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Introduction xiii 


Lecture 1. On discipline (especially for pupils) . i 

„ 2. On troubles. (About the twenty-two things 

that cause trouble to monks) ... 8 

„ 3. The four requisites (for the attainment of 

beatitude) 15 

„ 4. Impurity. (Carefulness required for obtaining 

the end) 18 

„ 5. Death against (and with) one's will . 20 

„ 6. The false ascetic. (Wrong conduct leads to 

perdition, right conduct to salvation) . 24 

„ 7. The parable of the ram, &c. (illustrative of 
the folly of the sinner who misses his 
chance of reaching a more exalted state 
of existence) 27 

„ 8. Kapila's verses (in praise of good conduct) . 31 

„ 9. The Pravra^ya of king Nami. (A dialogue 
between him and Indra who advised him 
to retain the royalty) 35 

„ 10. The leaf of the tree. (A sermon by Mahavira 
on the punishment of the sinner and the 
reward of the righteous) . . . . 41 

„ 11. The very learned (monk; his virtues and his 

superiority) 46 

., 12. Harik&ra, (a K&nd&la., turned monk ; his victory 

over a Brahman, whom he converts) . 50 

„ 13. Aitra and Sambhuta. (A dialogue on the 

vanity of worldly pleasures) . . . 56 

„ 14. Ishukara. (A legend, illustrating the ex- 
cellence of a monastic life) . . . 61 

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Lecturk 15. The true monk; (how he should conduct 

himself) 69 

„ 16. The ten conditions of perfect chastity . . 73 

„ 17. The bad S'ramawa; (what a monk should avoid) 77 

,, 18. Sa^aya. (King S. turned monk ; he preaches 
that the state of a monk is preferable to that 
of a king; illustrations from Gzma. history) . 80 
19. The son of Mrigi. (On the punishment in 

the hells) 88 

„ 20. The great duty of the Nirgranthas. (A dia- 
logue between king .S'r&rika and a monk 
on the happiness obtained by righteous- 
ness. The bad monk is lost) . . . 1 00 

,. 21. Samudrapala, (turned monk. On the duties 

of a monk) 108 

22. RathanSmi. (The renunciation of Arish/anSmi; 

his wife Ra^imati exhorts RathanSmi) . 112 

,. 23. K§ri and Gautama. (The followers of Pama 
are brought over to the church of 
Mahavtra) 119 

„ 24. The Samitis (and the Guptis) . .129 

„ 25. The true sacrifice. ((?ayagh6sha, the monk, 

converts V^yaghdsha, the Brahman) . 1 36 
26. The correct behaviour (of monks during the 

several parts of day and night) . . 142 

„ 27. The bad bullocks (compared to bad pupils 

by Garga) 149 

„ 28. The road to final deliverance. (On the 

fundamental principles of (Tainism) . 152 

„ 29. The exertion in righteousness. (On the 
seventy-three articles necessary for reach- 
ing perfection) . . . . .158 

„ 30. The road of penance. (On external and 

internal austerities) 174 

„ 31. Mode of life. (A list of articles of the &aina 
faith according to the number of their sub- 
divisions) 180 

,, 32. The causes of carelessness ; (what excites the 

passions and produces Karman) . . 184 

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Lecture 33. The nature of Karman, (and the subdivisions 

of it) 192 

34. On L&ya 196 

„ 35. The houseless monk. (The chief duties of 

a monk) 203 

„ 36. On living beings and things without life. 
(The contents of this Lecture are detailed 
in note 2, pp. 206, 207) .... 206 



Lecture 1. The doctrine. (On some heretical doctrines) 235-248 

Chapter 1. (Materialists, v. 8; Vedantins, v. 9; 
other materialists, w. 11, 12; Akriyavadins, 
v. 13; forerunners of the VaifSshikas, v. 15; 
Bauddhas, v. 17 ; <?a»ayas, v. 18) . . 235 

Chapter 2. (Fatalists, vv. 1-3; Agnostics, 
v. 17 ; Kriyavadins, v. 24 ; Buddhists, 
w. 25-28, cf. p. 414) .... 239 

Chapter 3. (Pauramkas.vv. 6-8; the followers 
of G6\rala, vv. 11, 12 ; Vainayikas, v. 14) . 243 

Chapter 4. (Some popular beliefs, w. 6, 7. 

Conclusion) 246 

„ 2. The destruction of Karman; (how to lead a 

holy life) 249-261 

Chapter 1 249 

Chapter 2 253 

Chapter 3 257 

„ 3. The knowledge of troubles . . . 261-271 

Chapter 1. (A monk encounters many diffi- 
culties) 261 

Chapter 2. (He is tempted back to domestic 
life) 263 

Chapter 3. (He easily desponds. The opinion 
refuted that a monk should not provide a 
sick brother with food) .... 265 

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Lecture 3. Chapter 4. (Several objections removed) . 268 

4. Knowledge of women .... 271-278 
Chapter 1. (How women tempt a monk) . 271 
Chapter 2. (How they treat him afterwards) . 275 

5. Description of the hells . . . . 279-286 

Chapter 1 279 

Chapter 2 283 

6. Praise of MahSvtra 287 

7. Description of the wicked. (No living beings 
should be destroyed ; no merit in ablutions 
and tending the sacrificial fire. A monk 
should not be selfish) .... 292 

8. On exertion. (Exertion not leading to works 
recommended) 297 

9. The Law. (What a monk should abstain 
from) 301 

10. Carefulness. (Some more injunctions and 
prohibitions) 306 

11. The Path. (The same subject continued and 
concluded) 310 

12. The creed. (On the four heresies: Agnos- 
ticism, v. 2 ; VinayavSda, v. 3 ; Akriy&vSda, 
w. 4-10; KriyavSda, v. nflF.) . . 315 

13. The real truth. (Some duties of a pious 
monk) 320 

14. The Nirgrantha. (The same subject con- 
tinued) 324 

15. The Yamakas. (Miscellaneous topics treated 
in artificial verses) 329 

16. The song. (On the virtues of a true monk) . 333 


Lecture 1. The Lotus. (The parable of the Lotus. The 
Materialists, § 14 ff. Another school of 
Materialists and the forerunners of the 
Vaitfishikas, § 2off. The V6ddntins,§ 25ft 
The fatalists, § 30 ff. Exhortation to follow 
the true Law, § 35 ff.) . . . . 335 

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Lecture 2. On activity. (The twelve kinds of committing 
sin, and sinless actions. Some wicked 
practices described, § 25 ff. Some more 
wicked practices, § 60 ff. Right conduct 
of monks, § 69 ff. ; of laymen, § 75 ff. Re- 
futation of the 363 heretical philosophical 
schools, § 79 ff. Conclusion) . . . 355 

„ 3. Knowledge of food. (On the generation of 

living beings) 388 

„ 4. Renunciation of activity. (An action is sinful 

though it be done unconsciously) . . 398 

., 5. Freedom from error; (what should be main- 
tained and what not) .... 405 

„ 6. Ardraka; (his dispute with G&s&la, a Bud- 
dhist, a V&dic priest, a VSdantin, and a 
HastitSpasa) 409 

„ 7. NilandS. (Udaka, a follower of Pawva, is 

converted by Gautama) . . . .419 

Index of Names and Subjects 437 

Index of Sanskrit and Prakhjt Words . . 443 

Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the 

Translations of the Sacred Books of the East . 453 

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TEN years have elapsed since the first part of my 
translation of Caina Sfttras appeared. During that decen- 
nium many and very important additions to our knowledge 
of Cainism and its history have been made by a small 
number of excellent scholars. The text of the canonical 
books, together with good commentaries in Sanskrit and 
Guzerati, has been made accessible in fair editions pub- 
lished by native scholars in India. Critical editions of two 
of them have been published by Professors Leumann * and 
Hoernle 2 ; and the latter scholar has added a careful 
translation and ample illustrations to his edition of the 
text. A general survey of the whole Gaina. literature has 
been given by Professor Weber in his catalogue of the 
Berlin Manuscripts 3 and in his learned treatise 4 on the 
sacred literature of the Camas. The development of <7aina 
learning and science has been studied by Professor Leumann, 
and some Gaina legends and their relations to those of the 
Brahmans and Buddhists have been investigated by the 
same scholar 6 . An important document for our knowledge 
of the old history of the Svetambara sect has been edited 

1 Das Aupapatika Sfitra, in the Abhandlungcn fur die Kunde des Morgen- 
landes, vol. viii ; and D&ravaikalika Sutra und Niryukti, in the Journal of the 
German Oriental Society, vol. xlvi. 

* The Uvasaga DasSo : (in the Bibliotheca Indica), vol. i. Text and Com- 
mentary, Calcutta, 1890 ; vol. ii. Translation, 1888. 

* Berlin, 1888 and 1893. 

' In the Indische Studien, vol. xvi, p. 211 ff., and xvii, p. iff.; translated 
in the Indian Antiquary and edited separately, Bombay, 1893. 

4 In the Actes du VI Congres International des Orientalistes, section Arienne, 
p. 469 ff., in the 5th and 6th vols, of the Wiener Zeitschrift fur die Kunde des 
Morgenlandes, and in the 48th vol. of the Journal of the German Oriental 

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by myself 1 , and the history of some of their Gaikk/ias has 
been made known from their lists of teachers by Hoernle 
and Klatt. The last-named scholar, whom we have all but 
lost by this time, has prepared a biographical dictionary of 
all Caina writers and historical persons, and he has issued 
specimens of this great Onomasticon, while Hofrat Biihler 
has written a detailed biography of the famous encyclo- 
paedist Hema^andra 2 . The same scholar has deciphered 
the ancient inscriptions, and discussed the sculptures 
excavated by Dr. Fiihrer at Mathura 3 , and the important 
inscriptions at Sravana Be/go/a have been edited by 
Mr. Lewis Rice 4 ; M. A. Barth has reviewed our know- 
ledge of £ainism 6 , and likewise Biihler in a short paper 6 . 
Lastly Bhandarkar has given a most valuable sketch of the 
whole of Cainism 7 . All these additions to our knowledge 
of £ainism (and I have but mentioned the most remarkable 
ones) have shed so much clear light on the whole subject 
that little room is left now for mere guesswork, and the true 
historical and philological method can be applied to all its 
parts. Still some of the principal problems require elucida- 
tion, while the proffered solution of others is not accepted 
by all scholars. I, therefore, gladly avail myself of this 
opportunity to discuss some of the disputed points, for the 
settling of which the works translated in this volume offer 
valuable materials. 

It is now admitted by all that Nataputta (Cwatr/putra), 
who is commonly called Mahavlra or Vardhamana, was 
a contemporary of Buddha; and that the Niga«///as 8 

1 The Paimsh/aparvan by HemaAandra, Bibliotheca Indica. 

9 Denkschriften der pbilos.-bistor. Classe der kaiserl. Akademie der Wissen- 
schaften, vol. xxxvii, p. 171 ft 

' Wiener Zeitschrift fur die Kunde des Morgenlandes, vols, ii and iii. 
Epigtaphia Indica, vols, i and ii. 

* Bangalore, 1889. 

5 The Religions of India. Bulletin des Religions de l'lnde, 1889-94. 

* t)ber die indische Secte der Jaina. Wien, 1887. 

* Report for 1883-84. 

" NigawMa is apparently the original form of the word, since it is thus 
spelled in the Aj&ka inscription, in Paii, and occasionally by the Cainas, 
though the phonetic laws of all three idioms would have given preference to 
the form niggantha, the more frequent spelling in Caina works. 

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(Nirgranthas), now better known under the name of Cainas 
or Arhatas, already existed as an important sect at the 
time when the Buddhist church was being founded. But 
it is still open to doubt whether the religion of the early 
Nirgranthas was essentially the same as that taught in 
the canonical and other books of the present Cainas, or 
underwent a great change up to the time of the composition 
of the Siddhanta. In order to come nearer the solution of 
this question, it may be desirable to collect from the pub- 
lished Buddhist works, as the oldest witnesses we can 
summon, all available information about the Nigan/^as, 
their doctrines and religious practices. 

In the Anguttara Nikaya, III, 74, a learned prince of the 
LikkAavls of Valrali, Abhaya \ gives the following account 
of some NigantAa. doctrines: 'The Niga«/Aa Nataputta, 
sir, who knows and sees all things, who claims perfect 
knowledge and faith (in the following terms): "walking 
and standing, sleeping or waking, I am always possessed of 
perfect knowledge and faith ;" teaches the annihilation by 
austerities of the old Karman, and the prevention by in- 
activity of new Karman. When Karman ceases, misery 
ceases ; when misery ceases, perception ceases ; when per- 
ception ceases, every misery will come to an end. In this 
way a man is saved by pure annihilation of sin (n\ggara) 
which is really effective.' 

The Gaina counterpart to these tenets can be collected 
from the Uttaradhyayana XXIX. ' By austerities he cuts 
off Karman,' § 27. 'By renouncing activity he obtains 
inactivity ; by ceasing to act he acquires no new Karman, 
and destroys the Karman he had acquired before,' § 37. 
The last stages in this process are fully described in §§ 71, 

1 There arc apparently two persons of this name. The other Abhaya, a son 
of king Sre»ika, was a patron of the Camas, and is frequently mentioned in 
their legends and in the canonical books. In the Majg^ima Nikaya 58 
(AbhayakumSra Sutta) it is related that the NiganMa Nataputta made him 
engage in a disputation with Buddha. The question was so adroitly framed 
that whether the answer was Yes or No, it involved Buddha in self-contradiction. 
But the plan did not succeed, and Abhaya was converted by Buddha. There 
is nothing in this account to elucidate the doctrines of Nataputta. 

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72. And again, in XXXII, v. 7, we read : ' Karman is the 
root of birth and death, and birth and death they call 
misery.' The nearly identical verses 34, 47, 60, 73, 86, 99 
may be thus condensed : ' But a man who is indifferent to 
the object of the senses, and to the feelings of the mind 
[this comes nearest to the Buddhist vedana : perception], is 
free from sorrows ; though still in the Sawsara, he is not 
afflicted by that long succession of pains, just as the leaf of 
the Lotus (is not moistened) by water.' 

The above assertion thatNataputta claimed the possession 
of perfect knowledge and faith, requires no further proof; 
for it is one of the fundamental dogmas of the (7ainas. 

Another piece of information about NigantAa. doctrines 
may be gathered from the Mahavagga VI, 31 (S. B. E., 
vol. xvii, p. 108 ff.) There a story is told of Siha \ the 
general of the Li£Mavis, who was a lay disciple of NAta- 
putta. He wanted to pay the Buddha a visit, but Nata- 
putta tried to dissuade him from it, because the Niga»/Aas 
held the Kriy&vada, while the Buddha taught the Akriyi- 
v&da. Siha, however, setting his master's prohibition at 
nought, went to the Buddha on his own account, and was, 
of course, converted by him. Now the statement that the 
Niga«//*as embraced the Kriyavada is borne out by our 
texts ; for in the Sutrakr/tanga I, 12, 21, below, p. 319, it 
is said that a perfect ascetic ' is entitled to expound the 
Kriydvada;' and this doctrine is thus expressed in the 
A^aranga Sutra I, 1, 1, 4 (part i, p. 2): 'He believes 
in soul, believes in the world, believes in reward, believes in 
action (believed to be our own doing in such judgments 
as these) : " I did it ; " "I shall cause another to do it ; " 
" I shall allow another to do it." ' 

Another lay disciple of Mahavira, converted by the 
Buddha, was Upali. As narrated in the Ma^/rima Nikaya 
56, he ventured upon a dispute with him whether the sins 
of the mind are heaviest, as the Buddha teaches, or the 

1 The name Siha occurs in the Bhagavatt (Calcutta edition, p. 1267, see 
Hoernle, Uvasaga Dasao Appendix, p. 10) as that of a disciple of Mahavira ; but 
as be was a monk, he cannot be identified with his namesake in the Mahavagga. 

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sins of the body, as the Niga«Ma N&taputta contends. In 
the beginning of the discourse Upali states that his master 
uses the term danda, punishment, for what is commonly 
called kamma, deed, act. This is true, though not quite 
to the letter; for the word kamma occurs also in the 
Caina Sutras in that sense. The term dan da., however, is 
at least as frequently used. Thus, in the Sutrakrz'tanga II, 
2, p. 357 ff., the thirteen kinds of ' committing sins ' are 
treated of, and in the first five cases the word which I have 
translated 'committing sins' is in the original danda- 
samadawe, and in the remaining cases kiriySMawe, i.e. 

The Niga«//&a Upali goes on to explain that there are 
three dandas, the danda of body, that of speech, and that 
of mind. This agrees with the Gaina doctrine expressed 
in nearly the same words in the Sthananga Sutra, 3rd 
udd&aka (see Indian Antiquary, IX, p. 159). 

The second statement of Upali, that the Niga»/Aas con- 
sider sins of the body more important than sins of the 
mind, is in perfect harmony with Caina views. For in the 
Sutrakrztlnga II, 4, p. 398 ff., the question is discussed 
whether sins may be committed unconsciously, and it is 
boldly answered in the affirmative (compare note 6, p. 399) ; 
and in the Sixth Lecture of the same book (p. 414) the 
Buddhists are severely ridiculed for maintaining that it 
depends on the intention of the man whether a deed of his 
be a sin or not. 

In the Anguttara Nikaya III, 70, 3, some practices of 
Nigaw^a laymen are discussed. I translate the passage 
thus: 'O Vis&kha, there is a class of Samawas who are 
called Nigant/tas. They exhort a Savaka thus : " Well, 
sir, you must desist from doing injury to beings in the East 
beyond a yd^ana from here, or to those in the West, North, 
South, always beyond a yd^ana from here." In this way 
they enjoin tenderness by making him spare some living 
beings ; in this way they enjoin cruelty by making him not 
spare other living beings.' It is not difficult to recognise 
under these words the Digvirati vow of the Gainas, which 

[45] b 


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xviii gaina sOtras. 

consists in laying down the limits beyond which one shall 
not travel nor do business in the different directions. A 
man who keeps this vow cannot, of course, do any harm to 
beings beyond the limits within which he is obliged to keep. 
This is so distorted by the hostile sect as to lay the rule 
under discussion open to blame. We cannot expect one 
sect to give a fair and honest exposition of the tenets 
of their opponents ; it is but natural that they should put 
them in such a form as to make the objections to be raised 
against them all the better applicable. The Gainas were 
not a whit better in this respect than the Bauddhas, and 
they have retorted upon them in the same way ; witness 
their misrepresentation of the Buddhist idea that a deed 
becomes a sin only through the sinful intention of the doer, 
in a passage in the present volume, p. 414, v. 26 ff., where 
the sound principle of the Buddhists is ridiculed by applying 
it to a fictitious and almost absurd case. 

The passage in the Anguttara Nikaya, which we have 
just discussed, goes on as follows : * On the Up6satha day 
they exhort a Savaka thus : " Well, sir, take off all your 
clothes and declare : I belong to nobody, and nobody belongs 
to me." Now his parents know him to be their son, and 
he knows them to be his parents. His son or wife know 
him to be their father or husband, and he knows them to 
be his son or wife. His slaves and servants know him to 
be their master, and he knows them to be his slaves and 
servants. Therefore (the Niga«///as) make him use lying 
speech at the time when he makes the above declarations. 
On this account I charge him with lying speech. After the 
lapse of that night he enjoys pleasures (by means of things) 
that were not freely given. On this account I charge him 
with taking of what is not freely given.' 

According to this statement, the duties of a Niga«/^a 
layman became, during the Updsatha days, equal to those 
of a monk ; it was on common days only that the difference 
between layman and monk was realised. This description, 
however, does not quite agree with the Pdsaha rules of the 
£ainas. Bhandarkar gives the following definition of Pdsaha 

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according to the Tattvarthasaradipika, which agrees with 
what we know about it from other sources : ' Pdsaha, i. e. 
to observe a fast or eat once only or one dish only on the 
two holy days (the eighth and the fourteenth of each fort- 
night), after having given up bathing, unguents, ornaments, 
company of women, odours, incense, lights, &c, and assumed 
renunciation as an ornament.' Though the Pdsaha obser- 
vances of the present Gainas are apparently more severe 
than those of the Buddhists, still they fall short of the above 
description of the Niga«/Aa rules; for a Caina layman 
does not, to my knowledge, take off his clothes during the 
Pdsaha days, though he discards all ornaments and every 
kind of luxury; nor must he pronounce any formula of 
renunciation similar to that which the monks utter on 
entering the order. Therefore, unless the Buddhist account 
contains some mistake or a gross misstatement, it would 
appear that the Cainas have abated somewhat in their 
rigidity with regard to the duties of laymen. 

Buddhaghdsa, in his commentary on the Brahma^ala 
Sutta, Dtgha Nikaya I, 2, 38 1 , mentions the Niga«/Aas as 
holding the opinion, discussed in the text, that the soul has 
no colour, in contradistinction to the A^ivikas, who divide 
mankind into six classes according to the colour of the 
Atman ; both Nigaw/Aas and A^ivikas, however, agree in 
maintaining that the soul continues to exist after death 
and is free from ailments (ardgd). Whatever may be the 
exact meaning of the last expression, it is clear that the 
above description squares with the opinions of the Camas 
about the nature of the soul, as described below, p. 1 7a f. 

• In another passage (I.e. p. 168) Buddhaghdsa says that 
Nigan/^a Nataputta considers cold water to be possessed of 
life (so kira sltddakS sattasawwi hdti), for which reason he 
does not use it. This doctrine of the Cainas is so generally 
known that I need not bring forward any quotation from 
the Sutras in support of its genuineness. 

This is nearly all the information on the doctrines of the 

1 Suroangala Vilasint, p. 1 19 of the Pali Text Society edition. 

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ancient Niga«/^as which I have been able to gather from 
the Pali texts. Though it is less than we desire, its value 
is not to be underrated. For with one exception all the 
doctrines and usages of the ancient Niga«/Aas mentioned 
agree with those of the present G'ainas, and they comprise 
some of the fundamental ideas of 6"ainism. It is therefore 
not probable that the doctrines of the Gainas have under- 
gone a great change in the interval between the quoted 
Buddhist records and the composition of the 6'aina canon. 
I have purposely deferred the discussion of the classical 
passage on the doctrines of Niga«/>fct Nataputta, because it 
leads us to a new line of inquiry. The passage in question 
occurs in the Sama««aphala Sutta of the Digha Nikaya \ 
I translate it in accordance with Buddhaghdsa's com- 
ment in the Sumangala Vilasint. ' Here, great king, a 
Nigaw/Aa is protected by restraint in four directions (£atu- 
yamasawvarasawvutd). How, great king, is aNiga«//«t 
protected by restraint in four directions ? Here, great king, 
a Niga«*^a abstains from all (cold) water, he abstains from 
all bad deeds, by abstinence from all bad deeds he is 
free from sins, he realises abstinence from all bad deeds. 
In this way, great king, a Niga#/Aa is protected by restraint 
in four directions. And, great king, because he is thus 
protected, the Niga»/>4a Nataputta's soul is exalted, is 
restrained, is well settled 2 .' — This is, certainly, not an accu- 
rate nor an exhaustive description of the Gaina. creed, 
though it contains nothing alien from it, and successfully 
imitates the language of the (7aina Sutras. As I have 
already explained elsewhere 3 , 1 think the term yfeatuyama- 
sawvarasawvutd has been misunderstood not only by 
the commentator, but also by the author of the text. For 

1 Page 57 of the edition in the Pali Text Society. 

* The translations of Gogerly and of Bumouf in Grimblot, Sept Suttas Palis, 
were made without the help of a commentary, and may, therefore, be passed 
by. It is, however, open to doubt whether Buddhaghosa has drawn bis in- 
formation from genuine tradition, or had to rely on conjectures of his own. 

* See my paper, 'On Mahivtra and his Predecessors,' in the Indian 
Antiquary, IX, 158 ff., where some of the above problems have been treated. 

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the PAH £atuyama is equivalent to the Prakn't kktug- 
<fama, a well-known 6"aina term which denotes the four 
vows of Panrva in contradistinction to the five vows (paȣa 
mahavvaya) of Mahavira. Here, then, the Buddhists, I 
suppose, have made a mistake in ascribing to Nataputta 
Mahavira a doctrine which properly belonged to his prede- 
cessor Parjva. This is a significant mistake; for the 
Buddhists could not have used the above term as descrip- 
tive of the NigawA&a creed unless they had heard it from 
followers of Parrva, and they would not have used it if the 
reforms of Mahavira had already been generally adopted 
by the Niga»/Aas at the time of the Buddha. I, therefore, 
look on this blunder of the Buddhists as a proof for the 
correctness of the Gaina. tradition, that followers of Parrva 
actually existed at the time of Mahavira. 

Before following up this line of inquiry, I have to call 
attention to another significant blunder of the Buddhists : 
they call Nataputta an Aggivesana, i.e. AgnivaLyyayana ; 
according to the Gainas, however, he was a KcLryapa, and 
we may credit them in such particulars about their own 
Tirthakara. But Sudharman, his chief disciple, who in the 
Sfltras is made the expounder of his creed, was an Agni- 
valryayana, and as he played a prominent part in the pro- 
pagation of the <7aina religion, the disciple may often have 
been confounded by outsiders with the master, so that the 
Gdtra of the former was erroneously assigned to the latter. 
Thus by a double blunder the Buddhists attest the exis- 
tence of Mahavira 's predecessor Parrva and of his chief 
disciple Sudharman. 

That Parjva was a historical person, is now admitted by 
all as very probable ; indeed, his followers, especially Keji 1 , 
who seems to have been the leader of the sect at the time 
of Mahavira, are frequently mentioned in Caina Stitras in 
such a matter-of-fact way, as to give us no reason for 
doubting the authenticity of those records. The legend in 

1 In the Ra£aprn.fnt PSwva has a discussion with king PaSsi and converts 
him, see Actes du VI Congres International des Orientalistes, vol. iii, 
p. 490 ff. 

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xxii gaina sOtras. 

the Uttaradhyayana, Lecture XXIII, how the union of the 
old and the new church was effected, is of much interest in 
this respect. Ke\ri and Gautama, .the representatives and 
leaders of the two branches of the Gaina church, both at 
the head of their pupils, meet in a park near Sravasti ; the 
differences in their creed concerning the number of great 
vows, and the use or disuse of clothes are explained away 
without further discussion, and full harmony with regard to 
the fundamental ethical ideas is satisfactorily established by 
the readiness with which allegorical expressions of the one 
speaker are understood and explained by the other. There 
seems to have been some estrangement, but no hostility 
between the two branches of the church ; and though the 
members of the older branch invariably are made to adopt 
the Law of Mahavira, ' which enjoins five vows,' it may be 
imagined that they continued in some of their old practices, 
especially with regard to the use of clothes, which Mahavira 
had abandoned. On this assumption we can account for 
the division of the church in .SV6tambaras and Digambaras, 
about the origin of which both sects have contradictory 
legends 1 . There was apparently no sudden rupture ; but 
an original diversity (such as e.g. subsists now between the 
several G&kkhas of the .Svetambaras) ripened into division, 
and in the end brought about the great schism. 

The records in the Buddhist Canon are not repugnant to 
our views about the existence of the Niga«/Aas before 
Nataputta; for the NigawAfcas must have been an important 
sect at the time when Buddhism took its rise. This may be 
inferred from the fact that they are so frequently mentioned 
in the Pi/akas as opponents or converts of Buddha and his 
disciples ; and as it is nowhere said or even merely implied 
that the Niga»/Aas were a newly-founded sect, we may 
conclude that they had already existed a considerable time 
before the advent of the Buddha. This conclusion is sup- 
ported by another fact. Makkhali Gdsala, a contemporary 

1 See my paper on the origin of the .SVetSmbara and Digambara sects in the 
Journal of the German Oriental Society, vol. xxxviii, p. I ff. 

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of Buddha and Mahavira, divided mankind into six classes '. 
Of these, according to Buddhaghdsa 2 , the third class con- 
tains the Nigaw/Aas. G6sala probably would not have 
ranked them as a separate, i. e. fundamental subdivision of 
mankind, if they had only recently come into existence. 
He must have looked upon them as a very important, and 
at the same time, an old sect, in the same way in which, in 
my opinion, the early Buddhists looked upon them. As 
a last argument in favour of my theory I may mention 
that in the MaggAitna. Nikaya 35, a disputation between 
the Buddha and Sa££aka, the son of a Nigaw/Aa, is narrated. 
SaMaka is not a Niga«//4a himself, as he boasts of having 
vanquished Nataputta in disputation s , and, moreover, the 
tenets he defends are not those of the 6ainas. Now when 
a famous controversialist, whose father was a Niga«/Aa, was 
a contemporary of the Buddha, the Niga«/Aas can scarcely 
have been a sect founded during Buddha's life. 

Let us now confront the records of the Gainas about the 
philosophical doctrines of heretics, which they had to combat, 
with such as the Buddhists describe. In the Sutrakrz'tahga 
II, 1, 15 (p. 339 f.) and ai f. (p. 343) two materialistic 
theories which have much in common are spoken of. The 
first passage treats of the opinion of those who contend 
that the body and the soul are one and the same thing ; the 
second passage is concerned with the doctrine that the five 
elements are eternal and constitute everything. The ad- 
herents of either philosophy maintain that it is no sin to 
kill living beings. Similar opinions are, in the Sama»«a- 
phala Sutta, ascribed to Purawa Kassapa and A^ita K6sa- 
kambali. The former denies that there is such a thing as 
sin or merit. Agita Kesakambalt holds that nothing real 

1 Sama/Maphala Sutta, Dtgha Nikaya II, ao. 

* Sumangala Vil&sini, p. 162. Buddhaghosa expressly states that Gosala 
reckoned the NiganMas lower than his own lay disciples, who form the fourth 
class. — As Buddhaghosa does not take umbrage at Gos&la's reckoning the 
Bhikkhus still lower, it is clear that he did not identify the Bhikkhus with 
the Buddhist monks. 

* See p. 250 of the Pali Text Society edition. 

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corresponds to the current transcendental ideas. He more- 
over maintains: 'Man (purisd) consists of the four ele- 
ments; when he dies, earth returns to earth, water to 
water, fire to fire, wind to wind, and the organs of sense 
merge into air (or space) 1 . Four bearers with the hearse 
carry the corpse to the place of cremation (or, while it is 
burned) they make lamentations ; the dove-coloured bones 
remain, the offerings are reduced to ashes.' The last 
passage recurs with few alterations in the Sutrakn'tanga, 
p. 340 : ' Other men carry the corpse away to burn it. 
When it has been consumed by fire, only dove-coloured 
bones remain, and the four bearers return with the hearse to 
their village*.' 

In connection with the second materialistic system (p. 343, 
§ aa, and p. 237 f., w. 15, 16) a variety of it is mentioned, 
which adds the permanent Atman or soul as a sixth to the 
five permanent elements. This seems to have been a pri- 
mitive or a popular form of the philosophy which we now 
know under the name of Vaij^shika. To this school of 
philosophy we must perhaps assign Pakudha Ka££ayana 
of Buddhist record. He maintained 3 that there are seven 
eternal, unchangeable, mutually independent things : the 
four elements, pleasure, pain, and the soul. As they have 
no influence upon one another, it is impossible to do any 
real harm to anybody. I confess that to maintain the 
eternal existence of pleasure and pain (sukha and dukkha) 
and to deny their influence on the soul, seems to me 
absurd ; but the Buddhists have perhaps misstated the 
original tenets. At any rate, the views of Pakudha Ka££ayana 

1 AldLra ; it is not reckoned as a fifth element in the Buddhist account, but it 
is so in that of the Ga'mas, see below, p. 343, and p. 337, verse 15. This is a 
verbal, rather than a material difference. 

1 I put here the original texts side by side so that their likeness may be 
more obvious : 

asandipa#£ami purisa matam adahanae parehi niggzi, aga«\f- 
gaA.Manti yava a/ahana gh&mite sarlre kav-6tava««aim 

padani paflflapenti, kipdtakani a/Mini asandfpaft£ama purisa 
atlAtni bhavanti, bhassanta*hutiyd. gamam pa££aga££Aanti. 
* Loc. cit., p. j6. 

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come under the denomination of Akriyavada ; and in this 
they differ from the Vaij6shika proper, which is a Kriyavada 
system. As these two terms are frequently used both by 
Buddhists and Camas, it will not be amiss to define them 
more accurately. Kriyavada is the doctrine which teaches 
that the soul acts or is affected by acts. Under this head 
comes Cainism, and of Brahmanical philosophies Vaueshika 
and Nyaya (which, however, are not expressly quoted in the 
canonical books of either Buddhists or Cainas), and appa- 
rently a great many systems of which the names have not 
been preserved, but the existence of which is implied in our 
texts. Akriyavada is the doctrine which teaches either 
that a soul does not exist, or that it does not act or is not 
affected by acts. Under this subdivision fall the different 
schools of materialists ; of Brahmanical philosophies the 
Veclanta, Sahkhya, and Ydga ; and the Buddhists. Of the 
latter the doctrines of the Ksha«ikavadins and the Stmya- 
vadins are alluded to in Stitrakr/tanga 1, 14, verses 4 and 7. 
It may be mentioned here that the V£dantists or their 
opinions are frequently mentioned in the Siddhanta; in the 
Sutrakrzt&nga the Vedanta is the third heresy described in 
the First Lecture of the Second Book, p. 344 ; it is also 
adverted to in the Sixth Lecture, p. 417. But as no pro- 
fessor of it was among the six heretical teachers (titthiya) 
of the Buddhists, we may pass them over here 1 . 

The fourth heresy discussed in the First Lecture of the 
Second Book of the Sutrakr/tahga 2 is Fatalism. In the 
Sama«»aphala Sutta this system is expounded by Makkhali 
Gdsala in the following words 3 : ' Great king, there is no 
cause, nor any previously existing principle productive of 
the pollution of sentient beings; their defilement is un- 
caused and unproduced by anything previously existing. 
There is no cause nor any previously existing principle 

1 It is worthy of remark that the VSdantists play no conspicuous part, if 
any, among Buddha's opponents. As they were, however, the foremost of 
Brahmanical philosophers, we must conclude that Brahmans of learning held 
aloof from the classes of society to which the new religion appealed. 

* Page 345 1, see also p. 339. » Grimblot, Sept Sottas Palis, p. 170. 

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productive of the purity of sentient beings : their purity is 
uncaused and unproduced by anything previously existing. 
For their production there is nothing that results from the 
conduct of the individuals, nothing from the actions of 
others, nothing from human effort: they result neither 
from power nor effort, neither from manly fortitude nor 
manly energy. Every sentient being, every insect, every 
living thing, whether animal or vegetable 1 , is destitute of 
intrinsic force, power, or energy, but, being held by the 
necessity of its nature, experiences happiness or misery 
in the six forms of existence, &c.' The explanation of 
these doctrines in the Sutrakrz'tanga (La), though less 
wordy, comes to the same ; it does not, however, expressly 
ascribe them to Gdsala, the son of Makkhali. 

The Camas enumerate four principal schools of philo- 
sophy 2 : Kriyavada, Akriyavada, A^wanavada, and Vaina- 
yikavada. The views of the A^wanikas, or Agnostics, are 
not clearly stated in the texts, and the explanation of the 
commentators of all these philosophies which I have given 
in note a, p. 83, is vague and misleading. But from Buddhist 
writings we may form a pretty correct idea of what Agnos- 
ticism was like. It is, according to the Sama»»aphala 
Sutta, the doctrine of Saajg-aya B61a#$iputta, and is there 
stated in the following way 3 : ' If you inquire of me whether 
there be a future state of being, I answer : If I experience 
a future state of existence, I will then explain the nature of 
that state. If they inquire, Is it after this manner ? that is 

1 In the original: sabbg satta, sabbe pana, sabbe bhflta, sabbe 
£■5 v a. The same enumeration frequently occurs in Caina Sutras, and has, in my 
translation, been abbreviated in ' all classes of living beings.' Buddhaghdsa's 
explanation has been thus rendered by Hoemle, Uvasaga Dasao, Appendix II, 
p. 16: 'In the term all beings (sabbe satta) he comprises camels, oxen, 
asses, and other animals without exception. The term all sensive beings 
(sabbe pan a) he uses to denote those with one sense, those with two senses, 
and so forth. The term all generated beings (sabbe bhuta) he uses with 
reference to those that are generated or produced from an egg or from the 
womb. The term all living beings (sabbe ^tva) he uses with reference to 
rice, barley, wheat, and so forth ; in these he conceives that there is life, 
because it is their nature to grow.' 

1 See pp. 83, 391, 316, 385. * Grimblot, 1. c, p. 174. 

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not my concern. Is it after that fashion ? that is not my 
concern. Is it different from these ? that is not my con- 
cern. Is it not ? that is not my concern. No, is it not ? 
It is no concern of mine.' In the same way he e. g. refuses 
a definite answer to the questions whether the Tathagata is 
after death, or is not; is and is not at the same time, is not 
nor is not at the same time. It is evident that the Agnostics 
examined all modes of expression of the existence or non- 
existence of a thing, and if it were anything transcendental 
or beyond human experience, they negatived all those 
modes of expression. 

The records of the Buddhists and Cainas about the 
philosophical ideas current at the time of the Buddha and 
Mahavira, meagre though they be, are of the greatest im- 
portance to the historian of that epoch. For they show us 
the ground on which, and the materials with which, a reli- 
gious reformer had to build his system. The similarity 
between some of those 'heretical' doctrines on the one 
side, and £aina or Buddhist ideas on the other, is very 
suggestive, and favours the assumption that the Buddha, as 
well as Mahavira, owed some of his conceptions to these 
very heretics, and formulated others under the influence of 
the controversies which were continually going on with 
them. Thus, I think, that in opposition to the Agnosticism 
of Sawgaya, Mahavira has established the Syadvada. For 
as the A^«anavada declares that of a thing beyond our 
experience the existence, or non-existence or simultaneous 
existence and non-existence, can neither be affirmed nor 
denied, so in a similar way, but one leading to contrary 
results, the Syadvada declares that 'you can affirm the 
existence of a thing from one point of view (syad asti), 
deny it from another (syad nasti) ; and affirm both exis- 
tence and non-existence with reference to it at different 
times (sy&d asti nasti). If you should think of affirming 
existence and non-existence at the same time from the 
same point of view, you must say that the thing cannot be 
spoken of (sy&d avaktavyaA). Similarly, under certain 
circumstances, the affirmation of existence is not possible 

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(syad asti avaktavyaA); of non-existence (syan nasti 
avaktavyaA); and also of both (syad asti nasti 
avaktavyaA) 1 .' 

This is the famous Saptabhanginaya of the Camas. 
Would any philosopher have enunciated such truisms, 
unless they served to silence some dangerous opponents? 
The subtle discussions of the Agnostics had probably 
bewildered and misled many of their contemporaries. Con- 
sequently the Syadvada must have appeared to them as 
a happy way leading out of the maze of the A^wanavada. 
It was the weapon with which the Agnostics assailed the 
enemy, turned against themselves. Who knows how many 
of their followers went over to Mahavira's creed convinced 
by the truth of the Saptabhanginaya ! 

We can trace, I imagine, the influence of Agnosticism 
also in the doctrine of the Buddha about the Nirvawa, as it 
is stated in Pali books. Professor Oldenberg was the first 
to draw attention to the decisive passages which prove 
beyond the possibility of doubt that the Buddha declined 
answering the question whether the Tathagata (i.e. the 
liberated soul, or rather principle of individuality) is after 
death or not. If the public of his time had not been 
accustomed to be told that some things, and those of the 
greatest interest, were beyond the ken of the human mind, 
and had not acquiesced in such answers, it certainly would 
not have lent a willing ear to a religious reformer who 
declined to speak out on what in Brahmanical philosophy 
is considered the end and goal of all speculations. As it 
is, Agnosticism seems to have prepared the way for the 
Buddhist doctrine of the Nirvawa 2 . It is worthy of note 

1 Bhandarkar, Report for 1883-4, P- 95 f- 

* The reticence of Buddha on the nature of the NirvSwa may have been 
wise at his time; but it was fraught with very important results for the 
development of the church. For his followers, having to hold their own 
against such split-hair dialecticians as the Brahmanical philosophers, were 
almost driven to enunciate more explicit ideas about the great problem which 
the founder of the church had left unsolved. The tendency to supply the 
crowning stone to an edifice which appeared to have been left unfinished by 
the hand of the master, led to the division of the community into numerous 

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that in a dialogue between king Pasenadi and the nun 
Khema, told in the Sawyutta Nikaya, and translated by 
Oldenberg, the king puts his questions about the existence 
or non-existence of the Tathagata after death in the same 
formulas which Sa«^aya is made to use in the passage 
translated above from the Sama««aphala Sutta. 

In support of my assumption that the Buddha was 
influenced by contemporary Agnosticism, I may adduce 
a tradition incorporated in the Mahavagga I, 23 and 24. 
There we are told that the most distinguished pair of his 
disciples, Sariputta and Moggalana, had, previously to their 
conversion, been adherents of Sawifaya, and had brought 
over to Buddha 250 disciples of their former teacher. This 
happened not long after Buddha's reaching Bddhi, i.e. 
at the very beginning of the new sect, when its founder 
must have been willing, in order to win pupils, to treat 
prevalent opinions with all due consideration. 

The greatest influence on the development of Mahavlra's 
doctrines must, I believe, be ascribed to Gdsala, the son of 
Makkhali. A history of his life, contained in the Bhaga- 
vati XV, 1, has been briefly translated by Hoernle in the 
Appendix to his translation of the Uvasaga Dasao. It is 
there recorded that Gdsala lived six years together with 
Mahaviraas his disciple, practising asceticism.but afterwards 
separated from him, started a Law of his own, and set up as 
a Gina, the leader of the A^ivikas. The Buddhist records, 
however, speak of him as the successor of Nanda VaJikka, 
and Kisa Saw*ki££a, and of his sect, the a^elakaparibba- 
^"akas, as a long-established order of monks. We have 
no reason to doubt the statement of the £ainas, that 
Mahavira and Gdsala for some time practised austerities 
together ; but the relation between them probably was 
different from what the 6'ainas would have us believe. 
I suppose, and shall now bring forward some arguments 
in favour of my opinion, that Mahavira and Gdsala asso- 

sects soon after the Nirvana of Buddha. We need not wonder therefore that 
in Ceylon, which is at such a distance from the centre of Brahmanical learning, 
Buddhists could retain the doctrine of the Nirvana in its original form. 

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ciated with the intention of combining their sects and fusing 
them into one. The fact that these two teachers lived 
together for a long period, presupposes, it would appear, 
some similarity between their opinions. I have already 
pointed out above, in the note on p. xxvi, that the ex- 
pression sab b£ satta sabbfi pa«a sabbe bhuta sabb& 
givk is common to both Gdsala and the 6'ainas, and from 
the commentary we learn that the division of animals into 
fikendriy as, dvindriyas.&c, which is so common in <7aina 
texts, was also used by Gdsala. The curious and almost para- 
doxical 6"aina doctrine of the six L&yyas closely resembles, 
as Professor Leumann was the first to perceive, Gdsala's 
division of mankind into six classes ; but in this particular 
I am inclined to believe that the <7ainas borrowed the idea 
from the A^ivikas and altered it so as to bring it into 
harmony with the rest of their own doctrines. With regard 
to the rules of conduct the collective evidence obtainable is 
such as to amount nearly to proof that Mahavlra borrowed 
the more rigid rules from Gdsala. For as stated in the 
Uttaradhyayana XXIII, 13, p. 121, the Law of Parjva 
allowed monks to wear an under and upper garment, but 
the Law of Vardhamana forbade clothes. A term 1 for 
naked friar, frequently met with in the Caina Sutras, is 
a££laka, literally 'unclothed.' Now the Buddhists dis- 
tinguish between A^elakas and NigawMas ; e. g. in Buddha- 
ghdsa's commentary on the Dhammapadam 8 it is said of 
some Bhikkhus that they gave the preference to the 
Niga«///as before the A/fcelakas, because the latter are stark 
naked (sabbasd apafi££Aanna), while the Niga«/Aas 
use some sort of cover 3 ' for the sake of decency,' as was 
wrongly assumed by those Bhikkhus. The Buddhists de- 

1 Another term is Cinakalpika, which may be rendered : adopting the 
standard of the £inas. The -SVetambaras say that the Cinakalpa was early 
replaced by the Sthavirakalpa, which allows the use of clothes. 

2 Fausboll's edition, p. 398. 

* The words sfisakam purimasamappita va pa/i££A£denti are not 
qnite clear, bnt the contrast leaves no donbt about what is meant. Sesaka 
is, I believe, the Pali for xi/naka. If this is right, the above words may be 
translated : ' they cover the pudenda wearing (a cloth) about the forepart (of 
their body).* 

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note by A£elaka the followers of Makkhali Gdsala and his 
two predecessors Kisa Szmki&ka. and Nanda Va&kfa, and 
have preserved an account of their religious practices in 
the Ma^g-Aima Nikfiya 36. There Sa££aka, the son of 
a Niga«/Aa, whom we are already acquainted with, explains 
the meaning of kayabhavana, bodily purity, by referring 
to the conduct of the A£61akas. Some details of Sa££aka's 
account are unintelligible in the absence of a commentary, 
but many are quite clear, and bear a close resemblance to 
well-known (Jaina usages. Thus the A^elakas, like the 
Caina monks, may not accept an invitation for dinner ; 
they are forbidden food that is abhiha/a or uddissaka/a, 
which terms are, in all likelihood, identical with adhya- 
hrita and audde^ika of the £ainas (see p. 133, note); 
they are not allowed to eat meat or to drink liquor. * Some 
beg only in one house and accept but one morsel of food, 
some in more up to seven ; some live upon one donation of 
food, some on more up to seven.' Similar to these are 
some practices of 6'aina monks described in the Kalpa 
Sutra, ' Rules for Yatis,' § 26, part i, p. 300, and below, 
p. 176 f., verses 15 and 19. The following practice of the 
A^elakas is identically the same as that observed by the 
6'ainas : 'some eat but one meal every day, or every second 
day 1 , &c, up to every half month.' All the rules of the 
A££lakas are either identical with those of the 6'ainas or 
extremely like them, and dictated, so to say, by the same 
spirit. And still Sa££aka does not quote the Niga«//*as as 
a standard of ' bodily purity,' though he was the son of 
a NigantAa, and therefore must have known their religious 
practices. This curious fact may most easily be accounted 
for by our assuming that the original NigawMas, of 
whom the Buddhist records usually speak, were not the 
section of the church, which submitted to the more rigid 
rules of Mah&vira, but those followers of Panrva, who, 

1 These fasts are called by the Cainas ^autthabhatta, Maf/Aabhatta, 
&c. (see e. g. Aopapatika Sfltra, ed. Leumaon, § 30 1 A) ; and monks observing 
them, £autthabhattiya, AAa/Mabhattiya, Sec. (see e.g. Kalpa Stttra, 
' Rules for Yatis,' | 31 ff.) 

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without forming a hostile party, yet continued, I imagine, 
to retain within the united church some particular usages 
of the old one *. As those rigid rules formed no part of 
the ancient creed, and Mahavira, therefore, must have intro- 
duced them, it is probable that he borrowed them from the 
A£elakas or A^ivikas, the followers of Gdsala, with whom he 
is said to have lived in close companionship for six years 
practising austerities. We may regard Mahavira's adoption 
of some religious ideas and practices of the A^ivikas as 
concessions made to them in order to win over Gdsala and 
his disciples. This plan seems to have succeeded for some 
time ; but at last the allied teachers quarrelled, it may be 
supposed, on the question who was to be the leader of the 
united sects. Mahavira's position apparently was strength- 
ened by his temporary association with Gdsala, but the 
latter seems to have lost by it, if we are to believe the 
account of the Gainas, and his tragic end must have been 
a severe blow to the prospects of his sect. 

Mahavira probably borrowed much more from other 
sects than we shall ever be able to prove. It must have 
been easy to add new doctrines to the Gaina creed, as 
it scarcely forms a system in the true sense of the word. 
Each sect, or fraction of a sect, which was united with the 
6aina church by the successful policy of Mahavira * may 
have brought with it some of its favourite speculations, and 
most probably its favourite saints too, who were recog- 
nised as ATakravartins or Tirthakaras. This is, of course, 
a mere conjecture of mine; but it would account for the 
strange hagiology of the Camas, and in the absence of any 
trace of direct evidence we are driven to rely upon guesses, 
and those deserve the preference which are the most 

1 As I have said above and in note 2, p. 119, this difference has probably 
given rise to the division of the church into .Svetambaras and Digambaras. Bnt 
these two branches have not directly grown out of the party of Pawva and 
that of Mahavira ; for both recognise Mahavira as a Ttrthakara. 

' Mahavira must have been a great man in his way, and an eminent leader 
among his contemporaries ; he owed the position of a Ttrthakara probably 
not so much to the sanctity of his life, as to his success in propagating his 

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plausible. For the rest, however, of the hypotheses 
which I have tried to establish in the preceding pages, 
I claim a higher degree of probability. For on the one 
hand I do no violence to the tradition of the £ainas, 
which in the absence of documents deserves most careful 
attention, and on the other, I assume but what under the 
given circumstances would have been most likely to happen. 
The cardinal feature in my construction of the early history 
of the Caina church consists in my turning to account 
the alleged existence of followers of Paryva in the time 
of Mahavira, a tradition which seems to be almost unani- 
mously accepted by modern scholars. 

If Cainism dates from an early period, and is older than 
Buddha and Mahavira, we may expect to find marks of its 
antiquity in the character of Gaina. philosophy. Such a 
mark is the animistic belief that nearly everything is 
possessed of a soul ; not only have plants their own souls, 
but particles of earth, cold water, fire, and wind also. Now 
ethnology teaches us that the animistic theory forms the 
basis of many beliefs that have been called the philosophy 
of savages ; that it is more and more relinquished or 
changed into purer anthropomorphism as civilisation ad- 
vances. If, therefore, £aina ethics are for their greater 
part based on primitive animism, it must have extensively 
existed in large classes of Indian society when G'ainism was 
first originated. This must have happened at a very early 
time, when higher forms of religious beliefs and cults had 
not yet, more generally, taken hold of the Indian mind. 

Another mark of antiquity £ainism has in common with 
the oldest Brahmanical philosophies, VSdanta and Sahkhya. 
For at this early epoch in the development of metaphysics, 
the Category of Quality is not yet clearly and distinctly 
conceived, but it is just evolving, as it were, out of the 
Category of Substance : things which we recognise as 
qualities are constantly mistaken for and mixed up with 
substances. Thus in the Vedanta the highest Brahman is 
not possessed of pure existence, intellect, and joy as quali- 
ties of his nature, but Brahman is existence, intellect, and 
[45] c 

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joy itself. In the Sankhya the nature of purusha or soul 
is similarly denned as being intelligence or light; and 
the three gu»as are described as goodness, energy, and 
delusion, or light, colour, and darkness; yet these gunas 
are not qualities in our sense of the word, but, as Professor 
Garbe adequately calls them, constituents of primitive 
matter. It is quite in accordance with this way of thinking 
that the ancient Gaina texts usually speak only of sub- 
stances, dravyas, and their development or modifications, 
paryayas; and when they mention gu«as, qualities, 
besides, which however is done but rarely in the Sfltras 
and regularly in comparatively modern books only, this 
seems to be a later innovation due to the influence which 
the philosophy and terminology of Nyaya-Vai-reshika 
gradually gained over the scientific thoughts of the Hindus. 
For at the side of paryaya, development or modification, 
there seems to be no room for an independent category 
'quality,' since paryaya is the state in which a thing, 
dravya, is at any moment of its existence, and this must, 
therefore, include qualities, as seems to be actually the 
view embodied in the oldest text. Another instance of 
the Gainas applying the category 'substance* to things 
which are beyond its sphere, and come rather under that 
of 'quality,' is seen in their treating merit and demerit, 
d harm a and ad harm a, as kinds of substances with which 
the soul comes into contact ' ; for they are regarded as co- 
extensive with the world, not unlike space, which even the 
Vatreshikas count as a substance. If the categories of 
substance and quality had already been clearly distinguished 
from one another, and had been recognised as correlative 
terms, as they are in VaLrfishika philosophy (which defines 
substance as the substratum of qualities, and quality as 
that which is inherent in substance), Gainism would almost 
certainly not have adopted such confused ideas as those 
just expounded. 

1 That this was the primitive conception of the Vedic Hindus has been 
noted by Old en berg, Die Religion des Veda, p. 317 f. 

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From the preceding remarks it will be evident that I do 
not agree with Bhandarkar l , who claims a late origin for 
Cainism, because, on some points, it entertains the same 
views as the Vaueshika. The Vaireshika philosophy may 
be briefly described as a philosophical treatment and syste- 
matical arrangement of those general concepts and ideas 
which were incorporated in the language, and formed 
therefore the mental property common to all who spoke or 
knew Sanskrit The first attempts to arrive at such a natural 
philosophy may have been made at an early epoch ; but 
the perfection of the system, as taught in the aphorisms of 
Ka»ada, could not be reached till after many centuries of 
patient mental labour and continuous philosophical dis- 
cussion. In the interval between the origin and the final 
establishment of the system those borrowings may have 
taken place of which, rightly or wrongly, the Camas may 
be accused. I must, however, remark that Bhandarkar 
believes the Gainas to hold, on the points presently to be 
discussed, a view • which is of the nature of a compromise 
between the Sankhyas and the Vedantins on the one hand 
and the Vaweshika on the other.' But for our discussion it 
makes no difference whether direct borrowing or a compro- 
mise between two conflicting views be assumed. The points 
in question are the following : (i) both Cainism and Vaijfi- 
shika embrace the Kriyavada, i. e. they maintain that the 
soul is directly affected by actions, passions, &c. ; (a) both 
advocate the doctrine of asatkarya, i.e. that the product 
is different from its material cause, while the V6danta and 
Sankhya hold that they are the same (satkarya) ; (3) that . 
they distinguish qualities from their substratum (dravya). 
The latter item has been discussed above ; we have to deal, 
therefore, with the first two only. It will be seen that the 
opinions under (1) and (a) are the common-sense views ; 
for that we are directly affected by passions, and that the 
product is different from its cause, e. g. the tree from the 
seed, will always and everywhere be the prima faci6 con- 

1 See his Report for 1883-84, p. 101 1 
C 2 

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elusion of an unbiassed mind, or rather will appear as the 
simple statement of what common experience teaches. 
Such opinions cannot be regarded as characteristic marks 
of a certain philosophy, and their occurrence in another 
system need not be explained by the assumption of borrow- 
ing. The case would be different if a paradoxical opinion 
were found in two different schools ; for a paradoxical 
opinion is most likely the product of but one school, and, 
when once established, it may be adopted by another. But 
such opinions of the Vaijeshika, as are the result of a 
peculiar train of reasoning, e.g. that space (d\s) and air 
(akaja) are two separate substances, do not recur in 
Cainism. For in it, as well as in the older Brahmanical 
systems, Vedanta and Sankhya, space and air are not 
yet distinguished from one another, but aka sa. is made to 
serve for both. 

Some other instances of difference in fundamental doc- 
trines between VaLreshikas and Gainas are, that according 
to the former the souls are infinite and all-pervading, while 
to the latter they are of limited dimensions, and that the 
Vau£shikas make dharma and ad ha r ma qualities of the 
soul, while, as has been said above, the Camas look on 
them as a sort of substances. In one point, however, there 
is some resemblance between a paradoxical Vaueshika 
opinion and a distinct Gaina doctrine. According to the 
Vair£shika there are four kinds of bodies : bodies of earth, 
as those of men, animals, &c. ; bodies of water in the world 
of Varuwa ; bodies of fire in the world of Agni ; and bodies 
of wind in the world of Vayu. This curious opinion has its 
counterpart in Cainism ; for the Cainas, too, assume Earth- 
bodies, Water-bodies, Fire-bodies, and Wind-bodies. How- 
ever, these elementary bodies are the elements or the most 
minute particles of them, inhabited by particular souls. 
This hylozoistic doctrine is, as I have said above, the out- 
come of primitive animism, while the Vaueshika opinion, 
though probably derived from the same current of thought, 
is an adaptation of it to popular mythology. I make no 
doubt that the Gaina opinion is much more primitive and 

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belongs to an older stage in the development of philo- 
sophical thought than the VaLrfishika assumption of four 
kinds of bodies. 

Though I am of opinion that between VaLreshika and 
Cainism no such connection existed as could be proved by 
borrowings of the one system from the other, still I am ready 
to admit that they are related to each other by a kind 
of affinity of ideas. For the fundamental ideas of the 
Vedantins and Sankhyas go directly counter to those of 
the Cainas, and the latter could not adopt them without 
breaking with their religion. But they could go a part of 
their way together with the VaLreshika, and still retain 
their religious persuasion. We need, therefore, not wonder 
that among the writers on the Nyaya- VaLreshika some 
names of Gainas occur. The Gainas themselves go still 
farther, and maintain that the VaLreshika philosophy was 
established by a schismatical teacher of theirs, ATAaluya 
R6hagutta of the Kaurika Gdtra, with whom originated 
the sixth schism of the Camas, the Trairlrika-matam, in 
544 A.V. 1 (18 A.D.) The details of this system given in 
the Avaryaka, w. 77-83, are apparently reproduced from 
Kanada's VaLreshika Danana ; for they consist in the 
enumeration of the six (not seven) categories with their 
subdivisions, among which that of qualities contains but 
seventeen items (not twenty-four), and those identical with 
VaLreshika Danrana I, 1, 6. 

I believe that in this case, as in many others, the Cainas 
claim more honour than is their due in connecting every 
Indian celebrity with the history of their creed. My reason 
for doubting the correctness of the above Gaina legend is 
the following. The VaLreshika philosophy is reckoned as 
one of the orthodox Brahmanical philosophies, and it has 
chiefly, though not exclusively, been cultivated by orthodox 
H indus. We have, therefore, no reason for doubting that 
they have misstated the name and G6tra of the author of 
the Sutras, viz. Kawada of the Klryapa G6tra. No trace 

' See Indische Studien, vol. xvii, p. 1 16 ff. 


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xxxviii oaina sOtras. 

has been found in Brahmanical literature that the name of 
the real author of the Vai\y6shika was Rdhagupta, and his 
Gdtra the Kaiuika G6tra ; nor can Rdhagupta and Ka«ada 
be taken as different names of the same person, because 
their Gdtras also differ. Kawada, follower of Kanada, 
means etymologically crow-eater, owl ; hence his system 
has been nicknamed Aulukya Darcana, owl-philosophy 1 . 
In Rdhagupta's second name, AT^uluya, which stands for 
Sharfuluka *, allusion is made to the ' owl,' probably to the 
Kawadas; but the Gainas refer uluka to the Gdtra of the 
Rdhagupta, viz. Kaurika 8 , which word also means owl. 
As the unanimous tradition of the Brahmans deserves the 
preference before that of the G'ainas, we can most easily 
account for the latter by assuming that Rdhagupta did not 
invent, but only adopted the Vafreshika philosophy to 
support his schismatical views. 

About the two works translated in this volume, the 
Uttaradhyayana and Sutrakn'tanga, I have little to add to 
the remarks of Professor Weber in the Indische Studien, 
vol. xvi, p. 259 ff, and vol. xvii, p. 43 ff. The Sutrakrztanga 
is probably the older of the two, as it is the second Ahga, 
and the Angas obtain the foremost rank among the canonical 
books of the <7ainas, while the Uttaradhyayana, the first 
Mulasutra, belongs to the last section of the Siddhanta. 
According to the summary in the fourth Anga the object 
of the Sutrakrztanga is to fortify young monks against the 
heretical opinions of alien teachers, to confirm them in the 
right faith, and to lead them to the highest good. This 
description is correct on the whole, but not exhaustive, as 
will be seen by going over our table of contents. The 
work opens with the refutation of heretical doctrines, and 
the same object is again treated at greater length in the 

1 See my edition of the Kalpa Sutra, p. 119. 

1 Literally Six-owl. The number six refers to the six categories of the 

" Fart i, p. 390. Bat in the legend translated by Professor Leumann, 
1. c, p. 121, his Gdtra is called ATAaulu. 

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First Lecture of the Second Book. It is followed in the 
First Book by Lectures on a holy life in general, on the 
difficulties a monk has to overcome, especially the tempta- 
tions thrown in his way, the punishment of the unholy, and 
the praise of Mahavtra as the standard of righteousness. 
Then come some Lectures on cognate subjects. The Second 
Book, which is almost entirely in prose, treats of similar 
subjects, but without any apparent connection of its parts. 
It may therefore be considered as supplementary, and as 
a later addition to the First Book. The latter was appa- 
rently intended as a guide for young monks 1 . Its form, 
too, seems adapted to this purpose ; for it lays some claim 
to poetical art in the variety of the metres employed, and 
in the artificial character of some verses. It may, therefore, 
be considered as the composition of one author, while the 
Second Book is a collection of tracts which treat on the 
subjects discussed in the first. 

The Uttaradhyayana resembles the Sutrakn'tanga with 
regard to its object and part of the subjects treated j but it 
is of greater extent than the original part of the Sutra- 
krrtanga, and the plan of the work is carried out with more 
skill. Its intention is to instruct a young monk in his 
principal duties, to commend an ascetic life by precepts 
and examples, to warn him against the dangers in his 
spiritual career, and to give some theoretical information. 
The heretical doctrines are only occasionally alluded to, 
not fully discussed ; apparently the dangers expected from 
that quarter grew less in the same measure as time advanced 
and the institutions of the sect were more firmly established. 
Of more importance to a young monk seems to have been 
an accurate knowledge of animate and inanimate things, as 
a rather long treatise on this subject has been added at the 
end of the book. — Though there is an apparent plan in the 
selection and arrangement of the single Lectures, still it is 
open to doubt whether they were all composed by one 

1 According to an old tradition (see Indische Stadien, vol. xvi, p. 2*3) 
the SutxakrftSnga is studied in the fourth year after the ordination of a monk. 

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author, or only selected from the traditional literature, 
written or oral, which among the Gainas, as everywhere 
else, must have preceded the formation of a canon. I am 
inclined to adopt the latter alternative, because there is 
a greater variety of treatment and style in the different 
parts than seems compatible with the supposition of one 
author, and because a similar origin must be assumed for 
many works of the present canon. 

At what time the works under discussion were composed 
or brought into their present shape is a problem which 
cannot be satisfactorily solved. As, however, the reader of 
the present volume will naturally expect the translator to 
give expression to his personal conviction on this point, 
I give my opinion with all reserve, viz. that most parts, 
tracts, or treatises of which the canonical books consist, 
are old ; that the redaction of the Angas took place at an 
early period (tradition places it under Bhadrabahu) ; that 
the other works of the Siddhanta were collected in course 
of time, probably in the first centuries before our era, and 
that additions or alterations may have been made in the 
canonical works till the time of their first edition under 
Devardhiganin (980 A.V.=454 A.D.) 

I have based my translation of the Uttaradhyayana 
and Sutrakrztanga on the text adopted by the oldest com- 
mentators I could consult. This text differs little from that 
of the MSS. and the printed editions. I had prepared 
a text of my own from some MSS. at my disposal, and 
this has served to check the printed text. 

The Calcutta edition of the Uttaradhyayana (Sawvat 1936 
= 1879 A.D.) contains, besides a Guzerati gloss, the Sutra- 
dipika of Lakshmivallabha, pupil of Lakshm!kirtiga»in of 
the Kharatara Gakkka.. Older than this commentary is 
the 71ka of Devfindra, which I have made my principal 
guide. It was composed in Samvat 1179 or 11*3 A.D., 
and is confessedly an abstract from .Santya^arya's VWtti, 
which I have not used. But I have had at my disposal 
an illuminated old MS. of the Avaluri, belonging to the 

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Strassburg University Library. This work is apparently 
an abstract from the VWtti of .Santya^arya, as in a great 
many passages it almost verbally agrees with Devfindra's 

The Bombay edition of the SutrakrMnga (Sawrvat 1936 
or 1880 A. D.) contains three commentaries: (1) Silaiika's 
71ka, in which is incorporated Bhadrabahu's Niryukti. 
This is the oldest commentary extant ; but it was not with- 
out predecessors, as .Silanka occasionally alludes to old 
commentators. .Silanka lived in the second half of the 
ninth century A. D., as he is said to have finished his com- 
mentary on the A&lranga Sutra in the Saka. year 798 or 
876 A. D. (2) The Dipika, an abstract from the last by 
Harshakula, which was composed in Sawvat 1583 or 151 7 
A. D. I have also used a MS. of the Dipika in my possession. 
(3) Plrairandra's Balavabddha, a Guzerati gloss. — My prin- 
cipal guide was, of course, .Silanka ; when he and Harsha- 
kula agree, I refer to them in my notes as the ' commen- 
tators;' I name .Silanka when his remark in question has 
been omitted by Harshakula, and I quote the latter when 
he gives some original matter of interest. I may add that 
one of my MSS. is covered with marginal and interlinear 
glosses which have now and then given me some help in 
ascertaining the meaning of the text. 

November, 1894. 

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I may here add a remark on the Parable of the Three Merchants, 
see p. 29 f., which agrees with Matthew xxv. 14 and Luke xix. 11. 
It seems, however, to have had a still greater resemblance to the 
version of the parable in The Gospel according to the Hebrews, 
as will appear from the following passage from Eusebius' Theo- 
phania (ed. Migne's Patrologia Graeca, iv. 155), translated by 
Nicholson, The Gospel according to the Hebrews (London, 1879) : 
'The Gospel, which comes to us in Hebrew characters, has 
directed the threat not against the hider, but against the abandoned 
liver. For it has included three servants, one which devoured the 
substance with harlots and flute-women, one which multiplied, and 
one which hid the talent: one was accepted, one only blamed, 
and one shut up in prison.' I owe this quotation to my colleague 
Arnold Meyer. 

Taking into consideration (1) that the Gaina version contains 
only the essential elements of the parable, which in the Gospels 
are developed into a full story ; and (2) that it is expressly stated 
in the Uttaridhyayana VII, 15 that 'this parable is taken from 
common life,' I think it probable that the Parable of the Three 
Merchants was invented in India, and not in Palestine. 


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I shall explain in due order the discipline of a 
houseless monk, who has got rid of all worldly ties. 
Listen to me. (i) 

A monk who, on receiving an order 1 from his 
superior 2 , walks up to him, watching his nods and 
motions, is called well-behaved. (2) 

But a monk who, on receiving an order from his 
superior, does not walk up to him, being insubor- 
dinate and inattentive, is called ill-behaved. (3) 

As a bitch with sore ears is driven away every- 

1 Aȣ-nidd8sa-kare\ Ag8& is the order itself; nird&ra, the 
assent to it. 

* The original has the plural instead of the singular. It takes 
great liberties in this respect, and the commentators constantly 
call to help a vaianavyatyaya or lingavyatyaya, exchange of 
number or gender, as the case may be. It is impossible in the 
translation to follow the original in this respect, and useless to note 
all such grammatical blunders. The conclusion we may draw from 
them is that in the spoken language many grammatical forms which 
in the literary language continued to be used, were on the point of 
dying out or had already actually become obsolete. I am almost 
sure that the vernacular of the time when the Sutras were composed 
began to drop the distinction between the singular and plural in 
the verb. It was, however, artificially revived in the literary M£ha- 
rdsh/rf of later days. 

[45] B 

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where, thus a bad, insubordinate, and talkative 
(pupil) is turned out (4) 

As a pig leaves a trough filled with grain to feed 
on faeces, so a brute (of a man) turns away from 
virtue, and takes to evil ways. (5) 

Hearing a man thus compared to a dog and a pig, 
he who desires his own welfare, should adhere to 
good conduct. (6) 

Therefore be eager for discipline, that you may 
acquire righteousness; a son of the wise 1 , who 
desires liberation 2 , will not be turned away from 
anywhere. (7) 

One should always be meek, and not be talkative 
in the presence of the wise; one should acquire 
valuable knowledge, and avoid what is worthless. (8) 

When reprimanded a wise man should not be 
angry, but he should be of a forbearing mood ; he 
should not associate, laugh, and play with mean 
men. (9) 

He should do nothing mean 3 , nor talk much; 
but after having learned his lesson, he should 
meditate by himself. (10) 

1 Buddhaputta. Buddha is here and in the sequel explained 
by fiHrya, teacher. The word is in the crude form, not in the 
inflected form, as the nominative would not suit the metre. 
Liberties of this kind are frequently met with in our text 

* Ni6ga//Ai = niydgarthin. It is always explained and 
usually means mfikshSrthin. But here and in verse 20 niydga 
has perhaps its common meaning: appointment, order. In that 
case we must translate : he who waits for an order. 

* .ATant/aliya, literally, he should not demean himself like 
a K&tid&la. The commentators, however, divide the word in 
k&nda, violent, hot, and altka, untrue, false. This explanation is 
too artificial to be accepted, though the meaning comes to the 
same thing. 

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If he by chance does anything mean, he should 
never deny it, but if he has done it, he should say : 
' I have done it ; ' if he has not done it, ' I have not 
done it/ (i i) 

He should not, in every case, wait for the express 
command (of the teacher) like an unbroken horse 
for the whip (of the rider), but like a broken horse 
which sees the whip (of the rider) he should commit 
no evil act. (12) 

Disobedient, rough speaking, ill-behaved pupils 
will exasperate even a gentle teacher; but those 
will soon win even a hot-tempered teacher who 
humour him and are polite. (13) 

He should not speak unasked, and ' asked he 
should not tell a lie ; he should not give way to his 
anger, and bear with indifference pleasant and un- 
pleasant occurrences. (14) 

Subdue your Self, for the Self is difficult to sub- 
due ; if your Self is subdued, you will be happy 
in this world and in the next. (15) 

Better it is that I should subdue my Self by self- 
control and penance, than be subdued by others 
with fetters and corporal punishment (16) 

He should never do anything disagreeable to the 
wise 1 , neither in words nor deeds, neither openly 
nor secretly. (17) 

He should not (sit) by the side of the teacher, 
nor before him, nor behind him; he should not 
touch (the teacher's) thigh with his own, nor answer 
his call from the couch. (18) 

A well-behaved monk should not sit on his hams 2 , 

1 Buddbi»a0», L e. the superiors. 

* Palhatthiyi = paryastikS: so that his clothes cover his 
knees and shanks. 

B 2 

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nor cross his arms 1 , nor stretch out his legs, nor 
stand (too) close to his teacher. (19) 

If spoken to by the superior, he should never 
remain silent, but should consider it as a favour; 
asking for his command 2 , he should always politely 
approach his teacher. (20) 

If the teacher speaks little or much, he should 
never grow impatient; but an intelligent pupil 
should rise from his seat and answer (the teacher's) 
call modestly and attentively. (21) 

He should never ask a question when sitting 
on his stool or his bed, but rising from his seat 8 
and coming near, he should ask him with folded 
hands. (22) 

When a pupil who observes the above rules of 
conduct, questions the teacher about the sacred text, 
its meaning, or both, he should deliver it according 
to tradition. (23) 

A monk should avoid untruth, nor should he 
speak positively (about future things, his plans, &c) ; 
he should avoid sinful speech, and always keep free 
from deceit. (24) 

He should not tell anything sinful or meaningless 4 

1 Pakshapitt</a. 

1 Niyaga/Mi or nidga/Mi. The commentator explains it, as 
in verse 7, by ' desiring liberation/ 

' Ukku</u6. The commentator explains it by muktasanaA, 
karanataA padapu^ManadigataA. 

4 In illustration of this the commentator (D6vSndra) quotes the 
following verse: fisha bandhylsutd y&ti khapushpakritajSkharaA 1 
mrigatrrshndmbhasi snStaA rajamngadhanurdharaA 11 There goes 
the son of a barren woman, bearing a chaplet of sky-flowers, 
having bathed in the water of a fata morgana, and carrying a bow 
made of a hare's horn. 

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or hurtful, neither for his own sake nor for anybody 
else's, nor without such a motive. (25). 

In barbers' shops 1 or houses, on the ground separat- 
ing two houses, or on the highway a single monk 
should not stand with a single woman, nor should 
he converse with her. (26) 

Any instruction the wise ones * may give me in 
a kind or a rough way, I shall devotedly accept, 
thinking that it is for my benefit. (27) 

(The teacher's) instruction, his manner of giving 
it, and his blaming evil acts are considered blissful 
by the intelligent, but hateful by the bad monk. (28) 

Wise, fearless monks consider even a rough 
instruction as a benefit, but the fools hate it, though 
it produces patience and purity of mind. (29) 

He should occupy a low, firm seat, which does not 
rock ; seldom rising and never without a cause, he 
should sit motionless. (30) 

At the right time a monk should sally forth, and 
he should return at the right time ; avoiding to do 
anything out of time, he should do what is appro- 
priate for each period of the day. (31) 

A monk should not approach (dining people) 
sitting in a row, but should collect alms that are 
freely given ; having begged according to the sanc- 
tioned rules, he should eat a moderate portion at 
the proper time. (32) 

A monk should wait (for his alms) alone, not too 
far from other monks, nor too near them, but so 
that he is not seen by another party ; another monk 
should not pass him to get the start of him. (33) 

1 Samara, explained by the commentator barbers' shop or 
smithy, with the addition that it includes all places of low people. 
1 BuddbiA. 

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Neither boldly erect nor humbly bowing down, 
standing neither too close by nor too far off, a monk 
should accept permitted l food that was prepared for 
somebody else 2 . (34) 

In a place that is covered above and sheltered on 
all sides, where there are no living beings nor seeds, 
a monk should eat in company, restrained and 
undressed. (35) 

A monk should avoid as unallowed such food 
as is well dressed, or well cooked, or well cut, or 
such in which is much seasoning, or which is very 
rich, or very much flavoured, or much sweet- 
ened 8 . (36) 

(The teacher) takes delight in instructing a clever 
(pupil), just as the rider (in managing) a well-broken 
horse ; but he tires to instruct a foolish (pupil), just 
as the rider (tires to manage) an unbroken horse. (37) 

(A bad pupil thinks :) ' I get but knocks and boxes 
on the ear, hard words and blows ; ' and he believes 
a teacher who instructs him well, to be a malevolent 
man. (38) 

A good pupil has the best opinion (of his teacher), 
thinking that he treats him like his son or brother 
or a near relation * ; but a malevolent pupil imagines 
himself treated like a slave. (39) 

He should not provoke his teacher's anger, nor 

1 Phasuya, translated prasuka, and explained : free from living 

* Parakarfa, prepared for the householder or some other 
person, but not for the monk himself. 

8 The translation of the terms in this verse is rather conjectural, 
notwithstanding the explanations in the commentary. 

* I translate according to the interpretation of the commentator, 
which is probably right ; but the text sets all rules of grammar 
at defiance. 

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should he himself grow angry ; he should not offend 
the teacher nor irritate him by proclaiming his 
faults 1 . (40) 

Perceiving the teacher's anger one should pacify 
him by kindness, appease him with folded hands, 
and promise not to do wrong again. (41) 

He who adopts the conduct which the wise ones 2 
have attained by their virtues and always practised, 
will not incur blame. (42) 

Guessing the teacher's thoughts and the purport 
of his words, one should express one's assent, and 
execute (what he desires to be done). (43) 

An excellent pupil needs no express directions, 
or he is (at least) quickly directed ; he always carries 
out his duties as he is told. (44) 

An intelligent man who has learned (the sacred 
texts) takes his duties upon himself 3 , and he be- 
comes renowned in the world; as the earth is the 
dwelling of all beings, so he will be a dwelling of 
all duties. (45) 

When the worthy teachers, who are thoroughly 
enlightened and from early times well versed in 
conduct*, are satisfied (with a pupil), they will make 
over to him their extensive and weighty 8 knowledge 
of the sacred texts. (46) 

His knowledge will be honoured, his doubts will 
be removed, he will gladden the heart of his teacher 

1 Literally, search for the goad. 
1 Buddha. 

* N am a ti, literally, bows down. 

* Puvvasamthuya = purvasawstuta. Besides the meaning 
rendered in my translation the commentator proposes another: 
already famous. 

* A/Miya = arthika, having an object or purpose, viz. mdksha; 
it is therefore frequendy rendered : leading to liberation. 

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8 uttarAdhyayana. 

by his good acts ; kept in safety by the performance 
of austerities and by meditation, being as it were 
a great light, he will keep the five vows. (47) 

Honoured by gods, Gandharvas, and men, he will, 
on leaving this body which consists of dirt and 
impurities, become either an eternal Siddha 1 , or a 
god of great power and small imperfections. (48) 

Thus I say 2 . 



long-lived (Cambusvamin) ! I (Sudharman)have 
heard the following Discourse * from the Venerable 
(Mahavlra) : 

Here 6 , forsooth, the Venerable Ascetic Mahavlra 
of the Ka^yapa Gdtra has declared twenty-two 
troubles which a monk must learn and know, bear 
and conquer, in order not to be vanquished by them 
when he lives the life of a wandering mendicant. 

1 I. e. a liberated or perfected soul. 

1 Ti b&mi = iti bravimi. These words serve to mark the end 
of every chapter in all canonical books; compare the Latin dixi. 

' Parisaha, that which may cause trouble to an ascetic, and 
which must be cheerfully borne. 

4 The commentator (DSvfindra) says that when Mahivtra spoke, 
he was understood by all creatures, whatever was their language. 
He quotes the following verse : devS dSvta* nara niriw jabariu 
£ipi fibartw 1 tiryadio pi £a tairasktm m£nirg bhagavadgiram ll The 
gods, men, Sabaras, and animals took the language of the Lord 
for their own. Cf. Acts ii. n. 

1 I. e. in our creed or religion. This is generally the meaning 
of the word iha, here, opening a sentence. 

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These, then, are the twenty-two troubles declared 
by the Venerable Ascetic MahAvlra, which a monk 
must learn and know, bear and conquer, in order 
not to be vanquished by them when he lives the 
life of a wandering mendicant : 

i. digawiAa (fugupsa)-parlsaha, hunger; 

2. pivasa (pipasa)-p., thirst; 

3. slya (rtta)-p., cold; 

4. usi»a (ush«a)-p., heat; 

5. dawsamasaya (daflwamaJaka)-p., gad-flies, 
and gnats 1 ; 

6. a£61a-p., nakedness 2 ; 

7. arati-p., to be discontented with the objects of 

8. itthl (strl)-p., women; 

9. >feariy4 (>fetrya)-p., erratic life ; 

10. nislhiya (naishedhikl)-p., place for study; 

11. se^fa (*ayya)-p., lodging; 

12. akk6sa (akr6.ya)-p., abuse; 

13. vaha (vadha)-p., corporal punishment; 

14. £-aya#a (yaiana)-p., to ask for something; 

15. alabha-p., to be refused; 

16. r6ga-p., illness ; 

17. ta«a-phasa (trowaspawa), pricking of grass; 

18. /-alla-p., dirt ; 

19. sakkarapurakkara (satkarapura^kara)-p., 
kind and respectful treatment; 

20. panna (pra^»A)-p., understanding; 

21. annana (agn&na.)-p., ignorance ; 

22. sammatta (samyaktva)-p., righteousness. 

1 This is to include all biting or stinging insects, as lice, &c. 
* This is binding on the Ginakalpikas only, not on common 

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io uttarAdhyayana. 

1 The enumeration of the troubles has been de- 
livered by the Ka\ryapa 2 , I shall explain them to 
you in due order. Listen to me. (i) 

1. Though his body be weakened by hunger, a 
monk who is strong (in self-control) and does penance, 
should not cut or cause another to cut (anything to 
be eaten), nor cook it or cause another to cook it (2) 

Though emaciated like the joint of a crow's (leg) 
and covered with a network of veins, he should 
know the permitted measure of food and drink, 
and wander about with a cheerful mind. (3) 

2. Though overcome by thirst, he should drink 
no cold water, restrained by shame and aversion 
(from forbidden things) ; he should try to get dis- 
tilled 8 water. (4) 

Wandering about on deserted ways, in pain, 
thirsty, with dry throat, and distressed, he should 
bear this trouble (of thirst). (5) 

3. If a restrained, austere ascetic occasionally 
suffers from cold on his wanderings, he should not 
walk beyond the (prescribed) time, remembering the 
teaching of the G'ma. (6) 

' I have no shelter and nothing to . cover my 
skin, therefore I shall make a fire to warm myself;' 
such a thought should not be entertained by a 
monk. (7) 

1 The preceding part of this lecture is in prose, the rest is in 
sl&ka.. The numbers placed before the verses refer to the above 
enumeration of the troubles. It will be seen that two stanzas 
are allotted to each of them. 

* I. e. Mahivtra, who belonged to the Gdtra of Klryapa. 

* Viga</a = vikrt'ta. It means water which by boiling or 
some other process has become so changed that it may be regarded 
as lifeless. 

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4. If he suffers from the heat of hot things, or 
from the heat of his body, or from the heat of 
summer, he should not lament the loss of com- 
fort (8) 

A wise man, suffering from heat, should not long 
for a bath, or pour water over his body, or fan 
himself. (9) 

5. Suffering from insects a great sage remains 
undisturbed. As an elephant at the head of the 
battle kills the enemy, so does a hero (in self- 
control conquer the internal foe). (10) 

He should not scare away (insects), nor keep 
them off, nor be in the least provoked to passion by 
them. Tolerate living beings, do not kill them, 
though they eat your flesh and blood. (11) 

6. ' My clothes being torn, I shall (soon) go naked,' 
or ' I shall get a new suit ; ' such thoughts should 
not be entertained by a monk. (12) 

At one time he will have no clothes, at another he 
will have some ; knowing this to be a salutary rule, 
a wise (monk) should not complain about it. (13) 

7. A houseless and poor monk who wanders 
from village to village may become tired of ascetic 
life : he should bear this trouble. (14) 

A sage should turn away from this discontent ; 
he should wander about free from sins, guarded in 
himself, a tabernacle (as it were) of the Law, doing 
no actions, and perfectly passionless. (15) 

8. In this world men have a natural liking for 
women ; he who knows (and renounces) them, will 
easily perform his duties as a 5"rama«a. (16) 

A wise man who knows that women are a slough, 
as it were, will get no harm from them, but will 
wander about searching for the Self. (17) 

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12 uttarAdhyayana. 

9. Alone, living on allowed food 1 , he should 
wander about, bearing all troubles, in a village or 
a town or a market-place or a capital. (18) 

Different (from other men) a monk should wander 
about, he should acquire no property ; but not being 
attached to householders, he should live without 
a fixed residence. (19) 

10. In a burial-place, or a deserted house, or 
below a tree he should sit down, alone, without 
moving, and he should not drive away any one. (20) 

Sitting there he should brave all dangers ; when 
seized with fear, he should not rise and go to some 
other place. (21) 

11. A monk who does penance and is strong 
(in self-control), will not be affected beyond measure 
by good or bad lodgings, but an evil-minded monk 
will. (22) 

Having obtained a good or bad lodging in an 
empty house *, he should stay there thinking: ' What 
does it matter for one night ? ' (23) 

12. If a layman abuses a monk, he should not 
grow angry against him ; because he would be like 
a child 8 , a monk should not grow angry. (24) 

If a monk hears bad words, cruel and rankling 
ones, he should silently overlook them, and not take 
them to heart. (25) 

13. A monk should not be angry if beaten, nor 
should he therefore entertain sinful thoughts; know- 
ing patience to be the highest good, a monk should 
meditate on the Law. (26) 

1 LidAa.; see also note on XVII, 2. 
1 I. e. in which there are no women. 
* Or like an ignorant man, bala. 

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If somebody strikes a restrained, resigned .Sramawa 
somewhere, he should think : ' I have not lost my 
life.' (27) 

14. It will always cause difficulties to a houseless 
monk to get everything by begging, and nothing 
without begging. (28) 

The hand (of the giver) is not always kindly 
stretched out to a monk when he is on his begging 
tour ; but he should not think that it would be 
better to live as a householder. (29) 

15. He should beg food from the householder 
when his dinner is ready; a wise man should not 
care whether he gets alms or not. (30) 

' I get nothing to-day, perhaps I shall get some- 
thing to-morrow ; ' a monk who thinks thus, will not 
be grieved by his want of success. (31) 

16. If any misfortune 1 happens and he suffers 
pain, he should cheerfully steady his mind, and bear 
the ills that attack him. (32) 

He should not long for medical treatment, but 
he should continue to search for the welfare of his 
soul ; thus he will be a true Sramana. by neither 
acting himself nor causing others to act. (33) 

17. When a naked, rough, restrained ascetic lies 
on the grass, his body will be hurt. (34) 

In the sun his pain will grow insupportable; 
still a monk, though hurt by the grass, will not 
use clothes 2 . (35) 

18. When by the heat of summer his body sweats 
and is covered with dirt and dust, a wise monk 
should not lament his loss of comfort. (36) 

1 Viz. if he falls sick. 

1 Tantu^a, what is manufactured from threads. 

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14 uttaradhyayana. 

He should bear (all this), waiting for the destruc- 
tion of his Karman \ (and practising) the noble, 
excellent Law; he should carry the filth on his 
body till he expires. (37) 

19. It may be that a gentleman salutes a monk, 
or rises from his seat on his approach, or invites 
him (to accept alms in his house) : a monk should 
evince no predilection for men of this sort, who 
show him such marks of respect. (38) 

Not resentful, having few wants, begging from 
strangers, and not being dainty, a wise man should 
not long for pleasant things, nor be sorry afterwards 
(for not having got them). (39) 

20. ' Forsooth, in bygone times I have done 
actions productive of ignorance, for I do not 
remember them when asked by anybody any- 
where 2 .' (40) 

'Afterwards, however, actions productive of ignor- 
ance take effect.' Therefore comfort yourself, know- 
ing the consequences of actions. (41) 

21. 'It was of no use to turn away from the lust 
of the senses and to live restrainedly, for I do not 
properly recognise good and bad things.' (42) 

' Though in practising austerities and religious 
observances I live according to strict rules, still 
the hindrances to knowledge will not go off.' (43) 

22. A monk should not think : ' There is, indeed, 
no life to come, nor an exalted state to be acquired 
by penances ; in short, I have been deceived.' (44) 

A monk should not think : ' Those lied who said 
that there were, are, and will be £inas.' (45) 

1 Nir^arS. 

* The commentators refer the word 'anywhere' to the place 
or object of the former actions. 

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All these troubles have been declared by the 
Klyyapa. A monk should not be vanquished 
by them, when attacked by any anywhere. 

Thus I say. 



Four things of paramount value are difficult to 
obtain here by a living being: human birth, in- 
struction in the Law, belief in it, and energy in 
self-control. (1) 

I. The universe is peopled by manifold creatures, 
who are, in this Sawsara, born in different families 
and castes for having done various actions. (2) 

Sometimes they go to the world of the gods, 
sometimes to the hells, sometimes they become 
Asuras in accordance with their actions. (3) 

Sometimes they become Kshattriyas, or A!a»</alas 
and Bukkasas, or worms and moths, or (insects called) 
Kunthu 1 and ants. (4) 

Thus living beings of sinful actions, who are born 
again and again in ever-recurring births, are not 
disgusted with the Sawsara, but they are like 
warriors (never tired of the battle of life). (5) 

Living beings bewildered through the influence 
of their actions, distressed and suffering pains, 
undergo misery in non-human births. (6) 

But by the cessation of Karman, perchance, living 

1 About the Kunthu see below, Thirty-sixth Lecture, v. 138 
and note. 

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1 6 uttarAdhyayana. 

beings will reach in due time a pure state and be 
born as men. (7) 

II. And though they be born with a human body, 
it will be difficult for them to hear the Law, having 
heard which they will do penances, combat their 
passions and abstain from killing living beings. (8) 

III. And though, by chance, they may hear the 
Law, it will be difficult for them to believe in it ; many 
who are shown the right way, stray from it. (9) 

IV. And though they have heard the Law and 
believe in it, it is difficult for them to fulfill it 
strenuously ; many who approve of the religion, 
do not adopt it. (10) 

Having been born as a man, having heard the Law, 
believing in it, and fulfilling it strenuously, an ascetic 
should restrain himself and shake off sinfulness. (11) 

The pious obtain purity, and the pure stand firmly 
in the Law : (the soul afterwards) reaches the highest 
Nirva«a, being like unto a fire fed with ghee. (12) 

Leave off the causes of sin, acquire fame through 
patience ! (A man who acts up to this) will rise to the 
upper regions after having left this body of clay. (13) 

The Yakshas who are gifted with various virtues, 
(live in the heavenly regions, situated) one above 
the other, shining forth like the great luminaries, 
and hoping never to descend thence. (14) 

Intent on enjoying divine pleasures and changing 
their form at will, they live in the upper Kalpa 
heavens many centuries of former 1 years. (15) 

1 One 'former' (purva) year consists of 7,560 millions of 
common years. The idea that years were longer when the world 
was still young, is apparently suggested by the experience which 
everybody will have made, that a year seemed to us an enormously 
long time when we were young, and the same space of time 

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The Yakshas, having remained there according to 
their merit, descend thence at the expiration of their 
life and are born as men. 

Men are of ten kinds. (16) 

Fields and houses, gold, cattle, slaves and servants : 
where these four goods, the causes of pleasure, are 
present, in such families he is born 1 . (17) 

He will have friends and relations, be of good 
family, of fine complexion, healthy, wise, noble, 
famous, and powerful. (18) 

After having enjoyed, at their proper time, the 
unrivalled pleasures of human life, he will obtain true 
knowledge by his pure religious merit acquired in 
a former life. (19) 

appears to us shorter and shorter as we advance in life. A similar 
analogy with our life has probably caused the belief in the four 
ages of the world, shared by the Hindus and the ancients. For 
does not childhood to most of us appear the happiest period of our 
life, and youth better still than the time of full-grown manhood ? 
As in retrospect our life appears to us, so primitive man imagines 
the life of the world to have been : the first age was the best and 
the longest, and the following ages grew worse and worse, and 
became shorter at the same time. This primitive conceit was by 
the ancients combined with the conceit of the year, so that the four 
ages were compared with the four seasons of the year. Something 
similar seems to have happened in India, where, however, there 
are three or six seasons. For the G'ainas seem to have originally 
divided one Eon into six minor periods. Now the year was 
frequendy compared to a wheel, and this second metaphor was 
worked out by the Gainas. They named the six minor periods 
aras, literally spokes of a wheel, and divided the whole Eon into 
one descending part (of the wheel), avasarpi«i, and one rising 
part, utsarpiwf. These Avasarpi»fs and Utsarpiwis are probably 
a later improvement, and the Eon originally contained but six Aras. 
But if there were indeed twelve Aras from the beginning, they must 
have been suggested by the twelve months of the year. 

1 This is the first of the ten kinds of men mentioned above ; the 
remaining nine are enumerated in the following verse. 

[45] c 

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1 8 uttaradhyayana. 

Perceiving that the four requisites are difficult to 
obtain, he will apply himself to self-control, and 
when by penances he has shaken off the remnant of 
Karman, he will become an eternal Siddha. (20) 

Thus I say. 



You cannot prolong your life \ therefore be not 
careless ; you are past help when old age approaches. 
Consider this : what (protection) will careless people 
get, who kill living beings and do not exert them- 
selves? (1) 

Men who adhering to wrong principles acquire 
wealth by evil deeds, will lose it, falling into the 
snares (of their passions) and being held captive by 
their hatred. (2) 

As the burglar 2 caught in the breach of the wall 
perishes by the work the sinner himself had executed, 
thus people in this life and the next cannot escape 
the effect of their own actions. (3) 

If a man living in the Sawssara does an action for 
the sake of somebody else, or one by which he him- 

1 A similar expression is used in Sutrakrti&nga I, 2, 2, 21. 

' D£vendra relates two stories of burglars, one of which is 
supposed to be hinted at in the text. It comes to this. A burglar 
is caught, in the breach he had excavated, by the owner of the 
house, who takes hold of his feet protruding from the breach. But 
the burglar's companion tries to drag him out from the other 
side of the wall. In this position he is smashed by the upper part 
of the wall coming down. 

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self also profits, then, at the time of reaping the fruit 
of his actions, his relations will not act as true 
relations (i.e. will not come to his help). (4) 

Wealth will not protect a careless man in this 
world and the next. Though he had seen the right 
way, he does not see it, even as one in the dark 
whose lamp has suddenly been put out. (5) 

Though others sleep, be thou awake ! Like a wise 
man, trust nobody, but be always on the alert ; for 
dangerous is the time and weak the body. Be 
always watchful like a Bharuwda 1 bird ! (6) 

A monk should step carefully in his walk (i. e. in 
his life), supposing everything to be a snare for him. 
First he must bestow care on his life till he wins 
the stake (viz. enlightenment), and afterwards he 
should despise it, annihilating his sins. (7) 

By conquering his will, (a monk) reaches libera- 
tion, as a well-broken horse which is clad in harness 
(goes to battle). Be watchful in your young years ; 
for thereby a monk quickly obtains liberation. (8) 

' If he does not get (victory over his will) early, 
he will get it afterwards;' such reasoning 2 pre- 
supposes the eternity of human life. But such 
a man despairs when his life draws to its close, and 
the dissolution of his body approaches. (9) 

One cannot quickly arrive at discernment ; there- 
fore one should exert one's self, abstain from 
pleasures, understand the world, be impartial like 

1 Each of these birds has two necks and three legs. 

* Upama\ Literally translated : ' this is the comparison of those 
who contend that life is eternal.' The commentator gives a forced 
interpretation of the first part of the verse to bring about a com- 
parison. But the meaning ' comparison ' will not suit the context, 
the word must here mean : conclusion, reasoning. 

C 2 

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20 uttarAdhyayana. 

a sage, and guard one's self : (thus) never be care- 
less. (10) 

A >Srama»a who again and again suppresses the 
effects of delusion, and controls himself, will be 
affected in a rough way by external things ; but a 
monk should not hate them in his mind, (i i) 

External things weaken the intellect and allure 
many; therefore keep them out of your mind. 
Keep off delusion, remove pride, do not practise 
deceit, leave off greed. (12) 

Heretics who are impure and vain, are always 
subject to love and hate, and are wholly under the in- 
fluence (of their passions). Despising them as unholy 
men, desire virtues till the end of your life. (13) 

Thus I say. 



In this ocean (of life) with its currents (viz. births) 
difficult to cross, one man has reached the opposite 
shore ; one wise man has given an answer to the 
following question. (1) 

These two ways of life ending with death have 
been declared: death with one's will, and death 
against one's will. (2) 

Death against one's will is that of ignorant men, 
and it happens (to the same individual) many times. 
Death with one's will is that of wise men, and at 
best ' it happens but once. (3) 

1 Viz. in the case of a Kevalin. Other sages die this death 
seven or eight times before reaching mukti. 

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Mahavira has (thus) described the first kind in 
which an ignorant man, being attached to pleasures, 
does very cruel actions. (4) 

A man attached to pleasures and amusements 
will be caught in the trap (of deceit). (He thinks) : 
' I never saw the next world, but I have seen 
with my own eyes the pleasures of this life.' (5) 

'The pleasures of this life are (as it were) 
in your hand, but the future ones are uncertain '. 
Who knows whether there is a next world or 
not?' (6) 

The fool boasts : ' I shall have the company of 
(most) men 2 .' But by his love of pleasures and 
amusements he will come to grief. (7) 

Then he begins to act cruelly against movable 
and immovable beings, and he kills living beings 
with a purpose or without. (8) 

An ignorant man kills, lies, deceives, calumniates, 
dissembles, drinks liquor, and eats meat, thinking 
that this is the right thing to do. (9) 

Overbearing in acts and words, desirous for wealth 
and women, he accumulates sins in two ways s , just 
as a young snake gathers dust (both on and in its 
body). (10) 

Then he suffers ill and is attacked by disease; 
and he is in dread of the next world when he 
reflects on his deeds. (11) 

I have heard of the places in hell, and of the 
destination of the sinner, where the fools who do 
cruel deeds will suffer violently. ( 1 2) 

1 K&lika, doubtful as regards the time when they will be enjoyed. 

* I.e. I shall do as people generally do, viz. enjoy pleasures. 

* Viz. By his acts and thoughts. 

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Then going to the place where he is to be born 
again according to his deeds, he feels remorse, as I 
have heard (from my teacher). (13) 

As a charioteer, who against his better judgment 
leaves the smooth highway and gets on a rugged 
road, repents when the axle breaks ; so the fool, who 
transgresses the Law and embraces unrighteousness, 
repents in the hour of death, like (the charioteer) 
over the broken axle. (14, 15) 

Then when death comes at last, the fool trembles 
in fear; he dies the 'death against one's will,' 
(having lost his chance) like a gambler vanquished 
by Kali. (16) 

Thus has been explained the fools' ' death against 
one's will ; ' now hear from me the wise men's 
' death with one's will ! ' (17) 

Full of peace and without injury to any one is, as 
I have heard (from my teachers), the death of the 
virtuous who control themselves and subdue their 
senses 1 . (18) 

(Such a death) does not fall to the lot of every 
monk, nor of every householder; for the morality 
of householders is of various character, and that of 
monks is not always good throughout. (19) 

Some householders are superior to some monks 
in self-control ; but the saints are superior to all 
householders in self-control. (20) 

Bark and skin (of a goat), nakedness, twisted 

1 Sam^ay&Kam vusimao = samyatanaw vajyavatSw. 
Vustmao is gen. sing., it is here used in juxtaposition with a word 
in gen. plur. Such an irregularity would of course be impossible 
in classical Prakrit, but the authors of metrical Gaina Sutras take 
such liberties with grammar that we must put up with any faulty 
expression, though it would be easy to correct it by a conjecture. 

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hair, baldness — these (outward tokens) will not save 
a sinful ascetic. (21) 

A sinner, though he be a mendicant (friar), will 
not escape hell ; but a pious man, whether monk or 
householder, ascends to heaven. (22) 

A faithful man should practise 1 the rules of con- 
duct for householders ; he should never neglect the 
Pdsaha fast 2 in both fortnights, not even for a single 
night. (23) 

When under such discipline he lives piously even 
as a householder, he will, on quitting flesh and 
bones 3 , share the world of the Yakshas. (24) 

Now a restrained monk will become one of the 
two: either one free from all misery or a god of 
great power. (25) 

To the highest regions, in due order, to those 
where there is no delusion, and to those which are 
full of light, where the glorious (gods dwell) — who 
have long life, great power, great lustre, who can 
change their shape at will, who are beautiful as on 
their first day, and have the brilliancy of many suns 
— to such places go those who are trained in self-con- 
trol and penance, monks or householders, who have 
obtained liberation by absence of passion. (26-28) 

Having heard (this) from the venerable men who 
control themselves and subdue their senses, the 
virtuous and the learned do not tremble in the 
hour of death. (29) 

1 Ka6«aphasae=k&ygnasprz'j<h,literally,touchwith his body. 

1 The Pdsaha of the (Tainas corresponds to the Updsatha of the 
Buddhists. Hoernle in note 87 of his translation of the Uvisaga 
Dasdo (Bibliotheca Indica) says of the Pdsaha : it is distinguished 
by the four abstinences (uvavasa) from food (ahara), bodily attentions 
(jarirasatkara), sexual intercourse (abrahma) and daily work (vyapara). 

* Literally, skin and joints. 

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A wise man having weighed (both kinds of death) 
and chosen the better one (taught in) the Law of 
Compassion, will become calm through patience, with 
an undisturbed mind (at the time of death). (30) 

When the right time (to prepare for death) has 
arrived, a faithful (monk) should in the presence 
(of his teacher) suppress all emotions (of fear or 
joy) and wait for the dissolution of his body. (31) 

When the time for quitting the body has come, 
a sage dies the ' death with one's will,' according to 
one of the three methods 1 . (32) 

Thus I say. 



All men who are ignorant of the Truth are 
subject to pain ; in the endless Samsara they suffer 
in many ways. (1) 

Therefore a wise man, who considers well the 
ways that lead to bondage* and birth, should 

1 These three methods are (1) bhaktapratyakhyana, (2) ingi- 
tamara«a, (3) padapdpagamana. They are fully described in 
the A&rlnga Sutra I, 7, 8, 7 ff., see part i, p. 75 f. 

