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Full text of "Sacred Books East Various Oriental Scholars with Index. 50 vols Max Muller Oxford 1879.1910."

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THE 



SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST 



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HENRY FROWDE, M.A. 

PUBLISHER TO THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD 




LONDON, EDINBURGH, AND NEW YORK 



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THE 



SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST 



TRANSLATED 



BY VARIOUS ORIENTAL SCHOLARS 



AND EDITED BY 



F. MAX MOLLER 



VOL. XLVI 




AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1897 

[All rights reserved} 



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PRINTED AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 

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VEDIC HYMNS 



TRANSLATED BY 



HERMANN OLDENBERG 



PART II 



HYMNS TO AGNI (MAWZ>ALAS I-V) 



©jrfot* 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 

1897 

[All rights reserved] 



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CONTENTS. 



PACE 

Introduction xi 

Hymns, Translation and Notes: — 

MaWala I, i i 

12 ....... 6 

13 Aprl Hymn 8 

26 13 

27 16 

31 22 

3« 3« 

44 37 

45 42 

58 45 

59 49 

60 52 

65 . 54 

66 57 

67 61 

68 64 

69 67 

70 70 

71 74 

72 82 

73 88 

74 9* 

75 95 

76 96 

77 100 

78 102 

79 I0 3 

94 108 



18434 

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Vlll 



CONTENTS. 



Mamfala I, 95 - . 
96 . 

97 

98 . 

99 
127 
128 
140 

141 * * 

142 Aprt Hymn 

M3 
144 

U5 
146 

M7 
148 
149 

150 ^ . 
1 88 Aprt Hymn 
189 
II, 1 
2 

3 Aprt Hymn 
4 
5 
6 

7 
8 

9 
10 

III, 1 
2 

3 

4 Aprt Hymn 

5 
6 

7 
8 

9 



PACK 

"4 
119 

"5 
127 
128 
129 
137 
Mi 
147 
•53 
157 
160 
164 
167 
170 

173 
176 
178 
179 
181 
186 

193 
198 
202 
206 
209 
211 
213 

"5 
217 
219 
228 
232 
236 
240 

»44 

248 

352 
256 



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CONTENTS. 








IX 


PACK 


Ma»<fela III, 10 259 


11 . . 










261 


12 To Indra-Agnt 










263 


13 • 










266 


14 










268 


15 










271 


16 










273 


17 










275 


18 










277 


19 










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20 










281 


21 










283 


22 










285 


33 










287 


24 










289 


25 










291 


26 










292 


27 










296 


28 










300 


29 










302 


IV, 1 . . 










3<>7 


2 










316 


3 










325 


4 










33 1 


5 










335 


6 










340 


7 










343 


8 










346 


9 










348 


10 










350 


11 










35a 


12 










354 


»3 










356 


14 










358 


15 










360 


V, 1 










363 


2 










366 


3 










37i 


4 










375 



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X 


CONTENTS. 










PAGE 


Ma»</ala V, 5 Apr! Hymn .... 


377 


6 








379 


7 












382 


8 












385 


9 












387 


10 












389 


11 












39i 


13 












393 


13 












395 


14 












397 


15 












399 


16 












401 


17 












403 


18 












405 


19 












407 


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410 


21 












412 


22 












413 


n 












4'4 


24 












415 


25 












416 


26 












418 


27 












420 


28 












423 


Appendices : — 






427 


II. List of the more important Passages quoted in the 










487 



Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the 
Translations of the Sacred Books of the East . 



497 



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INTRODUCTION. 

In preparing this volume, which contains the greater 
part of the Agni hymns of the Rig-veda, namely, those of 
the MaWalas I-V, the translator enjoyed the high ad- 
vantage of Professor Max M tiller's assistance, in the way 
stated in the Introduction to the first volume of Vedic 
Hymns, Sacred Books of the East, vol. xxxii, p. xxvii. 



H. O. 



Kiel: 

November, 1895. 



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VEDIC HYMN 




MA7VX>ALA I, HYM1 
ASHJAKA I, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA^T=ST 

i 1 . I magnify 2 Agni, the Purohita, the divine 
ministrant of the sacrifice, the Hotrt priest, the 
greatest bestower of treasures. 

2. Agni, worthy to be magnified by the ancient 
^?/shis and by the present ones — may he conduct 
the gods hither. 

3. May one obtain through Agni wealth and wel- 
fare day by day, which may bring glory and high 
bliss of valiant offspring. 

4. Agni, whatever sacrifice and worship 1 thou 
encompassest on every side, that indeed goes to 
the gods. 

5. May Agni the thoughtful Hotrt, he who is 
true and most splendidly renowned, may the god 
come hither with the gods. 

6. Whatever good thou wilt do to thy worshipper, 
O Agni, that (work) verily is thine, O Angiras. 

7. Thee, O Agni, we approach day by day, O 
(god) who shinest in the darkness x ; with our prayer, 
bringing adoration to thee — 

8. Who art the king of all worship, the guardian of 
j&'ta, the shining one, increasing in thy own house. 

9. Thus, O Agni, be easy of access to us, as a 
father is to his son. Stay with us for our happiness. 

[*1 , B 



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VEDIC HYMNS. 



NOTES. 

The hymn is ascribed to Madhu££^andas Vai-rvamitra, 
and may possibly belong to an author of the Vijvamitra 
family. See my Prolegomena, p. 261. Metre, Gayatrl. 
The hymn has been translated and commented upon by 
M. M., Physical Religion, pp. 170-173. 

Verse 1 = TS. IV, 3, 13, 3 ; MS. IV, 10, 5. Verse 3 = 
TS. Ill, 1, 11. 1 ; IV, 3, 13, 5 ; MS. IV, 10, 4 (IV, 14, 16). 
Verse 4 = TS. IV, i, 11, 1 ; MS. IV, 10, 3. Verse 7 = SV. 
I, 14. Verses 7-9 = VS. Ill, 22-24 ; TS. I, 5,6,2; MS. 

I. 5, 3. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. This verse being the first verse of the Rig-veda as 
we now possess it, seems already to have occupied the same 
position in the time of the author of the hymns X, ao-26. 
For, after a short benediction, the opening words of this 
collection of hymns are also agnfm 1/e, ' I magnify Agni.' 
Comp. my Prolegomena, p. 231. 

Note 2. The verb which I translate by ' magnify ' — being 
well aware that it is impossible to do full justice to its 
meaning by such a translation — is id. There seems to me 
no doubt that this verb is etymologically connected with 
the substantives fsh, 'food,' id, idk, fra (not with the root yag- 
of which Brugmann, Indogermanische Forschungen I, 171, 
thinks). We need not ask here whether the connection 
between id and feh is effected by a ' Wurzeldeterminativ ' 
(root-determinative) d — in this case we should have here id 
for izhd, comp. nWa for nizhda, pid for pizhd, &c. ; see 
Brugmann's Grundriss, vol. i, § 591 — or whether id is a 
reduplicated present of id (of the type described by Brug- 
mann, Grundriss, vol. ii, p. 854 ; comp. frte, &c). The 
original meaning of ide at all events seems to be ' I give 
sap or nourishment* Now in the Vedic poetry and ritual, 
the idea of sap or nourishment is especially connected with 
the different products coming from the cow, milk and 



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MAWJOALA I, HYMN I. 



butter. The footsteps of the goddess Idk drip with butter. 
The words ' agnim We ' seem to me, consequently, originally 
to convey the idea of celebrating Agni by pouring sacrificial 
butter into the fire. There is a number of passages in the 
Rig-veda which, in my opinion, show clear traces of this 
original meaning of the verb. Thus we read X, 53, 2. 
ya^amahai yagniy&n hdnta dev£n l/amahai ii/yan a^yena, 
' let us sacrifice (yag) to the gods to whom sacrifice is due ; 
let us magnify (id) with butter those to whom magnifying 
is due.' V, 14, 3. tam hi sisvantaJt I/ate sruiS. devam 
ghr/tajyhita agnfm havyaya v6l/mve, ' for all people magnify 
this god Agni with the butter-dripping sacrificial spoon, 
that he may carry the sacrificial food.' V, 28, 1. deva'n 
Cana havfsha ghrit&ki, ' magnifying the gods with sacrificial 
food, (the spoon) filled with butter.' Comp. also I, 84, 18 ; 
VI, 70, 4; VIII, 74, 6; X, 118, 3. Then, by a gradual 
development, we find the verb id or the noun f/enya 
connected with such instrumentals as gira' or glrbhfA, ' to 
magnify by songs,' or stdmaiA 'by praises,' nimasa 'by 
adoration,' and the like. The Rig-vedic texts, however, 
show us very clearly that even in such phrases the 
original meaning of id was not quite forgotten. For the 
word is not used indifferently of any praise offered to 
any god whatever. No god of the Vedic Pantheon is 
praised so frequently and so highly by the poets of the 
Rig-veda as Indra. Yet, with very few exceptions, the 
word id is avoided in connection with this god. The whole 
ninth Ma/fr/ala contains nothing but praises of Soma Pava- 
mana. Yet the word id occurs, in the whole of this Ma.nda.la., 
in two passages only (5, 3 ; 66, 1) of which one is contained 
in an Apri verse transferring artificially to Soma such 
qualifications as belong originally to Agni. On the other 
hand, in the invocations addressed to Agni, this verb and its 
derivatives are most frequently used. We may conclude 
that the idea of celebration, as conveyed by these words, 
had a connotation which qualified them for the employ- 
ment with regard to Agni, the god nourished by offerings 
of butter, much better than for being addressed to Indra, 
the drinker of the Soma juice, or to the god Soma himself. 

B 2 



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VEDIC HYMNS. 



Last comes, I believe, the meaning of id as contained in 
a very small number of passages such as VII, 91, 2. fndra- 
vayu sustutfA vam iy&nS. marcfikam !//e suvitam ka. navyam, 
' Indra and Vayu ! Our beautiful praise, approaching you, 
asks you for mercy and for new welfare.' Here the construc- 
tion of id is such as if in English the phrase, ' men magnify 
the gods for obtaining mercy,' could be expressed in the 
words ' men magnify the gods mercy.' 

I conclude by quoting the more important recent litera- 
ture referring to id: Prof. Max Miiller's note on V, 60, 1 
(S. B. E. vol. xxxii, p. 354); Physical Religion, p. 170; 
Bezzenberger, Nachrichten von der Gottinger Gesellsch. d. 
Wissensch. 1878, p. 364; Bechtel, Bezzenberger's Beitrage, 
X, 286 ; Bartholomae, ibid. XII, 91; Arische Forschungen, 
II, 78 ; Indogermanische Forschungen, III, 28, note 1 ; 
Brugmann, Indogermanische Forschungen, I, 171 ; K. F. 
Johansson, Indogermanische Forschungen, II, 47. Comp. 
also Bartholomae, Arische Forschungen, I, 21 ; III, 52, and 
Joh. Schmidt, Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XXXII, 389. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. ' Worship ' is a very inadequate translation of 
adhvara, which is nearly a synonym of yagna, by the side 
of which it frequently stands. Possibly in the designation 
of the sacrifice as yagna the stress was laid on the ele- 
ment of prayer, praises, and adoration ; in the designation as 
adhvara on the actual work which was chiefly done by the 
Adhvaryu. — Prof. Max Muller writes: ' I accept the native 
explanation a-dhvara, without a flaw, perfect, whole, holy. 
Adhvara is generally anopusoperatum; hence adhvaryu, 
the operating priest.' Comp. Physical Religion, p. 171. 
Bury's derivation of adhvara from madhu (mdhu-ara, 
Bezzenberger's Beitrage, VII, 339) is much more ingenious 
than convincing. 

Verse 7. 
Note 1. I have translated doshavastar as a vocative 
which, as is rendered very probable by the accent, was 
also the opinion of the diaskeuasts of the Sawhita text. 



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MANDALA I, HYMN I. 5 

The author of the sacrificial formula which is given 
in Arval. 5raut. Ill, 12, 4 and .Sankh. Grihy. V, 5, 4, 
evidently understood the word in the same way; there 
Agni is invoked as doshavastar and as pratarvastar, as 
shining in the darkness of evening and as shining in the 
morning. That this may indeed be the true meaning of 
the word is shown by Rig-veda III, 49, 4, where Indra 
is called kshapam vasta", 'the illuminator of the nights' 
(kshapa'm is gen. plur., not as Bartholomae, Bezzenberger's 
Beitrage, XV, 208, takes it, loc. sing.). The very frequent 
passages, however, in which case-forms of dosha" stand in 
opposition to words meaning ' dawn ' or ' morning ' — which 
words in most cases are derived from the root vas — strongly 
favour the opinion of Gaedicke (Der Accusativ im Veda, 
1 77, note 3) and K. F. Johansson (Bezzenberger's Beitrage, 
XIV, 163), who give to doshavastar the meaning ' in the 
darkness and in the morning.' This translation very well 
suits all Rig-veda passages in which the word occurs. If 
this opinion is accepted, doshavastar very probably ought 
to be written and accented as two independent words, 
dosha" vastar. See M. M., Physical Religion, p. 173. 



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VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAA>Z?ALA I, HYMN 12. 
ASH7AKA I, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 22-23. 

i. We choose Agni as our messenger, the all- 
possessor, as the Hotri of this sacrifice, the highly 
wise. 

2. Agni and Agni again they constantly invoked 
with their invocations, the lord of the clans, the 
bearer of oblations, the beloved of many. 

3. Agni, when born, conduct the gods hither for 
him who has strewn the Barhis (sacrificial grass) ' ; 
thou art our Hotri, worthy of being magnified 2 . 

4. Awaken them, the willing ones, when thou 
goest as messenger, O Agni. Sit down with the 
gods on the Barhis. 

5. O thou to whom Ghma oblations are poured 
out, resplendent (god), burn against the mischievous, 
O Agni, against the sorcerers. 

6. By Agni Agni is kindled (or, by fire fire is 
kindled), the sage, the master of the house, the young 
one, the bearer of oblations, whose mouth is the 
sacrificial spoon. 

7. Praise Agni the sage, whose ordinances for the 
sacrifice are true, the god who drives away sickness. 

8. Be the protector, O Agni, of a master of 
sacrificial food who worships thee, O god, as his 
messenger. 

9. Be merciful, O purifier, unto the man who is 
rich in sacrificial food, and who invites Agni to the 
feast of the gods. 

10. Thus, O Agni, resplendent purifier, conduct 



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MA.YBALA I, HYMN 12. 



the gods hither to us, to our sacrifice and to our 
food. 

1 1. Thus praised by us with our new Gayatra 
hymn, bring us wealth of valiant men and food. 

12. Agni with thy bright splendour be pleased, 
through all our invocations of the gods, with this 
our praise. 

NOTES. 

This hymn is ascribed to Medhatithi Ka«va. It is the 
opening hymn of a collection which extends from I, 12 to 
23 (not, as Ludwig, III, ic2, believes, from I, 2 to 17 ; see 
my Prolegomena, p. 220). That the authorship of this 
collection belongs indeed to the Kanva family, whose 
poetical compositions are found partly in the first and 
partly in the eighth Ma»*/ala, is shown by the text of 
14, 2-5, and by other evidence ; see Zeitschr. der Deutschen 
Morg. Gesellschaft, XXXVIII, 448. 

The metre is Gayatrt. It is possible, though I do not 
think it probable, that the hymn should be considered as 
consisting of Trikas. Verse 1 = SV. I, 3 ; TS. II. 5, 8, 5 ; 
V, 5, 6, 1 ; TB. Ill, 5, 2, 3 ; MS. IV, 10, 2. Verses 1-3 = 
SV. II, 140-142 ; AV. XX, 101, 1-3. Verse 2 = TS. IV, 

3, 13, 8; MS. IV, 10, 1. Verse 3 = TB. Ill, 11, 6, 2. 
Verses 6, 8, 9 = SV. II, 194-196. Verse 6 = TS. I, 

4, 46,3; "I, 5, 11, 5; V, 5, 6, 1; TB. II, 7, 12, 3; MS. 
IV, 10, 2 (3). Verse 7 = SV. I, 32. Verse 10 = VS. 
XVII, 9 ; TS. I, 3, 14. 8 ; 5. 5, 3 ; IV, 6, 1, 3 ; MS. I, 5, 1. 

