and who, 
whilst being fit to (gain) cattle, does not gain cattle 1 , 
for Soma is cattle.' 

3. Let him seize for sacrifice that grey (he-goat) 
of the Asvins, the ram of Sarasvatl, and the bull 
of Indra ; for the Asvins are the physicians of the 
gods, and it is by them that he heals this (Sacrificer) ; 
and Sarasvatl is healing medicine, and it is with her 
help that he prepares medicine for him; and Indra 
is energy (indriya), or vital power, and it is with his 
help that he bestows energy, or vital power, on this 
(Sacrificer). 

4. The two Asvins, indeed, are the eyesight, 

1 According to K&ty. XIX, 1, 4, the Sautrimawi may also be 
performed by one who finds himself in the unfortunate position 
here referred to ; as also (ace. to ib. 3) by a king who has been 
deprived of his kingdom. 



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2 1 8 satapatha-brAhmawa. 

fiery spirit; and inasmuch as there is (a victim) 
sacred to the A.mns, he (the priest) bestows eyesight, 
fiery spirit, on this (Sacrificer). And the ear also 
(he thereby bestows on him), for one and the same 
are the eye and the ear. 

5. Sarasvatl is the breath, vital power; and in- 
asmuch as there is (a victim) sacred to Sarasvatl, he 
bestows breath, vital power, on this (Sacrificer). And 
the off-breathing also (he thereby bestows on him), 
for one and the same are the breath (of the mouth) 
and the off-breathing. 

6. Indra is speech, strength; and inasmuch as 
there is (a victim) sacred to Indra, he bestows 
speech, strength, on this (Sacrificer) ; and mind also, 
for one and the same are speech and mind. 

7. ' He-goats are sacred to the Asvins, ewes to 
Sarasvatl, and cows (and bulls) to Indra,' they say : 
if these animals are sacrificed, he, by means of those 
deities, gains those (three) animals. 

8. There is a mare with a foal l : the one-hoofed 
(animal), glory, he thereby secures (for the Sacrificer 2 ). 
There are hairs of wild beasts 3 , for the purpose of 
securing the wild beasts ; — there are hairs of wolf : 
vigour, the impetuous rush of wild beasts, he thereby 
secures ; — there are hairs of tiger : courage, the sway 
of wild beasts, he thereby secures ; — there are hairs 

1 According to XII, 9, 2, 11, a milch cow with her calf are given 
as dakshi»a for the two paps offered to Aditi, whilst a mare and 
foal, according to XII, 7, 2, 21, are the fee for the offering of the 
three victims ; though Katyayana, it is true, makes no mention of 
this dakshi»a. 

* Or, perhaps, he (the Sacrificer) secures for himself; but see 
paragraph 15, ' asmai avarunddhe.' 

8 Hairs of a wolf, tiger, and lion are put into the cups of spirituous 
liquor from which libations are made. 



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XII KkNDA, 7 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAhMAWA, 12. 219 

of lion : might, the rule of wild beasts, he thereby 
secures. 

9. There are grains of rice and grains of millet, 
grains of wheat and kuvala jujubes, Indra-grain and 
badara jujubes, grains of barley and karkandhu 
jujubes, malted rice and barley l : both cultivated 
and wild-grain food he thereby secures; and by 
means of both kinds of food he duly lays energy 
and vital power into his own self. 

10. With lead he buys 2 the malted rice, with 
(sheep's) wool the malted barley, with thread the 
(fried) rice-grain, — that lead is a form of both iron 
and gold, and the Sautramaat is both an ish/i- 
offering and ah animal sacrifice, so that he thereby 
secures both of these. 

11. With wool and thread 3 he buys, — this, to wit, 
wool and thread, is women's work; and work, indeed, 
means energy, or vital power, and this latter is 
extinct in women : he thus secures (for the Sacri- 
fice^ that energy, or vital power, which is extinct 
in women. 

12. Here now, other Adhvaryus buy the malted 
rice with lead from a eunuch, saying, ' That is that*; 
for the eunuch is neither woman nor man, and the 

1 That is, rice and barley grain that has germinated, and subse- 
quently become dry. 

1 As on the occasion of the purchase of Soma-plants (part ii, 
p. 63 seq.), the bargain is effected near the antaAp&tya-peg at 
the back of the Vedi, where an ox-hide is spread for the purpose ; 
the Adhvaryu asking the seller, ' Seller of Sura" and Soma, hast thou 
SurS and Soma for sale ?' 

* Thus ' urnd-sutram ' is to be resolved, according to Kdty. XIX, 
1, 18 ; the wool being used for buying malted barley, and the 
thread for buying fried rice. 

4 That is, one is the same as the other. 



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220 satapatha-brahmava. 

Sautramawt is neither an ish^i-offering nor an animal 
sacrifice.' But let him not do so, for the Sautramaid 
is both an ish/i and an animal sacrifice, and the 
eunuch is something unsuccessful among men : they 
who do this thus place failure into the very mouth 
(opening) of the sacrifice. Let him rather buy them 
from a vendor of Soma, for the Sautrama«i is Soma: 
he thus puts a form of Soma into the very mouth of 
the sacrifice so as to secure the sacrifice. 

13. There is a pot (kumbhi) perforated with a 
hundred holes \ for in many ways did that (Soma) 
flow out of (Indra); and a hundred-sized also, indeed, 
is the sacrifice : it is the sacrifice he thereby secures. 
There is a bowl (sata *) : it is the real (or good) thing 
(sat) he thereby secures. There is a dish (£apya) 
for him to secure food. There is a filter, for they 
cleanse him, (the Sacrificer, by this offering). There 
is a tail (-whisk) for turning away evil. There is 
gold for him to secure form (or colour) ; it weighs 
a hundred (grains), for man has a life of a hundred 
(years) and a hundred energies : life, and energy, 
vital power, he thus lays into his own self. 

14. There is an arvattha (ficus religiosa) vessel : 
honour he thereby secures. There is an udumbara 
(ficus glomerata) one : force he thereby secures. 
There is a nyagrodha (ficus indica) one: sweet 
drink he thereby secures. There are (earthen) pots 
(sthall) : the food of the earth he thereby secures. 

15. There are supernumerary 8 (vessels) of pallrat 

1 For the use of this pot, see note on XII, 8, 1, 8. 

* See XII, 8, 3, 14. 15. 

1 At III, 7, 2, 1. a, I would also now translate 'upaxaya' by 
'supernumerary' or 'additional': — there are eleven stakes, and 
a twelfth, rough-hewn, supernumerary one, &c 



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xii kXnda, 7 adhyaya, 2 brAhmawa, 18. 221 

wood: the palasa (butea frondosa) is the Brahman 
(holy writ, holiness, the priesthood) : it is by the 
Brahman that he gains the heavenly world. There 
are two feathers of a talon-slaying (bird) l : courage, 
the sway of birds, he thereby secures. There are 
thirty-six of these (objects), for the Bribatl consists 
of thirty-six syllables, and cattle are related to the 
Brthati : by means of the Brohatt he thus secures 
cattle for him. 

16. As to this they say, ' The victims have one 
set of deities, and the cakes another set of deities : 
this is an improper performance*; how does it 
become right and proper?' To Indra belongs the 
last of the victims, and to Indra the first of the 
cakes; and Indra, indeed, is energy (indriya), or 
vital power: through (Indra's) energy he thus 
confers on him energy, or vital power ; and through 
(Indra's) energy he secures energy, or vital power. 

1 7. There is a cake to Sa vitro for him to become 
impelled by Savitro; and one to Varu«a, for it is 
Varu«a that seizes him who is seized by evil : 
through Varuwa he thus delivers him from Varu«a's 
power ; — it is the final (cake) : he thus delivers him 
finally from Varu«a's noose. 

18. Indra's (cake) is one on eleven potsherds, in 
order that he may secure (Indra's) energy, or vital 



1 For the use of the two feathers of an eagle, see XII, 7, 3, 32. 

* The rule (as laid down in III, 8, 3, 1) is that the Para-purot/ara, 
or animal cakes, offered after the animal portions, should belong to 
the same deities to whom the victims are sacred. On the present 
occasion this is, however, not the case ; for while the three sacri- 
ficial animals of the main performance belong to the Arvins, to 
Sarasvati and Indra, the three cakes are offered to Indra, Savitr;', 
and Varuna respectively. 



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222 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAYA. 

power; for the Trish/ubh consists of eleven syllables, 
and the Trish/ubh is energy, or vital power. 

19. Savitrz's (cake) is one on twelve potsherds, 
for there are twelve months in the year, and the 
year means constantly existing food : from the year 
he thus secures for him food. 

20. Vanma's (cake) is one on ten potsherds, for 
the Virdf consists of ten syllables, and Varuwa is 
Viraj - (the widely ruling), the lord of food : through 
Varu«a he thus secures food for him. In the middle 
(of the sacrifice) they proceed with (the offering 
of) these cakes, for the centre means their (mother's) 
womb : he thus causes them to be produced from 
their own (mother's) womb. 

21. A mare with a foal is the sacrificial fee, for 
such a (mare) produces both the horse and the mule, 
and the Sautrama^l is both an ish/i-offering and an 
animal sacrifice : thus it is so in order that he may 
secure both of these. 

Third BrAhmaya. 

1. By means of the Sura-liquor Namuii, the 
Asura, carried off Indra's (source of) strength, the 
essence of food, the Soma-drink. He (Indra) 
hasted up to the A^vins and Sarasvatl, crying, 
' I have sworn to Namuii, saying, " I will slay thee 
neither by day nor by night, neither with staff 
nor with bow, neither with the palm of my hand 
nor with the fist, neither with the dry nor with the 
moist ! " and yet has he taken these things from me : 
seek ye to bring me back these things ! ' 

2. They spake, ' Let us have a share therein, and 
we will bring them back to thee.' — 'These things 



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xii kXnda, 7 adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, 5. 223 

(shall be) in common to us,' he said, ' bring them 
back, then ! ' 

3. The Arvins" and Sarasvatl then poured out 
foam of water (to serve) as a thunderbolt, saying, 
' It is neither dry nor moist ;' and, when the night 
was clearing up, and the sun had not yet risen, 
Indra, thinking, ' It is neither by day nor by night,' 
therewith struck off the head of Namu^i, the Asura. 

4. Wherefore it has been said by the Jtishi 
(Rt'g-veda. S. VIII, 14, 13), 'With foam of water, 
Indra, didst thou sever the head of Namuii, when 
thou wert subduing all thine enemies.' Now, 
Namu^i is evil : having thus, indeed, slain that 
evil, his hateful enemy, Indra wrested- from him 
his energy, or vital power. Let him who has an 
enemy perform the Sautr4ma»l : he thereby slays 
that evil, his hateful enemy, and wrests from him 
his energy, or vital power. In his (Namuii's) 
severed head there was the Soma-juice mixed with 
blood. They loathed it. They perceived that 
(means of) drinking separately (one of) the two 
liquids, — ' King Soma, the drink of immortality, is 
pressed ' ; ' — and having thereby made that (Soma) 
palatable, they took it in (as food). 

5. With (VV. S. XIX, 1), 'Thee, the sweet 
(liquor I mix) with the sweet (Soma),' he com- 
pounds (the ingredients for the preparation of) the 
Sura-liquor 2 , and makes it palatable; — 'the strong 

1 Vzg. S. XIX, 72 seq. On the myth cp. Muir, O. S. T. ( vol. v, p. 94. 

* The preparation of the Sura is described in Katy. XIX, 1, 
20-21 and comms., and by Mahidhara on V&g. S. XIX, 1, in the 
following way. Having purchased (a) malted rice (rashpa), malted 
barky (tokma), and fried rice (\&gM), and (b) various vegetable 
substances (called with the generic name of nagnahu) serving as 
spices and ferments, such as the bark of Vatica robusta, three 



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224 satapatha-brAhmaya. 

with the strong,' he thereby bestows energy on 
him (the Sacrificer); — 'the immortal with the 
immortal,' he thereby bestows" life on him; — 
'the honeyed with the honeyed,' he thereby 
bestows flavour to it (the liquor); — 'I mix with 
the Soma,' he thereby makes it (the Sura-liquor) 
a form of Soma. 

6. 4 Thou art Soma: get thee matured for the 
A^vins! get thee matured for Sarasvatt! get 
thee matured for Indra Sutraman!' for these 
were the deities who 6rst prepared that sacrifice, and 
with their help he now prepares it ; and, moreover, 
he thereby provides these deities with their share. 
He distils it with a view to (its being like) the Soma- 
pressing. For three nights it remains standing, for 
the Soma remains standing for three nights after it 
has been bought : he thus makes it a form of Soma. 

myrobalans (nutmeg, areca-nut, and cloves), ginger, hog-weed, Sec, 
he takes them into the fire-house, and pounds the two lots sepa- 
rately. He then prepares two gruels or mashes of rice and millet 
respectively, adding more water than is ordinarily used, puts diem 
on the fire till they boil over, and catches the overflowing water in 
two separate vessels. He then adds thereto one-third part of the 
(still separate) pounded malted rice and barley and fried rice (or 
one-sixth part into each vessel), and likewise one-half of the spice 
(or one-fourth part into each vessel) : this mixture, called m&sara 
(serving both as malt and as flavouring matter), is allowed to 
dry and is then pounded. One-half of the remaining pounded 
malted rice and barley and fried rice, as well as the whole of the 
remaining spices, is then, in equal parts, added to the two mashes, 
which are thereupon poured into a large vessel, after which the 
pounded ' masara ' is mixed with the compound whilst the above 
formula is pronounced ; and the pot is deposited in a hole dug in 
the south-western corner of the fire-shed (rila), where it remains 
standing for three days (and nights), during which the milk of one, 
two, and three cows respectively, and the remaining quantities of 
malted and fried grain are gradually added to it (see XII, 8, 2, 8-io). 



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xn kAnda, 7 adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, 9. 225 

7. There are two Vedis l (altar-grounds), — ' Two 
worlds in truth there are/ they say, 'the world of 
the gods, and the world of the Fathers.' One 
(of the Vedis) is in the north, and the other in 
the south, for the world of the gods is in the north, 
and the world of the Fathers in the south : by the 
northern one he secures the world of the gods, by 
the southern one the world of the Fathers. 

8. There are both milk and Sura-liquor ; for milk 
is Soma, and the Sura-liquor food : through the 
milk he secures the Soma-drink, and through the 
Sura-liquor food. And milk is the nobility (chief- 
taincy), and Sura-liquor the peasantry (clan) ; the 
milk he purines after purifying the Surd-liquor : he 
thus produces the nobility from out of the peasantry, 
for the nobility is produced from out. of the 
peasantry. 

9. With (V4f. S. XIX, 3), * Purified by Vayu's 

1 The two Vedis are prepared, in front of the Ahavaniya, by the 
Adhvaryu and Pratiprasthatrt' respectively in a way similar to those 
required for the VarunapraghdsiA, see part i, p. 392, note. There 
is some space between them, but not more than will allow a seat 
to stand on both Vedis (XII, 8, 3, 6). The dimensions (of the 
northern altar-ground) are in accordance with those of the maha- 
vedi (measuring thirty-six prakramas or steps long, twenty-four on 
the hind (west) side, and thirty-six (or thirty) on the front (east) 
side), except that the unit of measure, in this case, is one-third 
prakrama, — the area being thus equal to one-ninth of the mahSvedi 
(some authorities, however, making it one-third). Behind the two 
Vedis two mounds (khara) are thrown up for the three cups of milk, 
or three cups of Surd-liquor respectively, to be deposited thereon. 
On the northern Vedi an uttara-vedi (high-altar), occupying about 
one-third of its area, is prepared, on which a sacrificial fire (taken 
from the Ahavantya) is afterwards laid down for the use of the 
Adhvaryu in making libations from the cups of milk ; another fire 
being laid down on the southern mound for the use of the Prati- 
prasthatri' in making libations from the cups of Sura-liquor. 

[44] Q 



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226 satapatha-brAhmajta. 

purifier is the backward-flowing, exceeding 
swift Soma,' he purines (the liquor ') in the case 
of one purged by Soma : in a suitable manner he 
thus purines him (the Sacrificer); — 'Indra's faith- 
ful companion:' whatever energy, or vital power, 
had passed away from him with that (Soma), that 
he now restores to him. 

10. With, ' Purified by Vayu's purifier is the 
forward-flowing, exceeding swift Soma,' he 
purines (the liquor) in the case of one who has 
vomited Soma : in a suitable manner he thus 
purines him (the Sacrificer); — ' Indra's faithful 
companion:' whatever energy, or vital power, 
had passed away from him with that (Soma), that 
he now restores to him. 

ii. With (Va^. S. XIX, 4), 'She purifieth thy 
liquor,' he, for prosperity, purifies (the Sura) in the 
case of one wishing for prosperity; — 'thy Soma, 
she, the daughter of Surya:' the daughter of 
Surya (the sun) assuredly is Faith, and by faith 
that (liquor) becomes Soma-juice, and by faith he 
makes it to be Soma-juice ; — 'with the perpetual 
tail,' for with a tail-whisk that (liquor) is purified. 

12. With (Va^-. S. XIX, 5), 'The Brahman 

1 This performance thus takes place on the fourth day. Behind 
the mound of the southern Vedi a hole is dug, and an ox-hide 
spread over it. On this skin the unstrained liquor (parisrut) is 
either poured, a fine strainer (made of bamboo) being then laid 
thereon so that the clear liquor percolates through the holes, and 
the dregs remain below; or the strainer is placed on the skin, 
and the unstrained liquor is poured on it so as to allow the clear 
liquor to flow through on the skin. The liquor is then poured into 
a pan (sata), and further purified by a whisk of cow and horse-hair 
being drawn through it, or the liquor being strained through the 
hair. 



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xii kAjvda, 7 adhyaya, 3 brAhmajva, 14. 227 

and Kshatra he purifieth,' he purifies the milk 1 : 
he thus produces the Kshatra from out of the 
Brahman, for from out of the priesthood the 
nobility is produced; — 'the fiery spirit and 
energy;' fiery spirit and energy, vital power, he 
thus bestows on him ; — ' with the Sura the Soma,' 
for with the Suri-liquor is Soma; — 'the juice, 
is distilled,' for from the distilled the juice is 
obtained; — 'for joy,' to joy (intoxication), indeed, 
the Soma-juice contributes, and to joy also does the 
Sur4-liquor: he thus secures both the joy of the 
Soma, and the joy of the Suri; — 'with the pure 
juice, O god, satiate the deities!' that is, 'with 
the pure juice satisfy thou the deities ; ' — ' with sap 
bestow thou food on the Sacrificer,' sap and 
food he thereby bestows on the Sacrificer. The 
cups of milk are taken first, then the cups of Surd- 
liquor: he thereby makes the peasantry obedient 
to the nobility. 

13. With (Vajr. S. XIX, 6), 'Yea, even as the 
owners of barley cut their barley 2 . . .,' (the 
Adhvaryu) fills (three) cups of milk, — barley-stalks 
are Soma-stems, and milk is Soma-juice : by means 
of Soma he thus makes it Soma-juice. With 
a single (verse) he fills them: singly and solely 
on the Sacrificer he thus bestows prosperity, for 
milk is prosperity. 

14. With (Vi^. S. XIX, 7), 'Separately, indeed, 
a seat, acceptable to the gods, hath been 
prepared for you two,' he fills the (three) cups 

1 This takes place on the northern Vedi, by means of a wooden 
(reed) vessel and a strainer of goat's and sheep's hair. 
* For the complete verse, see V, 5, 4, 24. 

Q2 



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228 ^atapatha-brAhm Atf A. 

of Sura-liquor ; for separate, indeed, are the Soma- 
juice and the Surd-liquor; and 'acceptable to the 
gods ' he says, because these two are indeed accept- 
able to the gods ; and ' separately a seat hath been 
prepared' he says, because there are two altar- 
grounds; — 'do not ye mingle in the highest 
heaven!' he thereby keeps him (the Sacrificer) 
from evil; — 'the potent Sura-liquor thou art,' 
he thereby makes Surd to be Sura; — 'and this is 
Soma,' he thereby makes Soma to be Soma; — 
'entering thine own seat, injure me not!' he 
thereby turns it (the Sura-liquor) away to its own 
seat for his own safety. With a single (verse) he 
fills them : singly and solely on the Sacrificer 
he thus bestows fame, for the Sura-liquor is 
fame. 

15. Verily, the cups of milk are the nobility 
(chieftaincy), and the cups of Sura-liquor are the 
peasantry (clan) : thus, were he to draw (the cups) 
without interlinking them, he would detach the 
peasantry from the nobility, and the nobility from 
the peasantry, and would cause confusion between 
the higher and lower, and a failure of the sacrifice. 
He draws them so as to be interlinked 1 , and 
thereby combines the peasantry with the nobility, 
and the nobility with the peasantry, for the pre- 
vention of confusion between the higher and lower, 
and for the success of the sacrifice. 

16. And the cups of milk are the vital airs, and 
the cups of Suri-liquor the body : thus, were he 

1 That is to say, in drawing the cups he draws alternately a cup 
of milk, and a cup of Suii ; Kity. St. XIX, 2, 21. According to 
ib. 22, the three cups of milk may, however, be drawn first, and 
then the cups of liquor. 



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XII KANDA, 7 ADHYAyA, 3 BRAhMAYA, 20. 229 

to draw (the. cups) without interlinking them, he 
would detach the body from the vital airs, and 
the vital airs from the body, and the Sacrificer 
would be liable to perish. He draws them so as 
to be interlinked, and thereby combines the body 
with the vital airs, and the vital airs with the body ; 
and, indeed, he also lays vital power (or life) into 
him : whence he who has performed the Sautrama#i, 
and even he who thus knows this, attains the full 
(measure of) life. 

1 7. And the cups of milk are Soma, and the cups 
of Sura-liquor food : thus, in that both cups of milk 
and cups of Sura-liquor are taken, he indeed secures 
for himself both the Soma-drink and food. 

18. And the cups of milk are cattle, and the cups 
of Sura-liquor food : thus, in that both cups of milk 
and cups of Sura-liquor are taken, he indeed secures 
for himself both cattle and food. 

19. And the cups of milk are domestic animals, 
and the cups of Sura-liquor wild animals : thus, in 
that both cups of milk and cups of Sura-liquor are 
taken, he indeed secures for himself both domestic 
and wild animals. And he mixes the cups of milk 
with both cultivated and wild-growing (fruit), whereby 
both cultivated and wild-growing food is secured to 
the domestic animals. 

20. As to this they say, ' In that there are those 
wild beasts, this is a form of that cruel deity ; and if 
he were to mix the cups of milk with hairs of those 
beasts, he would thrust the cattle into the mouth of 
Rudra, and the Sacrificer would be without cattle : 
let him not mix them, or cattle would not be secured 
by him, for Rudra is the ruler of animals.' The cups 
of Sura-liquor alone he mixes with hairs of those 



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230 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

beasts : he thus puts into the Sura what belongs to 
Rudra, whence by drinking Sura-liquor one becomes 
of violent (raudra) mind ; and on the wild beasts 
alone he thus directs Rudra's shaft so as to insure 
safety to the domestic animals ; and cattle are 
secured by him and he does not thrust the cattle 
into the mouth of Rudra. 

21. [V&£\ S. XIX, 10; 11,] 'That dysentery 
which spareth both the tiger and the wolf, the 
winged eagle and the lion, may it spare this 
(Sacrificer) trouble! — Whereas, as a child, joy- 
fully sucking, I chafed my mother, so now, 
O Agni, I become freed from my debt: un- 
harmed by me are my parents.' 

22. With two eagle-feathers, the Adhvaryu and 
Pratiprasthatrz purify the Sacrificer, turned towards 
the east behind the altar-ground \ both upwards 
and downwards, — this is a form of the in-breathing 
and the upward breathing : the in-breathing and the 
upward breathing he thereby secures ; for both up- 
wards and downwards this breath passes along the 
body. With (Va.f. S. XIX, 1 1), « Uniting ye are : 
unite me with happiness 2 !' he touches the cups 
of milk : with prosperity and fame he thereby 
endows him. With, 'Disuniting ye are: dis- 
unite me from evil!' he touches the cups of 
Sura-liquor : he thereby keeps him from evil. 

1 That is, behind the mabl-vedi, near the antaip&tya-peg, where 
the purchase of the ingredients for the preparation of the Surd had 
taken place. 

' Cf. V, 1, a, 1 8, where the same two formulas are used whilst 
the Soma and Surd-cups are first held together, and then withdrawn 
from each other; and the terms 'sampr»'<4' and 'vipreJt' were 
accordingly taken in a passive sense, 'united' and 'disunited;' 



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xii kAnda, 8 adhyAya, i brAhmamv, 2. 231 



Eighth AdhyAya. First BrAhmaata. 

1. Now, when India's energies, or vital powers, 
departed from him, the gods restored them by 
means of this very sacrifice. Both cups of milk and 
cups of Sura-liquor are filled : they thereby restore 
to him his energies, or vital powers. On the 
northern fire they offer (from) the cups of milk, and 
thereby provide him 1 with the bright liquor, with 
the Soma-drink. 

2. He (the Adhvaryu) offers (of the three cups of 
milk) with (Va/. S. XIX, 32), 'By their devo- 
tions the buffalos quicken the sacrifice,' — the 
buffalos, doubtless, are the officiating priests, and 
devotion is sacrifice : through the priests he causes 
the sacrifice to prosper, and through the sacrifice 
the sacrificer 2 ; — 'the barhis-seated one, sup- 
plied with Sura and goodly heroes,' supplied 
with Sura, indeed, is this barhis-seated sacrifice, to 
wit, the Sautrama#l : by means of the barhis (the 
sacred grass on the Vedi), and the sacrifice, he 
causes him to prosper; — 'they who bestow 
Soma,' — they thus bestow the Soma-drink upon 
him; — 'with the deities in heaven,' — they thus 
place him with the deities in heaven ; — ' may we 
enjoy ourselves,' — the Soma-juice, indeed, con- 

whilst here the active sense seems preferable, the term 'vvprik' 
probably referring to the tendency of fiery liquor for producing 
broils. 

1 Or, cause him to prosper, render him successful by means of 
the liquor; MS. I. O. 311 reads ' samardhayanti' 

1 Or, perhaps, he provides the sacrifice with priests, and the 
Sacrificer with sacrifice. For obvious reasons the first two padas 
of the verse have been transposed in the translation. 



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232 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

duces to joy, and so does the Sura-liquor : both the 
joy of Soma and the joy of Sura he thus secures ; — 
'worshipping Indra with good hymns of 
praise!' — for the hymn of praise is food for the 
gods, and the sacrifice also is food : by sacrifice, 
by food, he thus makes him successful. Having 
sacrificed, they drink (of the milk), and thereby 
increase what is prosperous with him. 

3. He drinks 1 , with {V$g. S. XIX, 34), 'The 
(Soma) which the Asvins (brought away) from 
Namuii, the Asura,' — for the two A^vins indeed 
brought away that (Soma-juice) from Namuii; — 
'and Sarasvatl distilled for the sake of 
Indra's strength,' — for Sarasvatl indeed distilled 
it for the sake of Indra's strength; — 'that clear, 
sweet draught,' — for clear and sweet indeed is 
that draught, Soma; — ' King Soma I now drink,' 
— it is thus king Soma that comes to be drunk by 
him. The cups of Sura-liquor they offer (from) on 
the southern fire 2 , and thereby keep him (the Sacri- 
ficer) from evil 3 . 

4. He (the Pratiprasthatr?) offers (libations from 
the cups of Sura-liquor *), with (Vdf. S. XIX, 33), 
'What essence there is of thine, gathered from 
the plants,' for this Sura-liquor, indeed, is the essence 

1 For particulars as to the persons who partake of the respective 
cups of milk and Sura-liquor, see XII, 8, 2, 22 seqq. 

' That is, on the fire of the southern of the two special Vedis, 
see p. 225, note. 

3 Viz. inasmuch as the libations of liquor are not made on the 
offering-fire proper, the (northern) Ahavantya, where the oblations 
from the cups of milk are made. 

* These cups are of the same kind as those used for the draughts 
of Soma, being made of palira-wood, and resembling mortars in 
shape ; cf. part ii, p. 259, note 1, towards the end. 



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xii kAjvda, 8 adhyAya, i brAhmana, 6. 233 

of both the waters and the plants : by the essence 
of both the waters and the plants he thus causes 
him to prosper; — 'the strength of the Soma- 
juice together with the Sura-liquor,' — he 
thereby secures what strength there is in the Soma- 
juice and in the Surd-liquor; — 'by that exhila- 
rating drink quicken thou the Sacrificer,' — that 
is, 'by that exhilarating drink gladden thou the 
Sacrificer;' — 'Sarasvatl, the Asvins, Indra, and 
Agni,' — by deities he (the priest) thus causes the 
sacrifice to prosper, and by deities and sacrifice 
the Sacrificer. Having made the offering, they 
drink (the liquor), and thereby cause to prosper 
what is unprosperous with him. 

5. He drinks, with (Vaf. S. XIX, 35), 'What- 
ever is mingled herewith of the juicy Soma,' 
— he thereby secures for him the essence (juice) of 
the effused (extracted) and the infused * (Soma) ; — 
'which Indra drank with eagerness,' — for Indra, 
indeed, drank it with eagerness; — 'that (essence) 
thereof (I drink) with propitious mind,' — for 
unpropitious, as it were, to a Brahma«a is that drink, 
the Sura-liquor : having thus made it propitious, he 
takes it to himself; — ' King Soma I drink,' — it is 
thus king Soma that comes to be drunk by him. 

6. Here, now, other Adhvaryus hire some Ra^anya 
or Vairya with the view that he shall drink that 
(liquor) ; but let him not do this ; for, indeed, this 
Soma-drink falls to the share of the fathers and 
grandfathers of whoever drinks (the liquor 8 ) on 



1 For the distinction between ' suta' and ' isuta ' (not ' asuta '), 
cf. XII, 8, 2, 12. 
* According to K&y. Si. XIX, 3, 15, some authorities, however, 



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234 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

this occasion. Having shifted three coals of the 
southern fire to outside the enclosing-stones 1 , he 
may there offer (of the liquor) with these (three) 
utterances (Vi^. S. XIX, 36) :— 

7. 'To the Svadha-loving Fathers be Sva- 
dha, adoration!' he thereby places the Fathers 
with the Svadha in the world of the Fathers. — ' To 
the Svadha-loving grandfathers be Svadha, 
adoration ! ' he thereby places the grandfathers with 
the Svadha in the world of the grandfathers. — ' To 
the Svadha-loving great-grandfathers be 
Svadha, adoration ! ' he thereby places the great- 
grandfathers with the Svadha in the world of the 
great-grandfathers. 

8. Having fetched water, he pours it (into the 
cups) with, 'The Fathers have drunk:' he 
thereby bestows food on them ; — 'the Fathers have 
enjoyed themselves:' he thereby causes them 
to enjoy themselves; — 'the Fathers have be- 
come satisfied:' he thereby satisfies them; — 
'may the Fathers cleanse themselves!' he 
thereby purifies all of them from the first downwards, 
for the Sautrama#l is a means of purification 2 . 



think the inhaling of the fumes of the liquor to be sufficient for this 
purpose. 

1 The coals are to be placed on the south side of the southern 
fire, from north to south, and the libation from the Axvina cup is 
made on the northernmost coal, that from the Sarasvata cup on 
the central one, and that from the Aindra cup on the southern one. 
According to K4ty. XIX, 3, 17, and Mahtdhara on "V%. S. XIX, 
36, this is a fourth alternative of disposing of the liquor (in favour 
of the Fathers), the others being actual drinking, or smelling it, or 
hiring some one to drink it. 

' At XII, 7, 2, 13 a perforated pot (with a hundred holes) was 
mentioned as being used at this sacrifice. According to K&ty. .Sir. 



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xii kXnda, 8 adhyAya, i brAhmava, 14. 235 

9. By three implements of purification he puri- 
fies, — three in number are these worlds : by means 
of these worlds he thus purifies him. 

10. With ' pavamanl * (verses) ' they purify ; for 
pavamants are a means of purification : by a means 
of purification, they thus purify him. 

11. With three (verses) they purify each time, — 
there are three vital airs, the in-breathing, the up- 
breathing, and the through-breathing : it is by 
means of these that they purify him. 

12. With nine (verses) they purify, — there are 
nine vital airs : by means of the vital airs they 
purify him, and when purified they establish him 
again in the vital airs. 

13. They purify by means of a (goat's hair and 
sheep's wool) strainer, — such a strainer doubtless is 
a form (symbol) of goats and sheep : by means of 
goats and sheep they thus purify him. 

14. They purify by means of a tail-whisk, — such 
a tail-whisk doubtless is a form of kine and horses : 
with kine and horses they thus purify him. 

XIX, 3, 20, and Mahtdhara on Va#. S. XIX, 37, use is made of 
this pot at this juncture in much the same way as is described 
in v . 5» 4» »7 seqq-; viz. two poles are driven into the ground north 
and south of the southern fire, and a bamboo stick laid thereon : 
on a string fastened to this stick the pot, containing a tail-whisk (for 
straining) and a piece of gold, is then made to hang over the fire, 
and the remains of the Surd-liquor poured into it ; and whilst it 
trickles through into the fire, the priest makes the Sacrificer pro- 
nounce the verses V&g. S. XIX, 37-44, 52-60, addressed to the 
different kinds of departed ancestors. 

1 That is, verses recited at the Soma-sacrifice whilst the Soma- 
juice is clarifying ; the term being usually confined to the verses of 
hymns of the ninth mawrfala of the JfrksamhiUt, whence indeed 
most of the verses used on this occasion (Vi#. S. XIX, 37-44) are 
taken. 



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236 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

15. They purify by means of gold, — that (metal), 
to wit, gold, doubtless is a form of the gods : by 
means of a form of the gods they thus purify him. 

16. They purify him by means of Sura-liquor, for 
the Sura is purified : they thus purify him by that 
which is purified ; and even as the liquor, whilst 
being purified, is cleared of impure matter 1 , so is 
that Sacrificer thereby freed from all evil who, 
knowing this, performs the Sautrama»t, or who 
even knows this. 

1 7. Here, now, they ask, ' Is the Sautrama«t to 
be performed, or is it not to be performed, seeing 
that (in any case) they continuously repel from him 
all evil ?' As to this Revottaras Sthapati Pa/ava 
A"akra once said, ' Even after making the sur- 
render, one ought certainly to perform the sacrifice ; 
for the Sacrificer is the body of the sacrifice, and the 
officiating priests are its limbs ; and wherever the 
body is pure there the limbs also are pure ; both of 
them, indeed, purify him, and both of them repel 
the evil from him : therefore even after making the 
surrender (of one's own self) one ought certainly to 
sacrifice.' 

18. But, indeed, those who perform at the 
southern fire, go down to the world of the Fathers. 
He offers an oblation of ghee : ghee being (material 
of) sacrifice, it is by sacrifice that they establish 
themselves in the sacrifice. 

19. He (the Sacrificer) offers, with (Va^ - . S. XIX, 
45), 'The Fathers who, one in form and one in 
mind, live in Yama's realm, — may their world, 

1 The term 'balkasa' (apparently connected with 'valkala') 
would seem to mean vegetable matter, esp. chaff or husks. The 
comm. explains it by ' kidisa ' (? kilbisha or kiknasa). 



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xii kXnda, 8 adhyAya, i brAhmava, 21. 237 

the Svadha, adoration, and sacrifice prosper 
among the gods!' he thereby commits the Fathers 
to Yama, and he also conquers the world of the 
Fathers. Having, all of them, invested themselves 
sacrificially *, they betake themselves to the northern 
fire, for the northern fire 2 is this (terrestrial) world 3 : 
they thus establish themselves in this world. He 
offers an oblation of ghee : ghee being sacrifice, it is 
from out of the sacrifice that they establish them- 
selves in the sacrifice. 

20. He (the Sacrificer) offers, with (V$g. S. XIX, 
46), 'Mine own (people) who are one in form 
and one in mind, living among the living, — 
may their fortune prosper with me, in this 
world, for a hundred years'!' he thereby secures 
the good fortune of his own people, and he also 
confers long life on them. Whilst they hold on to 
each other, he (the Adhvaryu) offers milk, for milk 
is vital air and food : in the vital air, in food, they 
thus finally establish themselves. 

ai. He offers, with (V4f. S. XIX, 47), 'Two 
paths for mortals have I heard of, (that of the 
Fathers and that of the gods*),' — 'two paths 

1 That is, by shifting their Brahmamcal cord so as to hang 
across the breast from the left shoulder to the right hip. 

* That is, the fire on the uttara-vedi of the northern of the two 
special Vedis, see p. 225, note. 

' They are supposed to return to the earth from the world of 
the Fathers below. 

* Not only is the second pada of the verse omitted here (as also 
in MS. I. O. 311), but the construction of the first half of the verse 
is also rather peculiar, the most natural rendering being, ' Two 
paths of the Fathers have I heard of, (those) of the gods and of 
men.' The same verse occurs -fft'ks. X, 88, 15 (with the reading 
' dve sruil ' instead of ' dve srt'ti '), where Grassmann translates, — 



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238 satapatha-brahmaya. 

indeed there are,' they say, ' those of the gods and 
of the Fathers,' — 'thereon all that liveth here 
passeth,' for thereon, indeed, everything living here 
passes; — •'what there is between the father and 
the mother,' — the father, doubtless, is yonder (sky), 
and the mother is this (earth) : by means of these 
two he leads the Fathers to the world of heaven. 
He (the Sacrificer) alone drinks what is left from 
the offering * : to himself alone he thus takes pros- 
perity, for milk is prosperity. 

22. He drinks it, with (V4f. S. XIX, 48), 'May 
this oblation be productive for me,' — for pro- 
ductive indeed it is, whether it be milk or Soma ; — 
'possessed of ten heroes,' — the ten heroes, doubt- 
less, are the vital airs : vital airs he thus takes to 
himself; — 'possessed of all the troops,' — all the 
troops, doubtless, are the limbs : it is limbs he thus 
takes to himself; — 'for well-being: breath- 
winning,' — the breath of life he thus wins ; — ' race- 
winning,' — a race (offspring) he thus wins; — 'cattle- 
winning,' — cattle he thus wins; — 'place-winning,' 
— for it is for a place (in heaven) that he sacrifices : 
it is that he gains; — 'safety-winning,' — the (place 
of) safety, doubtless, is the heavenly world : in the 
heavenly world he thus finally establishes himself; — 
'May Agni raise for me abundant offspring, 

' Two paths there are, so the Fathers have told me, passable for 
gods and men ; ' whilst Ludwig takes it in the way just referred to. 
The above interpretation is that of Mahidhara, who refers to Sat- 
Br. I, 9, 2, 3 ; whilst Sayawa (on Xtlss.) seems to take the two 
paths to be that of the Fathers and gods, and that of men (pitrt/tim 
devanam fotapi martyanam hi dve srutf dvau margau) ; though he 
afterwards calls them ' devayana ' and ' pitr/'y i«a.' 

1 That is to say, the milk which remains in the pot (ukha), from 
which the milk used for the oblation was taken. 



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xii kXnda, 8 adhyAya, 2 brAhmajva, 3. 239 

and bestow ye upon us food, milk, and seed!' 
it is to those (priests) who offer for him that he 
thus says, ' Bestow ye all this upon me ! ' By means 
of gold they cleanse themselves 1 ; for gold is 
immortal life : in immortal life they thus finally 
establish themselves. 



Second BrAhmajva. 

1. Pra^ipati created the (Soma-)sacrifice. He 
took it and performed it. When he had performed 
it, he felt like one emptied out. He saw this sacri- 
ficial performance, the Sautramazd, and performed 
it, and then he was again replenished ; and, indeed, 
he who performs the Soma-sacrifice is, as it were, 
emptied out, for his wealth, his prosperity is, as it 
were, taken from him. 

2. Having performed a, Soma-sacrifice one ought 
to perform the Sautrama«I : as a cow that has been 
milked would replenish again, even so, indeed, does 
he replenish himself, — he replenishes himself by 
offspring and cattle; and, verily, he who, knowing 
this, performs the Sautramatft, or he who (even) 
knows this, establishes himself in this world, and 
wins the heavenly world. 

3. As to this Suplan Sar»faya asked Prati- 
darsa. Aibhavata 2 , 'Seeing that neither does one 

1 Kdty. St. XIX, 3, 27, 'Over the Jatvala (pit) they cleanse 
themselves, with their wives, putting gold between ; ' that is to say, 
whilst the water is poured on their hands a piece of gold is held 
between, over which the water flows. 

* Cf. II, 4, 4, 3-4, where the latter is called Prattdaxra 5Vaikna 
(king of the Svikna), whilst the former, after studying with him, 
is said to have been called Sahadeva Sart^aya. 



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24O SATAPATHA-BRAHMANA. 

become initiated, nor are Soma-shoots 1 thrown down 
(to be pressed), how then does the Sautrama#i 
become a Soma-sacrifice ? ' 

4. He replied, ' The observance of the fast, 
assuredly, is the head of the sacrifice, and the 
initiation its body. And the truth, doubtless, is of 
the form of the fast-observance, and faith of that 
of the initiation. And mind is of the form of the 
Sacrificer, and speech of that of the sacrifice.' 

5. Thus, when he enters upon the fast-observance, 
he thereby restores the head to the body of the 
sacrifice, and he puts truth into faith, and the Sacri- 
ficer into the sacrifice. 

6. Therefore at this sacrifice (the Sautrama»l) 
the fast-observance 2 is the initiation. Now, the fast- 
observance is a male, and the initiation a female ; and 
the truth is a male, and faith a female ; and the mind 
is a male, and speech a female ; and the Sacrificer is 
the male to his wife, whence wherever there is a 
husband there is a wife : and at the very outset 
of the sacrifice he thus sets up couples with a view 
to production. 

7. ' And, indeed, those (materials) are the Soma- 
shoots at this sacrifice,' they say, ' to wit, the malted 
rice, the malted barley, and the fried rice' 

8. The malted rice 3 , indeed, is of the form of the 

1 The ' Soma»«ava iva' would seem to have here the force of 
' Soma-shoots proper,' only substitutes (milk and liquor) being used 
instead. 

* That is to say, the observance of the fast — by which the Sacri- 
ficer during the four days of the performance of the SautrSmanf, 
lives solely on the remains of the Agnihotra — takes the place of the 
ordinary initiation of the Soma-sacrifice, there being no Diksha 
at the Sautramaftf. 

* The malted rice, malted barley, and fried rice, referred to in 



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xii kAjvda, 8 adhyAya, 2 brAhmaiva, ii. 241 

morning-pressing, for the morning-pressing is this 
(terrestrial) world, and the latter relates to the 
Axvins, and A^vina milk he pours (into the Sura- 
liquor) the first night: he thus provides him (the 
Sacrificer *) with the morning-pressing — with its own 
world, with its own deity, with its own form 2 . 

9. And the malted barley is of the form of the 
midday-pressing, for the midday-pressing is the air, 
and the latter relates to Sarasvatl s , and the Sara- 
svata milk he pours (into the Sura) the second 
night: he thus provides him with the midday- 
pressing — with its own world, with its own deity, 
with its own form. 

10. And the fried rice is of the form of the 
evening-pressing, for the evening-pressing is the sky, 
and the latter relates to Indra, and Aindra milk he 
pours (into the Sura) the third night : he thus pro- 
vides him with the evening-pressing — with its own 
world, with its own deity,* with its own form. 

11. The milk of one (cow) he pours (into the 
Sura) the first night, the milk of two the second 

this and the next two paragraphs, refer to the remnants of these 
materials, not used at first in the preparation of the Sura, and 
amounting to one-third of the original quantity of each; these 
being added successively during the three nights during which the 
Sura has to mature; cf. p. 223, note 2. 

1 Or, he renders him, the Sacrificer (or, perhaps, it, the sacrifice), 
successful by means of the morning-pressing. 

* The literal translation would seem to be, — he thus provides 
him with the respective (sva) world, with the respective deity, and 
with the respective form, — (hence) with the morning-pressing. It 
may be remarked, however, that the deities here connected with 
the three services (the A-vins, Sarasvati, and Indra) are not those 
elsewhere associated with them (Vasus, Rudras, and Adityas, IV, 
3, 5, 1 ; or Agni, Indra, VLrve DevaA, XI, 5, 9, 7). 

* Viz. inasmuch as it is full of moisture (saras). 

[44] R 



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242 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

night, and the milk of three the third night : he thus 
provides him with the pressings, in accordance with 
their forms, and in accordance with their deities. 

12. With (Va^-. S. XIX, 2), 'Hereof pour ye 
to the juice,' he pours in (the milk) for the sake 
of (conformity with) the Soma-pressing ; — '(to) the 
Soma who is the supreme offering,' — for this, 
to wit, Soma, is indeed the supreme offering 
(-material) : he thus makes it ' to be the supreme 
offering; — 'the manly one who hath rushed 
into the waters,' for both with water and between 
it is he (Soma) indeed pressed out; — 'I have 
pressed out Soma by stones,' for by means of 
stones Soma is indeed pressed out: it is thus by 
means of stones he presses it out for the sake of 
(conformity with) the Soma-pressing. 

13. As to this they say, ' That Sautramawt, surely, 
is of the form of both effused (extracted) and infused 8 
(Soma); — to wit, that essence of both water and 
plants, the milk, is of the form of the effused (Soma) ; 
and that essence of food, the liquor, is of the form of 
infused (Soma): by both (kinds of) pressings he thus 
expresses it, by both pressings he secures it 

14. As to this they say, ' Seeing that the Soma- 
juice is pressed out by stones, how as to the Sautra- 
ma«l ? ' Let him reply, 'By the directions s and the 

1 The ' enam ' must refer to the Surd-liquor, treated as identical 
with Soma. 

* I do not quite understand the distinction between ' suta ' and 
'asuta'; cf. XII, 8, 1, 5; unless the former be the pure Soma- 
juice, and the latter that mixed with other ingredients. 

* The ' praisha ' are the directions by which the Maitrivaruwa 
calls on the Hotr*' to recite the offering-formulas (cf. part ii, p. 183, 
note 2). For the fore-offerings of the three victims, these directions 
are given, V££. S. XXI, 29-40. They all commence with * Hota 1 



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XII KA/VDA, 8 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAtfA, 17. 243 

Apri-verses ; ' for the directions (praisha) are in 
the Brzhatl (metre), and the pressing-stones are 
of barhata nature : by means of stones the Soma- 
juice is indeed pressed out, and by means of stones 
he now presses it out for the sake of (conformity 
with) the Soma-pressing. 

1 5. All (the praishas) contain (the word) ' payas ' 
(milk), for in the form of milk Soma is (here) 
pressed 1 ; they all contain (the word) 'Soma,' for 
the sake of (conformity with) the Soma-pressing; 
they all contain (the word) 'parisrut' (spirituous 
liquor), for in the form of spirituous liquor Soma is 
(here) pressed ; they all contain (the word) ' ghr/ta ' 
(ghee), for this — to wit, ghee — doubtless is mani- 
festly a form of the sacrifice: he thus makes it 
to be manifestly a form of the sacrifice; they all 
contain (the word) 'madhu' (honey), for this — to 
wit, honey — is manifestly a form of Soma : he thus 
makes it to be manifestly a form of Soma. 

16. They all refer to the A^vins 2 , for the sake 
of healing-power 8 ; they all refer to Sarasvatl, for 
the obtainment of food; they all refer to Indra, 
for the obtainment of energy, or vital power. 

17. And, again, as to why they all refer to the 
Asvins, all of them to Sarasvatl, and all of them 
to Indra, — these, indeed, were the deities who first 

yakshat ' (may the Hotrt' worship 1), and end with ' payaA somaA 
parisrut! ghrrtaw* madhu vyantv a^yasya hotar ya^a ' (milk, Soma, 
with parisrut-liquor, ghee, honey, — may they partake of the butter, 
Hotri worship !). 

1 ? Literally, ' by (way of) milk ' — or, perhaps, ' by the admixture 
of milk — Soma is (here, as it were) produced.' 

1 In all the directions referred to, the three deities are named. 

* The two Ajvins are the physicians of the gods. Cf. IV, 1,5, 
8 seqq. ; XII, 7, 2, 3. 

K 2 



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244 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAtfA. 

prepared this sacrifice (the Sautrama#i) : with the 
help of these deities he thus prepares it; and, 
besides, he also provides these deities with a share. 

18. The invitatory and offering formulas are 
made continuous \ and relate to the same deities, — 
for the sake of continuity and uninterruptedness 
of the race (offspring). All of them relate to the 
A.svins, all of them to Sarasvatt, and all of them 
to Indra : the significance of this is the same as 
before. 

19. The Aprl-formulas 2 are anush/ubh verses; for 
the AnushAibh is speech, and with speech Soma is 
pressed : he thus presses it with speech, for the 
sake of (conformity with) the Soma-sacrifice. All 
of them relate to the Ajvins, all of them to Sara- 
svatl, and all of them to Indra : the significance 
of this is the same as before. 

20. The anupraishas s (after-directions) are in the 

1 This refers to the puro»nuvakyas and yi^yas of the oblations 
of omentum (vapa) of the three victims. For these formulas the 
three verses, Vig. S. XX, 67-69, are used in such a way that 
verse 1 forms the anuvakya, and verse 2 the ya^ya, of the Afvins' 
oblation ; verse 2 the anuvakyi, and verse 3 the ya^ya, of Sara- 
svatt" s oblation ; and verse 3 the anuvakyi, and verse 1 the ySgyi, 
of Indra's oblation. In each of the three verses all the three 
deities are mentioned. — In exacdy the same way the three verses, 
XX, 70-72, are used as the anuvikyis and ya^yas of the three 
parapurot&ras ; and 73-75 as those of the chief oblations (havis) 
of meat-portions. 

* The Apr is (propitiatory verses, cf. part ii, p. 185) are the 
offering-formulas (yi^yi) of the eleven (or twelve) fore-offerings 
(praya^a) of the animal sacrifice. Those used on the present 
occasion are the twelve verses given, Va^. S. XX, 55-66 ; there 
being on this occasion (in the second and third places) fore- 
offerings both to Tanunapit and Narlnuwsa. In each of these 
verses, again, all three deities are referred to. 

* I do not exactly know what formulas are thereby referred to. 



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xii kXnda, 8 adhyAya, 2 brahmaya, 25. 245 

^agata metre ; for the Gagatl is this (earth), and by 
means of her Soma is pressed: by means of her 
he thus presses it for the sake of (conformity with) 
the Soma-pressing. All of them relate to the Asvins, 
all of them to Sarasvati, and all of them to Indra : 
the significance of this is the same as before. 

21. This Sautramawl, then, is manifestly a Soma- 
sacrifice; and were the Sacrificer alone to drink 
(the liquor), it would be either an ish/i-offering, or 
an animal sacrifice ; but, for the sake of conformity 
(of the liquor) to the Soma, all the priests drink 
thereof, for all the priests drink of the Soma-juice. 

22. The Adhvaryus 1 drink (the contents of) the 
A^vina (cup), for the A^vins are the Adhvaryus 
of the gods : they thus consume each his own share 
in his own abode. 

23. The Hotn, Brahman, and Maitravaru#a 
(drink that) of the Saras vata (cup), for the Hotrt 
is the voice of the sacrifice, the Brahman its heart, 
and the Maitravanma its mind : they thus consume 
each his own share in his own abode. 

24. The Sacrificer drinks (that of) the Aindra 
(cup), for this sacrifice, the Sautramawi, belongs to 
Indra, and even now he who sacrifices has his abode 
along with Indra : he thus consumes his own share 
in his own abode. 

25. The Asvina cup, indeed, is the eye, the 
Sarasvata one the vital air, and the Aindra one 

It can hardly be the praishas of the anuya^as (Va^. S. XXI, 
48-58), as these are not in the ^agatf, but in the (arshf) trish/ubh 
metre ; though certainly each of them contains the names of the 
three deities. 

1 Viz. the Adhvaryu, and his two assistants, the Pratiprasthatn 
and Agnfdh. Cf. XII, 8, 1, 3 seqq. 



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246 DATAPATH A-BRAhMAVA. 

speech. From the Ajvina (cup) he pours (the 
remains) into the Sarasvata one, whereby he com- 
bines his eye with the vital airs ; from the Sarasvata 
(cup) into the Aindra one, whereby he combines his 
vital airs with his speech, and also establishes his 
vital airs in (the channel of) speech, whence all 
the vital airs are established on speech. 

26. Three (men) drink the Asvina (cup), to wit, 
the Adhvaryu, PratiprasthatW, and Agntdh ; for 
this eye is threefold — the white, the black, and the 
pupil : he thus bestows on him the eye in accor- 
dance with its form. 

27. Three (drink) the Sarasvata (cup), the Hotri, 
Brahman, and Maitravaruwa ; for threefold divided 
is this vital air — the in (and out)-breathing, the 
up-breathing, and the through-breathing: he thus 
bestows on him the vital air in accordance with 
its form. 

28. Singly the Sacrificer drinks the Aindra (cup), 
for single is that distinction of the vital airs, speech : 
singly and solely to himself does he take that dis- 
tinction, speech ; whence he who has performed the 
Sautrama»i becomes singly and solely the most 
distinguished among his own people, and so does 
even he who knows this. 

29. The officiating priests (ritvig), doubtless, are 
the seasons (rttu), and the draughts (of liquor) 
are the months; — six priests drink, for there are 
six seasons : by means of the priests he thus 
secures the seasons. 

30. There are twelve draughts 1 , and twelve 

1 Viz. inasmuch as three priests partake of each of the first two 
cups of milk, and of the first two cups of Surd-liquor, and each 
priest drinks twice. 



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xii kXnda, 8 adhyAya, 2 brAhmajva, 35. 247 

months : by means of the draughts he thus secures 
the months. The priests drink again and again by 
turns, whence the seasons and months succeed one 
another by turns. 

31. The thirteenth draught the Sacrificer takes, 
for, indeed, that thirteenth month is manifestly the 
year itself: it is this he secures by obtaining (that 
draught). And, indeed, the Sautrima»t is the same 
as the year, and by means of this he wins every- 
thing, and secures everything for himself. 

32. There are three victims, for three in number 
are these worlds: it is these worlds he thereby 
secures, — to wit, this (terrestrial) world by that 
of the Ajvins, the air by that of Sarasvatt, and the 
sky by that of Indra : he thus wins and secures 
these worlds for himself in accordance with their 
(peculiar) form and deity. 

33. There are three sacrificial cakes, for there are 
three- seasons: it is the seasons he thereby secures, — 
to wit, the summer by that of Indra, the rainy 
season by that of SavitW, and the winter by that 
of Varu»a : he thus wins and secures the seasons 
for himself in accordance with their (peculiar) form 
and deity. 

34. There are six cups (of milk and liquor), for 
there are six seasons : it is the seasons he thereby 
secures, — to wit, the spring and summer by the two 
A^vina (cups), the rainy season and autumn by the 
two Sarasvata ones, and the winter and dewy 
season by the two Aindra ones : he thus wins and 
secures the seasons for himself in accordance with 
their form and deity. 

35. The invitatory and offering formulas are 
made continuous, and relate to the same deities — 



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248 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAWA. 

for the sake of the continuity and uninterruptedness 
of the seasons. They are all of them invitatory 
formulas and all offering-formulas \ whence all the 
seasons pass onwards, and all of them return. All 
(the formulas) are first, all of them intermediate, and 
all of them last, whence all the seasons are first, 
all of them intermediate, and all of them last All 
the cups have two (formulas, an) invitatory and (an) 
offering-formula, — this is of the form of day and 
night : it is the day and the night he thus secures 
for himself; whence both the seasons and the 
months are established on day and night. 

36. The Sautrama«l, truly, is the same as the 
year, and the same as the moon ; and the Sacrificer 
is manifestly the sun : his vedi (altar-ground) is 
this earth, his uttara-vedi the air, his barhis the sky, 
his officiating priests the quarters, his fuel the trees, 
his ghee the waters, his oblations the plants, his fire 
Agni himself, his samstha (the particular form of 
sacrifice) the year — and, indeed, everything here, 
whatever there is, is the year ; whence he who has 
performed the Sautramawl wins everything, and 
secures everything for himself. 

Third BrAhmajva. 

1. Tvash/W, seeing his son slain, brought Soma 
suitable for witchery, and withheld from Indra. 
Indra, committing a desecration of the sacrifice, 
by main force drank off his (Tvash/rfs) Soma-juice. 
He went asunder in every direction, — from his 
mouth and vital airs his excellence and fame passed 

1 See p. 244, note 1, where it is shown that each of the three 
verses serves successively as puro«nuvikya' and as ySgyL 



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xii kAjvda, 8 adhyAya, 3 brAhmaya, 6. 249 

away, and entered the cattle, whence cattle are one's 
fame : and famous, indeed, is he who, knowing this, 
is consecrated l by the Sautriman). 

2. The two A^vins and Sarasvatl then pre- 
pared for him this sacrifice, the Sautrama«l, for the 
purpose of healing him, and thereby consecrated 
him : thereby he became the highest of gods, and 
so does he who is consecrated by that (offering) 
become the highest among his own people. 

3. He consecrates him on a black antelope skin ; 
for the black antelope skin is the sacrifice 2 : it is at 
the sacrifice he thus consecrates him ; on the hairy 
side (of the skin), for the hair is the metres : it is on 
the metres (or sacred writ) he thus consecrates him. 

4. On a throne-seat he consecrates him, for 
imperial dignity is seated (established) on a throne- 
seat : by means of imperial dignity he thus causes 
him to attain imperial dignity. 

5. It is made of udumbara wood, for the udum- 
bara (ficus glomerata) is strength : for the sake of 
strength he thus is consecrated. It is knee-high, 
for knee-high is this (terrestrial) world, and it is for 
(the rule of) this world that the Kshatriya is con- 
secrated ; and the ruler (kshatra) indeed he becomes 
who is consecrated by the Sautrama«t : therefore it 
is knee-high, and of unlimited size horizontally (in 
width and depth), — 

6. For the throne-seat means royal dignity, 
and of unlimited prosperity is royal dignity. It is 
covered with plaited reed-work, for reed-grass is 
meet for sacrifice. Two of its feet stand on the 

1 Literally, sprinkled, i.e. anointed, with the 'vasS,' or fat gravy 
obtained from the cooking of the sacrificial animals. 
* See part i, p. 23, note a. 



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25O SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

northern, and two on the southern altar-ground 1 , 
for the northern vedi is this (terrestrial) world, and 
the southern one the world of the Fathers : he thus 
consecrates him for both worlds. 

7. Concerning this, Gauriviti .Saktya, knowing 
this, once said, ' Like rulers 2 , assuredly, we shall be 
in yonder world!' Perhaps 3 it was 7??'shabha 
Ya^-fliatura, king of the .Svikna, who had told 
him so. 

8. He places the throne-seat, with (V&f. S. XX, 1), 
'Thou art the womb of the Kshatra, thou art 
the navel of the Kshatra!' for it indeed is the 
womb and navel of the Kshatra (ruling power). 

9. He then spreads the black antelope skin 
thereon, with, 'May it not injure thee! do not 



1 For the two special Vedis, see p. 225, note 1. 

* ' A kind of Kshatriyas,' Delbrttck, Altind. Synt., p. 494. 

* For this or some such meaning ('probably' — German, ' wohl' 
or ' vielleicht ') which seems to me to suit best the use of 'szsvat' 
in the Brahmanas, see part ill, p. 98, note 2. — Thus, at I, 2, 3, 2, 
I would now translate ' and perhaps it was Trita who slew him, — 
Indra at all events was exonerated from that (guilt), for he is 
a god.' Similarly, I, 8, 1, 4, ' perhaps it was a ^Aasha, for that 
(fish) grows best (fastest);' II, 2, r, 2, 'If, on the other hand, 
that oblation were not offered up in him, he would perhaps burn 
either the Adhvaryu, or the Sacrificer.' Somewhat peculiar is the 
passage, I, 6, 3, 10, where jatvat occurs both in the relative and 
in the demonstrative clause, and where we can hardly translate 
otherwise than ' If, perchance, he had said, " Grow thou, the foe of 
Indra 1 " he (Vrrtra) would perhaps have slain Indra.' — Hatte er 
vielleicht (etwa) gesagt : ' Wachse, du Feind Indras ! ' so wflrde 
er (Vrstra) vielleicht (? gewiss) Indra erschlagen haben. — If this be 
the right interpretation of these passages, they would have to 
be transferred, in the St Petersb. Diet, from meaning b (?) to c, 
where ' vielleicht ' would have to be added, as it certainly suits 
better than ' gewiss' (most likely) the last of the foregoing passages, 
at all events. The comm. explains '«wvat' by ' bahukrttvaA.' 



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xii KkNDA, 8 adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, 13. 251 

injure me!' for the black antelope skin is the 
sacrifice : (thus it is spread) for the safety of the 
sacrifice and his own self. 

10. He then mounts it, with a verse to Varuwa 
(Va^ - . S. XX, 2), for Varuwa is the king of the 
gods: by means of his own deity he thus con- 
secrates him 1 , — 'He hath sat down, the up- 
holder of the sacred law, Varu#a, in the 
home-steads, for supreme rule, he the wise ! ' 

11. He then throws down a gold and a silver 
plate (beneath his feet, the silver one beneath the 
left foot) with, 'Protect (me) from death!' 
(the gold one beneath the right foot* with,) 
'Protect (me) from lightning!' The Vira^, 
doubtless, is the rain, and of this there are these 
two terrible forms, lightning and hail ; of these the 
gold plate is of the form of lightning, and the silver 
one of that of hail : against these two deities he 
affords protection to him, whence he who has per- 
formed the Sautrama«l has no fear of these two 
deities, as he also who thus knows this. 

12. He consecrates him by sprinkling him with 
the fat gravy of the sacrificial animals, for the gravy 
of the animals means excellence : with that excel- 
lence, the essence of cattle, he thus sprinkles him. 
But that gravy is also the highest kind of food : with 
the highest kind of food he thus sprinkles him. 

13. There are hoof-cups (of gravy), for on hoofs 
cattle support themselves : he thus causes him 
to obtain a support. There are thirty-three (such) 



1 Cf. V, 4, 4, 5, where the verse is explained. 
3 Or, on the head, according to others. The plates are of the 
usual round shape. 



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2$2 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

cupfuls, for thirty-three in number are all the 
deities: by means of all the deities he thus con- 
secrates him. He offers them with ^agatt verses, 
for animals are of ^agata (movable) nature : by 
means of the Gagati he thus secures cattle for him. 
With sixteen verses (Va^\ S. XIX, 80-94) he offers, 
for animals are of sixteen parts : he thus bestows 
excellence (or prosperity) on him part by part. 

14. 'With lead the wise, with wool and 
thread 1 the sages weave the web, the sacri- 
fice: the A.rvins, Savitr/, Sarasvati, and 
Varu»a healed the form of IndraV Each 
time he has offered two (cupfuls) together, he 
pours the residue into a bowl (sata) : he thereby 
establishes the days and nights, the half-months, 
the months, and the seasons in the year, and hence 
these days and nights, half-months, months, and 
seasons are established (contained) in the year. 

1 5. The bowl is made of reed, for the reed has 
its birth-place in the waters, and the waters are all 
the deities: by means of all the deities he thus 
consecrates him. 

16. A rubbing down (of the Sacrificer) with all 
manner of sweet-smelling substances takes place 
(before sprinkling him with fat), for such a rubbing 
down with all manner of sweet-smelling substances 
means supreme fragrance: with fragrance he thus 
consecrates (anoints) him. 

1 7. He sprinkles him (with the fat gravy) in front 
while (himself) looking towards the back (west), for 

1 See p. 219, note 3. 

1 Only the first pada of this, the first of the sixteen verses, is 
given in the text Regarding the allusions in this verse, see XII, 
7, i, ioseqq.; 2, 17; 7,3, 3. 



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xii kAjvda, 8 adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, 19. 253 

from the front food is visibly eaten. On every side (he 
sprinkles him) whilst moving round : he thus bestows 
food on him from all quarters, whence food is se- 
cured from all quarters by him who has performed 
the Sautrama#i, or even by him who thus knows 
this. 

18. With a formula to the Asvins he sprinkles 
him first \ then with one to Sarasvatl, then with one 
to Indra : it is by means of these deities he thus 
consecrates him. Now, some consecrate him by 
means both of these deities and those utterances, 
' bhM, bhuva^, svar,' ' for,' say they, ' these utter- 
ances (" earth, air, heaven ") mean all this (universe) : 
it is by means of all this (universe) we thus conse- 
crate him.' Let him, however, not do so, but let 
him only consecrate him by means of those deities, 
for those deities, indeed, are all this (universe). 

19. He consecrates him prior to the Svish/akm 
(offering), for the Svish/akrzt is the Kshatra : he thus 
consecrates him by means of the Kshatra (or, by a 
Kshatriya). And he consecrates him between (the 
oblation to) the Lord of the Forest 2 and the 

1 According to Katy. St. XIX, 4, 14-17, he sprinkles him up to 
the mouth, letting it flow down on all four sides; and with each 
sprinkling he pronounces one of the formulas, first, the Savitra one, 
V&g. S. XX, 3, ' At the impulse of God Savitn (1 consecrate) thee 
by the arms of the Ajvins, and the heads of Pushan 1 ' followed 
by the Arvina one, 'with the healing medicine of the Arvins 
I sprinkle thee for energy and holy lustre ! ' and the Sarasvata one, 
' with the healing medicine of Sarasvatl I sprinkle thee for vigour 
and food !' Then a fourth time with a formula referring to all the 
deities (or with the three great utterances), or with the Aindra 
text, ' With Indra's power I sprinkle thee for strength, for excel- 
lence, and for fame 1 ' 

* For this oblation, see III, 8, 3, 33 ; IV, 5, 2, 1 1 ; in both cases 
it is followed immediately by the oblation to Agni Svish/akrrt. - 



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254 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAYA. 

Svish/akrzt, for the lord of the forest (or the tree) is 
Soma, and the Svish/akm (maker of good offering) 
is Agni : he thus consecrates him after encompassing 
him by Agni and Soma ; whence both those who 
know, and those who do not, say, 'A Kshatriya is 
the consecrator of a Kshatriya 1 .' 

20. They then lift him up 2 knee-high, then navel- 
high, then as high as the mouth ; for the Va^apeya 
doubtless is the same as the consecration, and the 
Sautrama»l is a consecration ; and even as there, at 
the Va^apeya, he (the Sacrificer) mounts the sacri- 
ficial stake 8 , like that is this rite. 