1 KhutWaganiyawMi^aw = Kshullakanirgranthfyam. 
Kshullaka originally means 'small, young,' but I do not see that 
the contents of this lecture support this translation, though the 
commentators would seem to favour it. 

8 Divendra here quotes the following Sanskrit verse : Kalatrani- 
gadam dattva na samtush/aA pra^apatiAi bhuyd*py apatyarupfiwa 
dadati galarrmkhalam. The creator was not satisfied when he 
had given (toman) the wife as a fetter, he added a chain round his 
neck in the form of children. 

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himself search for the truth, and be kind towards 
all creatures. (2) 

' Mother, father, daughter-in-law, brother, wife, 
and sons will not be able to help me, when I suffer 
for my own deeds V (3) 

This truth should be taken to heart 2 by a man 
of pure faith ; he should (therefore) cut off greed 
and love, and not hanker after his former con- 
nections. (4) 

Cows and horses, jewels and earrings, cattle, 
slaves and servants: all these (possessions) you 
must give up in order to obtain the power of 
changing your form at will. (5) 3 

Everything that happens to somebody, affects him 
personally ; therefore, knowing the creatures' love of 
their own self, do not deprive them of their life, but 
cease from endangering and combating them. (6) 

Seeing that to accept (presents) leads to hell, one 
should not accept even a blade of grass; only to 
preserve one's life * one should eat the food that is 
put in one's own alms-bowl. (7) 

Here some are of opinion that they will be 
delivered from all misery by merely attending the 
teacher*, without abstaining from sins. (8) 

1 This verse recurs in Sutrakrz'tanga I, 9, 5. 

* Sapehae pase = svaprekshayi pajyet, he should look at 
it with his mind or reflectively. However sapehae is usually the 
absolute participle samprekshya. The meaning is the same in 
both cases. 

* Some MSS. insert here the following verse : ' Movables and 
immovables, corn, and furniture can not deliver a man from pain, 
who is suffering for bis deeds/ 

4 This is according to the commentators the meaning of the 
word d6gu«f kh\ = ^ugupsin. 

8 Ayariyaw viditta»a»». The commentator makes this out 

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26 uttarAdhyayana. 

Acknowledging the truth about bondage and 
liberation, but talking only, not acting (in accor- 
dance with these tenets), they seek comfort for 
themselves in mighty words. (9) 

Clever talking will not work salvation; how 
should philosophical instruction do it? Fools, 
though sinking lower and lower through their sins, 
believe themselves to be wise men. (10) 

They are (going) a long way in the endless Sa*«- 
sara; therefore looking out carefully one should 
wander about carefully 1 , (n) 

Choosing what is beyond and above (this world, 
viz. liberation), one should never desire (worldly 
objects), but sustain one's body only to be able to 
annihilate one's Karman. (12) 

Those will reap pains who, in thoughts, words, or 
acts, are attached to their body, to colours, and to 
forms. (13) 

Recognising the cause of Karman, one should 
wander about waiting for one's death ; (knowing) 
the permitted quantity of food and drink, one should 
eat (such food as has been) prepared (by the house- 
holders for their own consumption). (14) 

An ascetic should not lay by any store, not even 
so little as the grease (sticking to his alms-bowl) ; 
but as a bird with its plumage 2 , so he with his 
alms-bowl should wander about without desires. (15) 

to mean: by learning only what right conduct (4£arikam) is, 
without living up to it. But it is obvious that the author intends 
a censure upon the (Tdanamarga. 

1 As usual this phrase means : one should conduct one's self so 
as to commit no sin. 

* There is a pun in the original on the word patta, which 
means plumes (patra) and alms-bowl (patra). 

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Receiving alms in a manner to avoid faults \ and 
controlling one's self, one should wander about in 
a village (&c.) without a fixed residence; careful 
among the careless one should beg one's food. (16) 

Thus has spoken the Arhat Gn&triputra., the 
venerable native of Vaisalt 2 , who possesses the 
highest knowledge and who possesses the highest 
faith, who possesses (at the same time) the highest 
knowledge and the highest faith. (17) 

Thus I say. 



As somebody, to provide for (the arrival of) 
a guest, brings up a young ram, gives it rice and 
gram 3 , and brings it up in his yard ; (1) 

Then when it is grown up and big, fat and of 
a large belly, fattened and of a plump body, it is 
ready for the guest. (2) 

As long as no guest comes, the poor (animal) 
lives ; but as soon as a guest arrives, its head is cut 
off, and it is eaten. (3) 

As this ram is well treated for the sake of 

1 This isthe£sha»4samiti. On the samitis see below, Twelfth 
Lecture, 2. 

* V£sali£ = Vauralika. See my remarks on this statement in 
part i, introduction, p. xi, and Hoernle's notes in his translation 
of the Uv&saga Das&o, p. 3 fF. 

* Yavasa, explained by mudgamashidi. Mutton of gram- 
fed sheep is greatly appreciated in India. 

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a guest, even so an ignorant, great sinner longs 
(as it were) for life in hell. (4) 

An ignorant man kills, tells lies, robs on the high- 
way, steals foreign goods, deceives, (always thinking 
of some one) whom he could plunder, the villain. (5) 

He is desirous of women and pleasures, he enters 
on undertakings and business, drinks liquor, eats 
meat, becomes strong, a subduer of foes. (6) 

He eats crisp goats' meat, his belly grows, and 
his veins swell with blood — but he gains nothing 
but life in hell, just as the ram is only fed to be 
killed for the sake of a guest (7) 

After having enjoyed pleasant seats, beds, car- 
riages, riches, and pleasures, after having squan- 
dered his wealth which he had so much trouble in 
gaining, and after having committed many sins, he 
will, under the burden of his Karman, and believing 
only in the visible world, be grieved in the hour of 
death like the ram 1 at the arrival of a guest (8, 9) 

Then the sinner who has been killing living 
beings, at the end of his life falls from his state 2 , 
and against his will he goes to the world of the 
Asuras, to the dark place. (10) 

As a man for the sake of one Kakinl s (risks and) 
loses a thousand (Karsh4pa«as), or as the king lost 
his kingdom (and life) by eating a mango-fruit which 
he was strictly forbidden (by his physician) 4 : (11) 

1 Aya = a^a, literally goat. 

* A'uya = kyuta is said of one who is bom after his death in 
a lower sphere than that in which he lived before. 

' According to the commentators the eightieth part of a rupee. 

4 The commentators relate 'old stories' to explain allusions 
in the text; they will, however, be intelligible withbut further 
comment, though I do not contend that those stories were not 
really old and known to the author of the Sutra. 

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Even so are human pleasures compared with the 
pleasures of the gods : divine life and pleasures sur- 
pass (the former) a thousand times and more. (12) 

Those endowed with excellent knowledge live 
many nayutas l of years; so great a loss suffer the 
fools in a life of less than a hundred years ! (13) 

Three merchants set out on their travels, each 
with his capital; one of them gained there much, 
the second returned with his capital, and the third 
merchant came home after having lost his capital. 
This parable * is taken from common life ; learn (to 
apply it) to the Law. (14, 15) 

The capital is human life, the gain is heaven; 
through the loss of that capital man must be born 
as a denizen of hell or a brute animal. (16) 

These are the two courses open to the sinner; 
they consist in misery, as corporal punishment, &c. ; 
for the slave to his lusts 3 has forfeited human life 
and divine life. (17) 

Having once forfeited them, he will have to 
endure these two states of misery ; it will be 

1 A nayuta or niyuta is equal to 

It is derived in the following way : 

1 purvanga = 8,400,000 
1 purva = 8,400,000 purvingas. 

1 nayutanga = 8,400,000 purvas. 
1 nayuta = 8,400,000 nayutangas. 
* This parable closely corresponds to Matth.xxv. 14, Luke xix. 1 1. 
I need not here discuss the problems raised by this coincidence 
since they will, as I hear, be fully treated by Herr HQttemann, 
a pupil of Professor Leumann of Strassburg. 

' L6Iayasa<?/5e = lolatajraMa. The commentator takes 
161a t a for Id la and makes the word a karmadharaya. I think 
that the word ja/Aa which originally means 'one who deceives 
others ' fa used here in the sense ' one who deceives himself.' 

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difficult for him to attain an upward course 1 for 
a long time to come. (18) 

Considering what is at stake, one should weigh 
(the chances of) the sinner and of the virtuous man 
(in one's mind). 

He who brings back his capital, is (to be com- 
pared to) one who is born again as a man. (19) 

Those men who through the exercise of various 
virtues 2 become pious householders, will be born 
again as men; for all beings will reap the fruit 
of their actions. (20) 

But he who increases his capital, is (to be com- 
pared to) one who practises eminent virtues; the 
virtuous, excellent man cheerfully attains the state 
of gods 8 . (21) 

When one thus knows that a (virtuous) monk or 
householder will be gladdened (by his gain), how, 
then, should a man, whilst he is losing (his chance), 
not be conscious of his losing it? (22) 

As a drop of water at the top of a blade of Kuxa- 
grass dwindles down to naught when compared 
with the ocean, so do human pleasures when com- 
pared with divine pleasures. (23) 

The pleasures in this very limited life of men are 
like (the water at) the top of a blade of Kusa-grass; 
for the sake of what will a man not care to gain and 

1 I. e. birth as a man or a god. 

3 Siksha. The commentator quotes the following passage 
in Prakrit: Souls gain human birth through four causes : (t) a kind 
disposition (prakr/tibhadrata), (2) love of discipline (prakr*- 
tivinftata), (3) compassion (sanukroxanata), and (4) want of 
envy (amatsarita). 

9 For a higher rank than that of a god, e. g. that of a KSvalin, 
cannot, in the present state of the world, be attained. 

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to keep (so precious a good which he risks to 
lose)? (24) 

He who has not renounced pleasure, will miss 
his aim (i.e. the true end of his soul); for though he 
has been taught the right way, he will go astray 
again and again. (25) 

But he who has renounced pleasure, will not miss 
his aim; (he will think): I have learned that, by 
getting rid of this vile body, I shall become 
a god. (26) 

He will be born among men where there is 
wealth, beauty, glory, fame, long life, and eminent 
happiness. (27) 

See the folly of the sinner who practises un- 
righteousness : turning away from the Law, the 
great sinner will be born in hell. (28) 

See the wisdom of the wise man who follows 
the true Law : turning away from unrighteousness, 
the virtuous man will be born as a god. (29) 

A wise man weighs in his mind the state of 
the sinner and that of the virtuous man; quitting 
the state of the sinner, a sage realises that of the 
virtuous. (30) 

Thus I say. 


kapila's verses 1 . 

By what acts can I escape a sorrowful lot in 
this unstable ineternal Sa/wsara, which is full of 
misery ? (1) 

1 This lecture is ascribed to Kapila. According to an old story, 
told in the commentary, he was the son of Klsyapa, a Brahman 

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Quitting your former connections place your 
affection on nothing; a monk who loves not even 
those who love him, will be freed from sin and 
hatred. (2) 

Then the best of sages, who is exempt from 

of Kaufambt, and his wife Yaxi. When Klryapa died, his place 
was given to another man. His wife then sent her boy to 
.Sravastf to study under Indradatta, a friend of his father's. That 
man was willing to instruct the boy, and procured him board and 
lodging in a rich merchant's house. Kapila, however, soon fell in 
love with the servant-girl who was appointed to his service. Once, 
at a festival kept by her caste, the girl in tears told him that she 
could not take part in the festivity as she had no money to buy 
ornaments. To get some she asked him to go to Dhana, 
a merchant, who used to give two pieces of gold to the man 
who saluted him first in the morning. Accordingly Kapila set 
out in the night, but was taken up by the police and brought 
before the king, PrasSna^it. The student made a clear breast 
before the king, who was so pleased with him that he promised to 
give him whatever he should ask. Kapila went in the garden 
to consider what he should ask; and the more he thought about it, 
the more he raised the sum which he believed he wanted, till it came 
to be ten thousand millions. But then, all of a sudden, the light 
came upon him ; he began to repent of the sinful life he had led up 
to that time, and tearing out his hair he became a Svayamsambuddha. 
Returning to the king, he pronounced verse 17: The more you 
get, &c, and giving him the Dharmalabha, he went his way. He 
practised austerities and acquired superior knowledge, by dint 
of which he came to know that in a wood, eighteen leagues from 
Ra^agnba, lived a gang of five hundred robbers, under a chief Bala- 
bhadra. These men, he knew, would become converts to the right 
faith ; accordingly he went to the wood where they lived. He was 
made prisoner, and brought before the leader of the robbers. To 
have some fun out of him they ordered him to dance, and on his 
objecting that there was none to play up, they all clapped their 
hands to beat the time. He then sang the first stanza of this 
lecture, by which some robbers were converted, and he continued 
to sing, repeating this stanza after each following verse (as dhruva), 
till at last all the robbers were converted. 

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delusion and possesses perfect knowledge and faith, 
speaks for the benefit and eternal welfare, and for 
the final liberation of all beings. (3) 

All fetters (of the soul), and all hatred, every- 
thing of this kind, should a monk cast aside; he 
should not be attached to any pleasures, examining 
them well and taking care of himself. (4) 

A stupid, ignorant sinner who never fixes his 
thoughts on the soul's benefit and eternal welfare, 
but sinks down through hatred and the temptation 
of lust, will be ensnared as a fly is caught on 

glue * ty 

It is difficult to cast aside the pleasures of life, 

weak men will not easily give them up ; but there 
are pious ascetics (sadhu) who get over the im- 
passable (Sa*«sara) as merchants cross the sea. (6) 

Some there are who call themselves .SYama»as, 
though they are like the beasts ignorant of (the 
prohibition of) killing living beings; the stupid 
sinners go to hell through their superstitious 
beliefs 1 . (7) 

One should not permit (or consent to) the killing 
of living beings ; then he will perhaps be delivered 
from all misery; thus have spoken the preceptors 
who have proclaimed the Law of ascetics. (8) 

A careful man who does not injure living beings, 
is called 'circumspect' (samita). The sinful Kar- 
man will quit him as water quits raised ground. (9) 

In thoughts, words, and acts he should do 

1 The commentator quotes the following words: brahmawe 
brahma»am alabhita, indraya kshattram, marudbhy6 vauya«, 
tapasl .rudram, and explains them : he who kills a Brahmawa will 
acquire Brahma knowledge. 

(♦5] D 

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nothing injurious to beings who people the world, 
whether they move or not (10) 

He should know what alms may be accepted, 
and should strictly keep these rules ; a monk should 
beg food only for the sustenance of life, and should 
not be dainty, (n) 

He should eat what tastes badly, cold food, old 
beans, Vakkasa Pulaga, and for the sustenance 
of his life he should eat Manghu (ground ba- 
dara). (12) 

Those who interpret the marks of the body, and 
dreams, and who know the foreboding changes in 
the body (angavidya) \ are not to be called .Srama- 
«as; thus the preceptors have declared. (13) 

Those who do not take their life under discipline, 
who cease from meditation and ascetic practices 9 , 
and who are desirous of pleasures, amusements, and 
good fare, will be born again as Asuras. (14) 

And when they rise (in another birth) from the 
world of the Asuras, they err about, for a long time, 
in the Saws&ra ; those whose souls are sullied by 
many sins, will hardly ever attain Bddhi. (15) 

And if somebody should give the whole earth to 
one man, he would not have enough ; so difficult 
is it to satisfy anybody. (16) 

The more you get, the more you want; your 
desires increase with your means. Though two 
mash as would do to supply your want, still you 
would scarcely think ten millions sufficient. (1 7) 

1 See the note on verse 17 of the Fifteenth Lecture. 

2 Samadhiyoga/4. Samadhi is concentration of the mind, 
and the ydgas are, in this connection, the operations (vyapira) 
of mind, speech, and body conducive to it. 

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Do not desire (women), those female demons 1 , 
on whose breasts grow two lumps of flesh, who 
continually change their mind, who entice men, and 
then make a sport of them as of slaves. (18) 

A houseless (monk) should not desire women, 
he should turn away from females; learning 
thoroughly the Law, a monk should strictly keep 
its rules. (19) 

This Law has been taught by Kapila of pure 
knowledge ; those who follow it, will be saved and 
will gain both worlds. (20) 

Thus I say. 



After (Nami) had descended from the world of 
the gods, and had been born as a man, he put an 
end to the influence of delusion, and remembered 
his former birth. (1) 

Remembering his former birth, king Nami 

1 Rakshasfs in the original. 

* The Life of king Nami and his B6dhi is told in the com- 
mentary. The Prakr/t text of this romance is printed in my 
' Ausgewahlte Erzahlungen in Mahar&sh/ri,' Leipzig, 1886, p. 41 ff. 
Nami is one of the four simultaneous PratySkabuddhas, i.e. one of 
those saints who reach the highest stage of knowledge by an 
effort of their own, not through regular instruction and religious 
discipline. The Praty&kabuddhas or Svayamsambuddhas (Sahasam- 
buddha in Prakr»t) do not, however, propagate the true Law, as 
the Tirthakaras do. As the legend of Nami is not materially 
connected with our text, I need not give an abstract of it here. 

D 2 

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became a Svaya»*sa/»buddha in the true Law, and 
placing his son on the throne he retired from the 
world. (2) 

After having enjoyed, in the company of the 
beautiful ladies of his seraglio, excellent pleasures 
which match those of the heavens, king Nami 
became enlightened and gave up his pleasures. (3) 

Having given up the town and country of Mithila, 
his army, seraglio, and all his retinue, the venerable 
man retired from the world and resorted to a lonely 
place. (4) 

When the royal Seer Nami retired from the 
world, at the occasion of his Pravra^ya there was an 
uproar in Mithila. (5) 

To the royal Seer who had reached the excellent 
stage of Pravra^a, 6akra in the guise of a Brahma»a 
addressed the following words : (6) 

' Why is now Mithila 1 full of uproar ? Dreadful 
noises are heard from palaces and houses.' (7) 

On hearing this, the royal Seer Nami, pursuing 
his reasons and arguments, answered the king of the 
gods thus : (8) 

' In Mithila is the sacred* tree Mandrama, full of 
leaves, flowers, and fruits, which sheds a cool 
shadow; this tree is always a favourite resort of 
many (birds). (9) 

1 The text has Mahilafi, which is against the metre. The 
locative makes the construction needlessly involved. 

* A'SiS, £aitya. The commentator interprets it as meaning 
udyana, park ; but to make good his interpretation he takes 
vaiiAt for an instrumental plural instead of a nominative 
singular. The context itself seems to militate against this 
interpretation ; for it is natural to say of a tree that it has many 
leaves, but it is rather strained to say the same of a park. 

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' Now, as this sacred tree Mandrama is shaken by 
the storm, the birds, suffering, destitute of refuge, 
and miserable, scream aloud.' (10) 

On hearing this, the king of gods, pursuing his 
reasons and arguments, answered the royal Seer 
Nami thus : (n) 

" This is fire and storm, your palace is on fire ! 
Reverend sir, why do you not look after your 
seraglio?" (12) 

Nami answered (see verse 8) : (13) 

' Happy are we, happy live we who call nothing 
our own ; when Mithila is on fire, nothing is burned 
that belongs to me. (14) 

' To a monk who has left his sons and wives, and 
who has ceased to act, nothing pleasant can occur, 
nor anything unpleasant (15) 

' There is much happiness for the sage, for the 
houseless monk, who is free from all ties, and knows 
himself to be single and unconnected (with the rest 
of the world).' (16) 

Indra answered (see verse 1 1) : (17) 

" Erect a wall, gates, and battlements ; dig a 
moat; construct jataghnls 1 : then you will be 8 
a Kshattriya." (18) 

Nami answered (see verse 8) : (19) 

'Making Faith his fortress, Penance and Self-control 
the bolt (of its gate), Patience its strong wall, so 
that guarded in three ways 8 it is impregnable; 
making Zeal his bow, its string Carefulness in 
walking (iriya), and its top (where the string is 

1 An instrument for defending a town. 

* GakiAasi. The commentator explains this as an imperative, 
but there is no necessity for it. 

* Tigutta, this is a pun on the three guptis. 

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fastened) Content, he should bend (this bow) with 
Truth, piercing with the arrow, Penance, (the foe's) 
mail, Karman — (in this way) a sage will be the victor 
in battle and get rid of the Sawsara.' (20-22) 

Indra answered (see verse 11) : (23) 

" Build palaces, excellent houses \ and turrets ; 
thus you will be a Kshattriya." (24) 

Nami answered (see verse 8) : (25) 

' He who builds his house on the road, will 
certainly get into trouble ; wherever he wants to 
go, there he may take up his lodgings.' (26) 

Indra answered (see verse 1 1) : (27) 

" Punishing thieves and robbers, cut-purses and 
burglars, you should establish public safety; thus 
you will be a Kshattriya." (28) 

Nami answered (see verse 8) : (29) 

' Men frequently apply punishment wrongly : the 
innocent are put in prison, and the perpetrator of 
the crime is set at liberty.' (30) 

Indra answered (see verse 11) : (31) 

" O king, bring into subjection all princes who do 
not acknowledge you; thus you will be a true 
Kshattriya." (32) 

Nami answered (see verse 8) : (33) 

'Though a man should conquer thousands and 
thousands of valiant (foes), greater will be his 
victory if he conquers nobody but himself. (34) 

• Fight with your Self; why fight with external 
foes ? He who conquers himself through himself, 
will obtain happiness. (35) 

' The five senses, anger, pride, delusion, and greed 

1 Vardham&nagr/ha ; the houses which are so called, belong 
to the best kind, see Varaha Mihira, Br/Tiat Sawhita 53, 36. 

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— difficult to conquer is one's self; but when that is 
conquered, everything is conquered 1 .' (36) 

I ndra answered (see verse 11): (37) 

" Offer great sacrifices, feed 5rama»as and Brah- 
mattas, give alms, enjoy yourself, and offer sacrifices : 
thus you will be a true Kshattriya." (38) 

Nami answered : (39) 

' Though a man should give, every month, thou- 
sands and thousands of cows, better will be he who 
controls himself, though he give no alms.' (40) 

I ndra answered : (41) 

"You have left the dreadful asrama (that of the 
householder) 2 and are wanting to enter another; 
(remain what you were), O king, and be content with 
observing the Pdsaha-days." (42) 

Nami answered : (43) 

' If an ignorant man should eat but a blade of 
Kma-grass every month, (the merit of his penance) 
will not equal the sixteenth part of his who possesses 
the Law as it has been taught.' (44) 

I ndra answered : (45) 

" Multiply your gold and silver, your jewels and 

1 The first line of this verse is in the Aryi-metre, the second in 
Anush/ubh ; the whole will not construe, but the meaning is clear. 
There are numerous instances in which the metre changes in the 
same stanza from Aryd to Anush/ubh, and vice versa, so frequent 
they are that we are forced to admit the fact that the authors of 
these metrical texts did not shrink from taking such liberties. 

* Ghdrasama. A Gaina author cannot forbear to name 
things from his religious point of looking at them. Thus only can 
it be explained that here Indra is made to apply to the a .rrama of 
the householder an attribute which not he but his opponent could 
have used. Our verse is, however, probably only a later addition, 
as it has not the burden of the verses put into the mouth of 

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pearls, your copper, fine robes, and carriages, and 
your treasury; then you will be a true Kshat- 
triya." (46) 

Nami answered : (47) 

' If there were numberless mountains of gold 
and silver, as big as Kailasa, they would not satisfy 
a greedy man; for his avidity is boundless like 
space. (48) 

' Knowing that the earth with its crops of rice and 
barley, with its gold and cattle, that all this put 
together will not satisfy one single man, one should 
practise austerities.' (49) 

Indra answered : (50) 

" A miracle ! O king, you give up those wonderful 
pleasures, in search of imaginary objects ; your very 
hope will cause your ruin." (51) 

Nami answered : (52) 

'Pleasures are the thorn that rankles, pleasures 
are poison, pleasures are like a venomous snake; 
he who is desirous of pleasures will not get them, 
and will come to a bad end at last. (53) 

' He will sink through anger ; he will go down 
through pride ; delusion will block up his path ; 
through greed he will incur dangers in both 
worlds.'. (54) 

Throwing off the guise of a Brahma«a, and making 
visible his true form, >Sakra saluted him respectfully 
and praised him with these sweet words : (55) 

" Bravo ! you have conquered anger ; bravo ! you 
have vanquished pride ; bravo ! you have banished 
delusion ; bravo ! you have subdued greed. (56) 

" Bravo for your simplicity, O saint ! bravo for 
your humility, O saint! bravo for your perfect 
patience ! bravo for your perfect liberation ! (57) 

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" H ere (on earth) you are the highest man, Reverend 
sir, and hereafter you will be the highest ; exempt 
from all blemishes you will reach Perfection, a 
higher state than which there is none in this 
world." (58) 

Thus praising the royal Seer, .Sakra in perfect 
faith kept his right side towards him and paid 
reyerence to him, again and again. (59) 

After having adored the best sage's feet marked 
by the A'akra and the Anku^a 1 , he flew up 
through the air, with his crown and his earrings 
prettily trembling. (60) 

Nami humbled himself; enjoined by .Sakra in 
person, the king of Videlia left the house, and took 
upon him SVama«ahood. (61) 

Thus act the enlightened, the wise, the clever 
ones ; they turn away from pleasures, as did 
Nami, the royal Seer. (62) 

Thus I say. 



As the fallow leaf of the tree falls to the ground, 
when its days are gone, even so the life of men (will 

1 The wheel and the hook. 

1 This is a sermon delivered by Mahavfra to his disciple Indra- 
bhuti, who belonged to the G6tama G6tra. In the commentary 
a lengthy legend is given how Gautama came to want this in- 
struction. As it is not necessary for understanding the contents 
of this lecture, I may pass it over. 

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come to its close); Gautama, be careful all the 
while! (i) 

As a dew-drop dangling on the top of a blade of 
Ku^a-grass lasts but a short time, even so the life 
of men ; Gautama, be careful all the while ! (2) 

As life is so fleet and existence so precarious, 
wipe off the sins you ever committed; Gautama, 
&c. (3) 

A rare chance, in the long course of time, is 
human birth for a living being ; hard are the con- 
sequences of actions ; Gautama, &c. (4) 

When the soul has once got into an earth-body 1 , 
it may remain in the same state as long as an 
Asazwkhya * ; Gautama, &c. (5) 

When the soul has once got into a water-body, 
&c. (all as in verse 5). (6) 

When a soul has once got into a fire-body, &c. 
(all as in verse 5). (7) 

When the soul has once got into a wind-body, &c. 
(all as in verse 5). (8) 

When the soul has once got into a vegetable- 
body, it remains long in that state, for an endless 
time, after which its lot is not much bettered 3 ; 
Gautama, &c. (9) 

When the soul has once got into a body of a 
Dvlndriya (i.e. a being possessing two organs of 

1 Verses 5-9 treat of the fckfcndriyas or beings which possess 
but one organ of sense, that of touch. A full description of them 
as well as of the dvlndriyas, &c. is given in the last lecture. 

1 The periods called asawkhya are measured by utsarpinfs 
and avasarpints which correspond to the kalpas of the Hindus, 
but greatly exaggerated. An asawzkhya is the longest time 
(ukk6sam = utkarshaw) which a soul may be doomed to live 
in earth-bodies; see below, XXXVI, 81 ff. 

' This is, according to the commentary, the meaning of duranta. 

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sense), it may remain in the same state as long as 
a period called sawkhye'ya 1 ; Gautama, &c. (10) 

When the soul has once got into a body of a 
Trlndriya (i.e. a being possessing three organs of 
sense), it, &c. (all as in verse 10). (i 1) 

When the soul has once got into a body of a 
ATaturindriya (i.e. a being possessing four organs 
of sense), it, &c. (all as in verse 10). (12) 

When the soul has once got into a body of a 
Pa»i£ndriya (i.e. a being possessing five organs of 
sense), it may remain in the same state as long as 
seven or eight births; Gautama, &c. (13) 

When the soul has once got into the body of a 
god or of a denizen of hell, it may remain in that 
state one whole life ; Gautama, &c. (14) 

Thus the soul which suffers for its carelessness, is 
driven about in the Sa*»sara by its good and bad 
Karman; Gautama, &c. (15) 

Though one be born as a man, it is a rare chance 
to become an Arya ; for many are the Dasyus and 
Ml£i/6^as; Gautama, &c. (16) 

Though one be born as an Arya, it is a rare 
chance to possess all five organs of sense; for we 
see many who lack one organ or other ; Gautama, 
&c. (17) 

Though he may possess all five organs of sense, 
still it is a rare chance to be instructed in the best 
Law ; for people follow heretical teachers ; Gautama, 
&c (18) 

Though he may have been instructed in the right 
Law, still it is a rare chance to believe in it; for 
many people are heretics; Gautama, &c. (19) 

1 A sawkhi^a, i. e. sawkhySya, is a period which can be 
measured by thousands of years. 

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Though one believe in the Law, he will rarely 
practise it ; for people are engrossed by pleasures ; 
Gautama, &c. (20) 

When your body grows old, and your hair turns 
white, the power of your ears decreases ; Gautama, 
&c. (21) 

When your body grows old, and your hair turns 
white, the power of your eyes decreases ; Gautama, 
&c. (22) 

When your body grows old, and your hair turns 
white, the power of your nose decreases. (23) 

When your body grows old, and your hair turns 
white, the power of your tongue decreases. (24) 

When your body grows old, and your hair turns 
white, the power of your touch decreases. (25) 

When your body grows old, and your hair turns 
white, all your powers decrease. (26) 

Despondency, the king's evil, cholera, mortal 
diseases of many kinds befall you ; your body wastes 
and decays; Gautama, &c. (27) 

Cast aside from you all attachments, as the 
(leaves of) a lotus let drop off the autumnal x water, 
exempt from every attachment, Gautama, be care- 
ful all the while ! (28) 

Give up your wealth and your wife; you have 
entered the state of the houseless ; do not, as it 
were, return to your vomit ; Gautama, &c. (29) 

Leave your friends and relations, the large for- 
tune you have amassed; do not desire them a 
second time ; Gautama, &c (30) 

1 This attribute is here given to ' water,' because in autumn the 
water becomes pure, and even the purest water has no hold upon 
the leaves of a lotus ; thus a saint should give up even the best and 
dearest attachment 

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There is now no Gina 1 , but there is a highly 
esteemed guide to show the way; now being 
on the right path, Gautama, be careful all the 
while! (31) 

Now you have entered on the path from which 
the thorns have been cleared, the great path ; walk 
in the right path ; Gautama, &c. (32) 

Do not get into an uneven road like a weak 
burden-bearer ; for you will repent of it afterwards ; 
Gautama, &c. (33) 

You have crossed the great ocean ; why do you 
halt so near the shore ? make haste to get on the 
other side ; Gautama, &c. (34) 

Going through the same religious practices as 
perfected saints 2 , you will reach the world of per- 
fection, Gautama, where there is safety and perfect 
happiness ; Gautama, &c. (35) 

The enlightened 3 and liberated monk should con- 
trol himself, whether he be in a village or a town, 
and he should preach to all* the road of peace; 
Gautama, &c. (36) 

Having heard the Buddha's* well-delivered 

1 As this assertion cannot be put in the mouth of Mahavira, this 
veise must be set down as a later addition — or perhaps as a blunder 
of the poet similar to that noted before, in IX, 42. 

* This seems, according to the commentary, to be the meaning 
of the phrase akalevaras£»im usiya. AkalSvaraf r£«t is said 
to mean as much as kshapakajr8»t. 

* Buddha. 

* BflhaS = vri'whaySt; literally, propagate. 

* Here the word buddha is used as a title; but its use is very 
restricted, scarcely going beyond that of a common epithet. This 
is just what we otherwise should have to assume in order to explain 
the use by the Bauddhas of that word to denote the founder of 
their sect. In the Sutrakrttanga II, 6, 28 Buddha, in the plural, 
actually denotes the prophets of the Buddhists. 

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46 uttarAdhyayana. 

sermon, adorned by illustrations, Gautama cut off 
love and hatred and reached perfection. (37) 
Thus I say. 



I shall explain, in due order, the right discipline of 
a houseless monk who has got rid of all worldly ties. 
Listen to me. (1) 

He who is ignorant of the truth, egoistical, 
greedy, without self-discipline, and who talks loosely, 
is called ill-behaved and void of learning. (2) 

There are five causes which render wholesome 
discipline impossible : egoism, delusion, carelessness, 
illness, and idleness : (3) 

For eight causes discipline is called virtue, viz. : 
not to be fond of mirth, to control one's self, not to 
speak evil of others, not to be without discipline, not 
to be of wrong discipline, not to be covetous, not 
to be choleric, to love the truth ; for their influence 
discipline is called virtue. (4, 5) 

A monk who is liable to the following fourteen 
charges, is called ill-behaved, and does not reach 
Nirva«a: (6) 

If he is frequently angry ; if he perseveres in his 
wrath ; if he spurns friendly advice ; if he is proud 
of his learning; if he finds fault with others; if he is 
angry even with friends ; if he speaks evil even of 
a good friend behind his back ; if he is positive in 
his assertions ; if he is malicious, egoistical, greedy, 

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without self-discipline; if he does not share with 
others; if he is always unkind: then he is called 
ill-behaved (7-9) 

But for the following fifteen good qualities he is 
called well-behaved : if he is always humble, steady, 
free from deceit and curiosity; if he abuses nobody; 
if he does not persevere in his wrath ; if he listens to 
friendly advice ; if he is not proud of his learning ; 
if he does not find fault with others ; if he is not 
angry with friends ; if he speaks well even of a bad 
friend behind his back ; if he abstains from quarrels 
and rows ; if he is enlightened, polite, decent, and 
quiet: then he is called well-behaved. (10-13) 

He who always acknowledges his allegiance to 
his teacher 1 , who has religious zeal and ardour for 
study, who is kind in words and actions, deserves to 
be instructed. (14) 

As water put into a shell shines with a doubled 
brilliancy, so do the piety, fame, and knowledge of 
a very learned monk. (1 5) 

As a trained Kambo^a-steed, whom no noise 
frightens 2 , exceeds all other horses in speed, so 
a very learned monk is superior to all others 3 . (16) 

As a valiant hero bestriding a trained horse, with 
heralds singing out to his right and left, (has no 
equal) 4 , neither has a very learned monk. (17) 

1 Literally, who always remains in his teacher's kula. 

1 Kanthaka. The horse of Buddha is called Kanthaka; our 
passage shows that the word is not a proper noun, but an ap- 

8 This is the burden of all verses down to verse 30. 

* I have supplied these words here and in the following verses. 
The commentators try to do without them, and labour to point out 
qualities of the monk, which correspond to the attributes of the 
subject of the comparison. 

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48 uttarAdhyayana. 

As a strong and irresistible elephant of sixty 
years, surrounded by his females, (has no equal), 
neither has a very learned monk. (18) 

As a sharp-horned, strong-necked bullock, the 
leader of the herd, is a fine sight, so is a very 
learned monk. (19) 

As a proud lion with sharp fangs, who brooks 
no assault, is superior to all animals, so is a very 
learned monk (superior to all men). (20) 

As V4sud£va, the god with the conch, discus, and 
club, who fights with an irresistible strength, (has 
no equal), neither has a very learned monk. (21) 

As a universal monarch with his fourfold army 
and great power, the possessor of the fourteen 
attributes of a king, (has no equal), neither has a very 
learned monk. (22) 

As »Sakra the thousand-eyed, the wielder of the 
thunderbolt, the fortress-destroyer, the king of gods, 
(has no equal), neither has a very learned monk. (23) 

As the rising sun, the dispeller of darkness, who 
burns as it were with light, (has no equal), neither 
has a very learned monk. (24) 

As the moon, the queen of the stars, surrounded 
by the asterisms, when she is full at full-moon, (has 
no equal), neither has a very learned monk. (25) 

As a well-guarded storehouse of merchants, 
which is filled with grain of many kinds, (has no 
equal), neither has a very learned monk. (26) 

As the best of Gambu * trees, called Sudamna, 

1 Eugenia Jambu. According to the commentators the very 
tree is meant from which Gambudvfpa took its name. They make 
of the presiding (inidAiya) deity, the god AnSdn'ta. I am not 
prepared to say that there is such a god as Anidrrta. The name 
looks suspicious. I think in&dAiya. is equal to kg afasthita. 

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which is the abode of the presiding deity, (has no 
equal), neither has a very learned monk. (27) 

As the best of rivers, the ocean-flowing stream 
Sitk l with its dark waters, (has no equal), neither 
has a very learned monk. (28) 

As the best of hills, high mount Mandara, on 
which various plants shed a bright lustre, (has no 
equal), neither has a very learned monk. (29) 

As the ocean of inexhaustible water, the delight 
of Svayambhu 2 , which is full of precious things 
of many kinds, (has no equal), neither has a very 
learned monk. (30) 

Monks who equal the ocean in depth, who are 
difficult to overcome, are frightened by nobody 
(or nothing), and are not easily assailed, who are full 
of extensive learning and take care of themselves, 
will go to the highest place, after their Karman has 
been annihilated. (31) 

Therefore, seeker after the highest truth, study 
the sacred lore, in order to cause yourself and 
others to attain perfection. (32) 

Thus I say. 

1 According to the cosmography of the Gainas the .Slta is 
a river which takes its rise in the Nila range and falls into the 
Eastern ocean. The Nila is the fourth of the six parallel 
mountain-barriers, the southernmost of which is the Himalaya. 
(Traildkya Dipika, Umasvatis' Tattvarthadhigama Sutra, &c.) 

* This epithet apparently refers to Vishwu's sleeping on the 

[45] E 

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50 uttarAdhyayana. 



Harike\ra-Bala was born in a family of ^vapakas 
(A"a»aalas) ; he became a monk and a sage, pos- 
sessed of the highest virtues, who had subdued his 
senses, (i) 

He observed the rules with regard to walking, 
begging, speaking, easing nature, and receiving and 
keeping (of things necessary for a monk) 8 , controlled 
himself, and was always attentive (to his duty). (2) 

He protected from sin his thoughts, speech, and 
body 3 , and subdued his senses. 

1 The commentators relate a legend of the principal figure in 
the following lecture. We may skip his former births and begin 
with his last. Near the Ganges lived Balak6sh/Aa, chief of 
a JTaWala tribe, called Harik&ra (the yellow-haired). With his 
wife Gauri he had a son Bala, who in the course of time became 
a Craina monk and a great i?2shi. On his wanderings he once 
stayed in the Tinduga-grove near Benares, the presiding deity of 
which, a Yaksha, became his most fervent follower. One day 
Bhadra, king Kausalika's daughter, came to the Yaksha's shrine 
and paid homage to the idol. But seeing the dirty monk, she 
did not conceal her aversion. The Yaksha, however, to punish 
her for her want of respect for the holy man, possessed her. As no 
physician or conjurer could cure her madness, the Yaksha, by 
whom she was possessed, said she would recover only if she were 
offered as bride to Bala, the monk. The king agreeing, Bhadra 
became sound as before and went to the monk to choose him for 
her husband. Bala of course refused her. She was then married 
by the king to his Purdhita, RudradSva, whose sacrifice-enclosure 
is the scene of the occurrences related in the Twelfth Lecture. 

* These are the five Samitis. Compare Bhandarkar, Report on 
the Search for Sanskrit Manuscripts for 1883-84, p. 98, note t. 

* These are the three Guplis. Compare Bhandarkar, loc. tit. 
p. 100, note *. 

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Once on his begging tour, he approached the 
enclosure of a Brahmanical sacrifice. (3) 

When (the priests) saw him coming up, emaciated 
by austerities, in a miserable condition, and with 
the poorest outfit, they laughed at him, the ruf- 
fians. (4) 

Stuck up by pride of birth, those killers of 
animals, who did not subdue their senses, the 
unchaste sinners, made the following speech : (5) 

' Who is that dandy coming there ? he is swarthy, 
dreadful, with a turned-up nose, miserably clad, a very 
devil l of a dirty man, with a filthy cloth put on his 
neck ? (6) 

'Who are you, you monster? or for what 
purpose have you come here ? you miserably clad 
devil of a dirty man ! go, get away ! why stand you 
there?' (7) 

At this turn the Yaksha, who lived in the 
Tinduka-tree, had compassion on the great sage, 
and making his own body invisible spoke the fol- 
lowing words : (8) 

" I am a chaste .Sramawa, controlling myself ; 
I have no property, nothing belonging to me, and 
do not cook my food ; I have come for food which 
is dressed for somebody else at the time when 
I call. (9) 

" You give away, eat, and consume plenty of food; 
know that I subsist by begging ; let the mendicant 
get what is left of the rest." (10) 

' The dinner has been prepared for Brahma«as, it 
has been got ready especially for ourselves and for 

1 Pija£a. A full description of a Pirate is given in the 
Uvasaga Dasao, § 94 of Hoemle's edition. 

E 2 

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52 uttarAdhyayana. 

us exclusively; we shall not give you such food and 
drink ; why stand you there ? ' (i i) 

" The husbandmen throw the corn on high ground 
and on low ground 1 , hoping (for a return). For 
the like motive give unto me ; I may be the field 
which may produce merit (as the return for your 
benevolence)." (12) 

' All the world knows that we are (as it were) the 
field on which gifts sown grow up as merit; 
Brahmatfas of pure birth and knowledge are the 
blessed fields.' (13) 

" Those who are full of anger and pride, who kill, 
lie, steal, and own property, are Brahmawas without 
pure birth and knowledge; they are very bad 
fields. (14) 

" You are only the bearer of words as it were, 
you do not understand their meaning, though you 
have learned the V&las. The saints call at high and 
lowly (houses); they are the blessed fields." (15) 

' Detractor of the learned doctors, how dare you 
speak thus in our presence ! This food and drink 
should rather rot, than we should give it you, 
NirgranthaV (16) 

"If you do not give me what I ask for, I who 
observe the Samitis, who am protected by the 
Guptis 8 , who subdue my senses, what benefit, then, 
will you gain by your sacrifices ? " (17) 

'Are here no Kshattriyas, no priests who tend 
the fire, no teachers with their disciples, who will 

1 This reminds one of the biblical parable of the sower. 

1 The word Nirgrantha has here, besides its common meaning, 
Graina monk, another derived from its etymological meaning, 
' without any tie, without restraint/ i.e. shameless. 

* For Samiti and Gupti see notes 2 and 3 on p. 50. 

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beat him with a stick, or pelt him with a nut, take 
him by the neck, and drive him off?' (18) 

On these words of the teachers, many young 
fellows rushed forward, and they all beat the sage 
with sticks, canes, and whips. (19) 

At that turn king Kausalika's daughter, Bhadra, 
of faultless body, saw that the monk was beaten, 
and appeased the angry youngsters. (20) 

' He is the very man to whom the king, impelled 
by the devil (who possessed me), had given me, 
but who would not think of me ; he is the sage 
whom princes and gods adore, who has refused 
me. (21) 

' He is that austere ascetic, of noble nature, who 
subdues his senses and controls himself; the chaste 
man, who would not accept me when my own father, 
king Kausalika, gave me to him. (22) 

'He is the man of great fame and might, of 
awful piety and power; do not injure him who 
cannot be injured, lest he consume you all by the 
fire (of his virtue).' (23) 

When the Yakshas heard these well-spoken 
words of (the Purdhita's) wife Bhadra, they came to 
the assistance of the sage, and kept the young men 
off. (24) 

Appearing in the air with hideous shapes, the 
Asuras beat the people. When Bhadra saw them 
with rent bodies spitting blood, she spoke again 
thus: (25) 

' You may as well dig rocks with your nails, or 
eat iron with your teeth, or kick fire with your feet, 
as treat contemptuously a monk. (26) 

' Like a poisonous snake is a great sage of severe 
austerities, of tremendous piety and power ; like 

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54 uttarAdhvayana. 

a swarm of moths you will rush into a fire, if you 
beat a monk on his begging tour. (27) 

' Prostrate yourself before him for protection, you 
together with all of them, if you want to save your 
life and your property ; for in his wrath he might 
reduce the world to ashes.' (28) 

When the Brahma»a saw the disciples bowing 
their back and head, and holding out their hands, 
not minding their occupation ; with streaming eyes, 
spitting blood, looking upwards, their eyes and 
tongues protruding, like as many logs of wood, he 
became heartbroken and dejected, and together 
with his wife he appeased the sage: 'Forgive us 
our injury and abuse, sir ! (29, 30) 

'Forgive, sir, these ignorant, stupid boys, that 
they injured you ; sages are exceedingly gracious, 
nor are the saints inclined to wrath.' (31) 

" There is not the least hatred in me, neither now, 
nor before, nor in future. The Yakshas attend upon 
me, therefore they have beaten the boys." (32) 

' You know the truth and the Law ; you are not 
angry, compassionate sage ; we take refuge at your 
feet, we together with all of them. (33) 

' We worship you, mighty sir ; there is nothing in 
you that we do not worship ; eat this dish of boiled 
rice seasoned with many condiments. (34) 

' I have got plenty of food ; eat it to do us a 
favour ! ' The noble (monk) said ' yes,' and took food 
and drink after having fasted a whole month. (35) 

At that moment the gods caused a rain of per- 
fumed water and flowers, and showered down 
heavenly treasures ; they struck the drums, and in 
the air they praised the gift. (36) 

' The value of penance has become visible, birth 

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appears of no value ! Look at the holy Harikeja, the 
son of a .Svapaka, who'se power is so great/ (37) 

"O Brahmawas, why do you tend the fire, and 
seek external purity by water ? The clever ones 
say that external purity which you seek for, is not 
the right thing. (38) 

" You (use) Ku.ra-grass, sacrificial poles, straw 
and wood, you touch water in the evening and in 
the morning ; thereby you injure living beings, and 
in your ignorance you commit sins again and 
again." (39) 

' How should we sacrifice, O monk, and how 
avoid sinful actions ? Tell us, ascetic, whom the 
Yakshas hold in honour, what do the clever ones 
declare to be the right method of sacrificing ? ' (40) 

" Doing no injury to living beings of the six 
orders, abstaining from lying and from taking what 
is not freely given, renouncing property, women, 
pride, and deceit, men should live under self- 
restraint. (41) 

"He who is well protected by the five Sawvaras l 
and is not attached to this life, who abandons his 
body 2 , who is pure and does not care for his body, 
wins the great victory, the best of offerings." (42) 

'Where is your fire, your fireplace, your sacri- 
ficial ladle ? where the dried cowdung (used as 
fuel) ? Without these things, what kind of priests 
can the monks be ? What oblations do you offer to 
the fire ? ' (43) 

1 Sawvara is preventing, by means of the Samitis and Guptis, the 
israva, or flowing in of the Karman upon the soul. Bhandarkar, 
loc. cit. p. 106. 

1 This is the Kayfitsarga, the posture of a man standing with all 
his limbs immovable, by which he fortifies himself against sins, &c. 

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56 uttarAdhyayana. 

" Penance is my fire ; life my fireplace ; right 
exertion is my sacrificial ladle ; the body the dried 
cowdung ; Karman is my fuel ; self-control, right 
exertion, and tranquillity are the oblations, praised 
by the sages, which I offer." (44) 

• Where is your pond, and where the holy bathing- 
place ? how do you make your ablutions or get rid 
of impurity ? Tell us, O restrained monk whom the 
Yakshas hold in honour ; we desire to learn it from 

you-' (45) 

M The Law is my pond, celibacy my holy bathing- 
place, which is not turbid, and throughout clear 
for the soul l ; there I make ablutions ; pure, clean, 
and thoroughly cooled I get rid of hatred* (or 
impurity). (46) 

" The clever ones have discovered such bathing, 
it is the great bath praised by the seers, in which 
the great seers bathe, and, pure and clean, they 
obtain the highest place." (47) 

Thus I say. 



Being contemptuously treated for the sake of his 
birth (as a Kknd§\a) Sambhuta took, in Hastinapura, 

1 Attapasannalesa = atmaprasannalSjya, 'in which the 
L&rya is favourable for the soul.' The Lexya is comparable to 
the subtile body of the orthodox philosophy. The theory of the 
L&r ya forms the subject of the Thirty-fourth Lecture. 

* Ddsa, which means hatred (dvgsha) and impurity (ddsha). 

* The stories about JTitra and Sambhuta and the fate they 

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the sinful resolution (to become a universal monarch 
in some later birth) ; descending from the heavenly 
region Padmagulma, he was born of Aidant in 
Kampilya as Brahmadatta ; Aura, however, was 
born in the town Purimatala in the great family of 
a merchant ; when he had heard the Law, he entered 
the order. (1,2) 

In the town Kampilya, both Sambhuta and Altra 
(as they were called in a former birth) met again 
and told each other the reward they had realised 
for their good and bad actions. (3) 

The universal monarch Brahmadatta, the power- 
ful and glorious king, respectfully addressed the 
following words to him (who had been) his brother 
(in a former birth) : (4) 

'We were brothers once, kind to each other, 
loving each other, wishing well to each other. (5) 

' We were slaves in the country of the Darar*as, 
then antelopes on mount Kalaw^ara, then geese on 
the shore of Mrztaganga, and 6Vapakas in the land 
ofKlii. (6) 

' And we were gods having great power, in the 
regions of the gods. This is our sixth birth, in 
which we are separated from each other.' (7) 

" Karman is produced by sinful thoughts, and you 
have entertained them, O king ; it is by the influ- 
ence of this Karman that we were separated." (8) 

underwent in many births are common to Brahmans, Grainas, and 
Buddhists. The whole subject has been exhaustively dealt with 
by Prof. Leumann in two learned papers in the Wiener Zeitschrift 
far die Kunde des Morgenlandes, vol. v, pp. 1 if., 1 1 1 ff., where an 
analysis of the various documents which relate this legend is given, 
and the Prakrrt text of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Lectures 
together with a German translation is published. For all details, 
therefore, the reader is referred to Prof. Leumann's papers. 

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58 uttarAdhyayana. 

' I had done actions derived from truth and 
purity, and now I enjoy their effect; is this also 
true in your case, Altra ? ' (9) 

" Every good deed will bear its fruit to men ; 
there is no escape from the effect of one's actions. 
Through riches and the highest pleasures my soul 
has got the reward for its virtues. (10) 

" Know, Sambhuta, that you have got the reward 
of your virtues in the shape of great wealth and 
prosperity ; but know, O king, that is just so 
with A"itra ; he also obtained prosperity and splen- 
dour. (11) 

"A song of deep meaning condensed in words 
has been repeated in the midst of a crowd of men, 
(having heard) which monks of piety and virtues 
exert themselves in this (religion) : I have become 
a .Sramatfa." (12) 

4 Renowned are my beautiful palaces Ukka., 
Udaya, Madhu, Karka, and Brahman : this house, 
full of treasures and containing the finest products 
of the Paȣ4las, O Altra 1 , regard it as your 
own ! (13) 

' Surround yourself with women who dance, and 
sing, and make music ; enjoy these pleasures, 
O monk; I deem renunciation a hard thing.' (14) 

As the virtuous Altra, for old friendship's sake, 
loved the king who was attached to sensual 
pleasures, and as he had at heart his welfare, he 
spoke to him the following words : (15) 

"All singing is but prattle, all dancing is but 

1 The commentator constructs A'itra with dha»appabhuya: 
full of manifold treasures; but Prof. Leumann is probably right 
in taking it as a vocative. 

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mocking, all ornaments are but a burden, all 
pleasures produce but pains. (16) 

" O king, pleasures which the ignorant like, but 
which produce pains, do not delight pious monks 
who care not for pleasure, but are intent on the 
virtues of right conduct. (17) 

" Excellent king, the lowest caste of men is that 
of the .Svapakas, to which we twice belonged ; as 
such we were loathed by all people, and we lived in 
the hamlets of .Svapakas. (18) 

"In that miserable birth we lived in the hamlets 
of .Svapakas, detested by all people; then we 
acquired the Karman (the fruit of which we now 
enjoy). (19) 

*' You are now a king of great power and pros- 
perity, enjoying the reward of your good actions ; 
put from you the transitory pleasures, and enter the 
order for the sake of the highest good 1 ! (20) 

" He who in this life has done no good actions 
and has not practised the Law, repents of it in 
the next world when he has become a prey to 
Death. (21) 

" As a lion takes hold of an antelope, so Death 
leads off a man in his last hour ; neither mother, nor 
father, nor brother will, at that time, save a particle 
(of his life). (22) 

" Neither his kinsmen, nor his friends, nor his 
sons, nor his relations will share his suffering, he 
alone has to bear it ; for the Karman follows the 
doer. (23) 

" Leaving behind bipeds and quadrupeds, his 
fields, his house, his wealth, his corn, and everything; 

1 AdSna, explained /fcaritradharma. 

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60 uttarAdhyayana. 

against his will, and accompanied only by his 
Karman \ he enters a new existence, either a good 
or a bad one. (24) 

" When they have burned with fire on the funeral 
pile his forlorn, helpless corpse, his wife and sons 
and kinsfolk will choose another man to provide for 
them. (25) 

"Life drags on (towards death) continuously 2 ; 
old age carries off the vigour of man. King of 
the Pa«£alas, mark my words: do no fearful 
actions." (26) 

' I, too, know just as well as you, O saint, what 
you have told me in your speech : pleasures will 
get a hold on men and are not easily abandoned by 
such as we are, sir. (27) 

' O -ATitra, in Hastin&pura 8 I saw the powerful 
king (Sanatkumara), and I took that sinful resolution 
in my desire for sensual pleasures. (28) 

' And since I did not repent of it, this has come 
of it, that I still long for sensual pleasures, though 
I know the Law. (29) 

'As an elephant, sinking down in a quagmire, 

1 This might be translated, as Professor Leumann suggests: 
possessing Karman as the germ (of his future destiny); still 
I prefer the meaning vouched for by the commentators, because 
karmabr^a generally means the germ, i.e. cause of Karman, 
see below, Thirty-second Lecture, verse 7. 

' See Professor Leumann's remarks on this verse, I.e., p. 137 f. 

* When Sunandi, wife of SanatkumSra, paid homage to Sam- 
bhuta, then a Gaina monk, and touched his feet with the curls of 
her soft hair, he was possessed by the desire to become a universal 
monarch in reward for his penances. This is the nidana of 
which the text speaks, and what I render in this connection by 
'taking a resolution.' For the story itself, see my Ausgewahlte 
Erzahlungen in Miharash/rf, p. 5 f. 

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sees the raised ground but does not get to the 
shore, so do we who long for sensual pleasures, not 
follow the path of monks. (30) 

' Time elapses and quickly pass the days ; the 
pleasures of men are not permanent ; they come to 
a man and leave him just as a bird leaves a tree void 
of fruit.' (31) 

" If you are unable to abandon pleasure, then do 
noble actions, O king ; following the Law, have 
compassion on all creatures : then you will become 
a god on entering a new existence. (32) 

" If you have no intention of abandoning plea- 
sure, and still long for undertakings and property, 
my long talk has been to no purpose. I go, king, 
farewell." (33) 

And Brahmadatta, king of the Pa££alas, did not 
act on the counsel of the saint; he enjoyed the 
highest pleasure, and (afterwards) sank into the 
deepest hell. (34) 

But ATitra the great sage, of excellent conduct 
and penance, was indifferent to pleasure; after he 
had practised the highest self-control, he reached 
the highest place of perfection. (35) 

Thus I say. 



Having been gods in a former existence and 
lived in the same heavenly region, some were born 
(here below) in the ancient, wealthy, and famous 

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62 uttarAdhyayana. 

town called Ishukara 1 , which is beautiful like 
heaven, (i) 

By a remnant of the merit they had acquired in 
their former life, they were born in noble families. 
Disgusted with the world and afraid of the Sawsara, 
they abandoned (pleasures, &c.) and took refuge in 
the path of the <7inas. (2) 

Two males remained bachelors, (the third became) 
the Pur6hita (Bhrzgu), (the fourth) his wife Yara, 
(the fifth) the widely-famed king Ishukara, and 
(the sixth) his wife Kamalavati. (3) 

Overcome by fear of birth, old age, and death, 
their mind intent on pilgrimage, and hoping to escape 
the Wheel of Births, they examined pleasures and 
abandoned them. (4) 

Both dear sons of the Brahmanical Pur6hita, 
who was intent on works, remembered their former 
birth, and the penance and self-control they had then 
practised. (5) 

Averse to human and heavenly pleasures, desiring 
liberation, and full of faith, they went to their father 
and spoke thus : (6) 

'Seeing that the lot of man is transitory and 
precarious, and that his life lasts not long, we take 
no delight in domestic life ; we bid you farewell : 
we shall turn monks/ (7) 

In order to dissuade them from a life of aus- 
terities, the father replied to those (would-be) 
monks : ' Those versed in the V£das say that there 
will be no better world for men without sons. (8) 

' My sons, after you have studied the Ve'das, and 
fed the priests, after you have placed your own sons 

1 In Prakrit UsuySra (or IsuySra). According to the PrSkr/t 
legend given in the commentary it was in the Kuru country. 

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at the head of your house, and after you have 
enjoyed life together with your wives, then you may 
depart to the woods as praiseworthy sages.' (9) 

The young men perceiving that the Pur6hita was 
wholly consumed, as it were, by the fire of grief, 
which was fed by his individual inclinations and 
blown into a huge flame by the wind of delusion ; 
that he suffered much and talked a great deal in 
many ways; that he tried to persuade them by 
degrees, and that he would even bribe them with 
money and with objects of desire, (spoke) these 
words : (10, 11) 

" The study of the Vedas will not save you ; the 
feeding of Brahma«as will lead you from darkness 
to darkness, and the birth of sons will not save you. 
Who will assent to what you said ? (12) 

" Pleasures bring only a moment's happiness, but 
suffering for a very long time, intense suffering, but 
slight happiness ; they are an obstacle to the 
liberation from existence, and are a very mine of 
evils. (13) 

" While a man walks about without abandoning 
pleasures, and grieves day and night, while he is 
anxious about other people, and seeks for wealth, 
he comes to old age and death. (14) 

" I have this, and I have not that ; I must do 
this, and I should not do that ! While he talks in 
this strain, the robbers (viz. time) drag him away. 
What foolishness is this!" (15) 

' Great wealth and women, a family and exquisite 
pleasures : for such things people practise austerities. 
All this you may have for your asking.' (16) 

"What avail riches for the practice of religion, 
what a family, what pleasures ? We shall become 

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64 uttarAdhyayana. 

6rama#as, possessed of many virtues, and wander 
about collecting alms." (17) 

' As fire is produced in the Ara»i-wood, as butter 
in milk, and oil in sesamum seed, so, my sons, is the 
soul 1 produced in the body ; (all these things) did 
not exist before, they came into existence, and then 
they perish; but they are not permanent' (18) 

" (The soul) cannot be apprehended by the senses, 
because it possesses no corporeal form 2 , and since it 
possesses no corporeal form it is eternal. The fetter 
of the soul has been ascertained to be caused by its 
bad qualities, and this fetter is called the cause of 
worldly existence. (19) 

" Thus being ignorant of the Law, we formerly 
did sinful actions, and through our wrong-minded- 
ness we were kept back and retained (from entering 
the order). We shall not again act in the same 
way. (20) 

" As mankind is harassed (by the one), and taken 
hold of (by the other), and as the unfailing ones 
go by, we take no delight in the life of a house- 
holder." (21) 

' Who harasses the world ? who takes hold of it ? 

1 Satti in the original; it is rendered sattva by the commen- 
tators. Perhaps satti is the Pr&krA for svitmi; at any rate, 
the context of the next verse proves that soul is intended. 

* Amurta. In later philosophy murtatva is defined as the 
possessing of definite and limited form (pari£4£innaparim$- 
wavattvam) or the possessing of action (kriyavattvam or vega- 
vattvam). Amurta dravya are with the Vaueshikas : the air 
(Skija), time, space, and Atman. These are also called 
nityadravya. Amurta is here apparently synonymous with 
arupin, formless, compare XXXVI, 4, where dharma, adharma, 
aklra, and kila are enumerated as the 'formless things without 

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■whom do you call unfailing ? My sons, I am 
anxious to learn this.' (22) 

" Mankind is harassed by Death ; it is taken hold 
of by Old Age ; the days 1 are called unfailing : know 
this, Father! (23) 

"The day that goes by will never return; the 
days elapse without profit to him who acts contrary 
to the Law. (24) 

" The day that goes by will never return ; the 
days elapse with much profit to him who acts up to 
the Law." (25) 

' Having lived together in one place, and both 
parties 2 having acquired righteousness, we shall, 
O my sons, afterwards go forth (as monks) and beg 
alms from house to house.' (26) 

" He who can call Death his friend, or who can 
escape him, or who knows that he will not die, 
might perhaps decide : this shall be done to- 
morrow. (27) 

"We will even now adopt the Law, after the 
adoption of which we shall not be born again. The 
future has nothing in store for us (which we have not 
experienced already). Faith will enable us to put 
aside attachment" (28) 

(Bhrzgu speaks to his wife VasishMl.) ' Domestic 

1 Literally, the nights. It seems to have been the custom at 
the time when the Sutras were composed, to reckon the time by 
nights, though the reckoning by days is not quite uninstanced 
in the Sutras. 

* This is the explanation of duhad by the commentators, who 
apparently think that the parents and the sons are meant. The 
word in question is originally an adverb, but it is also (cf. 
Thirteenth Lecture, verse 18) taken by the commentator as 
a numeral, and rendered dvay6A. A genitive of the dual occurs 
in XIX, 90. 

[45] F 

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life ceases (to have attraction) for one who has lost 
his sons ; VasishMi, the time has arrived for me to 
turn mendicant friar. As long as a tree retains its 
branches, it is really a tree ; when they are lopped 
off, it is called a trunk. (29) 

'As a bird without its wings, as a king in battle 
without his followers, as a merchant on a boat with- 
out his goods, even so am I without my sons.' (30) 

"You have brought together all these objects 
of desire, and have collected many exquisitely 
pleasant things. Let us, therefore, fully enjoy the 
pleasures ; afterwards we shall go forth on the road 
of salvation." (31) 

'We have finished enjoying pleasures, my dear; 
our life is drawing to its close. I do not abandon 
pleasures for the sake of an unholy life ; but looking 
with indifference on gain and loss, on happiness and 
suffering, I shall lead the life of a monk.' (32) 

" May you not remember your brothers (when it 
is too late) like an old goose swimming against the 
current. Enjoy the pleasures together with me. 
A mendicant's life is misery." (33) 

' My dear, as a snake casts off the slough of its 
body and goes along free and easy, even so have my 
sons abandoned pleasure. Why should I, being left 
alone, not follow them ? (34) 

'As the fish Rdhita 1 breaks through a weak net, 
even so wise men of exemplary character and famous 
for their austerities abandon pleasure and live as 
mendicants. (35) 

" As the herons fly through the air and the geese 
too, who had rent the net, even so my sons and 

Cyprinus Rohita. 

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my husband depart. Why should I, being left alone, 
not follow them ?" (36) 

When the queen had heard that the Purdhita with 
his wife and sons had entered the order, abandoning 
pleasures and all his large property, she spoke to the 
king: (37) 

'A man who returns, as it were, to the vomit, is 
not praised ; but you want to confiscate 1 the property 
left by the Brahma«a. (38) 

' If the whole world and all treasures were yours, 
you would still not be satisfied, nor would all this be 
able to save you. (39) 

' Whenever you die, O king, and leave all pleasant 
things behind, the Law alone, and nothing else in 
this world, will save you, O monarch. (40) 

'As a bird dislikes the cage, so do I (dislike the 
world). I shall live as a nun, without offspring, poor, 
upright, without desire, without love of gain, and 
without hatred. (41) 

'As when by a conflagration of a forest animals 
are burned, other beasts greatly rejoice, being under 
the influence of love and hate ; even so we, fools that 
we are, being attached to pleasure, do not perceive 
that the world is consumed by the fire of love and 
hatred. (42, 43) 

' Those who have enjoyed pleasures, and have 
renounced them, move about like the wind, and go 
wherever they please, like the birds unchecked in 
their flight (44) 

' When they 2 are caught, and held by my hand, 

1 It was considered a privilege of the king to confiscate the 
property of a man who had no heir ; compare Gautama XXVIII, 42, 
VasishMa XVII, 83-86, &c. 

1 This apparently refers to the birds mentioned in the last verse. 

F 2 

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68 uttarAdhyayana. 

sir, they struggle ; we shall be like them, if we are 
attached to pleasures. (45) 

' As an unbaited (bird) ' sees a baited one caught 
in the snare, even so shall we avoid every bait and 
walk about, not baited by anything. (46) 

' Being aware that pleasures are causes for the 
continuance of worldly existence, as illustrated in 
(the above) similes of the greedy man, one should 
be cautious and stir as little as possible, like a snake 
in the presence of Supar«a. (47) 

' Like an elephant who has broken his fetters, go 
to your proper destination. O great king Ishuk&ri ; 
this is the wholesome truth I have learned. (48) 

' Leave your large kingdom and the pleasures 
which are so dear to' all ; abandon what pleases the 
senses, and what attracts ; be without attachment 
and property ; learn thoroughly the Law and give up 
all amusements; then practise famous and severe 
penance, being of firm energy V (49, 50) 

The commentators labour to interpret them as 'pleasures,' but that 
will not make good sense. 

1 Kulala in the original. Kulala in Sanskrit denotes the wild 
cock, Phasianus Gallus. The word seems to be derived from 
kulay a by assimilation of the y to the preceding consonant, compare 
salil& for saliya = saritS = sarit. In the sense of bird the 
word kulala seems to be used in the well-known stanza of 
Bhartr/hari: brahmi yena kulalavan niyamito brahma»dabha»</d- 
dare, unless here kulala is an early corruption for kulayin. 

* The commentators assign these verses to the two sons of Bhriga ; 
but then the verses do not construe. Besides the mention of 
the ' large kingdom ' in the first line seems to prove that the king, 
and not the Brahmans, is to be understood as the person addressed. 
In the last line I separate kkhayaw (scil. tavaw), 
instead of pagi£#A*ahakkhaya/H. It is, however, just possible 
that the next verse is to be connected with the preceding ones ; in 
that case, we must read yzgiggA * and interpret it in conformity 
with the scholiast as a gerund. 

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In this way all (these) professors of the Law 
gradually obtained enlightenment, being frightened 
by birth and death, and seeking for the end of 
misery. (51) 

Their doubts about the true doctrine were 
dispersed, and they realised the Bhavanas 1 ; in 
a short time they reached the end of misery. (52) 

The king and the queen, the Brahmanical Purd- 
hita, his wife, and his sons, they all reached per- 
fection. (53) 

Thus I say. 



He who adopts the Law in the intention to live 
as a monk, should live in company (with other 
monks), upright, and free from desire ; he should 
abandon his former connections, and not longing for 
pleasures, he should wander about as an unknown 
beggar: then he is a true monk. (1) 

Free from love he should live, a model of 

1 The bhavanas are certain meditations which are conducive 
to the purity of the soul. They are treated at length in a work by 
Hemaiandra, called Bhavabhavana, which seems to be rather 
popular with the .Svetambaras. The Digambaras seem to call 
them Anuprekshas. A work in PrSkrrt by .Subhaiandra, called 
K£rttikeyanupr6ksha, is epitomised in Bhandarkar's Report for 
1883-84, p. 113 ff. 

* The name of this lecture, sa bhikkhu, is derived from the 
burden which runs through the whole of it and winds up every 

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70 uttaradhyayana. 

righteousness \ abstaining from sins, versed in the 
sacred lore, protecting his soul (from every wrong), 
wise, hardy, observing everything; he who is attached 
to nothing, is a true monk. (2) 

Ignorant of abuse and injury, a steadfast monk 
should be a model of righteousness, always pro- 
tecting his soul (from sins), neither rash nor pas- 
sionate ; when he endures everything, then he is a 
true monk. (3) 

He who is content with lowly beds and lodgings, 
bears heat and cold, flies and gnats, is neither rash 
nor passionate, and endures everything, he is a true 
monk. (4) 

He does not expect respectful treatment, nor 
hospitality, nor reverence, nor, indeed, praises ; 
he controls himself, keeps the vows, practises 
austerities, lives together with other monks, medi- 
tates on his soul ; this is a true monk. (5) 

If he does not care for his life, or abandons 
every delusion, if he avoids men and women, always 
practises austerities, and does not betray any curiosity, 
then he is a true monk. (6) 

He who does not profess and live on divination 
from cuts and shreds *, from sounds on the earth or 
in the air, from dreams, from diagrams, sticks, and 

1 Lidht, explained sadawush/Mnataya pradhanaA. LkdAa. 
is also the name of a country in western Bengal, inhabited, at 
Mahavfra's time, by uncivilised tribes, see part i, p. 84, note 1. 
The etymology of both words is doubtful. 

* Compare the note on p. 161 of part i. The 71st chapter of 
Varaha Mihira's Brrhat Sawihitd treats of vastraMSda, rents, &c. 
of clothes; the 51st, of angavidya, forebodings from the body; 
and the 53rd, of vastuvidya^ property of buildings ; chapters 88, 
90, and 95 are devoted to the forebodings from the cries of birds, 
female jackals, and crows. 

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properties of buildings, from changes in the body, 
from the meaning l of the cries (of animals) — he is 
a true monk. (7) 

Spells, roots, every kind of medical treatment, 
emetics, purgatives, fumigation, anointing of the 
eye, and bathing, the patient's lamentation, and his 
consolation — he who abstains from all these things, 
is a true monk. (8) 

He who does not praise, or pay attention to, the 
warriors, Ugras 2 , princes, Brahmawas, Bhdgas, and 
artists of all sorts, who abstains from this, he is a 
true monk. (9) 

He who does not, for earthly gain, improve his 
acquaintance with householders, with whom he fell 
in as a monk, or was in friendly relation before that 
time, he is a true monk. (10) 

A Nirgrantha is forbidden to take from house- 
holders, if they do not give it themselves, bed, lodging, 

1 A conjectural rendering of viga.y&, which cannot be taken in 
its ordinary meaning ' victory.' The commentary explains it ju- 
bhSj-ubhanirfipanSbhySsaA. — Notice the absence of astrology 
from the above list of prophetical arts practised by strolling friars 
apparently to insinuate themselves into the good graces of laymen 
and women. If Greek nativity had already risen to importance, it 
certainly would have been mentioned. For it has ever since held 
a firm hold on the Hindu mind. — This remark also applies to 
XX, 45. But in Sutraknt&nga I, 13, 9, astrology (sawvaiAAara) 
is mentioned ; it is, however, the ancient astrology of the Hindus, 
not the Greek one. 

* The Ugras and Bhdgas were Kshattriyas. The former were, 
according to the Gainas, descendants of those whom jfa'shabha, the 
first Ttrthakara, appointed to the office of k6/wals or prefects 
of towns, while the Bhogas were descendants from those whom 
jtfj'shabha acknowledged as persons deserving of honour. Comp. 
Hoernle, Uvisaga Dasao, Appendix, p. 58, and my edition of the 
Kalpa Sutra, p. 103, note on § 18. 

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drink, food, or any dainties and spices ; he who is 
not angry at such occasions, he is a true monk, (n) 

If a monk gets any food and drink, or dainties 
and spices, and does not feel compassion (on a 
sick fellow-monk) in thoughts, words, and deeds, 
(then he is not a true monk) * ; but if he has his 
thoughts, words, and acts under strict discipline, 
then he is a true monk. (12) 

Dish-water 2 , barley-pap, cold sour gruel 8 , water 
in which barley has been washed : such loathsome 
food and drink he should not despise, but call at 
the lowliest houses (for alms) ; then he is a true 
monk. (13) 

There are many voices on the earth, of gods, of 
men, and of beasts, dreadful, frightful, and awful 
noises ; if he hears them without trembling, then he 
is a true monk. (14) 

He who understands all religious disputations, 
[who lives together with fellow-monks] *, who prac- 
tises self-discipline 8 , who meditates on his soul, 
who is wise, hardy, and observes everything, who 

1 The commentators supply these words; something to that 
purport is wanted to make out a consistent meaning, but there is 
not so much as a hint of it in the text itself. As it stands now, 
the meaning would be just the opposite of that given in the 
translation, which is in better accordance with the established 

* Ay&maga, it is rendered iMmaka in Sanskrit, and explained 
avaxravawa, i.e. avasravawa. See also Leumann, Aupapitika 
Sutra, Glossar s.v. 

* Sauvtra, explained k&ft^ika, the water of boiled rice in 
a state of spontaneous fermentation. 

4 This is a later addition, proved to be such by the metre, 
though the commentators comment upon it. 

* Kh8y£«ugaS. The commentators explain khfida by 

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is calm, and does not hurt anybody, he js a true 
monk. (15) 

He who, not living by any art, without house, 
without friends, subduing his senses, free from all 
ties, sinless, and eating but little, leaves the house 
and lives single, he is a true monk. (16) 

Thus I say. 



long-lived (Gambusvamin)! I (Sudharman) have 
heard the following Discourse from the Venerable 
(Mahavlra) : 

Here 1 , indeed, the venerable Sthaviras have 
declared ten conditions for the realisation of celibacy, 
by hearing and understanding which the monks will 
reach a high degree of self-discipline, of Sawrvara 2 , 
and of contemplation, will be well protected (by the 
three Guptis), will guard their senses, guard their 
chastity, and will thus never be remiss (in the 
attendance on their religious duties). 

What, then, are those ten conditions for the 
realisation of celibacy as declared by the venerable 
Sthaviras, by hearing and understanding which the 
monks will reach a high degree of self-discipline, of 

1 The word 'here' is explained as meaning 'in this religion 
of the Camas.' See p. 8, note 5. 

* Sawvara is the stopping of the asravas by means of the 
Samitis and Guptis, see above, p. 55, note 1. 

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Sawvara, and of contemplation, will be well pro- 
tected (by the three Guptis), will guard their senses, 
guard their chastity, and will thus never be remiss 
(in the attendance on their religious duties) ? 

These, then, are the ten conditions for the 
realisation of celibacy, &c (all down to) duties. 

i. A Nirgrantha may occupy various places for 
sleep or rest 1 ; but a Nirgrantha should not occupy 
places, for sleep or rest, frequented by women, 
cattle, or eunuchs. The preceptor has explained 
the reason for this. If a Nirgrantha occupies places 
for sleep or rest, frequented by women, cattle, or 
eunuchs, then, though he be chaste, there may arise 
a doubt with regard to his chastity, or a sensual 
desire, or a feeling of remorse, or he will break the 
rules, or he will become a slave to passion, or he 
will acquire a dangerous illness of long duration, or 
he will desert the faith which the Kevalin has 
proclaimed. Therefore a Nirgrantha should not 
occupy places, for sleep or rest, frequented by women, 
cattle, or eunuchs. 

2. A Nirgrantha should not converse with 
women *. The preceptor has explained the reason 
for this. If a Nirgrantha converses with women, 
&c. (all as above). 

3. A Nirgrantha should not sit together with 
women on the same seat. The preceptor has 
explained the reason for this. If a Nirgrantha 
sits on the same seat with women, &c. (all as 

1 Literally, beds and seats. 

* This might also be rendered: he should not talk about 

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4. A Nirgrantha should not look at, or contem- 
plate, the charms and beauties of women. (The rest 
similar as above.) 

5. A Nirgrantha should not, behind a screen, 
or curtain, or wall, listen to the screeching or scream- 
ing or singing or laughing or giggling or crying 
of women. (The rest similar as above.) 

6. A Nirgrantha should not recall to his memory 
the pleasure and amusements which in the past 
he enjoyed together with women. (The rest similar 
as above.) 

7. A Nirgrantha should not eat well-dressed food. 
(The rest similar as above.) 

8. A Nirgrantha should not eat or drink to excess. 
(The rest similar as above.) 

9. A Nirgrantha should not wear ornaments. 
The preceptor has explained the reason for this. 
If he wears ornaments, or adorns his body, he might 
become an object of desire to women. When he is 
an object of desire to women, then, &c. (the rest 
as in 1). 

10. A Nirgrantha should not care for sounds, 
colours, tastes, smells, and feelings. (The rest 
similar as above.) 

Here are some verses (to the same effect) 1 : 
A monk should take up a detached lodging, free 

from, and not frequented by women, to preserve his 

chastity, (i) 

A chaste monk should avoid talking with women, 

which delights the mind and foments love and 

passion. (2) 

1 The preceding part of this lecture is in prose. 

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76 uttarAdhyayana. 

A chaste monk should always avoid the company 
of, and frequent conversation with women. (3) 

A chaste monk should avoid observing the body, 
limbs, and figure of women, their pleasant prattle 
and oglings. (4) 

A chaste monk should avoid listening to the 
screeching, screaming, singing, laughing, giggling, 
and crying of women. (5) 

A chaste monk should never recall to his mind 
how he had laughed and played with women, and 
had enjoyed them, how they became jealous, and 
what tricks he played to frighten them. (6) 

A chaste monk should always avoid well-dressed 
food and drink which will soon raise his sensuality. (7) 

A chaste monk should always eat his food, col- 
lected according to the rules, for the sustenance 
of life, in the prescribed quantity, and at the right* 
time; concentrated in his thoughts he should not 
eat to excess. (8) 

A chaste monk should abstain from ornaments, 
he should not adorn his body after the fashion of 
amorous people. (9) 

He should always abstain from the five orders of 
pleasant things : sounds, colours, smells, tastes, and 
feelings of touch. (10) 

A lodging frequented by women, their pleasant 
talk, their company, and looking at their charms; (1 1) 

Their screeching, screaming, singing, and laugh- 
ing, eating and sleeping together with them ; well- 
dressed food and drink, or partaking of them to 
excess; (12) 

And ornaments and finery 1 : these pleasant things, 

1 I/Mam £a, i.e. ish/am kz. The commentators connect the 

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which are hard to leave, are like the poison Tala- 
pu/a x , for a man who seeks after the true Self. ( 1 3) 

He should, once for all, abandon pleasant things 
which are hard to leave; and concentrated in his 
thoughts he should avoid whatever casts a doubt 
on his chastity. (14) 

A monk should be the steadfast charioteer, as it 
were, of the Law in the park of the Law 2 , a vessel 
of righteousness, content, restrained, attentive to 
the duties of a chaste monk. (15) • 

The gods, Danavas, Gandharvas, Yakshas, Ra- 
kshasas, and Kinnaras pay homage to a chaste monk 
who performs his difficult duties. (16) 

This unchangeable, permanent, and eternal Law 
has been proclaimed by the Ginas ; through it the 
Siddhas have reached perfection, and others will 
reach it (17) 

Thus I say. 



A Nirgrantha who has entered the order, who 
has learned the Law, who has received religious 

words with the second part of the sentence. By giving to £a the 
meaning of api they interpret the two words in question as 
meaning 'though very pleasant.' 

1 Taiaurfa. According to the Dipika it is a poison which kills 
by merely touching the palate (taiukasparjanam&trad Sva); 
but this is a mere guess prompted by a wrong etymology. 
Talau</a stands perhaps for taiaku/a, which may have been 
a variant of kaiaku/a, the deadly poison swallowed by .Siva. 

* Here we have twice the same word dhamm&r&m6, which 

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78 uttarAdhyayana. 

discipline, and who has obtained the benefit of 
B6dhi which is difficult to obtain, may perhaps 
afterwards begin to live as he likes, (i) 

(He will say :) I have a good bed and wherewithal 
to cover me; I obtain food and drink; I know 
everything that comes to pass, friend ; why then 
should I study, sir ? (2) 

He who, after entering the order, always sleeps, 
eats, and drinks as much as he likes, and lives com- 
fortably, is called a bad 5rama»a. (3) 

The sinner who despises the learning and dis- 
cipline which his preceptor and teachers have taught 
him, is called a bad ■S'ramawa. (4) 

He who does not, as he should, strive to please 
his preceptor and teachers, and does not, in his 
arrogance, treat them with respect, is called a bad 
.Srama#a. (5) 

He who hurts living beings, seeds, and sprouts, 
who does not control himself, though he be- 
lieves himself well -controlled, is called a bad 
£rama»a. (6) 

He who uses a bed, a plank, a chair, a seat, or 
his duster 1 , without having well wiped these things, 
is called a bad vSrama»a. (7) 

He who walks with great haste and without care, 
being overbearing and fierce, is called a bad 
.Sramatta. (8) 

I have once translated 'park of the Law,' and then 'vessel of 
righteousness.' It is obvious that a play on this word is intended, 
though I may have failed to hit the meaning of the author. 

1 Padakambala, usually called ra#6hara«a. One com- 
mentator suggests, as a possible rendering, pStrakambala 
'a cloth to cover his almsbowl.' 

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He who carelessly inspects things 1 , throwing down 
his duster at random, not being attentive to the 
inspection of things, is called a bad .Sramaaa. (9) 

He who carelessly inspects things, his attention 
being absorbed by what he hears, who always 
slights his teachers, is called a bad 5rama«a. (10) 

He who is deceitful, talkative, arrogant, greedy, 
who does not control himself, nor share (his food, 
&c. with those who are in want), and is not of an 
amiable disposition, is called a bad .Sramawa. (11) 

He who is a controversialist, and ill-behaved, 
who perverts the truth, and delights in quarrels 
and contentions, is called a bad (12) 

He who sits down on a weak, shaking seat 
wherever he lists, and is not careful in sitting down, 
is called a bad .Srama«a. (13) 

He who sleeps with dusty feet and does not 
inspect his couch, being careless about his bed, is 
called a bad .Sramawa. (14) 

He who eats milk, curds, and other things pro- 
duced from milk, and does not practise austerities, 
is called a bad 5rama«a. (15) 

He who eats after sunset, and when ad- 
monished, makes an angry reply, is called a bad 
£rama»a. (16) 

He who leaves his own teacher, and follows 
heretical ones, who continuously changes his school 2 , 
being of a bad disposition, is called a bad 6ra- 
masa. (17) 

1 It is a monk's duty closely to inspect everything that he uses 
or comes in contact with, in order to avoid hurting inadvertently 
anything considered to possess life. This is called parfilShl 

1 Ga»awga»ika, according to the commentators one who 
attaches himself to another ga«a every half-year. 

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8o uttarAdhyayana. 

He who has left his own house, and busies 
himself in another's house, who lives by fortune- 
telling, is called a bad 5rama«a. (18) 

He who eats the food of his relations, and does 
not like living by alms *, who reposes on the seat of 
the householder, is called a bad .Srama»a. (19) 

Such a monk, who, like the heretics 2 , does not 
protect himself from sins, who though having the 
appearance (of a monk) is the lowest among his 
worthy brethren, is despised in this world like 
poison; he is nobody in this world and in that 
beyond. (20) 

But he who always avoids these sins, and is pious 
amongst his brethren, is welcomed in this world like 
nectar; he conquers this world and the next 8 . (21) 

Thus I say. 


SAtfGAYA *. 

In the town of Kampilya there was a king, named 
Saagaya, who possessed numerous troops and war- 
chariots; once he went a-hunting. (1) 

1 Samudafliya, explained bhaiksham. 

8 PaJJ^akujila, literally, those who practise the five wrong 
xilas, whereby probably those are denoted who do not keep the 
five great vows of the Crainas. Note that the Buddhists too 
have their pa#£ajtla. They could therefore have been called 
pa#£akufila by the Gainas. 

* The text is not settled in the last line ; but there can be no 
doubt about the meaning. 

4 The commentators Sanskritise this name in Samyata. But 
however appropriate it may be to a Gaina, it certainly does not 

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He was surrounded on all sides by a large host of 
horses, elephants, chariots, and footmen. (2) 

He chased the deer on horseback in the Kesara- 
park of Kampilya ; and intent on his sport he killed 
there the frightened deer. (3) 

Now in the K6sara-park there was a houseless 
ascetic intent on sacred study and meditating on the 
Law. (4) 

Annihilating sinful inclinations \ he meditated in 
the Asphdta-bower 2 . But the king killed the deer 
that fled to him. (5) 

Now the king on horseback came quickly there ; 
he saw the killed deer and saw the monk there. (6) 

The king in his consternation (thought) ' I had 
nearly hurt the monk ; ill-fated and cruel me that is 
mad for the sport.' (7) 

Having dismissed his horse, the king bowed 
respectfully to the monk's feet (saying), ' Forgive me 
this, Reverend sir.' (8) 

But the venerable monk, being plunged in silent 
meditation, made no reply to the king, who, therefore, 
was seized with fear. (9) 

' I am Sangaya. ; answer me, Reverend sir ; a 
monk might by the fire of his wrath reduce millions 
of men to ashes.' (10) 

' Be without fear, O king ; but grant safety to 
others also ; in this transient world of living beings, 
why are you addicted to cruelty ? (11) 

look like a king's name. The Sanskrit form of the name was 
probably Sa%aya or Sriajfaya, both of which frequently occur in 
Sanskrit literature. 

1 To render asrava. 

* Apphdva in the original; there are several plants which are 
called asph&ta. 

[45] G 

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82 uttarAdhyayana. 

' As you must, of necessity, one day part with 
everything, in this transient world of living beings, 
why do you cling to kingly power ? (12) 

' Transient like a stroke of lightning are life and 
beauty, which you love so much ; you do not com- 
prehend what will benefit you in the next life. (13) 

• Wives and children, friends and relations, all are 
dependent on a man during his life ; but they will 
not follow him in death. (14) 

'The sons, in great sorrow, will remove the 
corpse of their father (to the cemetery) ; and so will 
parents do with their sons and relations ; O king, do 
penance! (15) 

' O king, other men, glad, and pleased, and well 
attired, will enjoy the riches (the deceased) had 
amassed, and will dally with the wives he had so 
well guarded. (16) 

'And whatever actions he has done, good or 
wicked ones, with their Karman he will depart to 
his next existence.' (17) 

Then the king was taught the Law by this monk, 
and was filled with a great desire for purity, and 
disregard of worldly objects. (18) 

Sa#£aya gave up his kingly power and adopted 
the faith of the <7inas in the presence of the venerable 
monk Gardabhali. (19) 

A Kshattriya, who had abandoned his kingdom 
and had turned monk, said to him : ' As you look 
so happy in outward appearance, you must have 
peace of mind. (20) 

'What is your name, to which G6tra do you 
belong, and why have you become an ascetic 1 ? 

1 Literally, a Brahman. 

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How do you venerate the enlightened ones ', and 
how did you come to be called a well-behaved 
(monk)?' (21) 

" My name is Sa«faya ; I belong to the G6tra of 
Gdtama ; my teacher is Gardabhali, who is conversant 
with the sacred lore and good conduct. (22) 

" O great sage, the man of limited knowledge 
talks foolishly on these four heads 2 , viz. the exist- 
ence of the soul, its non-existence, idolatry, and the 
inefficiency of knowledge. (23) 

"This has been declared by himwho is enlightened, 
wise, liberated, conversant with the sacred lore and 
good conduct, who is truthful and of right energy. (24) 

" Men who commit sins will go to hell ; but those 
who have walked the road of righteousness, will 
obtain a place in heaven. (25) 

" All this delusive talk (of the heretics) is untrue 
and without any meaning; I live and walk about 
according to the rules of self-control. (26) 

1 BuddhS, explained a^aryan, preceptors. 

* These are the four great heresies: (i)thatofthekriyavddinas, 
who maintain that the soul exists; (2) that of the akriyavadinas, 
who hold the reverse of the preceding doctrine ; (3) that of the 
vainayikas, which seems to be identical with salvation by 
bhakti; (4) that of the a^flanavadinas, who contend that 
knowledge is not necessary for salvation, but tapas; this seems 
identical with the karmapatha. The commentators explain kri- 
ydvadinaA 'those who believe the soul or atman to be charac- 
terised by the verb to be (i.e. by a permanent and unchangeable 
existence), and ascribe to it such qualities as ubiquity or non-ubiquity, 
activity or non-activity.' This they treat as heresy, but from Maha- 
vagga VI, 31,2 (vol. xvii, p. 109) it is evident that the Gainas were 
considered kriyavadins. The akriy&vada is also identified with 
the kshawikav&da or doctrine, usually ascribed to Buddhists, that 
everything has but a momentary existence and is in the next 
moment replaced by a facsimile of itself. About these heresies 
compare the SutrakrMhga I, 12 ; II, 2, 77. 

G 2 

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84 uttarAdhyayana. 

" I know all these heresies to be contemptible ; 
I know that there will be a life hereafter, and I 
know my Self. (27) 

" I was an illustrious god in the Mahapra«a 
heaven, and reached old age as we here would say 
of a man who is a hundred years old ; but in heaven, 
hundred years consist of as many Mahapalis of 
Palls'. (28) 

" Descending from the Brahmaldka, I was born as 
a man. I know exactly the length of my life as 
well as that of other men. (29) 

" A monk should abandon the manifold doctrines 
(of heretics), and his own fancies, and such deeds as 
are productive of evil everywhere. One should 
live up to this wisdom 2 . (30) 

" I keep clear of the (superstitious) questions and 
the spells of laymen, exerting myself day and night 
(in the true religion). Thinking thus, one should 
practise austerities. (31) 

"And what you of a pure mind asked me just 
now, that has been revealed by the enlightened 
one 3 ; such knowledge makes part of the creed of 
the <7inas. (32) 

" A wise man believes in the existence of the soul 4 , 

1 According to the commentary a p&lt seems to be what 
is commonly called palydpama, and mahapSli a sagardpamS. 
However the longest life of a god in Brahmaldka is but ten 
SagardpamSs, see below, XXXVI, 225. The construction of the 
verse is very involved, but the drift of it cannot be mistaken. 

* ii viggim a»usam£ar6. I believe that viggim here stands 
for vidvdn, as in the following verse. The meaning would then 
be, ' knowing this one should live as a monk.' 

5 Buddha. 

* The Gainas do not deny the existence of the soul, but the un- 
alterable character of the soul. Hence they object to the kriydvada. 

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he avoids the heresy of the non-existence of the 
soul ; possessing true faith one should practise the 
very difficult Law according to the faith. (33) 

" Having learned this pure creed, which is adorned 
by truth and righteousness, Bharata 1 gave up 
Bharatavarsha and all pleasures, and entered the 
order. (34) 

" King Sagara 2 also gave up the ocean-girt Bha- 
ratavarsha and his unrivalled kingly power, and 
reached perfection through his compassion. (35) 

" After having given up Bharatavarsha, the famous 
universal monarch of great power, called Maghavan 8 , 
entered the order. (36) 

" King Sanatkumara 4 , a universal monarch of 
great power, placed his son on the throne, and then 
practised austerities. (37) 

"Santi 5 , a universal monarch of great power, the 

1 Bharata was the eldest son of i?*shabha, the first Tirthakara. 
He became the first ATakravartin, or universal monarch, and 
resided in Ayddhya. At his renunciation he was ordered by 
Indra himself to pluck out five handfuls of his hair as is the 
custom of Craina monks on entering the order. 

* Sagara, king of Ay6dhya, was, according to the legend 
contained in the commentary (see R. Fick, Eine jainistische 
Bearbeitung der Sagara- Sage, Kiel, 1889), the younger brother 
of A^ita, the second Tirthakara. He became the second Aakra- 
vartin, and, in the end, he was ordained by A^ita. The Gaina 
legend seems to be but a strangely distorted version of the story 
of Sagara told in the first book of the Ramayaaa. 

* Maghavan, son of king Samudravi^aya of Sravasti, and his 
wife Bhadra, became the third Aakravartin. 

* Sanatkumara, son of king AyvasSna of Hastinapura, and his 
wife SahadSvi, became the fourth Aakravartin. The adventures 
of Sanatkumara are told in a Prakrit legend, which I have 
published in my Ausgewahlte Erzahlungen in Maharash/ri, Leipzig, 
1886, p. 20 ff. 

1 .Santi was the sixteenth Tirthakara, Kunthu the seventeenth, and 

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86 uttarAdhyayana. 

bringer of peace to the world, gave up Bharatavarsha 
and reached perfection. (38) 

" King Kunthu, the bull of the Aikshvaka race, 
the widely famed lord, reached perfection. (39) 

" King Ara, after he had given up the sea-girt 
Bharatavarsha, reached perfection on becoming 
exempt from defilement. (40) 

" After having given up his large kingdom, his 
army and war-chariots, his exquisite pleasures, Maha- 
padma * practised austerities. (41) 

" Having brought the (whole) earth under his 
sceptre, king Harish£»a 2 , who humbled the pride 
(of other kings), reached perfection. (42) 

" Gaya. s , together with thousands of kings, re- 
nouncing the world, practised self-restraint. He 

Ara the eighteenth Tirlhakara. Kunthu sounds strange for a proper 
name. I think it just possible that it is a popular or Prakrn corruption 
of Kakutstha, who was an AikshvSka. As is well known, Rima 
is frequently called after him Kakutstha, and so are other kings of 
the same line, in which he stands as the twenty-fifth according 
to the list in the RamSyawa I, 70. 

1 Mahapadma was the ninth Aakravartin. His elder brother 
was Vishmikumara, who was ordained by Suvrata, a disciple of 
Munisuvrata, the twentieth Tirlhakara. He wrenched the 
sovereignty of the world from Namu/fc, minister of his father 
Padmdttara, who had ascended the throne, by making him 
promise as much of his territory as he could cover with three 
strides. This is the Brahmanical story of Vish»u and Bali, for 
whom the Gainas have substituted Namu*i. According to them 
the minister Namuii was, in a disputation, defeated by the Gaina 
monks, and to revenge himself on them, he ordered them to quit 
his kingdom as soon as he got it. — Mahapadma' s residence was 

1 Harishewa, son of king Mah&hari of Kampilya, became the 
tenth ATakravartin. 

3 Gaya, son of king Samudravi^aya of Ra^agr/ba, became the 
eleventh Aakravartin. 

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reached perfection which has been taught by the 
£inas. (43) 

" Dararoabhadra 1 , giving up his flourishing king- 
dom of Dasarwa, turned monk ; he renounced the 
world, being directed to do so by 6akra himself. (44) 

" Karakandu. was king of Kalinga ; Dvimukha, of 
Paȣala ; Nami, of Viddha ; Naggati (or rather 
Nagna^it), of Gandhara 2 . (45) 

" Nami humbled himself, being directed to do so 
by 3akra himself; the king of VidGha left the house 
and became a (46) 

" These bulls of kings have adopted the faith of 
the £inas ; after having placed their sons on the 
throne, they exerted themselves as 5rama»as. (47) 

"Udaya«a 8 , the bull of the kings of Sauvlra, 
renounced the world and turned monk ; he entered 
the order and reached perfection. (48) 

" And thus the king of Klri *, exerting himself for 
the best truth, abandoned all pleasures, and hewed 
down, as it were, his Karman like a forest. (49) 

"And thus king Vi/aya 6 , whose sins were not 
quite annihilated 6 , turned monk after he, the famous 
man, had quitted his excellent kingdom. (50) 

1 King Dajarwabhadra was a contemporary of Mahavira. 

* These are the four PratySkabuddhas ; see p. 35, note 2. 

5 The story of Ud&ya»a (or perhaps Uddayana) will be found 
in my Ausgewahlte Erzahlungen in MihSrish/rf, p. 28 if. He 
was contemporary with Mahavira. 

* He was Nandana, the seventh Balad&va, son of king AgnLrikha 
of Benares. 

• He was the son of king Brahmara^a of Dvirakivati, and 
eldest brother of the V&sud&va Dvipr/'sh/a or Dvipush/i. 

• To render a#a//Mkitti, of which the commentators offer 
several explanations, rendering it an&rtt&kirti and anash/akfrti. 
A various reading £«a/M£kitti is mentioned, and explained 

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88 uttarAdhyayana. 

"And thus the royal seer Mahabala 1 practised 
severe penance with an undistracted mind, and took 
upon himself the glory (of self-control). (5 1) 

" Why should a wise man, for bad reasons, live on 
earth like a madman, since those persons (mentioned 
above) who reached eminence, exerted themselves 
strongly? (52) 

" I have spoken true words able to promote virtue ; 
some have been saved, some are being saved, and 
some will be saved. (53) 

" Why should a wise man, for bad reasons, bring 
affliction upon himself? He who has become free 
from all ties and sins, will reach perfection." (54) 

Thus I say. 



In the pleasant town of Sugrlva, which is adorned 
with parks and gardens, there was the king Bala- 
bhadra and M/Vga, the principal queen. (1) 

Their son Bala^rl, also known as Mr/gaputra 
(i. e. son of Mr/ga), the darling of his father 
and mother, was crown-prince, a (future) lord of 
ascetics. (2) 

In his palace Nandana he dallied with his wives, 
like the god D6gundaga 2 , always happy in his 
mind. (3) 

1 Mahabala was the son of king Bala of Hastinapura. He lived 
at the time of Vimala, the thirteenth Tirthakara. 

* According to the commentators the Ddgundaka gods are the 
trdyastriwja gods. The Sanskrit of ddgundaga would be 

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Standing at a window of his palace ', the floor of 
which was inlaid with precious stones and jewels, 
he looked down on the squares, places, and roads of 
the town. (4) 

Once he saw pass there a restrained Sramana., 
who practised penance, self-restraint, and self-control, 
who was full of virtues, and a very mine of good 
qualities. (5) 

Mr/gaputra regarded him with fixed eyes, trying 
to remember where he had seen the same man 
before. (6) 

While he looked at the saint, and his mind 
became pure, the remembrance of his former birth 
came upon him as he was plunged in doubt. (7) 

When the remembrance of his former birth came 
upon the illustrious Mrzgaputra, he remembered 
his previous birth and his having been then a (8) 

Being not delighted with pleasures, but devoted 
to self-control, he went to his father and mother, 
and spoke as follows : (9) 

' I have learned the five great vows ; (I know) 
the suffering (that awaits the sinner) in hell or in 
an existence as a brute ; I have ceased to take 
delight in the large ocean (of the Sawsara) ; there- 
fore, O mother, allow me to enter the order. (10) 

' O mother, O father, I have enjoyed pleasures 
which are like poisonous fruit : their consequences 
are painful, as they entail continuous suffering. (11) 

' This body is not permanent, it is impure and of 

1 I separate the words pdsSy»Jll6ya»a//^i6. The com- 
mentators take them for a compound; but then the preceding 
part of the sentence would not construe. It is an irregular sandhi, 
instances of which, however, are not unfrequent. 