Verse 3. 

Bote 1. On vr/ktibarhis, comp. RV. I, 1 16, 1 ; M. M., 
vol. xxxii, pp. 84 seq., 109 ; Geldner, P. G., Vedische 
Studien, I, 152. 

Note 2. On IdysJi, comp. the note on We I, 1, 1. 



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VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAA>Z>ALA I, HYMN 13. 
ASH7AKA I, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 24-25. 

Apr! Hymn, 
i '. Being well lighted, O Agni, bring us hither 
the gods to the man rich in sacrificial food, O Hotrt, 
purifier, and perform the sacrifice. 

2. Tanunapat 1 ! make our sacrifice rich in honey 
--and convey it to-day to the gods, O sage, that they 

may feast 

3. I invoke here at this sacrifice Narlsa*«sa \ the 
beloved one, the honey-tongued preparer of the 
sacrificial food. 

4. O magnified 1 Agni ! Conduct the gods hither 
in an easy-moving chariot. Thou art the Hotri 
instituted by Manus 2 . 

5. Strew, O thoughtful men, in due order 1 the 
sacrificial grass, the back (or surface) of which is 
sprinkled with butter, on which the appearance of 
immortality 2 (is seen). 

6. May the divine gates open, the increasers of 
Rita, which do not stick together, that to-day, that 
now the sacrifice may proceed. 

7. I invoke here at this sacrifice Night and Dawn, 
the beautifully adorned goddesses, that they may 
sit down on this our sacrificial grass. 

8. I invoke these two divine HotWs ', the sages 
with beautiful tongues. May they perform this 
sacrifice for us. 

9. 1/4 (' Nourishment'), Sarasvatt, and Mahl (' the 
great one ') \ the three comfort-giving goddesses, 
they who do not fail, shall sit down on the sacrificial 
grass. 



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MAiVi)ALA I, HYMN 1 3. 



10. 1 invoke hither the foremost, all-shaped Tva- 
shtri to come hither ; may he be ours alone. 

11. O tree 1 , let the sacrificial food go, O god, to 
the gods. May the giver's splendour be foremost. 

12. Offer ye the sacrifice with the word Svaha 
to Indra in the sacrificer's house. Thereto I invoke 
the gods. 

NOTES. 

The hymn is ascribed, as the whole collection to which 
it belongs, to Medhatithi Ka«va (see the note on the 
preceding hymn). Its metre is Gayatrl. Verses 1-4 = 
SV. II, 697-700. Verse 9 = RV. V, 5, 8. Verse 10 =TS. 
Ill, 1, 11, 1 ; TB. Ill, 5, 12, 1 ; MS. IV, 13, 10. 

The hymn belongs to the class of Apri hymns, which 
were classed by the ancient arrangers of the Sawhita among 
the Agni hymns. The Apri hymns, consisting of eleven 
or twelve verses, were destined for the Praya^a offerings 
of the animal sacrifice (comp. H. O., Zeitschrift dcr D. 
Morg. Gesellschaft, XLII, 243 seq.). They were addressed, 
verse by verse in regular order, partly to Agni, partly 
to different spirits or deified objects connected with the 
sacrifice, such as the sacrificial grass, the divine gates 
through which the gods had to pass on their way to the 
sacrifice, &c. The second verse was addressed by some 
of the Rishi families to Tanunapat, by some to Narlrawsa ; 
in some of the hymns we find two verses instead of one 
(so that the total number of verses becomes twelve instead 
of eleven) addressed the one to Tanunapat, the other to 
Narajawsa. Bergaigne (Recherches sur l'histoire de la 
Liturgie Vedique, p. 14) conjectures that some of thei?*shi 
families had only seven Praya^as. This opinion is based 
on the identical appearance of four verses (8-1 1) in the 
Apr! hymns of the Vuvamitras (III, 4) and of the Vasish- 
/*as (VII, 2), and on the diversity of metres used in two 
other Apri hymns, IX, 5 and II, 3. To me this conjecture, 
though very ingenious, does not seem convincing. 



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IO VEDIC HYMNS. 



With the text of the Apri hymns should be compared 
the corresponding Praishas of the Maitravaruwa priest, i.e. 
the orders by which this priest directed the Hotrx to 
pronounce the Praya^a invocations. The text of these 
Praishas is given Taitt. Brahm. Ill, 6, 2. 

Comp. on the character and the historical and ritual 

position of the Apr! hymns, Max M tiller, Hist. Anc Sansc. 

Literature, p. 403 seq. ; Roth, Nirukta, notes, p. 121 seq. ; 

Weber, Indische Studien, X, 89 seq. ; Ludwig V, 315 seq. ; 

Hillebrandt, Das Altindische Neu- und Vollmondsopfer, 

94 seq. ; Schwab, Das Altindische Thieropfer, 90 seq. ; Ber- 

gaigne, Recherches sur l'histoire de la Liturgie Veclique, 

13 seq. 

Verse 1. 

Rote 1. Comp. Delbriick, Syntactische Forschungen, 1,97. 

Verses 2, 3. 
Note L Does Tanunapat, lit. ' son of the body,' mean, 
as Roth and Grassmann believed, 'son of his own self 
(comp. I, 1 2, 6. agnma agni'A sam idhyate, ' by Agni Agni 
is kindled '), or is the meaning ' le propre fils ' (Bergaigne, 
Rel. V^dique II, 100)? Narlsawsa, which is nearly iden- 
tical with the Avestic Nairydsanha, means 'the song of 
men,' or 'praised by men ' (Bergaigne, 1. 1. I, 305 ; M. M.'s 
note on VII, 46, 4). In III, 29, 11 it is said of Agni: 
' He is called Tanunapat as the foetus of the Asura ; 
he becomes Nar&jawzsa when he is born.' Of course an 
expression like this is by no means sufficient to prove 
that the sacrificial gods Tanunapat and Narlsawsa, as 
invoked in the Apri hymns, are nothing but forms of 
Agni. Expressions which are constantly repeated in the 
Apri verses show that the work of Tanunapat, and like- 
wise that of NadLrawsa, consisted in spreading ghrita. or 
' honey' over the sacrifice. 

Verse 4. 
Note 1. ' Magnified' is i/itaA; comp. the note on I, 1, 1. 
The third, or if both Tanunapat and Narlrawsa are in- 
voked,, the fourth verse of the Apri hymns is regularly 
addressed to Agni with this epithet 1/ita. 



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MANDAL\ I, HYMN 1 3. II 

Note 2. Manurhita, ' instituted by Manus,' not ' by men.' 
See Bergaigne, Religion Vedique, I, 65 seq. 

Verse 6. 

Rote L On anushak, comp. Pischel, Vedische Studien, 
II, 125. 

Note 2. The last Pada is translated by Grassmann, ' wo 
der unsterbliche sich zeigt' (comp. Bergaigne, R.V. I, 194, 
note 1) ; by Ludwig, ' auf dem man das unsterbliche sieht.' 
To me it seems impossible to decide, so as to leave no 
doubt, whether amr/tasya is masculine or neuter. Comp. 
also Atharva-veda V, 4, 3; 28, 7 ; XIX, 39, 6-8, in which 
passages the phrase amr/tasya £aksha»am recurs. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. The two divine Hotris are mentioned in the 
Rig-veda only in the eighth (or seventh) verse of the 
Aprisuktas and besides in two passages, X, 65, 10; 66, 13, 
which do not throw any light on the nature of these sacri- 
ficial gods. They are called ^atavedasa VII, 2, 7, puro- 
hitau X, 70, 7, bhisha^a Vkg. Sawrfi. XXVIII, 7. As 
regards the duality of these divine counterparts of the 
human Hotr* priest, possibly the ' two Hotris ' should be 
understood as the Hotn and the Maitravaruwa ; the latter 
was the constant companion and assistant of the former 
in the Vedic animal sacrifice. Comp. Schwab, Altin- 
disches Thieropfer, 96, 1 14, 117, &c. ; H. O., Religion des 
Veda, 391. 

Comp. on the two divine Hotris also Bergaigne, R.V. 
I, 233 seq. 

Verse 9. 

Note 1. On I/a, see H. O., Religion des Veda, pp. 72, 
326. — With regard to Mahi Bergaigne (Rel. Vedique, I, 322) 
has pronounced the opinion that ' Bharati et Mahi, qui, tantdt 
se remplacent, tantdt se juxtaposent tout en paraissant ne 
compter que pour une, se confondent aux yeux des rt'shis.' 
But Pischel (Ved. Studien, II, 84 seq.) has shown that the 
eminent French scholar was wrong, and that really Mahi 
('the great one') is independent of Bharati. Pischel's 



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I 2 VEDIC HYMNS. 



own opinion that Mahi is a name of the goddess Dhishawa, 
does not seem to me to be established by sufficient 
reasons. — On the meaning of these three goddesses Prof. 
Max Muller writes : ' I should not fix on Nourishment as 
the true meaning of I/a. Originally those three goddesses 
seem to be local : I/a, the land or daughter of Manu, the 
Sarasvatt, and another river here called Mahl.' 

Verse 11. 

Note 1. To me it seems evident that the tree, or, to 
translate more literally, the lord of the forest (vanaspati) 
invoked in this Apr! verse can only be the sacrificial post 
(yupa) to which the victim was tied before it was killed. 
The yupa is called vanaspati in the Rig-veda (III, 8, i. 3. 
6. 11) as well as in the more modern Vedic texts (for inst., 
Taitt. Sawh. 1, 3, 6, 1). — In the Apr! hymn, IX, 5 (verse 10), 
the vanaspati is called sahasravaka : with this should be 
compared III, 8, 11 (addressed to the yupa): vanaspate 
jatavataaA vi roha sahasravakaA vi vayam ruhema, ' O lord 
of the forest, rise with a hundred offshoots ; may we rise 
with a thousand offshoots!' — In the Aprt hymn, X, 70 
(verse 10), the rope (r&rana) is mentioned by which the 
vanaspati should tie the victim ; comp. with this expression 
the statements of the ritual texts as to the r&rana with 
which the victim is tied to the yupa ; Schwab, Das Altin- 
dische Thieropfer, 81. Comp. also especially Taittiriya 
Brahmawa III, 6, 11, 3. — In the Apri hymns the vanaspati 
is frequently invoked to let loose the victim ; in connection 
therewith mention is made of the sacrificial butcher 
(jamitr/), see II, 3, 10; III, 4, 10; X, 110, 10, and comp. 
Vaj-. Sawhita XXI, 21 ; XXVIII, 10. The meaning of 
these expressions becomes clear at once, if we explain the 
vanaspati as the sacrificial post. When they are going to 
kill the victim, they loosen it from the post; the post, 
therefore, can be said to let it loose. Then the butcher 
(iamitr*') leads the victim away. See the materials collected 
by Schwab, Thieropfer, p. 100 seq., and comp. also H. O., 
Religion des Veda, 257. 



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MA.tf.DALA I, HYMN 26. I 3 



MAA>Z>ALA I, HYMN 26. 

ASHTAKA I, ADHYAYA 2, VARGA 20-21. 

i. Clothe thyself with thy clothing (of light), 
O sacrificial (god), lord of all vigour; and then 
perform this worship for us. 

2. Sit down, most youthful god, as our desirable 
Hotrt, through (our prayerful) thoughts 1 , O Agni, 
with thy word 2 that goes to heaven. 

3. The father verily by sacrificing procures (bless- 
ings) for the son \ the companion for the companion, 
the elect friend for the friend. 

4. May Varu«a, Mitra, Aryaman, triumphant with 
riches (?) ', sit down on our sacrificial grass as they 
did on Manu's. 

5. O ancient Hotn, be pleased with this our 
friendship also, and hear these prayers. 

6. For whenever we sacrifice constantly 1 to this 
or to that god, in thee alone the sacrificial food is 
offered. 

7. May he be dear to us, the lord of the clan, the 
joy-giving, elect Hot*-**; may we be dear (to him), 
possessed of a good Agni (i. e. of good fire). 

8. For the gods, when possessed of a good Agni, 
have given us excellent wealth, and we think our- 
selves possessed of a good Agni. 

9. And may there be among us mutual praises 
of both the mortals, O immortal one, (and the 
immortals) '. 

10. With all Agnis (i.e. with all thy fires), O Agni, 
accept this sacrifice and this prayer, O young (son) 
of strength '. 



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14 VEDIC HYMNS. 



NOTES. 

This hymn, as well as the whole collection to which it 
belongs, is ascribed to SunaAsepa. A^igarti (comp. 24, 12. 13). 
The metre is Gayatri. Bergaigne (Recherches sur 1'histoire 
de la Sawhita, 1 1, 7) divides this hymn into Triias, with 
one single verse added at the end. I cannot find sufficient 
evidence for this; the appearance in the Sama-veda 
(II, 967-9) of a Trika. composed of the verses 10. 6. 7 
of our hymn is rather against Bergaigne's opinion. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. Manmabhi/* may possibly mean, 'with thy 
(wise) thoughts;' comp., for instance, III, 11,-8. pari vfjvani 
sudhita agneA ajyama manmabhiA, ' may we obtain every 
bliss through Agni's (wise) thoughts,' or ' may we obtain 
all the blessings of Agni for our prayers.' 

Note 2. Va£as stands for va£asa. See the passages 
collected by Lanman, Noun-Inflection, 562, and comp. 
Roth, Ueber gewisse Kurzungen des Wortendes im Veda, 5 ; 
Joh. Schmidt, Die Pluralbildungen der indogermanischen 
Neutra, 304 seq. Ludwig also takes va£as as instru- 
mental. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. Agni is the father, the mortal whose sacrifice 
he performs, the son. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Can rlradas be explained as a compound of ri 
(Tiefstufe of rai, as gu is the Tiefstufe of gau) and 
*sidas, from the root fad, ' to be triumphant ' ? Prof. Auf- 
recht (Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XIV, 33 ; see also Neisser, 
Bezz. Beitr. XIX, 143) connects ri- with the Greek Ipt- 
(ipiKvbrjs &c); our hypothesis has the advantage of not 
leaving the limits of Sanskrit. — Comp. M. M.'s note on 
V, 60, 7 ; Ludwig, Ueber die neuesten Arbeiten auf dem 
Gebiete der Rig-veda-Forschung (1893), p. 7. 



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MAWiJALA I, HVMN 26. 1 5 

Verse 6. 
Note 1. On s&svatd. tana see Lanman, 480, 515, 518. 

Verse 9. 

Note 1. The comparison of verse 8 and the expression 
ararrta martyanam in the second Pada of this verse seem 
to show that ubhayesham does not refer to two classes of 
mortals, the priests and their patrons, but to the mortals 
and the immortals. A genitive amrftanam, which would 
make this meaning quite clear, can easily be supplied. 
A Dvandva compound amr/tamartyanam, which one 
could feel tempted to conjecture, would have, in my 
opinion, too modern a character. — Prof. Max M tiller writes: 
4 1 should prefer amr/ta martyanam, not exactly as a com- 
pound, but as standing for amrttanam martyanam. This 
seems to be Ludwig's opinion too.' 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. In the translation of sahasaA yaho I follow 
Geldner, Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XXVIII, 195 ; Ludwig's trans- 
lation is similar. 



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1 6 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAJVZ?ALA I, HYMN 27. 
ASHTAKA I, ADHYAYA 2, VARGA 22-24. 

A. 

1. With reverence I shall worship thee who art 
long-tailed like a horse, Agni, the king of worship. 

2. May he, our son of strength \ proceeding on 
his broad way, the propitious, become bountiful 
to us. 

3. Thus protect us always, thou who hast a full 
life, from the mortal who seeks to do us harm l , 
whether near or afar. 

4. And mayest thou, O Agni, announce to the 
gods this our newest efficient Gayatra song. 

5. Let us partake of all booty that is highest 
and that is middle (i.e. that dwells in the highest 
and in the middle world) ; help us to the wealth 
that is nearest. 

6. O god with bright splendour, thou art the 
distributor. Thou instantly flowest for the liberal 
giver in the wave of the river, near at hand. 