21. As to this they say, ' But, surely, he who is 
consecrated by the Sautrama»! moves away from 
this world.' Well, he descends again upon the 
black antelope skin, and, the black antelope skin 
being the sacrifice, he thus finally establishes him- 
self on the sacrifice. 

22. [He descends 4 , with V&f. S. XX, 10,] 'Firmly 6 
I establish myself in the Kshatra (lordship), 
in royal sway,' — in lordship and royal sway he 
thus establishes himself so as not to lose lordship 
and royal sway; — 'firmly in horses I establish 



1 Kshatriyo ra^tfoxbhishekti bhavati, purvara hi ra^aiva vr/ddhaA 
kumaram £abhishi££atfty arthaA ; comm. 

* According to Katy. Sr. XIX, 4, 19-21, the Adhvaryu first 
touches him, with (V&g. S. XX, 4), ' Thou art Ka, thou art Katama, 
— to Ka thee ! ' and the Sacrificer replies, ' O thou of good fame ! 
O most propitious one 1 O true king ! ' and touches his limbs one 
after another with XX, 5-9. 

8 See part iii, p. 32 (V, 2, 1, 9 seqq.). 

4 That is, when the throne-seat has been lowered again, he rises 
from it and stands on the deer-skin. 

• The function of ' prati ' here seems to be to strengthen the 
preposition in the verb ' prati-tish/Aami.' 



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xii kXnda, 8 adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, 24. 255 

myself, and in kine,' — in the midst of horses and 
kine he thus establishes himself so as not to lose 
horses and kine; — 'firmly in the limbs I estab- 
lish myself, and in the body,' — in the limbs 
and in the body he thus establishes himself so as 
not to lose his limbs and his body ; — ' firmly in 
the vital airs I establish myself, and in pros- 
perity,' — in the vital airs and in prosperity he thus 
establishes himself so as not to lose the vital airs 
and prosperity; — 'firmly in heaven and on earth 
I establish myself, and in the sacrifice,' — he 
thus establishes himself in these two, heaven and 
earth, within which is all this (universe). 

23. He 1 then sings a Saman (hymn-tune), for the 
Saman means lordship (kshatra) : with lordship he 
thus consecrates him ; or the Saman means imperial 
sway : by means of imperial sway he thus causes 
him to attain imperial sway. And, indeed, the 
Saman is the essence of all the Vedas : he thus 
consecrates him with the essence of all the Vedas. 

24. He sings it on a br/hatl verse 2 , for established 
on the BrihatX, as his excellence and foundation, 



1 According to the commentator on Katy. XIX, 5, 1, the Brahman 
sings, whilst La/y. V, 4, 16-19 gives directions from which the 
Udgatfi* would seem to be expected to perform this duty. When 
the Sacrificcr is being anointed, the Udgatrz' is to step between the 
(northern and southern) fires and, as soon as he is called upon by 
the Adhvaryu, he is to commence the Saman. It would probably 
depend on the Brahman's previous studies, whether or not he 
was sufficiently conversant with the complicated details of the 
hymnology. 

* Viz. Wig. S. XX, 30 (Rtks. VIII, 89, 1), ' To Indra, O Maruts, 
sing ye the great (hymn), most destructive to Vrrira, whereby the 
promoters of sacred rites produced the light, the wakeful god for 
the god.' 



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256 DATAPATH A-BRAH M AJVA. 

that sun shines 1 : he thus establishes him on the 
Brzhati, as his excellence and foundation. 

25. He sings it on a brz'hatl verse relating to 
Indra, for this sacrifice, the Sautrama»l, belongs 
to Indra, and even now he who sacrifices has Indra 
for his support : he thus consecrates him on his 
own support (or resting-place). 

26. And as to why (these hymns) are called 
'bracers 2 ;' it is because by means of these Samans 
the gods braced Indra up to energy, or vital power : 
in like manner do the officiating priests, by means of 
these Samans, brace the Sacrificer up to energy, or 
vital power. ' Sa#«ravase, vi-rravase, saty&wavase, 
^ravase 3 ' — these are the Samans : they proclaim 



! Professor Weber, Ind. Stud. VIII, p. 42, refers to a parallel 
passage in Ta»<fya-Br. VII, 4, 7 — ' By means of the Bahishpava- 
mana (of the morning service) the gods carried off Aditya, the sun, 
to heaven ; but he did not stop there. At midday they then fixed 
him by means of the Brt'hati, and for this reason the Brihati metre 
is used for the Pavamana-stotra at the midday service.' 

s Literally, sharpeners or sharpenings (sawwtna). 

* These words— apparently meaning 'for fame all round, for 
fame far and wide, for true fame, for fame' (or, perhaps, 'for 
hearing, or, rather, being heard of all round,' &c.) — are used to 
form the finales (nidhana) in which all the priests are to join; cf. 
S&mav., Calc. ed., I, pp. 533-4, where the figured text is given. 
According to KSty. XIX, 5, 4-5; La/y. V, 4, 19, the words, 
' saa^ityai, vigityai, satyagityai, ^ityai ' (for complete victory, vic- 
tory far and wide, &c), and ' sampush/yai, vipush/yai,' &c. (for 
complete prosperity, &c), are to be used instead, in the case of 
a Kshatriya and Vauya respectively, either optionally or neces- 
sarily. Though these four words are here, and elsewhere, spoken 
of as so many different Samans, only the last of them (' s ravase ') 
forms the finale of a Saman in the ordinary sense of the word ; the 
others being merely combined with certain musical ejaculations, or 
expletives (stobhas). All the four ' Samans ' begin with the same 
phrase (varying only in the verb) — 'saw tva hinvanti (riwanti, 



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XII KAJVDA, 8 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAiVA, 29. 257 

him in these worlds. There are four finales, for 
there are four quarters : they thus establish him in 
all the quarters. All (the priests) join in the finale: 
with one mind they thus bestow excellence upon him. 

27. As to this they say, ' Seeing that this Saman 
is sung, wherein then does the recitation (uktha) of 
this Saman consist, and what is its foundation ; for 
unsuccessful is what is chanted unless it be followed 
by a recitation ? ' 

28. 'Thrice eleven are the gods;' this, indeed, is 
the recitation 1 belonging to that Saman, this its 
foundation. 

29. Or he (the Adhvaryu) takes a thirty-third cup- 
ful (of gravy), with (Va^. S. XX, u-12 1 ), 'Thrice 

tatakshur, jwanti) dhitibhiA,' i.e. ' they make thee up (or urge thee 
on) with prayers/ serving as a kind of prelude (prastava) the single 
words of which are given among the Stobhas (SSmav., Calc. ed., 
II, p. 522, last line), as, indeed, the words ' sanwravase,' &c, them- 
selves are (ib., p. 520). In the first three Samans this phrase is 
followed by the finale consisting of the respective characteristic 
word preceded by the Stobha ' auhova.' In the last Saman, on the 
other hand, the introductory phrase is followed by the choral setting 
of the verse ' Brthad indraya gayata' (see p. 255, n. 2), which, 
in its turn, is followed again by the first phrase, with a slightly 
modified modulation, ending with ' auhovd .rravase.' Whilst joining 
in the finale, the priests, according to La/y. V, 4, 17, are to lay their 
hands on the head of the Sacrificer. 

1 According to K&ty. St. XIX, 4, 24 ; 5, 8 seq. ; 7, 1 seq., the 
thirty-third libation of gravy is taken with the text, XX, 32, 'yo 
bhutandm adhipatiA (he who is the over-lord of creatures),' &c. ; 
whilst, on the conclusion of the £astra, or HoWs recitation, the 
Sacrificer offers the libation from that last cup with XX, n-12, and 
drinks the remainder with XX, 13. The .Sastra, recited in response 
to the Saman, consists of the section of eleven verses, Va£. S. XX, 
80-90, the first and last verses of which are recited thrice; 
whilst the 'Shiva' (rowsdvom, 'let us praise, om !') is inserted by him 
before each triplet of the remaining nine verses. The two verses used 
whilst the Sacrificer offers (XX, 11-12) are likewise recited by the 

[44] S 



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258 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAJVA. 

eleven are the gods,' — for there are indeed thrice 
eleven gods; — 'three-and-thirty, bountiful,' — 
for there are thirty-three gods; — 'with Brzhaspati 
for their Purohita,' — B/'thaspati is the Brah- 
man (n.) : he thus means to say, ' With the Brahman 
for their Purohita (family-priest);' — * at the im- 
pulse (sava) of the god Savitrz,' — that is, 
'impelled by the god Savitrz;' — 'may the gods 
protect me through the gods!' for the gods in- 
deed consecrate him through the gods. 

30. 'The first with the second,' — for the first 
(gods, on earth) consecrate him along with the second 
ones (in the air) ; — 'the second with the third,' — 
for the second ones consecrate him along with the 
third ones (in the sky); — 'the third with 1 the 
truth,' — for the third ones consecrate him with 
the truth; — 'the truth with the sacrifice,' — for 
the truth consecrates him with the sacrifice; — 'the 
sacrifice with sacrificial texts,' — for the sacrifice 
consecrates him with sacrificial texts ; — ' sacrificial 
texts with hymn-tunes,' — for sacrificial texts 
(ya^us) consecrate him along with hymn-tunes; — 
'hymn-tunes with hymn-verses,' — for hymn- 
tunes consecrate him along with hymn-verses (rt&) ; 
— 'hymn-verses with invitatory verses,' — for 
hymn-verses consecrate him along with invitatory 
verses; — 'invitatory verses with offering- 
verses,' — for invitatory verses consecrate him 
along with offering-verses ; — 'offering-verses with 
Vasha/-calls,' — for offering-verses consecrate him 

Hotrt, as a ' nivid,' being either added at the end of the Sastra, or 
inserted before the ninth or tenth verse ; the whole recitation thus 
consisting of seventeen verses. 

1 Mahidhara takes the instrumental throughout as a sociative 
(saha satyena). 



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xii kAjvda, 9 adhyAya, i brAhmava, i. 259 

along with Vasha/-calls ; — 'Vasha/-calls with 
oblations,' — for Vasha/-calls consecrate him along 
with oblations; — 'May the oblations render 
successful my wishes! bhu^! svaha!' — having 
thus consecrated him by means of those deities from 
first to last, he thus, by means of oblations, renders 
all his wishes successful. Having then solicited 
an invitation from the officiating priests, he (the 
Sacrificer) drinks 1 (the remains of the cup of vasa), 
for the officiating priests are the seasons : it is thus 
in the seasons that he solicits an invitation. 

31. He drinks it, with (Va^. S. XX, 13), ' My hair 
is endeavour 2 , my skin submission and ap- 
proach 8 , my flesh inclination, my bone wealth, 
and my marrow submission,' — for he who is con- 
secrated by the Sautrama«i enters the worlds and 
among the deities; he now has himself invited 
amongst them *, and thus he arises (in the other world) 
complete, with a whole body, and with (all) limbs. 

Ninth AdhyAya. First Brahmajva. 
1. Verily, from this sacrifice the man* is born; 

1 According to Kity. XIX, 5, 9, the priests themselves first smell 
the remainder of the fat gravy, with the text (XX, 34), 'The protector 
of my breath thou art,' &c. Cf. also XIV, 2, 2, 42, with note. 

* The use of ' prayati' in this sense (here and V&g. S. XVIII, 1) 
is peculiar ; being apparently derived from ' pra-yam,' one would 
expect it to have some such meaning as ' offer, gift.' This and 
the other predicates, according to Mahidhara, are to show the state 
of feeling of beings towards the (royal) Sacrificer. The repetition 
of 'anati' (bowing, prostration, submission) is strange. A strong 
alliterative cadence is noticeable in the verse. 

* ? Hardly ' return ' here ; rather, perhaps, ' attaining to (the 
other worlds),' or, possibly, ' the turning to him, gathering round 
him (of the people).' 

4 ? Or, he now calls these to himself in the meantime. 
' That is, the Furusba, Agni-Prag-apati ; and the Sacrificer. 

82 



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260 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

and whatever food a man consumes in this world, 
that (food), in return, consumes him in yonder 
world. Now this sacrifice is performed by means 
of spirituous liquor, and spirituous liquor (parisrut) 
is not to be consumed by a Brahma»a : he thus is 
born from that which is not (to be) consumed, and 
the food does not, in return, consume him in yonder 
world. Therefore this (sacrifice), the Sautrama»t, 
is a Brahmawa's sacrifice 1 . 

2. The malted rice is the same as his (the man's) 
hair, the malted barley his skin, the fried rice his 
flesh, the filtering-cloth his bones, the mash his mar- 
row, the raw liquor (parisrut) his life-sap (serum), 
the seasoning (and fermentative substances) his 
blood, the milk his seed, the mature liquor (sura) 
his urine, and the impure matter the contents of 
the stomach. 

3. Indra's cake is his heart, that of Savitro his 
liver, that of Varuwa his lung, the arvattha and 
udumbara vessels his kidneys, the nyagrodha one 
his bile, the pan (sthali) his intestines *, the super- 
numerary (vessels) his bowels 2 , the two eagle 
feathers 3 the milt, the throne-seat his navel, the 
pot his rectum, the (pan) perforated with a hundred 
holes, the male organ, — and inasmuch as that (pan) 
is much perforated, therefore that organ is much 
divided, — the bowl (sata) is his mouth, the strainer 

1 That is, because to a man of another caste the spirituous 
liquor would not be 'anSdyi,' but consumable, and hence it 
would consume him in the other world. 

* The two terms 'intrim' and ' gad&A' are usually taken as 
synonymous ; the latter term probably means the lower or larger 
intestines ; cf. V&g. S. XIX, 86. 

* See XII, 7, 3, 22. 



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XII KkNDA., 9 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAYA, 8. 26 1 

his tongue, the dish (^apya) his anus, the tail (whisk) 
his bladder. 

4. And the sacrificial animal of the A^vins is his 
limbs, that of Sarasvati his trunk, Indra's bull 
his form, — whence they say that man's form (wealth) 
is kine, — the gold (plate) is his vital strength ; it is 
of the weight of a hundred (grains), whence man has 
a life of a hundred (years). 

5. The two cups of the Asvins are his eyes, and 
the ground wheat and kuvala (jujubes) his eye- 
lashes; the two cups of Sarasvati are his nostrils, 
and the ground Indra-grain and badara (jujubes) 
the hair in his nostrils ; the two cups of Indra are 
his ears, and the ground barley and karkandhu 
(jujubes) the hair of his ears and his eyebrows. 

6. And the hairs of wolf are the hair on his abdo- 
men and that below ; and the hairs of tiger are the 
hair on his chest and that of his armpits ; and the 
hairs of lion are the hair of his head and his beard. 

7. There are three sacrificial animals, for this 
body of man consists of three parts : it is the body 
he thereby wins (in heaven) for him ; — what is below 
the navel (he wins) by that of the A$vins,what is above 
the navel and below the head by that of Sarasvati, 
and the head itself by that of Indra: both as to 
its (bodily) form and as to its deities he thus delivers 
his own self from death, and makes it immortal. 

8. There are three sacrificial cakes, for this life 
ot man consists of three parts : it is life he thereby 
wins for him ; — the early life (he wins) by that 
of Indra, the middle (part of) life by that of Savitrt, 
and the last (part of) life by that of Varu»a : both 
as to its (bodily) form and as to its deities he thus 
delivers his life from death, and makes it immortal. 



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262 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

9. There are six cups (of milk and liquor), for 
there are these six (channels of) vital airs in the 
head : it is the vital airs he thereby wins for him ; — 
his eyes (he wins) by the two (cups) of the A^vins, 
his nostrils by those of Sarasvat!, and his ears by 
those of Indra : both as to its (bodily) form and as 
to its deities he thus delivers his own self from 
death, and makes it immortal. 

10. The invitatory and offering-formulas are 
made continuous \ and relate to the same deities — 
for the continuity and uninterruptedness of the 
vital airs. They are all of them invitatory formulas 
and all offering-formulas, whence all the vital airs 
pass onwards and all of them backwards. All (the 
formulas) are first, all of them intermediate, and 
all of them last, whence all the vital airs are first, 
all of them intermediate, and all of them last All 
the cups have two (formulas, an) invitatory and (an) 
offering-formula, — this is of the form of the in (and 
out)-breathing and the up-breathing: it is the in- 
breathing and the up-breathing he thus secures for 
himself, and therefore all the vital airs are established 
on the in-breathing and the up-breathing. 

1 1. Verily the Sautrama»l is this body (of man) : 
the Sacrificer is the mind, (that is) speech manifestly; 
the vedi (altar-ground) is the trunk, the uttara-vedi 
(high-altar) offspring, the barhis (grass-covering) 
cattle, the officiating priests the limbs, the fuel the 
bones, the ghee the marrow, the fire the mouth, 
the oblation is food, and the concluding rite is 
life, whence he who has performed the Sautramawt 
attains life. 

1 See p. 244, note 1. 



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xii kXnda, 9 adhyAya, i brahmawa, i 6. 263 

1 2. And, verily, these two men that seem to be 
in the eyes, they belong to the A^vins, and the 
black (in the eye) belongs to Sarasvatl, and the 
white to Indra ; and in that, when the victim of the 
A^vins is being (offered), he makes offering to these 
deities in common, thereby he puts those (parts of 
the body) together and takes them to himself. 

13. Indra, assuredly, is the mind, Sarasvatl speech, 
and the two Asvins are the ears. Now, whatever 
one thinks in his mind of that he speaks with his 
speech, and what he speaks with his speech that 
one hears with one's ears : thus, in that, when the 
victim of Sarasvatl is being (offered), he makes 
offering to these deities together, thereby he puts 
these (parts of the body) together and takes them 
to himself. 

14. Indra, assuredly, is the breath, Sarasvatl the 
tongue, and the two A^vins the nostrils ; and inas- 
much as through (the channel of) the breath (pra«a) 
one introduces (pra-»l) food into himself that is the 
reason of its being (called) ' pra»a.' By means of 
the tongue one distinguishes the essence (taste) of 
food, and the nostrils, indeed, are the path of the 
breath ; and in that, when the victim of Indra is 
being (offered), he makes offering to these deities 
in common, thereby he puts those (parts of the 
body) together and takes them to himself. 

15. Indra, assuredly, is the heart, Savitr? the 
liver, and Varu»a the lung; and in that, when 
Indra's cake is being (offered), he makes offering 
to these deities in common, thereby he puts those 
(parts of the body) together and takes them to 
himself. 

16. Savitr?, assuredly, is the breath, Varu«a the 



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264 satapatha-brAhmajta. 

through-breathing, and Indra the generative organ ; 
and whatever food one eats by means of (the 
channel of) the breath through that he breathes 
with his through-breathing, and by means of the 
generative organ he sheds the essence of food as 
seed ; and in that, when Savitrfs cake is being 
(offered), he makes offering to these deities in 
common, thereby he puts those (parts of the body) 
together and takes them to himself. 

17. Varuwa, assuredly, is the womb, Indra the 
seed, and Savitr i the generator of the seed ; and in 
that, when Varu«a's cake is being (offered), he makes 
offering to these deities in common, thereby he 
puts those (parts of the body) together and takes 
them to himself. And whosoever thus knows this 
comes into being along with these deities, and is 
born again (so as to be) along with these deities ; 
he increases in offspring and cattle ; he becomes 
firmly established in this world, and wins the 
heavenly world, whosoever, knowing this, performs 
the Sautramawt, or whosoever thus knows this. 

Second Brahmajva. 

1. Having performed the sacrifice they betake 
themselves to the purificatory bath; for after a 
Soma-sacrifice they do betake themselves to the 
purificatory bath, and the Sautrama«l is the same 
as the Soma (sacrifice). 

2. [He plunges the mash-pot into the water, 
with Vdf. S. XX, 14-18 \] ' Whatever contumely 



1 Of the first three verses the text quotes only the first p&da, the 
rest having been supplied in the translation. 



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XH kAa'DA, 9 ADHYAyA, 2 BRAHMAJVA, 4. 265 

against the gods, O divine gods, we have com- 
mitted, from that sin may Agni deliver me; 
may he deliver me from all trouble!' — he 
thereby delivers him from the sin committed against 
the gods. — 'Whether by day, whether by night 
we have committed sins, from that sin may 
Vayu deliver me; may he deliver me from all 
trouble!' — he thereby delivers him from whatever 
sin he commits by day and night. — 'Whether 
waking, whether in sleep we have committed 
sins, from that sin may Surya deliver me; 
may he deliver me from all trouble!' — what is 
awake is men, and what is asleep is the Fathers : 
he thus delivers him from guilt against men and 
Fathers. 

3. 'Whatever sin we have committed in the 
village, in the forest' — for either in the village or 
in the forest sin is committed : therefrom he delivers 
him; — 'whatever in the assembly' — from the sin 
of the assembly he thereby delivers him ; — ' what- 
ever in our organs of sense' — from the sin 
against the gods he thereby delivers him ; — ' what- 
ever against the .Sudra or the Arya, what- 
ever against the right of any one, thereof thou 
art the expiation,' — from all that sin he thereby 
delivers him. 

4. 'That we swear by the Inviolable Waters 1 , 
by Varu#a, therefrom deliver us, O Varu»a!' 
— he thereby delivers him from sin against Varu#a. — 
[He then immerses the pot, with Va^. S. XII, 18; 



1 Cf. Ill, 8, 5, 10, where the text varies slightly — ' That they 
say, we swear by the Inviolable (cows, or waters), by Vanwa, 
therefrom deliver us, O Varuwa 1 ' 



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266 satapatha-brAhmaiva. 

19,] ' O laving bath, laving thou glidest along,' 
— the bath, indeed, is that whirlpool (now produced) 
in the water, and that indeed is either Varu«a's son 
or brother: it is him he thereby praises; — 'with 
the help of the gods have I expiated 1 the sin 
committed against gods,' — he thereby expiates 
the sin committed against gods; — 'with the help 
of mortals that committed against mortals,' — 
he thereby expiates the sin committed against 
mortals; — 'preserve me, O God, from injury 
from the fiercely-howling (demon)! ' whereby he 
means Jo say, ' Protect me against all inflictions ! ' 

5. 'In the ocean, in the waters, is thy heart,' — 
for the ocean is the waters, and water is sap : with 
that sap he thus supplies him ; — 'may the plants 
and waters unite with thee ! ' — he thereby supplies 
him with both kinds of sap, that which is in plants, 
and that which is in water. — He goes two steps 
northward from out (of the water) ; for as much as 
the step is the briskness in man : with what briskness 
there is in him he thus leaves evil behind him. 

6. With, ' May the waters and plants be 
friendly unto us!' he takes water in his joined 
hands; for water is a thunderbolt: he thus makes 
a covenant with the thunderbolt ; — and with, ' M ay 
they be unfriendly unto him who hateth us, 
and whom we hate ! ' let him sprinkle it in what- 
ever direction he who is hateful to him may be, 
and he thereby discomfits him. 

7. With iyig. S. XX, 20), 'As one set free (is 
liberated) from the stake, as he who sweateth 

1 Cf. II, 5, 2, 47; IV, 4, 5, 22, where the formula has 'ava 
aySsisham' (correct, — 'with the help of the gods have I wiped 
oat the sin committed against the gods ') instead of ' ava yakshi.' 



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XII K&NDA, 9 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAtfA, IO. 267 

(is cleansed) from filth by bathing, as the ghee 
is purified by the strainer, so may the waters 
cleanse me from sinl' he causes his garment to 
float away: even as one would pluck out a reed 
from its sheath, so he plucks him from out all evil. 
He bathes, and (thereby) drives the darkness (of sin) 
from himself. 

8. [He comes out ', with Vif. S. XX, 21,] ' From 
out of the gloom have we risen,' — gloom is evil: 
it is gloom, evil, he thus keeps away; — 'beholding 
the higher light 2 ,' — this (terrestrial) world is higher 
than the water: it is on this world he thus estab- 
lishes himself; — 'God Surya, with the gods, the 
highest light,' — Surya, the highest light (^yotis), is 
the heavenly world : it is in the heavenly world he thus 
finally establishes himself. He walks along without 
looking back, and approaches the Ahavantya, — 

9. With (V4/-. S. XX, 22), 'Along the waters 
have I gone this day,' — the essence of the waters 
he thereby secures for himself; — 'with their 
essence have we united,' — the essence of the 
waters he thus takes to himself; — 'rich in sap, 
O Agni, have I come : do thou unite (supply) 
me with splendour, with offspring, and with 
wealth !' he thereby invokes a blessing. 

10. With(Va£-. S. XX, 23), 'A kindler thou art: 

1 Having put on fresh garments, the Sacrificer and his wife are 
led out by the Unnetr*', the mantra being muttered at the same 
time; and they then return with the priests to the offering- 
ground, whilst the AmatrfyS-hymn (on J?»g-veda S. VIII, 48, 3, ' we 
have drunk Soma . . . ') is sung : see part ii, p. 385, note 2 ; K&ty. 
Sraut. X, 9, 7. 

a Mahfdhara takes ' svar ' in the sense of ' svarga,' heaven ; 
whilst the Brahmawa seems rather to take it as referring to the 
earth or dry land on which the Sacrificer now steps. 



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268 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

may we prosper 1 !' he takes a kindling-stick, for 
a kindler of Agni (the fire) the kindling-stick indeed 
is. With, 'Enkindling thou art, fire thou art: 
lay thou fire into me! ' he puts the kindling-stick 
on the Ahavanlya : he thereby kindles the fire, and, 
thus kindled, it kindles him with fire (energy) *. 

ii. Being about to offer a pap to Aditi 8 , he pre- 
pares it : Aditi being this (earth), he who offers 
Aditi's (pap) performs the sacrifice on this (earth), 
and by offering firmly establishes himself thereon. 
The sacrificial fee is a milch cow (with calf) : the 
milch cow being this (earth), he milks out from 
the latter all his desires. The calf he gives away at 
the former (pap-offering to Aditi *), and the mother- 
cow at the latter ; for when a calf sucks the mother- 
cow, the latter gives milk when she is given away, 
and from her, when given away, he thus milks all 
his desires. 

12. As to this they say, 'Surely, he who goes 
down to the water for the purificatory bath falls 
away from this world ! ' Well, when he has come 
out from the bath, he offers a dish of curds to Mitra 
and Varu»a ; now Mitra is this (terrestrial) world, 



1 The text of the formula 'edho*sy edhishfmahi ' is evidently 
meant to suggest a connection (real or alliterative) between ' edha ' 
(root ' indh ') and the final verb (root ' edh '). 

* According to Katy. XIX, 5, 20, and Mahfdhara, he now offers 
on the kindling-stick an oblation of ghee, with the text, V&g. S. 
XX, 23, ' Hither come the earth, the dawn, the sun, and all this 
world.' 

* See p. 213, note 2. 

* This offering takes place at the beginning of the performance 
of the Sautramawf, cf. Katy. Sr. XIX, 1, 5-10. The dish of curds 
which according to this paragraph is to follow the second pap to 
Aditi, may, according to Katyayana, be offered before it. 



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XII K&NDA, 9 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAhMAJVA, 5. 269 

Varu#a yonder world, and the dish of curds is what 
there is here between (those two) : thus, when he 
offers the dish of curds to Mitra and Varu«a, he 
establishes himself in these worlds. And Mitra, 
indeed, is the in-breathing, Varu»a the off-breathing, 
and the dish of curds the food : thus when he offers 
the dish of curds to Mitra and Varu»a, he finally 
establishes himself in the vital air, in food. 

Third BrAhmajva. 

1. Now, Dush/arltu Pauwsayana had been ex- 
pelled from the kingdom which had come down to him 
through ten generations ; and the Sring~a.ya.s also 
expelled Revottaras Pa/ava A'akra Sthapati. 

2. He said to Dush/aritu Pauwsayana, ' I will 
perform the Sautramawi for thee, and will confer 
upon thee that dominion over the Srzw^ayas.' — ' So 
be it ! ' he replied. So he performed it for him. 

3. Now Balhika Pratiplya, the Kauravya king, 
heard (people say) this — ' There is that Dush/aritu 
Pauwsiyana who has been expelled from the king- 
dom which has come down to him through ten 
generations : for him that A'akra Sthapati wants 
to perform the Sautramawl and to confer upon him 
the dominion over the Sr«#£ayas.' 

4. He said, ' I will just tell him that if he wants 
to confer dominion upon him, he will indeed ex- 
clude him from dominion.' He came to him at 
that particular time (of the sacrifice) when the cups 
(of milk and liquor) are drawn. 

5. He said, ' Sthapati A'akra, they say, Sura-liquor 
must not be offered in the Ahavanlya-fire, nor any- 
where else than in the Ahavanlya : if thou offerest 



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27O tfATAPATHA-BRAHMAyA. 

Surd-liquor in the Ahavanlya thou wilt cause social 
confusion and a repetition in the sacrifice \ and if any- 
where else than in the Ahavaniya thou wilt exclude 
him (the king) from dominion, and wilt neither place 
him in dominion, nor confer dominion upon him.' 

6. He replied, 'I shall not offer Sura-liquor in the 
Ahavanlya nor anywhere else than in the Ahavanlya : 
thus I shall not cause social confusion nor a repeti- 
tion in the sacrifice, and shall not exclude him from 
dominion ; I shall place him in dominion, and shall 
confer dominion upon him.' 

7. He said, 'How, then, wilt thou do it?' He 
then told him this: — At first, indeed, that Yaf»a 
(sacrifice, m.), the Sautrama«t, was with the Asuras. 
He went forth towards the gods. He came to the 
waters, and the waters welcomed him, whence 
people welcome a better man when he comes 
to them. They said to him, ' We pray thee, come, 
reverend sir ! ' 

8. He said, ' Nay, I am afraid : lead ye me 
forward!' — 'Whereof art thou afraid, reverend 
sir ? ' they asked. — ' Of the Asuras,' he said. — 
' Be it, then ! ' they said. The waters led him for- 
ward, whence he who is the protector leads forward 
him who is afraid ; and inasmuch as the waters led 
him forward (pra-»l) therefore the waters (them- 
selves) are 'led forward:' this is the reason why 
they are (called) Pra»ltaA 2 ; and, verily, firmly 
established is he who thus knows that nature of 
the PrawltaA. 

1 Probably inasmuch as the cups of milk are offered there pre- 
viously. 

1 For this jarful of consecrated water, used at the sacrifice, see 
part i, pp. 9, note ; 265. 



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XII KA\YDA, 9 ADHYAYA, 3 BrAhMAYA, 12. 27I 

9. Now, the fore-offerings had been performed, 
but the fire had not been carried round 1 (the 
oblations), when the Asuras came after him. By 
means of the circumambient fire the gods shut 
out their hostile rivals, the Asuras, from Yagna. 
(the sacrifice) ; and in like manner does this one 
now, by means of the circumambient fire, shut out 
his spiteful enemy from the sacrifice. 

10. Verily, that Ahavanlya is the womb (seat) 
of the gods, and those two fires 2 on either side 
thereof are its immortal wings: thus, when they 
perform the sacrifice on the Ahavantya, they indeed 
perform the sacrifice for the gods in the womb of 
the gods ; and, verily, the continued sacrifice inclines 
to him, and the sacrifice is not cut off from him who 
thus knows this, or for whom, knowing this, this 
sacrificial rite is performed. 

11. On the northern fire they offer (libations 
from) the cups of milk, on the northern fire they 
cook the sacrificial animals : the sacrificial animals, 
whilst being mortal, he thus places in the immortal 
womb, and them that are mortal he causes to be 
born (again) from out of the immortal womb ; and, 
verily, whosoever thus knows this, or he for whom, 
knowing this, this sacrificial rite is performed, wards 
off the recurring death of his cattle, and the sacrifice 
is not cut off from him. 

12. On the southern fire they offer (libations 
from) the cups of Sura-liquor, near the southern fire 

1 On the ceremony called ' paryagnikarawam,' see part i, p. 145, 
note; part ii, p. 187, note. 

1 See p. 235, note 1. Properly speaking, the two fires of the 
two special Vedis are in front (or, rather, north-east and south-east) 
of the Ahavantya. 



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272 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

they purify (the liquor) with triple strainers: the 
Fathers, whilst being mortal, he thus places in 
the immortal womb, and them that are mortal he 
causes to be born (again) from out of the immortal 
womb; and, verily, whosoever thus knows this, or 
he for whom, knowing this, this sacrificial rite is per- 
formed, wards off the recurring death of the Fathers, 
and the sacrifice is not cut off from him. 

13. Now, inasmuch as these two fires are taken 
from the Ahavaniya, they are Ahavanlyas (offering- 
fires), and inasmuch as they do not again reach the 
Ahavaniya, they are not Ahavanlyas : he thereby 
obtains both k*inds of oblations, that which is 
(offered) on the Ahavanlya. and that which is 
(offered) on what is not an Ahavantya — both what 
is offered and what is not offered. 

He (Balhika Pratiptya) then went home, and 
said, ' It is not so (as we had thought) : that king- 
dom of the Sring'aya.s now belongs to Dush/a- 
rltu; — in such and such a manner has that A"akra 
Sthapati this day performed at the sacrifice.' 

14. On the northern fire they thus perform the 
rites of the sacrificial animals, the (animal) cakes, 
and the cups of milk, and what other (rite) there 
is : it is the gods, in the world of the gods, he 
thereby gratifies, and, thus gratified, they gratify 
him, and he wins the world of the gods. 

15. In the southern fire they offer (libations from) 
the cups of Sura-liquor, near the southern fire they 
purify (the liquor) with triple strainers : it is the 
Fathers, in the world of the Fathers, he thereby 
gratifies, and, thus gratified, they gratify him, and 
he wins the world of the Fathers. 

16. Verily, the Sautr£ma«l is the same as the 



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xii kAjvba, 9 adhyAya, 3 brAhma^a, 16. 273 

body, whence it is (clearly) defined, for defined is 
the body. And (Indra) Vayodhas (the bestower 
of strength) is the world, whence he is undefined ', 
for undefined is the world. The Sautramawi is the 
body (trunk), and the Aindra (victim) and (the one 
to) Vayodhas * are the two arms ; and inasmuch as 
there are those two animal offerings on both sides 
(of the Sautramawl), therefore these two arms are 
on both sides of the body. And as the sacrificial 
animal, so the sacrificial stake ; and inasmuch as 
there are those two stakes on both sides of the 
stake of the Sautramawl (bull of Indra), therefore 
these two arms are on both sides of the body 8 . 

1 The term 'vayodhas' is said to be undefined inasmuch 
as, though it is meant to apply to Indra, the name of this 
god is not mentioned along with it in the formulas. 

' During the performance of the Sautramani proper (on the 
fourth day) three victims are immolated, a he-goat to the Ajvins, 
a ram to Sarasvati, and another bull to Indra. But at the 
beginning of the whole performance — either before or after the 
first pap to Aditi (cf. XII, 9, 2, 11) — a bull is sacrificed to Indra ; 
and at the end — after the second pap to Aditi and the dish of curds 
to Mitra and Varuwa (see p. 252, note 4)— another animal sacrifice 
is performed to Indra Vayodhas. The sacrificial stakes for the first 
and last of the three victims sacred to Indra, are to be placed 
north and south of that of Indra's second bull, the one sacrificed as 
part of the Sautramant proper. 

' The object of identifying different ceremonial acts and features 
with certain parts of the body is of course to impress upon the 
mind of the Sacrificer the efficacy of the Sautramant in securing 
to him a new, complete body for the other life. 



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274 satapatha-brAhmajva. 



THIRTEENTH KANDA. 



THE ASVAMEDHA, or HORSE-SACRIFICE. 



PRELIMINARY CEREMONIES 1 . 

First AdhyAya. First Brahmaya. 

i. He (the Adhvaryu) cooks the priests' mess of 
rice*: it is seed he thereby produces. Having 
greased a rope with the ghee which is left over 3 , 
he takes it ; for ghee is (a type of) fiery spirit, and 
the horse is sacred to Pra^apati * : he thus endows 
Pra^apati with fiery spirit. Impure, and unfit for 
sacrifice, indeed, is that (animal), to wit, the horse. 

2. The rope consists of darbha grass (poa cyno- 
suroides) ; — for darbha stalks 6 are a means of puri- 
fication : he thus purifies that (horse), and immolates 
it as one purified and meet for sacrifice. 

3. Now, when the horse* was immolated, its 



1 The ceremonies treated of in the first six chapters (brahmaoas) 
refer to the setting apart of the horse for its sacred office, a year 
before the sacrifice, and to the intervening period during which 
the horse is allowed to roam about, though under careful super* 
vision. 

* For further particulars regarding this opening ceremony of 
the sacrifice see XIII, 4, 1, 1 seqq. 

* Viz. from the ghee used for greasing the four dishes of 
cooked rice. 

* Or, the horse is of the nature of Pra^ipati. 

* See above, p. 195, note 1. 

' That is, as would seem, Pra^apati in the form of a horse, 
see part iv, introd., p. xiv seqq. 



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xin kXnda, i adhyAya, i brAhmajva, 4. 275 

seed went from it and became gold ! : thus, when 
he gives gold (to the priests) he supplies the horse 
with seed. 

4. Pra^apati produced the sacrifice*. His great- 
ness departed from him, and entered the great 
sacrificial priests s . Together with the great priests 
he went in search of it, and together with the great 
priests he found it : when the great priests eat the 
priests' mess of rice, the Sacrificer thereby secures 
for himself the greatness of the sacrifice. Along 
with the priests' mess of rice he presents gold (to 
the priests) ; for the mess of rice is seed, and gold 
is seed : by means of seed he thus lays seed into 
that (horse, and Sacrificer). It (the gold 4 ) weighs 
a hundred (grains) ; for man has a life of a hundred 
(years), and a hundred energies: it is life, and 
energy, vigour, he lays into his own self. At midday 
he takes Vasatlvarl 6 water of four kinds; it is 
brought together from the (four) quarters, for food 
is in (all) the (four) quarters, and water is food : by 
means of food he thus secures food for him. 



1 Pra^apati is Agni, and gold is Agni's seed, cf. II, 1, 1, 5 ; III, 

3. 1. 3 &c- 

* That is, the Axvamedha sacrifice, and thus the immolation (or 
emptying out) of his own self, so to speak. 

* That is, the four principal officiating priests, Brahman, Hotr/, 
Adhvaryu, and Udgatn. Cf. VIII, 4, 3, 1 seqq, where it is the vital 
airs that, in their capacity as /?i'shis, assist Pra^apati in the first 
sacrifice. 

* That is to say, each piece of gold weighs as much. According 
to Katy. XX, i, 6 he is to give to the priests 4000 cows and as many 
.Satamana coins. 

* For this water used for the Soma-sacrifice where, however, 
it is taken from a cistern, or some course of flowing water, see 
part ii, p. 222 seqq. 

T 2 



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276 satapatha-brahmajva. 

Second Brahmajva. 

1. Now, unsuccessful in the sacrifice, assuredly, is 
what is performed without a formula. (With Va^-. S. 
XXII, 2,) 'This rope did they take, at the 
first age of the truth, [the sages, at the rites: 
it hath been with us at this Soma-sacrifice, 
declaring the course in the gaining of the 
truth],' he takes the halter of the horse in order to 
supply a formula for the success of the sacrifice. It 
(the rope) is twelve cubits long, — twelve months 
make a year : it is the year, the sacrifice ', he 
secures. 

2. Concerning this they say, ' Is the rope to be 
made twelve cubits long, or thirteen cubits long ? ' 
Well, that year is the bull among the seasons, and 
the thirteenth (or intercalary) month is an excres- 
cence of the year ; and this A-rvamedha is the bull 
among sacrifices ; and inasmuch as the bull has an 
excrescence (hump), one may add on a thirteenth 
cubit to the rope as an excrescence to this 
(Aivamedha) : even as the bull's hump is attached 2 
(to his back), suchlike would this be. 

3. [He puts the halter on the horse, with Va^. 
S. XXII, 3, 4,] 'Encompassing 3 thou art,' — 

' Or, possibly, it is for the space of a year that he secures the 
sacrifice, but see part iv, introduction, p. xxiii. 

* Lit., spread out. 

* Some such meaning as this (or perhaps ' encompassed, en- 
circled ') seems to be assigned by the author to ' abhidhaA,' with 
evident reference to ' abhidhSnt,' ' halter,' from ' abhi-dhi,' ' to fasten, 
enclose.' The St. Petersburg Diet, on the other hand, takes it 
in the sense of ' naming, denoting ' (? inasmuch as the horse gives 
the name to the horse-sacrifice); whilst Mahtdhara explains it 
by ' that which is named or praised.' 



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XIII KAiVDA, I ADHYAYA, 2 BRAhMAJVA, 4. 277 

therefore the offerer of the Aivamedha conquers 
all the quarters 1 ; — 'the world thou art,' — the 
world he thus conquers; — 'a ruler thou art, an 
upholder,' — he thus makes him a ruler and up- 
holder; — 'go thou unto Agni Vaisvanara,' — 
he thus makes him go to Agni Vaisvanara (the 
friend of all men); — ' of wide extent,' — he thus 
causes him to extend in offspring and cattle ; — 
'consecrated by Svaha (hail!),' — this is the 
Vasha/-call* for it; — 'good speed (to) thee for 
the gods ! ' — he thus makes it of good speed for 
the gods; — 'for Pra^apati,' — the horse is sacred 
to Pra/apati: he thus supplies 8 it with his own 
deity. 

4. But, verily, he who fetters the horse without 
announcing it to the Brahman and the gods is liable 
to incur injury. He addresses the Brahman (the 
superintending priest) by saying, ' O Brahman, I will 
fetter the horse for the gods, for Pra,fapati: may 
I prosper therewith! ' and having made the announce- 

1 In epic times the Ajvamedha is commonly performed by kings 
who have been successful in the 'digvjguya,' or conquest in all 
quarters. 

1 'Vasha/' is the sacrificial call uttered by the Hotn'at the end 
of the 'y&gySi' or offering-verse of a regular oblation (ahuti) as 
distinguished from minor libations, such as nomas and agharas, 
which require no * yajya/ and for which the sacrificial call— marking 
the pouring out of the libation into the fire — is ' svaha 1' The 
meaning of 'vasha/' is doubtful; but it would seem to be con- 
nected either with the root 'vaksh,' to grow, to wax, or with 
' vah,' to bear ; and would thus mean either ' may it prosper ! ' or 
' may he (Agni) bear it (to the gods) ! ' By the mention of the 
Svaha in our formula the horse is, as it were, marked as dedicated 
to the gods. 

8 Or, perhaps, he causes it to succeed by means, or with the 
help, of its own deity. 



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278 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

ment to the Brahman, he ties up the horse, and 
thus incurs no injury. ' Fetter it for the gods, 
for Pra^apati : prosper thou therewith ! ' thus the 
Brahman urges him, and supplies it (the horse) 
with its own deity. He then sprinkles it (with 
water) : the (symbolic) meaning of this is the same 
as before \ 

5. He sprinkles 2 it, with (Va^. S. XXII, 5), 
'I sprinkle thee (so as to be) acceptable to 
Pra^apati,' — for Pra^apati is the most vigorous 
of the gods : it is vigour he bestows on it, whence 
the horse is the most vigorous of animals. 

6. ' I sprinkle thee, acceptable to Indra and 
Agni,' — for Indra and Agni are the most powerful 
of the gods : it is power he bestows on it, whence 
the horse is the most powerful of animals. 

7. 'I sprinkle thee, acceptable to Vayu,' — 
for Vayu is the swiftest of gods : it is speed he 
bestows on it, whence the horse is the swiftest 
of animals. 

8. 'I sprinkle thee, acceptable to the All- 
gods,' — for the All-gods are the most famous of 
gods : it is fame he bestows on it, whence the horse 
is the most famous of animals. — ' I sprinkle thee, 
acceptable to all the gods.' 

9. Concerning this they say, 'Seeing that the 
horse is sacred to Pra^apati, wherefore (does he 
say), " I sprinkle thee " for other deities also ? ' Well, 
all the gods are concerned in the horse-sacrifice; 

1 For the sprinkling of (the material for) oblations see I, 1, 3, 6 
seq. ; and an animal victim in particular, HI, 7, 4, 3. 

* According to Katy. XX, 1, 37, he goes with the horse to 
stagnant water, and there sprinkles it. It would seem that the 
horse stands in the water during this ceremony. 



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xiii kKnda, i adhyAya, 2 brAhmawa, 9. 279 

when he says, ' I sprinkle thee for all the gods/ 
he makes all the gods take a concern in the horse- 
sacrifice ; whence all the gods are concerned in the 
horse-sacrifice. But his wicked enemy seeks to lay 
hold of him who performs the horse-sacrifice, and 
the horse is a thunderbolt ; — having killed the four- 
eyed dog, he — with 'Undone 1 is the man! 
undone is the dog!' — plunges' it under the 
horse's feet: it is by means of the thunderbolt 



1 Mahtdhara explains 'para/5' by 'par&bhutaA, adhaspadaw 
nttaA,' i.e. defeated, laid low. Perhaps it may mean, 'Away is 
the man, away the dog ! ' As given in the Va^. Sa»»h., this is only 
the last part of the formula, pronounced by the Sacrificer ; whilst 
during the killing of the dog, he is made to say, 'Whosoever 
seeketh to slay the steed, him Varu»a besetteth.' — Accord- 
ing to K&ty. XX, 1, 38 seqq., the priest says to an Ayogava (the 
offspring of a Sudra father and a VairyS. mother)— or, to a lewd 
man, according to others — 'Kill the four-eyed dog!' whereupon 
the man kills a dog by means of a club of Sidhraka wood ; and 
(the priest?), by means of a rattan hoop (?or mat, ka/a, comm. 
ka/aka), makes the dead dog float beneath the horse. According 
to the comment, on Kity. XX, 1, 38, in case a four-eyed dog — 
i. e. a (two-faced) one ' yasya dve mukhe ' and hence looking in 
the four (intermediate) directions (vidix), S&y. — is not available (I), 
a dog with marks about the eyes should be used. The mention 
of the ' four-footed ' dog in the formula is, however, doubtless 
meant merely symbolically, as representing evil threatening the 
Sacrificer from every quarter. 

' Harisv&min seems to connect this with the sprinkling of the 
horse itself— prokshawaw mna upapl&vanam uiyate — perhaps 
in the sense that the water flowing down from the sprinkled horse 
would soak the dog, in which case the horse would apparently 
be supposed to stand on the dry ground. See, however, comm. 
on Kity. XX, 2, 2, 'Svinam ajvasyidha^pradwe ^alamadhye 
pldvayati tirayati.' The ' offerings of drops ' to be performed 
immediately after this ceremony might seem to be offered 
with reference to the drops of water flowing from the horse, and as 
it were falling outside the sacrifice ; but see paragraph 5. 



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280 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

he thus stamps him down ; and the wicked enemy 
does not lay hold of him. 

Third Brahmana. 

i. Even as some of the havis (offering-material) 
may be spilled before it is offered, so also (part) 
of the victim is here spilled in that they let loose 
the sprinkled (horse) before it is slain. When he 
offers the Stoklyas (oblations of drops), he offers 
that (horse) as a complete offering ' — so as to make 
good any spilling 2 ; for unspilled is any (part) of 
the offered (material) that is spilled. A thousand 
(oblations of drops) he offers for the obtainment 
of the heavenly world, for the heavenly world is 
equal in extent to a thousand. 

2. Concerning this they say, 'Were he to offer 
measured (a specified number of oblations), he 
would gain for himself something limited : ' he 
offers unspecified (oblations) for the obtainment 
of the unlimited. And indeed Pra^apati spake, 
'Verily, upon the oblations of drops I establish 
the Ajvamedha, and by it, when established, I pass 
upward from hence.' 

3. [He offers, with Vdf. S. XXII, 6,] ' To Agni, 
hail!' — to Agni he thus offers it (the horse 8 ); — 
' to Soma, hail ! ' — to Soma he thus offers it ; — 'to 
the joy of the waters, hail!' — to the waters 
he thus offers it; — 'to Savitri, hail!' — to Savitr* 

1 Cf. I, 1, 4, 3; 3, 3, 16 seqq.; IV, 2, 5, 1 seqq. 

* Lit., for non-spilling, i. e. to neutralise any spilling that may 
have taken place. 

5 Harisvamin seems rather to lay the stress on the direct 
object : — agnaye param ev&rvam jiihoti na kevalam a^yam. The 
context, however, does not admit of this interpretation. 



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xni kAjvda, i adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, 5. 281 

he thus offers it; — 'to Vayu, hail!'— to Vayu (the 
wind) he thus offers it; — 'to Vish«u, hail!' — to 
Vishmi he thus offers it; — 'to Indra, hail!' — 
to Indra he thus offers it; — 'to Br/haspati, hail!' 
— to BWhaspati he thus offers it; — 'to Mitra, 
hail!' — to Mitra he thus offers it; — 'to Varu»a, 
hail!' — to Varu«a he thus offers it: — so many, 
doubtless, are all the gods : it is to them he offers 
it. He offers them straight away 1 for the obtain- 
ment of the heavenly world, for straight away, as it 
were, is the heavenly world. 

4. But, verily, he who offers the oblations straight 
away, would be liable to fall (pass) right away 2 : 
he turns back again 3 , and establishes himself in 
this (terrestrial) world. And this* indeed he 
(Pra^apati) has declared to be the perfection of 
the sacrifice, so as to prevent falling away (spilling), 
for unspilled is what is spilled of the offered 
(material). 

5. And even as some of the offering-material may 
be spilled before it is offered, so also (part) of the 

1 According to Kity. XX, 2, 3-5, he offers either a thousand 
oblations, or as many as he can offer till the dripping of the water 
from the horse has ceased. For every ten oblations he uses the 
formulas here given, after which he begins again from the beginning. 
The 'straight on' apparently means that he is neither to break 
the order of the deities, nor to offer more than one oblation at 
a time to the same deity. 

* That is, he would die; 'praitity arthaA,' Comm. The 
St. Petersburg Diet., on the other hand, takes ' irvaraA pradaghaA ' 
in the sense of ' liable to fall down headlong ' (abstUrzen). 

* That is, by commencing the ten oblations again from the 
beginning. 

4 Viz. repetition of performance, — etam eva £a sa pra^ipatir 
avrtUiroattam yajtfasya samsthitim (uvala). On repetitions in the 
chanting of stotras, see III, a, 5, 8; cf. also XII, 3, 3, 13. 



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282 -satapatha-brahmawa. 

victim is here spilled in that they let loose the 
sprinkled (horse) before it is slaughtered. When 
he offers (the oblations relating to) the Forms 1 
(rupa), he offers that (horse) as one that is wholly 
offered, so as to make good any spilling; for 
unspilled is what is spilled of the offered (material). 
With (Va^-.S. XXII, 7-8*),'To the H ih-call, hail ! 
to the (horse) consecrated by Hin, hail!...' 

1 These forty-nine oblations performed after the letting loose of 
the horse, are called Prakramas (i.e. steps, or movements); 
cf. XIII, 4, 3, 4 ; Katy. XX, 3, 3. — Harisv&min remarks, arvaru- 
pa»a« hihkaradinam nishkranw/atmika (I) rupakhyi ahutaya vi- 
yante, ta evalra prakrama iti vakshyante. 

* These (rather pedantic) formulas, all of them ending in ' svahaV 
occupy two Kanakas of the Samhita, consisting of 24 and 25 
formulas respectively: — 1. To the hinkira, svahi! 2. To the one 
consecrated by ' hift,' hail ! 3. To the whinnying one, hail I 4. To 
the neighing, hail 1 5. To the snorting one, hail 1 6. To the snort, 
hail ! 7. To smell, hail 1 8. To the (thing) smelled, hail ! 9. To 
the stabled one, hail! 10. To the resting one, hail I 11. To the 
clipped one, haill 12. To the prancing one, hail I 13. To the 
seated one, hail 1 14. To the lying one, hail 1 15. To the sleeping 
one, hail I 1 6. To the waking one, hail ! 1 7. To the groaning one, 
hail! 18. To the awakened one, hail! 19. To the yawning one, 
hail! 20. To the untethered one, hail! 21. To the upstarting one, 
hail ! 22. To the standing one, hail ! 23. To the starting one, hail I 
24. To the advancing one, hail! — 25. To the trotting one, hail! 
26. To the running one, hail ! 27. To the bolting one, hail ! 28. To 
the flighty one, hail! 29. To the geeho, haill 30. To the one 
urged on by geeho, hail! 31. To the prostrate one, hail! 32. To 
the risen one, hail ! 33. To the swift one, hail 1 34. To the strong 
one, hail ! 35. To the turning one, hail ! 36. To the turned one, 
hail ! 37. To the shaking one, hail ! 38. To the shaken one, hail ! 
39. To the obedient one, haill 40. To the listening one, hail! 
41. To the looking one, hail ! 42. To the one looked at, 
hail I 43. To the out-looking one, hail ! 44. To the winking one, 
hail! 45. To what it eats, hail! 46. To what it drinks, haill 
47. To the water it makes, haill 48. To the working one, haill 
49. To the wrought one, hail 1 



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xni kanda, i adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, 8. 283 

(he offers them) ; for these are the forms (qualities) 
of the horse : it is them he now obtains. 

6. Concerning this they say, * The Forms are no 
offering: they should not be offered.' But, indeed, 
they also say, ' Therein assuredly the horse-sacrifice 
becomes complete that he performs (the oblations 
relating to) the Forms : they should certainly be 
offered.' And, indeed, one puts that (Sacrificer) 
out of his resting-place, and raises a rival for him 
when one offers for him oblations elsewhere than 
in the fire l , where there is no resting-place. 

7. Prior to the (first) oblation to Savitr* *, he (the 
Adhvaryu) offers, once only, (the oblations relating 
to) the Forms 8 in the Ahavanlya, whilst going 
rapidly over (the formulas) : he thus offers the 
oblations at his (the Sacrificer's) resting-place, and 
raises no rival for him. He offers at each opening 
of sacrifice 4 , for the continuity and uninterrupted 
performance of the sacrifice. 

8. Concerning this they say, 'Were he to offer 

1 According to Katy. XX, 3, 3, the Prakramas are to be offered 
in the Dakshiwagni ; but our Brahmaxa, whilst mentioning, at 
XIII, 4, 3, 4, both that fire, and the horse's footprint as optional 
places of offering, there as well as here decides in favour of the 
Ahavantya; whence Harisvamin remarks: — anyatragner hi an- 
vaharyapa£ane vlrvapade va parilikhite vakshyamanakalpantara- 
ninda. 

1 See XIII, 1, 4, 2. 

* That is to say, without repeating them, when he has come to 
the end, as he did in the case of the ' oblations of drops/ Nor are 
they to be repeated day after day throughout the year, as some of 
the other offerings and rites are. 

* Viz., according to Harisvamin, at (the beginning of) the dtk- 
shaflfya, prayawtya, atithya, pravargya; the upasads, agntshomrya, 
sutya, avabhri'tha, udayaniya, and udavasantya offerings (ish/i). 
This view is, however, rejected by the author. 



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284 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

at each opening of sacrifice, he would be deprived 
of his cattle, and would become poorer.' They 
should be performed once only : thus he is not 
deprived of his cattle, and does not become poorer. 
Forty-eight (oblations) he offers ; — the 6agatl con- 
sists of forty-eight syllables, and cattle are of 
£agata (movable) nature : by means of the Gagatl 
he (the Adhvaryu) thus wins cattle for him (the 
Sacrificer). One additional (oblation) he offers, 
whence one man is apt to thrive amongst (many) 
creatures (or subjects). 

Fourth Brahmatva. 

1. Pra^apati poured forth the life-sap of the horse 
(ajva-medha) '. When poured forth, it went straight 
away from him and spread itself over the regions. 
The gods went in quest of it. By means of offer- 
ings (ish/i) they followed it up, by offerings they 
searched for it, and by offerings they found it And 
when he performs ish/is, the Sacrificer thereby 
searches for the horse (ayva) meet for sacrifice* 
(medhya). 

2. They (the ish/is 3 ) belong to Savitr*'; for 
Savitrz is this (earth) : if any one hides himself 
thereon, if any one goes elsewhere 4 , it is on this 

1 Or, as it might also be translated, Pra^Spati produced (created) 
the Ajvamedha. 

* Or, for the horse full of life-sap ; or, simply, the sacrificial horse. 

* Viz. three oblations of cakes on twelve kapalas to Savitrt 
Prasavitr*, Savitn' Asavitrj, and Savitr* Satyaprasava respectively. 
For particulars see XIII, 4, 2, 6 seqq. 

* Harisvamin seems to take this in the sense of 'who moves 
about elsewhere (in another sphere),' and mentions, as an instance, 
a bird which flies in (? up into) the air — pakshyadir antarikshe 
gaiMati — but is ultimately caught on earth. 



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XIII KANDA, I ADHYAYA, $ BRAHMAJVA, I, 285 

(earth) that they find him ; for no one (creature), 
whether walking erect or horizontally (like an 
animal), is able to go beyond it. Their belonging 
to SavitW thus is in order to find the horse. 

3. Concerning this they say, ' Surely the horse 
disappears when it goes straight away ; for they do 
not turn (drive) it back '.' Now when he performs 
the DhWti offerings* in the evening — dhmi 
(keeping) meaning peaceful dwelling, and the night 
also meaning peaceful dwelling — it is by means of 
peaceful dwelling that he keeps it; whence both 
men and beasts rest peacefully at night. And 
when he performs offerings in the morning, he 
seeks that (horse); whence it is in daytime that 
one goes to seek for what is lost And again 
when he offers the Dhr/tis in the evening, and the 
(SavitW) ish/is in the morning, it is security of pos- 
session the Sacrificer thereby brings about, whence 
security of possession is brought about for the 
subjects where this sacrifice is performed. 

Fifth BrAhmawa. 

1. But, indeed, distinction, royal sway, departs from 
him who performs the horse-sacrifice ; and when a 
man attains to distinction, the lute is played to him. 
Two Brahma«ical lute-players sing (and play) for a 
year ; for that — to wit, the lute — is a form (attribute) 
of distinction : it is distinction they thus confer 
upon him. 



1 See XIII, 4, 2, 16. 

* The four Dhritis are performed on the AhavanJya after 
sunset on the first day ; cf. XIII, 4, 3, 5. For the four formulas 
used with these oblations (' here is joy,' &c), see XIII, 1, 6, a. 



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286 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

2. Concerning this they say, 'Were both to be 
Brahmawas who sing, noble rank (or political power) 
would depart from him ; for he — to wit, a Brahmawa 
— is a form of the priestly office ; and the nobility 
takes no delight in the priestly office (or priesthood). 

3. 'And were both to be Rajranyas (nobles), 
spiritual lustre would depart from him ; for he — to 
wit, the Ra^anya — is a form of . noble rank, and 
spiritual lustre takes no delight in noble rank.' 
One of those who sing is a Brahmawa, and the other 
a R&fanya ; for the Brahmawa means priestly office, 
and the Ra^anya noble rank : thus his distinction 
(social position) comes to be guarded on either side 
by the priesthood and the nobility. 

4. Concerning this they say, ' Were both to sing 
by day, his distinction would be apt to fall away from 
him : for that — to wit, the day — is a form of the 
priestly dignity ; and when the king chooses he may 
oppress (despoil) the Brahmawa, but he will fare the 
worse (or, become the poorer) for it. 

5. ' And if both (were to sing) at night, spiritual 
lustre would fall away from him ; for that — to wit, 
the night — is a form of the nobility, and spiritual 
lustre takes no delight in the nobility.' The 
Brahmawa sings by day 1 , and the Ra^anya at 
night*; and thus, indeed, his distinction comes to 
be guarded on either side by the priesthood and 
the nobility 8 . 

6. 'Such sacrifices he offered, — such gifts he 
gave!' such (are the topics about which) the 

1 Viz. at the fore-offerings of the three cake-offerings (ish/is) to 
Savitri', whilst staying in the south part of the sacrificial ground. 
* Viz. during the performance of the DhrAis after sunset. 
' The ' iti ' at the end belongs to the following paragraph. 



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XIII KktTDA, I ADHYAYA, 6 BRAHMA2VA, I. 287 

Brahma#a sings 1 ; for to the Brahma#a belongs 
the fulfilment of wishes 2 : it is with the fulfilment 
of wishes he (the Brahmana) thus endows him (the 
Sacrificer). ' Such war he waged, — such battle he 
won ! ' such (are the topics about which) the 
Ra^anya sings; for the battle is the Ra^anya's 
strength : it is with strength he thus endows him. 
Three stanzas the one sings, and three stanzas the 
other, they amount to six, — six seasons make up 
a year: he thus establishes (the Sacrificer) in the 
seasons, in the year. To both of them he presents 
a hundred ; for man has a life of a hundred (years), 
and a hundred energies: it is vitality and energy, 
vital power, he confers upon him. 

Sixth Brahmajva. 
1. [The Adhvaryu and Sacrificer whisper in the 
right ear of the horse, Va/. S. XXII, 19 s ,] 
'Plenteous by the mother, strengthful by the 
father,' — its mother, doubtless, is this (earth), and 
its father yonder (sky) : it is to these two he 
commits it; — 'a horse thou art, a steed thou 
art,' — he thereby instructs it, whence clever subjects 
(or children) are born to him; — 'a courser (atya) 
thou art, a charger thou art,' — he therewith 
leads it beyond (ati), whence the horse goes beyond 
(surpasses) other animals, and whence the horse 
attains to pre-eminence % among animals; — 'a runner 
thou art, a racer thou art, a prize-winner thou 

1 Cf. XIII, 4, 2, 8. 

* The author apparently takes 'ish/apurta' in the sense of either 
'sacrifice and fulfilment,' or 'the fulfilment of (the objects of) 
sacrifice.' Cf. Weber, Ind. Stud. IX, p. 319; X, p. 96. 

» See XIII, 4, 2, 15. 



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288 JATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

art,' — in accordance with the text is (the meaning 
of) this; — 'a male thou art, well-disposed 
towards man thou art,' — this is with a view to 
its (or, his) being supplied with a mate; — 'Speedy 
thou art called, Child thou art called,' — this 
is the horse's favourite name: by its favourite 
name he thus addresses it; whence even if two 
enemies \ on meeting together, address one another 
by name, they get on amicably together. 

2. ' Go thou along the way of the Adityas!' 
— to the Adityas he thus makes it go. — 'Ye divine 
guardians of the quarters, protect this horse, 
sprinkled for sacrifice to the gods!' — the 
guardians of the quarters are a hundred princes 
born in wedlock: to them he commits it; — 'here 
is joy: here let it rejoice! — here is safe keep- 
ing, here is its own safe keeping, hail!' For 
a year he offers the (four Dhmi) oblations 2 — 
^(amounting to) sixteen nineties, for they are the 
horse's chain 8 , and it is therewith alone that he 
chains it ; whence the horse when let loose returns 
to its chain : (they amount to) sixteen nineties * ; for 
these (oblations of safe keeping) are the horse's 
chain, and it is therewith alone that he chains it, 
whence the horse, when let loose, does not (entirely) 
abandon its chain. 

3. Verily, the Arvamedha means royal sway : it 
is after royal sway that these strive who guard the 
horse. Those of them who reach the end become 

1 Harisvamin, perhaps rightly, takes ' amitrau ' in the sense of 
' amitrayoA putrau,' ' the sons of two enemies.' 

* See note on XIII, 4, 3, 5. 

* Or, place of confinement, stable, — ' bandhanasthanam.' Harisv. 
4 That is, four times 360. 



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xm kAatm, i adhyAya, 7 brAhmajva, i. 289 

(sharers in) the royal sway, but those who do not 
reach the end are cut off from royal sway. Where- 
fore let him who holds royal sway perform the 
horse-sacrifice; for, verily, whosoever performs the 
horse-sacrifice, without possessing power, is poured 
(swept) away.— Now, were unfriendly men to get 
hold of the horse, his sacrifice would be cut in twain, 
and he would become the poorer for it. A hundred 
men clad in armour guard it for the continuity and 
uninterrupted performance of the sacrifice ; and he 
will not become the poorer for it ; (but if it be lost) 
they should fetch another (horse), and sprinkle it : 
this is the expiation in that case. 

Seventh BrAhmajva. 
The Initiation of the Sacrificed 

1. Pra^apati desired, ' Might I perform a horse- 
sacrifice i ?' He toiled and practised fervid devotion. 
From the body of him, when wearied and heated, 
the deities departed in a sevenfold way : therefrom 
the Diksha (initiation) was produced. He per- 
ceived those Vai^vadeva 2 (oblations). He offered 

1 Or, 'might I make offering with the life-sap of the horse?' 
the natural, as well as the technical, meaning of the term ' ajva- 
medha ' being generally understood in these speculations. 

* The oblations offered prior to the initiation — here, as at any 
Soma-sacrifice — are called Audgrabhana (elevatory) oblations. 
On the present occasion he, in the first place, performs, on each of 
the first six days of the Diksha, the four oblations of this kind 
offered at the ordinary Soma-sacrifice (for which see III, 1, 4, 
I seqq.) ; whilst on the seventh day he offers, instead of these, the 
six corresponding oblations of the Agniiayana (which forms a 
necessary element of the Ajvamedha), see VI, 6, 1, 15-20; for a 
further and final oblation offered on all these occasions, see p. 293, 
note 1. He then performs on each day three additional oblations 

[44] V 



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290 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

them, and by means of them he gained the Dlksha : 
and when the Sacrificer offers the Vawvadeva 
(oblations) 1 it is the Dlksha he thereby gains. 
Day after day he offers them: day after day he 
thus gains the Dlksha \ Seven of them he offers ; 
for seven were those deities that departed (from 
Pra^apati); it is by means of them that he (the 
priest) gains the Dlksha for him. 

2. But, indeed, the vital airs depart from those 
who exceed (the duration of) the Dtksha. For 

(increased to four on the last day) which are peculiar to the 
Ajvamedha, and vary from day to day in respect of the deities 
to whom they are offered. But whilst, in the Srautasutras, these 
special oblations are likewise called Audgrabhawa (Katy. XX, 4, 
2-10), the author here applies to them the term Vaixvadeva, 
owing apparently to the fact of their being offered, not to the 
Virve DevaA properly speaking, but to different deities. In the 
dogmatic explanation of the Audgrabha»as of the ordinary sacrifice, 
reference was also made (at III, 1, 4, 9) to the Virve DevaA, but 
only incidentally. Harisvamin, indeed, points out that the designa- 
tion Vawvadeva refers in the first place to the invocations (Va£\ S. 
XXII, 20) used with these special oblations (as is, indeed, evident 
from paragraph 2 ; cf. also part ii, p. 20, note 1) ; and the total of 
seven applied to them does not therefore refer here (as it does in 
paragraph 4) to the four ordinary and the three special Audgra- 
bhana oblations, but to the series of dedicatory formulas relating to 
the latter oblations, as explained p. 291, note 1; and, of course, 
by implication, to the oblations themselves. 