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impure origin ; it is but a transitory residence (of the 
soul) and a miserable vessel of suffering. (12) 

' I take no delight in this transitory body which 
one must leave sooner or later, and which is like 
foam or a bubble. ( 1 3) 

'And this vain human life, an abode of illness 
and disease, which is swallowed up by old age and 
death, does not please me even for a moment. (14) 

' Birth is misery, old age is misery, and so are 
disease and death, and ah, nothing but misery is the 
Saz«sara, in which men suffer distress. (15) 

' Leaving behind my fields, house, and gold, my 
son and wife, and my relations, leaving my body 
I needs must, one day, depart. (16) 

! As the effect of Kimpaka-fruit * is anything but 
good, so the effect of pleasures enjoyed is anything 
but good. (17) 

' He who starts on a long journey with no 
provisions, will come to grief on his way there, 
suffering from hunger and thirst (18) 

' Thus he who without having followed the Law, 
starts for the next world, will come to grief on his 
way there, suffering from illness and disease. (19) 

' He who starts on a long journey with provisions, 
will be happy on his way there, not suffering from 
hunger and thirst. (20) 

'Thus he who after having followed the Law, 
starts for the next world, will be happy on his 
journey there, being exempt from Karman and 
suffering. (21) 

' As when a house is on fire, the landlord carries 
away valuable things and leaves behind those of 

1 Cucumis Colocvnthus. 

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no value ; so when the whole world is on fire, as it 
were, by old age and death, I shall save my Self, 
if you will permit me.' (22, 23) 

To him his parents said : "Son, difficult to perform 
are the duties of a 5Vama«a ; a- monk must possess 
thousands of virtues. (24) 

" Impartiality towards all beings in the world, 
whether friends or enemies, and abstention from 
injury to living beings throughout the whole life : 
this is a difficult duty. (25) 

" To be never careless in abstaining from false- 
hood, and to be always careful to speak wholesome 
truth : this is a difficult duty. (26) 

"To abstain from taking of what is not given, 
even of a toothpick, &c. ; and to accept only alms 
free from faults : this is a difficult duty. (27) 

" To abstain from unchastity after one has tasted 
sensual pleasures, and to keep the severe vow of 
chastity : this is a very difficult duty. (28) 

"To give up all claims on wealth, corn, and 
servants, to abstain from all undertakings, and not 
to own anything : this is a very difficult duty. (29) 

"Not to eat at night any food of the four 
kinds 1 , not to put away for later use or to keep 
a store (of things one wants) : this is a very difficult 
duty. (30) 

" Hunger and thirst, heat and cold, molestation by 
flies and gnats, insults, miserable lodgings, pricking 
grass, and uncleanliness, blows and threats, corporal 
punishment and imprisonment, the mendicant's life 
and fruitless begging : all this is misery. (31, 32) 

" Such a life is like that of pigeons (always afraid of 

1 I.e. food, drink, dainties, and spices. 

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dangers) ; painful is the plucking out of one's hair ; 
difficult is the vow of chastity and hard to keep 
(even) for a noble man. (33) 

" My son, you are accustomed to comfort, you 
are tender and cleanly 1 ; you are not able, my son, 
to live as a Srama«a. (34) 

" No repose as long as life lasts ; the great burden 
of duty is heavy like a load of iron, which is difficult 
to be carried, O son. (35) 

" As it is difficult to cross the heavenly Ganges, 
or to swim against the current, or to swim with 
one's arms over the sea, so it is difficult to get over 
the ocean of duties. (36) 

" Self-control is untasteful like a mouthful of sand, 
and to practise penance is as difficult as to walk 
on the edge of a sword. (37) 

"It is difficult (always to observe the rules of) 
right conduct with one's eyes for ever open like 
(those of) a snake 2 , O son ; it is difficult to eat iron 
grains, as it were. (38) 

" As it is very difficult to swallow burning fire, 
so is it difficult for a young man to live as a 6ra- 
ma«a. (39) 

"As it is difficult to fill a bag 8 with wind, 

1 Literally, well washed or bathed. 

4 This appears to be the meaning of the words ahivtSganta- 
di//Ai6. We might perhaps take ahtv» for ahivaw = ahivat, 
in which case the construction of the sentence would be gram- 
matically correct. An alternative rendering would be : ' (A monk) 
like a snake must have his eyes always open on the difficult 
conduct, O son.' It is a well-known fact that snakes cannot 
shut their eyes as other animals. 

* Kotthala, a DeVi-word for ku.rula, granary, see HSmaiandra, 
Dejt K6sha 2, 48. The commentators render it by ' cloth.' 

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so is it difficult for a weak man to live as a .Sra- 
masa. (40) 

"As it is difficult to weigh Mount Mandara in 
a balance, so it is difficult to live as a .Srama«a with 
a steady and fearless mind. (41) 

" As it is difficult to swim over the sea with one's 
arms, so it is difficult for one whose mind is not 
pacified, (to cross) the ocean of restraint (42) 

"Enjoy the fivefold 1 human pleasures. After 
you have done enjoying pleasures, O son, you may 
adopt the Law." (43) 

He answered : ' O father and mother, it is even thus 
as you have plainly told ; but in this world nothing 
is difficult for one who is free from desire. (44) 

' An infinite number of times have I suffered 
dreadful pains of body and mind, repeatedly misery 
and dangers. (45) 

' In the Sawzsara, which is a mine of dangers and 
a wilderness of old age and death, I have undergone 
dreadful births and deaths. (46) 

' Though fire be hot here, it is infinitely more so 
there (viz. in hell) a ; in hell I have undergone suffer- 
ing from heat. (47) 

' Though there may be cold here, it is of infinitely 
greater intensity there; in hell I have undergone 
suffering from cold. (48) 

1 Viz. those of the five senses. 

2 The description of hell is a favourite theme with the monks of 
all ages and all religions ; and the (zaina monks are not behind 
others in the treatment of this gruesome subject. A detailed 
description of the different hells will be found in the fifth lecture 
of the first book of the Sutrakr/'tahga. I remember a yati 
showing me, with much complacency, a manuscript of the latter 
work adorned with lively illustrations of the most exquisite tortures. 

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' An infinite number of times have I been roasted 
over a blazing fire in an oven, screaming loud, head 
down and feet aloft. (49) 

' In the desert which is like a forest on fire, on 
the Va^ravaluka and the Kadambavaluka l rivers, 
I have been roasted an infinite number of times. (50) 

' Being suspended upside down over a boiler, 
shrieking, with no relation to help me, I was cut 
to pieces with various saws 2 , an infinite number of 
times. (51) 

' I have suffered agonies when I was fastened 
with fetters on the huge 6almall tree, bristling 
with very sharp thorns, and then pushed up and 
down. (52) 

' An infinite number of times have I been crushed 
like sugar-cane in presses, shrieking horribly, to 
atone for my sins, great sinner that I was. (53) 

' By black and spotted wild dogs 8 I have, ever so 
many times, been thrown down, torn to pieces, and 
lacerated, screaming and writhing. (54) 

'When I was born in hell for my sins, I was 
cut, pierced, and hacked to pieces with swords and 
daggers, with darts and javelins. (55) 

' I have been forcibly yoked to a car of red-hot 
iron full of fuel *, I have been driven on with a goad 

1 These are two rivers in hell ; the sand of the one consists of 
va^-ra (either steel-filings or diamonds), and that of the other, 
of turmeric. 

1 Karavattakarakay&ihim= karapattrakrakaMdibhiA. 

' K61asu»aya, explained by jukaraxvan, hog-dog, which may 
be a kind of hog or dog, probably the latter. 

4 Samild ^ue. The commentators render ^ue by yuga and 
yuta, and do not explain samil£, which they treat as a Sanskrit 
word. I think it is the Prakrit of samidh, compare v\ggu\A = 
vidyut, salila = sarit. 

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and thongs, and have been knocked down like an 
antelope 1 . (56) 

' On piles, in a blazing fire, I have forcibly been 
burnt and roasted like a buffalo, in atonement for my 
sins. (57) 

' An infinite number of times have I violently 
been lacerated by birds whose bills were of iron 
and shaped like tongs, by devilish vultures 2 . (58) 

' Suffering from thirst I ran towards the river 
Vaitara»i to drink its water, but in it I was killed 
(as it were) by blades of razors 3 . (59) 

' When suffering from the heat, I went into 
the forest in which the trees have a foliage of 
daggers ; I have, ever so many times, been cut to 
pieces by the dropping dagger-leaves. (60) 

'An infinite number of times have I suffered 
hopelessly from mallets and knives, forks and maces, 
which broke my limbs. (61) 

' Ever so many times have I been slit, cut, 
mangled, and skinned with keen- edged razors, 
knives, and shears. (62) 

'As * an antelope I have, against my will, been 

1 RoggAo = risya., see Hema^andra, D&i K6sha 7, 12. 

a -DAankagrj'dhra. The commentators offer no explanation of 
<Manka, but only say that they are not real vultures as there are 
no animals in hell. Therefore they must be vaikriya, i.e., in our 
case, demons who have adopted the shape of vultures. 

* The water of the river Vaitara»t consists of a very caustic acid. 

4 Here and in the following verses the suffering of Mr/gaputra 
as an animal and a plant seems to be described. But in verse 68 
the scene is again laid in hell. The first word in verse 63, &c, 
'as,' would literally be 'like* (viva in the original text), but in 
rendering it by 'like/ we have to assume that as a denizen of 
hell he is treated in the manner described, which seems rather 

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96 uttarAdhyayana. 

caught, bound, and fastened in snares and traps, and 
frequently I have been killed. (63) 

'Asa fish I have, against my will, been caught 
with hooks and in bow-nets; I have therein been 
scraped, slit, and killed, an infinite number of 
times. (64) 

' As a bird I have been caught by hawks, trapped 
in nets, and bound with bird-lime, and I have been 
killed, an infinite number of times. (65) 

'As a tree I have been felled, slit, sawn into 
planks, and stripped of the bark by carpenters 
with axes 1 , hatchets, &c, an infinite number of 
times. (66) 

'As iron I have been malleated, cut, torn, and 
filed by blacksmiths 2 , an infinite number of 
times. (67) 

' I have been made to drink hissing molten copper, 
iron, tin, and lead under horrid shrieks, an infinite 
number of times. (68) 

' You like meat minced or roasted ; I have been 
made to eat, ever so many times, poisoned meat, and 
red-hot to boot. (69) 

' You like wine, liquor, spirits, and honey 3 ; I have 
been made to drink burning fat and blood. (70) 

'Always frightened, trembling, distressed, and 
suffering, I have experienced the most exquisite 
pain and misery. (71) 

' I have experienced in hell sharp, acute and 

1 Kuharfa = ku/Mra; comp. pihat/a = pi/Aara. The form 
kuhara occurs in Guzeratl, Sindhf, and Panjabt. 

* Kumara; this is obviously the modern kamSr 'blacksmith 1 
(derived from karmakara); and it is of interest to find this form 
in an old text like the Uttaradhyayana. 

* To render sura, sidhu, mairfiya, and madhu. 

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severe, horrible, intolerable, dreadful, and formidable 
pain. (72) 

' O father, infinitely more painful is the suffering 
in hell than any suffering in the world of men. (73) 

' In every kind of existence I have undergone 
suffering which was not interrupted by a moment's 
reprieve.' (74) 

To him his parents said : " Son, a man is free to 
enter the order, but it causes misery to a 6"rama»a 
that he may not remedy any ailings." (75) 

He answered : ' O father and mother, it is even 
thus as you have plainly told ; but who takes care 
of beasts and birds in the woods ? (76) 

' As a wild animal 1 by itself roams about in the 
woods, thus I shall practise the Law by controlling 
myself and doing penance. (77) 

'When in a large forest a wild animal falls 
very sick at the foot of a tree, who is there to 
cure it? (78) 

'Or who will give it medicine? or who will 
inquire after its health ? or who will get food and 
drink for it, and feed it ? (79) 

* When it is in perfect health, it will roam about 
in woods and on (the shores of) lakes in search of 
food and drink. (80) 

' When it has eaten and drunk in woods and 
lakes, it will walk about and go to rest according to 
the habits of wild animals. (81) 

' In the same way a pious monk goes to many 
places and walks about just as the animals, but 
afterwards he goes to the upper regions. (82) 

' Miga = mr»'ga, literally 'antelope;' but here as frequently the 
word has apparently the more general meaning ' wild animal.' 

[45] H 

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' As a wild animal goes by itself to many places, 
lives in many places, and always gets its food ; thus 
a monk on his begging-tour should not despise nor 
blame (the food he gets). (83) 

' I shall imitate this life of animals.' " Well, my 
son, as you please." With his parents' permission 
he gave up all his property. (84) 

' I shall imitate this life of animals, which makes 
one free from all misery, if you will permit me.' 
" Go, my son, as you please." (85) 

When he had thus made his parents repeat their 
permission, he gave up for ever his claims in any 
property, just as the snake casts off its slough. (86) 

His power and wealth, his friends, wives, sons, 
and relations he gave up as if he shook off the dust 
from his feet, and then he went forth. (87) 

He observed the five great vows, practised the 
five Samitis, and was protected by the three Guptis 1 ; 
he exerted himself to do mental as well as bodily 
penance. (88) 

He was without property, without egoism, with- 
out attachment, without conceit 2 , impartial towards 
all beings, whether they move or not. (89) 

He was indifferent to success or failure (in 
begging), to happiness and misery, to life and death, 
to blame and praise, to honour and insult (90) 

He turned away from conceit and passions, from 
injurious, hurtful, and dangerous actions 3 , from 
gaiety and sadness; he was free from sins and 
fetters. (91) 

1 See notes 2 and 3 on p. 50. 

* Garava = gaurava or garva. Dipild : riddhigSrava- 
rasagarava-sltagarava iti garvatrayarahitaA. 
8 To render da«</asallabha#su. 

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He had no interest in this world and no interest 
in the next world ; he was indifferent to unpleasant 
and pleasant things \ to eating and fasting. (92) 

He prevented the influx of Karman (asrava) 
through all bad channels 2 ; by meditating upon him- 
self he obtained praiseworthy self-purification and 
sacred knowledge. (93) 

Thus he thoroughly purified himself by knowledge, 
right conduct, faith, penance, and pure meditations, 
and after having lived many years as a Sramawa, 
he reached perfection after breaking his fast once 
only every month. (94, 95) 

Thus act the enlightened ones, the learned, the 
clever; like Mr/gaputra they turn away from 
pleasures. (96) 

When you have heard the words of the illustrious 
and famous son of Mrt'gH, his perfect practise of 
austerities, and his liberation, famous in the three 
worlds, you will despise wealth, the cause of misery, 
and the fetter of egoism, the cause of many dangers, 
and you will bear the excellent and pleasant yoke 
of the Law that leads to the great happiness of 
Nirva«a. (97, 98) 

Thus I say. 

1 Vasf£anda»akapp6. The author of the AvaAuri explains 
this phrase thus : he did not like more a man who anoints himself 
with sandal than a mason. Apparently he gives to vasa the 
meaning ' dwelling;' but I think that the juxtaposition of bandana 
calls for a word denoting a bad-smelling substance, perhaps 
' ordure.' 

* Literally ' door.' The meaning of the line will be fully rendered 
and the simile at least partially be preserved by the following less 
literal translation : he shut the door, as it were, to evil influences. 
For the asrava, see above, p. 55, note 1. 

H 2 

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Piously adoring the perfected and the restrained 
saints, listen to my true instruction which (teaches 
the real) profit (of men), religion, and liberation 1 , (i) 

King Sr&nika. a , the ruler of Magadha, who pos- 
sessed many precious things, once made a pleasure- 
excursion to the Ma#dfikukshi .Afaitya s . (2) 

It was a park like Nandana*, with trees and 
creepers of many kinds, peopled by various birds, 
and full of various flowers. (3) 

There he saw a restrained and concentrated saint 
sitting below a tree, who looked delicate and 
accustomed to comfort. (4) 

When the king saw his figure, his astonishment 
at that ascetic's figure was very great and un- 
equalled. (5) 

' O his colour, O his figure, O the loveliness of 
the noble man, O his tranquillity, O his perfection, 
O his disregard for pleasures!' (6) 

1 Atthadhammagaim = arthadharmagati. I think this 
equal toartha dharma mdksha, though the commentators offer 
a different explanation by making gati mean g SSna. The phrase 
is derived from the typical expression kamarthadharmamfiksha 
by leaving out k&ma, which of course could not be admitted by 

* He is identical with Bimbisara of the Buddhists; see my 
edition of the Kalpa Sutra, introduction, p. 2. 

* The following verses prove that £aitya denotes park here 
as the word is explained by the scholiast in IX, 9. 

* Nandana is Indra's park. 

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Adoring his feet and keeping him on his right 
side (he sat down), neither too far off nor too close 
by, and asked him with his hands clasped : (7) 

' Though a young nobleman, you have entered 
the order ; in an age fit for pleasure you exert 
yourself as a 6rama»a, O ascetic ; I want to hear 
you explain this.' (8) 

" I am without a protector, O great king ; there is 
nobody to protect me, I know no friend nor any one 
to have sympathy with me." (9) 

Then king .SrSmka, the ruler of Magadha, 
laughed : ' How should there be nobody to protect 
one so accomplished as you ?' (10) 

' I am the protector of religious men * ; O monk ; 
enjoy pleasures together with your friends and 
relations; for it is a rare chance to be born as 
a human being.' (n) 

" You yourself are without a protector, .Sr6«ika, 
ruler of Magadha ; and as you are without a pro- 
tector, how can you protect anybody else ? " (1 2) 

When the saint had addressed this unpre- 
cedented speech to the king, who was greatly 
moved and astonished, and struck with astonish- 
ment, (he answered) 4 : (13) 

' I have horses, elephants, and subjects, a town 
and a seraglio, power and command : enjoy human 
pleasures. (14) 

' In possession of so great means, which permit 
the owner to enjoy all pleasures, how could he be 

1 Bhadantawaw. 

* The verb is wanting in this verse, and there is an apparent 
tautology in the words as they now stand. This is an obvious 
mark of a corruption in the text, which, however, I do not know 
how to remove by a plausible conjecture. 

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without protection ? Reverend sir, you speak 
untruth.' (15) 

"O king, you do not know the meaning and 
origin 1 of (the word) ' without protection,' nor how 
one comes to be without protection or with pro- 
tection, O ruler of men. (16) 

" Hear, O great king, with an undistracted mind in 
what way a man can be said to be ' without pro- 
tection,' and with what purpose I have said all 
this. (17) 

" There is a town Kausambl by name, which is 
among towns what Indra 2 is (among the gods); there 
lived my father, who possessed great wealth. (18) 

" In my childhood, O great king, I caught a very 
bad eye-disease and a severe burning fever in all my 
limbs, O ruler of men. (19) 

" My eyes ached as if a cruel enemy thrust a sharp 
tool in the hollow of my body. (20) 

"In the back, the heart s , and the head, I suffered 

1 Potthaw or pokkham. The commentators are at a loss to 
give an etymology of this word, or rather have a choice of them to 
offer, which comes to the same thing, and proves that nothing certain 
was known. If pottha is the correct form, it may be derived 
from pra+ut + stha, and mean 'origin;' if pokkhi or pnkkA& 
is the right spelling it is prt'A&M, and may mean 'etymology.' 

2 Purina purabh6da»f. As usual the commentators give 
a purely etymological explanation. But it is obvious that 
purabhSdana must have a similar meaning as purandara = 
Indra, or purabhid .Siva. The latter word occurs in later 
literature only, and, besides, .STva does not yet seem to have been 
generally acknowledged as the supreme god, when and where the 
(raina Sutras were composed. The Vedic word purbhid, 
'destroyer of castles,' also presents itself as an analogy; though 
it is not yet the exclusive epithet of a god, it is frequently applied 
to Indra. 

5 To render antari^Aa or antarittha. The Guzeraty 
translation renders it hrtdaya. 

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dreadful and very keen pains equal to a stroke of 
lightning. (21) 

" Then the best physicians came to my help, who 
cure by their medical art and by spells, who were 
versed in their science, and well knew spells and 
roots. (22) 

" They tried to cure me according to the fourfold 
science * which they had been taught ; but they could 
not rid me of my pains : hence I say that I am 
without protection. (23) 

" My father would have spent all he possessed, for 
my sake ; but he could not rid me of my pains, 
hence I say that I am without protection. (24) 

" My mother, O great king, was agonized with 
grief about her son ; but she could not, &c. (25) 

" O great king, my own brothers, the elder and 
younger ones, could not rid me of my pains, 
&c. (26) 

" O great king, my own sisters, the elder and 
younger ones, could not, &c. (27) 

"O great king, my loving and faithful wife 
moistened my breast with the tears of her 
eyes. (28) 

" The poor lady did not eat, nor drink, nor 
bathe, nor use perfumes, wreaths, and anointment, 
with my knowledge or without it. (29) 

" O great king, she did not leave 2 my side even 

for a moment; but she could not rid me of my 

pains, hence I say that I am without protection. (30) 

" Then I said : It is very hard to bear pains again 

and again in the endless Circle of Births. (31) 

1 -ATauppaya— jfatu/ipada. Four branches of medical science 
are intended. 
1 Phi//ai=bhrajyati, Hema^andra'sPrakrrt Grammar, iv. 177. 

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" If I, for once, shall get rid of these great pains, 
I shall become a houseless monk, calm, restrained, 
and ceasing to act. (32) 

"While I thought so, I fell asleep, O ruler 
of men ; and after that night my pains had 
vanished. (33) 

" Then in the morning of the next day I took 
leave of my relations and became a houseless monk, 
calm, restrained, and ceasing to act. (34) 

" Thus I became the protector of myself and of 
others besides, of all living beings, whether they 
move or not. (35) 

" My own Self is the river Vaitara»f, my own Self 
the .Salmali tree * ; my own Self is the miraculous 
cow Kamadiih, my own Self the park Nandana. (36) 

"My own Self is the doer and undoer of misery 
and happiness ; my own Self, friend and foe, accord- 
ing as I act well or badly. (37) 

" But there is still another want of protection, 
O king ; hear, therefore, O king, attentively with 
concentrated thoughts, how some easily discouraged 
men go astray after having adopted the Law of the 
Nirgranthas 2 . (38) 

" If an ordained monk, through carelessness, does 
not strictly keep the great vows, if he does not 
restrain himself, but desires pleasure, then his 
fetters will not be completely cut off. (39) 

" One who does not pay constant attention to his 
walking, his speaking, his begging, his receiving and 
keeping (of things necessary for a monk), and his 

1 See above, p. 94. 

* The verses 38-53 are apparently a later addition because 
(1) the subject treated in them is not connected with that of the 
foregoing part, and (2) they are composed in a different metre. 

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easing nature \ does not follow the road trod by the 
Lord. (40) 

" One who for a long time wears a shaven crown 
and mortifies himself, but who is careless with 
regard to the vows, and neglects penance and 
self-control, will not be a winner in the battle 
(of life). (41) 

" He is empty like a clenched 2 fist, (of no value) 
like an uncoined s false Karshapa»a or like a piece 
of glass resembling turquoise, he is held lightly by 
men of discernment. (42) 

"He who has the character of a sinner, though 
he lays great stress on the outward signs of his 
calling 4 as a means of living ; he who does not control 
himself, though he pretends to do so ; will come to 
grief for a long time. (43) 

" As the poison Kalaku/a kills him who drinks it ; 
as a weapon cuts him who awkwardly handles it ; as 
a Vetala kills him who does not lay him ; so the 
Law harms him who mixes it up with sensuality. (44) 

"He who practises divination from bodily marks 
and dreams, who is well versed in augury and 
superstitious rites, who gains a sinful living by 
practising magic tricks 6 , will have no refuge at the 
time (of retribution). (45) 

" The sinner, always wretched, goes from darkness 

1 These are the five Samitis, see above, p. 50. 
1 Poll& or pulla, explained anta/s-sushira 'hollow in the 

* Ayantita = ayantrita. My translation is but conjectural. 
Perhaps the regular coins are not meant, but stamped lumps of 
metal, which were current long before coins were introduced. 

4 Literally, ' the flag of the seers ; ' the broom &c. are meant. 

* Kuh&d&viggL 

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106 uttarAdhyayana. 

to darkness, to utter misery ; the unholy man who 
breaks the rules of monks, rushes, as it were, to hell, 
and to be born again as a brute. (46) 

"He who accepts forbidden alms, viz. such food 
as he himself asks for, as has been bought for his 
sake, or as he gets regularly (as by right and 
custom), who like fire devours everything, will go 
to hell from here, after having sinned. (47) 

" A cut-throat enemy will not do him such harm 
as his own perversity will do him; the man without 
pity will feel repentance in the hour of death. (48) 

"In vain he adopts nakedness, who errs about 
matters of paramount interest ; neither this world 
nor the next will be his; he is a loser in both 
respects in the world. (49) 

" Thus the self-willed sinner who leaves the road 
of the highest Ganas, who with the appetite of an 
osprey is desirous of pleasure, will grieve in useless 
sorrow. (50) 

"A wise man who hears this discourse, an 
instruction full of precious wisdom, and who deserts 
every path of the wicked, should walk the road of 
the great Nirgranthas. (51) 

" He who possesses virtuous conduct and life, 
who has practised the best self-control, who keeps 
from sinful influences 1 , and who has destroyed his 
Karman, will reach (in the end) the greatest, best, 
and permanent place (viz. mukti)." (52) 

Thus the austere and calm, great ascetic and great 
sage who kept great vows and possessed great fame, 
preached at great length this great sermon: the 
great duty of the Nirgranthas. (53) 

1 Nirasava — nirasrava. For the asravas, see p. 55, 
note 1. 

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And king £r6«ika, pleased, spoke thus: 'You 
have truly shown what it is to be without pro- 
tection. (54) 

'You have made the best use of human birth, 
you have made a true gain, O great sage, you are 
a protector (of mankind at large) and of your 
relations, for you have entered the path of the best 
Ginas. (55) 

' You are the protector of all unprotected beings, 
O ascetic ; I ask you to forgive me : I desire you to 
put me right. (56) 

'That by asking you I have disturbed your 
meditation, and that I invited you to enjoy pleasures, 
all this you must forgive me.' (57) 

When the lion of kings had thus, with the greatest 
devotion, praised the lion of houseless monks, he, 
together with his wives, servants, and relations, 
became a staunch believer in the Law, with a pure 
mind. (58) 

The ruler of men, with the hair on his body 
joyfully erected, bowed his head (to the monk), 
keeping him on his right side, and departed. (59) 

And the other, rich in virtues, protected by the 
three Guptis, and abstaining from injuring (living 
beings) in the three ways (viz. by thought, words, and 
acts), travelled about on the earth, free like a bird, 
and exempt from delusion. (60) 

Thus I say. 

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In A'ampa there lived a .Sravaka, the merchant 
Palita, who was a disciple of the noble and venerable 
Mahavlra. (i) 

As a .SVavaka he was well versed in the doctrines 
of the Nirgranthas. Once he went by boat to the 
town of Pihu«d?a on business. (2) 

A merchant gave him his daughter while he was 
doing business in Vihunda.. When she was big 
with child, he took her with him on his returning 
home. (3) 

Now the wife of Palita was delivered of a child 
at sea; as the boy was born at sea (samudra), he 
was named Samudrapala. (4) 

Our merchant, the .SVavaka, went leisurely to 
Afampa, to his house ; in his house the boy grew up 
surrounded by comfort (5) 

He studied the seventy-two arts, and acquired 
knowledge of the world 1 ; he was in the bloom of 
youth, and had a fine figure and good looks. (6) 

His father procured him a beautiful wife, Rupi»f, 
with whom he amused himself in his pleasant palace, 
like a D6gundaga god 2 . (7) 

Once upon a time he saw from the window of 
his palace a man sentenced to death, dressed 
for execution, on his way to the place of execu- 
tion. (8) 

1 To render nttik6vida. 

* For Ddgundaga, see above, p. 88, note 2. 

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Agitated by what he saw, Samudrapala spoke 
thus : ' Of wicked actions this is the bad result.' (9) 

He became enlightened at once, the venerable 
man, and he was immensely agitated ; he took 
leave of his parents, and entered the state of 
houselessness. (10) 

Abandoning the great distress to which the 
worldly 1 are liable, the great delusion, and what- 
ever causes fear, one should adopt the Law of 
monks a , the vows, the virtues, and the (endurance 
of) calamities. (11) 

One should keep the five great vows, viz. not to 
kill, to speak the truth, not to steal, to be chaste, to 
have no property whatever; a wise man should 
follow the Law taught by the £inas. (12) 

A monk should have compassion on all beings, 
should be of a forbearing character, should be 
restrained and chaste, and abstaining from every- 
thing sinful ; he should live with his senses under 
control. (13) 

Now and then 8 he should travel in one country, 

1 Saggantha = sagrantha, which is obviously the opposite 
of nirgrantha. The commentators correct sawgawtha in s&m- 
gam Aa. The original reading is in MS. B. A. has samgamtha, 
and so had C. originally, but it corrects the tha into £a. Accord- 
ing to the commentators we should translate: abandoning 
worldly attachment which causes great distress, great delusion, 
black (L&ryS), and dangers, one should, &c. 

* Paryiya-dharma. Paryiya means a state under which 
a substance presents itself. Here is meant the state of the soul 
in pravra^yd, i.e. frdmawya-parySya; compare the expressions 
/Madmastha-pary&ya and kevali-pary&ya. ParySya-dharma 
is here equal to pravra^yi-dharma, Law of the monks. 

* KSlSwa kaiam, the commentators supply kurvan, and 
explain the passage as follows: kaldna, i.e. in a paurushi (four 

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taking into consideration its resources and his own 
ability; like a lion he should not be frightened by 
any noise ; and whatever words he hears, he should 
not make an improper reply. (14) 

In utter indifference he should walk about, and 
bear everything, be it pleasant or unpleasant; he 
should not approve of everything everywhere, nor 
care for 1 respectful treatment or blame. (15) 

There are many opinions here among men, which 
a monk places in their true light; there will rise 
many dangerous and dreadful calamities, caused by 
gods, men, or animals, which are difficult to be borne 
and cause easily-discouraged men to sink under 
them ; but a monk who comes in contact with them 
will not be afraid, like a stately elephant at the head 
of the battle. (16, 17) 

Cold and heat, flies and gnats, unpleasant 
feelings, and many diseases attack the body ; with- 
out flinching 2 he should bear them, and should 

hours) less one quarter of it, kilam, i.e. what is proper for 
the time. The meaning would be 'doing at every time what 
is proper or prescribed to do at it.' But this explanation looks 
very artificial; I think that the expression kalSna kalam is an 
adverb of the same type as maggham maggh&na and many 

1 Saw^ae. This word may be sawyata in this place; but 
in verse 20, where the same line occurs again, it cannot be so 
interpreted, because there the word saw^ae occurs twice; once 
it has the meaning of saw^ata, but in the passage under dis- 
cussion it must be a verb, and it is rendered there sa#^ayet= 
sangam kuryat by the commentators. 

* Akukkud, translated akuku^a, derived from the root ktog 'to 
warble, to groan;' it would therefore mean 'without complaint.' 
But in I, 30 we have appakukkue", derived from the root 
ku£ 'to bend, to be crooked,' and it is rendered alpaspandana. 
The same meaning applies in the present case. 

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not recall to his memory the pleasures he once 
enjoyed. (18) 

Giving up love, hatred, and delusion, a monk who 
is always careful and who is steadfast even as Mount 
M£ru cannot be shaken by the storm, should bear 
calamities, guarding himself. (19) 

A great sage should be neither too elevated by 
pride nor too humble, he should not care for 
respectful treatment nor blame ; an ascetic who has 
ceased (to act), will by means of his simplicity enter 
the path of NirvS«a. (20) 

He is neither grieved nor pleased (by anything) 1 , 
he abandons his relations with men, he ceases (to 
act), is intent on the benefit of his soul, he strives 
for the highest good (viz. mukti), and uses the 
means to reach it, free from sorrow, egoism, and 
any kind of property. (21) 

A merciful (monk) should use beds distant from 
others, which are not got ready for his sake 2 nor 
strewn (with leaves or things considered to be pos- 
sessed of life) ; he should sustain such hardships as 
the sages are accustomed to. (22) 

The great sage (Samudrapala), understanding the 
sacred lore and practising completely the best Law, 
shone forth like the sun in the sky, being possessed 
of the highest knowledge and glory. (23) 

Having annihilated his Karman both meritorious 

1 This is the meaning commonly given to the frequently occur- 
ring phrase arairaisahe. Another interpretation is : samyamd- 
samyamavishay£, t&bhy&m na badhatg. 

* Nir6val6v£i = nirupalipta. By upal&pa may be meant 
' dirt,' but the author of the Avaiftri explains upalepa as consisting 
in abhishvanga 'affection.' It is almost impossible to render 
satisfactorily so vague an expression. 

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H2 uttarAdhyayana. 

and sinful, being steadfast l , and free from all fetters, 
Samudrapala crossed the ocean-like Flood of worldly 
existence and obtained exemption from transmi- 
gration. (24) 
Thus I say. 



In the town of .Sauryapura 2 there was a powerful 
king, VasudeVa by name, who possessed the char- 
acteristic marks of a king. (1) 

He had two wives, R6hi»l and DeVakt ; each of 
them had a beloved son, Rama and Kdsava. (2) 

In the town of .Sauryapura there was (another) 
powerful king, Samudravi^aya by name, who 
possessed the characteristic marks of a king. (3) 

His wife was .Siva by name ; and her famous son 
was the venerable Arish/an6mi, the saviour of the 
world and the lord of ascetics. (4) 

This Arish/an6mi, who was gifted with an excel- 
lent voice and possessed the thousand and eight 
lucky marks of the body, was a Gautama, and his 
skin was black. (5) 

His body was strong like that of a bull, and hard 

1 Nirangawa = samyame 1 nij^ala, immovable with regard 
to self-control. 

* According to the Brahmanical account VasudeVa lived in 
Mathura. The name given to the town by the Gainas is 
apparently derived from .Sauri, an epithet of Kn'shwa, whose 
grandfather was .Sura. Soriyapura may be .Saurikapura or 
.Sauryapura. The latter rendering adopted by our commentators 
is based on a wrong etymology. 

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like steel ; he was well proportioned, and had a 
belly like that of a fish. 

Ke\rava asked the girl JZAgimatl 1 in marriage for 
him. (6) 

Now this daughter of an excellent king 2 was 
virtuous and well looking ; she possessed all lucky 
marks of the body, and shone forth like the lightning 
Saudamanl. (7) 

Her father said to the powerful Vasudeva: 'Let 
the prince come here that I may give him my 
daughter.' (8) 

He had taken a bath containing all (lucky) herbs, 
and had performed the customary ceremonies ; he 
wore a suit of heavenly clothes and was decked 
out with ornaments. (9) 

Riding on the best mast elephant 8 of Vasud6va he 
looked beautiful, like a jewel worn on the head. (10) 

He sat under a raised umbrella, fanned by two 
chowries, and he was surrounded on all sides by 
a host of Dararhas 4 and by a complete army drawn 

1 Raimaf, Raima!, and Rayamati are the forms of her name in 
Prakrit ; the spellings Ra^imati and Ri^amati are also met with 
in Sanskrit. 

* Viz. Ugrasfina. He was placed on the throne by Krishna on 
the death of Kamsa, cf. Vishnu Purana V, 21. He and Dfivaka 
were the sons of Ahuka, Kawsa was a son of Ugrasena, and 
Dgvak! a daughter of DGvaka, loc. cit. IV, 14. According to the 
legend of Krishna, as told by the Brahmans and <7ainas, Gara- 
sandha afterwards repeatedly attacked Mathuri. Krishna there- 
fore built DvirakS on the shore of the western ocean, and sent 
thither the Yidava tribe, loc. cit. V, 22 and 23. The events 
narrated in the text must be understood to have occurred in 
DvarakS, as is evident from verse 21. 

* Gandhahastin, an elephant of the best class, whose very 
smell is sufficient, as is believed, to frighten common elephants, 
see verse 15. 

4 Dasara in Prakrit. They are a clan descended from Yadu. 

[45] I 

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up in rank and file, while the heavenly sound of 
musical instruments reached the sky. (u, 12) 

With such pomp and splendour the hero of the 
VWsh»is started from his own palace. (13) 

On his way he saw animals, kept in cages 
and enclosures, overcome by fear and looking 
miserable. (14) 

Seeing them on the point of being killed for the 
sake of their flesh, and to be eaten afterwards, the 
great sage spoke to his charioteer 1 thus: (15) 

' Why are * all these animals, which desire to be 
happy, kept in cages and enclosures ? ' (16) 

Then the charioteer answered : ' Lucky are these 
animals because at thy wedding they will furnish 
food for many people.' (17) 

Having heard these words, which announced the 
slaughter of many animals, the great sage, full of 
compassion and kindness to living beings, meditated 
thus: (18) 

' If for my sake many living beings are killed, 
I shall not obtain happiness in the next world.' (19) 

Then the famous man presented the charioteer 
with his pair of earrings, his neck-chain, and all his 
ornaments. (20) 

When he had formed his resolution, the gods 

1 In verse 10 Arish/anemi rides on an elephant, but in the 
sequel he is supposed to travel in a car. Unless the poet can 
be charged with having made this blunder, which I think just 
possible, verse 10 must be considered a later addition. 

* The form of the verb zkkhzhim for a£A£anti is worthy 
of note, because him as ending of the third person plural belongs 
to Apabhraawa. It is interesting to find a true Apabhramra form 
in a text so old as ours, for it seems to prove that at all times 
Apabhraflua went along with the common Prakrzt, a vulgar or low 
with a high middle-Indian language. 

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descended (from heaven), according to the established 
custom, to celebrate, with great pomp together with 
their retinue, the event of his renunciation. (21) 

Surrounded by gods and men, and sitting on an 
excellent palankin, the Venerable One left Dvaraka 
and ascended mount Raivataka 1 . (22) 

On arriving at the park he descended from his 
excellent palankin, surrounded by a crowd of thou- 
sands, and then his renunciation took place, while 
the moon was in conjunction with Altra 2 . (23) 

Then he himself plucked out his delightfully- 
perfumed, soft, and curled hair in five hand- 
fuls. (24) 

And Vasudeva said to that subduer of the senses, 
who had plucked out his hair : ' O lord of ascetics, 
may you soon obtain what you wish and desire. (25) 

' Increase in knowledge, faith, and right conduct, 
in forbearance and perfection ! ' (26) 

In this manner Rama and Kgsava, the Dararhas, 
and many people paid homage to Arish/andmi and 
then returned to the town of Dvaraka. (27) 

When the daughter of the king heard of the 
ordination of the Gina, laughter and gaiety forsook 
her, and she was overwhelmed with affliction 8 . (28) 

1 Raivataka is mount Girnar in Ka/ftiaw&f. The hill is one of 
the most sacred places of the (Tainas, and is covered with temples 
of the Cinas. It is also sacred to the Hindus on account of its 
connection with the history of Krishna,. The poetical description 
of mount Raivataka forms the subject of the fourth sarga of the 
.SLrupalavadha by Magha. 

* The lunar mansion, the chief star of which is Spica or 
a Virginis. 

* The lamentation of Ra^tmati on her husband's becoming an 
ascetic forms the subject of a curious Sanskrit poem called NSmi- 
dutakavya, by Vikrama, son of Sangha»a, which has been edited in 

I 2 

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n6 uttarAdhyayana. 

Ra^lmatl thought : * Shame upon my life, that 
I have been forsaken by him ! it is better I should 
turn nun.' (29) 

Firm and decided she cut off her tresses which 
were black like bees and dressed with a brush and 
comb 1 . (30) 

And Vasudeva said to her who had cut off her 
hair, and subdued her senses : ' Lady, cross the 
dreadful ocean of the Sa*#sara without difficulty! ' (31) 

When she had entered the order, the virtuous 
and very learned lady induced there many people, 
her relations and servants, to enter the order 
too. (32) 

On her way to mount Raivataka it began to rain ; 
her clothes being wet, she entered a cave and waited 
there in the darkness while it was raining. (33) 

She took off her clothes and was naked as she 
was born, thus she was seen by Rathan6mi 2 , whose 

the Kavyamala of 1886. It is what is technically called a sama- 
syapura«a or gloss. The last line of each stanza is taken from 
the Megliaduta of Kalidasa, and the first three lines are added by 
the poet to make the whole fit the circumstances of his tale. 

1 KuHaphanaga, in Sanskrit kurlaphanaka. According 
to the scholiasts phanaka is a comb made of bamboo. — I have 
translated, ' cut off her tresses/ but literally it is : ' plucked out her 
hair.' However, I do not think that women also are to pluck out 
their hair. 

2 Rathan£mi was her husband's elder brother. According to 
a legend told in Haribhadra's JTki of the DaravaMlika Sutra 
(see Leumann in the Journal of the German Oriental Society, 
vol. 46, p. 597), RathanSmi fell in love with R&^imatf. But that 
lady in order to make him see his wrong, vomited a sweet 
beverage she had drunk, in a cup and offered it him. On his 
turning away with disgust she explained to him her meaning : she 
too had been vomited, as it were, by Arish/an6mi, notwithstanding 
which he wanted to have her. She then taught him the (Taina 
creed, and he became a monk. 

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(peace of) mind became (thereby) disturbed ; and 
afterwards she saw him. (34) 

She was frightened when she discovered herself 
alone with the monk ; folding her arms over her 
breast she sank down trembling. (35) 

When the prince, Samudravi^aya's son, saw her 
frightened and trembling, he spoke the following 
words: (36) 

' I am Rathan£mi, O dear, beautiful, sweetly- 
speaking lady ! Do accept me for your lover, O 
slender one 1 , you shall have no cause to com- 
plain. (37) 

' Come, let us enjoy pleasures, for it is a rare 
chance to be born a human being ; after we have 
enjoyed pleasures, we shall enter on the path of the 
(Jinas.' (38) 

When Ra^imatl perceived that RathanS mi's strength 
of will was broken, and temptation had got the 
better of him, she did not lose her presence of mind 
and defended her Self on that occasion. (39) 

The daughter of the best king, true to self-control 
and her vows, maintained the honour of her clan 
and family, and her virtue, and spoke to him : (40) 

' If you owned the beauty of Vai^rama«a a , the 
pleasing manners of Nalakubara 8 , if you were like 
Purandara* himself, I should have no desire for 
you. (41) 

Suyawu = sutanu. This may, however, be a proper 
name, a synonym of Ra^imatt, for according to the Harivamra 
2029 and the Vishnu Purina IV, 14, Sutanu was a daughter of 
* VaLrrama«a is a Prakrit spelling for Vauravawa = Kublra. 

3 Nalakubara is Vawrama»a's son. 

4 Indra. 

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i i 8 uttarAdhyayana. 

' Fie upon you, famous knight, who want to quaff 
the vomited drink for the sake of this life ; it would 
be better for you to die 1 . (42) 

' I am the daughter of the Bhdga-king 2 , and you 
are an Andhakavmh«i ; being born in a noble family 
let us not become like Gandhana-snakes s ; firmly 
practise self-control ! (43) 

'If you fall in love with every woman you see, you 
will be without hold like the Ha/^a-plant *, driven 
before the wind. (44) 

'As a herdsman or a keeper of goods does not 
own the things (he has the care of), so you will not 
truly own *Srama«ahood.' (45) 

Having heard these well-spoken words of the 
virtuous lady, he returned to the Law like an elephant 
driven by the hook 8 . (46) 

Protected in thoughts, words, and acts, subduing 
his senses and keeping the vows, he practised true 
*Srama#ahood throughout life. (47) 

1 The verses 42, 43, 44, 46 have been received in the Dsuavai- 
kalika Sutra II, 7-10, see Leumann's edition of that Sutra quoted 
in the note, p. 116. A metrical German translation will be found 
in the same place. 

* On the Bh6gas see p. 71, note 2. It is perhaps here misspelt 
for Bhd^a. In the Vish»u Pur3»a, Ka«sa, UgrasSna's son, is twice 
called Ehbgariga. (see Wilson's translation, ed. Hall, vol. iv, pp. 260, 
271), in contradiction to the common tradition which makes him 
an Andhaka, compare Pata^ali on Pacini IV, 1, 114. 

3 There are said to be two kinds of snakes, thegandhana and 
the agandhana. The former can be made to suck the poison 
from the wound they have inflicted ; the other will rather die than 
do so. Cf. Leumann, loc. cit., p. 597, note *. 

* Pistia Stratiotes, an aquatic plant. 

* DSvSndra here refers to the story of the Nupurapa»<fita, 
of which he gives a small portion in Prakrrt. The whole story is 
related in the Paruish/aparvan of Hgma&indra, see the introduction 
to my edition of that work in the Bibliotheca Indica. 

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After practising severe austerities both of them 
became KSvalins, and having completely annihi- 
lated their Karman, they reached the highest 
perfection. (48) 

Thus act the enlightened, the wise, the clever 
ones ; they turn from pleasures as did this best of 
men 1 . (49) 

Thus I say. 



There was a <7ina, Parrva 8 by name, an Arhat, 
worshipped by the people, who was thoroughly 
enlightened and omniscient, a prophet of the Law, 
and a G'ma. (1) 

And there was a famous disciple of this Light of 

1 Compare the last verse of the Ninth Lecture. 

* In this lecture we have a very interesting legend about the 
way in which the union of the old church of Pawva and the new 
church of MahSvira was brought about. A revival of this ancient 
difference seems to have caused the united church afterwards to 
divide again into the present .SvSt&mbara and Digambara sects. 
They do not continue the two primitive churches, but seem to 
have grown out of the united church. 

' Pama is the last but one Tirthakara, his Nirvd«a took place 
250 years before that of Mahavira. This statement, which has 
been generally accepted, is, however, in seeming contradiction to 
the account of our text, according to which a disciple of Pirrva, who 
is called a young monk kumira-jramana, met Gautama, 
i.e. Sudharman, the disciple of Mahivtra. We therefore must 
take the word disciple, stse, as paramparSjishya, that is not in 
its literal sense. See note 3, p. 122. 

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i 20 uttarAdhyayana. 

the World, the young Ke\ri, who had 
completely mastered the sciences and right con- 
duct (2) 

He possessed the light of 3ruta and Avadhi 
knowledge 1 , and was surrounded by a crowd of 
disciples ; wandering from village to village he 
arrived in the town of 5rivasti. (3) 

In the district of that town there is a park, called 
Tinduka; there he took up his abode in a pure 
place to live and sleep in. (4) 

Now at that time there lived the Prophet of the 
Law, the Gina, who in the whole world is known as 
the venerable Vardham&na. (5) 

And there was a famous disciple of this Light 
of the World, the venerable Gautama by name, who 
had completely mastered the sciences and right 
conduct (6) 

He knew the twelve Angas, was enlightened, and 
was surrounded by a crowd of disciples ; wandering 
from village to village he too arrived in .Srivastl. (7) 

In the district of that town there is a park 
KdshMaka ; there he took up his abode in a pure 
place to live and sleep in. (8) 

The young Sramana. Ke\ri and the famous 
Gautama, both lived there, protecting themselves 
(by the Guptis) and being careful. (9) 

The pupils of both, who controlled themselves, 
who practised austerities, who possessed virtues, 
and who protected their Self, made the following 
reflection: (10) 

1 These are the second and third kinds of knowledge according 
to the Gaina classification. Sruta is the knowledge derived from 
the sacred books, and avadhi is limited or conditioned knowledge. 
See Bhandarkar, Report, p. 1 06. 

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• Is our Law the right one, or is the other Law 1 
the right one ? are our conduct and doctrines right, 
or the other ? (i i) 

'The Law as taught by the great sage Parrva, 
which recognises but four vows 2 , or the Law taught 
by Vardhamana, which enjoins five vows ? (i 2) 

' The Law which forbids clothes (for a monk), or 
that which (allows) an under and upper garment ? 
Both pursuing the same end, what has caused their 
difference?' (13) 

Knowing the thoughts of their pupils, both Ke\ri 
and Gautama made up their minds to meet each 
other. (14) 

Gautama, knowing what is proper and what is due 
to the older section (of the church), went to the Tin- 
duka park, accompanied by the crowd, his pupils. (15) 

When Keri, the young monk, saw Gautama 
approach, he received him with all becoming atten- 
tion. (16) 

He at once offered Gautama the four pure kinds 
of straw and hay 3 to sit upon. (17) 

K&ri, the young 6rama«a,and the famous Gautama, 
sitting together, shone forth with a lustre like that 
of sun and moon. (18) 

There assembled many heretics out of curiosity, 
and many thousands of laymen ; (19) 

Gods, Danavas, Gandharvas, Yakshas, Rakshasas, 

1 Viz. the Law of PSrxva or the Law of Mahavira. 

' Hence it is called kiuggima. ^ituryama. Chastity (mai- 
thunaviramana) was not explicitly enumerated, but it was 
understood to be contained in the fourth commandment : to have 
no property (aparigraha). 

' The four kinds of straw are: salt vihf koddava ralaga, 
to which is added hay: rawwe ta«£«i. 

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and Kinnaras (assembled there), and there came 
together invisible ghosts 1 too. (20) 

Ke\ri said to Gautama, ' I want to ask you some- 
thing, holy man.' Then to these words of Ke\ri 
Gautama made the following reply : " Sir, ask what- 
ever you like." Then with his permission Ke\ri 
spoke to Gautama: (21, 22) 

' The Law taught by the great sage Panrva, recog- 
nises but four vows, whilst that of Vardhamana 
enjoins five. (23) 

' Both Laws pursuing the same end, what has 
caused this difference ? Have you no misgivings 
about this twofold Law, O wise man ? ' (24) 

Then to these words of Ke\ri Gautama made the 
following reply: "Wisdom recognises the truth of 
the Law and the ascertainment of true things. (25) 

" The first 2 saints were simple but slow of under- 
standing, the last saints prevaricating and slow 
of understanding, those between the two simple 
and wise ; hence there are two forms of the Law 3 . (26) 

1 Bhuya = bhuta, explained Vyantara. The vantara or 
vanamantara are a class of ghosts. The second part of the 
word apparently is tara 'crossing,' and the first seems to contain 
an accusative van or va«ama» which may be connected with 
viha or vy6man ' air.' 

* Those under the first Tirthakaras. 

s The meaning of this explanation is as follows. As the vow 
of chastity is not explicitly mentioned among Parjva's four vows, 
but was understood to be implicitly enjoined by them, it follows 
that only such men as were of an upright disposition and quick 
understanding would not go astray by observing the four vows 
literally, i. e. by not abstaining from sexual intercourse, as it was 
not expressly forbidden. — The argumentation in the text pre- 
supposes a decay of the morals of the monastic order to have 
occurred between Pawva and Mahavira, and this is possible 
only on the assumption of a sufficient interval of time having 

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" The first could but with difficulty understand the 
precepts of the Law, and the last could only with 
difficulty observe them, but those between them 
easily understood and observed them." (2 7) 

'Well, Gautama, you possess wisdom, you have 
destroyed my doubt; but 1 have another doubt 
which you must explain to me, Gautama. (28) 

' The Law taught by Vardhamana forbids clothes, 
but that of the great sage Parrva allows an under 
and upper garment (29) 

' Both Laws pursuing the same end, what has 
caused this difference? Have you no misgivings 
about this twofold Law, O wise man ? ' (30) 

To these words of K&ri Gautama made the follow- 
ing reply : " Deciding the matter by their superior 
knowledge, (the Tirthakaras) have fixed what is 
necessary for carrying out the Law. (31) 

" The various outward marks (of religious men) 
have been introduced in order that people might 
recognise them as such ; the reason for the character- 
istic marks is their usefulness for religious life and 
their distinguishing character. (32) 

" Now the opinion (of the Tirthakaras) is that 
knowledge, faith, and right conduct are the true 
causes of final liberation, (and not the outward 
marks)." (33) 

' Well, Gautama, you possess wisdom, you have 
destroyed my doubt; but I have another doubt, 
which you must explain to me, Gautama. (34) 

' Gautama, you stand in the midst of many 

elapsed between the last two Tirthakaras. And this perfectly agrees 
with the common tradition that Mahavira came 250 years after 

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i 24 uttarAdhyayana. 

thousand (foes) who make an attack on you ; how 
have you vanquished them 1 ? ' (35) 

" By vanquishing one, five are vanquished ; by 
vanquishing five, ten are vanquished; by this tenfold 
victory, I vanquish all foes." (36) 

Ke\ri said to Gautama : ' Whom do you call a 
foe ? ' To these words of Ke\ri Gautama made the 
following reply : (37) 

"Self is the one invincible foe, (together with 
the four) cardinal passions *, (viz. anger, pride, 
deceit, and greed, they are five) and the (five) senses 
(make ten). These (foes), O great sage, I have 
regularly vanquished." (38) 

' Well, Gautama, &c. (as in verse 28). (39) 

' We see many beings in this world who are bound 
by fetters; how have you got rid of your fetters 
and are set free, O sage ? ' (40) 

" Having cut off all fetters, and having destroyed 
them by the right means, I have got rid of my 
fetters and am set free, O sage." (41) 

K&i said to Gautama : 'What do you call fetters ? ' 

1 This question does not refer to the difference in doctrines 
between Parjva and Mahivira, but is discussed here, as the 
commentator states, for the benefit of the pupils of both sages 
who are engaged in conversation. I think, however, that this and 
the following questions are asked and answered here by the 
disciples of the two Ttrthakaras for a better reason than that 
given by the scholiast. For in them the leading topics of Gainism 
are treated in a symbolical way. Gautama at once understands 
the true meaning of the similes and interprets them to the 
satisfaction of K&ri. In this way the unity in doctrine subsisting 
between the Law of Parcva and that of Mahivira is demonstrated 
to the hearers of the dispute, after the differences had been 
explained away. 

1 Kashiya. 

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To these words of K€si Gautama made the following 
reply: (42) 

" Love, hatred, &c, are heavy fetters, attachment 
is a dangerous one; having regularly destroyed 
them, I live up to the rules of conduct." (43) 

' Well, Gautama, &c. (as in verse 28). (44) 

' O Gautama, in the innermost heart there grows 
a plant which brings forth poisonous fruit ; how 
have you torn it out ? ' (45) 

" I have thoroughly clipped that plant, and torn it 
out altogether with its roots ; thus I have got rid 
of the poisonous fruit." (46) 

Ke\ri said to Gautama, ' What do you call that 
plant?' To these words of Ke\ri Gautama made 
the following reply : (47) 

" Love of existence is that dreadful plant which 
brings forth dreadful fruit ; having regularly torn it 
out, I live pleasantly." (48) 

' Well, Gautama, &c. (as in verse 28). (49) 

' Gautama, there is blazing up a frightful fire 
which burns 1 the embodied beings ; how have you 
put it out ? ' (50) 

" Taking water, excellent water, from (the river) 
produced by the great cloud, I always pour it over 
my body; thus sprinkled the fire does not burn 
me." (51) 

Ke\ri said to Gautama, ' What do you call the 
fire ? ' To these words of Ke\ri Gautama made the 
following reply : (52) 

" The passions are the fire ; knowledge, a vir- 
tuous life, and penances are the water; sprinkled 

1 In the original ' fire ' is put in the plural because the four 
kashayas or cardinal passions are denoted by it. 

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i 26 uttarAdhyayana. 

with the drops of knowledge the fire of the passions 
is extinguished and does not burn me." (53) 

' Well, Gautama, &c. (as in verse 28). (54) 

' The unruly, dreadful, bad horse, on which you 
sit, runs about, Gautama ! how comes it to pass that 
it does not run off with you ? ' (55) 

" I govern it well in its course by the bridle of 
knowledge ; it does not go astray with me, it keeps 
to the right path." (56) 

Ke\ri said to Gautama, 'What do you call this 
horse ? ' To these words of Ke\ri Gautama made the 
following reply : (57) 

" The mind is that unruly, dreadful, bad horse ; 
I govern it by the discipline of the Law (so that it 
becomes a well-) trained Kambd^a-steed 1 ." (58) 

'Well, Gautama, &c. (as in verse 28). (59) 

' There are many bad roads in this world, which 
lead men astray ; how do you avoid, Gautama, going 
astray as you are on the road ? ' (60) 

" They all are known to me, those who are in the 
right path and those who have chosen a wrong 
path ; therefore I do not go astray, O sage ! " (61) 

Ke\ri said to Gautama, 'What do you call the 
path ?' To these words of Ke\ri Gautama made the 
following reply : (62) 

" The heterodox and the heretics have all chosen 
a wrong path ; the right path is that taught by the 
(Tinas ; it is the most excellent path." (63) 

' Well, Gautama, &c. (as in verse 28). (64) 

' Is there a shelter, a refuge, a firm ground for the 
beings carried away by the great flood of water ? 
do you know the island, O Gautama ? ' (65) 

1 Kanthaka, see above, p. 47, note 2. 

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" There is a large, great island in the midst of 
water, which is not inundated by the great flood 
of water." (66) 

K&ri said to Gautama, 'What do you call this 
island ? ' To these words of Ke\ri Gautama made 
the following reply : (67) 

"The flood is old age and death, which 
carry away living beings ; Law is the island, 
the firm ground, the refuge, the most excellent 
shelter." (68) 

' Well, Gautama, &c. (as in verse 28). (69) 

' On the ocean with its many currents there drifts 
a boat ; how will you, Gautama, on board of it reach 
the opposite shore ? ' (70) 

"A boat that leaks will not reach the opposite 
shore; but a boat that does not leak, will reach 
it." (71) 

Ke\ri said to Gautama, 'What do you call this 
boat?' To these words of Ke\ri Gautama made 
the following reply : (72) 

" The body is the boat, life is the sailor, and the 
Circle of Births is the ocean which is crossed by 
the great sages." (73) 

' Well, Gautama, &c. (as in verse 28). (74) 

' In this dreadfully dark gloom there live many 
beings ; who will bring light into the whole world of 
living beings ? ' (75) 

" The spotless sun has risen which illuminates the 
whole world ; he will bring light into the whole world 
of living beings." (76) 

K&ri said to Gautama, 'What do you call this 
sun ? ' To these words of Kesi Gautama made the 
following reply : (77) 

"Risen has he who put an end to the Circle of 

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128 uttarAdhyayana. 

Births, the omniscient Gina., the luminary, who brings 
light into the whole world of living beings." (78) 

' Well, Gautama, &c. (as in verse 28). (79) 

' Do you, O sage, know a safe, happy, and quiet 
place for living beings which suffer from pains l of 
body and mind ? ' (80) 

" There is a safe place in view of all, but difficult 
of approach, where there is no old age nor death, no 
pain nor disease." (81) 

Ke\ri said to Gautama, 'What is this place 
called ? ' To these words of K&si Gautama made the 
following reply : (82) 

"It is what is called Nirvana, or freedom from 
pain, or perfection, which is in view of all ; it is the 
safe, happy, and quiet place which the great sages 
reach. (83) 

" That is the eternal place, in view of all, but 
difficult of approach. Those sages who reach it are 
free from sorrows, they have put an end to the 
stream of existence." (84) 

' Well, Gautama, you possess wisdom, you have 
destroyed my doubt ; obeisance to you, who are not 
troubled by doubts, who are the ocean, as it were, 
of all Sutras.' (85) 

After his doubt had been solved, Ke\ri, of enormous 
sanctity, bowed his head to the famous Gau- 
tama. (86) 

And in the pleasant (Tinduka park) he sincerely 
adopted the Law of the five vows, which was 
proclaimed by the first Tlrthakara, according to the 
teaching of the last Tlrthakara. (87) 

1 MinasS dukkhS stands for m&nas&him dukkhehim. It 
is an interesting instance of the dropping of case affixes, which 
probably was more frequent in the vernacular. 

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In that meeting of Ke\ri and Gautama, knowledge 
and virtuous conduct were for ever brought to 
eminence, and subjects of the greatest importance 
were settled. (88) 

The whole assembly was greatly pleased and 
fixed their thoughts on the right way. They 
praised K&ri and Gautama: 'May the venerable 
ones show us favour!' (89) 

Thus I say. 



The eight articles x of the creed are the Samitis 
and the Guptis; there are five Samitis and three 
Guptis. (1) 

The Samitis 2 are: 1. trya-samiti (going by 
paths trodden by men, beasts, carts, &c, and looking 
carefully so as not to occasion the death of any 
living creature); 2. bhasha-samiti (gentle, salu- 
tary, sweet, righteous speech); 3. £sha«a-samiti 
(receiving alms in a manner to avoid the forty-two 
faults that are laid down); 4. idana-samiti (re- 
ceiving and keeping of the things necessary for 

1 The word I have rendered ' article' is may a, the Sanskrit form 
of which may be matS or matra. The word is derived from 
the root ma 'to find room in,' and denotes that which includes 
in itself other things, see verse 3. The word may also mean 
matr» ' mother,' as Weber understands it. But this is an obviously 
intentional double meaning. 

* The definitions placed in parentheses in the text are taken 
from Bhandarkar's Report for 1883-1884, p. 98, note t, p. 100, 
note *. 

[45] K 

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religious exercises, after having carefully examined 
them); 5. u^iara-samiti (performing the opera- 
tions of nature in an unfrequented place). The 
three Guptis (which are here included in the term 
Samiti in its wider application) are : 1. mano-gupti 
(preventing the mind from wandering in the forest 
of sensual pleasures by employing it in contemplation, 
study, &c.) ; 2. vag-gupti (preventing the tongue 
from saying bad things by a vow of silence, &c.) ; 
3. kaya-gupti (putting the body in an immovable 
posture as in the case of Kaydtsarga). (2) 

The eight Samitis are thus briefly enumerated, in 
which the whole creed taught by the (Jinas and set 
forth in the twelve Angas, is comprehended. (3) 

1 . The walking of a well-disciplined monk should 
be pure in four respects : in respect to 1. the cause 1 ; 
2. the time ; 3. the road ; 4. the effort 2 . (4) 

The cause is: knowledge, faith, and right con- 
duct; the time is day-time; the road excludes bad 
ways. (5) 

The effort is fourfold, viz. as regards : 1. sub- 
stance, 2. place, 3. time, and 4. condition of mind. 
Hear me explain them. (6) 

With regard to substance : 'the (walking monk) 
should look with his eyes ; with regard to place : 
the space of a yuga (i.e. four hastas or cubits); 
with regard to time: as long as he walks; and with 
regard to condition of mind : carefully 3 . (7) 

He walks carefully who pays attention only to 

1 Al am ban a, literally support; explained: supported by which 
the mind becomes pure. 

* Gayana = yatna; it consists chiefly in compassion with 
living creatures {g fvadaya). 

' Upayukta. 

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his walk and his body (executing it), whilst he avoids 
attending to the objects of sense, but (minds) his 
study, the latter in all five ways '. (8) 

2. To give way to : anger, pride, deceit and greed, 
laughter, fear, loquacity and slander 2 ; these eight 
faults should a well-disciplined monk avoid ; he 
should use blameless and concise speech at the 
proper time. (9, 10) 

3. As regards begging 3 , a monk should avoid the 
faults in the search*, in the receiving 6 , and in the 
use * of the three kinds of objects, viz. food, articles 
of use, and lodging. (11) 

A zealous monk should avoid in the first (i. e. in 
the search for alms) the faults occasioned either by 
the giver (udgama) or by the receiver (utpadana) ; 
in the second (i. e. in the receiving of alms) the faults 
inherent in the receiving; and in the use of the 
articles received, the four faults 7 . (12) 

1 The 'five ways 'are vaiand, &c, as explained in the Twenty- 
ninth Lecture, §§ 1 9-23, below, p. 1 65 f. The commentators supply 
kury&t ' he should carry on his study.' 

* Vikahi = vikatha, which does not occur in common 
Sanskrit. Perhaps it stands for vikattha 'boasting.' 

* fishana. 4 GavSsha«S. • Graha»aisha«S. 

* Paribhdgaishaxa. 

' There are altogether forty-six faults to be avoided. As they 
are frequently alluded to in the sacred texts, a systematical 
enumeration and description of them according to the Dipika 
will be useful 

There are sixteen udgama-ddshasby which food, &c. becomes 
unfit for a Gaina monk : 

1. Adhakarroika,the fault inherent in food, &c, which a lay- 
man has prepared especially for religious mendicants of whatever 

2. AuddCrika, is food, &c, which a layman has prepared for 
a particular monk. 

K 2 

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4. If a monk takes up or lays down the two kinds 
of things belonging to his general and supple- 

3. Putika, is food, &c, which is pure on the whole, but 
contains particles impure on account of the first fault. 

4. Unmifra, is food, &c, of which a part only had been 
especially prepared for the monk in question. 

5. Sthapanakarmika, is food, &c, which has been reserved 
for the monk. 

6. Prabhritika, is food, &c, which has been prepared for 
some festivity. 

7. Pradu^karawa, when the layman has to light a lamp in 
order to fetch the alms for the monk. 

8. Krita, when he has to buy the things. 

9. PrSmitya, when he has to fetch a ladle (Puddharaka) in 
order to draw out the food, &c. 

10. ParSvr/tti, when be replaces bad particles of the food by 
good ones, and vice versa. 

11. Adhy4hr»'ta, when he has to fetch the food r &c, from 
some distance. 

12. Udbhinna, when he has to open locks before he gets at 
the food, &c. 

13. Maiahrs'ta, when he has to take the food, &c, from some 
raised or underground place. 

14. AiMidya, when the food, &c, was taken by force from 

15. Anisr»'sh/a, when a man gives from a store he possesses 
in common with other men, without asking their permission. 

16. Adhyavapura, when the mendicant calls while the dinner 
is being cooked, and for his sake more food is put in the pot on 
the fire. 

(Some of these faults are enumerated in the Aupapatika Sutra, 
§ 96, III.) 

There are sixteen utpadana-ddshas; or such faults as are 
occasioned by the monk's using some means to make the layman 
give him alms : 

1. Dhitrikarman, when the monk plays with the layman's 

2. Dutakarman, when he gives him information about what 
his people are doing. 

3. Nimitta, when he speaks in praise of almsgiving. 

4. A^fvikS, when he makes his birth and family known to him. 

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mentary ' outfit, he should proceed in the following 
way. (13) 

5. Vapanika, when he expatiates upon his misery. 

6. A'ikitsa, when he cures sick people. 

7. Kr6dhapi»</a, when he extorts alms by threats. 

8. Manapi«</a, when he tells the layman that he has laid 
a wager with other monks that he would get alms from him. 

9. MiyapiwoTa, when he employs tricks or buffoonery in 
order to procure alms. 

10. L6bhapi»</a, when he goes begging from a desire of 
good fare. 

11. Saj»stava-pi«<fa, when he flatters the layman. 

12. Vidyapi«</a, when he makes a show of his learning; or 
when he conjuVes a god from whom to get alms. 

13. Mantrad6sha, when he obliges the layman in some way 
or other. 

14. JTur«ay6ga, when he makes himself invisible and then 
takes away the food, &c. 

15. Y6gapi«afa, when he teaches people spells, tricks, &c. 

16. Mulakarman, when he teaches them how to obviate evils 
by roots, charms, &c. 

There are ten faults of graha»aisha»4: 

1. .Sahkita, when a monk accepts alms from a frightened 

2. Mrakshita, when the food is soiled (khara»/ita) by 
animate or inanimate matter. 

3. Nikshipta, when the food is placed among animate things. 

4. Pihita, when animate food is covered with inanimate matter, 
and vice versa. 

5. Samhr;'ta, when the layman has to take out the thing to be 
given from one vessel and puts it into another. 

6. Ddyaka, when the condition or occupation of the giver 
forbids accepting alms from him. 

7. Unnmrita, when the layman mixes up pure with impure 

8. Aparita (?), when one joint possessor gives away from the 
store against the other's will. 

9. Lipta, when the layman gives food, &c, with a ladle or his 
hand, soiled with milk, butter, &c. 

10. .Oardita, when in giving alms he spills milk, &c. 

1 See next page. 

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i 34 uttarAdhyayana. 

A zealous monk should wipe the thing after having 
inspected it with his eyes, and then he should take 
it up or put it down, having the Samiti in both 
respects 2 . (14) 

5. Excrements, urine, saliva, mucus, uncleanliness 
of the body, offals of food, waste things, his own body 
(when he is about to die), and everything of this 
description (is to be disposed of in the way to be 
described). (15) 

[A place may be not frequented and not seen (by 
people), or not frequented but seen, or frequented 
and not seen, or frequented and seen. (16)] 3 

In a place neither frequented nor seen by other 
people, which offers no obstacles to self-control, which 
is even, not covered with grass or leaves *, and has 

There are four faults of paribh6gaisha»a: 

1. Samyd^ana, when the monk puts together the ingredients 
for a good meal. 

2. Aprain&wa, when he accepts a greater than the prescribed 
quantity of food. 

3. Ihgala, when he praises a rich man for his good fare, or 
dhuma, when he blames a poor man for his bad fare. 

4. Akaraaa, when he eats choice food on other occasions than 
those laid down in the sacred texts. 

1 Aughika and aupagrahika. The former is explained 
samudayika, the other denotes such things as are wanted 
occasionally only, as a stick. I cannot make out with certainty 
from the commentaries whether the broom is reckoned among 
the former or the latter. 

s This means, according to the commentator, either in taking up 
or putting down, or with respect to the 6gha and aupagrahika 
outfit, or with respect to substance and condidon of mind. 

* This verse, which is in a different metre (Aryd), is apparently 
a later addition, and has probably been taken from an old 
commentary, the ATurwi or the Bhashya. 

4 A^yAusirfi = asushir€, not perforated, not having holes. 
I translate according to the author of the Ava£uri. The literal 

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been brought into its present condition 1 not long ago, 
which is spacious, has an inanimate surface-layer 2 , 
not too near (the village, &c), not perforated by holes, 
and is exempt from insects and seeds — in such 
a place he should leave his excrements, &c. (17, 18) 
The five Samitis are thus briefly enumerated, 
I shall now explain in due order the three 
Guptis 3 . (19) 

1. There is, 1. truth; 2. untruth; 3. a mixture of 
truth and untruth ; 4. a mixture of what is not true, 
and what is not untrue. The Gupti of mind refers 
to all four *. (20) 

A zealous monk should prevent his mind from 
desires for the misfortune of somebody else 8 , from 
thoughts on acts which cause misery to living 
beings 6 , and from thoughts on acts which cause 
their destruction 7 . (21) 

2. The Gupti of speech is also of four kinds 
(referring to the four divisions as in verse 20). (22) 

A zealous monk should prevent his speech from 
(expressing) desires, &c. (as in verse 21). (23) 

3. In standing, sitting, lying down, jumping, going, 
and in the use of his organs, a zealous monk should 
prevent his body from intimating obnoxious desires, 

translation would give a wrong idea, as it would come to the same 
as the word bilavar^ita in the next verse. 

1 I. e. where the ground has been cleared not long ago by 
burning the grass, &c. 

1 0g&<M6, where the animate ground is covered by at least 
five digits of inanimate matter. 

' Viz. of mind (20, 21), of speech (22, 23), and of the body 
(24, 25). 

* See part i, p. 150, note 2. * Sawrambha. 

* Samarambha. 7 Arambha. 

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136 uttarAdhyayana. 

from doing acts which cause misery to living beings, 
or which cause their destruction. (24, 25) 

These are the five Samitis for the practice of the 
religious life, and the Guptis for the prevention of 
everything sinful. (26) 

This is the essence of the creed, which a sage 
should thoroughly put into practice ; such a wise 
man will soon get beyond the Circle of Births. (27) 

Thus I say. 



There was a famous Brahmawa, (Jayaghdsha by 
name, who was born in a Brihmanical family, but who 
was pledged to the performing of the yam as \ (1) 

This great sage, who subdued all his senses, 
and who walked on the right road, came, on his 
wandering from village to village, to the town of 
Benares. (2) 

There outside of Benares he took up his lodgings 
in a pleasant park ; there he took up his abode in 
a pure place to live and sleep in. (3) 

At the same time a Brahma«a, versed in the 
V£das, Vi£ayagh6sha by name, offered a sacrifice in 
that town. (4) 

Now this houseless (monk) at the end of a fast of 
a month's duration, went to the sacrifice of Vi^aya- 
gh6sha to beg alms. (5) 

1 Yam a etymologically means 'restraint;' here it denotes the 
great vows of the Gainas; cf. XXIII, 12, p. 121 and note 2. 

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The priest wanted to turn the approaching monk 
off: 'I shall not give you alms, mendicant, beg 
somewhere else. (6) 

' Priests who are versed in the Vedas and are chaste 
as behoves offerers, who are versed in the <7y6ti- 
shanga 1 and are well grounded in the sacrificial 
science, who are able to save themselves and others, 
such priests ought to be presented with food and all 
they desire.' (7, 8) 

When the great sage was thus refused by the 
priest, he was neither angry nor pleased, as he 
always strove for the highest good. (9) 

Not to obtain food, or drink, or whatever else he 
wanted, but to save these people he spoke the 
following words : (10) 

" You do not know what is most essential 2 in the 
V£das, nor in sacrifices, nor in the heavenly bodies 3 , 
nor in duties 4 . (11) 

" Nor do you know those who are able to save 
themselves and others ; but if you do, then speak 
out!" (12) 

The priest did not make a reply to defend himself 
against his insinuation ; but he and all there assem- 
bled joined their hands and questioned the great 
sage: (13) 

' Tell us the most essential subject in the V£das, 
and tell us what is most essential in the sacrifice ; 

1 It is worthy of note that, according to the opinion of our 
author, the knowledge of astronomy, as taught in the (?y6tisha, was 
one of the principal accomplishments of a priest. This quality 
of a priest must therefore have been more conspicuous to an 
outsider than Brahmanical books would make us believe. 

* To render muha = mukha. 

' Nakshatra. 4 Dharma. 

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i 38 uttarAdhyayana. 

tell us the first of the heavenly bodies, and tell us 
the best of dharmas. (14) 

'Who are able to save themselves and others 
(viz. tell me). I ask you to solve this my doubt, 
O saint' (1 5) 

" The most essential subject in the V6das is the 
agnihotra, and that of the sacrifice is the purpose of 
the sacrifice l ; the first of the heavenly bodies is the 
moon, and the best of dharmas is that of Ka.yyapa 
(i.e. ./foshabha). (16) 

"The beautiful (gods) with joined hands praise 
and worship the highest Lord (i. e. the Tlrthakara) 
as the planets, &c, (praise) the moon. (17) 

" The ignorant (priests) pretend to know the 
sacrifice, those whose Brahmanical excellence con- 
sists in (false) science; they shroud themselves in 
study and penance, being like fire covered by 
ashes. (18) 

" He who is called by people a Brahma«a and is 
worshipped like fire (is no true Brahma#a). But him 
we call a true Brahmawa, whom the wise point out as 
such. (19) 

" He who has no worldly attachment after entering 
the order, who does not repent of having become 
a monk 2 , and who takes delight in the noble words, 
him we call a Brahma«a. (20) 

" He who is exempt from love, hatred, and fear, 

1 (ranna/Mf vgyasa muham= ya^darthi vedasam mu- 
kham. According to the Dipika sacrifice here means the ten 
. virtues : truth, penance, content, patience, right conduct, simplicity, 
faith, constancy, not injuring anything, and Sawvara. 

9 According to the commentators we should translate : He who 
does not embrace (his people) on meeting them, and is not sorry on 
leaving them. 

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(and who shines forth) like burnished gold, purified 
in fire \ him we call a Brahmawa. (2 1) 

" A lean, self-subduing ascetic, who reduces his 
flesh and blood, who is pious and has reached 
Nirva«a, him we call a Brahmana. (22) 

"He who thoroughly knows living beings, whether 
they move or not, and does not injure them in any 
of the three ways 2 , him we call a Brahma»a. (23) 

"He who does not speak untruth from anger or 
for fun, from greed or from fear, him we call a 
Brahma#a. (24) 

"He who does not take anything that is not 
given him, be it sentient or not sentient, small or 
large, him we call a Brahmawa. (25) 

"He who does not carnally love divine, human, 
or animal beings, in thoughts, words, or acts, him 
we call a Brahma«a. (26) 

"He who is not defiled by pleasures as a lotus 
growing in the water is not wetted by it, him we 
call a Brahmawa. (27) 

" He who is not greedy, who lives unknown, 
who has no house and no property, and who 
has no friendship with householders, him we call 
a Brahmawa. (28) 

"He who has given up his former connections 
(with his parents, &c), with his kinsmen and relations, 
and who is not given to pleasure, him we call a 
Brahma«a. (29) 

1 Niddhantamalap&vaga/K. The commentator assumes a 
transposition of the members in this compound. Such irregular 
compounds are not unfrequent in our Prakrit. If, however, 
pivaga stands for pSpaka, the compound would be regular, and 
would refer not to ' gold,' but to the person described. In that case 
we must translate : whose impurities and sins had been annihilated. 

* I. e. by thoughts, words, and acts. 

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" The binding of animals (to the sacrificial pole), 
all the V£das, and sacrifices, being causes of sin, 
cannot save the sinner ; for his works (or Karman) 
are very powerful. (30) 

" One does not become a 6rama»a by the tonsure, 
nor a Brahma#a by the sacred syllable 6m, nor 
a Muni by living in the woods, nor a Tapasa by 
wearing (clothes of) Ku^a-grass and bark. (31) 

"One becomes a .Sramawa by equanimity, a Brah- 
ma«a by chastity, a Muni by knowledge, and a 
Tapasa by penance. (32) 

" By one's actions one becomes a Brahma»a, or 
a Kshattriya, or a VaLyya, or a ^Sudra. (33) 

" The Enlightened One has declared these (good 
qualities) through which one becomes a (true) 
Snataka * ; him who is exempt from all Karman, we 
call a Brahmawa. (34) 

" The most excellent twice-born men 2 who possess 
these good qualities, are able to save themselves 
and others." (35) 

When thus his doubt had been solved, Vi^aya- 
ghdsha, the Br4hma»a, assented 3 to the great sage 
<7ayagh6sha and to his (speech). (36) 

Vi^ayaghdsha, pleased, folded his hands and spoke 

1 Sn&taka denotes a Brahman who has finished his studies; it 
here means as much as ' a perfect sage.' 

' A various reading in one MS. adds, ' Ginas and Brilhma«as ' 
before dvi^as. 

* SamudSya tayaw taw tu. The text is evidently corrupted. 
Samud&ya stands, according to the commentators, for sama- 
d£ya, but there is no finite verb with which to construe the 
absolute participle, either expressed or easily supplied. Perhaps 
we must read samuvSya vayam = samuva/fca va£as; for the 
perfect is retained in some cases. However, if this conjecture 
be right, the next line would be superfluous. 

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as follows : ' You have well declared to me what 
true Brahmawahood consists in. (37) 

'You are a sacrificer of sacrifices, you are the 
most learned of those who know the Vedas, you 
know the (^ydtishanga, you know perfectly the 
Law. (38) 

' You are able to save yourself and others ; 
therefore do us the honour to accept our alms, 
O best of monks.' (39) 

" I do not want any alms ; but, O Brahma«a, enter 
the order at once, lest you should be drifted about 
on the dreadful ocean of the Sawsara, whose eddies 
are dangers. (40) 

" There is glue (as it were) in pleasure : those who 
are not given to pleasure, are not soiled by it ; 
those who love pleasures, must wander about in 
the Sawsira ; those who do not, will be libe- 
rated. (41) 

"If you take two clods of clay, one wet, the 
other dry, and fling them against the wall, the wet 
one will stick to it. (42) 

" Thus foolish men, who love pleasure, will be 
fastened (to Karman), but the passionless will not, 
even as the dry clod of clay (does not stick to the 
wall)." (43) 

When Vi^ayaghdsha had learned the excellent 
Law from the houseless (Jayaghdsha, he entered the 
order. (44) 

<7ayagh6sha and Vi^ayagh6sha both annihilated 
their Karman by self-control and penance, and 
reached the highest perfection. (45) 

Thus I say. 

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I shall declare the correct behaviour (sama^ari) 
which causes freedom from all misery; by prac- 
tising it the Nirgranthas have crossed the ocean of 
Sa»*sara. (i) 

The correct behaviour of monks consists of (the 
following) ten parts: I. ava-ryika; 2. naish£dhiki ; 
3. aprt'ii^ana; 4. pratiprzi^ana; 5. ban- 
dana; 6. iiij&akara; 7. mithyakara; 8. tatha- 
kara; 9. abhyutthana; 10. upasampad. (2-4) 

The avasyika is required when he leaves a room 
(or the presence of other monks on some necessary 
business); the naishddhikf, on entering a place; 
apr^i^ana, (or asking the superior's permission) 
for what he is to do himself; pratiprzi^ana, for 
what somebody else is to do ; bandana, (or placing 
at the disposal of other monks) the things one 
has got ; iiiMkara, in the execution (of one's inten- 
tion by oneself or somebody else) ; mithyakara, in 
the blaming oneself (for sins committed); tathakara, 
(assent) in making a promise; abhyutthana, in 
serving thosewho deserve respect; and u pasampad, 
in placing oneself under another teacher. Thus the 
twice fivefold behaviour has been declared. (5-7) 

After sunrise during the first quarter (of the first 
Paurushl) 1 he should inspect (and clean) his things 
and pay his respects to the superior. (8) 

Then, with his hands joined, he should ask him : 

1 The southern half of the sky or horizon, between east and 
west, is divided into four quarters, each of which corresponds in 
time to a paurushf, the fourth part of a day or a night. 

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' What shall I do now ? I want to be employed, sir, 
in doing some work or in studying.' (9) 

If he is ordered to do some work, he should do 
it without tiring; if he is ordered to study, he 
should do it without allowing himself to be affected 
by any pains. (10) 

A clever monk should divide the day into four 
(equal) parts (called paurushl), and fulfil his duties 
(uttaragu«a) in all four parts, (n) 

In the first Paurushl he should study, in the 
second he should meditate, in the third he should 
go on his begging-tour, and in the fourth he should 
study again. (12) 

In the month Ashaa^a the Paurushl (of the night) 
contains two feet (pada) l ; in the month Pausha, 
four ; in the months Aaitra and A^vayu^a, 
three. (13) 

(The Paurushl) increases or decreases a digit 2 
(angula) every week, two digits every fortnight, 
four digits every month. (14) 

The dark fortnight of Ashid^a, Bhadrapada, 
Karttika, Pausha, Philguna, and Vaijakha are 
known as avamaratrfis 3 . (15) 

1 A paurushi is the fourth part of a day or a night ; about the 
time of the equinoxes, when the day as well as the night contains 
twelve hours, the paurushl contains three hours. At the same 
time, in the months A'aitra and Ajvina, as we learn from our 
verse, the paurushl has three feet, padas. The pada therefore 
is equal to one hour exactly. The duration of the night at the 
summer solstice was therefore estimated at eight hours and at the 
winter solstice at sixteen, just as in the Vedic Gy6tisha. 

* A digit, angula, is apparently the twelfth part of a foot, 
pada = one hour. The digit is therefore equal to five minutes. 

' The fortnights, mentioned in the text, consist of fourteen 
days only, the remaining ones of fifteen days. In this way the 
lunar year is made to consist of 354 days. 

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In the quarter of the year comprising the three 
months <7y6sh/£amula, Ashid^a, and .Sravawa, the 
(morning-) inspection is to last six digits (beyond 
J Paurushi) ; in the second quarter, eight ; in the 
third, ten ; in the fourth, eight 1 . (16) 

A clever monk should divide the night too into 
four parts, and fulfil his duties (uttaraguwa) in all 
four parts, (i 7) 

In the first Paurushi he should study, in the 
second he should meditate, in the third he should 
leave off sleep, and in the fourth he should study 
again. (18) 

When the nakshatra which leads the night 2 has 
reached the first quarter of the heaven, at dawn he 
should cease to study. (19) 

When a small part of the quarter is left 3 , in 
which the (leading) nakshatra stands, during that 
space of time, being considered intermediate* (be- 
tween two) days, a monk should watch. (20) 

In the first quarter (of the first Paurusht) he 
should inspect (and clean) his things, pay his respects 
to his superior, and then begin to study, not allowing 
himself to be affected by any pains 6 . (21) 

1 Or thirty, forty, fifty, forty minutes respectively. 

* I.e. the nakshatra which is in opposition to the sun, and 
accordingly rises at the same time with the setting; sun, and sets 
with the rising sun, compare R&m&yana III, 16, 12. 

* I. e. is about to set. 

4 Vgrattiya, translated vair&trika; but there is no such 
word in Sanskrit. It apparently stands for dvairatrika, belonging 
to two days. As the Hindus reckon the day from sunrise, the 
time immediately preceding it may be considered to belong to 
two days. 

* Compare verse 8. 

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In the (last) quarter of the first Paurushl, after 
paying his respect to the Guru, a monk should 
inspect his almsbowl, without, however, performing 
the Kala-pratikrama«a 1 . (22) 

He should first inspect his mouth-cloth 2 , then 
his broom 8 , and taking the broom in his hand he 
should inspect his cloth. (23) 

Standing upright he holds his cloth firmly and 
inspects it first leisurely, then he spreads it, and 
at last he wipes it (24) 

(He should spread the cloth) without shaking 
or crushing it, in such a way as to make the folds 
disappear, and to avoid friction of its parts against 
each other ; he should fold it up six times in length, 
and nine times in breadth, and then he should 
remove living beings with his hand (spreading the 
cloth on the palm of his hand) 4 . (25) 

He must avoid want of attention : 1. in beginning 
his work ; 2. in taking up the corners of the cloth; 
3. in folding it up; 4. in shaking out the dust; 5. in 
putting it down (on some other piece of cloth); 6. in 
sitting upon the haunches 6 . (26) 

1 I.e. expiation of sins concerning time, cf. Bhandarkar's 
Report, p. 98, note |. It seems to consist in Kaydtsarga. 

* This is a piece of muslin which the (Taina monks place before 
their mouth in speaking, in order to prevent insects being drawn 
in the mouth by the breath. 

* It is here called g8/4£Aaga = gu££Aaka, originally a bunch of 
peacocks' feathers, it is so still, if I am not mistaken, with the 
Digambaras, whilst the .Svetambaras use other materials, especially 
cotton threads. 

* Much in my translation is conjectural. There are some 
technicalities in these verses which I fail to understand clearly, 
notwithstanding the explanations of the scholiasts. 

* VSdik! 

[45] L 

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146 uttarAdhyayana. 

(One must further avoid) to hold the cloth loosely, 
or at one corner, or so as to let it flap, or so as to 
subject it to friction, or so as to shake it in different 
ways, or if one has made a mistake in the number 
of foldings (see verse 25) to count (aloud or with 
the help of the fingers, &C.) 1 (27) 

There should be neither too little nor too much 
of inspection, nor an exchange (of the things to be 
inspected) ; this is the right way to do (the inspec- 
tion), all other methods are wrong : — (28) 

(This is) if one engaged in inspecting his things 
converses or gossips (with anybody), renounces 
something 8 , teaches another his lesson, or receives 
his own lesson from another, (he neglects his in- 
spection). (29) 

He who is careful in the inspection, protects the 
six kinds of living beings, viz. the earth-bodies, 
water-bodies, fire-bodies, wind-bodies, plants, and 
animals. (30) 

He who is careless in the inspection, injures the 
six kinds of living beings (just enumerated) 3 . (31) 

In the third Paurushl he should beg food and 
drink, (he may do so) for any of the following six 
reasons : (32) 

1 I am not sure of having hit the true meaning. The com- 
mentators reckon this counting as a fault, while the text itself 
seems to enjoin it. 

* D6i pa££akkhanaw. The meaning is, I believe, that during 
the time of inspection one should not make up one's mind to 
abstain from this or that because one is to devote one's whole 
attention to the inspection of one's things. 

8 The DipikA places this verse before the last and construes it 
with verse 29, making out the following meaning : if one, engaged 
in inspecting his things, converses or gossips, &c, then, being 
careless in the inspection, he injures, &c. 

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i. To prevent an illness; 2. to serve the Guru; 
3. to be able to comply with the rules about 
walking 1 ; 4. to be able to comply with the rules 
of self-control 2 ; 5. to save one's life ; 6. to be able 
to meditate on the Law. (33) 

A zealous Nirgrantha or Nirgranthl may omit to 
beg food for the following six reasons, when it will not 
be considered a transgression of his duties : (34) 

1. In case of illness; 2. in case of a disaster ; 3. to 
preserve one's chastity and the Guptis ; 4. out of 
compassion for living beings ; 5. in the interest of 
penance; 6. to make an end of one's life 3 . (35) 

Taking his whole outfit a monk should inspect 
it with his eye ; he then may walk about, but not 
beyond half a Yq^ana. (36) 

In the fourth Paurushl he should put away his 
almsbowl (after having eaten his meal), and then 
begins his study which reveals all existent things. (37) 

In the last quarter of the fourth Paurushi he 
should pay his reverence to the Guru, and after 
having performed Kala-pratikrama«a 4 , he should 
inspect his lodging. (38) 

A zealous monk should also inspect the place 
where to discharge his excrements and urine, and 
then (till the sun sets) he should go through Kay6t- 
sarga without allowing himself to be affected by 
any pains. (39) 

1 Iriya//M6; for one will not be careful about walking (irya- 
samitf) if too hungry or thirsty. 

* For one might eat forbidden food if too hungry. 

5 It may be remarked here that the verses 15, 16, 19, 20, 24, 26, 
2 7» 2 9> 33> 34> 35 are m th e Arya-metre while the rest of the lecture 
is in .Sloka. 

* Compare note 1, p. 145. 

L 2 

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148 uttarAdhyayana. 

Then he should, in due order, reflect on all trans- 
gressions he has committed during the day, with 
regard to knowledge, faith, and conduct. (40) 

Having finished Kaydtsarga, and paid his rever- 
ence to the Guru, he should, in due order, confess 
his transgressions committed during the day. (41) 

Then having recited the Pratikramawa Sutra 1 , and 
having annihilated his sins, he should pay his 
reverence to the Guru (asking absolution) 2 , and go 
through Kaydtsarga without allowing himself to 
be affected by any pains. (42) 

Having finished Kaydtsarga, and paid his rever- 
ence to the Guru, he should pronounce the cus- 
tomary (three) praises, and then wait for the proper 
time. (43) 

In the first Paurushl (of the night) he should 
study; in the second he should meditate; in the 
third he should leave off sleep ; and in the fourth 
he should study again 3 . (44) 

In the fourth Paurusht he should wait for the 
proper time and then begin to study without waking 
the householders. (45) 

In the last quarter of the fourth Paurushl he 
should pay his reverence to the Guru, and perform- 
ing K4la-pratikrama«a * he should wait for the 
proper time. (46) 

When the (time for) Kaydtsarga has arrived, he 

1 Parfkamittu = pratikramya, explained pratikramawa- 
stitram uktvd. 

* According to the Dfpiki : having repeated the three G4this 
beginning iriyauva^Mya. 

' This verse is the same as verse 18, except a verbal difference 
in the last line. 

* Parfkamittu kaiassa, see p. 145, note 1. The Dipiki 
here explains this phrase by : doing acts proper for that time. 

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should go through it, without allowing himself to be 
affected by any pains. (47) 

Then he should, in due order, reflect on all trans- 
gressions he has committed during the night with 
regard to knowledge, faith, and conduct. (48) 

Having finished Kaydtsarga and paid his reverence 
to the Guru, he should, in due order, confess his 
transgressions committed during the night. (49) 

Then having recited the Pratikrama#a Sutra 
&c. (see verse 41). (50) 

He should consider what kind of austerities he 
will undertake. Having finished his Kaydtsarga, 
he pays his reverence to the Guru. (51) 

Having finished Kaydtsarga and paid his reverence 
to the Guru, he should practise those austerities 
which he has decided upon, and praise the per- 
fected saints. (52) 

Thus has been summarily declared the correct 
behaviour, by practising which many souls have 
crossed the ocean of Sawsara. (53) 

Thus I say. 



There was a Sthavira and Ga«adhara\ the learned 
sage Garga. This leader of the Ga»a once made 
the following reflections : (1) 

' He who rides in a car, crosses a wilderness ; he 

1 Gam seems to correspond to the modem GaAkfa ; see part i, 
p. 288, note 2. Ganadhara, therefore, does not denote here, as 
usual, a disciple of Tirthakara. 

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i 50 uttarAdhyayana. 

who rides, as it were, in (the car of) religious 
exercise, crosses the Saws&ra. (2) 

' But he who puts bad bullocks 1 before his car, 
will be tired out with beating them ; he will feel 
vexation, and his goad will be broken (at last). (3) 

' (A bad bullock) will bite its mate in the tail ; it 
will wound the other 2 ; it will break the pin of the 
yoke 3 , or it will leave the road. (4) 

' It will fall down on its side, or sit down, or lie 
down ; it will jump up or caper, or it will obstinately 
make for a young cow. (5) 

' It will furiously advance with its head lowered 
for an attack, or angrily go backward ; it will stand 
still as if dead, or run at full speed. (6) 

' The cursed beast * will rend asunder the rope, 
or in its unruliness break the yoke; and roaring 
it will break loose and run off. (7) 

'Just as bad bullocks are when put before a car, 
so are bad pupils when yoked, as it were, to the 
car of the Law; they break down through want 
of zeal. (8) 

'Some attach great importance* to their success; 

1 Khaluraka = galivr/shabha. Gali is explained in the 
dictionaries: a strong but lazy bull. In verse 16 we meet with 
galigaddaha = galigardabha, as synonymous with khalumka. 

J The commentator understands the first line of this verse as 
having reference to the angry driver. But though an angry driver 
will perhaps, for all I know, put his bullock's tail to his teeth, still 
it is harder to supply another subject in the first line than in the 
second, and in the following verses. 

' Samil4 = yugarandhrakflaka, Avsuiuri. 

4 iT^imaia = gira., see HSma&indra, DeVi K6sha 3, 27. It is 
a coarse term, which I replace by another, though probably the 
language of our coach-drivers might supply us with a more 
idiomatic rendering. 

8 Girava, cf. p. 98, note 2. 

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some to their good fare; some to their comfort; 
some nurse their anger. (9) 

' Some are averse to begging ; some are afraid 
of insults and are stuck up ; (how can) I convince 
them by reasons and arguments ' (?) (10) 

' (A bad pupil) makes objections, and points out 
(imagined) difficulties ; he frequently acts in opposi- 
tion to the words of the superiors. (11) 

' (He will say if sent to a lady) : " She does not 
know me, she will give me nothing ; I suppose she 
will be gone out ; send some other monk there." (12) 

' If sent on an errand, they do not do what they 
were bidden 2 , but stroll about wherever they like ; 
or deporting themselves like servants of the king 3 , 
they knit their brows (when speaking to other 
people). (13) 

'After they have been instructed, admitted into 
the order, and nourished with food and drink, they 
disperse in all directions like geese whose wings 
have grown.' (14) 

Now this driver (viz. Garga), who had to deal 
with bad bullocks, thought: 'What have I to do 
with bad pupils ? I am disheartened. (15) 

' As are bad pupils, so are bad bullocks ; I shall 
leave these lazy donkeys, and shall practise severe 
austerities.' (16) 

1 The metre of this verse seems to have originally been Aryst, 
but an attempt has been made to change it into Anush/ubh. 
We meet here with the interesting form anusisammf (read 
a»usasammi) = anuj^smi. 

* This seems to be the meaning of the word palium£anti. 
The commentators say, after other explanations, that they pretend 
not to have met the person to whom they were sent. 

' R&gzvettAim va mannantS; ve//Ai=vish/i, hire. 

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That noble man, who was full of kindness, grave, 
and always meditating, wandered about on the 
earth, leading a virtuous life. (17) 

Thus I say. 



Learn the true road leading to final deliverance, 
which the Ginas have taught; it depends on four 
causes and is characterised by right knowledge and 
faith. (1) 

I. Right knowledge; II. Faith; III. Conduct; 
and IV. Austerities ; this is the road taught by the 
(7inas who possess the best knowledge. (2) 

Right knowledge, faith, conduct, and austerities ; 
beings who follow this road, will obtain beatitude. (3) 

I. Knowledge is fivefold: 1. *Sruta, knowledge 
derived from the sacred books; 2. Abhinibddhika, 
perception 1 ; 3. Avadhi, supernatural knowledge; 
4. Mana^paryaya 2 , knowledge of the thoughts of 
other people; 5. K6vala, the highest, unlimited 
knowledge. (4) 

1 This is usually called mati, and is placed before jruta. The 
same enumeration recurs in XXXIII, 4, p. 193. UmSsvSti in 
Mdksha Sfltra 1, 14, gives the following synonyms of mati : smrtti, 
Aintd, abhinibddha. 

8 Manani/ian. 

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This is the fivefold knowledge. The wise ones 
have taught the knowledge of substances, qualities, 
and all developments 1 . (5) 

Substance is the substrate of qualities ; the quali- 
ties are inherent in one substance ; but the charac- 
teristic of developments is that they inhere in 
either (viz. substances or qualities). (6) 

Dharma, Adharma, space, time, matter, and souls 
(are the six kinds of substances *) ; they make up 
this world, as has been taught by the £rinas who 
possess the best knowledge. (7) 

Dharma, Adharma, and space are each one 
substance only ; but time, matter, and souls are an 
infinite number of substances. (8) 

The characteristic of Dharma is motion, that of 
Adharma immobility, and that of space 3 , which 
contains all other substances, is to make room (for 
everything) 4 . (9) 

The characteristic of time is duration 5 , that of 
soul the realisation • of knowledge, faith, happiness, 
and misery. (10) 

The characteristic of Soul is knowledge, faith, 
conduct, austerities, energy, and realisation (of its 
developments). (11) 

The characteristic of matter is sound, darkness, 

1 Dravya, gu»a, paryaya (pa^ava in Gaina Prakrit). 
Gu»a, quality, is generally not admitted by the Gainas as a separate 
category, see .Stlahka's refutation of the Vair6shika doctrines at the 
end of his comments on Sutrakntanga I, 12 (Bombay edition, 
p. 482). 

* They are frequently called astik&yas, or realities. 
3 It is here called nabhas instead of aka.ra. 

* Avagaha. * Vartana. 

* Upaydga. 

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lustre (of jewels, &c), light, shade, sunshine ; colour, 
taste, smell, and touch, (i 2) 

The characteristic of development is singleness, 
separateness 1 , number, form, conjunction, and dis- 
junction. (13) 

I. .flva, Soul; 2. a^lva, the inanimate things; 

3. bandha, the binding of the soul by Karman; 

4. pu»ya, merit; 5, papa, demerit; 6. asrava, that 
which causes the soul to be affected by sins; 7. 
sawvara, the prevention of asrava by watchfulness; 
8. the annihilation of Karman ; 9. final deliverance : 
these are the nine truths (or categories). (14) 

He who verily believes the true teaching of 
the (above nine) fundamental truths, possesses 
righteousness. (15) 

II. Faith is produced by 1. nisarga, nature; 
2. upad£ja, instruction; 3. tgnk, command; 4. 
sutra, study of the sutras; 5. bi^a, suggestion; 
6. ab hi gam a, comprehension of the meaning of the 
sacred lore ; 7. vistira, complete course of study ; 
8. kriya, religious exercise; 9. sawkshepa, brief 
exposition; 10. d harm a, the Law. (16) 

1. He who truly comprehends, by a spontaneous 
effort of his mind 2 , (the nature of) soul, inanimate 
things, merit, and demerit, and who puts an end to 
sinful influences 3 , (believes by) nature. (17) 

He who spontaneously believes the four truths 
(explicitly mentioned in the last verse), which the 

1 Singleness (fikatva) makes a thing appear as one thing, 
separateness (pr/thaktva) as different from others. 

* Sahasamuiya = svayamsamudita. It is usually rendered 

* Asravasawvara, see above, verse 14, 6 and 7. 

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G'mas have taught, (thinking) they are of this and 
not of a different nature, believes by nature. (18) 

2. But he who believes these truths, having learned 
them from somebody else, either a A^admastha x or 
a Gina, believes by instruction. (19) 

3. He who has got rid of love, hate, delusion, and 
ignorance, and believes because he is told to do so, 
believes by command. (20) 

4. He who obtains righteousness by (the study of) 
the Sutras, either Angas or other works 2 , believes 
by the study of Sutras. (21) 

5. He who by correctly comprehending one truth 
arrives at the comprehension of more — just as 
a drop of oil expands on the surface of water — 
believes by suggestion. (22) 

6. He who truly knows the sacred lore, viz. the 
eleven Angas, the Praklraas 3 , and the Dmh/ivada, 
believes by the comprehension of the sacred 
lore. (23) 

7. He who understands the true nature of all sub- 
stances by means of all proofs (prama#a) and nay as*, 
believes by a complete course of study. (24) 

8. He who sincerely performs (all duties implied) 

1 A ££admastha is one who has not yet obtained KSvala, or 
the highest knowledge; he is in the two guwasthanas (the 
fourteen stages in the development of the soul from the lowest to 
the highest) characterised as 1. upajantamoha, and 2. kshina- 
mdha; viz. 1. that in which delusion is only temporarily separated 
from the soul, and 2. that in which delusion is finally destroyed. 

* Bahira; apparently the same works are intended which are 
elsewhere called anahgapravish/a. 

s The original has the singular. 

4 The seven nayas are ' points of view or principles with 
reference to which certain judgments are arrived at or arrange- 
ments made.' Bhandarkar, Report, p. 112. 