B. 

7. The mortal, O Agni, whom thou protectest 
in battles, whom thou speedest in the races 1 , he 
will command constant nourishment : 

8. Whosoever he may be, no one will overtake 
him, O conqueror (Agni) ! His strength 2 is glorious. 

9. May he (the man), known among all tribes 3 , 
win the race with his horses ; may he with the help 
of his priests become a gainer. 



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MAA7DALA I, HYMN 2J. I J 



10. O (Sarabodha 1 ! Accomplish this (task) for 
every house 2 : a beautiful song of praise for wor- 
shipful Rudra 3 . 

ii. May he, the great, the immeasurable, the 
smoke-bannered, rich in splendour, incite us to 
(pious) thoughts and to strength. 

1 2. May he hear us, like the rich lord of a clan, 
the banner of the gods, on behalf of our hymns, 
Agni with bright light. 

13. Reverence to the great ones, reverence to 
the lesser ones ! Reverence to the young, reverence 
to the old 1 ! Let us sacrifice to the gods, if we can. 
May I not, O gods, fall as a victim to the curse 
of my better*. 

NOTES. 

The hymn is ascribed to SunaAsepa. (see note on I, 26). 
The metre is Gayatri ; the last verse is Trish/ubh. 

The laws of arrangement of the Sawthita show that this 
hymn, which has thirteen verses and follows after a hymn 
of ten verses belonging to the same deity, must be divided 
into a number of minor hymns. On the question of this 
division some further light is thrown by the metre. The 
first six verses and then again the verses 10-1 a are 
composed in the trochaic form of the Gayatri metre ; of 
the verses 7-9, on the other hand, not a single Pada shows 
the characteristics of that metre. I believe, therefore, that 
the verses 1-6 form one hymn by themselves, or possibly 
two hymns of three verses each. Then follow two hymns : 
verses 7-9, 10-ia. As to verse 13, which is composed 
in a different metre, it is difficult to determine its exact 
nature. It may be a later addition : though in that case 
[4«] c 



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t8 vedic hymns. 



we shall hardly be able to explain why it was placed at 
the end of the hymns addressed to Agni, to which god it 
contains no reference whatever. Or it may form part of 
the hymn 10-12 : in that case we should have to consider 
this whole hymn, which would then violate the rules of 
arrangement, as an addition to the original collection. 

We may add that the Sama-veda gives the first twelve 
verses of this Sukta so as to form four independent hymns : 
1-3 = SV: II, 984-6 -,4-6.5 = SV. II, 847-9 ; 7-9 = SV. 
II, 765-7; 10-12 = SV. II, 1013-15. Besides, verse 1 is 
found in SV. I, 17. Verse 4 = SV. I, 28 ; TAr. IV, 11, 8. 
Verse 7 = VS. VI, 29 ; TS. I, 3, 13, 2 ; MS. I, 3, 1. Verse 
10 = SV. 1, 15. Comp. Bergaigne, Recherches sur l'histoire 
de la Sawhita, II, pp. 7-8 ; H. O., Prolegomena, 225-226. 

Verse 2. 

Note/1. It requires a stronger belief in the infallibility 
of Vedic text tradition than I possess, not to change javasd 
into sivusak. I do not think that 1, 62, 9 (sanemi sakhyam 
svapasyamanaA suniiA dadhara javasa sudims&A) furnishes 
a sufficient argument against this conjecture. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. Grassmann reads aghaay6/; for the sake of the 
metre ; Prof. Max Miiller proposes SghaySA. I think that 
the missing syllable should be gained by disyllabic pro- 
nunciation of -at in martyat or rather martiat Comp. my 
Prolegomena 185 and the quotations given there in note 1. 

Verses 7-9. 

Note 1. It is not my intention to enter here into a new 
discussion on so frequently discussed a word as va^a. I have 
translated it in verses 7, 9 by ' race,' in verse 8 by ' strength.' 

Note 2. The expression used in verses 7 and 8 should 
be compared especially with VII, 40, 3. saA ft ugraA astu 
maruta/i s&A •fushmf yam mdrtyam pmhadarvaA avatha, 
uta im agnf// sarasvatt ^unanti na tasya rayaA paryet^t asti. 



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MANDALA I, HYMN 27. 1 9 

Note 3. VLrva£arsha«i, a frequent epithet of Agni, here 
refers to the mortal hero protected by Agni; comp. I, 
64, 14 (vol. xxxii, p. 108) ; X, 93, 10 (vuva£arsha«i sriv&A). 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. I think that Ludwig is right in taking Cara- 
bodha for a proper name. 

Note 2. VW-vije may possibly depend on yagnlytkya, 
so that we should have to translate : ' Administer this task : 
a beautiful song of praise to Rudra who is worshipful for 
every house.' 

Mote 3. Rudra is here a designation of Agni, as the 
next verses show. Comp. PischekGeldner, I, 56. 

Verse 13. 

Mote 1. The word cLrina, 'old,' occurring only here, is 
doubtful. In III, 1, 6 ; IV, 33, 3 ; X,39, 4, sana or sanaya 
stands in contrast with yuvan. Shall we conjecture namaA 
S. sanebhyaA ? 

Note 2. The last Pada of this verse, mi gyS.ya.sdA s&m- 
sam a* vnkshi deva/i ('May I not, gods, neglect the 
praise of the greatest,' Muir, V, 12), offers some difficulty. 
It may be doubted whether & vr/kshi belongs to k-vrig or 
to a-vrar£. 

Let us see what would be the meaning of the passage, if 
we were to decide for k-vrig. VIII, 101, 16 the cow 
speaks : devim devebhyaA pari eyushim ga'm & ma avr*kta 
martyaA dabhra£eta^, ' Me the goddess, the cow, who has 
come hither from the gods, the weak-minded mortal has 
appropriated.' Satapatha Brahmana XIV, 9, 4, 3. ya eva»* 
vidvan adhopahasaw £araty a sa striwaw sukritam vrtnkte 
»tha ya idam avidvan adhopahasaw £araty asya striyaA 
sukr*ta»* vrtngate, ' He who knowing this, &c, appro- 
priates the good works of the women. But the women 
appropriate the good works of him who without knowing 
this,' &c. In Rig-veda X, 159, 5 also we probably have 
a form of &-vrig. There we find the triumphant utterance 

C 2 



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20 VEDIC HYMNS. 



of a wife who has gained superiority over her fellow-wives : 
a" avr*ksham anyasam v&rkak, ' I have won for myself the 
splendour of the other wives.' We may conclude from 
these passages that our Pada, if £ vrjkshi is derived from 
a-vnjjf, would mean : ' May I not draw on myself the curse 
of my better.' 

On the other hand we have a great number of passages — 
they have been collected by Ludwig, IV, 249 seq. — in 
which the verb &-vrask appears. Referring the reader for 
fuller information to Ludwig, I content myself here with 
selecting one or two of these passages. Taitt. Sawh. II, 4, 
11, 4. devatabhyo va esha a vrw^yate yo yakshya ity 
uktva na ya^ate. In translating this we should remember 
that vrask means ' to cut down ; ' a-vrar£, therefore, must 
be ' to cut down so that the object reaches a certain desti- 
nation.' I translate therefore : ' He who says, " I shall 
sacrifice," and does not sacrifice, is cut down for the deities,' 
— i. e. he is dedicated or forfeited to the deities and is thus 
destroyed (comp. a different explanation of A-wrask by 
Delbriick, Altindische Syntax, 143). In other passages 
not the dative but the locative is used for indicating the 
being to whom somebody is forfeited ; see Atharva-veda 
XII, 4, 6. 1 a. 36; XV, 1 2, 6. 10. 

A Rig-vedic passage containing a-vrar£ (with the dative) 
is X, 87, 18. S. w-M^yantam aditaye dureVaA, 'May the 
evil-doers be forfeited to Aditi.' 

Several times we find the first person aor. med. in the 
same form as in our passage, 4 vr/kshi ; see, for instance, the 
Nivid formula to the VLrve devaA, Sankhayana 5Vautasutra 
VIII, 21. In this Nivid, the text of which as given by 
Hillebrandt is not quite identical with that of Ludwig, we 
read according to Hillebrandt's edition : ma vo deva avi-rasa 
ma virasayur a vr/kshi. This ma ... a vriksh'i looks quite 
similar to our passage. The same may be said of Taittiriya 
Samhita I, 6, 6, 1. yat te tapas tasmai te mavrtkshi. 
Considering such passages it is difficult not to believe that 
it is the verb a vrax£ which we have before us in our 
verse. It must be admitted indeed that the accusative 



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MAJVOALA I, HYMN 27. 21 

samsam does not agree with the construction of the later 
Vedic passages. Can the accusative stand in the ancient 
language of the Rig-veda in the same connection in which 
we have found the dative and the locative? So that 
i-vr&s£ (in the middle or passive) with the accusative would 
mean : to be cut down in the direction towards another 
being, i. e. being forfeited to that being ? In that case the 
translation of our passage would be : ' May I not, O gods, 
fall as a victim to the praise (or rather, to the curse) of my 
better.' If this explanation of the accusative is thought 
too bold, we should propose to correct the text so as to 
get a dative or, which would suit the metre better, a loca- 
tive : ma'^yayasaA s&ms&ya. (or sAtnse) £ vr*kshi devaA. 



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2 2 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAA^ALA I, HYMN 31. 
ASH7AKA I, ADHYAYA 2, VARGA 32-35. 

i. Thou, O Agni, (who art) the first Angiras /?*shi, 
hast become as god the kind friend of the gods. 
After thy law the sages, active in their wisdom 1 , 
were born, the Maruts with brilliant spears. 

2. Thou, O Agni, the first, highest Angiras, a 
sage, administerest the law of the gods, mighty for 
the whole world, wise, the son of the two mothers ', 
reposing everywhere for (the use of) the living*. 

3. Thou, O Agni, as the first, shalt become 1 
manifest to Matarisvan, through thy high wisdom, to 
Vivasvat. The two worlds trembled at (thy) elec- 
tion as Hotrt. Thou hast sustained the burthen ; 
thou, O Vasu, hast sacrificed to the great (gods) *. 

4. Thou, O Agni, hast caused the sky to roar 1 
for Manu, for the well-doing Pururavas, being thyself 
a greater well-doer. When thou art loosened by 
power (?) 2 from thy parents, they led thee hither 
before and afterwards again. 

5. Thou, O Agni, the bull, the augmenter of pros- 
perity, art to be praised by the sacrificer who raises 
the spoon, who knows all about the offering 1 and (the 
sacrifice performed with) the word Vasha/. Thou 
(god) of unique vigour art the first to invite 2 the 
clans. 

6. Thou, O Agni, leadest forward the man who 
follows crooked ways', in thy company at the sacri- 
fice 2 , O god dwelling among all tribes, who in the 
strife of heroes, in the decisive moment for the 



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MAJVBALA I, HYMN $1. 23 

obtainment of the prize 8 , even with few companions 
killest many foes in the battle 4 . 

7. Thou, O Agni, keepest that mortal 1 in the 
highest immortality, in glory day by day, (thou) who 
being thirsty thyself 2 givest happiness to both races 
(gods and men), and joy to the rich. 

8. Thou, O Agni, praised by us, help the glorious 
singer to gain prizes. May we accomplish our work 
with the help of the young active (Agni). O Heaven 
and Earth ! Bless us together with the gods. 

9. Thou, O Agni, in the lap of thy parents, a god 
among gods, O blameless one, always watchful, be 
the body's creator and guardian to the singer. Thou, 
O beautiful one, pourest forth all wealth. 

10. Thou, O Agni, art our guardian, thou art our 
father. Thou art the giver of strength ; we are thy 
kinsmen. Hundredfold, thousandfold treasures come 
together in thee, who art rich in heroes, the guardian 
of the law, O undeceivable one. 

11. Thee, O Agni, the gods have made for the 
living as the first living 1 , the clan-lord of the 
Nahusha 2 . They have made (the goddess) 1/4 the 
teacher of men (manusha), when a son of my father 
is born 3 . 

12. Thou, O Agni, protect with thy guardians, 
O god, our liberal givers and ourselves, O venerable 
one ! Thou art the protector of kith and kin 1 and 
of the cows, unremittingly watching over thy law. 

13 1 . Thou, O Agni, art kindled four-eyed, as the 
closest guardian for the sacrificer who is without 
(even) a quiver 2 . Thou acceptest in thy mind the 
hymn even of the poor 3 who has made offerings* 
that he may prosper without danger. 

14. Thou, O Agni, gainest' for the widely-re- 



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24 VEDIC HYMNS. 



nowned worshipper that property which is desirable 
and excellent Thou art called the guardian and 
father even of the weak 2 ; thou instructest the 
simple, thou, the greatest sage, the quarters of the 
world 3 . 

1 5. Thou, O Agni, protectest on every side like 
well-stitched armour the man who gives sacrificial 
fees. He who puts sweet food (before the priests), 
who makes them comfortable in his dwelling, who 
kills living (victims), he (will reside) high in heaven 1 . 

16. Forgive, O Agni, this our fault (?) 1 , (look 
graciously at) this way which we have wandered 
from afar. Thou art the companion, the guardian, 
the father of those who offer Soma; thou art the 
quick one* who makes the mortals .fi/shis 3 . 

1 7. As thou didst for Manus, O Agni, for Angiras, 
O Angiras, for Yayati on thy (priestly) seat, as for the 
ancients, O brilliant one, come hither, conduct hither 
the host of the gods, seat them on the sacrificial grass, 
and sacrifice to the beloved (host). 

18. Be magnified, O Agni, through this spell 
which we have made for thee with our skill or with 
our knowledge. And lead us forward to better 
things. Let us be united with thy favour, which 
bestows strength. 

NOTES. 

The Rishi of the hymn is Hirawyastupa Angirasa. To 
him tradition ascribes the authorship of the collection 1, 31- 
35> probably because in X, 149, 5 the poet invokes Savitr*, 
'as Hiranyastupa the Angirasa has called thee, O Savitr*.' 
Vedic theologians of course tried to find out where this 
invocation of Hiranyastupa to Savitrt was preserved, and 
the hymn, I, $5, seemed to agree best with the conditions 



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MAJVDALA I, HYMN 31. 25 

of the case (comp. Zeitschrift der D. Morg. Ges. XLII, 230). 
By this and many similar cases it is made probable that at 
the time when the Anukramawf was composed, all real 
knowledge as to authors to whom the collections of the 
first MaWala belong, was lost. 

The metre is Gagatt ; only the verses 8, 16, 1 8 are 
Trish/ubh. Verse 1 =VS. 34, 12. Verse 8 = MS. IV, 11, 
1. Verse 12 = VS. 34, 13. With verse 16 comp. AV. Ill, 
15.4- 

Verse L 

Note 1. VidmanapasaA seems to be nom. plur., not gen. 
sing. Comp. I, 111, 1. takshan ratham . . . vidmanapasa//, 
' they (the A'tbhus), active in their wisdom, have wrought 
the chariot.' 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. As to dvimata" s&yti/t, comp. Ill, 55, 6 (.rayuA 
parastat adha nu dvimata') ; Pischel, Vedische Studien, II, 
50. — On Agni's two mothers and his double birth see 
Bergaigne, Religion Vedique, II, 52. 

Note 2. By 'living' I have translated ayii. See on 
this word, Bergaigne, Rel. Ved., I, 59 seq. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. Probably Bergaigne (Rel. Ved. I, 55, note 2) is 
right in conjecturing bhavaA for bhava. In this case we 
should have to translate : ' Thou as the first hast become 
manifest to MatarLrvan.' 

Note 2. I believe that to mahi/t we have to supply 
deva'n ; see II, 37, 6 ; III, 7, 9 j VI, 16, 2 ; 48, 4, &c. ' Can 
it not be an adverb ? See vol. xxxii, p. 307 ; Lanman, 
p. 5 oi,'M.M. ' 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Comp. V, 58, 6. let Dyu (sky) roar down, the 
bull of the dawn. V, 59, 8. may Dyaus Aditi (the un- 
bounded) roar for our feast. 



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26 VED1C HYMNS. 