1 Though the Initiation only becomes perfect by the Sacrificer 
being girded with a hempen zone, whilst kneeling on a double 
black-antelope skin, and by a staff being handed to him (III, 2, 1, 
I_ 3 2 )> on the present occasion, the Sacrificer is on each day, after 
the performance of the Audgrabhawa oblations, at least to sit 
down on the antelope skin ; whilst on the seventh and last day of 
the Diksha»tyesh/i, the remaining ceremonies take place, after 
which those of the Agnifoyana, viz. the placing of the Ukha, or 
fire-pan, on the fire and the putting of thirteen fire-sticks in the 
pan (VI, 6, 2, 1 seqq.), &c. 



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XIII KAJVDA, I ADHYAYA, 7 BRAHMAAA, 4. 29I 

seven days they observe it; for there are seven 
(outlets of) vital airs in the head, and the Dlksha 
is the vital airs: it is by means of the vital airs 
he gains the Dlksha, the vital airs, for him. He 
makes offering by dividing (each) deity into three 
parts * ; for the gods are of three orders 2 , and of 
three orders are these worlds: he thus establishes 
himself in these worlds in prosperity and vital power. 

3. They amount to one and twenty (single invoca- 
tions and oblations), — there are twelve months, five 
seasons, these three worlds, and yonder sun as the 
twenty-first, — that is the divine ruling-power, that 
is the glory: that supreme lordship, that summit 
of the fallow one (the Sun), that realm of light he 
attains. 

4. Thirty Audgrabha«as 8 he offers, — of thirty 
syllables the Vir&f (metre) consists, and the Vira^" 
means all food : thus (he offers) for the obtainment 
of all food. Four Audgrabhawas he offers (on 
each day), and three VaLrvadevas ; — they amount to 
seven ; for there are seven vital airs of the head, 
and the Dlksha is the vital airs : by means of the 
vital airs he thus gains the Dlksha, the vital airs, 

1 The ka»<fikd XXII, 20 is made up of seven parts, each of 
which consists of three distinct invocations addressed to the same 
deity; the seven deities addressed in the whole formula being Ka, 
Pra^apati, Aditi, Sarasvatf, Pushan, Tvash/r/, and Vishmi ; whilst 
the three invocations to Ka, for instance, are ' Kaya svaha" ) 
Kasmai svaha! Katamasmai svaha!' Cf. XIII, 1, 8, 2 seqq. 

* Viz. either the Vasus, Rudras, and Adityas (cf. IV, 5, 7, 2) ; or 
those of the sky, the air, and the earth, headed by Surya, Vayu, 
and Agni respectively. 

3 That is, the four Audgrabhaoas of the ordinary Soma-sacrifice 
offered on each of the seven days of the Diksha, and two mbre 
added thereto on the seventh day. 

U 2 



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292 satapatha-brAhmaaa. 

for him. A full (-spoon)-oblation l he offers last 
for the sake of invigoration and union. 

Eighth BrAhmaaa. 

i. Pra/apati poured forth the life-sap of the 
horse 2 . When poured forth, it weighed down the 
rik (hymn-verse) and the siman (hymn-tune). 
The Vafovadeva (offerings) upheld that (A.rva- 
medha) : thus, when he offers the Vaisvadevas, it 
is for the upholding of the A^vamedha. 

2. With {V$g. S. XXII, 20), ' To Ka hail ! To 
the Who hail! To the Whoever hail!' he 
makes the one relating to Pra^ipati the first (or 
chief one), and thus upholds (the Asvamedha) by 
means of the deities with Pra^apati as their chief. 

3. 'Hall, meditation (we give) unto him 
meditated upon! Hail, the mind unto the 
Lord of creatures! Hail, thought unto him, 
theknown'!' what the mystic sense of the former 
(utterances *) was that it is here. 



1 For a full discussion of this final Audgrabhaxa oblation, the 
only one, it would seem, offered with the regular offering-spoon 
(^uhu) filled by means of the dipping-spoon (sruva), see III, 1, 4, 
2 ; 16-23 ; cf. also VI, 6, 1, 21. 

* See p. 289, note 1. It is here taken to be represented by 
the Ya^us: — arvamedham ya^uratmakavigrahavantaw sr»sh/avan, 
Harisv. — the larger number of sacrificial formulas used at the 
performances being too heavy for the recited and chanted texts. 

* Mahtdhara takes 'adhim Mittaya' in the sense of 'adhdna/* 
prapl&ya' (who has obtained a consecrated fire); and 'manaA 
pra^taye ' in the sense of ' manasi vartamanaya p.' (to P. who 
is in our mind) ; and ' khtam vigti&t&ya. ' in the sense of ' sarveshara 
4ittasakshi»e ' (to the witness, or knower, of all men's thoughts). 

* Harisvlmin probably is right in supplying ' vyahrstmam ; ' 
though possibly 'devatanam' (deities) may be understood. 



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xiii kAjvda, I adhyAya, 8 brAhmajva, 8. 493 

4. 'To Aditi hail! To Aditi, the mighty, 
hail! To Aditi, the most merciful, hail!' 
Aditi, doubtless, is this (earth): it is by her that 
he upholds it. 

5. 'To Sarasvatt hail! To Sarasvatl, the 
pure, hail! To Sarasvatt, the great, hail!' 
Sarasvatl, doubtless, is speech : by speech he thus 
upholds it. 

6. 'To Pushan hail! To Pushan, the pro- 
tector of travellers, hail! To Pushan, the 
watcher of men, hail!' Pushan, doubtless, is 
cattle : by means of cattle he thus upholds it. 

7. 'To Tvash/r/ hail! To Tvash/r*, the 
seminal, hail! To Tvash/W, the multiform, 
hail!' Tvash/W, doubtless, is the fashioner of the 
couples of animals : by means of forms he thus 
upholds it 

8. 'To Vish»u hail! To Vish»u, the pro- 
tector of what grows 1 , hail! To Vish»u, the 
bald 2 , hail ! ' Vishmi, doubtless, is the sacrifice : by 
sacrifice he thus upholds it With (V$f. XXII, 21), 
'Let every mortal espouse the friendship of 
the divine guide, . . . s ,' he offers last of all a fulj 
(-spoon)-oblation ; for the full-offering is this (earth) : 
he thus finally establishes himself on this (earth). 

1 The meaning of 'nibhuyapa' is doubtful; Mahfdhara explains 
it by ' nitarlm bhutvd matsy&dyavataram kr/tvi piti.' Perhaps it 
may mean ' condescending protector,' though one expects a direct 
object with ' pa.' 

* The word 'jipivish/a,' as applied to Vishwu, is likewise of 
doubtful meaning. The native dictionaries assign both the meaning 
'bald' and 'leprous' (or, affected with skin-disease) to it; whilst 
the first part * j-tpi ' is taken variously by commentators as meaning 
' cattle,' or ' ray,' or ' water,' or ' living being.' 

' See HI, i, 4, 18; VI, 6, 1, 21 ; and p. 294, note 1. 



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294 satapatha-brAhmaa t a. 



Ninth BrAhmaya. 

i. \Vtg. S. XXII, 22 1 ], ' In the priestly office 
(brahman) may the Brahmana be born, en- 
dowed with spiritual lustre (brahmavar^asa):' 
on the Brahmawa he thereby bestows spiritual lustre, 
whence of old the Brahma»a was born as one en- 
dowed with spiritual lustre*. 

2. 'In the royal order may the R4fanya be 
born, heroic, skilled in archery, sure of his 
mark, and a mighty car-fighter:' on the Ra- 
£anya he thereby bestows the grandeur of heroism s , 
whence of old the R&fanya was born as one heroic, 
skilled in archery, certain of his mark, and a mighty 
car-fighter. 

3. 'The milch cow:' on the cow he thereby 
bestows milk : whence of old the cow was born as 
one yielding milk. 

4. 'The draught ox:' on the ox he thereby 
bestows strength, whence of old the ox was born as 
a draught (animal). 

5.. 'The swift racer:' on the horse he thereby 
bestows speed, whence of old the horse was born as 
a runner. 

6. 'The well-favoured woman:' on the woman 

' These formulas are mattered after the thirteen samidhs have 
been put in the ukhfi, or fire-pan. See p. 290, note 1. 

* ' Whence formerly a Brihmaxa was at once born as Brahma- 
varAasin (whilst now he must study)/ Delbrtick, Altindische Syntax, 
p. 287. Perhaps, however, ' puii ' has here (as it certainly has in 
the following paragraphs) the force of ' agre ' — at the beginning, 
from the first, from of old. 

* I take ' xauryam mahimdnam ' here (and '^aitram mahimanam ' 
in paragraph 7) to stand in apposition to one another, with some- 
thing of the force of a compound word. See above, p. 66, note 4. 



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XIII KkNDA, 2 ADHYAYA, I BRAhMAJVA, I. 295 

he thereby bestows beautiful form, whence the 
beautiful maiden is apt to become dear (to men). 

7. 'The victorious warrior:' on the R&^anya 
he thereby bestows the grandeur of victoriousness \ 
whence of old the Ri^anya was born as one 
victorious. 

8. 'The blitheful youth:' he, indeed, is a 
blitheful (or, sociable) youth who is in his prime of 
life ; whence one who is in his prime of life is apt to 
become dear to women. 

9. ' May a hero be born unto this Sacrificer!' 
on the Sacrificer s family he thereby bestows manly 
vigour, whence of old a hero was born to him who 
had performed the (Axvamedha) sacrifice. 

10. 'May Par^anya rain for us whensoever 
we list!' — where they perform this sacrifice, there 
Par^anya, indeed, rains whenever they list; — 'may 
our fruit-bearing plants ripen!' — there the fruit- 
bearing plants indeed ripen where they perform 
this "sacrifice ; — 'may security of possession be 
assured forus! ' — where they perform this sacrifice 
there security of possession indeed is assured; 
whence wherever they perform this (A^vam'edha) 
sacrifice, security of possession becomes assured to 
the people. 

Second AdhyAya. First BrAhmajva. 
The First Soma-day (Agnish7Dma)*. 

i. Pra^apati assigned the sacrifices to the gods; 
the A^vamedha he kept for himself The gods 

1 See note 3, p. 294. 

1 There are three Sutyas, or Soma-days, at the Axvamedha— 
viz. an Agnish/oma, an Ukthya, and an Atiritra — the most im- 



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296 DATAPATH A-BRAhMAVA. 

said to him, ' Surely, this — to wit, the A^vamedha — 
is a sacrifice : let us have a share in that also.' He 
contrived these Anna-homas (food-oblations) for 
them: thus when he performs the Annahomas, it 
is the gods he thereby gratifies. 

2. With ghee he makes offering, for ghee is fiery 
mettle : by means of fiery mettle he thus lays fiery 
mettle into him (the horse and Sacrificer). With 
ghee he offers ; for that — to wit, ghee — is the gods' 
favourite resource : it is thus with their favourite 
resource he supplies them. 

3. With parched groats he makes offering; for 
that — to wit, parched groats — are a form of the 
gods ' : it is the gods he thus gratifies. 

4. With grain he makes offering; for this — to 
wit, grain — is a form of the days and nights * : it is 
the days and nights he thus gratifies. 

5. With parched grain he makes offering ; for 
this — to wit, parched grain — is a form of the 
Nakshatras 8 (lunar asterisms) : it is the Nakshatras 

portant of which is the central day. The first day offers no special 
features, as compared with the ordinary Agnish/oma ; except that 
the slotras are chanted on the ' iatush/oma ' model (see note to 
XIII, 3, 1, 4); and that the animal sacrifice of this day requires 
twenty-one sacrificial stakes, with twice eleven victims, two of which 
are tied to the central stake; see note on XIII, 2, 5, 2. The 
offerings referred to in the present Brahmawa, are performed, not 
during the day itself, but during the following night, as a pre- 
liminary to the important features of the second Soma-day. 

1 Viz., according to the commentary, because of the (particles 
of) groats being connected with each other. 

1 The commentary does not explain this comparison. It would 
seem to suit better the parched grain. 

* Viz. on account of the capability (samarthatvat) of the (raw) 
grains; but whether this is meant to refer to their power of 
germinating and growing is not explained 



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XIII KAJVDA, 2 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAJVA, 6. 297 

he thus gratifies. He offers whilst mentioning 
names, with (Vaf. XXII, 23-33), 'To the in- (and 
out-) breathing hail I to the off-breathing 
hail ' ! "... he thus gratifies them by mentioning 
their names. [Va/. S. XXII, 34], 'To one hail! 
to two hail! ... to a hundred hail! to a 
hundred and one hail!' He offers in the proper 
order : in the proper order he thus gratifies them 
(the gods). He performs oblations successively 
increasing by one 2 , for single, indeed, is heaven : 
singly he thus causes him (the Sacrificer) to reach 
heaven. Straight away 3 he offers in order to the 
winning of heaven ; for straight away, as it were, 
is heaven. 

6. But, verily, he who offers the oblations straight 

1 These eleven anuvakas consist of altogether 149 such short 
dedicatory formulas — addressed to the vital airs, the regions, the 
waters, wind, fire, &c. — each ending with 'sv4h& (hail).' These 
are followed, in anuvaka 34, by formulas addressed to the 
cardinal numbers from 1 to 10 1 ; succeeded by two formulas 
addressed to the dawn and to heaven respectively, — all of these 
again ending with 'svahaV The Annahomas themselves, offered 
by the Adhvaryu's assistant, the PratiprastMtn, are not, however, 
limited to any number ; but their performance is to be continued 
throughout the night in such a way that each of the four three- 
hours' watches of the night is to be taken up with as many 
oblations of one of the four kinds of offering materials — in the 
order in which they are enumerated in the text — as can be got into 
the space of three hours. The formulas addressed to the cardinal 
numbers — (which are on no account to extend beyond 101) — are 
apparently supposed amply to suffice to fill up the time till dawn, 
when the Adhvaryu makes an oblation of ghee to the Dawn, 
followed by one to Heaven (or the realm of light) after sunrise. 

* That is, in offering with the formulas addressed to the cardinal 
numbers. 

* That is to say, without repeating any formula, or commencing 
again from the beginning, when the whole series is exhausted. 



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298 satapa'tha-brAhmajva. 

away 1 , is liable to fall (pass) right away. He does 
not go beyond a hundred and one : were he to go 
beyond a hundred and one, he would deprive the 
Sacrificer of his vital power. He offers a hundred 
and one, for man has a life of a hundred (years), 
and his own self is the one hundred and first : he 
thus establishes himself in a self (or body), in vital 
power. With 'To the Dawn hail! to Heaven 
hail!' he offers the two last oblations; for the 
dawn is the night, and heaven (the realm of light) 
is the day : it is day and night he thus gratifies. 

7. As to this they say, 'Were he to offer both 
either by day or by night, he would confound day 
and night with one another '.' With ' To the Dawn 
hail ! ' he offers before the sun has risen, and with 
' To Heaven hail ' when it has risen, to avoid con- 
fusion between day and night. 

Second BrAhmawa. 
The Second Soma-dat (Ukthya). 

i. Verily, this — to wit, the Asvamedha — is the 
king of sacrifices. But, indeed, the Axvamedha is 
the Sacrificer, (for) the sacrifice is the Sacrificer: 
when he (the priest) binds victims to the horse (or, 
at the horse-sacrifice), he then, indeed, takes hold 8 
of the sacrifice at the sacrifice. 

2. ' A horse, a hornless he-goat, and a Gomrzga 4 ' 

1 That is, without stopping. 

* There is no * iti * here; and the quotation, therefore, may 
perhaps extend to the end of the paragraph. 

* Arabhate pripnoti, comm. ; it might also be rendered by ' he 
enters upon the sacrifice.' 

« This (and the identical passage XIII, 5, 1, 13) looks like 
a quotation, as if quoted • from V$g. S. XXIV, 1 ; where are 



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xiii kAjvda, 2 adhyAya, 2 brAhmajva, 3. 299 

these they bind to the central stake : thereby, in- 
deed, he (the priest) sharpens the front of his (the 
Sacrificer's) army 1 , whence the front of the king's 
army is sure to become terrible. 

3. A black-necked (he-goat), sacred to Agni, in 
front (of the horse) to its forehead * : the original 
(hall) fire he makes it, whence the king's hall-fire 
is sure to be (efficient) s . 

likewise found the references to the other victims and their 
places, in paragraphs 2-9. Possibly, however, the * iti * may be 
used here with a kind of 'deiktic' force (cf. the similar use in 
XIII, 2, 8, 1); if, indeed, it does not simply refer to 'gomr*ga,' 
i.e. 'the animal called Gomnga' (lit. 'bovine deer*), regarding 
which see note on XIII, 3, 4, 3. — Though the victims to be 
immolated on this day are first dealt with in this and the following 
Brahmawas, their slaughter only takes place at the usual time at 
every Soma-sacrifice, viz. after the Sarpanam (XIII, 2, 3, 1 seqq.), 
the chanting of the Bahishpavamana Stotra, and the drawing of 
the Afvina-graha. On the present occasion these ceremonies are 
preceded by the drawing of the Mahiman cups of Soma (see XIII, 
2, n, 1 seqq.); whilst the chant is followed by the driving up of 
the victims, and the putting to of the horse, and the driving to the 
water, treated of in XIII, 2, 6, 1 seqq. 

1 Harisvamin takes this to mean that he makes the (sacrificial) 
horse, i.e. the king, alone the head of the army, — ra^abhutam apy 
arvajn senamukham ekam karotity arthaA. 

* According to the comments on Vig. S. XXIV, 1, and Kity. 
XX, 6, 4, a rope is wound round the horse's body in the same 
way as it is done with a bottle-gourd (lagenaria vulgaris), and it is 
to this rope that these so-called ' paryangyaA (circumcorporal),' or 
victims surrounding the (horse's) body, would then be tied. 

* The commentator explains 'bhavuka' by ' sadhur bhavati;' 
and he adds that this is important inasmuch as numerous magic 
rites, such as rites for insuring success and averting evil (j&ntika- 
paush/ika), and incantations (abhi£arika) are performed thereon. 
It is the name here assigned to this, the Avasathya, fire, viz. ' pur- 
vagni ' or, original fire— with its secondary meaning ' front-fire ' — 
which is seized upon by the author for symbolically identifying it 
with the victim fastened in front (or to the front) of the horse. 



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3po satapatha-brAhmajva. 

4. An ewe, for Sarasvatl, beneath the (horse's) 
jaws : he thereby makes women to be dependent, 
whence women are sure to be attendant upon man. 

5. Two (he-goats), black on the lower part of 
the body 1 , for the A sv'ins, (he ties) to the front legs : 
he thereby lays strength into the front legs, whence 
the king is sure to be strong in the arm 2 . 

6. A dark-grey (he-goat) for Soma and Pushan 
at the (horse's) navel : a foothold he makes this 
one ; for Pushan is this (earth) : it is thereon he 
establishes himself. 

7. A white one and a black one, for Surya and 
Yama, on the flanks : a suit of armour he makes 
those two ; whence the king, clad in mail, performs 
heroic deeds. 

8. Two, with shaggy hind thighs, for Tvash/W, 
to the hind legs : he lays strength into the thighs, 
whence the king is sure to be strong in his thighs. 

9. A white one, for Vayu, to the tail, — an elevation 
he makes this one, whence people in danger betake 
themselves to an elevated place 3 ; — a cow wont to 
cast her calf, for Indra, the ever active, in order 
to associate the sacrifice with Indra; — a dwarfish 
one for Vish«u ; for Vishmi is the sacrifice : it is in 
the sacrifice he (the Sacrificer) thus finally establishes 
himself. 

10. These, then, are the fifteen 'paryangya' 
(body-encircling) 4 animals, — for fifteenfold is the 

1 Mahfdhara takes ' adhorama ' to mean ' white-coloured on the 
lower part of the body.' 

* The word ' bahu ' means both ' arm ' and ' front leg.' 

" That is, a mountain, a palace, high ground, &c, comm. 
(' vayur hi skandhasyo/bMrita ity abhiprayaA '). 

* Here the encircled horse itself, and the other two victims 



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XIII KkNDk, 2 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAYA, 1 3. 3OI 

thunderbolt, and the thunderbolt means manly 
vigour: with that thunderbolt, manly vigour, the 
Sacrificer now repels evil from in front J (of the 
sacrifice). 

11. And fifteen (victims), indeed, are (bound) to 
each of the other (stakes) ; — for fifteenfold is the 
thunderbolt, and the thunderbolt means manly 
vigour: with that thunderbolt, manly vigour, the 
Sacrificer now repels evil on both sides 2 (of the 
sacrifice). 

12. As to this they say, 'Does he really repel 
evil by these ? ' And, indeed, he does not make 
up the complete Pra^apati, and does not here gain 
everything. 

13. Let him rather bind seventeen animals to 
the central stake s ; for seventeenfold is Pra^apati, 
and the A^vamedha is Pra^apati, — thus for the 

tied directly to the central stake, are improperly included in the 
term ' paryangya.' 

1 Viz. inasmuch as the sacrificial stake to which the horse is tied 
(and hence the victims fastened thereto) is the so-called ' agnish/Aa ' 
stake, or the one standing opposite to (directly in front of) the 
Ahavaniya fire. 

* Viz. inasmuch as these other stakes stand in a line to the 
north (left) and south (right) of the central stake. Whilst, in the 
case of a simple 'ekidarint' (cf. Ill, 7, 2, 1 seqq.) there would be 
five stakes on each side of the central one, at the A-rvamedha there 
are to be twenty-one stakes, or ten on either side of the central 
stake. See XIII, 4, 4, 5 seqq. 

• These seventeen victims do not include the twelve paryahgyas 
which are tied to different parts of the horse's body, but only to 
those which are actually tied to the central stake, — viz. the horse 
and its two immediate neighbours (paragraph 2), then twelve 
victims (enumerated Va#. S. XXIV, a, beginning with three victims 
of different shades of red, rohiia), and lastly two beasts belonging 
to two sets of eleven victims finally superadded to the sets of fifteen 
victims tied in the first place to the stakes. Cf. note on XIII, 2, 5, 2, 



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302 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAtfA. 

obtainment of the A^vamedha. And sixteen 
(victims he binds) to each of the other (stakes), 
for of sixteen parts (kali) consists all this 1 (universe) ; 
all this (universe) he thus gains. 

14. 'How is he to appease 2 these?' they ask. 
' Let him appease them with the Barhaduktha 
verses 3 , " Enkindled, anointing the lap of the faith- 
ful (f.) . . .;" for Brz'haduktha.thesonof Vimadeva, 
or Asva., son of Samudra, saw these very (verses) 
to be the aprt-verses of the horse : it is by means 
of these we appease it,' so they say. But let him 
not do so ; let him appease it with the Camadagna 
verses; for (Jamadagni is Pra^apati, and so 
is the A^vamedha : he thus supplies it with its 
own deity ; — let him therefore appease (the victims) 
with the G&madagna verses 4 . 

15. Now some make the invitatory-formulas and 
the offering-formulas (to be pronounced) separately 
for the ' paryangyas,' saying, ' For these we find 
(formulas) — for the others, on account of not finding 
any, we do not use them 6 .' Let him not do so; 

1 Regarding this division into sixteen parts, as applied to man, 
the animal, and the universe, see Weber, Ind Stud. IX, p. 11 1 
with note. 

* Or, ' what Aprts (appeasing verses) is he to pronounce over 
them?' These verses are pronounced as the offering-formulas 
(ya^ya) at the fore-offerings of the animal sacrifice. See part ii, 
p. 185, note 1. 

» Viz.Va^.S. XXIX, 1-11. 

4 Viz. Vl^. S. XXIX, 25-36, beginning, 'Enkindled in the 
house of man this day, a god, thou worshipped the gods, O 
Gatavedas.' 

* The commentator takes this to mean that, inasmuch as these 
paryangyas — here improperly including the horse itself and the 
two other victims of Pra^ipati at the central slake — are assigned to 
commonly invoked deities, formulas relating to these would easily 



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XIII KkNDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAhMAJvA, 1 7. 3O3 

for the horse is the nobility (chieftain), and the 
other animals are the peasantry (clan) ; and those 
who do this really make the peasantry equal and 
refractory to the nobility; and they also deprive 
the Sacrificer of his vital power. Therefore the 
horse alone belongs to Prafapati 1 , and the others 
are sacred to the gods : he thus, indeed, makes 
the peasantry obedient and subservient to the 
nobility; and he also supplies the Sacrificer with 
vital power. 

1 6. The slaughtering-knife of the horse is made 
of gold, those of the ' paryangyas ' of copper, and 
those of the others of iron ; for gold is (shining) 
light, and the A^vamedha is the royal office: he 
thus bestows light upon the royal office. And by 
means of the golden light (or, by the light of the 
gold), the Sacrificer also goes to the heavenly world ; 
and he, moreover, makes it a gleam of light shining 
after him, for him to reach the heavenly world. 

17. But, indeed, the horse is also the nobility; 
and this also — to wit, gold — is a form (symbol) of 



be found ; whilst in the case of the other twelve victims tied to the 
central stake (see p. 301, note 3), as well as those of the other 
stakes — though they, too, are assigned to definite deities — some of 
their deities (as in the case of three a year and a half old heifers 
assigned to Gayatri, \fig. S. XXIV, 21), are such as to make it 
difficult to find suitable formulas for them: — etesham suvadinaw 
pra^ipatyadiki yajy&nuvakyis t&A kim id na pnthak kurmaA; 
itaresham rohitadinam na vindama^, tryavayo gayatryidayo devat&s 
taddevatyaj ka. durlabhi laksha«opeti ya^yinuvikyi ity abhi- 
prayaA. 

1 The invitatory-formula and offering-formula are, however, 
pronounced once for the 'paryangyas' (including the horse) in 
common, whilst a second pair of formulas are used for the other 
victims in common. 



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304 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

the nobility: he thus combines the nobility with 
the nobility. 

1 8. And as to why there are copper (knives) 
for the ' paryangyas,' — even as the non-royal king- 
makers, the heralds and headmen, are to the king, 
so those ' paryangyas ' are to the horse ; and so, 
indeed, is this — to wit, copper — to gold : with their 
own form he thus endows them. 

19. And as to why there are iron ones for the 
others, — the other animals, indeed, are the peasantry, 
and this — to wit, iron — is a form of the peasantry : 
he thus combines the peasantry with the peasantry. 
On a rattan mat (lying) north (of the Ahavanlya) 
they cut the portions of the horse( -flesh) ; for the 
horse is of anushAibh nature, and related to the 
Anush/ubh is that (northern) quarter: he thus 
places that (horse) in its own quarter. And as to 
(his doing so) on a rattan mat, — the horse was 
produced from the womb of the waters 1 , and the 
rattan springs from the water: he thus causes it 
to be possessed of its own (maternal) womb. 

Third BrAhmawa. 

1. Now, the gods did not know the Pavamana* 
at the A^vamedha to be the heavenly world, but 
the horse knew it. When, at the A^vamedha, 

» See VI, 1,1, ir (V, 1,4,5). 

* Pavamana is the name of the pressed Soma while it is 
' clarifying.' Hence the first stotra of each of the three Savanas of 
a Soma-day — chanted after the pressing of the Soma and the 
drawing of the principal cups — is called Pavamana-stotra. Whether 
by the term ' Pavamana' here the clarifying Soma is alluded to, as 
well as the stotra — which alone the commentator takes it to mean, 
and to which the second mention certainly refers — must remain 



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XIII KklfDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAYA, 2. 3O5 

they glide along * with the horse for the Pavamina 
(-stotra), it is for getting to know (the way to) the 
heavenly world; and they hold on to the horse's 
tail, in order to reach the heavenly world ; for man 
does not rightly know (the way to) the heavenly 
world, but the horse does rightly know it 

2. Were the Udgatre to chant the Udgitha 2 , it 
would be even as if one who does not know the 
country were to lead by another (than the right) 
way. But if, setting aside the Udgatr*', he chooses 

doubtful. The commentator, it would seem, accounts for this 
identification of the Pavamina-stotra with heaven by the fact that 
the second day of the Arvamedha is an ekaviwja day (see XIII, 3, 
3, 3 ; Tandy a-Br. XXI, 4, 1), i.e. one on which all the stotras are 
performed in the twenty-one-versed hymn-form ; and that the Sun 
is commonly called * ekaviwwa,' the twenty-first, or twenty-one-fold. 
The particular chant intended is that of the morning pressing, viz. 
the Bahishpavamana, or outside-Pavamana-stotra, so-called because 
at the ordinary one-day's Soma-sacrince, it is chanted outside the 
Sadas. But, on the other hand, in the case of Ahtna-sacrifices, or 
those lasting from two to twelve days, that stotra is chanted 
outside only on the first day, whilst on the others it is done inside 
the Sadas. An exception is, however, made in the case of the 
Arvamedha, which requires the morning Pavamana, on all three 
days, to be performed in its usual place on the north-eastern part of 
Vedi, south of the AUtvala. 

1 For the noiseless way of sliding or creeping from the Sadas, 
and returning thither, and approaching the different Dhishayas, or 
fire-hearths, see part ii, p. 299, note 2. As has already been stated, 
it is only after the chanting of the Bahishpavamana that the victims 
are driven up to the offering place. 

* It is from this, the principal part of the Saman, or chanted 
verse (cf. part ii, p. 310, note), that the Udgatr;' takes his name; 
this particular function of his being, on the present occasion, 
supposed to be performed by the whinnying of the horse. After 
this they make the horse step on the chanting-ground, apparently 
either as a visible recognition of the part it has been made to play, 
or because the horse thereby is made to go to heaven with which 
the Bahishpavamana was identified 
[44] X 



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3o6 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

the horse for (performing) the Udgttha, it is just as 
when one who knows the country leads on the right 
way : the horse leads the Sacrificer rightly to the 
heavenly world. It makes 'Hiri 1 ,' and thereby 
makes the Saman itself to be ' hin ' : this is the 
Udgltha. They pen up mares, (and on seeing the 
horse) they utter a shrill sound : as when the 
chanters sing, such like is this. The priests' fee is 
gold weighing a hundred (grains): the mystic 
import of this has been explained*. 

Fourth Brahmawa. 

i. Pra^ipati desired, 'Would that I might gain 
both worlds, the world of the gods, and the world 
of men.' He saw those beasts, the tame and the 
wild ones ; he seized them, and by means of them 
took possession of these two worlds: by means 
of the tame beasts he took possession of this 
(terrestrial) world, and by means of the wild beasts 
of yonder (world) ; for this world is the world of 
men, and yonder world is the world of the gods. 
Thus when he seizes tame beasts he thereby takes 
possession of this world, and when wild beasts, he 
thereby (takes possession) of yonder (world). 

2. Were he to complete (the sacrifice) with tame 
ones, the roads would run together 8 , the village- 

1 On the mystic significance of this ejaculation (here compared 
with the neighing of the horse) in the sacrifice, and especially in 
the Saman, see I, 4, 1, 1 scqq. ; II, a, 4, 12. 

•XII, 7) 2, 13. 

* The commentary remarks that by ' roads ' here is meant those 
walking on them — as, in that case, peace and security would 
reign, men would range all the lands: — adhvabhir atradhvasthS 
lakshyante ; ksheme sati manushyaA sarvan d&ran sam&treyur ity 
abhipraya/4. 



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XIII KkNDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAJVA, 3. 307 

boundaries of two villages would be contiguous 1 , 
and no ogres 2 , man-tigers, thieves, murderers, and 
robbers would come to be in the forests. By (so 
doing) with wild (beasts) the roads would run 
asunder 8 , the village-boundaries of two villages 
would be far asunder 4 ; and there would come to 
be ogres, man-tigers, thieves, murderers, and robbers 
in the forests. 

3. As to this they say, 'Surely that — to wit, the 
forest (beast) — is not a beast (or cattle), and offering 
should not be made thereof: were he to make 
offering thereof, they would ere long carry away 
the Sacrificer dead to the woods, for forest (or wild) 
beasts have the forest for their share ; and were he 
not to make offering thereof, it would be a violation 
of the sacrifice.' Well, they dismiss them after fire 
has been carried round them 5 : thus, indeed, it is 



1 Harisvamin takes ' samantikam ' in the sense of ' near ' and 
construes it with ' gr&mayoA ' (as he does ' viduram ' in the next 
paragraph) — 'the two village-boundaries would be near (far from) 
the two villages;' but see I, 4, 1, 22, where samantikam (and IX, 
3, 1, 1 1, where 'samantikataram ') is likewise used without a comple- 
ment ; as is ' viduram' in I, 4, 1, 23. 

1 Harisvamin takes 'r*kshik&' to mean 'a bear,' — nksha" eva 
nkshtkiA. 

* Hardly, as the commentary takes it, 'they would become 
blocked up,' and people would have to stay in their own country : — 
adhvanaA purvadcr&dayo vikrameyur viruddhaw kr&mayeyuA (!), 
svaderaeva manushyiA samfareyur na dexdntarcpy antaralanSm . . 
bhinnatvid akshematv&£ 4a viduram gr&mayor grimintau syaULm. 

* Viz. because, for want of security and peace, the villages 
would be few and far between, — aksheme hi sati pravirala grSmi 
bhavanti, comm. 

* On the ' paryagnikaraoam ' or circumambulation of an oblation 
in accordance with the course of the sun, whilst holding a fire- 
brand in one's hand, see part i, p. 45, note; part ii, p. 187, note. 

X 2 



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308 jatapatha-brAhmajva. 

neither an offering nor a non-offering, and they do 
not carry the Sacrificer dead to the forest, and there 
is no violation of the sacrifice. 

4. He completes (the sacrifice) with tame (beasts), 
— father and son part company 1 , the roads run 
together, the village-boundaries of two villages 
become contiguous, and no ogres, man -tigers, 
thieves, murderers, and robbers come to be in the 
forests. 

Fifth Brahmajva. 

1. Pra^apati poured forth the life-sap of the 
horse (arva-medha) ; when poured forth it went 
from him. Having become fivefold 2 , it entered 
the year, and they (the five parts) became those 
half-months 8 . He followed it up by means of the 
fifteenfold (sets of victims 4 ), and found it; and 
having found it, he took possession of it by means 
of the fifteenfold ones ; for, indeed, they — to wit, the 
fifteenfold (sets) — are a symbol of the half-months, 
and when he seizes the fifteenfold ones, it is the 

1 Or, they exert themselves in different directions, — that is, as the 
commentator explains, because in peace they would not be forced to 
keep together, as they would have to do in troublous times. He, 
however, seems somehow to connect 'vy avasyataA' with the 
root ' vas ' : — ksheme hi sati pitaputrav atra vi pr/'thag vasataA ; 
aksheme tu sambaddhiv apy etiv atra vasata/i. — Whilst in this 
passage the verb would hardly suggest an estrangement between 
father and son, this is distinctly the case in the parallel passage, 
Taitt. Br. Ill, 9, 1, a, where, however, this contingency is con- 
nected with the completion of the sacrifice, not, as here, with tame, 
but with wild beasts. 

* Or the Pahkti metre, consisting of five octosyllabic padas. 

* Viz. as consisting of thrice five days. 
4 See above, XIII, 2, 2, 11. 



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xiii kXndk, 2 adhyAya, 5 brAhmajva, 2. 309 

half-months the Sacrificer thereby takes posses- 
sion of. 

2. Concerning this they say, ' But, surely, the 
year is not taken possession of by him who spreads 
out (performs sacrifice for) a year in any other way 
than by means of the Seasonal sacrifices 1 .' The 
Seasonal sacrifices, doubtless, are manifestly the 
year ; and when he seizes the Seasonal victims a , 
he then manifestly takes possession of the year. 
'And, assuredly, he who spreads out the year in 
any other way than with the (victims) of the set 
of eleven 8 (stakes) is deprived of his offspring (or 

1 On this point, cp. II, 6, 3, 1. — 'Verily, imperishable is the 
righteousness of him who offers the Seasonal sacrifices ; for such 
a one gains the year, and hence there is no cessation for him. He 
gains it in three divisions, he conquers it in three divisions. The 
year means the whole, and the whole is imperishable (without end). 
Moreover, he thereby becomes a Season, and as such goes to the 
gods ; but there is no perishableness in the gods, and hence there is 
imperishable righteousness for him.' 

8 The A"aturmasyas are the victims enumerated V&g. S. XXIV, 
14-19. The first six of them are the last (of the set of fifteen) 
bound to the thirteenth stake ; whilst the remaining victims make up 
all the seven sets of fifteen victims bound to remaining stakes (14-2 1) 
— thus amounting to 121 domesticated animals, cf. XIII, 5, 1, 13, 
seq. In counting the stakes the central one is the first, then 
follows the one immediately south, and then the one immediately 
north of it, and thus alternately south and north. The reason why 
the name ' A!aturmdsya ' is applied to the victims here referred to is 
that the deities for whose benefit they are immolated are the same, 
and follow the same order, as those to whom (the chief) obla- 
tions are made at the Seasonal sacrifices (viz. the constant ones — 
Agni, Soma, Savitri, Sarasvalf, Pushan, and special ones, see 
II, 5, 1, 8-17 ; 5, 2, 7-16; 5, 3, 2-4; 5, 4, 2-10; 6, i, 4-6 ; 6, 

2.9J 6, 3, 4-8). 

* That is to say, he who seeks to gain the year by immolating 
only the Seasonal victims, and the sets of fifteen victims, and does 
not offer likewise the .victims of the set (or rather two sets) of eleven 



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3 1 o satapatha-brAhmawa. 

subjects) and cattle, and fails to reach heaven.' 
This set of eleven (stakes), indeed, is just heaven l , 
and the set of eleven (stakes) means offspring (or 
people) and cattle; and when he lays hands on 
the (victims) of the (two) sets of eleven (stakes) he 
does not fail to reach heaven, and is not deprived 
of his offspring and cattle. 

3. Pra^apati created the Vira^ - ; when created, it 
went away from him, and entered the horse meet 
for sacrifice. He followed it up with sets of ten* 



stakes. These two sets of eleven victims, tied to the twenty-one 
stakes (two being tied to the central stake), are to constitute the 
regular ' savaniya/; paravaA ' of the pressing-days of the A-rvamedha ; 
and in XIII, 5, 1, 3, and 5, 3, n, the author argues against those 
who (on the first, and third days) would immolate only twenty- 
one such victims, all of them sacred to Agni. As regards the second 
day, the author does not mention these particular victims, but this 
can scarcely be interpreted as an approval of twenty-one such 
victims, even though the number twenty-one certainly plays an 
important part on that day — seeing that Katyayana, XX, 4, 25, 
makes the two sets of eleven victims the rule for all three days. 
For the third day, on the other hand, the author of the Brahmawa 
(XIII, 5, 3, n) actually recommends the immolation of twenty-four 
bovine victims as ' savaniya^ paravaA.' The deities of the first set 
of eleven victims (as perhaps also of the second set of the first day) 
are the same as those of the ordinary 'ekadarin? ' (see III, 9, 1, 6- 
2 1 ; and Va£. S. XXIX, 58), whilst the second set (of the second day, 
at all events) has different deities (Va£. S. XXIX, 60). On the 
central day these victims are added to the sets of fifteen victims 
bound there to each of the twenty-one stakes; the mode of dis- 
tribution being the same as on the other two days, viz., so that the 
first victim of each set — that is the one devoted to Agni — is bound 
to the central stake, whilst of the remaining twenty victims one is 
assigned to each stake. 

1 Viz. inasmuch as the stakes stand right in front (to the east) of 
the sacrificial fire and ground, and the Sacrificer would thus miss 
the way to heaven if he were not to pass through the ' ekadajrin!." 

* The Vira# metre consists of (three) decasyllabic padas. 



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XIII KkNDA, 2 ADHVAVA, 6 BRAHMAWA, I. 3II 

(beasts). He found it, and, having found it, he 
took possession of it by means of the sets of ten : 
when he seizes the sets of eleven (beasts), the 
Sacrificer thereby takes possession of the Vira^ - . 
He seizes a hundred, for man has a life of a hundred 
(years) and a hundred energies: vital power and 
energy, vigour, he thus takes to himself. 

4. Eleven decades l he seizes, for the Trish/ubh 
consists of eleven syllables, and the Trish/ubh 
means energy, vigour : thus it is for the obtainment 
of energy, vigour. Eleven decades he seizes, for in 
an animal there are ten vital airs, and the body 
(trunk) is the eleventh : he thus supplies the animals 
with vital airs. They belong to all the gods for the 
completeness of the horse (sacrifice), for the horse 
belongs to all the gods. They are of many forms, 
whence beasts are of many forms; they are of 
distinct forms, whence beasts are of distinct forms. 

Sixth BrAhmajva. 

1. [He puts the horse to the chariot 2 , with Vi^. 
S. XXIII, 5], 'They harness the ruddy bay, 

1 After the (349) domesticated animals have been secured to the 
stakes, sets of thirteen wild beasts are placed on the (twenty) spaces 
between the (twenty-one) stakes, making in all 260 wild beasts. From 
the 150th beast onward (enumerated Va#. S. XXIV, 30-40) these 
amount to 1 1 1 beasts which here are called eleven decades ; the 
odd beast not being taken into account, whilst in paragraph 3 
above the first ten decades are singled out for symbolic reasons. 
These beasts are spread over the twelfth (only the last seven beasts 
of which belong to the first decade) and following spaces. 

1 Along with the sacrificial horse three other horses are put to 
the chariot, with the formula Va^. S. XXIII, 6. Previously to this, 
however, the Hotr»* recites eleven verses in praise of the horse 
(cf. XIII, 5, 1, 16). Both the horses and the chariot are decorated 



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312 tfATAPATHA-BRAHMAtfA. 

moving (round the moveless: the lights shine 
in the heavens);' — the ruddy bay, doubtless, is 
yonder sun : it is yonder sun he harnesses for him, 
for the gaining of the heavenly world. 

2. Concerning this they say, ' Surely, the sacrifice 
goes from him whose beast, when brought up, goes 
elsewhere than the vedi (altar-ground).' [Let him, 
therefore, mutter V&g. S. XXIII, 7,] ' Singer of 
praise, make that horse come back to us by 
that path!' — the singer of praise, doubtless, is 
Vayu (the wind) : it is him he thereby places for 
him (the Sacrificer) on the other side, and so it does 
not go beyond that 

3. But, indeed, fiery mettle and energy, cattle, 
and prosperity depart from him who offers the 
Ajvamedha. 

4. With (VSf. S. XXIII, 8), 'May the Vasus 
anoint thee with the Gayatra metre!' the 
queen consort anoints (the forepart of the 
unharnessed horse); — ghee is fiery mettle, and 
the Gayatri also is fiery mettle : two kinds of fiery 
mettle he thus bestows together on him (the 
Sacrificer). 

5. With, 'May the Rudras anoint thee with 
the Traish/ubha metre!' the (king's) favourite 
wife anoints (the middle part) : — ghee is fiery 
mettle, and the Trish/ubh is energy: both fiery 

with gold ornaments. The Adhvaryu then drives with the Sacri- 
ficer to a pond of water to the east of the sacrificial ground (an 
indispensable feature in choosing the place of sacrifice), and having 
driven into the water he makes him pronounce the formula XXIII, 
7, ' When the wind hath entered the waters, the dear form of Indra, 
do thou, singer of praise, make that horse come back to us by 
that path ; ' whereupon they return to the sacrificial ground. 



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xin kKnda., 2 adhvAya, 6 brAhmajva, 8. 313 

mettle and energy he thus bestows together on 
him. 

6. With, 'May the Adityas anoint thee with 
the <74gata metre!' a discarded wife 1 (of the 
king) anoints (the hindpart) ; — ghee is fiery mettle, 
and the <7agat! is cattle : both fiery mettle and 
cattle he thus bestows together on him. 

7. It is the wives * that anoint (the horse), for 
they — to wit, (many) wives — are a form of prosperity 
(or social eminence) : it is thus prosperity he confers 
on him (the Sacrificer), and neither fiery spirit, nor 
energy, nor cattle, nor prosperity pass away from him. 

8. But even as some of the offering-material may 
get spilled before it is offered, so (part of) the victim 
is here spilled in that the hair of it when wetted 
comes off. When they (the wives) weave pearls (into 
the mane and tail) they gather up its hair. They are 
made of gold : the significance of this has been 
explained. A hundred and one pearls they weave 
into (the hair of) each part 8 ; for man has a life 
of a hundred (years), and his own self (or body) 
is the one hundred and first : in vital power, in the 
self, he establishes himself. They weave them in 
(each) with (one of) the (sacred utterings) relating 
to Pra^apati, 'BdAl bhuva^! svar (earth, air, 



1 That is, a former favourite, but now neglected ; or, according 
to others, one who has borne no son. 

* The fourth and lowest wife of the King the Paligali (cf. XIII, 
4, 1, 8 ; 5, a, 8), though present at the sacrifice, does not take part 
in this ceremony, probably on account of her low-caste origin, as 
the daughter of a messenger, or courier. 

' Viz. either the mane on both sides, and the tail, or the hair of 
the head, the neck (mane) and the tail ; each of the ladies apparently 
taking one of these parts. 



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314 SATAPATHA-BRAHM ANA. 

heaven) ! ' for the horse is sacred to Pra^apati : 
with its own deity he thus supplies it With, 
4 Parched grain, or parched groats ? — in grain- 
food and in food from the cow' — he takes down 
the remaining food 1 (from the cart) for the horse : 
he thereby makes the (king's) people eaters of food 
(prosperous); — 'eat ye, gods, this food! eat 
thou, Pra^apati, this food!' he thereby supplies 
the people with food. 

9. Verily, fiery spirit and spiritual lustre pass 
away from him who performs the A^vamedha. 
The Hotrt and the Brahman engage in a B Tall- 
in ody a 2 (theological discussion); for the Hotr* 
relates to Agni, and the Brahman (priest) to 
Brzhaspati, B> e'haspati being the Brahman (n.) : 
fiery spirit 3 and spiritual lustre he thus bestows 
together on him. With the (central) sacrificial 
stake between them, they discourse together ; for 
the stake is the Sacrificer 4 : he thus encompasses 
the Sacrificer on both sides with fiery spirit and 
spiritual lustre. 

10. [The Brahman asks, Va^. S. XXIII, 9,] 
'Who is it that walketh singly?' — it is yonder 
sun, doubtless, that walks singly 6 , and he is spiritual 

1 Viz. the material left over after what was taken for the Anna- 
homas, XIII, 2, 1, 1 seqq. 

* For a similar discussion between the four priests, prior to the 
offering of the omenta, see XIII, 5, 2, 1 1 seq. 

1 ' Te^as ' is pre-eminently the quality assigned to Agni. 

4 It must be remembered that the sacrificial horse here repre- 
sented by the stake is identified with both Pra^apati and the 
Sacrificer. 

' The actual replies to the questions in Va£\ S. XXIII, 9 and 1 1, 
are contained in the corresponding verses ten and twelve ; being 
given here in an expository way, with certain variations and 



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xiii kXnda, 2 adhyAya, 6 brAhmava, i 6. 315 

lustre : spiritual lustre the two (priests) thus bestow 
on him. 

11. 'Who is it that is born again?' — it is 
the moon, doubtless, that is born again (and again) : 
vitality they thus bestow on him. 

12. 'What is the remedy for cold?' — the 
remedy for cold, doubtless, is Agni (fire): fiery 
spirit they thus bestow on him. 

13. 'And what is the great vessel?' — the 
great vessel, doubtless, is this (terrestrial) world : 
on this earth he thus establishes himself. 

14. [The Hot;? asks the Brahman, Va,f. S. 
XXIII, 11,]* What was the first conception?' 
— the first conception, doubtless, was the sky, rain : 
the sky, rain, he thus secures for himself. 

15. 'Who was the great bird 1 ?' — the great 
bird, doubtless, was the horse : vital power he thus 
secures for himself. 

16. 'Who was the smooth one?' — the smooth 
one (pilippila), doubtless, was beauty (srl *) : beauty 
he thus secures for himself. 



occasional explanatory words (such as ' vnsh/i,'rain,in paragraph 14). 
The answers to the first four questions are supposed to be given 
by the Hotr*', and the last four by the Brahman. 

1 This is the meaning assigned here to ' vayas ' by Mahidhara ; 
but the other meaning of ' vayas,' viz. ' youthful vigour, or age, 
(generally)/ would seem to suit much better, or at least to be 
implied. And Harisvamin accordingly takes it in the sense 
of 'vardhakam' (old age, or long life). Mahidhara, moreover, 
identifies the horse with the horse-sacrifice, which, in the shape of a 
bird, carries the Sacrificer up to heaven. On this notion cp. part 
iv, introduction, pp. xxi-xxii. 

* Instead of ' snA,' the answer given to this question in V&g . S. 
XXIII, 1 2 was ' aviA ' which would either mean ' the gentle, kindly 
one,' or 'the sheep (f.),' but which Mahidhara (in the former sense) 



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3i 6 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

17. 'Who was the tawny one?' — the two 
tawny ones, doubtless, are the day and the 
night 1 : in the day and night he thus establishes 
himself. 

Seventh BrAhmajva. 

1. When the victims have been bound (to the 
stakes), the Adhvaryu takes the sprinkling-water 
in order to sprinkle the horse. Whilst the Sacrificer 
holds on to him behind, he (in sprinkling the horse) 
runs rapidly through the formula used at the Soma- 
sacrifice 2 , and then commences the one for the 
Ajvamedha. 

2. [Va.f. S. XXIII, 13,] 'May Vayu favour 
thee with cooked kinds of food 3 ,' — Vayu (the 
wind) indeed cooks it 4 ; — 'the dark-necked one 
with he-goats,' — the dark-necked one, doubtless, 

takes as (an epithet of) the earth which he also takes ' srt ' to mean 
in the above passage of the Brahmana ; whilst to the <lira£ \ty6iu»ov 
' pilippili ' he assigns the meaning ' slippery ' (Aikka//a) as applying 
to the earth after rain (? deriving it from the root ' lip,' to smear, 
anoint). HarisvSmin, on the other hand, takes ' pilippiUl ' to be an 
onomatopoetic word, in the sense of ' (glossy), beautiful, shining ' :— 
rupdnukaramwabdo«ya« bahurupavila" (? bahurup&nviti) uddyo- 
tavatf ; and he adds : — jrimf/HtratuA (? jrlr mantre tu) nviA pippalok- 
tau (?) s& tu stit eveti br£hma»e vivrftam, katham, iya»» vS avi^ pri- 
thivf, s& £a srtA, nir vi iyam iti va>*anSt. Cf. VI, 1, 2, 33. 

1 Here the original text in V5g. S. XXIII, 12, has simply ' the 
pwangilS was the night.' Mahfdhara explains ' pijaftgila ' by ' piraw- 
gila,' ' beauty-devouring,' inasmuch as the night swallows, or conceals, 
all beauty (or form). Neither this nor the other explanation 
(=pijanga, ruddy-brown) suits the day ; but Harisv4min, who does 
not explain the name, remarks that the night here is taken to 
include the day. Cf. XIII, 5, 2, 18. 

* Viz. V&g. S. VI, 9 ; see III, 7, 4, 4-5- 

' The author seems to take ' paAataiA' in the sense of ' cooking.' 

* Viz. inasmuch as it causes the fire to blaze up, comm. 



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xiii kXnda, 2 adhvAya, 7 brAhma^a, 7. 317 

is Agni (the fire) ; and the fire indeed cooks it (the 
horse) together with the he-goats. 

3. 'The Nyagrodha with cups,' — for when the 
gods were performing sacrifice, they tilted over 
those Soma-cups, and, turned downwards, they took 
root, whence the Nyagrodhas (ficus indica), when 
turned downwards (nyai), take root (roha '). 

4. 'The cotton-tree with growth,' — he confers 
growth on the cotton-tree (salmalia malabarica), 
whence the cotton-tree grows largest amongst 
trees 2 . 

5. 'This male, fit for the chariot/ — he supplies 
the chariot with a horse, whence the horse draws 
nothing else than a chariot 

6. 'Hath come hither on his four feet,' — 
therefore the horse, when standing, stands on three 
feet, but, when harnessed, it pulls with all its feet 
at one and the same time. 

7. 'May the spotless Brahman protect us!' 
— the spotless 8 Brahman (m.), doubtless, is the moon: 

1 Or, whence the Nyagrodhas grow downwards. This refers to 
the habit of the Indian fig-tree, of sending down from the branches 
numerous slender roots which afterwards become fresh stems. Cp. 
the corresponding legend in Ait. Br. VII, 30, told there by way of 
explaining why Kshatriyas, being forbidden to drink Soma, should 
drink the juice extracted from the descending roots of the Indian 
fig-tree. Another reason why the Indian fig-tree (also called 
'va/a') is here connected with the priests' Soma-cups (£amasa), 
is that this is one of the kinds of wood used in making those cups 
(cf. Katy. I, 3, 36 comm.). 

* According to Stewart and Brandis, Forest Flora, p. 31, the 
cotton-tree (or silk-cotton tree) is a very large tree of rapid growth, 
attaining a height of 150 ft., and a girth of 40 ft. 

* Lit. ' the non-black Brahman,' explained as one who has no 
black spots; though it is difficult to see why the moon should 
be favoured with this epithet 



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318 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

to the moon he thus commits it; — 'Reverence 
to Agni!' — to Agni he thus makes reverence. 

8. [V&g\ S. XXIII, 14,] 'Trimmed up is the 
car with the cord,' — with cord one indeed com- 
pletes the car 1 , whence a car, when enveloped 
(with cords 2 ), is very handsome. 

9. 'Trimmed up is the steed with the rein,' 
— with the rein one indeed completes the horse, 
whence the horse, when curbed by the rein, looks 
most beautiful, 

10. 'Trimmed up in the waters was the 
water-born,' — the horse, indeed, has sprung from 
the womb of the waters 3 : with its own (mother's) 
womb he thus supplies it; — ' Brahman (m.), with 
Soma for his leader,' — he thus makes it go to 
heaven with Soma for its leader. 

11. [Va^. S. XXIII, 15,] 'Thyself, fit out thy 
body, O racer,' — 'Take thyself the form which 
thou wishest,' he thereby says to him ; — ' make 
offering thyself,' — sovereign rule (independence) 
he thereby confers on it; — ' rejoice thou thyself,' 
— ' enjoy (rule) thou thyself the world as far as thou 
wishest,' he thereby says to him; — 'thy glory is 
not to be equalled by any one!' — with glory 
he thereby endows the horse. 

12. [V&g. S. XXIII, 16*,] 'Thou shalt not die 

1 In Indian vehicles the different parts are held together by cords. 
For a drawing see Sir H. M. Elliot, The Races of the N.W. Provinces 
of India, II, p. 343. The word for 'cord ' and 'rein ' is the same 
in Sanskrit. 

* ParyutaA=parivesh/ito raggvbhik, comm. ; hardly 'hong all 
round (with ornaments),' as the St Petersb. Diet, takes it. 

• See V, 1, 4, 5; VI, 1, 1, 11. 

4 The first two padas of this verse form the first half-verse of 
j?;g-veda S. I, 162, 21. 



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XIII KXNDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 7 BRAHMAiVA, 1 4. 319 

here, neither suffer harm,' — he thereby cheers 
it; — 'on easy paths thou goest to the gods,' — 
he thereby shows him the paths leading to the 
gods; — 'where dwell the pious, whither they 
have gone,' — he thereby makes it one who shares 
the same world with the pious; — 'thither the god 
Savitrz shall lead thee,' — it is, indeed, Savhr* 
that leads him to the heavenly world. — Whilst 
whispering 1 'I sprinkle thee, acceptable unto 
Pra^apati,' he then holds (the sprinkling water) 
under (its mouth). 

*3- [Va^-. S. XXIII, 17,] 'Agni was an animal; 
they sacrificed him, and he gained that world 
wherein Agni (ruleth) : that shall be thy 
world, that thou shalt gain, — drink thou this 
water!' — 'As great as Agni's conquest was, as 
great as is his world, as great as is his lordship, 
so great shall be thy conquest, so great thy world, 
so great thy lordship,' this is what he thereby says 
to him. 

14. 'Vayu was an animal; they sacrificed 
him, and he gained that world wherein Vayu 
(ruleth) : that shall be thy world, that thou 
shalt gain,— drink thou this water!' — 'As great 
as Vayu's conquest was, as great as is his world, as 
great as is his lordship, so great shall be thy 
conquest, so great thy world, so great thy lordship,' 
this is what he thereby says to him. 

1 Cp. I, 4, 5, 12 : ' Hence whatever at the sacrifice is performed 
for Pra^ipati, that is performed in a low voice (under the 
breath) ; for speech would not act as oblation-bearer for Pra^&pati.' 
Pra^ipati, as representing generation, is often spoken of as 
'undefined ' or ' unexpressed (secret)'; and so is what is muttered 
in a low voice. 



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320 satapatha-brAhmaya. 

15. 'Surya was an animal; they sacrificed 
him, and he gained that world wherein Surya 
(ruleth) : that shall be thy world, that thou 
shalt gain, — drink thou this water!' — 'As great 
as Surya's conquest was, as great as is his world, as 
great as is his lordship, so great shall be thy 
conquest, so great thy world, so great thy lordship,' 
this is what he thereby says to him. Having 
satisfied the horse, and consecrated again the 
sprinkling water, he sprinkles the other victims: 
thereof hereafter. 

Eighth Brahmajva. 
1. Now the gods, when going upwards, did not 
know (the way to) the heavenly world, but the 
horse knew it: when they go upwards with the 
horse, it is in order to know (the way to) the 
heavenly world. 'A cloth, an upper cloth, and 
gold,' this 1 is what they spread out for the horse 2 : 

1 The ' iti ' seems superfluous ; Harisvamin explains it by * etat 
trayara.' For a similar use of the particle, see XIII, a, 2, 1. 

* That is, they spread them on the ground for the horse to lie 
upon. Differently St. Petersb. Diet, • they spread over the horse ; ' 
but see Katy. XX, 6, 10 comm. ; and Harisvamin :— viso yad 
antardhinayalam, adhivaso yad iMMdaiiiyihm, t&k Jba. vasasa 
upari stara»fya*», tayor upari hira»ya**t nidheyam, tasmims traye 
enam adhi upari saw^tfapayanti ; — and he then remarks that 
these three objects here do not take the place of the stalk of grass 
which, in the ordinary animal sacrifice, is thrown on the place where 
the victim is to be killed and cut up (III, 8, 1, 14 ; Kity. VI, 5, 15- 
16), but that the stalk is likewise put down on this occasion. 
Similarly the comm. on Katyayana, where it is stated that the stalk 
of grass (or straw) is first laid down, and then the others thereon. 
Indeed, as was the case in regard to the stalk of grass — representing 
the barhis, or layer of sacrificial grass on the vedi— so here the 
fourfold underlayer is intended to prevent any part of the sacrificial 
material (ha vis)— the victim in this case — from being spilt ' The 



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xin kXnda, 2 adhyAya, 8 brAhmawa, 3. 321 

thereon they quiet (slay) it, as (is done) for no other 
victim; and thus they separate it from the other 
victims. 

2. When they quiet a victim they kill it. Whilst 
it is being quieted, he (the Adhvaryu) offers (three) 
oblations 1 , with (Vif. S. XXIII, 18), 'To the 
breath hail! to the off-breathing hail! to 
the through-breathing hail!' he thereby lays 
the vital airs into it, and thus offering is made by 
him with this victim as a living one 2 . 

3. With, 'Amba! Ambika! Ambalika 3 ! there 
is no one to lead me,' — he leads up the (four) 



upper garment (or cloth) must be sufficiently large to allow its 
being afterwards turned up so as to cover the horse and the queen 
consort. 

1 Prior to these, however, he offers the two 'Pari para vya,' i.e. 
'oblations relating to the victim,' — or, perhaps, 'oblations per- 
formed in connection with the carrying of fire round the victim,' for 
this last ceremony is performed for all the victims (whereupon the 
wild beasts placed between the stakes are let loose) before the 
killing of the horse. See III, 8, 1, 6-16. 

* For the symbolic import of this, see III, 8, a, 4. 

' These are just three variants used in addressing a mother 
(Mutter, Mdtterchen, Mfltterlein), or, indeed, as here, any woman 
(good lady! good woman 1). Ace. to Katy. XX, 6, 12, this is 
the formula which the assistant priest (the Nesh/ri, or, according 
to others, the PratiprastMtri, cf. Katy. VI, 5, 27-28) makes the 
king's wives say whilst leading them up to the slain horse to cleanse 
it. It is, moreover, to be preceded by the formula used, at this 
juncture, at the ordinary animal sacrifice, viz. ' Homage be to thee, 
O wide-stretched one, advance unresisted unto the rivers of ghee, 
along the paths of sacred truth ! Ye divine, pure waters, carry ye 
(the sacrifice) to the gods, well-prepared ! may ye be well-prepared 
preparers 1' (III, 8, 2, 2-3). The words 'Amb&!' &c are, 
according to Mahtdhara, addressed by the women to one another. 
The latter part of the formula as given in the Va^. Samh. (viz. ' the 
horse sleeps near Subhadriki, dwelling in Kampf la ') is apparently 

[44] V 



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322 satapatha-brAhmamv. 

wives * : he thereby has called upon them (to come), 
and, indeed, also renders them sacrificially pure. 

4. With (V£f. S. XXIII, 19), 'We call upon 
thee, the host-leader of (divine) hosts, O my 
true lord!' the wives walk round 1 (the horse), 
and thus make amends to it for that (slaughtering*): 
even thereby they (already) make amends to it ; but, 

rejected (Pas antiquated, or inauspicious) by the author of the 
Brahmana. The ceremony of lying near the dead horse being 
looked upon as assuring fertility to a woman, the formula used 
here is also doubtless meant to express an eagerness on the part of 
the women to be led to the slaughtered horse, representing the 
lord of creatures, Pra^ipati. On this passage compare the remarks 
of Professor Weber (Ind. Stud. I, p. 183), who takes the formula to 
be spoken by the queen consort to her three fellow-wives; and 
who also translates the words ' na ma nayati ka* £ana ' (nobody 
leads me) by ' nobody shall lead me (by force to the horse ; but if 
I do not go) the (wicked) horse will lie near (another woman such 
as) the (wicked) Subadhra living in Kampila.' — Harisvimin's 
commentary on this passage is rather corrupt, but he seems at all 
events to assume that each of the four wives apostrophizes the 
others with the above formula (probably substituting their real 
names for the words ' amba,' &c.) : — lepsam (? lipsam) tavad esha 
patntvaktrakaA (? patntvaktrataA) prapnoti, katham, ekaika hi patni 
itaras tisra amantrya resh&A paiidevayamani dmyate, he ambe he 
ambike he ambalike yuyam apu«y& ntshpadotv asya (?) samipaw, 
sa ka. pakshapatt kutsitouvako mayi yushmakaw sasasti meva(l) 
subhadrikam kamptlavasinfm ida (? iha) surflpaw na tu maw kaa&it 
tatra nayatfti ; sasastfty eva vartam&nasamfpye vartamanavad (Paw. 
HI, 3^ 131) ity asannasevane drash/avyaA. — This barbarous 
ceremony was evidently an old indigenous custom too firmly 
established in popular practice to be easily excluded from the 
sacrificial ritual. That it had nothing to do with Vedic religion 
and was distasteful to the author of the Brahmana is evident from 
the brief way in which he refers to it, and from the far-fetched 
symbolic explanations attached to the formulas and discourses. 

1 Viz. from their ordinary place near the Garhapatya he leads 
them whilst holding jars of water in their hands. 

1 Apahnuvate vismaranty evasmai etat pradakshu>£vartanena 
satujtfapanara unnayanti, comm. 



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XIII KkNDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 8 BRAHMAJVA, 5. 323 

indeed, they also fan l it. Thrice they walk round 2 ; 
for three (in number) are these worlds : by means 
of these worlds they fan it. Thrice again they 
walk round 3 , — that amounts to six, for there are 
six seasons : by means of the seasons they fan it. 

5. But, indeed, the vital airs depart from those 
who perform the fanning at the sacrifice. Nine 
times they walk round 4 ; for there are nine vital 
airs : vital airs they thus put into their own selves, 
and the vital airs do not depart from them. 'I will 
urge the seed-layer, urge thou the seed- 
layer ! ' (the Mahishl says s ) ; — seed, doubtless, 
means offspring and cattle: offspring and cattle 
she thus secures for herself. [Vaf. S. XXIII, 20,] 
' Let us stretch our feet,' thus in order to secure 
union. 'In heaven ye envelop yourselves* 
(the Adhvaryu says), — for that is, indeed, heaven 
where they immolate the victim : therefore he 

1 Thus Harisv&min :— dhuvate dhOnane(na) upava^ayanti, evam 
arvam ra^&nam iva vya^anair etat, — 'they shake themselves,' 
St. Petersb. Diet. ; and, indeed, it is doubtless by the flutter of the 
garments produced in walking round first one way and then 
another, that the fanning is supposed to be produced. 

1 Viz. in sunwise fashion (pradakshiwi), that is so as to keep the 
object circumambulated on one's right side. 

1 Viz. in the opposite, the ' apradakshinam ' way, as is done in 
the sacrifice to the departed ancestors. They do so with the text, 
' We call upon thee, the dear Lord of the dear ones, O my true 
lordl' 

* Viz. another three times in the sunwise way. Having com- 
pleted their circumambulation, the king's wives cleanse the horse's 
apertures of the vital airs (mouth, nostrils, eyes, &c), as the 
Sacrificer's wife did at the ordinary animal sacrifice (III, 8, 2, 4), 
which they do with the text, ' We call upon thee, the treasure- 
lord of treasures, O my true lord 1 ' 

* Cf. Ill, 5, 2, 1 seqq. 

Y 2 



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324 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAJVA. 

speaks thus. — 'May the vigorous male, the 
layer of seed, lay seed ! ' she says in order to 
secure union. 

Ninth BrAhmajva. 

i. But, indeed, that glory, royal power, passes 
away from him who performs the A^vamedha. 

2. [The UdgitW 1 says concerning the king's 
favourite wife, Va/. S. XXIII, 26,] 'Raise her 
upwards 2 ,' — the Axvamedha, doubtless, is that 
glory, royal power: that glory, royal power, he 
thus raises for him (the Sacrificer) upward. 

3. 'Even as one taking a burden up a 
mountain,' — glory (pomp), doubtless, is the burden 
of royal power : that glory, royal power, he thus 
fastens on him (as a burden); but he also endows 
him with that glory, royal power. 

4. ' And may the centre of her body prosper,' 
— the centre of royal power, doubtless, is glory : 
glory (prosperity), food, he thus lays into the very 
centre of royal power (or, the kingdom). 