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1 56 uttarAdhyayana. 

by right knowledge, faith, and conduct, by asceticism 
and discipline, and by all Samitis and Guptis, be- 
lieves by religious exercise. (25) 

9. He who though not versed in the sacred doc- 
trines 1 nor acquainted with other systems 2 , holds no 
wrong doctrines, believes by brief exposition. (26) 

10. He who believes in the truth 8 of the realities 4 , 
the Sutras, and conduct, as it has been explained by 
the Cinas, believes by the Law. (27) 

Right belief depends on the acquaintance with 
truth*, on the devotion to those who know the 
truth, and on the avoiding of schismatical and 
heretical tenets. (28) 

There is no (right) conduct without right belief 6 , 
and it must be cultivated (for obtaining) right faith ; 
righteousness and conduct originate together, or 
righteousness precedes (conduct). (29) 

Without (right) faith there is no (right) knowledge, 
without (right) knowledge there is no virtuous 
conduct 7 , without virtues there is no deliverance 8 , 
and without deliverance there is no perfection. (30) 

(The excellence of faith depends on the following) 
eight points : 1. that one has no doubts (about the 
truth of the tenets) ; 2. that one has no preference 
(for heterodox tenets); 3. that one does not doubt 

1 Prava^ana. * E. g. that of Kapila, &c, Comm. 

s Dharma. 4 Astikaya; see note on verse 7. 

* I. e. true things as soul, &c. 

* Samyaktva 'righteousness.' 

7 ATarawaguwa. The commentators make this a dvandva 
compound, and interpret Tarawa as vratadi, and guna as 
pi/x/avuuddhi, &c. 

* By deliverance I have rendered m6ksha, and by final per- 
fection nirvana. Mdksha denotes freedom from Karman, a con- 
dition which in Brihmanical philosophy is called ^ivanmukti. 

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its saving qualities 1 ; 4. that one is not shaken in 
the right belief (because heretical sects are more 
prosperous) ; 5. that one praises (the pious) ; 6. that 
one encourages (weak brethren) ; 7. that one sup- 
ports or loves the confessors of the Law ; 8. that 
one endeavours to exalt it. (31) 

III. Conduct, which produces the destruction 
of all Karman, is 1. samayika 2 , the avoidance of 
everything sinful; 2. i^eddpasthapana, the initia- 
tion of a novice; 3. pariharavbuddhika, purity 
produced by peculiar austerities 8 ; 4. sukshma 
samparaya, reduction of desire ; 5. akashaya 
yathakhyata, annihilation of sinfulness according 
to the precepts of the Arhats, as well in the case 
of a A^admastha as of a Gina.. (32, 33) 

IV. Austerities are twofold: external and internal ; 
both external and internal austerities are sixfold. (34) 

By knowledge one knows things, by faith one 
believes in them, by conduct one gets (freedom 
from Karman), and by austerities one reaches 

purity. (35) 

Having by control and austerities destroyed their 
Karman, great sages, whose purpose is to get rid of 
all misery, proceed to (perfection). 

Thus I say. 

1 Nivvitigi£Md=nirvi£ikitsa. According to the commentary 
it may stand for nir-vid-g-ugupsa" 'without loathing the saints.' 

1 See Bhandarkar, Report, p. 98, note J. 

8 The Dfpiki contains the following details. Nine monks 
resolve to live together for eighteen months. They make one of 
their number their superior, kalpasthita, four become pari- 
h&rikas, and the remaining four serve them (anuparih&rikas). 
After six months the parih&rikas become anuparih&rikas and 
vice versa. After another six months the kalpasthita does 
penance and all the other monks serve him as anuparihirikas. 

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158 uttarAdhyayana. 



long-lived ( iambus vimin) ! I (Sudharman) have 
heard the following discourse from the venerable 

Here, forsooth, the Venerable Ascetic Mahavlra, 
of the Karyapa Gdtra, has delivered this lecture 
called the exertion in righteousness. Many crea- 
tures, who truly believe in the subject (taught in 
this lecture), put their faith in it, give credence to 
it, accept it, practise it, comply with it, study it, 
understand it, learn it, and act up to it according to 
the precept (of the £inas) * — have obtained perfec- 
tion, enlightenment, deliverance, final beatitude, and 
have put an end to all misery. 

This lecture treats of the following subjects : 

1. sawv£ga, longing for liberation ; 

2. nirv£da, disregard of worldly objects; 

3. dharmajraddha, desire of the Law; 

4. gurusadharmika.yu.yrusha«a, obedience to 
co-religionists and to the Guru. 

5. al6£ana, confession of sins before the Guru ; 

6. ninda, repenting of one's sins to oneself; 

7. garha, repenting of one's sins before the Guru ; 

1 Here we have no less than ten verbs, many of which are 
synonyms, with probably no well-defined difference in their 
meaning. This heaping of synonymous words is a peculiarity of 
the archaic style. The commentators always labour hard to assign 
to each word an appropriate meaning, but by sometimes offering 
different sets of explanations they show that their ingenuity of 
interpretation was not backed by tradition. 

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8. samiyika, moral and intellectual purity of the 
soul ; 

9. /fcaturviwsatistava, adoration of the twenty- 
four Ginas ; 

10. vandana, paying reverence to the Guru ; 

11. pratikrama»a, expiation of sins; 

12. kaydtsarga, a particular position of the 

13. pra tyakhyin a, self-denial ; 

14. stavastutimangala, praises and hymns ; 

15. kalasyapratyup£ksha#a, keeping the right 
time ; 

16. praya.y^ittakara»a, practising penance; 

17. kshamapa#a, begging forgiveness ; 

18. svadhyaya, study; 

19. va/6ana, recital of the sacred texts; 

20. pariprz^^ana, questioning (the teacher) ; 

21. paravartana, repetition; 

22. anupr£ksha, pondering ; 

23. dharmakatha, religious discourse; 

24. jrutasyaradhana, acquisition of sacred 
knowledge ; 

25. 6kagramana^sanniv£.rana, concentration 
of thoughts ; 

26. sawya ma, control ; 

27. tapas, austerities ; 

28. vyavadana, cutting off the Karman ; 

29. sukhisata, renouncing pleasure ; 

30. apratibaddhati, mental independence ; 

31. vi/£itra.vayanasanas6vana, using unfre- 
quented lodgings and beds ; 

32. vinivartana, turning from the world; 

33. sambhdgapratyakhyana, renouncing col- 
lection of alms in one district only ; 

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160 uttarAdhyayana. 

34. upadhipratyakhyana, renouncing articles 
of use ; 

35. aharapratyakhyana, renouncing food ; 

36. kashayapratyakhyana, conquering the 
passions ; 

37. ydgapratyakhyana, renouncing activity; 

38. .rarlrapratyakhyana, renouncing the body; 

39. sahayapratyakhyana* renouncing com- 
pany ; 

40. bhaktapratyakhyana, renouncing all food ; 

41. sadbhavapratyakhyana, perfect renun- 
ciation ; 

42. pratirupata, conforming to the standard; 

43. vaiyavWtya, doing service ; 

44. sarvagu»asampur»ata, fulfilling all vir- 
tues ; 

45. vitaragata, freedom from passion ; 

46. kshanti, patience; 

47. mukti, freedom from greed; 

48. ar^ava, simplicity ; 

49. mardava, humility ; 

50. bhavasatya, sincerity of mind ; 

51. kara»asatya, sincerity of religious practice; 

52. y6gasatya, sincerity of acting; 

53. mandguptata, watchfulness of the mind ; 

54. vag-guptata, watchfulness of the speech ; 

55. kayaguptati, watchfulness of the body; 

56. mana^samadhara#a, discipline of the mind; 

57. vaksamadhara»a, discipline of the speech ; 

58. kayasamadhara/za, discipline of the body; 

59. ^wanasampannata, possession of know- 
ledge ; 

60. dar.sranasampannata, possession of faith ; 

61. ^aritrasampannata, possession of conduct; 

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62. $rdtr£ndriyanigraha, subduing the ear; 

63. iakshurindriyanigraha, subduing the eye; 

64. ghra#endriyanigraha, subduing the organ 
of smell ; 

65. ^ihvSndriyanigraha, subduing the tongue ; 

66. spar$an£ndriyanigraha,subduingthe organ 
of touch ; 

67. krddhavi^aya, conquering anger ; 

68. manavi^aya, conquering pride ; 

69. mayavi^aya, conquering deceit; 

70. 16bhavi^aya, conquering greed ; 

71. pr6madveshamithyadar.ra#avi,faya, con- 
quering love, hate, and wrong belief ; 

72. jailer!, stability ; 

73. akarmata, freedom from Karman. 

1. Sir, what does the soul obtain by the longing 
for liberation ? By the longing for liberation the 
soul obtains an intense desire of the Law ; by an 
intense desire of the Law he quickly arrives at an 
(increased) longing for liberation ; he destroys anger, 
pride, deceit, and greed, which reproduce themselves 
infinitely ; he acquires no (bad) Karman, and ridding 
himself of wrong belief which is the consequence 
of the latter, he becomes possessed of right faith ; 
by the purity of faith some will reach perfection 
after one birth ; nobody, however, who has got this 
purity, will be born more than thrice before he 
reaches perfection. (1) 

2. Sir, what does the soul obtain by disregard of 
worldly objects'? By disregard of worldly objects 
the soul quickly feels disgust for pleasures enjoyed 
by gods, men, and animals ; he becomes indifferent to 

1 Or aversion to the Circle of Births. 
[45] M 

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all objects ; thereby he ceases to engage in any under- 
takings, in consequence of which he leaves the road 
of Sawsara and enters the road to perfection. (2) 

3. Sir 1 , what does the soul obtain by the desire of 
the Law? By the desire of the Law the soul becomes 
indifferent to pleasures and happiness to which he 
was attached ; he abandons the life of householders, 
and as a houseless monk he puts an end to all pains 
of body and mind, which consist in (the suffering of) 
cutting, piercing, union (with unpleasant things), &c. ; 
and he obtains unchecked happiness. (3) 

4. By obedience to co-religionists and to 
the Guru the soul obtains discipline (vinaya). By 
discipline and avoidance of misconduct (towards 
the teacher 2 ) he avoids being reborn as a denizen of 
hell,an animal.a (low) man, or a (bad) god; by zealous 
praise of, devotion to, and respect for (the Guru) he 
obtains birth as a (good) man or god, gains per- 
fection and beatitude, does all praiseworthy actions 
prescribed by discipline, and prevails upon others 
to adopt discipline. (4) 

5/ By confession of sins (before the Guru) the 
soul gets rid of the thorns, as it were, of deceit, mis- 
applied austerities 3 , and wrong belief, which obstruct 
the way to final liberation and cause an endless 
migration of the soul ; he obtains simplicity, whereby 
the soul which is free from deceit does not acquire 
that Karman which results in his having a carnal 
desire for a woman or eunuch *, and annihilates such 
Karman as he had acquired before. (5) 

1 In this way all paragraphs up to § 72 open with a question 
of always the same form. I drop the question in the sequel. 
* AtySfitana. » NidSna, cf. p. 60, n. 2. 

4 This is the meaning of the words itthtvgya napuwsaga- 

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6. By repenting of one's sins to oneself the 
soul obtains repentance, and becoming indifferent 
by repentance he prepares for himself an (ascending) 
scale of virtues l , by which he destroys the Karman 
resulting from delusion. (6) 

7. By repenting of one's sins before the 
Guru the soul obtains humiliation; feeling humili- 
ated, he will leave off all blameable occupations 2 , and 
apply himself to praiseworthy occupations, whereby 
a houseless monk will stop infinite disabling 3 develop- 
ments. (7) 

8. By moral and intellectual purity (literally, equi- 
librium) the soul ceases from sinful occupations. (8) 

9. By the adoration of the twenty-four Cinas 
the soul arrives at purity of faith. (9) 

10. By paying reverence (to the Guru) the soul 
destroys such Karman as leads to birth in low 
families, and acquires such Karman as leads to birth 
in noble families; he wins the affection of people, 
which results in his being looked upon as an authority, 
and he brings about general goodwill. (10) 

11. By expiation of sins he obviates trans- 
gressions of the vows ; thereby he stops the Asravas, 
preserves a pure conduct, practises the eight articles 4 , 
does not neglect (the practice of control), and pays 
great attention to it. (11) 

v6yaw = striv6da, napu/»sakav£da, as explained by the 
commentators on XXXII, 102. 

1 Kara«agu»ajrr6dhim pratipadyatS. It is difficult to 
render this phrase adequately; the meaning is that by succes- 
sively destroying moral impurities one arrives at higher and higher 

* Y6ga, i.e. the cause of the production of Karman. 

3 Ghiti, compare Bhandarkar, Report, p. 93, note *. 

4 See Twenty-fourth Lecture, p. 129 if. 

M 2 

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1 64 uttarAd uyayan a. 

12. By Kay6tsarga he gets rid of past and present 
(transgressions which require) Prayay^itta 1 ; thereby 
his mind is set at ease like a porter who is eased of 
his burden ; and engaging in praiseworthy contem- 
plation he enjoys happiness. (12) 

13. By self-denial he shuts, as it were, the 
doors of the Asravas; by self-denial he prevents 
desires rising in him ; by prevention of desires he 
becomes, as it were, indifferent and cool towards all 
objects. (13) 

14. By praises and hymns he obtains the 
wisdom consisting in knowledge, faith, and conduct ; 
thereby he gains such improvement, that he will 
put an end to his worldly existence 2 , (or) be born 
afterwards in one of the Kalpas and Vimanas 8 . (14) 

15. By keeping the right time he destroys the 
Karman which obstructs right knowledge. (15) 

16. By practising Prayaj^itta 1 he gets rid of 
sins, and commits no transgressions : he who cor- 
rectly practises Prayar&tta, gains the road and the 
reward of the road*, he wins the reward of good 
conduct. (16) 

17. By begging forgiveness he obtains hap- 
piness of mind ; thereby he acquires a kind dis- 
position towards all kinds of living beings 5 ; by this 

1 Expiatory rites, al6£ana, &c. 

1 Antakriya, explained by mukti. 

* The Kalpas and the Vimanas are the heavens of the Vaimanika 
gods, see below, p. 226. 

4 By road is meant the means of acquiring right knowledge, 
and by the reward of the road, right knowledge. The reward 
of good conduct is mukti. 

8 Savvapanabhuya^ivasatta. The pra«as possess from 
two to four organs of sense, the ^tvas five, the bhutas are plants, 
and the sattvas are all remaining beings. 

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kind disposition he obtains purity of character and 
freedom from fear. (17) 

18. By study he destroys the Karman which 
obstructs right knowledge. (18) 

19. By the recital of the sacred texts he 
obtains destruction of Karman, and contributes to 
preserve the sacred lore, whereby he acquires the 
Law of the Tlrtha l , which again leads him to the 
complete destruction of Karman, and to the final 
annihilation of worldly existence. (19) 

20. By questioning (the teacher) he arrives at 
a correct comprehension of the Sutra and its meaning, 
and he puts an end to the Karman which produces 
doubts and delusion. (20) 

21. By repetition he reproduces the sounds (i.e. 
syllables) and commits them to memory. (21) 

22. By pondering (on what he has learned) he 
loosens the firm hold which the seven kinds of 
Karman, except the Ayushka 2 (have upon the soul) ; 
he shortens their duration when it was to be a long 
one ; he mitigates their power when it was intense ; 
(he reduces their sphere of action when it was a wide 
one) 8 ; he may either acquire Ayushka-karman or 
not, but he no more accumulates Karman which 

1 According to the commentaries, by Tirtha are meant the 

* Concerning the eight kinds of Karman, see XXXIII, 2 and 3, 
p. 192. Ayushka is that Karman which determines the length 
of time which one is to live. A somewhat different explanation of 
this Karman is given by Bhandarkar, loc. cit., p. 97, note. 

* The passage in question is an addition in some MSS., as the 
commentators tell us. The meaning seems to be that the Karman 
which was attached to many parts of the soul is restricted to fewer 
places by the influence of the purity superinduced on the soul by 

Digitized by 


1 66 uttarAdhyayana. 

produces unpleasant feelings, and he quickly crosses 
the very large forest of the fourfold Samsara, which 
is without beginning and end. (22) 

23. By religious discourses he obtains de- 
struction of the Karman ; by religious discourses he 
exalts the creed, and by exalting the creed he 
acquires Karman, which secures, for the future, 
permanent bliss. (23) 

24. By acquisition of sacred knowledge he 
destroys ignorance, and will not be corrupted by 
worldliness. (24) 

25. By concentration of his thoughts he 
obtains stability of the mind. (25) 

26. By control he obtains freedom from sins. (26) 

27. By austerities he cuts off the Karman 1 . (27) 

28. By cutting off the Karman he obtains (the 
fourth stage of pure meditation characterised by) 
freedom from actions, by doing no actions he will 
obtain perfection, enlightenment, deliverance, and 
final beatitude, and will put an end to all misery. (28) 

29. By renouncing pleasures he obtains 
freedom from false longing, whereby he becomes 
compassionate, humble, free from sorrow, and 
destroys the Karman produced by delusion regarding 
conduct (29) 

30. By mental independence he gets rid of 
attachment, whereby he will concentrate his thoughts 
(on the Law), and will for ever be without attach- 
ment and fondness (for worldly things). (30) 

31. By using unfrequentedlodgingsandbeds 
he obtains the Gupti of conduct, whereby he will use 

1 Vyavadana is the cutting off of the Karman and the sub- 
sequent purity of the soul. 

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allowed food, be steady in his conduct, be exclusively 
delighted with (control), obtain a yearning for deliver- 
ance, and cut off the tie of the eightfold Karman. (31) 

32. By turning from the world he will strive to 
do no bad actions, and will eliminate his already 
acquired Karman by its destruction; then he will 
cross the forest of the fourfold Samsara. (32) 

33. By renouncing collection of alms in one 
district only 1 he overcomes obstacles 2 ; unchecked 
by them he exerts himself to attain liberation ; he is 
content with the alms he gets, and does not hope for, 
care for, wish, desire, or covet those of a fellow-monk ; 
not envying other monks he takes up a separate, 
agreeable lodging 8 . (33) 

34. By renouncing articles of use 4 he obtains 
successful study ; without articles of use he becomes 
exempt from desires, and does not suffer misery. (34) 

35. By renouncing (forbidden) food he ceases 
to act for the sustenance of his life ; ceasing to 
act for the sustenance of his life he does not suffer 
misery when without food. (35) 

36. By conquering his passions he becomes 
free from passions ; thereby he becomes indifferent 
to happiness and pains. (36) 

37. By renouncing activity he obtains inactivity, 
by ceasing to act he acquires no new Karman, and 
destroys the Karman he had acquired before. (37) 

38. By renouncing his body he acquires the 
pre-eminent virtues of the Siddhas, by the possession 

1 Sambhdga = €kaman</aly&m ablrakarawam. 
* AlambanS, glanatidi. 

' DukAzm suha.segg&m uvasampa^ittinam viharai. 
4 Except such as are obligatory, e.g. his broom, the mukha- 
vastrikd, &c. 

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1 68 uttarAdhyayana. 

of which he goes to the highest region of the 
universe, and becomes absolutely happy. (38) 

39. By renouncing company he obtains single- 
ness; being single and concentrating his mind, he 
avoids disputes, quarrels, passions, and censorious- 
ness, and he acquires a high degree of control, of 
Sa*#vara, and of carefulness K (39) 

40. By renouncing all food he prevents his 
being born again many hundreds of times. (40) 

41. By perfect renunciation 2 he enters the 
final (fourth stage of pure meditation), whence there 
is no return ; a monk who is in that state, destroys 
the four remnants of Karman which even a Kevalin 
possesses, viz. v&dantya, ayushka, naman, and 
g6tra s ; and then he will put an end to all misery. (41) 

42. By conforming to the standard of monks 4 
he obtains ease, thereby he will be careful, wear 
openly the excellent badges of the order, be of 
perfect righteousness, possess firmness and the 
Samitis, inspire all beings with confidence, mind but 
few things 6 , subdue his senses, and practise, in 
a high degree, the Samitis and austerities. (42) 

43. By doing service he acquires the Karman 

1 SamahiS = samahita or samadhiman. 

* Sadbh&va pratyakhyana. The Dipika gives the following 
explanation : he makes the renunciation in such a way that he 
need not make it a second time. 

* Vedaniya is that Karman which produces effects that must 
be experienced, as pleasure or pain; ayushka is the Karman that 
determines the length of life; nSman and gdtra cause him to be 
born as such or such an individual in this or that family; see 
Thirty-third Lecture, verses 2 and 3, p. 192 f. 

* Explained: sthavirakalpasadhuvgshadh&ritvam. 

4 Appa</ileha = alpapratyupeksha; he has to inspect few 
things, because he uses only few. 

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which brings about for him the naman and gdtra 
of a Tlrthakara. (43) 

44. By fulfilling all virtues he secures that he 
will not be born again ; thereby he will become 
exempt from pains of the body and mind. (44) 

45. By freedom from passion he cuts oflf the 
ties of attachment and desire ; thereby he becomes 
indifferent to all agreeable and disagreeable sounds, 
touches, colours, and smells. (45) 

46. By patience he overcomes troubles. (46) 

47. By freedom from greed he obtains voluntary 
poverty, whereby he will become inaccessible to 
desire for property. (47) 

48. By simplicity he will become upright in 
actions, thoughts, and speech, and he will become vera- 
cious ; thereby he will truly practise the Law. (48) 

49. By humility he will acquire freedom from self- 
conceit ; thereby he will become of a kind and meek 
disposition, and avoid the eight kinds of pride. (49) 

50. By sincerity of mind he obtains purity of 
mind, which will cause him to exert himself for the 
fulfilment of the Law which the (7inas have pro- 
claimed; and he will practise the Law in the next 
world too. (50) 

51. By sincerity in religious practice he 
obtains proficiency in it; being proficient in it he 
will act up to his words. (51) 

52. By sincerity of acting he will become pure 
in his actions. (52) 

53. By watchfulness 1 of the mind he concen- 
trates his thoughts ; thereby he truly practises con- 
trol. (53) 

1 Gupti. 

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54. By watchfulness oT speech he keeps free 
from prevarication ; thereby he enables his mind to 
act properly. (54) 

55. By watchfulness of the body he obtains 
Sawvara 1 ; thereby he prevents sinful Asravas. (55) 

56. By discipline of the mind he obtains con- 
centration of his thoughts; thereby he obtains 
development of knowledge, which produces right- 
eousness and annihilates wrong belief. (56) 

57. By discipline of the speech he obtains 
development of faith, whereby he acquires facility 
of becoming enlightened, and destroys preventing 
causes. (57) 

58. By discipline of the body he obtains 
development of conduct, which causes him to con- 
duct himself according to the regulation ; thereby 
he destroys the four remnants of Karman which 
even a K£valin possesses 2 ; after that he obtains 
perfection, enlightenment, deliverance, and final 
beatitude, and he puts an end to all misery. (58) 

59. By possession of knowledge he acquires 
an understanding of words and their meaning; 
thereby he will not perish in the forest of the 
fourfold Sa»*sara; as a needle with its thread will 
not be lost, thus the soul possessing the sacred 
lore 8 will not be lost in the Sa/#sara ; he performs 
all prescribed actions relating to knowledge, disci- 
pline, austerities, and conduct, and well versed in his 

1 For Sahara and Asrava, see above, p. 55, note 1, and p. 73, 
note 2. 

* See above, § 41. 

* Here is a pun on the word sutta=sutra, which means thread 
and Sutra, sacred lore, or knowledge acquired by the study of the 

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own and in heterodox creeds he will become 
invincible. (59) 

60. By possession of faith he annihilates wrong 
belief which is the cause of worldly existence, and 
he will not lose his inner light ; but he endues his 
Self with the highest knowledge and faith, and 
purifies it 1 . (60) 

61. By possession of conduct he obtains 
a stability like that of the king of mountains 2 (viz. 
Meru), whereby a houseless monk destroys the 
four remnants of Karman which even a K6valin 
possesses; after that he obtains perfection, en- 
lightenment, deliverance, and final beatitude, and 
puts an end to all misery. (61) 

62. By subduing the organ of hearing he 
overcomes his delight with or aversion to all pleasant 
or unpleasant sounds, he acquires no Karman pro- 
duced thereby, and destroys the Karman he had 
acquired before. (62) 

63-66. (All this applies also to his) subduing the 
organs of sight, of smelling, of tasting, and of touch 
(with regard to) pleasant colours, smells, tastes, and 
touches. (63-66) 

67. By conquering anger he obtains patience ; 
he acquires no Karman productive of anger 3 , and 
destroys the Karman he had acquired before. (67) 

68. By conquering pride he obtains simplicity, 
&c. (as in 67, substituting pride for anger). (68) 

69. By conquering deceit he obtains humility, 
&c. (as in 67, substituting deceit for anger). (69) 

1 I.e. makes it contain nothing foreign to its own nature. 
9 Selesi = jaile^t; jailSja is Meru, and its avasthS, or con- 
dition, is s ailSj 1. 

* Or, perhaps, which results in experiencing anger. 

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172 uttarAdhyayana. 

70. By conquering greed he obtains content, 
&c. (as in 67, substituting greed for anger). (70) 

71. By conquering love, hate, and wrong 
belief he exerts himself for right knowledge, faith, 
and conduct, then he will cut off the fetters of the 
eightfold Karman ; he will first destroy the twenty- 
eight kinds 1 of Karman, which are productive of 
delusion; (then) the five kinds of obstruction to right 
knowledge 8 , the nine kinds of obstruction to right 
faith 8 , and the five kinds of obstacles (called Anta- 
raya): the last three remnants of Karman he destroys 
simultaneously; afterwards he obtains absolute 
knowledge and faith, which is supreme, full, complete, 
unchecked, clear, faultless, and giving light (or 
penetrating) the whole universe ; and while he still 
acts *, he acquires but such Karman as is inseparable 
from religious acts 8 ; the pleasant feelings (produced 
by it) last but two moments : in the first moment 
it is acquired, in the second it is experienced, and in 
the third it is destroyed ; this Karman is produced, 
comes into contact (with the soul), takes rise, is 
experienced, and is destroyed ; for all time to come 
he is exempt from Karman. (71) 

72. Then e when his life is spent up to less than 

1 There are sixteen k a shay as, nine nd-kashayas, and three 

* These are the obstacles to the five kinds of knowledge : mati, 
jruta, avadhi, manaApary aya, kgvala. 

' They are: the obstacles to £akshurdarjana, to a^akshur- 
darxana, to avadhidarsana, and to klvaladarrana, and five 
kinds of sleep (nidrS). Concerning Antar&ya, see p. 193. 

* Saydgin, i.e. while he has not yet reached the fourteenth 
gunasthana, the state of a K&valin. 

6 Airyapathika. 

* I.e. when he has become a Kgvalin, as described in the 
preceding paragraph. 

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half a muhurta, he discontinues to act, and enters 
upon the (third degree of) pure meditation 1 , from 
which there is no relapse (to lower degrees), and 
which requires most subtile functions only (of his 
organs) ; he first stops the functions of his mind, 
then the functions of speech, then those of the 
body, at last he ceases to breathe. During the 
time required for pronouncing five short syllables, 
he is engaged in the final pure meditation, in which 
all functions (of his organs) have ceased, and he 
simultaneously annihilates the four remnants of 
Karman, viz. v£danlya, ayushka, naman, and 
gdtra 2 . (72) 

73. Then having, by all methods, got rid of his 
audarika, karmawa (and tai^asa) bodies, the soul 
takes the form of a straight line, goes in one moment, 
without touching anything and taking up no space, 
(upwards to the highest Aka\ra), and there develops 
into its natural form, obtains perfection, enlighten- 
ment, deliverance, and final beatitude, and puts an 
end to all misery. (73) 

This indeed is the subject of the lecture called 
exertion in righteousness, which the Venerable 
Ascetic Mahavlra has told, declared, explained, 
demonstrated. (74) 

Thus I say. 

1 Sukladhyana. * See note on § 41. 

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Now hear with concentrated mind, how a monk 
destroys by austerities the bad Karman which he 
had acquired by love and hatred, (i) 

By abstaining i. from destroying life ; 2. from 
lying ; 3. from taking anything which is not given ; 
4. from all sexual indulgence ; 5. from having any 
property; and 6. from eating at night, the soul 
becomes free from Asravas \ (2) 

By possessing the five Samitis and the three 
Guptis, by freedom from passions, by subduing the 
senses, by vanquishing conceit 2 , and by avoiding 
delusions, the soul becomes free from Asravas. (3) 

Hear attentively how a monk destroys (the 
Karman) acquired by love and hatred in the absence 
of the above-mentioned (virtues). (4) 

As a large tank, when its supply of water has 
been stopped, gradually dries up by the consumption 
of the water and by evaporation, so the Karman of 
a monk, which he acquired in millions 3 of births, is 
annihilated by austerities, if there is no influx of bad 
Karman. (5, 6) 

Austerities are of two kinds : external and internal ; 

1 Karmdp£d&nah€tavas, that through which the soul be- 
comes affected by Karman. 

9 AgSrava = agaurava; but it is here explained, free from 
garva, cf. p. 98, note 2. 

' Literally kr ores, i.e. ten million!:. 

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external austerities are of six kinds, and internal are 
of six kinds \ (7) 

External austerities are : 

1. anasana, fasting; 2. avamddarika, absti- 
nence 2 ; 3. bhikshi^arya, collecting alms ; 4. rasa- 
parityaga, abstention from dainty food; 5. kaya- 
kl6.ya, mortification of the flesh; 6. sa/#llnata, 
taking care of one's limbs 3 . (8) 

1. Fasting is of two kinds : a. itvara, temporary, 
and b. mara«akala, fasting which precedes, and 
ends with death. Temporary fasting is either such 
in which a desire (for food) is present, or such in 
which no such desire exists. (9) 

a. The temporary fasting is briefly of six kinds : 
1. in the form of a line * ; 2. in the form of a square ; 
3. in the form of a cube ; 4. of a sixth power ; 5. of 
a twelfth power ; 6. of any arrangement. Temporary 
fasting (can be practised) for different objects which 
one has in mind. (10, 11) 

' Comp. Aupapatika Sutra, ed. Leumann, p. 38 ff. The general 
division is the same, but the subdivision differs in many details. 

1 Gradual reduction of food, from a full meal of thirty-two 
morsels to one of one morsel. 

* Ang6pang£dikam sawvrj'tya pravartanam, Ttki. 

* The meaning of this singular statement is as follows. If 
four fasts of two, three, four, and five days are performed in this 
order, they form a line. If this set of fasts is four times repeated, 
each time beginning with a different number, we get sixteen fasts ; 
they form a square, viz. : 

The next class contains 64 fasts, the fourth 4,096, the fifth 
16,777,216 fasts. Fasts of the last class require 700,000 years at 
least, and must be assumed to be restricted to former Tfrthakaras, 
whose lives lasted enormous periods of time. 

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1 76 uttarAdhyayana. 

b. Fasting which is to precede death, is of two 
kinds with regard to the motions of the body : 
with change (of position) and without change. (12) 

And again it is twofold : admitting of relief 1 , or 
not ; one may either leave the place (which one has 
chosen to die in), or not leave it ; in both cases one 
may not take any food. (13) 

2. Abstinence is briefly of five kinds : with regard 
to a. substance ; b. place ; c. time ; d. state of mind ; 
e. development. (14) 

a. He who takes less food than he usually does 2 , in 
the extreme case but one mouthful, performs absti- 
nence with regard to substance. (15) 

b. (Place means) a village, a scotfree town 8 , 
a capital, a camp of merchants 4 , a mine, a settlement 
of a wild tribe 6 , a place with an earth wall 6 , a poor 
town T , a town with a harbour 8 , a large town 9 , an 
isolated town 10 , and an open town u . (16) 

I Saparikarma = vaiy&vr/tyasahita. This leads to inginf- 
mara»aand bhaktapratyakhyana; theaparikarma to pada- 
popagamana (i.e. pr&ydpagamana); comp. part i, p. 72. 

* Thirty-two mouthfuls is the usual quantity of food of men, 
twenty-eight that of women. A mouthful is of the size of an egg. 

8 N agar a, where no taxes (na kara) are levied, while villages 
pay eighteen taxes. 

* Nigama, or a place where many merchants dwell. 
8 Pallf. • KheVa. 

7 Karva/a. According to the dictionary, it means 'market- 
town ;' but the commentators render it by kunagara, or say that 
it is karva/a^anivasa, the dwelling-place of the Karva/a people. 

8 Drdwamukha, a town to which there is access by water and 
land, like Bhr/'guka&Ma or Tamralipti. 

* Pa//ana. 

10 M a/am ba, a town which is more than three and a half yo^anas 
distant from the next village. 

II Samb&dha, prabhuta/fcaturvarwyanivSsa. 

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In a hermitage, a vihara 1 , a halting- place for 
procession 2 , a resting-place for travellers 8 , a station 
of herdsmen, a camp on high ground, a caravan's 
camp, a fortified place of refuge. (17) 

In gardens, on roads, in houses — all this is meant 
by place. In these and similar places he may 
(wander about). In this way he performs abstinence 
with regard to place. (18) 

1. pe74, 2. ardhape7a, 3. gdmutrika, 4. patanga- 
vlthika, 5. Jambukavartta, 6. ayatazw-gatva-pratya- 
gata*. ( I9 ) 

c. Abstinence with reference to time (is observed 
by him) who goes about in that time of the four 
Paurushls of the day (which he selects for that 
purpose). (20) 

Or if he collects alms in a part of the third 
Paurushi, or in its last quarter, then he observes 
abstinence with reference to time. (21) 

d. Abstinence with reference to state of mind (is 
observed by him) who accepts alms from a woman 
or man, from an adorned or unadorned person, from 
one of any age or dress, of any temper or colour : 
if that person does not change his disposition or 
condition 5 . (22, 23) 

1 A dwelling-place of Bhikshus, or a dfivagr/ha. 

* Sannivfija. s Samara. 

* These are terms for different kinds of collecting alms ; it is 
called pe7t (box), when one begs successively at four houses 
forming the corners of an imaginary square; gdmutrikS, when 
he takes the houses in a zigzag line; patangavfthikS (cricket's 
walk), when he goes to houses at a great distance from one another ; 
jambflkivartta (the windings of a conch), when he goes in 
a spiral line, either toward the centre (abhyantara) or from the 
centre outward (bahis); ftyataw-gatva-praty&gata, when he 
first goes straight on and then returns. 

6 I give the traditional explanation of the verses, as handed 
[45] N 

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e. A monk who observes abstinence accordingtothe 
particulars which have been enumerated with regard 
to substance, place, time, and state of mind, observes 
abstinence with regard to development 1 too. (24) 

3. With regard to collecting alms there are the 
eight principal ways 2 how to collect them; the seven 
£sha#as (or modes of begging) and other self- 
imposed restrictions. (25) 

4. Abstention from dainty food means 
abstention from such highly nourishing 3 food and 
drink as milk, curds, ghee, &c. (26) 

5. Mortification of the flesh consists in the dif- 
ferent postures as Virasana, &c, which benefit the 
soul, and which are difficult to perform. (27) 

6. Using unfrequented lodgings and beds 
consists in living and sleeping in separate and 

down in the commentaries. If we might set it aside, I should 
translate : abstinence with reference to disposition is observed by 
him who in collecting alms preserves the same disposition, whether 
he has to do with a woman or man, &c. 

1 For development (pa^ava = parySya) denotes any form 
or phase of existence which anything can assume. Therefore 
all particulars of place, e.g. are developments of Place. As all 
restrictions of place, &c, indirectly diminish the food obtainable by 
a monk, they also come under the head Abstinence. 

2 According to the commentator, these are the six kinds 
enumerated in verse 19. Sambukivartta is of two kinds, as 
explained in the note; the eighth kind is rt'gvt, or the common 
way of begging. These eight ways have reference to the houses 
in which they collect alms. The seven eshanas refer to the 
quality or quantity of the food ; their names are given in the 71kd, 
partly in Prikr/t, partly in Sanskrit : 1. samsz/ZAi ; 2. asa*»sa//tf£ ; 
3. uddha</&; 4. alpalSpikS; 5. udgrrtiM; 6. pragr/htti; 7. ugghi- 
tadharma. According to another passage : 1. is sa/sspr/'sh/a, 
3. uddhrita, 5. avagr/hlta. 

3 Pra«ita, explained push/ikara. 

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unfrequented places where there are neither women 
nor cattle. (28) 

Thus external austerities have been briefly ex- 
plained ; I shall now explain internal austerities in 
due order. (29) 

Internal austerities are : 

1. priyaj^itta, expiation of sins; 

2. vi#aya, politeness; 

3. vaiyavWtya, serving the Guru; 

4. svadhyaya, study; 

5. dhy an a, meditation; 

6. vyutsarga 1 , abandoning of the body. (30) 

1. Expiation of sins is tenfold, what must be 
confessed 2 , &c. ; this is to be strictly observed by 
a monk; this is called expiation of sins. (31) 

2. Politeness consists in rising (from one's seat), 
folding of the hands, offering of a seat, loving the 
Guru, and cordial obedience. (32) 

3. There are ten 3 kinds of service, as serving the 
Aiarya, &c. 4 ; doing service consists in giving 
one's assistance as well as one is able. (33) 

4. Study is fivefold : 1. saying or learning one's 
lesson ; 2. (questioning the teacher about it) ; 3. repe- 
tition ; 4. pondering ; 5. religious discourse. (34) 

1 Vidsagga, viussaga, viusagga. It is usually rendered 
vyutsarga, but the Sanskrit prototype is vyavasarga, as Leu- 
mann has pointed out, I.e., p. 152. 

* Compare Aupapitika Sutra, ed. Leumann, p. 40. 
' Ibidem, p. 42. 

* They are enumerated in the following Githi : ayariya-uva^g-Me' 
th§ra-tavasst-gila«a-s£ria»a I sahammiya-kula-ga«a-sahgha-sawgayaw 
tam iha kayavva/w. The ten persons or body of persons entitled 
to 'service' are: i.&ttrya; 2. up&dhyaya; 3. sthavira; 4. tapas- 
vin; 5. glana; 6. raiksha; 7. sadharmika; 8. kula; 9. gana; 
10. sangha. 

N 2 

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i 80 uttarAdhyayana. 

5. Abstaining to meditate on painful and sinful 
things \ one should, with a collected mind, engage 
in pure meditations on the Law ; this the wise call 
meditation. (35) 

6. If a monk remains motionless when lying down, 
sitting, or standing upright, this is called abandoning 
of the body, which is the sixth kind (of internal 
austerities). (36) 

If a sage truly performs these two kinds of 
austerities, he will soon be thoroughly released from 
the Circle of Births. (37) 

Thus I say. 



I shall declare the mode of life that benefits the 
soul ; by practising it many souls have crossed the 
ocean of Sawsara. (1) 

One should desist from one thing, and practise 
another: desist from neglect of self-control, and 
practise self-control. (2) 

Love and hatred are two evils which produce bad 

1 This is the artaraudradhyana. 

* This lecture offers many difficulties to the translator, as it 
contains scarcely more than a dry list of articles of the <7aina faith. 
To fully understand or interpret it would require an accurate know- 
ledge of the complete religious system of the ffainas, to which we 
can lay no claim at present. The order in which the articles are 
given follows the number of their subdivisions. In some cases 
the number is not given in the Sutra, but is supplied by the com- 

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Karman ; if a monk always avoids them, he will not 
stand within the circle (of transmigration). (3) 

A monk who always avoids the thrice threefold 
hurtful, conceited, and delusive acts \ will not stand 
in the circle (of transmigration). (4) 

A monk who well bears calamities produced by 
gods, animals, or men, will not stand, &c. (5) 

A monk who always avoids the (four) different 
kinds of praises 2 , passions, expressions (of the 
emotions) s , and (of the four) meditations the two 
sinful ones, will not stand, &c. (6) 

A monk who always exerts himself 4 with regard to 
the (five) vows, the (five) objects of sense, the (five) 
Samitis, and (five) actions 6 , will not stand, &c. (7) 

A monk who always exerts himself with regard to 
the six l£.syas 8 , the six kinds of bodies, and the six 
(regular functions as) eating 7 , will not stand, &c. (8) 

A monk who always exerts himself with regard to 
the (seven) rules of accepting alms 8 , and the seven 
causes of danger (to other men) will not stand, 
&c. (9) 

1 Compare XIX, 91, and XXX, 3. Hurtful acts (da»rfa) are 
threefold, as referring to thoughts, words, and acts ; conceited acts 
(garava), as pride of riches, of taste (rasa), and of pleasure or 
fashion (sata); delusive acts (jralya), as maya, nidana, and 

* Vikattha. s Sarngfli. 

4 Yatate" ' exerts himself;' supply ' to avoid, to know, or to do,' 
as the case may require. 

6 Kriya; they are: r. kayiki; 2. adhikarawiki ; 3. pradvSshiki ; 
4. paritapanikf, and 5. pranatipatikf. 

6 On the ISjyas see Thirty-fourth Lecture, p. 196 ff. 

' From the commentaries I learn two more of these six 
kirawas: vSdana and vaiyavr/'tya. I cannot say which are the 
remaining three. 

* They are enumerated in note 2 on XXX, 25, p. 178. 

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i 82 uttarAdhyavana. 

A monk who always exerts himself with regard 
to the (eight) objects of pride \ to that which pro- 
tects his chastity 2 , and to the tenfold Law of the 
monks 3 . (10) 

A monk who always exerts himself with regard 
to the (eleven) duties of the upasakas, and the 
(twelve) duties of the bhikshus*, will not stand, 
&c. (n) 

A monk who always exerts himself with regard to 
the (thirteen) actions (productive of Karman), to the 
various (fourteen) kinds of living beings, and the 
(fifteen) places of punishment of the wicked 6 , will not 
stand, &c. (12) 

A monk who always exerts himself with regard to 
the sixteen Gathas s , and to the (seventeen kinds of) 
neglect of self-control, will not stand, &c. (13) 

A monk who always exerts himself with regard 
to the (eighteen kinds of) continence, to the (nine- 
teen) ^nitadhyayanas 7 , and the (twenty) cases for 
not concentrating one's thoughts, will not, &c. (14) 

1 Viz. caste, family, beauty, &c. ; see Sutrakr/t. II, 2, 17. 

2 Brahmagupti. This is of nine kinds. 

3 Bhikshudharma. It consists of Nos. 46-49, 26, 27, of 
Lecture XXIX, truth, purity, poverty, and chastity. 

4 The details given in the commentary (DevSndra) partly differ 
from the description of the twelve duties of Advakas, and the ten 
duties of Bhikshus given by Bhandarkar from the K£rttik6ySnu- 
prSkshS, see his Report, p. 114 ff. 

6 Param&dharmika. My translation is based on the enume- 
ration of fifteen words, among which the names of some well-known 
hells occur. 

• The sixteen lectures of the first part of the Sutrakn'tahga, the 
last of which is called GathS, are meant by the sixteen Githis. The 
whole book contains twenty-three lectures as stated in verse 16. 

7 The first jrutaskandha of the G^atidharmakathS, which 
contains nineteen adhyayanas, is intended by ^w&t&dhyayana. 

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• ■ - ', \ 

LECTURE XXXrV ' { 1 83 

A monk who always exerts himself with regard to 
the twenty-one forbidden * actions, and the twenty- 
two troubles 2 , will not stand, &c. (15) 

A monk who always exerts himself with regard to 
the twenty-three (lectures of the) Sutrakmanga, and 
to the gods whose number exceeds by an unit 3 (the 
number of the lectures of the Sutrakmanga), will 
not stand, &c. (16) 

A monk who always exerts himself with regard to 
the twenty-five clauses *, and (to the recitation of the 
twenty-six) chapters of the Dasas, &c. 5 , will not 
stand, &c. (17) 

A monk who always exerts himself with regard to 
the (twenty-seven) virtues of the laity, and the 
(twenty-eight lectures of the) Prakalpa 6 , will not 
stand, &c. (18) 

A monk who always exerts himself with regard 
to the (twenty-nine) causes of wrong knowledge, 
and the (thirty) causes of delusion, will not stand, 
&c. (19) 

A monk who always exerts himself with regard to 
the (thirty-one) qualities of Siddhas, &c, the (thirty- 

1 .Sabala, because they 'variegate' the conduct. The actions 
meant are sitting on an unwiped seat, &c. 

* Part saha, see above, p. 9 ff. 

' Rupa. The twenty-four gods are: ten Bhavanapatis, eight 
Vyantaras, five Gydtishkas, one Vaimanika ; or the 24 prophets. 

4 Bhavana, the subdivisions of the five great vows, see part i, 
p. 189 ff. 

* The Daxisrutaskandha, Bnhat Kalpa, and Vyavah&ra Sutras 
are meant, which together contain twenty-six udd&ras. 

* I.e. the AM&hga, Sutra; it now contains but twenty-four 
lectures, but is said to have originally contained four more, see 
part i, introduction, p. xlix f. These four lectures were : Maha- 
parinnS, Ugghaya, Awugghdya, Ar6va«i. 

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two) Y6gas x , and thirty-three Asatanas 2 , will not 
stand, &c. (20) 

A clever monk who always exerts himself with 
regard to the above-mentioned points, will soon be 
thoroughly released from the Circle of Births (21) 

Thus I say. 



With attentive mind hear me explain for your 
benefit the deliverance from the beginningless time, 
together with its causes 3 , and from all misery : a truly 
wholesome subject. (1) 

By the teaching of true 4 knowledge, by the avoid- 
ance of ignorance and delusion, and by the destruction 
of love and hatred, one arrives at final deliverance 
which is nothing but bliss. (2) 

This is the road to it : to serve the Gurus and the 
old (teachers), to avoid throughout foolish people, to 

1 The pure operations of mind, speech, and body. 

s As far as I can make out from the enumeration in the com- 
mentary, they are articles regulating the intercourse between monks, 
especially pupils and teacher. 

s By beginningless time the Samsira is meant ; its causes are the 
kash&yas or cardinal passions, and avirati. 

4 Sa££assa=satyasya. This is a various reading; the 
received text has savvassa. The commentators give the fol- 
lowing explanation : by the property of knowledge to make every- 
thing known — this indicates that knowledge is the cause of 

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apply oneself earnestly to study, and to ponder 
zealously on the meaning of the Sutras. (3) 

A .5rama»a engaged in austerities, who longs for 
righteousness 1 , should eat the proper quantity of 
allowed food, should select a companion of right 
understanding, and should live in a place suited to 
seclusion. (4) 

If he does not meet with a clever companion who 
surpasses or equals him in virtue, he should live by 
himself, abstaining from sins and not devoted to 
pleasures. (5) 

As the crane 2 is produced from an egg, and the 
egg is produced from a crane, so they call desire 3 
the origin of delusion, and delusion the origin of 
desire. (6) 

Love and hatred are caused by Karman, and they 
say that Karman has its origin in delusion ; Karman 
is the root of birth and death, and birth and death 
they call misery. (7) 

Misery ceases on the absence of delusion, delusion 
ceases on the absence of desire, desire ceases on the 
absence of greed, greed ceases on the absence of 
property. (8) 

I shall explain in due order the means which must 
be adopted by him who wants to thoroughly uproot 
love, hatred, and delusion. (9) 

Pleasant food 4 should not be enjoyed with pre- 
ference, for it generally makes men over-strong 6 ; and 
desires rush upon the strong, like birds upon a tree 
with sweet fruits. (10) 

1 Sam&dhi; the D}pik& explains it by ^adnadarjana^Sri- 

' BalSka. 8 Trish»a\ 4 Rasa\ » Drtptikara. 

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i 86 uttarAdhyayana. 

As in a forest, full of fuel, a fire fanned by the 
wind cannot be extinguished, so the fire (as it were) 
of the senses of him who eats as he lists ; it does 
not benefit any chaste man. (i i) 

The mind of those who always live in unfrequented 
lodgings, who eat low food, and who subdue their 
senses, will not be attacked by the foe, Love, who 
is vanquished as disease is by medicine. (12) 

As it is not safe for mice to live near the dwelling 
of a cat, so a chaste (monk) cannot stay in a house 
inhabited by women. (13) 

A ►Srama«a, engaged in penance, should not allow 
himself to watch, the shape, beauty, coquetry, laughter, 
prattle, gestures, and glances of women, nor retain 
a recollection of them in his mind. (14) 

Not to look at, nor to long for, not to think of, 
nor to praise, womankind : this is becoming the 
meditation of the noble ones, and it is always whole- 
some to those who delight in chastity. (15) 

Though those who possess the three Guptis, 
cannot be disturbed even by well-adorned goddesses, 
still it is recommended to monks to live by them- 
selves, as this is wholesome in every way. (16) 

To a man who longs for liberation, who is afraid 
of the Sa*»sara, and lives according to the Law, 
nothing in the world offers so many difficulties x as 
women who delight the mind of the ignorant. (17) 

To those who have overcome the attachment (to 
women), all others will offer no difficulties 2 ; even as 
to those who have crossed the great ocean, no river, 
though big like the Ganges, (will offer any dif- 
ficulty). (18) 

1 Duttara. * Suuttara. 

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From desire of pleasure arises the misery of the 
whole world, the gods included ; whatever misery of 
body and mind there is, the dispassionate will put 
an end to it. (19) 

As the fruit of the Kimpaka 1 is beautiful in taste 
and colour, when eaten ; but destroys the life when 
digested, (being) poison ; similar in their effect are 
pleasures. (20) 

A .Srama#a, engaged in austerities, who longs 
for righteousness 2 , should not fix his thoughts on 
the pleasant objects of the senses, nor turn his mind 
from them, if they be unpleasant. (21) 

' Colour ' attracts the eye ; it is the pleasant cause 
of Love, but the unpleasant cause of Hatred 3 ; he 
who is indifferent to them (viz. colours), is called 
dispassionate. (22) 

The eye perceives 'colour,' and 'colour ' attracts the 
eye ; the cause of Love is pleasant, and the cause of 
Hatred is unpleasant. (23) 

He who is passionately fond of ' colours,' will 
come to untimely ruin ; just as an impassioned 
moth which is attracted by the light rushes into 
death. (24) 

He who passionately hates (a colour), will at the 
same moment suffer pain. It is the fault of an 
undisciplined man that he is annoyed (by a colour) ; 
it is not the 'colour' itself that annoys him. (25) 

1 Trichosanthes Palmata, or Cucumis Colocynthus. 

* Compare verse 4. 

* Love and Hatred must of course be understood in their widest 
meaning. The same remark applies to the term ' colour,' which 
according to Hindu terminology denotes everything that is perceived 
by the eye. The first three sentences are, in the original, dependent 
on verbs as vadanti, Shus. I have, here and elsewhere, dropped 
them in the translation. 

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i 88 uttarAdhyayana. 

He who is very fond of a lovely 'colour,' hates all 
others ; hence a fool will suffer misery, but a dis- 
passionate sage is not affected by it. (26) 

He who has a passion for 'colours',' will kill many 
movable and immovable beings ; a passionate fool, 
intent on his personal interest, pains and torments 
those beings in many ways. (27) 

How can a man who passionately desires 'colours 2 ,' 
be happy while he gets, keeps, uses, loses, and 
misses (those things). Even when he enjoys them, 
he is never satisfied. (28) 

When he is not satisfied with those ' colours,' and 
his craving for them grows stronger and stronger, 
he will become discontented, and unhappy by dint of 
his discontent; misled by greed he will take another's 
property. (29) 

When he is overcome by violent desire, takes 
another's property, and is not satisfied with those 
' colours ' and their possession, then his deceit and 
falsehood increase on account of his greed ; yet he 
will not get rid of his misery. (30) 

After and before he has lied 3 , and when he is on 
the point of lying, he feels infinitely unhappy. 
Thus when he takes another's property, and is 
(after all) not satisfied by the 'colours' (he has 

1 Ruva«ugasa»uga=rupa-anuga-aja-anuga. This divi- 
sion of the compound looks artificial ; I should prefer to divide 
ruva-a«ugasa-a»uga = rupa-anukarsha-anuga; literally, 
possessed of attraction by colours. 

* Ruva«uva£«a pariggah6«a. Parigraha is explained as 
the desire to possess them. 

' Instead of ' lying,' we can also adopt the rendering ' stealing,' 
as the word in the original mdsa may stand either for mri'shS, 
or for mdsha. 

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obtained), he becomes unhappy, and nobody will 
protect him 1 . (31) 

How, then, can a man who is devoted to ' colours,' 
ever derive any happiness from anything ? He 
suffers pain at the time of their enjoyment to procure 
which he had suffered misery. (32) 

In the same way he who hates ' colours,' incurs 
a long succession of pains ; when his mind is filled 
with hatred, he accumulates Karman which in the 
end again produces misery. (33) 

But a man who is indifferent to ' colours,' is free 
from sorrows ; though still in the Sawsara, he is not 
affected by that long succession of pains, just as the 
leaf of the Lotus (is not moistened) by water. (34) 

[The whole set of verses 22-34 is, with few 
alterations, five times repeated in the original in 
order to apply to the other organs of sense. 

Verses 35-47 treat of sounds; 'sound' is to be 
substituted for ' colour,' ' ear ' for ' eye.' 

The last line of verse 37, which corresponds to 
verse 24, runs thus : 

As an impassioned deer allured (by a song) rushes 
into death, without being satisfied with the sound. 

In the same way verses 48-60 apply to ' smells ' ; 
substitute ' smell ' and ' organ of smell.' 

Verses 61-73 apply to tastes; substitute 'tastes' 
and ' tongue.' 

Verses 74-86 apply to touches ; substitute ' touches ' 
and ' body.' 

Verses 87-99 apply to feelings ; substitute ' feel- 
ings ' and ' mind.' 

1 A»issa = aimra. Nifra does not occur in common San- 
skrit ; it is rendered avash/ambha by the commentators. 

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The lines corresponding to • the comparison in 
verse 24, run as follows : 

Just as an impassioned snake which is allured 
by the smell of a drug, when it comes out of its 
hole. (50) 

Just as an impassioned fish which is eager to 
swallow the bait, has its body transfixed by a 
hook. (63) 

Just as an impassioned buffalo who dives in cold 
water, is taken hold of by a crocodile and dies. (76) 

Just as an impassioned elephant who is inflamed 
by carnal desires, is turned from his way by a female 
elephant (and is captured and at last killed in 
battle). (89)] 

Thus the objects of the senses and of the mind 
cause pain to passionate men, but they never in the 
least cause any pain to the dispassionate. (100) 

Pleasant things (by themselves) do not cause 
indifference nor emotions (as anger, &c.) ; but by 
either hating or loving them, a man undergoes 
such a change through delusion. (101) 

Anger, pride, deceit, greed ; disgust, aversion to 
self-control and delight in sensual things '; mirth, fear, 
sorrow, carnal desire for women, men, or both ; all 
these manifold passions arise in him who is attached 
to pleasures; and so do other emotions produced 
by those (before mentioned) arise in him who is 
to be pitied, who (ought to be) ashamed of himself, 
and who is hateful. (102, 103) 

1 Arati and rati. Compare note on XXI, 21, where I have 
adopted another translation suited to the context. The first four 
numbers contain the cardinal passions; the rest the emotions 
which are called no-kashSya. 

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A monk should not desire a companion, not (even) 
one who is able to perform his religious duties ; nor, 
if he regrets having taken the vows, (should he 
desire for) a worldly reward of his austerities l . 
Such emotions of an infinite variety arise in one 
who is the slave of his senses. (104) 

Desiring happiness and being submerged in 
the ocean of delusion, he forms many plans for 
warding off misery; and for their sake an im- 
passioned man exerts himself. (105) 

But all kinds of objects of the senses, sounds, &c, 
will cause to the indifferent neither a pleasant nor 
an unpleasant feeling. (106) 

He who endeavours to recognise the vanity of 
all desires 2 , will arrive at perfect indifference. 
When he ceases to desire the objects (of the senses), 
his desire for pleasures will become extinct. (107) 

The dispassionate man who has performed all 
duties will quickly remove the obstructions to right 
knowledge and to right faith, and whatever Karman 
produces obstruction (to righteousness). (108) 

Then he knows and sees all things, he is free from 
delusion and hindrances, his Asravas have gone, 

1 My translation follows the interpretation of the commentators. 
The original runs thus: Kappaw na ikihigga. sahdyali^Mu 
pai£M»ut&v6«a tavappabhava». The meaning they have 
made out is very unsatisfactory. There is a remarkable various 
reading in MS. C not noticed by the scholiasts : sahayala^Mim 
= svabhavalakshmi»». If this was the original reading, the 
meaning of the line, in which however I must leave the word 
kappam untranslated, would come to this : a monk who regrets 
having taken the vows should not desire personal power as the 
reward for his penance. Kalpa, according to the commentators, 
is one who is able to perform his religious duties; a kalpa is 
contrasted with a jishya, novice. 

1 Sawkalpavikalpanasu upasthitasya. 

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and he is proficient in meditation and concentration 
of thoughts, and being pure he will arrive at 
beatitude when his life is spent. (109) 

He will get rid of all misery which always afflicts 
mankind; recovered from the long illness, as it 
were, and glorious, he becomes infinitely happy, and 
obtains the (final) aim. (no) 

We have taught the way how to become exempt 
from all misery which arises since time without 
beginning ; those beings who follow it will in their 
time become infinitely happy, (in) 

Thus I say. 



I shall now in due order explain the eight kinds 
of Karman, bound by which the soul turns round 
and round in the Circle of Births. (1) 

The eight kinds of Karman are briefly the 
following : 

1. (j^anavarawtya (which acts as an obstruction 
to right knowledge) ; 

2. Dar.ranavara#tya (which acts as an obstruc- 
tion to right faith) ; 

3. V6dan!ya (which leads to experiencing pain 
or pleasure) ; 

4. Mdhanlya (which leads to delusion) ; 

5. Ayu//karman (which determines the length 
of life) ; 

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6. Naman (which determines the name or in- 
dividuality of the embodied soul) ; 

7. G6tra (which determines his G6tra) ; 

8. Antaraya (which prevents one's entrance on 
the path that leads to eternal bliss ] ). (2, 3) 

1. Obstruction of knowledge is fivefold (viz. 
obstruction to) : 

a. 6ruta, knowledge derived from the sacred 
books ; 

b. Abhinibddhika, perception; 

c. Avadhi^»ana, supernatural knowledge ; 

d. Mana^paryaya, knowledge of the thoughts 
of other people ; 

e. K £vala, the highest, unlimited knowledge. (4) 

2. The nine kinds of obstruction to right faith are : 
1. sleep ; 2. activity ; 3. very deep sleep ; 4. a high 
degree of activity 2 ; 5. a state of deep-rooted greed ; 
6-9 refer to faith in the objects of the first three 
and the last kinds of knowledge. (5, 6) 

3. V6daniya is twofold, pleasure and pain ; there 
are many subdivisions of pleasure and so there are 
of pain also. (7) 

4. M6haniya is twofold as referring to faith and to 
conduct ; the first is threefold, the second twofold. (8) 

The three kinds of Mdhanlya referring to faith 
are: 1. right faith; 2. wrong faith; 3. faith partly 
right and partly wrong. (9) 

1 Compare Bhandarkar, Report, p. 93, note *. 

* Nos. 1-4 are nidrS, praiald, nidranidra, pra£alipra£ala; 
I render the etymological meaning of these words. According to 
the DfpikS, however, they have a different meaning : nidrS means 
the state of agreeable waking; pra^ald, the slumber of a standing 
or sitting person; nidranidra, deep sleep; pra£aldpra£al&, 
sleep of a person in motion. Nos. 6 and 7 are here called £akkhu 
and alakkhu, instead of dbhinibddhika and jrruta. 

[45] O 

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The two kinds of Mdhanlya referring to conduct 
are : i. what is experienced in the form of the four 
cardinal passions; 2. what is experienced in the 
form of feelings different from them, (ro) 

The first kind of this Karman is sixteenfold, the 
second sevenfold or ninefold '. (i i) 

5. Ayushka is fourfold as referring to 1. denizens 
of hell; 2. brute creation ; 3. men; 4. gods. (12) 

6. Naman is twofold, good and bad; there are 
many subdivisions of the good variety, and so there 
are of the bad one also 2 . (13) 

7. G6tra is twofold, high and low; the first is 
eightfold, and so is the second also. (14) 

8. Antaraya is fivefold as preventing : 1. gifts; 
2. profit; 3. momentary enjoyment; 4. continuous 
enjoyment 3 ; and 5. power. (15) 

Thus the division of Karman and the subdivisions 
have been told. 

Now hear their number of atoms*, place, time, and 
development. (16) 

1 The divisions of the second Karman are the feelings or emo- 
tions enumerated in the 102nd verse of the last lecture, from 
disgust onward. There are seven of them, if desire for women, 
men, or both, is reckoned as one item, but nine, if it is reckoned as 
three. The sixteen divisions of the Karman produced by the 
cardinal passions are arrived at by subdividing each of the four 
passions with reference to 1. anantanubandha; 2. pratya- 
khySna; 3. apratyakhyana; 4. sam^valana. 

* In the Dipika 103 subdivisions are enumerated ; they corre- 
spond to our genera. 

* 3. Bh6ga, 4. upabh6ga; bh6ga is enjoyment of flowers, 
food, &c. ; upabhdga, that of one's house, wife, &c. The Karman 
in question brings about an obstruction to the enjoyment, &c, 
though all other circumstances be favourable. 

* The Karman is considered to consist, like other substances, of 
atoms, here called pradS-ra point. The word I have translated 

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The number of atoms of every Karman is infinite; 
it is (infinitely) greater than (the number) of fettered 1 
souls, but less than that of the perfected ones. (17) 

The Karman in the six directions of space 2 binds 
all souls, and it binds the whole soul in all its parts 
in every possible way. (18) 

The longest duration (of Karman) is thirty Krores 
of Krores of Sagar6pamas 8 , and the shortest a part 
of a muhurta. (19) 

This holds good with both Avarawlyas, with 
V£daniya and Antaraya. (20) 

The longest duration of M6hantya is seventy 
Krores of Krores of Sagar6pamas, and the shortest 
a part of a muhurta. (21) 

The longest duration of Ayushka is thirty-three 
Krores of Krores of Sagar6pamas, and the shortest 
a part of a muhurta. (22) 

The longest duration of Naman and G6tra is 
twenty Krores of Krores of Sagar6pamas, and the 
shortest eight muhurtas. (23) 

The number of perfected souls is infinite, and that 

number of atoms is pa£saggam = prad£.ragram, which is 
rendered parama»uparima*a. 

1 Ga«/Aiyasatta = granthigasattva. 

2 The six directions of space are the four cardinal points, zenith 
and nadir. The commentators quote scripture that Skfindriyas, 
or beings with one organ of sense, are bound by Karman in three 
and more directions. The true meaning of this statement is 
beyond my grasp. — The Dtpika explains how Karman acts on the 
soul. The soul absorbs all material particles of a suitable nature 
(especially the karmapudgalas) with which it comes into contact, 
i.e. all that are in the same space with the soul, and assimilates 
them in the form of ^-flanavaraijiya, &c, just as fire consumes every- 
thing within its reach, but nothing beyond it. 

* I.e. 3,000,000,000,000,000 Sigardpamas. 

O 2 

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i 96 uttarAdhyayana. 

of the subdivisions of Karman * is also (infinite) ; 
the number of atoms in all these (subdivisions) 
exceeds (the number) of all souls. (24) 

Therefore a wise man should know the different 
subdivisions of these Karmans, and should exert 
himself to prevent and to destroy them. (25) 

Thus I say. 



I shall deliver in due order the Lecture on Le\rya ; 
hear the nature of the six L^^yas (produced by) 
Karman. (1) 

1 Anubhaga, explained karmarasavisSsha. 

* The le>yas(adhyavasaya vij£sh£A) are different conditions 
produced in the soul by the influence of different Karman; they are 
therefore not dependent on the nature of the soul, but on the 
Karman which accompanies the soul, and are, as it were, the 
reflection of the Karman on the soul, as stated in the following 
verse from the Ava^uri : knsh«£didravyasa£ivy£t pari»imd ya 
atmanaA 1 spa/ikasyeva tatrayaw le\fyafabdaA pravartate 11 'The 
alteration produced on the soul, just as on a crystal by the presence 
of black things, &c, is denoted by the word lfijyaV The LeV ya, 
or, according to the above explanation, what produces L6jy£, is 
a subtile substance accompanying the soul ; to it are attributed the 
qualities described in this lecture. — The word 16s a is derived 
from kl£ja; this etymology appears rather fanciful, but I think 
it may be right. For the LgfySs seem to be the KleVas, which 
affect the soul, conceived as a kind of substance. The Sanskrit 
term Lfijyd is of course a hybrid word. It must, however, be 
stated that ISsa occurs also in the meaning ' colour,' e.g. Sutraknt. 
I, 6, 13, and that the PrSkn't of klfisa is kil^fa. 

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Hear i. the names, 2. colours, 3. tastes, 4. smells, 
5. touches, 6. degrees, 7. character, 8. variety, 9. 
duration, 10. result, and 11. life of the Le\yyas. (2) 

1. They are named in the following order : black, 
blue, grey, red, yellow, and white. (3) 

2. The black Le\yya has the colour of a rain-cloud, 
a buffalo's horn, (the fruit of) Rish/aka 1 , or the eye 
of the wagtail. (4) 

The blue Le\yya has the colour of the blue A^6ka 2 , 
the tail of the ATasha 3 , or of lapis lazuli. (5) 

The grey Le\rya has the colour of the flower of 
Atasi 4 , the feathers of the K6kila, or the collar 
of pigeons. (6) 

The red Le\rya has the colour of vermilion, the 
rising sun, or the bill of a parrot. (7) 

The yellow Le\rya has the colour of orpiment, 
turmeric, or the flowers of *Sa«a 6 and Asana 6 . (8) 

The white Le\yya has the colour of a conch- 
shell, the anka-stone 7 , Kunda-flowers 8 , flowing milk, 
silver, or a necklace of pearls. (9) 

3. The taste of the black L£$ya is infinitely more 
bitter than that of Tumbaka 9 , (the fruit of the) 
Nimb-tree 10 , or of Rdhiwi. (10) 

1 Sapindus Detergens. 

* It is not the common A*6ka, Jonesia Asoka, which has red 

8 Corarias Indica, blue jay ; according to some, a kingfisher. 

4 Linum Usitatissimum, whose flowers are blue. — The word for 
grey is kau = k£p6ta; in the comm., however, it is described as 
kimAit krtshwi, ki/ȣil lfihitS, which would be rather brown. 
But the description given in our verse leaves no doubt that grey 
colour is intended. 

* Crotolaria Juncea. * Terminalia Tomentosa. 
7 Ahka, mamvufoha. 8 Jasminum Multiflorum. 

* The gourd Lagenaria Vulgaris. 10 Azadirachta Indica. 

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i 98 u ttarA dhyayan a. 

The taste of the blue Le\rya is infinitely more 
pungent than TrikaAika' and Hastipippali. (11) 

The taste of grey Le\yy& is infinitely sourer than 
that of unripe Mango and Kapittha 2 . (1 2) 

The taste of red Le\yya is infinitely more pleasant 
than that of ripe Mango and Kapittha. (13) 

The taste of yellow L&sy& is infinitely better than 
that of excellent wine and various liquors, honey 
and Maireyaka 3 . (14) 

The taste of white Le\yya is infinitely better than 
that of dates, grapes, milk, candied and pounded 
sugar. (15) 

The smell of the bad Le\yyis (viz. the three first) 
is infinitely worse than that of the corpse of a cow, 
dog, or snake. (16) 

The smell of the three good L&yyis is infinitely 
more pleasant than that of fragrant flowers and 
of perfumes when they are pounded. (17) 

5. The touch of the bad Le\ryas is infinitely worse 
than that of a saw, the tongue of a cow, or leaf 
of the Teak tree. (18) 

The touch of the three good Le\ryas is infinitely 
more pleasant than that of cotton, butter, or .Slrlsha- 
flowers 4 . (19) 

6. The degrees 6 of the Le\yyas are three, or nine, 

1 The aggregate of three spices, &c, black and long pepper and 
dry ginger. 
1 Feronia Elephantum. 

* A kind of intoxicating drink, extracted from the blossoms of 
L) thrum Fructicosum, with sugar, &c. 

* Acacia Sirisa. 

° The L&fyas may possess their qualities in a low, middle, or 
high degree; each of these degrees is again threefold, viz. low, 
middle, and high. In this way the subdivision is carried on up 
to 243. 

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or twenty-seven, or eighty-one, or two hundred and 
forty-three. (20) 

7. A man who acts on the impulse of the five 
Asravas 1 , does not possess the three Guptis, has 
not ceased to injure the six (kinds of living beings), 
commits cruel acts, is wicked and violent, is afraid 
of no consequences 2 , is mischievous and does not 
subdue his senses — a man of such habits develops 
the black L&syL (21, 22) 

A man of the following qualities: envy, anger, want 
of self-control, ignorance, deceit, want of modesty, 
greed, hatred, wickedness, carelessness, love of 
enjoyment ; a man who pursues pleasures and does 
not abstain from sinful undertakings, who is wicked 
and violent — a man of such habits develops the 
blue Le\jya. (23, 24) 

A man who is dishonest in words and acts, who 
is base, not upright, a dissembler and deceiver 3 , 
a heretic, a vile man, a talker of hurtful and sinful 
things, a thief, and full of jealousy — a man of such 
habits develops the grey Le\yya. (25, 26) 

A man who is humble, steadfast, free from deceit 
and inquisitiveness, well disciplined, restrained, 
attentive to his study and duties*, who loves the 
Law and keeps it, who is afraid of forbidden things 
and strives after the highest good — a man of such 
habits develops the red Lerya. (27, 28) 

A man who has but little anger, pride, deceit, and 
greed, whose mind is at ease, who controls himself, 

1 I.e. commits the five great sins. — The following verses give the 
character — laksha«a — of the L&ryas. 

1 This is, according to the comm, the meaning of the word 

* Paliufl£aga-uvahiya = pratikufl£aka-upadhika. 

* Ydgavan upa^Mnavtn. 

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who is attentive to his study and duties, who speaks 
but little, is calm, and subdues his senses — a man of 
such habits develops the yellow LAsya. (29, 30) 

A man who abstains from constant thinking about 
his misery and about sinful deeds, but engages in 
meditation on the Law and truth only 1 , whose mind 
is at ease, who controls himself, who practises the 
Samitis and Guptis, whether he be still subject to 
passion or free from passion, is calm, and subdues 
his senses — a man of such habits develops the 
white Le\yya. (31, 32) 

8. There are as many varieties 2 of L&yas as there 
are Samayas 3 in the innumerable Avasarpi»ls and 
Utsarpi»ls, and as there are countless worlds. (33) 

9. Half a muhurta is the shortest, and thirty-three 
Sagar6pamas plus one muhurta is the longest dura- 
tion of the black L&ya. (34) 

Half a muhurta is the shortest, and ten Sagaro- 
pamas plus one Palydpama and a part of an Asam- 
khyeya is the longest duration of the blue Lesya. (35) 

Half a muhurta is the shortest, and three Sagard- 
pamas plus one Paly6pama and a part of an Asam- 
khy£ya is the longest duration of the grey Le\yy£. (36) 

Half a muhurta is the shortest, and two Sagaro- 
pamis plus one Palydpami and a part of an Asam- 
khyeya is the longest duration of the red Le\yya. (37) 

Half a muhurta is the shortest, and ten Sagard- 
pamas plus one muhurta is the longest duration of 
the yellow L&ya. (38) 

1 Literally: who avoids the arta and raudra dhyanas, and 
practises the dharma and jrukla dhyanas. These terms cannot 
be adequately translated ; the reader may therefore be referred for 
details to Bhandarkar's Report, p. no ff. 

* TA&n&im sthanani. 

* Samaya is the smallest division of time=instant, moment. 

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Half a muhurta is the shortest, and thirty-three 
S4gar6pam4s plus one muhurta is the longest dura- 
tion of the white Le\ry4. (39) 

I have described above the duration of the Le\jyas 
generally j I shall now detail their duration in the 
four walks of mundane existence 1 . (40) 

The shortest duration of the grey Le\yy4 (of 
a denizen of hell) is ten thousand years, the longest 
three S4gar6pam4s plus one Paly6pam4 and part of 
an Asawkhyeya. (41) 

The shortest duration of the blue Le\rya (of a 
denizen of hell) is three Sagardpamas plus one 
Paly6pama and a part of an Asawkhyeya, the 
longest ten Sagar6pamas plus one Paly6pama and 
a part of an Asa/»khy£ya. (42) 

The shortest duration of the black Le\yy4 (of a 
denizen of hell) is ten Sagar6pamas plus one Paly6- 
pama and a part of an Asa#zkhy£ya, the longest 
thirty-three Sagar6pamas. (43) 

I have described the duration of the Le\yyas of 
denizens of hell ; I shall now describe that of 
animals, men, and gods. (44) 

The duration of any of the Le\yyas except the 
best (viz. white one) is less than a muhurta for (the 
lowest organisms), animals, and men 2 . (45) 

Half a muhurta is the shortest duration of the 
white Le\yy4 (of animals and men), and the longest 
a Krore of former years 8 less nine years. (46) 

1 Viz. as denizens of hell, brutes, men, and gods. Only the 
three first LejySs lead to being born in hell. 

* The consequence of this statement appears to be that at the 
expiration of the lAsyi a new one is produced. The commen- 
tators, however, are not explicit on this head. 

* About the former years, see above, p. 16, note 1. 

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I have described the duration of the L&yas of 
animals and men, I shall now describe that of the 
gods. (47) 

The shortest duration of the black Le\yy£ is ten 
thousand years, the longest a Palydpama and (a 
part of) an Asazwkhydya. (48) 

The shortest duration of the blue Le\yya is equal 
to the longest of the black one plus one Samaya; 
the longest is one Palydpama plus a (greater part 
of) an Asawkhydya. (49) 

The shortest duration of the grey Le\rya is equal 
to the longest of the blue one plus one Samaya; 
the longest is one Palydpama plus (a still greater 
part of) an Asa/#khyeya. (50) 

I shall now describe the red L&yya as it is with 
gods, Bhavanapatis, Vyantaras, Gydtishkas, and 
Vaimanikas. (51) 

The shortest duration of the red Ldsya is one 
Palydpama, the longest two Sagardpamas plus one 
Palydpama and a part of an Asawkhydya \ (52) 

The shortest duration of the red Ldrya is ten 
thousand years, the longest two Sagardpamas plus 
one Palydpama and a part of an Asa/wkhydya. (53) 

The longest duration of the red Ldrya plus one 
Samaya is equal to the shortest of the yellow L&rya ; 
its longest, however, is ten muhurtas longer. (54) 

The longest duration of the yellow Ldsyi plus 
one Samaya is equal to the shortest of the white 
Ldryi ; the longest, however, is thirty-three muhurtas 
longer. (55) 

10. The black, blue, and grey Le^yas are the 

1 This verse seems to lay down the duration of the Le\ry& in the 
case of common gods, while the next one applies to Bhavanapatis, &c. 

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lowest Le\yyas; through them the soul is brought 
into miserable courses of life. (56) 

The red, yellow, and white Le\yyas are the good 
Le\yyas; through them the soul is brought into 
happy courses of life. (57) 

11. In the first moment of these Le\yyas when 
they are joined (with the soul), the latter is not 
born into a new existence 1 . (58) 

In the last moment of all these L&yas when they 
are joined (with the soul), the latter is not born into 
a new existence. (59) 

While the last muhurta is running and a part 
of it is still to come, the souls with their Le\ryas 
developed, go to a new birth. (60) 

A wise man should, therefore, know the nature of 
these Le\syas; he should avoid the bad ones and 
obtain the good ones. (61) 

Thus I say. 



Learn from me, with attentive minds, the road 
shown by the wise ones 8 , which leads a monk who 
follows it, to the end of all misery. (1) 

1 The question treated rather darkly in the next three verses is, 
according to the comm., the following : — Every individual dies in 
the same L&yi in which he is born. When his L&yS ends with 
his life, then the soul must get a new Le>ya\ Our verses state at 
which time the new L&sy& comes into existence or is joined with 
the souL 

* BuddhShi. 

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Giving up the life in a house, and taking Pra- 
vra^fya, a sage should know and renounce those 
attachments which take hold of men. (2) 

A restrained monk should abstain from killing, 
lying, stealing, carnal intercourse, from desire, love, 
and greed. (3) 

Even in his thoughts a monk should not long for 
a pleasant painted house filled with the fragrance 
of garlands and frankincense, secured by doors, and 
decorated with a white ceiling-cloth 1 . (4) 

For in such a dwelling a monk will find it difficult 
to prevent his senses from increased desire and 
passion. (5) 

He should be content to live on a burial-place, 
in a deserted house, below a tree, in solitude, or in 
a place which had been prepared for the sake of 
somebody else 2 . (6) 

A well-controlled monk should live in a pure 
place, which is not too much crowded, and where 
no women live. (7) 

He should not build a house, nor cause 
others to erect one ; for many living beings both 
movable and immovable, both subtile and gross, 
are seen to be killed when a house is being built ; 
therefore a monk should abstain from building a 
house. (8, 9) 

The same holds good with the cooking of food 
and drink, or with one's causing them to be cooked. 
Out of compassion for living beings one should not 
cook nor cause another to cook. (10) 

Beings which live in water, corn, or in earth and 

1 U116va = ull6*a. 

3 Paraka</a = parakrtta, explained parair atmartha/H kr/ta. 

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wood, are destroyed in food and drink; therefore 
a monk should cause nobody to cook, (i i) 

There is nothing so dangerous as fire, for it spreads 
in all directions and is able to destroy many beings ; 
one should therefore not light a fire. (12) 

Even in his thoughts a monk should not long for 
gold and silver ; indifferent alike to dirt and gold he 
abstains from buying and selling. (13) 

If he buys, he becomes a buyer; if he sells, he 
becomes a merchant ; a monk is not to engage in 
buying and selling. (14) 

A monk who is to live on alms, should beg and 
not buy ; buying and selling is a great sin ; but to 
live on alms is benefitting. (1 5) 

He should collect his alms in small parts according 
to the Sutras and so as to avoid faults; a monk 
should contentedly go on his begging-tour, whether 
he get alms or not. (16) 

A great sage should not eat for the sake of the 
pleasant taste (of the food) but for the sustenance of 
life, being not dainty nor eager for good fare, 
restraining his tongue, and being without cupi- 
dity. (17) 

Even in his thoughts he should not desire to be 
presented with flowers, to be offered a seat, to be 
eloquently greeted, or to be offered presents, or to 
get a magnificent welcome and treatment (18) 

He should meditate on true things only 1 , com- 
mitting no sins and having no property ; he 
should walk about careless of his body till his end 
arrives. (19) 

Rejecting food when the time of his death arrives, 

1 .Sukla dhyana, see note 1, p. 200. 

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2o6 uttaradhyayana. 

and leaving the human body, he becomes his own 
master l , and is liberated from misery. (20) 

Without property, without egoism, free from 
passions and the Asravas, he obtains absolute 
knowledge, and reaches eternal beatitude. (21) 

Thus I say. 



Now learn from me with attentive minds the 
division of Living Beings and Things without life 8 , 
which a monk must know who is to exert himself in 
self-control. (1) 

1 By the destruction of the viryintar&ya. 
* It will perhaps not be amiss to give a systematic list of the 
subjects treated in this lecture. The numbers refer to the verses. 

A. Things without life, 3-48. 
(1) Without form, 5-9. 
(a) With form, 10-48. 

B. Living Beings, 48-246. 

(1) Perfected souls, 50-68. 

(2) Mundane Beings, 69-246. 

a. Immovable Beings, 71-106. 
a. Earth Lives, 71-84. 

/3. Water Lives, 85-92. 
y. Plants, 93-106. 

b. Movable Beings, 108-246. 
a. Fire Lives, 109-117. 

0. Wind Lives, 1 18-126. 

y. Beings with an organic body, 127-246. 

* See next page. 

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The Living Beings and the Things without life 
make up this world (L6ka) ; but the space where 
only Things without life are found is called the 
Non-world (A16ka). (2) 

The Living Beings and the Things without life 
will be described with reference to 1. substance, 
2. place, 3. time, and 4. development. (3) 
A. Things without life. 

Things without life are 1. possessing form, 2. 
formless ; the formless things are of ten kinds, those 
possessing form are of four kinds. (4) 

(1) The ten kinds of formless things : 1. Dharma, 
2. its divisions, 3. its indivisible parts ; 4. Adharma, 
5. its divisions, 6. its indivisible parts; 7. space, 

i. With two organs of sense, 128-136. 
ii. With three organs of sense, 137-145. 
iii. With four organs of sense, 146-155. 
iv. With five organs of sense, 156-246. 

a. Denizens of hell, 157-170. 

b. Animals (vertebratae), 1 71-193. 

1. Aquatic, 1 71-178. 

2. Terrestrial, 179-186. 

3. Aerial, 187-193. 

c. Men, 194-202. 

d. Gods, 203-246. 

1. Bhavanav&sin, 205, 218. 

2. Vyantara, 206, 219. 

3. Cydtishka, 207, 220. 

4. Vaimanika, 208, 221-246. 

d. Living in Kalpas, 209, 210, 221-232. 
b'. Living above the Kalpas, an. 
a. Graivgyakas, 212, 213, 233-241. 
0. Anuttaras, 214-217, 242, 243. 
Appendix, 247-267. 
9 Grfva and a^fva. The former is defined in the Dtpiki as 
upaydgavtn in accordance with our text, XXVIII, 10; the latter 
is also called pudgala. 

Digitized by 


208 uttarAdhyayana. 

8. its divisions, 9. its indivisible parts, and 10. 
time K (5, 6) 

Dharma and Adharma are co-extensive with the 
World (L6ka) ; space fills the World and the Non- 
world (Aldka) ; time exists in what is called the 
place of time 2 . (7) 

Dharma, Adharma, and Space are ever without 
beginning and end. (8) 

And time also, if regarded as a continuous flow s , 
is called so (i. e. without beginning and end) ; but 
with regard to an individual thing it has a beginning 
and an end. (9) 

(2) The four kinds of things possessing form are 
1. compound things, 2. their divisions, 3. their 
indivisible parts, and 4. atoms 4 . (10) 

Compound things and atoms occur as individual 
things and apart (or different from others) 6 , in the 
whole world and in parts of the world ; this is their 
distribution with regard to place. (11) 

Subtile things occur all over the world, gross 
things only in a part of it. 

1 It is here called addhd-samaya, which may be translated 
real-time. It has no divisions or parts as the other things, because 
of time only the present moment is existent And a moment can- 
not be divided. 

* Time is only present in the two and a half continents inhabited 
by men, and the oceans belonging to them ; beyond this sphere 
there is no time or, as the DipikS correctly remarks, no divisions of 

* Samtatim pappa = samtatim pripya. 

* According to the DfpikS, we should have but two divisions, 
viz.: 1. compound things (skandha, aggregates of atoms), and 
a. not aggregated atoms; for Nos. 2 and 3 of our text are but 
subdivisions of No. 1. 

6 £gatt£»a puhutt6»a = Skatv§na pr/thaktvSna. 

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I shall now give their fourfold division with 
regard to time. (12) 

With regard to the continuous flow (or develop- 
ment of a thing) it is without beginning and without 
end; but with regard to its existence (as an in- 
dividual thing) it has both a beginning and an 
end 1 . (13) 

The longest duration of Things without life 
possessing form is an immeasurable 8 period; the 
shortest one Samaya. (14) 

The longest interruption 8 in the existence of 
Things without life possessing form is an endless 
time; the shortest one Samaya. (15) 

Their development is fivefold : with regard to 

1. colour, 2. smell, 3. taste, 4. touch, and 5. 
figure. (16) 

Those which develop with regard to colour are 
of five kinds: 1. black, 2. blue, 3. red, 4. yellow, 
5. white. (17) 

Those which develop with regard to smell are 
of two kinds : 1. sweet-smelling substances, and 

2. of bad smell. (18) 

Those which develop with regard to taste are 
of five kinds : 1. bitter, 2. pungent, 3. astringent, 

4. sour, and 5. sweet (19) 

Those which develop with regard to touch are 
of eight kinds: 1. hard, 2. soft, 3. heavy, 4. light, 

5. cold, 6. hot, 7. smooth, and 8. rough. 

1 The meaning of this verse is that a thing, as far as its material 
cause is concerned, has always existed, and will ever exist under 
one form or other, but that the individual thing in its present form 
has but a limited existence. 

2 Asamkhakaiam. See above, p. 42, note 2. 

3 Antaram ; the interval between the thing being removed from 
its proper scene and reaching it again (AvaAftri and Dipika). 

[45] P 

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210 uttarAdhyayana. 

In this way the substances have been declared, 
which develop with regard to touch. (20, 21) 

Those which develop with regard to figure are 
of five kinds : 1. globular, 2. circular, 3. triangular, 
4. square, and 5. long. (22) 

Things of black colour are subdivided with re- 
gard to smell, taste, touch, and figure. (23) 

The same subdivision holds good with blue, red, 
yellow, and white things. (24-27 J ) 

Things of sweet smell are subdivided with regard 
to colour, taste, touch, and figure ; things of bad 
smell are similarly subdivided. (28, 29) 

Things of bitter taste are subdivided with regard 
to colour, smell, touch, and figure. (30) 

The same subdivision holds good with pungent, 
astringent, sour, and sweet things. (31-34) 

Things of hard touch are subdivided with regard 
to colour, smell, taste, and figure. (35). 

The same subdivision holds good with soft, heavy, 
light, cold, hot, smooth, and rough things. (36-42) 

Things of globular figure are subdivided with 
regard to colour, smell, taste, and touch. (43) 

The same subdivision holds good with circular, 
triangular, square, and long things. (44-47) 

Thus the division of Things without life has briefly 
been told. 

B. Living Beings. 

I shall now, in due order, deliver the division of 
living beings. (48) 

Living beings are of two kinds: 1. those still 

1 Each verse has the same form as 23, only thai another colour 
is substituted for black. In the same way the subdivisions of 
smells, &c, are given. I give the first verse of each class and 
abbreviate the rest. 

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belonging to the Sawzsara, and 2. the perfected souls 
(siddhas). The latter are of many kinds ; hear me 
explain them. (49) 

(1) The perfected souls are those of women, 
men, hermaphrodites, of orthodox, heterodox, and 
householders. (50) 

Perfection is reached by people of the greatest, 
smallest, and middle size \ on high places, under- 
ground, on the surface of the earth, in the ocean, and 
in water (of rivers, &c). (51) 

Ten hermaphrodites reach, at the same time, per- 
fection, twenty women, one hundred and eight men ; 
four householders, ten heterodox, and one hundred 
and eight orthodox monks. (52, 53) 

Two individuals of the greatest size reach 
perfection (simultaneously), four of the smallest 
size, and one hundred and eight of the middle 
size. (54) 

Four individuals reach perfection (simultaneously) 
on high places, two in the ocean, three in water, 
twenty underground, and one hundred and eight on 
the surface of the earth. (55) 

From where are the perfected souls debarred ? 
Where do the perfected souls reside ? Where do 
they leave their bodies, and where do they go, on 
reaching perfection ? (56) 

Perfected souls are debarred from the non-world 
(A16ka) ; they reside on the top of the world ; they 
leave their bodies here (below), and go there, on 
reaching perfection. (57) 

Twelve Yo^anas above the (Vimana) Sarv&rtha is 

1 The greatest size (6gaha»a) of men is 500 dhanus, or 2,000 
cubits, the smallest one cubit. 

P 2 

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the place called f shatpragbhara \ which has the form 
of an umbrella; (there the perfected souls go). (58) 

It is forty-five hundred thousand Yo/anas long, 
and as many broad, and it is somewhat more than 
three times as many in circumference. (59) 

Its thickness is eight Yd^anas, it is greatest in 
the middle, and decreases 2 toward the margin, till 
it is thinner than the wing of a fly. (60) 

This place, by nature pure, consisting of white 
gold, resembles in form an open umbrella, as has 
been said by the best of £inas. (61) 

(Above it) is a pure blessed place (called Sit&), 
which is white like a conch-shell, the anka-stone 3 , 
and Kunda-flowers ; a Ydfana thence is the end of 
the world. (62) 

The perfected souls penetrate the sixth part 4 of 
the uppermost Kr&sa. of the (above-mentioned) 
Y6?ana. (63) 

There at the top of the world reside the blessed 
perfected souls, rid of all transmigration, and arrived 
at the excellent state of perfection. (64) 

The dimension of a perfected soul is two-thirds 
of the height which the individual had in his last 
existence. (65) 

The perfected souls, considered singly, (as in- 
dividuals) have a beginning but no end ; considered 

1 Similar details are given in the Aupapatika Sutra (ed. Leumann, 
§i6 3 f.)- 

* According to the commentator, who quotes scripture, it 
decreases an ahgula every Yo^ana. 

s Compare XXXIV, 9 and note. The commentators here treat 
anka as a separate substance without offering any explanation. 
TheDipika writes sita instead of sHL 

4 O f 333| dhanus. 

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collectively ! (as a class) they have neither a begin- 
ning nor an end. (66) 

They have no (visible) form, they consist of Life 
throughout, they are developed into knowledge and 
faith, and they possess paramount happiness which 
admits of no comparison. (67) 

They all dwell in one part of the world, and have 
developed into knowledge and faith, they have 
crossed the boundary of the Sa/»sara, and reached 
the excellent state of perfection. (68) 

(2) Living beings which still belong to the Sam- 
sara, are of two kinds : a. movable, and b. immovable 
ones : the immovable ones are of three kinds : (69) 

a. Earth Lives, /3. Water Lives, and 7. plants ; 
these are the three kinds of immovable living 
beings ; now learn from me their subdivision. (70) 

a. The Earth Lives are of two kinds s subtile 
and gross ; and both of them are either fully 
developed or undeveloped. (71) 

The gross and fully developed are of two kinds : 
viz. smooth or rough. The smooth ones are of 
seven kinds : (72) 

Black, -blue, red, yellow, white, pale dust, and 

The rough ones are of thirty-six kinds ; (73) 

Earth, gravel, sand, stones, rocks, rock-salt 2 , iron, 
copper, tin, lead, silver, gold, and diamond ; (74) 

Orpiment, vermilion, realgar, Sisaka s , antimony, 

1 The words translated, 'considered singly' and 'considered 
collectively,' are 6gattS«a and puhuttl»a = 6katv£na and pr»- 
thaktvSna. Their usual meaning has been given in verse 11. 

a LavawisS? 

3 Not in our dictionaries ; the commentators only say that it is 
a kind of mineral, dhatuvu Ssha. I give the Sanskrit names of 

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214 uttarAdhyayana. 

coral, Abhrapa/ala, Abhravaluka ; these are varieties 
of gross (Earth-) bodies and kinds of precious 
stones. (75) 

Hyacinth, natron, Anka, crystal, L6hitaksha, 
emerald, Masaragalla, Bhu^amdiaka, and sap- 
phire ; (76) 

Aandana, red chalk, Ha/wsagarbha, Pulaka 1 , 
and sulphur; Aandraprabha, lapis lazuli, (7alakanta, 
and Suryakanta 2 . (77) 

These thirty-six kinds of ' rough earth ' have been 
enumerated. The ' subtile earth ' is but of one 
kind, as there is no variety. (78) 

The subtile species is distributed all over the 
world, but the gross one (is found) in a part of the 
world only. 

I shall now give their fourfold division with 
regard to time. (79) 

With regard to the continuous flow (or develop- 
ment of an earth-body) it is without a begin- 
ning and end; but with regard to its existence 
in its present form it has both a beginning and 
end. (80) 

Twenty-two thousand years is the longest dura- 
tion of the Earth Lives ; its shortest is less than 
a muhurta. (81) 

The longest duration of the body of Earth Lives, 
if they do not leave that (kind of) body 3 , is an 

the stones, which cannot be identified with certainty, or are not 
contained in the index of R. Garbe's work on the Indian minerals, 
Leipzig, 1882. 

1 A medicinal earth, commonly called Kankush/Aa. 

* The enumeration contains thirty-nine, instead of thirty-six 
items, as stated in verses 73 and 76. 

8 The meaning seems to be that souls of earth-bodies live in 

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immeasurable time; the shortest is less than one 
muhurta. (82) 

The longest interval between an Earth Life's 
leaving its body (till its return to it), is an endless 
time ; the shortest less than one Muhurta. (83) 

Their varieties, caused by (difference of) colour, 
smell, taste, touch, figure, and place, are (counted) by 
thousands. (84) 

)8. The Water Lives are of two kinds : subtile 
and gross ones ; and both of them are either fully 
developed or undeveloped. (85) 

The gross and fully developed ones are of 
five kinds : pure water, dew, exudations, fog, and 
ice. (86) 

The ' subtile water ' is of one kind, as there is no 
variety. The subtile species is distributed all over 
the world, but the gross one (is found) in a part of 
the world only. (87) 

With regard to the continuous flow, &c. (as in 
verse 80). 

Seven thousand years is the longest duration of 
the life of Water Lives, &c. (as in verse 81). (All 
that has been said of Earth Lives in verses 82-84 is 
verbally repeated here of ' Water Lives.')- (88-92) 

7. Plants are of two kinds : subtile and gross 
ones ; and both of them are either fully developed 
or undeveloped. (93) 

The gross and fully developed plants are of two 
kinds : either many have one body in common, or 
each has its own body. (94) 

Those who severally have their own body are of 

earth-bodies, the time stated in verse 82, while the length of each 
separate existence is determined in verse 81. 

Digitized by 


2 i 6 u ttarAdhyayan A. 

many kinds : trees, shrubby plants 1 , shrubs z , big 
plants 3 , creeping plants *, grass * ; (95) 

Palms 6 , plants of knotty stems or stalks 7 , mush- 
rooms 8 , water-plants, annual plants 9 , and herbs 10 . 
These are called plants possessing severally their 
own body. (96) 

Those plants of which many have one body in 
common are of many kinds": Aluya 12 , Mulaya 13 , 
ginger; (97) 

Harili, Sirill, Sassirill, GSvai, K^yakandali 1 *, onion, 
garlic, plantain-tree, Ku^uvvaya 16 ; (98) 

1 Gu£Ma; it is explained to denote such plants from the single 
root or bulb of which come forth many stalks, e.g. Vr»°ntaka, 
Solanum Melongena. 

2 Gulma, similar to the preceding class, but bringing forth 
twigs or stems, instead of stalks, e.g. Navamdlika, Jasminum 
Sambac, Kawavira, &c. 

3 Lat&, as Lotus Pandanus, &c. 

4 Valli, as gourds, Piper Betel, &c. 

8 Tri'wa, grass. But of the two examples given in the com- 
mentary, ^ufl^uka is not in our dictionaries, and Ar^una denotes 
usually a tree, Terminalia Arjuna. 

• Valaya ; so called from their foliation. 

' Parvaga, as sugar-cane. 

8 Kuhaaa, plants which cause the earth to burst, as sarpa£- 
£Aatra, mushroom (toad-stool). 

' Oshadhi, such plants as die after having brought forth seed, 
as rice, &c. 

10 Haritakaya, as ta»</ul6ya, &c, 

" The plants in the following list are, according to the com- 
mentary, mostly bulbs, ' well known in the countries where they 
grow.' Many of them are not in our dictionaries. I give the 
Prakr/t form of their names, and note the Sanskrit equivalent when 
it can be identified. 

" Aluka, Amorphophallus Campanulatus. " Mulaka, radish. 

14 A various reading has for the last two words (which might be 
differently divided), apaikkSikandali. The Kandali, the 
plantain-tree, occurs in the next line again. 

16 A various reading is Ku</ambaya. 

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L6hi«lhtiya, Thihitya, Tuhaga, Karcha 1 , Vagfa- 
kanda 2 , Surawaya 3 ; (99) 

Assaka#»i 4 , Sihaka#»l, MusundM, turmeric, and 
many others besides. (100) 

The subtile plants are of one kind, as there is no 
variety. Subtile plants are distributed all over the 
world, gross plants (are found) in a part of the 
world only. (101) 

With regard to the continuous flow, &c. (as in 
verse 80). (102) 

Ten thousand years is the longest duration of the 
life of plants, &c. (All as in verses 8 1 -84. Substitute 
plants, which are here called vanaspati and panaka, 
for Earth-bodies.) (103-106) 

Thus the three kinds of immovable living beings 
have briefly been told. I shall now explain in 
due order the three kinds of movable living 
beings. (107) 

b. The movable beings are a. the Fire Lives, 
(8. the Wind Lives, and y. those with an organic 
body ; these are the three kinds of movable beings. 
Learn from me their subdivision. (108) 

a. The Fire Lives are of two kinds : subtile and 
gross ones; and both of them are either fully 
developed or undeveloped. (109) 

The gross and fully developed ones are of many 
kinds: coal, burning chaff, fire, and flame of 
fire; (no) 

Meteors, and lightning, and many other kinds 

1 Kr/'sh«akanda, Nymphaea Rubra. 

* Va^rakanda of the Sanskrit Koshas. 

8 Surana, Arum Campanulatum. 

4 Afvakarffi. Axvakawa is a tree, Vatika Robusta. 

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The subtile Fire Lives are but of one kind, as 
there is no variety, (in) 

The subtile species, &c. (see verses 79-84. Sub- 
stitute Fire Lives for Earth Lives. In verses ii4f., 
corresponding to verses 81, 89, and 103, read : ' the 
longest duration of the life of Fire Lives is three 
days,' &c. ; the rest as above). (1 12-1 17) 

#. The Wind Lives are of two kinds, &c. (as in 
verse 109). (118) 

The gross and fully developed ones are of five 
kinds : squalls 1 , whirlwinds *, thick winds 3 , high 
winds, low winds ; (119) 

And the Sa/wvartaka 4 wind, &c. ; thus they are of 
many kinds 6 . 

The subtile Wind Lives are but of one kind, as 
there is no variety. ( 1 20) 

The subtile species, &c. (as above 79-84. Substi- 
tute Wind Lives for Earth Lives. In verse 123, 
corresponding to 114, read: 'the longest duration 
of the life of Wind Lives is three thousand years ; ' 
the rest as above). (121-126) 

1 Ulkalik S, intermittent winds. * Ma»</alikd = vatdlf. 

9 According to the comm. these winds blow on the oceans 
which are situated below the Ratnaprabha-hell, or which support 
the heavenly Vimanas, and have the density of snow. Perhaps 
the notion is similar to that of the Hindu astronomers, who fancied 
that the heavenly bodies were set in motion by cords of wind 
called pravaha. See Surya Siddhanta II, 3. 

* This seems to be the hurricane which causes the periodical 
destruction of the world. But DSvSndra says: 'Sawvartaka is 
a wind which carries grass, &c, from the outside into a particular 

* Though in the preceding verse it was said that there a/e 
five kinds of wind, six are enumerated, and more are implied 
by the ' &c.' 

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y. Movable beings with organic bodies (i.e. 
animals) are of four kinds: i. those possessing two 
organs of sense, ii. those with three organs, iii. those 
with four organs, iv. those with five organs. (127) 

i. Beings with two organs of sense are of two 
kinds : subtile and gross ones. Both are either 
fully developed or undeveloped. Learn from me 
their subdivision \ (128) 

Worms, Sdmangala, Alasa*, Maivahaya 3 , Vast- 
muha 4 , shells, conches, Saiikhawaga 5 ; (129) 

Palldya, A«ullaya, cowries, leeches, Galaga, and 
ATanda»a*. (130) 

These and others are the many kinds of beings 
with two organs of sense. All of them live in 
a part of the world only, they do not live every- 
where. (131) 

With regard to the continuous flow, &c. (as in 
verse 80). (132) 

1 As many of these lower animals are not known to us, I give 
the Prakrrt names of those which I cannot identify. DevSndra 
says : ' Some of them are well known, the remaining ones are to 
be explained according to tradition.' The explanation of this 
passage in the Ava£uri is fuller. 

* A small poisonous animal. Petersburg Dictionary, s. v. 
According to the Givaviy&ra Vr/'tti V, 16, they are earth-snakes 
(bhunaga), which originate in the rainy season when the sun is in 
AfleshS, i.e. about the beginning of July. 