Note 2. The translation of jvatra is purely conjectural. 
It rests on the supposition that the word is related to 
sdsuve, javas, &c. (thus Grassmann). Boehtlingk-Roth 
connect it with svad, which is phonetically impossible ; 
they give the meaning ' schmackhaft,' and paraphrase our 
passage : das mit einer Lockspeise (z. B. mit einem Spahn) 
von den Reibholzern abgenommene Feuer kann man hin 
und her tragen. Ludwig : mit Geprassel. I do not see how 
this translation would fit for a number of the passages in 
which the word occurs. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. With the third Pada compare VI, r, 9. yih 
a'hutim pari vcda namobhi^. 

Note 2. Avfvasasi cannot belong to the relative clause. 
The accent must be changed accordingly. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. It is very curious to find here Agni as the pro- 
tector of the vnginavartani, the man who follows crooked 
ways. Ludwig tries to explain the passage by under- 
standing the vidatha, in which Agni is here said to protect 
the sinner, as an asylum, but we have no reason to 
believe that the word could have this meaning. See the 
next note. 

Note 2. On the derivation and meaning of vidatha 
various opinions have been pronounced in the last years, 
which have been collected by Prof. Max.Muller in his note 
on V, 59, 2 (vol. xxxii, p. 349 seq. ; see also Bartholomae, 
Studien zur indogermanischen Sprachgeschichte, I, 41). 
Without trying to discuss here all different theories, I im- 
mediately proceed to state my own opinion, though I am 
far from claiming certainty for it. It will, however, 
I believe, solve the difficulties tolerably well. I propose to 
derive vidatha from vi-dM ; the dh was changed into d by 
the same ' Hauchdissimilationsgesetz ' (Brugmann, Grundriss 
der vergleichenden Grammatik, vol. i, p. 355 seq.), accord- 
ing to which Arian *bhaudhati was changed into Sanskrit 



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MAtfDALA I, HYMN 31. 2"] 

bodhati. No one will doubt that the operation of this 
'Hauchdissimilationsgesetz' could be annihilated by oppo- 
site forces, but it must be admitted that the forms with 
' Hauchdissimilation ' could also remain intact. The verb 
vi-dha means ' to distribute, to arrange, to ordain ; ' thus 
the original meaning of vidatha must be, like the meaning 
of vidhana, ' distribution, disposition, ordinance.' In V, 3, 6 
we read vidatheshu ahnam : this phrase receives its explana- 
tion by VII, 66, 1 1. vf ye - dadhuA jaradam ma"sam St ahaA ; 
ahoratrawi vidadhat, X, 190, 2 ; masam vidhanam, X, 138, 
6 ; r/tfln . . . vf dadhau, I, 95, 3. We may call attention 
also to VI, 51, 2. vecla yaA trfwi vidathani esham devanam 
^anma, ' he who knows their threefold division, the birth of 
the gods;' VI, 8, 1. pra nu vo£am vidatha ^atavedasaA, 
' I will proclaim the ordinances of G&tavedas.' Within the 
sphere of the Vedic poets' thoughts, the most prominent 
example of something most artificially 'vfhita' was the 
sacrifice (comp. vf ye* dadhu/j . . . ya^wam, VII, 66, 11 ; 
sims&ti uktham ya^ate vf u dhk/i, IV, 6, 1 1 ; [the moon] 
bhagam devebhyaA vf dadhati a-yan, X, 85, 19; and the 
following very significant passage: ya^«Asya tva vidatha 
prikkAam atra kati h6taraA ritusAA ya^anti, V&g. Sawh. 
XXIII, 57). Thus yagnk and vidatha, 'sacrifice' and 
' ordinance,' became nearly synonymous (comp. Ill, 3, 
3, &c). It would be superfluous to quote the whole 
number of passages which show this, but I believe that an 
attentive reader will discern at least in some of them the 
traces of the original meaning of vidatha ; see, for instance, 
II, 1,4 ; III, 28,4. — Finally vidatha seems to mean ' the act 
of disposing of any business ' or the like ; this meaning 
appears, I believe, in passages like the well-known phrase, 
brzhat vadema vidathe suvfraA (comp. suvfrasa/i! vidatham 
i vadema) : ' may we with valiant men mightily raise our 
voice at the determining (of ordinances, &c.).' Thus the 
words vidatha and sabha' approach each other in their 
meaning ; a person influential in council is called both 
vidathya and sabheya (see Boehtlingk-Roth, s. v. vidathya). 
Note 8. The exact meaning of paritakmya is not quite 



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28 VEDIC HYMNS. 



free from doubt. Comp. Bartholomae, Bezzenberger's 
Beitrage, XV, 203, note 1. 

Note 4. Prof. Max Miiller translates this verse : ' Thou 
savest the man who has gone the wrong way in the thick 
of the battle, thou who art quick at the sacrifice ; thou who 
in the strife of heroes, when the prize (or the booty) is sur- 
rounded (beset on all sides), killest,' &c. 

Verse 7. 
Note 1. The phrase begins as if a relative clause were to 
follow attached to the words ' that mortal.' But, instead of 
this, afterwards a relative clause follows referring to ' thou, 

Agni.' 

Note 2. Roth (Ueber gewisse Kiirzungen des Wortendes, 
p. 4) and Bartholomae (Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XXIX, 559) 
think that a dative (like tatrrshawa'ya) is required ; Agni 
gives comfort to both thirsty races, gods and men. Roth 
takes tatrtsha»a[/;] for an abbreviation of tatn'sha«aya ; 
Bartholomae conjectures tatrtshaya. It would be more 
easy to change the form into a dative with the ending 
-a (=-ai); comp. Kluge, Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XXV, 309; 
Pischcl-Geldner, I, 61 ; Aufrecht, Festgruss an Bohtlingk, 

1 ; J. Schmidt, Pluralbildungen, 234. But why not leave 
the nominative? Agni, being thirsty himself, quenches 
the thirst of other beings. Comp. J. Schmidt, Pluralbil- 
dungen, 309. 

Verse 11. 

Note 1. Ayum ayave. See verse 2, note 2. 

Note 2. The names Nahus, Nahusha have much the 
same value as Manus, Manusha. But it seems that not all 
the Aryan tribes, but only a certain part of them, were con- 
sidered as descendants of Nahus. Comp. Bergaigne, Rel. 
V&lique, II, 324. 

Note 3. The last words are very obscure. Mamaka 
occurs only in one other passage, belonging to the same 
collection of hymns, I, 34, 6 : there the Ajvins are invoked 
to bestow blessings on 'my son' (mamakaya sunave). 
* When a son of my father is born ' may mean ' When I am 



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MAJVDALA I, HYMN 3 1. 29 

bom,' or 'When a new issue is born within our tribe:' 
then — thus we may possibly supply — the goddess I/a, the 
teacher of mankind, will be the new-born child's teacher 
also. Another possible explanation would be to take 
Mamaka as a proper name. Or Prof. Max Miiller may be 
right, who writes : 'Could not pituA yat putraA mamakasya 
^ayate refer to Agni, who, in III, 29, 3, was called i/ayaA 
putraA. Her father and husband (Manu) is also the father 
of mankind, therefore of the poet who says : Whenever the 
son of my father is born, they made I/a (his mother) the 
teacher of man.' 

Verse 12. 

Mote 1. Trata" tokasya tanaye seems to be nothing else 
but trata" tokasya tanayasya, which would have had one 
syllable too much. 

Verse 18. 

Note 1. Comp. on this verse, Pischel, I, 216 seq. 

Note 2. Agni is to protect the man who has no quiver, 
and cannot, therefore, protect himself. The four eyes of 
the divine guardian seem to signify that he can look in all 
directions, and perhaps also that he has the power of seeing 
invisible bad demons. The watchdogs of Yama also are 
four-eyed, X, 14, 10. 11 ; comp. H. O., Religion des Veda, 
474, note 4. Comp. nishangin, Rig-veda III, 30, 15 ; V, 57, 
2; X, 103,3. 

Note 3. On ktrf, comp. Pischel loc. cit. 

Note 4. Ratahavya^ means either a man who has made 
offerings, or a god to whom offerings are made. That it 
stands here in the first sense is shown with great proba- 
bility by VIII, 103, 13, where the kiri'A ratahavyaA 
svadhvaraA is described, the man who, though poor, makes 
offerings and is a good sacrificer. But if we are right in 
our translation of ratahavyaA, the verb van6shi cannot 
belong to the relative clause; I propose to read vanoshi 
without accent. The way in which Pischel tries to explain 
the accent of vanoshi, by taking the words ktre^ kit man- 
tram manasa as a parenthesis, is too artificial. 



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30 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Verse 14. 

Note 1. I think that we should here, as in verse 13, 
read vanoshi without accent. 

Note 2. This must be at least the approximate meaning 
of adhra. ' For adhrasya one expects radhrasya,' M. M. 

Note 3. I think that the quarters of the world have 
nothing to do here, but that instead of pra disaA we should 
read (with Ludwig) pradfoa/t. A similar mistake regarding 
the word pradLr occurs several times in the text of the Rig- 
veda. I propose to translate the corrected text : ' Thou 
instructest the simple, well knowing the (divine) command- 
ments.' Comp. vayiinani vidvan, dutyani vidvan, &c. 

Verse 15. 

Note 1. ' Der ist des himels ebenbild ' (Ludwig). But 
this word upam£ is, as far as we can see, not very ancient. 
I take upama", with Boehtlingk-Roth, as an adverbial instru- 
mental like dakshiwa", madhya", &c. Prof. Max Miiller 
translates ' close or near to heaven.' 

Verse 16. 

Note 1. 5ara«i designates in the Atharva-veda VI, 43, 3 
a fault or defect, the exact nature of which cannot be deter- 
mined. Boehtlingk-Roth propose Widerspanstigkeit, Hart- 
nackigkeit ; Max Miiller, Abweg, Fehltritt. 

Note 2. On bhrimi, comp. M. M.'s note on II, 34, 1. 

Note 8. Comp. Ill, 43, 5. kuvft ma r/shim papivaVwsam 
sutasya (supply kdrase), ' Wilt thou make me a Hishi after 
I have drunk Soma ? ' 



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MAJVZ)ALA I, HYMN 36. 3 1 

MAiVZ?ALA I, HYMN 36. 

ASH7AKA I, ADHYAYA 3, VARGA 8-11. 

i. We implore 1 with well-spoken words the vigo- 
rous 2 Agni who belongs to many people 3 , to the 
clans that worship the gods 4 , whom other people 
(also) magnify. 

2. Men have placed Agni (on the altar) as the 
augmenter of strength. May we worship thee, rich 
in sacrificial food. Thus be thou here to-day gracious 
to us, a helper in our striving for gain, O good one ! 

3. We choose thee, the all-possessor, as our mes- 
senger and as our Hotrt. The flames of thee, 
who art great, spread around ; thy rays touch the 
heaven. 

4. The gods, Varu«a, Mitra, Aryaman, kindle 
thee, the ancient messenger. The mortal, O Agni, 
who worships thee, gains through thee every prize. 

5. Thou art the cheerful Hotrt and householder, 
O Agni, the messenger of the clans. In thee all the 
firm laws are comprised which the gods have made'. 

6. In thee, the blessed one, O Agni, youngest 
god, all sacrificial food is offered. Sacrifice then 
thou who art gracious to us to-day and afterwards 1 , 
to the gods that we may be rich in valiant men. 

7. Him, the king, verily the adorers approach 
reverentially. With oblations men kindle Agni, 
having overcome all failures. 

8. Destroying the foe 1 , they (victoriously) got 
through Heaven and Earth and the waters; they 



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o 



2 VEDIC HYMNS. 



have made wide room for their dwelling. May the 
manly (Agni)*, after he has received the oblations, 
become brilliant at the side of Ka»va; may he 
neigh as a horse in battles. 

9. Take thy seat; thou art great. Shine forth, 
thou who most excellently repairest to the gods. 
O Agni, holy god, emit thy red, beautiful smoke, 
O glorious one ! 

10. Thou whom the gods have placed here for 
Manu as the best performer of the sacrifice, O carrier 
of oblations, whom Ka«va and Medhyitithi, whom 
VWshan and Upastuta 1 (have worshipped,) the 
winner of prizes. 

11. That Agni's nourishment has shone brightly 
whom Medhyitithi and Ka»va have kindled on 
behalf of JZita. 1 . Him do these hymns, him do we 
extol. 

12. Fill (us with) wealth, thou self-dependent one, 
for thou, O Agni, hast companionship with the gods. 
Thou art lord over glorious booty. Have mercy 
upon us ; thou art great. 

1 3. Stand up straight for blessing us, like the god 
Savitrz, straight a winner of booty, when we with 
our worshippers and with ointments 1 call thee 2 in 
emulation (with other people). 

14. Standing straight, protect us by thy splendour 
from evil ; burn down every ghoul 1 . Let us stand 
straight that we may walk and live. Find out our 
worship* among the gods. 

15. Save us, O Agni, from the sorcerer, save us 
from mischief, from the niggard. Save us from him 



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MAJWJALA I, HYMN 36. 33 

who does us harm or tries to kill us, O youngest god 
with bright splendour ! 

16. As with a club 1 smite the niggards in all 
directions, and him who deceives us, O god with 
fiery jaws. The mortal who makes (his weapons) 
very sharp by night, may that impostor not rule 
over us. 

17. Agni has won abundance in heroes, Agni 
prosperity (for Ka«va). Agni and the two Mitras 
(i.e. Mitra and Varu«a) have blessed Medhyatithi, 
Agni (has blessed) Upastuta in the acquirement (of 
wealth) l . 

18. Through Agni we call hither from afar Tur- 
vasa, Yadu, and Ugradeva. May Agni, our strength 
against the Dasyu, conduct Navavastva, Br/had- 
ratha, and Turvtti 1 . 

19. Manu has established thee, O Agni, as a light 
for all people. Thou hast shone forth with Ka»va, 
born from I&ta., grown strong, thou whom the human 
races worship. 

20. Agni's flames are impetuous and violent ; they 
are terrible and not to be withstood. Always burn 
down the sorcerers, and the allies of the Yatus, every 
ghoul 1 . 

NOTES. 

The authorship of this hymn, and of the whole collection 
to which it belongs (I, 36-43), is ascribed to Ka«va Ghaura. 
Numerous passages show indeed that it was the family 
of the Kattvas, or rather, to speak more accurately, a branch 
of that family, among which this group of hymns has been 
composed. But it is as great a mistake in this as in 
[46J D 



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34 VEDIC HYMNS. 



a number of similar cases to accept the founder of one 
of the great Brahmanical families as an author of Vedic 
poems. Comp. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morg. Gesell- 
schaft, XLII, 215 seq. 

The metre is alternately Br/hatl and Satobr*hatt, so that 
the hymn consists of strophes (Pragatha) of two verses. 
Verse i = SV. I, 59. Verse 9= VS. XI, 37 ; TS. IV, 1, 3, 
3 (V, i, 4, 5) ; TAr. IV, 5, 2 (V, 4, 6) ; MS. II, 7, 3 ; IV, 9, 3. 
Verse 13= SV. I, 57 ; VS. XI, 42 ; TS. IV, 1, 4, 2 (V, 1, 5, 
3) ; MS. II, 7, 4. Verses 13, I4=TB. Ill, 6, 1, 2 ; TAr. IV, 
20, 1 ; MS. IV, 13, 1. Verse i9 = SV. I, 54. 

Verse 1. 

Note L Literally, we entreat for you. Comp. on this 
use of the pronoun vaA, Delbruck, Altindische Syntax, 2c6. 
See also Neisser, Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XX, 64. 

Note 2. The meaning of yahva cannot be determined 
with full certainty. 

Note 3. There is no sufficient reason to change with 
Ludwig(IV, 254) puruwam to Puruwa'm, and thus to convert 
the metrically correct Pada into an irregular one. — Comp. 
Bollensen, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenl. Gesellschaft, 
XXII, 593. 

Note 4. On devayatiham, comp. Lanman, p. 399. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. 'On thee all the eternal works are united, i.e. 
depend, which the gods have wrought ; such as sun, stars, 
lightning.' M.M. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. With the third Pada compare the third Pada of 
verse 2. It is a galita. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. The word ' the foe ' (vntra) alludes to the name 
of the demon conquered by Indra ; see H. O., Religion des 
Veda, 135, note 2. 