5. 'As one winnowing in the cool breeze,' — 
the cool of royal power, doubtless, is security of 



1 The colloquy between the men and women, referred to in 
paragraphs 1-8, would seem to go on simultaneously. The verse 
addressed by the Hotr» to the king's discarded wife, V&g. S. XXIII, 
28, is omitted by the Brahma»a, as are also the verses spoken in 
reply by the women (with their attendants), and closely resembling 
those of the men in tone and wording. According to some 
authorities it is the attendant women alone who reply, not the 
king's wives. Katy. XX, 6, 20. 

* Mahtdhara takes the objective pronoun to refer to the VavitS, 
whilst Harisvimin, on the other hand, supplies some such word 
as 'si/Mm.' 



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XIII KA7VCA, 2 ADHYAYA, 9 BRAHMAJVA, 8. 325 

possession : security of possession he procures for 
him. 

6. [The Adhvaryu addresses one of the attendant 
maids, VV. S. XXIII, 22,] 'That little bird,'— 
the little bird, doubtless, is the people (or clan), — 
'which bustles with (the sound) "ahalak,"' — for 
the people, indeed, bustle for (the behoof of) royal 
power, — 'thrusts the "pasas" into the cleft, 
and the " dharaka" devours it,' — the cleft, doubt- 
less, is the people, and the ' pasas ' is royal power ; 
and royal power, indeed, presses hard on the people ; 
whence the wielder of royal power is apt to strike 
down people. 

7. [The Brahman addresses the queen consort, 
Wig. S. XXIII, 24,] ' Thy mother and father,'— 
the mother, doubtless, is this (earth), and the father 
yonder (sky) : by means of these two he causes him 
to go to heaven; — 'mount to the top of the 
tree,' — the top of royal power, doubtless, is glory : 
the top of royal power, glory, he thus causes him 
to attain; — 'saying, "I pass along," thy father 
passed his fist to and fro in the cleft,' — the 
cleft, doubtless, is the people ; and the fist is royal 
power; and royal power, indeed, presses hard on 
the people; whence he who wields royal power is 
apt to strike down people 1 . 

8. [The chamberlain addresses the king's fourth 
wife, Vig. S. XXIII, 30,] 'When the deer eats 
the corn,' — the grain (growing in the field), doubt- 
less, is the people, and the deer is royal power : he 



1 The Mahishi : Thy mother and father are playing on the top 
of the tree like thy mouth when thou wilt talk: do not talk so 
much, Brahman 1 



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326 DATAPATH A- BRAHMAM. 

thus makes the people to be food for the royal 
power, whence the wielder of royal power feeds 
on the people; — 'it thinks not of the fat 
cattle,' — whence the king does not rear cattle; — 
'when the 6*udra woman is the Arya's mistress, 
he seeks not riches that he may thrive 1 ,' — hence 
he does not anoint the son of a Vawya woman. 

9. But, indeed, the vital airs pass from those who 
speak impure speech at the sacrifice. [The queen 
consort having been made to rise by her attendants, 
the priests and chamberlain say, Va^ - . S. XXIII, 32, 
/tig-v. S. IV, 39, 6,] ' The praises of Dadhikravan 
have I sung, (the victorious, powerful horse: 
may he make fragrant our mouths, and pro- 
long our lives!),' — thus they finally utter a verse 
containing the word ' fragrant ' : it is (their own) 
speech they purify 2 , and the vital airs do not pass 
from them. 

Tenth BrAhma^a. 

1. When they prepare the knife-paths, the Sacri- 
ficer makes for himself that passage across, a bridge, 
for the attainment of the heavenly world. 

2. They prepare them by means of needles ; the 
needles, doubtless, are the people 3 (clans), and the 
Asvamedha is the royal power: they thus supply 
him with people and royal power combined. They 
are made of gold : the meaning of this has been 
explained. 

1 Mahidhara interprets, — then he (her husband), the Sudra, does 
not wish for wealth, but is unhappy. 

1 That is to say, they make amends for any breaches of decorum 
committed in the preceding colloquy. 

9 Viz. because of the large number and the small size (insignific- 
ance) of the needles, or wires, (and the common people), comm. 



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XIII KklfDA, 2 ADHYAYA, II BRAHMAtfA, 2. 327 

3. Three kinds of needles are (used), copper ones, 
silver ones, and gold ones ; — those of copper, doubt- 
less, are the (principal) regions (of the compass), 
those of silver the intermediate ones, and those 
of gold the upper ones: it is by means of these 
(regions) they render it fit and proper. By way 
of horizontal and vertical (stitches ') they are many- 
formed, whence the regions are many-formed ; and 
they are of distinct form, whence the regions are 
of distinct form. 

Eleventh Brahmajva. 

1. Pra^apati desired, 'Would that I were great, 
and more numerous ! ' He perceived those two 
Mahiman (greatness) cups of Soma at the Asva.- 
medha ; he offered them ; and thereby, indeed, 
became great and more numerous : hence who- 
soever should desire to become great, and more 
numerous, let him offer up those two Mahiman cups 
of Soma at the A £ vamedha ; and he indeed becomes 
great and more numerous. 

2. He offers them on both sides (before and after) 
the omentum; — the A^vamedha, doubtless, is the 
Sacrificer, and that Mahiman (cup) is the king : it 
is with royal dignity he thus encompasses him on 
both sides. Some gods have the svaha-call (' hail ') 
in front, and the other gods have the svaha-call 
behind s : it is them he thus gratifies. With * Hail 

1 It is doubtful what word, if any, has to be supplied here, — perhaps 
it means, by way of their being (in sewing) horizontal and vertical. 
The commentary is silent on this passage. 

* The formula uttered whilst the first Mahiman cup is offered 
runs thus (V&g. S. XXIII, 2) : ' What greatness of thine there hath 



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328 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

to the gods!' and 'To the gods hail!' he makes 
offering by means of the king (Soma) on both sides 
of the omentum : he thereby gratifies those gods 
who are in this world, and those who are in the 
other, and thus gratified, both these kinds of gods 
lead him to the heavenly world. 

Third Adhyaya. First BrAhmajta. 

i. Pra^apati's eye swelled; it fell out: thence 
the horse was produced ; and inasmuch as it 
swelled (axvayat), that is the origin and nature 
of the horse (a.rva). By means of the Axvamedha 
the gods restored it to its place ; and verily he who 
performs the Asvamedha makes Pra^apati com- 
plete, and he (himself) becomes complete; and 
this, indeed, is the atonement for everything, the 
remedy for everything. Thereby the gods redeem 
all sin, yea, even the slaying of a Brahman x they 
thereby redeem ; and he who performs the A.sva- 
medha redeems all sin, he redeems the slaying of 
a Brahman. 

2. It was the left eye of Praf apati that swelled : 
hence they cut off the (meat) portions from the left 



been in the day and the year ; what greatness of thine there hath 
been in the wind and the air; what greatness of thine there 
hath been in the heavens and the sun, to that greatness of thine, 
to Pra^ipati, hail, to the gods 1 ' whilst that of the second Mahiman 
cup runs thus (XXIII, 4): 'What greatness of thine there hath 
been in the night and the year ; what greatness of thine there hath 
been in the earth and the fire ; what greatness of thine there 
hath been in the Nakshatras (lunar asterisms) and the moon, 
to that greatness of thine, to Pra^Spati, to the gods, hail 1 ' cf. XIII, 

5. 2. »3 J 3, 7- 
1 See XIII, 3, 5, 3 seq. 



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xiii kKnda, 3 adhyAya, i brAhmajva, 4. 329 

side of the horse, and from the right side of other 
victims. 

3. There is a rattan mat, for the horse was 
produced from the womb of the waters, and the 
rattan springs from the water: he thus brings it 
in connection with its own (maternal) womb. 

4. The Aatush/oma l is the form of chanting (on 

1 The term A'atush/oma originally apparently means a sacrificial 
performance, or succession of chants, in which four different Stomas, 
or hymn-forms, are used. Hence, in Ta»dya-Br. VI, 3, 16, the 
name is applied to the ordinary Agnish/oma, for its twelve Stotras, 
or chants, require the first four normal Stomas (Trivrrt, Pafliadaxa, 
Saptadaja, Ek&vimsz). The term has, however, assumed the 
special meaning of a hymnic performance, the different Stomas of 
which (begin with the four-versed one, and) successively increase 
by four verses (cf. XIII, 5, 1, 1). In this sense, two different 
forms of A'atush/oma are in use, one being applicable to an Agnish- 
/oma, the other to a Shcx/arin, sacrifice. Whilst this latter form 
requires only four different Stomas (of 4, 8, 12, 16 verses resp.) 
and thus combines the original meaning of ' Aatush/bma ' with its 
special meaning, the Agnish/oma form, used on the first of the 
three days of the Ajvamedha, requires six Stomas, ascending from 
the four-versed up to the twenty-four-versed one. In regard to this 
latter occasion, Sayawa on Ta»<rya-Br. XXI, 4, 1, curiously enough, 
seems to take ' fatush/oma ' in its original senses, since he speaks 
of this first day of the Arvamedha as an Agnish/oma with four 
Stomas, beginning with Trivrvt; whilst on ib. XIX, 5, 1 seq. he 
gives the correct explanation. As to the distribution of the six 
Stomas over the chants of the first day, see XIII, 5, 1, 1. The 
/fotush/oma has, however, another peculiarity, which, in La/y. S, 
VI, 8, 1 (or at least by the commentator Agnisvamin thereon), is 
taken as that which has given its name to this form of chanting, 
viz. that each stotra performed in it is chanted in four, instead 
of the ordinary three, par) ay as or turns of verses (see part ii, 
p. 310 note). The Bahishpavamana- stotra is to be performed 
on three anush/ubh verses (consisting each of four octosyllabic 
padas) which, however, by taking each time three padas to make 
up a verse, are transformed into four verses, constituting at the 
same time the four paryayas of the Stotra. As regards the exact 



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330 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAiVA. 

the first day) ; for a bee tore out l (a piece of) the 
horse's thigh, and by means of the ATatush/oma 
form of chanting the gods restored it : thus when 
there is the A!atush/oma mode of chanting, it is 
for the completeness of the horse. The last day 
is an Atiratra with all the Stomas 2 — with a view 
to his obtaining and securing everything, for an 
Atiratra with all the Stomas is everything, and the 
Ajvamedha is everything. 

Second BrAhmana. 

i. Now this (Sacrificer), having conquered by 
means of the supreme Stoma — the Aatush/oma, 
the Krita. among dice s , — on the next day establishes 



text to be used there seems to be some doubt, Samav. S. II, 366-8 
(pavasva va^asataye) being mentioned by Sayawa on TaWya-Br. 
XXI, 4, 5 ; whilst on XIX, 5, a he gives S. V. II, 168-70 (ayam 
pushi rayir bhaga-4) as the text to be used — but apparently only 
when the performance is that of an ekaha (one day's sacrifice) 
proper, instead of one of the days of an ahfna sacrifice, as is the 
case in the three days' Ajvamedha. As regards the Ajya-stotras to 
be chanted on the eight-versed Stoma, the text of each of them 
consists of three gayatrt-verses : these are to be chanted in four 
turns (paryaya) of two verses each, viz. either 1 and a, 2 and 3, 
t and a, a and 3 ; — or 1 and 1, 1 and a, a and a, 3 and 3 ; — (or 
1 and 1, 1 and 1, a and a, 3 and 3 ; — or 1 and 1, 2 and a, a and 2, 
3 and 3). By similar manipulations the subsequent Stomas are 
formed. 

1 Or, wounded, as Saya»a takes ' a brthat,' on Timrya-Br. XXI, 
4, 4 (vra«a»* iakara). 

* The Atiratra sarvastoma is arranged in such a way that the 
six principal Stomas are used successively first in the ascending, and 
then again in the descending, or reversed, order as is explained in 
XIII, 5, 3, 10. 

* For this and the other names of the dice, see part iii, p. io6„ 
note 1. 



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xni kAjvba, 3 adhvAya, 2 brAhmajva, 2. 331 

himself on the Ekaviw^a l , as a firm foundation : 
from the Ekaviwsa, as a firm foundation, he sub- 
sequently ascends to the next day, the seasons ; for 
the TrishtAa. (-stotras) are the seasons, and the 
seasons are the year: it is in the seasons, in the 
year, he establishes himself. 

2. The .Sakvarl* (verses) are the FrtshtAa. 
(-stotra of the second day): there is a different 
metre for each (verse), for different kinds of 
animals, both domestic and wild ones, are immo- 
lated here on each (day). As to the Sakvar! 
(verses) being the Pr*sh/Aa, it is" for the complete- 
ness of the horse (sacrifice) 3 ; and different kinds 
of animals are immolated on different (days), because 
different stomas are performed on the different 
(days of the Asvamedha). 

1 Though applying in the first place to the second day of 
the Axvamedha, as an Ukthya sacrifice which is at the same time 
an Ekavimra day, i. e. one the stotras of which are all chanted in the 
twenty-one- versed hymn-form, Ekavimra, the twenty-first or twenty- 
one-fold, as is clear from XIII, 3, 3, 3, here also refers to the sun, 
of which it is a common epithet (cf. part iii, p. 265, note a, also 
XIII, 4, 4, 11). This solar name seems to be derived from the 
fact that the sun is also identified with the central day of the year, 
the Vishuvant day, which is considered the central day of a twenty- 
one days' sacrificial performance — having one prsshMya-shadaha, 
an Abhjfit (or Vwva^it day resp.) and three svaras&man days 
before and after it; — see p. 139, note; and A. Hillebrandt, Die 
Sonnwendfeste in Alt-Indien, p. 6 seqq. 

* That is to say, the so-called Mahanamni verses (Sim. V. ed. 
Bibl. Ind. II, p. 371), chanted on the f&kvara-siman (see part iii, 
of this transl., introd. p. xx, note a), are to be used for the Hotn's 
Pr/'shMa-stotra. For this- purpose the Rathantara-s&man is 
ordinarily used in the Agnish/oma, and the Bnhat-sSman in the 
Ukthya, form of sacrifice. 

* The commentator takes this as an allusion to the 'potent' 
(xakvara=xakta) nature of the verses. 



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332 JATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

3. As to this they say, ' These — to wit, goats and 
sheep and the wild (beasts) — are not all animals * ; 
but those — to wit, the bovine (victims) — are indeed 
all animals/ On the last day he immolates bovine 
(victims), for they — to wit, bovine (victims) — are all 
animals : he thus immolates all animals. They are 
sacred to the All-gods 2 , for the completeness of the 
horse, for the horse is sacred to the All-gods. 
They are many-formed (or, many-coloured), whence 
animals are many-formed ; and they are of distinct 
forms (or colours), whence animals are of distinct 
forms. 

Third BrAhmajva. 

1. Inasmuch as there are three Anush/ubh verses 3 
(on the first day), therefore the horse, when stand- 
ing, stands on three (feet) ; and inasmuch as (they 
are made into) four Gayatri verses, therefore the 
horse, when stepping out, scampers off on all (four) 
feet. For that Anush/ubh, doubtless, is the highest 
metre, and the horse is the highest of animals ; and 
the Aatush/oma is the highest of Stomas : by means 
of what is highest he thus causes him (the Sacrificer) 
to reach the highest position. 

2. The 3akvarl verses are the (Hotri's) Prz*sh/£a 
(of the second day) : there is a different metre for 

1 That is to say, they do not fitly represent all kinds of animals, 
as the highest kind of animals, the bovine cattle, may be said to do. 
The argument as to the ' sarve parava^ ' is, of course, suggested by 
the ' ajvasya sarvatvaya ' of the preceding paragraph ; and to bring 
out the parallelism, one might translate, — these .... are not 
complete animals. 

* See XIII, 5, 3, 11. 

9 That is, for the Bahishpavamana-stotra of the Aatush/oma, see 
p. 329, note; 



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xiii kXnda, 3 adhyAva, 3 brAhmaiva, 6. 333 

each (verse), for different Stomas are performed on 
each (day). And as to the Sakvari verse being 
the Pr*sh/^a (-stotra), it is for the completeness 
of the horse (sacrifice). 

3. The central day is an Ekavi»«a one, for the 
Ekaviwwa is yonder sun, and so is the A^vamedha : 
by means of its own Stoma he thus establishes it 
in its own deity. 

4. The Vamadevya is the Maitrivaru«a's Saman * ; 
for the Vamadevya is Prafapati, and the horse is 
of Pra^apati's nature : he thus supplies it with its 
own deity. 

5. The Parthurayma is the Brahma-saman*; for the 
horse is restrained by means of reins 3 (rarmt), but 
when unrestrained, unchecked, and unsteadied, it 
would be liable to go to the furthest distance : thus 
when the Parthurayma is the Brahma-saman, it is for 
the safe keeping of the horse. 

6. The Sa*»kr*ti 4 is the Ai^Avaka's Saman ; — 

1 That is, the hymn-tune of the second Pr/sh/Aa-stotra chanted 
for the Maitravaruwa (who responds thereto by the recitation of the 
second Nishkevalya-jastra) : the Mah4-Vdmadevya on the text 
' kayi najr iitraS. bhuvat ' (S. V. II, 32-34 ; figured for chanting in 
Bibl. Ind. ed. Ill, p. 89) is ordinarily used for this stotra both in 
the Agnish/oma, and in the Ukthya, form of sacrifice. 

* That is, the tune of the third, or Brahman&Mamsin's, Prz'sh/Aa- 
stotra. For the s&mans commonly used for this stotra see part ii, 
p. 434, note 1. The PSrthuwma-saman may be chanted on either 
of the texts SSmav. II, 352-4 (figured ed. Bibl. Ind. vol. V, p. 395) 
or II, 355-7 (figured vol. V, p. 483). It is the latter text which is to 
be used on the present occasion. On the legendary origin of this 
saman (which is said to represent ' strength/ and therefore to be 
appropriate to a Ra^anya) see T&Wya-Br. XIII, 4, 17. 

* Or, is fastened by means of a rope. 

* The Sawkrrti-sSman is used with the texts S&mav. II, 663-4 
(figured ed. Bibl. Ind. V, p. 407), II, 669-70 (ib. p. 482, wrongly 



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334 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAWA. 

that A-rvamedha, indeed, is, as it were, a disused 
sacrifice, for what is performed thereof, and what 
is not * ? When the Sa*»kr*ti is the AiAavika's 
Siman, it is for (bringing about) the completeness 
of the horse (sacrifice). The last day is an Atiratra 
with all the (six) Stomas, in order to his (the Sacri- 
ficer*s) obtaining everything, for an Atiratra with all 
the Stomas is everything, and the A.rvamedha is 
everything. 

7. The fire-altar is the twenty-one-fold one 8 , the 
Stoma the twenty-one-fold one, and there are twenty- 
one sacrificial stakes; even as bulls or stallions 3 
would clash together, so do these Stomas 4 , the 



called Sawgati), and II, 679-81 (ib. p. 515). It is probably the 
second of these texts that is to be used here, as it is also used for 
the same stotra on the second day of the Garga-trir&tra. 

1 Cp. the corresponding passage, Taitt. S. V, 4, 12, 3, 'that 
Axvamedha, indeed, is a disused sacrifice, for, say they, who knows 
if the whole of it is performed or not?' Perhaps, however, 
' utsanna-ya^tfa ' rather means ' a decayed sacrifice,' i. e. one which 
has lost (or in the usual performance is apt to lose) some of its 
original elements ; whence the • Samkrui ' tune is to be used for the 
purpose of ' making up ' the lost parts. Part of the commentary 
in this passage is not clear to me :— uAfcaiAkalapagramddau sid- 
dhasthlne satrasthito granthato*rthatar ka. yat ya£#a utsannaya^fta 
esha yzh ajvamedhaA katham utsanna ity ata aha, kirn vi hid, yasya 
dharmi^ purvayonau (? purvayuge) prayu^yante teshaVn kimiit kalau 
kriyate Vimk'm. na kriyate, tat&r ka, samkmir aMdv&kasama bhavati. 

* That is, an altar measuring twenty-one man's lengths on each 
of the four sides of its body. 

* The commentary seems to take both ' nshabha ' and ' vrrshan ' 
here in the sense of 'bulls,' but cp. Taitt Br. Ill, 8, 21, 1, ' yatha" 
vi &f v& varshabhl v4 vr*'shS»aA szm sphureran ' — ' even as if male 
horses or bulls were to clash together.' 

* That is, not only the twenty-one-fold Stoma, but also the other 
two twenty-one-fold objects, looked upon as Stomas (lit. ' means of 
praise '). 



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xm kajvda, 3 adhyAya, 3 brAhmaata, io. 335 

twenty-one-versed, run counter to one another : 
were he to bring them together, the Sacrificer would 
suffer harm, and his sacrifice would be destroyed. 

8. There may, indeed, be a twelvefold altar, and 
eleven stakes. When the altar is a twelvefold 
one — twelve months being a year — it is the year, 
the sacrifice, he obtains. When there are eleven 
stakes, then that Vira^ - (metre), the Ekadarint 1 , is 
contrived; and that which is its eleventh (stake) 
is its teat : thereby he milks it 

9. As to this they say, ' If there were a twelvefold 
altar, and eleven stakes, it would be as if one were 
to drive on a cart drawn by one beast' There are 
the twenty-one-fold altar, the twenty-one-fold Stoma, 
and twenty-one stakes : that is as when one drives 
with side-horses. 

10. That twenty-one-fold one, indeed, is the head 
of the sacrifice; and, verily, he who knows three 
heads on the A$vamedha, becomes the head of 
kings. There are the twenty-one-fold altar, the 
twenty-one-fold Stoma, and twenty-one stakes : these 
are the three heads on the A^vamedha ; and, verily, 
he who thus knows them becomes the head of 
kings. And, indeed, he who knows the three tops 
on the A$vamedha, becomes the top of kings ; — 
there are the twenty-one-fold altar, the twenty-one- 
fold Stoma, and twenty-one stakes : these, indeed, 
are the three tops on the Ajvamedha ; and, verily, 
he who thus knows them becomes the top of 
kings. 

* Viz. the set of eleven (stakes), here represented as a cow ; but 
in order to assimilate it to the Vira#, or metre consisting of ten 
syllables, the eleventh stake is made the teat or udder of the 
cow. 



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336 satapatha-brAhmajva. 



Fourth BrAhmaya. 

i. Verily, the horse is slaughtered for all the 
deities: were he to make it one belonging to 
Pra^apati (exclusively), he would deprive the deities 
who are co-sharers of their share. Having made 
ghee (to take the part of) portions (of the horse's 
body) he makes oblations ' to the deities in mention- 
ing them one by one with (Va^. S. XXV, 1-9), 
'The Grass (I gratify) with the teeth, the 
Lotus with the roots of the hair, ...:' the 
deities who are co-sharers he thus supplies with 
their share. When he has offered the Arawye 
«nu^ya (oblations) 2 , he offers the last oblation to 

1 These oblations of ghee, apparently amounting to 13 2, are made, 
after the principal flesh-portions have been offered, viz. in the 
interval between the ghee oblation to Vanaspati (the lord of the 
forest, or the plant, Soma) and the Svish/akr/'t oblation, for which see 
part ii, pp. 208-9 > eacn formula, as a rule, containing the name of 
some divinity, and that of some part of the body of the horse sup- 
posed to be represented by the ghee (by four ladlings of which the 
offering spoon is filled each time). Mahtdhara, apparently in 
accordance with the Brihmana, supplies ' prinami (I gratify) ' with 
each (complete) formula which then concludes with ' svahi (hail) ! ' 
According to other authorities, however, these formulas are each 
to be divided into two separate dedicatory formulas : — ' To the Grass 
hail! To the Teeth hail!' &c. — The last of the 132 oblations 
(with the formula, ' To Gumbaka, hail ! ') is, however, withheld for 
the present to be offered (or perhaps the formula alone is to be 
muttered) at the end of the purificatory bath (avabhntha) towards 
the end of the sacrifice on the third day. 

* The term 'ara»ye*nu£ya' (' to be recited in the forest') we 
met before (IX, 3, 1, 24) as applying to the last of seven cakes 
offered to the Maruts immediately after the installation of Agni 
(the sacred fire) on the newly-built altar. The formula used for 
that cake is the so-called Vimukha-verse, V&g. S. XXXIX, 7. This 



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xiii kAjvda, 3 adhyaya, 4 brahmajva, 3. 337 

Heaven and Earth ; for all the gods are established 
in heaven and on earth : it is them he thereby 
gratifies. Now the gods and the Asuras were 
contending together. 

2. They (the gods) spake, ' We are the AgnayaA 
Svish/akma^ 1 of the horse (sacrifice) ; let us take 
out for ourselves a special share: therewith we 
shall overcome the Asuras.' They took the blood 
for themselves in order to overcome their rivals : 
when he offers the blood to the Svish/akrzts, 
it is in order to overcome (his own) rivals; and 
the spiteful rival of him who knows this is undone 
by himself. 

3. The first oblation (of blood) he offers * in the 



verse is followed in the Sawhita by a series of twenty formulas 
(ib. 8-9) of a similar nature to those referred to in the preceding 
note (L e. consisting each of a deity and a part of the body of 
the horse — ' Agni I gratify with the heart,' &c), and these again 
by forty-two expiatory formulas (' To the hair, hail ! ' &c, ib. ic— 
13), ending with, 'To Yama, hail! To Antaka (the Ender), 
hail ! To Death, hail ! To (the) Brahman, hail ! To Brahman- 
slaying, hail ! To the All-gods, hail ! To Heaven and Earth, hail 1 ' 
These sixty-two formulas are used with as many ghee-oblations, 
which are to be performed immediately after the 131st of the 
previous set of oblations. Prior, however, again to the last of the 
forty-two expiatory oblations, (viz. the one made with ' To Heaven 
and Earth, hail ! ') there is another set of sixteen oblations (XIII, 3, 
6, 1 seqq.), the so-called ' A^vastomtya ahutaya^ ' or ' oblations 
relating to the Stomas of the horse (sacrifice),' each of which has 
a complete couplet for its offering-formula (V&g. S. XXV, 24-39). 
To all these three sets of oblations the term ' ara«ye « nu£ya ' is here 
extended by the author. At the end of the third set this succession 
of ghee-oblations is concluded with the last expiatory oblation, that 
to Heaven and Earth ; whereupon the ordinary flesh-oblation to 
Agni Svish/akrA is performed. 

' I. e. the (three) fires, the makers of good offering. 

* The formula for each of these three special blood-oblations — 

[44] 2 



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338 satapatha-brahmawa. 

throat (gullet) of the Gomriga. 1 ; for Gomr/gas 
are cattle, and the Svish/akrzt is Rudra: he thus 

offered immediately after the ordinary Svish/aknt oblation, and 
being, in fact, the special Svish/akrrt of the Ajvamedha — is 
'AgnibhyaA svish/akr/'dbhyaA svaha, i.e. to the (three) Agnis, the 
makers of good offering, hail!' 

1 ' Gomr/'ga ' is usually taken by the commentators, and in our 
dictionaries, as another name of the 'Gavaya,' variously called 
Gayal, Bos Gavaeus, Bos frontalis, or Bos cavifrons, a species of 
wild cattle found in various mountain districts of India (especially 
on the eastern boundaries of Bengal, and in Malabar, as also in 
Ceylon), and frequently domesticated amongst the hill-tribes, by 
whom it is valued for its flesh and milk (cf. Colebrooke's paper, 
As. Res. VIII, p. 511 seqq.). The Gavaya itself is, however, as 
Colebrooke remarks, confounded by some Sanskrit writers with 
the ' Risya.,' which he takes to be the buck of the painted, or white- 
footed (or slate-coloured) Antelope, the Portax pictus (or Antelope 
picta), also called by the vernacular names of Nilgau or (Mahr.) 
Nllgay, whilst the female is called 'rohit' in Sanskrit All these 
three animals occur amongst the wild animals to be used as 
quasi-victims, but ultimately released on the second day of the 
Ajvamedha; and I am inclined to think that they are three 
different animals. To show that the Jiisya. and the Gavaya can- 
not be the same animals, Colebrooke already refers to the fact 
that three Jtisyas (consecrated to the Vasus) and three Gavayas 
(to Br/haspati) occur as victims side by side in Va^asaneyi- 
sa/nhita XXIV (27 and 28); and in the same way a Gomriga, 
sacred to Pra^apati and Vayu, is mentioned immediately after, 
ib. 30 ; whilst another, sacred to Pra^apati, was, as we saw, one 
of the two animals tied along with the horse to the central stake 
(see XIII, 2, 2, 2). Taitt. S. II, 1, 10, 2, treating of the sacrifice 
of a Gomrsga to Vayu, remarks that it is neither a domestic 
animal (or cattle, paiu) nor a wild one ; and Sayawa explains it as 
a cross between a female deer (or antelope, mrz'gf) and a bull 
that has gone with his cows to graze in the forest; whilst, on 
Taitt. Br. Ill, 8, 20, 5, he leaves one to choose between its being 
a vicious bull (dhurto balivardaA), dangerous to men, or an animal 
'of mixed breed, sprung from a cow and a male gazelle or 
antelope (gohari»ayoA, or possibly, from parent beasts of the 
bovine and antelope species).' In this latter passage, the editor 



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xiii kAnda, 3 adhyAya, 5 brAhmajva, i. 339 

shields the cattle from Rudra, whence Rudra does 
not prowl after the cattle where this oblation is 
offered at the Ajvamedha. 

4. The second oblation 1 he offers on a horse- 
hoof; for the one-hoofed (animals) are cattle, and the 
Svish/akm is Rudra: he thus shields the cattle from 
Rudra, whence Rudra does not prowl after the cattle 
where this oblation is offered at the A^vamedha. 

5. The third oblation he offers in an iron bowl ; 
for the people (subjects) are of iron*, and the 
Svish/akm is Rudra: he thus shields the people 
from Rudra, whence Rudra does not prowl after 
the cattle where this oblation is offered at the 
Afvamedha. 



Fifth BrAhma;va. 

1. Verily, there are deaths 8 connected with all 
the worlds; and were he not to offer oblations to 
them, Death would get hold of him in every world ; 



of the Brahma*a (in the list of contents, p. 53) takes it to mean 
'wild cattle (Nilag&o gomrtga, erroneously explained as a cross 
between a deer and a cow),' which would be a probable enough 
explanation, if the J?«ya were not the Nilgau ; whilst otherwise 
the animal might belong to some other species of bovine antelopes 
no longer found in India. 

1 Whilst the first of these oblations must take place immediately 
after the ordinary Svish/aknt of the animal sacrifice, the second 
may be postponed till after the ' after-offerings ' ; and the third till 
after the ' Patnisamya^as.' See also XIII, 5, 3, 8 seq. 

* That is, their value — as compared with that of the king or 
nobles, and the Brahmanas — is that of iron, compared with that of 
gold and silver; cp. XIII, 2, 2, 19. 

' That is, according to Slyana, on Taitt. Br. Ill, 9, 15, 1, 
causes of death, such as diseases, &c. 

Z 2 



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•*40 satapatha-brahmaya. 



when he offers oblations to the Deaths 1 , he 
wards off Death in every world. 

2. Concerning this they say, ' If, in offering, he 
were to name them all, saying, " To such 2 (a death) 
hail! To such (a death) hail!" he would make 
that manifold death his enemy 8 , and would give 
himself over to Death.' Only one oblation he 
offers to one of them, with, 'To Death, hail!' 
for there is indeed but one Death in yonder 
world, even Hunger 4 : it is him he wards off in 
yonder world. 

3. A second oblation he makes with, 'To Brahman- 
slaying, hail !' for, doubtless, a murder other than the 
slaying of a Brahman is no murder ; but that — to 
wit, the slaying of a Brahman — is manifestly murder: 
he thus manifestly wards off Death 6 . 

1 The oblations referred to ip this Brahmawa (§§ 1-4) occur 
towards the end of the second set of 'ara»ye*nu>tya' obla- 
tions mentioned above, p. 336, note 2, where the formulas 
are given. According to Taitt. Br., I.e., however, these final 
oblations are to be performed — like that to Gumbaka (Varuwa) — 
at the time of the purificatory bath, which, indeed, may also be 
intended by our Brahma»a, though Katydyana and Mahtdhara 
seem to offer no indications to that effect. It is clear that these 
final oblations must have formed the subject of considerable 
discussion among the early ritualists. 

* That is, according to Sayaaa (Taitt. Br.), ' To death in the 
shape of disease, to death in the shape of poverty, &c.' Hari- 
svamin, on our passage, has merely, 'Amusbmai pitr/lokaya 
mrrtyave'— 'To death (in the shape of) the world of the Fathers,' 
which is not very clear. 

' Or, perhaps, he would make himself many a death-enemy 
(bahuw mrttyum amitram kurvfta), the two nouns being taken 
as in apposition to each other; cf. p. 146, note 1. 

4 See X, 6, 5, 1. 

* Or, he thus wards off what is manifestly Death (Death in 
person). 



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xiii kAjvda, 3 adhyAya, 6 brAhmawa, 2. 341 

4. Mundibha. Audanya 1 it was who discovered 
this atonement for the slaying of a Brahman ; and 
when one offers the oblation to the Brahmahatya he 
prepares a remedy for the slayer of a Brahman by 
satisfying Death himself with an oblation, and 
making a protection 2 for him (the slayer). At 
whosoever's Asvamedha, therefore, this oblation is 
offered, even if in after-times s any one in his family 
kills a Brahman, he thereby prepares a remedy 
(expiation) for him. 

Sixth BrAhmajva. 

1 . When the horse was slaughtered, the life-sap * 
went out of it ; it became the Asvastomtya (set 
of oblations tt ) : when he offers the Asvastomtya 
(oblations) he indeed supplies the horse with 
life-sap. 

2. He performs it with ghee ; for ghee is life-sap, 
and the Aivastomtya is life-sap : by means of life- 

1 That is, according to Harisvamin, the son of Udanya (Odana, 
St. Petersb. Diet), Taitt. Br. Ill, 9, 15, 3, has Munrfbha Audanyava 
(i.e. the son of Udanyu, Say.) instead. The Taitt. Br., besides, 
makes the crime to be expiated here to be, not ' brahmahatyi,' but 
' bhrfl»ahatyi,' the killing of an embryo. S&ya/ta, however, there 
allows to 'bhruwa' optionally its later meaning of 'a Brahmaaa 
versed in the three Vedas and the sacrificial art (kalpa),' and the 
Taitt. Br. itself, at all events, takes this oblation to ' bhrunahatyl ' 
to atone likewise for the slaying of a Brahmawa. 

* Harisvamin explains ' paripS«am ' by ' parmsh/am vanantam 
panam ' (?) ; whilst Sdya«a, in Taitt. Br., takes it in the sense of 
'sarvataA patram,' Le. having made the Sacrificer 'a thoroughly 
worthy person.' 

* Harisvamin here unwarrantably takes ' aparuhu ' in the sense 
of ' in past times.' 

* Or, sacrificial essence. 
8 See p. 336, note 2. 



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342 DATAPATH A-BRAhMANA. 

sap he thus puts life-sap into it. He performs 
with ghee, for that — to wit, ghee — is the favourite 
resource of the gods : he thus supplies them with 
their favourite resource. 

3. Having performed the Asvastomiya (set of) 
oblations, he offers the Dvipadas 1 ; for the A^va- 
stomiya is the horse, and the Dvipada is man, for 
man is two-footed (dvipad), supported on two (feet): 
he thus supplies him with a support 

4. Concerning this they say, ' Is the Arvastomlya 
to be offered first, or the Dvipada ? ' The Asva- 
stomlya, surely, is cattle, and the Dvipada is man : 
inasmuch as he performs the Dvipadas after perform- 
ing the Ajvastomiya, man subsequently establishes 
himself amongst cattle. 

5. Sixteen A^vastomlya oblations he performs, 
for animals (cattle) consist of sixteen parts * : that 
is the measure of cattle, and he thus supplies cattle 
with their (right) measure. Were he to offer either 
less or more, he would deprive cattle of their (right) 
measure. Sixteen he offers, for cattle consist of 
sixteen parts : that is the measure of cattle, and 
he thus supplies cattle with their (right) measure. 
He offers no other as a final oblation 3 : were he 
to offer another as a final oblation, he would lose 

1 The formulas of the six dvipadls — i.e. (verses) consisting of 
two p&das— are found Va^. S. XXV, 46-47. 

2 See XII, 8, 3, 13 ; for a highly artificial explanation of the six- 
teen parts of the man Pra^Spati, probably intended here, X, 4, 1, 17. 
Elsewhere those of animals are explained as including head, neck, 
trunk, tail, the four legs and eight claws ; see Weber, bid. Stud. IX, 
p. in, note. 

* This would seem to be directed against the practice of 
performing the oblation to Heaven and Earth immediately after 
the Ajvastomiyas, see p. 336, note a. 



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xm KkitDA, 3 adhyAya, 6 brAhmajva, 6. 343 

his support. The Dvipadas he offers last, for 
Dvipadas are a support: he thus finds a support 
(establishes himself). With, ' To £umbaka hail ! ' 
he offers, at the purificatory bath, the last oblation ' ; 
for Cumbaka is Varu«a : by sacrifice he thus 
manifestly redeems himself from Varu#a. He 
offers it on the head of a white-spotted *, bald- 
headed (man) with protruding teeth 8 and reddish 
brown eyes; for that is Varu»a's form: by (that) 
form (of his) he thus redeems himself from Varu»a. 

6. Having stepped out (of the water) he prepares 
twelve messes of cooked rice for the priests, or 
performs twelve ish/is. Concerning this they say, 
' These — to wit, ish/is — are a form of sacrifice : were 
he to perform ish/is, the sacrifice would be ready 
to incline towards him; but he would become the 
worse for it, for, surely, of exhausted strength now 
are the metres (offering formulas) of him who has 
performed the Soma-sacrifice ; — how could he make 
use of them so soon ? For when the sacrifice is 
complete, Va£ (speech and sacred writ *) is wholly 
gained, and, being gained, it now is exhausted in 
strength, and, as it were, wounded and mangled; 
but sacrifice is speech : hence he should not make 
use of it' 

1 See p. 336, note 1. 

1 ? Or, pale. S&ya«a, on Taitt. Br. Ill, 9, 15, 3, explains 
'rakla' by 'Jitrin' (? having white spots, or affected with white 
leprosy). Harisvimin does not explain the word. 

* Harisv&min explains * viklidha' by ' dantura,' i.e. one who has 
projecting teeth; whilst Siyana, l.c, explains it by either 'given 
to perspiring (svedanarflarartra),' or ' moist-bodied (? leprous, or, 
old, in bodily decay, viklinnadeha).' 

4 Cf. V, 5, 5, 12 ' that triple Veda is the thousandfold progeny 

ofVa*.' 



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344 jatapatha-brAhmajva. 

7. Having stepped out (of the water) he should 
certainly prepare twelve messes of rice for the 
priests ; for cooked rice is Prafapati, and Pragapati 
is the year, Pra/apati is the sacrifice : it is the year, 
the sacrifice, he thus gains, and the sacrifice becomes 
ready to incline towards him, and he does not 
become the worse for it. 



Seventh BrAhmajva. 

1. Verily, this is the sacrifice called Strengthful : 
wherever they worship with this sacrifice, everything 
indeed becomes strong. 

2. Verily, this is the sacrifice called Plenteous : 
wherever they worship with this sacrifice, everything 
indeed becomes plentiful. 

3. Verily, this is the sacrifice called Obtainment r 
wherever they worship with this sacrifice, everything 
indeed becomes obtained. 

4. Verily, this is the sacrifice called Distinction : 
wherever they worship with this sacrifice, everything 
indeed becomes distinct l . 

5. Verily, this is the sacrifice called Severance: 
wherever they worship with this sacrifice, every- 
thing indeed becomes severed 8 . 

6. Verily, this is the sacrifice called Food- 
abounding: wherever they worship with this sacri- 
fice, everything indeed becomes abounding in food. 

7. Verily, this is the sacrifice called Sapful : 



1 Svakarmasu bhigena sthapitam (? confined respectively to its 
own functions), comm. 

* Harisvamin supplies ' akaryebhyaA ' — is kept away from what 
it is forbidden to do, or from what is not one's business. 



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xiii ka>da, 3 adhyAya, 8 brAhmaiva, i. 345 

wherever they worship with this sacrifice, every- 
thing indeed becomes rich in sap (or drink). 

8. Verily, this is the sacrifice called Abounding in 
holiness : wherever they worship with this sacrifice, 
the Brahma»a is born as one rich in holiness. 

9. Verily, this is the sacrifice called Excelling in 
hitting: wherever they worship with this sacrifice, 
the Ra^anya is born as one excelling in hitting (the 
mark). 

10. Verily, this is the sacrifice called the Long 
(wide) one: wherever they worship with this 
sacrifice, a wide tract of forest-land will be 
provided '. 

11. Verily, this is the sacrifice called Fitness: 
wherever they worship with this sacrifice, everything 
indeed becomes fit and proper. 

12. Verily, this is the sacrifice called Support 
(foundation) : wherever they worship with this 
sacrifice, everything indeed becomes supported 
(firmly established). 

Eighth BrAhmajva. 
Expiatory Offerings. 

i. Now, then, of the expiations. If the sacrificial 
horse were to couple with a mare, let him in addition 
prepare a milk (oblation) to Vayu ; — Vayu doubtless 
is the transformer of seeds, for Vayu (the wind) 
is the vital air, and the vital air is the transformer 

1 That is, as would seem, either as a protection from neighbour- 
ing countries, or as room for spreading, and as pasture-land. 
Cf., however, XIII, 2-4, a, 4, where, as in Ait. Br. Ill, 44; VI, 23, 
such a belt of jungle is referred to as a source of danger to the 
inhabitants of a country. 



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346 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

of seeds: by means of seed he thus puts seed 
into it 

2. And if disease were to befal it, let him in 
addition prepare a pap to Pushan, for Pushan 
rules over beasts (cattle) ; and, indeed, he thereby 
gratifies him who owns cattle and rules over cattle ; 
and it (the horse) thereby indeed becomes free from 
disease. 

3. And if sickness without (visible) injury x were 
to befal it, let him in addition prepare for (Agni) 
Vaisvanara a cake on twelve potsherds, with the 
earth serving for potsherds 2 ; for Valrvanara is this 
(earth) : he thereby gratifies this (earth), and it (the 
horse) becomes free from disease. 

4. And if an eye-disease were to befal it, let him 
in addition prepare a pap to Surya; — the Sun, 
doubtless, is the eye of creatures, for when he rises 
everything here moves : by means of the eye (of 
the world) he thus bestows the eye upon it And 
as to why it is a pap (£aru), it is because by means 
of the eye this self (body or mind) moves (iar). 

5. And if it were to die in water, let him in 
addition prepare a barley pap to Varu#a, for 
Varu»a seizes him who dies in water : he thereby 
thus gratifies that very deity who seizes it, and, 
thus gratified, he approves his slaughtering another 
(horse), and he slaughters it as one approved by 
that (deity). And as to why it is (prepared) of 
barley, it is because barley belongs to Varu«a. 

6. And if it were to get lost, let him in addition 



1 Viz. such as fever, comm. 

* That is, spreading them on the earth, or on clods of earth, 
comm. 



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xm kAjvda, 4 adhyAya, i brAhmaata, 3. 347 

perform an ish/i with three sacrificial dishes — a cake 
on one potsherd for Heaven and Earth, a milk 
(oblation) for Vayu, and a pap for Surya; — for 
whatsoever is lost, is lost within heaven and earth ; 
and the wind blows upon it, and the sun shines 
upon it; and nothing whatever is lost out of (the 
reach of) these deities. And even by itself 1 this 
(ish/i) is the recoverer of what is lost; and even 
if any other thing of his were to get lost let him 
perform this very offering, and he verily finds it 
And if enemies were to obtain the horse, or if it 
were to die (either in any other way) or in water 2 , 
let them bring another (horse) and consecrate it by 
sprinkling: this, indeed, is the expiation in that 
case. 

Fourth AdhyAya. First BrAhmawa. 

1. Pra^apati desired, 'Would that I obtained all 
my desires ! would that I attained all attainments ! ' 
He beheld this three days' Soma-sacrifice, the 
A^vamedha, and took possession of it, and sacrificed 
with it : by sacrificing therewith he obtained all his 
desires, and attained all attainments ; and, verily, 
whosoever performs the A^vamedha sacrifice obtains 
all his desires, and attains all attainments. 

2. Concerning this they say, ' In what season is 
the beginning (to be made) ? ' — ' Let him begin it 
in summer,' say some, ' for summer is the Kshatriya's 
season, and truly this — to wit, the Asvamedha — is 
the Kshatriya's sacrifice.' 

3. But let him rather begin it in spring; for 

1 That is, even independently of the horse-sacrifice. 
* That is to say, if it were to die by getting drowned, or in any 
other way. 



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348 ^atapatha-brAhma^a. 



spring is the Brahmawa's season, and truly who- 
soever sacrifices, sacrifices after becoming, as it 
were, a Brahmawa : let him therefore by all means 
begin it in spring. 

4. And six days, or seven days, before that full- 
moon of Phalguna, the officiating priests meet 
together — to wit, the Adhvaryu, the Hotri, the 
Brahman, and the Udgatrz; for under these 1 the 
other priests are. 

5. The Adhvaryu prepares for them a priest's 
mess of rice sufficient for four persons : the meaning 
of this has been explained*. Four bowlfuls, four 
double handfuls, four handfuls : twelvefold this is — 
twelve months are a year, and the year is every- 
thing, and the A^vamedha is everything — thus it is 
in order to his gaining and securing everything. 

6. Those four priests eat it : the meaning of this 
has been explained. He (the Sacrificer) gives to 
them four thousand (cows) in order to his gaining 
and securing everything, for a thousand means 
everything, and the Asvamedha is everything. 
And (he gives them) four gold plates weighing 
a hundred (grains) : the meaning of this has been 
explained s . 

7. The Adhvaryu then, hanging a gold ornament 
(nishka) round him, makes him mutter (Va/. S. 
XXII, 1), 'Fire thou art, light and immor- 
tality,' — for gold, indeed, is fire, light 4 , and 

1 Or, along with these, included in them (are the assistant 
priests). 

* See XIII, 1, 1, 1 ; 4 (cf. II, 1, 4, 4). 

• XII, 7, a, 13. 

4 Perhaps Mahfdhara is right in taking 'jrukram' here in the 
sense of 'seed' (Agner vfiyam); cf. II, i, 1, 5; XIII, 1,1, 4. 



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xiii kAjvda, 4 adhyAya, i brAhmajva, io. 349 

immortality: fire (fiery mettle), light (brilliance), 
and immortality he thus bestows upon him; — 
'protector of life, protect my life!' he thereby 
bestows life (vital strength) upon him. With 
a view to commencing the sacrifice, he then says 
to him, ' Restrain thy speech ! ' for the sacrifice is 
speech. 

8. Four (of the king's) wives are in attendance — 
the consecrated queen, the favourite wife, a discarded 
wife, and the Palagall 1 , all of them adorned and 
wearing gold ornaments (neck-plates) — with the view 
of the completeness of conjugal union. With them 
he enters the hall of the sacrificial fires — the 
Sacrificer by the eastern, the wives by the southern, 
door. 

9. When the evening-offering * has been per- 
formed, he lies down with his favourite wife 
behind the Garhapatya hearth, with his head 
towards the north. At the same place 8 the other 
(wives) also lie down. He lies in her lap without 
embracing her 4 , thinking, 'May I, by this self- 
restraint, reach successfully the end of the year ! ' 

10. When the morning offering has been per- 
formed, the Adhvaryu performs a full-offering* 
with a view to his (the Sacrificer's) gaining and 
securing everything, for the full means everything, 
and the A^vamedha is everything. At this (offer- 
ing) he releases speech by (bestowing) a boon, 

1 See p. 313, note 2. 

1 That is the evening performance of the Agnihotra. 
9 Tad eva tatraiva, coram. 
4 So»ntaroru asawvartaminaA xete. 

* For particulars regarding the ' purwahuti,' or oblation of 
a spoonful of ghee, see part i, p. 302, note 2. 



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350 satapatha-brAhmaya. 

saying, ' I grant a boon to the Brahman (priest) : ' 
(this he does) with a view to his gaining and securing 
everything, for a boon is everything, and the Asva.- 
medha is everything. 

ii. The gold ornament which is attached to his 
(neck) he then gives to the Adhvaryu: in giving 
it to the Adhvaryu he secures to himself immortal 
life, for gold means immortal life. 

1 2. For the object of (gaining) the road, and in 
order not to lose the mouth (mukha) of the sacrifice, 
he then prepares an ish/i-offering x to Agni. For, 
indeed, all the deities have Agni for their mouth, 
and in the Axvamedha are (contained) all objects 
of desire : ' Having, at the outset (mukhala^), 
gratified all the gods, may I obtain all my desires ! ' 
so he thinks. 

1 3. For this (offering) there are fifteen kindling- 
verses 2 ; for fifteenfold is the thunderbolt, and the 
thunderbolt means vigour: with the thunderbolt 
(of) vigour the Sacrificer thus from the first repels 
evil. The two butter-portions relate to the slaying 
of VWtra 8 , with a view to the repelling of evil, for 

1 Viz. a cake (on eight kapalas) to Agni Pathikrrt, 'the path- 
maker ' — or, according to Asv. St. X, 6, 3, to Agni Murdhanvat 
(' forming the head/ so called from the formulas used containing 
the word 'head).' For a similar special offering to the same 
deity see XII, 4, 4, 1 (cf. XI, 1, 5, 5). 

* See part i^p. 95 seqq. (especially I, 3, 5, 5-7). 

8 The two Agyabhagas, or butter-portions to Agni and Soma, 
are said to be ' Vrrtra-slaying ' (virtraghna), or to relate to the 
slaying of Vri'tra, when their anuvakyas, or invitatory formulas, 
are the two verses J?«g-veda VI, 16, 34 (agnir vritrini ^anghanat, 
'May Agni slay the Vmras'), and I, 91, 5 (tvaiw somSsi satpatis 
tva« ra^ota vntrahd, ' Thou, O Soma, art the true lord, thou art 
the king and the slayer of VrAra,' &c). This is the case at the Full- 
moon sacrifice, whilst at the New-moon sacrifice the two butter- 



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xni kXnda, 4 adhyAya, i brAhmaya, 13. 351 

VWtra is evil. [The verses, V&f. S. XIII, 14, 15,] 
'Agni, the head, the summit of the sky. . . V 
and 'Be thou the leader of the sacrifice and 
the realm of space (whither thou strivest 
with auspicious teams: thy light-winning 
head hast thou raised to the sky, and thy 
tongue, O Agni, hast thou made the bearer 
of the offering),' pronounced in a low voice, are 
the anuvakya and ya^ya of the chief oblation. The 
one contains (the word) ' head,' the other (the verb) 
' to be,' — for the head, assuredly, is he that shines 
yonder : thus it is in order to secure him (the Sun) ; 
and as to why (the other) contains (the verb) 'to 
be,' — he thereby secures that which is (the real, 
truly existent). The Sawya^yas 2 are two vira^ - - 
verses 8 ; for that — to wit, the Vira^ - — is the metre 

portions are said to be ' vrj'dhanvant,' or 'relating to growth,' 
because the anuv&kyls used on that occasion are two verses 
containing forms of the root vr*dh, 'to grow,' viz. VIII, 44, 12 
(agnli pratnena manmanS . . . kavir vipre«a vavr/dhe, 'Agni has 
grown strong by the old hymn, — as the wise one by the priest ') 
and 1, 91, 1 1 (Soma girbhish /va vayaw vardhayamo va^ovidaA . . ., 
' O Soma, we magnify thee (make thee grow) by our songs, skilful 
in speech '). In the same way the one or the other form is used 
in different ish/is. At I, 6, 2, 12, the translation, 'the two butter- 
portions should be offered to the Vr/'tra-slayer (Indra)' should 
therefore be altered to ' the two butter-portions relate to the slaying 
of Vr*lra ' (or, ' are Vrrtra-slaying '). 
1 See VII, 4, i, 41. 

* That is, the two formulas used with the oblation to Agni 
Svish/akrrt. 

* Whilst the normal performance of an ish/i requires two 
trish/ubh- verses (7?*'g-veda X, 2, 1 ; VI, 15, 14; cf. part i, p. 202, 
notes 2 and 3) for the invitatory and offering formulas of the 
oblations to Agni Svish/akrj't, two vira^-verses are frequently 
prescribed, certain verses of the Vira^-hymn ^«'g-veda VII, 1, being 
chiefly used for this purpose; e.g. v. 3 as the anuv&kya, and v. 18 
as the y&gyi for the Svish/akn't of the oblation to Aditi at the 



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352 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAtfA. 



belonging to all the gods, and all objects of desire are 
(contained) in the Ayvamedha : ' Having gratified all 
the gods, may I obtain all my desires ! ' so he thinks. 
The sacrificial fee is gold weighing a hundred 
(grains) : the meaning of this has been explained. 

14. He then prepares a (pap) for Pushan, for 
Pushan is the overlord of roads : he thus secures 
successful progress to the horse. But Pushan is 
also this (earth) : he thus makes this (earth) its 
guardian, for neither injury nor failure befals him 
whom this (earth) guards on the way; and this 
(earth) he thus makes its guardian. 

15. For this (offering) there are seventeen 
kindling-verses', for the obtainment of the Asva- 
medha, for Pra^Apati is seventeenfold, and the 
Asvamedha is Prafapati. The two butter-portions 
are possessed of 'growth 2 ,' even for the growth 
of the Sacrificer. [The verses, V&g: S. XXXIV, 
41, 42,] ' Pushan, in thy sway we [shall never 
suffer harm, we (who) here are singers of 
thy praises],' and 'The hymn (?) lovingly 
composed by desire of praise hath reached 



Adhana (see part i, p. 307, note 3), and the Dtksha«iyesh/i ; and 
w. 14, 15 as ya^ya and anuvdkyS of the Svish/akrj't of the 
Prayamyesh/i. It is doubtless the two former verses, commonly 
employed at special ish/is (cf. part i, p. 164, note 3), which are to 
be used on the present occasion. 

1 See part i, p. 113, note 1. 

* That is, they are performed with two invitatory formulas 
containing the verb ' to grow,' see p. 350, note 3. Whilst our 
Brihmawa thus prescribes the two invitatory formulas used for toe 
butter-portions of the New-moon sacrifice, A xvalayana (St. X, 6, 6) 
prescribes two verses containing the verb 'as' (or •bbft'), vu. 
.tf*'g-veda V, 13, 4, tvam agne saprathi asi ; and I, 91, 9, soma yis 
te mayobhuva utayaA santi d&rushe t&bhir no'titi bhava. 



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xih kXnda, 4 adhyAya, 2 brAhmaata, i. 353 

the guardian of every path : (may he, Pushan. 
grant unto us draughts of light (?), and fulfil 
our every prayer ! '), pronounced in a low voice, 
are the anuvakya and ya^ya of the chief oblation. 
The one contains (the word) ' sway/ the other (the 
word) * path ' ; for sway is vigour : (thus it is) in 
order to his gaining and securing vigour; and as 
to why (the other) contains (the word) ' path,' he 
thereby secures successful progress to the horse. 
The invitatory and offering formulas of the Svish/a- 
krtt are two anush/ubh verses ' ; for the Anush/ubh 
is speech, and Pra^apati is speech, and the Asvu- 
medha is Pragapati : thus it is for the obtainment 
of the Ajvamedha. The priests' fee consists of a 
hundred garments, for that — to wit, the garment — 
is man's outward appearance, whence people (on 
seeing) any well-clad man, ask, ' Who can this be ? ' 
for he is perfect in his outward appearance : with 
outward appearance he thus endows him. There 
are a hundred of them, for man has a life of 
a hundred (years), and a hundred energies: life, 
and energy, vigour, he thus gains for himself. 

Second BrAhmajva. 

1. Whilst this (offering to Pushan) is being per- 
formed, the horse, having been cleansed, is led up — 
being one which is marked with all colours, or which 
is perfect in speed, worth a thousand (cows), in its 
prime, and without its match under the right-side 
yoke a . 

1 Viz. according to Ajv. St. X, 6, 7, — i?«'g-veda I, 45, 6 (tv&m 
fttnuravastama) and V, 25, 7 (yad vSsish//5a« yad agnaye). 

* Thus Harisv&min, — 'anyebhyo dakshi*adhuryebhya utkrish- 
U4i A a 



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354 satapatha-brAhmatva. 

2. And as to its being one marked with all 
colours, it is for the sake of his (the Sacrificer's) 
obtaining and securing everything, for colour (out- 
ward appearance) is everything, and the A-svamedha 
is everything. And as to its being perfect in speed, 
it is for the sake of his obtaining and securing 
vigour, for speed is "vigour. And as to its being 
worth a thousand (cows), it is for the sake of his 
obtaining and securing everything, for a thousand 
means everything, and the A^vamedha is every- 
thing. And as to its being in its prime, it is for 
the sake of his obtaining unlimited vigour, for such 
a one that is in the prime (of youth) increases to 
unlimited vigour. And as to its being without 
its match under the right-side yoke, it is for the 
sake of his obtaining yonder (sun), for that (horse) 
indeed is he that shines yonder, and assuredly there 
is no one to rival him. 

3. As to this, Bhallaveya, however, said, 'That 
horse should be of two colours, black-spotted \ for 
that (horse) was produced from Pra^apati's eye, and 
this eye is of two colours, white and black : he thus 
endows it with its own colour.' 

4. But Satyaya.f n\ said, ' That horse should be 
of three colours, its forepart black, its hindpart 
white, with a wain for its mark in front; — when 
its forepart is black it is the same as this black 
of the eye; and when its hindpart is white it is 
the same as this white of the eye ; and when it has 
a wain for its mark in front, that is the pupil : such 



toh ; ' hardly ' one which finds no (worthy) yoke-fellow' (St Petersb. 
Diet.). 
1 Or, black with some other colour. 



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xni kXnda, 4 adhyAya, 2 brAhmajta, 7. 355 

a one, indeed, is perfect in colour 1 .' Whichever 
of these, then, should be ready at hand, either 
a many-coloured one, or one of two colours, or one 
of three colours with a wain for its mark, let him 
slaughter it: but in speed it should certainly be 
perfect 

5. In front (of the sacrificial ground) there are 
those keepers of it ready at hand, — to wit, a 
hundred royal princes, clad in armour; a hundred 
warriors armed with swords; a hundred sons of 
heralds and headmen, bearing quivers filled with 
arrows 2 ; and a hundred sons of attendants 3 and 
charioteers, bearing staves; — and a hundred ex- 
hausted, worn out horses * amongst which, having 
let loose that (sacrificial horse), they guard it. 

6. He then prepares an (ish/i) offering to Savitr*' 5 
— a cake on twelve potsherds to SavitW Prasa- 
vitrt — thinking, ' May Savitrt impel this my sacri- 
fice ! ' for SavitW (the sun), indeed, is the impeller 
(prasavitrz). 

7. For this (offering) there are fifteen kindling- 

1 One would expect an • iti ' here. 

* Or, furnished with bundles of arrows, — ishuparshi»a£, for 
which KSty. XX, 2, n, has 'kal&pina^' (=jarivapanabhastr£- 
vantaA schol.). HarisvSmin explains it as if it were equivalent 
to • ishuvarshwaA,' ' showering arrows.' 

* HarisvSmin takes 'kshittra' as the body of revenue-officers 
(tax-gatherers, &c), ' &yavyay&dhyakshasamuha£.' 

4 That is, according to Harisvamin, over twenty-four years old; 
his explanation being based on the etymology of ' nirash/am ' as 
'outside the eight' (viz. characteristics of age in horses, each of 
which is supposed to hold good for three years). 

' The three ish/is to Savitri', treated of in paragraphs 6-17, 
as well as the proceedings subsequent thereto, are repeated every 
day during the twelvemonth during which the sacred horse is 
allowed to roam about. 

A a 2 



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356 jatapatha-brAhmaya. 

verses; and the two butter-portions relate to the 
slaying of VWtra \ [The verses, 7?/g-veda V, 82, 9 ; 
VII, 45, 1], 'He who calleth forth all these 
beings (with his call, may he, Savitrz, quicken 
us) !' and ' May the divine Savitr* come hither, 
treasure-laden, (filling the air whilst driving 
with his steeds; holding in his hand many' 
things meet for man; and laying to rest and 
awakening the world),' pronounced in a low 
voice, are the invitatory and offering formulas of 
the chief oblation. Those of the Svish&ikrrt are 
two vir&f- verses 2 . The priests' fee is gold weigh- 
ing a hundred (grains) : the meaning of this has 
been explained. 

8. Whilst the fore-offerings of this (ish/i) are 
being performed, a Brahman lute-player, striking 
up the uttaramandra (tune 3 ), sings three strophes 
composed by himself (on topics 4 such as), 'Such 
a sacrifice he offered, — Such gifts he gave:' the 
meaning of this has been explained 8 . 

9. He then prepares a second (offering) — a cake 
on twelve potsherds to Savitr* AsavitW — think- 
ing, 'May SavitW propel this my sacrifice!' for 
Savitr*, indeed, is the propeller (asavitW). 

1 See p. 350, note 3. * See p. 351, note 3. 

* Or, touching the uttaramandra lute,— literally, the 'upper 
deep' one, i.e. perhaps one the chords of which are pitched in the 
upper notes of the lower key. Cf. ScholL on Katy. XX, 2, 8 
uttaramandra 4a glyanaprasiddhi ; — uttaramandri-safl^layam 
vinayam. Harisvdmin does not explain the term. 

4 Taitt. Br. Ill, 9, 14, 3 mentions three topics — one for each 
stanza, — viz. ' thus (such and such gifts) thou gavest, thus (by such 
and such sacrifices) thou didst sacrifice, thus thou didst cook 
(i.e. with such and such food thou didst regale the priests).' 

6 See XIII, 1, 5, 6. 



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XIII KA.YDA, 4 ADIIYAyA, 2 BRAhMAYA, 12. 357 

10. For this (offering) there are seventeen 
kindling-verses; and the two butter-portions are 
possessed of that which is 1 : the (truly) existent 
he thereby obtains. [The verses, ./?*g-veda V, 82, 5 ; 
VII, 45, 3,] 'All troubles, O divine Savitrz, 
(keep from us, do thou send us that which 
is good)!' and' May that mighty god Savitr* 
(the lord of treasure, send us treasure; 
shedding wide-spread lustre, may he bestow 
upon us the joys of mortal life)!' pronounced 
in a low voice, are the invitatory and offering 
formulas of the chief oblation. Those of the 
Svish/akm are two anush/ubh verses *. Silver is 
the priests' fee, — for the sake of variety of colour, 
and also for the sake of (the horse's) going outside * 
and not going away. It weighs a hundred (grains), 
for man has a life of a hundred (years), and 
a hundred energies: it is life, and energy, vigour, 
he thus secures for himself. 

11. Whilst the fore-offerings of this (ishri) are 
being performed, a Brahman lute-player, striking up 
the uttaramandra (tune), sings three strophes com- 
posed by himself (on topics such as), ' Such 
a sacrifice he offered, — Such gifts he gave:' the 
meaning of this has been explained. 

12. He then prepares a third (offering) — a cake 

1 That is, their anuv&ky&s contain forms of the root ' as ' 
(or 'bhu'), to be; cf. p. 35a, note 2. 

* See XIII, 4. 1. *5f P- 353. note 1. 

' Viz. going outside the sacrificial ground, and yet not running 
away from its keepers, — this, according to the text, would be 
symbolically expressed by the gold (which was given as the priests' 
fee for the first offering) giving place to silver at the second 
offering, but coming in again at the third. 



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358 satapatha-brAhmava. 

on twelve potsherds to Savitr* Satyaprasava 
('of true impulse'); for that, indeed, is the true 
impulse which is Savitrz's: 'May he impel with 
true impulse this my sacrifice ! ' so he thinks. 

13. For this (ish/i) there are again seventeen 
kindling-verses. The two butter -portions are 
possessed of 'wealth 1 ,' with a view to his obtain- 
ing and securing vigour, for wealth is vigour 
(strength). [The verses, ./?*'g-veda V, 82, 7 ; IV, 54, 
4,] 'The all-divine, true lord (we hope to 
gain this day by our hymns, Savitr? of true 
impulsion),' and ' Indestructible is that (work) 
of the divine Savitr*, (that he will ever 
sustain the whole world: whatever he, the 
fair-fingered, bringeth forth over the extent 
of the earth and the expanse of the sky, that 
is truly his own),' pronounced in a low voice, are 
the invitatory and offering formulas of the chief 
offering. Those of the Svish/alcrr't (he makes) the 
regular ones 2 , thinking, ' Lest I should depart from 
the path of sacrifice : ' he thus finally establishes 
himself in the well-ordered sacrifice. Trish/ubh- 
verses they are for the sake of his gaining and 
securing (Indra's) energy, vigour, for the Trish/ubh 
is the vigour in Indra. The priests' fee is gold 
weighing a hundred (grains) : the meaning of this 
has been explained 8 . 

14. Whilst the fore-offerings of this (ish/i) are 

* That is, their invitatory formulas contain the word 'rayi' 
(wealth). What particular verses are intended here, I do not 
know. 

1 Viz. the trish/ubh- verses ifrg-veda X, 2, 1 ; VI, 15, 14; see 
p. 351, note 3. 

• XII, 7, 2, 13. 



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xni kAjvda, 4 adhyAya, 2 brAhmaya, 17. 359 

being performed, a Brahman lute-player, striking 
up the uttaramandra (tune), sings three strophes 
composed by himself (on topics such as), ' Such 
a sacrifice he offered, — Such gifts he gave : ' the 
meaning of this has been explained. 

15. When this (offering) is completed, the 
Adhvaryu and the Sacrificer rise, and whisper in 
the horse's right ear (Va^ - . S. XXII, tg), ' Plenteous 
by thy mother, strengthful by thy father . . . ! ' 
the meaning of this has been explained 1 . They 
then set it free towards the north-east, for that — 
to wit, the north-east — is the region of both gods 
and men: they thus consign it to its own region, 
in order to its suffering no injury, for one who is 
established in his own home suffers no injury. 

16. He says, 'O ye gods, guardians of the 
regions, guard ye this horse, consecrated for 
offering unto the gods!' The (four kinds of) 
human guardians of the (four) regions have been 
told, and these now are the divine ones, to wit, the 
Apyas, Sadhyas, Anvadhyas * and Maruts ; and 
both of these, gods and men, of one mind, guard 
it for a year without turning (driving) it back. The 
reason why they do not turn it back, is that it is 
he that shines yonder, — and who, forsooth, is able 
to turn him back ? But were they to turn it back, 
everything here assuredly would go backward (go 
to ruin) : therefore they guard it without turning 
it back. 