* MStrz'vihaka. According to the description of the Ava£uri, 
the larvae of Phryganeae seem intended. According to the Givavi- 
&ra Vre'tti, they are called Mrfeii in Guzcratt. 

4 Vdsfmukha, explained: Whose mouth is like a chisel or 
adze. There are many insects, e.g. the Curculionidae, which suit 
this description. 

' •Sankh&naka, ' very small, conch-like animals.' 

* iiTanda»a = Ak&vrtksha (?). According to the GfvavWira 
Vritti V, 16, they are animals living in water and on land, and are 
called Aksha in the vernacular (samayabhishS). 

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The duration of the life of beings with two organs 
of sense is twelve years at the utmost ; the shortest 
is less than a muhurta. (133) 

The longest duration of the body of beings with 
two organs of sense is a Sa/#khy6ya (or measurable 
time) if they do not leave that (kind of) body; the 
shortest is less than one muhurta. (134) 

I 35» 136 = 83, 84. Substitute 'beings with two 
organs of sense ' for Earth Lives. 

ii. Beings with three organs of sense are of 
two kinds : subtile and gross ones. Both are either 
fully developed or undeveloped. Learn from me 
their subdivision. (137) 

Kunthu \ ants, bugs, Ukkala, white ants, Ta#a- 
hara, Ka/Mahara, Maluga 2 , Pattaharaga; (138) 

Duga shining like lead, which originate in the 
kernel of the cotton-seed, Sadavarl, centipedes, 
Indagaiya; (139) 

Cochineal, &c. Thus they are of many kinds. 

All of them live in a part of the world only, they 
do not live everywhere. (140) 

141-145 = 132-136. (Substitute 'beings with 
three organs of sense.' The longest duration, &c, 
is forty-nine days, verse 142 = 133.) 

iii. Beings with four organs of sense are of 
two kinds : subtile and gross ones. Both are either 

1 Kunthu or animalcules are also called Anuddharf, see con- 
cerning them, Kalpa Sutra, Rules for Yatis, § 44, part i, p. 304. — 
I give in the text the Prakrit form of the words I cannot identify. 

" Maluka is the name of a plant, Ocimum Sanctum. It must, 
of course, here denote some animal. — The Gfvaviiara enumerates 
many other animals, lice, bugs, different kinds of larvae living 
in dung, corn, &c. — The triwahara, kash/Aahara, and patra- 
hara seem to denote different kinds of ants. 

Digitized by 



developed or undeveloped. Learn from me their 
subdivision. (146) 

Andhiya, Pottiya, flies, mosquitoes, bees, moths, 
Dhiiikawa and Kankawa ; (147) 

Kukkuda 1 , Singirlaft, Nand&vatta 2 , scorpions, Z?6la, 
crickets, Virall, A£>Wiv£haya; (148) 

A^Mila, Sahaya Kkkhirtdaya., Viiitta, Vi^ittapat- 
taya 3 , Uhi/rc^aliya, £alakari, Nlyi, and Tantava- 
gaiya. (149) 

These and others are the beings with four organs 
of sense. All of them, &c. (the rest as in verses 131- 
136. Substitute ' beings with four organs of sense.' 
The longest duration, &c, is six months, verse 

152=133). (150-155) 
iv. Beings with five organs of sense are of 

four kinds : denizens of hell, animals *, men, and 

gods. (156). 

a. Denizens of hell are of seven kinds according 
to the seven hells ; they are called Ratnabha, 
6arkaribha, Valukabha; (157) 

Pankabha, Dhumabha, Tama, and Tamatama. 
Thus the seven kinds of denizens of hell have been 
enumerated. (158) 

All the (denizens of hell) live in a part of the 

1 Kukku/a is given in the dictionaries as the name of a small 

* Nandyavarta occurs elsewhere as the name of a particular 
fish, and of a shell. It can be neither of these in our passage, as 
both animals belong to other classes than the .Xaturindriyas. 

8 Etymologically : with many-coloured wings. Probably butter- 
flies are intended. 

4 Tirikkha = tiryak. Apparently only the higher animals are 
intended by this term, the lower animals, from the insects down- 
wards, being enumerated in the preceding classes of beings. 

Digitized by 



world only; they do not live everywhere, &c. (as 
in verses 79 and 80). (159, 160) 

In the first hell the longest duration of their life 
is one Sagardpama; the shortest is ten thousand 
years. (161) 

In the second hell the longest duration of their 
life is three Sagardpamas; the shortest is one 
Sagardpama 1 . (162) 

In the third hell the longest duration of their life 
is seven Sagardpamas ; the shortest is three Saga- 
rdpamas. (163) 

In the fourth hell the longest duration of their 
life is ten Sagardpamas; the shortest is seven 
Sagardpamas. (164) 

In the fifth hell the longest duration of their life 
is seventeen Sagardpamas; the shortest is ten 
Sagardpamas. (165) 

In the sixth hell the longest duration of their life 
is twenty-two Sagardpamas; the shortest is seventeen 
Sagardpamas. (166) 

In the seventh hell the longest duration of their 
life is thirty-three Sagardpamas; the shortest is 
twenty- two Sagardpamas. (167) 

The length of the life of denizens of hell is also 
that of their continuance in the same kind of body, 
with regard both to the longest and shortest duration 
of it. (168) 

Verses 169, 170 = 83, 84. (Substitute, denizens of 

b. The animals which possess five organs of sense 
are of two kinds, those which originate by gene- 

1 It will be seen that the longest duration of life in each hell is 
always equal to the shortest in the preceding one. 

Digitized by 



ratio aequivoca 1 , and those which are born from 
the womb. (171) 

Either of them are again of three kinds: 1. aquatic, 
2. terrestrial, and 3. aerial animals. Learn from me 
their subdivision. (172) 

1. Fishes, tortoises, crocodiles, Makaras, and 
Gangetic porpoises are the five kinds of aquatic 
animals. (173) 

174, 175 = 159, 160. 

The longest duration of the life of aquatic animals 
is one Krore of former years 2 ; the shortest is less 
than one muhurta. (176) 

The longest duration of the aquatic animals' 
continuance in the (same kind of body) is from two 
to nine s Krores of former years. (177) 

178 = 83. 

2. Quadrupeds and reptiles are the two kinds of 
terrestrial animals. The quadrupeds are of four 
kinds; listen to my description of them : (179) 

(1) Solidungular animals, as horses, &c. ; 

(2) Biungular animals, as cows, &c. ; 

(3) Multiungular animals, as elephants, &c. ; 

(4) Animals having toes with nails, as lions, 
&c. (180) 

The reptiles are of two kinds: 1. those which 
walk on their arms, as lizards, &c, and 2. those 
which move on their breast, as snakes, &c. Both 
are again of many kinds. (181) 

1 SammuriAima. They grow by assimilating the materials 
in their surrounding. According to a second explanation, their 
internal organ does not fully develop. 

* See page 16, note 1. 

* This is, according to the AvaMri, the meaning of puhuttaw 

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182, 183 = 159, l60. 

The longest duration of the life of terrestrial 
animals is three Paly6pamis; the shortest is less 
than one muhurta, (184) 

The longest duration of the terrestrial animals' 
continuance in the (same kind of) body is three 
Paly6pamas plus from two to nine Krores of former 
years ; the shortest is less than one muhurta. (185) 

186 = 83. 

3. Winged animals are of four kinds: those 
with membranous wings 1 , those with feathered 
wings, those with wings in the shape of a box 2 , and 
those (which sit on) outspread wings 3 . (187) 

188, 189= 159, 160. 

The longest duration of the life of aerial animals 
is an Asa/»khy£ya-part of a Palydpama 4 ; the short- 
est is less than one muhurta. (190) 

The longest duration (of the aerial animals' 
continuance in the same kind of body) is an 
Asa/#khyeya-part of a Paly6pama plus from two 
to nine Krores of former years ; the shortest is less 
than one muhurta. (191) 

192, 193 = 159. 160. 

c. Men are of two kinds ; listen to my description 
of them: men originating by gene ratio aequivoca 6 , 
and men born from the womb. (194) 

Those who are born from the womb are of three 

1 E.g. the £arma£a/akas or bats. 

* Samudga. These interesting birds are said to live outside 
the Mdnushottara, or world inhabited by men. 

' The comm. do not tell us what kind of birds is intended. 

4 The comm. do not explain this expression; the meaning, 
therefore, is doubtful. I give a literal translation of it in this and 
the next verse. 

* See page 223, note 1, on verse 171. 

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kinds : those living in the Karmabhumi l , those 
living in the Akarmabhumi, and those living on the 
minor continents 2 . (195) 

They have, in the same order, fifteen 3 , thirty 4 , 
and twenty-eight subdivisions. These are the 
numbers handed down. (196) 

Men originating by generatio aequivoca are 
of as many kinds. They all live but in a part of 
the world. (197) 

Verses 198-202 = 183-186. (Substitute, 'men' 
for ' terrestrial animals.') 

d. Gods are of four kinds ; listen to my descrip- 
tion of them: 1. Bhaumeyikas; 2. Vyantaras ; 
3. <7y6tishkas ; 4. Vaimanikas. (203) 

There are ten kinds of Bhavanavasins ( = Bhau- 
meyikas), eight of those who live in woods ( = Vyan- 
taras), five of Gydtishkas, and two of Vaimani- 
kas. (204) 

1. The Bhavanavasins are: the Asura-, Naga-, 
Suvar«a-, Vidyut-, Agni-, Dvlpa-, Udadhi-, Vata-, 
and Gha«ika-(Kumaras 6 ). (205) 

2. The eight kinds of Vyantaras are: PLraias, 

1 Concerning Karmabhumi, see part i, p. 195, note 1. The Ava- 
iuri places the Akarmabhumi first, but the next verse proves that 
it originally stood in the second place. 

4 These are seven groups of islands situated off the eastern and 
western ends of the Himalaya, which are inhabited by fabulous 

3 According to the AvaMri, there are five kinds in Bharata, five 
in Airavata, and five in Videlia. 

4 Viz. five in each of the six Akarmabhumis : Haimavata, Hari- 
varsha, Hairawyavata, Devakuru, and Uttarakuru. 

5 According to the commentaries the word kumara is to be 
supplied after each of the ten names. 

[45] Q 

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226 uttarAdhyayana. 

Bhutas, Yakshas, Rakshasas, Kinnaras, Kimpurushas, 
Mah6ragas, and Gandharvas. (206) 

3. The moons, the suns, the Nakshatras, the planets, 
and the hosts of stars are the fivefold dwellings of 
the ^ydtishkas. (207) 

4. The Vaimanika gods are of two kinds: 
a', those who are born in the heavenly Kalpas, and 
It. those who are born in the regions above 
them 1 . (208) 

a. The former are of twelve kinds : those who 
live in (the following Kalpas, after which they are 
named) : Saudharma, l^ana, Sanatkumara, Mahendra, 
Brahmal6ka, and Lantaka ; (209) 

Mahlmkla, Sahasrara, Anata, Prawata 2 , Ara«a, 
and A^yuta. These are the gods who are born in 
Kalpas. (210) 

b'. The gods who are born in the regions above 
the Kalpas are of two kinds : a. the Graiveyakas 8 , 
and ft. the Anuttaras 4 . The Graiveyakas are of 
nine kinds. (211) 

a. The lowest of the lowest, the middle of the 
lowest, the highest of the lowest, the lowest of 
the middle ; (212) 

The middle of the middle, the highest of the 
middle, the lowest of the highest, the middle of 
the highest; (213) 

The highest of the highest These are the Grai- 
v£yaka gods. 

1 They are termed Kalp6paga and Kalpatfta. 

* I am not sure that these are the correct Sanskrit forms of the 
two last Kalpas ; the original has Aaaya and Paxaya. 

* I.e. those who live on the neck (griva), i.e. on the upper part 
of the universe. 

* I.e. those above whom there dwell no other gods. 

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ff. The Vifayas, the Vai^ayantas, the 6ayantas, 
the Apara^itas (214) 

And the Sarvarthasiddhas : these are the five 
kinds of Anuttara gods. 

These and others besides are the many kinds of 
Vaimanika gods. (2 1 5-2 1 7 = 159— 1 60) 

The longest duration of the life of the Bhau- 
mdyika gods is somewhat more than a Sagardpama, 
the smallest ten thousand years. (218) 

The longest duration of the life of the Vyantaras 
is one Palydpama, the shortest is ten thousand 
years. (219) 

The longest duration of the life of the Gydtishkas 
is one Palydpama plus one hundred thousand years, 
the shortest is the eighth part of a Palydpama. (220) 

The longest duration of life in the Saudharma- 
kalpa is two Sagardpamas, the shortest is one 
Palydpama. (221) 

(In the same way (a) the longest, and (6) the 
shortest duration of life in the remaining Kalpas 
and heavenly regions is given in the original. I give 
in the sequel the substance only of each verse.) 

In liana Kalpa (a) is somewhat more than a 
Sagardpama, (6) somewhat more than a Palyd- 
pama. (222) 

In Sanatkumira Kalpa (a) is seven, (6) two 
Sagardpamas. (223) 

In MAh£ndra Kalpa (a) is somewhat more than 
seven Sagardpamas, (6) somewhat more than 
two. (224) 

In Brahmaldka Kalpa (a) is ten Sagardpamas, 
(6) seven. (225) 

In Lantaka Kalpa (a) is fourteen Sagardpamas, 
(6) ten. (226) 


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228 uttarAdhyayana. 

In Mahasukla Kalpa(«) is seventeen Sagardpamas, 
(6) fourteen 1 . (227) 

In Sahasrara Kalpa (a) is eighteen Sagardpamas, 
(d) seventeen. (228) 

In Anata Kalpa (a) is nineteen Sagardpamas, 
(6) eighteen. (229) 

In Pra«ata Kalpa (a) is twenty Sagardpamas, 
(d) nineteen. (230) 

In Ara«a Kalpa (a) is twenty-one Sagardpamas, 
(6) twenty. (231) 

In A^yuta Kalpa (a) is twenty-two Sagardpamas, 
(<5) twenty-one. (232) 

In the first (Graivdyika region) (a) is twenty-three 
Sagardpamas, (6) twenty-two. (233) 

In the second (Graivdyika region) (a) is twenty- 
four Sagardpamas, (d) twenty-three. (234) 

In the third (Graivdyika region) (a) is twenty-five 
Sagardpamas, (6) twenty-four. (235) 

In the fourth (Graivdyika region) (a) is twenty-six 
Sagardpamas, (6) twenty-five. (236) 

In the fifth (Graivdyika region) (a) is twenty-seven 
Sagardpamas, (6) twenty-six. (237) 

In the sixth (Graiveyika region) (a) is twenty- 
eight Sagardpamas, (6) twenty-seven. (238) 

In the seventh (Graiveyika region) (a) is twenty- 
nine Sagardpamas, (d) twenty-eight. (239) 

In the eighth (Graiveyika region) (a) is thirty 
Sagardpamas, (6) twenty-nine. (240) 

In the ninth (Graiveyika region) (a) is thirty-one 
Sagardpamas, (6) thirty. (241) 

In the four heavens (of the Anuttara gods), be- 

1 From this verse to verse 241 the length of life increases by 
one SSgaropama in each following class of gods. 

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ginning with Vifaya 1 , (a) is thirty-three Sagard- 
pamas, (6) thirty-one. (242) 

In the great Vimana Sarvartha(siddha) there is 
no difference between the longest and shortest 
duration of life, but it is always thirty-three Sagaro- 
pamas. (243) 

The longest and shortest duration of the gods' 
(continuance in the same kind of) body is equal to 
that which has been given for their life. (244, 245*, 
246=159, 160) 

We have described the Living Beings, the worldly 
and the perfected ones, and we have described the 
Lifeless Things, those possessing form and those 
without form. (247) 

Having thus learned (the nature of) living beings 
and lifeless things which is in accordance with the 
principles of reasoning 3 , and believing in it, a sage 
should delight in self-control. (248) 

After having lived as a 3rama«a many years, 
a sage should mortify himself 4 by the following 
religious exercises. (249) 

The longest duration of the mortification is twelve 
years; the middle, one year; and the shortest, six 
months. (250) 

1 Viz. Vi^aya, Vai^ayanta, £ayanta, and Apara^ita. 

8 Two MSS. (A and D) insert after verses 245 the following two 
verses: The longest interval between a Graiveyika's leaving his 
rank in Anata, &c, and being again born to it, is an endless time, 
the shortest is from two to nine years. In the case of Anuttara 
gods the longest interval is a Sagardpama plus one Samkhyeya, the 
shortest is from two to nine years. 

' Naya. 

* The last self-mortification, sawlekhana, which is to end 
with death, is intended here. Some details about it will be found 
in part i, p. 74 *. 

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In the first four years he should abstain from 
dressed food 1 , in the second four years he should 
keep various fasts. (251) 

During two years he should eat Aiamla 2 at the 
end of every second fast ; in the following half year 
he should keep not too long fasts. (252) 

In the second half of the year he should keep 
long fasts. During the whole year he should eat 
but small portions of A^amla 2 . (253) 

During the (last) year a sage should make the 
ends of two consecutive fasts meet 3 , and should 
break his fast after half a month or a whole month, 
(till he dies). (254) 

The following (Bhavanas), Kandarpa-, Abhiy6- 
gika-, Kilvisha-, M6ha-, and Asuratva-(Bhavanas 4 ), 
will lead to evil ways (i. e. bad births) ; they are 
obnoxious at the time of death. (255) 

Those souls who cherish heretical opinions, commit 
sins, and kill living beings, will not reach Bddhi at 
the time of death. (256) 

Those souls who cherish orthodox opinions, do 
not commit sins, and are enveloped in white L&yya, 
will reach B6dhi at the time of death. (257) 

1 Vigat-ni^uhawa. The meaning is that at the end of his 
fasts a monk should eat aHmla, nirvikr/tika, &c. In the Ava^uri 
a verse from the NLrithaMrni is quoted, which gives the same rule 
for the second four years. 

1 Ayama= aHmla. Is this the same thing as the aydmaga 
= a£amaka mentioned XV, 13? See above, p. 72, note 2. 

* K6</isahiyam dyamam = kd/isahitam aHmlam. The 
commentators give two explanations of this phrase : (1) Having 
fasted one day, one should take a^amla on the next day ; (2) one 
should on the second day continue to abstain from a&mla. 

* The definition of these technical terms is given below, verses 
262 ff. 

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Those souls who cherish heretical opinions, com- 
mit sins, and are enveloped in black Le\yyi, will not 
reach Bddhi at the time of death. (258) 

Those who love the creed of the <7inas and 
piously practise it, will be pure and free from the 
soil (of passions), and will (in due time) get out of 
the Circle of Births, (259) 

The miserable men who do not know the creed 
of the G'mzs, will many times commit unholy suicide 
and die against their will. (260) 

Those who are well versed in the sacred lore and 
possess much knowledge, who awaken piety (in 
others) and appreciate their good qualities, are for 
this very reason worthy to hear the doctrine of 
salvation 1 . (261) 

. He who by ribaldry and buffoonery, by his comical 
habits and appearance, by jests and words amuses 
other people, realises the Kandarpa-Bhavana. (262) 

Those who practise spells and besmear their body 
with ashes for the sake of pleasure, amusement, 
or power, realise the Abhiy6gika-Bhavana 2 . (263) 

The deceitful man who reviles the sacred lore, the 
Kevalins, the teacher of the Law, the Sangha, and 
the monks, realises the Kilvishika-Bhavana. (264) 

He who is continuously angry, and who puts his 
faith in prognostics, realises the Asuratva-Bha- 
vani. (265) 

Those who use weapons, eat poison, throw them- 

1 A16kan£ = * ramanaphalam. The Ava^uri renders the last 
phrase: 'They are able to bring about the salvation of others.' 
The original, however, has sdum, ' to hear.' 

2 The Abhiy6gidfivas are genii who serve the gods. This 
Bhdvani leads to being born as an Abhiydgideva ; the next two 
Bhavanas, as a Kilvishad6va and an Asura. 

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selves into fire or water, and use things not pre- 
scribed by the rules of good conduct, are liable to 
be born and to die again and again. (Such persons 
realise the M6ha-Bhavana.) (266) 

The enlightened and liberated GTJatr/^putra) has 
thus delivered Thirty-six Lectures of the Uttara- 
dhyayana 1 , which the pious 2 approve of. (267) 

1 UttaragyAae" in the original. The commentators give uttara 
here the meaning pradhana,' best, prominent.' The same explana- 
tion is given by the scholiast on the Nandf (Weber, Sacred Litera- 
ture of the Jains, p. 1 24). Perhaps the name refers to the tradition 
that Mahavtra recited at the time of his death the thirty-six 
apu/Ma-vagara«iiw, which are identified by one commentator 
of the Kalpa Sutra (Lives of the Ginas, § 147) with the Uttara - 
dhyayana; for uttara also means 'last.' 

1 Bhavasiddhiya=bhavasiddhika, explained by bhavya. 

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the doctrine 2 . 

First Chapter. 

One should know what causes the bondage of 
Soul, and knowing (it) one should remove 3 it. 

(Gambusvamin asked Sudharman) : 

What causes the bondage (of Soul) according to 
Mahavlra ? and what must one know in order to 
remove it ? (i) 

(Sudharman answered) : 

He who owns even a small property in living or 
lifeless things*, or consents to others holding it, will 
not be delivered from misery. (2) 

1 .Srutaskandha. Its Sanskrit title mentioned by .Silanka is 
G&thishd</afaka, i.e. the book whose Sixteenth Lecture is 
called Gatha. It is mentioned in the UttarSdhyayana XXXI, 13 
by the name of the sixteen Gathas; see above, p. 182. 

1 Samaya. This title is not found in MSS. at the end of the 
lecture, but it is given by the author of the Niryukti (verse 29). 
The subject of this lecture is more fully treated in §§ 15-33 °f tne 
First Lecture of the Second Book. 

3 TiuttiggL The commentators translate this word tr6/ayfit, 
but the true Sanskrit original is ativartfita, as is evident from the 
form atiu//anti in I, 2, 22. 

4 Living and lifeless things as we understand these words, not 

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236 sOtrakk;tanga. 

If a man kills living beings, or causes other men 
to kill them, or consents to their killing them, his 
iniquity will go on increasing. (3) 

A sinner who makes the interests of his kinsmen 1 
and companions his own, will suffer much ; for the 
number of those whose interest he takes to heart 
constantly increases. (4) 

All this, his wealth and his nearest relations, 
cannot protect him (from future misery) ; knowing 
(this) and (the value of) life, he will get rid of 
Karman. (5) 

Some men 2 , 5rama«as and Brahmawas, who ignore 
and deny these true words 3 , adhere (to their own 
tenets), and are given to pleasures. (6) 

Some 4 profess (the exclusive belief in) the five 
gross elements : earth, water, fire, wind, and air. (7) 

' These five gross elements (are the original causes 
of things), from them arises another (thing, viz. 
atman)*; for on the dissolution of the (five elements) 
living beings cease to exist. (8) 

as the Gainas do. The original has: iittamantam a£ittam va, 
beings possessed of intellect, and things without intellect. The 
latter are, according to (7aina notions, living beings ^Jva as well 
as inanimate matter. 

1 Literally, those in whose family he is born. Silanka, the 
author of the oldest Tiki on the Sutraknianga, names the 
Rash/raku/as or Ra/>4ors in order to illustrate what is meant by 
' family.' 

8 According to £ilahka the Bauddhas, Barhaspatyas, and others 
are intended. 

8 Grantha, passage in a book. The verses 2-5 are intended. 

' They are the Nastikas or Aarvakas. 

• In other words: the Atman is produced by the elements. 
But there is, it would seem, but one Atman, for in verses 11, 12, we 
have another heretical philosophy which acknowledged a plurality 
of transient atmans. 

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4 And as the Earth, though it is but one pile, pre- 
sents many forms, so the intelligent (principle, viz. 
the atman) appears under various forms as the 
universe 1 .' (9) 

Thus say some fools. (But how can they explain 
on their theory that) the man engaging in under- 
takings, who has committed a sin, will himself suffer 
severe pain 2 ? (10) 

' Everybody, fool or sage, has an individual soul. 
These souls exist (as long as the body), but after 
death they are no more ; there are no souls which 
are born again. (11) 

' There is neither virtue nor vice, there is no world 
beyond ; on the dissolution of the body the individual 
ceases to be.' (12) 

' When a man acts or causes another to act, it is 
not his soul (atman) which acts or causes to act V 
Thus they (viz. the adherents of the Sankhya philo- 
sophy) boldly proclaim. (13) 

How can those who hold such opinions explain 
(the variety of existence in) the world ? They go 
from darkness to utter darkness, being fools and 
engaged in works. (14) 

Some * say that there are five elements and that 

1 This is the doctrine of the VSdantins. 

* If there were but one atman common to all men, the fruit 
of works done by one man might accrue to another. For the 
atman is the substratum of merit and demerit. 

5 Though there is no doubt about the meaning of this passage, 
still the construction is so elliptic that I may have failed to 
understand the connection of the parts of the sentence. 

* This is the opinion expressed by .ffaraka and in the early 
law-books, see Professor Jolly's paper in the Transactions of the 
Ninth International Congress of Orientalists, vol. i, p. 456. .Sllahka 
ascribes it to the Sankhyas and 5aivadhikirins. 

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238 sOtrakjwtAnga. 

the soul is a sixth (substance), but they contend that 
the soul and the world (i.e. the five elements) are 
eternal. (15) 

'These (six substances) do not perish neither (with- 
out nor with a cause); the non-existent does not come 
into existence, but all things are eternal by their 
very nature V (16) 

Some fools 2 say that there are five skandhas of 
momentary existence. They do not admit that (the 
soul) is different from, nor identical 8 with (the 
elements), that it is produced from a cause (i.e. 
the elements), nor that it is without a cause (i.e. that 
it is eternal). (17) 

The (7a«ayas * say that there are four elements : 
earth, water, fire, and wind, which combined form 
the body (or soul ?). (18) 

(All these heretics say) : ' Those who dwell in 
houses, in woods, or on hills, will be delivered from 
all misery if they adopt our creed.' (19) 

1 Niyatibhavam igaya. Niyati is explained by nityabhava. 

* Viz. the Bauddhas. The five skandhas are explained in the 
commentary as follows: 1. rupaskandha, or substances and 
their qualities; 2. vSdanaskandha, feelings, as pleasure and pain; 

3. vi^flanaskandha, perceptions of the qualities of things; 

4. sam^daskandha, perception and knowledge of things; 5. saw- 
skaraskandha, merit and demerit. 

8 Identical, i.e. a product of the elements as the A'arvakas 

4 Ga»aya, which is explained in the Dipiki by ^ftanaka = 
pa«<fitammanya, denotes the Bauddhas. I think that the word 
may be derived from yana ' vehicle,' which the Buddhist used 
to designate the two sections of the church, viz. the Hinayana 
and Mahayana schools. The commentator quotes a various 
reading: avarfi for^-awaya, and explains it as referring to another 
sect of Bauddhas than those spoken of in the preceding verse. 
Silanka comments on the reading aware" first, and then on 

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But they do not cross the Flood of Life, who, 
ignoring the true relation of things, and not 
versed in the true Law, hold the above heretical 
opinions. (20) 

They do not reach the end of the Sawsara, who, 
ignoring, &c. (21) 

They do not reach the end of transmigration, 
who, &c. (22) 

They do not put an end to birth, who, &c. (23) 
They do not put an end to misery, who, &c. (24) 
They do not put an end to death, who, &c. (25) 
They will again and again experience manifold 
pains in this ring 1 of the earth, which is full of death, 
disease, and old age. (26) 

The highest Gina, Mahavtra the <7»atr?putra, has 
said that they will undergo births without number, 
being placed in all sorts of existences. (27) 
Thus I say. 

Second Chapter. 

Again some 2 say: ' It is proved that there are 
individual souls ; they experience pleasure and pain; 
and (on dying) they lose their state of life. (1) 

' But misery (and pleasure) is not caused by (the 
souls) themselves ; how could it be caused by other 
(agents, as time, &c.) ? Pleasure and misery, final 
beatitude 8 and temporal (pleasure and pain) are not 

1 Aakravala. 

* They are the fatalists whose peculiar opinions are stated 
in verses 2 and 3. 

* S6hiyaw = saiddhikam, i.e. m6kshe* bhavaw sukham. 
Another explanation of the commentator makes saiddhika those 
pleasures which depend on external causes, as wreaths, sandal, &c, 
and asaiddhika the pleasures of the mind. 

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240 sOtrak/utanga. 

caused by (the souls) themselves, nor by others ; 
but the individual souls experience them ; it is the 
lot assigned them by destiny.' This is what they 
(i.e. the fatalists) say. (2, 3) 

Those who proclaim these opinions, are fools who 
fancy themselves learned ; they have no knowledge, 
and do not understand that things depend partly on 
fate, and partly on human exertion \ (4) 

Thus (say) some heretics 2 ; they are very bold 
men ; if they act up to their principles, they will 
never be delivered from misery. (5) 

As the swift deer who are destitute of protection, 
are frightened where there is no danger, and not 
frightened where there is danger ; (6) 

(As) they dread safe places, but do not dread 
traps ; they are bewildered by ignorance and fear, 
and run hither and thither ; (7) 

If they did jump over the noose or pass under it, 
they would escape from the snare ; but the stupid 
animal does not notice 8 it ; (8) 

The unhappy animal, being of a weak intellect, 
runs into the dangerous (place), is caught in the 
snare, &c, and is killed there ; (9) 

So some unworthy »Srama»as who hold wrong 
doctrines are afraid of what is free from danger, 
and are not afraid of real dangers. (10) 

The fools dread the preaching of the Law, but 

1 To render niyataniyataw. 

1 Pasattha, usually translated parxvastha 'outsider,' those who 
do not acknowledge true arguments; another rendering is pa jastha 
' held in bondage.' 

' Dehati = pajyati. The form dekkhati occurs in the 
Prakrit of plays. 

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they do not dread works, being without discernment 
and knowledge, (n) 

Shaking off greed \ pride 2 , deceit 8 , and wrath 4 , 
one becomes free from Karman. This is a subject 
(which an ignorant man, like) a brute animal, does 
not attend to. (12) 

The unworthy heretics who do not acknowledge 
this, will incur death an endless number of times, 
like deer caught in a snare. (13) 

All Brahma«as and *Srama»as contend that they 
possess the knowledge (of the truth), but the creatures 
in the whole world do not know anything. (14) 

As a Mle^^a 6 repeats what an Arya has said, but 
does not understand the meaning, merely repeating 
his words, so the ignorant, though pretending to 
possess knowledge, do not know the truth, just as 
an uninstructed Mle^^a. (15, 16) 

The speculations of the Agnostics cannot lead 
to knowledge; they cannot reach the truth by 
themselves, still less teach it to other men. (17) 

As when a man in a wood who does not know it, 
follows a guide who also does not know it, both 
being unacquainted (with the place), come to great 
trouble; (18) 

As when one blind man is the guide of another, the 
man walks a great distance, loses his way, or follows 
a wrong way; (19) 

Thus some who search after salvation and pretend 

1 Savvappaga = sarv&tmaka, ldbfaa. 

* Viukkassa = vyutkarsha, mana. 

' Numa = miyi. * Appattiya = krddha. 

• It is worthy of note that the MlgiMas here are represented 
as not understanding the language of the Aryas. 

[45] R 

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242 sCtrakk/tAnga. 

to practise the (true) Law, follow the false Law and 
do not arrive at the thoroughly right (thing, viz. 
self-control). (20) 

Thus some (wrong philosophers) do not apply to 
others for arguments, but they continue to err because 
they believe their own arguments to be right 1 . (21) 

Thus arguing according to their light, and ignorant 
about what is right and wrong, they do not get out 
of misery as birds do not get out of their cage. (22) 

They praise their own creed and blame that of 
their opponents, but those who act in this respect 
the part of philosophers, will be kept confined in the 
Circle of Births 2 . (23) 

There is the doctrine of the Kriyavadins 8 , which 
has been previously explained; it augments the 
misery of worldly existence of those who do not 
well consider the nature of acts. (24) 

* He who intends (to kill) a living being but does 
not do it by (an act of) his body, and he who un- 
knowingly kills one, both are affected by that act 
through a slight contact (with it) only, but the demerit 
(in their case) is not fully developed 4 .' (25) 

1 The last part of the verse might also be translated : ' because 
these fools believe the subject to be cleared up (ma^u) by their 
own arguments.' 

s There is a play on the words viussanti and viussiyl, in 
the last line of this verse viussanti is a denominative verb from 
viusa=vidv£n, and is translated vidvan iva" £arati. Viussiya 
=vi + ut + *rita. 

* See above, p. 83. .Sflanka defines the KriyavSdins here as 
men who contend that the principal means of reaching Mdksha 
is £aityakarma, the construction of sanctuaries. 

* An intentional killing of a living being must actually take 
place in order to induce the Karrnan on the soul. If one of the 
essential conditions which constitute the guilt of slaughter (hi rasa), 

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' There are three ways of committing sins : by 
one's own activity, by commission, by approval (of 
the deed). (26) 

' These are the three ways of committing sins. 
Thus by purity of the heart one reaches Nirv4#a. (27) 

'A layman may kill his son (during a famine) and 
eat him ; a wise (monk) who partakes of the meat, 
will not be defiled by the sin 1 .' (28) 

The mind of those who sin in thoughts is not 
pure ; they are wrong, they do not conduct themselves 
carefully 2 . (29) 

Men attached to pleasure, who think that the 
above-mentioned doctrines will save them, commit 
sins. (30) 

As a blind-born man getting into a leaky boat, 
wants to reach the shore, but is drowned during the 
passage 3 , so some unworthy, heretical .5rama»as wish 
to get beyond the Circle of Births, but they are 
whirled round in it. (31, 32) 

Thus I say. 

Third Chapter. 

If a monk should eat forbidden food which a pious 
(layman) has prepared for some guest, and which food 
has been mixed up with even thousand (times more 

is wanting the Karman is still produced; however, it does not take 
a firm hold of the soul, but merely ' touches' it. This is of course 
the opinion of the Kriyavadins. 

1 According to .STlahka the father too would not be guilty ; but 
this interpretation is against good sense and grammar. 

1 This is the answer of the Siddhantin to the foregoing pro- 

* The same verse recurs below, I, 11, 30. 

R 2 

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244 sOtrakk/tAnga. 

pure food) 1 , he would be neither monk nor lay- 
man, (i) 

5rama«as who do not comprehend this and do not 
know what is dangerous, who care for the pleasures 
of the moment only, will suffer death an endless 
number of times, like big 2 fishes who when the 
water rises are by the water (deposited) on dry land 
and are killed (there), poor things, by hungry dAankas 
and herons. (2-4) 

We hear also of another error of some (philo- 
sophers) : some say that the world has been created 
(or is governed) 8 by the gods, others, by Brahman. (5) 

Some * say that it has been created by the l^vara, 
others that it was produced ' from chaos, &c, this 
world with living beings and lifeless things, with its 
variety of pleasure and pain. (6) 

The great Htshi 6 said, that the world has been 
created by Svayambhu ; Mara originated Maya, 
therefore the world (appears to be) uneternal. (7) 

Some Brahmawas and •Sramawas say that the 

1 This might also be translated: ' though the food passes through 
the hands of a thousand men before he accepts it.' 

* VSsSliya = vaijdlika. The commentators offer three 
explanations of this word, (1) marine, vualaA samudras tatra- 
bhav&A; (2) belonging to the genus called vijala; (3) big, 

9 D6vautte\ This is either dSvair uptaA, sown, i.e. produced 
by the gods, or dSvair guptaA, governed by the gods. 

* The adherents of the Ydga and SShkhya philosophy, or the 
theistical and atheistical followers of the latter, are apparently 
meant by • some ' and ' others.' 

' The commentators unfortunately have not preserved the name 
of the great Jtishi ; they identify Svayambhu with Vishnu * or some 
one else.' This Svayambhu, afraid that the earth should become 
overcrowded, called to help Yama, alias Mara, who with the help of 
May£ makes the creatures appear to die. 

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universe was produced from the (primeval) egg, and 
He (Brahman) created the things. These ignorant 
men speak untruth. (8) 

Those who on arguments of their own maintain 
that the world has been created, do not know the 
truth. Nor will (the world) ever perish. (9) 

Know that misery arises from wicked deeds \ How 
can those who do not know the origin (of misery 7 ) 
know its prevention ? (10) 

Some say that the soul (of him who is) pure will 
become free from bad Karman (on reaching beati- 
tude), but that in that state it will again become 
defiled through pleasant excitement or hate. (11) 

(According to them 2 ) he who has lived on earth 
as a restrained monk, will afterwards become free 
from Karman. As clear water which was free from 
defilement becomes again defiled, so (will be the 
soul). (12) 

A wise man should consider that these (heretics) 
do not lead a life of chastity, and that all these 
disputants proclaim their own creed in opposition 
(to the others). (13) 

(Others 8 maintain that) perfection can only be 
reached by their method of religious life, not other- 
wise; and that even before (that time) they have 

1 It is not given us by any of the above-mentioned agents whom 
the opponents believe to have created the world. 

' According to .Sflanka the followers of G6*ala and the Trai- 
rlrikas are meant. The latter are the ffaina followers of the 
Vau&shika philosophy. The Trairlrika .Sakha' was founded by 
A'Aaluka Rdhagupta, see part i, p. 290. The name Trairlrika is 
said to have been given to these philosophers because they admit 
a third state besides those of the bound and of the liberated. 

3 According to .Sflanka the .Saivas and Ekadantfins are meant. 

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246 sOtrakk/tanga. 

their senses under control and possess everything to 
be wished for 1 . (14) 

Some say that they will be perfected and sound. 
On the head of Perfection some men are infatuated 
with their own doctrines. (15) 

But these uncontrolled (men) will whirl round in 
the beginningless (Circle of Births) ; after a Kalpa 
they will rise from their sphere to become the lowest 
of Asuras 2 . (16) 

Thus I say. 

Fourth Chapter. 

These (philosophers) who are vanquished (by 
their passions) cannot help you in cases where a 
sinner perishes 8 ; though having given up their 
former occupations they will give advice in worldly 
matters. (1) 

A wise monk who fully appreciates this, should 
not mix with those (heretics) ; without conceit and 
not attached to them a sage should lead a life equally 
removed (from love and hate). (2) 

Some say that those who own possessions and 
engage in undertakings (may reach perfection) ; but 
a monk should take his refuge to those who neither 
own possessions nor engage in undertakings. (3) 

A wise man should beg food which has been 

1 They acquire the eight siddhis or magical powers. 

* I translate the words think Ssurakivvisiyi according to the 
explanation of the commentary. But they may also mean : from 
the sphere of Asuras and sinners. 

' A various reading first commented upon by .Stldnka is: 
b£l& pa«<fitam3wi»6, being ignorant men who fancy themselves 

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prepared (for somebody else), and he should accept 
what is freely given him, without greed and passions; 
he should abstain from overbearing behaviour 1 . (4) 

He should know the talk of people: some say 
things which are the outcome of a wrong understand- 
ing and are but opinions of others repeated. (5) 

' The world is boundless and eternal, it exists 
from eternity and does not perish 2 ; (another) bold 
philosopher 3 says that the world is limited, but 
eternal. (6) 

'Some say that the knowledge (of the highest 
authority) is unlimited ; but the same bold philo- 
sopher says that it is limited in every way *.' (7) 

Some beings have motion, others not ; it depends 
on certain conditions whether they are in the one 
state or in the other. (8) 

(E.g. big creatures) have one form of bodily exist- 
ence and then another 6 . But all are subject to pain ; 
hence they should not be killed. (9) 

This is the quintessence of wisdom : not to kill 
anything. Know this to be the legitimate conclusion 

1 Omawa = apamana. 

2 According to .Silanka the eternity of things means, with these 
philosophers, that one thing always retains the same genus or 
g&ti, e. g. that he who was a man in this life will again be a man 
in the next. 

* According to the commentators Vyasa is intended. The 
doctrine referred to in the text is that of the PurS»as. 

4 The commentators interpret this verse as if not two philo- 
sophical opinions but only one was spoken of. Unlimited 
knowledge is according to them different from omniscience; 
in the second part of the sentence 'limited' refers to the sleep 
of Brahman during which he is unconscious. 

• Men are some time embryos, then young men, then old men. 

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248 sCtrakkttAnga. 

from the principle of the reciprocity with regard to 
non-killing 1 . (10) 

Living (according to the rules of conduct), and 
without greed, one should take care of the highest 
good 2 . 

In walking, in sitting and lying down, and in food 
and drink : with regard to these three points a monk 
should always control himself. 

And he should leave off pride 8 , wrath 4 , deceit 5 , 
and greed 9 . (11, 12) 

Possessing the Samitis and being protected by the 
five Sawvaras, a pious monk should live, till he 
reaches perfection, as a man free from fetters among 
those bound in fetters (viz. the householders). (13) 

Thus I say. 

1 Ahiws&samayara = ahimsisamatam, viz. as you do not 
wish to be killed, so others do not wish to be killed. The last 
part of the sentence might also be translated : know this to be the 
real meaning of the Law (samaya) of ahiwsa. The same verse 
recurs I, n, 10. 

4 Adana, right knowledge, right faith, and right conduct. 

' Ukkasa = utkarsha, mana. 

4 Galawa =^valana, kr6dha. 8 Numa = miyi. 

6 Ma^^attha= madhyastha, ldbha. Compare the similar 
expressions in I, 1, 2, 12, above, p. 241, notes 1-4, and I, 2, 3, 29, 
below, p. 257. 

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the destruction of karman. 

First Chapter. 

(/?z'shabha said to his sons) : 

Acquire perfect knowledge of the Law! why do 
you not study it ? It is difficult to obtain instruction 
in it after this life. The days (that are gone by) 
will never return, nor is it easy a second time to 
obtain human birth, (i) 

See, young and old men, even children in the 
mother's womb die. As a hawk catches a quail, so 
(life) will end when its time is spent 2 . (2) 

1 The name of this lecture, which occurs in its last line, is 
vSy&liya, because, as the author of the Niryukti remarks, it treats 
on vidarika, destruction (of Karman), and because it is composed 
in the Vaitalfya metre. For either word, vaidirika (or rather 
vaidalika, cf. karmavidalana) and vaitaliya may, in ffaina 
PrSkrrt, become vlyaliya or vfitaitya. A play of words was 
apparently intended ; it would have been impossible, if both words 
had not become identical in sound. We may, therefore, conclude 
that the language of the author obeyed the same phonetic laws 
as the Gaina Pr&krri exhibited in our MSS., or in other words, that 
the text has been written down in about the same language in 
which it was originally composed. The name of the Fifteenth 
Lecture leads to the same inference; for it is called ^amatya 
(yamaklya) because each of its verses contains the verbal 
ornament called yamaka, and because it opens with the words 
jam afyaw (yad atltam). 

' One MS. here inserts giv&na g tviyaw, the life of living 

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250 sOtrakjj/tanga. 

(A man) may suffer for the sake of his parents ; 
he will not easily obtain happiness after this life. 
A pious man should consider these causes of danger 
and cease to act (3) 

For in this world living beings suffer individually 
for their deeds ; for the deed they have done them- 
selves, they obtain (punishment), and will not get 
over it before they have felt it. (4) 

Even gods, Gandharvas, Rakshasas, and Asuras ; 
animals who live on earth, and snakes; kings, 
common people, merchants, and Brahma»as : they 
all must leave their rank and suffer. (5) 

Notwithstanding their pleasures and relations, all 
men must suffer in due time the fruit of their 
works ; as a cocoa-nut detaching itself from its stalk 
(falls down), so (life) will end when its time is 
spent. (6) 

Even a very learned or virtuous man, or a Brah- 
ma«a or an ascetic, will be severely punished for 
his deed when he is given to actions of deceit 1 . (7) 

See, those (heretics) who search for the knowledge 
of truth, but who do not cross the Sa««sara, talk 
only about the highest good (without reaching it). 

How will you understand what is near you and 
what is beyond 2 ? In the meanwhile you suffer for 
your deeds. (8) 

He who walks about naked and lean, he who eats 
only once after a month, if he is filled with deceit, 
will be born an endless number of times. (9) 

1 Abhinfima. 

' According to .Silinka, this world and the next, or domestic 
life and monachism, or the Sawsira and Mdksha are meant by the 
expression ' what is near you and what is beyond.' 

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Man, cease from sins ! For the life of men will 
come to an end 1 . Men who are drowned (in lust, 
as it were), and addicted to pleasure will, for want 
of control, be deluded 2 . (10) 

Exert and control yourself ! For it is not easy to 
walk on ways where there are minutely small animals. 
Follow the commandments which the Arhats have 
well proclaimed 8 . (n) 

Heroes (of faith) who desist (from sins) and exert 
themselves aright, who subdue wrath, fear, &c, will 
never kill living beings ; they desist from sins and 
are entirely happy. (12) 

It is not myself alone who suffers, all creatures in 
the world suffer ; this a wise man * should consider, 
and he should patiently bear (such calamities) as 
befall him, without giving way to his passions. (13) 

As a wall covered with a plastering (of dried cow- 
dung) 6 is by a shock made thin, so (a monk) should 
make his body lean by fasting, &c. He should 

1 Paliyantam. Another explanation of this word, preferred 
by the commentators, is palydpamasya antar: within, i.e. some- 
thing shorter than a Paly6pama\ 

2 Or, acquire Karman which is to result in delusion. 

* According to the commentators : practise (control) according 
to the sdsana (i. e. sutras); this has been well declared by the 

* Sahie. This word is explained sometimes by svahita, 
intent on his spiritual welfare, sometimes by hitena gffkn&dini 
sahitaA, possessed of knowledge, &c. I translate it ' wise/ and 
derive the word from Sanskrit sahr/daya, the correct Prakrit for 
which would be sahiyae. 

1 Cow-dung is stuck, in the form of flat round cakes, against 
a wall to dry there. When the cakes are dried a little shake 
is sufficient to make them come down, whereby the wall will 
be restored to its original shape and dimensions. 

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252 sOTRAKitrrANGA. 

abstain from slaughter of living beings. This is the 
Law proclaimed by the Sage. (14) 

As a bird covered with dust removes the grey 
powder by shaking itself, so a worthy and austere 
Brahmawa 1 , who does penance, annihilates his 
Karman. (15) 

Young and old people claim a houseless .Srama«a 
as their own, though he begs according to the Law, 
observes the rules of conduct, and performs austeri- 
ties. People will even cry themselves hoarse, but 
they will not captivate him. (16) 

Whatever they will do to move his pity, however 
they will cry about their son, they will not captivate 
a worthy and virtuous monk or make him return to 
domestic life. (17) 

Though they tempt him with pleasures, and 
though they should bind him and carry him home, if 
he does not care for a (worldly) life, they will not 
captivate him or make' him return to domestic 
life. (18) 

His father and mother, his children and wife who 
claim him, will admonish him : ' See, you are our 
supporter; care not for the next world in order to 
support us.' (19) 

Some people are (foolishly) attached to others, 
and are thereby deluded; the unrighteous make 
them adopt unrighteousness, and they exult in their 
wickedness. (20) 

Therefore a worthy and wise man should be 

1 Mahawa = brahmawa. The commentator derives the word 
from mi and root han I The word is a synonym of muni, with 
which it frequently occurs in the same verse and has then been 
left out in the translation. 

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careful, ceasing from sin and being entirely happy. 
The virtuous heroes of faith (have chosen) the great 
road, the right and certain path to perfection. (21) 

He who has entered the road leading to the 
destruction (of Karman) 1 , who controls his mind, 
speech, and body, who has given up his possessions 
and relations and all undertakings, should walk about 
subduing his senses. (22) 

Second Chapter. 

A sage thinks that he should leave off sins just as 
(a snake) leaves its slough ; and he is not proud of 
his G6tra and other advantages ; or is there any use 
in blaming others? (1) 

A man who insults another will long whirl in the 
Circle of Births ; to blame others is not good. Con- 
sidering this a sage is not conceited. (2) 

He who is independent, and he who is the servant 
of a servant, if they but observe the Vow of Silence 2 , 
they have no reason to be ashamed ; (therefore a 
monk) should behave equally towards all. (3) 

Indifferent and pure with regard to every kind of 
control, a .Srama#a should walk about; he who 
entertains pure thoughts during his whole life, dies 
as a worthy and wise man. (4) 

The sage who sees the far-off (goal, viz. liberation), 
past and future things, will practise indifference, 
though he suffer corporal punishment and be 
beaten. (5) 

Possessing perfect wisdom, a sage always van- 
quishes (his passions) ; he correctly expounds the 

1 Vgyaliya-maggam. * Maunapada. 

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254 sfiTRAKK/TAtfGA. 

Law ; he never neglects even the smallest (duty) ; he 
is neither angry nor proud. (6) 

A man who controls himself according to (the 
Law), which is praised by many people, and is not 
bound by any worldly ties, who is always pure like 
a lake, proclaims the Law of Ka^yapa. (7) 

Seeing that numerous living beings lead an indi- 
vidual life, and that every one feels (pleasure and 
pain) just as the others, a wise man who observes 
the Vow of Silence, leaves off (injuring them). (8) 

A sage has completely mastered the Law, and 
has ceased to do actions ; but the selfish grieve, they 
will not (thereby) recover their (lost) property 1 . (9) 

Know that it (viz. property) entails pains in this 
world, and very great pains 2 in the next. Who will 
lead a domestic life when he knows that everything 
must perish ? (10) 

One should know (and renounce) the great attach- 
ment (to the world), and respect and honours on 
earth ; (for conceit) is a very thin thorn difficult to 
pull out. A wise man, therefore, should abandon 
worldliness 3 . (11) 

A monk should perform postures (as Kaydtsarga, 
&c.) alone on his seat, and alone on his couch he 
should meditate ; excelling in the performance of 
austerities, guarded in words, and restrained in 
thoughts. (12) 

1 .Sll&ftka quotes a verse which the Nagaiyuniyas insert here ; 
compare part i, p. 32, note 2. 

1 I take duha/nduha for a kind of intensive form of duha. 

9 This is a rather dark verse. •Sllahka, after explaining it, 
quotes the verse as it was read by the Nagar^uniyas, which may 
be rendered thus : Respect and honours are a great obstacle, this 
he should know ; be the thorn small (or) difficult to pull out, a wise 
man should remove it by the (means we are about to describe). 

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An ascetic does not shut the door of a deserted 
house (where he puts up), nor does he open it ; when 
asked he returns no (rude) answer ; he cuts no grass, 
nor does he strew it (on the ground for a couch). (13) 

Where (he is) at sunset, there he calmly (performs 
his duties) ; a sage bears .pleasant and unpleasant 
things, be there insects, or wild beasts, or snakes. (14) 

He bears the three kinds of calamities arising from 
beasts, men, and gods. A great sage will not be 
seized with a shivering, &c.\ when he stays in a 
deserted house. (15) 

He should not fear for his life, nor should he 
desire to be praised (for his courage). Fearful 
things will frighten the mind of a monk who stays in 
a deserted house. (16) 

They say that he who is very well disciplined, 
who protects others, who lives in a place removed 
from other people, who is not frightened by dangers, 
possesses right conduct, &c. (17) 

A monk who uses warm or hot water 2 , who follows 
the Law, and loathes (wrong conduct), will by inter- 
course with bad kings become deficient in his devo- 
tion though he be ever so virtuous. (18) 

When a monk quarrels and uses very bad lan- 
guage, he will suffer great spiritual loss ; therefore 
a wise man should not quarrel. (19) 

He who abstains from cold water 2 , who plans (or 
undertakes) nothing, and has ceased from even the 
smallest actions, who does not eat food out of the dish 
of a householder, possesses right conduct, &c. (20) 

1 Literally, horripilation. By the ' &c.' the other outward signs 
of horror are indicated. 

* It should be kept in mind that Gaina monks are forbidden to 
use cold water, because it is considered to possess life. 

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256 sOtrakr/tAnga. 

Though life cannot be prolonged, as the saying is 1 , 
still foolish people sin recklessly; a foolish man is 
filled to the brim (as it were) with sins. Considering 
this a sage is not conceited. (21) 

By self-invented rites common people seek holi- 
ness 2 , they are full of deceit and shrouded (as it 
were) in delusion. But a monk is holy 2 through 
his innocence, he allows no troubles 3 to influence his 
words, (thoughts, and acts). (22) 

As a clever gambler, playing at dice, is not van-r 
quished, since he casts the Krtta, but not Kali, nor? 
Tr6ta, nor DvApara; (23) 

So adopt for your welfare the best and highest 
Law which has been proclaimed in this world by the 
Saviour, as the clever (gambler casts) the Kr/ta, and 
avoids the other casts. (24) 

I have heard that sensual pleasures are said to 
have the strongest hold on men ; but those who 
abstain from them follow the Law of Kasyapa. (25) 

Those who follow the Law that has been pro- 
claimed by GMtrika, the great seer 4 , are virtuous 
and righteous; they confirm each, other in the 
Law. (26) 

Take no heed of the seductive (pleasures), en- 
deavour to shake off delusion. Those who are not 
subdued by the wicked (pleasures), know meditation 
to be their duty*. (27) 

1 Compare Uttaradhyayana IV, r, above p. 18. The same words 
recur below, I, 2, 3, 10, p. 259. 

* Palfiti = praHyati ' Literally, cold and heat. 

* Mahavfra. 

8 Ahitam, literally, has been declared. The commentators 
explain the word as a -hit am, thoroughly good, or atmani 
vyavasthitam, placed in the soul. 

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A monk should not tell stories, nor ask idle ques- 
tions, nor gossip 1 . But, knowing the highest Law, 
he should perform his religious duties, and regard 
nothing his own. (28) 

A monk should not indulge deceit 2 , greed 3 , pride 4 , 
and wrath 8 . Those are virtuous who have arrived at 
the right understanding of these passions, and who 
have well practised control 6 . (29) 

(A monk) should be free from attachment, wise, 
controlling himself, seeking the Law, earnest in the 
performance of austerities, and subduing his senses. 
It is difficult to obtain the soul's benefit. (30) 

Right conduct, &c, which has been taught by the 
(Jwatrzka, the sage who knew everything in the 
whole world, has either not been learned or not 
been truly practised (by creatures now in dis- 
tress). (31) 

Many men who thought this Law to be the highest 
good and conducive to their spiritual welfare, obeyed 
their preceptors, ceased from works, and have crossed 
the great flood (of worldly existence). (32) 

Thus I say. 

Third Chapter. 

If a monk who abstains from actions, suffers pain 
(for acts done) through ignorance, that Karman will 

1 Samprasaraka? 2 .Oanna = maya. 

* Pasamsa = pra^amsa, lobha. 
4 Ukkasa = utkarsha, mana. 

6 Pagasa = prakasa, kr6dha. 

* Dhuya = dhuta. The word preceding this is sug6siyam = 
gushia.m, sgvitam. A various reading is sugAdsiyum, which 
means ' who have well annihilated their Karman (dhuta).' 

[45] S 

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258 sCtrakk/tAnga. 

be annihilated through control. The wise reach 
(perfection) getting rid of death. (1) 

Those who resist the seductions 1 are placed on 
a line with those who have crossed the Sa*»sara. 
Therefore look up (at beatitude as the end in view). 
Those (virtuous men) regard pleasures as equal to 
diseases. (2) 

Men of princely rank wear precious things imported 
by merchants ; likened (to these precious things) are 
the excellent great vows together with (the pro- 
hibition of) eating at night. (3) 

Pleasure-seeking men who are greedy and are 
absorbed by amusements, are reckless and like the 
wretched; they do not know that meditation (has 
been enjoined as) a duty. (4) 

As a bullock which is hurt and urged on by the 
driver 2 becomes weak, and at last, when its strength 
is exhausted and it is unable to move, sinks down ; (5) 

So he who knows the pursuit of pleasures, must 
sooner or later give up their enjoyment (lest they 
drag him down 8 ). He who is still surrounded by 
pleasant things 4 , should not love pleasures, whether 
he obtains them, or for some reason or other does 
not obtain them. (6) 

Lest the lot of the wicked should fall to you, 
escape (the influence of the senses), and discipline 
yourself! The wicked will much and strongly grieve, 
groan, and wail. (7) 

1 Vinnavawa = vi^dapana, explained striyaA. 

* Instead of ' driver ' and ' bullock ' we might translate ' hunter * 
and 'deer.' 

* He should not be engrossed by them as the bullock sinks 
down beneath its burden. 

4 To render kamf. 

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See, life in this world (is transient) ; though your life 
lasts a hundred years, you die as a short-lived man ; 
mind that (your) years swiftly pass. Nevertheless 
greedy men are attached to pleasures. (8) 

Those who engage in undertakings, who work 
the perdition of their souls, and who kill (living 
beings), will go to the world of the wicked, to the 
abode of the Asuras for a long time (to dwell 
there). (9) 

Though life cannot be prolonged, as the saying 
is \ still foolish people sin recklessly (thinking) : ' We 
are only concerned with the present time ; who has 
seen the next world and returned thence ?' (10) 

Believe in the words of him who sees (everything), 
you who are blind, as it were, you whose sight is 
blinded, ah, whose sight is obstructed by your works 
which result in delusion! (11) 

The unhappy again and again suffer from delusion; 
therefore have done with praise and honours ! A 
wise ascetic should consider that living beings are 
like himself (as regards love of life, aversion to 
pain, &c). (12) 

The man also who still lives in the house, should, 
in accordance with his creed 2 , be merciful to living 
beings ; we are bidden to be fair and equal with all ; 
(thereby even a householder) goes to the world of 
the gods. (13) 

Being instructed in the creed of the Lord, exert 
yourself in the truth (i.e. in control) ! A monk who 
has thoroughly subdued his selfishness should collect 
pure alms. (14) 

Knowing the truth, one should live up to it, 

1 Compare p. 256, note 1. * Anupfirvya. 

S 2 

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260 sOtrak*/tAnga. 

seeking the Law, earnest in the performance of 
austerities, possessing the Guptis, being accomplished, 
one should always exert oneself, intent on the 
soul's benefit, and desiring the highest good (viz. 
liberation). (15) 

The fool thinks that his wealth, cattle, and rela- 
tions will save him ; they him, or he them. But 
they are no help, no protection. (16) 

When calamity befalls him, or the end of his 
life draws near, he must go and come alone ; 
the wise believe that there is nothing to protect 
him. (17) 

All living beings owe their present form of exis- 
tence to their own Karman ; timid, wicked, suffering 
latent misery, they err about (in the Circle of Births), 
subject to birth, old age, and death. (18) 

He should know that the present time is the best 
opportunity to mend, and that an awakening is 
difficult to obtain. A wise man should be aware of 
this '. The (first) G'ma. 2 has said this, and so the 
remaining ones (will) say it. (19) 

ye monks, the virtuous ((Jinas) that have been 
and will be, the followers of the Law of K&ryapa 3 , 
they all have commended these virtues. (20) 

Do not kill living beings in the threefold way 4 , 
being intent on your spiritual welfare and abstaining 
from sins. In this way numberless men have reached 

1 A various reading mentioned in the commentary is ahiy&safi, 
' he should bear (all troubles).' 

* The whole lecture is put by the commentators in the mouth 
of i?/'shabha. 

' The first and last Tinhakaras belonged to the Kiryapa G6tra. 

* I. e. by your own acts, by order, and by assent ; or by 
thoughts, words, and acts. 

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perfection, and others, who live now, and who are to 
come, (will reach it). (21) 

Thus spoke the Arhat (Jwatr/putra, the reverend, 
famous native of Valyall 1 , who possessed the highest 
knowledge and the highest faith, who possessed 
(simultaneously) the highest knowledge and faith. 

Thus I say. 



the knowledge of troubles 2 . 

First Chapter. 

A man believes himself a hero as long as he does 
not behold the foe, as did .Suupala (before he beheld) 
the valorously-fighting, great warrior 8 . (1) 

They go forward to the head of the battle; but 
when the fight has begun the mother will not recog- 
nise her son, and he will be mangled by his foe. (2) 

So a novice, who as yet has not suffered pains and 
is not yet used to a mendicant's life, believes himself 
a hero till he practises austerities *. (3) 

1 See my remarks in part i, Introduction, p. xi. This passage 
in prose appended to the metrical text seems to contradict the 
supposition of the commentators that the whole lecture was pro- 
nounced by &'shabha. 

* Compare Uttaradhyayana II, above, p. 9 ff. 

* Viz. Krz'sh/ia. Kr/'shwa's victory over Suupala is told in the 
Mahabharata, Sabhaparvan, .SIrupalavadha (eighth parvan). It 
forms the subject of Magha's famous poem -SIrupalavadha. 

4 Luham = ruksham, i.e. samyamam, control. 

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262 sOtrakk/tajiga. 

When during the winter they suffer from cold and 
draughts, the weak become disheartened like Kshat- 
triyas who have lost their kingdom. (4) 

When they suffer from the heat of summer, sad 
and thirsty, the weak become disheartened like fish 
in shallow water. (5) 

It is painful never to take anything but what is 
freely given, and begging is a hard task. Common 
people say that (men become monks) because they 
will not work and are wretched. (6) 

Weak men who are unable (to bear) these insults 
in villages or towns, become disheartened like 
cowards in the battle. (7) 

Perchance a snarling dog will bite a hungry monk ; 
in that case the weak will become disheartened like 
animals burnt by fire. (8) 

Some who hate (the monks), revile them : ' Those 
who lead such a (miserable) life (as monks do), atone 
but (for their sins in a former life).' (9) 

Some call them names, as ' naked, lowest of 
beggars, baldhead, scabby, filthy, nasty.' (10) 

Those who behave in this way and do not know 
better, go from darkness to utter darkness, being 
fools and shrouded in delusion \ (1 1) 

When bitten by flies and gnats, and unable (to 
bear) the pricking of grass, (they will begin to doubt), 
' I have not seen the next world, all may end with 
death 2 !' (12) 

Some weak men who suffer from the plucking out 
of the hair, and who are unable to preserve their 
chastity, will become disheartened like fish transfixed 
by a spear 8 . (13) 

1 Compare I, 1, 1, 14. * Compare I, 3, 3, 6. 

8 Kfitana, perhaps 'caught with the hook.' 

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Some low people who lead a life of iniquity, and 
entertain heretical opinions, being subject to love 
and hatred, injure a monk. (14) 

Some fools in outlying countries take a pious monk 
for a spy or a thief, bind him, and insult him with 
angry words. (15) 

A weak monk being hurt with a stick or a fist 
or a fruit, remembers his (kind) relations, just as a 
woman who in a passion has left (her husband and 
house). (16) 

All these hardships are difficult to bear; the 
weak return to their house (when they cannot 
bear them), like elephants covered with arrows 
(break down). (17) 

Thus I say. 

Second Chapter. 

There are some tender affections which monks 
cannot easily overcome. On their account some 
become disheartened, and are unable to practise 
control. (1) 

His relations on seeing him will surround him and 
cry : ' Child, we have brought you up, (now) support 
us ! O dear ! why will you leave us ? (2) 

' Child, your father is an old man ; your sister 
is still very young; (and here), O dear, are your 
own brothers from the same mother ; why will you 
leave us ? (3) 

' Support your mother and father, thus you will 
win this world ; it is a duty in this world to protect 
one's mother. (4) 

' The old people are kind-spoken ; your sons, child, 
are very young ; you have married your wife ; (take 
care) that she will not go to another man. (5) 

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264 ' sOtrakr/tAnga. 

' Come, child, let us go home ; we can do all 
the work, you need not (do it) ; the next time we 
shall take care (that you will not be overburdened 
with work) ; child, let us meanwhile go to our 
house. (6) 

'Afterwards you may go again ; by this (visit of 
yours) you will not cease to be a 6rama#a ; who will 
hinder you to practise control when you have done 
with worldly desires J ? (7) 

'All your outstanding debts we have divided 
between us, and we shall give you the money 
(required for) business.' (8) 

In this way (his relations) come to him, lamenting, 
and try to persuade him. Held fast by his attach- 
ment for his relations, he quickly returns to his 
house. (9) 

As a creeper encircles a tree growing in the forest, 
so his relations press him hard that he should leave 
off control. (10) 

He is held fast by his attachment for his relations. 
So the keepers always follow a newly-caught elephant, 
and a cow which has just calved never goes far (from 
the calf). (11) 

Men do not (easily) get over this attachment, as 
(they do not get over) the ocean 2 . For its sake the 
weak suffer pains, being engrossed by their attach- 
ment for their relations. (12) 

But a monk should renounce it ; for every attach- 
ment is but a cause of sin. He should not desire 
life, having been instructed in the best Law. (13) 

There are these whirlpools which have been 

1 Akamagam. Another explanation is, if you are not willing 
(to do domestic work). 

* Pataia, explained by samudra. 

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pointed out by Kajyapa : the wise keep clear of 
them, but the ignorant go down in them. (14) 

Kings and ministers of kings, Brahma»as and 
Kshattriyas try with pleasant things to seduce a 
monk who leads a holy life. (15) 

(They try to seduce him) with elephants, horses, 
chariots, and cars, with pleasure-trips (saying to 
him) : ' Enjoy these excellent pleasures, great sage, 
we worship you ! (16) 

1 Clothes, perfumes, ornaments, women, and beds : 
enjoy these pleasures, friend, we worship you! (17) 

'All the vows which you, holy man, have kept 
while a monk, are compatible with your living in 
a house. (18) 

4 It will be no sin, for you have wandered about 
long (enough).' In this way they try to tempt him, 
as men decoy a pig with wild rice. (19) 

Weak men who are exhorted to live as monks, 
but who are unable to practise control, break down 
like weak (bullocks carrying a heavy burden) 
uphill. (20) 

Unable to practise the rough (i.e. control), and 
harassed by the austerities, weak men break down, 
like old oxen in going uphill. (21) 

When men who are greedy, attached to women, 
and who love pleasures, are tempted in the way 
described above, they return to their houses. (22) 

Thus I say. 

Third Chapter. 

As at the time of the battle the coward looks 
behind him for a ditch, thicket, or other hiding-place 1 , 
(thinking that) nobody knows who will win ; (1) 

1 Nflma = praAMannam, giriguhadikam. 

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266 sOtrakk/tAnga. 

'A moment's moment will bring the decision 1 ; 
when we lose, we shall fly.' Thus thinks the 
coward. (2) 

So some .5rama»as, knowing themselves to be 
weak, have recourse to worldly sciences 2 when they 
see that they will suffer want. (3) 

(They say) : ' Who knows what will cause my loss 
of sanctity, women or water ? When we are ques- 
tioned, we shall speak out (i. e. show our knowledge). 
We have no (other) resource (in case of need) ! ' (4) 

They are cautious, like those who look out for 
a ditch, &c. Those who doubt (their ability for 
control) are like men ignorant of the way. (5) 

But famous warriors, leaders of heroes at the time 
of the battle, do not look behind them ; (they think) 
what if all end with death ? (6) 

A monk who exerts himself in a similar way, 
should slip off the ties that bind him to his house. 
Putting aside all undertakings, he should wander 
about for the welfare of his soul. (7) 

Some revile a monk who leads a holy life. But 
these revilers are far off from perfection 8 . (8) 

(The revilers say), ' You live just as the laymen 
do, being attached to one another, for (e.g.) you beg 
alms for a sick man and give it him. (9) 

'Therefore you still have an attachment, being 
obedient to the will of one another ; you have not 
the purity produced by the right path, and have not 
got beyond the Circle of Births.' (10) 

Now a monk who knows (the truth about) M6ksha 

1 Literally, a moment of a moment of moments will be such. 
' As grammar, astrology, medicine, &c. 

* Samahi, explained mdksha, compare first note in the Tenth 

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should answer them 1 : 'You speak thus, wavering 
between two ways of life (viz. that of householders 
and monks), (n) 

' You eat out of the vessels 2 (of householders, 
and make them) bring food for a sick brother ; you 
eat seeds and drink cold water 8 , and what has been 
especially prepared (for you when sick). (12) 

' You are infected by great faults, you are void of 
discrimination, and your resolutions are bad. It is 
not good to scratch a wound too much, for it will 
grow worse 4 .' (13) 

They should be instructed in the truth by one who 
knows it and is free from passions 6 : ' Yours is not 
the right way, you speak and act without con- 
sideration. (14) 

' This your talk is weak, like the top of a bamboo, 
(when you say: a sick brother) may eat the food 
brought by a householder, but not that brought by 
a monk! (15) 

'(And when you say that) our religious precepts 
are wholesome only for householders (not for monks, 
we reply that our prophet had) no such (inconsistent) 
ideas when he taught (his Law).' (16) 

When (these heretics) cannot prove (their asser- 
tion) by any arguments they give up the discussion, 
and fall back on their bold (assertion). (17) 

1 According to 5ilahka the A^ivikas or the Digambaras are 

* For these heretics carry the principle of absolute poverty so far 
as to reject even the use of almsbowls. 

* Bf^6daka. 

4 The meaning is that the overdoing of the principle of poverty 
is just as harmful as the scratching of a wound. 
Apat/inna = aprati^a, explained by ragadvSsharahita. 

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268 sutrakjwtAnga. 

Overcome by their passions and infected by 
untruth, (these men) have recourse to bad language, 
as the (savage) Tarikana 1 (when beaten) have re- 
course to their hills. (18) 

The argumentation of a monk whose mind is at 
rest 2 should possess many good qualities. He 
should proceed in such a way as not to exasperate 
his opponent. (19) 

Following this Law which has been proclaimed 
by the Kajyapa, a sound monk should carefully 
attend a sick brother. (20) 

Knowing the beautiful Law, a wise and thoroughly 
restrained monk should bear all hardships and 
wander about till he reaches final liberation. (21) 

Thus I say. 

Fourth Chapter. 

Some say that in old times great men, rich in 
religious penance, have reached perfection though 
they drank (cold) water (and ate fruits and roots). 
Ignorant men (who hear such assertions) are led 
astray (by them). (1) 

' Nami, the king of Vid6ha, ate nothing, R&ma- 
gupta did eat, Bahuka drank (cold) water, and so did 
Taraga»a 3 , the seer. (2) 

'Asila, DSvala, the great sage Dvlp&yana, and 

1 This hill tribe lived somewhere in the north-east of Madhya- 
d&ra, see Petersburg Dictionary, s. v. 

' Attasamahie' = atmasamadhika. 

' Concerning Nami, see above, p. 35, note 2. Ramagupta may 
be another name of Rama. Instead of Taraga«a Stlanka writes 

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Parlsara did drink (cold) water, and did eat seeds 
and sprouts '. (3) 

' I have heard that in old times these renowned 
and well-known great men ate seeds and drank 
water, and have reached perfection.' (4) 

When weak (monks hear such assertions) they 
become disheartened, as donkeys break down under 
their burden ; in case of danger they retreat (and 
perish) like men who walk on crutches 2 . (5) 

Some 3 say: Pleasant things are produced from 
pleasant things 4 . (They are those who disdain) the 
noble path and the renowned highest good. (6) 

Do not, by disdaining it, lose much for the sake 
of little. If you do not give up this (wrong law), 
you will repent of it as the man did who carried iron 
(a long way) believing it to be silver. (7) 

(And so will) those who kill living beings, who do 
not abstain from untrue speech, who take what is 
not freely given them, who enjoy sexual pleasures, 
and who own property. (8) 

1 Asila is not known from other sources; perhaps Asita is 
meant, and Asila Devila stands for Asita Devala. Concerning 
Dvipayana, the Parajara, compare Journal of the German Oriental 
Society, vol. 42, p. 495. But in the Aupapatika Sutra (ed. Leumann, 
§ 76) Pardjara and Dvipayana are two distinct persons. 

* PfrfAasappt = piMasarpin. -Stlanka comments on the 
reading pi/Masappi, i.e. prish/asarpin; but he makes out no 
good meaning. 

' According to the commentators the Buddhists are intended. 
They quote some verses in illustration of the push/imarga of 
the Buddhists, one of which is not yet known I believe. It runs 
thus : mamuwam bh&yanzm bhuMa manutinam sayanasawaw I 
maminnamsi agarawsi manunna/n ^Myae mum II ' Having enjoyed 
a pleasant dinner, and a pleasant seat and bed, a mum in a pleasant 
house meditates on pleasant things.' 

4 Viz. Mdksha, a pleasant thing, is arrived at through a comfort- 
able life, another pleasant thing. 

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270 sutrakk/tAnga. 

Some unworthy heretics 1 , slaves of women, 
ignorant men who are averse to the Law of the 
£inas, speak thus : (9) 

'As the squeezing of a blister or boil (causes 
relief) for some time, (and has no dangerous con- 
sequences), so it is with (the enjoyment of) charming 
women. How could there be any sin in it ? (10) 

' As a ram drinks the quiet water 2 , so, &c. (the rest 
as in verse 10). (11) 

' As the bird Pinga 3 drinks the quiet water (flying), 
&c. (the rest as in verse 10).' (12) 

So say some unworthy heretics who entertain 
false doctrines, and who long for pleasures, as the 
ewe* for her kid. (13) 

Those who do not think of the future, but only 
enjoy the present, will repent of it afterwards when 
their life or their youth is gone. (14) 

But those who exert themselves at the proper 
time, feel no remorse afterwards ; these heroes who 
have got rid of their fetters, do not long for life. (1 5) 

As Vaitarawi, the river (of hell), is difficult to pass, 
so in this world women are to the unwise (a tempta- 
tion) difficult to overcome. (16) 

Those who have given up intercourse with women 

1 Pasattha = par*vastha. 

a The meaning seems to be that by the ram's drinking the water 
is not disturbed. 

* Explained by kapi^ala, the francoline partridge. 

* PuyanS (putana, who is ever desirous of young), explained 
either by .rakini 'hog' or ga</</arika 'ewe.' The commentators 
relate the following anecdote. In order to find out which animal 
loved its young ones best, their young ones were placed at the 
bottom of a well. Their mothers assembled round the brink and 
howled, but the ewe threw herself recklessly into the well. There- 
fore the ewe excels the other animals in maternal love. 

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and have left off adorning themselves, are well 
established in control, because they have renounced 
everything. (17) 

As merchants go over the sea, so they will cross 
the flood (of Sa*#sara), where living beings despond 
and suffer pains because of their own deeds. (18) 

A monk who knows this, will live as a virtuous 
man guarded by the Samitis ; he will abstain from 
untrue speech, and not take what is not freely given 
him. (19) 

He should cease to injure living beings whether 
they move or not, on high, below, and on earth. 
For this has been called the Nirvawa, which consists 
in peace 1 . (20) 

21, 22 = 1, 3, 3, 20 and 21. 

Thus I say. 



knowledge of women. 

First Chapter. 

A monk who has left his mother and father and 
all worldly ties, (determines) to walk about alone 
and wise, to abstain from sexual pleasures, and to 
ask for a secluded place (where to lodge). (1) 

1 See below, I, 11, 11. 

* This whole adhyayana is composed in the archaic form of 
Arya, of which I have treated at length in the thirty-eighth volume 
of the Journal of the German Oriental Society, p. 594. The same 
metre occurs also in the Suttanipata of the Buddhists (ed. Fausboll, 
26 f., i7off.), a fact which I was not aware of when I wrote the 
paper just referred to. 

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272 sutrakk/tAnga. 

With clever pretences women make up to him, 
however foolish they be ; they know how to contrive 
that some monks will become intimate with them. (2) 

They will often sit down at his side ; they always 
put on fine clothes ; they will show him the lower 
part of their body, and the armpit, when lifting up 
their arms, so that he will follow them about. (3) 

And occasionally a woman 1 will tempt him to 
a comfortable couch or bed. But he should know 
these things to be as many traps under various 
disguises. (4) 

He should not look at them, nor should he consent 
to anything inconsiderate, nor walk together with 
them ; thus he will well guard himself. (5) 

Inviting a monk and winning his confidence, they 
offer themselves to him. But he should know, and 
fly from these temptations 2 in their various forms. (6) 

Meekly and politely they approach him with their 
manifold arts to win his heart ; and talking sweetly 
in confidential conversation they make him do (what 
they like). (7) 

As (men by baiting) with a piece of flesh a fearless 
single lion get him into a trap, so women may 
capture an ascetic though he be careful. (8) 

And then they make him do what they like, even 
as a wheelwright gradually turns the felly of a wheel. 
As an antelope caught in a snare, so he does not get 
out of it, however he struggles. (9) 

Afterwards he will feel remorse like one who has 
drunk milk mixed with poison ; considering the 

1 The original has the plural itthid, but the metre requires 
ittht in the singular. 

1 Literally ' sounds,' which stands for objects of the senses in 

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consequences, a worthy monk should have no inter- 
course with women. (10) 

Therefore he should avoid women, knowing them 
to be like a poisoned thorn. He is no Nirgrantha 
who without companion (goes into) houses, being 
a slave (to passion) and preaches (his religion), (n) 

Those who are attached to this sinful (intercourse) 
must be reckoned among the wicked. Even a monk 
who practises severe austerities should avoid the 
company of women. (12) 

A monk should have no intercourse with his 
daughters and daughters-in-law, with nurses or 
female slaves, or with grown-up girls. (13) 

When the relations and friends see (the intimacy 
of a monk with a girl), they become angry (saying) : 
' All creatures love pleasures ; you are a man, protect 
and support her.' (14) 

But some become angry even when they see an 
innocent .Sramawa, and suspect the fidelity of their 
wives because of the dishes they serve up 1 . (15) 

Those who have intercourse with (women) have 
already ceased to practise meditation ; 6rama«as, 
therefore, for the benefit of their souls, do not go to 
the apartments (of women). (16) 

Though many leave the house, some (of them) 
arrive but at a middling position (between house- 
holder and monk) ; they merely talk of the path to 
perfection. The force of sinners is talking. (17) 

In the assembly he pronounces holy (words), yet 
secretly he commits sins ; but the wise know him to 
be a deceiver and great rogue. (18) 

1 There is a saying in German : Eine verliebte KOchin versalzt 
den Brei, 'a cook in love spoils the soup.' The commentators 
put different constructions on the last part of the sentence. 
[45] T 

Digitized by 


274 sOtrakk/tAnga. 

The sinner does not confess his wrong, but rather 
boasts of it when reprimanded. Though he is ad- 
monished not to act as most men do, he becomes 
weak again and again. (19) 

Some men of great intelligence who perform their 
duties as supporters of women, get into their power, 
though they be well acquainted with the Stri- 
vdda 1 . (20) 

(The adulterers') hands and feet are cut off, their 
skin and flesh are torn off, they are roasted alive, and 
acid is poured into their wounds. (21) 

Their ears and nose are cut off, and their throats 
cut ; (all this) they will suffer, but though suffering 
here for their sins they will not promise not to do 2 
the same again. (22) 

All this some have learned, and it has been well 
demonstrated in the Strlv£da. Though (people) 
know it, they do wrong (impelled) by Karman. (23) 

One man (women) have in their heart, another in 
their words, and another still in their actions. 
Therefore a monk should not trust women, knowing 
that they are full of deceit. (24) 

A young woman, putting on fine ornaments and 
clothes, will say to a .Sramawa : ' I shall give up (my 
former way of life) and practise the rough (viz. 
control). Reverend sir, teach me the Law!' (25) 

Or by professing herself a lay-disciple and co- 
religionist of the .Sramawas, (she will try to make 
a friend of him). As a pot filled with lac (will melt) 

1 I. e. Kamajastra, or rather the part of it treating on courtezans, 
Vawika, that had been composed by Dattaka. He is mentioned 
by the commentators in an anecdote they relate ad v. 24. 

1 The original has kihinti ' they will do;' it must be kaham ti 
' I shall do.' 

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near the fire, so even a wise (monk) will fall through 
intercourse with women. (26) 

A pot filled with lac thrown into the fire melts 
quickly and is destroyed ; so monks are lost through 
intercourse with women. (27) 

Some commit sins (with a girl), but when ques- 
tioned about it, they say: ' I have done no sin ; she 
only slept in my lap (like my daughter).' (28) 

This is a second folly of the sinner that he 
obstinately denies what he has done. He commits 
a twofold sin, since, for the sake of his reputation, 
he falls again 1 . (29) 

(Some women) will say, by way of invitation, to 
a good-looking, self-knowing monk: ' Holy man, 
accept a robe, an almsbowl, food or drink (at our 
house)!' (30) 

He should regard their words like wild rice 2 , and 
should not desire to call at (their) house ; for a fool 
who is bound in the fetters of sensuality will be 
subject to delusion again and again. (31) 

Thus I say. 

Second Chapter. 

A monk, living single 3 , should not fall in love ; 
if he loves pleasures, he should again become in- 
different. Now hear the pleasures of *Srama#as, 
which some monks enjoy. (1) 

When a monk breaks the law, dotes (on a woman), 
and is absorbed by that passion, she afterwards 

1 Visa««6si. Visha«»a is explained asawyama. 

• Wherewith pigs are decoyed, see above, p. 265, verse 19. 

* OS = fikaA, explained : free from love and hate. 

T 2 

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276 sOtrakjwtanga. 

scolds him 1 , lifts her foot, and tramples on his 
head. (2) 

' O monk, if you will not live with me as a woman 
who has still her hair, I shall tear it out ; but do not 
live separated from me.' (3) 

But when they have captured him, they send him 
on all sorts of errands 2 : 'Look (for the bodkin to) 
carve the bottle-gourd 3 , fetch some nice fruit. (4) 

' (Bring) wood to cook the vegetables, or that we 
may light a fire at night ; paint my feet *, come and 
meanwhile rub my back! (5) 

' Look after my clothes, bring food and drink, get 
me some perfume, a broom, a barber 5 (to shave my 
head)! (6) 

' Give me the collyrium-box, my ornaments, the 
lute, Lddhra-powder «, a Lddhra-flower, the Ve#u- 
palasika-lute \ a pill ! (7) 

'A Utpalakush/a 8 , Tagara 9 -powder, and aloe 
pounded together with Urira 10 , oil for anointing the 

1 Paribhindiyana = paribhidya. 

* The following verses are interesting as they afford us a glimpse 
of a Hindu household some 2,000 years ago. We find here 
a curious list of domestic furniture and other things of com- 
mon use. 

* AlabuiiAe^a = alabui>iA6dam pippalakadi jastram. 
4 Or, scour my pots. 

8 Kisavaga = kijyapa, explained napita. The word is 
probably derived from the root kash 'to scrape.' According to 
5!lahka verses 5-6 refer to things used by monks and nuns. 

* Symplocos Racemosa, the bark of which is used in dyeing. 

7 This is a thin piece of bamboo or bark held between the teeth 
and with the left hand, and played by the right hand just like 
aVM. (.STlahka.) 

8 Probably Costus Speciosus. * Tabernaemontana Coronaria. 
10 Andropogon Muricatus. 

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face, baskets of bamboo wickerwork to put my 
things in! (8) 

' Reach me the lip-salve, fetch the umbrella and 
slippers, the knife to cut the string, have my robe 
dyed bluish ! (9) 

'Give me the pot to cook the vegetables in, 
Myrobalans *, the jar to fetch water in, the stick to 
paint the mark upon the forehead, the pin to apply 
collyrium (to the eyelids), or the fan when it is 
hot! (10) 

' Fetch me the pincers 2 , the comb, the ribbon to 
bind up the hair, reach me the looking-glass, put 
the tooth-brush near me ! (n) 

' Fetch me areca-nut and betel, needle and thread, 
the chamber-pot, the winnowing basket, the mortar, 
the pot for liquefying natron 8 ! (12) 

'Give me the vessel (used in worshipping the 
gods 4 ), the water-pot. Friend, dig a privy. Fetch 
the bow for our son, the bullock for the 6rama- 
wera! (13) 

' The small pot, the drum, and the ball of cloth 
for the boy (to play with). .Srama»a, the rainy 
season is at hand, look after the house and the 
stores! (14) 

' (Fetch) the chair with woven twine seat 6 , the 
wooden shoes • to walk on !' Pregnant women order 

1 They are used in bathing. 

* To tear out the hair growing in the nose. 

* Used in India instead of soap for cleaning linen. 

4 A'andalaka, a copper vessel used in worship. The name 
was current in Mathura at the time when Silanka wrote or the 
author from whose work he copied this remark. 

* See Grierson, Bihar Peasant Life, § 632. 

* Paulla; either the wooden sandals or slippers made of 
Miujfai grass. 

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2 78 stiTRAKH/TANGA. 

their husbands about like slaves to fulfil their 
craving. (15) 

When a son, the reward (of their wedded life), is 
born, (the mother bids the father) to hold the baby, 
or to give it her. Thus some supporters of their 
sons have to carry burdens like camels. (16) 

Getting up in the night they lull the baby asleep 1 
like nurses ; and though they are ashamed of them- 
selves, they wash the clothes like washermen 2 . (17) 

This has been done by many men who for the sake 
of pleasures have stooped so low ; they become the 
equals of slaves, animals, servants, beasts of burden — 
mere nobodies. (18) 

One should not mind the entreaties of women, 
but abstain from their friendship and company. 
These pleasures which are derived therefrom are 
called causes of blamable actions. (19) 

Restraining himself by the thought that these 
dangerous (pleasures) will not be to his benefit, 
a monk should abstain from women, and commit no 
unnatural crime 3 . (20) 

A wise and learned monk whose soul is in a pure 
condition (Le\sya), will abstain from doing work for 
others ; in thoughts, words, and actions he will bear 
all troubles. (21) 

The hero (of faith) who has vanquished sin and 
delusion, has said all this. A monk, therefore, whose 
soul is pure (and free from sins) should wander about 
till he reaches final liberation. (22) 

Thus I say. 

1 Sil&tika. gives a specimen of a lullaby without meaning and metre. 

* Hawisa, explained ra^aka. 

9 No itthi/» no pasum bhikkhu no sayapamwa' niliggeggi. 

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description of the hells. 

First Chapter. 

I once asked the K£va1in, the great sage 1 : 
What is the punishment in the hells ? Knowing it, 
O sage, tell it me who do not know it ! How do 
sinners go to hell ? (i) 

When I thus questioned the illustrious Ka^yapa, 
the omniscient one 2 spoke as follows : I shall 
describe the truly insupportable pains where there 
is distress and (the punishment of) evil deeds. (2) 

Those cruel sinners who, from a desire of (worldly) 
life, commit bad deeds, will sink into the dreadful 
hell which is full of dense darkness and great 
suffering. (3) 

He who always kills movable and immovable 
beings for the sake of his own comfort, who injures 
them, who takes what is not freely given, who does 
not learn what is to be practised (viz. control) ; (4) 

The impudent sinner, who injures many beings 
without relenting 3 , will go to hell ; at the end of 
his life he will sink to the (place of) darkness ; head 
downwards he comes to the place of torture. (5) 

They hear the cries of the punishers : Beat, cut, 

1 I. e. Mah&vfra. Sudharman speaks to Gambusvamin. 
* Asupanna = a*upra£7?a 'quickly comprehending.' I usually 
render this word ' intelligent,' when it is used of common monks. 
5 Anivvufi = anirvritaA. 

Digitized by 


280 stiTRAKK/TAtfGA. 

split, burn him ! The prisoners in hell lose their 
senses from fright, and do not know in what di- 
rection to run. (6) 

Going to a place like a burning heap of coals on 
fire, and being burnt they cry horribly; they remain 
there long, shrieking aloud. (7) 

Have you heard of the horrible (river) Vaitara#t, 
whose cutting waves are like sharp razors l ? They 
cross the horrible Vaitara«l, being urged on by 
arrows, and wounded with spears. (8) 

The punishers pierce them with darts; they go 
in the boat, losing their memory; others pierce them 
with long pikes and tridents, and throw them on the 
ground. (9) 

Some, round whose neck big stones are tied, are 
drowned in deep water. Others again roll about in 
the Kadambavaluka (river) 2 or in burning chaff, and 
are roasted in it. (10) 

And they come to the great impassable hell, full 
of agony, called Asurya (i. e. where the sun does not 
shine), where there is great darkness, where fires, 
placed above, below, and all around, are blazing. (1 1) 

There, as in a cave, being roasted on the fire, he 
is burned, having lost the reminiscence (of his sins) 
and consciousness of everything else; always suf- 
fering (he comes) to that miserable hot place that 
is ever ready (for the punishment of evildoers) 8 . (12) 

1 .Silinka says that the water of this river is alkali and hot 
blood ; compare Uttaradhyayana XIX, 59, above p. 95. 

* See the note on Uttaradhyayana XIX, 50, above p. 94, note 1. 

' The last two lines recur in verse 21 with the only difference 
that there kasinam stands for kalu«aw in this place; yet the 
commentators offer a different explanation in the second place. 
In my translation I follow their interpretation both times. 

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There the cruel punishers have lighted four fires, 
and roast the sinners ; they are roasted there like 
fishes put on the fire alive. (13) 

The prisoners in hell come to the dreadful place 
called Santakshawa 1 (i.e. cutting), where the cruel 
punishers tie their hands and feet, and with axes in 
their hands cut them like wooden planks. (14) 

And they turn the writhing victims round, and 
stew them, like living fishes, in an iron caldron 
filled with their own blood, their limbs covered 
with ordure, their heads smashed. (15) 

They are not reduced to ashes there, and they 
do not die of their enormous pains ; undergoing this 
punishment 2 , the miserable men suffer for their 
misdeeds. (16) 

And there in the place, where there is constant 
shivering, they resort to a large burning fire ; but 
they find no relief in that place of torture ; the 
tormentors torture them still 8 . (17) 

There is heard everywhere the noise of painfully 
uttered cries even as in the street of a town. Those 
whose bad Karman takes effect (viz. the punishers), 
violently torment again and again those whose bad 
Karman takes effect also (viz. the punished). (18) 

They deprive the sinner of his life ; I shall truly 
tell you how this is done. The wicked (punishers) 
remind by (similar) punishment (their victims) of all 
sins they had committed in a former life 4 . (19) 

Being killed they are thrown into a hell which is 

1 Here and in similar places the commentators do not take the 
word as a proper name, but as an epithet. 

* Anubhaga. 

* Or, with burning fire they roast them. 

4 See UttarSdhyayana XIX, 69 ff., above p. 96. 

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282 sOtrakr/tanga. 

full of boiling filth. There they stay eating filth, 
and they are eaten by vermin. (20) 

And there is an always crowded, hot place, which 
men deserve for their great sins, and which is full 
of misery 1 . (The punishers) put them in shackles, 
beat their bodies, and torment them (by perforating) 
their skulls with drills. (21) 

They cut off the sinner's nose with a razor, they 
cut off both his ears and lips ; they pull out his tongue 
a span's length and torment (him by piercing it) 
with sharp pikes. (22) 

There the sinners dripping (with blood) whine 
day and night even as the dry leaves of a palm-tree 
(agitated by the wind). Their blood, matter, and 
flesh are dropping off while they are roasted, their 
bodies being besmeared with natron. (23) 

Have you heard of the large, erected caldron of 
more than man's size, full of blood and matter, 
which is extremely heated by a fresh fire, in which 
blood and matter are boiling ? (24) 

The sinners are thrown into it and boiled there, 
while they utter horrid cries of agony; they are 
made to drink molten lead and copper when they 
are thirsty, and they shriek still more horribly. (25) 

Those evildoers who have here forfeited their 
souls' (happiness) for the sake of small (pleasures), 
and have been born in the lowest births during 
hundred thousands of ' former years,' will stay in 
this (hell). Their punishment will be adequate to 
their deeds. (26) 

The wicked who have committed crimes will 

1 Compare note on verse 1 2. The same lines recur in the next 
chapter, verse 13. The commentator gives the same explanation 
there as here. 

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atone for them, deprived of all pleasant and lovely 
objects, by dwelling in the stinking crowded hell, 
a scene of pain, which is full of flesh (&c). (27) 
Thus I say. 

Second Chapter. 

I shall now truly tell you another kind of perpetual 
suffering, how the sinners who have committed crimes 
suffer for the deeds they have done in their former 
lives. (1) 

Tying their hands and feet the (punishers) cut 
open their belly with razors and knives ; taking hold 
of the mangled body of the sinner, they forcibly tear 
the skin off his back. (2) 

They cut off his arms at the armpits ; they force 
his mouth wide open and scald it; they yoke the 
sinner to a car and drive him, and growing angry x 
they pierce his back with a goad. (3) 

The (sinners) walk over ground burning and 
glowing like red-hot iron; scorched they shriek 
horribly, being urged on with arrows 2 and put to 
a red-hot yoke. (4) 

The sinners are driven over slippery ground 
which is like a road of red-hot iron ; in this dread- 
ful place (the ministers of hell) make them go 
forward like slaves (beating them) with sticks. (5) 

Proceeding in this intolerable (hell) they are 
crushed by rocks tumbling down. There is the 

1 Arussa = arushya, here and in a similar passage (verse 15) 
the commentators explain it, 'making him angry, exasperating 
him.' They have misunderstood raha/nsi in the second line, 
rendering it rahasi; it is of course = rathfi. 

* Usu = ishu, explained by SravuSsha ' a kind of awl.' 

Digitized by 


284 sCtrmcr/tAnga. 

(caldron) Santapant 1 , where evildoers suffer for a 
long time. (6) 

They throw the sinners into caldrons and boil 
them ; scalded they rise thence again ; devilish 
crows 2 feed on them and (so do) other beasts having 
claws devour them. (7) 

There is a place of smokeless fire in the form of 
a pile 8 where (the sinners) greatly distressed shriek 
horribly; head downwards they are lacerated and 
cut into pieces with iron knives. (8) 

Tied up and skinned they are devoured by steel- 
nebbed birds ; it is the hell called S&mgtvanl, where 
life is long, and where men of an evil mind are 
tortured. (9) 

The (punishers) pierce them with sharp pikes as 
people do with a captured pig. Transfixed by a pike 
the (sinners) shriek horribly ; suffering both (bodily 
and mentally) they feel nothing but pains. (10) 

There is a great place always on fire, where fires 
burn without fuel ; there for a long time stay the 
evildoers shrieking aloud. (11) 

Setting on fire large piles, they thrust into 
them (a sinner) who will cry horribly; as butter 
thrown in the fire melts, so does the evildoer 
there. (12) 

And there is an always crowded, hot place which 
one deserves for one's great sins, and which is full 
of misery. There (the punishers) tie (the sinner's) 

1 Or, it is (the hell) called Santapanf. My translation in the 
text agrees with -STl&nka's interpretation. 

1 Compare Uttaradhyayana XIX, 58, p. 95. 

* Samusiyaw* nama. This might also be rendered, 'called 
SamuAAjirita.' But the commentators do not take samusiya for 
a proper name. 

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hands and feet, and belabour him with sticks like an 
enemy. (13) 

They break the sinner's back with a weapon, and 
smash his skull with iron clubs ; their bodies are split 
and sawn like a plank; and tortured with red-hot 
awls (the sinners) are subjected (to cruelties). (14) 

Cruel evildoers \ urged on with arrows, and put 
to work (by the punishers), carry burdens in the 
way of elephants ; two or three (punishers) get on 
one (victim) and growing angry 2 hurt his vital 
parts. (15) 

The sinners are driven over the large, slippery, 
and thorny ground ; tightly bound with straps 3 they 
lose their senses ; the revenging (punishers) cut 
them into pieces 4 , and throw them about like a 
bali-sacrifice. (16) 

There is a dreadful mountain towering high up 
in the air, called Vaitalika 6 , where the evildoers are 
tortured for more than a thousand hours. (17) 

Tortured, the sinners shriek, suffering day and 
night ; in this horrid, great hell, which is full of 
implements of torture, they are put to a cruel 
death. (18) 

Full of wrath, like their enemies in a former life, 

1 Ruddaasihukammi = raudra-asadhu-karm&sa/i. Si- 
lanka thinks that the ministers of hell are meant ; but then the 
verse will not construe. 

* See note on verse 3. 

1 VivaddhatappShi*, in a marginal gloss, explained: 
baddhva £armabandhanaiA. But it might also be vivr*'ddhata- 
paiA ' under increased tortures.' 

4 Ko//a = ku/ayitva. 

• VStaliya. The commentators render it vaikriy a 'produced 
by magic,' and moreover explain the word as an epithet, not as 
a proper name. 

Digitized by 


286 sOtrakjwtASga. 

(the punishers) crush them with hammers and clubs. 
With mangled bodies, and vomiting blood, they 
fall to the ground, head foremost. (19) 

There are the ever hungry 1 , savage, always 
wrathful, great jackals by whom the evildoers 
bound with shackles are devoured. (20) 

There is the dreadful, slimy river, which is always 
flowing and full of molten iron ; in this very dreadful 
river (the sinners) must descend one by one 2 . (21) 

These pains are suffered without interruption by 
the sinner who stays there for a long time. There 
is no escape from the torture ; he must, himself and 
alone, suffer the pains. (22) 

Whatever cruelty he has done in a former birth, 
the same will be inflicted on him in the Circle 
of Births. Having been born in an extremely 
miserable state of life, the sufferer experiences in- 
finite pain. (23) 

A wise man hearing of these hells should not kill 
any living being in the whole world ; believing in 
true doctrines and renouncing all property he should 
know the world, but not become a slave to it. (24) 

Knowing the endless Circle of Births s with regard 
to animals, men, and gods, and the reward they will 
get ; knowing all this, (a wise man) should wait for 
his decease, practising meanwhile self-control. (25) 

Thus I say. 

1 Awasiya, ana sit&h. This might also be taken as the name 
of the jackals. 

* Egayata, explained 6kakina/5. 
3 A'auranta. 

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»Srama»as and Brihma«as, householders and here- 
tics, have asked (me) : Who is he that proclaimed 
this unrivalled truly wholesome Law, which was (put 
forward) with true knowledge 1 ? (i) 

What was the knowledge, what the faith, and 
what the conduct of the Gn&trtputra. ? If you know 
it truly, O monk, tell us as you have heard it, as it 
was told you ! (2) 

This wise and clever great sage possessed infinite 
knowledge and infinite faith. Learn and think about 
the Law and the piety of the glorious man who lived 
before our eyes 2 ! (3) 

This wise man had explored all beings, whether 
they move or not, on high, below, and on earth, as 
well as the eternal and transient things. Like a 
lamp he put the Law in a true light. (4) 

He sees everything; his knowledge has got be- 
yond (the four lower stages) 8 ; he has no impurity ; 
he is virtuous, of a fixed mind, the highest, the 

1 The question is supposed to be addressed by Gambusvamin 
to Sudharman. 

s A'akkhupahe /Aiyassa = £akshu^path& sthitasya, 
literally, 'who stood (or stands) in the path of the eyes.' We 
are scarcely entitled to infer from this phrase that the author had 
actually seen Mah&vira as tradition would make us believe. 

' Abhibhuya-na«t. Concerning the five stages or kinds of 
knowledge, see above, p. 152. The K&vala knowledge is intended. 

Digitized by 


288 sOtrakjwtAnga. 

wisest in the whole world ; he has broken from all 
ties ; he is above danger and the necessity to 
continue life 1 . (5) 

Omniscient, wandering about without a home, 
crossing the flood (of the Sawsara), wise, and of 
an unlimited perception, without an equal, he shines 
forth (or he does penance) like the sun, and he 
illumines the darkness like a brilliant fire. (6) 

The omniscient 2 sage, Kasyapa, has proclaimed 
this highest Law of the <7inas ; he, the illustrious 
one, is prominent (among men) like the thousand- 
eyed Indra among the gods of heaven. (7) 

His knowledge is inexhaustible like the (water 
of the) sea ; he has no limits and is pure like the 
great ocean ; he is free from passion, unfettered, and 
brilliant like .Sakra, the lord of the gods. (8) 

By his vigour he is the most vigorous ; as 
Sudarjana (M£ru), the best of all mountains, or 
as heaven, a very mine of delight, he shines forth 
endowed with many virtues. (9) 

(M£ru) a hundred thousand yd^anas high, with 
three tiers 3 , with the Pa/afega (-wood) as its flag, 
rising ninety-nine thousand yo^anas above the 
ground, and reaching one thousand below it; (10) 

It touches the sky and is immersed in the earth ; 
round it revolve the suns 4 ; it has the colour of 
gold, and contains many Nandana (parks) 5 ; on it 
the Mah6ndras enjoy themselves. (1 1) 

1 To render an&yu^. 

* Asupanna = djupra^fla, literally, 'quickly witted;' the word 
is usually explained by k&valin. 