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MAJVDALA I, HYMN 36. 35 

Note 2. The metre would become more correct by 
reading vrishabhiA instead of vrfeha. Or VWsha»i, ' with 
Vn'shan'? Comp. verse 10. 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. Medhyatithi or Medhatithi is very frequently 
mentioned in connection with Kanva. 

VWshan is taken as a proper name by Boehtlingk-Roth 
and by Grassmann (not by Ludwig) in VI, 16, 15. Possibly 
they are right, but in no case can VWshan of the sixth 
book, named by the side of Dadhyaȣ and Atharvan, be 
identified with any probability with the VWshan mentioned 
in our passage, who evidently belongs to the ancestors of 
the Kawvas. 

Upastuta is mentioned again together with Kanva and 
Medhyatithi in verse 17 of our hymn, together with Kanva 
in VIII, 5, 25. Comp. I, 112, 15 ; VIII, 103, 8; X, 115, 8. 9 ; 
Bergaigne, Rel. V6d., II, 448. 

Verse 11. 

Mote L Comp. I, 139, 2. yit ha tydt mitrivaruwav rit&t 
adhi adadcithe anrztam svena manyuna; X, 73, 5. man- 
damana/z rtt&t adhi. 

Verse 13. 

Note 1. AngibhiA can possibly mean ' who have salved 
themselves.' There is no reason to think of the anointing 
of the yupa (sacrificial post), to which Sayawa refers the 
word. 

Note 2. On vi-hva, comp Pischel-Geldner, 1, 144. There 
must be a technical reason, unknown to me, for the con- 
nection in which this verb repeatedly occurs, as is the case 
in our passage, with the noun vaghat : comp. Ill, 8, 10 (see 
below); VIII, 5, 16. purutra' £it hf vim nara vihvayante 
manishf«an vaghadbhin ajvina £ gatam. 

Verse 14. 

Note 1. The exact meaning of atrfn is unknown. 
Note 2. Geldner's conjectures on duvas seem rather bold 

D 2 



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36 VEDIC HYMNS. 



to me (Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XXVII, 233). Comp. vol. xxxii, 
pp. 203-206 (I, 165, 14). 

Verse 16. 
Note 1. On ghaneva, see Lanman, Noun-Inflection, 334. 

Verse 17. 

Note 1. On Medhyatithi and Upastuta, see the note on 
verse 10. Aufrecht (Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XXVI, 612) believes 
that in mitrdta an abbreviation of the name Mitratithi 
(X, 33, 7) is contained ; he translates : ' Agni has promoted 
Mitratithi, Medhyatithi, and Upastuta in the acquirement 
of wealth.' This is very ingenious, but I do not think that 
the reason which Aufrecht gives is sufficient : it cannot be 
understood, he says, why Mitra (or Mitra and Varu«a) 
should be mentioned in a hymn exclusively addressed to 
Agni. But similar cases are quite frequent. — Prof. Max 
Miiller writes : ' Could mitra stand for mitrawi ? Agni has 
protected his friends and also Medhyatithi.' Comp. also 
Lanman, p. 342. 

Verse 18. 

Mote 1. On Turvara. and Yadu, comp. Muir, V, 286 ; 
Bergaigne, II, 354 seq. ; Zeitschr. der D. Morg. Ges. XLII, 
220. There is not the slightest reason for Ludwig's state- 
ment (IV, 254) that this hymn is a *gebet um sig fur den 
auf einem kriegszuge befindlichen Turvacakonig.' 

Ugradeva is not mentioned again. On Navavastva and 
Brzhadratha, comp. X, 49, 6 ; VI, 20, 11 ; on Turvlti, the 
materials collected by Bergaigne, Rel. W6d., II, 358 seq. 

Verse 20. 
Note 1. See verse 14, note 1. 



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MANDALA t, HYMN 44. 37 

MAA>Z?ALA I, HYMN 44. 
ASH7AKA I, ADHYAYA 3, VARGA 28-30. 

i. Agni, at the rising of the dawn 1 bring splendid 
wealth, immortal Citavedas, to the worshipper, (and 
bring hither) to-day the gods awakening with the 
dawn. 

2. For thou art the accepted messenger, the bearer 
of sacrificial food, O Agni, the charioteer of worship. 
United with the two A^vins and with the Dawn 
bestow on us abundance of valiant heroes, and high 
glory. 

3. We choose to-day as our messenger Agni, the 
Vasu, the beloved of many, whose banner is smoke, 
whose ... 2 is light, at the dawning of the day, the 
beautifier of sacrifices 2 . 

4. I magnify at the dawning of the day Agni 
6atavedas, the best, the youngest guest, the best 
receiver of offerings, welcome to pious people, that 
he may go to the gods'. 

5. I shall praise thee, O food on which everything 
lives, immortal one', Agni, the immortal protector, 
O holy god, the best sacrificer, O bearer of sacrificial 
food. 

6. Be kind-spoken to him who praises thee, O 
youngest god, honey-tongued, the best receiver of 
offerings. Lengthening Praska»va's life, that he 
may reach old age, do homage 1 to the host of the 
gods. 

7. The clans kindle thee, the all-possessing Hotri: 

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38 VEDIC HYMNS. 



therefore conduct hither speedily, much-invoked 
Agni, the provident gods — 

8. Savitrz, the Dawn, the two Asvins, Bhaga, 
Agni 1 , at the dawning (of the day), (at the end) of 
night 2 . The Ka#vas, having pressed Soma, inflame 
thee, the bearer of sacrificial food, O best performer 
of worship. 

9. As thou, O Agni, art the lord of worship, the 
messenger of the clans, conduct hither to-day the 
gods awakening with the dawn, of sun-like aspect, 
that they may drink Soma. 

10. Agni, rich in splendour! thou hast shone 
after the former dawns, visible to all. Thou art the 
guardian in the hamlets, the Purohita; thou be- 
longest to men at the sacrifices '. 

1 1 . O Agni, let us put thee down (on the altar) as 
Manus did, O god, to be the performer of the sacri- 
fice, the Hotrz, the wise priest, the quick immortal 
messenger. 

1 2. When thou, the Purohita of the gods, who art 
great like Mitra, goest on thy errand as messenger 
in their midst, then the flames of Agni shine like the 
roaring waves of the Sindhu l . 

1 3. Agni with thy attentive ears, hear me, together 
with the gods driven (on their chariots) ' who accom- 
pany thee. May Mitra and Aryaman sit down on 
the sacrificial grass, they who come to the ceremony 
early in the morning. 

14. May the Maruts, they who give rain, the fire- 
tongued increasers of Rita., hear my praise. May 
Varima, whose laws are firm, drink the Soma, united 
with the two Asvins and with the Dawn ! 



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MAJVDALA I, HYMN 44. 39 



NOTES. 

The hymn is ascribed to Praska»va K4»va, who is the 
reputed author of the whole group of the hymns, I, 44-50. 
It is certain that these hymns really belong to a branch of 
the great Kanva family, for which the name Praskawva is 
characteristic. Comp. my Prolegomena, p. 260. 

The metre is Barhata Pragatha. Verse 1 = SV. I, 40. 
Verses 1-2 = SV. II, 1130-J131. Verse 11 = TB. II, 7, 
12, 6. Verse 13 =SV. I, 50 ; VS. 33, 15 ; TB. II, 7, 12,5. 

This Agni-hymn contains a number of allusions which 
show that it was destined for the morning service. The 
same may be said of the next hymn, 1, 45, and of the whole 
collection of Praskawva hymns, which are addressed ex- 
clusively to the devaA prataryavawaA, viz. Agni in his 
special character as a matutinal deity, the two A^vins, the 
Dawn, the rising Sun. From the mention of the Soma 
tiroahnya 45, 10 ; 47, 1, and from other circumstances, Ber- 
gaigne has very ingeniously drawn the conclusion that 
in the Praskawva collection an ancient Ajvinarastra is 
preserved ; see Recherches sur l'histoire de la Liturgie 
Vedique, 45. 

Verse 1. 

Note L I believe that the text, I may perhaps not say 
requires, but very strongly invites, a slight correction. 
The tradition gives agne vfvasvat ushasa/; £itram raclha£ 
amartya. To connect vlvasvat with ra'dha^ and to make 
the genitive ushasa/* depend on ra'dha^ would give an 
expression which is not, strictly speaking, impossible but 
in every case very unusual. Nothing, on the other hand, 
is more frequent than combinations of the locative of 
a noun derived from vi-vas with the genitive ushasaA, ' at 
the rising of the dawn' (ushasaA vyush/au, vyushrishu, 
vyiishi ; comp. the phrase vasto usraV* treated of by Kaegi, 
Festgruss an Bohtlingk, 48 ; vastoA usra"A, Bartholomae, 
Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XV, 185). I think that such 



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40 VEDIC HYMNS. 



a phrase should be restored in our verse, and propose to 
read agne vivasvan ushasa^, &c. The word vivasvan occurs 
in VIII, 102, 22. agnfm idhe vivasvabhiA. The expression 
used here would thus be similar to that of III, 15, 2. tvam 
naA asySA ushasaA vyush/au . . . bodhi gopaVfc ; comp. IV, 
1, 5, &c. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. The meaning of bh&h-rig ilea is quite uncertain. 
The accent would well agree with the explanation of the 
word as a possessive compound ; dhumaketum bh&Jt-rig\ka.m 
would then be exactly parallel : whose banner is smoke, 
whose rigWza. is light. We have then gd-rigika. as an 
epithet of Soma, ' he whose riglka. the cows are,' i.e. 
* whose rigika. is milk,' and kvlA-rtglka as an epithet of 
Dadhikravan (' he whose r^-Jka is visible '). All this taken 
together is clearly insufficient for giving a result, and there 
is scarcely a better prospect for etymological guesses. 
Bergaigne's (Rel. V&L, I, 206) translation of r^ika by 
'fleche' would do for bha^-r^ftka, but it is not very 
tempting in the cases of gd-rigtka. and av/A-r^ika. Roth 
(Zeitschrift der D. Morg. Ges. 48, 118) translates 'licht- 
glanzend.' 

Note 2. Pischel's explanation of adhvaran-1 (Vedische 
Studien, I, 5$, ' Zum Opfer kommend ') does not seem con- 
vincing to me. 

Veree 4. 

Note 1. Lud wig's translation ' dasz er die gotter her- 
bringe' is not exact. As to the real meaning of our 
passage, comp. VI 1, 9, 5. agne yahf dutyam . . . devan ikkAa., 
' Agni, go as a messenger ... to the gods.' 

Verse 6. 
Note 1. Boehtlingk-Roth propose to read amrttabho- 
£ana. I think the traditional text is right. Agni is called 
vi-rvasya bhq?ana similarly, as it is said in I, 48, 10 (with 
regard to Ushas), vkvasya hi prawanam £-"vanam tve\ 
Amrita may be vocative s. neuter or masculine. Comp. 
Lanman, 339. 



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MAJVDALA I, HYMN\44. ' ' • ' )\\ 



Verse 6. 

Note 1. Benfey (Quantitatsverschiedenheiten, IV, a, 27) 
and Ludwig take namasya" for a first person. 

Verse 8. 

Note L If the accusative agnfm is right, as it probably 
is, Agni would be invoked to conduct Agni to the sacrifice. 
This is quite a possible idea. Comp. the formula of the 
' devatanam avahanam,' ' agnim agna avaha, somam avaha, 
agnim avaha,' i.e. 'Agni, conduct hither Agni, conduct 
hither Soma, conduct hither Agni.' See Hillebrandt, Das 
Altindische Neu- und Vollmondsopfer, p. 84. 

Note 2. Lanman, 482, takes kshapaA as an ace. plur. 
I think it is gen. sing., and the accent should be kshapaA. 
Comp. VIII, 19, 31 ; III, 49, 4, and the phrase akt6A 
vyush/au. 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. Prof. Max M tiller translates: 'Thou art the 
guardian in the hamlets, the chief-priest; thou art the 
human chief-priest at the sacrifices.' 

Verse 12. 

Note 1. With the third Pada comp. IX, 50, 1, where it 
is said that the mighty strength of Soma shows itself 
' sindhoA ArmeA iva svanaA,' i. e. ' like the roar of the 
waves of the Sindhu.' 

Verse 13. 

Note 1. I cannot follow the translation of Dr. Neisser, 
Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XVIII, 316. 



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42 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAA^ALA I, HYMN 45. 
ASH7AKA I, ADHYAYA 3, VARGA 31-32. 

i. Sacrifice here, thou, O Agni, to the Vasus, the 
Rudras, and the Adityas, to the (divine) host that 
receives good sacrifices \ the Ghrrta-sprinkling 
offspring of Manu 2 . 

2. The wise gods, O Agni, are ready to listen 
to the worshippers : conduct them hither, the 
thirty-three, O lord of red horses, thou who lovest 
our praises. 

3. As thou hast heard Priyamedha and Atri 1 , 
O (/atavedas, as thou hast heard Virflpa and 
Angiras, thus hear the invocation of Praska«va, 
O lord of high laws. 

4. The Mahikerus 1 , the Priyamedhas have 
invoked for their protection the lord of worship, 
Agni with his bright splendour. 

5. O thou to whom Ghr/ta oblations are poured 
out, good (Agni), hear these praises with which the 
sons of Ka«va invoke thee for their protection. 

6. O Agni, whose glory is brightest, beloved 
of many, the people in the clans invoke thee, the 
radiant-haired, to convey the sacrificial food. 

7. The priests have established thee, O Agni, 
in the striving for day 1 , as their Hotri, the 
ministrant, the greatest acquirer of wealth, with 
attentive ears, the most widely extended*. 

8. The wise who have pressed Soma have made 
thee speed hither to the feast (which is offered to 
the gods), bringing great light 1 and sacrificial food, 
O Agni, on behalf of the mortal worshipper. 



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MAJVZ)ALA I, HYMN 45. 43 

9. O strength-made, good (Agni), make the gods 
who come in the morning, the divine host, sit down 
here to-day on our sacrificial grass, O Vasu, to 
drink the Soma. 

10. Sacrifice, O Agni, with joint invocations, and 
bring hither the divine host. This is the Soma, 
O rain-giving gods. Drink (the Soma) which has 
been kept over night 1 . 

NOTES. 

The hymn is ascribed to Praskawva. It is evidently 
addressed to Agni in his matutinal character ; comp. the 
note on I, 44. The metre is Anush/ubh. Verse 1 = SV. 
I, 96. Verse 6 = VS. XV, 31 ; TS. IV, 4, 4, 3 ; MS. II, 

13. 7- 

Verse L 

Mote 1. Comp. VII I, 5, $3. ikkh*. svadhvaram^anam. 

Note 2. As to the gods being considered here as off- 
spring of Manu, comp. especially X, 53, 6. manuA bhava 
/andya dafvyam ^anam, ' become Manu, procreate the 
divine hosts.' See also Bergaigne, Rel.V^dique, I, 69. 

Verse 3. 

Rote 1. This passage is one of those which show that 
the Atris stood in especially friendly connection with the 
Kawvas. Of the Priyamedhas the same may be said, or 
perhaps we may even go further and consider them as one 
branch of the Kawvas. For a fuller discussion of these 
questions I refer to my paper, * Ueber die Liedverfasser 
des Rig-veda,' Zeitschr. der D. Morg. Gesellschaft, XLII, 
213 seq. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. MahikeravaA, which I have translated as a proper 
name, may be an adjective belonging to Priyamedha//. 
Possibly it is derived from the root kar, ' to praise : ' ' the 



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44 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Priyamedhas with mighty hymns.' Comp. Bartholomae, 
Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XXVII, 341. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. As g6-ishri means ' the striving for cows,' thus 
d(v-ish/i means 'the striving for day,' or possibly 'the 
striving for heaven.' Ludwig (III, 383) takes it for 'mor- 
genopfer,' and it is true that most of the passages, in which 
the word occurs, are addressed to matutinal deities. Thus 
our passage belongs to a hymn addressed to the matutinal 
Agni ; I, 48, 9 is addressed to Ushas ; I, 139, 4 ; VII, 74, 
1 ; VIII, 87, 3 to the A.rvins ; IV, 46, 1 ; 47, 1 to VAyu 
who was invoked in the Prauga-jastra belonging to the 
PrataA-savana, and who received the Soma offering before 
the other deities. There is, nevertheless, at least one 
passage which shows that Ludwig has gone too far : VIII, 
76, 9. piba it indra marutsakha sutam s6mam dfvishrishu, 
' Drink, O Indra, with the Maruts thy friends the Soma 
which has been pressed at the divishris.' The Soma obla- 
tion offered to Indra Marutvat formed part of the second 
(midday) Savana. 