1 7. He says, ' Ye guardians of the quarters, those 
who go on to the end of this (horse-sacrifice) will 

1 See XIII, 1, 6, 1 seqq., 3, 7. i-a seqq. 

* On these divine beings see Weber, Ind. Stud. IX, p. 6, note. 



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360 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

become (sharers of) the royal power, they will 
become kings worthy of being consecrated; but 
those who do not go on to the end of this (sacrifice) 
will be excluded from royal power, they will not 
become kings, but nobles and peasants, unworthy 
of being consecrated : do not ye therefore be heed- 
less, and keep it (the horse) from water suitable for 
bathing and from mares ! And whenever ye meet 
with any kind of Brahma«as, ask ye them, " O Brah- 
ma«as, how much know ye of the Ayvamedha ? " 
and those who know naught thereof ye may 
despoil ; for the A.svamedha is everything, and Jie 
who, whilst being a Brahmawa, knows naught of the 
A^vamedha, knows naught of anything, he is not 
a Brahma«a, and as such liable to be despoiled. 
Ye shall give it drink, and throw down fodder for 
it; and whatever prepared food there is in the 
country all that shall be prepared for you. Your 
abode shall be in the house of a carpenter of 
these (sacrificers '), for there is the horse's resting- 
place.' 

Third Brahma2va. 

1. Having set free the horse, he (the Adhvaryu) 
spreads a cushion wrought of gold (threads) south 
of the Vedi : thereon the Hotri seats himself. On 
the right (south) of the Hotrt, the Sacrificer on 
a gold stool 2 ; on the right of him, the Brahman 

1 Thus Harisvamin, — tesh&m ka. ya^minanam madhye ratha- 
karo yas tasya g/Yhe yushmikaw vasataA. The plural is probably 
meant as including the subjects of the king (cf. XI, 8, 4, 1), and 
the villages within reach of which the horse will roam. 

1 At XI, 5, 3, 4 ; 7 ' kunia ' seems to mean a bunch or pad of 
grass, used as a seat la the present instance it is explained as 



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xm kAyda, 4 adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, 3. 361 

and Udgatr* on cushions wrought of gold ; in front 
of them, with his face to the west, the Adhvaryu on 
a gold stool, or a slab of gold. 

2. When they are seated together, the Adhvaryu 
calls upon (the Hotri), saying, ' Hotr*', recount the 
beings : raise thou this Sacrificer above the beings M' 
Thus called upon, the Hotri, being about to tell the 
Pariplava 2 Legend, addresses (the Adhvaryu), 
' Adhvaryu ! ' — ' Havai * hotar ! ' replies the Adh- 
varyu. v 

3. 'King Manu Vaivasvata,' he says; — 'his 
people are Men, and they are staying here 4 ;' — 

a seat with feet (sapadam asanam, Schol. on Katy. XX, 2, 19), 
• or as a seat or stool which has the appearance of a pad (pi/tam 
kurAakrtti, ? i.e. with a pad on it). According to Axv. St. X, 6, 
10 the king is surrounded by his sons and ministers. 

1 Or, perhaps, ' raise this Sacrificer above (or, up to) the things 
of the past;' but see paragraph 15. 

* That is, the ' revolving, recurrent, or cyclic legend/ so called 
because it is renewed every ten days during the year. 

* Harisvamin explains this interjection, as if it were *hvayai'= 
pratihvayai, ' I will respond, I am ready to respond ; ' and, though 
this is probably a fanciful explanation, the arrangements made on 
this occasion are clearly such as to suggest a studied resemblance 
to the call and counter-call of the two priests on all occasions 
of a solemn utterance of sacrificial formulas, or the recitation of 
hymns, as at the Prataranuvaka (part ii, p. 226 seqq.). Katy. 
XX, 3, 2, accordingly, calls it the Adhvaryu's 'pratigara,' or 
response. Arv. St. X, 6, 13 makes the Adhvaryu's answer 'ho 
hour'; and S&hkh. St. XVI, 1 ' hoyi hotar.' 

* The Hotr*"s utterances on the ten days of the revolving period 
(as set forth in passages 2-14) occur also, with some variations 
of detail, in the manuals defining the Horn's duties, viz. the 
Asvalayana (X, 7) and .Sankhayana (XVI, 2) Sutras (whilst the 
works of the Taittiriyakas seem to have nothing corresponding 
to this performance). Both Sutras omit ' ra^a' each time. Axvala- 
yana, moreover, omits also the ' iti ' along with it, because he does 
not interrupt the formula by an insertion, as is done here (ity aha) 



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362 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

householders, unlearned in the scriptures, have 
come thither * : it is these he instructs ; — ' The 
Rik (verses) are the Veda 1 : this it is;' thus 
saying, let him go over a hymn of the Rik, as if 
reciting it*. Masters of lute-players have come 

and in the 5tnkh. S. (iti prathame, &c). Gargya N&rayana, on 
Ajv. X, 7, 1, takes the opening words 'prathame (&c.) *hani' to 
form part of the formulas : — ' on the first day Manu Vaivasvata 
(is king); but it is clear from the other two authorities that 
this cannot have been intended by the author of that Sutra. — The 
commentator on .SSnkh. S. XVI, 2 remarks, ' Manur Vaivasvato 
ra^ety-evam-idikam dkhydnaw pariplavakhysun prathamahany 
a^ash/e . . . tasya r&gHo manushya* vLvaA praxis ta ima isate«dyipi 
svadharmSn na Jalanti,' thus apparently taking ' rl^fi ' to form part 
of the formula, or rather of the topic of which the legend to be 
recited was to treat. This commentary thus apparently assumes 
that the legend begins with ' Manur Vaivasvato iig& ' ; and that 
the subsequent clause leads on to the recitation of the Vedic text 
that is to follow (cf. note on paragraph 8) ; — though possibly this 
latter clause (as Professor M. Mtlller seems to take it) may only 
be an argumentative one, giving the reason why the householders 
are to be instructed. Cf. M. Mttller, Hist, of Anc. Sansk. Lit, 
p. 37 seqq. 

1 ' Householders should be brought thither ' (i.e. should be made 
to join this performance) ; Ajv.-sutra. •S&nkh. has merely * thereby 
he instructs householders.' G/YhamedhinaA are those who regularly 
perform the five great domestic sacrifices (mahaya£#a). 

1 Or, more closely, the Veda is the, or consists of, Rik (verses). 
.Sankh. S. reads ' riko vedaA ' (the Veda of the Rik, gen. sing.) 
instead of 'rifoA' (nom. pi.), and in the subsequent paragraph 
also, it repeats the word ' veda ' (Yajiirveda, Atharvaveda, Ahjiraso 
vedaA). 

* That is, as would seem, — as if he were to recite it (or, as 
when he recites it) in the course of the ordinary sacrificial perform- 
ance — as in .Sastras, the Piitaranuvaka, &c. The text would, 
however, also admit of the translation — ' thus saying, let him go over 
(the legend) as if he were reciting a hymn of the Rik,' but it is not 
quite easy to see how a similar interpretation would suit subsequent 
paragraphs (n-14). Moreover, both Ajv. and SShkh. omit 
'vy&aksh&m iti,' and read 'nigadet,' 'let bim recite (a hymn)/ 



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xni KkNDA, 4 adhyAya, 3 brAhma^a, 4. 363 

thither: these he calls upon, 'Masters of lute- 
players,' he says, 'sing ye of this Sacrificer along 
with righteous kings of yore 1 ! ' and they accord- 
ingly sing of him ; and in thus singing of him, 
they make him share the same world with the 
righteous kings of yore. 

4. Having called (on the masters of lute-players), 
the Adhvaryu performs the Prakrama oblations', 
either on the southern fire, or on a footprint of the 
horse, after drawing lines round it — whichever is the 
practice there; but the former 3 is the established 
rule. 



instead of 'anudravet (let him run, or go, over=anupurvam 
u££arayet, Harisv.).' Yet, the commentary on >Sankh. supplies 
the 'iva,' explaining as he does, 'sukta/n ki«£id Siakshdwa 
iv&nuvadet;' from which (if it is not simply quoted from our 
Brahmana) it would almost seem as if he, too, thought of the legend 
rather than a hymn of the Xii. The verb ' vy4-£aksh,' as against 
' ni-gad,' seems to imply a clear articulation — perhaps even with 
all the stops or pauses, at the end of every half-verse, or p&da, as 
the case might be. Sayawa (on Taitt. Br. II, 2, 1, 4; 2, 6) 
explains ' vy&bkshtta ' by 'vispash/am uM&rayet (or, pa/Aet).' 
The available MS. of Harisvamin's commentary on our text is, 
as usual, incorrect, but as far as it goes, it seems to favour the 
recitation of the legend at this place, — ' vyKakshana iti vaky&ras 
Aidan (r. Mindan) agau Hbhidad (?) ity arthaA/ — which I take to 
mean that he is to pause after each sentence, as he would do when 
reciting a hymn. 

' That is, according to Harisvamin, — ' Compare this Sacrificer 
in song with the old righteous kings.' Katy. XX, 3, 8 refers to these 
latter as ' ri^arshis,' or royal sages — in which case the recitation of 
the legend itself would only come in here. 

* For the formulas used with this series of forty-nine oblations, 
see XIII, 1, 3, 5 with notes thereon. 

* That is to say, according to Harisvimin, the course of procedure 
laid down in XIII, 1, 3, 7, according to which these oblations 
are to be made on the Ahavaniya, and not either on the southern 
fire, or on a footprint of the horse. 



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364 satapatha-brAhmaa'a. 

5. Prior to the (first) offering to Savitr* he offers, 
once only, the (oblations relating to the) Forms * in 
the Ahavanlya fire, whilst going rapidly over (the 
formulas). And in the evening, whilst the Dhmis * 
(oblations for the safe keeping of the horse) are 
being offered, a Rifanya lute-player, striking up the 
uttaramandra (tune) south (of the vedi), sings three 
stanzas composed by himself (on topics 8 such as), 
' Such war he waged, — Such battle he won : ' the 
meaning of this has been explained. 

6. And on the morrow, the second day, after 
those (three) offerings to SavitW have been per- 
formed in the same way, there is that same course 



1 That is to say, the Prakramas which are only performed on 
the first day of the year, whilst the three oblations to Savitrs are 
repeated each day. 

" See XIII, 1, 4, 3 ; 6, a. These oblations are made jnst prior 
to the evening performance of the Agnihotra, when the Ahavantya 
has been got ready for the latter. The Taittiriyakas seem to make 
these four oblations on the horse's feet at the place where the 
keepers pass the night (viz. the carpenter's house) during the greater 
part of the year ; and only in the last month, when a stable of 
Arvattha wood has been put up for the horse near (or on) the 
offering-ground, these oblations take place on the Ahavantya. See 
coram, on Taitt Br. Ill, 8, 12 (p. 609; cp. p. 700). , At III, 9, 14 
(p. 703), on the other hand, it is stated that the Ra£anya's singing 
is to take place in the evening at the time of the Dhr*'d-hcanas. 

' Taitt. Br. Ill, 9, 14, 4, again mentions three topics, one for 
each stanza — viz. ' thus (i. e. in the same way as Prrtho, Bharata, 
Bhagtratha, Yudhish/ftira &c, coram.) didst thou overpower (the 
enemies), thus (i.e. surrounded by heroic warriors, fighting on 
elephants, steeds, chariots, and on foot, with bows and arrows, 
spears, swords, &c.) didst thou battle, thus didst thou fight such 
and such battle (Le. like Yudhish/ftira, Dushyanta, &c, having 
engaged in a battle attended by thousands of great heroes, thou, 
armed only with thy sharp sword, didst slay the king of Kashmir, 
Magadha, IWfra, &c, comm.).' 



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xin kAjvda, 4 adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, 7. 365 

of procedure. ' Adhvaryu ! ' he (the Hotri ) says. — 
' Havai hotar!' replies the Adhvaryu. — 'King 
Yama Vaivasvata 1 ,' he (the Hotri) says, 'his 
people are the Fathers, and they are staying 
here;' — old men have come thither: it is these 
he instructs; — ' The Ya^us-formulas are the Veda : 
this it is;' thus saying, let him go over a chapter 
(anuvaka) of the Ya^iis 2 , as if reciting it. The 
Adhvaryu calls in the same way (on the masters' 
of lute-players), but does not perform the Prakrama 
oblations. 

7. And on the third day, after those (three) 
offerings have been performed in the same way, 
there is that same course of procedure. ' Adhvaryu!' 
he (the Hotr/) says. — 'Havai hotar!' replies the 
Adhvaryu. — ' King Varu»a Aditya,' he says ; ' his 
people are the Gandharvas, and they are staying 
here ; ' — handsome youths have come thither : it is 
these he instructs; — 'The Atharvans are the 
Veda: this it is;' thus saying, let him go over 
one section (par van) of the Atharvan *, as if reciting 

1 When the comm. on .Safikh. S. remarks, ' Yamo Vaivasvato 
ra^ety aheti divitiya evahani <Satapathe darcanat,' this would seem 
to refer to the addition of either ' i%a,' or 'ahani,' but not to any 
legend of Y. V., since such a one does not occur in this work ; 
though various passages in the Rik might no doubt have sufficed 
to construct some such legend as would have served on this 
occasion. 

1 The same commentator refers to the ' Afvamedhika ' as the 
section to be recited, — ' prakarawat,' because of the treatment 
(therein of this subject). 

* Instead of 'atharva»am Azm parva,' the 5ankh. S. has 
'bhesha^am (medicine),' which the commentator — against the 
opinion of those who take it to mean the hymn i?;'g-veda X, 97 
(treating of the magic powers of herbs) — makes a special work of 
the Atharvamkas ; whilst the Asv. S. reads ' yad bhesha^am nijantaw 



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366 satapatha-brahmajva. 

it The Adhvaryu calls in the same way (on the 
masters of lute-players), but does not perform the 
Prakrama oblations. 

8. And on the fourth day, after those (three) 
offerings have been performed in the same way, 
there is the same course of procedure. ' Adhvaryu!' 
he (the Hotrt) says. — 'Havai hotar!' replies the 
Adhvaryu. — 'King Soma Vaish»ava\' he says; 
'his people are the Apsaras, and they are staying 
here ; ' — handsome maidens have come thither : it is 
these he instructs 2 ; — ' The Angiras are the Veda: 
this it is ; ' thus saying, let him go over one section 
of the Angiras 3 , as if reciting it. The Adhvaryu 
calls in the same way (on the masters of lute- 
players), but does not perform the Prakrama 
oblations. 

9. And on the fifth day, after those (three) 
offerings have been performed in the same way, 
there is the same course of procedure. 'Adhvaryu!' 
he (the Hotri) says. — 'Havai hotar!' replies the 



syat tan nigadet ' — ' let him tell some approved medicine (i. e. 
some specific, or charm against disease).' 

1 The comm. on .Sankh. S. remarks, ' Somo Vaishwava iti 
/bturthe; Somo Vaishnavo ra^eti .Satapatha smteh ; pratika- 
grahawany etani.' This seems to show clearly that he takes this 
as merely the opening words of the legend. Here, again, his 
words can hardly be taken to refer to a legend regarding Soma in 
the datapath a- Brahmawa. 

* ' YuvatM jrobhanS upaduati, tasyaitaA (? tasyaitabhyaA) sabhS- 
yam anyasam aprav&rat,' comm. on .Sahkh. S., — ? because no other 
(Apsaras) but these come to his court 

* The .Sankh. S. has Met him recite the Ghora'— which the 
commentator again takes to be the title of a special work of the 
Atharvans — whilst the Ajv. S. reads ' let him recite some approved 
ghora (magic spell or operation).' 



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xm kXnda, 4 adhyAya, 3 brAhmawa, 10. 367 

Adhvaryu. — 'King Arbuda Kadraveya 1 ,' he 
says; 'his people are the Snakes, and they are 
staying here;' — both snakes and snake-charmers 2 
have come thither : it is these he instructs ; — ' The 
Sarpavidya (science of snakes) is the Veda : this 
it is ; ' thus saying, let him go over one section of 
the Sarpavidya 8 as if reciting it. The Adhvaryu 
calls in the same way (on the masters of lute- 
players), but does not perform the Prakrama 
oblations. 

10. And on the sixth day, after those (three) 
offerings have been performed in the same way, 
there is the same course of procedure. 'Adhvaryu!' 
he (the Hotri) says. — ' Havai hotar ! ' replies the 
Adhvaryu. — ' King Kubera Vai^ravawa,' he says; 
'his people are the Rakshas, and they are staying 
here ; ' — evil-doers, robbers *, have come thither : it 



1 'ArbudaA KSdraveyo r&^ety dheti smtei (thus also on the 
name of the next king),' comm. on .Saftkh. S. 

* Lit. '(men) knowing about snakes' — which the comm. on 
Aj-v. S. explains by 'those knowing the K&ryaptya and other treatises 
(tantra) on venoms.' Instead of the conjunctive double ' /4a,' the 
.Saftkh. S. has a single ' v4' — the snakes, or (rather) snake-charmers — 
and Ajv. S. an explanatory ' iti ' — the snakes, i. e. snake-charmers. 

* The S&hkb. S. has, ' let him recite the Sarpavidya ' (i. e. either 
the Gimdi or Kankanfya sarpavidyi, as the comm. explains); the 
Ajv. S. ' let him recite the Visbavidyi (science of venoms).' 

4 The etymology and exact meaning of * selaga ' is doubtful : — 
here, again, whilst ' p&pakrAaA ' is added either appositionally, or 
attributively (wicked selagas), the .S&hkh. S. adds it by means of ' va,' 
and the Arv. S. by ' iti ' — both apparently meant in an explanatory 
sense. The Ait Br., on the other hand, has VII, 1, 'selaga va" 
papakr/to vi;' and VIII, 11, 'nishidi v& selagi v& pSpaknto va\' 
The comm. on Arv. S. explains 'selaga' by 'maddened by a 
snake;' the comm. on .Sahkh. S. by 'selag&A senyagayanyaA (?) 
papakrito v4 mleAMA.' 



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368 SATAPATHA-BRAHMA.YA. 

is these he instructs; — 'The Deva^anavidya 1 
(demonology) is the Veda: this it is;' thus saying, 
let him go over one section of the Deva^anavidya, 
as if he were reciting it. The Adhvaryu calls in the 
same way (on the masters of lute-players), but does 
not perform the Prakrama oblations. 

ii. And on the seventh day, after those (three) 
offerings have been performed in the same way, 
there is the same course of procedure. 'Adhvaryu !' 
he (the Hotr*) says. — ' Havai hotar!' replies the 
Adhvaryu. — ' King Asita Dhanva 2 ,' he says; 'his 
people are the A sura; and they are staying 
here ; ' — usurers have come thither : it is these he 
instructs; — 'Magic 8 is the Veda: this it is;' thus 
saying, let him perform some magic trick. The 
Adhvaryu calls in the same way (on the masters 
of lute-players), but does not perform the Prakrama 
oblations. 

12. And on the eighth day, after those (three) 
offerings have been performed in the same way, 
there is the same course of procedure. 'Adhvaryu!' 
he (the Hotrt) says. — ' Havai hotar ! ' replies the 

1 That is, the science, or knowledge of the divine (or super- 
natural) beings. The 5ankh. S. has, 'the Rakshovidya is the Veda, . . . 
let him recite the Rakshovidya'— on which the commentator remarks 
4 prasiddhai va kuhukurupa raksho vidy eti.' ( ? = ' kuhakarupa,' cheats, 
or deceitful imps). Asv. S. has 'yat kiwiit piraiasawyuktaar 
nixintam,' ' some approved (spell or operation ?) connected with the 
Pif&tas, or demons.' 

* .Sankh. S. has ' Asita Dhanvana.' 

s The two Sutras read ' Asuravidya ' — asurnvidyendra^iladina 
tannirdejan mayim api kawtiit kuryad ahgulinyasarupam (' a trick 
by sleight of hand/ M. M tiller), comm. on Sankh. S. On ' indra- 
jalavidya' ('magic art, trickery'), cf. Dajakum., p. as, 1. ia. 
The association of the black art with the usurer or money-lender 
(kusldin) is rather curious. 



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xiii kAjvda, 4 adhyAya, 3 brAhmaya, i 3. 369 

Adhvaryu. — 'King Matsya Sammada V he says; 
'his people are the water-dwellers, and they are 
staying here;' — both fish and fishermen 2 have 
come thither: it is these he instructs; — 'the 
Itihisa* is the Veda: this it is;' thus saying, 
let him tell some Itihasa. The Adhvaryu calls 
in the same way (on the masters of lute-players), 
but does not perform the Prakrama oblations. 

13. And on the ninth day, after those (three) 
offerings have been performed in the same way, 
there is the same course of procedure. 'Adhvaryu!' 
he (the Hotr*) says. — ' Havai hotar ! ' replies the 
Adhvaryu. — 'King Tarkshya Vaipajyata 4 ,' he 
says; 'his people are the Birds, and they are 
staying here ; ' — both birds and bird-catchers 6 have 
come thither: it is these he instructs; — 'the 
Pura«a 8 is the Veda: this it is;' thus saying, 
let him tell some Pura«a 6 . The Adhvaryu calls 

1 'Matsya/i Simmada ity ash/ame, Matsya^ Sammado ra^eti 
smteA pratfkagrahanam etat,' comm. on .Saftkh. S. 

* ' (ratisambandhena matsyavido vi, mainiMn piAiinidiweshavi- 
kalpin vidanti ye tin vi,' comm. on <S£nkh. S. 

* Regarding the Itihisa (cosmogonic account) and Purina 
(ancient legend), see p. 98, note 4. The Ajv. S. connects the Itihisa 
with the ninth, and the Purina with the eighth day. ' Itihisam 
ifekshtta, itihisavedasya pnthagbhivena danranit,' comm. on 
Sankh. S. 

4 Asv. S. has Tirkshya Vaipajr&ta. — ' Tirkshyo Vaiparyalo 
rifely iheti pratika(w) srateA,' comm. on .Sankh. S. 

1 Lit., men acquainted with the science of birds (viyovidyika). 
The two Sutras, on the other hand, here identify the birds with 
' brahma4iri«aa,' or religious students. 

' According to the comm. on .Sarikh. S.,it is the Viyupurina (puri- 
n&m vayuproktam) that is to be recited (from), and not the hymn i?ig- 
veda X, 130 ('tasya vedaikadexatvit '). This hymn is probably 
referred to in this connection chiefly on account of the passage 
' yaffle ^ite purine ' in verse 6. 

[44] Bb 



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370 satapatha-brahmava. 

in the same way (on the masters of lute-players), 
but does not perform the Prakrama oblations. 

14. And on the tenth day, after those (three) 
offerings have been performed in the same way, 
there is the same course of procedure. 'Adhvaryu!' 
he (the Hotri) says. — ' Havai hotar!' replies the 
Adhvaryu. — ' King Dharma Indra 1 ,' he says, 'his 
people are the Gods, and they are staying here;'— 
learned jrotriyas (theologians), accepting no gifts *, 
have come thither: it is these he instructs; 'the 
Sim an (chant-texts) are the Veda : this it is ;' thus 
saying, let him repeat 3 a decade of the Saman. 
The Adhvaryu calls in the same way (on the 
masters of lute-players), but does not perform the 
Prakrama oblations. 

15. [In telling] this revolving (legend), he tells 
all royalties, all regions, all Vedas, all gods, all 
beings; and, verily, for whomsoever the Hotrt, 
knowing this, tells this revolving legend, or who- 
soever even knows this, attains to fellowship and 
communion with these royalties, gains the sovereign 
rule and lordship over all people, secures for himself 
all the Vedas, and, by gratifying the gods, finally 
establishes himself on all beings. This very same 
legend revolves again and again for a year; and 
inasmuch as it revolves again and again, therefore 

1 ' Dharma Indra id darame, Dharma Indro r&£ety aheti .Sata- 
pathe prattkadarxanat,' comm. on .Saftkh. S. 

* The two Sfitras still further qualify them as ' young jrrotriyas 
who accept no gifts,' ' manu(shya)dev& hi ta ity abhiprayit,' comm. 
on .Sankh. ; cp. Sat. Br. II, 2, a, 6, 'ye brahmanaA mrruvawso 
*nu£an&s te manushyadev&A.' 

* The text has ' bruyat,' 'let him say;' whilst the two Sutras read 
'sama gay&t,' 'let him sing a Saman' ('yat kim£id anindyam 
cvajvamedhikaw va prakaranat,' comm. on Sankh. S.). 



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xin KkyDA, 4 adhyAya, 4 brAhmajva, 2. 371 

it is (called) the revolving (legend). For thirty-six 
ten-days' periods he tells it, — the Brchatl (metre) 
consists of thirty-six syllables, and cattle are related 
to the Brihati metre : by means of the Brzhatl he 
thus secures cattle for him. 

Fourth BrAhmava. 

1. When the year has expired 1 , the Diksha 
(initiation) takes place. After the slaughtering of 
the victim sacred to Pra^apati 2 , the (ish/i) offerings * 
come to an end. Some, however, say, 'Let him 
offer (them) on the fires of his Purohita (court- 
chaplain). But why should one who is initiated make 
offering ? There are twelve Diksha (days), twelve 
Upasad (days) and three Sutyas (Soma-days), that 
amounts to the thrice-ninefold (stoma); but the 
thrice-ninefold, indeed, is a thunderbolt, and the 
horse is the nobility (kshatra), and the Ri^anya 
is the nobility ; and political power (kshatra) is won 
by the thunderbolt : thus he wins * political power 
by means of the thunderbolt 

2. When the Initiation-offering has been com- 
pleted, and Speech released in the evening, masters 

1 Viz. from the day of the setting free the horse, not from that of 
the mess of rice cooked for the four priests. 

* That is, according to the comm., the he-goat offered to Pra^ipati 
(along with one, or five, to Vayu) in connection with the building 
of the fire-altar (which is required for the Ajvamedha), see part iii, 
pp. 1 65 seqq., 171 seqq. The building of the altar, generally occupy- 
ing the space of a year, is apparently compressed on this occasion 
within the time of the Diksha" and Upasads. 

* Viz. the three ish/is to Savitri performed daily throughout the 
year. 

* One would expect here the middle (sprtmite) instead of the 
active (sprcVtoti) ; cf. Delbrttck, Altind. Syntax, p. 259. 

B b 2 



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372 satapatha-brAhmaya. 

of lute-players have come thither: these the Adb- 
varyu calls upon, ' Masters of lute-players,' he says, 
' sing ye of this Sacrificer along with the gods ! ' and 
they accordingly sing of him in that manner — 

3. Day by day, after speech has been released, 
■when, on the completion of the Agnlshomlya 
(animal sacrifices), the Vasattvart (water) has been 
carried round ' (the sacrificial ground). The reason 
why they thus sing of him along with the gods is 
that they thereby make him share the same world 
with the gods. 

4. On the Sutya-days (they sing of him) along 
with Pra/apati in the same way day by day, after 
the Vasatlvarl (water) has been carried round 2 , and 
the Udavasaniya (offering) has been finally com- 
pleted. The reason why they thus sing of him 

1 See part ii, p. 223 seqq. Whilst there the offering of a he- 
goat to Agni and Soma took place on the Upavasatha, or day 
before the Sutyd or Soma-day, on the present occasion these 
preliminary animal sacrifices would also seem to be performed on 
each day from the completion of the Dtkshi up to the Upava- 
satha day inclusive ( ? i.e. on the Upasad days,cf. K4ty. Si. XX. 3, 9 ; 
4, 21). Moreover, though technically called Agnfshomiya, the 
sacrifice — on the Upavasatha day, at all events (XIII, 4, 4, 11) — is 
not one of a single he-goat sacred to Agni and Soma, but a set of 
eleven victims distributed over the central eleven stakes (of which 
twenty-one are required on the Soma-days) in the manner explained 
in III, 9, 1, 1 seqq. 

* That is, at the end of each of the three Soma-sacrifices, see 
part ii, p. 454. The Udavas&niyS (completing offering) takes place 
before the carrying round of the sacred water (ib. p. 389 seqq.). 
According to K&ty.XX, 3, ic— 11, however, this singing of the Sacri- 
fice's praises along with those of Pra^&pati is to take place not 
only at the juncture specified in the text, but also at the beginning of 
the animal sacrifice of the Soma-days, that is, as would seem, prior 
to the slaying of the victims, at the morning pressing. The wording 
of our text seems hardly to admit of this interpretation. 



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xm kAjvda, 4 adhyAya, 4 brAhmajva, 7. 373 

along with Pra^apati is that they thereby finally 
make him share the same world with Pra^lpati. 

5. There are twenty-one sacrificial stakes, all of 
them twenty-one cubits long. The central one 1 is 
of ra^udila * wood ; on both sides thereof stand 
two 3 pltud&ru (deodar) ones, six of bilva wood 
(Aegle Marmelos) — three on this side, and three 
on that, — six of khadira (Acacia Catechu) wood — 
three on this side, and three on that, — six of palara 
(Butea frondosa) wood — three on this side, and three 
on that 

6. Then as to why these stakes are suchlike. 
When Pra^apati's vital airs had gone out of him, 
his body began to swell; and what phlegm there 
was in it that flowed together and burst forth 
from inside through the nose, and it became this 
tree, the ra^gudila, whence it is viscid, for it 
originated from phlegm : with that form (quality) 
he thus endows it (die stake). And as to why it 
is the (stake) standing by the fire, it is because that 
one is the centre of the stakes, and that nose is the 
centre of the (channels of the) vital airs: he thus 
puts it in its own place. 

7. And what watery (liquid) fire, and what 
fragrance there was, that flowed together and 



1 That is, the so-called ' agnish/ia,' ' standing by (or opposite) 
the (Ahavanfya) fire.' Cp. p. 301, note 1. 

* The ragjudala (or ra^yudala, S&y. on Taitt. Br. Ill, 8, 19, 1) 
or ' sleshmataka' is the Cordia Myxa or C. latifolia, from the bark 
of which (according to Stewart and Brandis, Forest Flora of N.W. and 
Centr. India) ropes (ra^yu) are made, whence doubtless the above, 
as well as its scientific name, is derived ; whilst ' the adhesive viscid 
pulp is used as bird-lime.' 

' That is, one on each side, right and left 



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374 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJrA. 

burst forth from the eye, and became that tree, 
the pltudaru ; whence that (wood) is sweet-smelling, 
since it originated from fragrance, and whence it is 
inflammable, since it originated from Are : with that 
quality he thus endows it And because these two 
(pltudaru stakes) are on the two sides of the central 
one, therefore these two eyes are on the two sides of 
the nose : he thus puts those two in their own place. 

8. And what ' kuntapa V what marrow there was, 
that flowed together, and burst forth from the ear, 
and became that tree, the bilva; whence all the 
fruit of that (tree) is eatable" inside, and whence 
it (the tree, or wood) is yellowish, for marrow is 
yellowish : with that quality he thus endows it. 
The two (sets of) pltudaru (stakes) stand inside, 
and the bilva ones outside, for the eyes are inside, 
and the ears outside: he thus puts them in their 
own place. 

9. From his (Pra^apati's) bones the khadira was 
produced, whence that (tree) is hard and of great 
strength *, for hard, as it were, is bone : with that 
quality he thus endows it. The bilva (stakes) are 

1 See p. 164, note 1. It would certainly seem to be something 
connected with the spinal cord. 

* According to Stewart and Brandis, the Aegle Marmelos is 
cultivated throughout India, and valued for its fruit, which is 'globose, 
oblong, or piriform, 2 to 5 in. diam., with a smooth, grey or 
yellow rind, and a thick, orange-coloured, sweet aromatic pulp.' 
The flowers are stated to be greenish white, and 'the wood 
light-coloured, mottled with darker wavy lines and small light- 
coloured dots.' 

* The wood of Acacia Catechu is described as dark red, and 
extremely hard and durable, and hence not liable to be attacked by 
white ants, and not touched by Teredo navalis; being much used 
for pesdes, seed-crushers, cotton-rollers, wheel-wright's work, 
ploughs, bows, spear and sword-handles. 



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xih kXnda, 5 adhyAya, i brAhma/va, i. 375 

inside, and the khadira ones outside, for inside is the 
marrow, and outside the bones : he thus puts them 
in their own place. 

10. From his flesh the pallra was produced, 
whence that (tree) has much juice, and (that) red 
juice \ for red, as it were, is flesh : with that quality 
he thus endows it. The khadira (stakes) are inside, 
and the pal&a ones outside, for inside are the bones, 
and outside is the flesh : he thus puts them in their 
own place. 

1 1. And as to why there are twenty-one (stakes), 
twenty-one cubits long, — twenty-one-fold, indeed, is 
he that shines yonder 2 — there are twelve months, 
five seasons, these three worlds, and yonder sun 
is the twenty-first, and he is the Axvamedha, and 
this Pra^apati. Having thus completely restored 
this Pra^apati, the sacrifice, he therein seizes 
twenty-one Agntshomiya victims : for these there 
is one and the same performance, and this is the 
performance of the day before (the first Sutyi). 

Fifth AdhyAya. First BrAhmawa. 
The Stotras and Sastras of the Soma-days. 

i. Then, on the morrow, there is (used) Gotama's 
Stoma (form of chanting) successively increasing by 
four (verses) 3 : the Bahishpavamana thereof is on 
four, the A/ya (stotras) on eight, the Madhyandina 
Pavamana on twelve, the Vrtshtfa. (stotras) on 

1 'From natural fissures and incisions made in the bark (of 
Butea frondosa) issues during the hot season a red juice, which 
soon hardens into a ruby-coloured, brittle, astringent gum, similar 
to kino, and sold as Bengal kino.' Stewart and Brandis. 

* See p. 331, note 1. 

' Regarding the ATatush/oma, see p. 329, note t. 



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376 satapatha-brAhmaya. 

sixteen, the Arbhava Pavamana on twenty, and the 
Agnish/oma-saman on twenty-four (verses). 

2. Now, some make its Agnish/oma-saman a Saman 
of four (verses), saying, ' It is neither an Agnish/oma, 
nor an Ukthya '.' If they do so, let him (the Hotr**), 



1 According to the practice here referred to, the Agnish/oma- 
saman would not consist merely of the one triplet (usually Samav. 
II, 53-4, i. e. the so-called ya^flayagtfiya triplet) ordinarily used for 
it, but of four different Samans, inasmuch as three of the triplets 
which may be used for the Uktha-stotras (of the Ukthya and other 
sacrifices) are added to that yzgj&yagffiya. triplet. In that case, 
however, the latter is not chanted to its own 'yagH&yagXiyz' tune, 
but the Varavantiya tune is used for all the four triplets. This 
practice is somewhat vaguely referred to in Ta*rya-Br. XIX, 5, 
10- 11. 'One Saman (tune), many metres (texts): therefore one 
(man) feeds many creatures. Verily, the Agnish/oma (saman) is 
the self, and the metres (hymn-texts) are cattle : he thus secures 
cattle for his own self. It is neither an Ukthya nor an Agnish/oma 
(sacrifice), for cattle are neither (entirely) domestic nor wild (viz. 
because though kept " in the village," they also freely graze " in the 
forest ").' Here the passage ' One Saman, many metres,' according 
to the commentary, refers to the Varavantiya tune as being employed, 
on this occasion, for the texts of the YagH&yagffiya., the Sakamajva 
(II, 55-57, here the Calc. ed, by mistake, calls the second tune 
figured for chanting, like the first, Sakamarva, instead of Varavantiya), 
the Saubhara (II, 230-2, where the Calc. ed., by mistake, omits 
the name Varavantiya), and the Tairanta (II, 233-5 ; curiously 
enough, the Taira-ria is not mentioned, in lAty. St. VIII, 9-10, 
amongst the Samans that may be used for the third — or the AJtite- 
vaka's — Uktha, but Sayana, on Samav. II, 233, states distinctly, 
' tairafjfeun tn'tiyam uktham '). Whilst, as Uktha-stotras, the last 
three texts would usually be chanted in the ekavimxa, or twenty- 
one-versed form, in the present instance, as part of the £atush/oma, 
they would be chanted (along with the Ya^&aya^diya) in the twenty- 
four-versed form. Thus, though an Agnish/oma sacrifice, inasmuch 
as it has twelve stotras, yet it is not a regular one ; neither is it an 
Ukthya, because the Uktbas are not chanted as so many Stotras, 
followed by the recitation of separate Sastras. In the Art. St. X, 
6, different alternatives are proposed for the chanting of the Agnish- 



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XIII KXNDA, 5 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAWA, 4. 377 

after reciting the Stotriya 1 (strophe) together, recite 
the Anurupa (strophe) together : the Rathantara 
Pmh/^a-saman 2 , the 5astra containing the Rathan- 
tara (text), and the Agnish/oma sacrifice — thereby 
he makes sure of this world. 

3. ' There are twenty-one Savanlya 8 victims, all 
of them sacred to Agni : for these there is one and 
the same performance,' so say some; but, indeed, 
he should immolate two sets of eleven (victims), 
with the view of his obtainment of whatever desired 
object there may be in (victims) belonging to a set 
of eleven. 

4. When the Agnish/oma is completed, and the 
Vasatlvarl water carried round, the Adhvaryu per- 
forms the Annahomas 4 (oblations of food): the 
import of these has been explained. With twelve 

/oma-saman in the ' Gotamastoma (i. e. ATatush/oma) antarukthya ' 
and the corresponding Sastra, including apparently the employment 
of the Ya^aaya^fllya-saman either for all the four triplets, or for 
the Ya£#£ya£#iya triplet alone with the respective S&mans used for 
the other triplets; different modes of recitation being thereby 
implied with regard to the Stotriya and Anurupa pragathas. 

1 For the Agnimaruta-jastra, recited by the Hotri after the 
chanting of the Agnish/oma-saman, and containing, amongst various 
hymns and detached verses, the triplet which forms the text of the 
Stotra, i. e. tbe ' Stotriya pragatha,' as well as a corresponding anti- 
strophe, the ' Anurupa pragatha/ see part ii, p. 369 note. On the 
present occasion, however, this constituent element of the .Sastra 
would have to include the triplets of all the four S&mans, as well as 
four 'antistrophes' which are thus ' recited together.' 

1 Or, Pr;sh/^a-stotra, viz. the first stotra of that name at the 
midday-service, for which that Saman is used in the Agnish/oma 
sacrifice (part ii, p. 339, note a). 

' That is, victims sacrificed on the SutySs, or Soma-days. Two 
complete sets of eleven such victims are, however, required on each 
of the three days, see p. 309, note a. 

* See XIII, 3, 1, 1 seqq., and p. 397, note 1. 



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378 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAYA. 

Anuvakas (V4f. S. XXII, 23-34), 'To the in- 
breathing hail! To the off-breathing hail!' 
. . . (he offers) — twelve months are a year, and the 
year is everything, and the A^vamedha is every- 
thing: thus it is for his obtaining and securing 
everything. 

5. The central day is an ekavimsa. day 1 ; for the 
twenty-one-fold is yonder sun, and he is the A*va- 
medha : by means of his own Stoma he thus 
establishes him in his own deity, — therefore it is 
an ekavi»«a day. 

6. And, again, as to why it is an ekaviwwa day ; — 
man is twenty-one-fold — ten fingers, ten toes, and 
the body (self) as the twenty-first: by means of 
that twenty-one-fold self he thus establishes him 
in the twenty-one-fold (day) as on a firm foundation, 
— therefore it is an ekavimsa. day. 

7. And, again, as to why it is an ekaviwwa day ; — 
the ekavi»tta, assuredly, is the foundation of Stomas, 
and manifold is that ever- varying performance which 
takes place on this day, — and it is because he thinks 
that that manifold and ever-varying performance 
which takes place on this day, shall take place so 
as to be established on the ekaviw^a as a firm 
foundation, that this is an ekavimsa. day. 

8. Now, as to the morning-service of this day. 
The Hotri, having recited as the Afya (hymn*) 
in the Pankti (metre) ' Agni I think on, who is 
good . . . ,' recites thereto the one of a one-day's 



1 That is one on which all Stotras are chanted in the ' ekavuua ' 
Stoma, or twenty-one-versed hymn-form. 

* Viz. i?/'g-veda V, 6, forming the special feature of the A^yarastra 
at the Ajvamedha. 



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xiii KkNDA, 5 adhyAva, i brAhmajva, 6. 379 

Soma-sacrifice '. And the Birhata Prailga and the 
Madhui^andasa one he recites both together 8 in 
triplets — (this being done) for the obtainment of 
the objects of desire which (may be contained) both 
in the Birhata and the MadhuMandasa Prailga. 
The morning-service is (thus) set right 

9. Then as to the midday-service. For the 
obtainment of the A^vamedha, the atiMandas 
(verse, II, 22, 1), 'In the three troughs the 
buffalo drank the barley-draught,' is the opening 
verse of the Marutvatlya (sastra) ; for outstanding, 
indeed, is this atii^andas (hypercatalectic verse) 
amongst metres, and outstanding is the Asvamedha 
amongst sacrifices. This (verse), being recited 
thrice, amounts to a triplet, and thereby he obtains 
the object of desire which (may be contained) in the 
triplet. 'Here, O good one, is the pressed 
plant' (J&g-veda. VIII, 2, 1-3) is the 'anuiara' 
(sequent triplet) : this same (triplet) is the constant 

1 Viz. the A^ya-sttkta, A'g-veda III, 13, forming the chief part 
of the Hotn's A^ya-j-astra, or first .Sastra of the Agnish/oma, for 
which see part ii, p. 327 note. 

* The Barhata Praflga, or Prauga-jastra in the Brihati metre, — 
being the one recited on the fifth day of the Pr»'sh/Aya-sha<feha 
(A*v. St. VII, 12, 7), and consisting of the seven different triplets, 
addressed to as many different deities, — is to be recited also on this 
occasion ; and along with it (or rather, intertwined with it, triplet 
by triplet) the ordinary Pratlga-jastra of the Agnish/oma, made up 
of the two hymns A'g-veda I, 2 and 3 which are ascribed to Madhu- 
Mandas, and consist of nine and twelve verses, or together seven 
triplets. I do not understand why Harisv&min mentions ' Vayur 
agregfiA ' (? V6g. S. XXVII, 31) as being the first triplet of the 
MadhuAiandasa Praflga, instead of I, a, 1-3 'vfiyav £ y&hi darrata.' — 
The Praflga is the Hotn's second -Sastra of the morning-service, 
being preceded by the chanting of the first A^ya-stotra; see part 
>»» P- 3 2 5- 



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380 sAtapatha-brahmajva. 

connecting link of the one-day's sacrifice 1 . Having 
recited both the pankti (verses, I, 80, 1-16) 'Here 
in the Soma-draught alone (the Brahman 
gave thee strength),' and the six-footed ones 
(VIII, 36, 1-7) 'The patron thou art of the 
offerer of Soma,' he inserts the Nivid in the 
(hymn) of the one-day's sacrifice. Thus as to 
the Marutvatiya (-.yastra). 

10. Then as to the Nishkevalya (-iastra 8 ). The 
Mahanamnl (verses) are the Pr?'sh/Aa (-stotra) ; and 
he recites them along with the anurupa (verses) 
and pragatha (-strophes), for the obtainment of all 
the objects of his desire, for in the Mahanamnis, 
as well as in the Asvamedha, are contained all 
objects of desire. Having recited the pankti verses 
(I, 81, 1-9) 'Indra hath grown in ebriety and 
strength,' and the six-footed ones (VIII, 37, 1-7) 
'This sacred work didst thou protect in 

1 See part ii, p. 337, where the same triplet forms the amufcara 
of this £astra at the Agnish/oma. It is followed there by the 
Pragathas VIII, 53, 5-6 ; I, 40, 5-6 (read thus 1 each two counting 
as one triplet) ; three Dhayya verses, and the Marutvatiya Pragathas 
VIII, 89, 3-4 (!). These are to be followed up, on the present 
occasion, by the two hymns I, 80, and VIII, 36, after which the 
Indra hymn X, 73, the chief part of the normal Marutvatiya .Sutra, 
is to be recited, with the Nivid formula inserted after the sixth 
verse. 

* That is, the 5astra succeeding the chanting of the first, or 
Hotrt's, Prtsh/Aa- stotra (see part ii, p. 339). Whilst, however, in 
the one-day's sacrifice, the Rathantara (or the Bnhat) saman is 
used for that stotra, the Mahanamnf verses (see part iii, introd. 
p. zz, note 2), with the .Sakvara tune, are to be used as the 
StotriySs on this occasion, and are therefore likewise to be recited 
by the Hot/-/' as Stotriya-pragathas (cf. Ajv. VII, ia, 10 seqq.), to 
be followed up by the antistrophe (anurupa) — here consisting of 
the triplets I, 84, 10-12; VIII, 93, 31-3; I, 11, 1-3 — and the 
Sama-pragStha, VIII, 3, i-a. 



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xm kAyda, 5 adhyAya, i brAhmaya, ir. 381 

fights with VWtra,' he inserts the Nivid in the 
(hymn) of the one-day's sacrifice 1 . The midday- 
service is (thus) set right. 

11. Then as to the evening-service. The atl- 
Mandas verse (Va^ - . S. IV, 25), 'Unto that god 
Savitr*' within the two bowls (do I sing 
praises 2 ),' is the opening verse * of the Vai^vadeva 
(-.sastra *) : the mystic import thereof is the same 
as of the former (atii^andas verse). The Anuiara 8 
(./?/g-veda I, 24, 3-5), ' Unto (abhi) thee, (the lord 
of treasures), O god Savitr/, (ever helpful we 
come for our share . . .),' contains (the word) 
'abhi,' as a form (sign) of victory (abhibhuti). 
Having recited the Savitra (triplet, VI, 71, 4-6), 
'Up rose this god Savitrz, the friend of the 
house ...,' he inserts the Nivid in the (hymn) of 
the one-day's sacrifice 6 . Having recited the four 
verses to Heaven and Earth (IV, 56, 1-4), 'The 
mighty Heaven and Earth, the most glorious, 
here . . . ,' he inserts the Nivid in the (hymn 
I, 159) of the one-day's sacrifice. Having recited 
the Arbhava (hymn, IV, 34), '/?*bhu, Vibhvan, 
Indra, Va,f a, come ye to this our sacrifice . . . ,' 



1 Viz. after the eighth verse of the hymn ^*g-veda I, 32, the chief 
part of the normal Nishkevalya-jastra. 

* For the complete verse see III, 3, 2, 1 2. 

* This verse is again recited thrice, and thus takes the place of 
the ordinary opening triplet 

4 For this .Sastra, recited after the Arbhava-Pavamana-stotra, see 
part ii, p. 361. 

* A*v. St. X, 10, 6 prescribes the ordinary anu/tara V, 82, 4-7 ; 
whence Siyaxa on I, 24, 3 (-5) offers no indication of the ritualistic 
use of that triplet on this occasion. 

* Viz. IV, 54, before the last verse of which the Nivid is 
inserted. 



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382 satapatha-brahmajva. 

he inserts the Nivid in the (hymn, I, in) of the 
one-day's sacrifice. Having recited the (hymn, 
V, 41) to the All-gods, 'Who is there righteous 
unto you, Mitra and Varuaa? . . . ,' he inserts 
the Nivid in the (hymn, I, 89) of the one-day's 
sacrifice. Thus as to the Vai^vadeva (-sastra). 

1 2. Then as to the Agnimiruta \ Having recited 
the (hymn, VI, 7) to (Agni) Vai^vanara, 'The head 
of the sky, and the disposer of the earth...,' 
he inserts the Nivid in the (hymn. III, 3) of the 
one-day's sacrifice. Having recited the (hymn, 
V, 57) to the Maruts, 'Hither, O Rudras, come 
ye united with Indra . . . ,' he inserts the Nivid 
in the (hymn, I, 87) of the one-day's sacrifice. 
Having recited the nine verses (VI, 15, 1-9) to 
G&tavedas, 'This guest of yours, the early- 
waking . . . ,' he inserts the Nivid in the (hymn, 
I, 143) of the one-day's sacrifice. And as to why 
the (hymns) of the one-day's sacrifice are used for 
inserting the Nivid, it is for the sake of his (the 
Sacrificer's) not being deprived of a firm foundation, 
for the 6yotish/oma is a foundation. 

13. For this (day) there are those sacrificial 
animals — 'A horse, a hornless he-goat, and a Go- 
mrzga V fifteen ' paryangyas ' : the mystic import of 
these has been explained. Then these wild ones— » 
for spring he seizes (three) kapiw^alas 8 , for summer 
sparrows, for the rainy season partridges : of these 

1 Viz. the final Sastra. of the evening-service, preceded by the 
chanting of the Agnish/oma-s&man ; see part ii, p. 369. 

1 See p. 398, note 4 ; p. 338, note 1. 

1 The ' Kapi^fala ' is a kind of wildfowl, apparently of the quail 
or partridge species — a hazel-cock, or francoline partridge. Some 
of the later authorities, however, identify it with the '&laka' 



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xin kAjvda, 5 adhyAya, i brAhma^a, i 5. 383 

(wild animals) also (the mystic import) has been 
told ». 

14. Then those (victims) for the twenty-one 
(stakes). He seizes twenty-one animals for each 
of the (eleven) deities of the Seasonal offerings * ; 
for as many as there are gods of the Seasonal 
offerings so many are all the gods ; and all objects 
of desire are in the Asvamedha: 'by gratifying 
all the deities I shall gain all my desires,' so he 
thinks. But let him not proceed in this way. 

15. Let him seize seventeen victims for the central 
stake 8 , in order that he may gain and secure every- 

(' cuculus melanoleucus '). With regard to some of the wild animals 
referred to in the corresponding section of the "V&g. S., the com- 
mentator Mahfdhara significantly remarks (Va#. S. XXIV, ao; 
cf. Katy. XX, 6, 6 scholl.) that the meaning of such names as are 
not understood must be made out with the help of quotations 
(nigama), Vedic vocabularies (nigha»/u) and their comments 
(nirukta), grammar (vyakarana), the Unadivrrtti, and dictionaries. 

1 Viz. XIII, 2, 4, 1 seqq. It is not easy to see why the text 
should break off abruptly with the birds representing the rainy 
season. For autumn there are to be (three) quails, for winter 
' kakara,' and for the dewy season ' vikakara.' Then follow, to the 
end of the 260 wild animals, a long series of divinities to each of 
which (or sometimes to allied deities) three animals are consigned. 
Thirteen of these wild animals are placed on each of the twenty 
spaces between the twenty-one stakes. 

1 Or, perhaps, for the (eleven) deities of the Seasonal offerings he 
seizes twenty-one animals for each (stake) ; which would certainly 
simplify the distribution of those animals. Regarding the victims 
actually consecrated to the deities of the iTatunnSsya offerings, see 
p. 309, note 2. 

* This does not include the twelve ' paryahgyas ' tied to the horse's 
limbs, but only the horse and two other victims sacred to Pra^apati, 
and twelve of a long series of beasts, of which three are dedicated 
to each successive deity (or allied group of deities). To these are 
afterwards added Agni's two victims belonging to the two sets of 
eleven victims (of the other twenty of which one is assigned to each 
of the other stakes). 



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384 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

thing, for the seventeenfold is Pra^apati, and die 
seventeenfold (stoma) is everything, and the Asva- 
medha is everything; — and sixteen at each of 
the other (stakes) in order that he may gain and 
secure everything, for everything here consists of 
sixteen parts, and the Ajvamedha is everything. 
Thirteen wild (beasts) he seizes for each interme- 
diate space, in order that he may gain and secure 
everything, for the year consists of thirteen months, 
and the Aivamedha is everything. 

1 6. Now, prior to the (chanting of the) Bahishpa- 
vamana, they (the assistants of the Adhvaryu) bring 
up the horse, after cleansing it; and with it they 
glide along for the Pavamana: the mystic import 
of this has been explained \ When the Bahishpa- 
vamana has been chanted, they make the horse 
step on the place of chanting : if it sniffs, or turns 
away, let him know that his sacrifice is successful. 
Having led up that (horse), the Adhvaryu says, 
'HotW, sing praises!' and the Hotri sings its praises* 
with eleven (verses, J&g-veda. I, 163, 1-11) — 

17. 'When, first born, thou didst neigh. ..' — 
thrice (he praises) with the first, and thrice with the 
last (verse), these amount to fifteen, — fifteenfold is 
the thunderbolt, and the thunderbolt means vigour : 
with that thunderbolt, vigour, the Sacrificer thus 
from the very first repels evil : thus *, indeed, it is 
to the Sacrificer that the thunderbolt is given in 

1 XIII, 2, 3, 1. 

* The mode of recitation is similar to that of the kindling- 
verses (likewise eleven, brought up, by repetitions of the first and 
last, to fifteen), viz. by making a pause after each half-verse, but 
without adding the syllable ' om ' thereto. Ajv. Si. X, 8, 5. 

* Harisvimin explains ' tad vai ' as standing for ' sa vai ' (linga- 
vyatyayena) — viz. that fifteenfold thunderbolt. 



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xni kXnda, 5 adhyAya, i brAhma^a, 18. 385 

order to smite for him whoever is to be smitten. — 
[.tfzg-veda I, 163, 12. 13], 'The swift racer hath 
gone forward to the slaying. . .' — 'The racer 
hath gone forward to the highest place . . . ' — 

18. Having omitted these two (verses), he inserts 
the hymn (1, 162), ' Never (shall forget us) Mitra, 
Varu»a, Aryaman, Ayu...,' in the Adhrigu 1 
(litany). Some, however, insert this verse (I, 162, 
18), 'Thirty-four (ribs) of the steed, akin to 
the gods, (doth the knife hit)...,' before the 
(passage, — 'twenty-six are its) ribs,' thinking lest 
they should place the holy syllable 'om' in the 
wrong place *, or lest they should suggest the plural 
by a singular 8 . Let him not proceed thus, but let 
him insert the hymn as a whole. — ' The swift racer 
hath gone forward to the slaying . . .' — The racer 
hath gone forward to the highest place . . . ' — 

1 On this recitation, consisting of a lengthy set of formulas, 
addressed to the slaughterers, see part ii, p. 188, note 2. The 
whole of the formulas are given Ait. Br. II, 6-7. The hymn, ac- 
cording to Ajv. X, 8, 7, is to be inserted either before the last formula 
of the litany, or somewhat further back — viz. before the formula 
' sha</vi»watir asya vankrayas,' ' twenty- six are its ribs ' — whilst our 
Brahmana rather allows the alternative of the eighteenth verse of 
I, 162 being inserted at the latter place, — unless, indeed, the 
insertion in that case is to be made immediately before the word 
' vankrayaA ' which is scarcely likely. 

* Harisvimin seems to take this to mean that as this verse is 
of the same nature as the formulas of the Adhrigu litany, he is to 
treat it as such, as otherwise, in reciting he would have to pronounce 
4 om ' after that verse, which is not done after those formulas. 

* Or, the plurality by the individual. Owing to the corrupt state 
of the MS., the commentator's explanation of this passage is not 
clear. He seems, however, at any rate, to take the 'plural ' to refer 
to the formula ' shadvimsath asya vankrayas,' where apparently 
'eshdm' has to be substituted for 'asya' on this occasion, as 
many victims are immolated, and the ribs of a plurality of beasts 
are thus indicated, whilst in verse eighteen of the hymn, on the 

[44] CC 



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386 satapatha-brahmawa. 

Second BrAhmawa. 
i. Having uttered these two (verses), he pro- 
nounces what remains of the Adhrigu. ' A cloth, 
an upper cloth, and gold,' this is what they spread 
out for the horse * : thereon they ' quiet ' (slaughter) 
it. When the victims have been 'quieted,' the 
(king's) wives come up with water for washing the 
feet, — four wives, and a young maiden as the fifth, 
and four hundred female attendants. 

2. When the foot- water is ready, they cause the 
Mahishl to lie down near the horse, and cover her up 
with the upper cloth, with ' In heaven ye envelop 
yourselves,' — for that indeed is heaven where they 
immolate the victim . . . , ' May the vigorous male, 
the layer of seed, lay seed ! ' she says * for the com- 
pleteness of union. 

3. Whilst they are lying there, the Sacrificer 
addresses the horse (Va£\ S. XXIII, 21), 'Utsakhya 
ava gudaw dhehil' No one replies to him, lest 
there should be some one to rival the Sacrificer. 

4. The Adhvaryu then addresses the maiden, 
' Hey hey maiden, that little bird . . . ' — The maiden 
replies to him, 'Adhvaryu ! that little bird . . . ' 

5. And the Brahman addresses the Mahishl, 
' Mahishl, hey hey Mahishl, thy mother and father 
mount to the top of the tree . . . ' — She has a hun- 
dred daughters of kings attending upon her : these 

contrary, only the ribs of one horse (thus forming a kind of unit) 
are referred to ; and if that verse were recited, along with the whole 
hymn, before the final formula which refers to all the victims, the 
necessary connection would be interrupted. 

» See XIII, a, 8, 1. 

' Nir&yatylfvasya rirnaai mahishy upasthe nidhatte ' vnsM vigt 
retodbi reto dadhatv ' iti mithunasyaiva sarvatv&ya. 



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xiii kXnda, 5 adhyAya, 2 brAhmaya, 10. 387 

reply to the Brahman, ' Brahman, hey hey Brahman, 
thy mother and father play on the top of the tree. . .' 

6. And the Udgatr? addresses the favourite, 
'Vavata, hey hey Vavata, turn upwards!' She 
has a hundred noble-women (ra^anya) attending 
upon her: these reply to the UdgatW, ' Hey hey 
Udgatr«, turn upwards!' 

7. And the Hotri says to the discarded wife, 

* Pariwzkta, hey hey Pariwzkta, when large meets 
small in this awhubhedl . . . ' — She has a hundred 
daughters of heralds and head-men of villages 
attending upon her: these reply to the Hotri, 
' Hotri, hey hey Hotri, when the gods favoured the 
lalamagu . . . ' 

8. Then the chamberlain addresses the fourth wife, 

* Palagall, hey hey Palagall, when the deer eats the 
corn, one thinks not of the fat cattle . . . ' — She has a 
hundred daughters of chamberlains and charioteers 
attending upon her : these reply to the chamberlain, 
' Chamberlain, hey hey chamberlain, when the deer 
eats the corn, one thinks not of the fat cattle . . . ' 

9. These speeches, the derisive discourses, indeed 
are every kind of attainment, and in the A^vamedha 
all objects of desire are contained : * By every kind 
of speech may we obtain all objects of our desire' 
thus thinking, they cause the Mahishl to rise. Those 
(women) then walk back in the same way as they 
had come ; and the others finally utter the verse 
containing (the word) 'fragrant' (.Rig-v. IV, 39, 6), 
'To Dadhikravan have I sung praises...' 

10. For, indeed, life and the deities depart from 
those who at the sacrifice speak impure speech : it 
is their speech they thereby purify so that the 
deities may not depart from the divine service. 

c c 2 



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388 satapatha-brAhma#a. 

How (some) put the omentum of the Gomrrga and 
that of the hornless he-goat upon the horse and 
then take it (to the Ahavanlya), saying, ' The horse 
has no omentum.' Let him not do so : of the horse 
he should certainly take the fat ; the (omenta of the) 
others are normal. 

ii. When the omenta have been roasted, and 
when they have performed (the oblations) with the 
Svahas ', and returned to the back (of the sacrificial 
ground), they hold a Brahmodya s (theological 
discussion) in the Sadas. Having entered by the 
front door, they sit down at their several hearths. 

12. The Hotr* asks the Adhvaryu (Va/; S. 
XXIII, 45), 'Who is it that walketh singly »?...' 
He replies to him (ib. 46), ' Surya (the sun) walketh 
singly...' 

13. The Adhvaryu then asks the Hotri (V^f. S. 
XXIII, 47), 'Whose light is there equal to the 
sun ? . . . ' He replies to him (ib. 48), ' The Brah- 
man (n.) is the light equal to the sun...' 

14. The Brahman then asks the Udgatrr (V4f. 
S. XXIII, 49), ' I ask thee for the sake of 
knowledge, O friend of the gods [if thou hast 
applied thy mind thereto: hath Vishxu en- 
tered the whole world at those three places 
at which offering is made unto him?]' and 
he replies (ib. 50), 'I too am at those three 
places [at which he entered the whole world: 

1 Sae III, 8, 2, 21-23. 

* For a similar discussion between the Brahman and Hotn", 
prior to the binding of the victims to the stakes, see XIII, 2, 6, 9 
seqq. 

1 For the complete verse, comprising four questions, see XIII, a, 
6, 10-13 ; th* answers being given there in the form of explanations. 



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xiii kAjvda, 5 adhyAya, 2 brAhmaya, 18. 389 

daily do I, with the one body*, go round the 
earth, the sky, and the back of yonder sky].' 

15. The Udgatr* then asks the Brahman (Va^-. S. 
XXIII, 51), 'Into what (things) hath the Spirit* 
entered, [and what (things) are established in 
the spirit ? this, O Brahman, we crave of thee : 
what answer dost thou give unto us there- 
on?]' and he replies (ib. 52), 'Into five (things) 
hath the spirit entered, and they are estab- 
lished in the spirit: this I reply unto thee 
thereon ; not superior in wisdom art thou 
(to me).' 

16. When this (verse) has been uttered, they 
rise and betake themselves from the Sadas east- 
wards to the Sacrificer. Having come to him, seated 
in front of the Havirdhana 8 (shed), they sit down 
in their several places. 

17. The Hotrt then asks the Adhvaryu (Va^. S. 
XXIII, 53), ' What was the first conception 4 ?. .. ' 
and he replies (ib. 54), 'The sky was the first 
conception...' 

18. The Adhvaryu then asks the Hotri (ib. 55), 
'Who, pray, is the tawny one (pirangila) ? [who 
is the kurupisangila? who moveth in leaps? 
who creepeth along the path?]' and he replies 
(ib. 56), 'The tawny one is the uncreated (night) 6 ; 
[the kurupuaiigila is the porcupine; the hare 

1 Or, with the one limb (ekenangena) which Mahidhara takes le 
mean ' with the mind, in mind.' Possibly ' asya ' may have to be 
taken together with it — ' with the one body of his (Vishnu's).' 

* Or, man (purusha). The five things, according to Mahidhara, 
are the vital airs, or breathings. 

* That is, behind the uttaravedi, according to K&ty. XX, 7, 12. 

* See XIII, 2, 6, 14 seqq. 

* Mahidhara takes ' agi, ' (the eternal) here as meaning either the 



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390 satapatha-brAhmajta. 

moveth in leaps; the snake creepeth along 
the path].' 

19. The Brahman then asks the UdgatW (Va/: 
S. XXIII, 57), 'Howmany kinds are thereof this 
(sacrifice), how many syllables? — [how many 
oblations ? how often is (the fire) enkindled ? 
The ordinances of sacrifice have I now asked 
of thee : how many priests offer in due form ?]' 
and he replies (ib. 58), 'Six kinds there are of 
this (sacrifice), a hundred syllables, [eighty 
oblations, and three kindling-sticks; the or- 
dinances of sacrifice do I declare unto thee: 
seven priests offer in due form].' 

20. The Udgatr/ then asks the Brahman (V4f. 
S. XXIII, 59), 'Who knoweth the navel of this 
world? [who heaven and earth and the air? 
who knoweth the birth-place of the great Sun ? 
who knoweth the Moon, whence it was born?]' 
and he replies (ib. 60), ' I know the navel of this 
world, [I know heaven and earth and the air; 
I know the birth-place of the great Sun, and 
I know the Moon, whence it was born].' 

21. The Sacrificer then asks the Adhvaryu (Va^. 
S. XXIII, 61), 'I ask thee about the farthest 
end of the earth, [I ask where is the navel 
of the world; I ask thee about the seed of 
the vigorous steed; I ask thee about the 
highest seat of speech];' and he replies (ib. 62), 
'This altar-ground is the farthest end of the 
earth ; [this sacrifice is the navel of the world ; 
this Soma-juice is the seed of the vigorous 

night, or M4y& ; cf. XIII, 2, 6, 1 7. Perhaps, however, ' agi. ' may 
mean * goat ' here. 



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xm kXnda, 5 adhyAya, 2 brAhmajva, 23. 391 

steed; this Brahman (priest) is the highest 
seat of speech].' 

22. Verily, this is the complete attainment of 
speech, to wit the Brahmodya, and in the Asva- 
medha all desires are contained : ' By means of all 
speech may we obtain all our desires!' so (they think). 

23. When the colloquy has been held, the Adh- 
varyu enters the (Havirdhana), and draws Pra^a- 
pati's (first) Mahiman cup (of Soma) in a gold vessel. 
The Puroru/fc formula 1 thereof is (Va^. S. XXIII, 1 ; 
Rig-\. X, i2i, 1), 'The golden germ was first 
produced...' And its Puro«nuvakya is (Va/ - . S. 
XXIII, 63), 'Of good nature, self-existent at 
first (within the great ocean: I verily place 
the right germ whence is borh Pra^apati).' — 
'May the Hotr* offer to Pra^apati : [of the 
Mahiman Soma (cup); may he relish, may he 
drink the Soma! Hotr*, utter the offering- 
formula!]' is the Praisha (ib. 64). The Hot/7 
utters the offering-formula (ib. 65), 'O Pra^apati, 
none other than thee hath encompassed all 
these forms *...;' and as the Vasha* is pronounced, 
he (the Adhvaryu) offers with (Va^. S. XXIII, 
2), 'What greatness of thine there hath been 
in the day, and the year, [what greatness of 
thine there hath been in the wind and the air; 
what greatness of thine there hath been in the 
heavens and the sun, to that greatness of 
thine, to Praf&pati, hail, to the gods 8 !]' He 
does not repeat the Vasha/, for he offers the cup 
of Soma all at once. 

1 That is, the preliminary formula, or formulas, preceding the 
' upaydma ' (' Thou art taken with a support ...'). 
* See V, 4, 2, 9. * See XIII, a, 1 r, 2 with note. 



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392 jatapatha-brAhmajva. 

Third Brahmajva. 
Thi Vapa-Offmungs. 

i. Now as to the offering of the omenta. ' They 
should proceed with them singly up to the omentum 
of the Vaisvadeva (victim) 1 ; and when the omentum 
of the Vaisvadeva has been offered, they should 
thereupon offer the others/ said Satyakama Ca- 
bala ; * for, doubtless, the All-Gods (Vijve Deva^) 
are all (sarve) the gods : it is in this way he gratifies 
them deity after deity.' 