3 Ka*</aka, one of stone, one of gold, and one of turquoise. 

4 As is well known the Camas assume a plurality of suns. 

6 The names of these four parks are, according to the com- 

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This mountain is distinguished by (many) names ; 
it has the colour of burnished gold ; it is the greatest 
of all mountains, difficult to ascend on account of its 
rocks ; this excellent mountain is like a part of the 
earth on fire. ( 1 2) 

The king of mountains, standing in the centre of 
the earth, is seen in a pure light l like that of the 
sun. With such beauty shines forth this many- 
coloured, lovely (mountain), which is crowned with 
radiance. (13) 

Thus is described the glory of mount Sudarcana, 
the great mountain ; similar to it is the 
Gn&trtputra, who is noble, glorious, full of faith, 
knowledge, and virtue. (14) 

As Nishadha 2 is the best of long-stretched 
mountains, and Ru^aka of circular ones, so is he 
(Mahavlra) among sages the wisest in the world, ac- 
cording to the declaration of the wise ones. (15) 

After having taught the highest Law he practised 
the highest contemplation 3 , which is the purest of 
pure, pure without a flaw,' thoroughly white (as it 
were) like mother-of-pearl and the moon. (16) 

Having annihilated all his Karman, the great 
sage by his knowledge, virtue, and faith reached 

mentary, .Salavana, Nandanavana, Saumanasavana, and Pa»</aka 
(or Pa«rfuka) vana. The first is at the foot of Meru, the second 
500 yo^anas above it, the third 62,000 above the second, and the 
fourth 36,000 above the last, i. e. at the very top. 

1 Suddha-lessfi =juddhal6jya. Here 16 sy& is equal to 

1 Nishadha and Ruiaka are two fabulous chains of mountains 
situated beyond Gkmbudvipa. 

* This is the jukla dhyana. As sukla, which I translate 
'pure,' originally means 'white,' the comparison with the moon 
is natural in the original. 

[45] U 

Digitized by 


290 sOtraicwtAAga. 

the insurpassable, highest perfection, a state which 
has a beginning but no end. (17) 

As the .Salmali, in which the Suparrca 1 gods 
take their delight, is most famous among trees, 
as Nandana is among parks, so is the Omni- 
scient most famous through his knowledge and 
virtue. (18) 

As thunder is the loudest of sounds, as the moon 
is the most glorious of heavenly bodies, as sandal is 
the best of perfumes, so of monks is he who 
had renounced all wishes or plans. (19) 

As (the ocean on which sleeps) Svayambhu is the 
best of seas, as Dhara#£ndra is the best of Nagas, 
as the juice of sugarcane is, as it were, the flag 
of juices, so is he (Mahavlra) the flag of monks 
by his austerities. (20) 

As Airavawa is the best of elephants, the lion 
of beasts, Ganga of rivers, as Ganu/a, V£«ud£va 2 , 
is the best of birds, so is Gn&triputra. the best of 
those who have taught the Nirvi«a. (21) 

As Vishvaks£na 3 is the most famous of warriors, 
as the lotus is the best of flowers, as Dantavakra 
is the best of Kshattriyas, so Vardhamana is the 
best of sages. (22) 

As giving safety is the best of gifts, as the best 
of true speeches is that which causes no dis- 

1 They belong to the Bhavanapatis, see above, p. 225. 

* The commentator says that Vemideva is another name of 
Garu<fe. VeV/u stands perhaps for ve«hu = vishnu; but I do 
not know that Ganufc ever was directly identified with Vishmi. 

s Visasfina. VishvaksSna is a name of Kr/'sh«a. The 
commentators make VLrvas£na of Visasewa, and seem to take it 
as a synonym of lakravartin or universal monarch. Dantavakra is 
mentioned in my ' Ausgewahlte Erzahlungen,' p. 35, line 36. 

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tress, as chastity is the highest of austerities, so is 
the .Srama»a G^afrrputra the highest of men. (23) 

As the Lavasaptamas l are the highest of those 
gods who live very long, as the palace Saudharman 
is the best of heavenly abodes, as Nirva«a is the 
chief object of the Law, so there is no wiser man 
than Gn&trtputra. (24) 

He (bears everything) like the earth ; he annihi- 
lates (his Karman) ; he is free from greed ; he, the 
Omniscient, does not keep store (of anything) ; he 
has crossed the ocean of life like the sea : he, the 
Hero, who grants protection to all, and whose per- 
ception is infinite. (25) 

Having conquered the passions which defile the 
soul : wrath, pride, deceit, and greed, the Arhat, 
the great sage, does not commit any wrong, nor does 
he cause it to be committed. (26) 

He understood the doctrines of the Kriyavadins, 
of the Akriyavadins, of the Vainayikas, and of the 
Kg »anavadins 2 ; he had mastered all philosophical 
systems, and he practised control as long as he 
lived. (27) 

He abstained 3 from women, and from eating at 
night, he practised austerities for the removal of 
pain, he knew this world and that beyond ; the lord 
renounced 3 everything at every time. (28) 

Having heard and believing in the Law, which 

1 The commentator identifies them with the fifth class of 
Anuttara gods (see Uttaradhyayana XXXVI, 215, above p. 227), 
and explains the name by saying ' if they lived seven lavas longer, 
they would reach perfection.' 

* Concerning these four principal heresies see note on Uttara- 
dhyayana XVIII, 23, above p. 83. 

* Variya, literally 'forbade.' 

U 2 

Digitized by 


292 sutrakr/tanga. 

has been proclaimed and taught by the Arhat, 
and has been demonstrated with arguments, people 
will either make an end of their mundane exist- 
ence, or they will become like Indra, the king of 
gods. (29) 
Thus I say. 



Earth, water, fire, wind; grass, trees, and corn; 
and the movable beings, (viz.) the oviparous, vivi- 
parous, those generated from dirt, and those gene- 
rated in fluids 1 ; (1) 

These classes (of living beings) have been declared 
(by the G'mas) ; know and understand that they 
(all desire) happiness; by (hurting) these beings 
(men) do harm to their own souls, and will again 
and again be born as one of them. (2) 

Every being born high or low in the scale of 
the living creation, among movable and immovable 
beings, will meet with its death. Whatever sins the 
evildoer commits in every birth, for them he must 
die 2 . (3) 

1 The last two classes are, according to the commentators, 
(1) lice, bugs, &c. ; (2) beings like cotton threads in thick milk, 
sour barley gruel, &c. Apparently vibrios are meant. 

s Mi^ati =mfyatg. Another rendering offered by .Sflanka 
is ' he will be filled (by Karman).' 

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In this world or in the next (the sinners suffer 
themselves what they have inflicted on other beings), 
a hundred times, or (suffer) other punishment. Living 
in the Sa*»sara they ever acquire new Karman, and 
suffer for their misdeeds. (4) 

Some leave their mother and father to live as 
■Sramattas, but they use fire; (the prophet) says: 
' People are wicked who kill beings for the sake 
of their own pleasure.' (5) 

He who lights a fire, kills living beings ; he who 
extinguishes it, kills the fire. Therefore a wise 
man who well considers the Law, should light no 
fire. (6) 

Earth contains life, and water contains life; 
jumping (or flying) insects fall in (the fire) ; dirt- 
born vermin 1 (and beings) living in wood : all these 
beings are burned by lighting a fire. (7) 

Sprouts are beings possessed of natural develop- 
ment 2 , their bodies (require) nourishment, and all 
have their individual life. Reckless men who cut 
them down out of regard for their own pleasure, 
destroy many living beings. (8) 

By destroying seeds, when young or grown up, 
a careless man does harm to his own soul. (The 
prophet) says : ' People are wicked who destroy seeds 
for the sake of their own pleasure.' (9) 

1 Viz. insects originated in dung, &c. used as fuel. 

* Vilambaga; the commentators in explanation of this word 
say that plants, like men, go through all states of development, 
youth, ripe age, old age, &c. I think vilambaga is derived from 
vi</ambaka, they imitate (the development of animals). For if 
I understand .Silaftka aright, a plant contains a great many bhutas 
or beings, each localised in a certain part of the plant, as roots, &c. 
This is, according to him, the meaning of pu<M6siya»i, rendered 
in the text ' have their individual life.' 

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294 sCtrakjwtAnga. 

Men die as embryos, or as babies who do not yet 
talk, or who do so already; other men, as boys 
wearing five tufts of hair 1 , or as youths, or in middle 
age: at the expiration of their life all leave the 
body and die. (10) 

Wake up, men! If we look at the dangers 
(to which he is exposed) a fool has not much 
chance to obtain human birth ; always suffering like 
men in fever, people will go to utter misery, (u) 

Some say that perfection is reached by abstaining 
from the seasoner of food (viz. salt) 2 , others by the 
use of cold water (i.e. by ablutions) 3 , others again 
by (tending) a fire 4 . (12) 

Perfection is not reached by bathing in the morn- 
ing, nor by abstention from acids and salt ; but by 
drinking liquor or eating meat or garlic men obtain 
another state of existence (than perfection). (13) 

Those who, touching water in the morning and 
evening, contend that perfection is obtained through 
water (are easily refuted). For if perfection could 
be obtained by contact with water, many beings 
living in water must have reached perfection : (14) 

Fishes, tortoises, aquatic snakes, cormorants, 

1 Padla^ikha. It usually denotes certain ascetics : but .Stlarika 
here renders it kumara ' boy.' 

' Silanka notices two different readings: (1) aharasappa#£a- 
g2i\agganena.m, by abstaining from food seasoned with one 
of the five kinds of salt (viz. saindhava, sauvantala, vi<fa, rauma, 
samudra) ; (2) aharad pa#£aga°, by abstaining from five kinds 
of food : garlic, onion, young camels' milk, beef, liquor. 

* .Stlarika mentions the Viribhadrakas, a subdivision of the 
Bhagavatas, as belonging to this category. He states elsewhere 
that they eat jaivala (Vallisneria Octandra) and frequently bathe, 
wash themselves, and drink water. 

4 Viz. Tapasas and Brihmanas. 

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otters 1 , and demons living in water. The clever 
ones declare those to be wrong who maintain that 
perfection may be obtained through water. (15) 

If water did wash off the impure Karman, it must 
take off merit too. But this (assertion of the here- 
tics) has no foundation but their wish. As a blind 
man follows a guide (and misses his goal), so a fool 
(who makes ablutions, &c. as a means of reaching 
Mdksha) kills living beings. (16) 

If water did wash off the sins of him who committed 
them, some would have obtained perfection who killed 
water-beings. Therefore he is wrong who maintains 
the attainment of perfection through water. (17) 

Those who, lighting fire in the morning and 
evening, contend that perfection is obtained through 
fire (are easily refuted). For if thereby perfection 
could be obtained, mechanics also, who use fire, 
would be liberated. (18) 

Perfection cannot be established by such gratuitous 
assertions ; those who have not learned the truth will 
come to harm. A wise man, who knows the truth, 
should know and understand that all beings desire 
happiness. (19) 

All creatures who have committed sins wail, 
suffer, and tremble. Considering this a wise monk 
who has ceased to sin, and guards his own self, 
should abstain from violence with regard to mov- 
able and (immovable) beings. (20) 

He who keeps a store of rightly-obtained food and 
eats it; he who makes ablutions with pure water, 

1 U//a or u/Ma, explained as ' a kind of aquatic animal ;' the 
Sanskrit prototype is apparently udra, but the commentators 
render it ush/ra! 

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296 sCtrak/utanga. 

contracting his limbs ; he who washes and adorns 
his clothes, is far from being a naked monk. (2 1) 

A wise man, seeing that it is sinful (to use) water, 
should live of pure water, till he is liberated from 
the Sa/wsara 1 ; not eating seeds and bulbs, he 
abstains from bathing, &c, and from women. (22) 

He who, after having left father, mother, house, 
sons, cattle, and wealth, visits houses where he gets 
nice food, is far from being a .Sramawa. (23) 

He who visits houses where he gets nice food, 
who professes the Law, desirous only of filling his 
belly, and brags (of himself) for the sake of food, 
is not equal to the hundredth part of an Arya. (24) 

A miserable man, who becomes a monk in order 
to get food from others, and a flatterer by the desire 
of filling his belly, will, in no remote future, come 
to harm, even as a boar greedy of wild rice 2 . (25) 

The servile man says pleasing things for the sake 
of food, drink, and other things : but wrong belief 
and bad conduct are worthless like chaff. (26) 

He should beg where he is unknown, and maintain 
himself by it ; he should not seek fame and respect 
by his austerities; he should not desire (pleasant) 
sounds and colours, but conquer his longing for all 
kinds of pleasures. (27) 

A monk should avoid every attachment and bear 
every pain, be full (of wisdom), not greedy, wander 
about homeless, give assurance of safety (to all 
beings), and be free from passions. (28) 

(In order to be able) to practise control s a monk 
should eat ; he should desire to get rid of sin ; if he 

1 Ai = adi. * Cf. p. 265, verse 19. 

* Bharassa g aya = bharasya (=sa»*yamasya) yatra. 

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suffers pain, he should have recourse to control, 
and subdue the foe at the head of the battle, as it 
were. (29) 

Though beaten he should be like a plank 1 ; he 
should wait for the advent of death ; having anni- 
hilated his Karman he should not again mix with 
the world, but be rather like a car whose axle is 
broken. (30) 

Thus I say. 




It is said that two definitions of exertion are 
given ; but in what does the exertion of the virtuous 
consist, and how is it defined ? (1) 

Some say that it consists in works, and the pious 
(say that it consists) in abstention from works. 
Men appear divided into two classes from this point 
of view. (2) 

Carelessness is called (the cause of) Karman, 
carefulness that of the contrary (viz. absence of 
Karman) ; when the one or the other is predicated 

1 Phalagavata/Mi = phalagavad avatash/a-4. .Sflanka 
gives the following explanation: As a plank planed on both 
sides becomes thin, so a sadhu, by reducing his body by exterior 
and interior tapas, grows thin, of weak body. 

1 Vtry a ; it is the power or virtue of a thing. 

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298 sOtrak/wtAnga. 

(of a man, he is called) either a fool or a wise 
man. (3) 

Some learn sciences 1 which teach the destruction 
of living beings, others study spells for killing all 
sorts of creatures. (4) 

Deceivers practise deceit in order to procure 
themselves pleasures and amusement ; they kill, cut, 
and dismember (beings) for the sake of their own 
comfort (5) 

The careless (commit sins) by thoughts, words, 
and acts, with regard to this and the next world, 
both (by doing the act themselves and by making 
others do it). (6) 

A cruel 2 man does cruel acts and is thereby 
involved in other cruelties ; but sinful undertakings 
will in the end bring about misery. (7) 

Sinners, subject to love and hate and doing wrong, 
acquire Karman arising from passions s and commit 
many sins. (8) 

Thus the 'exertion leading to works' of the 
sinners has been described ; now learn from me the 
wise men's ' exertion not leading to works.' (9) 

A pious monk, who is free from bonds and has 
severed all fetters, annihilates his bad Karman, and 
removes definitely the thorn (of sin), (ro) 

Following the right doctrine he exerts himself; 
as one becomes more and more the receptacle 

1 Sattha = jastra or jastra. On the latter alternative we 
must translate ' (practice of) arms.' 

* V6ri = vairin, ^iv6pamardakarin. 

3 Karma is of two kinds, airyapathika, arising from ' walking,' 
i.e. from those actions which are indispensable to a virtuous life 
or the conduct of monks, and samparayika, arising from the 

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of misery, so his bad thoughts (or sinfulness) 
increase, (n) 

Those who have good places (in heaven, &c.) 
must surely leave them (some time). We live 
together with relations and friends but a limited 
time. (12) 

Considering this, a wise man should conquer his 
greed, and enter upon the noble (path), which con- 
tains all virtues and is not blamed 1 . (13) 

Whether he know the pith of the Law by intuition 
or through instruction, a houseless (monk) should 
exert himself and abstain from sins. (14) 

When a wise man, in whatever way, comes to 
know that the apportioned space of his life draws 
towards its end, he should in the meantime quickly 
learn the method (of dying a religious death) 2 . (15) 

As a tortoise draws its limbs into its own body, 
so a wise man should cover, as it were, his sins with 
his own meditation. (16) 

He should draw in, as it were, his hands and feet, 
his mind and five organs of sense, the effect of his 
bad Karman, and every bad use of language. (17) 

The virtuous exert themselves with regard to 
the distant end (viz. Liberation s ). One should live 

1 Savvadhammamagdviyaw. According to the commentator 
the meaning of this phrase is : which is not blamed or shown to 
be wrong by all (heretical) Laws. 

2 See Uttaridhyayana, Fifth Lecture. 

' .STlahka quotes and comments upon four different readings 
of the first line of this verse, the last of which is rendered above as 
it is the textus receptus of the Dipiki. (1) Abstaining from even 
small pride and from deceit, one, &c. (2) 'Great' for 'even 
small.' (3) I have heard from some men : This is the valour of 
the virtuous man, that, &c. After this verse .Silanka quotes 
another which, he says, is not found in MSS. of the text, but 

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30o sOtrak/j/tAnga. 

indifferent to one's own happiness, calm, and without 
any attachment. (18) 

Do not kill living beings, do not take what is 
not freely given, do not talk false, treacherous 
speech ! This is the Law of him who is rich in 
control. (19) 

Do not desire by words or thoughts what is 
a transgression (of the Law) ; guarding yourself in 
all ways, and subduing (the senses), practise 
control. (20) 

A man who guards his self and subdues his 
senses, abhors all sins, past, present, and future 
ones. (21) 

Benighted men of wrong faith, (though) they be 
renowned as heroes, exert themselves in a bad way, 
which will have, in all respects, evil consequences 
for them. (22) 

Wise men of right faith, who are renowned heroes, 
exert themselves in a good way which will have no 
(evil) consequences whatever for them. (23) 

Penance is of no good if performed by noble men 
who have turned monks (for the sake of fame) ; but 
that penance of which nobody else knows any- 
thing (is meritorious). Do not spread your own 
fame ' ! (24) 

A pious man should eat little, drink little, talk 
little ; he should always exert himself, being calm, 
indifferent, a subduer (of his senses), and free from 
greed. (25) 

Meditating and performing religious practices, 

is found in the TfkL It is, however, the identical verse I, 3, 4, 20, 
see above, p. 271, which occurs again I, 11, 11. 
1 Compare Matthew vi. 1-6. 

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abandoning his body, regarding forbearance as the 
paramount duty, a monk should wander about till 
he obtains liberation. (26) 
Thus I say. 



What is the Law that has been preached by the 
wise Brihmawa 1 (i.e. Mahavira)? Learn from me 
the noble Law of the Ginas as it is. (1) 

Brahma#as, Kshattriyas, Vawyas, A'a#dalas, Vuk- 
kasas, hunters 2 , merchants s , .Sudras, and others who 
are accustomed to do acts ; (2) 

The iniquity* of all these men who cling to 
property goes on increasing ; for those who procure 
themselves pleasures by sinful acts will not get rid 
of misery. (3) 

After a man has done acts which cause the death 
of living beings, his pleasure-seeking relations take 
possession of his wealth, whilst the doer of the acts 
must suffer for them. (4) 

' Mother, father, daughter-in-law, brother, wife, and 
sons will not be able to help me, when I suffer for 
my own deeds 6 .' (5) 

1 The word brahmawa (mahawa) is here, as in many other pas- 
sages, a mere honorific title which could be rendered by 'ascetic' 
* £siya. ' VGsiya. * V£ra = vaira. 

8 This verse recurs in Uttaradhyayana VI, 3 ; above, p. 25. 

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302 sCtrakk/tAnga. 

Taking to heart this truth from which flow the 
most important truths, a monk, without property and 
without egoism, should follow the teaching of the 
Ginas. (6) 

Leaving his wealth, sons, relations, and property, 
leaving sorrow that never ceases, (a monk) should 
wander about without any worldly interests. (7) 

Earth, water, fire, and wind ; grass, trees, and 
corn ; oviparous animals, the two kinds of vivipa- 
rous 1 animals; beings engendered in fluids and in 
dirt, and plants ; (8) 

These six classes of living beings a wise man 
should know and treat tenderly, in thoughts, words, 
and acts ; he should neither do actions nor desire 
property whereby he might do them any harm. (9) 

Untrue speech, sexual intercourse, personal 
property, taking things that are not freely given : 
all these causes of injury to living beings a wise 
man should abstain from. (10) 

Deceit 2 , greed 3 , anger *, and pride * : combat 
these causes of sin ; a wise man should abstain 
from them. (11) 

Washing, dyeing, making urine, evacuation of the 
bowels, vomiting, anointing of the eyes, and what- 
ever is contrary to the rules of conduct • : from all 
this a wise man should abstain. (12) 

1 Pdya^arau = pdta^ariyu, i.e. born alive (as elephants, 
&c.) and bom together with the chorion (as cows, &c.) 

* Paliu#£a»a=: parikudAana, i.e. may a. 
' Bhayana = bha^ana, i.e. ldbha. 

4 Thawrfilla, i.e. krddha. 

' Ussayana = ukkAraya., i.e. mana. These fourpassions are 
named here from the way in which they are supposed to act upon 
the soul. Similar names occurred above, p. 248, notes 3-6. 

* Palimantha. 

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Perfumes, wreaths, bathing, cleansing of the teeth, 
property, actions referring to women : from all this 
a wise man should abstain. (13) 

Alms that have been prepared, or bought, or 
stolen, or brought for the sake of a monk, or alms 
that contain particles of the above mentioned, or 
such alms as are unacceptable (for one cause or 
other), from all these a wise man should abstain. (14) 

Invigorating food, anointing of the eyes, greed, 
damaging others, washing (one's limbs), (rubbing 
them with) Lddhra-powder, &c. : from all this a wise 
man should abstain. (15) 

Deliberating with laymen, praising their work, 
answering their questions, eating the householder's 
meals : from all this a wise man should abstain. (16) 

He should not learn to play chess x , he should 
not speak anything forbidden by the Law; a wise 
man should abstain from fights and quarrels. (17) 

Shoes, an umbrella, dice, chowries, working for 
another, helping each other: from all this a wise 
man should abstain. (18) 

A monk should not void his excrements or urine 
among plants ; he should never rinse his mouth 
(even) with distilled water after having removed 
(everything endowed with life). (19) 

He should never eat or drink out of a house- 
holder's vessel ; nor wear his clothes, especially if he 

1 Ash/apada. This does not necessarily, in this place, mean 
chess-board, but any game played on a similar chequered board 
may be intended. The earliest unmistakable mention of chess, 
that I have met with, occurs in RatnSkara's Haravi^aya XII, 9, 
a mah&kavya written in the first half of the ninth century a.d. in 
Kashmir. — Another explanation of a/Mivayam is arthapadam 
= arthajrastram ' means of acquiring property/ 

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304 sGtrakk/tAnga. 

is a naked monk : from all this a wise man should 
abstain. (20) 

A stool or bed or a seat in a house, asking of 
news and recollection (of past sports) : from all this 
a wise man should abstain. (21) 

Fame, glory, and renown ; honours and respectful 
treatment; all pleasures in the whole world: from 
all this a wise man should abstain. (22) 

A monk (should be content) with such food and 
drink as will sustain his life ; he should give a portion 
of it to others : [from all this a wise man should 
abstain 1 .] (23) 

Thus spoke the Nirgrantha, the great sage 
Mahavira; he who possesses infinite knowledge 
and faith has taught the Law and the sacred 
texts 8 . (24) 

In speaking (a monk) should use as few words as 
possible ; he should not delight in another's foibles ; 
he should avoid deceiving speech 3 , and should answer 
after ripe reflection. (25) 

One will repent of having used the third kind of 
speech * ; a secret should not be made known. This 
is the Nirgrantha's commandment. (26) 

1 The last part of this verse is here repeated from the preceding 
ones ; but it is quite out of place here. 

* Here apparently ended the original treatise; the following 
verses are not directly connected with it. 

* Mai//M«aw, always rendered matrz'sthanam. I think it 
is a regular corruption for mayasthanam. The second syllable 
of the word becomes short before two consonants, and then the 
ya was changed into i with which it is almost interchangeable. 

* The four kinds of speech are (1) true speech, (2) untrue 
speech, (3) speech partly true and partly untrue, (4) speech which 
is neither true nor untrue, see part i, p. 150. — Inaccurate state- 
ments are intended here. 

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(A monk) should not call one names 1 , nor 'friend,' 
nor by his G6tra ; ' thou, thou ' is vulgar ; never 
address one by ' thou ! ' (27) 

A virtuous monk should never keep company 
(with the wicked); for thereby he incurs dangers 
(for his conduct) disguised as pleasures. A wise 
man should be aware of them. (28) 

(A monk) should not stay in the house of a 
householder except by constraint ; nor should he 
amuse himself too long (by looking) at the sports 
of the children of the village 2 . (29) 

Not desirous of fine things, he should wander 
about, exerting himself; not careless in his conduct, 
he should bear whatever pains he has to suffer. (30) 

If beaten, he should not be angry ; if abused, he 
should not fly into a passion; with a placid mind 
he should bear everything and not make a great 
noise. (31) 

He should not enjoy pleasures though they offer 
themselves ; for thus he is said (to reach) discern- 
ment. He should always practise what is right to 
do in the presence of the enlightened ones. (32) 

He should obey and serve a wise and pious 
teacher, (such teachers) as are heroes (of faith), 
who search for the benefit of their souls, are firm 
in control, and subdue their senses. (33) 

These men, who do not see the light (as it were) 
in domestic life, are the beloved of the people ; these 
heroes, free from bondage, do not desire life. (34) 

1 H61&, which is said to be a Dtsi word of abuse. The same 
word occurs also in the A&iranga Sutra, see part i, p. 151, where 
1 translated it by ' loon/ 

J According to .Silanka : (he should not join) the sports of the 
children of a village, nor amuse himself too long. 
[45] X 

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306 sOtrakk/tAnga. 

They do not long for sensual pleasures, they do 
not engage in works. All that (the heretics) always 
talk about, is opposed to the right faith. (35) 

Excessive pride and deceit, all worldly vanities : 
all this a wise man knows and renounces, and thus 
brings about his final Liberation. (36) 

Thus I say. 



The wise (Arhat) having pondered on the Law 
proclaimed it ; learn from me correctly what is care- 
fulness. A monk who forms no resolutions and is 
possessed of carefulness, should wander about, giving 
no offence to any creature ; (1) 

To no living beings, whether they move or not, 
whether above or below or on earth, by putting 
a strain upon them by his hands or feet 2 . Nor 
should he take from householders anything that is 
not freely given. (2) 

Having mastered the Law and got rid of care- 
lessness, he should live on allowed food 8 , and treat 

1 Samahi = samadhi. This word has not only the meaning 
' meditation,' but also a much wider one. Here it is explained as 
'the means of obtaining M6ksha.' I have chosen 'carefulness,' 
because it is less technical than ' control,' which I have used in 
other places. 

3 The first part of verse 2 to be construed with the last part 
of the preceding verse. 

5 LidAe. 

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all beings as he himself would be treated ; he should 
not expose himself to guilt by his desire for life ; 
a monk who performs austerities should not keep 
any store. (3) 

Restraining his senses from women, a sage 
should wander about free from all worldly ties. 
See, every creature and every being suffers pain 
and is afflicted. (4) 

Doing harm to these beings, an ignorant man 
becomes involved in sins. Sin is committed by 
injuring (beings), and one sins also by employing 
others (in such acts). (5) 

He too who leads a miserable life, commits sin. 
Therefore (the CPinas) have enjoined thorough care- 
fulness. One should know the truth, delight in 
control and sound judgment, cease from injuring 
beings, and be of a settled mind. (6) 

Looking at all people with an impartial mind, one 
should not do anything to please or to harm them. 
After a virtuous beginning some become miserable 
and lose heart, (since) they desire honour and fame. (7) 

Desiring unallowed 1 food and accepting such, the 
sinner, careless in his conduct, is attached to women, 
and tries to acquire property. (8) 

Given to violent deeds he accumulates (Karman) ; 
on his decease he (meets with) really distressing 
misery. Therefore a wise man considers well the 
Law ; a sage wanders about free from all worldly 
ties. (9) 

He should not expose himself to guilt by his 
desire for life, but he should wander about without 
any attachment. Speaking after due consideration, 

1 Ahaga<fa=yathdkr*ta; cf. p. 131, note 7, 1. 
X 2 

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308 sOtrakrttAnga. 

and combating his worldly desires, he should say 
nothing that involves slaughter of living beings, (io) 

He should not desire unallowed food, and he 
should not mix with people who desire such ; he 
should mortify his flesh, thinking (of his duty), and 
giving up his sorrows without regard (to worldly 
interests), (n) 

Try to realise that you are single and alone ; 
thereby you will obtain Liberation ; mind, this is no 
false assertion ! This Liberation is not anything 
unreal, but the best thing. An ascetic is free from 
anger, and delights in the truth. (12) 

Abstain from sexual intercourse with women, do 
not acquire property ; a man possessed of carefulness 
will, beyond doubt, be a saviour (to others) in all 
circumstances. (13) 

A monk having conquered aversion to control 
and delight in sensual objects 1 , should bear all 
troubles caused by (pricking) grass, cold, heat, and 
insects ; he should endure pleasant and unpleasant 
smells. (14) 

Guarding his speech and possessed of carefulness, 
acquiring (pure) Le\yya 2 , he should wander about ; he 
should not thatch a house for himself or for others, 
nor behave towards other people like a house- 
holder. (15) 

Questioned by somebody who maintains the un- 
changeable character of the soul 8 , he should expound 
the true (doctrine) ; those who engage in works and 

1 This is, according to .Sllanka, the meaning of the words 
araiw raiwt vS, see, however, above, p. m, note 1. 
* See Uttaridhyayana, Lecture XXXIV. 
8 Akiriyaaya = akriyatman. 

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are held in worldly bondage, do not know the Law 
which leads to Liberation. (16) 

Men here have various opinions ; (they adhere) to 
the doctrine of the Kriyavadins and Akriyavadins. 
The iniquity of an unrestrained sinner, who after 
having been born injures the body (of beings to pro- 
cure his own happiness), goes on increasing. (17) 

Forgetting that his life will have an end, a rash 
and foolish man is full of selfishness ; he toils day 
and night, greedy of wealth, as if he never should 
grow old or die. (18) 

Leave wealth and cattle, all relations and dear 
friends ! (A man) always talks (about these things), 
and he is infatuated with them ; but other people 
will take away his wealth. (19) 

As smaller beasts keep at a distance from a lion, 
being afraid of him, so a wise man keeps aloof from 
sin, well considering the Law. (20) 

A wise man who has become awakened should 
turn away from sin, when he considers the evils 
arising from slaughter and the great dangers entailed 
by his cruel disposition. (21) 

A sage setting out for the real good 1 (viz. Libera- 
tion), should not speak untruth ; this (rule, they say,) 
comprises Nirva»a and the whole of carefulness. 
He should not do works, nor cause others to do 
them, nor assent to others doing them. (22) 

When he gets pure (food), he should not be 
affected (by love or hate), and he should not be too 

1 AttagSmt = iptagimin. Apta is either Mfiksha as 
assumed in my translation, or it denotes the ' highest authority ; ' 
in the latter case we can translate : who proceeds on the 
right path. 

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fond (of such food) nor long for it A pious monk, 
free from bonds, should wander about desiring 
neither honours nor fame. (23) 

A monk who has left the house and is free from 
desires should abandon his body, annihilating his 
sins ; he should not desire life nor death, and walk 
about, having got beyond the Circle (of Births) 1 . (24) 

Thus I say. 



What is the Path that has been preached by the 
wise Brahma#a 2 (i.e. Mahavlra), having correctly 
entered upon which path a man crosses the flood 
(of Sa/#sara) which is difficult to pass ? (1) 

O monk and great sage, tell us this best path 
which leads to liberation from all misery, as you 
know it! (2) 

Tell us how we should describe that path, if 
somebody, a god or a man, should ask us about 

it! (3) 

If somebody, a god or a man, ask you about it, 

tell them the truth about the path. Listen to 
me! (4) 

The very difficult (path) explained by the 
Kajyapa, following which some men from this earth 

1 Or, the fetter of sin. * See note on IX, 1. 

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have formerly passed over (the Sawsara) like traders 
over the ocean 1 , pass over it (even now), and will 
pass over it in future ; (this path which) I have 
learned, I shall explain in due order ; men, listen to 
me ! (5, 6) 

Earth-lives are individual beings, so are water- 
lives, fire-lives, and wind-lives ; grass, trees, corn ; (7) 

And the remaining, (viz.) the movable beings ; thus 
are enumerated the six classes of living beings; 
these are all the living beings, there are no more 
besides. (8) 

A wise man should study them with all means of 
philosophical research. All beings hate pains; 
therefore one should not kill them. (9) 

This is the quintessence of wisdom : not to kill 
anything. Know this to be the legitimate conclusion 
from the principle of the reciprocity with regard to 
non-killing 2 . (10) 

He should cease to injure living beings whether 
they move or not, on high, below, and on earth. 
For this has been called the Nirva»a, which consists 
in peace 8 . (11) 

Master (of his senses) and avoiding wrong, he 
should do no harm to anybody, neither by thoughts, 
nor words, nor acts. (12) 

A wise man who restrains his senses and possesses 
great knowledge, should accept such things as are 
freely given him, being always circumspect with 
regard to the accepting of alms, and abstaining from 
what he is forbidden to accept. (13) 

1 The same simile occurs also in I, 3, 4, 18, above p. 271. 
* The same verse occurred above, I, 1, 4, 10, p. 247. 
3 We have had the same verse above, I, 3, 4, 20, p. 271. 

Digitized by 


3 1 2 sOtrakk/tanga. 

A true monk should not accept such food and 
drink as has been especially prepared for him along 
with slaughter of living beings. (14) 

He should not partake of a meal which contains 
but a particle of forbidden food 1 : this is the Law 
of him who is rich in control. Whatever (food 
a monk) suspects (to be impure), he may not 
eat (15) 

A man who guards his soul and subdues his 
senses, should never assent to anybody killing 
beings. — In towns and villages cases (will occur, 
which place) the faithful (in a dilemma) 2 . (16) 

Hearing the talk of people, one should not 
say, ' this is a good action,' nor ' this is a bad 
action.' For there is an objection (to either 
answer). (17) 

He should not say that it is meritorious, because 
he ought to save those beings, whether they move 
or not, which are killed there for the sake of making 
a gift (18) 

Nor should he say that it is not meritorious, 
because he would then prevent those for whose sake 
the food and drink in question is prepared, to get 
their due. (19) 

Those who praise the gift, are accessory s to the 
killing of beings; those who forbid it deprive 
(others) of the means of subsistence. (20) 

Those, however, who give neither answer, viz. 

1 This is the meaning of the phrase putikarma na slvSta. 

* When well-meaning people sink a well, offer a sacrifice, or 
feed persons, &c. 

* Literally, wish. 

Digitized by 



that it is meritorious, or is not so, do not expose 
themselves to guilt, and will reach Beatitude \ (2 1) 

Knowing that Beatitude is the best thing as the 
moon is among the stars, a sage always restrained 
and subduing his senses brings about Beati- 
tude. (22) 

A pious man 2 shows an island to the beings 
which are carried away (by the flood of the Sawsara) 
and suffer for their deeds. This place of safety has 
been proclaimed (by the Tlrthakaras). (23) 

He who guards his soul, subdues his senses, puts 
a stop to the current (of the Sawsara), and is free 
from Asravas 3 , is (entitled to) expound the pure, 
complete, unparalleled Law. (24) 

Those who do not know this (Law), are not 
awakened, though they fancy themselves awakened ; 
believing themselves awakened, they are beyond 
the boundary of right faith 4 . (25) 

Eating seeds and drinking cold water * and what 

1 .STlanka quotes the following Sanskrit verse to show the 
application of the maxim to the digging of a well: satyaw 
vapreshu sham rarikaradhavalam van pttvd prakamam vyu^MinnsLse- 
shat/7'shwaA pramuditamanasaA pranisartha bhavanti I s&sh&m nite" 
^alaughS dinakarakiranair yanty ananta vinlram ten6»dastnabhava»i 
vra^ati munigawaA kupavapradikarvS 11 'Forsooth, when living 
beings drink to their hearts' content the cool water of ditches, 
which is white like the moon, their thirst is completely allayed 
and their heart is gladdened ; but when all the water is dried up by 
the rays of the sun, numberless creatures must die ; therefore the 
sages decline every interest in the construction of wells and 

a The commentators connect sahu as adjective with dtvam, 
and supply Tlrthakara, &c. as subject. 

* See above, p. 55, note 1. 4 Samadhi. 

' Vtddaga = btj-ddaka. 

Digitized by 


3 1 4 sOtrakk/tanga. 

has been especially prepared for them, they enter 
upon meditation x , but are ignorant of the truth, and 
do not possess carefulness. (26) 

As «£4ankas, herons, ospreys, cormorants, and 
pheasants meditate upon capturing fish, (which is) 
a sinful and very low meditation, so some heretical, 
unworthy .Srama»as contemplate the pursuit of 
pleasures; (they are) sinful and very low like 
herons. (27, 28) 

Here some weak-minded persons, abusing the 
pure path, enter upon a wrong path. They thereby 
will go to misery and destruction. (29) 

As a blind-born man getting into a leaky boat 
wants to reach the shore, but is drowned during the 
passage 2 ; so some unworthy, heretical 6rama«as, 
having got into the full current (of the .Sawsara), 
will incur great danger. (30, 31) 

But knowing this Law which has been proclaimed 
by the K&syapa, (a monk) crosses the dreadful 
current (of the Sawsara), and wanders about intent 
on the benefit of his soul. (32) 

Indifferent to worldly objects, a man should 
wander about treating all creatures in the world so 
as he himself would be treated. (33) 

A wise man knowing (and renouncing) excessive 
pride and deceit, (in short) giving up all (causes of 
worldly existence), brings about his Liberation 3 . (34) 

He acquires good qualities, and leaves off bad 
qualities; a monk, who vigorously practises aus- 
terities, avoids anger and pride. (35) 

The Buddhas * that were, and the Buddhas that 

1 Comp. I, 3, 3, 12. * Verses 30, 31 a=I, 1, 2, 31, 32 a. 

* The first line of this verse occurred in I, 9, 36. 

* Here Buddha is a synonym for Tirthakara. 

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BOOK I, LECTURE 12. 315 

will be, they (as it were) have Peace as their foun- 
dation, even as all things have the earth for their 
foundation. (36) 

And if any accidents whatever befall him who 
has gained that (foundation), he will not be over- 
powered by them as a mountain by the storm 1 . (37) 

A restrained, very learned, and wise (monk) 
should accept such alms as are freely given him, 
being free from passions and waiting for his end. 
This is the doctrine of the K£valin. (38) 

Thus I say. 



There are four (heretical) creeds 8 which the 
disputants severally uphold : 1. the Kriyavada, 2. the 
Akriyavada, 3. the Vinayavada, and 4. the Kgnk- 
navada. (1) 

The agnostics 4 , though they (pretend to) be 

1 .Silahka says that by exercise the power of resistance will be 
increased, and in confirmation of this he relates the well-known 
story of the herdsman who daily carried a calf from its birth till it 
was two years old. 

1 Sam6sara«a = samavasarana. This word and the verb 
samdsarai are commonly used when Mahavfra preaches to 
a meeting (melapaka) gathered round him. 

* Compare Uttaradhyayana XVIII, 23, above p. 83, note 2. 

4 Anna»iya = a^flanikas, the followers of the fourth sect. 

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316 sOtrak/utAnga. 

clever, reason incoherently, and do not get beyond 
the confusion of their ideas. Ignorant (teachers) 
speak to ignorant (pupils), and without reflection 
they speak untruth. (2) 

Believing truth to be untruth, and calling a bad 
man good, the various upholders of Vinaya, asked 
about it, explain their tenet '. (3) 

Without perceiving the truth they speak thus: 
this object (viz. M6ksha) is realised by us thus (viz. 
by Vinaya). The Akriyavadins who deny Karman *, 
do not admit that the action (of the soul is trans- 
mitted to) the future moments s . (4) 

They become involved in contradiction in their 
own assertions ; they falter in their speech and are 
unable to repeat what is said to them 4 . This (their 
opinion) has a valiant counter-opinion, this (our 
opinion) has no valiant counter-opinion; and Karman 
has six sources 6 . (5) 

The Akriyavadins who do not understand the 
truth, bring forward various opinions; many men 

1 Viz. that Mdksha is arrived at through Vinaya, discipline. 

* Lavavasankt. Lava is explained by karman, and ava- 
sanki by apasartum j-ilaw y&shim tt. 

' The meaning is that as everything has but a momentary 
existence, there is no connection between the thing as it is now, 
and as it will be in the next moment. This is a doctrine of the 
Bauddhas. But the Sankhyas are also reckoned among the 
AkriySv&dins, because, according to them, the atman does not act 

4 .Silanka in commenting upon this passage has to say a good 
deal about the Bauddhas. It is perhaps of interest that he 
mentions their 500 Gatakas, and not thirty-four which is the 
recognised number of Gatakas according to the Northern Buddhist 
How .Silanka came to a knowledge of the numbers of G&takas 
accepted by the Southern Buddhists, I cannot tell. 

■ Viz. the six Asravas. 

Digitized by 


BOOK I, LECTURE 12. 317 

believing in them will whirl round in the endless 
Circle of Births. (6) 

' There rises no sun, nor does it set ; there waxes 
no moon, nor does it wane ; there are no rivers 
running, nor any winds blowing ; the whole world 
is ascertained to be unreal V (7) 

As a blind man, though he have a light, does not see 
colours, &c, because he is deprived of his eye(sight), 
so the Akriyavadin, having a perverted intellect, 
does not recognise the action (of the soul) though it 
does exist. (8) 

Many men in this world who have studied 
astrology, the art of interpreting dreams, divination 
from diagrams, augury, divination from bodily marks, 
and from portents, and the eight branches (of 
divination from omens), know the future *. (9) 

(The opponents say that) some forecasts are true, 
and the prophecies of others prove wrong ; therefore 
they do not study those sciences, but they profess to 
know the world, fools though they be 8 . (10) 

The (Kriyavadins) .Sramawas and Brahma»as un- 
derstanding the world (according to their lights), speak 
thus: misery is produced by one's own works, not by 
those of somebody else (viz. fate, creator, &c.) 4 . But 
right knowledge and conduct lead to liberation. (11) 

1 This is the opinion of the Sunyavadins, who are considered 
to belong to the Akriyavadins, because they deny all actions, even 
such as are perceived by everybody (Stlahka). 

1 This would be impossible if the whole world was unreal. 

* A various reading, commented upon by the scholiasts, runs 
thus: ahawsu vi^apalimokkham 6va, 'they say that one must 
give up science.' 

4 The Kriyavadins contend, according to 5Tlahka, that works 
alone, by themselves, without knowledge, lead to Mdksha. 

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318 sOtrakr/tAnga. 

The (Tirthakaras), being (as it were) the eyes of 
the world and its leaders, teach the path which is 
salutary to men ; they have declared that the world 
is eternal inasmuch as creatures are (for ever) living 
in it, O ye men ! (i 2) 

The Rakshasas and the dwellers in Yama's world, 
the troops 1 of Asuras and Gandharvas, and the 
spirits that walk the air, and individual beings 2 : 
they will all be born again and again. (13) 

(The Sawsara) which is compared to the bound- 
less flood of water, know it to be impassable and 
of very long duration on account of repeated births 3 . 
Men therein, seduced by their senses and by women, 
are born again and again both (as movable and 
immovable beings). (14) 

The sinners cannot annihilate their works by new 
works ; the pious annihilate their works by abstention 
from works ; the wise and happy men who got rid 
of the effects of greed, do not commit sins. (15) 

They know the past, present, and future ways of 
the world ; they are leaders of other men, but 
follow no leader; they are awakened, and put an 
end to mundane existence. (16) 

Averse to injury of living beings, they do not act, 
nor cause others to act. Always restraining them- 

1 Kdya. The commentators explain this word as denoting 
the earth-bodies, &c, but from the context it will be seen that 
it refers to Asuras and Gandharvas, and must be translated 
by 'troops.' 

a PndAd siy& = prt'thak sril&h; according to •Stlinka, 
prithivyisrit&A. This expression is generally used to denote 
the lower order of beings. 

* To render bhavagahana. 

Digitized by 


BOOK I, LECTURE 12. 319 

selves, those pious men practise control, and some 
become heroes through their knowledge. (17) 

He regards small beings and large beings, the 
whole world as equal to himself; he comprehends 
the immense world, and being awakened he controls 
himself among the careless. (18) 

Those who have learned (the truth) by themselves 
or from others, are able (to save) themselves and 
others. One should always honour a man, who 
is like a light and makes manifest the Law after 
having well considered it. (19) 

He who knows himself and the world ; who knows 
where (the creatures) go, and whence they will not 
return ; who knows what is eternal, and what is 
transient ; birth and death, and the future existences 
of men; (20) 

He who knows the tortures of beings below (i. e. 
in hell); who knows the influx of sin and its stop- 
page 1 ; who knows misery and its annihilation, — 
he is entitled to expound the Kriyavada 2 , (21) 

Being not attached to sounds and colours, indif- 
ferent to tastes and smells, not desiring life nor 
death, guarded by control, and exempt from the 
Circle (of Births). (22) 

Thus I say. 

1 Asrava and samvara. 

9 It is evident that the Gainas considered themselves KriyavSdins. 
I had overlooked this passage when penning the note on p. 83. 

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320 sCtrakrttAnga. 



I shall now expound, in accordance with truth, 
the various qualities of men ; I shall explain the 
virtue and peace of the good, the vices and the 
unrest of the wicked, (i) 

Having learned the Law from men who exert 
themselves day and night, from the Tathagatas 1 , 
they neglect the conduct in which they had been 
instructed, and speak rudely to their teacher. (2) 

Those who explain the pure doctrine according 
to their individual opinion, falsify it in repeating (it 
after their teachers) ; those who speak untruth 
from pride of knowledge, are not capable of many 
virtues. (3) 

Those who on being questioned conceal the 
truth, defraud themselves of the real good. These 
bad men who believe themselves good and are full 
of deceit, will go to endless punishment. (4) 

He who is of a wrathful disposition and calls 
everything by its true name 2 , who renews a composed 
quarrel, will, like a blind man groping his way with 

1 According to the commentators, (Taina teachers, inclusive of 
the schismatical ones, are intended. Tathagata is a synonym 
of Tirthakara and Buddha; but it is less frequently used by 
the (zainas than by the Bauddhas with whom it is of very common 

* Graga/Mabhasi =^agadarthabhSshin. .Silanka proposes 
also^ay&rthabhashin, who speaks dogmatically. 

Digitized by 


BOOK I, LECTURE 1^. .121 

a stick, do harm to himself, being still subject to 
passion and possessing evil Karman. (5) 

He who is quarrelsome and talks improperly, 
is not impartial nor beyond the reach of deceit * ; 
but he who executes the commands (of his teacher) 
and controls himself, sees nothing but the truth 
and is exempt from deceit. (6) 

He who conforms to admonitions however many 
he receives, is kindly spoken, subtile, manly, noble, 
and a well-doer; (such a man) is impartial and 
beyond the reach of deceit (7) 

He who believes himself rich in control, or incon- 
siderately vaunts his knowledge, or fancies himself 
purified by austerities, will look upon other men as 
shadows. (8) 

He is always turned round by delusion, and has 
no place in the G6tra where the Vow of Silence 
is practised (viz. in the £aina church), who not 
being awakened puts himself forward in order to 
gain honours through something different from 
control. (9) 

A Brahma#a or Kshattriya by birth, a scion of 
the Ugra 2 race or a Li^Mavi 3 , who enters the order 
eating alms given him by others, is not stuck up on 
account of his renowned G6tra. (10) 

His pedigree on his mother's and on his father's 

1 A^/iafl^viapatta. GA&iigM (tempest) = maya. 

1 Concerning the Ugras, see above, p. 71, note 2. 

1 Le^Mai. According to the Gainas the Li£££avi and Mallakis 
were the chiefs of Kin and K6fala. They seem to have succeeded 
the Aikshvakas, who ruled there in the times of the Rainayana. 
The LiiiA&yis became a powerful race, who held the supreme 
power in Eastern India during many centuries after the beginning 
of our era. 

[45] V 

Digitized by 


322 sOtrakiotanga. 

side will be of no use to him, nothing will but right 
knowledge and conduct: when after becoming 
a monk he acts like a householder, he will not 
succeed in obtaining final Liberation, (i i) 

If a poor monk subsisting on the meanest food 
is attached to vanities, desires fame, and not being 
awakened, (makes his monkhood) a means of sub- 
sistence, he will suffer again and again (in the Circle 
of Births). (12) 

A monk, who is eloquent, speaks very well, has 
bright ideas, is clever, possesses a fine intellect, and 
has purified his soul, may (perhaps) despise other 
men on account of his intellect. (13) 

Thus an intelligent monk who puts himself for- 
ward, has not yet realised carefulness; or rather 
he is a weak-minded man who elated by his success 
blames other men. (14) 

A monk should combat pride of genius, pride of 
sanctity, pride of birth, and (pride of good) living, 
which is enumerated as the fourth ; such a man is 
wise and of the right stuff. (15) 

The wise leave off these kinds of pride, the pious 
do not cultivate them ; the great sages are above 
all such things as G6tra (&c), and they ascend to 
the place where there is no G6tra at all (viz. to 
M6ksha). (16) 

A monk who looks upon his body as on a corpse 
and fully understands the Law, will on entering 
a village or a town distinguish between what may 
be accepted and what may not, and will not be greedy 
of food or drink. (17) 

A monk having conquered aversion to control 
and delight in sensual objects, living in company 
with many brethren or leading a single life, should 

Digitized by 



silently repeat to himself: ' A man must come and 
go (according to his Karman) alone' (i.e. without 
deriving any help from others). (18) 

Knowing it by intuition or having learned it from 
others, one should teach the Law which is a benefit 
to men ; the pious are not given to blameable sinful 
practices. (19) 

If (a monk preaches the Law to some one) whose 
disposition he has not ascertained, that man, not 
believing (what he is taught), will become angry, 
and may wound him in a way that will shorten or 
end his life. When he knows their disposition, he 
(may teach) others the truth. (20) 

A wise man by suppressing his Karman and his 
will should renounce his interest in everything else. 
(For) through the objects of sight (i.e. senses) which 
are causes of danger, men come to harm. Knowing 
the truth with regard to movable and immovable 
beings (a monk should exert himself) 1 . (21) 

Not desiring honour or fame, he should say 
nothing to anybody either to please or to irritate 
him. Avoiding all evils, a monk should without 
embarrassment and passion (preach the Law). (22) 

Well considering (his duties) in accordance with 
truth, abstaining from doing injury to living beings, 
not desiring life nor death, he should wander about 
released from the Circle (of Births). (23) 

Thus I say. 

1 The commentators make out the following meaning : A wise 
(preacher) should ascertain (his hearers') occupations and inclina- 
tions, and then (try to) better their evil disposition. Through the 
objects of sight which are causes of danger, men are led astray. 
A wise man knowing (the disposition of his hearers should preach 
the Law which is wholesome) to all living beings whether they move 
or not 

Y 2 

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324 sOtrak/utanga. 



He who has given up all worldly ties and is 
instructed in our creed, should practise chastity, 
exerting himself; obeying the commands (of his 
teacher) he should make himself well acquainted 
with the conduct; a clever (monk) should avoid 
carelessness, (i) 

As (birds of prey), e. g. Dfahkas, carry off a 
fluttering young bird whose wings are not yet grown, 
when it attempts to fly from the nest, but is not 
able to do so, because it is too young and its wings 
are not yet grown ; (2) 

Just as they carry off a young bird whose wings 
are not yet grown, so many unprincipled men will 
seduce a novice who has not yet mastered the Law, 
thinking that they can get Kim in their power, when 
they have made him leave (the Ga£&Aa) 1 . (3) 

A good man should long to live with his teacher 
in order to perform his duties 2 , knowing that he 
who does not live with his teacher will not put 
an end to his mundane existence. Making manifest 

1 Nissariyaw = niAsaritam. I follow in the text the inter* 
pretation of the commentators. But I think that instead of 
mannamdni we must read, as in the preceding verse, manna- 
minam; and translate: believing himself rich in control 
(vasimam) though he be still wanting in strength (nissariyam). 

* Samahiw. 

Digitized by 


BOOK I, LECTURE 1 4. 325 

the conduct of the virtuous, an intelligent (monk) 
should not leave the (company of his teacher). (4) 

(A monk) who complies with the rules for Yatis * 
as regards postures, lying down, sitting, and exertion, 
who is thoroughly acquainted with the Samitis and 
Guptis, should in teaching others explain each single 
(point of conduct). (5) 

Whether he hears (pleasant) sounds or dreadful 
ones, he should not allow himself to be influenced 
by them, and persevere in control; nor should 
a monk be sleepy or careless, but by every means 
he should get rid of doubts. (6) 

If admonished by a young or an old monk, by 
one above him or one of equal age, he should not 
retort against him 2 , being perfectly free from passion ; 
for one who is (as it were) carried away (by the 
stream of the Sawsara), will not get to its opposite 
shore. (7) 

(He should not become angry) if (doing anything 
wrong) his own creed is quoted against him by 
a heretic, or if he is corrected by (somebody else) be 
he young or old, or by a female slave engaged in 
low work or carrying a jar, or by some house- 
holder. (8) 

He should not be angry with them nor do them 
any harm, nor say a single hard word to them, but 
he should promise not to commit the same sin 
again ; for this is better than to do wrong. (9) 

As to one who has lost his way in the wood, 
others who have not, (show it, thus some) teach the 

1 Susidhuyukta. 

3 Samman tayam thiratd n£»bhiga££M. I translate 
according to the commentators, as I am unable to understand 
the words in the text. 

Digitized by 


326 s6trak/j/tAnga. 

path which is salutary to men. Therefore (he 
should think) : this is for my good that those who 
know put me right. (10) 

Now he who has lost his way should treat with 
all honour him who has not. This simile has been 
explained by the Prophet. Having learned what 
is right one should practise it. (n) 

As a guide in a dark night does not find the way 
since he cannot see it, but recognises the way when 
it has become light by the rising of the sun ; (12) 

So a novice who has not mastered the Law, does 
not know the Law, not being awakened ; but after- 
wards he knows it well through the words of the 
(Jinas, as with his eye (the wanderer sees the 
way) after sunrise. (13) 

Always restrained with regard to movable and 
immovable beings which are on high, below, and 
on earth, (a monk) should wander about entertaining 
no hostile thoughts (towards them) and being stead- 
fast (in control). (14) 

At the right time he may put a question about 
living beings to a well-conducted (monk), who will 
explain the conduct of the virtuous ; and what he 
hears he should follow and treasure up in his heart, 
thinking that it is the doctrine of the K£valins. (15) 

Living in this (company of the teacher) and pro- 
tecting (himself or other beings) in the three ways 
(viz. in thoughts, words, and acts), he (gets) peace 
and the annihilation (of sins) as they say. Thus 
speak those who know the three worlds, and they 
do not again commit faults! (16) 

A monk by hearing the desired Truth gets bright 
ideas and becomes a clever (teacher) ; desiring the 
highest good and practising austerities and silence, 

Digitized by 


BOOK I, LECTURE 1 4. 327 

he will obtain final Liberation (living on) pure 
(food). (17) 

Those who having investigated the Law expound 
it, are awakened and put an end to mundane existence ; 
able to liberate both (themselves and others), they 
answer the well-deliberated questions. (18) 

He does not conceal (the truth) nor falsify it ; 
he should not indulge his pride and (desire for) 
fame ; being wise he should not joke, nor pronounce 
benedictions. (19) 

Averse to injury of living beings, he does not 
disgrace his calling 1 by the use of spells; a good 
man does not desire anything from other people, 
and he does not give utterance to heretical doc- 
trines. (20) 

A monk living single should not ridicule heretical 
doctrines, and should avoid hard words though they 
be true ; he should not be vain, nor brag, but he 
should without embarrassment and passion (preach 
the Law). (21) 

A monk should be modest 2 though he be of 
a fearless mind ; he should expound the Syadvada 8 ; 
he should use the two (permitted) kinds of speech *, 
living among virtuous men, impartial and wise. (22) 

He who follows (the instruction) may believe 
something untrue ; (one should) kindly (tell him) 
' It is thus or thus.' One should never hurt him by 

1 G6tra, explained by mauna. 

1 Sanki^iya" = rankyfita. 

' Vibha^yavida. The saptabhangfnaya or seven modes 
of assertion are intended by the expression in the text. See 
Bhandarkar, Report, 1883-84, p. 95. 

4 See above, p. 304, note 4. The first and fourth kinds of speech 
are here intended. 

Digitized by 


328 sOtrakr/tAnga. 

outrageous language, nor give long-winded explana- 
tions of difficult passages. (23) 

(If the pupil does not understand his short expla- 
nation), he should explain at greater length. When 
the pupil has heard it, he will correctly understand 
the Truth. A monk should utter pure speech, which 
is in accordance with the creed (of the Ginasj, and 
should declare the distinction of sin. (24) 

He should well learn the (sacred texts) as they 
have been revealed ; he should endeavour (to teach 
the creed), but he should not speak unduly long. 
A faithful man who is able to explain the entire 
creed 1 will not corrupt the faith. (25) 

He should not pervert nor render obscure (the 
truth) ; he should fabricate neither text nor meaning, 
being a saviour ; being devoted to the Teacher and 
considering well his words, he delivers faithfully 
what he has learned. (26) 

He who correctly knows the sacred texts, who 
practises austerities, who understands all details of 
the Law, who is an authentic interpreter, clever, and 
learned — such a man is competent to explain the 
entire creed. (27) 

Thus I say. 

1 Samahi = sam&dhi. 

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BOOK I, LECTURE 1 5. 329 



What is past, present, and to come, all this is 
known to the Leader, the Saviour, who annihilates 
the hindrances to right faith, (i) 

The annihilator of doubt knows the incompara- 
ble (Law) ; he, the expounder of the incomparable 
(Law), is not inclined towards this or that (heretical 
doctrine). (2). 

On this or that (article of the creed he has) the 
correct opinion ; hence he is rightly called a true 
(man) ; he who always possesses the truth, is kind 
towards his fellow-creatures. (3) 

Towards your fellow-creatures be not hostile : 
that is the Law of him who is rich in control ; he 
who is rich in control renounces everything, and in 
this (world meditates on the) reflections on life 2 . (4) 

1 This lecture has been named from its opening words 
^amafyam, which also means, consisting of yamakas (compare 
Journal of the German Oriental Society, vol. xl, p. 101). For 
in this lecture each verse or line opens with a word repeated 
from the end of the preceding one. This artifice is technically 
called wmkhala-yamaka, or chain-yamaka, a term which seems 
to be contained in another name of our lecture, mentioned by 
the author of the Niryukti (verse 28), viz. Sd&niya-sankaliyi. 
For saftkaliya 1 is the Pr&krrt for jr/'nkhala (e.g. in our text 1, 5, 
2, 20), though .Sttenka here renders it wrongly saitkalita ; and 
ddiniya by itself is used as a name of our lecture. 

8 These are the twelve bh& van&s or meditations on the vanity of 
life and the world in general, and on the excellence of the Law, &c. 

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33° sOtrakjwtAnga. 

He whose soul is purified by meditating on those 
reflections is compared to a ship in water ; like a ship 
reaching the shore he gets beyond misery. (5) 

A wise man gets beyond it who knows the sins of 
this world ; sinful acts are got rid of by him who 
does not undertake any new acts. (6) 

He who does not undertake new acts does not 
acquire Karman, and he verily understands (Karman); 
understanding it he becomes a Great Hero \ who is 
not born (again) and does not die. (7) 

A Great Hero, who has no Karman, does not 
die. — As the wind extinguishes a light, (so he puts 
down) the lovely women in this world. (8) 

Those men whom women do not seduce, value 
M6ksha most ; those men are free from bondage and 
do not desire life. (9) 

Turning from worldly life, they reach the goal by 
pious acts ; by their pious acts they are directed 
(towards Liberation), and they show the way to 
others. (10) 

The preaching of the Law (has different effect) 
on different creatures; he who is rich in control, is 
treated with honour 2 , but does not care for it ; he 
exerts himself, subdues his senses, is firm, and 
abstains from sexual intercourse. (11) 

(He should not yield to temptations as a pig which) 
is decoyed by wild rice, being proof against sins, and 
free from faults. Being free from faults he always 

1 Mahavfra. 

1 Puya«asa6, explained by pti^ana-asvadaka. I should 
prefer pu^a-najaka, who abolished the worship of gods, in 
which case the following word anasafi = an-ajaya might be 
rendered : he makes no plans. 

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BOOK I, LECTURE 1 5. 33 1 

subdues his senses, and has reached the incompar- 
able cession of Karman 1 . (12) 

Knowing the incomparable (control), he should 
not be hostile towards anybody, in thoughts, words, 
or deeds, having eyes (to see everything). (13) 

He truly is the eye of men who (dwells so to speak) 
on the end 2 of desire ; on its end (i. e. edge) glides 
the razor, on its end (i. e. rim) rolls the wheel. (14) 

Because the wise use the ends (of things, i. e. bad 
food, &c), they are called ' makers of an end ' here. 
Here in the world of men we are men to fulfil the 
Law. (15) 

In this creed which surpasses the world, (men) 
become perfected saints or gods, as I have heard ; 
and I have heard that outside the rank of men this 
is not so 3 . (16) 

Some (heretics) have said that they (viz. the gods) 
put an end to misery * ; but others (Gainas) have 
repeatedly said that this (human) body is not easily 
obtained. (17) 

To one whose soul has left (human life), it is not 
easy again to obtain instruction (in the Law), nor is 
such a mental disposition which they declare appro- 
priate for adopting the Law 6 . (18) 

How can it even be imagined that he should 

1 Sandhipattg. Sandhi is explained Karmavivaralaksha- 
fiam bhavasandhim. 

* There is a play on the word 'end' in this and the next 
verse which to a modern mind savours more of the absurd than 
the profound. 

* Perfection cannot be obtained by other creatures than men. 

4 I. e. reach final beatitude. 

5 The words as they are preserved do not construe; the 
meaning, however, must have been about what I have given 
in the translation. 

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332 sOtrakii/tAnga. 

be born again, who professes the pure, complete, 
unparalleled Law, and is a receptacle of the un- 
paralleled Law? (19) 

How could the wise Tathagatas be born again, 
the Tathagatas who engage in no undertakings, the 
supreme, the eyes of the world ? (20) 

And there has been declared by the K&yyapa the 
supreme condition \ by realising which some happy 
and wise men reach excellence. (21) 

A wise man who has gained strength (in control) 
which leads to the expiation of sins, annihilates his 
former works, and does not do new ones. (22) 

The Great Hero does no actions which are the 
effects of former sins. By his actions he is directed 
(towards M6ksha), abstaining from works which are 
entailed by birth 2 . (23) 

That which all saints value highly (viz. control), 
destroys the ' thorn (viz. Karman) ; practising it 
some have been liberated, and others have become 
gods. (24) 

There have been wise men, and there will be 
pious men, who having come to the end and made 
manifest the end of the incomprehensible path, 
have been liberated. (25) 

Thus I say. 

1 Viz. control. 

* Gammayam. The commentators explain it yan matam; 
but I think it is =^anma^am. 

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BOOK I, LECTURE l6. 333 




Now the Venerable One said : He who thus sub- 
dues his senses, who is well qualified (for his task) 2 
and abandons his body, is to be called a Brahmawa, 
a *Srama»a, a Bhikshu, a Nirgrantha. (The pupil) 
replied: Why is he who thus subdues his senses, 
who is well qualified (for his task) and abandons 
his body, to be called a Brahmawa, a .Srama«a, a 
Bhikshu, a Nirgrantha? Tell this, O great sage! (i) 

He is a Brahma#a for this reason that he has 
ceased from all sinful actions, viz. love, hate, quarrel, 
calumny, backbiting, reviling of others, aversion to 
control, and love of pleasures, deceit, untruth, and the 
sin of wrong belief ; that he possesses the Samitis, 
always exerts himself, is not angry, nor proud. (2) 

He is a -Sramawa for this reason that he is not 
hampered by any obstacles, that he is free from 
desires, (abstaining from) property, killing, telling 
lies, and sexual intercourse ; (and from) wrath, pride, 
deceit, greed, love, and hate : thus giving up every 
'passion that involves him in sin, (such as) killing 
of beings. (Such a man) deserves the name of a 
6rama»a, who subdues (moreover) his senses, is well 
qualified (for his task), and abandons his body. (3) 

1 Gah£ = g£tha\ In this lecture, which is in prose as regards 
form and contents, there is nothing that could justify the title 
given it. 

* DaviS = dravya. 

Digitized by 


334 sOtrakr/tAnga. 

He is a Bhikshu for this reason that he is not 
conceited, but modest, and obedient (to his Guru), 
that he subdues his senses, is well qualified (for his 
task), and abandons his body, that he sustains all 
troubles and calamities, that he practises with a pure 
mind the (prescribed) conduct, exerts himself well, 
is steadfast, and eats but a moderate quantity 1 of 
food which is given him by others. (Such a man) 
deserves the name of a Bhikshu. (4) 

He is a Nirgrantha for this reason that he is single 8 , 
knowing the absolute (atman), awakened, proof against 
sins, well disciplined ; that he possesses the Samitis 
and equanimity, knows the true nature of the Self, is 
wise, has renounced the causes of sin both (objec- 
tively and subjectively 3 ), does not desire honour, 
respect, and hospitality, but searches and knows 
the Law, endeavours to gain Liberation, and lives 
restrained. (Such a man) deserves the name of a 
Nirgrantha, who subdues his senses, is well qualified 
(for his task), and abandons his body. (5) 

Know this to be thus as I have told you, because 
I am the Saviour. (6) 

Thus I say. 

1 Sawkhaya. The commentator takes this word as a gerund 
and explains it : knowing (the vanity of the world). 
8 £ka, i.e. free from love and hate. 
* Dravyat6 bhavatar ia.. 

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long-lived (Gambusvamin) ! I (Sudharman) 
have heard the following Discourse from the Vene- 
rable (Mahavira). We now come to the Lecture 
called 'the Lotus.' The contents of it are as 
follows: (i) 

There is a lotus-pool containing much water 
and mud, very full and complete, answering to 
the idea (one has of a lotus-pool), full of white 
lotuses, delightful, conspicuous, magnificent, and 
splendid. (2) 

And everywhere all over the lotus-pool there 
grew many white lotuses, the best of Nymphaeas, 
as we are told, in beautiful array, tall, brilliant, of 
fine colour, smell, taste, and touch, (&c, all down to) 
splendid. (3) 

And in the very middle of this lotus-pool there 
grew one big white lotus, the best of Nymphaeas, 

1 With the exception of the fifth and sixth lectures, the whole 
Book (jrutaskandha) is in prose. I have adhered to the sub- 
division of the lectures exhibited in the Bombay edition, which, 
on the whole, agrees with that of most MSS. 

* The lectures of this Book are called, according to the Nir- 
yukti, Great (maha) Lectures. 

Digitized by 


3 3 6 sOtRAKJW TANGA. 

as we are told, in an excellent position, tall, (&c, all 
down to) splendid. (4) 

\§§ 3 and 4 are to be repeated with the word ' all ' 
or ' whole ' added to ' lotus-pool ' *.] (5) 

Now there came a man from the Eastern quarter 
to the lotus-pool, and standing on the bank of it he 
saw that one big white lotus, (&c, as above). Now 
this man spoke thus : ' I am a knowing, clever, well- 
informed, discerning, wise, not foolish man, who 
keeps the way, knows the way, and is acquainted 
with the direction and bent of the way. I shall 
fetch that white lotus, the best of all Nymphaeas.' 
Having said this the man entered the lotus-pool. 
And the more he proceeded, the more the water 
and the mud (seemed to) extend. He had left the 
shore, and he did not come up to the white lotus, 
the best of Nymphaeas, he could not get back to 
this bank, nor to the opposite one, but in the middle 
of the lotus-pool he stuck in the mud. (6) 

This was the first man. Now (we shall describe) 
the second man. There came a man from the 
Southern quarter to the lotus-pool, and standing 
on the bank of it he saw that one big white lotus 
(&c, all as above). There he saw one man who 
had left the shore, but had not come up to the white 
lotus, the best of Nymphaeas, who could not get 
back to his bank, nor to the opposite one, but stuck 
in the mud in the middle of the lotus-pool. Now 
the second man spoke of the first man thus : ' This 
man is not knowing, not clever, (&c, see above, all 
down to) not acquainted with the direction and bent 

1 In the text the words savvSvanti £a mm are prefixed to the 
text of §§ 3 and 4. I give the explanation of <Sil£nka. 

Digitized by 



of the way.' For that man said : ' I am a knowing, 
(&c, all down to) I shall fetch that white lotus, the 
best of Nymphaeas.' But this white lotus, the 
best of Nymphaeas, cannot be got in the way this 
man tried. (7) 

' However, I am a knowing, clever, (&c, all down 
to the end of the paragraph) he stuck in the mud.' 
This was the second man. (The same thing hap- 
pened to a third and a fourth man, who came from 
the Western and Northern quarters respectively, 
and saw two and three men respectively sticking in 
the mud. Some MSS. give the story at length, 
others abbreviate it.) (8, 9) 

Now a monk living on low food and desiring to 
get to the shore (of the Sa/#sara), knowing, clever, 
(&c, all down to) acquainted with the direction and 
bent of the way, came to that lotus-pool from some 
one of the four quarters or from one of the inter- 
mediate points (of the compass). Standing on the 
bank of the lotus-pool he saw the one big white 
lotus, (&c, as above). And he saw there those 
four .men who having left the shore, (&c, all as 
above) stuck in the mud. Then the monk said : 
' These men are not knowing, (&c, all down to) not 
acquainted with the direction and bent of the way ; 
for these men thought : We shall fetch that white 
lotus, the best of Nymphaeas. But this white 
lotus, the best of Nymphaeas, cannot be got in the 
way these men tried. I am a monk living on low 
food, (&c, all down to) acquainted with the direction 
and bent of the way. I shall fetch that white 
lotus, the best of Nymphaeas.' Having said this 
the monk did not enter the lotus-pool ; but standing 
on the bank of it he raised his voice : ' Fly up, 
[45] z 

Digitized by 


338 sOtrakk/tAnga. 

O white lotus, best of Nymphaeas!' And the 
white lotus, the best of Nymphaeas, flew up. (10) 

I have told you, O long-lived »Srama»as, a simile 1 ; 
you must comprehend the meaning of it 8 . The 
Nirgrantha monks and nuns worshipped and praised 
the Venerable Ascetic Mahavira, and then spoke 
thus : ' You have told, O long-lived Srama»a, the 
simile, but we do not comprehend its meaning, 

long-lived I ' The Venerable Ascetic 
Mahavira addressed the crowd of Nirgrantha monks 
and nuns, and spoke thus : Ah, you long-lived 
*Srama»as ! I shall tell, declare, explain, expound, 
and demonstrate it with its meaning, reasons, and 
arguments. Thus I say: (n) 

long-lived .Sramawas 3 , meaning* the world 

1 spoke of the lotus-pool. Meaning Karman 
I spoke of the water. Meaning pleasures and 
amusements I spoke of the mud. Meaning people 
in general I spoke of those many white lotuses, the 
best of Nymphaeas. Meaning the king I spoke of 
the one big white lotus, the best of Nymphaeas. 
Meaning heretical teachers I spoke of those four 
men. Meaning the Law I spoke of the monk. 
Meaning the church 6 1 spoke of the bank. Meaning 
the preaching of the Law I spoke of (the monk's) 
voice. Meaning Nirva«a I spoke of (the lotus') 
flying up. Meaning these things, O long-lived 
6rama#as, I told this (simile). (12) 

1 N&S=£ , Mtam, literally, that which is known. 

1 In the text the sentence closes with bhante, a word frequently 
used in addressing members of the order. 

8 These words are in the original repeated in each of the follow- 
ing sentences. I drop them in the translation. 

* Appaha//u=&tmany ahr/tya, literally, having in my mind. 

8 Dharmatfrtha. 

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Here in the East, West, North, and South many 
men have been born according to their merit, as 
inhabitants of this our world, viz. some as Aryas, 
some as non-Aryas, some in noble families, some in 
low families, some as big men, some as small men, 
some of good complexion, some of bad complexion, 
some as handsome men, some as ugly men. And of 
these men one man is king, who is strong like the 
great Himavat, Malaya, Mandara, and Mah£ndra 
mountains, (&c, all down to) who governs his kingdom 
in which all riots and mutinies have been suppressed 1 . 

And this king had an assembly of Ugras a and 
sons of Ugras, Bh6gas 2 and sons of Bhdgas, Aiksh- 
vakas and sons of Aikshvikas, GniLtrts and sons of 
Gn&tris, Kauravas and sons of Kauravas, warriors 
and sons of warriors, Brahma«as and sons of 
Brahma«as, Li^i^avis and sons of Li£££avis, com- 
manders and sons of commanders, generals and sons 
of generals. (13) 

And of these men some one 8 is full of faith. 
Forsooth, the *Srama«as or Brahma»as made up 
their mind to go to him. Being professors of some 
religion (they thought) 'We shall teach him our 
religion.' (And they said) : ' Know this, dear sir, 
that we explain and teach this religion well. (14) 

' Upwards from the soles of the feet, downwards 

1 This is one of the varnaka or typical descriptions which are 
so frequent in the canonical books. The full text is given in the 
Aupapatika Sutra, ed. Leumann, § n, p. 26 f. Of the many 
meanings the word var»aka may have, 'masterpiece' seems the 
one in which it must be taken here. Many varwakas are, partly 
at least, composed in a curious metre which I have named Hyper- 
metron, see Indische Studien, vol. xvii, pp. 389 ff. 

* Concerning the Ugras and Bhdgas compare note 2 on p. 71. 

' Apparently the king is meant. 

Z 2 

Digitized by 


340 sOtrak/j/tanga. 

from the tips of the hair on the head, within the 
skin's surface is (what is called) Soul 1 , or what is the 
same, the Atman. The whole soul lives ; when this 
(body) is dead, it does not live. It lasts as long as 
the body lasts, it does not outlast the destruction 
(of the body). With it (viz. the body) ends life. 
Other men carry it (viz. the corpse) away to burn it 
When it has been consumed by fire, only dove- 
coloured bones remain, and the four bearers return 
with the hearse to their village. Therefore there is 
and exists no (soul different from the body). Those 
who believe that there is and exists no (such soul), 
speak the truth. Those who maintain that the soul 
is something different from the body, cannot tell 
whether the soul (as separated from the body) is long 
or small, whether globular or circular or triangular 
or square or sexagonal or octagonal or long, whether 
black or blue or red or yellow or white, whether of 
sweet smell or of bad smell, whether bitter or 
pungent or astringent or sour or sweet, whether hard 
or soft or heavy or light or cold or hot or smooth or 
rough. Those, therefore, who believe that there is 
and exists no soul, speak the truth. Those who 
maintain that the soul is something different from 
the body, do not see the following (objections) : (15) 
' As a man draws a sword from the scabbard and 
shows it (you, saying) : " Friend, this is the sword, and 
that is the scabbard," so nobody can draw (the soul 
from the body) and showit(you, saying): " Friend, this 
is the soul, and that is the body." As a man draws 
a fibre from a stalk of Mu«^a grass and shows it 
(you, saying) : " Friend, this is the stalk, and that is 
the fibre ; " or takes a bone out of the flesh, or the 

1 Giva. 

Digitized by 


BOOK 2, LECTURE I. 34 1 

seed of Amalaka 1 from the palm of his hand, or 
a particle of fresh butter out of coagulated milk, and 
shows you both things separately 2 ; or as he presses 
oil from the seed of Atasi 3 , and shows the oil and oil- 
cake separately, or as he presses the juice from the 
sugar-cane, and shows the juice and the molasses 4 
separately, so nobody can show you the soul and the 
body separately. The same applies also when fire is 
churned from Ara«i-wood. Those who believe that 
there is and exists no soul, speak the truth. Those 
who say that the soul is different from the body, are 
wrong.' (16) 

This murderer says : ' Kill, dig, slay, burn, cook, 
cut or break to pieces, destroy ! Life ends here ; there 
is no world beyond.' ' 

These (Nastikas) cannot inform 6 you on the 
following points : whether an action is good or bad, 
meritorious or not, well done or not well done, 
whether one reaches perfection or not, whether one 
goes to hell or not. Thus undertaking various works 
they engage in various pleasures and amusements 
for their own enjoyment. (17) 

Thus some shameless men becoming monks pro- 
pagate a Law of their own. And others believe 
it, put their faith in it, adopt it, (saying :) ' Well, you 
speak the truth, O Brahmawa, (or) O 6rama«a ! We 
shall present you with food, drink, spices, and 
sweetmeats, with a robe, a bowl, or a broom.' 

1 Emblica Myrobalanos. 

* I have somewhat condensed this passage. 

* Ayau//asf in Prakr/'t; it is Linum Usitatissimum. 

4 Khbyii. See Grierson, Peasant Life of Bihar, p. 236. The 
word is apparently derived from root kshud. 

* Pa</iv3denti = prativ6dayanti. The commentators, how r 
ever, explain it as ' understand.' 

Digitized by 


342 sOtrak/wtAnga. 

Some have been induced to honour them, some 
have made (their proselytes) to honour them. (18) 

Before (entering an order) they were determined 
to become .Sramawas, houseless, poor monks who 
would have neither sons nor cattle, to eat only what 
should be given them by others, and to commit no 
sins. After having entered their order they do not 
cease (from sins), they themselves commit sins, they 
cause others to commit sins, and they assent to 
another's committing sins. Thus they are given 
to pleasures, amusements, and sensual lust ; they are 
greedy, fettered, passionate, covetous, the slaves of 
love and hate ; therefore they cannot free themselves 
(from the Circle of Births), nor free anybody else 
from it, nor free any other of the four kinds of living 
beings from it. They have left their former occupa- 
tions, but have not entered the noble path. They 
cannot return (to worldly life), nor get beyond it; 
they stick (as it were) in pleasures and amusements. 
Thus I have treated of the first man (as one who 
believes that) soul and body are one and the same 
thing. (19) 

Now I shall treat of the second man 1 (as one who 
believes that) everything consists of the five elements. 

Here in the East, (&c, see §§ 13, 14, all down to) 
teach this religion well. (20) 

* There are five elements 2 through which we explain 

1 According to the commentators the Ldkayatikas or the 
Sankhyas are intended. The latter explain the whole world as 
developed from the Prikrt'ti or chaos, and contend that the atman 
does not act. The Ldkayatikas deny the separate existence of the 
atman, and maintain that the elements are called atman when they 
manifest intellect (iaitanya). 

* Mahabbhuya=mahabhuta. 

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whether an action is good, or bad, (&c, see § 18, all 
down to) hell or not. Everything down to a blade 
of grass (consists of them). (2 1) 

' And one should know the intermixture 1 of the 
elements by an enumeration of them. Earth is the 
first element, water the second, fire the third, wind 
the fourth, and air the fifth. These five elements 
are not created, directly or indirectly, nor made; they 
are not effects nor products ; they are without begin- 
ning and end ; they always produce effects, are in- 
dependent of a directing cause or everything else; they 
are eternal. Some, however, say that there is a Self 
besides the five elements. What is, does not perish ; 
from nothing nothing comes. (22) 

' All living beings, all things, the whole world con- 
sists of nothing but these (five elements). They are 
the primary cause of the world, even down to a blade 
of grass. (23) 

' A man buys and causes to buy, kills and causes to 
kill, cooks and causes to cook, he may even sell and 
kill a man. Know, that even in this case he does 
not do wrong.' 

These (Nastikas) cannot inform you, (&c, see §§ 
15-18, all down to) they stick (as it were) in pleasures 
and amusements. 

Thus I have treated of the second man (who 
believes that) everything consists of the five 
elements. (24) 

Now I shall treat of the third man (who believes 
that) the Self 8 is the cause of everything. 

1 SamavSya. 

* The word used in the text is fsara = ijvara, but afterwards 
purisa = purusha is used in its place. Both words are synonymous 

Digitized by 


344 sOtrak/j/tAnga. 

Here in the East, (&c, see §§ 12, 13, all down to) 
teach this religion well. (25) 

' Here all things have the Self for their cause and 
their object, they are produced by the Self, they are 
manifested by the Self, they are intimately con- 
nected with the Self, they are bound up in the 

' As, for instance, a tumour is generated in the body, 
grows with the body, is not separate from the body, 
but is bound up in the body : so all things have the 
Self for their cause, (&c, all as above). 

' As, for instance, a feeling of indisposition is gener- 
ated in the body, grows with the body, is never 
separate from the body, but is bound up in the body : 
so all things have the Self for their cause, (&c, all as 

' As, for instance, an anthill is made of earth, grows 
through earth, is not separate from earth, but is 
bound up in earth : so all things, (&c, all as above). 

' As, for instance, a tree springs up on earth, grows 
on earth, is not separate from earth, but is bound up 
in earth : so all things, (&c, all as above). 

' As, for instance, a lotus springs up in earth, grows 
on earth, is not separate from earth, but is bound up 
in earth : so all things, (&c, all as above). 

' As, for instance, a mass of water is produced by 
water, grows through water, is not separate from 
water, but is bound up in water : so all things, (&c, 
all as above). 

'As, for instance, a water-bubble is produced in 
water, grows in water, is not separate from water, 

with Stman, the first may denote the highest atman as in the 
Ydga philosophy, or the para mi t man as in the VMinta. 

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but is bound up in water : so all things, (&c, all as 
above). (26) 

• And the twelve Angas, the Canon of the Gawins \ 
which has been taught, produced, and declared by 
the .Sramawas, the Nirgranthas, viz. the A^aranga 
(all down to) the DWsh/ivada, is wrong, not true, not 
a representation of the truth ; but this (our doctrine) 
is correct, is true, is a representation of the truth.' 

The (heretics in question) make this assertion, they 
uphold this assertion, they (try to) establish this 

Therefore they cannot get out of the misery 
produced by this (error), even as a bird cannot get 
out of its cage. (27) 

These (heretics) cannot inform you, (&c, see §§ 16- 
19, all down to) they stick, as it were, in pleasures 
and amusements. 

Thus I have treated of the third man (who believes 
that) the Self is the cause of everything. (28) 

Now I shall treat of the fourth man who believes 
that Fate is the cause of everything. 

Here in the East, (&c, see $ 12, 13, all down to) 
teach this religion well. (29) 

' There are two (kinds of) men. One man admits 
action, another man does not admit action. Both 
men, he who admits action, and he who does not 
admit action, are alike, their case is the same, because 
they are actuated by the same force 2 . (30) 

1 Ga»ipi</aga. 

* Viz. Fate. For it is their destiny to entertain one belief or the 
other, and they are not amenable to it. This is the interpretation 
of the commentators. But to the phrase karanam apanna they 
give here a meaning different from that in the following paragraphs. 
I therefore propose the following translation of the end of the 

Digitized by 


346 sCtrakr/tAnga. 

' An ignorant man thinks about the cause as fol- 
lows : " When I suffer, grieve, blame myself, grow 
feeble \ am afflicted, or undergo great pain, I have 
caused it ; or when another man suffers, &c, he has 
caused it." Thus an ignorant man thinks himself or 
another man to be the cause of what he or the other 
man experiences. (31) 

' A wise man thinks about the cause as follows : 
" When I suffer, &c, I did not cause it ; and when 
another man suffers, &c, he did not cause it 2 ." 

'A wise man thinks thus 3 about the cause of what 
he himself or another man experiences. I say this : 
" Movable or immovable beings in all the four quar- 
ters thus (i.e. by the will of Fate) come to have a body, 
to undergo the vicissitudes of life, to lose their body, 
to arrive at some state of existence, to experience 
pleasure and pain *." ' 

Entertaining such opinions these (heretics) cannot 
inform you, (&c, as in § 17, down to the end). (32) 

These worthless men entertain such opinions, and 
believe in them till they cannot return, (&c, as in 
§ 19 down to) amusements. 

paragraph : ' are equally (wrong), (err) alike as regards the cause 
(of actions).' 

1 Tippami, explained 'lose strength of body.' The word 
cannot be tr*'py&mi, because it means 'I am satisfied.' The 
word is probably derived from the root tik 'to kill.' Tippami 
would be an irregular passive, just as sippami from sii, see 
Zeitschrift ftlr vergleichende Sprachforschung, vol. xxvii, p. 250. 
Leumann, Aupapatika Sutra, glossary s.v. tippawayS, explains this 
word by ' crying ' on the authority of AbhayadSva. Either mean- 
ing suits the passages where it occurs in our text 

* But Fate is the cause. 

' That is to say, that Fate distributes pleasure and pain. 

* I render the rather ambiguous expressions in the original 
according to the interpretation of the commentators. 

Digitized by 



I have treated of the fourth man who believes 
that Fate is the cause of everything. (33) 

These four men, differing in intellect, will, charac- 
ter, opinions, taste, undertakings, and plans, have, 
left their former occupations, but have not entered 
the noble path. They cannot return (to worldly 
life) nor get beyond it; they stick (as it were) in 
pleasures and amusements. (34) 

I say : here in the East, West, North, and South 
there are some men, viz. Aryas, non-Aryas, (&c, as 
in § 13, all down to) ugly men. They own small or 
large houses and fields, they own few or many ser- 
vants and peasants. Being born in such-like families, 
they renounce (their possessions) and lead a mendi- 
cant's life. Some leave their kinsmen and their 
property to lead a mendicant's life; others, who 
have no kinsmen nor property, lead a mendicant's 
life. Whether they have kinsmen and property or 
not, they renounce them and lead a mendicant's 

We. (35) 

Previously, however, they thought thus : ' Here, 
indeed, a man, who is on the point of turning monk, 
makes the following reflections with regard to dif- 
ferent things : I possess fields, houses, silver, gold, 
riches, corn, copper, clothes, real valuable property, 
as riches, gold, precious stones, jewels, pearls, conches, 
stones, corals, rubies 1 . I enjoy sounds, colours, 
smells, tastes, and feelings of touch. These plea- 
sures and amusements belong to me, and I belong 
to them.' (36) 

A wise man, previously, should thus think to 

1 The same enumeration of valuable things occurs elsewhere, 
e. g. Kalpa Sutra, Lives of the Ginas, § 90. 

Digitized by 


348 strRAKRirkiiGA. 

himself: 'Here, indeed, some painful illness or 
disease might befall me, unwished for, unpleasant, 
disagreeable, nasty 1 , painful and not at all plea- 
sant. O ye dear pleasures, take upon you this 
painful illness or disease, unwished for, unpleasant, 
disagreeable, nasty, painful and not at all plea- 
sant, that I may not suffer, grieve, blame myself, 
grow feeble, be afflicted, and undergo great pain 2 . 
Deliver me from this painful illness or disease, (&c, 
all as above).' But this desire of his has never yet 
been fulfilled. (37) 

Here, in this life, pleasures and amusements are 
not able to help or to save one. Sometimes a man 
first forsakes pleasures and amusements, sometimes 
they first forsake him. Pleasures and amusements 
are one thing, and I am another. Why then should 
we be infatuated with pleasures and amusements 
which are alien (to our being) ? Taking this into 
consideration, we shall give up pleasures and 
amusements. A wise man thinks them alien to 
himself. (38) 

There are things more intimately connected with 
me, viz. my mother, father, brother, sister, wife, 
children, grandchildren, daughters-in-law, servants, 
friends, kinsmen, companions, and acquaintances. 
These my relations belong to me, and I belong to 
them. A wise man, previously, should think thus to 
himself : 'Here, indeed, some painful illness or disease 
might befall me, (&c, all as in § 37 down to the end, 
but substitute " relations " for " pleasures "). (39) 

1 The original has six synonyms for disagreeable, which it is 
impossible to render adequately in English. 
* The same words occurred in § 31. 

Digitized by 



'Or some painful illness or disease, unwished 
for, (&c, all down to) not at all pleasant might 
befall my dear relations. I will take upon me this 
painful illness or disease, &c, that they may not 
suffer, (all down to) undergo great pain. I will 
deliver them from this painful illness or disease.' 
But this desire of his has never yet been fulfilled. 
For one man cannot take upon himself the pains of 
another; one man cannot experience what another 
has done 1 . (40) 

Individually a man is born, individually he dies, 
individually he falls (from this state of existence), 
individually he rises (to another) 2 . His passions 8 , 
consciousness, intellect, perceptions, and impressions 
belong to the individual exclusively. Here, indeed, 
the bonds of relationship are not able to help nor 
save one. (All as in § 38 down to the end ; substi- 
tute 'bonds of relationship' for 'pleasures and 
amusements.') (41) 

There are things more intimately connected with 
me, viz. my hands, feet, arms, legs, head, belly, charac- 
ter, life, strength, colour, skin, complexion, ear, eye, 
nose, tongue, and touch ; they are part and parcel 
of me. But I grow old with regard to life, strength, 
(all down to) touch. The strong joints become 
loose, the body is furrowed with wrinkles, the black 
hair turns white, even this dear body which has 
grown with food, must be relinquished in due time. 

1 I.e. his Karman. 

* According to the commentators the last two passages should 
be translated: 'individually he leaves (his possessions, &c), in- 
dividually he is joined (to them).' 

' &£a#^A& = kalaha. 

Digitized by 


35° sOtrakjj/tAnga. 

Making such reflections, a monk should lead a mendi- 
cant's life and know that all things are divided into 
living beings and things without life, (and living 
beings again into) movable and immovable ones. (42) 

Here, indeed, householders are killers (of beings) 
and acquirers of property, and so are even some 
6rama«as and Brahmawas. They themselves kill 
movable and immovable living beings, have them 
killed by another person, or consent to another's 
killing them. (43) 

Here, indeed, householders are killers (of beings) 
and acquirers of property, and so are even some 
.Sramawas and Brahmawas. They themselves acquire 
sentient or senseless objects of pleasure, have them 
acquired by another person, or consent to another's 
acquiring them. (44) 

Here, indeed, householders are killers (of beings) 
and acquirers of property, and so are even some 
6rama»as and Brahma#as. But I am no killer (of 
beings) nor an acquirer of property. Relying upon * 
householders and such 6Vama«as and Brahmawas as 
are killers (of beings) and acquirers of property, we 
shall lead a life of chastity. (He should, however, 
part company with them.) (The pupil asks) : What 
is the reason thereof ? (The teacher answers) : As 
before (their ordination they were killers of beings), 
so (they will be) afterwards, and vice versa. It is 
evident that (householders) do not abstain (from 
sins) nor exert themselves (in control); and (as 
monks) they will relapse into the same (bad 
habits). (45) 

1 Nissae=nuraya, explained 4jraye"«a. 

Digitized by 


BOOK 2, LECTURE I. 35 1 

The householders and those .5rama»as and Brah- 
ma»as, who are killers (of beings) and acquirers of 
property, commit sins both (from love and hatred). 
But a monk who takes this into consideration, should 
lead a life subject to neither (love nor hatred). (46) 

I say: in the East, West, North, and South 
(a true monk) will have renounced works, be exempt 
from works, will have put an end to them. This 
has been taught (by the prophets, &c). (47) 

The Venerable One has declared that the cause 
(of sins) are the six classes of living beings, earth- 
lives, &c. As is my pain when I am knocked or 
struck with a stick, bone, fist, clod, or potsherd; 
or menaced, beaten, burned, tormented, or deprived 
of life ; and as I feel every pain and agony from 
death down to the pulling out of a hair : in the same 
way, be sure of this, all kinds of living beings feel 
the same pain and agony, &c, as I, when they are 
ill-treated in the same way 1 . For this reason all 
sorts of living beings should not be beaten, nor 
treated with violence, nor abused, nor tormented, 
nor deprived of life 2 . (48) 

I say: the Arhats and Bhagavats of the past, 
present, and future, all say thus, speak thus, declare 
thus, explain thus : all sorts of living beings should 
not be slain, nor treated with violence, nor abused, 
nor tormented, nor driven away. This constant, 
permanent, eternal, true Law has been taught by 
wise men who comprehend all things. Thus a monk 
abstains from (the five cardinal sins :) slaughter of 
living beings, &c. He does not clean his teeth with 

1 The text repeats the phrases just translated. 

* The same words form the text of the homily in AXarihga I, 4. 

Digitized by 


352 sdrRAKRirAiiGA. 

a tooth-brush \ he does not accept collyrium, emetics, 
and perfumes. (49) 

A monk who does not act, nor kill, who is free 
from wrath, pride, deceit, and greed, who is calm 
and happy, should not entertain the following wish : 
May I, after my departure from this world, by dint 
of my intellect, knowledge, memory, learning, or 
of the performance of austerities, religious duties, 
chastity, or of this habit to eat no more than is 
necessary to sustain life, become a god at whose 
command are all objects of pleasure, or a perfected 
saint who is exempt from pain and misery. (Through 
his austerities) he may obtain his object, or he may 
not obtain it. (50) 

A monk should not be infatuated with sounds, 
colours, smells, tastes, and feelings of touch; he 
should abstain from wrath, pride, deceit, and greed, 
from love, hate, quarrel, calumny, reviling of others, 
aversion to control and delight in sensual things, 
deceit and untruth, and the sin of wrong belief. In 
this way a monk ceases to acquire gross Karman, 
controls himself, and abstains from sins. (51) 

He does not kill movable or immovable beings, 
nor has them killed by another person, nor does he 
consent to another's killing them. In this way 
a monk ceases to acquire gross Karman, controls 
himself, and abstains from sins. (52) 

He does not acquire sentient or senseless objects 
of pleasure, nor has them acquired by another person, 
nor does he consent to another's acquiring them. 
In this way, (&c, all as above). (53) 

1 Or rather a piece of wood with which the Hindus rub their 

Digitized by 



He does no actions arising from sinful causes ', 
nor has them done by another person, nor does he 
consent to another's doing them. In this way (&c, 
all as above). (54) 

A monk should not take food, drink, dainties, 
and spices when he knows that (the householder) to 
satisfy him, or for the sake of a co-religionist, has 
bought or stolen or taken it, though it was not given 
nor to be taken, but was taken by force, by acting 
sinfully towards all sorts of living beings 2 ; nor does 
he cause another person to eat it, nor does he consent 
to another's eating it. In this way (&c, all as 
above). (55) 

A monk may think as follows : The (householders) 
have the means (to procure food for those) for whose 
sake it is prepared; viz. for himself 3 , his sons, 
daughters, daughters-in-law, nurses, relations, chiefs, 
male and female slaves, male and female servants ; 
for a treat of sweetmeats, for a supper, for a break- 
fast the collation has been prepared. This food is 
to be eaten by some people, it is prepared by some 
one else, it is destined for some one else, it is free from 
the faults occasioned either by the giver or by the 
receiver or by the act of receiving it 4 , rendered 
pure 6 , rendered free from living matter 6 , wholly free 
from living things 7 , it has been begged, has been 
given to the monk on account of his profession 8 , 

1 Sampar&yika. The commentators say : ta£ ka. pradvgsha- 
nihnavamatsary&ntar&yajatandpaghatair badhyate". 
* Compare Aiaranga Sfkra II, 1, 1, 11. 
' Apparently the householder is intended. 
4 Udgama, utpadana, 6sha«a. See above, p. 131, note 7. 
8 £astratftam. * •S'astraparia&mitam. 

7 Avihi/nsitam. * Vaishikam. 

[45] A a 

Digitized by 


354 sOtrakr/tAnga. 

it has been collected in small bits ', it is food fit for 
a learned monk, it is lawful to eat it at the present 
occasion, it is of the prescribed quantity, it greases, 
as it were, the axle of the carriage and anoints the 
sore, being just sufficient to enable one to practise 
control and to carry the burden of it; he should 
consume that food (without delay) even as the snake 
returning to its hole ; that is to say : one should eat 
when it is time for eating, drink when it is time for 
drinking, dress when it is time for dressing, seek 
cover when it is time for seeking cover, and sleep 
when it is time for sleeping. (56) 

A monk who knows the proper measure (in all 
things) travelling in one direction or other, should 
teach, explain, and praise (the Law), preach it unto 
those who exert themselves well, and to those who 
do not, to all who come to listen. (He should preach 
to them): indifference for the peace of mind, cessation 
of passion, Nirva»a, purity, simplicity, humility, free- 
dom from bonds ". He should preach the Law which 
prohibits to kill any living being, after having well 
considered it. (57) 

When a monk preaches the Law, he should preach 
it not for the sake of food, drink, clothes, resting- 
place, or lodging, nor for any objects of pleasure ; 
but he should preach the Law indefatigably, for 
no other motive than the annihilation of Kar- 
man. (58) 

Those heroes of faith who are instructed in the 
Law by such a monk and exert themselves well, are 

1 Samudanikam, i.e. as bees collect honey from many flowers. 
Cf. p. 80, note 1. 
* Compare A/taranga Sfitra I, 7, 4, 1, part i, p. 68, note 3. 

Digitized by 


BOOK 2, LECTURE 2. 355 

possessed of all (virtues), abstain from all (sins), 
cease from all (passions), conduct themselves well 
in every way, and reach final beatitude. (59) 

Such a monk searches the Law, knows the Law, 
and endeavours to gain Liberation ; as it has been 
said : 'He may get the white lotus, the best of 
Nymphaeus, or he may not get it.' Such a monk 
knows and renounces actions, worldly occupations, 
and the life of a householder ; he is free from passions, 
possesses the Samitis, is wise, always exerts himself; 
he is to be called: a 6"rama«a, a Brahmawa, calm, 
a subduer of his senses, guarding himself, liberated, 
a seer, a sage, virtuous, wise, a monk, living on low 
food, desiring to get to the shore (of the Sawsara), 
fulfilling the general and particular virtues *. (60) 

Thus I say. 



O long-lived (Gambusvamin) ! I (Sudharman) have 
heard the following Discourse from the Venerable 
(Mahavtra). We now come to the Lecture called 
'on Activity.' The contents of it are as follows: 

1 Aarawakarawaparavid. Tarawa is explained by mula- 
guna, karawa by uttaraguna. The mulagiwas consist in the 
observance of the five vows, the uttaraguwas are the five Samitis, 
the three Guptis, &c, in short, the duties of a monk. 

* Kiriy&/M«6 = kriydsthinam, literally, the subject of 

A a 2 

Digitized by 


356 sOtrak/j/tAnga. 

It treats, briefly, of two subjects : merit and demerit. 
(The former is when the Self is) at rest, (the latter, 
when it is) in disturbance 1 , (i) 

Now the explanation 2 of the first subject, viz. 
demerit, is as follows. Here in the East, West, 
North, and South, (&c, all as in II, i, 12, down to) 
ugly men. (2) 

And as regards committing of sin 3 , among denizens 
of hell, brute animals, gods, men, and whatever other 
suchlike beings there be, the sentient beings feel* 
the pain. (3) 

And these beings practise the following thirteen 
kinds of activity — 

1. sinning for one's interest; 

2. sinning without a personal interest ; 

3. sinning by slaying ; 

4. sinning through accident ; 

5. sinning by an error of sight ; 

6. sinning by lying ; 

7. sinning by taking what is not freely given ; 

8. sinning by a mere conceit ; 

9. sinning through pride ; 

10. sinning through bad treatment of one's friends ; 

11. sinning through deceit; 

12. sinning through greed ; 

1 3. actions referring to a religious life. (4) 

1 Upajranta and anupa.ranta. 

* Vibhanga, more literally, case. 