Note 2. ' Saprathastamam, the most renowned, r^pandu.' 

M. M. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. Comp. IV, 5, 1. katha" dlfema agnaye brihit 
bh&A, 'how may we offer great light to Agni?' — which 
seems to mean, ' how may we make Agni brilliant ? ' Thus 
in our passage the meaning seems to be : the priests kindle 
Agni and perform oblations. 

Verse 10. 
Note 1. The tiraA-ahnya Soma, which was kept from 
one day to the next day (not, as Ludwig translates, * der 
von vorgestern '), was offered to the Ajvins at the Atiratra 
sacrifice. Comp. Rig-veda I, 47, 1 ; III, 58, 7 ; VIII, $5, 
19 ; Katyayana .Srautasfltra XII, 6, 10 ; XXIV, 3, 42. 
There the commentary says, ajvinajastrakayagasamban- 
dhinaA £amasasthaA somaA pOrvadinanishpannatvat tiro- 
hnya ity u£yante. 



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MAJVDALA I, HYMN 58. 45 

MAiVZ>ALA I, HYMN 58. 

ASHTAKA I, ADHYAYA 4, VARGA 23-24. 

i. The strength-begotten immortal never grows 
tired 1 , when he, the Hotri, has become the 
messenger of Vivasvat 2 . He passes through the 
air on the best paths. In the divine world he 
invites (the gods) with the sacrificial food. 

2. Seizing his own food the undecaying, greedy 
(Agni) stands on the brushwood wishing to drink. 
When he has been sprinkled (with ghee), he shines 
like a racer with his back 1 . Thundering he has 
roared like the ridge of heaven. 

3. As soon as l the Rudras, the Vasus have made 
him their Purohita, the immortal sitting down as 
Hotr/, the conqueror of wealth, pressing forward 
like a chariot among the clans, among the Ayus 2 , 
the god in due course discloses desirable boons. 

4. Stirred by the wind he spreads among the 
brushwood lightly 1 (driven forward) by the sacrificial 
ladles, with his sickle 2 , loudly roaring. When 
thou, O Agni, thirstily rushest on the wooden 
sticks like a bull 8 , thy course, O never-aging god 
with fiery waves, becomes black 4 . 

5. He who has fiery jaws, stirred by the wind, 
blazes down on the forest 1 as a strong bull (rushes) 
on the herd. When he proceeds 2 with his stream 
of light to the imperishable atmosphere, then what 
is moveable and immoveable (and) the winged (birds) 
are afraid. 

6. The Bhrogus have placed thee among men, 
who art beautiful like a treasure, who art easy to 



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46 VEDXC HYMNS. 



invoke for people ; thee the HotW, O Agni, the 
excellent guest, a delightful friend like Mitra to the 
divine race ! 

7. I worship with good cheer Agni the steward 1 
of all treasures, whom the seven ladles 2 (of the 
priests), the worshippers choose as the Hotri, the 
best sacrificer at the rites, and I pray for treasure 8 . 

8. Son of strength, great like Mitra, grant to-day- 
flawless protection to us who magnify thee. Agni ! 
guard from distress with strongholds of iron him 
who praises thee, O offspring of vigour ! . 

9. Be a shelter to him who praises thee, O 
resplendent one ; be protection, generous giver, to 
the generous. Agni ! guard him who praises thee 
from distress. May he who gives wealth for our 
prayer, come quickly in the morning 1 . 



NOTES. 

The hymn is ascribed to Nodhas Gautama, who is 
considered as the Rishi of the whole collection, I, 58-64. 
This tradition is based on, and confirmed by, several 
passages of the text: I, 61, 14 ; 6a, 13 ; 64, 1. 

The metre is £agati verses 1-5, TrishAibh verses 6-9. 
None of the verses of this hymn occurs in the other 
Sawhitas. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. I believe that Professor Aufrecht (Kuhn's Zeit- 
schrift, XXV, 435) is right in reading nfl £it sahaA-^aV/ 
amritsJt nu tandate. Comp. as to nu £it nu, I, 120, a ; 
VI, 37, 3 ; VII, aa, 8. Agni is frequently called atandra^ 
dutiA or similarly. Possibly we might read, instead of mi 
tandate, nf tandate, though parallel passages for the com- 
bination of this root with nf are not known. — Prof. Max 



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MA.WBALA I, HYMN 58. 47 

M tiller's opinion is different. He writes: We say, der 
Funke schlagt oder fangt. Why should not the Hindu 
have said that Agni strikes out. That would be vi tundate, 
Agni schlagt aus im Augenblick. But even ni tundate 
may have been used in the sense of the spark striking 
down on the tinder — the atasas, mentioned in verse 2 — 
which he ignites. I should translate : ' The strength- 
begotten immortal strikes down or breaks forth (vi) 
quickly, whenever the Hotrj (Agni) becomes the messenger 
of the sacrificer (?).' 

Note 2. I cannot follow Aufrecht in his translation 
'zum boten des opfernden.' Comp. on Agni as the 
messenger of Vivasvat, Bergaigne, Rel. Wdique, I, 87 ; 
H.O., Religion des Veda, 122, 275. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. Literally, his back shines like a racer. On this 
kind of comparison, see Bergaigne, Melanges Renier, 86 ; 
Pischel, Vedische Studien, I, 107. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. Krawa" : comp. von Bradke, Dyaus Asura, Ahura 
Mazda und die Asuras, p. 36 ; Pischel, Vedische Studien, 
1,70. 

Note 2. Bergaigne, Rel. V^dique, I, 59 seq. 

Verse 4. 

Note L On vr/tha, see Geldner, Vedische Studien, 1, 116 ; 
Neisser, Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XIX, 148 seq. 

Note 2. The meaning is : with his flames which are sharp 
like a sickle. Srtni is written here as a paroxytonon ; 
in several other passages it is an oxytonon. Such differ- 
ences are not quite rare, and there is no reason for taking 
on this account srinyA as an instr. plur. fern, of the adjective 
srinya., ' mit verkurzter Endung ' (Geldner, loc. cit.). ' His 
sickle is the sharp edge of Agni.' M. M. — On ^uhfibhi^, 
comp. Pischel, Vedische Studien, II, in. 



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48 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Note 3. As to vnshayase with the accusative, comp. 
Gaedicke, 74. RV. X, 44, 4. ixrg&h skambham . . . \ri~ 
shayase. 

Note 4. With the last Pada comp. IV, 7, 9. krsshoam te 
6ma rujata// puraA hh&h. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. That is, among the fuel. 

Note 2. I think that we have here probably — (though, of 
course, this explanation can be avoided) — an anacoluthon. 
The poet began with the nominative (abhivra^an), and then 
he changed the construction and went on as if he had 
begun with the ablative, taking sthatti^ £aratham (comp. 
Lanman, 422) as the subject instead of Agni. — Patatrfoa// 
seems to be nom. pi. ; comp. I, 94, 11 (see below). 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. The translation of aratf is only approximative 
and conjectural. 

Note 2. Comp. Pischel, Ved. Studien, II, 1 13. 

Note 8. Comp. Ill, 54, 3. sapary&'mi prayasa ya"mi 
rdtnam. 

Verse 9. 

Note 1. The last Pada is the standing conclusion of the 
Nodhas hymns. 



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MAtfOALA I, HYMN 59. 49 

MAM9ALA I, HYMN 59. 
ASH7AKA I, ADHYAYA 4, VARGA 25. 

i. The other Agnis (the other fires) are verily 
thy branches, O Agni. In thee all the immortals 
enjoy themselves 1 . VaLnranara! Thou art the 
centre 2 of human settlements ; like a supporting 
column thou holdest men 3 . 

2. The head of heaven, the navel of the earth is 
Agni; he has become the steward 1 of both worlds. 
Thee, a god, the gods haye engendered, O Vai$- 
vanara, to be a light for the Arya. 

3. As in the sun the rays are firmly fixed, thus in 
Agni Vai^vanara all treasures have been laid down 1 . 
(The treasures) which dwell in the mountains, in 
the herbs, the waters, and among men — of all that 
thou art the king. 

4. As the two great worlds to their son 1 , like 
a Hotrt, like a skilful man, (we bring) praises — 
manifold (praises) to him who is united with the sun, 
to the truly strong one, new (praises) to Vaisvanara, 
the manliest god. 

5. Thy greatness, O (S&tavedas, Vaisvanara, has 
exceeded even the great heaven. Thou art the 
king of the human tribes ; thou hast by fighting 
gained wide space for the gods. 

6. Let me now proclaim the greatness of the 
bull whom the Purus worship as the destroyer 
of enemies 1 . Agni Vai^vanara, having slain the 
Dasyu, shook the (aerial) arena and cut down 
•Sambara. 

[46] E 



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50 VEDIC HYMNS. 



7. Agni Vaisvanara, extending by his greatness 
over all dominions, who is to be worshipped, the 
bright one, rich in loveliness, is awake (or, is 
praised) among the Bharadva^as, in the homestead 
of Puru«itha .Satavaneya, with his hundredfold 
blessings. 



NOTES. 

The same Rishi as in I, 58. Metre, TrishAibh. None 
of the verses of this hymn occurs in the other Sawzhitas. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. Comp. VII, 11, 1. na riti tvat amrfta£ maday- 
ante, ' the immortals do not enjoy themselves without thee.' 

Note 2. Literally, ' the navel.' Comp. Muir, V, 214. 

Note 3. Comp. IV, 5, 1 (see below), lipa stabhayat 
upamft na r6dhaA. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. Comp. the remark on I, 58, 7 (note 1). 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. I cannot follow Prof, von Roth (Zeitschrift der 
D. Morgenl. Gesellschaft, XLVIII, 11 6), who explains 
dadhire as a third person sing, of dhr*. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. The incompleteness both of the construction 
and of the metre shows that the text of the first Pada is 
corrupt. I doubt whether it ever will be possible to restore 
the correct reading with full certainty, but I shall be glad 
if others succeed better than I did — and I may add, better 
than Prof, von Roth (Zeitschrift der D. Morg. Gesellschaft, 
XLVIII, 117 seq.) seems to me to have succeeded — in cor- 
recting and in interpreting the text I think that after sunave 



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MAtfDALA I, HYMN 59. 5 1 

rodasi clearly one syllable is wanted to complete the Pada : 
possibly we should read therefore sunave rodasyoA (comp. 
verse a, Pada a, aratf/fc rodasyoA, which words form the end 
of the Pada). Agni, as is well known, is the son of the 
two worlds, the sOnuA r6dasyoA. In the beginning of the 
Pada brzhatf must either refer to the two worlds: in this 
case we have to read brihaty6A (instead of brihati iva) ; 
or br&ati may refer, as this adjective frequently does, to 
the gfraA, and we shall possibly have to read br thatlA vaA 
(as to v&h, comp. Delbriick, Altindische Syntax, ao6). 
But of course all these are mere guesses. In every case 
the verb on which the accusative gfraA depends ('we 
bring,' or something like that) must be supplied. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. Or, as the killer of VWtra. See H. O., Religion 
des Veda, 135, note a. 



E 2 



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52 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAA^ALA I, HYMN 60. 
ASH7AKA I, ADHYAYA 4, VARGA 26. 

i. Matariyvan brought (Agni) to Bhr/gu as a gift 
precious like wealth, of double birth 1 , the carrier, the 
famous, the beacon of the sacrifice 2 , the ready and 
immediately successful messenger. 

2. Both follow his command, the \is\gs * offering 
sacrificial food, and the mortals. The Hotr? (Agni) 
has sat down before daybreak among the clans, the 
lord of the clans, whose leave should be asked, the 
performer of worship. 

3. May our new, beautiful praise, born 1 from our 
heart, reach him the honey-tongued (Agni), whom 
the human priests in our settlement 8 , the Ayus, 
offering enjoyment have engendered. 

4. The Usig 1 , the purifier, the Vasu has been 
established among men, the best Hotri among the 
clans, the domestic 2 master of the house in the 
house : Agni has become the treasure-lord of 
treasures. 

5. Thus we, the Gotamas, praise thee, O Agni, 
the lord of treasures, with our (pious) thoughts, 
rubbing thee as (they rub down) a swift racer that 
wins the prize. May he who gives wealth for our 
prayer, come quickly in the morning \ 

NOTES. 

Rishi and metre are the same. No verse occurs in the 
other Sawhitas. 

Verse 1. 

Mote 1. The celestial and the terrestrial birth of Agni. 
Comp. Bergaigne, Rel. Vecl., II, 5a. 



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MAJVZ3ALA I, HYMN 60. 53 

Note 2. The text has vidathasya. Comp. I, 31, 6, 
note 2. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. On usig- ('the willing one'), as denoting the 
mythical priests who have first established Agni and have 
sacrificed as the first, comp. Bergaigne, I, 57 seq. The 
ubh&y&s&A seem to be these mythical ancestors and the 
actual sacrificers. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. I propose to read ^fyamana. Comp. I, 171, 2. 
stomal . . . hridtL tashi&A ; II, $5, 2. hridih & sdtash/am 
mdntram ; VIII, 43, 2. agne ^n&mi sush/utfm ; V, 42, 13. 
gf ram . . . ^ayamanam, &c. — Comp. Lanman, 356. 

Note 2. On the meaning of vrig&na, see Max Miiller, 
vol. xxxii, pp. xx, 208, 304 ; Geldner, Vedische Studien, I, 
139 seq., with my remarks, Gottinger Gelehrte Anzeigen, 
1890, 410 seq.; Ludwig, Ueber Methode bei Interpretation 
des /?/g-veda, 27 seq. ; Colinet, Les Principes de l'Exegese 
Vedique d'apres MM. Pischel et Geldner, 28 seq.; von 
Bradke, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morg. Gesellschaft, 
XLVIII, 500 ; Bechtel, Nachrichten der Gottinger Gesell- 
schaft der Wiss., 1894, 392 seq. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. See verse 2, note 1. 

Note 2. Bartholomae's theory (Bezzenberger's Beitrage, 
XV, 194) that the stem damunas has been developed out of 
the phrase dimu iaJt, 'in our house,' does not carry 
conviction. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. See I, 58, 9, note 1. 



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54 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAM9ALA I, HYMN 65. 
ASH7AKA I, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 9. 

i \ Thee who hidest thyself in secret like a thief 
with an animal 2 (which he has stolen) — who hadst 
harnessed 3 adoration and carriedst adoration — 

2. The wise unanimously followed by thy foot- 
marks *. All (gods) deserving worship (reverentially) 
sat down near thee. 

3. The gods followed the laws of /frta. There 
was an encompassing as the heaven (encompasses) 
the earth '. 

4. In the lap, in the womb of Rita, the waters 
nourish the fine child with praise, him who is well 
born. 

5. Like good fortune, like a broad abode, like the 
fertile hill 1 , like the refreshing stream, 

6. Like a racer urged forward in the race, like the 
rapids of the Sindhu ' — who can hold him back ? 

7. (He is) the kinsman of the rivers, as a brother 
of his sisters. He eats the forests as a king (eats, 
i. e. takes the wealth of) the rich '. 

8. When he has spread through the forests, 
driven by the wind, Agni shears the hair of the 
earth. 

9. Sitting in the waters he hisses like a swan. 
(He is) most famous by his power of mind, he who 
belongs to the clans, awakening at dawn — 

10. A performer of worship like Soma, the god 
born from Jtita., like a young (?)' beast, far-extending, 
far-shining. 



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MAAWALA I, HYMN 65. 55 



NOTES. 