2. ' When the omentum of the Aindragna (victim) 
has been offered, they should thereupon offer the 
others,' said the two Saumapa Manutantavya; 
' for, doubtless, Indra and Agni are all the gods : 
it is in this way he gratifies them deity after deity.' 

3. ' When the omentum of the (victim) sacred to 
Ka has been offered, they should thereupon offer 

1 Whilst there are amongst the victims immolated on the second 
day, several others consecrated to the Virve DevSA, Indra and Agni, 
and Ka, — the Vaixvadeva, Aindragna, and Kaya victims, referred to 
in this and the following two paragraphs, belong to the ATaturmisya, 
or Seasonal victims, being amongst those tied to the fourteenth and 
sixteenth stakes. Though the text speaks only of one VaLrvadeva 
&c. victim, there are really three such victims in each case. 
According to the views referred to in these paragraphs (cf. comm. 
on Katy. XX, 7, 23), the omenta of all the preceding victims (from 
the ' paryangya ' onwards) up to the beginning of the ATaturmasyas, 
would be offered together after (or along with) the vapas of those 
of the respective victims (Vauvadeva &c) specified in these para- 
graphs ; and along therewith the vap&s of all the subsequent Seasonal 
victims. The deities to which this heap of omenta would be 
offered, would thus be either the Virve Dev&A, or India and Agni, 
or Ka, as representing all the deities. Axv. S. X, 9, 7, assigns the 
omenta of all the victims, except the three Pra£fipatya ones, to 
the Vuve DevaA. 



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xiii kAnda, 5 adhvAya, 3 brAhmajva, 7. 393 

the others,' said .Sailali ; 'for, doubtless, Ka is 
Pra^apati, and behind Pra^apati are all the gods : 
it is in this way he gratifies them deity after deity.' 

4. 'Having gone through the twenty-one deities of 
the Seasonal * (victims), let them proceed by divid- 
ing (the omenta) into twenty-one parts 8 ,' said 
Bhailaveya ; 'for as many as there are Seasonal 
deities so many are all the gods : it is in this way he 
gratifies them deity after deity.' 

5. 'Let them proceed (with the omenta) singly 
and not otherwise,' said Indrota vSaunaka ; ' why, 
indeed, should they hasten ? It is in this way he 
gratifies them deity after deity.' This, then, is what 
these have said, but the established practice is 
different therefrom. 

6. Now Y&g »avalkya said, 'They should pro- 
ceed simultaneously with the (omenta) of Pra^apati's 3 
(victims), and simultaneously with those consecrated 
to single gods : it is in this way that he gratifies them 
deity after deity, that he goes straightway to the 
completion of the sacrifice, and does not stumble.' 

7. When the omenta have been offered, the 
Adhvaryu enters (the Havirdhana shed) and draws 

1 See p. 309, note 2. 

* According to this view, the omenta of all the victims after the 
three first (Pra^spatya) ones, — i. e. beginning from the ' paryan- 
gya' animals (see p. 299, note 2) up to the end of the JTaturmasya, 
or Seasonal victims, which are the last of the domesticated .animals 
— would be put together in one heap and divided into twenty-one 
portions, which would then be offered to the first twenty-one deities 
of the Seasonal offerings, that is to say, to those of the Vauvadeva, 
Varaxapragbasa, Sakamedha, and Mahihavis offerings, thus omit- 
ting the deities of the Pitryesh/i and the .Sunasfrtya offerings. 

* That is the first three victims, viz. the horse, the hornless he- 
goat, and the Gomn'ga. 



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394 ' satapatha-brAhmajta. 

Pra^apati's second Mahiman cup of Soma in 
a silver vessel. The Puroru£ thereof is (V4f. 
XXIII, 3), * He who by his greatness hath be- 
come the one king of the breathing and blink- 
ing world, [and who here ruleth over the 
two-footed and the four-footed : to the god 
Ka(Who?) will we pay homage by offering].' 
The Anuvakya and Ya^ya are interchanged so as 
to (ensure) unimpaired vigour 1 , and the Praisha 
(direction to Hotrt) is the same (as that of the first 
cup). As the Vasha/ is uttered, he offers with 
(V&g. S. XXIII, 4), 'What greatness of thine 
there hath been in the night, and the year, 
[what greatness of thine there hath been in 
the earth and the fire; what greatness of 
thine there hath been in the Nakshatras and 
the moon, to that greatness of thine, to 
Pra^apati, to the gods, hail 2 ].' He does not 
repeat the Vasha/ : the significance of this has been 
explained. 

8. Of the blood of the other victims they make 
no sacrificial portions ; of (that of) the horse they 
do make portions 3 . Of (the blood of) the others * 
they make portions 4 on the south side, of (that of) 
the horse on the north side (of the altar) ; of (the 
blood of) the others he makes portions on (a mat 
of) plaksha (ficus infectoria) twigs, of (that of) the 
horse on rattan twigs. 

1 By simple repetition this would be impaired. 

* See XIII, 2, 1 1, 2 with note. * See XIII, 3, 4, 2-5. 

4 This would be an alternative view. According to the scholl. 
on K&ty. XX, 8, 1-3, this would seem to refer to the other Pra^i- 
patya victims, in which case one would, however, expect the dual 
here, as there are only two of them besides the horse. 



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xiii kAjvda, 5 adhyAya, 3 brAhmam, ii. 395 

9. But concerning this, Satyaya,f*i said, 'They 
may indeed do it in either way, only one must not 
depart from the (right) path.' But the former, 
indeed, is the established practice. The sacrifice 
(of the second day) is an Ukthya : thereby he causes 
the air-world to prosper. The last day is an 
Atiratra with all the Stomas, for him to obtain and 
secure everything, for the Atiratra with all the 
Stomas is everything, and the A^vamedha is every- 
thing. 

10. Its Bahishpavamana (stotra) is in the Trivrzt 
(9-versed Stoma), the A^ya (stotras) in the Fan&a- 
daya (15-versed), the Madhyandina-pavamana in 
the Saptadarai (17), the Pn'shMas in the Ekaviwwa 
(21), the Tr/tlya Pavamina in the Trmava (27), 
the Agnish/oma-saman in the Trayastri»wa (33), the 
Ukthas in the Ekaviawa (21), the Shodann in the 
Ekavi^tfa, the night (chants) in the Va.nkada.sz, 
the Sandhi (twilight chant) in the Trivrz't (9). 
Whatever .Sastra is (recited) for the second day of 
the Pr«'sh/£ya Shadkha that is (used at) the Atiratra 
sacrifice 1 ; thereby he causes yonder (heavenly) 
world to prosper. 

11. 'There are twenty-one Savantya victims, all 
of them consecrated to Agni, and there is one and 
the same performance for them,' so say some ; but 
let him rather immolate those twenty-four bovine 
(victims 2 ) for twelve deities, — twelve months are 
a year, and the year is everything, and the Asva.- 



1 In the same way Asv. S. X, 4, 8 lays down the rule that the 
6'astras of the second day are those of the fifth day of the VyurfAa 
Pnsh/Aya-sharfaha ; cf. above, XIII, 5, 1, 7 seqq. 

» See XIII, 3, 2, 3. 



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396 $atapatha-brahmava. 

medha is everything : thus it is for the sake of his 
obtaining and securing everything. 

Fourth BrAhmaya. 

Different Arrangements of the Chants of the Ajvameihu. 

i. Now, Indrota Daivapa .Saunaka once per- 
formed this sacrifice for (Janame^aya Parikshita, 
and by performing it he extinguished all evil-doing, 
all Brahman-slaughter ; and, verily, he who performs 
the Asvamedha extinguishes (the guilt incurred by) 
all evil-doing, all Brahman-slaughter. 

2. It is of this, indeed, that the Gatha (strophe) 
sings, — ' In Asandlvat 1 , £anamefaya bound for 
the gods a black-spotted, grain-eating horse, adorned 
with a golden ornament and with yellow garlands.' 

3. [There are] those same first two days*, and 
a Gyrotis 8 Atiratra : therewith (they sacrificed) for 
Bhfmasena; — those same first two days, and a Go 
Atiratra : therewith (they sacrificed) for Ugra- 
sena; — those same first two days, and an Ayus 
Atiratra : therewith (they sacrificed) for .SYutasena. 
These are the Parikshitlyas *, and it is of this that 
the Gatha sings, — 'The righteous Parikshita s, 
performing horse-sacrifices, by their righteous work 
did away with sinful work one after another.' 



1 Lit., (in the city, nagare, Harisv&min) possessed of a throne. Cf. 
Ait. Br. VIII, ai. 

* Viz., as stated before, an Agnish/oma and an Ukthya. 

* As to the difference between the Cfyotis, Go, and Ayus forms of 
the Agnish/oma sacrifice, see part iv, p. 387, note 2. 

4 That is, according to Harisv&min (and the Gdthfi), the brothers 
of (Ganame^aya) Pirikshita, though one would rather have thought 
of his sons, the grandsons of Parikshit. 



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xiii kXhda, 5 adhyAya, 4 brAhmana, 7. 397 

4. Those same first two days, and an Abh^it 1 
Atiratra, — therewith Para A/nara, the Kausalya 
king, once sacrificed : it is of this that Gathi sings, 
— 'A/nara's son, the Kausalya Para, Haira»ya- 
nabha, caused a horse, meet for sacrifice, to be 
bound, and gave away the replete regions.' 

5. Those same first two days, and a Visvagit 1 
Atiratra, — therewith Purukutsa, the Aikshvaka 
king, once on a time performed a horse(daurgaha)- 
sacrifice, whence it is of this that the /ftshi sings 
(J&g-v. IV, 42, 8), — ' These, the seven ^'shis, were 
then our fathers when Daurgaha * was bound.' 

6. Those same first two days, and a Mahivrata * 
Atiratra, — therewith Marutta Avikshita, the 
Ayogava king, once performed sacrifice; whence 
the Maruts became his guards-men, Agni his 
chamberlain, and the Visve DevaA his counsellors : 
it is of this that the Gatha sings, — 'The Maruts 
dwelt as guards-men in Marutta Avikshita's 
house, Agni as his chamberlain, and the Vmre 
DevaA as his counsellors.' And, verily, the Maruts 
become the guards-men, Agni the chamberlain, 
and the Vlnre Dev&A the counsellors of him who 
performs the horse-sacrifice. 

7. Those same first two days, and an Aptoryama* 
Atiratra, — it was therewith that Kraivya, the 
Pawiala king, once performed sacrifice, — for 
Krivis they formerly called the Pawialas : it is of 
this that the GathA sings, — 'At ParivakrA, the 

1 Regarding the Abhjgit and Vijvagit, see part iv, p. 320, note 2. 

* Sayana, differently from our Brahmaaa, takes Daurgaha as the 
patronymic of Purukutsa (son of Durgaha). 

* See part iv, p. 282, note 5. 
4 See part in, introd. p. zx. 



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398 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

Paȣala overlord of the Krivis seized a horse, 
meet for sacrifice, with offering-gifts of a hundred 
thousand (head of cattle).' 

8. And a second (Gatha), — 'A thousand myriads 
there were, and five-and-twenty hundreds, which the 
Brahma#as of the Pawialas from every quarter 
divided between them.' 

9. The Agnish/oma in the TrivWt (stoma) ; the 
Ukthya in the Pa&6adara. ; and the third day, with 
the Uktha (stotras), in the Saptadara ; the Shoakrin 
(stotra) in the Ekavi«wa, the night (stotras) in the 
Pa»£adafa, and the Sandhi (stotra) in the Trivm, — 
this is the (sacrifice) resulting in the AnushAibh 1 : 
it is therewith that sacrifice was performed by 
Dhvasan Dvaitavana, the king of the Matsyas, 
where there is the lake Dvaitavana ; and it is of 
this that the Gatha sings, — ' Fourteen steeds did 
king Dvaitavana, victorious in battle, bind for 
Indra Vr/trahan, whence the lake Dvaitavana 
(took its name).' 

10. The (three) Pavamana (stotras) in the A!atur* 
vimsa. (stoma), and (those performed) by repetitions * 
in the Trivrtt ; the Pavamanas in the A!atu.riatva~ 
ri»«a (44-versed stoma), and (those performed) by 
repetition 8 in the Ekaviwwa; the Pavamanas in 



1 Viz. inasmuch as, according to Harisvimin, all the Stotras 
amount together to 798 verses, which make twenty-five anush/ubh 
verses (of 32 syllables each) or thereabouts. 

* That is to say, all the remaining nine stotras of this, the Agnish- 
/oma, day, the so-called Dhuryas, viz. the A^ya-stotras, the Pr»sh/*a- 
stotras, and the Agnish/oma-sdman, in all of which the respective 
Stoma is obtained by repetitions of the three stotriyi-verses. 

1 In this, the Ukthya, day, this includes also the three IJktha- 
stotras, as being, as it were, the Dhuryas of the Hotri's assistants 



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xiii kXnda, 5 adhyAya, 4 brAhmaata, 15. 399 

the Ash/4£atvari»«a (48), and (those performed) by 
repetition in the Trayastri»wa (33) up to the 
Agnish/oma-saman, the Uktha (stotras) in the Dva- 
trimsa. (32), the Shodayin in the Ekavi«wa, the night 
(stotras) in the Pa££adasa, and the Sandhi (stotra) in 
the Trivr/t : 

11. Suchlike is Vishmi's striding 1 , — it was there- 
with that Bharata Dau^shanti once performed 
sacrifice, and attained that wide sway which now 
belongs to the Bharatas: it is of this that the 
Gatha sings, — 'Seventy-eight steeds did Bharata 
Dau^shanti bind for the VWtra-slayer on the 
Yamuna, and fifty-five near the Ganga.' 

1 2. And a second (Gatha), — ' Having bound a 
hundred and thirty-three horses, meet for sacrifice, 
king Saudyumni, more shifty, overcame the other 
shiftless ones.' 

13. And a third, — *At Naafapit 2 , the Apsaras 
.Sakuntala conceived Bharata, who, after conquer- 
ing the whole earth, brought to Indra more than 
a thousand horses, meet for sacrifice.' 

14. And a fourth *, — ' The greatness of Bharata 
neither the men before nor those after him attained, 
nor did the five (tribes of) men, even as a mortal 
man (does not touch) the sky with his arms/ 

1 5. With the Ekavitfwa-stoma* /?zshabha Ya^»a- 



(cf. part iii, introd. p. xiv seqq.); whilst in the directions regarding 
the next day they are not included, as requiring a different Stoma. 
1 Just as there are here wide intervals between the Stomas, so 
Vishnu, in his three strides, passes over wide distances, comm. 

* This, according to Harisvamin, is the name of Kama's 
hermitage. Cf. Leumann, Zeitsch. d. D. M. G., XLVIII, p. 81. 

* Cf. Ait. Br. VIII, 23 ; Weber, Ind. Stud. I, p. 20a. 

* That is, using the ai-versed form throughout the three days. 



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4<x> satapatha-brahmaya. 

tura, king of the vSViknas, performed sacrifice : it 
is of this that the Gatha sings, — ' When /?*shabha 
Y4f#atura was sacrificing, the Brahman-folk, 
having received wealth at the A^vamedha, divided 
the offering-gifts between them.' 

1 6. With the Trayastri»wa-stoma .So ft a Satra- 
saha, the Pawiala king, performed sacrifice: it is of 
this that the Gatha sings, — 'When Satrasaha per- 
forms the horse-sacrifice, the Trayastrwwa (stomas) 
come forth as (Taurvasa) horses, and six thousand 
mail-clad men '. 

1 7. And a second (Gatha), — ' At the sacrifice of 
thee, K oka's father, the Trayastri»wa (stomas) 
come forth, each as six times six thousand * (horses), 
and six thousand mail-clad men.' 

18. And a third, — 'When Satrasaha, the P4»- 
/6ala king, was sacrificing, wearing beautiful garlands, 
Indra revelled in Soma, and the Brahmaftas became 
satiated with wealth.' 

19. 6atantka Sitra^ita performed the Govt- 
nata (form of Axvamedha), after taking away the 

1 This seems to be Harisvamin's interpretation of the verse : — 
torvisi a*vi gyesh/Ae tam api sr^yeran iti (?) trayastriwji stomS 
udga^Manti, sa hi >Sb«as trayastri»wan eva stoman trishv api 
divaseshu prayunkte nanyan iti te udgaAfc/ianttty aha, sha/ tu 
sahasriwi varmw&m ra^aputra«a»« kava&nara arvapilanSm udfrata 
iti vartate varshe praptS eva drash/avy&A. The St. Petersb. Diet, 
on the other hand, construes ' trayastriwwiA ' along with 'sha/ 
sahasra»i'=6o33 (? horses of mail-clad men). This interpretation 
seems to me to involve serious difficulties. The use of those Stomas 
doubtless is supposed to result in the advantages here enumerated. 

* Koko nima nathaA, ke te axva udfrata iti prathamayaw gatha- 
yam uktam tad atrapy arm vartate; tesham tatra parimanam 
noktam atra sha/trimsad arvasahasrini rakshwiam anuferabhutiny 
udgaMfcmtity aha; trayastrimjir Aodirate shad dA\(i) varmw&R 
padanetasu (?) gai&fctntiti. Harisvamin. 



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XIII KAJV0A, 5 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAJVA, 23. 40I 

horse of the Kasya (king); and since that time 
the Kasis do not keep up the (sacrificial) fires, 
saying, ' The Soma-drink has been taken from us.' 

20. The mode (of chanting) for this (Govinata 
form) is : — the Pavamana (stotras) in the Aaturviwtsa 
(stoma), and (those chanted) by repetitions in the 
Trivrrt ; — the Pavamanas in the A , atu$£atvari»*fo, 
the A^ya (stotras) in the Ekaviffua, the Ukthas * in 
the Tri»ava, the Pr»sh/^as in the Ekavimra ; — the 
Pavamanas in the Shaftriwwa (36-versed), and (those 
chanted) by repetitions in the Trayastri»«a (33) 
up to the Agnish/oma-saman, the Ukthas in the 
Ekavifftra, the Shodksin in the Ekavi»wa, the night 
(stotras) in the Pa&tadara, and the Sandhi (stotra) 
in the Trivrtt. 

21. It is of this that the Gatha sings, — ' .Satantka 
Satra^ita seized a sacrificial horse, in the neigh- 
bourhood, the sacrifice of the Ka^is, even as 
Bharata (seized that) of the Satvats.' 

22. And a second, — 'The mighty .Satantka, having 
seized, in the neighbourhood, Dhr*tarash/ra's 
white sacrificial horse, roaming at will in its tenth 
month, .Satantka * performed the Govinata-sacrifice.' 

23. And a fourth 8 , — 'The greatness of the 
Pharatas neither the men before nor those after 
them attained, nor did the seven (tribes of) men, 
even as a mortal man (does not touch) the sky with 
his flanks.' 

1 Why these are here put before the Pr»sh/Aas, is not clear. 

* Perhaps we ought here to read * S£tra£ita.' 

* Unless the GathS in the preceding paragraph (being in the 
Trish/ubh metre) is really counted as two, the author seems here 
purposely to have omitted a verse. Possibly, however, it may 
mean, ' the fourth,' viz. referring to paragraph 14. 

[44] ' Dd 



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402 SATAPATHA-BRAhMAJTA. 

24. Now as to the sacrificial gifts. Whatever there 
is towards the middle of the kingdom other than the 
land, the men, and the property of the Brahma«a, 
of that the eastern region belongs to the Hotrt, 
the southern to the Brahman, the western to the 
Adhvaryu, the northern to the UdgatW; and the 
Hotrtkas share this along with them. 

25. When the Udayaniya (completing offering) 
is finished, he seizes twenty-one barren cows, sacred 
to Mitra-Varu»a, the Virve Dev&A, and BWhaspati, 
with the view of his gaining those deities. And 
the reason why those sacred to Brzhaspati come 
last is that Brthaspati is the Brahman (n.), and he 
thus establishes himself finally in the Brahman. 

26. And as to their being twenty-one of them,— 
the twenty-one-fold is he who shines yonder: twelve 
months, five seasons, these three worlds, and yonder 
sun as the twenty-first — this consummation (he 
thereby obtains). 

27. When the Udavasanlya (closing offering) is 
completed, they give, for a sacrificial gift, four 
women, with a maiden as the fifth, and four hundred 
female attendants according to agreement. 

28. And during the following year he performs 
the animal sacrifices of the seasons, — six (victims) 
sacred to Agni in the spring, six to Indra in the 
summer, six to Par^anya, or to the Maruts, in the 
rainy season, six to Mitra and Varutfa in the autumn, 
six to Indra and Vishwu in the winter, and six to 
Indra and Brzhaspati in the dewy season, — six 
seasons are a year : in the seasons, in the year, he 
thus establishes himself. These amount to thirty- 
six animals, — the Brihatt (metre) consists of thirty- 
six syllables, and the heavenly world is established 



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XIII K&NDA., 6 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAtfA, 3. 403 

upon the Brzhatl: and thus he finally establishes 
himself, by means of the Brzhatt metre, in the 
heavenly world. 



Sixth Adhyaya. First Brahmawa. 
The Purushamedha, ok Human Sacrifice. 

i. Purusha Narayazza desired, 'Would that I 
overpassed all beings I would that I alone were every- 
thing here (this universe) ! * He beheld this five- 
days' sacrificial performance, the Purushamedha, 
and took it ', and performed offering therewith ; and 
having performed offering therewith, he overpassed 
all beings, and became everything here. And, 
verily, he who, knowing this, performs the Purusha- 
medha, or who even knows this, overpasses all 
beings, and becomes everything here. 

2. For this (offering) there are twenty-three 
Dikshas, twelve Upasads, and five Sutyas (Soma- 
days). This, then, being a forty-days' (perform- 
ance), including the Dlkshis and Upasads, amounts 
to a Vira^ -8 , for the VirA^ consists of forty syllables : 
rVa^-. S. XXXI, 5.] 'Thence 8 Vira,f (f.) was 
born, and from out of Vira,f the Purusha.' 



1 That is, according to Harisv&min, he brought its powers into 
play, and accomplished all his desires : — tatsadhanany upapadayat, 
tenayaw ya^anena samfhitam sakalaw sddhitavan ity arthaA. 

1 The Vira^-verse consists of decasyllabic padas, the most 
common form of the verse being oneof three padas (or thirty syllables), 
whilst here the one consisting of four padas is alluded to, and VaSg- 
verses of one and two p&das likewise occur. There is also a 
parallel form of the Vira^-metre consisting of (usually three) 
hendeca-syllabic padas. 

' That is, from the Purusha ; cf. Jftg-v. S. X, 00, 5. 

D d 2 



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404 SATAPATHA-BRAHMA.YA. 

This, then, is that Virif, and. from out of that 
Vir&f he (the Sacrificer) generates the Purusha, 
the Sacrifice. 

3. Now these (forty days) are four decades ; and 
as to there being these four decades, it is for the 
obtainment of these worlds, as well as of the regions : 
by the first decade they l obtained even this (terres- 
trial) world, by the second the air, by the third 
the sky, and by the fourth the regions (quarters) ; 
and in like manner does the Sacrificer, by the first 
decade, obtain even this (terrestrial) world, by the 
second the air, by the third the sky, and by the 
fourth the regions — and, indeed, as much as these 
worlds and the regions are, so much is all this 
(universe) ; and the Purushamedha is everything : 
thus it is for the sake of his obtaining and securing 
everything. 

4. On the Upavasatha* (day) there are eleven 
victims sacred to Agni and Soma : the performance 
for these is one and the same. There are eleven 
stakes, — the Trish/ubh (verse) consists of eleven 
syllables, and the Trish/ubh is a thunderbolt, and 
the Trish/ubh is vigour : with the thunderbolt, with 
vigour, the Sacrificer thus from the first repels eviL 

5. On the SutyA (days) there are the (Savanlya) 
victims of the set of eleven s (stakes), — the Trish- 
/ubh consists of eleven syllables, and the Trish/ubh 
is a thunderbolt, and the Trish/ubh is vigour : with 
the thunderbolt, with vigour, the Sacrificer thus 
from the first repels evil. 

1 Harisvimin supplies ' purve purashftA ' (? former men, or tbe 
first seven purnshiA, the seven Xishis). 
1 That is, the day before the Soma-sacrince. 
' See III, 7, a, 1 seqq. 



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xhi kAjvda; 6 adhyAya, i brAhmajva, 9. 405 

6. And, again, as to why there are (the victims) 
of the set of eleven (stakes) : it is for the sake of 
his obtaining and securing everything, for the set 
of eleven (stakes) is everything, since the set of 
eleven (stakes) is Pra^apati, and Pra^apati is every- 
thing, and the Purushamedha is everything. 

7. Now this Purushamedha is a five-days' sacri- 
ficial performance — the sacrifice is fivefold, the vic- 
tim is fivefold, and five seasons are a year: what- 
soever of five kinds there is, either concerning the 
deity or the self (body), all that he thereby obtains. 

8. The first day thereof is an Agnish/oma ; then 
(follows) an Ukthya, then an Atiratra, then an 
Ukthya, then an Agnish/oma : this (sacrifice) thus 
has light (fyotis 1 ) on both sides, and an Ukthya 
on both sides (of the central Atiratra). 

9. It is a five-days' (sacrifice), like a barley-corn 
in the middle*; for the Purushamedha is these 
worlds, and these worlds have light on both sides — 
through Agni (the sacrificial fire) on this side, and 
through Aditya (the Sun) on the other: therefore 
it has light on both sides. And the Ukthya is food, 
and the Atiratra the body (self) ; and because there 
are these Ukthyas on both sides of the Atiratra, 
therefore this body is surrounded by food. And 
that Atiratra which is the largest of them is in the 
middle, it is thereby that it (the body, or sacrifice) 
is like a barley-corn (yava) in the middle ; and, verily, 

' Viz. an Agnish/oma form of the Gyotish/oma order of sacrifice. 
Cf. part iv, p. 387, note a. 

* That is, becoming larger towards the middle, inasmuch as the 
Ukthya is — as far as Stotras and .Sastras, and cups of Soma are 
concerned — a larger sacrifice than the Agnish/oma; and the 
Atiratra is the largest form of alL 



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406 satapatha-brAhmajva. 



•whosoever knows this repels (yu) his hateful enemy : 
* He alone exists, not his hateful enemy,' thus they 
say of him. 

10. The first day is for it this same (terrestrial) 
world, and the springseason 1 also is this its (terrestrial) 
world ; and the second day is what there is above 
this (terrestrial) world and below the air, and the 
summer season also is that (part) of it; and the 
central day is its air, and the rainy and autumn 
seasons also are its air ; and the fourth day is what 
is above the air, and below the sky, and the winter 
season also is that (part) of it ; and its fifth day is 
the sky, and the dewy season also is its sky : thus 
as to the deities. 

ii. Then as to the body 2 . The first day is its 
feet, and the spring season also is its feet ; and 
the second day is what is above the feet, and below 
the waist, and the summer season also is that (part) 
of it ; and the central day is its waist, and the rainy 
and autumn seasons also are its waist; the fourth 
day is what is above the waist and below the head, 
and the winter season also is that (part) of it ; and 
the fifth day is its head, and the dewy season also 
is its head : — thus these worlds, as well as the year 
and the (sacrificer's) self, pass into the Purushamedha 
for the obtainment and securing of everything, for, 
indeed, these worlds are everything, and the year 
is everything, and the self is everything, and the 
Purushamedha is everything. 

1 It should be borne in mind here that the sacrifice (Pra^apati) 
is identical with the Sacrificer on the one hand, and with the year 
on the other. 

1 Or, as to the self, viz. of Pra^apati (and the Sacrificer), which 
the sacrifice is supposed to reproduce. 



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XIII KAjVDA, 6 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAJVA, 3. 40JT 



Second Bkahma-jva. 

1 . And as to why it is called Purushamedha : — 
The stronghold (pur) doubtless is these worlds, 
and the Purusha (spirit) is he that blows here (the 
wind), he bides (st) in this stronghold (pur) : hence 
he is the Purusha. And whatever food there is in 
these worlds that is its ' medha,' its food ; and inas- 
much as this is its ' medha/ its food, therefore (it is 
called) Purushamedha. And inasmuch as at this 
(sacrifice) he seizes * men (purusha) meet for sacrifice 
(medhya), therefore also it is called Purushamedha. 

2. He seizes them on the central day, for the 
central day is the air, and the air is the abode of 
all beings ; and, indeed, these victims are also food, 
and the central day is the belly : he thus puts food 
in the belly. 

3. He seizes them by decades * for the obtainment 



1 That is, he (symbolically) immolates them. 

* The statement in paragraphs 3 and 4, according to which 
there are eleven decades of human victims, does not refer to the 
actual distribution of victims over the eleven stakes, but it is 
apparently made purely for symbolical reasons (viz. with reference 
to the Vir&g and Trish/ubh metres), and is probably based on the 
way in which the victims are enumerated in the Va^asaneyi-samhitS, 
XXX, 5-23 (see the Translation at the end of this chapter, where 
they are, however,, numbered according to the stakes). There 
the first eleven Kanrfikis (5-15) are made up of the names 
and deities of ten victims each, hence together of eleven decades ; 
whilst of the subsequent Kanakas — k. 16 consists of twelve, ks. 
17-ai often each, and k. 22 of twelve victims. The actual mode 
of distribution over the several stakes is that referred to in para- 
graphs 5-8, viz. the first forty-eight victims are tied to the central 
stake, after which eleven victims are tied to each of the other ten 
stakes. After these, amounting to 158 victims, the Sawhita 



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408 jatapatha-brAhmajva. 



of all food, for the Vira^f consists of ten syllables, 
and the Viraf is all food \ 

4. Eleven decades 2 he seizes; — the Trish/ubh 
consists of eleven syllables, and the Trish/ubh is 
the thunderbolt, and vigour : with the thunderbolt, 
with vigour, the Sacrificer thus repels evil from 
within him. 

5. Forty-eight he seizes at the central stake; — 
the Gagatt consists of forty-eight syllables, and 
cattle are of Gagata (movable) nature : by means of 
the Gagatl he (the priest) secures cattle for him. 

6. Eleven at each of the others ; — the Trish/ubh 
consists of eleven syllables, and the TrishAibh is 
the thunderbolt, and vigour : with the thunderbolt, 

enumerates twenty-six additional victims, which, according to Mahf- 
dhara (cf. Katy. XXI, 1, 10), are to be added to the eleven victims of 
the second stake, — viz. fourteen victims dedicated to various so- 
called deities ; eight victims, sacred to Pra^ipati and belonging 
neither to the -Sudra nor to the Brahmaxa castes ; and finally four 
more victims, characterised in exactly the same way as the eight 
preceding ones. It will be seen that of these twenty-six victims 
only the first set of (eight) Pra^apatya victims are referred to In the 
Brahmana, and that as the victims seized last of all. This circum- 
stance clearly characterises the last four victims of the Sa**hit& as not 
recognised by the Brahmaaa ; and seeing that all four of these are 
such as have already occurred amongst the previously enumerated 
victims (though there assigned to different divinities) they must be 
considered (as they are by Prof. Weber, Ind. Streifen, I, p. 68) as 
having been added to the list of the Sanhita subsequently to the 
composition of the Brahmami. A similar inference will probably 
apply to the fourteen victims preceding the eight PrS^Apatya 
ones, though all that can be urged against them is that they are not 
referred to in the Brahmatta. 

1 Hardly,— and all food is vir&g (widely ruling or shining). In 
double clauses with a middle term, such as this, the position of 
subject and predicate seems often reversed in the second clause (cf. 
for instance, XIII, 8, 1, 4). 

* See note 2 on p. 407. 



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XIII KANDA, 6 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAJVA, IO. 4O9 

with vigour, the Siacrificer thus repels evil from 
about him. 

7. Last of all he seizes eight; — the Giyatri 
consists of eight syllables, and the Gayatrt is the 
Brahman (n.): he thus makes the Brahman to be 
the ultimate thing of this universe, whence they 
say that the Brahman is the ultimate thing of 
this universe. 

8. These (eight) are sacred to Pra^apati, — 
Pra^pati assuredly is the Brahman, for Pra^apati is 
of the nature of the Brahman ' : therefore they are 
sacred to Prafapati. 

9. When about to bring up the victims, he offers 
those three oblations to SavitW, with (V&g: S. 
XXX, 1-3), 'God Savitrz, (speed the sacrifice, 
speed the lord of sacrifice unto his share)!' — f 
'May we obtain that glorious light of the 
God Savitrt, (who shall inspire our prayers)!' 
— 'All troubles remove thou from us, O God 
Savitrz.; bestow unto us what is auspicious!' 
He thus pleases SavitW, and thus pleased with him, 
he (Savitr*) impels (speeds) those (sacrificial) men, 
and he seizes them impelled by that (Savitr*). 

10. For the priesthood he seizes a Brahma#a, for 
the Brahmana is the priesthood: he thus joins 
priesthood to priesthood 8 ; — for the nobility he 
seizes a Ra/anya, for the Ra^anya is the nobility : 
he thus joins nobility to nobility; — for the Maruts 
(he seizes) a Vaisya, for the Maruts are the clans 
(peasants) : he thus joins peasantry to peasantry ;— 

1 That is, of the divine spirit, the world-soul, of which Pra^apati 
if, as it were, the personification, or phenomenal representative. 

1 Or, he perfects, completes, the priesthood by (adding to it 
a member of) the priesthood. 



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410 satapatha-brAhma;va. 

for (religious) toil (he seizes) a tSudra, for the 6"udra 
is toil : he thus joins toil to toil ; — according to their 
particular form he thus supplies these divinities with 
victims, and, thus supplied, they supply him with all 
his objects of desire. 

1 1. He makes offering with ghee, for ghee is fiery 
mettle: by means of fiery mettle he thus endows him 
(the Sacrificer) with fiery mettle. He makes offering 
with ghee, for that — to wit, ghee — is the dear 
resource of the gods : he thus supplies them with 
their dear resource, and, thus supplied, they supply 
him with all his objects of desire. 

1 2. By means of the Purusha Narayawa (litany), 
the Brahman priest (seated) to the right (south) of 
them, praises the men bound (to the stakes) with 
this sixteen-versed (hymn, JZtg-v. X, 90, V$g. S. 
XXXI, 1-16), 'The thousand-headed Purusha, 
thousand-eyed, thousand-footed 1 . . .;' — thus 
(he does) for the obtainment and the securing of 
everything, for everything here consists of sixteen 
parts, and the Purushamedha is everything : in thus 
saying, ' So and so thou art, so and so thou art,' he 
praises and thereby indeed magnifies him (Purusha); 
but he also thereby speaks of him, such as he is. 
Now, the victims had had the fire carried round 
them, but they were not yet slaughtered, — 

1 3. Then a voice % said to him, ' Purusha, do not 



1 For a complete translation of this hymn, the Purusha-sflkta, see 
J. Muir, Orig. Sanskrit Texts, vol. i, p. 9 seqq. Cp. also part iv, 
introduction, p. xiv. 

* 'A bodiless voice/ comm.; cf. XI, 4, a, 16 where likewise 'an 
invisible voice ' is introduced censuring the priest who bums the 
oblations. Perhaps, however, VSJt may be intended from whom 
Pra^ipati, in the beginning, produced the waters ; cf. VI, 1, 1, 9. 



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XIII KkNDA, 6 ADHYAYA, 2 BrAhmAJVA, \6. 411 

consummate (these human victims 1 ): if thou wert to 
consummate them, man (purusha) would eat man.' 
Accordingly, as soon as fire had been carried round 
them, he set them free, and offered oblations to 
the same divinities*, and thereby gratified those 
divinities, and, thus gratified, they gratified him 
with all objects of desire. 

14. He makes offering with ghee, for ghee is 
fiery mettle: with fiery mettle he thus bestows 
fiery mettle upon him. 

15. He concludes with those of the set of eleven 
(stakes), — the Trish/ubh consists of eleven syllables, 
and the TrishAibh is the thunderbolt, and vigour : 
with the thunderbolt, with vigour, the Sacrificer thus 
repels evil from within. 

16. The Udayanlya (concluding oblation) having 
been completed, he seizes eleven barren cows, sacred 
to Mitra-Varu«a, the Vinre Deva^, and BWhaspati s , 
with the view of winning these deities. And as 
to those of Brzhaspati being last, — Brzhaspati truly 
is the Brahman (n.), and thus he finally establishes 
himself in the Brahman. 

1 Thus (i. e. do not go through with this human sacrifice) 
the commentator, probably correctly, interprets ' samsthdpaya ' 
(instead of ' do not kill,' St. Petersb. Diet., though, practically, it 
would, of course, come to the same thing), — Purusha, etin purusha- 
parun mi samtish/ipa£, udannayadikany anginy eshaw mi krrthi 
ity artha/s ; yadi samsthipayishyasi tataA rcshabhakshinukirewa loke 
*pi purusha^ purusham bhakshayishyati ta£ ^iyuktam ity abhipriyaA. 
In the same way the verse ought accordingly to have been translated 
in III, 7, 2, 8. 

* That is, he offers with the formulas ' To the Brahman, hail ! to 
the Kshatra, hail 1 ftc, running through the whole series of so-called 
divinities of the released victims. 

* Viz. three for each of the first two deities, and five for Brrhas- 
pati. 



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412 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

17. And as to why there are eleven of them, — 
the TrishAibh consists of eleven syllables, and the 
TrishAibh is the thunderbolt, and vigour: with 
the thunderbolt, with vigour, the Sacrificer thus 
repels evil from within. The Traidhatavl is 
the final offering (Udavasantya) : the mystic import 
is the same (as before 1 ). 

18. Now as to the sacrificial fees. What there 
is towards the middle of the kingdom other than 
the land and the property of the Brahma«a, but 
including the men, of that the eastern quarter 
belongs to the Hotr*', the southern to the Brahman, 
the western to the Adhvaryu, and the northern 
to the Udgatr*'; and the HotWkas share this along 
with them. 

19. And if a Brahmaoa performs the sacrifice, he 
should bestow all his property in order to obtain 
and secure everything, for the Brahmawa is every- 
thing, and all one's property is everything, and the 
Purushamedha is everything. 

20. And having taken up the two fires within 
his own self 2 , and worshipped the sun with the 
Uttara-Naraya»a (litany, viz. Vfif. S. XXXI, 17- 
22), let him betake himself to the forest without 
looking round; and that (place), indeed, is apart 
from men. But should he wish to live in the 
village, let him take up again the two fires in the 
churning-sticks, and having worshipped the sun with 
the Uttara-Naraya«a (litany) let him dwell at his 
home, and let him offer such sacrifices as he may 



1 Viz. as set forth V, 5, 5, 6 seqq. 

* Viz. by thrice inhaling the heat (or smoke) emitted by the 
fires. Cf. Manava-Dh. VI, 38 ; BaucMyana-Dharmas. II, 17, a6. 



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XIII KA.VDA, .6 ADHYAVA, 2 BRAHMAiVA, 20. 413 

be able to afford. But, indeed, this (sacrifice) is not 
to be imparted to any and every one, lest one should 
impart everything to any and every one, for the 
Purushamedha is everything; but one may only 
impart it to one who is known to him, and who 
is versed in sacred writ, and who may be dear to 
him, but not to any and every one. 



The (Symbolical) Victims or the Purushamedha 1 . 

I. 1. To the priesthood (he consecrates) a Brahma»a — 2. To 
the nobility a Kshatriya — 3. To the Maruts a Vauya — 4. To 
penance (hardship, tapas) a .Sudra — 5. To darkness a thief — 
6. To hell a man-slayer — 7. To evil a eunuch — 8. To barter an 
unchaste woman (ayobhu*) — 9. To desire a harlot (pums&alb) — 
10. To the shriek (atikrush/a) a minstrel (magadha) — 11. To 
dancing a herald (bard, suta) — 1 2. To singing an actor (jailusha) — 
13. To the law a counsellor (sabhaiara) — 14. To joking a timorous 
man— 15. To fun (narma) a chatterer — 16. To laughter (liasa) an 
artizan (kari, ? singer of praises)— 17. To pleasure (ananda) a 
woman's friend — 18. To enjoyment a maiden's son — 19. To skill 
a wheelwright — 20. To perseverance a carpenter — 21. To heat 
(tapas) a potter — 22. To craft a mechanic — 23. To handsome 
form a jeweller — 24. To beauty a barber* — 25. To the arrow-shot 
an arrow-maker — 26. To the weapon a bow-maker — 27. To work 
a bowstring-maker — 28. To fate a rope-maker — 29. To death a 
huntsman — 30. To the end (antaka) a dog-keeper — 31. To rivers 
a fisherman (paiwjgish/fla)— 32. To the ogress (of waste lands) a 



1 Comp. Prof. Weber's German translation (Zeitschr. D. M. G., 
XVIII, p. 262 seqq. ; Indische Streifen, I, p. 76 seqq.), where 
the variants from the Taitt. Br. and the explanations of the 
commentaries are given. Not a few of the terms used (some of 
which are, indeed, explained in a different way by the commentators) 
are, however, still of doubtful meaning. Ydg. S. XXX, 5-22. 

* ? The patronymic, or matronymic, of this, ' ayobhava ' is said to 
be the son of a -Sudra from a Vawya woman. 

* Or, as MahSdhara takes 'subhe vapam,' to well-being the seed- 
sower — einen Samann dem Gedeihen, Weber. 



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414 5ATAPATH A-BRAhMAYA. 

Nishada' — 33. To the man-tiger (? werwolf) a mono-maniac — 
34. To the Gandharvas and Apsaras a roving outcast (vr&tya) 
— 35. To the teams (? prayu,g-) a madman — 36. To serpents and 
demons a blockhead (? apratipad) — 37. To dice a gambler — 38. 
To impassibility' a non-gambler — 39. To the devils (pLrlias) a 
female cane-worker (basket-maker)— 40. To the hobgoblins (yatu- 
dhana) a female worker in thorns — 41. To intercourse a gallant — 
42. To the house a paramour — 43. To trouble an unmarried elder 
brother whose younger brother is married — 44. To calamity a 
younger brother married before his elder brother — 45. To failure ' 
the husband of a younger sister whose elder sister is unmarried — 
46. To reparation an artiste in embroidery — 47. To agreement 
a female practiser of love-spells — 48. To garrulity (prakamodya) 
an attendant. 

II. 1. To colour a devoted adherent — 2. To strength a giver 
of gifts— 3. To excrescences ' a hunchback — 4. To merriment a 
a dwarf — 5. To the doors a lame one s — 6, To sleep a blind one 
— 7. To injustice a deaf one — 8. To the means of purification 
(? purging) a physician — 9. To knowledge a star-gazer — 10. To 
desire of learning one who asks questions — 11. To the desire of 
adding to one's knowledge one given to ask questions about 
(everything). 

III. 1. To the bounds (of land or propriety) an arbitrator — 
2. To ruins an elephant-keeper — 3. To speed a groom — 4. To 
thrift a cowherd — 5. To vigour a shepherd — 6. To fiery mettle a 
goatherd — 7. To refreshment (? food) a cultivator of the soil — 
8. To the sweet beverage (? nectar) the distiller of liquor — 9. To 
happiness the guardian of a house — 10. To prosperity a possessor 
of wealth — 1 1. To superintendence an assistant doorkeeper *. 

IV. 1. To the light a gatherer of fire-wood — 2. To brilliance 

1 One of the wild aboriginal tribesmen. 

* ? iryata, lit. the state of one requiring to be roused. 

* ? 'envy ' St. Petersb. Diet, (araddhi). 

* The meaning of ' utsada ' is doubtful ; it might be « removal,' 
only the etymological meaning of 'ut-sad' having probably suggested 
the combination. 

* Mahtdhara takes * srama' in the sense of one affected with 
ophthalmia (cf. srava): in both senses the association of ideas is 
intelligible, though apparently (as in other cases) of a jocular nature. 

* Or, the assistant of a charioteer, according to Mah, and Say. 
(cf.V, 3). 



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xni kAnda, 6 adhyAya, 2 brAhmajva, 20. 415 

a fire-kindler — 3. To the sun's sphere a sprinkler (anointer of a king) 
— 4. To the highest heaven a distributer (of portions)— 5. To the 
world of the gods a carver (of portions) — 6. To the world of men a 
scatterer (? seasoner ') — 7. To all the worlds a pourer out (of drink *) 
— 8. To decay and murder a churner ' — 9. To the (animal) sacri- 
fice (or, sacrificial essence) a washer- woman — 10. To concu- 
piscence a female dyer — 11. To quarrelling one of a thievish 
disposition. 

V. 1. To manslaughter an informer — 2. To discrimination a 
doorkeeper — 3. To oversight an assistant doorkeeper 4 — 4. To 
strength (cf. II, 2) an attendant — 5. To plenty a servant — 6. To 
the pleasant one speaking pleasantly — 7. To security one mounted 
on a horse — 8. To heaven (svarga loka) a dealer out of portions 
(cf. IV, 5) — 9. To the highest heaven a distributer (of portions ; cf. 
IV, 4) — 10. To wrath one who makes iron red-hot — 11. To anger 
an absconder (? a yielder, coward). 

VI. 1. To application a yoker — 2. To grief one ready to 
attack — 3. To peaceful dwelling an unyoker — 4. To up-hills and 
down-hills one standing on three legs (of firm character) — 5. To 
bodily form a haughty one (?) — 6. To virtue a woman who prepares 
unguents — 7. To calamity (cf. 1, 44) a woman who makes scabbards 
— 8. To Yama (the god of death) a barren woman — 9. To Yama * 
one who bears twins — 10. To Atharvan one who has miscarried — 
1 1. To the saxnvatsara (the first year of the five years' cycle) one in 
her courses. 

VII. 1. To the parivatsara (the second year) one who has not 
yet borne children — 2. To the idavatsara (the third year) one who 
transgresses (the matrimonial bonds) — 3. To the idvatsara (the 
fourth year) one who oversteps (the bounds of propriety) — 4. To 
the vatsara (the fifth year) one who is worn out — 5. To the year a 
gray-haired one— 6. To the Jfrbhus a furrier — 7. To the Sadhyas 
a tanner — 8. To the lakes a fisherman (dhaivara)— 9. To stagnant 
(waters) a boatsman — 10. To pools a Bainda' — 11. To reed- 
marshes one living on dried meat (or fish). 

1 Mahtdhara takes ' prakaritr*" in the sense of 'viksheptr*'; 
Say. in that of ' sower of discord.' 

* ? Say. makes 'upasektr*' a composer of feuds (!). 

* ? ' a stirrer up of discord,' Say. 

* Thus also Mahtdhara; charioteer, Say.; cf. Ill, n. 

* Yamf, Taitt. Br. 

' According to Mahtdhara, a wild tribesman (inhabitant of the 
jungle) ; ' one living by the net,' Say. 



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4>6 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAATA. 

• VIII. i. To the opposite bank a 'margara * ' — 2. To the near 
bank a fisherman (kevarta) — 3. To shallows an Anda* — 4. To 
uneven (? deep) places a fisher (mainala) — 5. To sounds (svana) a 
Paroaka ' — 6. To caverns a Kirata (woodman) — 7. To mountain- 
ridges a Gambhaka * — 8. To the mountains a Kimpurusha * — 9. To 
loathing a Paulkasa' — 10. To colour a worker in gold (cf. I, S3) — 
it. To the balance (pair of scales) a merchant. 

IX. 1. To the latter part of the evening one exhausted' — 2. To 
all beings (spirits) a leper (sidhmala) — 3. To good fortune a 
wakeful one — 4. To ill-fortune a sleepy one — 5. To trouble (cf. 

1, 43) a newsmonger — 6. To adversity a spiritless one — 7. To 
collapse a waster 7 — 8. To the king of dice a gambler (cf. I, 37) — 
9. To the Kn'ta (-die) one who takes advantage of mistakes in the 
game' — 10. To the Treta (-die) one who plays on a (regular) 
plan* — 11. To the Dvapara (-die) one who plans to over-reach' 
(his fellow-player). 

X. 1. To the Askanda ,0 (-die) a post of the gaming-room " — 

2. (cf. I, 29) one who ' approaches ' a cow — 3. To the end (antaka, 
cf. I, 30) a cow-slayer — 4. To hunger one who goes begging of one 
cutting up a cow — 5. To evil-doing a JTaraka-teacher — 6. To evil 
(cf. I, 7) a robber — 7. To the echo a re viler — 8. To the noise a 

I ' The son of a mrtgari (? huntsman),' Mahtdhara ; ' one who 
catches fish with his hands,' Say. 

3 According to Mahtdhara, the maker of ' bandhanani (? strings, 
or dams) ; ' — according to Say., one who catches fish by means 
of dikes. 

* ? A Bhilla (Bheel, mountaineer, woodman); — one catching fish 
by means of feathers (pama), Say. 

4 Apparently a man of a voracious, flesh-eating tribe. 

* Apparently a low, despicable man. 

* Explained as one of very low birth, or more particularly, as the 
son of a Nishada from a Kshatriya woman. 

7 Lit. a cutter away (? a spendthrift). 

* Thus Mahtdhara explains ' adinavadaroa ' ; ' one who works 
for his fellow-player's ruin,' St. Petersb. Diet 

* The terms ' kalpin ' and ' adhikalpin ' are of doubtful meaning— 
' arranger ' and ' head-arranger,' Weber. 

14 Lit. * the assailer,' apparently another name for the die usually 
called Kali. On these dice see part iii, p. 106, note 1. 

II Explained as a jocular expression for the habitual frequenter 
of the gambling-house. 



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xm mkitDA, 7 adhyAya, i brAhmaya, i. 417 

growler — 9. To the end (anta) a babbler — 10. To the endless 
a dumb one — 11. To articulate sound (rabda) a drum-beater. 

XI. 1. To festive joy a lute-player — 2. To the cry a flute- 
player — 3. To the confused (noise) a conch-blower — 4. To the 
forest a forester — 5. To broken woodlands one who watches woods 
on fire — 6. To fan (narma I, 15) a harlot (I, 9) — 7. To laughter 
an artizan (I, 16) — 8. To the sea-monster (?) a mottled woman * (?) 
— 9-1 1. To power a village-headman, an astrologer, and a herald 
(? abhikroraka). 

XII. (Added to those at the second post) : — 1-3. To dancing 
(1, 1 1) a lute-player (XI, 1), a hand-clapper, and a flute-player (XI, 2) 
— 4. To pleasure (I, 17) a musician — 5. To fire a fat man — 
6. To the earth a cripple — 7. To the wind a K&nd&la. (outcast) 
— 8. To the air a staff-dancer* — 9. To the sky a bald-headed 
one — 10. To the sun a yellow-eyed one — 11. To the stars one of 
variegated colour — 12. To the moon a leprous one (kilasa, cf. IX, 2) 
— 13. To the day a light-coloured one with yellow eyes — 14. To the 
night a black one with yellow eyes. — He then seizes these eight 
misshapen ones — 15. One who is too tall — 16. One loo short — 
17. One too stout — 18. One too lean — 19. One too light-coloured 
— 20. One too black — 21. One too bald — 22. One with too much 
hair : — these (are to be) neither iSudras nor Brahmanas, and are 
sacred to Pra^apati; — 23. A minstrel (magadha, I, 10) — 24. A 
harlot (pu«w£alt, cf. I, 9) — 25. A gambler (I, 37) — 26. A eunuch 
(I, 7) : — these (also are to be) neither Sudras nor Brahma«as, and 
are sacred to Pra^apati. 



Seventh AdhyAya. First BrAhmaya. 
The Sarvamkdha, or All-Sacrifice. 

I. Brahman Svayambhu (the self-existent, n.) 
was performing austerities 3 . He said this much, — 

1 St. Petersb. Diet conjectures 'To lust a sportive woman 
(? dancer or singer).' 

* ' Vaawanartin ' explained by Mahtdhara as one who practises 
dancing by means of a bamboo-staff (vawwena nartanart la) ; by 
Say. as one who makes his living by dancing on the top of a 
bamboo-staff (vamragranrttta^tvin) ; hardly a 'family-dancer,' 
Monier- Williams. 

* Cf. J. Muir, Orig. Sanskrit Texts, vol. v, p. 372. 

[44] E e 



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4 1 8 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

' Verily, there is no perpetuity in austerities ; well, 
then, I will offer up mine own self in the creatures, 
and the creatures in mine own self.' And, accord- 
ingly, by offering up his own self in the creatures, 
and the creatures in his own self, he compassed 
the supremacy, the sovereignty, and the lordship 
over all creatures; and in like manner does the 
Sacrificer, by thus offering all sacrificial essences x in 
the Sarvamedha, compass all beings, and supremacy, 
sovereignty, and lordship. 

2. Now this Sarvamedha is a ten-days' (Soma-) 
sacrifice, for the sake of his gaining and winning 
every kind of food, for the Vira^" consists of ten 
syllables, and the Vir&f is all food. At this (sacrifice) 
he builds the greatest possible fire-altar, for this — 
to wit, the Sarvamedha — is supreme amongst all 
sacrificial performances : by means of the supreme 
(sacrifice) he thus causes him (the Sacrificer) to 
attain supremacy. 

3. The first day thereof is an Agnish/ut 
Agnish/oma 8 , for the sake of his gaining and 
winning all the gods, for the Agnish/ut Agnish/oma 
is Agni ; and all the gods have Agni (the sacrificial 
fire) for their mouth. The cups of Soma thereat 
pertain to Agni, and so do the Puroru£ * formulas 
pertain to Agni, in order that everything should 
pertain to Agni. 

1 Or, all kinds of victims (medha). 

1 That is, a one-day's Soma-sacrifice (ek&ha) of the Agnish/oma 
order, arranged so as specially to promote the praise of Agni. In the 
same way the next three ekihas are intended to honour special 
deities. 

' That is, the formulas preceding the ' upay&ma ' (' Thou art 
taken with a support, Ac.,' cf. part ii, p. 359, note 1) or formula 
with which the cup of Soma is drawn. 



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xin kXnda, 7 adhyAya, i brAhmajva, 9. 419 

4. The second day is an Indrastut Ukthya, 
for the sake of his gaining and winning all the gods, 
for Indra is all the gods. The cups of Soma 
thereat pertain to Indra, and so do the Purorui 
formulas pertain to Indra, in order that everything 
should pertain to Indra. 

5. The third day is a Suryastut Ukthya, for 
the sake of his gaining and winning all the gods, 
for Surya is all the gods. The cups of Soma 
pertain to Surya, and so do the Puroru^ formulas 
pertain to Surya, in order that everything should 
pertain to Surya. 

6. The fourth day is a Vaijvadeva, for the sake 
of his gaining and winning all the gods, for the 
All-gods (Visve DevaA) are all the gods. The 
cups of Soma pertain to the All-gods, and so do 
the Purorui formulas pertain to the All-^ods, in 
order that everything should pertain to the All- 
gods. 

7. The fifth day is a central As vamedhika 1 one : 
at this (sacrifice) he seizes a horse meet for sacrifice, 
for the sake of his gaining the sacrificial essence 
of the horse. 

8. The sixth day is a central Paurusha- 
medhika* one: at this (sacrifice) he seizes men 
meet for sacrifice, for the sake of his gaining the 
sacrificial essence of man. 

9. The seventh day is an Aptoryama, for the 
sake of his gaining all kinds of Soma-sacrifices ; at 
this (sacrifice) he seizes all kinds of (victims) meet 
for sacrifice, both what is animate and what is 

1 That is, an Ukthya sacrifice, cf. p. 359, note 2; XIII, 5, 1, s seqq. 
* That is, an Atiritra, cf. XIII, 6, 1, 9. 



E e 2 



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420 jtatapatha-brAhmajva. 

inanimate. Of those with omenta he offers the 
omenta, and of those without omenta they throw 
down pieces cut out of the skin 1 , and of herbs 
and trees they do so after cutting them up, — 
every kind of food of both the dry and the fresh 
he offers, in order to gain every kind of food. 
Everything he offers, and to every one he offers 
in order to gain and to win everything. The 
omenta having been offered at the morning-service, 
and in the same way the oblations at the evening- 
service, — 

10. The eighth day is a Tri«ava one 8 , for the 
Tri«ava (stoma) is the thunderbolt, and by means 
of the thunderbolt, indeed, lordship (kshatra) is 
gained : by means of the thunderbolt he thus gains 
lordship. 

ii. The ninth day is a Trayastri»wa one 8 , for 
the sake of his gaining a foothold, for the Trayas- 
tri»«a (stoma) is a foothold. 

12. The tenth day is a Visva^it Atiratra with 
all the Yrtshtfas *, for the sake of his gaining and 
winning everything, for the Vlrva^it Atiratra with 
all the Prtsh/£as is everything, and the Sarvamedha 
is everything. 

13. Now as to the sacrificial fees : whatever there 
is towards the middle of the kingdom other than the 
property of the Brihmawa, but including land and 

1 Lit., ' after cutting (pieces) out of the skin they throw down.' 

* That is, one on which the Tri«ava (thrice-nine-versed) Stoma 
is used in chanting. 

.* That is, one on which the thirty-three-versed hymn-form 
is used. 

4 For a Soma-sacrifice with all the IVssh/Aa-s&mans, see part iii, 
mtrod. p. xx seqq. On the two kinds of Visvagit ekihas, the 
Agnish/oma and the Atiratra Vuva^it, see part iv, p. 320, note a. 



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xiii kXnda, 8 adhyAya, i brAhmaya, i. 421 

men, of that the eastern quarter belongs to the 
Hotri, the southern to the Brahman, the western to 
the Adhvaryu, and the northern to the Udgat*"*'; 
and the HotWkas share this along with them. 

14. Vuvakarman Bhauvana once performed 
this sacrifice, and having performed it he overpassed 
all beings, and became everything here ; and verily 
he who, knowing this, performs the Sarvamedha, or 
who even knows this, overpasses all beings, and 
becomes everything here. 

15. It was Ka^yapa who officiated in his sacri- 
fice, and it was concerning this that the Earth 1 also 
sang the stanza ; — ' No mortal must give me away ; 
thou wast foolish, Virvakarman Bhauvana : she (the 
earth) will sink into the midst of the water ; vain is 
this thy promise unto Kasyapa.' 

Eighth AdhyAya. First BrAhmaya. 

Funeral Ceremonies. 

i. They now 2 do what is auspicious for him. 
They now prepare a burial-place (ymasana 8 ) for him, 

1 Or, the ground, which Vuvakarman Bhauvana gave away as 
sacrificial fee. On this legend cp. Ait Br. VIII, si ; J. Muir, 
Orig. Sanskrit Texts, vol. i, p. 456 ; vol. iv, p. 369. 

* The commentator is at pains to show that 'atha ' here has not 
the force of 'thereupon' — that is after the performance of the 
Sarvamedha — but that of introducing a new topic ('Now, they 
do . . .') ; and that therefore the directions about to be given are 
by no means intended to apply only to one who has performed the 
Sarvamedha, or even to the AgnuHt, or builder of a fire-altar, but 
also to others. 

* Yaska (Nir. Ill, 5) resolves this word into 'sman' (body) + 
'xayana' (couch); whilst Prof. Weber, Ind. Stud. I, p. 189, 
proposes 'a^man' (stone) + 'jay ana' (couch). The marina, 
or burial-place, sepulchre, is constructed in the form of a tumulus, 
or grave-mound. 



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422 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAJVA. 

(to serve him) either as a house or as a monument ; 
for when any one dies, he is a corpse (rava), and for 
that (corpse) food (anna) is thereby prepared, hence 
' savanna,' for, indeed, ' savanna ' is what is mystic- 
ally called ' tfnafana.' But ' smas&A ' also are called 
the eaters amongst the Fathers, and they, indeed, 
destroy in yonder world the good deeds of him who 
has had no sepulchre prepared for him : it is for 
them that he prepares that food, whence it is 
' s masanna,' for ' smasanna ' is what is mystically 
called ' snuuana.' 

2. Let him 1 not make it too soon (after the deceased 
man's death) lest he should freshen up his sin ; but 
let him make it a long time after, as thereby he 
obscures the sin; — and when people do not even 
remember the years (that have passed *), as thereby 
one causes the sin to pass into oblivion. If they do 
remember 8 , — 

1 Viz. the Sacrificcr, the performer of the funeral rites, being the 
next of kin. 

1 This is the way in which the scholiasts interpret the corres- 
ponding rule, Kity. St. XXI, 3, 1 (pitr/medhaA samvatsarasmrstau), 
instead of ' when they do not remember it (even once) for years, he 
brings it about that the sin is forgotten, even in case they should 
remember it,' as Prof. Delbrttck, Altind. Syntax, p. 351 translates 
the passage. For the subject of the verb 'they remember it,' 
Prof. Delbrttck supplies 'pitaraA,' i.e. the dead man's deceased 
ancestors, instead of the living people, which seems rather improb- 
able. The comment is very corrupt, but it makes at least some 
allusion to 'people's talk': — na jruti/4 xrutyabhavas (ta«w) tent 
iirakaranena aghaw papakarawaw gamayati, Air&t .rmajanaw kurva- 
f rara»am (? kurvataA j ravawaw) £anavado*pi na srinottty (1) arthaA. 

' In this way Harisvamin, as well as the scholiasts on Kity. XXI, 
3, 2, construes the clause with the next paragraph, and it is difficult 
to see how otherwise any satisfactory sense could be extracted 
from it. At the same time, it can evidently only qualify the first 
specification of time, as the others will apply in any case. 



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xih KkNDA, 8 adhyAya, i brAhmajva, 5. 423 

3. Let him make it in uneven years, since the 
uneven belongs to the Fathers ; and under a single 
Nakshatra 1 , since the single Nakshatra belongs to 
the Fathers ; and at new-moon, since the new-moon 
is a single Nakshatra ; — for he (the Sacrificer) is 
a single (person) ; and in that all the beings dwell 
together during that night, thereby he obtains that 
object of desire which is (contained) in all Nakshatras. 

4. Let him make it in autumn, for the autumn is 
the Svadha, and the Svadha is the food of the 
Fathers : he thus places him along with food, the 
Svadha; — or in (the month of) Magha, thinking, 
' Lest (ma) sin (agha) be in us ; ' — or in summer 
(nidagha), thinking, ' May thereby be removed (ni- 
dha) our sin (agha) ! ' 

5. Four-cornered (is the sepulchral mound). Now 
the gods and the Asuras, both of them sprung 
from Pra£apati, were contending in the (four) 
regions (quarters). The gods drove out the Asuras, 
their rivals and enemies, from the regions, and, 
being regionless, they were overcome. Wherefore 
the people who are godly make their burial-places 
four-cornered, whilst those who are of the Asura 
nature, the Easterns and others*, (make them) 

1 That is, a lunar mansion consisting of a single star, such 
as ATitra and Pushya (in contradistinction to such in the dual, as 
Punarvasu and VMkhe, and to those in the plural number, as the 
Krrttikas). As regards the symbolic connection of the uneven 
number with the deceased ancestors, the commentator reminds ua 
of the fact that it is the father, grandfather, and great-grandfather 
who represent the Fathers. — The only available MS. of the com- 
mentary (Ind. Off. 149) terminates at this place. 

* Ya asuryaA prafyas tvad ye tvat parimam&lani (xmajanani 
kurvate), — Prof. Weber, Ind. Stud. I, p. 189, takes this in the sense 
of ' part of the praiya, the asuryaA pra^tA of them (hence probably 



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424 DATAPATH A-BRAhMAJVA. 

round, for they (the gods) drove them out from the 
regions. He arranges it so as to lie between the 
two regions, the eastern and the southern \ for in 
that region assuredly is the door to the world of the 
Fathers : through the above he thus causes him to 
enter the world of the Fathers ; and by means of 
the (four) corners he (the deceased) establishes him- 
self in the regions, and by means of the other body * 
(of the tomb) in the intermediate regions : he thus 
establishes him in all the regions. 

6. Now as to the choosing of the ground. He 
makes it on ground inclining towards the north, for 
the north is the region of men : he thus gives him 
(the deceased) a share in the world of men ; and in 
that respect, indeed, the Fathers share in the world 
of men that they have offspring; and his (the 
deceased man's) offspring will, indeed, be more 
prosperous. 

7. ' Let him make it on ground inclining towards 
the south,' they say, ' for the world of the Fathers 
inclines towards the south : he thus gives him a 
share in the world of the Fathers.' Let him not do 
so, however, for, indeed, such a one is an opening 
tomb, and certainly another of these (members of 
the dead man's family) quickly follows him in 
death. 

the non-Aryan portion of them), have round majana,' J. Muir, 
Orig. Sansk. Texts, vol. ii, p. 485, takes no account of the words 
* tvad ye tvat' For our rendering of these words, cp. V, 3, a, a 
judraws tvad yams tvat, ' jtidras and others,' or ' •Sodras and 
suchlike people.' 

1 That is to say, its front side is towards the south-east Cp 
p. 428, note 4. 

' That is, by means of the sides of the grave which are to face 
the intermediate points of the compass. 



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xiii kAnda, 8 adhyAva, i brAhmaata, 9. 425 

8. And some, indeed, say, * Let him make it on 
a counter-cutting 1 in ground inclined towards the 
south, for such (a tomb) indeed becomes rising sin V 
But one must not do so, for indeed such (a burial 
place) alone becomes rising sin which one makes on 
ground inclining towards the north. 

9. On any level (ground) where the waters, 
flowing thither from a south-easterly direction 8 , 
and coming to a stand-still, will, on reaching that 
(north-westerly) quarter, without pressing forward *, 
join imperishable water *, on that (ground) one may 
make (the tomb) ; for, water being food, one thereby 
offers food to him from the front towards the back ; 
and, water being the drink of immortality, and 
that region between the rising of the seven ^tshis • 
and the setting of the sun being the quarter of the 
living, one thereby bestows the drink of immortality 
upon the living : — and such a one, indeed, is a clos- 
ing tomb ; and verily what is good for the living 
that is also good for the Fathers. 

1 This is meant as a literal rendering of ' pratyarsha.' What is 
intended thereby would seem to be either a cutting made into south- 
ward sloping ground, in such a way as to make the cut piece of 
ground rise towards the south, or perhaps such a part of the south- 
ward inclined ground as naturally rises towards the south. The 
St. Petersburg Diet suggests 'steep bank (escarpment), or side 
(of a hill).' Katy. XXI, 3, 15 (kakshe) seems also to imply some 
kind of hollow ground, surrounded by bushes and trees. 

1 That is, apparently, lightened, or improving, sin. 

* It might also mean, ih a south-easterly direction, but the 
comparison with food introduced into the mouth from the front 
(east) and the specification of the opposite direction evidently point 
to the above meaning. 

4 That is, without urging forward the standing water which they 
join, but quickly flowing into it 

1 That is, apparently, such a lake as never dries up. 

* That is, Ursa major, the Great Bear, or Charles's Wain. 