5 Da»</asamadana, explained papdpadana. 

4 A difference is made between feeling (anubhavanti) and knowing 
(vidanti): (1) the safl^flins or rational beings feel and know 
impressions ; (2) the Siddhas only know them ; (3) the reasonless 
beings only feel them; (4) things without life neither know nor 
feel them. Sentient beings are those in Nos. 1 and 3. 

Digitized by 


BOOK 2, LECTURE 2. 357 

i . The first kind of committing sins is that prompted 
by a motive. This is the case when a man for his 
own sake, for the sake of his relations, his house, 
his family, his friends, for the sake of Nagas, Bhutas, 
or Yakshas does injury to movable or immovable 
beings, or has it done by another person, or consents 
to another's doing it. Thereby the bad Karman 
accrues to him. This is the first kind of committing 
sins, that prompted by a motive. (5) 

2. We now treat of the second kind of committing 
sins, viz. that which is not prompted by personal in- 
terest. This is the case when a man slays, kills, 
cuts, pierces, hacks, mangles, or puts to death movable 
living beings, not because he wants their body, skin, 
flesh, blood, heart, bile, feathers of their tail, tail, big 
or small horns, teeth, tusks, nails, sinews, bones, or 
marrow ; nor because he has been wounded by them, 
or is wounded, or will be wounded ; nor in order to 
support his children, or to feed his cattle, or to 
enlarge his houses, nor for the maintenance of 
Sramattas and Brahma/tas, nor for the benefit of his 
body ; setting aside reason a fool acquires the habit 
of cruelty, being a wanton killer. (6) 

This is the case when a man slays, &c. (see above) 
immovable living beings as Ikka/a-reed, KaMina, 
(Jantuka-grass, Para-grass 1 , M6ksha-trees 2 , grass, 
Kusa-grass, Ku&Maka. a , Pappaka 4 , or straw, not 

1 Compare A&irariga Sutra II, 2, 3, 18, note 1. One MS. reads 
6raga forparaga. £raka is the name of a reed. 

1 Mfiksha is the name of a tree = mushkaka. The AMranga 
and one of our MSS. have mdraga, peacocks' feathers. But that 
is out of place here. 

* KuA/tfia. is a white water-lily. The A^&raiiga Sutra has 
ku££aka = kur^aka, brush. 

4 Pa^iaka in the AAMhga. Sutra. 

Digitized by 


358 sOtrak/wtMga. 

in order to support his children, (&c, all down to) 
wanton killer. (7) 

Or when a man on a marsh, a lake, a sheet of 
water, a pasture-ground, a place surrounded by 
a ditch, a moat, a thicket, stronghold 1 in a thicket, 
forest, stronghold in a forest, [mountain, stronghold 
on a mountain *], piles up grass and lights a fire, or 
has it lighted by another person, or consents to 
another's lighting it Thereby the bad Karman 
accrues to him. This is the second kind of com- 
mitting sins, that prompted by no personal in- 
terest. (8) 

3. We now treat of the third kind of committing 
sins, called slaying. This is the case when a man 
thinking that some one has hurt, hurts, or will hurt 
him, or one of his people, or somebody else, or one 
of that person's people, kills movable and immovable 
beings, has them killed by another person, or consents 
to another's killing them. Thereby the bad Karman 
accrues to him. This is the third kind of commit- 
ting sins, called slaying. (9) 

4. We now treat of the fourth kind of committing 
sins, called accidental 3 . This is the case when in 
marshes (&c, all as above, down to) strongholds in 

1 Or a group of trees. 

' A nearly identical enumeration of places occurs in A£arahga 
Sutra II, 3, 3, 2. The words in brackets seem to be added later ; 
for .Stlanka does not comment upon them, and expressly mentions 
ten places. They are generally omitted in the sequel when the 
same passage occurs again. 

8 Akasmidda»</e\ The commentators remark that the word 
akasmStisin Magadha pronounced by the people as in Sanskrit. 
The fact is that we meet here and in the end of the next paragraph 
with the spelling akasmat, while in the middle of the paragraphs 
it is spelled akamha, which is the true Prakrrt form. 

Digitized by 


BOOK 2, LECTURE 2. 359 

a forest, a man who lives on deer, who likes deer, 
who dotes on deer, goes a hunting deer. Fancying 
to see deer, he takes aim with his arrow to kill the 
deer. Thinking that he will kill the deer, he kills 
a partridge, or a duck, or a quail, or a pigeon, or 
a monkey, or a francoline partridge. Here instead 
of one (being) he hurts another, (therefore he is 
called) an accidental killer. (10) 

This is the case when a man weeding rice, Kddrava 1 , 
panic seed, Paraka, or Ralaka, uses his knife to cut 
some weeds. Fancying that he is cutting some 
weed-grasses 2 , he cuts rice (&c, down to) Ralaka. 
Here instead of one (plant) he hurts another ; (there- 
fore he is called) an accidental killer. Thereby the 
bad Karman accrues to him. This is the fourth 
kind of committing sins, called accidental, (i i) 

5. We now treat of the fifth kind of committing 
sins, viz. by an error of sight. This is the case 
when a man living together with his mother, father, 
brothers, sisters, wives, sons, daughters, or daughters- 
in-law, and mistaking a friend for an enemy, kills the 
friend by mistake. (12) 

This is the case when during a riot in a village s , 

1 Paspalum Sobriculatum. 

* They are specialised in the text as •Syamakam tritium, 
mukundaka vrfhiusita, and kalesuka. Only the two first 
are mentioned in our dictionaries. 

* In the Dfpika the following versus memorialis is quoted, in 
which the names of places mentioned in the text are defined: 
gram6 vrrtya vrrtaA syan nagaram uru£aturg6pur6dbhaswdbham 
khe7a»z nadyadriv€sh/a/R parivr/tam abhitaA kharva/am parvatSna I 
gramair yuktam ma/ambam dalitada-rajataM (?) pattanaw ratnay6nir 
drdoakhyam sindhuv&avalayitam atha sambadhanam va*drLrr;'hgeli 
It will be seen that the meaning of these terms given in this verse 
differs from that given in notes 3-1 1, p. 176. 

Digitized by 


360 sOtrak/j/tanga. 

or a scot-free town, or a town with an earth wall, or 
a poor town, or an isolated town, or a large town, 
or a sea-town, or a mine, or a hermitage, or a 
halting-place of processions or caravans, or a capital, 
a man mistaking for a robber one who is not, kills 
him by mistake. Thereby the bad Karman accrues 
to him. This is the fifth kind of committing sins, 
viz. by an error of sight. (13) 

6. We now treat of the sixth kind of committing 
sins, viz. by lying. This is the case when a man 
for his own sake, or for the sake of his relations, 
his house, or his servants tells lies, causes another 
person to tell lies, or consents to another's telling 
lies. Thereby the bad Karman accrues to him. 
This is the sixth kind of committing sins, viz. by 
lying. (14) 

7. Now we treat of the seventh kind of com- 
mitting sins, viz. by taking what is not freely given. 
This is the case when a man for his own sake (&c, 
as above) takes himself what is not freely given, has 
it taken by another person, or consents to another's 
taking it. Thereby the bad Karman accrues to him. 
This is the seventh kind of committing sins, viz. by 
taking what is not freely given. (15) 

8. Now we treat of the eighth kind of committing 
sins, viz. by a mere conceit. This is the case when 
a man, without being disappointed by anybody in 
any way, meditates, melancholy, sorry, angry, down- 
cast, anxious in thoughts and ideas, plunged in a sea 
of sorrow and misery, reposing his head on the palm 
of his hand, overcome by painful reflections, and 
casting his eyes on the ground 1 . There are four 

1 The same passage occurs Kalpa Sutra, Lives of the Ginas, 
§ 92, part i, p. 249. 

Digitized by 


BOOK 2, LECTURE 2. 36 1 

mental, but real, conditions (of this kind), viz. wrath, 
pride, deceit, and greed ; for wrath, pride, deceit, and 
greed are mental conditions. Thereby the bad 
Karman accrues to him. This is the eighth kind 
of committing sins, viz. by a mere conceit. (16) 

9. Now we treat of the ninth kind of committing 
sins, viz. through pride. This is the case when 
a man drunk (as it were) with pride of caste, family, 
beauty, piety, knowledge, success, power, intelli- 
gence 1 , or any other kind of pride, slights, blames, 
abuses, reviles, despises somebody else and extols 
himself, (thinking :) ' he is my inferior, I am of better 
caste or family, and possess greater power and other 
advantages.' When he leaves this body and is only 
accompanied by his Karman, he, without a will of 
his own, goes forth from womb to womb, from birth 
to birth, from death to death, from hell to hell. He 
is cruel, stubborn, fickle, and proud. Thereby the 
bad Karman accrues to him. This is the ninth kind 
of committing sins, viz. through pride. (17) 

10. We now treat of the tenth kind of committing 
sins, consisting in bad treatment of one's friends. 
This is the case when a man living together with 
his mother, father, brothers, sisters, wives, sons, 
daughters, or daughters-in-law, severely punishes 
even the smallest offence of theirs ; e. g. he ducks 
the offender z in cold water, or pours hot water over 
him, or scalds him with fire, or lashes his sides sore 
with a halter, reed, rope 8 , strap of leather, whip, or 

1 These are the eight kinds of pride, madasthanani. 

* The original has kayaw, the body. 

* NettS«a = n£tre»a. The commentator says that it is a 
particular tree; but 1 think the usual meaning of nStra, viz. rope, 
suits better. 

Digitized by 


362 sOtrakjj/tAnga. 

thong of a Tvhip, or he beats the offender with a 
stick, bone, fist, clod, or potsherd. When such 
a man is at home, (his people) are miserable ; but 
when he is abroad, they rejoice. Such a man, who 
is for ever punishing, severely punishing, is hateful 
in this world and the next, irritable, passionate, 
an extortioner 1 . Thereby the bad Karman accrues 
to him. This is the tenth kind of committing sins, 
consisting in bad treatment of one's friends. (18) 

11. We now treat of the eleventh kind of com- 
mitting sins, viz. through deceit. Those who conceal 
their thoughts, who are shrouded in darkness, who 
are light as the feather of an owl or heavy like a 
mountain, use unworthy 2 speech though they be 
Aryas. They believe themselves different from 
what they really are ; asked one thing, they answer 
another, they speak different from what is to be 
spoken. (19) 

As a man in whose body sticks an arrow 3 , does 
not extricate it (fearing the pain), nor has it extricated 
by somebody else, nor destroys it, but hides it ; and 
the arrow, being not removed, goes deeper and 
deeper (in the flesh); so a deceitful man, having 
practised deception, does not confess it, expiate 
it, blame the deed to himself or others, does not 
remove it, annihilate it, and endeavour not to do it 
again, does not practise the prescribed austerities and 
penance. A deceitful man is generally not trusted 4 
in this world, a deceitful man is not trusted in the 
next world. He blames and reviles -(the person 

1 Pi/Mimamsf, literally, who eats the flesh of the back. 

* AnSrya. » .Salya. 

* Tzkkky&ti, pratySySti. Dipiki: avijvisyatayd pratyd- 
y&ti prakhyitim yS.ti. 

Digitized by 


BOOK 2, LECTURE 2. 363 

whom he has deceived), he praises himself, and 
rejoices, and does not desist (from his vile practices) ; 
he conceals the wrong he has done to others, and 
does not acquire a pure Le\yya. Thereby the bad 
Karman accrues to him. This is the eleventh kind 
of committing sins, viz. through deceit. (20) 

12. We now treat of the twelfth kind of committing 
sins, viz. through greed. Those (heretical monks) 
who live in woods, in huts, about villages, or practise 
some secret rites, are not well controlled, nor do they 
well abstain (from slaying) all sorts of living beings. 
They employ speech that is true and untrue at the 
same time * : ' do not beat me, beat others ; do not 
abuse me, abuse others ; do not capture me, capture 
others ; do not torment me, torment others ; do not 
deprive me of life, deprive others of life z .' And thus 
they are given to sensual pleasures, desire them, are 
held captive by them, passionately love them for 
four or five years, for six or ten years — (the period) 
may be shorter or longer. After having enjoyed 
these pleasures, and having died at their allotted 
time, they will be born in some places inhabited by 
Asuras and evildoers. And when they are released 
therefrom, they will be born deaf and dumb, or 
blind 8 , or dumb by birth. Thereby the bad Karman 
accrues to him. This is the twelfth kind of com- 
mitting sins, viz. through greed. (2 1) 

1 Concerning the fourfold division of speech see above, p. 135, 
and part i, p. 150, note 2. 

* The meaning is that Brahmans declare it a capital crime to 
kill a Brahman, but a venial one to kill a £udra. 

3 Tammuyatt&e = tamdmukatv6na, explained either, blind 
by birth, or absolutely stupid or ignorant. 

Digitized by 


364 sutrakk/tAnga. 

These twelvekinds of committing sins should be well 
understood by a pious 6rama»a or Brahmawa 1 . (22) 

13. We now treat of the thirteenth kind of 
acquiring Karman, that having reference to religious 
life 2 . A monk 3 who controls himself for the benefit 
of his soul, who in walking carefully avoids to cause 
the death of any living creature 4 , who uses gentle 
and righteous speech 6 , who receives alms in a 
manner to avoid the forty-two faults 6 , who is careful 
in receiving and keeping of things necessary for 
religious exercises 7 , who performs the operations 
of nature (excrements, urine, saliva, corporal im- 
purities and mucus) in an unfrequented place 8 , who 
is careful with regard to mind, speech, and body 9 , 
who guards his mind, speech, and body so as to 
protect his soul from passions 10 , who guards his 
senses, who leads a chaste life regulated by the 
three Guptis, who carefully walks, stands, sits down, 
lies down, and speaks, who carefully takes up and lays 

1 The Karman of the preceding twelve kinds of sins is called 
samparayika (see p. 298, n. 3). It takes hold of the Atman till 
it is annihilated ; it is a lasting Karman, while that described in the 
next paragraph is of a momentary existence. 

* Iriydvahiya = iryapathika or airyapathika. The term 
tryapatha literally means, way of walking, but technically it 
denotes the actions of which the life of a correct ascetic consists, 
and airyapathika, therefore, is the Karman inseparable from it 

* The text consists of a string of technical terms, many of 
which have been explained already. I here incorporate the ex- 
planation in the translation. For more particulars see Bhandarkar's 
Report, p. 98. 

* Iryasamita. 6 Bhashasamita. * fesha«asamita. 

7 Bha»</amatradananikshgpa»asamita. 

8 U££ara-prasrava«a-fl6shma-£alla-frj'figha«a-parish- 
Mapanika-samita. ' Ma«aA-, vak-, kaya-samita. 

" ManaA-, vak-, kaya-gupta. 

Digitized by 


BOOK 2, LECTURE 2. 365 

down his cloth, alms-bowl, blanket, broom, — (even) 
such a monk performs various subtile actions called 
lryapathika (if it did but consist in moving an eye- 
lash). This Karman is acquired and comes in contact 
(with the soul) in the first moment, in the second 
moment it is experienced, in the third it is destroyed ; 
thus it is acquired, comes in contact (with the soul), 
takes rise, and is destroyed. For all time to come 
(the person in question) is exempt from Karman '. 
Thereby the bad Karman accrues to him 2 . This 
is the thirteenth kind of acquiring Karman, that 
inseparable from a religious life. (23) 

All the Arhats and Bhagavats of the past, 
present, and future have told, tell, and will tell, 
have declared, declare, and will declare the above 
thirteen kinds of acquiring Karman. They have 
practised, practise, and will practise the thirteenth 
kind of acquiring Karman. (24) 

As a supplement 3 to the above (discussion) will 

1 An almost identical passage occurs in the Uttaridhyayana 
XXIX, § 71, above p. 172. 

* This typical passage is repeated here though it is apparently 
out of place. 

3 Not only this paragraph but also all that follows up to the last 
paragraph seems to be a later addition. For in the last paragraph 
the subject treated of in §§ 1-27 is taken up again and brought to 
its conclusion. After the supplement §§ 25-27 a separate treatise on 
the main subject is inserted §§ 28-60 (28-57 on demerit, 58-59 on 
merit, § 60 on a mixed state) ; after this follows a similar treatise 
in §§ 61-77 (61-68 on demerit, 69-74 on merit, 75-77 on a 
mixed state). In § 78 we have again a supplement, and §§ 79-82 
contain another supplement (or perhaps two). §§ 83-85 give the 
conclusion of the first treatise (§§ 1-24) and must originally have 
followed immediately after § 24. So we have, here, besides some 
appendices, three distinct original treatises on the same subject, 
very awkwardly pieced together to form one continuous lecture. 

Digitized by 


366 sOtrakr/tanga. 

now be told the subject of men's success by occult 
sciences. Some men differing in intellect, will, 
character, opinions, taste, undertakings, and plans, 
study various evil sciences; (25) viz. (the divina- 
tion) from terrestrial accidents, from strange phe- 
nomena \ from dreams, from phenomena in the air, 
from changes in the body, from sounds, from 
mystical signs 2 , from seeds s ; (the interpretation 
of the) marks of women, men, elephants, cows, 
partridges, cocks, ducks, quails, of wheels, parasols, 
shields, sticks, swords, precious stones, jewels * ; (26) 
the art to make one happy or miserable, to make 
a woman pregnant, to deprive one of his wits ; 
incantations 6 , conjuring * ; oblations of substances ; 
the martial arts; the course of the moon, sun, 
Venus, and Jupiter ; the falling of meteors ; great 
conflagration; divination from wild animals 7 , the 
flight of crows, showers of dust, rain of blood, the 
Vaitall and Ardhavaitall arts 8 , the art of casting 
people asleep, of opening doors, the art of A!a»d&las, 
of .Sabaras, of Dravufes, of Kalingas, of Gau^as, of 
Gandharas ; the spells for making somebody fall 
down, rise, yawn; for making him immovable, or 
cling to something ; for making him sick, or sound ; 

1 £. g. the laughing of monkeys. 

5 Lakshawa. The mystical signs meant are the svastika, &c. 

* Vyafl^ana. The seeds are sesamum, beans, &c. 

4 Kaki»t, rendered ratna in the commentary. 

5 Atharva»{. * Pakaxasani = indra^ala. 
7 Mr/'ga^akra. 

• According to the commentary the Vait&li art teaches to raise 
a stick (?da»</am utthapayati, perhaps to lay a punishment on 
somebody) by spells; and the Ardhavaitalika, to remove it. In 
Pali v£tala»? means the magic art of bringing dead bodies to life 
by spells, see Childers' Dictionary of the Pali Language, sub voce. 

Digitized by 


BOOK 2, LECTURE 2. 367 

for making somebody go forth, disappear, (or 
come) K These and similar sciences are practised 
(by some men) for the sake of food, drink, clothes, 
a lodging, a bed, and various objects of pleasure. 
They practise a wrong science, the unworthy, the 
mistaken * men. After having died at their allotted 
time, they will be born in some places inhabited by 
Asuras and evildoers. And when they are released 
therefrom, they will again be born deaf and dumb, 
or night-blind. (27) 

Some man for his own sake or for the sake of his 
relations, family, or servants, or entering the service 
of an acquaintance or neighbour of his, becomes his 
companion or his helpmate, or he goes to meet him, 
or he becomes a burglar, or a cut-purse, or he tends 
sheep, or he becomes a hunter 8 , or he catches 
birds, or he uses nets (for catching deer), or he 
becomes a fisherman or a cowherd or a slayer of 
cows or a dog-keeper or he hunts with dogs. (28) 

A man, becoming the companion of another man, 
will follow him everywhere, (and having inspired 
him with confidence) beats, cuts, pierces, tears, 
thrashes, or puts him to death, and thereby gets 
his food. By these very evil deeds he degrades 
himself*. (29) 

A man, becoming the helpmate of another man, 
always attends on him, (and having inspired him 
with confidence) beats, &c. (all down to) degrades 
himself. (30) 

1 Ayama»i«, it is omitted in some MSS. and in the 

1 Vipratipanna. ' Sovariya, translated saukarika. 

4 I. e. he will be born in one of the low courses of existence. 

Digitized by 


368 sCtrmcr/tAnga. 

A man, going to meet somebody, on the road, 
beats, &c. (all down to) degrades himself. (31) 

A man, becoming a burglar, breaks into a house 
and beats, &c. (all down to) degrades himself. (32) 

A man, becoming a cut-purse, cuts the purse and 
beats, &c. (all down to) degrades himself. (33) 

A man, becoming a tender of sheep, beats, cuts, 
pierces, tears, thrashes, or puts to death a ram or 
some other animal. (The rest as above.) (34) 

A man, becoming a hunter, beats, &c. (all down 
to) puts to death a buffalo or some other animal. 
(The rest as above.) (35) 

A man, using nets (for catching deer), beats, &c., 
an antelope or some other animal. (The rest as 
above.) (36) 

A man, catching birds, beats, &c, a bird or some 
other animal. (The rest as above.) (37) 

A man, becoming a fisherman, beats, &c, a fish 
or some other animal. (The rest as above.) (38) 

A man, becoming a cowherd, beats, &c, a cow 
or some other animal. (The rest as above.) (39) 

A man, slaying cows, beats, &c, a cow or some 
other animal. (The rest as above.) (40) 

A man, becoming a dog-keeper, beats, &c, a dog 
or some other animal. (The rest as above.) (41) 

A man, becoming the helpmate of a dog-keeper, 
beats, &c, a dog or some other animal. (The rest 
as above.) (42) 

A man, rising in an assembly, may promise to 
kill some (animal) and he will beat, &c, a part- 
ridge, duck, quail, pigeon, monkey, a francoline 
partridge, or some other animal. (The rest as 
above.) (43) 

A man, being angry for some reason, e.g. because 

Digitized by 


BOOK 2, LECTURE 2. 369 

his granary or his liquor<ask runs short \ sets fire 
to the cornfields of the householders or their sons, 
has the fire set by another person, or consents 
to another's setting fire to them. (The rest as 
above.) (44) 

A man, being angry for some reason, e. g. because 
his granary or liquor-cask runs short, makes a deep 
cut in the strong limbs of the camels, cows, horses, 
or donkeys of the householders or their sons, has 
it made by another person, or consents to another's 
making the cut. (The rest as above.) (45) 

A man, being angry for some reason, e.g. because 
his granary or his liquor-cask runs short, covers 
with brambles or twigs the householders', or their 
sons', stable for the camels, cows, horses, or donkeys, 
and burns them, or has them burnt by another 
person, or consents to another's burning them. 
(The rest as above.) (46) 

A man, being angry for some reason, &c. (as 
above), steals a householder's or his sons' earrings 
(or girdle) ", or jewels, or pearls, has them stolen by 
another person, or consents to another's stealing 
them. (The rest as above.) (47) 

A man, being angry, &c. (as before), robs Sra.- 
maaas or Brahmanas of their umbrella, stick, staff, 
small property, pot, chair, clothes, blanket, leather 
boots, knife, or scabbard, has it done by another 
person, or consents to another's robbing them. (The 
rest as above.) (48) 

A man, without consideration (and without any 

1 Khalada«§«a va" surathalaSwa va\ My translation is 
s Gu«a ; omitted in the printed text. 
[45] B b 

Digitized by 


370 sOtrakk/tAnga. 

provocation), sets fire to the cornfields of the house- 
holders, &c. (All as in § 44.) (49) . 

A man, without consideration, makes a deep cut 
in the strong limbs of the camels, &c. (All as in 

$ 45) (5o) 

A man, without consideration, covers with bram- 
bles and twigs the stables for the camels, &c, and 
burns them, &c. (All as in § 46.) (51) 

A man, without consideration, steals the earrings, 
&c. (All as in $ 47.) (52) 

A man, without consideration, robs 5Vama»as or 
Brihma«as of their umbrella, &c. (All as in 

§ 48.) (53) 

A man, on seeing Sramawas or Brahma«as (whom 
he detests), degrades himself by various evil deeds. 
Either he gives them a slap with the open hand to 
turn them away 1 , or he abuses them. And when the 
monk at the proper time calls (at his house on the 
begging-tour), he does not give him alms (but 
says) : those who become ^Sramawas are the meanest 
workmen, men unable to support (their family), 
low-caste men, wretches, idlers ! (54) 

Such men praise this life, this miserable life ; they 
do nothing on behalf of the next world ; they suffer, 
grieve, blame themselves, grow feeble, are afflicted, 
and undergo great pain ; they do not cease to cause 
others to suffer, grieve, &c, to slay and to put men 
in fetters ; and while they make suffer or kill, or 
make suffer and kill (beings), and do various evil 

1 A£Marl6 apphlletta bhavai=apsar&ya.r £apu/ikSyas 
dsphalayiti bhavati. I am not sure that I have hit the 
meaning; apsard is perhaps derived from apasarayati, the word 
is wanting in our dictionaries. 

Digitized by 


BOOK 2, LECTURE 2. 37 1 

deeds, they enjoy the excellent pleasures of human 
life ; viz. such a man eats at dinner-time, he drinks 
at drinking-time, he dresses himself at dressing-time, 
he goes to bed at the proper time, and sleeps at 
sleeping-time. Doing everything in its turn, he 
bathes, makes the offering (to the house-gods) \ 
performs auspicious rites and expiatory acts, washes 
his head, hangs a wreath round his neck, adorns 
himself with precious stones and golden (trinkets), 
puts on (his head) a chaplet of flowers ; with his 
body strengthened, with a wreath hanging down 
to the girdle of his loins, dressed in new clothes, 
his limbs and body anointed with sandal, (sitting) 
on a large throne in a lofty upper room (of his 
house), surrounded by women and a troop of 
followers, in the light (of torches) burning the whole 
night, under the great din of uninterrupted story- 
telling, dramatical plays, singing, and music, as 
beating of time, performing on the Vl«a, Turya, 
the great drum, and PaAipa/aha 2 , he enjoys the 
excellent pleasures of human life. (55) 

When he gives an order to one man, even four 
or five men will, without being asked, go up to him 
(and say) : ' Speak, beloved of the gods, what shall 
we do ? what shall we fetch ? what shall we give 
you ? what (trinket) shall we put on you ? what is 
your heart's desire ? what relishes your mouth ? ' 

Unworthy men who see him will say: 'Forsooth, 
this man is a god ; this man is the anointed of the 
gods, this man will support (us), as he supports 

1 Compare Kalpa Sutra, Lives of the Ginas, § 66, notes. Our com- 
mentator explains the praya^iitta (expiatory acts) as ceremonies 
counteracting bad dreams. 

1 Compare Kalpa Sutra, Lives of the Ginas, § 14, part i, p. 223. 

B b 2 

Digitized by 


372 sOtrakr/tAnga. 

others.' But noble men who see htm will say: 
' This man does cruel actions, and maintains him- 
self by them. His is the southern region, the hell, 
the dark fortnight 1 . In the future he will not easily 
obtain enlightenment.' (56) 

(The conduct described in the preceding) part 2 is 
agreeable to some (heretical) monks, to some house- 
holders, to men governed by love of life. This 
conduct is unworthy, impure, void (of virtues), not 
holy, not right, not eradicating sins ; it is not the 
road to perfection, liberation, Nirvawa, final delivery, 
not the road of those who are freed from all 
misery; it is thoroughly untrue, and bad. 

This is the explanation of the first subject, viz. 
demerit. (57) 

Now the explanation of the second subject, viz. 
merit, is as follows : 

Here in the East, West, North, and South there 
are some men, viz. Aryas, non-Aryas, (all down to) 
ugly men. They own fields and houses, (&c, all as 
in II, 1, §§ 34-59, down to) reach final beatitude. (58) 

(The conduct described in this) part is holy, right, 
(all just the reverse of what was said in § 58, down to) 
thoroughly true, and good. This is the explanation 
of the second subject, viz. merit. (59) 

Now the explanation of the third subject, viz. the 
mixed state, is as follows : 

Those who live in woods, in huts, near villages, 
(&c, all as above, § 21, down to) or blind. (The 

1 For according to the commentaries the worst of all regions is 
the south, the worst state of being that of denizens of hell, and the 
dark fortnight is the worse half of the month. 

* rM»e = sth£nam. 

Digitized by 


BOOK 2, LECTURE 2. 373 

conduct described in this) part is not holy, (&c, all 
as in § 57, down to) thoroughly untrue, and bad. 

This is the explanation of the third subject, viz. 
the mixed state. (60) 

Now the explanation of the first subject, viz. 
demerit, is as follows: 

Here in the East, West, North, and South live 
some men; they are householders, men of great 
desires, great undertakings, great possessions, un- 
righteous men, men practising unrighteousness, very 
unrighteous men, men speaking unrighteously, living 
unrighteously, thinking unrighteously, given to un- 
righteousness, men of unrighteous character and con- 
duct, men gaining an unrighteous livelihood. (61) 

They beat, cut 1 , pierce, skin, are bloody-handed, 
violent, cruel, wicked, rash ; they habitually practise 
bribery 2 , fraud, deceit, imposture, dishonesty, and 
trickery ; they are of bad character and morals, they 
are difficult to please, they do not abstain from 
killing living beings ; as long as they live they do 
not abstain from wrath, (&c, all as in II, 1, 51, 
down to) the sin of wrong belief; nor from bathing, 
rubbing, painting, anointing themselves; from sounds, 
touches, tastes, colours, smells; from wreaths and 
ornaments ; from cars, carriages, vehicles, litters, 
swings 3 , coach and pair 4 , palankins 6 , beds, seats; 

1 These words are in the 2nd person sing, of the imperative, 
which, according to Pimni III, 4, 2, may be used to express a re- 
peated or habitual action. 

* Utku»/frana. 

* Gilli, purushadvay6tkshiptd^A611ika. 

* Thilli, explained: a vehicle drawn by a pair of mules; but, 
according to Leumann s.v., saddle. 

* Sfyasandiml»iy&, explained f ibik&vif fisha. 

Digitized by 


374 sOtrakr/tAnga. 

from enjoying a ride or drive ; from having many 
followers ; from buying, selling, doing business with 
Mashas 1 , half Mashas, and Rupees ; from silver, gold, 
riches, corn, precious stones, pearls, conches, stones, 
and corals ; from using wrong weights and measures ; 
from undertakings and slaughter ; from working and 
making others work ; from cooking and making 
others cook ; from cutting, pounding, threatening, 
beating, binding, killing, and causing pain ; and 
whatever other suchlike wicked and sinful actions 
of worthless men there be, that cause pains to other 
beings : these men do not abstain from them as 
long as they live. (62) 

As some idle, cruel men wantonly injure Kalama 2 , 
Masura 3 , sesamum, Mudga 4 , beans, Nishpava 6 , 
Kulattha 6 , Alisanda 7 , Elami^i^a 8 , so an idle, 
cruel man wantonly hurts partridges, ducks, quails, 
pigeons, francoline partridges, deer, buffaloes, boars, 
iguanas, tortoises, and snakes. 

A man will (occasionally) severely punish even 
the smallest offence of his domestics, viz. a slave or 
messenger or hired servant or vassal 9 or para- 
site ; e. g. punish him, pull out his hair, beat him, 
put him in irons, in fetters, in stocks, into prison, 
screw up in a pair of shackles (his hands and feet) 

1 MSsha is a weight of gold. ! A sort of rice. 

' A sort of pulse or lentil. * A sort of kidney-bean. 

* Probably Dolichos Sinensis. 

' A sort of pulse, Dolichos Uniflorus. 

7 I cannot identify this plant, our dictionaries do not contain 
this or a similar word. 

' This word ought perhaps to be divided in two; 614 are 
cardamoms, but what vaikAha, is I cannot say. 

• Bhagilla = bhagika, one who gets the sixth part of the 
products (e.g. of agriculture) of the work for which he is hired. 

Digitized by 


BOOK 2, LECTURE 2. 375 

and break them, cut off his hands or feet or ears 
or nose or lips or head or face (?) *, pierce his feet, 
tear out his eyes, teeth, tongue, hang him, brush 
him, whirl him round, impale him, lacerate him, 
pour acids (in his wounds), belabour him with cutting- 
grass, bind him to a lion's tail (!), or a bull's tail, 
burn him in a wood on fire, let him be devoured by 
crows and vultures, stop his food and drink, keep 
him a prisoner for life, let him die any of these 
horrid deaths. (63) 

A man will (occasionally) severely punish even 
the smallest offence of his next of kin, viz. his 
mother or father or brother or sister or wife or 
sons or daughters or daughters-in-law ; e.g. he ducks 
the offender in cold water, (&c, all as in § 18, down 
to) hateful in this world and the next. They suffer, 
grieve, blame themselves, grow feeble, are afflicted, 
and undergo great pain ; they do not cease to cause 
others to suffer, grieve, &c, to slay and to put men 
in fetters 2 . (64) 

And thus they are given to sensual pleasures, 
desire them, are held captive by them, passionately 
love them for four or five years, for six or ten years 
— the period may be shorter or longer 3 . Having 
enjoyed pleasures, having produced the effects 
of iniquity, having acquired the Karman of many 
sinful actions which generally bear him downwards, 
(he goes to the bottom of the hell) *. As a ball of 

1 The following two words, vSga£Mahiyaand anga£££ahiya, 
I cannot translate. 

* Compare § 55. * Compare § 21. 

4 These words from the end of the paragraph are to be supplied 
here, or rather the following passage has been inserted in the 

Digitized by 


376 sOtrakr/tAnga. 

iron or stone, when thrown in the water, sinks 
below the surface of the water till it stops at the 
bottom, so a man of the sort we are treating of, 
who is full of Karman, full of sin, full of demerit, 
full of disgrace 1 , full of iniquity, full of wicked 
thoughts, deceit, imposture, and fraud, and, as a rule, 
kills animals, having died at the allotted time, will 
sink below this earth, and go to the bottom of the 
hell. (65) 

These hells are round inside, square outside, on 
their floor razorlike arrows are thick-set (and covered 
with flowers), they are filled with perpetual darkness, 
never lighted up by the planets, moon, sun, Na- 
kshatras, and stars; their floor is slippery with 
a coating of marrow, fat, flesh, blood, and matter, 
and besmeared with grease ; these hells are impure, 
smelling detestably, black, of the colour of fire, 
very rugged, difficult to pass, horrid. And horrid 
are the pains in these hells. (66) 

And those who are condemned to live in these 
hells, do not sleep nor slumber, nor do they get 
any consolation 2 or comfort or recreation or en- 
couragement ; but the denizens of hell there suffer 
exquisite, great, deep, hard, rough, violent, painful, 
sharp, intolerable agonies. (67) 

As a tree growing on a hill falls by its weight 
when its roots are cut, on a low, rugged, inaccessible 
place, so a man of the sort we are treating of 

middle of the sentence so that it is apparently cut in two, of which 
the first lacks the verb. 

1 There is, apparently, a pun in the three words \a.gga., panka, 
ayasa, for they mean also steel, mud, iron. 

* Mui»» or sayaw or suiw. The Dipika has jruti. The 
following words are rati, dhnti, mat i. 

Digitized by 



wanders from womb to womb, from birth to birth, 
from death to death, from hell to hell, from pain 
to pain. His is the southern region, the hell, the 
dark fortnight 1 . In the future he will not easily 
obtain enlightenment. (The conduct described in 
the preceding) part is unworthy, impure, (&c, see 
§ 57, all down to) it is thoroughly untrue, and bad. 
This is the explanation of the first subject, viz. 
demerit. (68) 

Now the explanation of the second subject, viz. 
merit, is as follows : 

Here in the East, West, North, and South there 
are some such men as abstain from undertakings 
and possessions, righteous men, men practising 
righteousness, (&c, all as in § 58, but substitute 
' righteous ' for ' unrighteous,' down to) men gaining 
a righteous livelihood. They are of good character 
and morals, they are easy to please and good. They 
abstain from killing living beings as long as they live, 
(&c, all just the reverse of what was said in § 62, 
down to) whatever other suchlike wicked actions 
there be, that cause pains to other beings : these men 
abstain from them as long as they live. (69) 

There are such monks as in walking carefully 
avoid to occasion the death of any living creature, 
(&c, all as in § 23, down to) as lead chaste lives 
regulated by the three Guptis, as are free from 
anger, pride, deceit, and greed, as are calm, tranquil, 
passionless, happy, free from the Asravas, and 
bondage, without sorrow ; as water does not adhere 
to a copper vessel, or collyrium to mother-of-pearl 

1 Compare § 56 and note 1 on p. 372. 

Digitized by 


378 sOtrakr/tanga. 

(so sins find no place in them) ; their course is 
unobstructed like that of Life ; like the firmament 
they want nothing to support them ; like the wind 
they know no obstacles; their heart is pure like 
the water (of rivers or tanks) in autumn ; like the 
leaves of a lotus they cannot be soiled by anything ; 
their senses are well protected like the limbs of 
a tortoise ; they are single and alone like the horn 
of a rhinoceros ; they are free like birds ; they are 
always waking like the fabulous bird Bharuw^a ; 
they are valorous like elephants, strong like bulls, 
difficult to attack like lions, steady and firm like 
Mount Mandara, deep like the ocean, mild like the 
moon, refulgent like the sun, pure like excellent 
gold; like the earth they patiently bear every- 
thing; like a well-kindled fire they shine in their 
splendour 1 . (70) 

There are no obstacles anywhere for these 
reverend men. The obstacles have been declared 
to be of four kinds, viz. animals born from eggs, 
viviparous animals, things belonging to somebody, 
articles necessary for religious exercises 2 . In which- 
ever direction they want to go, there they meet with 
no obstacle ; but being pure and free, full of learn- 
ing, control, and austerities, they purify them- 
selves. (71) 

These reverend men practise the following mode 

1 The same passage occurs, mutatis mutandis, in the Kalpa 
Sutra, Lives of the (rinas, § 118; see part i, p. 261, and notes 
1 and 2. 

* The author of the Dipiki offers diverse interpretations of this 
division of obstacles, which are apparently guesses and not based on 
a solid tradition. In the parallel passage of the Kalpa Sutra, §119, 
the division is according to : matter, space, time, and affects. 

Digitized by 


BOOK 2, LECTURE 2. 379 

of living which just suffices for carrying on existence ; 
they eat but one meal in two, three, four, five, six, 
seven days, in half a month, in one, two, three, four, 
five, six months ; they (have vowed to) live on such 
food only as has been taken out of the cooking- 
vessel, or as is still in it, or the first kind of food 
in one place and the second in another, or on low 
food, or bad food, or food collected in small bits, 
or food given with a dirty hand, or the reverse, 
or food given with a hand, &c. soiled by it; they 
(have vowed to) accept such alms only as are within 
sight (when they beg), or are out of sight, as they 
are asked whether they would accept, or as they 
are not asked about, as are given with contempt, 
or the reverse ; they beg (in houses where they are) 
unknown, or when food is scarce x ; they accept only 
such things as are at hand, or only a limited number 
of gifts, or only a fixed quantity of food ; they beg 
according to the rules (laid down for begging) ; 
they eat low food or bad food or tasteless food 
or badly tasting food or rough food or disagreeable 
food; they lead a low or mean life; they drink 
sour gruel, they eat nothing seasoned with ghee 
or similar materials; they do not drink liquors 
or eat meat, they do not eat highly-flavoured 
food; they eat standing, or supported by some- 
thing, or sitting on a stool or an armchair; they 
lie down stretched out like a stick, or curved 
like a bent piece of wood 2 ; they sit in the sun, 

1 The author of the Dlpika states that such monks beg in the 

s Laga»</asSi«6. They lie in such a position that only their 
heels and head, or the back touch the ground. 

Digitized by 


380 sAtrakiotAnga. 

they go naked * ; they do not scratch themselves ; 
they do not spit; they do not cut their beard, 
hair, and nails, they do not take any care of their 
person. (72) 

Living in this way they practise many years 
.Sramawahood, and if then they fall sick, or even 
if they do not, they refuse food and omit many 
meals by abstaining from food. When they have 
attained that for whose sake they went about 
naked and bald-headed, did not bathe, nor clean 
their teeth, nor protect their head from the sun, 
nor wear shoes ; they slept on the bare ground 
or a plank or a piece of wood, plucked out their 
hair, led a life of chastity, entered the houses of 
strangers, and bore, with indifference, success, 
failure, honour, disgrace, slights, blame, reviling, 
threatening, beating, all sorts of hardships 2 , and 
the twenty-two calamities and troubles ; (when they 
have attained their end), they reach, while they 
are breathing their last, the highest knowledge 
and faith, called Ke'vala, which is infinite, supreme, 
unobstructed, unimpeded, complete and full ; and 
then they obtain absolute perfection, enlightenment, 
deliverance, final beatitude, and put an end to 
all misery. (73) 

Some become liberated 3 without assuming another 
body (after quitting the last). But others, having 
died at the allotted time, are, on account of a residue 

1 I leave out agattayi" or agamaya, which is not explained in 
the Dipika. 

1 Gramakan/aka, either the abuse met with in villages, or the 
objects of the senses (indriyagrama). 

* Bhayantard bhavanti. Bhayantard is explained: who 
go (gantaraA) from bhava to Mdksha. 

Digitized by 


BOOK 2, LECTURE 2. 38 1 

of (good) Karman, born in one of the regions of the 
gods. Among very beautiful, very splendid, very 
excellent, very glorious, very strong, very powerful, 
very happy (gods), they become very beautiful, very 
splendid, &c, gods l ; their breasts shining with 
necklaces ; their arms encumbered with bracelets 
and armrings ; wearing ear-ornaments 2 which play 
on their cheeks, and earrings which hang down 
to the bracelets on their upper arms ; wearing 
various ornaments on their hands ; their crowns 
adorned with gay wreaths ; putting on highly per- 
fumed, excellent clothes ; using beautiful, excellent 
garlands and ointments ; their splendid body orna- 
mented with a long down-reaching garland ; having 
divine colours, touches, constitution (of the body), 
and rank ; lighting up and illumining all ten quarters 
(of the universe) with their divine beauty, splendour, 
lustre, brightness, brilliancy, and light; beautiful 
when they go, beautiful when they rest, and happy 
also in the time to come. 

(The conduct described in the preceding) part 
is worthy, pure, (&c, see § 57, all down to) it is 
thoroughly true, and good. 

This is the explanation of the second subject, 
viz. merit. (74) 

Now the explanation of the third subject, viz. 
the mixed state, is as follows : 

Here in the East, West, North, and South there 
are some such men as have few desires, few under- 
takings, few possessions, righteous men, men 

1 The following description contains passages recurring in the 
Kalpa Sutra, §§ 14, 15. 
* Kar»api/Aa. 

Digitized by 


382 s^trakjj/tAnga. 

practising righteousness, (&c, all as in § 69, down to) 
men gaining a righteous livelihood. They are of 
good character and morals, easy to please, and good. 
They abstain, as long as they live, from one kind 
of killing living beings, but they do not abstain 
from another, (&c, similar as in § 62, all down to) 
whatever suchlike wicked actions there be, that 
cause pains to other beings, from some of them 
these men abstain as long as they live, from others 
they do not abstain. (75) 

There 1 are, for instance, followers of the vSramawas, 
who comprehend (the doctrine about) living beings 
and things without life, who understand (the dif- 
ference between) virtues and sins, who are well 
grounded in (the knowledge of) the Asravas, Sa#z- 
vara, the realisation and annihilation (of Karman), the 
subject of actions 2 , bondage, and final liberation ; 
who, without anybody to back them 3 , cannot be 
seduced from the creed of the Nirgranthas by 
hosts of gods, Asuras, N&gas, Suvar«as, Yakshas, 
Rakshasas, Kinnaras, Kimpurushas, Garu^as, and 
snake-gods; who have no doubts, scruples, or 
misgivings about this creed of the Nirgranthas, but 
have grasped its meaning, got hold of its meaning, 
got information about its meaning, ascertained its 

1 .Sflanka says with regard to § 76: 'The MSS. of the text 
generally differ from one another in this passage; the text com- 
mented upon in the 7Tka' does not agree with that of any MS. 
I therefore comment upon the text exhibited in one MS. If, 
therefore, my text does not agree with that (of the reader) he should 
not be alarmed.' All the MSS. I use have the same text, that of 
the commentator. It is characteristic of the way in which 
Harshakula, the author of the Dtpika, worked, that he copies 
•Sflanka's above remark with some verbal alterations. 

* Kriyadhikarawa. s AsahayS. 

Digitized by 


BOOK 2, LECTURE 2. 383 

meaning, and understood its meaning ; whose very 
marrow 1 of the bones has been penetrated by their 
love (for the Nirgrantha creed), avowing that it 
alone is true, and all others futile. They keep the 
bar 2 (of their gates) raised and their door open, 
having no desire to enter a stranger's house or 
his seraglio. They strictly keep the Pdsaha-fast 
on the fourteenth and eighth days of the month, on 
certain festivals 3 , and on full-moon days. They 
provide the Nirgrantha .S'ramawas with pure accep- 
table food, drink, dainties and spices, with clothes, 
alms-bowls, blankets and brooms, with drugs and 
medicines, with stools, planks, beds, and couches. 
They purify themselves by practising the .Sllavratas 
and Guwavratas*, the Virama«a, the Pratyakhyana, 

1 Here the commentator inserts the following story: In 
Ragagriha lived a friar versed in magic arts ; he carried off every 
woman he saw. On the citizens complaining about the rape, the 
king resolved to find out and punish the man. Catching sight of 
him at last on the fifth day, the king went after him till the friar 
disappeared in a hollow tree of the park, which led to an underground 
room. There the king followed and killed him. He released all 
the women whom the friar had captured. But one of them would 
not return to her husband, being desperately smitten with love for 
her seducer. On the advice of some wise men she was made to 
drink the friar's (pounded) bones mixed up with milk. This took 
the spell off her and cured her of her strange passion. 

* ftsiyaphaliha=u££>4ritaparigha. The commentator mis- 
takes phaliha for spa/ika, and vainly labours to make out a sound 

» Uddish/a. 

4 Concerning the Guwavratas see Bhandarkar's Report, 1883, 1884, 
p. 114. The .Stlavratas are apparently identical with the Amivratas, 
ibidem. Hoernle translates this passage : by exercises in the moral 
restraints (imposed) by the religious vows as well as in the (general) 
renunciations and (special) Posaha-abstinences. Uvasaga Dasao, 
translation, p. 41. 

Digitized by 


384 sOtrak*/tAi*ga. 

the Pdsaha-fasts, and austerities which they have 
vowed to perform \ (76) 

Living in this way they are for many years fol- 
lowers of the •Srama«as, and if then they fall sick, or 
even if they do not, they refuse food and omit many 
meals by abstaining from food. Having confessed 
their sins and expiated them, and having attained 
perfection 2 , they die at their allotted time, to be born 
again as gods in one of the regions of the gods, (&c, 
all as in § 74, down to) it is thoroughly true, and good. 

This is the explanation of the third subject, viz. 
the mixed state. (77) 

He who does not practise cessation 3 (from sin), 
is called a foolish man ; he who practises cessation 
(from sin), is • called a wise man ; he who in one 
regard practises cessation (from sin) and in another 
does not, is said to be in a state partaking of that 
of a wise man and that of a foolish man. 

The conduct of him who does not practise cessation 
from all (sins), is that of a man who kills living 
creatures; it is unworthy, (&c, all down to) thoroughly 
untrue, and bad. 

The conduct of him who practises cessation from 
all (sins), is that of a man who does not kill living 
creatures ; it is worthy, pure, (&c, all down to) 
thoroughly true, and good. 

The conduct of a man who in one regard practises 
cessation from all (sins) and in another does not, is 

1 The same passage occurs below, 7, 4, and AupapStika Sutra, 
§ 124. Up4sakad£ura, § 66. 

* Samidh i, which is elsewhere explained by mdksha, but in our 
case it cannot be final liberation, but a state of purity of the soul. 

' Virati. 

Digitized by 


BOOK 2, LECTURE 2. 385 

that of a man who kills some living creatures and 
does not kill others ; it is worthy, pure, (&c, all 
down to) thoroughly true, and good. (78) 

Those whom we have been treating of, fall under 
the two heads : merit and demerit ; (the former is 
when the Self is) at rest, (the latter, when it is) in 

Now the explanation of the first subject is as 
follows : 

There are enumerated three hundred and sixty- 
three philosophical schools 1 : those of the Kriya- 
vada, those of the Akriyavada, those of the Af»a- 
nikavada, and those of the Vainayikavada. These 
(philosophers) teach final beatitude, they teach final 
deliverance, they speak as 6ravakas, they speak as 
teachers of *Sravakas 2 . (79) 

All these philosophers, founders of systems of their 
own, differing in intellect, will, character, opinions, 
taste, undertakings, and plans, formed one large circle, 
and every one of them stood in his place. 

One man took hold of a vessel quite full of 

1 According to the commentators there are 180 schools of 
Kriyavadins, 84 of AkriySvadins, 67 of A^Mnikavadins, and 32 of 
Vainayikavadins. These numbers are arrived at by calculation, 
not by actual observation. E.g. the 180 possible schools of the 
Kriyavadins are calculated in the following way. The nine cate- 
gories of the Gainas are: ^iva, a^-tva, asrava, sawvara, 
nir^ara, puwya, papa, bandha, and m6ksha. Each of them 
may be regarded as svataA and parataA, as nitya and anitya 
with regard to kala, trvara, atma, niyati, and svabhava. By 
multiplying 9 successively in 2, 2, 5, we find 180 to be the number 
of possible schools of Kriyavadins. 

* I.e. they learn these heresies from their teachers, and teach 
them to their pupils. 

[45] CC 

Digitized by 


386 sCtrak/utAnga. 

burning coals by an iron pair of tongs, and addressed 
those philosophers, founders of systems of their own, 
differing in intellect, (&c, all down to) undertakings 
and plans, in the following way : ' Heighho ! ye philo- 
sophers, (&c, all down to) undertakings and plans ! 
take this vessel full of burning coals and hold it for 
a minute in your hands ! But do not take hold of it 
by a pair of tongs, nor put out the fire, nor come 
to the help of one of your own creed or of an alien 
creed (by putting out the fire, &c.) ; but fair and 
honest \ without using any trick, stretch out your 
hands.' Having thus spoken, the man took hold of 
the vessel quite full of burning coals by an iron pair 
of tongs, and (offered to) put it in the hands of those 
philosophers. But the philosophers, (&c, all down 
to) undertakings and plans, held back their hands. 
On this the man addressed all the philosophers, (&c, 
all down to) undertakings and plans, in the following 
way : ' Heighho, ye philosophers, (&c, all down to) 
undertakings and plans ! why do you hold back your 
hands ?' ' Our hand will be burned.' 'What then, 
if it is burned ?' ' (We shall suffer) pain.' ' Because 
you are afraid of pain, you hold back your hands ! ' 
(So are all creatures averse to pain). This is a maxim 
of general application 2 , it is a true principle, a reli- 
gious reflection 3 ; this maxim, this principle, this 
religious reflection holds good with regard to every 
(living being). Therefore those 5rama«as and Brah- 
mawas who say that all sorts of living beings may be 
beaten or treated with violence or abused or tor- 

1 Niyagaparfivanna. ' Tula. 

* Sam6sara»a = samavasara»a, explained: dharmaviMra, 
viz. of the true adage: atmavat sarvabhutani y&h paxyati sa 

Digitized by 


BOOK 2, LECTURE 2. 387 

mented or deprived of life, will in the time to come 1 
suffer cutting or piercing, will experience birth, old 
age, death, conception in the womb, the Circle of 
Births, regeneration, existence as a foetus, the whole 
scale of mundane existences, and suffer a variety of 
pains 2 . (80) 

They will many times undergo punishment, pulling 
out of the hair, threatening, putting in irons, (&c, 
similar as in § 63, all down to) whirling round ; (they 
will witness) the death of their mothers, fathers, 
brothers, sisters, sons, daughters, and daughters-in- 
law ; (they will experience) poverty, bad luck, com- 
pany of hated people, separation from those whom 
they love, misery, and despair ; they will again and 
again wander about in the beginningless and endless, 
immense wilderness of the fourfold Sa*»sara. They 
will not reach perfection, (&c, all down to) not put 
an end to all misery. — This is a maxim of general 
application, (&c, all down to) holds good with regard 
to every (living being). (81) 

But those .Srama#as and Brahma#as who say that 
all sorts of living beings should not be beaten, &c, 
will in the time to come not suffer cutting, &c. They 
will not undergo many punishments, (&c, all just the 
reverse of what has been said in §§ 80, 81, down to) 
put an end to all misery. (82) 

Thus those beings who practise the first twelve 
kinds of actions 8 , have not attained perfection, (&c, 
all down to) have not, nor do, nor will put an end to 
all misery. (83) 

1 Agantu. * Kalaftkalibhava. 

8 Described in §§ 5-21. See p. 365, note 3. 
C C 2 

Digitized by 


388 sOtrakk/tAnga. 

But those beings who practise the thirteenth kind 
of action, have attained perfection, (&c, all down 
to) have put, or put, or will put an end to all 
misery. (84) 

Thus a monk who obtains his soul's good and 
benefit, who guards himself, who (well directs the 
functions) of his soul, who well exerts himself, who 
protects himself (from evil), who is careful of himself, 
who saves himself (from the Sawsara), should with- 
hold his soul (from the twelve kinds of committing 
sins). (85) 

Thus I say. 



O long-lived (Gambusvamin) ! I (Sudharman) 
have heard the following discourse from the Vener- 
able (Mahavlra). We now come to the Lecture 
called ' Knowledge of Food.' The contents of it 
are as follows : 

Here in the East, West, North, and South there 
are, all in all, in the world four kinds of seed : seeds 
generated at the top (of the plant), at its root, at its 
knots, at its stem ] . According to the seed and place 

1 The commentators here give the reading of the NSgar^unfyas : 
' the growth of seeds of the plants is fivefold, viz. they grow from 
the top (of the plant), its root, its knots, its stem, and its beads ; 

Digitized by 


BOOK 2, LECTURE 3. 389 

(of growth) of these plants some beings — born in 
earth, originated in earth, and grown in earth, having 
in it their birth, origin, and growth, being impelled 
by their Karman, and coming forth in it on account 
of their Karman, growing there in particles of earth, 
the origin of various things — come forth as 
trees 1 , (i) 

These living beings feed on the liquid substance 2 
of these particles of earth, the origin of various 
things ; these beings consume earth-bodies, water- 
bodies, fire-bodies, wind-bodies, bodies of plants ; 
they deprive of life the bodies of manifold movable 
and immovable beings ; the destroyed bodies which 
have been consumed before, or absorbed by the 
rind, (are) digested and assimilated (by them). And 
the bodies of these (trees) which bring forth their 
different parts, are of manifold colours, smells, tastes, 
touches, forms, and arrangement of corporeal par- 
ticles 3 . 

and some are of a sixth kind called sammur/Wima' (i.e. those 
plants which are believed to be originated by the coalescing 
particles of the substance in which they grow, e.g. grass springing 
up on ground lately cleared by fire). — The various readings of the 
Nagir^unryas are occasionally quoted in commentaries (see e.g. 
part i, p. 32, note 2). But I do not think that it has been satis- 
factorily made out who these Ndgar^uniyas were. 

1 The meaning is, that souls who on account of their Karman 
are to be born as trees, previously are embodied in earth, and 
thence they are transferred by their Karman to the seed which 
brings forth the tree. 

* SittSha, explained: snigdhabhava. In the sequel where 
plants are spoken of, I shall render this word by ' sap ' or 'humours,' 
as the context may require. 

8 I.e. the food assimilated by the tree is the material of which its 
different parts, as root, stem, leaves, &c, are formed, and these 
parts are of manifold form, colours, &c. 

Digitized by 


39Q sCtrakrttAnga. 

These beings (animating trees) come into existence 
because of their Karman ; so we are taught (by the 
Tlrthakaras, &c.) (2) 

And again it has been said of old : some beings 
born in trees, originated by trees, sprung from trees, 
(&c, as in § 1, down to) springing from trees that 
originated in earth, come forth as trees originated 
by trees \ These beings feed on the sap of the 
trees originated in earth, (&c, all as in § 2, down to 
the end). (3) 

(In the same way, and in nearly the same words, 
the offshoots of the trees mentioned in the preceding 
paragraph are treated of.) (4) 

And again it has been said of old : some beings 
born in trees, (&c, all as above, down to) growing in 
trees, that are originated by trees, come forth as their 
roots, bulb, stem, branches, twigs, leaves, flowers, 
fruits, and seeds 2 . These beings feed on the sap of 
those trees originated by trees, (&c, all as in § 2, 
down to) and the bodies of the roots, bulb, stem, 
&c. are of manifold colours, (&c, all as in § 2, down 
to the end). (5) 

(The four paragraphs that come next, 6-9, are 
identical with the preceding ones, except that 
'creeper 3 ' is substituted for ' tree.') (6-9) 

(In the same way ' grass *' is treated in four 
paragraphs, but the whole is much abridged ; then 

1 Apparently trees sprung from shoots, sprouts, aerial-roots, &c. 
are meant. They are considered as a class different from those 
whose offshoots they are. 

* One soul, ^tva, pervades the whole tree ; it is the soul of the 
tree. Separate ^tvas, however, reside in the roots, &c. 

* A^A6ruha = adhyar6ha, explained in the Dipika: valli- 
vr/'ksha. 4 Trim. 

Digitized by 


BOOK 2, LECTURE 3. 39 1 

it is said that 'herbs 1 ' and ' plants *' are to be treated 
in four paragraphs each.) (10-15) 

And again it has been said of old : some beings 
born in earth, (&c., all as in § 1, down to) growing 
there in particles of earth that are the origin of 
various things, come forth as Aya, Kiya, Kuha«a, 
Kandu, Uvvelialiya, Nivv£haliya, £sava, Sa-&6^a, 
.Oattaga, Vasa«iya s . (The rest as in § 2, but sub- 
stitute the words Aya, &c. for ' trees.') Here there 
is only one paragraph, the remaining three do not 
apply here*. (16) 

And again it has been said of old : some beings 
born in water, (&c, all as in §§ 1-1 1, substitute only 
' water ' for ' earth.' Thus we have four paragraphs 
for trees, four for creepers, four for grass, four for 
herbs, four for plants). (17) 

Now it has been said of old : some beings born in 
water, (&c, all as above, down to) growing in par- 
ticles of water that are the origin of various things, 
come forth as Udaga, Avaga 6 , Pa«aga, S£vala 6 , 
Kalambuya 7 , Kasfiruya 8 , Ka^^abha«iya, Uppala, 

1 Osahi = Oshadhi. * Hariya = harita. 

8 All the commentators say about the words Aya, &c. (which 
offer some various reading's in the MSS.), is that they denote 
particular plants (vanaspativfrgsha) which must be learned from 
people (who know them). I give the words in their Prakrit form, 
and do not attempt to transpose them into Sanskrit. 

* For there are no Ayas originated by Ayas except through 
their seed. 

5 Avaka, a grassy plant growing in marshy land, Blyxa 

* .Saivala, the aquatic plant Vallisneria. 
7 Kadamba, Nauclea Kadamba. 

* Ka;6ru, Scirpus Kysoor. 

Digitized by 


392 sCtrakr/tanga. 

Pauma.Kumuya, Naliwa ', Subhagas6#iya, Po»dariya, 
Mahapo«^ariya, Sayavatta, Sahassavatta, Kalhara, 
K6ka«ada, Tamarasa 2 , as stalks and fibres of lotus, 
as Pukkhala 8 , and Pukkhalatthibhaga. (The rest 
similar as in § 2.) (18) 

And again it has been said of old : some beings 
come forth as movable beings from trees born in 
earth, from trees originated by trees, from the roots, 
(&c, down to) seeds produced by trees, originated 
by creepers born on trees, from creepers born on 
creepers, from the roots, &c. of creepers born on 
creepers, from grass 4 , from herbs 4 , from plants *, 
from Aya, (&c, all down to) Kura born in earth ; 
from trees born in water (the rest similar as with 
trees born in earth), from Udaga, (&c, all down to) 
Pukkhalatthibhaga born in water. (19) 

These creatures feed on the sap of the trees, 
creepers, grass, herbs, plants, be they born in earth 
or water, on trees or creepers or grass or herbs or 
plants ; (the sap) of their roots, (&c, all down to) 
seeds, of Ayas, &c, of Udakas, &c. And these 
creatures consume earth-bodies, (&c, all as in § 2, 
down to) assimilated by them. And the bodies of 
these beings born of trees, creepers, grass, herbs, 
plants, their roots, &c, of Ayas, &c, of Udagas, &c, 
are of manifold colours, (&c, the rest as in § 2, down 
to the end). (20) 

1 The last four are well-known varieties of lotus, called in Sanskrit: 
utpala, padma, kumuda, nalina. 

1 The Sanskrit of the last seven items is : pu«</arika, mahSpuwrf- 
arika, jatapattra, sahasrapattra, kahlara, k6kanada, and tamarasa ; 
they are all varieties of lotus. 

* Pushkara. 

4 This is to be detailed in the same way as with trees and 

Digitized by 


BOOK 2, LECTURE 3. 393 

And again it has been said of old : a man and 
a woman combine in cohabitation in a cunnus, which 
was produced by their Karman, and there they 
deposit their humours. Therein are born the souls of 
different men, viz. of those born in Karmabhtimi \ or 


in Akarmabhumi, or in the minor continents, of Aryas 
and barbarians, as women or men or eunuchs, accord- 
ing to the semen and blood of the mother 2 and the 
other circumstances 3 (contingent on their coming 
into existence). These beings at first feed on the 
menses of the mother and the semen of the father, 
or both combined into an unclean, foul (substance). 
And afterwards they absorb with a part (of their 
bodies) the essence * of whatever food the mothers 
take. Gradually increasing and attaining to the 
proper dimensions of a foetus 6 they come forth from 
the womb, some as males, some as females, some as 
neuters. As long as they are babies, they suck the 
mother's milk ; but when they grow older, they eat 
boiled rice, or gruel, or both movable and immov- 
able beings. These beings consume earth-bodies, 
(&c, all as before, down to) assimilated by them. 
And the bodies of these men, viz. those born in 
Karmabhumi, or Akarmabhumi, or in the minor 
continents, of Aryas and barbarians, are of mani- 

1 Compare note 1, p. 225. 

* Both are indicated in the text by bi^a. According to Silanka, 
a male will be produced if the semen is in excess ; a female, if the 
blood ; a neuter, if they are equally balanced. 

* Avakaja. According to .STlanka, a male is produced from 
the right side of the womb, a female from the left, a neuter from 
both together. 

4 Oyam = 6^ , as. 

Paliyagam, explained garbhaparipaka. 

Digitized by 



fold colours, (&c, all as in § 2, down to the 
end). (21) 

(This paragraph is nearly identical with the pre- 
ceding one, but substitute 'aquatic animals of five 
organs of sense, viz. fishes, (all down to) 1 porpoises,' 
for 'different men' in the beginning and the end. 
The following sentence in the middle is slightly 
different ; it runs thus : ' as long as they are young, 
they feed on the mothers' humours, but when they 
grow older they eat plants, or both movable and 
immovable beings.') (22) 

(This paragraph treats of) quadrupeds 2 , terrestrial 
animals with five organs of sense, viz. solidungular 
animals, biungular animals, multiungular animals, 
and animals having toes with nails. (All as in the 
last paragraph, only ' as long as they are young, they 
feed on their mothers' milk.') (23) 

(This paragraph treats of) reptiles moving on the 
breast, (being) terrestrial animals with five organs 
of sense, viz. snakes, huge snakes 3 , A^alika, and 
dragons *. (All as before, but the following passage 
is different.) Some bring forth eggs, some bring 
forth living young ones ; some come out of the egg 
as males, some as females, some as neuters. As 
long as they are young, they live on wind. (The 
rest as above.) (24) 

(This paragraph treats of) terrestrial animals with 
five organs of sense, walking on their arms, viz. 
iguanas, ichneumons, porcupines, frogs, chameleons, 

1 See Uttaradhyayana XXXVI, 173 ; above, p. 223. 

* Compare UttarSdhyayana XXXVI, 180, ibidem. 

* A^agara, literally serpents which devour goats. 

* Mahdraga. According to the Guzerati gloss these snakes 
are a thousand yo^anas long. 

Digitized by 


BOOK 2, LECTURE 3. 395 

Khdras, Gharak6illas \ Vissawbharas 2 , rats, man- 
gooses, Pai'laiyas, cats, (76has, .ATauppaiyas 8 . (The 
rest as in the last paragraph.) (25) 

(This paragraph treats of) aerial animals with five 
organs of sense: birds with membranous wings, 
birds with feathered wings, birds with wings in the 
shape of a box, and birds (which sit on) outspread 
wings *. (All as before ; only the following passage 
is different) : ' As long as they are young, they are 
hatched by their mothers' warmth.' (The rest as 
above.) (26) 

And again it has been said of old : there are 
beings of manifold birth and origin, (&c, all as in 
§ 1, down to) growing there on the animate or in- 
animate bodies of manifold movable or immovable 
creatures, come forth as parasites 5 . These beings 
feed on the humours of various movable and im- 
movable creatures, &c. And the bodies of these 
movable and immovable parasites are of manifold 
colours, (&c, as above). (27) 

In the same way vermin generated in filthy sub- 
stances 8 and in the skin of living animals 7 are to be 
treated of. (28, 29) 

And again it has been said of old : there are some 
beings of manifold birth and origin, (&c, all as in$ 1, 

1 Gr«hak6kila, probably identical with gr»hagdlika, a lizard. 

* Vijva»zbhara is given in the smaller Petersburg Dictionary 
as the name of a scorpion or some similar animal. However, it 
must denote here some other animal. 

* This may be^atushpadika, quadruped; but then the word 
must be taken in a restricted sense, perhaps, small quadrupeds. 

4 See Uttaradhyayana XXXVI, 187; above, p. 224. Perhaps bee- 
tles and butterflies are intended by the two last kinds of pakshins ? 
6 A»usuya = anusuta or anusyuta. 

* Duruvasawbhava. 7 Khuruduga. 

Digitize^ by 


396 stiTRAKRrrA&GA. 

down to) growing thereon (or in) the animate or 
inanimate bodies of manifold movable or immov- 
able creatures as that (water)-body ', which is pro- 
duced by wind, condensed by wind, and carried along 
by wind ; it goes upwards, when there is an upward 
wind ; it goes downwards, when there is a downward 
wind; it goes in a horizontal direction, when there 
is a horizontal wind; (its varieties are) hoar-frost, 
snow, mist, hailstones, dew, and rain. These beings 
feed on the humours of these manifold movable 
and immovable creatures, &c. And the bodies of 
these (water-lives, viz.) hoar-frost, &c, produced by 
manifold movable or immovable creatures, are of 
manifold colours, (&c, as above) 2 . (30) 

And again it has been said of old : some beings, 
born in water, (&c, all similar as in § 1, down to) 
come forth in water(-bodies) in the water produced 
by manifold movable or immovable beings. These 
beings feed on the humours of the water(-bodies) 
produced by manifold movable and immovable 
creatures. (The rest similar as above.) (31) 

And again it has been said of old : some beings, 
born in water, (&c, all similar as in § 1, down to) 
come forth in water-bodies produced by other water- 
bodies. These beings feed on the humours of those 
other water-bodies produced by water-bodies. (The 
rest similar as above.) (32) 

And again it has been said of old : some beings, 
born in water, (&c, all similar as in § 1, down to) 
come forth as movable creatures in the water 

1 There is apparently no predicate in this sentence. 

* This paragraph gives the ' scientific ' explanation of the way 
by which water-bodies or the bodies of water-lives are produced by 

Digitized by 


BOOK 2, LECTURE 3. 397 

produced by water-bodies. These beings feed on 
the humours of the water(-bodies) produced by 
water. (The rest similar as before.) (33) 

And again it has been said of old : some beings, 
of various birth and origin, (&c, all as in § 1, down 
to) come forth as fire-bodies in the manifold animate 
or inanimate bodies of movable or immovable 
creatures '. These beings feed on the manifold 
movable or immovable creatures. (The rest similar 
as before.) 

The remaining three paragraphs are similar (to 
those treating of) water-bodies. (34) 

(This paragraph treats of wind-bodies in the same 
way as the preceding ones treated of fire-bodies ; like 
it, it consists of four paragraphs). (35) 

And again it has been said of old : some beings, 
of various birth and origin, (&c, all as in § 1, down 
to) come forth, in the manifold animate and inani- 
mate bodies of movable and immovable creatures 2 , 
as earth, gravel, &c. Here the following verses 
(from the Uttaradhyayana XXXVI, 74-77) are to 
be made use of: 

1. Earth, gravel, sand, stones, rocks, rock-salt, 
iron, copper, tin, lead, silver, gold, and diamond ; 

2. Orpiment, vermilion, realgar, Sasaka, antimony, 
coral, Abhrapa/ala, Abhravaluka ; these are varieties 
of gross (earth-)bodies, and precious stones. 

' E.g. when two bulls or elephants rush upon one another, 
sparks of fire are seen issuing from their horns or teeth. Fire is 
produced when two pieces of wood or stone are rubbed one against 
the other. 

8 According to the commentators, earth-bodies are produced in 
the shape of precious stones, in the head of snakes, of pearls in the 
teeth (sic) of elephants, and so in reeds, &c. 

Digitized by 


398 sutrak/i/tAnga. 

3. Hyacinth, natron, Anka, crystal, L6hitaksha, 
emerald, Masaragalla, Bhu£am6£aka, and sapphire ; 

4. Aandana, red chalk, Hawsagarbha, Pulaka, 
and sulphur ; ./sfandraprabha, lapis lazuli, Galakanta, 
and Suryakanta. 

These beings feed on the humours of these 
manifold movable and immovable beings. (The 
rest as above.) 

The remaining three paragraphs are similar (to 
those treating of) water-bodies. (36) 

And again it has been said of old : all sorts of 
living beings, of manifold birth, origin, and growth, 
born in bodies, originated in bodies, grown in bodies, 
feeding on bodies, experience their Karman, are 
actuated by it, have their form and duration of life 
determined by Karman, and undergo changes 
through the influence of Karman. This you should 
know, and knowing it you will be careful and cir- 
cumspect with regard to your food, and always exert 
yourself. (37) 

Thus I say. 



O long-lived (Gambusvamin) ! I (Sudharman) 
have heard the following Discourse from the 
Venerable (Mahavlra). We now come to the 
Lecture called ' Renunciation of Activity.' The 
contents of it are as follows : 

Digitized by 


BOOK 2, LECTURE 4. 399 

It is the Self that may l not renounce (activity), that 
may be accustomed to act, that may adhere to errors, 
that may be prone to sin, that may be thoroughly 
ignorant, that may be thoroughly stolid 2 , that may not 
consider the operations s of mind, speech, and body, 
that may not avoid and renounce sins. 

The Venerable One has said, ' He (i.e. the Self) 
is uncontrolled, unresigned, does not avoid and 
renounce -sins, is active, careless, prone to sin, 
thoroughly ignorant, thoroughly stolid. Though 
a fool does not consider * the operations of his mind, 
speech, and body, nor does see even a dream s ; still 
he commits sins 6 . (i) 

The opponent says to the teacher: 'There can 
be no sin, if (the perpetrator of an action) does not 
possess sinful thoughts, speech, and functions of the 
body, if he does not kill, if he has no internal organ, 
if he does not consider the operations of mind, 
speech, and body, if he does not see even a dream.' 

1 'May' is to render yavi = Hpi. This word is used here to 
indicate that the reverse is true in other cases. This paragraph 
emphasises the Gaina doctrine that the Self or atman is the direct 
cause of all actions of an individual being, in opposition to the 
Sahkhya philosophers who maintain the absolute inactivity of the 
purusha, and to the Bauddhas who deny the existence of a separate 
atman altogether. 

1 Literally, sleeping (sutta = supta). 

8 Literally, speeches (vakka = vakya). 

4 We ought, perhaps, to translate : if he is not conscious of, &c. 

6 I.e. when consciousness is fainter than in a dream. 

• The doctrine of the Gainas is that Karman is the result of. the 
action of every being, even of those whose intellect or consciousness 
is not developed, as with the 6k8ndriyas or beings who possess 
but one organ of sense. The opponent, however, maintains that 
only conscious actions of intelligent beings bring about Karman. 
This question is discussed in the following paragraphs. 

Digitized by 


400 sdrKAKRirkiiGA. 

What is the meaning of the opponent in making 
this statement ? ' When there is a sinful mind, there 
is sin of the mind ; when there is sinful speech, there 
is sin of the speech ; when there is a sinful body, 
there is sin of the body. When one kills, possesses an 
internal organ, and considers the operations of mind, 
speech, and body, when one sees even a dream, then 
there is sin. Only he who has these qualities can 
commit sin.' The opponent goes on to say, ' Those 
who say : There is sin, though (the perpetrator of an 
action) does not possess sinful thoughts, speeches, 
and functions of the body, though he does not kill, 
though he does not possess an internal organ, 
though he does not consider the operations of mind, 
speech, and body, and though he does not see even 
a dream, — those who say this, are wrong.' (2) 

Here the teacher says to the opponent : ' It is 
true what I have just said : there is sin, though (the 
perpetrator of the action) do not possess sinful 
thoughts, (&c, all as above, down to) though he do 
not see even a dream.' ' What is the reason there- 
of ? ' (The A^arya says) 1 : ' The Venerable One 
has assigned the six classes of living beings as the 
reason : the earth-lives, (&c, all down to) movable 
beings. With regard to these six classes of living 
beings, the Self does not avoid and renounce sins, 
he is wicked and does harm through cruelty : (this 
holds good with regard to the five cardinal sins :) 
killing of living beings, &c. (and the passions) : 
anger, &c. (down to) the sin of wrong belief.' (3) 

(The A^arya says) : ' The Venerable One has 
illustrated this by the example of a murderer: 

1 These words here and in the sequel are in Sanskrit; they 
probably are a gloss. 

Digitized by 



a murderer (who hates) a householder or his son or 
the king or his servant, resolves, on an occasion 
offering, to enter (the victim's house) and to kill him 
when he finds an opportunity 1 . Is not this murderer 
who has formed this resolution a , (a man) who, day 
and night, whether sleeping or waking, is full of 
hostility and wrong ; who is wicked and does harm 
through cruelty ? An unbiassed opponent before 
whom this is laid, will answer : Indeed, he is ! ' (4) 

(The A^arya says) : ' As this murderer who has 
formed the above resolution is a man who (&c, all 
as in § 4, down to) does harm through cruelty — (and 
this holds good with regard to the five cardinal 
sins :) killing of living beings, &c. (and the passions :) 
anger, &c, (down to) the sin of wrong belief — so it 
has been said of him by the Venerable One : he s is 
uncontrolled, unresigned, he does not avoid and 
renounce sins, he is active, careless, prone to sin, 
thoroughly ignorant, thoroughly stolid. Though 
a fool does not consider the operations of his mind, 
speech, and body, nor does see even a dream, 
still he commits sins. (5) 

As a murderer who entertains (murderous) in- 
tentions towards a householder, &c, is a man who 
(&c, all as in § 4, down to) does harm through 
cruelty ; so an ignorant man who entertains (cruel) 
intentions towards all sorts of living beings, is a man 

1 The NSgSiyunfyas have another reading (where, is not stated 
by .Silanka) : If he sees no opportunity, or his proposed victim is 
always on his guard, he does not kill him, but he resolves in his 
mind : If I get an opportunity, or I find that man off his guard, 
I shall certainly kill him. 

* The original repeats the preceding passage in full. I abridge 
it here and in the sequel. 

* I.e. every soul, even that of a being with but one organ of sense. 

[45] D d 

Digitized by 


4Q2 sCtrakk/tAnga. 

who (&c, all as in § 4, down to) does harm through 
cruelty. (6) 

(An opponent might object) : This is no good 
reasoning. (For) there are many living beings 
which one, during one's whole life, never saw, nor 
heard of, nor cared for, nor took notice of. Towards 
these beings, therefore, one cannot (be said to) en- 
tertain (murderous) 'intentions, nor to be one who, 
day and night, whether sleeping or waking, is full of 
hostility and wrong, (&c, the rest as in { 4). (7) 1 

(The A>£arya says) : The Venerable One has 
refuted this by two illustrations, one of a sentient 
being, the other of a senseless being. The first is 
as follows : A sentient being, possessing five organs 
of sense and a developed internal organ, may with 
regard to the six classes of living beings, viz. earth- 
bodies, (all down to) movable beings, impose some 
restriction upon himself; (e. g.) that he will meet 
his wants, or have them met by others, by means of 
earth-bodies only. His intention is : I shall meet my 
wants, or have them met by others, by means of 
earth-bodies only. His intention is not (to make 
use of) this or that (particular earth-body) : he meets 
his wants, or has them met by others, by means of 
earth-bodies in general. With regard to them, 

1 Silinka here makes it clear that the discussion, in the preceding 
paragraphs, is carried on in the form of a syllogism of five parts 
established in Hindu logics. § 1 contains the proposition, prati^M, 
§ 3 the cause, h£tu, § 4 the exemplification, udaharawa or 
dr/'sh/anta, § 5 the upanaya or that part which shows that the 
h£tu is in the subject of the syllogism, and § 6 the conclusion, 
nigamana. We thus see how deeply rooted in, and how genial 
to, the mind of the Hindus was the pa»Mvayavam anumanam 
or syllogism of five parts; for the author conforms to it, I dare say, 

Digitized by 


BOOK 2, LECTURE 4. 403 

therefore, he is uncontrolled, unrestrained, does not 
avoid and renounce sins. The same applies to the 
remaining five classes of living beings. — Some one 
may meet his wants, or have them met by others, 
by means of the six classes of living beings. His 
intention is : I shall meet my wants, or have them 
met by others, by means of the six classes of living 
beings ; it is not : by means of some particular 
beings. He meets his wants, (&c.) by means of 
living beings in general. With regard to them, 
therefore, he is uncontrolled, &c. (This holds good 
with the five cardinal sins) : killing of living beings, 
&c, (and with the passions) : anger, (&c, all down 
to) the sin of wrong belief. The Venerable One 
has said that such a creature, (&c, all as in § i, down 
to) commits sins. (8) 

The illustration of senseless beings is as follows : 
Senseless beings, viz. earth-bodies, (&c, all down to) 
plants, to which must be added, as a sixth item, 
some movable beings, which have no reason nor 
consciousness, nor intellect, nor mind, nor speech, in 
order to do something, or to have it done by others, 
or to consent to others' doing it; these benighted 
creatures (are to be considered as murderers), are 
full of hostility and wrong (all as in § 4) 1 against all 

1 If the passage were printed in full, the most glaring contra- 
dictions would stare the reader in the face. The cause hereof is 
not that the passage cannot correctly be rendered, but that the 
authors of the Sutras always make use of set phrases whether all 
parts of them suit the case in hand or not. Sometimes we can 
avoid downright nonsense by selecting a somewhat different 
rendering from what was given in another part of the book ; and 
so I do in the last sentence of this paragraph. But this is only 
a makeshift. 

D d 2 

Digitized by 


404 sGtrakjutanga. 

sorts of living beings. (This holds good with the 
five cardinal sins :) killing of living beings, &c, (and 
with the passions, all down to) the sin of wrong 
belief. Know this : though these beings have 
neither mind nor speech, yet as they cause pain, grief, 
damages, harm, and injury, they must be regarded 
as not abstaining from causing pain, &c. (9) 

Thus even senseless beings are reckoned instru- 
mental in bringing about slaughter of living beings, 
(&c, all down to) the sin of wrong belief. Beings, 
whatever their origin, who were sentient (in one 
existence) will become senseless ones (in another) 
and vice versa. Not getting rid of, nor shaking off, 
nor annihilating, nor destroying their Karman, the 
thoroughly wicked and ignorant wander from the 
body of a senseless being into that of sentient ones, or 
from the body of a sentient being into that of sense- 
less ones, or from the body of a sentient being into 
that of another, or from the body of a senseless being 
into that of another. The sentient beings and the 
senseless ones, both are wrong in their conduct and 
commit sins through cruelty. The Venerable One 
has said that such a (creature) is uncontrolled, (&c, 
all as in § 1, down to) commits sins. (io) 

(The opponent asks) : ' What must one do or 
cause to be done, in order to become controlled and 
restrained, to avoid and renounce sins ? ' (The A^arya 
answers) : The Venerable One has declared that 
the cause (of sins) are the six classes of living 
beings, earth-lives, &c. As I feel pain, so they do. 
Therefore they should not be injured or killed'. 

1 I here abridge the text which is identical with II, 1, 48 ff., 
P- 35i- 

Digitized by 


BOOK 2, LECTURE 5. 405 

This constant, permanent, eternal, true Law has 
been taught by wise men who comprehend all 
things. Thus a monk abstains from (the five 
cardinal sins) : slaughter of living beings, &c, (and of 
vices, all down to) the sin of wrong belief. He does 
not clean his teeth with a tooth-brush, he does not 
accept collyrium, emetics, and perfumes. Such 
a monk does not act nor kill, he is free from wrath, 
pride, deceit, and greed, he is calm and happy. 
The Venerable One says that such a (monk) is well 
controlled and restrained, does avoid and renounce 
sins, is not active, but careful and thoroughly 
wise. (11) 

Thus I say. 



A very clever (monk) who practises the vow of 
chastity, should not adopt the following (heretical) 
doctrines, nor behave badly in this religion. (1) 

He should not believe that (this world) is with- 
out beginning or without end, eternal or not eternal, 
according to the argumentation (of heretics) l . (2) 

From these alternatives you cannot arrive at 

1 The Gainas decide all such questions with the help of the 
syadvada, which in an admirable way removes all difficulties; 
e. g. the world is eternal as far as that part is concerned which is 

Digitized by 


406 s6trak/s/tAnga. 

truth ; from these alternatives you are, certainly, 
led to error. (3) 

One should not say : that there will be an end of 
beings who (know and) teach the truth l ; nor that 
all beings are not alike, nor that they shall be in 
(perpetual) bondage, or (that the prophets are) 
eternal. (4) 

From these alternatives you cannot arrive at the 
truth, &c. (see verse 3). (5) 

One should not say : the guilt of killing small and 
great animals is the same, or not the same. (6) 

From these alternatives, &c. (7) 

One should know that those who accept things 
especially prepared for them 2 , will be affected by 
demerit (in some cases), or will not be affected 
(where it is allowed by scripture). (8) 

From these alternatives, &c. (9) 

One should not maintain the identity of the 
audarika 8 , aharika, and karmawa bodies, nor 

the substratum of the idea (sSmdnya) ' world ' ; it is not eternal as 
far as its ever-changing state is meant. 

1 ^istSra^, teachers, here those who reach perfection. The 
meaning is that the world would become empty if all beings should 
reach perfection. This should not be maintained, nor the opposite 
opinion, that some beings are qualified for Nirvana and others not 

1 Ah&kamm£»i, see p. 131, note 7. 

3 The (7ainas assume that each individual possesses five bodies : 
(1) aud&rika, or the body that is seen; (2) kirmawa, receptacle 
of Karman, it is composed of Karman particles; (3) tai^asa, 
a body composed of particles of fire, it causes digestion; 
(4) ihSraka, a subtile body of the soul, with which he goes to 
distant places (e.g. when a£aturdajapurvin goes to the Kfivalin 
to clear up some doubt) ; (5) vaikriya, a subtile body which can 
be changed at will. AH these ' bodies,' except the first, are what in 
common language are called spirits or souls. We have here 
a Hindu counterpart of the belief in the plurality of souls shared 

Digitized by 


BOOK 2, LECTURE 5. 407 

that everything cannot everywhere come into exist- 
ence 1 , nor that it can. (10) 

From these alternatives, &c. (i i) 

Do not maintain that the world does not exist, 
maintain that it exists. (12) 

Do not maintain that Giva. and A^tva do not 
exist, but that they exist (13) 

Do not maintain that Dharma and Adharma do 
not exist, but that they exist. (14) 

Do not maintain that bondage and liberation do 
not exist, but that they exist. (1 5) 

Do not maintain that virtue and vice 2 do not 
exist, but that they exist. (16) 

Do not maintain that Asrava and the stoppage of 
Asrava do not exist, but that they exist. (17) 

Do not maintain that the experiencing of the 
effect, and the annihilation of Karman do not exist, 
but that they exist. (1 8) 

Do not maintain that activity and non-activity do 
not exist, but that they exist. (19) 

by many ancient and modern nations. Compare the following 
verses quoted in Tylor, Origin of Culture, Chapter XI : 
' Bis duo sunt homini, manes, caro, spiritus, umbra : 
Quattuor haec loci bis duo suscipiunt. 
Terra tegit carnem, tumulum circumvolat umbra 
Manes Orcus habet, spiritus astra petit.' 

I am inclined to believe that the idea of the aharaka and 
vaikriya jarlras is developed from the popular belief that the 
soul in sleep leaves the body and travels far away. Compare also 
the Sankhya terms vaikrj'ta and tai^asa, Garbe, Die Sa7»khya- 
Philosophie, pp. 236, 249. 

1 According to the commentator this is said against the Sankhya 
philosophy, for as everything is an effect of Prakrrti, and Prakr/ti is 
present everywhere, everything may come into existence everywhere. 

* Pu»yam and papam. The one is the good Karman (jubham 
karmapudgalam) ; the other, the bad. 

Digitized by 



Do not maintain that anger and pride do not 
exist, but that they exist. (20) 

Do not maintain that deceit and greed do not 
exist, but that they exist. (21) 

Do not maintain that love and hate do not exist, 
but that they exist. (22) 

Do not maintain that the fourfold Circle of Births 
does not exist, but that it exists. (23) 

Do not maintain that there are no gods and god- 
desses, but that there are. (24) 

Do not maintain that there is no such thing as 
perfection and non-perfection, but that there is such 
a thing. (25) 

Do not maintain that there is no place exclusively 
reserved for those who attain to perfection, but that 
there is such '. (26) 

Do not maintain that there are no pious and 
wicked men, but that there are. (27) 

Do not maintain that there is no such thing as 
good and bad, but that there is good and bad. (28) 

The theory will not work that (a man is always) 
good, or (always) bad. The wrongly instructed 
■Sramawas do not comprehend the (soul's) bondage 2 
(through Karman). (29) 

(Do not assert) that everything is imperishable, or 
full of pains, nor that criminals should be put to 
death or not be put to death ; one should not speak 
in this way. (30) 

Do not assert that those men are well-behaved 
monks who lead a pure life, and that those others 
lead an impure life. (31) 

1 See UttarSdhyayana XXXVI, 62, 63, p. 212. 
* Vgra= vaira, explained karmabandha. 

Digitized by 



A wise monk should not say : 
this householder) or we do not 
improve his chances for final libera 

A monk should conform himself 
taught by the Cinas, and wander abo 
final liberation. (33) 

Thus I say. 



ardraka 2 . 


' Listen, Ardraka 3 , to what (Mahavira) has done. 
At first he wandered about as a single monk ; but 
now he has surrounded himself by many monks, and 
teaches every one of them the Law at length. (1) 

1 Santimaggaw ka, vuha§ = fantimargara £a vrimhay&L 
* The commentators relate a romantic story about prince 
Ardraka, which need not be repeated here. Suffice it to say that 
he became monk, and after many adventures held the disputation 
which forms the subject of our lecture. After having vanquished 
his opponents, he was about to join Mahavira, when a newly-tamed 
elephant broke his chain, rushed on him, but just in front of him 
went down on his knees and paid him reverence. King Sr&- 
»ika witnessed this scene, and wondered how the elephant could 
have broken his chains. Ardraka replied that it was still more 
strange that a man could break the fetters which worldliness had 
fastened upon him. The whole story must be very old, for it is 
epitomised in ten gathas by the author of the Niryukti. — The names 
of the opponents not stated in the text of the verses are supplied 
from the commentaries. 

' This name is spelt either Ardra or Ardraka, Adda in Prakrt't. 

Digitized by 


4°° sOtrakk/tanga. 

' The inconstant man has decided upon this mode 
of life 1 : to stand up in a crowd of men', surrounded 
by monks, and to teach his doctrines for the benefit 
of many people. Therefore his former and his 
present life are not of a piece. (2) 

' Either to live as a single mendicant (was right 
conduct) or his present life ; therefore both do not 
agree with each other.' 


" His past, present, and future lives agree with each 
other; for he is really always single and alone (though 
he be now surrounded by many followers). (3) 

" For if a .Srama#a or Brahma#a who causes peace 
and security, comprehends the nature of movable 
and immovable living beings and explains it in 
a crowd numbering thousands, he realises single- 
ness, remaining in the same mental condition as 
before 2 . (4) 

" It is no sin to teach the Law, if (he who teaches 
it) is patient and resigned, subdues his senses, avoids 
bad speech, and uses virtuous speech. (5) 

"He who (teaches) the great vows (of monks) and 
the five small vows (of the laity 3 ), the five Asravas 
and the stoppage of the Asravas, and control, who 
avoids Karman in this blessed life of .Srama«as, him 
I call a iSramatfa." (6) 

1 According to the commentators, G6f£la intimates that Mahavira 
had found it very inconvenient to live alone, because he was then 
exposed to many injuries ; so he set up as a Tirthakara. 

* Taha££e = tathar£a. Ar£a is here explained as equal to 

8 Aauvrata. They are a modification of the great vows, 
intended for the laity. See Bhandarkar's Report, p. 114. 

Digitized by 



(' As your Law makes it no sin for Mahavira to 
surround himself by a crowd of disciples), so accord- 
ing to our Law an ascetic, who lives alone and 
single, commits no sin if he uses cold water, eats 
seeds, accepts things prepared for him, and has inter- 
course with women.' (7) 


" Know this : those who use cold water, eat seeds, 
accept things especially prepared for them, and have 
intercourse with women, are (no better than) house- 
holders, but they are no Sramawas. (8) 

" If those who eat seeds, use (cold) water, and have 
intercourse with women, are admitted to be *Srama- 
nas, then householders too are .5rama#as ; for they 
do the same things '. (9) 

" Monks who eat seeds and use cold water, who 
beg alms as a means of living, will, though they 
leave their relations, be born again and again, and 
will not put an end to mundane existence." (10) 

' In making this statement you blame all philo- 
sophers alike ! ' 


" Every philosopher praises his own doctrines and 
makes them known. (11) 

" .Srama#as and Brahma«as blame one another 
when they teach (their doctrines). (The truth, they 

1 I.e. if the characteristic mark of a .Sramawa is to wander about 
without a companion, and to bear all sorts of hardship, then house- 
holders are included in this definition; for some of them also 
wander about without a companion and bear the same hardships. 

Digitized by 


4i2 sOtrakk/tAnga. 

say,) is all on their side ; there is none on that of 
the opponents. But we blame only the (wrong) 
doctrines and not at all (those who entertain 
them). (12) 

" We do not detract from anybody because of his 
personal qualities; but we make known the path 
pointed out in our creed. I have been taught the 
supreme, right path by worthy, good men. (13) 

" If a well-controlled man, afraid of injuring any 
movable or immovable living beings, above, below, 
or on earth, condemns (evil deeds), he does not at 
all blame (anybody) in this world." (14) 


' Out of fear your will not stay in houses 
for travellers or in public garden-houses; for in 
such places he would meet with many clever people, 
with lower or nobler men, with talkative or silent 
ones. (15) 

' He will not stay there because he fears lest some 
monks, wise, well instructed, learned men, who are 
well versed in the sacred texts and their meaning, 
should put questions to him.' (16) 

" Doing nothing without a purpose, nor without 
consideration, neither on the behest of the king 
nor from fear of anybody, he answers questions 
or not (according to the circumstances) ; but he 
(answers) worthy people with a definite purpose (in 
his mind) 1 . (17) 

1 As the commentators explain : he is actuated by the Karman, 
by virtue of which he has become a prophet (tirthakaranama- 
karman); and this Karman must take effect and so be annihi- 

Digitized by 


BOOK 2, LECTURE 6. 413 

" He, the wise man, impartially teaches (the Law) 
whether he goes (to his pupils) or not ; because un- 
worthy men have fallen from the true faith, he does 
not go to places (frequented by them)." (18) 

' As a merchant desirous of gain (shows) his wares 
and attracts a crowd to do business, in a similar way 
(acts) the .Sramawa GnAtr z'putra. This is what I think 
and calculate about it.' (19) 


" (Mahavlra) acquires no new (Karman), he anni- 
hilates the old, avoiding wrong opinions ; and thus 
the saviour said to others : Herein is contained the 
vow (leading to) Brahman (i.e. Moksha) ; this is 
the gain which a .5rama#a is desirous of. Thus 
I say. (20) 

" A merchant kills living beings and desires pro- 
perty ; not leaving his kinsmen, he attracts a crowd in 
order to do business. (21) 

" Desiring riches and addicted to sensuality, mer- 
chants wander about to earn their living. But we 
(say) that they are passionately fond of pleasures, 
unworthy, and desiring the enjoyment of love. (22) 

"They do not abstain from slaughter and the 
acquirement of property, they are in bondage and 
full of wickedness; and their gain of which you 
spoke, will be the endless Circle of Births and pains 
manifold 1 . (23) 

" They do not always make profit, nor does it last 

1 N&h& or »8dh&. According to .Silahka it is = na iha : 'not 
even here (do they find the profit they seek).' I think it may be 
the Prakr/'t ofan6kadha. It may, however, stand for snCha/i, in 
which case the meaning would be : love's (reward will be) pain. 

Digitized by 


414 s6trak/j/tanga. 

for ever ; they meet with both results (success and 
failure) in their quest of gain 1 . The profit (of the 
teacher), however, has a beginning, but no end ; the 
saviour and sage shares his profit (with others). (24) 
" Him who kills no (living beings), who has com- 
passion on all creatures, who is well grounded in the 
Law, and causes the truth of the Law to be known, 
him you would equal to those wicked men ! This 
is the outcome of your folly." (25) 

A Buddhist 2 . 

' If (a savage) thrusts a spit through the side of 
a granary 3 , mistaking it for a man ; or through a 
gourd, mistaking it for a baby, and roasts it, he will 
be guilty of murder according to our views. (26) 

' If a savage* puts a man on a spit and roasts him, 
mistaking him for a fragment of the granary ; or a 

1 Vayanti te d6 vi guHe^dayammissvra^anti t£ dvavapi 
guwavudayk The usual reading adopted by the commentators 
is gu»d for gu«e\ They translate: vadanti te" dvau vigata- 
gu«6dayau bhavata iti : (the experts) say that both (kinds of 
profit) are without value and duration. It is obvious that this 
interpretation is wrong. 

* Ardraka after having put down G6.sala is met, on his way to 
Mahavtra, by Buddhists who engage him in the following dis- 

* Pi«»agapi»</i. The commentators explain pi««aga 
(=pi»y£ka) by khala, and pirirfi by bhinnaka (?) or jakala. 
•Silahka gives the following explanation. During a struggle with 
savage men (ml^kkAa.) some one runs away and throws his cloak off 
on a granary. An enemy in pursuit of that man mistakes it for 
him and takes hold of it, together with the part of the granary. — 
This interpretation looks absurd ; but it will appear not so if we 
remember that granaries are beehive-shaped reservoirs made of 
sun-baked mud or wattle and mud ; compare Grierson, Bihar 
Peasant Life, p. 17. 

* Milakkhu = mie££Aa. 

Digitized by 


BOOK 2, LECTURE 6. 415 

baby, mistaking him for a gourd, he will not be 
guilty of murder according to our views. (27) 

' If anybody thrusts a spit through a man or a baby, 
mistaking him for a fragment of the granary, puts him 
on the fire, and roasts him, that will be a meal fit 
for Buddhas to break fast upon. (28) 

'Those who always feed two thousand worthy 
monks, acquire great merit l and become powerful 
gods in Arupa (dhatu) 2 .' (29) 


" Well-controlled men cannot accept (your denial 
of) guilt incurred by (unintentionally) doing harm to 
living beings. It will cause error and no good to both 
who teach such doctrines and who believe them. (30) 

" A man who knows the nature of movable and 
immovable living beings, above, below, and on earth, 
who is afraid of injuring them and abstains from 
wicked deeds, may speak and act (in accordance 
with our Law) ; he will not be guilty of any (sin). (31) 

"It is impossible to mistake (a fragment of the 
granary) for a man ; only an unworthy man can say 
it. How can (the idea of a man) be produced by 
a fragment of the granary ? Even to utter this is an 
untruth. (32) 

" Do not use such speech by means of which 
you do evil ; for such speech is incompatible with 
virtues. No ordained (monk) should speak empty 
words 8 . (33) 

1 Pu»»akhandha = pu»yaskandha. 

1 Aroppa. This is apparently derived from Arupa as rendered 
in the text. Arupadhatu is the highest heaven of the Buddhists ; 
compare Burnouf, Le Lotus de la Bonne Loi, p. 807. 

* Urala = ud&ra, here explained niss&ra, void of sense. 

Digitized by 


416 sCtrakk/tAnga. 

" Oh ! you have explored this subject ; you have 
thoroughly examined the consequences of acts • of 
living beings ; your (fame) reaches the Eastern and 
Western oceans; you view (the universe as if) it 
stood on the palm of your hands ! (34) 

" Thoroughly examining the consequences of acts 
of living beings, (our monks) have found out a pure 
way of sustaining life. It is a maxim 2 of the monks 
of our creed 3 , that nobody who lives by secret sins 4 , 
should lay down the Law. (35) 

"A man who always feeds two thousand worthy 
monks, does not control himself, and will be blamed 
in this world like a man with bloody hands. (36) 

" They kill a fattened sheep, and prepare food for 
the sake of a particular person ; they season the meat 
with salt and oil, and dress it with pepper. (37) 

" You are irreligious, unworthy men, devoted to 
foolish pleasures, who say that partaking heartily of 
this meat you are not soiled by sin. (38) 

" All who partake of such food, commit sins in 
their ignorance; but the wise do nothing of the 
kind. Even to utter it is an untruth. (39) 

"In compassion to all beings, the seers, the 
(S^atrzputras 6 , avoid what is sinful ; afraid of it, they 
abstain from food especially prepared for them. (40) 

" They abstain from wicked deeds, afraid of injur- 
ing living beings, and do no harm to any creature ; 
therefore they do not partake of such food. This is 
a maxim of the monks of our creed. (41) 

1 A«ubhae = anubhagaA, explained karmavip&ka. 
9 Anudharma. 

8 Iha sawyatanim, who control themselves in this (creed of 
the Cainas). 

* A'Aannapaddpa^'ivin. * I.e. the <?ainas. 

Digitized by 


BOOK 2, LECTURE 6. 417 

"(Having reached) this perfection 1 in the Law of 
the Nirgranthas and standing firm in it, one should 
live without deceit 2 . The awakened sage who is 
endowed with all virtues thereby obtained very 
great fame." (42) 

A Vedic Priest. 
' Those who always feed two thousand holy s 
mendicants, acquire great merit and become gods. 
This is the teaching of the V£da.' (43) 


"He who always feeds two thousand holy cats* 
(i. e. Brahmawas), will have to endure great pains in 
hell, being surrounded by hungry (beasts). (44) 

"He who despises the Law that enjoins compas- 
sion, and praises the Law that permits slaughter, and 
who feeds but a single unprincipled man, even if he 
be a king, will go to darkness 5 , and not to the 
gods." (45) 

A Vedantin*. 

' Both of us follow (very much the same) Law ; 
we stood firm in it, and shall do so in the time to 
come ; (we believe that) virtue consists in good 
conduct, and that knowledge (is necessary for libera- 
tion) ; and with regard to the Circle of Births there 
is no difference between us. (46) 

1 SamSdhi. * A»ih8. s Snataka, cf. Manu XI, 1. 

4 Kulalaya = kula/a, explained mSr^&ra. Another explana- 
tion is : who live (alaya) in houses. 

* Nisaw, literally, night. 

• .STMnka calls this opponent an £kadaWin, and ascribes to him 
the views of the Saftkhya philosophy. But it is evident from the 
sequel that he is aVSdantin, as the commentators admit in their 
comment on the next verse. 

[45] E e 

Digitized by 


4i 8 sCtrakrjtAnga. 