The authorship of the whole collection, I, 65-73, ' s 
ascribed to PaWLrara Saktya. These hymns are addressed 
exclusively to Agni. The greater part of them (65-70) is 
composed in the Vira.f metre ;• comp. on this metre my 
Prolegomena, 95 seq. I have given there my reasons for 
considering that each verse consists of twenty, not of forty 
syllables. 

This section ascribed to Parlrara has been treated of by 
Bollensen, Zeitschrift der D. Morg. Gesellschaft, XXII, 
569 seq. No verse of these hymns composed in the metre 
Dvipada Vira^" (I, 65-70) occurs in the other Sawzhitas. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. Professor Max Miiller proposes the following 
translation for verses 1 and 2 : The wise (gods) together 
followed thee (Agni) when in hiding, by means of footsteps, 
as one follows a thief by the animal ; they followed thee 
who accepts and carries adoration (to the gods). All the 
worshipful gods sat down (reverentially) near thee. 

Note 2. There is no reason for reading with Bartholomae 
(Studien zur indogermanischen Sprachgeschichte, I, 48) 
parva'n (gen. plur.) na tayum. 

Note 3. Ludwig proposes yuvanam, which is quite un- 
necessary. — See also Gaedicke, 1 73. 

Verse 2. 
Note 1. We have here the well-known myth of the 
hidden Agni discovered by the gods. The 'wise ones,' 
(dhira^) are no doubt the searching gods, the same who are 
called ya^atraA in the last Pada, and who are expressly 
designated as devaV* in verse 3. Comp. Bergaigne, I, no. 

Verse 3. 
Note 1. Regarding the construction, see Gaedicke, 192. — 
Professor Max Miiller's opinion on this phrase differs from 



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56 VEDIC HYMNS. 



mine. He writes : * I should prefer parish/i. But parish/i 
seems to mean a running about, reconnoitring, searching. 
"There was searching on earth as in heaven," lit. earth, 
like heaven, was reconnoitring-ground.' 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. Comp. VIII, 50, a. girlA na bhu^m^. I believe 
that Boehtlingk-Roth, Bollensen, and Grassmann are right 
in correcting our passage accordingly; ra«v5, prfthvf, 
jambhti follow the gender of the corresponding substantives, 
and the same may be expected here. Comp. Lanman, 530. 
The meaning is that Agni yields nourishment to all beings 
as a mountain fertilises the country by the waters which 
come down from it ; comp. VIII, 49, a. gire^ iva pra r&s&A 
asya pinvire datrawi purubho^asaA. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. Regarding the construction, comp. Gaedicke, 
35a seq. ; Bergaigne, Melanges Renier, 95. Joh. Schmidt 
(Die Pluralbildungen der indogerm. Neutra, 305) and Lud- 
wig (V, 534) are wrong in taking kshoda// as a locative or 
as an instrumental respectively. 

Verse 7. 

Mote 1. Comp. Pischel-Geldner, Vedische Studien, I, 
p. xvi. 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. Can slsvi be the nominative of a stem slsvan 
which stands by the side of slsu as r/bhvan of rtbhu? 
Prof. Max Miiller proposes : • Large like a cow with young, 
like a pregnant cow.' 



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MAJVDALA I, HYMN 66. 57 

MAA>Z?ALA i, HYMN 66. 
ASH7AKA I, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 10. 

i. Like unto excellent wealth, like unto the shine 
of the sun, like unto living breath, like unto one's 
own 1 son — 

2. Like unto a quick takvan * he (Agni) holds the 
wood, like milk, like a milch cow 2 , bright and 
shining. 

3. He holds safety, pleasant like a homestead, 
like ripe barley, a conqueror of men, 

4. Like a jRishi uttering (sacred) shouts, praised 
among the clans ; like a well-cared-for race-horse \ 
Agni bestows vigour. 

5. He to whose flame men do not grow accus- 
tomed ', who is like one's own mind 2 , like a wife on 
a couch, enough for all (happiness). 

6. When the bright (Agni) has shone forth, he is 
like a white (horse [P]) 1 among people, like a chariot 
with golden ornaments, impetuous in fights. 

7. Like an army which is sent forward he shows 
his vehemence, like an archer's shaft with sharp 
point 

8. He who is born is one twin ; he who will be 
born * is the other twin — the lover of maidens, the 
husband of wives 2 . 

9 K As cows go to their stalls, all that moves and 
we, for the sake of a dwelling, reach him who has 
been kindled. 

10. Like the flood of the Sindhu 1 he has driven 
forward the downwards-flowing (waters) 2 . The cows 
lowed at the sight of the sun 3 . 



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58 VEDIC HYMNS. 



NOTES. 
The same Rishi and metre. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. Comp. I, 166, a; 185, 2; X, 39, 14. The 
second passage (nityam na sflnum pitr6A upasthe dyaVa 
rakshatam pn'thivl naA abhvat) would be sufficient to show 
that we cannot translate ' wie ein iiberlebender sohn ' 
(Ludwig). 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. We do not know what animal the takvan is. 
Comp. I, 134, 5 with M. M.'s note. 
Note 2. See Bergaigne, MeU. Renier, 101 ; Gaedicke, 

*53- 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Comp. X, 101, 7. prlwita asvan hitam ^ayatha. 

Verse 5. 

Note L Comp. VII, 4, 3. durokam agnlA ayave susoka.. 

Note 2. Prof. Max Miiller believes that kratu here 
means, ' like kartr*, a sacrificer, so that kratu/; na nitya// 
sounds like stmuA na nitya^, one's own sacrificing son. 
But all this is very obscure.' 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. The second Pada is translated by Grassmann : 
'wie Licht in Hausern;' by Ludwig: 'fast weiss, bei den 
menschenstammen.' I think that there can be no doubt 
that the words sveti/t na contain a comparison like all the 
other comparisons of which these hymns are full ; this 
comparison is unduly effaced in Ludwig's translation. Nor 
is Grassmann right in translating svet&A bei ' Licht ;' the 
word is an adjective meaning 'white' and nothing else 
We must supply here, as in many passages, a substantive, 
and I do not see any reason why this should not be that 



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MANDALA I, HYMN 66. 59 

substantive with which sveta. is most frequently combined 
in the Rig-veda, namely ajva; comp. I, 116, 6; 118, 9 
[119, 10] ; VII, 77. 3 5 x > 39. IO - In V, 1, 4 it is said of 
Agni : svet&A va^f ^ayate agre ahnam, ' the white racer is 
bora in the beginning of the days.' 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. The traditional text is yama-4 ha ^ataA yam a h 
^anitvam. Ludwig translates 'bewaltiger des gebornen, 
bewaltiger auch des, was erst geboren wird.' It will 
scarcely be necessary to state the reasons which make 
against this translation. YamaA . . . yama/i evidently 
means : ' the one twin . . . the other twin.' Now if we 
leave the text unchanged, we cannot but translate : ' the 
one twin is he who has been born, the other twin is that 
which will be born' — which sounds very strange. In I, 
89, 10 we have aditiA ^atam aditi^ ^anitvam ; IV, 18, 4. 
anta^^at&hu uta ye" ^anitvaA ; X, 45, 10. ut catena bhinadat 
lit ^anitvaiA. In all these cases £ata and ^anitva stand 
parallel ; there is no such difference as in our passage, 
according \o the traditional text, between him (masc.) who 
is . . . and that (neuter) which will be . . . Thus I propose 
to read ^anitvaA, of which conjecture Ludwig has thought 
also (see his note, IV, 259): that present Agni who has 
been born, and that future Agni who will be born, are 
twins. — Prof. Max Miiller has discussed this passage in his 
Science of Language, II, 630 seqq. He interprets the twin 
who has been born as Agni representing the morning ; 
the twin who will be born as the evening. 

Note 2. The maidens very probably are the dawns (comp. 
Prof. Max Muller's discussion quoted in the last note). Are 
the wives the sacrificial ladles which approach Agni, or the 
offerings of ghee, or the prayers? See Bergaigne, Rel. 
Ve'dique, II, 9 seqq. 

Verse 9. 

Note L This verse is very obscure, and I am quite aware 
of the merely tentative character of the translation which 



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60 VEDIC HYMNS. 



I propose. I leave vsJt untranslated (comp. Delbriick, 
Altindische Syntax, 206), which must be done in most of 
the numerous verses beginning with the words tam vaA. 
I then read £aratha (comp. 68, 1 ; 70, 3. 7). Vasatya' seems 
to be either a dative similar to the newly-discovered datives 
in -a of a-stems, or we possibly should read vasatyaf 
(vasatya' in the Sajwhita-pa/Aa). — Prof. Max M tiller thinks 
of a correction £arama£ and would translate : ' To him 
(whom you know — vaJt) when lighted we go for our dwelling, 
as the cows reach their home.' 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. Comp. above, 65, 6. 

Note 2. Or the downwards-streaming libations of Gbr/ta 
and the like ? Comp. below, I, J 2, 10 with note 4. 
Note 3. Comp. below, 69, 10. 



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MAiVDALA I, HYMN 67. 6 1 

MA^Z?ALA I, HYMN 67. 
ASH7AKA I, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 11. 

i. Victorious 1 in the forests, a friend among men, 
he demands obedience like a king, the undecaying 
one*. 

2. Like good peace, like fortunate wisdom, may 
he (Agni) be a kind Hotri, a carrier of offerings. 

3. Having taken in his hand all manly powers, 
he has made the gods fear, when sitting down in his 
hiding-place. 

4. There the thoughtful men find him, when they 
have recited the spells which they had fashioned in 
their heart 

5. As the goat 1 (supports) the earth 2 , thus he 
supports the earth 2 ; he upholds the sky by his 
efficacious spells. 

6. Protect the dear 1 footsteps of the cattle 2 . 
O Agni, thou who hast a full life, thou hast gone 
from covert to covert *. 

7. He who has seen him the hidden one, he who 
has got near to the stream of ./?*ta ' — 

8. They who get him off, doing service to ftita., 
to him J he then indicates riches. 

9. He who grows up with might within the 
plants, and within the children 1 , and within the 
sprouting grass 2 ' — 

10. The splendour [?] in the home of the waters 1 , 
the full-lived. The sages made him as if building 
a seat 



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62 VEDIC HYMNS. 



NOTES. 

The same Rishi and metre. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. ' Gkyuk : aus gykyuA, wie der compar. ^yayan 
gyesYithdJi zeigt,' Ludwig. But what shows that ^yayan is 
the comparative of g&yvJt and that the utterly impossible 
change of gy into g is possible ? Ludwig's translation 
' iiberwindend ' is right ; comp. I, 119, 3. 

Mote 2. I propose to read zguryih. Prof. Max Miiller 
conjectures — as Roth (Pet. Diet.) has done— that jrushri 
may mean ' obedient, servant ;' he translates : ' He desires 
a servant (or worshipper) who is not aged.' 

Verse 5. 

Note L On the mythical goat whose office it is to 
support the worlds, comp. I, 164, 6; VIII, 41, 10; X, 
8a, 6 ; Bergaigne, III, ai ; H. O., Religion des Veda, 7a. 

Note 2. For ' earth ' the text has two different words, 
ksham and prrthivim. Prof. Max Miiller conjectures dyam 
for ksham : ' He, Agni, supports the earth, as the buck 
the sky.' 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. Literally, ' the dear footsteps ; ' but the meaning 
of priya may be compared to that of the Homeric </>i'A.oy, 
his own. 

Note 2. One could be tempted to refer the word pam 
to Agni, whose footsteps (padani) the ' wise ones ' follow 
(65, a), and whom they find out in his hiding. Thus we 
could translate, ' Look at the dear footsteps of the beast.' 
But the comparison of 70, 6 makes it more probable that 
the imperative ni pahi is addressed to Agni. I believe 
therefore that Grassmann is right in translating ' Die lieben 
Statten der Heerden schiitze.' Ludwig's translation is 



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MAJVDALA I, HYMN 67. 63 

similar to this. Prof. Max Miiller translates : ' Observe 
the footsteps of the animal (the stolen animal of the thief 
Agni).' 

Note 3. With gulia" guham comp. 1,53, 7. yudha - yiidham, 
puici piiram. 

Verse 7. 

Mote 1. DhAYam rttasya: comp. V, 12, 2. rttasya dhSraA 
anu trmdhi purv?/*, 'open the many streams of Rita;' 
VII, 43, 4. ritasya dharaA sudughaA diihanaA, ' milking the 
streams of Rita, flowing with plenty.' The stream of Rita 
seems to mean the stream of blessings (such as rain, ghee, 
&c) which flows to mankind according to the eternal laws 
of Rita. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. The poet passes over from the plural to the 
singular. 

Verse 0. 

Note 1. Bollensen's conjecture pra^asu (instead of pragO/i 
uta) seems very probable to me. Prof, von Roth (Ueber 
gewisse Kiirzungen des Wortendes, p. 2) takes a different 
view. 

Note 2. Comp. I, 95, 10 (see below) ; VII, 9, 3. apam 
garbhaA prasvaA & vivcra, ' the son of the waters has entered 
upon the sprouting grass.' 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. ' Why not kitiA apam dame, that is, the (burning) 
pile in the home of the waters.' M. M. 



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64 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAJVZ>ALA I, HYMN 68. 
ASHrAKA I, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 12. 

t. Cooking 1 (the oblations?) the quick one has 
approached the sky. He has revealed the nights 
and what stands and moves 2 — 

2. When he the god, alone of all these gods 1 
encompassed (the others) by his greatness. 

3. When thou, O god, hadst been born living 
from the dry (wood), then all (gods and men ?) were 
pleased with thy wisdom. 

4. They all obtained the name of divinity, of 
immortality \ serving the Rita, in due way. 

5. The instigations of Rita, the thought of Rita. l : 
they all performed the works of [?] the full-lived 
one 2 . 

6. Bestow wealth, thou who art the knowing one, 
on him who worships thee or who does service to 
thee \ 

7. He who sits down as the Hotri among the 
offspring of Manu : he verily is the master of all 
these riches. 

8. They longed together for the seed in their 
bodies ', and the wise ones were concordant among 
each other in their minds. 

9. They took pleasure in his will, as sons (take 
pleasure) in their father's (will), the quick ones who 
have listened to his command. 

10. He who is rich in food has opened the gates 
of wealth \ The householder (Agni) has adorned 
the sky with stars. 



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MAJVBALA I, HYMN 68. 65 



NOTES. 

The same JZishi and metre. 

Verse 1. 

lTote 1. Boehtlingk-Roth are wrong in deriving snn&n 
(which should more correctly be written srin&n, comp. my 
Prolegomena, 477) from the root jri. They supply an 
object like sokiA and translate : ' Licht verbreitend hebt er 
sich zum Himmel.' 

Note 2. Lanman, 422. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. Bollensen conjectures devanam devaA (instead 
of devA/t devanam) which seems to be right (comp. below, 
69, 2), though this conjecture is not absolutely necessary 
(see my Prolegomena, 97). 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Amrftam belongs to na"ma ; comp. V, 57, 5. 
amr/tam na*ma bhe^gire; X, 123, 4. vidat gandharva// anw/- 
tani nama. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. With r/tasya dhftlA comp. I, 71, 3 ; IV, 23, 8 ; 
IX, 76, 4; 97, 34; in, a. — Prof. Max Muller thinks that 
rtta. should be taken as a name of Agni : ' for the righteous 
(Agni) are the prayers, for the righteous the devotion.' 

Note 2. Is vijvayuA an adverb meaning ' eternally ' ? As 
vlsv&yu is an epithet of Agni frequently used in the Rig- 
veda and especially in the Para^ara hymns (see 67, 6. 10 ; 
68, 5 ; 73, 4), one feels tempted to read viyvayo// (comp. 
IV, 42, 1 . rash/rim kshatriyasya vijvayoA). 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. Comp. Ill, 59, 2. yih te aditya jflcshati vratena. 
[46] F 



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66 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Verse 8. 