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426 jatapatha-brAhmajva. 

io. Let him make it in a pleasant (spot), in order 
that there should be pleasure for him; and in a 
peaceful (spot), in order that there should be peace 
for him. He must not make it either on a path, or 
in an open space, lest he should make his (the 
deceased's) sin manifest. 

ii. Whilst being secluded it should have the sun 
shining on it from above ' : in that it is secluded 
one hides his sin ; and in that it has the sun shining 
on it from above — yonder sun being the remover of 
evil — he, indeed, removes the evil from him, and he 
also causes him to be endowed with the radiance of 
the sun. 

12. Let him not make it where it would be 
visible from here *, for assuredly it is beckoning, 
and another of these (members of his family) quickly 
follows (the deceased) in death. 

13. Let there be beautiful objects s at the back, — 
for beautiful objects mean offspring: beautiful 
objects, offspring, will thus accrue to him. If there 
be no beautiful objects, let there be water either at 
the back or on the left (north) side, for water is 
indeed a beautiful object; and beautiful objects, 
offspring, will indeed accrue to him. 

14. He makes it on salt (barren) soil, for salt 
means seed ; the productive thus makes him partake 
in productiveness, and in that respect, indeed, the 

1 That is, it should be in a place where at midday the rays 
of the sun do not fall obliquely on it, Katy. XXI, 3, 15 comm. 

* That is, from the village, cf. Katy. XXI, 3, 18. 

* Or, beautiful ground (£itra). According to the comments on 
Katy. XXI, 3, 23 this means that the site of the grave should be so 
chosen that there are at the back (or west) of it, either woods of 
various kinds, or ground diversified by woods, hills, temples (1) Ac 



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xiii kXnda, 8 adhyAya, i brAhmajva, i 6. 427 

Fathers partake in productiveness that they have 
offspring: his offspring assuredly will be more 
prosperous. 

15. On such (ground) as is filled with roots, for to 
the Fathers belongs the (sod) filled with roots ; — it 
is (sod) of vlri«a (Andropogon muricatus) and other 
grasses, for thus the Fathers' share in this (earth) 
is not excessive 1 ; and he also thereby makes (the 
deceased's) sin to be restricted *. 

16. Let him not put it near (where grows) 
Bhumipasa 8 , or reeds, or Asmagandha*, or Adh- 
y&nd&, or Praniparoi ('speckled-leaf,' Hemionitis 
cordifolia) ; nor let him make it near either an 
A.svattha (Ficus religiosa), or a Vibhltaka (Termin- 
alia bellerica), or a Tilvaka (Symplocos racemosa), or 
a Sphur^aka (Diospyros embryopteris), or a Haridru 
(Pinus deodora), or a Nyagrodha (Ficus indica), or 

1 Whilst their share would have been excessive, if all the 
ground covered with vegetation were assigned to them. It is also 
worthy of note that Katy. St. XXV, 7, 17, in enumerating the plants 
which are to be removed from the site of the funeral pile, mentions 
(apparently in the place of our Bhumipir a) the Vwakha, explained 
by the commentator as identical with 'durvS' ; and Sir H. M. Elliott, 
Races of the N. W. Province of India, II, p. 303, remarks, on the 
Dub grass (Agrestis linearis, or Cynodon dactylon), that 'its 
tenacity whenever it once fixes its roots has caused it to be used in 
a common simile when the attachment of Zamindars to their native 
soil is spoken of.' 

* Apparently lit. 'binding (itself),' ?i.e. either restricted in 
quantity, or limited to his own person, not transmitted to his son. 
Cf. XIII, 8, 3, 10. It can hardly be taken in the sense of ' binding 
the sin/ 

* Literally, 'Earth-net,' apparently some troublesome creeping 
plant corresponding to our rest-harrow (Ononis arvensis or spinosa), 
or couch-grass (Triticum repens), but of tropical dimensions. 

* Lit ' rock-smell,' perhaps identical with Ajvagandha (lit. ' horse- 
smell,' Physalis flexuosa). 



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428 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

any other (trees) of evil name 1 , so as to avoid (such) 
names from a desire of good luck. 

1 7. Now as to the order of procedure. For an 
Agniiit (builder of a fire-altar) one makes the tomb 
after the manner of the fire-altar ; for when a Sacri- 
ficer builds a fire-altar he thereby constructs for 
himself by sacrifice a (new) body for yonder world ; 
but that sacrificial performance is not complete until 
the making of a tomb; and when he makes die 
tomb of the Agni&t after the manner of the fire- 
altar, it is thereby he completes the AgnLfcitya. 

18. One must not make it (too) large lest he 
should make the sin (of the deceased) large. ' Let 
him make it as large as the fire-altar without wings 
and tail,' say some, ' for like that of the fire-altar is 
this his (the Sacrificer's) body.' 

19. But let him rather make it just of man's size : 
he thus leaves no room for another ; —broader 
(varlyas) behind 8 , for what is (left) behind is off- 
spring : he thus makes the (dead man's) offspring 
more excellent 3 (varlyas) ; — and broader on the left 
(north * or higher, uttara) side, for the later (uttara) 



1 The commentator, on K&ty. XXI, 3, 20, and V&g. S. XXXV, 
1, instances the deshmintaka (' antiphlegmatic,' i. e. Cordia lati folia 
or myxa) and the kovid&ra (' bad for splitting,' Bauhinia varie- 
gata; which, according to Stewart and Brandis, shows vertical 
cracks in the bark). 

* The grave being constructed in such a way that the four corners 
lie in the direction of the four quarters, the back, or west side of 
the grave would really mean the side facing the north-west. 

* Or, perhaps, more extended, more numerous or prosperous. 

4 In reality, the north means here the side facing the north-east. 
The side of the tumulus is to form a quadrilateral, of which the two 
sides intersecting each other at the north corner, are to be longer 
than the two which intersect at the south corner ; viz. each of the 



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XIII KAJTOA, 8 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAYA, I. 429 

are offspring: he thus makes the offspring more 
excellent Having attended to this, he encloses it 
with cords twisted (and extended) in the non-sunwise 
way 1 ; for the (sacrificial) performance connected 
with the Fathers is done in the non-sunwise way. 

20. He then bids them cut out (the earth). He 
should cut it out to whatever extent he intends to 
raise (the sepulchral mound), but let him rather cut 
it out so as to be just of man's size : he thus leaves 
no room for another. For, on the one hand % , the 
Fathers are the world of plants, and amongst the 
roots of plants they (are wont to) hide ; and, on the 
other *, (he does so) lest he (the deceased) should be 
separated from this (earth). 

Second Brahmajva. 

1. Now, some bank up (the sepulchral mound) 
after covering up (the site). The gods and the 
Asuras, both of them sprung from Pra/apati, were 
contending for (the possession of) this (terrestrial) 
world. The gods drove out the Asuras, their rivals 
and enemies, from this world ; whence those who 

former is to measure one man's length plus 9} angulas (thumb's 
breadths), and each of the latter one man's length minus 9 J 
angulas. See comm. on VS^. S. XXXV, 1. 

1 That is, by twisting or spinning the strands from right to left, 
or contrary to the son's course. The cord is extended round the 
grave from right to left (east, north, west, south) by means of pegs 
driven into the ground at the four corners ; see XIII, 8, 4, 1. 

' I do not see how the usual force of 'atho' — viz. that of 
introducing a new element or argument either analogous, or not 
quite conformable, to what precedes (cf. Delbrtlck, Aland. Syntax, 
p. 513) — can apply to this double use of the particle. The two 
' atho ' seem to introduce the reasons for his digging up the ground, 
and for his not digging up more than a man's size. 



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430 satapatha-brahmaya. 

are godly people make their sepulchres so as not 
to be separate (from the earth), whilst those 
(people) who are of the Asura nature, the Easterns 
and others, (make their sepulchral mounds) so as to 
be separated (from the earth), either on a basin * or 
on some such thing. 

2. He then encloses it by means of enclosing- 
stones: what those enclosing-stones (round the 
fire-hearths) are, that they are here*. With 
a formula he sets up those, silently these : he thus 
keeps separate what refers to the gods and what 
refers to the Fathers. With (an) undefined (number 
of stones he encloses it), for undefined is yonder 
world. 

3. He then sweeps that (site) with a pal&ra (Butea 
frondosa) branch — what the sweeping (signified) on 
that occasion 8 , that (it does) here — with (V4f. S. 
XXXV, 1), 'Let the niggards avaunt from 
hence, the perverse scorners of the gods!' — 
he thereby expels from this world the niggards, 
the perverse haters of the gods, the Asura- Rakshas ; 
— 'it is the place of this Soma-offerer,' for he 
who has performed a Soma-sacrifice is a Soma- 
offerer; — '(an abode) distinguished by lights, 
by days, by nights,' — he thereby makes him to 

1 I take the ' Aamft ' to be a shallow stone basin or trough, either 
solid or consisting of masonry (bricks) in the manner of oar stone- 
lined graves. 

' Cf. VII, 1, 1, 12 seq. ' The enclosing-stones are the womb : he 
thus encloses the seed here sown in a womb. . . And, again, the 
Garhapatya hearth is this (terrestrial) world, and the enclosing- 
stones are the waters : he thus surrounds this world with water.' 

1 Viz. in building the Garhapatya hearth (VII, 1, 1, 11 seqq.); no 
such sweeping taking place in preparing the site for the Abavanfya 
(VII, 3, 1, 7). 



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XIII KANDA, 8 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMA.YA, 6. 43 1 

be of the world of the seasons, the days and 
nights ; — 

4. 'May Yama grant him an abode;' — for 
Yama has power over the abode in this (earth), 
and it is him he solicits for an abode therein for 
this (dead man). He throws out this (branch) to 
the right (south), the other 1 to the left (north) 
side : he thus keeps the divine separate from what 
belongs to the Fathers. 

5. He (the Adhvaryu) then yokes (the team) to 
the plough on the south side, — some say on the 
north side: he may do as he chooses. Having 
given the order, saying, ' Yoke ! ' he (the Sacrificer) 
utters the formula (Va,f. S. XXXV, 2), 'May 
SaviW vouchsafe for thy bones a place in 
the earth!' — Savitri now indeed vouchsafes a 
place in the earth for his (the deceased man's) 
bones; — ' Let the oxen be yoked therefore!' for 
it is indeed for this work that the oxen are yoked. 

6. It is (a team) of six oxen, — six seasons are 
a year: on the seasons, on the year, as a firm 
foundation, he thus establishes him. Having 
turned round (the plough) from right to left 2 , 
he ploughs the first furrow with (Va^-. S. XXXV, 
3), 'May Vayu purify!' along the north side 
(along the cord) towards the west 8 ; with, 'May 



1 Viz. that used in sweeping the Garhapatya, VII, 7, 1, 5. 

* That is, having driven the plough round from the south side to 
the north, in the non-sunwise direction (i. e. keeping the sepulchral 
site on the left hand side). 

* In ploughing the site of the fire-altar, the first furrow was drawn 
along the south side from west to east ; and then, in sunwise fashion, 
from the south-west corner round along the west, north, and east 
sides; see VII, 2, a, 9 seqq. 



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432 satapatha-brAhma^a. 

Savitr* purify!' along the west side towards 
the south; with, 'With Agni's lustre!* along 
the south side towards the east; with, 'With 
Surya's brilliance!' along the front side towards 
the north. 

7. Four furrows he ploughs with a formula : he 
thereby establishes him in whatever food there is 
in the four quarters. And (as to why it is done) 
with a formula, — certain, assuredly, is the sacrificial 
formula (yagns), and certain are these quarters. 

8. He then ploughs across the body (of die 
sepulchral site) — he thereby establishes him in 
whatever food there is in the year 1 — silently with 
(an) undefined (number of furrows), for undefined 
is yonder world. 

9. Having performed the work for which he has 
put the team to that (plough), he now unfastens 
it: 'Let the oxen be unyoked!' he says, for it 
is for that work that the oxen were yoked. To the 
right (south) side* he removes this (plough and 
team), to the left (side) any other : he thus keeps 
the divine separate from what belongs to the 
Fathers. 

Third BrAhma^a. 

1. He then sows (seed) of all (kinds of) herbs: 
what the all-herb (seed signified) on that occasion s , 
that (it does) here. With many (verses *) he sows 

1 The Sacrificer's body (trunk) or self, like that of Pra^&pan', is 
as usual identified with the year (Father Time). 

' Or rather to the south-west side, whilst at the Agniiayana 
(VII, 2, 2, 21) it was done towards the north-east 

8 Viz. that it means food of every kind, see VII, 2, 4, 14. 

* Viz. with fifteen verses (VII, 2, 4, 15 seqq.) of which the one 
here used formed part (part iii, p. 340, note 2, verse 5). 



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xni kAitda, 8 adhyAva, 3 brAhmaata, 3. 433 

that (former seed), with a single one this, — he thus 
keeps the divine separate from what belongs to the 
Fathers,— with (VV- S. XXXV, 4), «On the 
Asvattha tree is your abode, on the Par»a 
dwelling is made for you, (possessed of cattle 
shall ye be, when ye save the Man):' for long 
life he thereby prays for these (the Sacrificer's 
family), and accordingly each subsequent one of 
them dies of old age 1 . 

2. He then pours out that (jarful of bones *) ; for 
this earth is the foundation : on this (earth), as 
a foundation, he thus establishes him. Before 
sunrise (he does so), for, in secret, as it were, are 
the Fathers, and in secret, as it were, is the night;— 
in secret, indeed, he does this, (but) so that (the 
sun) should rise over him doing it: on both day 
and night he thus establishes him. 

3. [He does so, with Va^. S. XXXV, 5-6,] ' May 
Savitr* deposit thy bones in the mother's 
lap,' — Savitr* thus deposits his bones in the lap 
of the mother, this earth ; — ' O Earth, be thou 
propitious unto him!* he thus says this in order 
that this (earth) may be propitious to him. — ' In 
the deity Pra^apati I place thee, in the world 
nigh unto the water 3 , O N. N.,' therewith he 
mentions the name (of the deceased); for nigh to 

1 That is, they die of old age, just as do the herbs now sown to 
which the verse is, of course, addressed in the first place. Cf. 
Mahtdhara on V£g. S. XII, 79. 

' On burning the dead body, immediately after death, the cal- 
cined bones were carefully collected and kept in an earthen vessel ; 
cf. p. 117, note 3. 

* Or, in a place near water. The Sawhita" adds (either before 
or after the dead man's name), ' May he (Prajipati) bum away 
our sin I ' 

[44] * f 



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434 DATAPATH A-BRAhMAJVA. 

the water, indeed, is this (terrestrial) world: he 
thus places him in the deity Pra^apati, in the 
world nigh unto the water. 

4. He then says to some one, ' Proceed in that 
(southern) direction without drawing breath, and. 
having thrown down the jar, return hither without 
looking behind thee!' He then mutters (VSg. S. 
XXXV, 7), ' O Death, go away another way, 
what second way there is of thine other 
than the path of the gods 1 ; I call unto thee 
that hast eyes and hearest: hurt not our 
family nor our men!' for long life he thereby 
prays for these, and accordingly each subsequent 
one of them dies of old age. 

5. He then arranges him (the dead man) limb 
by limb, with (V&f. S. XXXV, 8-9), ' Propitious 
be the wind unto thee, propitious the heat 
of the sun; propitious be the bricks; pro- 
pitious be the fires unto thee, and may the 
earthly ones not scorch thee! — May the 
regions fit themselves to thee, and may the 
waters be most kind unto thee, and the rivers; 
and kind also the air: may all the regions fit 
themselves to thee!' — he thereby makes every- 
thing fit itself to him, and be auspicious for him. 

6. Now thirteen unmarked * bricks, measuring a 
foot (square), have been made : they are just like 
those bricks in the fire-altar. Those (altar bricks) he 
lays down with a formula, silently these : he thus keeps 
the divine separate from what belongs to the Fathers. 

1 Viz. the ' pitriy&na,' or path of the Fathers. See I, 9, 3, 2. 

* That is, not marked with lines, as those of the fire-altar are. 
As to the use of pebbles, instead of bricks, in the case of one who 
has not performed the Agntfayana, see XIII, 8, 4, 11. 



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xih kXitda, 8 adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, 12. 435 

7. There are thirteen of them, — thirteen months 
are a year: on the seasons, on the year, he thus 
establishes him, as on a firm foundation. 

8. They measure a foot (square), — the foot is 
a foundation : a foundation he thus prepares for 
him. Unmarked they are, for in secret, as it were, 
are the Fathers, and in secret, as it were, is what is 
unmarked : he thus secretes what is in secret 

9. One of them he places in the middle, with the 
front side towards the east: this is the body 
(trunk) ; — three in front, fitted to (the position of) 
the head: that is the head; — three on the right: 
that is the right wing (side) ; — three on the left : 
that is the left wing; — three behind: that is the 
tail. Thus this his body, furnished with wings 
and tail, is just like that of Agni (the fire-altar). 

10. He then bids them bring some soil from 
a cleft in the ground, for thus the Fathers' (share) 
in this (earth) is not excessive ; and he also thereby 
makes the (dead man's) sin to be restricted \ And 
some, now, dig in that intermediate (south-eastern) 
quarter, and fetch it from there ; and others, again, 
do so towards the south-west, and fetch it northwards 
from there : he may do as he chooses. 

11. Let him not make it (the sepulchral mound) 
too large, lest he make the (deceased's) sin large. 
For a Kshatriya he may make it as high as a man 
with upstretched arms, for a Brahmawa reaching up 
to the mouth, for a woman up to the hips, for a 
Vabya up to the thighs, for a .Sudra up to the knee; 
for suchlike is their vigour. 

12. But let him rather make it so as to reach 

1 See XIII, 8, 1, 15. 
F f 2 



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436 satapatha-brAhmajta. 

below the knee : he thus leaves no room for another. 
While that (mound) is being made, they hold a 
bundle (of reed grass) to the left (north, uttaratai) of 
it, — that is offspring : they thus hold the (deceased's) 
offspring upwards (uttarataA). Do not let him 
throw it down either after holding it up, or after 
bringing it ; but let him set it up in the house * : he 
thus sets up offspring in the house. 

13. Having prepared it, he sows barley grain 
(yava), thinking, * May they ward off (yavaya) sin from 
me!' He covers it over with Avaka-plants * in order 
that there may be joy (or moisture, ka) for him ; 
and with Darbha grass (Poa cynosuroides) he covers 
it for the sake of softness. 

Fourth BrAhmava. 

1 . They now fix pegs round it 8 , — a Pallra (Butea 
frondosa) one in front, — for the Palasa is the 
Brahman (n.) : he thus makes him go to the heavenly 
world with the Brahman for his leader; — a 3aml 
(Prosopis spicigera) one on the left (north corner), 
in order that there may be peace (jam) for him ; — 
a Vara»a (Crataeva Roxburghii) one behind, in 
order that he may ward off (varaya) sin from him ; — 

1 That is, fix it so as to stand upright, by means of a bambu 
stick to which it is tied. Cf. Katy. XXI, 3, 27 comm. 

* Blyxa (or Vallisneria) octandra (Roxburghii), a grass-like plant 
with sword-shaped leaves (A. K. Nairne, The Flowering Plants of 
Western India, p. 318), growing freely on the margins of tanks. 
Cf. VII, 5, 1, 11 ; IX, 1, 2, 22 (where read ' Avaka-plant ' instead 
of ' lotus-flower '). 

* According to Katy. St. XXI, the pegs are driven in immediately 
after the measuring, and prior to the sweeping, of the site of the 
tumulus ; and this must certainly be the case, seeing that the cords by 
which the site is enclosed (XIII, 8, 1, 19) are fastened to the pegs. 



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xiii kKnda, 8 adHyAya, 4 brAhmajva, 4. 437 

and a VWtra-peg l on the right (south corner) for sin 
not to pass beyond. 

2. On the right (south) side they then dig two 
somewhat curved (furrows *), and fill them with milk 
and water, — these, indeed, are two inexhaustible 
streams (that) flow to him in the other world ; — and 
seven (they dig) on the left (north) side, and fill 
them with water, for sin not to pass beyond, for 
indeed sin cannot pass beyond seven rivers 3 . 

3. They* throw three stones each (into the 
northern furrows), and pass over them, with (Va/: 
S. XXXV, 10; Rtg-v. X, 53, 8) : « H ere floweth 
the stony one: hold on to each other, rise, 
and cross over, ye friends : here will we leave 
behind what unkind spirits there be, and 
will cross over to auspicious nourishments;' 
— as the text so its import 

4. They cleanse themselves with Apamarga 
plants 8 — they thereby wipe away (apa-marg) sin — 

1 The exact meaning of ' vrrtra-jaftku ' is doubtful. K&ty. Sr. 
XXI, 3, 31 has ' deha-fanku' instead, to which the commentary 
assigns the rather improbable meaning of ' stone-pillar,' in favour 
of which he refers to IV, a, 5, 15 of our Brahma/»a — ' Soma, in 
truth, was Vrebra : the mountains and stones are his body; ' whence 
he makes ' vr»cra' = ' aman ' (stone). 

* Or narrow trenches or ditches — ku/ile karshu, Kdty. XXI, 4, 
20. They are apparently semicircular, probably with their open 
part towards the grave. 

* These seven furrows are straight, running from west to east ; thus 
separating the grave from the north, the world of men. 

* That is, the Adhvaryu and the members of the Sacrificer's 
family. 

* Lit. ' cleansing-plants ' or * wiping-plants,' Achyranthes aspera ; 
also called the burr-plant (Birdwood), a common hairy weed found 
all over India, and much used for incantations and sacrificial 
purposes. 



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438 jatapatha-brAhmajva. 

with (Vaf. S. XXXV, u), 'O Apamarga, drive 
thou away from us sin, away guilt, away 
witchery, away infirmity, away evil dreams!' 
— as the text so its import. 

5. They bathe at any place where there is water. 
With (V&f. S. XXXV, 12), 'May the waters and 
plants be friendly unto us!' he takes water with 
his joined hands, — for water is a thunderbolt : with 
the thunderbolt he thus makes friendship, — and with, 
• Unfriendly may they be unto him who hateth 
us, and whom we hate!' he throws it in the 
direction in which he who is hateful to him may 
be, and thereby overthrows him. 

6. And if it be standing water, it makes their 
(the bathers') evil stop; and if it flows, it carries 
away their evil. Having bathed, and put on 
garments that have never yet been washed, they 
hold on to the tail of an ox *, and return (to their 
home), — for the ox is of Agni's nature: headed 
by Agni they thus return from the world of the 
Fathers to the world of the living. And Agni, 
indeed, is he who leads one over the paths (one has 
to travel), and it is he who leads these over. 

1 That is to say, one of them takes hold of the tail, whilst the 
others follow in single file, each holding on to the one walking in 
from of him. Prof. Weber, Ind. Stud. IX, p. 21, note, refers to the 
somewhat analogous practice of tying to the left arm of a dead 
man the tail of the anustarawi-cow slain at the funeral sacrifice, 
whereby the deceased is supposed to be led safely — across the river 
Vaitarani (Styx) ; see Say. on Sha<rV. Br., as quoted Ind. Stud. I, 
P- 39 > cf. also Colebrooke, Misc. Essays, second ed., p. 19a — to 
the world of the Fathers. According to Kfity. XXI, 4, 24 the 
ceremony of taking hold of the tail is performed with the verse, 
Vi^. S. XXXV, 13, 'For our well-being we hold on to the ox, 
sprung from Surabhi: even as Indra to the gods, so be thoo 
a saving leader unto us!' 



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xiii kKnda, 8 adhyAya, 4 brAhmamv, 10. 439 

7. They proceed (towards the village) muttering 
this verse (Va^-. S. XXXV, 14), ' From out of the 
gloom have we risen 1 . . .' — from the gloom, the 
world of the Fathers, they now indeed approach the 
light, the sun. When they have arrived, ointments 
for the eyes and the feet are given them: such, 
indeed, are human means of embellishment, and 
therewith they keep off death from themselves. 

8. Then, in the house, having made up the 
(domestic) fire, and laid enclosing-sticks of Varaoa 
wood round it, he offers, by means of a sruva-spoon 
of Vara«a wood, an oblation to Agni Ayushmat 8 , 
for Agni Ayushmat rules over vital power: it is 
of him he asks vital power for these (the Sacrificer's 
family). [Va/\ S. XXXV, 16,] ' Thou, Agni, causest 
vital powers to flow: (send us food and drink, 
and keep calamity far from us),' serves as in- 
vitatory formula. 

9. He then offers, with (Vfy. S. XXXV, 17), 
' Long-lived be thou, O Agni, growing by 
offering, ghee-mouthed, ghee-born : drinking 
the sweet, pleasant cow's ghee, guard thou 
these, as a father does his son, hail!' he thus 
says this so that he (Agni) may guard and protect 
these (men). 

10. The sacrificial fee for this (ceremony) consists 
of an old ox, old barley, an old arm-chair with head- 
cushion — this at least is the prescribed Dakshiwa, 
but he may give more according to his inclination. 
Such, indeed, (is the performance) in the case of 
one who had built a fire-altar. 



1 See XII, 9, a, 8. 

1 I. e. imbued with vital power, long-lived. 



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44° satapatha-brAhma-ya. 

ii. And in the case of one who has not built 
a fire-altar, there is the same mode of selecting 
the site (for the sepulchral mound) and the same 
performance save that of the fire-altar. ' Let him 
use pebbles (instead of bricks ') in the case of one 
who keeps up a sacrificial fire,' say some, 'they 
are just what those pebbles used at the Agnyidheya 
are *.' ' Let him not use them,' say others ; ' surely 
they would be liable to weigh heavily upon one 
who has not built a fire-altar.' Let him do as he 
pleases. 

12. Having fetched a clod from the boundary, 
he 3 deposits it (midway) between (the grave and 
the village), with (Va^. S. XXXV, 15), 'This 
I put up as a bulwark for the living, lest 
another of them should go unto that thing: 
may they live for a hundred plentiful har- 
vests, and shut out death from themselves by 
a mountain!' — he thus makes this a boundary 
between the Fathers and the living, so as not to 
commingle; and therefore, indeed, the living and 
the Fathers are not seen together here. 

' See XIII, 8, 3, 6. » See II, 1, 1, 8 seqq. 

' Viz. the Adhvaryu, according to Mahfdhara on Va^. S. XXXV, 
15. According to Katy. XXI, 4, 25, this ceremony takes place 
whilst they are on their way back from the grave to the village ; as 
indeed appears from the order in which the formula used appears 
in the V&g. Samhita. It is difficult to see why the author should 
not have given it in its right place, unless it was done with a view 
to a good conclusion to the Kaxda, or because he really wished 
it to be done after the performance of the offering. It is scarcely 
necessary to assume that this Kamfikft is a later addition, perhaps 
based on the Kanva recension. 



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xiv kAjvjja, i adSyAya, i brAhmajva, 5. 441 



FOURTEENTH KANDA. 



THE PRAVARGYA. 



First AdhyAya. First BrAhmajva. 

1. The gods Agni, Indra, Soma, Makha, Vish«u, 
and the VLfve DevaA, except the two Afvins, 
performed a sacrificial session 1 . 

2. Their place of divine worship was Kuru- 
kshetra. Therefore people say that Kurukshetra 
is the gods' place of divine worship : hence wherever 
in Kurukshetra one settles there one thinks, ' This 
is a place for divine worship ; ' for it was the gods' 
place of divine worship. 

3. They entered upon the session* thinking, ' May 
we attain excellence! may we become glorious! 
may we become eaters of food !' And in like manner 
do these (men) now enter upon the sacrificial session 
thinking, ' May we attain excellence ! may we be- 
come glorious ! may we become eaters of food ! ' 

4. They spake, 'Whoever of us, through austerity, 
fervour, faith, sacrifice, and oblations, shall first 
compass the end of the sacrifice, he shall be the 
most excellent of us, and shall then be in common 
to us all.' ' So be it,' they said. 

5. Vishttu first attained it, and he became the 

' For this legend, see J. Muir, Orig. Sansk. Texts, vol. iv, p. 124. 

' Lit, they were sitting (for the session) : ' is ' (like ' sad ') is 
here used in its technical sense, and not in its ordinary sense ' to 
sit, to be ' ;— ' They were [there. They said],' J. M. 



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442 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

most excellent of the gods; whence people say, 
' Vish«u is the most excellent of the gods.' 

6. Now he who is this Vishwu is the sacrifice ; 
and he who is this sacrifice is yonder Aditya (the 
sun). But, indeed, Vish«u was unable to control 
that (love of) glory of his ; and so even now not 
every one can control that (love of) glory of his. 

7. Taking his bow, together with three arrows, 
he stepped forth. He stood, resting his head-on 
the end of the bow. Not daring to attack him, 
the gods sat themselves down all around him. 

8. Then the ants said — these ants (vamrl), doubt- 
less, were that (kind called) 'upadika 1 ' — 'What 
would ye give to him who should gnaw the bow- 
string?' — 'We would give him the (constant) 
enjoyment of food, and he would find water even 
in the desert : so we would give him every enjoy- 
ment of food.' — ' So be it,' they said. 

9. Having gone nigh unto him, they gnawed 
his bowstring. When it was cut, the ends of the 
bow, springing asunder, cut off Vishwu's head. 

1 a It fell with (the sound) ' ghrtn' ; and on 
falling it became yonder sun. And the rest (of 
the body) lay stretched out (with the top part) 
towards the east. And inasmuch as it fell with 
(the sound) 'ghrm,' therefrom the Gharma* (was 
called) ; and inasmuch as he was stretched out 
(pra-vr^f), therefrom the Pravargya (took its name). 

11. The gods spake, 'Verily, our great hero 

1 That is, a certain species of ants that are supposed to find 
water wherever they dig. Cf. Weber, Ind. Stud. XIII, p. 139. 

* That is, the draught of hot milk boiled in the Mah&vira 
pot, and hence often used as a synonym for the latter or the 
Pravargya. 



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xiv kajtoa, I adhvAya, i brAhmajva, i 6. 443 

(mahan vlraA) has fallen : ' therefrom the Mahavlra 
pot (was named). And the vital sap which flowed 
from him they wiped up (sam-mras*f) with their 
hands, whence the Samrif l . 

12. The gods rushed forward to him, even as 
those eager to secure some gain (will do)'. Indra 
reached him first He applied himself to him limb 
after limb, and encompassed him* and, in encom- 
passing him, he became (possessed of) that glory 
of his. And, verily, he who knows this becomes 
(possessed of) that glory which Indra is (pos- 
sessed of). 

13. And Makha (sacrifice), indeed, is the same as 
Vishnu : hence Indra became Makhavat (possessed 
of makha), since Makhavat is he who is mystically 
called Maghavat *, for the gods love the mystic. 

14. They gave to those ants the enjoyment of 
food ; but, indeed, all food is water, for it is by 
moistening (the food) therewith that one eats here 
whatever one does eat. 

15. This Vish»u, the (Soma-) sacrifice, they then 
divided amongst themselves into three parts: the 
Vasus (received) the morning-pressing, the Rudras 
the midday-pressing, and the Adityas the third 
pressing. 

16. Agni (received) the morning-pressing, Indra 

1 That is, emperor, or lord paramount, as the Pravargya is 
named, in the same way as the Soma-plant (and juice) is styled 
King. 

1 Cf. IV, 1, 3, 5. The construction is hardly so irregular as it 
is represented there. 

1 That is, he enclosed him (in his own self), he took him in 
(gobbled him up). 

4 I. e. ' the mighty (lord),' an epithet of Indra. 



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444 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAJVA. 

the midday-pressing, and the Vuve DevaA the third 
pressing. 

17. The Gayatrt (received) the morning-pressing, 
the Trish/ubh the midday-pressing, and the Gagatt 
the third pressing. The gods went on worshipping 
and toiling with that headless sacrifice. 

18. Now Dadhya££ Atharva»a knew this pure 
essence \ this Sacrifice, — how this head of the 
Sacrifice is put on again, how this Sacrifice becomes 
complete. 

19. He then was spoken to by Indra saying, 'If 
thou teachest this (sacrificial mystery) to any one 
else, I shall cut off thy head.' 

20. Now this was heard by the Arvins, — ' Verily, 
Dadhya££ Atharvawa knows this pure essence, this 
Sacrifice, — how this head of the Sacrifice is put on 
again, how this Sacrifice becomes complete.' 

2 1 . They went up to him and said, ' We two will 
become thy pupils.' — 'What are ye wishing to 
learn ? ' he asked. — ' This pure essence, this Sacri- 
fice, — how this head of the Sacrifice is put on 
again, how this Sacrifice becomes complete,' they 
replied. 

22. He said, ' I was spoken to by Indra saying, 
' If thou teachest this to any one else, I shall cut 
off thy head ; ' therefore I am afraid lest he should 
indeed cut off my head : I cannot take you as my 
pupils.' 

23. They said, ' We two shall protect thee from 
him.' — 'How will ye protect me?' he replied. — 
They said, ' When thou wilt have received us as thy 

1 Viz. the Madhu ('honey') or sweet doctrine of the Pravargya, 
or pot of boiled milk and ghee. 



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xiv kXnda, i adhyAya, i brAhmajva, 28. 445 

pupils, we shall cut off thy head and put it aside 
elsewhere ; then we shall fetch the head of a horse, 
and put it on thee : therewith thou wilt teach us ; 
and when thou wilt have taught us, then Indra will 
cut off that head of thine ; and we shall fetch thine 
own head, and put it on thee again.' — ' So be it,' he 
replied. 

24. He then received them (as his pupils) ; and 
when he had received them, they cut off his head, 
and put it aside elsewhere ; and having fetched the 
head of a horse, they put it on him : therewith he 
taught them ; and when he had taught them, Indra 
cut off that head of his ; and having fetched his own 
head, they put it on him again. 

25. Therefore it is concerning this that the /frshi 
has said (J?tg-v. I, 116, 12), ' That Dadhyani Athar- 
va«a, with a horse's head, anywise spake forth unto 
you two the sweet doctrine:' — 'Unrestrainedly he 
spoke this,' is what is thereby meant 

26. One must not teach this to any and every 
one, since that would be sinful, and lest Indra 
should cut off his head ; but one may only teach it 
to one who is known to him, and who has studied 
sacred writ, and who may be dear to him, but not to 
any and every one. 

27. He may teach it to one dwelling with him 
(as a pupil) for a year; for the year is he that 
shines yonder, and the Pravargya also is that (sun) : 
it is him he thereby gratifies, and therefore he may 
teach it to one dwelling with him for a year. 

28. For three nights he keeps the rule (of 
abstinence) ; for there are three seasons in the year, 
and the year is he that shines yonder, and the 
Pravargya also is that one : it is him he thereby 



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446 satapatha-brahmajva. 

gratifies, and therefore he keeps the rule for three 
nights. 

29. Hot 1 (water) he sips, thinking, 'I will teach it 
as one practising austerities.' He teaches it whilst 
abstaining from flesh-food, thinking, ' I will teach it 
as one practising austerities ; ' 

30. Andwhilst not drinking out of earthen (vessels) ; 
for whatever untruth (man) speaks on this (earth) is, 
as it were, immixed with her : therefore (one should 
do so) whilst not drinking out of earthen (vessels) ; 

3 1 . And whilst not coming into contact with .Sudras 
and remains of food ; for this Gharma is he that 
shines yonder, and he is excellence, truth, and light ; 
but woman, the 6udra, the dog, and the black bird 
(the crow), are untruth: he should not look at 
these, lest he should mingle excellence and sin, 
light and darkness, truth and untruth. 

32. And, verily, he that shines yonder is glory; 
and as to that glory, Aditya (the sun), that glory is 
just the sacrifice ; and as to that glory, the sacrifice, 
that glory is just the Sacrificer; and as to that 
glory, the Sacrificer, that glory is just the officiating 
priests ; and as to that glory, the officiating priests, 
that glory is just the sacrificial gifts : hence, if they 
bring up to him a dakshiwa he must not, at least 
on the same day, make over these (objects) to any 
one else lest he should make over to some one else 
that glory which has come to him; but rather on 
the morrow, or the day after : he thus gives it away 
after having made that glory his own, whatever it 
be — gold, a cow, a garment, or a horse. 

1 During the performance of the Pravargya ceremony boiling 
water has to be used whenever water is required. 



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xiv kKnda., i admyAya, 2 brAhmajva, 2. 447 

33. And, verily, he who either teaches or partakes 
of this (Pravargya), enters that life, and that light. 
The observance of the rule thereof (is as follows). 
Let him not cover himself (with a garment) whilst 
the sun shines, lest he should be concealed from 
that (sun). Let him not spit whilst the sun shines, 
lest he should spit upon him. Let him not dis- 
charge urine whilst the sun shines, lest he discharge 
it upon him. For so long as he shines, so great he 
(the sun) is : thinking, ' Lest I should injure him by 
these (acts),' let him take food at night, after striking 
a light, whereby it is made to be a form of him who 
shines yonder. But on this point Asuri used to 
say, — One rule the gods indeed keep, to wit, the 
truth : let him therefore speak nothing but the 
truth. 

Second BrAhmaata. 
The making of the Pot. 

i. He equips (the Mahavlra) with its equip- 
ments; — inasmuch as he equips it therewith from 
this and that quarter, that is the equipping nature 
of the equipments 1 (sambhara) : wheresoever any- 
thing of the sacrifice is inherent, therewith he 
equips it 2 . 

2. He gets ready a black antelope-skin, — for the 
black antelope-skin is the sacrifice 3 : it is at the 

1 See part i, p. 276, note 1. Here, as formerly, it has not been 
thought desirable to adhere throughout to the technical rendering of 
' sam-bhrt.' 

* Pravargya being masculine, the original would, of course, have 
' him ' here and throughout, the ceremony (just like the sacrifice in 
general) being indeed looked upon as a person. 

* See part i, p. 23, note 2. In making the Gharma, or Mahavira, 



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44^ SATAPATHA-BlWlHMAtfA. 

sacrifice he thus prepares (the pot); — with its 
hairy side (upwards),— for the hairs are the metres : 
on the metres he thus prepares it ; — (spread 
out) on the left (north) side 1 , — for the north is 
the quarter of men ; — on (the skin) with its neck- 
part to the east*, for that (tends) towards the 
gods. 

3. With a spade (he digs out the clay), for the 
spade is a thunderbolt, and the thunderbolt is 
vigour : with vigour he thus supplies and completes 
it (the Pravargya). 

4. It is made of Udumbara (Ficus glomerata) 
wood, for the Udumbara is strength 8 : with strength, 
with vital sap, he thus supplies and completes it 

5. Or of Vikankata (Flacourtia sapida) wood ; for 
when Pra^apati performed his first offering, a Vikan- 
kata tree sprang forth from that place where, after 
offering, he cleansed (his hands); now an offering 
is a sacrifice, and (consequently) the Vikankata is 

pot, on the present occasion, the order of proceeding is to a con- 
siderable extent the same as that followed at the AgnUayana, in 
providing the materials for, and making, the fire-pan, for which, 
see VI, 3, 3, 1 seqq. Cf. also the Apastamba .Srautas. XV, 
with Garbe's Translation and Notes, Journal of Germ. Or. Soc, 
vol. xxxiv. 

1 That is, immediately north of the lump of clay (previously 
prepared by a potter) and the other objects to be used for making 
the Mahlvira pot, which have been previously deposited near the 
antaApStya peg marking the middle of the west or hinder side of 
the Mah&vedi. 

1 The locative, instead of the accusative, is rather strange here. 
As it stands, the locative is evidendy parallel to ' yagne ' and ' Uaa- 
daAsu,' and one has therefore to supply — he collects (prepares) the 
Pravargya, viz. by putting the lump of clay and the other objects 
thereon. 

* See VI, 6, 3, a seqq. 



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XIV KAJW)A, I ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAWA, 9. 449 

the sacrifice : with the sacrifice he thus supplies and 
completes it. 

6. It is a cubit long, for a cubit means the (fore-) 
arm, and with the arm strength is exerted : it (the 
spade) thus is composed of strength, and with 
strength he thus supplies and completes it 

7. He takes it up, with (Va£". S. XXXVII, i), 
'At the impulse of the god Savitrz, I take 
thee by the arms of the Ajvins, by the hands 
of Pushan : thou art a woman ; ' — the import (of 
this formula) is the same as before \ 

8. Having placed it in his left hand, he touches it 
with the right, and mutters (Va/\ S. XXXVII, 2), 
'They harness the mind, and they harness 
the thoughts, the priests of the priest, of 
the great inspirer of devotion; the knower 
of the rites alone hath assigned the priestly 
offices: great is the praise of the god Sa- 
vitri;' — the import of this is the same as before 2 . 

9. He then takes the lump of clay with the (right) 
hand and spade on the right (south) side, and with 
the (left) hand alone on the left (north) side ", with 
(Vdf. S. XXXVII, 3), 'O divine Heaven and 
Earth,' — for when the sacrifice had its head cut 
off, its sap flowed away, and entered the sky and 
the earth : what clay (firm matter) there was that is 
this (earth), and what water there was that is yonder 
(sky) ; hence it is of clay and water that the Maha- 
vfra (vessels) are made: he thus supplies and 

1 See I, 1, 2, 17 ; VI, 3, 1, 38 seq. 

* See III, 5, 3, ii-i2. 

* Between the two actions referred to in paragraphs 8 and 9, 
the digging up of the clay takes place, and hence the spade, or 
trowel, has changed hands. Cf. VI, 4, 2, 2. 

[44] G g 



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450 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAVA. 

completes it (the Pravargya) with that sap ; where- 
fore he says, ' O divine Heaven and Earth,' — 
'May I this day compass for you Makha's 
head,' — Makha being the sacrifice, he thus says, 
'May I this day accomplish for you 1 the head of 
the sacrifice ; ' — 'on the Earth's place of divine 
worship,' — for on a place of divine worship of the 
earth he prepares it; — 'for Makha thee! for 
Makha's head thee!' — Makha being the sacrifice, 
he thus says, ' For the sacrifice (I consecrate) thee, 
for the head of the sacrifice (I consecrate) thee.' 

10. Then an ant-hill 2 (he takes, and puts on the 
skin), with (Vdf. S. XXXVII, 4), «Ye divine 
ants,' — for it was they that produced this : just 
in accordance with the way in which the head 
of the sacrifice was there cut off, he now supplies 
and completes it with those (ants); — 'the first- 
born of the world,' — the firstborn of the world, 
doubtless, is this earth 8 : it thus is therewith that 

1 The pronouns in this and the subsequent corresponding 
formulas (vim, vaA, te) are taken by Mahidhara as accusatives 
(' te ' according to him standing for ' tvSm ') to which he supplies 
'idiya' — 'having taken you, may I this day compass Makha's 
head.' The pronouns are certainly somewhat awkward, as they can 
scarcely be taken as genitives of material — of you, of .thee. 

* See VI, 3, 3, 5, where ' valmikavapa - ' is qualified by * sushirA,' 
hollow. The comm. on Kity. XXVI, 1, 2 explains ' valmtkavapfi' 
as the vap& (omentum)-like inner lump (? surrounded by a kind 
of net) of an ant-hill : in the present case, this substance is likewise 
placed on the black antelope-skin to be mixed with the clay. 

* Whilst in the text of the formula this word must be taken as 
being plural ' prathama^i^,' the Brihmana (making use of the 
Sandhi-form) treats it as if it were singular ' prathama^i.' Mahi- 
dhara also, apparently influenced by the Brinmaoa, explains, ' the 
earth is the firstborn of creatures, and, from their connection with 
it, ants also are called firstborn.' 



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XIV KAJTOA, I ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAtfA, 12. 45 1 

he supplies and completes it; — 'may I this day 
compass for you Makha's head on the Earth's 
place of divine worship: — for Makha thee! 
for Makha's head thee!' — the import of this is 
the same as before. 

11. Then (earth) torn up by a boar (he takes), 
with (V4f. S. XXXVII, 5), 'Only thus large 
was she in the beginning,' — for, indeed, only 
so large was this earth in the beginning, of the 
size of a span. A boar, called Emusha, raised 
her up, and he was her lord Pra/apati : with that 
mate, his heart's delight, he thus supplies and com- 
pletes him 1 ; — 'may I this day compass for you 
Makha's head on the Earth's place of divine 
worship: for Makha thee! for Makha's head 
thee ! ' the import of this is the same as before. 

12. Then Adara* (-plants), with (Va^.S. XXXVII, 
6), 'Indra's might ye are,' — for when Indra 
encompassed him (Vish#u) with might, then the 
vital sap of him, thus encompassed, flowed away ; 
and he lay there stinking, as it were. He said, 
4 Verily, after bursting open (a-dar), as it were, 
this vital sap has sung praises:' thence Adara 
(-plants originated); and because he lay there 
stinking (puy), as it were, therefore (they are also 
called) Putlka ; and hence, when placed on the fire 

1 That is, he supplies Pra^apati (and hence also his counterpart, 
the Sacrificer) with the Earth, his mate. See J. Muir, Orig. Sansk. 
Texts, vol. i, p. 53 ; vol. iv, p. 27; and cp. Taitt. I, 10, 8, where 
the earth is said to have been uplifted by a black boar with a 
thousand arms. 

* At IV, 5, 10, 4 we met with this plant — here also called Putika, 
and explained, by the comm. on Katy., as=the flowers (!) of the 
Rohisha plant (? Guilandina, or Caesalpinia, Bonducella) — as a sub- 
stitute for Soma-plants. 

Gg2 



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452 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

as an offering, they blaze; and hence also they 
are fragrant, for they originated from the vital 
sap of the sacrifice. And inasmuch as Indra, 
on that occasion, encompassed him with might, 
therefore he says, ' Indra's might ye are;' — 'may 
I this day compass for you Makha's head 
on the Earth's place of divine worship: for 
Makha thee! for Makha's head thee!' the 
import of this is the same as before. 

13. Then goat's milk; — for when the sacrifice 
had its head cut off, its heat went out of it, where- 
from the goat was produced : it is with that heat 1 
that he thereby supplies and completes it ; — with, 
'For Makha thee! for Makha's head thee!' 
the import of this is the same as before. 

14. These, then, are the five equipments with 
which he equips (the Pravargya), — fivefold is the 
sacrifice, and fivefold the victims, and five seasons 
are in the year, and the year is he that shines 
yonder, and the Pravargya also is that (sun): it 
is him he thus gratifies. These (objects), thus 
brought together, he touches with, ' For Makha 
(I consecrate) thee! for Makha's head thee!' 
the import of this is the same as before. 

1 5. Now there is an enclosed space * on the north 



1 Thus perhaps ' $uA ' should also have been rendered at VI, 4, 
4, 7, where it is used in connection with the ass. 

* Viz. a space five cubits square enclosed with mats on all sides, 
and with a door on the east side, the ground being raised in the 
middle so as to form a mound covered with sand (cf. Ill, 1, a, 2). 
The object of this enclosed space is to prevent any unauthorised 
person (such as the Sacrificer's wife, and people uninstructed in 
the scriptures) from seeing the manufacturing of the Mahivfra 
(during which the door is kept closed), as well as the completed pot. 



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xiv kAjvt>a, i adhyAva, 2 brAhmaata, 17. 453 

side: whilst proceeding towards that (shed) they 
mutter (Vty. S. XXXVII, 7 ; Rig-v. I, 40, 3), « May 
Brahmawaspati go forward!' — Brahma/taspati 
(the lord of devotion) doubtless is he that shines 
yonder, and the Pravargya also is that one : it is 
him he thus gratifies ; hence he says, ' May Brah- 
mawaspati go forward;' — 'may the goddess 
Gladness go forward!' — for the goddess Glad- 
ness she (V&fc 1 ) is; — 'unto the hero*, kindly to 
men and the dispenser of fivefold (offerings),' — 
he thereby praises and magnifies it (the Pravargya), 
— ' unto the sacrifice may the gods lead us ! ' — 
he thereby makes all the gods its guardians. 

16. It is an enclosed space ; — for at that time the 
gods were afraid, thinking, 'We hope that the fiends, 
the Rakshas, will not injure here this our (Pra- 
vargya):' they accordingly enclosed for it this strong- 
hold, and in like manner does this (Sacrificer) now 
enclose for it this stronghold. 

17. He then deposits (the sambharas 3 ) on the 
mound with, 'For Makha thee! for Makha's 
head thee!' the import of this is the same as 
before. He then takes a lump of clay and makes 
the Mahavlra (pot) with, 'For Makha thee! 
for Makha's head thee,' — the import of this is 



The place is to the north of the antaApStya peg, the black antelope- 
skin being spread to the south of it (and immediately north of the 
materials used in making the pot). 

1 Thus Mahidhara, on Va*. S. XXXIII, 89. 

* ' Vira," apparently an allusion to ' Mahi-vira' (great hero), the 
name of the pot used at the Pravargya. 

' Viz. as placed on the black antelope-skin which is carried 
northwards to the enclosed place by the Adhvaryu and his assistants 
taking hold of it on all sides. 



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454 satapatha-brAhmaya. 

the same as before; — a span high 1 , for the head 
is, as it were, a span high ; — contracted in the 
middle 2 , for the head is, as it were, contracted in 
the middle. At the top he then draws it out (so 
as to form) a spout* of three thumbs' breadths 
(high) : he thereby makes a nose to this (Mahavira, 
or Pravargya). When it is complete, he touches 
it with (y$g. S. XXXVII, 8), 'Makha's head 
thou art,' — for it indeed is the head of Makha 
Saumya (the Soma-sacrifice). In the same way 
(he makes) the other two (Mahavira pots 4 ); 
silently two milking-bowls (pinvana*), and silently 
two Rauhi«a-plates •. 

1 8. Verily this sacrifice is Pra^apati, and PragApati 



1 That is, from bottom to top, a belt (mekhala) running round it 
at the distance of three thumbs' breadths from the top (Mahtdhara, 
and comm. on Katy.). This top part above the belt — here simply 
called ' mouth,' whilst in the Apast. Si. XV, a, 14 it is called 
' back ' (sanu) — ends in a hole for pouring the liquid in and out 

* That is, for taking hold of it (mush/igrahanayogyam, comm. on 
Katy.). 

* ' Mukha,' for which KSty. XXVI, 1, 16 has ' dseiana ' explained 
by the commentator as a hole (garta ; comm. on \sv. Grihyas. IV, 
3 bila), apparently serving as the mouth, or open part of the vessel 
which seems to be otherwise closed. The edge of the hole would 
seem to protract sufficiently from the surface to suggest a similarity 
to the nose. In making the vessel, it seems first to be left solid, 
the open part which is to hold the milk being then hollowed out 
by means of a reed from the top hole to the depth of less than the 
upper half, the remainder remaining solid. Cf. Ajv. St. XV, 3, 4. 

4 Only the first of the three pots is, however, actually used; 
unless it gets broken by accident. 

5 According to the comm. on Katy. St., these vessels are of the 
form of the (hand-shaped) bowl of an offering-ladle (srui, cf. part i, 
p. 67, note 2). 

* The Rauhiwa-kapalas are two round, fiat dishes for baking 
the Rauhiwa cakes 00. 



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XIV KANDA, I ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAJVA, 20. 455 

is both of this, defined and undefined, limited and 
unlimited 1 . Whatever one does with a Ya/us 
formula, by that one makes up that form of him 
(Pragapati) which is defined and limited ; and what- 
ever one does silently, by that one makes up that 
form of him which is undefined and unlimited: verily, 
then, whosoever, knowing this, does it on this wise, 
makes up that whole and complete Pra^apati. But 
he also leaves over a lump of spare (clay) for 
expiations. 

19. He then smooths * it by means of Gavedhuka 
grass (Coix barbata), — for when the sacrifice had 
its head cut off, its vital sap flowed away, and 
therefrom those plants grew up : with that vital 
sap he thus supplies and completes it; — with, 
'For Makha thee! for Makha's head thee!' 
the import of this is the same as before. In 
the same way the other two (Mahavira pots.) ; 
silently the two milking-bowls, silently the two 
Rauhi«a-plates. 

20. He then fumigates these (vessels) with (Va^f. 
S. XXXVII, 9), 'With dung of the stallion, 
the impregnator, I fumigate thee,' — for the 

1 Cf. J. Muir, Orig. Sansk. Texts, vol. v, p. 393, where a passage 
is quoted from Prof. Cowell's translation of the Maitri-Upanishad 
(VI, 3), ' There are two forms of Brahma, the embodied (murta) 
and the unembodied (amurta) : the former is unreal (asatya), the 
latter real (satya).'— Cf. Sat. Br. VI, 5, 3, 7. 

* The Sutras use the verbs ' .rlakshnayati, s lakshmkurvanti ' (to 
make smooth, or soft), and this, I think, must indeed be the meaning 
of 'hinv.' It would also suit very well the passage III, 5, 1, 35, where 
it is said that the Vedi is a woman, and that, by sprinkling the 
former with water, one ' makes her smooth ' for the gods. The 
polishing of the vessels is done by rubbing them with Gavedhuka' 
grass, whether with the spike, stem, or leaves is not specified. 



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456 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAYA. 

stallion is an impregnator, and the impregnator 
means vigour: with vigour he thus supplies and 
completes it, — 'on the Earth's place of divine 
worship: for Makha thee, for Makha's head 
thee!' the import of this is the same as before. 
In the same way (he fumigates) the other two 
(Mahavlra pots) ; silently the two milking-bowls, and 
silently the two Rauhi»a-plates. 

21. He then bakes them, for what is baked 
belongs to the gods. He bakes them by means 
of bricks, for they it was that did so on that 
occasion l : just in accordance with the way in 
which the head of the sacrifice was there cut off, 
he now supplies and completes it with those 
(bricks). But, indeed, let him bake them with 
anything 2 whereby they may become properly 
baked. Having laid down the fuel for baking 8 , 
he puts down the Mahavlra (pot), with, ' For 
Makha thee, for Makha's head thee!' the 
import of this is the same as before. In the 
same way the other two Mahavlra (pots) ; silently 
the two milking-bowls, silently the two Rauhi»a- 
plates. By day he should bury them (in the hole), 
and by day he should take them out, for the day 
belongs to the gods. 



1 That is, when the Ukhi was baked, cf. VI, 5, 4, 1 ; or, 
perhaps, — they it was that (the gods) made at this juncture. The 
former translation is more in accordance with what follows, though 
one would expect ' etad ' to mean ' at this time.' 

* That is, without using bricks (?). 

" Viz. in a square hole dug for the purpose east of the G&rha- 
patya ; the pot being then placed bottom upwards on the burning 
material, dry herbs, wood, &c According to Ajv. .St. XV, 3, to 
such materials are to be used as, whilst being burnt, dye red. 



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XIV KANDA, I ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAiVA, 25. 457 

22. He takes out (the first pot) with (Va,f. 
S. XXXVII, 10), 'For the righteous one 
(I take) thee,' — the righteous one, doubtless, is 
yonder world, for the righteous one means truth ; 
and he that shines yonder is the truth, and the 
first Pravargya is that (god): it is him he thus 
gratifies, and therefore he says, ' For the righteous 
one (I take) thee.' 

23. With, 'For the efficient one thee' (he 
takes out the second pot), — the efficient one (sadhu), 
doubtless, is he (Vayu, the wind) that purifies 
here by blowing, for as a permanent one (siddha) 
he blows through these worlds; and the second 
Pravargya is that (god) : it is him he thus gratifies, 
and therefore he says, ' For the efficient one (I take) 
thee.' 

24. With, 'For a good abode thee!' (he takes 
out the third pot), — the good abode, doubtless, is 
this (terrestrial) world, for it is in this world that 
all creatures abide; and the good abode also is 
Agni (fire), for Agni abides with all creatures' in 
this world ; and the third Pravargya is that (god) : 
it is him he thus gratifies, and therefore he says, 
' For a good abode thee.' Silently (he takes out) 
the two milking-bowls, and silently the two Rauhi«a- 
plates. 

25. He then pours goat's milk upon them 2 (the 

1 The accusative with ' kshi' (to inhabit) is rather peculiar here. 

* As the pots are, however, standing with their open parts 
upwards, on sand north of the hole in which they were baked, it 
would chiefly be inside that they would receive the milk, being 
thereby cooled (cf. VI, 5, 4, 15). According to Apastamba, 
sand is in the first place heaped up around them in the sunwise 
fashion, i. e. keeping them on the right side whilst strewing it. 



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V 

458 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAtfA. 

first) with, 'For Makha thee! for Makha's 
head thee!' the import of this is the same as 
before. In the same way the other two ; silently 
the two milking-bowls, and silently the two Rauhiwa- 
plates. 

26. And, verily, whosoever either teaches, or 
partakes of, this (Pravargya) enters that life, and 
that light : the observance of the rule thereof is the 
same as at the creation 1 . 

Third BrAhmaya. 
1 . Now at the time when he there * proceeds with 
the guest-meal, he who intends to perform the 
Pravargya, prior to the Upasads 8 , spreads Ku$a 
grass with its tops directed towards the east, in 
front of the Garhapatya, and places the vessels 
thereon in pairs*, — the Upayamanl (tray) and the 
Mahavlra (pot), the pair of lifting-sticks 4 , the 

' That is to say, as would seem,— even as, in creating the 
universe, Pra^ipati reconstructs his body, or constructs himself 
a new body, so the Sacrificer, in keeping up the observance of the 
Pravargya, constructs himself a new body for the future life. 

2 That is, at the Soma-sacrifice, of the preliminary day (upava- 
satha) of which the guest-meal to, or hospitable reception (atithya) 
of, King Soma forms part (see part ii, p. 85 seqq.). The assump- 
tion here is, that the performance of the Pravargya takes place on 
that day before the Pressing-day, whilst in reality it has been 
performed for at least two days before that. 

* See III, 4, 4, 1. The Upasads are performed twice daily, for 
at least three days, up to the day before the Soma-sacrifice ; and if 
the Pravargya is to be performed likewise, it precedes immediately 
each performance of the Upasad. Cf. also XIV, 3, 1, 1 with note. 

4 Prior to this, the doors of the jala are to be closed, to keep 
the Mahavira from being seen ; see p. 452, note a. The entire 
performance of the Pravargya indeed has to be kept secret from the 
eyes of unauthorised persons. 

* The 'parlfSsau ' (also called ' »phau,' XIV, a, 1, 16) are two 



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xiv kAjvda, i adhvAva, 3 brAhmaya, 3. 459 

two milking-bowls, the two Rauhiwa-plates, the two 
offering spoons for the Rauhiwa (cakes), and what- 
ever other (implement) there is, — these make ten, 
for the Vira^" consists of ten syllables, and the 
sacrifice is Vira^ - : he thus makes this to be equal 
to the Vira^ - , the sacrifice. And as to their being 
in pairs, — a pair means strength, for when two 
take hold of each other they exert strength ; and 
a pair (couple) means a productive union: with a pro- 
ductive union he thus supplies and completes it. 

2. Then the Adhvaryu takes the (lustral) sprink- 
ling water, and, stepping up, says, ' Brahman, we 
shall proceed : Hotri, sing praises ! ' for the Brah- 
man is seated on the right (south) side as the 
guardian of the sacrifice : to him he thus says, ' Sit 
thou undistracted : we are about to restore the head 
of the Sacrifice ; ' and ' Hot/7, sing praises ! ' he 
says, because the Hotr* is the sacrifice: he thus 
thereby says to him, ' Restore the head of the 
sacrifice ! ' and accordingly the Hotrt begins to 
recite — 

3. [Va^. S. XIII, 3,] 'The Brahman, firstborn 
from afore 1 , — the Brahman, doubtless, is yonder 



pieces of wood or laths apparently fastened together by a kind of 
clasp (or a cord) at one end, so as to serve the purpose of a pair of 
tongs (paruisau sawdawtiikarau, comm. on Katy. XXVI, 2, 10) 
for taking up the Mah&vfra pot, which must not be handled in any 
other way. According to Haug, Ait. Br., Transl., p. 51, they are 
placed underneath the pot in lifting it, but this seems very improb- 
able, seeing that, at the end of the sacrifice, the Adhvaryu, by means 
of them, turns the pot upside down so as to pour the remainder of 
its contents into the offering spoon (see Katy. XXIV, 6, 17 with 
comm.) ; nor could the blackened pot in that way be cleansed 
properly and placed on the supporting tray (XIV, a, 1, 16-17). 
1 For the complete verse, see VII, 4, 1, 14. For the complete 



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460 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

sun, and he is born day by day from afore (in 
the east) ; and the Pravargya also is that (sun) : 
it is him he thus gratifies, and therefore he says, 
' The Brahman (n.), firstborn from afore.' He then 
sprinkles (the vessels) : the import of this is the 
same as before '. 

4. He sprinkles (the chief Mahavlra) with ( if. S. 
XXXVII, 11), 'For Yama thee!'— Yama, doubt- 
less, is he who shines yonder, for it is he who controls 
(yam) everything here, and by him everything here 
is controlled ; and the Pravargya also is that (sun) : 
it is him he thus gratifies, and therefore he says, 
* For Yama (I sprinkle) thee.' 

5. ' For Makha thee ! ' — Makha, doubtless, is he 
who shines yonder, and the Pravargya also is that 
one : it is him he thus gratifies, and therefore he 
says, ' For Makha thee.' 

6. 'For Surya's heat thee!' — Surya, doubtless, 
is he who shines yonder, and the Pravargya also is 
that one : it is him he thus gratifies, and therefore 
he says, 'For Surya's heat thee.' 

7. Having taken out a post 2 by the front door 
(of the sala), he drives it into the ground on the 
south side (of the Jala 8 ), so that the Hotr*, whilst 
singing praises, may look upon it; for the Hotr* 
is the sacrifice, and he thereby restores the sacrifice 
to this (earth), and she causes the Gharma (milk) 
to rise. 

series of texts recited by the Hotr/, see Ait. Br. I, 19 seqq. ; A*v. 
St. IV, 6. 

' Viz. he makes the vessels sacrificially pure (I, 3, 3, 1). 

* For tying the cow that is to furnish the milk for the Gharma. 
Near it a peg is driven into the ground to tie the goat to whose milk 
is to be used afterwards. 

* That would be, south of the southern door (Apast, XV, 6, 13). 



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XIV KkNDA, I ADHY.AYA, 3 BRAllMAiVA, 12. 461 

8. Having turned round the Emperor's throne- 
seat 1 in front of the Ahavanlya, he places it south 
thereof, and north of the King's (Soma's) dirone- 
seat*, so as to face the east. 

9. It is made of Udumbara wood, for the Udum- 
bara means strength : with strength, with vital sap, 
he thus supplies and completes it (the Pravargya). 

10. It is shoulder-high, for on the shoulders this 
head is set : he thus sets the head upon the 
shoulders. 

11. It is wound all over with cords 8 of Balva^a 
grass (Eleusine indica). When the sacrifice had 
its head cut off, its vital sap flowed out, and 
thence these plants grew up: with that life-sap he 
thus supplies and completes it. 

12 And as to why he places it north (of Soma's 
seat), — Soma is the sacrifice, and the Pravargya 
is its head ; but the head is higher (uttara) : there- 
fore he places it north (uttara) of it Moreover, 
Soma is king, and the Pravargya is emperor, and 
the imperial dignity is higher than the royal : there- 
fore he places it north of it 4 . 

1 The Pravargya is styled ' samra^,' or universal king, emperor ; 
as distinguished from King Soma, for whose seat, reaching only 
up to the navel, see III, 3, 4, 26 seqq. (Cf. also that of the 
Ukhya Agni, which is only a span high, VI, 7, 1, 1, 12 seqq.) — 
For a similar attribution of imperial dignity (samra^ya) — as well as 
royal dignity (ra^ya) — to him who is consecrated by the Sautramawi 
(where the seat used is knee-high), see XII, 8, 3, 4 seqq. 

* Apast. XV, 6, 10 places it in front (east) of the seat for Soma. 

» Cf. XII, 8, 3, 6. 

« According to Katy. XXVI, 2, 17 (Apast XV, 6, 11), the black 
antelope-skin is then spread over the seat, and the two unused 
Mahavtra pots (as well as the reserve piece of clay and the spade, 
Katy.) placed thereon. 



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462 satapatha-brahmaya. 

13. And when the Hotri recites this (verse, 
Rig-v. V, 43, 7), 'Whom the priests anoint, as 
if spreading him . . . ,' he anoints that Mahfivlra 
which is to be used, all over with ghee 1 , with, 
'May the god Savitr* anoint thee with 
honey!' for Savitr* is the impeller of the gods, 
and honey means everything whatever there is 
here : he thus anoints it (or him) all over with 
everything here, and SavitW, as the impeller, impels 
it for him, — this is why he says, ' May the god 
Savitr? anoint thee with honey!' 

14. Now sand has been strewed 2 on the north 
side of it: below that he (previously) throws 
(a plate of) white gold 3 , with, 'Protect it from 
contact with the earth!' For at that time 
the gods were afraid lest the Rakshas, the fiends, 
might injure that (Pravargya) of theirs from below ; 
and that, to wit, gold, being Agni's seed, it (serves) 
for repelling the fiends, the Rakshas. But, indeed, 
the Earth also was afraid of this lest this (Pra- 
vargya), when heated and glowing*, might injure 

1 Kdty. XXVI, 2, 4 refers to the pot as ' containing ghee (a£ya- 
vant),' which the comm. takes to mean 'filled with consecrated 
ghee ; ' whilst Apast. XV, <j, 5 leaves the option between greasing 
it (zrig) and filling it (abhipur) with ghee. It would doubtless, at 
all events, be abundantly greased inside. 

' North of the G&rhapatya and the Ahavanlya in the jali two 
mounds (khara) are formed, covered with (or consisting of) sand. 
The one north of the latter fire is here alluded to. 

3 That is, a silver plate weighing a hundred grains. 

4 Though 'taptaA* and 'furutanaA' are here translated as if 
they were actually co-ordinate predicates, I am not sure whether 
we should not rather take the passage to mean, — that this glowing 
one, when heated ; or rather, this one when heated so as to be 
glowing. Cf. XIV, 2, 1, 18 ; 3, 1, 14, where I prefer to subordinate 
one of the participles to the other. 



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xiv kXnda, i adhyAya, 3 brAhmava, 18. 463 

her: he thus keeps it separate from her. White 
it is, for white, as it were 1 , is this earth. 

15. And when the Hotri recites this (verse, 
JZig-v. I, 36, 9), 'Sit thee down: thou art 
great . . . ,' sheaths of reed-grass are kindled on 
both sides*, and throwing them (on the mound), 
he puts (the Mahavtra pot) thereon. When the 
sacrifice had its head cut off, its life-sap flowed 
away, and therefrom these plants grew up: with 
that life-sap he thus supplies and completes it. 