' (But we assume) an invisible, great, eternal, im- 
perishable, and indestructible Soul, who excels all 
other beings in every respect, as the moon excels 
the stars.' (47) 


" (If there were but one Soul common to all beings) 
they could not be known (from one another), nor 
could they experience different lots ; there would not 
be Brahma#as, Kshattriyas, VaLyyas, and .Sudras \ 
insects, birds, and snakes ; all would be men and 
gods. (48) 

" Those who do not know all things by K£vala 
(knowledge), but who being ignorant teach a Law 
(of their own), are lost themselves, and work the 
ruin of others in this dreadful, boundless Circle of 
Births. (49) 

" Those who know all things by the full K£vala 
knowledge, and who practising meditation teach 
the whole Law, are themselves saved and save 
others. (50) 

" You have, in your mind, made equal both those 
who lead a blameable life, and those who in this 
world practise right conduct. Friend, you are de- 
luded." (51) 

A Hastitapasa 2 . 

' Every year we kill one big elephant with an 
arrow, and live upon it in order to spare the life 
of other animals.' (52) 

1 Pessd = preshya, literally, servants or slaves. 

* The HastitSpasas are thus named from the fact that they kill 
an elephant and live upon its flesh for a whole year or for six 
months, as SilSnka adds, explaining thus the words avi ya (api ka) 
after sa m va^^arewa. The Hastitapasas are mentioned in a list of 
the different Tapasas in the Aupapatika Sutra, ed. Leumann, § 74. 

Digitized by 


BOOK 2, LECTURE 7. 419 


" If every year you kill but one animal without 
abstaining from sin, though you are not guilty of 
the slaughter of other creatures, there is little 
difference between you and a householder. (53) 

" If a man kills every year but one animal, and 
lives (in other respects) as a 6"rama«a, he is un- 
worthy, and works his perdition. Such men will 
not become K£valins." (54) 

A (monk) who has achieved his religious perfection 
through the instruction of the Awakened One 1 , and 
stands firm in it, who guards himself in the threefold 
way (i. e. with regard to thoughts, words, and acts), 
and who possesses the things requisite for crossing 
the immense ocean of existence, may preach the 
Law. (55) 

Thus I say. 




At that time, at that period, there was a town of 
the name Ra^agrzTia: it was rich, happy, thriving, 
&c. 2 Outside of Ra^agrzha, in a north-eastern 

' Buddhassa £»&i. 

* This ' &c. ' refers to the typical description of towns. Our text 
contains only the first words of the description, but the Aupap&- 
tika Sutra, § 1, gives it at length. 

e e 2 

Digitized by 


420 sOtrakkjtAnga. 

direction, there was the suburb Nilandi ; it contained 
many hundreds of buildings, &C. 1 (i) 

In that suburb Nilanda there was a householder 
called L£pa ; he was prosperous, famous ; rich in 
high and large houses, beds, seats, vehicles, and 
chariots; abounding in riches, gold, and silver; 
possessed of useful and necessary things ; wasting 
plenty of food and drink; owning many male and 
female slaves, cows, buffaloes, and sheep; and in- 
ferior to nobody. (2) 

This householder L6pa, a follower of the «Srama«as, 
comprehended (the doctrine of) living beings and 
things without life, (&c, all as in II, 2, 76, p. 382, 
down to the end of the paragraph). (3) 

This householder L6pa possessed, in a north- 
eastern direction from the suburb Nilanda, a bath- 
ing-hall, called Sdshadravyi 2 ; it contained many 
hundreds of pillars, was beautiful, &c. In a north- 
eastern direction from this bathing-hall S£shadravyi, 
there was a park called Hastiyima. (Description of 
the park 3 .) (4) 

And there in some house the Venerable Gautama 
was staying. The venerable (man) was in the 
garden, and so was Udaka, the son of P£d%ila, 
a Nirgrantha and follower of Pircva *, of the Medirya 
G6tra. He went there where the Venerable Gautama 
was, and said : ' O long-lived Gautama, I want to 
ask you about a point (of faith) ; O long-lived one, 

' I cannot tell where the full description occurs. 

* The name denotes : the rest of materials, i. e. the hall which 
was built with the materials not used (in building the house), the 
well-known 'few remaining bricks.' 

* The text is given in the Aupapttika Sutra, § 3. 

* Compare the Twenty-second Lecture of the UttarSdhyayana. 

Digitized by 


BOOK 2, LECTURE "J. 42 1 

please explain it to me so as it has been taught (by 
the Tlrthakara).' And the Venerable Gautama spoke 
thus to Udaka, the son of Pe^ala : "Well, long-lived 
one, I shall see about it, when I have heard and 
understood (your question)." And Udaka, the son of 
P&^ala, spoke thus to the Venerable Gautama : (5) 
' O long-lived Gautama, there are Nirgrantha 
•Sramawas, called Kumaraputras, who profess your 
creed ; they make a zealous ' householder, a follower 
of the 5rama»as, renounce injury to movable beings 
except on the order (from an established authority), 
as the householder caused one of the captured 
thieves to be set free 2 . Those who make this 
renunciation, make a bad renunciation ; those who 
cause this renunciation to be made, cause a bad 
renunciation to be made ; in causing another to 
make this renunciation, they annul their own allega- 
tion 8 . Why do I say this ? Beings belong to the 
Circle of Births ; though they be (now) immovable 
beings, they will (some time) become movable ones, 
or though they be (now) movable beings, they will 
become immovable ones ; when they leave the bodies 

1 Uvasampanna. 

* These words seem to refer to an apologue told by the 
commentator: King Ratnajekhara of Ratnapura, once making 
a pleasure trip, issued an order that nobody should remain in the 
town. Six brothers disobeyed, were brought before the king, and 
sentenced to death. Their father in vain implored the king to spare 
them, or to spare five, four, three, two of his sons. At last the 
king consented to pardon the eldest son, at which the old father 
rejoiced. — The six sons are likened to . the six classes of living 
beings. As a householder cannot altogether abstain from injuring 
them, as monks do, he is content to abstain from injuring movable 
beings or animals. 

* Viz. that by abstaining from slaughter of living beings they kill 
no living beings. 

Digitized by 


422 stiTRAKitfTAJIGA. 

of immovable beings, they will be born in bodies of 
movable ones, and when they leave the bodies 
of movable beings, they will be born in bodies of 
immovable ones. When they are born in bodies 
of immovable beings, it is no sin to kill them. (6) 

'(But if they make him renounce) injury to creatures 
which are, for the time being, movable beings, except 
on the order (from an established authority) — as the 
householder caused one of the captured thieves to 
be set free — (if they take this vow), those who make 
this renunciation, make a good renunciation; those 
who cause this renunciation to be made, cause a good 
renunciation to be made ; in causing another to 
make this renunciation, they do not annul their 
own allegation. Though in this way 1 a correct 
expression is found, some (monks) from anger or 
greed cause the householder to make the renunciation 
(without the necessary restriction). Is not this our 
interpretation right ? O long-lived Gautama, do you 
approve of it ? ' (7) 

And Gautama spoke thus to Udaka, the son of 
P&j%ala : "O long-lived Udaka, we certainly do not 
approve of it. The 6rama»as or Brahma»as who 
say thus, speak thus, declare thus, and explain thus, 
do not speak as .Sramarcas or Nirgranthas, they 
speak noxious speech. They mislead laymen. They 
make void all vows undertaken for sparing particular 
living beings 2 . Why do I say this ? Beings belong 

1 I.e. by specifying the movable beings as beings which are 
movable ones for the time being. 

2 E.g. if a man vows to kill no Br£hma«a (and does not add the 
restriction 'for the time being'), he may kill no man or animal 
whatever; for the soul of that man or animal may, in the past, have 
been embodied in a Brihmana. 

Digitized by 


BOOK 2, LECTURE 7. 423 

to the Circle of Births; though they be (now) im- 
movable beings, they will (some time) become 
movable ones, (&c, all as in § 6, down to) when 
they leave the bodies of movable beings, they will 
be born in the bodies of immovable ones. When 
they are born in the bodies of movable beings, 
it is a sin to kill them." (8) 

And Udaka, the son of PeW^ala, spoke thus : 
'Which beings do you call movable beings ? movable 
ones or others ? ' 

And Gautama spoke thus to Udaka, the son of 
Pea^ala : " O long-lived Udaka, what you call 
beings which are, for the time being, movable 
ones, we call movable beings ; and what we call 
movable beings, you call beings which are, for the 
time being, movable ones. Both expressions are 
equal, and mean the same thing. O long-lived 
one, why do you think it more correct to say : beings 
which are, for the time being, movable ones; and 
why do you think it incorrect to say: movable 
beings, that you censure the one expression, and 
applaud the other ? This your interpretation is not 
right. (9) 

"And the Venerable One has spoken thus : Some 
men there are who say: we cannot, submitting to 
the tonsure, renounce the life of a householder and 
enter the monastic state, but we shall gradually 
conform to the G6tra (i. e. community of the monks). 
Accordingly they make known the limits ', fix the 
limits, determine the limits (beyond which they will 
not go in the enjoyment of worldly goods) ; and 

1 Literally, the number. A sample of such vows is given in the 
beginning of the Uvasaga Dasao, see Hoernle's edition, § 16 ff. 

Digitized by 


424 sOtrakk/tAnga. 

renounce injury to movable beings, except on the 
order 1 (of an established authority) — as the house- 
holder caused one of the captured thieves to be set 
free. And this turns out to their benefit. (10) 

" Movable beings are called so, when they get this 
character 2 through the taking effect of the Karman 
relating to movable beings. But when their duration 
of life as movable beings comes to its close, the 
(soul), embodied in a movable being, leaves its life 
as such and becomes embodied in an immovable 
being. Immovable beings are called so, when they 
get this character through the taking effect of the 
Karman relating to immovable beings. But when 
their duration of life as an immovable being comes 
to its close, the (soul), embodied in an immovable 
being, leaves its life as such and takes again 
a new form of existence; they are (then) called 8 
animated beings, (animals) of large bodies, or of 
long life." (u) 

And Udaka, the son of P&/Mla, spoke thus to 
the Venerable Gautama : 'Is there not a chance, 
that a follower of the .Srama#as, though he has 
renounced slaughter of but one class of living 
beings, ceases altogether to injure any * ? Why do 

1 Abhiydga. .Sflanka enumerates four kinds of abhiydga: 
ga«a-, bala-, devati-abhiydga, and gurunigraha. 
9 Nam a, literally, name. 

3 They are called (vu££anti = u£yant6) is apparently equi- 
valent with : they get the name (nima) ; ' name,' however, means 
in Gaina and Bauddha terminology as much as ' the nature of the 
thing.' The words of the text, therefore, come to mean : ' they 
become or are animated beings,' &c. 

4 The question discussed in the following paragraphs is whether, 
at some future time, all movable beings in the Samsira might not 
die out, and none but immovable beings be left. This idea is 
combated at great length by Gautama. 

Digitized by 


BOOK 2, LECTURE "J. 425 

I say this ? Beings belong to the Circle of Births, 
though they be (now) immovable beings, they will 
(some time) become movable ones, and though they 
be movable beings, they will become immovable 
ones. When they leave the bodies of immovable 
beings, all are born in bodies of movable ones, and 
when they leave the bodies of movable beings, all 
will be born in bodies of immovable ones. When 
they are born in bodies of immovable beings, they 
may be killed V (12) 

And the Venerable Gautama spoke thus to Udaka, 
the son of P&rifcala : " O long-lived one, we 2 do not 
admit what you say ; viz. that there is a chance that 
a follower of the .Sramawas should cease to do injury 
to any kind of living beings. Why do we say this ? 
Beings belong to the Circle of Births, (&c, all as 
above, down to) when they are born in bodies of 
movable beings, it is a sin to kill them. They are 
called animated beings, (animals) of large bodies, 
or of long life. There are always a great many 
animate beings, (the slaughter of) which a follower 
of the .Sramawas must renounce, there are none, 
(the slaughter of) which he need not renounce. If 
he ceases, or has done with, or has given up (injuring) 
the large class of movable beings, his renunciation is 

1 The meaning is, that at some future time movable beings may 
have ceased to exist, since they are all born as immovable beings, 
and vice versft. If the latter is the case, a layman, who abstains 
from killing animals, practically does injury to no being whatever ; 
if the former is the case, he cannot transgress his vow even if he 

* The text has the Sanskrit word asmakam, of which the com- 
mentator alleges that it was thus pronounced by all people in 
Magadha, compare note 2, p. 358. 

Digitized by 


426 sOtrak/j/tAnga. 

good. What you or somebody else says, that there 
is a chance of a layman's ceasing to do an injury 
altogether, by renouncing slaughter of one kind 
of beings; this interpretation of yours is not 
right." (13) 

The Venerable One 1 gave an illustration : " I put 
a question to the Nirgranthas : O long-lived ones, 
(suppose) there be some men who have made the 
following declaration : ' I shall not inflict punishment 
on those who, submitting to the tonsure, renounce 
the life of a householder and enter the monastic 
state ; but I shall inflict punishment on those who 
lead a domestic life.' Some .Sramawa, who for four 
or five years, or for six or ten years — the period 
may be shorter or longer — has wandered about in 
the land, returns to domestic life. Now answer me : 
does the man break his word when he puts to death 
this (renegade) householder ? " ' Certainly not ! ' "It 
is just the same with a follower of the -Sramawas, 
who has renounced injury to movable beings, but 
not to immovable ones. If he kills immovable 
beings, he does not transgress his vow. This you 
acknowledge, O Nirgranthas, this you must acknow- 

ledge!" (14) 

The Venerable One gave another illustration: 
" I put a question to the Nirgranthas. O long-lived 
Nirgranthas, (suppose) there be householders or 
sons of householders, born in respectable families, 
who come to you for instruction in the Law. Ought 
they to be instructed in the Law?" 'Yes, they 
should.' "When they have learned and under- 
stood this Law, will they say: this creed of the 

1 Gautama. 

Digitized by 


BOOK 2, LECTURE 7. 427 

Nirgranthas is true, supreme, excellent, full of 
virtues, right, pure, it removes doubts, it is the 
road to perfection, liberation, Nirv4#a ; it is free 
from error and doubts, it is the road of those who 
are free from all misery ; those who adopt it will 
reach perfection, (&c, all down to) put an end to 
all misery ; exerting ourselves we shall control our- 
selves with regard to all kinds of living beings. — 
Will they speak thus ? " ' Yes.' " Should such men 
be admitted to the order?" 'Yes, they should.' 
"Should such men be instructed in the discipline 
and kept to attend to religious instruction ? " ' Yes, 
they should.' " Do they renounce injury to every 
living being ? " ' Yes, they do.' " Now (suppose) 
one of these men who lead such a life, after wander- 
ing about in the land for four or five years, or for 
six or ten years — the period may be shorter or 
longer — returns to domestic life. Will this man 
(still) abstain from doing injury to every living 
being?" 'No.' "The same man 1 who at first (as 
a householder) had not renounced injury to every 
living being, who afterwards has renounced, and 
who now does not renounce injury to every living 
being, did at first not control himself, did so after- 
wards, and does not so now. As long as he does 
not control himself, he does not renounce injury to 
every living being 2 . This you acknowledge, O 
Nirgranthas, this you must acknowledge! " (15) 

The Venerable One gave (another) illustration: 
" I put a question to the Nirgranthas. O long-lived 

1 S$g£ sS giv&, literally, his soul. 

* Here the last sentence but one of the preceding paragraph 
ought to be repeated But there is no trace of it in my MSS. or 
the commentary. 

Digitized by 


428 sOtraicr/tAnga. 

Nirgranthas, (suppose) there be monks or nuns of 
other sects, who come to you for instruction in the 
Law, (all as before, down to) attend to religious in- 
struction." ' Yes, they should.' " Is it lawful to eat 
with such men ? " ' Yes, it is.' " Now (suppose) some 
of these people who lead such a life, (&c, all as before, 
down to) return to domestic life. Is it lawful to eat 
with them then ? " ' No, it is not 1 .' " The same man 
with whom to eat was not lawful at first, was lawful 
afterwards, and is not lawful now, was no »Srama»a 
at first, was a 6rama»a afterwards, and is no .Srama«a 
now. It is not lawful for Nirgrantha .Sramawas to 
eat together with him. This you acknowledge, O 
Nirgranthas; this you must acknowledge ! " (16) 

And the Venerable One spoke thus : "There are 
some followers of the Sramawas, who have made this 
declaration : we cannot, submitting to the tonsure, 
renounce the life of a householder and enter the 
monastic state, but we shall strictly observe the 
Pdsaha on the fourteenth and the eighth days of 
each fortnight, (on the new-moon, and) full-moon days, 
we renounce gross ill-usage of living beings, grossly 
lying speech, gross taking of things not given, (un- 
lawful) sexual intercourse, (unlimited) appropriation 
of property ; we shall set limits to our desires in the 
two forms and in the three ways 2 . They will also 
make the following renunciation: 'neither do nor 
cause anything (sinful) to be done for my sake.' 

1 N6 i«*a//££ sama//AS; I think the Sanskrit of this phrase, 
which is not explained by the commentator, is nd ayam arthaA 

* Viz. ' I will not do it, nor cause it to be done, either in thought 
or in word or in deed.' Compare Uv&saga Dasao, Hoernle's edition, 

Digitized by 


BOOK 2, LECTURE 7. 429 

Having (on Pdsaha-days) abstained from eating, 
drinking, bathing, and using beds or chairs, may 
they, on their decease, be said to make a (righteous) 
end of their life ? " ' Certainly, they do make such 
an end of their life.' " They are called animated 
beings, (&c., all as in § 1 3, down to) this interpretation 
of yours is not right." (17) 

The Venerable One spoke thus : " There are some 
followers of the »Srama«as, who have made this 
declaration : we cannot, submitting to the tonsure, 
renounce the life of a householder and enter the 
monastic state ; we also cannot strictly observe the 
Pdsaha on the fourteenth and the eighth days of 
each fortnight, (on the days of new-moon) and 
full-moon ; but while we are preparing ourselves for 
death by fasting 1 , we shall abstain from food and 
drink without longing for the end ; we shall renounce 
all ill-usage of living beings, all lying speech, all 
taking of things not given, all sexual intercourse, all 
property, (saying): 'neither do nor cause anything 
(sinful) to be done for my sake.' (All the rest as in 
the preceding paragraph.)" (18) 

And the Venerable One spoke thus : " There are 
some men of great desires, great undertakings, &c. 2 , 
who do not abstain from all ill-usage of living beings, 
(&c, down to) from all property. During the whole 
time, from their taking the vows of a follower of the 
.Srama#as till their death, they abstain from injury 
to living beings. Then they die; in their next 
existence they experience their Karman, and receive 
an evil lot. (The rest as before.)" (19) 

And the Venerable One spoke thus : " There are 

1 Sa»»16ha«a^A(isa»i^Aflsiyd. * See II, 2, 61. 

Digitized by 


43Q sCtrakjwtanga. 

some men of no desires, no undertakings, who abstain 
from all ill-usage of living beings, (&c, down to) from 
all property. During the whole time, from their 
taking the vows of a follower of the 5rama»as till 
their death, they abstain from injury to living beings. 
Then they die; in their next existence they ex- 
perience their Karman, and receive a happy lot. 
(The rest as before.)" (20) 

And the Venerable One spoke thus : " There are 
some men of few desires, few undertakings, who 
abstain from ill-usage of one sort of living beings, 
(&c, down to) from one sort of property. During 
the whole time, (&c, the rest as in the last para- 
graph)." (21) 

And the Venerable One spoke thus : " There are 
some men who live in woods, in huts, near villages, 
or practise some secret rites, who are not well con- 
trolled, do not well abstain (from slaying) all sorts of 
living beings. They employ speech that is true and 
untrue at the same time : do not beat me, beat others, 
(&c, all as in II, 2, 21, down to) having died at their 
allotted time, they are born in some places inhabited 
by Asuras 1 and evil-doers. And when they are 
released therefrom, they will be born deaf and dumb 
or blind. They are called animated beings, (&c, the 
rest as in § 13)." (22) 

And the Venerable One spoke thus : " There are 
some beings of a long life, which a follower of 
the *Srama«as abstains from injuring through life. 
They die after him. They are called animated 
beings, (&c, the rest as in § 13)." (23) 

1 Asuriya. .Stlihka here offers a second explanation of this 
word, viz. asurya, where no sun ever shines. 

Digitized by 


BOOK 2, LECTURE 7. 43 1 

(The two next paragraphs treat in exactly the 
same way of beings of an equally long life, which die 
simultaneously with him, and of beings of a short 
life, which die before him.) (24, 25) 

And the Venerable One spoke thus : " There are 
some followers of the Sramawas, who have made 
this declaration : we are not able to strictly observe 
the P6saha-days, but we are able, when preparing 
ourselves for death by fasting, to abstain from food 
and drink without longing for the end. The vow of 
such a man is the Samayika Desavaklrika l : (he 
declares) in the morning : (I shall travel) only thus 
or thus far in an eastern, western, southern, 
northern direction. He renounces injury to all 
beings : I shall cause peace and security to all sorts 
of living beings. 

"Within those (limits) the movable living beings, 
which the follower of the Srama«as abstains from 
injuring till his death, will leave their life, and will 
then be born, within the same limits, as movable 
living beings, which the follower of the 6rama»as 
abstains from injuring till his death. With regard to 
them the follower of the 6rama»as has made a good 
renunciation. They are called animated beings, (&c, 
the rest as before). (26) 

"The movable beings within those limits, &c.*, will, 

' The De\ravaka\rika ' consists in drawing closer or contracting 
every day the limits already laid down (in accordance with the 
Gu»avratas) to the range of one's travels,' &c. The Giwavrata 
referred to is the Digvirati, i.e. ' to lay down a limit beyond which 
one shall not travel in the different directions, or a limit as to the 
countries one shall visit for the acquisition of wealth.' From 
Bhandarkar Report, p. 114 k The explanation in the commentary 
materially agrees with the above. 

* The original repeats the phrases of the preceding paragraph. 

Digitized by 


432 sOtrakk/tAnga. 

after their death, be born within the same limits as 
immovable beings, from injuring which without 
a purpose the follower of the .5rama»as abstains till 
death, but not with a purpose \ (&c, the rest as 
before). (27) 

" The movable beings within those limits, &c, will, 
after their death, be born, beyond those limits, as 
movable or immovable beings, (&c, the rest as 
before). (28) 

" The immovable beings within those limits, &c, 
will, after their death, be born, within the same 
limits, as movable beings, (&c, the rest as be- 
fore). (29) 

"The immovable beings within those limits, &c, 
will, after their death, be born, within the same limits, 
as immovable beings, (&c, the rest as before). (30) 

" The immovable beings within those limits, &c, 
will, after their death, be born, beyond those limits, 
as immovable beings, (&c, the rest as before). (31) 

"The movable and immovable beings beyond those 
limits, &c, will, after their death, be born, within 
those limits, as movable beings, (&c, the rest as 
before). (32) 

"The movable and immovable beings beyond those 
limits, &c, will, after their death, be born, within 
those limits, as immovable beings, (&c, the rest as 
before). (33) 

"The movable and immovable beings beyond those 
limits, &c, will, after their death, be born, beyond 

I abridge them as far as possible, and give the full text only where 
it differs from that of § 26. 

1 This clause comes always after the words ' immovable beings ' 
down to § 34. 

Digitized by 


BOOK 2, LECTURE "J. 433 

those limits, as movable and immovable beings, (&c. 
the rest as before)." (34) 

The Venerable One spoke thus : " It has never 
happened, it does not happen, nor will it ever happen, 
that all movable beings will die out and become 
immovable ones, nor that all immovable beings die 
out and become movable ones. Since movable and 
immovable beings never die out, there is no chance, 
as you or somebody else say, that a layman ceases 
to do injury altogether by renouncing slaughter of 
one kind of beings ; this interpretation of yours is 
not right." (35) 

And the Venerable One spoke thus : " If (a man) 
who has been instructed in right knowledge, faith, 
and conduct for the avoidance of sins, blames 
a (righteous) vSramarca or Brahma«a though he is 
well disposed towards them, he effects the loss of his 
merit for another world ; but if he does not blame 
them, he heightens the purity of his merit for 
another world." 

On this Udaka, the son of P&j^ala, took no 
further notice of the Venerable Gautama and was 
about to return in the direction in which he had 
come. (36) 

And the Venerable One spoke thus : " O long- 
lived Udaka, he who has learned from a £rama«a 
or Brahmawa whomsoever even one noble religious 
truth, and considers himself thereby furthered with 
regard to his peace and happiness, will respect, 
acknowledge, praise, salute, honour, reverence, and 
worship him even as a blessed and holy deity or 
sacred shrine." (37) 

Then Udaka, the son of P&a^ala, spoke thus to 
the Venerable Gautama : 'As I had not before 
[45] F f 

Digitized by 


434 sOtrak/j/tAnga. 

known, heard, understood, and comprehended these 
words, I did not believe in the meaning (of your 
words), which I had never perceived nor heard nor 
understood nor appreciated, and which were never 
explained nor defined nor delivered nor made clear 
to me, nor pondered over by me. But now, Reverend 
Sir, as I do know, &c, these words which I have 
perceived, heard, &c, I believe, accept, and approve 
of their meaning. It is just as you say ! ' (38) 

Then the Venerable Gautama spoke thus to Udaka, 
the son of P&a%ala : " Believe it, sir ; accept it, sir ; 
approve of it, sir ; it is just as we have said." Then 
Udaka, the son of P&J%ala, spoke thus to the Vener- 
able Gautama : ' I desire, Reverend Sir, in your 
presence to pass from the creed which enjoins four 
vows ', to the creed which enjoins the five great vows 
and the Pratikramawa V (39) 

Then the Venerable Gautama went with Udaka, 
the son of P&a^ala, to the Venerable Ascetic Maha- 
vlra. Then Udaka, the son of Pe^ala, solemnly 
circumambulated the Venerable Ascetic Mahavira 
three times from the left to the right, and having 
done so he praised and worshipped him, and then he 
spoke thus : ' I desire, Reverend Sir, in your presence 
to pass from the creed which enjoins four vows, to 
the creed which enjoins the five great vows and the 
Pratikramawa. May it so please you, beloved of the 

1 See above, p. 121, note 2. In this way the creed of Parrva is 
characterised in contradistinction to that of Mahlvtra. 

* ' Pratikrama«a is the expiation of sins ... by means of 
Nindana Garha«a, A16£anS, and other processes. Nindana is 
condemning the sinful act or repenting of it to oneself; Garhana 
is doing the same before a Guru ; and Alo^ana is making a con- 
fession of it to the Guru.' Bhandarkar, Report, p. 9, note %. 

Digitized by 


BOOK 2, LECTURE 7- 435 

gods, do not deny me ! ' Then, in the presence of 
the Venerable Ascetic Mahavlra, Udaka, the son of 
PeaJ&ala, passed from the creed which enjoins four 
vows, to the creed which enjoins the five great vows 
and the Pratikrama«a. (40) 
Thus I say. 

f f 2 

Digitized by CjOOQlC 

Digitized by 



Abhayad€va, page 346 note 1. 

Activity, kinds of, 356 f. 

A,jita, 85 n 2. 

Agivika, 267 n 1. 

A^anavida, 315. 

Ay^anavSdin, 83 n 2, 291. 

AyflSnikavSda, 385. 

Agnikumira (Bhavanavisin), 225. 

Agnijikha, 87 n 4. 

Aharaka body, 406, n 3. 

Ahuka, 113 n 2. 

Aikshvaka, 86. 

Airavaaa, Indra's elephant, 290. 

Aiaringa, 345, 351 n 2, 353 n 2, 354 

ni, 357 n, 358 n 2. 
Akarmabhfimi, 225, 393. 
Akriyavida, 315, 385. 
Akriyavidin, 83 n 2, 291, 309, 316. 
Aiyuta (Kalpa), 226, 228. 
Anata (Kalpa), 226, 228. 
Andhakavnshni, 118. 
Arigavidya, 70 n 2. 
Animals, aquatic, 223. 

— terrestrial, 223. 

— winged, 224. 
Aftkuja, 41. 

Anuttara (gods), 227, 228, 291 n 1. 
Apabhnunja, 114 n 2. 
Apai%ita (Anuttara), 227. 
Ara, a Tirthakara, 85 ns, 86. 
Arana (Kalpa), 226, 228. 
Ardhavaitili, an art, 366. 
Ardraka, a Gaina sage, 409 ff. 
Arishfanemi, 112, 114 n 2, 115. 
ArfipadhStu, a heaven of the Bud- 
dhists, 415. 
Arya, 241. 
Aryi metre, 271 n 2. 
Asana, 197. 
AshtV/£a, 143, 144. 
Asila, a r/shi, 268. 
Asita Devala, 269 n 1. 
Asph6ta-bower, 81. 
Astrology, 71 n 1. 
Asura, 34, 53, 250, 259, 318, 382. 

Asurakumara (Bhavanavasin), 225. 
Asflrya, a hell, 280. 
Ajvasena, 85 n 4. 
A^vayu^a, a month, 143. 
Ajvina, a month, 143 n 1. 
Atharvani, incantations, 366 n 5. 
Audarika body, 173, 406, n 3. 
Aupapatika Sfitra, 132 n, 269 n 1, 

384 n 1, 420 n 3. 
Avasarpini, 17 n, 42 n 2, 200. 
AyodhyS, 85 n 1, 2. 

Bahuka, 268. 

Bala, a Kint&h, 50 n 1. 

Bala, king of Hastinlpura, 88 n 1. 

Balabhadra, a robber, 32 n. 

Balabhadra, a king, 88. 

Baladeva, 87 n 4. 

Balak6sh/£a, 50 n 1. 

Balajrt, 88. 

Bali, 86 n 1. 

Barhaspatya, 236 n 2. 

Bauddha, 236 n 2, 316 n 3. 

Beings, living, subdivision of, 2 10 ff. 

Benares, 50 n 1, 87 n 4, 136. 

Bhadrl, mother of Maghavan, 85 

" J- 

Bhadra, daughter of king Kausalika, 

Son 1, 53. 
Bhadrapada, a month, 143. 
Bhandarkar, R. G., 50 n 2, 69 n 1, 

129 n 2, 155 n 4, 163 n 3, 165 

n 2, 182 n 4 , 327 n 3, 383 n 3, 

431 n 1. 
Bharata, 85, n 1. 
Bharatavarsha, 85. 
BharuWa, fabulous bird, 19, 378. 
Bhashya, 134 n 3. 
Bhaumeyika (gods), 225. 
Bhavabhavana, 69 n 1. 
Bhavana, the twelve, 329 n 2. 
Bhavanapati, 202, 207 n, 225 ff. 
Bhavanavasin = Bhaumeyika, 225. 
BhSga, a clan, 71, n 2, 118 n 2, 339. 
BhSjaraga, 118 n 2. 

Digitized by 




Bhngu, (62), (65). 
Bhfita (Vyantara), 122 n 1, 226. 
Bimbisara, 100 n 2. 
Brahmadatta, 57. 
Brahmaldka (Kalpa), 226, 227. 
Brahman, the creator, 244. 
Brahman, name of a palace, 58. 
Bra'hmana = Mahavira, 310. 
Brihmanas, 418. 
Brahmara^a, 87 n 5. 
Brrhatkalpa, 183 n 5. 
Buddha, 415. 
Buddhists, 414 f. 
Bukkasa, 15. 

Chess, earliest mention of, 303 n 1. 

Danava, 77, 121. 
Dantavakra, a king, 290. 
Daja, 183. 
Dasara, 113 n 4. 
Dasarha, 113, 115. 
Dararaa, 57, 87. 
Dajaraabhadra, 87 n 1. 
Dajlrrutaskandha, 183 n 5. 
Dajavaikalika, 116 n 2, 118 n 1. 
Dasyu, 43. 
Dattaka, 274 n 1. 
Death with one's will, 20. 

— against one's will, 20. 
D&iivakajika vow, 431, n 1. 
D&rikdsha, 92 n 3, 150 n 4. 
D6vaka, 113 n 2. 
DSvakf, 112, 113 n 2. 
Devala, a r/shi, 268. 
Development, 153, 154. 
Dhana, 32 n. 

Dharawindra, a naga, 290. 
DhOmabha hell, 221. 

Dhyina, 179; 3rta°,raudra°,dharma°, 

jukla , 200 n 1. 
Digambara, 69 n 1, 119 n 2, 267 n 1. 
D6gundaga gods, 88, n 2, 108. 
D6sha, udgama", 131 n 7. 

— udpldana", 132 n. 

— grahanaishani, 133 n. 

— paribh6gaishana, 134 n. 
Dr/sbrivada, 155, 345. 
Dropping of case affixes, 128 n 1. 
Dvlpara, a cast of dice, 256. 
DvSraka, 113 n 2, 115. 
Dvarakavati, 87 n 5. 
Dvimukha, 87. 

Dvipakumara (Bhavanavasin), 225. 
DvipJyana, a r*shi, 268. 
Dvipr/sh/a or Dvipushri, 87 n 5. 

Earth lives, 213. 
Ekadamfin, 245 n 2, 417 n 6. 
Eshani-samiti, 27 n 1, 129. 

Fick, 85 n 2. 
Fire lives, 217. 
'Former' years, 16, 201. 
Fortnight, dark, 372, 377. 

GambusvSmin, (8), (73), 235. 

Gambfl-tree, 48. 

Ganadhara, 149, n 1. 

Gloaya — Bauddhas, 238. 

Gandharva, 8, 77, 121,226, 2 50, 3 1 8. 

Ganga, 290. 

Ganges, 50 n 1. 

Garasandha, 1 1 3 n 2. 

Garbe, 214 n, 406 n 3. 

Gardabhali, 82, 83. 

Garga, 149. 

Ganu/a, 290; gods, 382. 

Gatha, 182. 

Gauri, 50 n 1. 

Gautama, 112, 1 19 ff, 420 IT. 

Gautama, law-book, 67 n 1. 

Gaya, 86 n 3. 

Gayaghdsha, 136, 140, 141. 

Gayanta (Anuttara gods), 227. 

Generatio aequivoca, 224. 

Gbamkakumara (Bhavanavasin), 225. 

Gina, 45, 77. 

GirnSr, 115 n 1. 

Givanmukti, 156 n 8. 

Givavij&ravr/tti, 219 n 2. 

G/JJnamarga, 26 n 1. 

Gditadharmakatha, 182 n 7. 

G£atadhyayana, 182. 

G^atW, a clan, 339. 

Gtfatrika, 256, 257. 

Gtfatr/putra, 27, 232, 239, 261, 287, 

289, 290, 413. 
GtfStn'putras— Gainas, 416. 
G6jala, 245 n 2, 409 f. 
Gdtama G6tra, 41 n 2, 83. 
G6tra= church or order, 321, 327, 

Graiveyaka (gods), 226, 228. 
Grierson, 277 ns, 341 n4. 
Gyesh/Aamula, a month, 144. 
Gy6tishanga, 137, 141. 
Gy6tishka gods, 202, 207 n, 225 ff. 

Harav^aya, a poem, 303 n 1. 
Haribhadra, 116 n 2. 
Harik&ra, 50, n 1, 55. 
— Bala, 50. 

Digitized by 




Harishena, 86, n 2. 

Harivawwa, 117 n 1. 

Hastinlpura, 56, 60, 85 n 4, 86 n 1, 

87 n r. 
Hastitapasa, a division of Tapasas, 

418, n 2. 
Hastiyama, a park, 420. 
Hell, description of, 93 ff, 379 ff, 376. 
Hemajfondra, 69 n 1, 93 n 3, 95 n 1, 

118 n 4, 150 n 4. 
Himavant, mountains, 339. 
Hoernle, 383 n 4, 423 n 1, 428 n 3. 
Hiittemann, 29 n 2. 
Hypermetron, 339 n 1. 

Indra, 292. 

Indradatta, 33 n. 

Indrabhfiti, 41 n 3. 

tjSna (Kalpa), 336, 227. 

Ishatpragbhara, 212. 

Ishukara, name of a town, 63 ; 

°ra, °ri, name of a king, 6t, 63, 

Isujara=Ishuk3ra, 62 n 1. 
ijvara, the creator, 244. 

Jackals in hell, 3S6. 
Jolly, 337 n 4. 
Jupiter, planet, 366. 

Kadambavaluka, river of hell, 94, 

Kailasa, 40. 

ifaitra, a month, 143, n i. 
ATakravilla, 239 n 1. 
Kakutstha, 85 n 5. 
Klkutstha, 85 n 5. 
K31akQ/a, 77 n 1, 105. 
Kalanjara, a hill, 57. 
Kali, a cast of dice, 256. 
Kalidlsa, 1 1 5 n 3. 
Kalinga, 87. 
Kalpa Sfitra, 71 n 2, 100 n 4, 360 n 1, 

371 n, 381 n 1. 
Kamalavatt, 62. 
Kimajlstra, 274 n 1. 
Kambcg-a, 47, 126. 
ATampa, 108. 

KSmpilya, 57, 80, 81, 86 n 2. 
Kamsa, 113 n 3, 118 n 3. 
AaWila, 15, 50, n 1, 301. 
ATandraprabha, 314. 
Kanthaka, excellent horse, 47 n 2, 

136 n 1. 
Kapila, 31 n 1. 
ATaraka, 337 n 4. 

KarakaWu, 87. 

Karka, 58. 

KarmabhGmi, 235, 393. 

Karmaaa body, 173, 406 n 3. 

Karttika, a month, 143. 

KarttikgyanuprgkshU, 69 n 1, 1 83 n 4. 

ATarvaka, 336 n 4, 238 n 3. 

Ka\ri, 57, 87. 

Kiryapa, 8, 10, 15, 31 n 1, 138, 158, 

360 n 3, 365, 279, 388, 310, 

Kaurava, 339. 
Kausalika, 50 n 1, 53. 
Kauj&mbi, 33 n, 103. 
KSy6tsarga, 55 n 2, T47, 148, 149, 

159, 164. 
Kesara, park, 81. 
KeVava (Krishna), 112, 115. 
Kfiji, 119 If. 
Kgvala, 152, 193. 
ATraluka, 245 n 3. 
Kimpurusha (Vyantara), 336, 382. 
Kinnara, 77, 122, 326, 383. 
ATitra, 56 ff. 
J£itra, 115. 
K6sh/Aaka park, 130. 
Krishna, 113 n 2, 113 n 2, 261 n 3. 
Kr/ta, a cast of dice, 256. 
KriySvada, 315, 319, 385. 
Kriyavadin, 83 n 2, 291, 309, 317, 

319 n 2. 
Kshanikavadin, 83 n 2. 
Kshattriya, 418. 
Kubgra, 117 n 2. 
Kulala, 68 n 1. 
ATulanT, 57. 

Kumaraputra, Gainas, 421. 
Kunthu, a Tirthakara, 85 n 5, £6. 
Kunthu, an insect, 15, 220. 
ATfirwi, 1 34 n 3. 
Kuru, 62 n 1. 

Lantaka (Kalpa), 226, 227. 

Lavasaptama gods, 291. 

LeM6ai, 321 n 3. 

Lgpa, a Gaina layman, 420 ff. 

L&rya, 56 n 1, 181, 196 ff. 

Leumann, E., 29 n 2, 57 n, 58 n 1, 
60 n 1, 2, 116 n 3, 118 n 1, 3, 
175 n 1, 179 n 3, 313 n t, 369 
n 1, 339 n i» 346 n i, 373 n 4. 

LijMj&avi, 321, 339. 

Ldkayatika, 342 n 1. 

Luke, 29 n 2. 

Madhyad&a, 268 n 1. 

Digitized by 




Magadha, 106 f. 

Magha, a month, 115 n i. 

Magna, the poet, 261 n 3. 

Maghavan, 85, n 3. 

Mahlbala, 88 n 1. 

Mahahari, 86 n 2. 

Mahapadma, 86, n 1. 

MahapHtaa heaven, 84. 

Mahlrukla (Kalpa), 226, 228. 

Mahivagga, 83 n 2. 

Mahavira, 8, 21, 41 n 2, 73. 

Mahendra mountain, 339. 

Mahendra (Kalpa), 226, 227. 

Mah6raga (Vyantara), 226. 

Makara, 223. 

Malaya mountain, 339. 

Mallaki, 321 n 3. 

ManaAparyaya, 152, 193. 

Mandara mountain, 49, 93, 339, 378. 

MaWikukshi ATaitya, 100. 

Mandrama, 36, 37. 

Mara, 244 n 5. 

Materialists, 339 f, 342 f. 

Mathura, 1 1 2 n 2, 1 1 3 n 2. 

Matter, 153. 

Matthew's gospel, 29 n 2, 300 n 1. 

Mayil, 244, n 5. 

MedSrya Gotra, 420. 

Meghadfita, 1 1 5 n 3. 

Merchants, three, parable of, 29. 

Meru, in, 288. 

Mithiia, 36. 

MleMAa, 43, 241. 

Mohaniya, 192, 193. 

Mr/gS, 88, 99. 

MWg&putra, 88 f, 99. 

Mr/'taganga, 57. 

Munisuvrata, 86 n 1. 

Naga gods, 382. 

Nagakumara (Bhavanavasin), 225. 

Nagar^uniya, 254 n 1, 3, 388 n 1, 

401 n 1. 
Naggati, 87. 
Nagnae-it (87). 
NalakObara, 1 1 7, n 3. 
Nilandl, suburb of Ra^agWha, 419 f. 
Kami, 35, 87, 268. 
Namujti, 86 n 1. 

Nandana, Indra's park, 100, 104, 290. 
Nandana, a Baladeva, 87 n 4. 
— (palace), 88. 
Nandana-parks on Meru, 288. 
Nandanavana, park on Meru, 288 n 5. 
Narayana, a r/shi, 268 n 3. 
Nastika, 236 04. 

Nemi, 115 n 3. 
Nila, 49 n 1. 

Nirgrantha, 52, 74 ff, &c. 
Nishadha, a fabulous mountain, 289. 
NOpurapani/ita, 118 n 4. 

Occult sciences, 366. 

Padmagulma, 57. 

Padm6ttara, 86 n 1. 

Paiita, 108. 

Palyfipama, 84 n 1, 200 If. 

Pant/aka, park on Meru, 288 n 5. 

PaWaya, a forest on Meru, 288. 

PaWuka, see PaWaka. 

Panini, 118 n 2. 

Pankabha hell, 221. 

Pa&fala, 60, 61, 87. 

P3ra\jara, a r/shi, 269. 

Parlshaha (of 22 kinds), 9. 

Paruishfaparvan, 118 n 4. 

Parjva, 119, 121, 420 ff. 

Pasattha=p3r.<vastha, 270 n 1. 

Patawj-ali, 118 n 2. 

Paurusht, 142 n 1 ff. 

Pausha, a month, 143. 

Persia, father of Udaka, 420 ff. 

Phalguna, 143. 

Pihun<fa, 108. 

Pija^a, 51 n 1, 225. 

Plants, 215. 

P6saha, 23, n 2, 428, 429, 431. 

Prakalpa, 183. 

Pranata (Kalpa), 226, 228. 

Prasena,fit, 32 n. 

Pratikramana, 159, (163), 434, 435. 

Pratikramana SQtra, 148, 149. 

Pratyekabuddh?., 35 n 2, 87 n 2. 

Pride, eight kinds of, 361 n 1. 

Puns, 26 n 3, 242 n 2, 170 n 3, 

331 in. 
Purandara, 117. 
Purimatala, 57. 
Pushnmarga, 269 n 3. 

Quality, 153. 

Ragagr/ha, 32 n, 86 n 3, 383, 419^ 
Ra^imati (Ra^a°, Ragi°), 113. 
Raivataka, 115, n 2, 116. 
Rakshasa, 77, 121,226, 250, 318,382. 
Rakshasi, 35 n 1. 
Rama (Baladeva), 112, 115. 
Ramagupta, a r/shi, 268. 
Ramayana, 85 n 5, 144 n 2, 321 n 3. 
R3shrrakura, 236 n 1. 

Digitized by 




Rathangmi, 112, 116, n 1, 117. 
Ratnabha hell, 221. 
Ratnakara, the poet, 303 n 1. 
Ratnaprabha hell, 218 n 3. 
Ratnapura, a town, 421 n 2. 
Ratnajekhara, a king, 421 n 2. 
Ashabha, 71 n 2, 85 n 1, 138, 249, 

261 n 2. 
Rdhagupta, 245 n 2. 
Rdhiat, 112. 
Rudradeva, 50 n t. 
Rulaka, a fabulous mountain, 289. 
Rupee, 374. 
RQpifli, 108. 

Sagara, 85, n 2. 

Sahadevi, 85 n 4. 

Sahasrara (Kalpa), 226, 228. 

Saiva, 245 n 2. 

■Saivadhikann, 237 n 4. 

Sakra=Indra, 36, 41, 87, 288. 

Salavana, park on Meru, 288 n 5. 

.Salmali-tree, 84, 104, 290. 

SambhOta, 56 ff. 

Samudrapiia, 108. 

Samudravijjaya, king of i'ravast?, 

85 n 3. 

Samudravi^aya, king of Ra^agr/ha, 

86 n 3. 

Samudravi^aya, king of Saurikapura, 

112, 117. 
Sana, 197. 

Sanatkumara, (60), 60 n 3, 85 n 4. 
Sanatkumara (Kalpa), 226, 227. 
Sarifgaya, 80 if. 
Sa^yivant, a hell, 284. 
Sahkhya, 2 37, 24404,31611 3, 342 m. 
Santakshana, a hell, 281. 
Santapanf, a caldron in hell, 284. 
Santi, 85, n 5. 
Sarkarabha hell, 221. 
Sarvartha, a Vimana, 211. 
Sarvarthasiddha (Anuttara gods), 

227, 228. 
Saudharma (Kalpa), 226, 227, 291. 
Sauri, 112 n 2. 
Saurikapura, 1 1 2 n 2. 
Saury apura, 112 n 2. 
Sauvira, 87. 
Sceptics, 21. 

Seshadravya, a bathing-hall, 420. 
Siddha, 8, 77, 183. 
Simile, 326, 338. 
Suupala, 261. 

Sijupalavadha, 115 n 1, 261 n 3. 
SU2, a river, 49. 

•Jiti, the highest heaven, 212. 

A'iv3, 112. 

Skandha, the five skandhas of the 

Buddhists, 238. 
Sdriyapura, 112 n 2. 
Souls, 153. 

Southern region, 372, 377. 
Sravana, a month, 144. 
6'rSvasti, 32 n, 85 n 3, 120. 
Srexika, 100 f, 409 n 1. 
Sr/nkhalayamaka, 329 n 1. 
Story told, 383 n 1, 421 n 2. 
Subha/tandra, 69 n 1. 
Substance, 153. 
Sudarjana, 48. 
Sudarjana = Meru, 288, 289. 
Sudharman, (8), (73), 235. 
■Sfidra, 301, 418. 
Sugriva, a town, 88. 
Sumanasavana,parkonMeru,288n 5. 
Sunanda, 60 n 3. 
SflnyavSdins, Bauddhas, 317 n 1. 
Suparaa, 68 ; gods, 290, 382. 
•Sfira, 112 n 2. 
Sfirya Siddhanta, 218 n 3. 
Sutanu, 117 n 1. 
Sutrakritanga, 182 n 6, 183. 
Suvarnakumara (Bhavanavisin), 225. 
Suvrata, 86 n 1. 
■SvapSka, 50, 55, 57, 59. 
Svayambhfi= Vishnu, 49, 290, 244, 

Svayamsambuddha, 32 n, 35 n 2, 36. 
•SVetambara, 69 n 1, 119 n 2. 
SyadvSda, 405 n 1. 
Syllogism, 402 n 1. 

Ta^asa body, 172, 173, 406 n 3. 

Tama hell, 221. 

Tamatama hell, 221. 

Tankana, a hill tribe, 268. 

Tapasa, 140, 418 n 2. 

Taragana, a r/shi, 268. 

Tathagata=tirthakara, 320, 332. 

Tattvarthadhigama SGtra, 49 n 1. 

Time, 153. 

Tinduka grove, 50 n 1 ; a park, 1 20 f ; 

tree, 51. 
Ttrtha, 165. 

Trailokya DipikS, 49 n 1. 
Trainuika, 245 n 2. 
TrSta, a cast of dice, 256. 
Tylor, 406 n 3. 

Udadhikumara (Bhavanavisin), 225. 
Udaka, follower of Pawva, 420 ff. 

Digitized by 




Udaya, 58. 

Udayana, 87, n 2. 

Ugra,7i,na, 321, 339. 

Ugrasena, 113 n a, 118 n 2. 

U**a, 58. 

Umasvati, 49 n 1, 152 n 1. 

Usuyira = IshukJra, 62 n 1. 

Uttaradhyayana, 232. 

Uvasaga Dasao, 2302, 2711 2,71 m, 

383 n 4, 384 n 1, 423 n 1, 

428 n 2. 

VagTavlluka, 94. 

Vaiwyanta (Anuttara gods), 227. 

Vaikriya body, 406 n 3. 

VaimUnika, 202, 207 n, 225 ff. 

Vainayika, 83, 291, 316; °v3da, 385. 

Vauakha, a month, 143. 

VaijSH, 27, 261. 

VabSlika, 27 n 2. 

Vaijeshika, 64 n 2, 245 n 2. 

Vauika, part of the Kamajastra, 

274 n 1. 
Vaijramana, 117, n 2. 
Vauravana, 117 n 2. 
Vaijya, 301, 418. 
Vaitali, an art, 366. 
Vaitalika, a mountain in hell, 285. 
Vaitallya, metre, 249 n 1. 
Vaitarant, river of hell, 95 n 3, 104, 

270, 280. 
Valuklbha hell, 221. 
Varaha Mihira, 38 n t, 70 n 2. 
Vardhamana, 120 f, 290. 
Varibhadraka, a subdivision of the 

Bhagavatas, 294 n 3. 
Varnaka, 339 n 1. 
Vasish/Aa, law-book, 67 n 1. 
Vasish/Ai, (65), 66. 
Vastra/MAeda, 70 n 2. 
Vastuvidyi, 70 n 2. 
VasudSva, 112 n 2. 
Vasud&va, 48, 87 n 5, 113. 

Vitakumlra (Bhavanavasin), 225. 

Vgda, 137. 

Vedinta, 343 n 2. 

VSdantin, 237 n r, 417. 

V&judlva, name of Gartu/a, 290. 

Venupalliika-lute, 276. 

Venus, planet, 366. 

Verse quoted, 4 n 4, 8 n 4, 24 n 3, 

179 n 4, 269 n 3, 313 n 1, 

359 »> 3. 
VStala, 105. 
Videha, 41, 87, 268. 
Vidyutkumara (Bhavanavasin), 225. 
Vi^aya, a TTrthakara, 87. 
Vi,gaya (Anuttara gods), 227, 228. 
Vi»ayagh6sha, 136, 140, 141. 
Vikrama, a poet, 115 n 3. 
Vimala, 88 n 1. 
Vimina, 164. 
Vinayavada, 315. 
Visbiu, 49 n 2, 86 n 1, 244 n 5. 
Vishnukumara, 86 n 1. 
Vishnu Purina, 113 n 2, 117 ni, 

118 n 2. 
Vishvaksena, name of Krishna, 290. 
Vow of silence, 321. 
Vr/shni, 114. 
Vukkasa, 301. 
Vyantara gods, 122 n 1, 202, 207 n, 

225 ff. 
Vylsa, 246 n 3. 

Vyatyaya ; linga", va£ana°, 1 n 2. 
Vyavahira Sfitra, 183 n 5. 

Water lives, 2 1 5. 

Yadava, 1 1 3 n 2. 

Yadu, 1 1 3 n 4. 

Yaksha, 16, son t, 51 if, 77, 122, 

226, 382. 
Yamaka, 329 n 1. 
Ya.»a, two women, 32 n, 62. 
Y6ga, 244 n 4, 343 n 2. 

Digitized by 




akarmata, page 161, (172). 

akal£vararreaf, 45. 

akashiya-yathakhySta, 157. 

akasmat, used in Magadha, 358 11 3. 

akarana, 134 n. 

akukkud, no. 

akkdsa, 9. 

agandhana, 118 n 3. 

agnihdtra, 138. 

anka, 214. 

anga, '55, 345- 

angavidya, 34. 

angula, 143, n 2. 

atakkhu, 193 n 2. 

aiakshurdaivana, 172 n 3. 

alela, 9. 

aikbzrk, 370 n 1. 

Mb&hxm, 114 n 2. 

aM6ir6</aya, 221. 

Mbi\i, 221. 

&M£ivehaya, 221. 

a^iva, 154, 207 113. 

iggbvsvce, 134 n 4. 

a,gg£druha = adhyaroha, 390 n 3. 

a^-tfanavadin, 83 n 2. 

a^j&atfjyiiapatta, 321 n 1. 

attb'iya, 705. 

anasiya = anajita, 286 n 1. 

anissa, 189 n 1. 

aniba = nirmaya, 417 n 2. 

anullaya, 219. 

amivrata, 410 n 3. 

anusasammi, 151 n 1. 

atasi seed, 341. 

attagam? = aptaglmin, 309 n 1. 

addhasamaya, 208 n 1. 

adbarma, 153, 207. 

adhikaranik!, scil. kriya, 181 n 5. 

adhyavapGra, 132 n. 

adbyahr/ta, 132 n. 

anarigapravish/a, 155 n 2. 
anantanubandha, 194 n 1. 
anajana, 175. 
anisr/sh<a, 132 n. 
anudharma, 416 n 2. 
anuparihanka, 157 n 3. 
anupajSnta, 356 n 1. 
anuprgksha, 69 n i, 159, (165). 
anubhaga = karmavipaka, 169 n 1, 

281 n 2, 416 n 1. 
antara, 209 n 3. 
antaraya, 172, 193, 194, 195. 
andhiya, 221. 
annSna, 9. 

annaniya = a^inika, 315 n 4. 
aparikarma, 176 n 1. 
aparita, 133 n. 
appatfileha, 168 n 5. 
appattiya = krddlia, 241. 
appahattu, 338 n 4. 
apratibaddhatH, 159, (166). 
apratyakhyana, 194 n 1. 
apramina, 134 n. 
abhigama, 154. 
abhinibSdha, 152 n 1. 
abhinfima, 250 n t. 
abhibhflyanam = kevalin, 287 n 3. 
abhiydga, five kinds of, 424 n 1. 
abhyuttha'na, 142. 
abhrapa/ala, 214. 
abhravaluka, 214. 
amalaka seed, 341. 
araOrta, 64 n 2. 
aya, 28 n 1. 
ayaiu/ast, 341 n 3. 
ayantrita (uncoined ?), 105 n 3. 
ara, 17 n. 
arani-wood, 341. 
arati, 9, 190 n 1. 
arabn raim va, 308 n 1. 

Digitized by 




ai#iwa, a grass, 2 16 n 5. 

ardhapeVa, 177, n 4. 

alasa, 219. 

alabha, 9. 

aldka, 207 f. 

avaga = avaka, an aquatic plant, 

avaglha, 153 n 4. 
avadhi, 120, 152. 
avadhi^aSna, 193. 
avamarStra, 143. 
avamddarika, 175. 
avirati, 184 n 3. 
avihimsita, 353 n 7. 
ash/apada, chess? 303 n 1. 
asamkhakala, 209 n 2. 
asamkhyeya, 200 ff. 
asuratvabhavana, 230, 231. 
astikaya, 153 n 2, 155 n 4, 157 n 2. 
asmakam (so pronounced in Ma- 

gadha), 425 n 2. 
assakanai (ajvakarna), 317 n 4. 
ahSga^a = yathakr/ta, 307 n 1. 

akamaga, 264 n 1. 

akaja, 153 n 3. 

a^amla, 230. 

i*arya, 179, n 4. 

jlM&idya, 133 n. 

a^-tvika, 132 n. 

a^«a, 154. 

a»aV£iya, 48 n 1. 

adina, 59 n 1, 248 n 2. 

adana-samiti, 129. 

adhakarmika, 131 n 7. 

aprikkba.n%., 142. 

Sbhinib6dhika, 152, 193. 

Sbhiyfigikabhavana, 230, 231. 

aya, a plant, 391. 

ayatamgatvapratyagata, 177, nf 

ayama, 230 n 1. 

ayamaga, 72 n 2. 

ayushka, 165, n 2, 194, 195. 

ayuAkarman, 192. 

Jrambha, 135 n 7. 

irussa = arushy.i, 283 n 1. 

aroppa = arOpa, 415 n 2. 

3rjava, 160, (169). 

alambana, 167 n 2. 

ilisanda, a plant, 374. 

Sluya (lluka), 216, n 12. 

al6*ana, 158, (162). 

avaraniya, 195. 

ava/yika, 142. 

ajatana, 184. 

ibalika, a kind of snake, 394. 

ajrama, 39. 

asupanna = ajupra^-tfa, 279 n 2, 288 

n 2. 
asurakivvisiya, 246 n 2. 
asuriya = asfirya, 430 n 1. 
israva, 81, 99, 194, &c. 
ablrapratyakhyana, 160, (167). 

ikka/a, a reed, 357. 
ingala, 134 n. 
inginimara/za, 176 n 1. 
Mbhb&n, 142. 
itthi, 9. 

itthi v6ya, 162 n 4. 
it vara. 175. 
indagaiya, 220. 
iriyavahiya, 364 n 2. 

tryRpathika, 364 n 2. 
lrya-samiti, 129. 

ukkala, 220. 

ukkasa = mana, 248 n 3. 

ukklsa = mana, 257 n 4. 

ubfara-samiti, 130. 

u«a, 295 n t. 

utkalika, 218 n 1. 

utku&iana, 373 n 2. 

uttaraguna, 143, 144. 

utpalakush/a, 276. 

utpadana, 353 n 4. 

utsarpiwi, 17 n, 42 n 2, 200. 

udaga, an aquatic plant ? 391. 

udgama, 353 n 4. 

uddish/a, 383 n 3. 

udbhinna, 132 n. 

unmbra, 132 n. 

unmurita, 133 n. 

upad&a, 154. 

upadhipratyakhyina, 160, (167). 

upabhoga, 194 n 3. 

upama, 19 n 2. 

upayukta, 1 30 n 3. 

upayGga, 153 n 6. 

upuanta, 356 n 1. 

upajtntamoha, 155 n 1. 

upasampada, 142. 

upldhyaya, 179 n 4. 

ull6va, 204 n 1. 

uvasampanna, 421 n 1. 

uvvehaliya, a plant, 391. 

usina, 9. 

usira, a perfume, 276. 

usu = isbu, 283 n 2. 

ussayana = mana, 302 n 5. 

uhimgaliyi, 221. 

Digitized by 




rigvi, 178 n 2. 
r/shi, 244. 

£katva, 154 n 1. 

ekSgramanaAsanniveVana, 159, (166). 

ekendriya, 42 n 1. 

Sgatta, 208, 213 n 1. 

ggayata = ekakin, 286 n 2. 

eUmiiiba, a plant, 374. 

Sshana, 27 n 1, 129, 131 n 3, 178, 

353 n 4. 
feava, a plant, 391. 
Ssiya, 301 n 2. 

airyapathika, 172 115, 298 n 3, 364 
n 2. 

6€ = SkaA, 275 n 3. 

6m, 1 40. 

dgidba, 135 n 2. 

dgahana, 211 n 1. 

6gha, 134 n 2. 

dmHaa = apamana, 247 n 1. 

aughika, 134 n 1. 
auddesika, 131 n 7. 
aupagrahika, 134 n 1. 

kahkana, 221. 

kaMAabhaniya, a plant, 391. 
katt£ahara (kash/£ahlra), 220. 
ka/£ina, a plant, 357. 
kanaka, tier, 288 n 3. 
kanha, 217 (kr/'shnakanda, n 1). 
kandarpabhavanS, 230, 231. 
kandu, a plant, 391. 
kapittha, 198. 
kamar, 96 n 2. 
kanwagiwa, 156 n 7. 
karanagunasredh?, 163 n 1. 
karanasatya, 160, (169). 
karnapi//6a, 381 n 2. 
karmapatha, 83 n 2. 
karvafa, 176 n 7. 
kalankalibhiva, 387 n 2. 
kalama, a plant, 374. 
kalambuya = kadamba, 391. 
kalpa, 16, 164. 
kalpasthita, 157 n 3. 
kashayapratyakhyana, 160, (167). 
kasgruya = kajeru, 391. 
kafl = kapota, 197 n 4. 
kakint, jewels, 366 n 4. 
klkin?, a small coin, 28. 
ka%ika, 72 n 3. 
kamaduh, 104. 

kiya, a plant, 391. 

kayakleja, 175. 

k^yaguptatl, 160, (170). 

kayagupti, 130. 

kayasamadharana, 160, (170). 

kayiki, scil. kriya, 181 n 5. 

karshapana, (28), 105. 

kalapratikramana, 145, 147, 148. 

kalasya pratyupekshana, 159, (164). 

kasha, 197. 

kasavaga = napita, 276 n 6. 

kimpaka, 187. 

kiriyafMne, 355 n 2. 

kilvishabhavana, 230, 231. 

kukku</a, 221. 

kuMaphanaka, 116 n 1. 

kuM&aka, a plant, 357. 

ktu/ambaya, 216 n 1 6. 

kiWuvvaya, 215. 

kunda-flowers, 197. 

kumara, 96 n 2. 

kula, 179 n 4. 

kulattha, a plant, 374. 

kulala, 68 n 1. 

kulalaya, kula/a, miigara, 417 n 4. 

kora, a grass, 357. 

kuhana, a plant, 391. 

kuhana, 2 1 6 n 8. 

kuhana, 96 n t. 

kuheVavkyS, 105 n 5. 

kflra, 391, 39»- 

kgtana, 262 n 3. 

keyakandali, 215. 

ko«a=ku/ayitvI, 285 n 4. 

kotthala, 92. 

k6drava, a kind of grain, 359. 

k61asunaya, 94 n 3. 

kriya, 154, 181 n 5. 

krfta, 132 n. 

kr6dhapin</a, 133 n. 

krfidhavij-aya, 161, (171)- 

kr6ja, 212. 

kshapakajreni, 45 n 2. 

kshamapana, 159, (164). 

kshSnti, 160, (169). 

kshmamoha, 155 n 1. 

khaladlna, 369 n 1. 
khalu/aka, 150 n 1. 
khuruduga, 395 n 7. 
khe7a, 176 n 6. 
khfira, an animal, 395. 

gaM6a, (324). 

ga»a, 149, n 1, 179 n 4. 

gaaipWage, 345. 

Digitized by 




ga»/£iyasatta, 195 n 1. 
gandhana, 118 n 3. 
gandhahastin, 113 n 2. 
galigaddaha, 150 n 1. 
gaveshana, 131 n 4. 
ganamganika, 79 n 1. 
gathashSiajaka, 235 n 1. 
girava, 98 n 1, 181 n 1. 
glhl, 333 n 1. 
gilli, a swing, 373 n 3. 
guAAba., 216 n 1. 
gufiguka., 216 n 5. 
guna, 153 n 1. 
gunavrata, 383. 
gunasthana, 155 n 1, 172 n 4. 
guptata, vide man8°, vig", k3ya°. 
gupti, 52, 98, 107, «9> '35, &c. 

gurusidharmikamrrfishana, 158, 

gQAAbaka, 145 n 3. 
g6tra, 193, 194, 195, 305, 322; 

=church, 321, 327,423. 
gdmfitrika, 177, n 4. 
grahanaishani, 131 n 5, 133 n. 
gr^makan/aka, 380 n 2. 
glSna, 179 n 4. 

ghana (a wind), 218. 
gharakdilla— gr/hak6kila, 395. 
ghatin, 163 n 3. 
ghranendriyanigraha, 161, (171). 

£akkhu, 193 n 2. * 

iakra, 41. 

>takravartin, 85 n 1. 
takshurindriyanigraha, 161, (171). 
^akshurdarjana, 172 n 3. 
laturindriya, 43. 
*aturvi»watistava, 159, (163). 
bandana, 214, 219. 
^andalaka, a copper vessel, 277 n 4. 
ytaranakaranaparavid, 355 n 1. 
jfciriyjl, 9. 

iarmaiataka, 224 n 1. 
/fauppaiya, an animal, 395. 
Huppaya, 103 n 1. 
itaritrasampannati, 160, (171). 
iikitsa, 133 n. 
AuyiL, 28 n 2. 
*tirnay6ga, 133 n. 
A%i%, 36 n 2. 
iaitya, 36 n 2, 100 n 3. 
-fcrityakarman, 242 n 3. 

>i>attaga, a plant, 391. , ,, _, . T . 

jhbadmastha, 155 n 1, 157. thihfiya, 216. 

Mandana, 142. 
^anna =may3, 257 n 2. 
tbardita, 133 n. 
iHmafo, 150 n 4. 
*Aed6pasthapana, 157. 
Abbyz, 341. 

£agatf£abhis?, 320 n 2. 
£amaiya=yamakiya, 329. 
j-amaiya, 249 n 1. 
gammayam, 332. 
.galakanta, 214. 
^■alaiari, 221. 
galatta. — kr6dha, 248 n 4. 
.jalla, 9. 

gkyani, 9, 130 n 2. 
^aMaga, 219. 
^ivai, 215. 

jihvSndriyanigraha, 161, (171). 
^Jva, 154, 164 n 5, 207 n 3. 
^8ha, an animal, 395. 
£-0!nasampannata, 160, (170). 
£#anavarafliya, 192. 

< fj6a%M=ka!aha, 349 n 3. 
^Aa%Ai=may3, 321 n 1. 

(ttaftka, 95 n 2, 224, 324. 

tagara-powder, 276. 

tanaphlsa, 9. 

tanahara (tr/'nahara), 220. 

tathakara, 142. 

tantavagaiya, 221. 

tantyga, 13 n 2. 

tapas, 159, (166). 

tapasvin, 179 n 4. 

tammfiyatta, tam6mQkatva, 363 n 3. 

talapute (a poison), 77. 

talau</a, 77 n 1. 

tmtt\gg% 235 n 3. 

tippami, 346 n 1. 

tirikkha, 221 n 4. 

tumbaka, 197. 

tula, 386 n 2. 

tuhaga, 217. 

tflryl, 371. 

tr/shni, 185 n 3. 

trlyastriwja, 88 n 2. 

trika/uka, 198. 

tnndriya, 43. 

than</illa=kr8dha, 302 n 4. 
thilli, 373 n 4. 

Digitized by 




dawsamasaya, 9. 
Aands., 181 n 1. 
daWasamadana, 356 11 3. 
darjanasampannata, 160, (171). 
dananavaraniya, 192. 
davie=dravya, 333 n 2. 
dayaka, 133 n. 
diga^Aa, 9. 
duga, 220. 
duttara, 186 n 1. 
durOvasambhava, 395 n 6. 
duhamduha, 254 n 3. 
dfltakarman, 132 n. 
devauttS, 244 n 3. 
d&mvakajika, 431 n 1. 
dehati=pajyati, 240 n 3. 
&o%\\Hkti\, 25 n 4. 
dSli, 221. 
d8sa, 56 n 2. 
dravya, 153 n 1. 
drdnamukha, 176 n 8. 
dvtndriya, 42. 

dharma, 153, 154, 207, &c. 
dharmakatha, 159, (166). 
dharma jraddh a, 158, (162). 
dhatr'karman, 132 n. 
dhinkana, 221. 
dhuya, 257 n 6. 
dhfima, 134 n. 
dhruva, 32 n. 

nakshatra, 144. 

nagara, 176 n 3. 

nandavatta, 221. 

nandyavarta, 221 11 2. 

napuffjsakaveda, 162 n 4. 

naya, 155. 

nayuta, 29, n 1. 

nayutanga, 29 n 1. 

naman, 193, 194, 195. 

naya=£-#3ta, a simile, 338 n 1. 

ni8ga«Ai, 2, n 2, 4 n 2. 

nikshipta, 133 n. 

nigama, 176 n 4. 

nigraha, vide /rfltrgndriya", iakshur- 

indriya ,ghran£ndriya°,£ihvend- 

nya* 1 , spatvangndriya". 
nidana, 60 n 3, 162 11 3. 
nidra, 193 n 2. 
nidranidra, 193 n 2. 
ninda, 158, (163). 
nimitta, 132 n. 
niyaga«£i, 4 n 2. 
niyagapa/ivanna, 386 n 1. 
niyuta, 29 n 1. 

nir^ari, 14 n 1. 

nirvgda, 158, (161). 

nivvehaliya, a plant, 391. 

nishpava, a plant, 374. 

nisarga, 154. 

nisthiysl, 9. 

nissae = nijrayS, 350 n 1. 

niya, 221. 

nflma = prai^Aanna, 265 n 1. 

nQma=maya, 241 n 3, 248 n 5. 

naishedhiki, 142. 

nd-kasbiya, 172 n 1, 190 n 1. 

pailaiya, an animal, 395. 
pakshapWa, 4 n 1. 
pagasa=kr6dha, 257 n 5. 
pa/Maka, 357 n 4. 
pa^*aySti=pratyay5ti, 361 n 4. 
pa,g$-ava, 153 n 1, 178 n 1. 
patftakujila, 80 n 2. 
pa«£ajikha=kumara, 294 n 1. 
pa«iendriya, 43. 
pa/upa/aha, 371. 
pa//ana, 176 n 9. 
jwikamittu kalassa, 148 n 4. 
padilehh, 79 n 1. 
panaga, an aquatic plant, 391. 
patangavithika, 177, n 4. 
pattahara (patrahara), 220. 
pada, 143, n 2. 
padakambala, 78 n 1. 
panaka, 217. 
panna, 9. ' 
pappaka, a plant, 357. 
para, a grass, 357. 
paraka, a plant, 359. 
parakai/a, 6 n 2, 204 n 2. 
paramadharmika, 182 n 5. 
paravartanl, 159, (165). 
parSvr/tti, 132 n. 
paritSpanikt, scil. kriyl, 181 n 5. 
paripr;M&an3, 159, (165). 
paribh6gaisha»a, 131 n 6, 134 n. 
parihiravuuddhika, 157. 
paribarika, 157 n 3. 
parisaha, 9, 183 n 2. 
paryastika, 3 n 2. 
paryaya, 153 n 1. 
paryayadharma, 109. 
parvaga, 2 1 6 n 7. 
paliu&taga, 199 n 3. 
paliu^ana=maya, 302 n 2. 
palimantha, 302 n 6. 
palimokkha, 317 n 3. 
paliyantam, 251 n 1. 
paliylga=paripaka, 393. 

Digitized by 




palyfipama, 84 n 1, 200 ff. 

pallt, 176 n 5. 

pallQya, 219. 

palhatthiya, 3 n 2. 

paramsa=idbha, 257 n 3. 

paulla, slippers, 277 n 6. 

pakajasan?=indra£ala, 366 n 6. 

patala=samudra, 264 n 2. 

padapdpagamana, 176 n 1. 

papa, 154. 

pasattha = parj vastha, 24on2,27oni. 

pinga, 270. 

pitt,6ima»»si, 362 n 1. 

pinnagapiWi, 414 n 3. 

pivasa, 9. 

pihita, 133 n. 

p?<A&asappt=pifi&asarpin, 269 n 2. 

pukkhalatthibhaga, 392. 

piu&dsiya, 293 n 2, 318 n 2. 

punnakhandha, pu»yaskandba,4 15m. 

punya, 154. 

purana purabhedant, 102 n 2, 451. 

pulaka, 214. 

puwasamthuya, 7 n 2. 

puhutta, 208 n 5, 213 n 1, 223 n 3. 

pGtika, 132 n. 

pfltikarman, 312 n t. 

pflyana, 270 n 4. 

pflyanasag, 330 n 2. 

pflrva, 16 n 1, 29 n 1. 

pflrvanga, 29 n 1. 

prjthaktva, 154 n 1. 

p&a, 177, n 4. 

pokibam, 102 n 1. 

pottiya, 221. 

pottham, 102 n 1. 

p6ya^arau=p6ta^-arayu, 302 n 1. 

polla (pulla), 105 n 2. 

prakfrea, 155. 

praiala, 193 n 2. 

praialapraiala, 193 n 2. 

pranita, 178 n 3. 

pratipr/M&ana, 142. 

pratirtipata, 160, (168). 

pratyakhyana, 159,(164), 194m, 383. 

pratyakhyana, vide sambh6ga°, 
upadhi", ahara°, kashaya", y6ga% 
jarira*, sahaya", bhakta", sad- 
bhava . 

prade\ia, 194 n 4. 

pradcjagra, 194 n 4. 

pramana, 155. 

pravra^-ya, 204. 

prana, 164 n 5. 

pranatipatiki kriya, 181 n 5. 

pradu^karana, 132 n. 

pradveshikt, scil. kriya, 181 n 5. 
prabhr/tika, 132 n. 
pramitya, 132 n. 
priya^iitta, 179. 
prilyajiittakarana, 159, (164). 

phalagavataHAi, 297 n 1. 
phasuya, 6 n 1. 
phittai, 103 n 2. 

badara, (34). 

bandha, 154. 

bahira, 155 n 2. 

bf^a, 154. 

bfcSdaka, 267 n 3, 31 3 n 5. 

buddba, 2 n 1, 3 n t, 5 n 2, 7 n 2, 

45, 45 n 3 and 5, 84 n 3. 
bfihag, 45 n 2. 
b6dhi, 34. 

brahmagupti, 182 n 2. 
brahman = moksha, 413. 

bhaktapratyakhyana, 160, (168), 

176 n 1. 
bbadantanam, 101 n 1. 
bhante, 338 n 2. 
bhayana=16bha, 302 n 3. 
bhayantarS, 380 n 3. 
bhavana, 69, 183 n 4. 
bhavasatya, 160, (169). 
bhasha-samiti, 129. 
bhiksha^arya, 175. 
bhikshudharma, 182 n 3. 
bhiiyamfl&ika, 214. 
bhflta, 164 n 5. 
bh6ga, 194 n 3. 

manghu, 34. 

maggbattha = lobha, 248 n 6. 
ma/amba, 176 n 10. 
mananana, 152 n 2. 
mant/alika, 218 n 2. 
madasthana, 361 n 1. 
mati, 152 n 1. 
mana£paryaya. 152, 193. 
manaAsamadharana, 160, (170). 
man6-guptata, 160, (169). 
man8-gupti, 130. 
mantrad6sha, 133 n. 
maranakala, 175. 
masaragalla, 214. 
masGra, a plant, 374. 
mahapali, 84, n 1. 

mliHAana = matrjsthlna (or maya- 
sthana ?), 304 n 4. 

Digitized by 




maivahaya (matrivahaka), 219. 
manapiWa, 133 n. 
manavjgaya, 161, (171). 
mayavi^aya, 161, (171). 
mardava, 160, (169). 
malahWta, 133 n. 
malflga (malQka), 220. 
masha, 34, 374. 
mShana, 252 n 1. 
migg-ati = miyatS, 292 n 2. 
mithyakara, 142. 
milakkhu, mle&iba, 414 n 3, 4. 
mukti, 160, (169). 
mu%a grass, 340. 
mudga, a plant, 374. 
muni, 140. 
musundM, 217. 
mfilakarman, 133 n. 
mfllaya, mfilaka, 215 n 15. 
mr/gaiakra, 366 n 7. 
moksha, a tree, 357. 
m6habhavana, 230, 232. 
maireyaka, 198. 
maunapada, 253 n 2. 
mrakshita, 133 n. 

yama, 136. 
Ya-na, 318. 
yamaka, 329. 
yamakiya, 249 n 1. 
y8ga, 163 n 2, 184. 
y6gapWa, 133 n. 
y8gapratyakhyana, 160, (167). 
ydgasatya, 160 (169). 

ntg-fiharana, 78 n 1. 
rati, 190 n 1. 
rasaparityaga, 175. 
ralaka, a plant, 359. 
rish/aka, 197. 
rfiga, 9. 
roggba, 95 n 1. 
r6hmi, a fruit, 197. 

lakshana, forespelling, 366. 

lagan^asainfi, 379 n 2. 

lavavasanki, 316 n 2. 

ll//£a, nni, 306 n 3. 

lipta, 133 n. 

leVya, 56 n r, 181, 196 ff. 

lflha = rOksha, samyama, 261 n 4. 

16ka, 207 f. 

16dhra-powder, 276. 

16bhapiWa, 133 n. 

16bhavi^aya, 161, (172). 


18hinih0ya, 216. 
16hitaksha, 214. 

vakkasa-pulaga, 34. 

va&^akanda, 217 (vagrakanda, n 2). 

vanaspati, 217. 

vandana, 159, (163). 

vapanika, 133 n. 

vartana, 153 n 5. 

vardhamana griha, 38 n 1. 

valaya, 216 n 6. 

vaha, 9. 

viksamadhirana, 160, (170). 

vigguptata, 160 (170). 

vaggupti, 1 30. 

v&fani, 159, (165). 

vasaniya, a plant, 391. 

vasUandanakappa, 99 n 1. 

vasimuha ("mukha), 219. 

viukkasa = mana, 241 n 2. 

vidsagga, viusagga, viussagga, 179 n 1. 

vikattha, 181 n 2. 

vikaha, 131 n 2. 

vigada, 10 n 3. 

vUitta, 221. 

vtfittapattaya, 221. 

viiitrajayanasanasevana, 159, (r66). 

vfcaya, vide mSna", miya", kr3.1ha , 

15bha°, preW. 
vigga (vidvin), 84 n 2. 
vidyapin^a, 133 n. 
vinaya, 179. 
vinivartana, 159, (167). 
vinnavaua = striyaA, 258 n 1. 
vipratipanna, 367 n a. 
vibhanga, 356 n 2. 
vibhag-yavada = syadvada, 327 n 3. 
viramana, 383. 
virati, 383 n 3. 
viral?, 221. 
vilambaga, 293 n 2. 
visannesi, 275 n 1. 
vistara, 154. 

vissambhara, an animal, 395. 
v!»a, 371. 

vitaragata, 160, (169). 
virasana, 178. 
virya, 301 n 2. 
vusimad, 22 n 1. 
vettii, j 5 1 n 3. 

v§daniya, 168 n 3, 192, 193, 195. 
vedika, 145 n 5. 

veyaliya, 249 n 1 ; "magga, 253 n 1. 
vlra = vaira, karmabandha, 408 n 2. 
verattiya, 144. 
vesaliya, 244 n 2. 

G g 

Digitized by 




vSsiya, 301 n 2. 
vainayika, 83 n 2. 
vaiyavr/tya, 160, 179, 181 n 7. 
vaishika, 353 n 8. 
vya%ana, forespelting, 366. 
vyavadana, 159, (166). 
vyutsarga, 179. 

jankita, 133 n. 

■tattkhanaka, 219. 

jataghni, 37. 

jabala, 183 n 1. 

jambGkavartta, 177, n 4. 

jalya, 181 n 1. 

jastraparinamita, 353 n 6. 

jastratita, 353 n 5. 

jirisha, 198. 

rflavrata, 383. 

jukladhyana, 173 n 1, 205 n 1. 

.raiksha, 179 n 4. 

jaileji, 161, 171 n 2, 172. 

jravaka, 108. 

jrata, 120, 152, 193. 

jrutasyaradhana, 159, (166). 

jr6ti endriyanigraha, 161, (171). 

samyama, 159, (166).* 

samy6g-ana, 134 n. 

samrambha, 135 n 5. 

samlinata, 175. 

sa»jvara, 55, 73, n 2, 154. 

samvartaka, 218. 

sarovega, 158,(161). 

samstavapWa, 133 n. 

samhrita, 133 n. 

sakklrapurakkara, 9. 

saftkaliya = jWftkhala, 329 n 1. 

samkalpavikalpana, 191 n 1. 

samkshepa, 154. 

samkhigga, 43 n 1. 

samkhygya, 43 n 1. 

sahgha, 179 n 4. 

sa&Aha, a plant, 391. 

samgftS, 181 n 3. 

sa»jfvalatia, 194 n 1. 

sat/ia, 29 n 3. 

sattva, 164 n 5. 

satya, vide bhava", karana", yoga . 

sadavart, 220. 

sadbhavapratyakhyana, 160, (168). 

samtati/n pappa, 208 n 3. 

sandhipattS, 331 n 1. 

sannivfeja, 177 n 2. 

saparikarma, 176 n 1. 

sapehae, 25. 

samaya, 200, n 3, 235 n 2. 

samara, 5 n 1. 

samavaya, 343 n 1. 

samara, 177 n 3. 

samadharana, vide man8°, vik°, 

samadhi, 185 n 1. 
samldhiy8ga, 34 n 2. 
samarambha, 135 n6. 
samahi, 266 n 3, 306111, 313 n 4, 

324 n 2, 328 n 1, 384 n 1, 417 

n 1. 
samita, 33. 
samiti, 52, 98, 129. 
samila, 94 n 4. 
samudaniya, 80 n 1. 
samudanika, 354 n 1. 
samQsiya, 284 n 3. 
samdsaraaa = samavasarana, 31502, 

386 n 3. 
sampannata, vide gHzna.', darjana", 

samparaya, 157. 
sambadha, 176 n 11. 
sambh6ga, 167 n 1. 
satnbhdgapratyakhyana, 159, (167). 
sammatta, 9. 

'sammGrvhbima, 223 n 1, 388 n 1. 
saydgin, 172 114. 
sarirapratySkhyina, 160, (167). 
sarpa/M&attra, 216 n 8. 
sarvagiwasampdrnata, 160, (169). 
salila, 68 n 1. 

sawappaga = ldbha, 241 n 1. 
sawavanti, 336 n 1. 
sassirili, 215. 
sahasamuiya, 154 n 2. 
sahasambuddha, 3502. 
sahaya-pratyakhyana, 160, (168). 
sahiS, 251 n 4. 
sagardpami, 84 n 1. 
sadharmika, 179 n 4. 
samaiiri, 142. 
samayika, 157, 159, (163). 
samudayika, 134 n 1. 
samparayika, 298 n 3, 353 n 1, 364 

n 1. 
sasaka, 213. 
sahaya, 221. 
singirWt, 221. 
siddhi, 246 n 1. 
sirili, 215. 
siya, 9. 

siyasandimaniya, a palankin, 373 n 5. 
sihakanni, 217. 
suuttara, 1 86 n 2. 
sukhitata, 159,(166). 

Digitized by 




surfisiya, sugbdslya, 257 n 6. 

subhagasdniya, a plant, 392. 

surathalaya, 369 n 1. 

sfikshma, 157. 

sGtra, 154. 

sflrana(ya), 217. 

sfiryakinta, 214. 

se^i, 9- 

sevala, an aquatic plant, 39 1 . 

s&biya, 2J9 n 3. 

somangala, 219. 

s6variya = saukarika, 367 n 3. 

sauvira, 72 n 3. 

stavastutimangala, 159, (164). 

striveda, 162 n 4, 274. 
sthavira, 73, 149, 179 n4. 
sthapanakarmika, 132 n. 
snitaka, 140, 417 n 3. 
sparsanendriyanigraha, 161, (171). 
smWti = mati, 152 n 1. 
svldhy^ya, 159, (165). 

hamsa, a washerman, 278,11 2. 

hamsagarbha, 214. 

haritakaya, 216 n 10. 

harili, 215. 

hastipippal?, 198. 

hdli, a word of abuse, 305 n 1. 


Page 102, verse 18, the phrase purana purabheda»i has been wrongly 
translated : ' which is among towns what Indra is (among the gods) ; ' 
it simply means: 'an old town.' For purabhgdani is the Prakrit 
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Cancel note 2. 

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Sacred Books of the East 





»% This Series is published with the sanction and co-operation of the Secretary of 
State for India in Council. 

KBPOBT prsssntsd to tn« AOADBXIB BBS IVSOBIFTXOVS, Btajr 11, 
1883, bj K. BBHBST BEVJJT. 
'M. Renan presents trois nonveanx une seconde, dont 1'inteYSt historique et 
volnmes de la grande collection des religienx ne sera pas moindre. M. Max 
"Livres sacres de l'Orient" (Sacred Miiller a sn se procurer la collaboration 
Books of the East), qne dirige a Oxford, des savans les pins eminens d'Europe et 
avec one si vaste tradition et nne critique d'Asie. L'Universiti d'Oxford, one cette 
si sflre, le savant associe de l'Acade'mie grande publication honore an pins hant 
des Inscriptions, M. Max Miiller. ... La degrl, doit tenir a continuer dans les plus 
premiere serie de ce bean recueil, com- larges proportions nne ceuvre anssi philo- 
posee de 24 volumes, est presque achevee. sophiquement con9ue que savamment 
M. Max Miiller se propose d'en pnblier executee.' 


' We rejoice to notice that a second great edition of the Rig-Veda, can corn- 
series of these translations has been an- pare in importance or in usefulness with 
nounced and has actually begun to appear, this English translation of the Sacred 
The stones, at least, out of which a stately Books of the East, which has been devised 
edifice may hereafter arise, are here being by his foresight, successfully brought so 
brought together. Prof. Max Miiller has far by his persuasive and organising 
deserved well of scientific history. Not power, and will, we trust, by the assist- 
a few minds owe to his enticing words ance of the distinguished scholars he has 
their first attraction to this branch of gathered round- him, be carried in due 
study. But no work of his, not even the time to a happy completion.' 

Professor B. SCABBY, Inaugural Lftctur* In ths University of Freiburg', 1887. 
'Die allgemeine vergleichende Reli- internationalen Orientalistencongress in 
gionswissenschaft datirt von jenem gross- London der Grundstein gelegt worden 
artigen, in seiner Art einzig dastehenden war, die Ubersetzung der heiligen Bucher 
Unternehmen, zu welchem auf Anregung des Ostens ' (the Sacred Boohs of the 
Max Miillers im Jahre 1874 auf dem East). 

Tna Hon. AIiBBBT 8. O. OABBIVO, ' Words on Existing- Religions.' 
' The recent publication of the " Sacred a great event in the annals of theological 
Books of the East" in English is sorely literature.' 




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Vol. I. The Upanishads. 

Translated by F. Max MtitLER. Part I. The ^Mndogya- 
upanishad, The TalavakSra-upanishad, The Aitareya-£ra»yaka, 
The Kaushftaki-br£hma«a-upanishad, and The Va^asaneyi- 
samhiti-upanishad. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

The Upanishads contain the philosophy of the Veda. They have 
become the foundation of the later Veddnta doctrines, and indirectly 
of Buddhism. Schopenhauer, speaking of the Upanishads, says : 
'In the whole world there is no study so beneficial and so elevating 
as that of the Upanishads. It has been the solace of my life, it will 
be the solace of my death' 

[See also Vol. XV.] 

Vol. II. The Sacred Laws of the Aryas, 

As taught in the Schools of Apastamba, Gautama, Vdsishtta, 
and Baudh&yana. Translated by Georg Part I. 
Apastamba and Gautama. Second Edition. 8vo, cloth, ioj. 6d. 

The Sacred Laws of the Aryas contain the original treatises on 
which the Laws of Manu and other lawgivers were founded. 

[See also Vol. XIV.] 

Vol. III. The Sacred Books of China. 

The Texts of Confucianism. Translated by James Legge. 
Part I. The Shu King, The Religious Portions of the Shih 
King, and The Hsido King. 8vo, cloth, 1 2s. 6d. 

Confucius was a collector of ancient traditions, not the founder of 
a new religion. As he lived in the sixth and fifth centuries B. C. 
his works are of unique interest for the study of Ethology. 
[See also Vols. XVI, XXVII, XXVIII, XXXIX, and XL.] 

Vol. rv. The Zend-Avesta. 

Translated by James Darmesteter. Part I. . The Vendtddd. 
Second Edition. 8vo, cloth, x^s. 

The Zend-Avesta contains the relics of what was the religion of 
Cyrus, Darius, and Xerxes, and, but for the battle of Marathon, 

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might have become the religion of Europe, It forms to the present 
day the sacred book of the Parsis, the so-called fire-worshippers. 
Two more volumes will complete the translation of all that is left us 
of Zoroaster's religion. 

[See also Vols. XXIII and XXXI.] 

Vol. V. Pahlavi Texts. 

Translated by E. W. West. Part I. The BundahLr, Bahman 
Yaft, and Shlyast ld-shayast. 8vo, cloth, 12J. 6d. 

The Pahlavi Texts comprise the theological literature of the revival 
of Zoroaster' s religion, beginning with the Sassanian dynasty. They 
are important for a study of Gnosticism. 

vols, vi and IX. The Quran. 

Parts I and II. Translated by E. H. Palmer. 8vo, cloth, 2 if. 

This translation, carried out according to his own peculiar views 
of the origin of the Qur'dn, was the last great work ofE. H. Palmer, 
before he was murdered in Egypt. 

vol. VII. The Institutes of Vishnu. 

Translated by Julius Jolly. 8vo, cloth, ioj. 6d. 

A collection of legal aphorisms, closely connected with one of the 
oldest Vedic schools, the Ka/Aas, but considerably added to in later 
time. Of importance for a critical study of the Laws ofManu. 

Vol. VIII. The Bhagavadg!ta,with The Sanatsufltiya, 
and The Anugita. 

Translated by Kashinath Trimbak Telang. 8vo, cloth, 
1 Of. 6d. 

The earliest philosophical and religious poem of India. It has been 
paraphrased in Arnold's 'Song Celestial.' 

Vol. X. The Dhammapada, 

Translated from Pali by F. Max Muller ; and 

The Sutta-Nipata, 
Translated from Pali by V. Fausboll ; being Canonical Books 
of the Buddhists. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

The Dhammapada contains the quintessence of Buddhist morality. 
The Sutta-Nipdta gives the authentic teaching of Buddha on some 
of the fundamental principles of religion. 

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Vol. XX. Buddhist Suttas. 

Translated from Pali by T. W. Rhys Davids, i. The Mabl- 
parinibbdna Suttanta; 2. The Dhamma-£akka-ppavattana 
Sutta. 3. The Tevi,gga Suttanta; 4. The Akankheyya Sutta ; 
5. The .ffetokhila Sutta; 6. The MaM-sudassana Suttanta; 
7. The Sabbisava Sutta. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

A collection of the most important religious, moral, and philosophical 
discourses taken from the sacred canon of the Buddhists. 

vol. xii. The .Satapatha-Brahma»a, according to the 
Text of the Madhyandina School. 

Translated by Julius Eggeling. Part I. Books I and II. 
8vo, cloth, 1 2s. 6d. 

A minute account of the sacrificial ceremonies of the Vedic age. 
It contains the earliest account of the Deluge in India, 
[See also Vols. XXVI, XLI.] 

Vol. XIII. Vinaya Texts. 

Translated from the PSli by T. W. Rhys Davids and Hermann 
Oldenberg. Parti. The PStimokkha. The Mahivagga, I-IV. 
8vo, cloth, iOf. 6d. 

The Vinaya Texts give for the first time a translation of the moral 
code of the Buddhist religion as settled in the third century B. C. 
[See also Vols. XVII and XX.] 

Vol. XIV. The Sacred Laws of the Aryas, 

As taught in the Schools of Apastamba, Gautama, V&sish/Aa, 
and Baudhiyana. Translated by Georg Buhler. Part II. 
Visish/Aa and Baudhiyana. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

Vol. XV. The Upanishads. 

Translated by F. Max Muller. Part II. The KaMa-upanishad, 
The Muwrfaka-upanishad, The Taittirfyaka-upanishad, The 
Br*baddra«yaka-upanishad, The .SVetiurvatara-upanishad, The 
Pr&tfta-upanishad, and The Maitriya»a-brShma»a-upanishad. 
8vo, cloth, ioj. 6d. 

Vol. XVI. The Sacred Books of China. 

The Texts of Confucianism. Translated by James Legge. 
Part II. The Yi King. 8vo, cloth, 10*. 6d. 
[See also Vols. XXVII, XXVIII.] 

Vol. XVII. Vinaya Texts. 

Translated from the Pali by T. W. Rhys Davids and Hermann 
Oldenberg. Part II. The Mahdvagga, V-X. The ^Tullavagga, 
I— III. 8vo, cloth. 1 w. 6d. 

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Vol. XVIII. Pahlavi Texts. 

Translated by E. W. West. Part II. The D&fistan-i Dfntk 
and The Epistles of MSnu.r£f har. 8vo, cloth, 1 2s . 6d. 

Vol. xix. The Fo-sho-hing-tsan-king. 

A Life of Buddha by Ajvaghosha Bodhisattva, translated from 
Sanskrit into Chinese by Dharmaraksha, a.d. 420, and from 
Chinese into English by Samuel Beal. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

This life of Buddha was translated from Sanskrit into Chinese, 
A.D. 420. // contains many legends, some of which show a certain 
similarity to the Evangelium infantiae, $c. 

Vol. XX. Vinaya Texts. 

Translated from the Pali by T. W. Rhys Davids and Hermann 
Oldenberg. Part III. The A'ullavagga, IV-XII. 8vo, cloth, 
10s. 6d. 

Vol. XXI. The Saddharma-pu»afarlka ; or, The Lotus 
of the True Law. 

Translated by H. Kern. 8vo, cloth, 1 2s. 6d. 
1 The Lotus of the true Law,' a canonical book of the Northern 
Buddhists, translated from Sanskrit. There is a Chinese transla- 
tion of this book which was finished as early as the year 286 A.D. 

Vol. XXII. Gaina-Sutras. 

Translated from Prakrit by Hermann Jacobi. Part I. The 
A&ranga-Sutra and The Kalpa-Sutra. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

The religion of the Camas was founded by a contemporary of Buddha. 
It still counts numerous adherents in India, while there are no 
Buddhists left in India proper. 

[See Vol. XLV.] 

Vol. XXIII. The Zend-Avesta. 

Translated by James Darmesteter. Part II. The Sirdzahs, 
Yarts, and Nyayir. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

Vol. XXIV. Pahlavi Texts. 

Translated by E. W. West. Part III. DM-t Maindg- 
Khirarf, -Sikand-gumanik Vig&r, and Sad Dar. 8vo, cloth, 
1 os. 6d. 

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Vol. XXV. Manu. 

Translated by Georg Buhler. 8vo, cloth, 21s. 
This translation is founded on that of Sir William Jones, which has been 
carefully revised and corrected with the help of seven native Commentaries. 
An Appendix contains all the quotations from Mann which are found in the 
Hindu Law-books, translated for the use of the Law Courts in India. 
Another Appendix gives a synopsis of parallel passages from the six 
Dharma-sutras, the other Snwrtis, the Upanishads, the Mah&bharata, 8k. 

Vol. xxvi. The £atapatha-Brahma»a. 

Translated by Julius Eggkling. Part II. Books III and IV. 
8vo, cloth, 12s. 6d. 

Vols, xxvii and XXVIII. The Sacred Books of China. 
The Texts of Confucianism. Translated by James Legge. Parts 
III and IV. The Lt K\, or Collection of Treatises on the Rules 
of Propriety, or Ceremonial Usages. 8vo, cloth, 25*. 

Vol. xxix. The GWhya-Sutras, Rules of Vedic 
Domestic Ceremonies. 

Part I. .Sankhayana, Afvalayana, Paraskara, Khadira. Trans- 
lated by Hermann Oloenberg. 8vo, cloth, 1 2 s. 6d. 

These rules of Domestic Ceremonies describe the home life of the ancient 
Aryas with a completeness and accuracy unmatched in any other literature. 
Some of these rules have been incorporated in the ancient Law-books. 

Vol. XXX. The Grz'hya-Sutras, Rules of Vedic 
Domestic Ceremonies. 

Part II. Gobhila, Hira»yake«n, Apastamba. Translated by 
Hermann Oloenberg. Apastamba, Yagtfa-paribhasha-sutras. 
Translated by F. Max Muller. 8vo, cloth, 12*. 6d. 

Vol. XXXI. The Zend-Avesta. 

Part III. The Yasna, Visparad, Afrtnag&n, Gibs, and 
Miscellaneous Fragments. Translated by L. H. Mills. 8vo, 
cloth, 1 2 j. 6d. 

Vol. XXXII. Vedic Hymns. 

Translated by F. Max Mullkr. Part I. 8vo, cloth, i8j. 6d. 

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Vol. XXXIII. The Minor Law-books. 

Translated by Julius Jolly. Part I. N&rada, Br/haspati. 
8vo, cloth, i oj. 6d. 

Vol. XXXIV. The Vedanta-Sutras, with the Com- 
mentary by .Sankaraiarya. Part I. 

Translated by G. Thibaut. 8vo, cloth, 1 2s. 6d. 

Vols. XXXV and xxxvi. The Questions of King 

Translated from the Pali by T. W. Rhys Davids. 
Part I. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. Part II. 8vo, cloth, 12*. 6d. 

Vol. xxxvii. The Contents of the Nasks, as stated 
in the Eighth and Ninth Books of the Dinkard. 
Part I. Translated by E. W. West. 8vo, cloth, 15s. 

Vol. xxxviii. The Vedanta-Sutras. Part II. 8vo, 
cloth, with full Index to both Parts, 1 2s. 6d. 

Vols, xxxix and XL. The Sacred Books of China. 
The Texts of Tstoism. Translated by James Legge. 8vo, 
cloth, 21s. 

Vol. XLI. The .Satapatha - Brahmawa. Part III. 
Translated by Julius Eggeling. 8vo, cloth, 12s. 6d. 

Vol. XLII. Hymns of the Atharva-veda. 

Translated by M. Bloomfield. 8vo, cloth, 2 if. 

Vols. XLlll and XLIV. The 6atapatha-Brahma«a. 

Parts IV and V. [In preparation.'] 

Vol. XLV. The 6aina-Sutras. 

Translated from Prakrrt, by Hermann Jacobi. Part II. The 
Uttarddhyayana Sfttra, The SutrakrMnga Sutra. 8vo, cloth, 
12s. 6d. 

Vol. XLVI. Vedic Hymns. Part II. 8vo, cloth, 14J. 
vol. XL VII. The Contents of the Nasks. Part II. 

[In preparation.] 

vol. xlviii. 

Vol. XLIX. Buddhist Mahiyana Texts. Buddha- 
forita, translated by E. B. Cowell. Sukh&vatf-vy(iha,Va£Ta&Me- 
diM, &c, translated by F. Max Muller. Amitayur-Dhyana- 
Sutra, translated by J. Takakusu. 8vo, cloth, 12s. 6d. 

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&nectrota ©.tontensta. 


Buddhist Texts from Japan. I. Vafraii^edika ; The 

Edited by F. Max Muller, M.A. Small 4to, 3.?. 6d. 
One of the most famous metaphysical treatises of the Mahayana Buddhists. 

Buddhist Texts from Japan. II. Sukhavatl-Vyfiha : 
Description of Sukhdvati, the Land of Bliss. 

Edited by F. Max Muller, M.A., and Bunyiu Nanjio. With 

two Appendices : (1) Text and Translation of Sanghavarman's 

Chinese Version of the Poetical Portions of the Sukhavatf- 

Vyuha ; (2) Sanskrit Text of the Smaller Sukhavatl-Vyuha. 

Small 4to, js. 6d. 

The cditio princeps of the Sacred Book of one of the largest and most 

influential sects of Buddhism, numbering more than ten millions of followers 

in Japan alone. 

Buddhist Texts from J apan. III. The Ancient Palm- 
Leaves containing the Pra^#a-Paramita-Hr/daya- 
Sfitra and the Ush»tsha-Vi^aya-Dh4ra»i. 

Edited by F. Max Muller, M.A., and Bunyiu Nanjio, M.A. 
With an Appendix by G. Buhler, CLE. With many Plates. 
Small 4 to, 1 or. 
Contains facsimiles of the oldest Sanskrit MS. at present known. 

Dharma-Sa/wgraha, an Ancient Collection of Buddhist 
Technical Terms. 

Prepared for publication by Kenjiu Kasawara, a Buddhist 
Priest from Japan, and, after his death, edited by F. Max 
Muller and H. Wekzel. Small 4to, 7*. 6d. 

Katyayana's Sarvanukrama#l of the Jfogveda. 

With Extracts from Sha</gunuishya's Commentary entitled 
Vedarthadfpika. Edited by A. A. Macdonell, M.A., Ph.D. 16s. 



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