16. And as to why they are kindled on both 
sides: he thereby repels the Rakshas, the fiends, 
from all the quarters. Whilst this (pot) is being 
heated, the (Sacrificer's) wife covers her head, 
thinking, ' Lest this one, when heated and glowing, 
should rob me of my eyesight,' for it indeed 
becomes heated and glowing. 

17. He puts it on with, ' Flame thou art, glow 
thou art, heat thou art;' — for the Gharma is 
he who shines yonder, and he indeed is all that: 
it is him he thus gratifies, and therefore he says, 
' Flame thou art, glow thou art, heat thou art' 

18. He (the Sacrificer) then invokes blessings on 
this (earth) 8 , for the sacrifice is this (earth) : it is 
thus (whilst being) on her that he invokes blessings, 
and she fulfils them all for him. 

1 I read, ' ra^-ateva ' ; cf. the corresponding ' hariniva hi dyauA,' 
XIV, 1, 3, 29. 

* That is, by dividing the sheaths in the middle lengthwise, and 
lighting both halves in the Garhapatya fire. 

* According to Kity. XXVI, 3, 5 he makes a span (of thumb 
and index) — or spreads his hand with the palm downwards — over 
the pot whilst muttering the respective formulas; apparently 
changing the position of the hand according to the point of the 
compass referred to in the formula. 



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464 jatapatha-brAhmajta. 

19. [V^f.S. XXXVII, 12,] 'Unmolested thou 
art in front (in the east),' — for unmolested by 
the Rakshas, the fiends, indeed, this (earth) is 
in front; — 'in Agni's over-lordship,' — he thus 
makes Agni her over-lord for the warding off of 
the fiends, the Rakshas; — 'grant thou life unto 
me!' — he thus secures life for himself, and accord- 
ingly he attains the full (term of) life. 

20. ' Possessed of sons towards the south,' — 
in this there is nothing hidden, so to speak; — 'in 
Indra's over-lordship,' — he thus makes Indra 
her over-lord for the warding off of the fiends, the 
Rakshas; — 'grant thou offspring unto me!' — 
he thus secures offspring and cattle for himself, 
and accordingly he becomes possessed of sons 
and of cattle. 

21. 'Well to live on behind (towards the 
western region),' — in this there is nothing hidden, 
so to speak; — 'in god SavitWs over-lordship;' 
— the god Savitr* he thus makes her over-lord for 
the warding off of the fiends, the Rakshas; — 
'grant thou eyesight unto me!' — he thus 
secures eyesight for himself, and accordingly he 
becomes possessed of eyesight. 

22. 'A sphere of hearing towards the 
north,' — 'causing (sacrificial calls) to be heard 1 ,' 
is what he thereby means to say ; — ' in the 
creator's over-lordship,' — the creator he thus 

1 Or, calling for the ' xrausha/ '; cf. part i, p. 131, note a. The 
masculine form of the participle is somewhat peculiar as the term 
it is meant to explain refers to the earth. It has probably to be 
understood in the sense of, ' where he (viz. the Adhvaryu) calls for 
the xrausha/.' Mahldhara explains the term 'axruti' by 'where 
they, the priests, utter the sacrificial calls,' i. e. ' meet for sacrifice.' 



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xiv K&.NDA, x adhyaya, 3 brAhmawa, 25. 465 

makes her over-lord for the warding off of the 
fiends, the Rakshas; — 'grant thou prosperity 
(increase) of wealth unto me!' — wealth, pros- 
perity, he thus secures for himself, and accordingly 
he becomes wealthy and prosperous. 

23. 'Disposition above,' — 'disposing 1 above' 
is what he thereby means to say; — 'in Brzhas- 
pati's over-lordship,' — Brzhaspati he thus makes 
her over-lord for the warding off of the fiends, 
the Rakshas; — 'grant me vigour!' — vigour he 
thereby secures to himself, and accordingly he 
becomes vigorous, strong. 

24. On the right (south) side (of the Mahavlra) 
he (the Sacrificer) then makes amends by (laying 
down) the hand with the palm upwards, with, 
'Shield me from all evil spirits!' whereby he 
means to say, ' Protect me from all troubles ! ' 
When the sacrifice had its head cut off, its life- 
sap flowed away, and went to the Fathers, but the 
Fathers are three in number * : it is with these that 
he thus supplies and completes it (the Pravargya). 

25. Thereupon, whilst touching her (the earth) 8 , 



1 Here the masculine gender can hardly be understood otherwise 
than in the sense 'where (Brshaspati, or Brahman) disposes on 
high.' Mahtdhara takes no notice of this interpretation of the 
Brahmana, but explains 'vidhnti' as either 'one who upholds 
(dhirayati) in an especial manner,' or where ' the offering spoon, 
Ac, is held upwards (uparish/ad dhriyate, — ? who holds it upwards),' 
— an explanation which can hardly commend itself. 

* This specification of the number seems to have no other object 
but that of limiting the general term of ' Fathers,' or deceased 
ancestors, to the specific signification it has at the .S'riddha, where 
offering is made to the father, grandfather, and great-grandfather. 

* According to Katy. XXVI, 3, 8, he does so whilst spanning 
the earth north of the Mah&vtra pot. 

[44] Hh 



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466 satapatha-brahma.wa, 

'Thou art Manu's mare,' for, having become 
a mare, she (the earth) indeed carried Manu, and 
he is her lord, Pragapati : with that mate, his heart's 
delight, he thus supplies and completes him (Pngi- 
pati, the Pravargya, and Sacrificer). 

26. He then lays pieces of (split) Vikankata wood 
round (the Mahavlra), two pointing to the east 1 , 
with (V&g. S. XXXVII, 13), 'Hail! be thou 
encompassed by the Maruts!' — the call of 
'hail!' he places first, and the deity last*; for 
the call of ' hail ! ' is he who shines yonder, and 
the Pravargya also is that (sun) : it is him he thus 
gratifies; and hence he places the call of 'hail!' 
first, and the deity last 

27. 'Be thou encompassed by the Maruts,' he 
says ; for the Maruts are the (common) people : 
he thus surrounds the nobility by the people, 
whence the nobility here is surrounded on both 
sides by the people. Silently (he lays down) two 
pointing to the north s , silently (again) two pointing 
to the east, silently two pointing to the north, 
silently two pointing to the east. 

28. He makes them to amount to thirteen, for 
there are thirteen months in the year, and the 

1 That is, along the north and the south sides of the pot, on the 
burning sheaths of reed grass; or rather on hot cinders heaped 
thereon. Kity. XXVI, 3, 9. They would partly serve the 
purpose of the ordinary (three) enclosing-sticks; and Apast, 
indeed, calls them ' paridhi/ 

1 Literally, the call of 'hail!' (svaha-kira) he makes to be the 
nearer, and the deity the farther. 

* That is, along the west and the east sides of the pot According 
to Apast. St. XV, 8, 1-4, two pieces of wood are laid down 
alternately by the Adhvaryu and the Pratiprasthatrr, the last pieces 
being then laid down (on the south side) by the former priest. 



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xrv kXnda, i adhyAya, 3 brahmawa, 32. 467 

year is he who shines yonder, and the Pravargya 
also is that (sun) : it is him he thus gratifies, and 
hence he makes them to amount to thirteen. 

29. He then places a gold plate (weighing a 
hundred grains) on the top (of the pot), with, 
'Protect it from contact with the sky!' For 
at that time the gods were afraid lest the Rakshas, 
the fiends, might injure that (Pravargya) of theirs 
from above ; and that — to wit, gold —being Agni's 
seed, it (serves) for repelling the fiends, the Rakshas. 
But, indeed, the Sky also was afraid of this lest this 
(Pravargya), when heated and glowing, might injure 
it: he thus keeps it separate therefrom. It is yellow, 
for yellow, as it were, is the sky. 

30. He (the Adhvaryu) then fans (the fire) thrice 
by means of (three) fans ', whilst muttering, 
'Honey!' each time; for honey means breath : he 
thus lays breath into it.# Three (fans) there are, for 
there are three breathings, the out (and in)-breathing, 
the up-breathing and the through-breathing: it is 
these he thus lays into it. 

31. They then fan it thrice 2 in the non-sunwise 
way. When the sacrifice had its head cut off, its 
life-sap flowed away, and went to the Fathers, — 
the Fathers being three in number 8 : with them 
he thus supplies it. 

32. But, indeed, the breathings depart from those 
who perform the fanning at the sacrifice. They 

1 They consist of pieces cut from the black antelope-skin (with 
black and white hair, according to Apast XV, 5, 1 a),fastened to sticks. 

* That is, the Adhvaryu, PratiprastWtn', and Agnfdh then take 
each one of the fans, and move round the fire whilst keeping it on 
thehr left side (ihe Agntdh going in front). 

* See p. 465, note 2. 

H h 2 



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468 satapatha-brAhmajva. 



fan again thrice in the sunwise way, — this makes 
six ; and six in number are these breathings (vital 
airs) in the head : it is these he thus lays into it 
They cook the two Rauhiwa (cakes). When a blaze 
is produced, he takes off the gold (plate). 

33. And when the Hotrt recites this (verse, 
&g-v. I, 112, 24), 'Successful, O Ajvins, make ye 
our voice,' the Adhvaryu steps up, and says, 
* The Gharma is aglow V If it be aglow, he may 
know that the Sacrificer will become more pros- 
perous ; and if it be not aglow, he may know that 
he will become poorer ; and if it be neither aglow 
nor the reverse, he may know that he (the Sacrificer) 
will become neither more prosperous nor poorer: 
but indeed (the pot) should be fanned so (long) as 
to be aglow. 

34. And, verily, whosoever either teaches, or 
partakes of, this (Pravargya) enters that life, and 
that light : the observance thereof is the same as 
at the creation 8 . 

1 That is, apparently, red-hot, glowing (fuAita), or perhaps, 
entirely ablaze, enveloped in flames— outside as well as inside, 
owing to the ghee with which it was greased all over ; hence hardly, 
' bestrahlt ' (illumined, shone upon), as the St Petersb. Diet takes 
it ; cf. jum&ina, XIV, a, 1, 18 ; 3, 1,14. According to Apast. St., 
the three priests, having completed their circumambulation, sit 
down on the east, south, and north side respectively, and continue 
to fan the pot, at the same time oiling it with ghee, until the pot is 
ablaze, when the Adhvaryu takes off the gold plate. According to 
Katy., on the other hand, the Praliprasthatr/ proceeds with the 
baking of the cakes, whilst the Adhvaryu sprinkles the pot with ghee 
each time that the Hotrt, in his recitation, utters the syllable ' om ' 
at the end of a verse. Before the last verse, the twenty-fifth, of the 
same hymn concluding the first part of the recitation, a special verse, 
IX, 83, 3, is inserted. A*v. St. IV, 6, a-3. 

* See p. 458, note 1. 



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xiv kXnda, i adhyAya, 4 SrAhmaata, 5. 469 



Fourth BrAhmaata. 

1. Now, when the Adhvaryu here Steps up and 
says, ' The Gharma is aglow,' they step up and 
revere it (the Mahavtra) with the Avaka^a 1 ; but 
the ' avaklsa ' are the vital airs : it is thus the vital 
airs he lays into it Six of them * step up to it, for 
six in number are these vital airs in the head : it is 
these he thus lays into it 

2. [Va^. S. XXXVII, 14,] 'The child of the 
gods,' — the child (garbha) of the gods, in truth, is 
he that shines yonder, for he holds (grabh) every- 
thing here, and by him everything here is held ; 
and the Pravargya also is that (sun) : it is him he 
thus gratifies, and therefore he says, ' The child 
of the gods.' 

3. ' The father of thoughts,' — for he (the sun) 
is indeed the father of thoughts; — 'the lord of 
creatures,' — for he is indeed the lord of creatures. 

4. 'The god hath united with the god 
Savitr*,' — for the god (the Mahivlra) has indeed 
united with the god Savitrj (the sun); — 'with 
Surya he shineth,' — for (equally) with Surya (the 
sun) he has indeed shone. 

5. [V4f. S. XXXVII, i5,]'Agni hath united 
with Agni,' — for Agni (fire) has indeed united with 
Agni; — 'with the divine Savitr*,' — for with the 
divine Savitf* he has indeed united ; — 'with Surya 



1 Avaklxa (looks, or possibly, apertures) is the technical designa- 
tion of the verses Wig. S. XXX VII, 14-20 a. 

* Viz. the Sacrificer and the priests with the exception of the 
Prastotr*. 



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470 satapatha-brAhmajta. 

he hath shone/ — for with Sftrya he has indeed 
shone. 

6. ' Hail! Agni hath united with his heat,' — 
for Agni has indeed united with his heat ; the call 
of hail he places first, and the deity last: the 
significance of this is the same as before; — 'with 
the divine Savitrz,' — for with the divine Savitrr 
he has indeed united; — 'with Surya he hath 
shed light,' — for with Surya he has indeed shed 
light. 

7. These, then, are three 'avaklya,' — for there 
are three vital airs, the in (and out)-breathing, the 
up-breathing, and the through-breathing: it is 
thereby that he lays it (the vital air) into him. 

8. [Vif. S. XXXVII, i6,] 'The sustainer of 
the sky, and of heat upon earth, shineth 
forth,' — for as the sustainer of the sky, and of 
heat on earth, that (sun, and Mahavtra) indeed 
shines forth; — 'the divine sustainer of the 
gods, he, the immortal, born of heat,' — for 
he is indeed the divine sustainer of the gods, the 
immortal one, born of heat; — 'grant unto us 
speech, devoted to the gods!' — speech doubt- 
less is worship: he thus means to say thereby, 
'bestow upon us worship whereby we shall please 
the gods!' 

9. [Vdf. S. XXXVII, 17; Jfcg-v. I, 164, 31 ; 
X, 177, 3,] 'I beheld the guardian, the never- 
resting 1 ,' — he who shines yonder is indeed the 
guardian, for he guards everything here; and he 
does not lie down to rest: therefore he says, 
' I beheld the guardian, the never-resting ; ' — 

1 Or, as Mahfdhara and SSyana take it, the never-falling. 



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xiv kAatoa, i adhyAya, 4 brAhmaya, 14. 471 

10. ' Wandering on paths hither and thither,' 
— for he indeed wanders hither and thither on the 
divine 1 paths; — 'arraying himself in the gather- 
ing and the radiating,' — for he indeed arrays 
himself in the gathering (converging) and the 
radiating regions, or rays; — 'he moveth to and 
fro within the spheres,' — for again and again he 
wanders moving within these worlds. 

11. [Va^-. S. XXXVII, 18,] 'O lord of all worlds, 
O lord of all thought, O lord of all speech, 
O lord of every speech!' that is, 'O lord of 
all this (universe);' — 'Thou art heard by the 
gods, O god Gharma, as a god, guard thou 
the gods!' in this there is nothing hidden, so 
to speak. 

12. 'Give thy countenance hereafter to the 
divine feast of you two/ — it is with regard to 
the two Ajvins that he says this, for it was the 
A.rvins that then restored the head of the sacrifice : 
it is them he thus pleases, and therefore he says, 
' Give thy countenance hereafter to the divine feast 
of you two.' 

13. 'Honey to the two lovers of honey! 
honey to the two longing for honey!' — for 
Dadhyaȣ the Atharvawa indeed told them (the 
A^vins) the Brahmana called Madhu (honey), and 
this is their dear resource : it is by means of that 
(dear resource) of theirs that he approaches them, 
and therefore he says, ' Honey to the two lovers of 
honey ! honey to the two longing for honey ! ' 

14. [Va/-. S. XXXVII, 19,] 'To the heart 

1 One might expect ' dafvaiA pathfbhiA ' or ' devalA pathfbhiA,' 
which Mahtdhara explains by < devam&rgaiA.' 



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472 satapatha-brAhmaata. 

(I consecrate) thee, to the mind thee, to the 
sky thee, to the sun thee: going upwards 
take thou the sacrifice to the gods in 
heaven!' in this there is nothing hidden, so to 
speak. 

15. [Va/. S. XXXVII, 20,] 'Thou art our 
father: be thou our father!' — for he who 
shines yonder is indeed the father, and the 
Pravargya is that (sun) : it is him he thus gratifies, 
and therefore he says, ' Thou art our father : be 
thou our father!' — 'Reverence be unto thee: 
injure me not!' — it is a blessing he thereby 
invokes. 

16. Thereupon he uncovers the head of the 
(Sacrificer's) wife, and makes her say whilst she 
is looking at the Mahavtra, 'Together with 
Tvash/rz will we serve thee: (bestow thou 
sons and cattle upon me! bestow thou 
offspring upon us! may I remain unscathed 
together with my husband!)' — the Pravargya 
(m.) is a male, and the wife is a female: a pro-* 
ductive pair is thus produced. 

17. And, verily, whosoever either teaches, or 
partakes of, this (Pravargya) enters that life, and 
that light: the observance thereof is the same as 
at the creation '. 

Second AdhyAya. First BrAhmana. 
The Boiling of the Ghakma, and the Offerings. 

i. He now offers (the first of) the two Rauhiwa 
(cakes)*:— (Vfif. S. XXXVII, 21), 'May the day 

1 See p. 458, note 1. 

* According to the Sfltras and the Taitt. Ar., the southern cake 



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xiv KkNDA, 2 adhyAya, i brAhmam, 4. 473 

be pleased with its brightness, the well- 
lighted with its light, hail!' with this text 
both (cakes are offered) in the morning; — 'May 
the night be pleased with its brightness, the 
well-lighted with its light, hail!' with this text 
both (cakes are offered) in the evening. 

2. And as to why he offers two Rauhi«a (cakes), 
— the two Rauhi»as doubtless are Agni and Aditya 
(the sun), for by means of these two deities sacrificers 
ascend (ruh) to heaven. 

3. And, indeed, the Rauhi«as are also day and 
night, and the Pravargya is the sun : he thus 
encompasses yonder sun by the day and the night, 
whence he is encompassed by the day and the 
night. 

4. And, indeed, the Rauhixas are also these two 

is offered at this juncture of the performance, whilst the northern 
one is offered later on (see XIV, 2, 2, 41). For both cakes one 
and the same text is used, viz. the first of the two here mentioned 
at the morning performance, whilst the second is used at the after- 
noon performance. The cakes, being one-kapala ones (the two 
' rauhinahavani ' ladles serving as kap&las), must be offered entire. 
Cf. Katy. XXVI, 4, 14 ; 6, 18 ; Apast. XV, 10, 10 ; 11, 5 ; 12, 7 ; 
Taitt. Ar. IV, 10, 4. Though our Brahmana expresses itself in 
a rather peculiar way, its statement, here and at XIV, 2, 2, 41, is 
perhaps meant to imply the same mode of procedure. If this is the 
case, the two paragraphs would mean, — at this juncture of the two 
performances he offers the two southern (northern, at XIV, 2, 2, 41) 
cakes, — the two cakes (the southern and the northern one) of the 
moming performance requiring the first, and those of the afternoon 
performance the second, text. It is not impossible, however, that 
the author intends a different mode of procedure or wishes to 
leave it purposely vague. If we were to read 'rauhinam' for 
' rauhinau,' the text would be more in accordance with the practice 
prescribed in the Sutras. Cf. also Mahtdh. (on V&g. S. XXXVII, 
31) — where read ' rauhinau ' instead of ' pravargyau ' — who adopts 
the procedure here explained. 



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474 satapatha-brahmajta. 

worlds, and the Pravargya is the sun: he thus 
encompasses yonder sun by these two worlds, 
whence he is encompassed by these two worlds. 

5. And, indeed, the Rauhi»as are also the two 
eyes, and the Pravargya is the head : he thus places 
the eye in the head. 

6. He now takes a rope, with (Vfif. S. XXXVIII, 
1), 'At the impulse of the divine Savitri, 
I take thee, with the arms of the A^vins, 
with the hands of Pushan: Aditi's 1 zone 
thou art;' — the mystic import of this is the same 
as before 8 . 

7. He then calls the cow, whilst stepping behind 
the Garhapatya (V4f. S. XXXVIII, 2), 'U&, 
come hither! Aditi, come hither! Sarasvatl, 
come hither!' for the cow is ld&, and the cow is 
Aditi, and the cow is Sarasvatl. And he also calls 
her by her (real) name, with these (formulas), 'N. N.*, 
come hither!' thus thrice. 

8. When she comes, he lays (the rope) round her 
(horns), with (Vif.S. XXXVIII, 3), 'Aditi's zone 
thou art, Indra«l's head-band;' — for Indr&iri 
is Indra's beloved wife, and she has a most 
variegated head-band: 'that thou art' he thereby 
means to say, and that he indeed thereby makes 
it to be. 

9. He then lets the calf to it (to suck), with, 
'Pushan thou art,' — Pushan, doubtless, is he 
that blows here (the wind), for that one supports 4 

1 The edition omits ' adityai,' and reads ' devebbyas ' for ' devasya.' 

* See I, 2, 4, 4 ; 3, 1, 15. 

* As, for instance, Dhavalt, or Gangi. 

* Or nourishes, makes grow, inasmuch as it brings about rain 
(Mahidhara). 



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xrv kAjvda, 2 adhyAya, i brAhmamv, 14. 475 

(push) all this (universe); and the Pravargya also 
is that (wind) : it is him he thus pleases, and there- 
fore he says, ' Pushan thou art.' 

10. He then leads it (the calf) away 1 with, 
'Afford (milk) for the Gharma!' for the Gharma, 
doubtless, is that fluid which this (cow) lets flow : 
he thus means to say thereby, ' Allow her a share ! ' 

11. He then causes it to flow into the milking- 
bowl, with (Va^. S. XXXVIII, 4), ' Flow for the 
A^vins!' — with regard to the A^vins he thus says 
this, for it was the Ajvins who restored the head 
of the sacrifice: it is them he thus pleases, and 
therefore he says, ' Flow for the A^vins ! ' 

12. 'Flow for Sarasvatll' — Sarasvatt, doubtless, 
is Speech, and with speech the Asvins then restored 
the head of the Sacrifice : it is those (Asvins) he 
thus pleases, and therefore he says, ' Flow for 
Sarasvatt ! ' 

13. 'Flow for Indra!' — for Indra is the deity 
of the sacrifice, and it was indeed by him who is the 
deity of the sacrifice that the Ajvins then restored 
the head of the sacrifice : it is them he thus pleases, 
and therefore he says, ' Flow for Indra! ' 

14. The (spilt) drops he then consecrates with, 
'Hail, possessed of Indra! hail, possessed 
of Indra!' for Indra is the deity of the sacrifice: 
he thus pleases him who is the deity of the 
sacrifice, and therefore he says, ' Hail, possessed 
of Indra! hail, possessed of Indra!' Thrice he 
says it, for threefold is the sacrifice. The call 
of ' hail ! ' he places first, and the deity last : the 
significance of this is the same as before. 

' Whilst the calf is sucking, he secures the cow by tying together 
her hind legs. 



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476 aatapaTha-brAhmajva. 

15. He then touches her udder 1 , with (Va£. S. 
XXXVIII, 5; Hig-v. I, 164, 49), 'This ever- 
flowing, grateful udder of thine,' — that is to 
say, 'This udder of thine placed in secret*;'— 
'treasure-giving, wealth-granting, bountiful,' 
— that is to say, 'which is a giver of treasures, 
a granter of wealth, and precious;' — 'whereby 
thou furtherest all desirable things,' — that 
is to say, 'whereby thou supportest all the gods 
and all creatures;' — 'O Saras vatl, move that 
hither for us to suck,' — Saras vatl, doubdess, is 
Speech, and so is this (cow) which yields the 
Gharma milk ; and Speech is worship : thus he 
means to say, ' Grant us worship whereby we may 
please the gods.' He then steps up to the site 
of the Garhapatya with, ' I pass along the wide 
aerial realm,' — the mystic import of this is the 
same as before 8 . 

16. He then takes the two lifting-sticks*, with 
(V4f. S. XXXVIII, 6), 'The Gayatri metre 
thou art, — the Trish/ubh metre thou art,'— 
he thus takes them with both the G&yatrt and 
the Trish/ubh metres; — 'with heaven and earth 
I encompass thee,' — for the two lifting-sticks are 
indeed these two, heaven and earth; and the 

1 Or, one of the teats (stanam) ; according to Mahtdhara, tbe 
part is used for the whole ; and the Kixva recension indeed reads 
' stanSn ' (the teats) ; cf. K&ty. XXVI, 5, 7, comm. 

* The author apparently derives '*araya' (? perennial, inex- 
haustible) from ' xi,' to lie, sleep, as does Mahtdhara. 

* Viz. as at I, 1, 2, 4. — According to Katy. XXVI, 5, 10 seq, 
the Hotr/' says, ' Arise, Brahmawaspati I ' whereupon the Adhvaryu 
rises ; and the Hotrt again calling, ' Hasten up with the milk ! ' he 
steps up to the Garhapatya. 

* See p. 458, note 1. 



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xiv kXnda., 2 adhyAya, i brAhmajva, 20. 477 

Pravargya is the sun : he thus encompasses yonder 
sun within these two, heaven and earth. There- 
upon (having lifted up the pot) he sweeps it clean 
with a branch of reed grass : the mystic import 
of this is the same as before. 

17. He then puts it on the 'supporting' tray* 
with, 'By the air I support thee,' — for the 
'supporting' tray is the air, since everything here 
is supported by the air ; and the ' supporting ' tray 
also is the belly, for all food and drink here is 
supported (held) by the belly: therefore he says, 
' By the air I support thee.' 

18. He then pours in the goat's milk 2 ; for that 
(Mahavira pot) when heated, becomes glowing: he 
thus soothes it, and when soothed he pours the 
cow's milk into it — 

19. With, 'O Indra and ye Axvins!' — for 
Indra is the deity of the sacrifice, and he thus 
pleases him who is the deity of the sacrifice ; and 
' Ye A^vins ' he says, because the Asvins at that 
time restored the head of the sacrifice, and it is 
them he thus pleases : therefore he says, ' O Indra 
and ye Ajvins ! ' 

20. 'Of bees' honey' — this is indeed honey; — 
'drink ye the Gharma (hot draught),' — that is 
to say, 'drink ye the liquor;' — 'ye true ones,' — 
those (deities) are indeed true (vasu), for it is 

1 The ' upayaman! ' is apparently a kind of bowl, or hollow tray 
of hard (udumbara) wood, somewhat larger than the (bowls of the) 
spoons or ladles used on this occasion, and, indeed, also itself used 
as such. 

1 Whilst the Adhvaryu was milking the cow into the earthen bowl 
(pinvana), his assistant, the Pratiprasthatrt', silently milked a goat 
tied to the peg. 



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478 satapatha-brAhmajta. 

they that maintain (vasaya) all this (universe);— 
'worship ye, va^!' thus this comes to be for him 
as if it were offered with the Vasha/-calL 

21. 'Hail to Surya's ray, the rain-winner 1 !' 
— for one of the sun's rays is called 'rain-winner,' 
whereby he supports all these creatures : it is that 
one he thus pleases, and therefore he says, ' Hail 
to Surya's ray, the rain-winner ! ' The call of hail 
he places first, and the deity last : the significance 
of this is the same as before *. 

22. And, verily, whosoever either teaches, or 
partakes of, this (Pravargya) enters that life, and 
that light : the observance thereof is the same as 
at the creation 8 . 

Second BrAhmawa. 

i. And when the Hotrt recites this (verse), 'Let 
Brahmaaaspati go forward, let the goddess 
Sunr/ta go forward,' — the Adhvaryu, stepping 
forward, makes offering (by muttering) the wind- 
names. For at this time the gods were afraid 
lest the Rakshas, the fiends, might injure that 
(Pravargya) of theirs in the middle (of the sacrifice): 
they offered it with the Svaha-call before (its being 
taken to) the Ahavanlya, being thus offered they 
offered it (again) in the fire; and in like manner 
does this one now offer it with the Svaha-call before 

1 According to Taitt. Ar. IV, 8, 4 ; Apast. XV, 10, 2, this formula 
is addressed to the steam rising from the MaMvira pot — it being 
accordingly modified to 'I offer thee to Sftrya's ray, the rain- 
winner.' 

■ XIV, 1, 3, 26. 

* See p. 458, note 1. 



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xiv kAjvda, 2 adhvAya, 2 brAhmaya, 6. 479 

(its being taken to) the Ahavaniya, and being thus 
offered he offers it (again) in the fire. 

2. [Va^-. S. XXXVIII, 7,] ' To the wind Ocean 
(I offer) thee, hail!' — the (aerial) ocean (samudra) 
indeed is he who blows here, for from out of that 
ocean all the gods and all the beings issue forth 
(samud-dru) : it is to him (Vayu, the wind) he thus 
offers it, and therefore he says, ' To the wind Ocean 
(I consecrate) thee, hail!' 

3. 'To the wind Flood — thee, hail!' — the 
flood (sarira) indeed is he who blows here, for 
from out of that flood all the gods and all the 
creatures come forth together (saha Irate) : it is 
to him he thus offers it, and therefore he says, ' To 
the wind Flood — thee, hail ! ' 

4. 'To the wind Unassailable — thee, hail! 
To the wind Irresistible — thee, hail!' — un- 
assailable and irresistible indeed is he who blows 
here: it is to him he thus offers it, and therefore 
he says, 'To the wind Unassailable — thee, hail! 
To the wind Irresistible — thee, hail!' 

5. 'To the wind Favourable — thee, hail! 
To the wind Ogress-ridder — thee, hail!' — - 
favourable and an ogress-ridder indeed is he who 
blows here : it is to him he thus offers it, and there- 
fore he says, ' To the wind Favourable — thee, hail ! 
To the wind Ogress-ridder — thee, hail ! ' 

6. [Va/. S. XXXVIII, 8,] 'To Indra, accom- 
panied by the Vasus and Rudras, (I offer) 
thee, hail!' — Indra indeed is he who blows here: 
it is to him he thus offers it, and therefore he says, 
' To Indra — thee ;' and when he says, ' accompanied 
by the Vasus and Rudras,' thereby he allows a share 
to the Vasus and Rudras along with Indra ; and, 



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480 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

moreover, it is thereby made to be like the morning 
Soma-pressing, and the midday-pressing \ 

7. 'To Indra, accompanied by the Adityas, 
— thee, hail !' — Indra indeed is he who blows here: 
it is to him he thus offers it, and therefore he says, 
' To Indra — thee ; ' and when he says, * accompanied 
by the Adityas,' thereby he allows a share to the 
Adityas along with Indra ; and, moreover, it is made 
like the evening-pressing '. 

8. 'To Indra, the slayer of the evil-minded, 
—thee, hail ! ' — Indra indeed is he who blows here: 
it is to him he thus offers it, and therefore he says, 
'To Indra — thee;' and as to his saying, 'to the 
slayer of the evil-minded,' the evil-minded one 
being an enemy, he thereby means to say, 'To 
Indra, the slayer of enemies, — thee!' This is his 
(Indra's) special share : even as there is a share for 
a chief 8 , so is this his (share) apart from the (other) 
gods. 

9. 'To Savitr*, accompanied by the /?*bhus, 
the Vibhus (lords), and the Va/as (powers),— 
thee, hail!' — Savitr* (the sun) indeed is he who 
blows here: it is to him he thus offers it, and 
therefore he says, 'To Savit*7, accompanied by 
the /frbhus, the Vibhus, and the Va/as, — thee!' 
He thus allows a share therein to all the gods along 
(with Savitrz). 

10. 'To Br/haspati, accompanied by the 
All-gods, — thee, hail !'-— Br*haspati indeed is 
he who blows here: it is to him he thus offers 

1 See III, 4, 5, 1, where it is stated that the morning-pressing 
belongs to the Vasus, the midday-pressing to the Rudras, and the 
third pressing to the Adityas. 

' Or, for the best (or eldest brother). Cf. HI, 9, 4, 9. 



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XIV KkNDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAliMAiVA, 14. 48 1 

it, and therefore he says, 'To Brzhaspati — thee;' 
and when he says, ' accompanied by the All-gods,' 
he thereby allows a share therein to all the gods 
along (with Brzhaspati). 

1 1. [Vfif. S. XXXVIII, 9,] ' To Yama, accom- 
panied by the Angiras and the Fathers, — 
thee, hail!' — Yama indeed is he who blows here: 
it is to him he thus offers it, and therefore he says, 
'To Yama — thee;' and as to his saying, 'accom- 
panied by the Angiras and the Fathers,' — when 
the sacrifice had its head cut off, its life-sap flowed 
away, and went to the Fathers, — the Fathers being 
three in number 1 : thus it is to these he thereby 
allows a share along (with Yama). 

1 2. These are twelve names, — twelve months are 
in a year, and the year is he that shines yonder, and 
the Pravargya also is that (sun) : thus it is him 
he thereby pleases, and therefore there are twelve 
(names). 

13. He then pours (the spilt milk and ghee) 
from the tray into the Mahavtra (pot) with, 'Hail 
to the Gharma!' — the Gharma (hot draught) 
is he who shines yonder, and the Pravargya 
also is that (sun): thus it is him he thereby 
pleases, and therefore he says, ' Hail to the 
Gharma!' — the call of 'hail!' he places first, and 
the deity last : the significance of this is the same 
as before 8 . 

14. When it has been poured in, he mutters, 
'Hail, the Gharma to the Fathers!' When 
the sacrifice had its head cut off, its life-sap flowed 



1 See p. 465, note 2. * See XIV, 1, 3, 26. 

[44] 1 i 



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482 satapatha-brAhmaiva. 

away, and went to the Fathers — the Fathers being 
three in number : it is these he thus pleases. The 
call of ' hail ! ' he places first, and the deity last ; the 
significance of this is the same as before. 

15. He recites no anuvakya (invitatory) formula, 
for once for all the Fathers have passed away: 
therefore he recites no anuvakya. Having stepped 
across 1 , and called (on the Agnldhra) for the 
•Srausha/ 2 , he (the Adhvaryu) says (to the Hotri), 
* Pronounce the offering-formula (ya^yi) of the 
Gharma ; ' and on the Vasha/-call being uttered 
he offers — 

16. With (Va^. S. XXXVIII, io), • All regions 
(hath he worshipped), seated in the south,' — 
that is to say, * every region (has he worshipped), 
seated on the south;' — 'all gods hath he wor- 
shipped here,' — that is, 'every god has he 
worshipped here;' — 'of the sweet Gharma, con- 
secrated by S vaha (hail !), drink ye, O A svins ! ' 
— with regard to the A.rvins he says this ; for the 
A^vins restored the head of the sacrifice : it is them 
he thus pleases. The call of ' hail ! ' he places first, 
and the deity last : the significance of this is the 
same as before. 

17. And, having offered, he (thrice) shakes (the 
Mahavira) upwards, with (Va^. S. XXXVIII, 11), 
'In heaven place thou this sacrifice! this 
sacrifice place thou in heaven!' — for the 
Gharma (hot milk-draught), the sacrifice, is yonder 
sun, and he indeed is 'placed' in the heavens, is 



1 Viz. past the Ahavanfya, along its back (or western) side, to 
the south side of the fire. 

* See part i, p. 132, note; III, 4, 4, 11 seqq. 



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XIV KktfDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAhMAATA, 21. 483 

established in the heavens: it is thus him he 
thereby pleases, and therefore he says, ' In heaven 
place thou this sacrifice! this sacrifice place thou 
in heaven ! ' On the repetition of the Vasha/, he 
offers — 

18. With, 'Hail to Agni, worthy of sacri- 
fice!' — this is in lieu of the Svish/akr/t (offering), 
for Agni is the maker of good offering; — 'may 
blessing result from the sacrificial texts!' 
for by the sacrificial texts that (sun) is established 
(as the Mahavlra) in this world: thus it is them 
he thereby pleases. The call of ' hail ! ' he places 
first, and the deity last : the significance of this is 
the same as before. 

19. The Brahman (priest) pronounces the anuman- 
trarca (formula of consecration) ; for the Brahman is 
the best physician among the officiating priests : 
thus he heals this sacrifice by means of him who 
is the best physician among the priests. 

20. [He does so, with Vaj\ S. XXXVIII, 12,] 
'O Afvins, drink ye the Gharma!' — with regard 
to the Ayvins he says this, for the A^vins restored 
the head of the sacrifice: it is them he thus 
pleases. 

21. 'The hearty 1 one with daily 2 favours,' — 

1 The exact meaning of ' hardvinam ' is doubtful Mahidhara 
analyses it by ' bard ' = * hn'd ' + ' vana,' blowing, going, hence 
' heart-wafting, going to the heart = dear to the heart' The 
St Petersb. Diet, takes the word to be ' hard-van,' in the sense 
of ' herzstarkend ' (heart - sustaining, invigorating — ? literally, 
' possessed of heartiness '). The Tailt Ar. has ' hardivinam ' 
instead. The author of the Brihmana apparently considers the 
term as obscure, and uses this circumstance for his own symbolic 
purposes. 

* Perhaps the author means to characterise also the epithet 

I i 2 



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484 tfATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

this is indistinct, for Pra^apati is indistinct (un- 
defined), and the sacrifice is Pra^apati: Pra^apati, 
the sacrifice, he thus heals ; — 

22. 'To the web-weaver,' — the web-weaver, 
doubtless, is he that shines yonder, for he moves 
along these worlds as if along a web; and the 
Pravargya also is that (sun) : thus it is him he 
thereby pleases, and therefore he says, 'To the 
web- weaver ' — 

23. 'To Heaven and Earth be reverence!' 
he thus propitiates heaven and earth, within which 
everything here is contained. 

24. Thereupon the Sacrificer (mutters), — the 
Sacrificer being the sacrifice, he thus heals the 
sacrifice by means of the sacrifice; — 

25. \Wig. S. XXXVIII, 13,] 'The A*vins 
drank the Gharma,' — he says this with regard 
to the Ajvins, for the A$vins restored the head 
of the sacrifice : it is them he thus pleases. 

26. 'Heaven and Earth have approved of 
it 1 ,' — he says this with regard to heaven and 
earth, within which everything here is contained ; — 
'may gifts accrue here!' — whereby he means 
to say, 'may there be riches for us here.' 

27. The rising (milk) he then consecrates by 
the anumantrawa a , 'For freshness swell thou!' 

'ahar-diva' (lit. 'day-daily,' cf. Germ, tagtaglich; Aberdonian 'daily- 
day ') as obscure. Mahldhara takes it to mean ' relating to morning 
and evening,' as applying to the two performances of the Pravargya. 

1 They approved of it by saying ' Well done ' ; Mahidh. 

* That is, as would seem, he speaks the anumantrana in order to 
consecrate whatever milk might have been spilled in bubbling over. 
Possibly, however, he is to do so at the time when the pot bubbles 
over (though the ' atha ' would rather be out of place in that case). 
The Taittiriyas differ somewhat on this point of the performance. 



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xiv kXnda, 2 adhyAya, 2 brAhmaya, 30. 485 

— whereby he means to say, ' For rain . . . ; ' — 
'for vigour swell thou!' — he thereby means 
the vigour, the life-sap, which results from the 
rain; — 'for the Brahman swell thou!' — he 
thereby means the priesthood ; — 'for the Kshatra 
swell thou!' — he thereby means the nobility; — 
'for Heaven and Earth swell thou!' — he 
thereby means these two, the heaven and the 
earth, within which everything here is contained. 

28. When it rises upwards, it rises for (the benefit 
of) the Sacrificer; when on the front side, it does 
so for the gods ; when -on the right (south) side, 
it does so for the Fathers; when at the back 
(west side), it does so for the cattle ; when on the 
left (north) side, it does so for (the Sacrificer's) 
offspring: in any case no fault is incurred by the 
Sacrificer, for it always rises upwards ; and in what- 
ever direction it rises in that it rises. When the 
drops cease, — 

29. He steps out towards the north-east with, 
' A well-supporting support thou art,' — he who 
shines yonder is indeed a support, for he supports 
everything here, and by him everything here is 
supported ; and the Pravargya also is that (sun) : 
thus it is him he thereby pleases, and therefore 
he says, ' A well-supporting support thou art.' 

30. He then places (the Mahavlra) on the mound 
with, 'Incapable of injuring, preserve thou 
our powers ! ' — ' Not angry \ preserve our wealth,' 

After the Ghanna-milk has been offered, the PratiprasthStr; "fills the 
Mah&vtra pot, whilst it is held over the fire, with boiled sour curds 
and whey (dadhi), whilst muttering the text, * The Ajvins drank the 
Gharma . . . ,' and with the texts, ' For freshness swell thou,' &c. 
1 The author apparently takes ' ameni ' in the sense of' amanyu.' 



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486 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

is what he thereby means to say; — 'preserve 
the priesthood, preserve the nobility, pre- 
serve the people!' — 'preserve all that,' is what 
he thereby means to say. 

31. He then offers by means of the pieces of 
(split) wood 1 , — the pieces of wood being the vital 
airs, it is the vital airs he thus bestows upon him ; — 

32. With (Vty. S. XXXVIII, 15), 'Hail to 
Pushan, to the cream!' — Pushan, doubtless, is 
he who blows here, for he (the wind) supports 
(push) everything here; and the breath also is 
that (wind) : it is breath he thus bestows upon 
him, whence he says, ' Hail to Pushan, to the 
cream!' The call of 'hail!' he places first, and 
the deity last : the significance of this is the same 
as before. Having offered (by means of the first 
piece) he leans it against the middle enclosing- 
stick 2 (paridhi). 

33. 'Hail to the pressing-stones!' — the 
pressing-stones being the vital airs, it is the vital 
airs he thus bestows upon him. Having offered 
(with the second stick) he leans it against the middle 
enclosing-stick. 

34. 'Hail to the sounding-holes 8 !' — the 

The St. Petersb. Diet, assigns to it the meaning 'not shooting, 
incapable of shooting.' 

1 For these pieces of wood, or large chips, of Vikankata wood 
(Flacourtia sapida) which were laid round the pot, see XIV, 1, 3, 26. 
They are dipped into the remains of the hot milk and ghee, the 
liquid adhering to them being then offered. 

* That is, that one of the three fresh sticks enclosing the fine 
which is laid down first, along the back, or west side, and forms 
the base of a triangle the apex of which points eastwards. Cf. 1, 3, 
4. « seqq. 

* This meaning is, by the St Petersb. Diet, assigned to 'prati-rava' 



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XIV KAjVBA, 2 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAYA, 35. 487 

sounding-holes (pratirava), doubtless, are the vital 
airs, for everything here is pleased (pratirata) 
with the vital airs: it is the vital airs he thus 
bestows upon him. Having offered (with the 
third stick) he leans it against the middle enclosing- 
stick. 

35. ' Hail to the Fathers, (seated) upon the 
Barhis 1 , and drinking the Gharma!' — even 
without offering he secretes (this, the fourth stick) 
under the barhis of the south part (of the vedi *) 
whilst looking towards the north*. When the 
sacrifice had its head cut off, its life-sap flowed 
away, and went to the Fathers — the Fathers being 
three in number : it is them he thus pleases. And 

(otherwise ' echo '), the proper term for the sounding-holes being 
' upa-rava,' cf. Ill, 5, 4, 1, where they are likened to the eyes and 
ears, as channels of the vital airs. 

1 If this rendering (St Petersb. Diet.) of ' urdhvabarhis ' is 
correct — the term being apparently based on the Fathers' epithet 
' barhishadaV ' seated on the barhis ' (sacrificial grass-covering of 
the altar-ground) — the force of 4 urdhva ' in the compound is very 
peculiar. Mahidhara takes it in the sense of ' having their barhis 
pointed upwards,' i. e. towards the east (I), the peculiar feature of 
the barhis in the present case — as far as the participation of the 
Fathers in the drinking of the Gharma is concerned — being its 
having the tops of the grass-stalks turned to the east instead of to 
the south, as is the case in all ceremonies relating to the Fathers. 
The term ' flrdhvabarhis ' might possibly mean ' having their 
(special) barhis above/ i. e. in the world of the Fathers, where they 
would be supposed to partake of the libations of hot milk ; whilst 
yet another (suggested by the next paragraph) would be that of 
' having the barhis above them ; ' which would, however, be more 
appropriate if the secreting of the stick under the barhis applied to 
the present, instead of the next one. 

* The comm. on Kilty. XXVI, 6, 14 calls this part of the barhis 
' dtitby&barhis ' (?). 

* And accordingly, without looking at it. 



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488 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

as to why he does not look at it,— once for all the 
Fathers have passed away. 

36. 'Hail to Heaven and Earth!' — heaven 
and earth being the out (and in)-breathing and the 
up-breathing, it is the out and up-breathing he thus 
bestows upon him. Having offered (with the fifth 
stick) he leans it against the middle enclosing-stick. 

37. * Hail to the All-gods!' — the VLrve DevaA 
being the vital airs, it is the vital airs he thus 
bestows upon him. Having offered (with the 
sixth stick) he leans it against the middle enclos- 
ing-stick. 

38. [Va^. S. XXXVIII, 16,] "Hail to Rudra, 
praised by the Rudras 1 !' — even without offering 
(with this, the seventh stick), he, looking south- 

. wards, hands it to the PratiprasthatW, and the latter 
throws it outside (the offering-ground) northwards 
to the north of the hall, for this is the region of 
that god : he thus gratifies him in his own region. 
And as to why he does not look at it, he does 
so thinking, ' Lest Rudra should do me harm.' 

39. There are seven of these oblations, for seven 
in number are these (channels of the) vital airs in 
the head : it is these he thus bestows upon him. 

40. He then pours (the remaining milk and ghee) 
from the Mahavlra into the supporting-tray with, 
•Hail, light with light!'— for light indeed the 
milk was in the one (vessel), and light it is in the 
other, and these two lights thus unite with each other. 
The call of 'hail ! ' he places first, and the deity last : 
the mystic import of this is the same as before. 



1 Or, ' having his praises sung by the chanters,' as Mahtdhara 
takes ' rudrahuti.' 



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xiv kAjvda, 2 adhyAya, 2 brAhmajva, 43. 489 

41. He then offers (the second of) the two 
Rauhiwa 1 (cakes) with, 'May the day be pleased 
with its brightness, the well-lighted with its 
light, hail!' — the mystic import of this is the 
same as before; — 'may the night be pleased 
with its brightness, the well-lighted with its 
light, hail ! ' — the mystic import of this is the same 
as before. 

42. He then hands to the Sacrificer the remainder 
of the Gharma. He, having solicited an invitation * 
(to the meal), drinks it with, ' Offered is the 
honey unto Agni, the greatest of Indras,' — 
' Offered is the honey unto Agni, the most power- 
ful,' he thereby means to say; — 'let us eat of 
thee, god Gharma: reverence be unto thee, 
injure us not!' — a blessing he thereby invokes. 

43. Now, on the south side sand has been strewn ; 
there they cleanse themselves 8 : in this there is the 

1 Viz. XIV, 2, 1, 1. 

' Viz. at the hands of the officiating priests, by saying to each, 
' Invite me, N. N. ! ' whereupon each of them replies, ' Thou art 
invited.' Cf. XII, 8, 3, 30. According to Apast. St. XV, 11, 12, 
the priests and the Sacrificer partake of the residue in the order 
— Hotri, Adhvaryu, Brahman, Pratiprasth&tr*, Agnfdh, and Sacri- 
ficer; or, optionally (ib. 14), only the Sacrificer drinks of it, whilst 
the priests merely smell it. Cf. the eating of the whey (of clotted 
curds), II, 4, 4, 25, to which the present eating of the remains is 
stated, by K&ty. XXVI, 6, 20, to be analogous ; whilst the offering 
is said to be on the model of the Agnihotra. 

* The usual place to do so is over the pit (Mtrila), cf. HI, 8, 2, 
30 ; XII, 8, 1, 22 ; whilst the utensils are cleaned in the Mar^-iliya. 
On the present occasion a mound of sand (or covered with sand) — 
the so-called ' u£Mish/a-khara ' (mound of remains) — is raised in the 
south part of the site, close to the mat or hurdle forming its wall, 
just east of the southern door. According to K&ty. XXVI, 6, 21 
seqq., Apast. XV, 12, 1 seqq., the Mah&vira and the remaining 



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490 satapatha-brAhmajta. 

same significance as in the Maig'allya. The pieces 
of wood he throws into the fire. They then pro- 
ceed with the Upasad And thus the head of the 
sacrifice has been set right in the very same manner 
in which the A.rvins then restored it. 

44. One must not perform the Pravargya at one's 
first Soma-sacrifice, since that would be sinful, and 
lest Indra should cut off his head; but at the 
second or the third (Soma-sacrifice) ; for at first 
the gods went on worshipping and toiling with 
the headless sacrifice, therefore (he should do so) 
at the second or the third (sacrifice). Moreover, 
it will become heated and ablaze; — 

45. And were he to perform the Pravargya at 
the first Soma-sacrifice, that (Mahavtra) of his, 
when heated and ablaze, would burn up his family 
and cattle, and also his life, and the Sacrificer 
would be liable to perish : therefore (let him 
perform it) at the second or third (sacrifice). 

46. Let him not perform the Pravargya for any 
and every one, lest he should do everything for 
every one, for the Pravargya is everything; but 
let him only perform it for him who is known, or 
to whoever may be dear to him, or who has studied 
sacred writ: by means of the study of sacred writ 
he would thus gain it. 

47. One may perform the Pravargya for a thousand 
(head of cattle) \ for a thousand means everything, 
and that (Pravargya) is everything. One may 

apparatus are then in solemn fashion (carried round in front of the 
Ahavantya, and) placed on the throne-seat, and consecrated (or 
appeased) by being sprinkled with water. 

1 That is, at a sacrifice for which this constitutes the sacri- 
ficial fee. 



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xiv kXnda, 2 adhyaya, 2 brAhmajva, 49. 491 

perform it for all (the Sacrificer's) property; for 
all one's property means everything, and this (Pra- 
vargya) is everything. One may perform it at 
a Visvagit with all the PrishtAas ' ; for the Visva,fit 
(all-conquering day) with all the P^'shMas means 
everything, and this (Pravargya) is everything. 
One may perform it at the Va/apeya (and) Ra/a- 
suya, for such (a ceremony) means everything. 
One may perform it at a sacrificial session, for the 
session means everything, and this (Pravargya) is 
everything. These are (the occasions for) his 
performances of the Pravargya, and (let him perform 
it) nowhere else but at these. 

48. Here now they say, ' Seeing that the Pra- 
vargya is headless, whereby, then, does the Agni- 
hotra become possessed of a head for him ? ' Let 
him say, ' By the Ahavanlya.' — ' How the New 
and Full-moon sacrifices ? ' Let him say, ' By the 
ghee and the cake.' — ' How the Seasonal sacri- 
fices ? ' Let him say, ' By the oblation of clotted 
curds *.' — ' How the animal sacrifice ? ' Let him 
say, ' By the victim and the cake.' — ' How the Soma- 
sacrifice ? ' Let him say, * By the Havirdhana V 

49. And they also say, — when the sacrifice had 
its head cut off, the gods on that occasion restored 
it as the hospitable reception * (of King Soma), and 
verily for him who so knows this offering is not 
made with any headless sacrifice whatever. 

1 See p. 139, note 1 ; and XII, 3, 3, 6. 

* For the ' payasya ' see part i, p. 178, note 4 ; p. 381, note 2. 

* That is, the cart or carts on which the offering-material 
(including the Soma-plants) is contained, as also the shed in which 
they are placed. 

* See III, 2,3, 20; 4, 1, 1. 



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492 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

50. And, again, they say, 'Seeing that at the 
sacrifice they lead forward the Pra»tta ' (water), 
wherefore do they not lead it forward on this 
occasion ?' Well, this — to wit, the Pra»lta (water) 
— being the head of the sacrifice, and the Pravargya 
also being its head, (he does so) thinking, ' Lest 
I cause the head to be overtopped by a head.' 

51. And, again, they say, 'Seeing that elsewhere 
there are fore-offerings and after-offerings, where- 
fore are there not any on this occasion ? ' Well, 
the fore-offerings and after-offerings being the vital 
airs, and so also the Avaklras *, and the pieces of 
wood, (it is so) lest he should cause the vital airs 
to be overtopped by vital airs. 

52. And, again, they say, 'Seeing that elsewhere 
they offer two butter-portions, wherefore does he 
not offer them on this occasion ? ' Well, those 
two — to wit, the butter-portions — being the eyes 
of the sacrifice, and so also the two Rauhi«a 
(cakes) — (it is so) lest he should overtop eye 
by eye. 

53. And, again, they say, ' Seeing that they make 
offering to the gods by means of wooden (vessels), 
wherefore does he offer this (Gharma) by means 
of one made of clay ? ' When the Sacrifice had 
its head cut off, its life-sap flowed away and entered 
the heaven and the earth. Now this (earth) is clay, 
and yonder (sky) is water; and the Mahavlra 
(vessels) are made of clay and water: thus he 
supplies and completes it (the Pravargya) with that 
life-sap. 

54. But if it were made of wood, it would be 

1 See part i, p. 9, note. * See p. 469, note 1. 



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xiv kAyba, 3 adhyAya, i brAhma^a, i. 493 

burnt ; and if of gold, it would dissolve ; and if of 
copper, it would melt ; and if of stone, it would 
burn the two handling-sticks; and that (Gharma) 
itself submitted to that (earthen vessel) : therefore 
it is by means of an earthen one that he offers it. 

55. And, verily, whosoever either teaches, or 
partakes of, this (Pravargya) enters that life, and 
that light : the observance thereof is the same as 
at the creation 1 . 

Third AdhyAya. First BrAhmajta. 
The Setting Out of the Pravargya. 
1. Now, on the third, or the sixth, or the twelfth 
day 2 , having combined (the two performances of) 
the Pravargya and Upasads 8 , he 'sets out 4 ' the 
Pravargya, for set out (removed), as it were, is 
this head (from the trunk). Having gathered 
together all around it 5 (the Mahavlra pot), they 

1 See p. 458, note 1. 

1 That is, according to whether there are three, six, or twelve 
Upasad days to the particular form of Sotna-sacrifice about to be 
performed. On each of these days there would be two performances 
of the Upasads, — and in case the Pravargya is to be performed— as 
many performances of that sacrifice. 

* On the day before the Soma-sacrifice, the two performances of 
the Pravargya and the Upasads are combined and gone through 
in the forenoon, instead of the forenoon and afternoon as is otherwise 
the case. Katy. XXVI, 7, 1 does not refer to the performance of 
the Pravargya on this day, but merely remarks that ' at the end 
of the Upasads (i. e. of the combination of the Upasads, comm.) the 
removal of the Pravargya ' takes place. Apast. XV, 1 2, 4-6, on 
the other hand, states distinctly that the total number of perform- 
ances of the Pravargya is to be double that of the Upasad days. 

* The ' setting out ' (utsadana) of the Pravargya is the technical 
phrase for the removal and orderly laying out (in the form of 
a man) of the apparatus used for the Pravargya ceremony. 

* After collecting the implements they take them out of the xala 



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494 satapatha-brahma#a. 

meet together upon the Vedi in the .Sala, (entering) 
by the front door. 

2. The Agnldhra then brings three bundles of 
faggots to the Ahavantya, and kindling one of them, 
he offers (thereon) whilst holding it 1 on a level with 
(the Sacrificer's) mouth. When the sacrifice had 
its head cut off its heat went out of it, and entered 
these worlds : it is with that heat he thus supplies 
and completes it. 

3. And as to why (it is held) on a level with the 
mouth, — well, what is level with the mouth is, as 
it were, above; and above, as it were, is yonder 
(heavenly) world : thus he thereby supplies and 
completes it (the Pravargya) with that heat which 
had entered yonder world. 

4. [He offers, with Vif. S. XXXVIII, 18.] 
'What heavenly fire of thine there is. 
O Gharma,' — just the fire which is heavenly; — 
'what is in the Gayatrl and in the Havir- 

and lay them down near the Anta^patya peg at a few steps from 
the front door (whilst Apast. makes them to be put on the throne- 
seat placed north of the Ahavantya). 

1 According to the comm. on K4ty. XXVI, 7, 4, it is the Adhwyn 
who — after ladling four times into the offering-spoon — distributes 
this ghee successively over the three bundles of sticks, — viz. pouring 
some upon the first two whilst they are held, at the specified height 
over the Ahavantya fire, by the Agntdh (who immediately after the 
offering throws them into the fire), and upon the third after it has 
been held knee-high by the Agntdh, and then thrown into the 
fire by the Adhvaryu. According to Apastamba, who makes 
the Pratiprasthatr*' and Adhvaryu the two performers, the third 
portion of the ghee is offered on the bundle of sticks whilst it is 
still held knee-high over the fire. As noted by Katyayana, the 
ceremony is analogous (though reversed as regards the order of 
height) to the offering on the three enclosing-stones at the Sataru- 
driya ceremony, IX, I, i, 5 seqq. 



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xiv kAjtoa, 3 adhyAya, i brAhmaya, 9. 495 

dhlna,' — just that which is in the Gayatri (metre) 
and Havirdhana (shed); — 'may that (fire) of 
thine increase and become firm: to that 
(fire) of thine, hail!' in this there is nothing 
hidden, so to speak. 

5. Then, having kindled the second (bundle), 
he offers (thereon) whilst holding it navel-high ; 
for in the middle, as it were, is what is navel- 
high, and in the middle, as it were, is the air-world : 
thus he thereby supplies and completes it with that 
heat which had entered the air-world. 

6. 'What fire of thine is in the air,' — just 
the fire which is in the air; — 'what is in the 
Trish/ubh and in the Agnldhra,' — just that 
which is in the Trish/ubh (metre) and Agntdhra 
(fire-shed); — 'may that (fire) of thine increase 
and become firm: to that (fire) of thine, 
hail ! ' in this there is nothing hidden, so to speak. 

7. Then, having put the third (bundle) on the 
fire, he offers on it whilst sitting ; for below, as it 
were, is he who is sitting; and below, as it were, 
is this (terrestrial) world : thus he thereby supplies 
and completes it with that heat which had entered 
this (terrestrial) world. 

8. 'What fire of thine is in the earth,' — 
just that fire which is in the earth; — 'what is 
in the <7agatl and in the Sadas/ — just that 
which is in the Gagatt (metre) and the Sadas 
(shed); — 'may that (fire) of thine increase and 
become firm: to that (fire) of thine, hail!' in 
this there is nothing hidden, so to speak. 

9. He (the Adhvaryu) then steps out 1 , with 

1 Viz. out of the si]&, with the Sacrificer's wife in front of him, 



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40 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

(Va/. S. XXXVIII, 19), 'Thee (we will follow) 
for the protection of the Kshatra,' — for he 
who shines yonder 1 is indeed the divine ruler: 
' for the protection of this human ruler,' he thereby 
means to say; — 'guard thou the Brahman's 
body!' — that is to say, 'preserve thou the Brah- 
man's person (atman);' — 'Thee (we will follow) 
as a stay for the Vis,' — the Vis (people, clan) 
doubtless is the sacrifice : ' for the safety of the 
sacrifice,' he thus means to say; — 'we will follow 
to new prosperity,' — it is for the safety and the 
stability of the sacrifice that he says this. 

10. He then says (to the Prastotr*), ' Sing the 
Saman ! ' or * Recite the Saman ! ' but let him 
rather say, ' Sing the Saman ! ' for they indeed sing 
the Saman. When he sings the Saman it is in order 
that the fiends, the Rakshas, should not injure these 



and followed by the others. According to Apast, XV, 13, 4, the 
Pratiprasthatri' now leads the Sacrificer's wife within the enclosure ; 
and whilst attendants carry away the objects not immediately 
connected with the Pravargya ceremony (post, peg, strings, sand, 
&c), the Adhvaryu places the throne-seat (with the chief vessels) so 
as to stand with two feet on the Vedi, and with the other two 
outside it, and calls on the Prastotri to sing the Saman. This (as is 
usual in chanting) is done three times — the Adhvaryu, however, 
repeating his summons each time — and each time all of them 
(including the Patni) sing or utter a special finale, — the first time 
in the Jala, the second time midway between the si.H and the 
Uttaravedi, and the third time when they have arrived behind the 
Uttaravedi; the finales corresponding to the formulas of this 
paragraph, viz. — ' For the protection (or protector) of heaven (we 
follow) thee!' — 'For the protection of the Brahman — theef — 
' For the protection of the self — thee ! ' 

1 It should be bome in mind that the Mahavtra by which they 
are supposing themselves to be led now, is looked upon as a 
symbol of the sun. 



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xiv kKnda, 3 adhyAya, i brAhmajva, J4. 497 

outside the sacrifice, the body; for the Saman is 
a repeller of the fiends, the Rakshas. 

11. He sings it on a (verse) relating to Agni, for 
Agni is the repeller of the Rakshas. On an 
Atii^andas (verse) he sings it, for that — to wit, 
the Atii£&indas (redundant metre) is all metres, 
therefore he sings it on an Atiii^andas (verse). 

12. He sings 1 , 'Agni burneth, encountereth 
with flames, Ahavo! Ahavo 1 !' — it is thus he 
repels the fiends, the Rakshas, from here. 

13. They walk out (from the sacrificial ground) 
northwards*, along the back of the pit and the 
front side of the Agnldhra (fire-house) — for this 
is the gate of the sacrifice — and proceed in what- 
ever direction from there water is (to be found). 

14. Let him 'set out' that (Pravargya) on an 
island; for, when heated, it becomes burning-hot 3 ; 
and were he to set it out on this (earth), its heat 
would enter this (earth) ; and were he to set it 
out on water, its heat would enter the water; 
but when he sets it out on an island — thus, indeed, 
it does not injure either the water or this (earth), 
for inasmuch as he does not throw it into the 
water, it does not injure the water; and inasmuch 
as the water flows all round it — water being a means 

1 The same Saman is sung when they betake themselves to the 
expiatory bath at the end of the Soma-sacrifice, cf. IV, 4, 5, 8 where 
the stobha had better be altered to ' ahavo ' (though the Sandhi 
in the text is the same as of ' ah&vas '). As on that former occasion, 
all the priests, as well as the Sacrificer, join in the finale. 

* In doing so, they take the Pravargya-vessels and implements 
along with them. 

* Hardly Ms suffering pain,' as it was taken at IX, 2, 1, 19; 
though 'nuruKna' and 'suk' evidently refer to internal heat, or 
passion, cf. p. 464, note 4, p. 468, note 1. 

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498 5ATapatha-brAhmajva. 

of soothing — it does not injure this (earth) : let him 
therefore set it out on an island. 

15. But let him rather set it out on the Uttara- 
vedi 1 ; for the Uttara-vedi is the sacrifice, and the 
Pravargya is its head: he thus restores to the 
sacrifice its head. 

16. The first Pravargya (pot) he sets out so 
as to be close to (the front side of) the navel 
(of the Uttara-vedi), for the northern (upper) navel 
is the voice, and the Pravargya is the head : he thus 
places the voice in the head. 

17. [He does so, with V4f. S. XXXVIII, 20,] 
' The four-cornered,' — four-cornered, indeed, is 
he who shines yonder, for the quarters are his 
corners : therefore he says, ' Four-cornered ' ; — 

18. — 'Mighty navel of the divine order/ — 
the divine order being the truth, he thereby means 
to say, 'The mighty navel of the truth;' — 'that 
mighty one (be) unto us of all life,' — 'that 
mighty one (be) unto us (a bestower) of the com- 
plete (term of) life,' he thereby means to say * ; 

1 Katy&yana only lays down the rule that, in the case of the 
sacrifice not being accompanied with the building of a fire-altar, 
the Pravargya apparatus should be removed to the Uttara-vedi; 
whilst, in the case of one who likewise performs the Agniiayana, he 
would doubtless follow the indication already laid down in the 
Brihmana, IX, a, 1, 19 ; viz. that the pot may be removed to 
an island, but should rather be deposited on the fire-altar (in which 
case, however, the ' setting out ' of the apparatus would apparently 
have to be deferred till after the performance of the Soma-sacrifke). 
Apastamba treats of the Uttara-vedi as the place where the imple- 
ments are to be deposited, but finally he allows an option of other 
places, including an island, but not the fire-altar. 

* The words ' sa na* sarvayuA saprathivi,' being here used as 
explanatory of ' sa no vb vayuA sapratha^,' have probably got by 
mistake into the Samhili. 



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XIV KAIfDA, 3 ADHYAYA, I BRAhMA^A, 22. 499 

19. — 'from the hatred, from the guile,' — in 
this there is nothing hidden, so to speak ; — ' of him 
of another law, let us free ourselves!' — another 
law, indeed, is his (Pravargya's and the Sun's), and 
another that of men 1 : therefore he says, ' Of him 
of another law, let us free ourselves.' In this way 
the other two (pots are placed) east of it : this is 
threefold, for the head is threefold 2 . 

20. In front thereof (he places) the reserve (lump 
of) clay, whereby he puts flesh upon it (Pravargya) ; 
on the two sides thereof the two lifting-sticks, whereby 
he gives two arms to it ; and on the two sides yet 
further away the two Rauhi«a offering-ladles, where- 
by he gives two hands to it. 

21. On the left (north) side (he places) the spade, 
for there is its place of rest; on the right (right) 
side the imperial throne, for there is its place of 
rest; on the left side the black antelope-skin, for 
there is its place of rest; on all sides (save the 
front side) the fans, for, the fans being the vital 
airs, he thereby bestows vital airs on it; there 
are three of them, for there are three vital airs, 
the out- (and in-) breathing, the up-breathing, and 
the through-breathing: it is these he thus bestows 
on him. 

22. He then puts the cords and halter on the 
supporting-tray, and places (the latter) behind (the 

1 The author evidently understands the text more in accordance 
with Mahtdhara's interpretation which makes ' anyavratasya ' to 
refer to the Supreme Spirit (param&tma) whose law, or ways, are 
different from men's, and construes it with ' sawJima ' (we serve, are 
devoted, to that righteous one). The preceding part of the half- 
verse he would thus take independently of this : — ' Away hatred 1 
away guile I ' 

* Viz. consisting of bone, skin, and hair. 

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500 satapatha-brAhmajta. 

navel) with its point towards the east: a belly 
he thus gives to it. On the two sides thereof 
the two milking-bowls (pinvana) : two testicles he 
thereby gives to it, for by means of his testicles 
the male overflows (pinv). Behind (them he 
places) the post and peg: whereby he gives two 
thighs to it; behind (them) the two Rauhi«a- 
plates, whereby he gives two knees to it; and as 
to their being single plates, it is because these 
knees consist, as it were, of single plates (bones). 
Behind (them) the two poking-sticks (dhr/sh/i), 
whereby he gives two feet to it, for with the feet 
one strikes out boldly (dhrzshtfam). On the left 
side the two mounds 1 used in the performance, 
for there is their place of rest ; on the right side 
the Marfaltya 2 , for there is its place of rest 

23. He then pours milk into that (chief pot