Note 1. Some light is thrown on this obscure verse by 
the hymn, I, 72, a hymn belonging, as our hymn does, to 
the Parlfara collection. It is shown by the second verse of 
that hymn (see below) that the searching ones, ' amuraA,' are 
the gods who seek Agni. It seems probable, consequently, 
that the 'seed' is Agni (comp. I, 164, 35, where Soma is 
said to be vrishnaJt ajvasya retaA, ' the seed of the manly 
horse'). Of the same searching gods in I, 72, 5 the ex- 
pression sawganana^ is used ; comp. sam Janata in our 
passage. 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. RayaA must be a genitive ; comp. I, 72, 8. rkyak 
duraA vf riXagn&h aganan. Probably the accent should be 
r&yiA; comp., however, Lanman, 431. 



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MAM)ALA I, HYMN 69. 67 

MAA^ALA I, HYMN 69. 
ASH7AKA I, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 13. 

1. Bright, flaming, like the lover of the Dawn \ 
he has, like the light of the sky, filled the two 
(worlds of Heaven and Earth) which are turned 
towards each other. 

2. As soon as thou wert born thou hast excelled 
by thy power of mind ; being the son of the gods 
thou hast become their father. 

3. (Agni is) a worshipper (of the gods), never 
foolish, (always) discriminating; (he is) like the 
udder of the cows ; (he is) the sweetness of food * — 

4. Like- a kind friend to men, not to be led 
astray 1 , sitting in the midst, the lovely one, in the 
house ; 

5. Like a child when born, he is delightful in the 
house ; like a race-horse which is well cared for \ 
he has wandered across the clans 2 . 

6. When I call (to the sacrifice) the clans who 
dwell in the same nest with the heroes, may Agni 
then attain all divine powers '. 

7. When thou hast listened to these heroes, no 
one breaks those laws of thine. 

8. That verily is thy wonderful deed that thou 
hast killed 1 , with thy companions, (all foes), that, 
joined by the heroes, thou hast accomplished thy 
works 2 . 

9. Like the lover of the Dawn \ resplendent and 
bright, of familiar form : may he (thus) pay attention 
to this (sacrificer). 

f 2 



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68 VEDIC HYMNS. 



10. Carrying (him) they opened by themselves 
the doors (of heaven). They all shouted at the 
aspect of the sun '. 



NOTES. 

The same Rishi and metre. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. The lover of the Dawn is here the Sun. See 
Pischel, Vedische Studien, I, 31. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. Agni is the sweetness of food (comp. V, 7, 6. 
sva'danam pittmam) ; it is not probable that sva'dma and 
fldha^ should depend on vi^inan, as Ludwig believes. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. I adopt Boehtlingk-Roth's conjecture ahuryaA. 
AhuYyaA would mean, ' he who is to be led astray.' 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. See above, 66, 4. 

Note 2. ' He has overcome the (hostile) clans.' M. M. 

Verse 6. 
Note 1. Perhaps devatva" is an instrumental, as Ludwig 
takes it. In this case we should have to translate : ' may 
Agni by his divine power attain everything.'— Prof. Max 
Miiller translates this verse : ' When I with my men call 
the clans of the same nest (the gods), Agni will obtain all 
divine honours.' 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. The first hemistich of this verse has eleven 
syllables instead of ten and shows the regular Trish/ubh 
type. The same irregularity occurs in 70, 4. 10. As 
I have shown in my Prolegomena, p. 97, this metrical 
irregularity does not necessitate corrections of the text, 



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MAiVDALA I, HYMN 69. 69 

and the comparison of X, 147, 1 (see next note), where it 
is said ahan yat vrAram . . . v'w&h apaA, seems even to 
confirm the traditional reading. It cannot be denied, 
however, that the double yat and the use of ahan without 
an object raises some suspicion. In I, 34, 3 ; 186, 4 we 
have samane" ahan. Possibly we may read, tat tu te 
frkmsah ahan samane, ' this wonderful deed of thine has 
been accomplished on one and the same day (with that 
mentioned in verse 7).' I am fully aware of the uncertainty 
of such guesses. The removal of yat has already been 
proposed by Bollensen (Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morg. 
Gesellschaft, XXII, 59a). 

Note 2. Here we may correct the text with greater 
certainty than in the first hemistich, or to speak more 
accurately, we shall have to correct not the traditional 
text itself, but that ancient grammatical commentary on 
the text which has been preserved to us in the Padapa/^a. 
The words viverapawsi of the Sawhitapa/Aa are written in 
the Padapa/j&a viveA rapawsi. Now we read IV, 19, 10. 
apamsi . . . narya aviveshiA, ' thou hast performed manly 
works ' In X, 147, 1 we have ahan yat vr/tram naryam 
v\v&/i apa^ : here the adjective narya clearly shows that 
apa/* is a blunder for ipaJt, and we must translate, ' when 
thou hast killed VWtra and performed thy manly work.' 
This passage shows that in X, 76, 3 also vive^ a.pi/t should 
be corrected (v. apaA). Thus we have three passages in 
which aviveshiA or viveA has the object apaA, apawsi, and 
we may infer with full certainty that in our passage 
viveVapa*«si does not correspond to a Padapaftfca reading 
vixih rapawsi but viveV* apawsi. The same may be said 
with regard to VI, 3 1, 3 (mushayaA £akram aviveA rapawsi ; 
Sa/«h. avive rdpawsi). 

Verse 0. 

Hote 1. Comp. above, verse 1. 

Verse 10. 
Note 1. Comp. above, 66, 10. 



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•JO VEDIC HYMNS. 



WANDKLA I, HYMN 70. 
ASH7AKA I, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 14. 

i. May we, the poor 1 , succeed in many (pious) 
thoughts 2 . May Agni with his pure splendour 
attain everything — 

2. He who understands the divine laws and the 
birth of the human race. 

3. He who is the child of the waters, the child 
of the trees, the child of that which stands, and the 
child of that which moves. 

4. Even in the rock (they have done homage [?]) 
to him, in his dwelling *. (He is) like a protector [?] 2 
of the clans, the immortal one, he who is of a good 
mind. 

5. For he, Agni, (shows himself as) an earth- 
protecting (lord) of riches l to the man who satisfies 
him with well-spoken (prayers). 

6. Protect, O knowing one, these beings, thou 
who knowest the birth of gods and men \ 

7. He whom many nights (and dawns), in their 
different forms 1 , may increase, whom that which 
moves * and that which stands (increases), the god 
penetrated by Rita. — 

8. That Hotrt who has sat down in the sun ', 
has been successfully worshipped 2 (by the human 
sacrificers), he who truly accomplishes all his works. 

9. On the cows, on the trees thou hast conferred 
excellence. May all men bring us tribute in the 



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MAJVDALA I, HYMN 70. 7 1 

10. In many places men have worshipped thee. 
They have brought (thee) to different places 1 as 
sons (divide) the property of an aged father 2 . 

11 1 . (He is) like a greedy man 2 who goes 
straight (to his aim), like a mighty archer, like 
a fearful avenger [?] s , impetuous in contests *. 



NOTES. 
The same Rishi and metre. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. I adopt Bergaigne's opinion on the word arf 
(see Religion Wdique, II, 218 seq.). 

Note 2. ThePadapaMa has manisha" instead of manishaV/. 
See my Prolegomena, 385 ; Lanman, 363. Prof. Max Miiller 
proposes to translate: 'May we by wisdom overcome many 
enemies!' He writes: 'Is not vanema almost a standing 
formula as applied to enemies ? Let us conquer the enemies. 
The enemies are masculine in VII.48, 3. vtav&n aryaV* . . . van- 
van, feminine in VI, 16, 27. vanvantaA arydA arat?A. VIII, 
39, 2. visvSJt zxyih irkWh. X, 133, 3. vlsvA/t aratayaA aryaV*. 
IV, 50, 11. ^a^astam ary&A vanusham arati/; (repeated 
VII, 97, 9 ; cf. I, 29, 4).' For my translation I refer to 
Hi 5, 7- st6mam . . . vanema; II, 11, 12. dhfyam vanema ; 
I, 122, 14. arya^ gha/t ; X, 148, 3. aryaV* va gir&A abhf ar£a 
vidva'n. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Or : even in the rock (they have done homage) 
to him, and in the (human) dwelling ? I believe we must 
supply a verb on which the dative asmai depends. Ludwig 
proposes to read durowam : ' within the stone is his 
dwelling.' Comp. II, 1, 1; VI, 48, 5. 

Note 2. I do not understand vis&m na visvaJt. Ludwig 
translates ' er ist der menschen allgemeiner, unsterblicher 



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72 VEDIC HYMNS. 



fiirsorger.' But vlsva. does not mean 'allgemein,' and 
Ludwig omits na, 'like.' One should expect a phrase 
like vuam na vispiti/t, which of course is metrically 
impossible. Is it too bold to correct visvaJt into visp&A, 
a word hitherto not found in the texts, but formed 
exactly like stip5, pajrupa - , tanupa' and others? — Prof. Max 
Miiller takes asmai as dependent on svadhi'A and visvaJt as 
belonging at the same time to amr/taA and to vis&m. He 
translates : ' To him also who dwells in the rock and in the 
house, every immortal like every one among men is well 
disposed.' 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. Comp. VII, jo, 5. sa hi kshapavan abhavat 
rayteam. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. Most probably we have here not the accusative 
martan but the genitive martam, which was confounded by 
the arrangers of the traditional text with the accusative 
and treated according to the Sandhi rules which govern 
the ending -an. See Lanman, Noun-Inflection, 353 ; 
Bartholomae, Studien zur indogermanischen Sprachge- 
schichte, I, 48. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. Lanman (p. 422) takes kshapd// vi'rupa/2 as ac- 
cusatives, and translates, ' Whom through many nights and 
mornings all beings worship.' I believe that they are 
nominatives, and that we should accentuate kshapaA. As 
vi'rupa is a regular epithet of naktoshasa, I think that 
kshapaA is to be understood as an elliptic plural similar to 
the elliptic duals ushasa or ahan! (comp. Delbruck, Alt- 
indische Syntax, 102), and that it means, ' the nights (and 
mornings).' — Comp. VI, 38,4. vardhan masa^ .rarada^ dyaVa// 
fndram, ' May months, years, days increase Indra's great- 
ness.' 

Note 2. Of course £a ratham is a mistake for £aratham, 
as first pointed out by Benfey. 



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MAJVDALA I, HYMN 70. JT, 



Verse 8. 

Note 1. On the locative svar, see Lanman, 488 ; Joh. 
Schmidt in Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XXVII, 306 ; Bartholomae 
in Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XV, 42. Comp. X, 61, 14. svaJi 
na ye trishadhasthe" nishcduA. 

Note 2. Comp. X, 53, 2. aradhi hota nishada ya^iyan. 

Verse 9. 

Note 1. Is it not more probable that tribute was brought 
to Agni (comp. V, 1, 10) than to the human worshippers? 
Possibly we should change sva/* naA (svar nzh of the 
Sawhitapa///a) into svarwaA, a vocative of the stem 
svarnri = svarwara. The translation would be, 'All men 
have brought tribute to thee, O sun-hero ! ' 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. Comp. V, 11,4. agnfm nara/z vi bharante gr*h6- 
gr/he. 

Note 2. Regarding the metre, comp. above, 69, 8, note 1. 

Verse 11. 

Note 1. This verse may possibly be a later addition. 
See Bergaigne, Recherches sur l'Histoire de la Sawhita, 
I, 61. 

Note 2. On gridhnu, comp. Pischel, Ved. Studien, I, 231. 

Note 3. Comp. I, 32, 14. £heA yataVam. 

Note 4. See above, 66, 6. 



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74 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAA^ALA I, HYMN 71. 
ASHTAKA I, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 15-16. 

i. The loving (women) have (amorously) excited l 
their lover, as wives of the same nest (house) their 
own husband. The sisters have delighted in the 
dark and in the red (goddess) 2 , as the cows in the 
brightly shining dawn. 

2. Our fathers, the Angiras \ have broken even 
the strong fortresses by their hymns, the rock by 
their shouting. They have opened to us the path 
of the great heaven; they have obtained day and 
sun and the shine of the dawn 2 . 

3. They founded the 7??'ta ; they set into motion 
the thought of it 1 . Thus then the widely-spread 
(prayers) 2 of the poor 3 which seek to obtain (wealth), 
which are free from thirst*, the active, approach 
the tribe of the gods*, strengthening them by 
offering them delight. 

4. When Matarwvan had produced him by attrition, 
he, the reddish, the noble one, who was brought to 
many places ', has come to every house. Then the 
Bhr/gu-like 2 has undertaken the messengership 3 
(for the mortal) as for a mightier king, being 
attached to him. 

5. When he had created sap to the great father 
Heaven, the knowing one stealthily approached the 
speckled (cows). The archer fiercely shot an arrow 
at him. The god turned his impetuous power 
against his daughter l . 

6. Augment, O Agni, twofold the strength of 



s 



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MAATZJALA I, HYMN Jl. 75 

the man who worships l thee in his house, or offers 
adoration to the loving one 2 day by day. May he 
whom thou incitest be united with riches 3 . 

7. Every nourishment goes towards Agni ', as the 
seven young 2 rivers (flow) into the ocean. Our 
strength does not shine from kinsmen 3 . Do thou 
therefore who knowest this, procure among the gods 
kindness for us. 

8 1 . When the sharp splendour 2 reached the lord 
of men to incite him 8 , the bright sperm poured 
down from Heaven (or, from the god Dyaus) 4 , Agni 
produced 6 and furthered the blameless, young, well- 
wishing host*. 

9. He who traverses the paths quickly 1 like 
thought, the Sun alone rules over wealth altogether. 
(There are) the two kings Mitra and Varuwa with 
graceful hands 2 , who watch over the beloved am- 
brosia 3 in the cows. 

10. Do not forget, O Agni, who art a sage pos- 
sessed of knowledge 1 , our paternal friendship. Old 
age impairs the appearance (of men) as a cloud 
(covers the sun or the sky). Before this curse 
(attains us), think thou (of us) 2 . 



NOTES. 

The same /?»°shi. Metre, Trish/ubh. 

Though the hymns 71-73 are not composed in the Vira^- 
metre like the preceding hymns, it is shown by manifold 
evidence that they had the same origin. Verse 8 = VS. 
XXXIII, 11 ; TS. I, 3, 14, 6 j MS. IV, 14, 15. 

Verso 1. 
Note 1. Comp. Geldner, Vedische Studien, II, 134. 
Note 2. If the text is correct, the ' sisters ' may either 



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VEDIC HYMNS. 



be the ten fingers which generate Agni by attrition (III, 29, 
1 3 ; IV, 6, 8), or the streams of water among which Agni 
grows up, or streams of Ghr/ta or the like (comp. II, 5, 5 ; 
see below). Why these sisters are said to delight in the 
dark and in the bright goddess, the Night and the Dawn, 
remains doubtful. 

But I think there are reasons which strongly recommend 
a correction of the text. In III, 55, 11 we read sytivl Aa. 
. . . arushi ka. svasarau, ' the two sisters, the dark one and 
the red one.' Is it not probable that in our passage also 
itisthesisters who are described as dark and red ? The 
dark goddess and the red goddess of course are Night and 
Dawn, and Night and Dawn, as is well known, are sisters 
in Vedic poetry. And furthermore the ' sisters ' are de- 
scribed in our verse as amorously exciting the god Agni : 
for it cannot well be doubted that the svasara// of the third 
Pada are identical with the usatih of the first : similarly it 
is said in 70, 7 — in a hymn belonging to the same collection 
with our Sukta — that the Nights and Dawns augment 
Agni's greatness ; in other passages Agni is represented as 
beloved by the Dawn, or as suckled by Night and Dawn 
(Bergaigne, Religion Vedique, II, 14. 15). The 'sisters ' then 
are stated in our verse to delight (a^ushran), probably in 
Agni : now we read in II, 2, 2. abhf tva nakti/* ushasaA 
vavlrire agne vatsam na svasareshu dhenavaA, * The Nights 
and Dawns, Agni, have lowed at thee as the milch-cows in 
their stalls at their calves ; ' comp. Bergaigne, II, 15. Thus 
everything is clear, if we take the usztih and the svasara/4 
for the bright and dark goddesses, i. e. for the Dawns and 
Nights. The correction of the text to which this inter- 
pretation leads, is svasaraA sy&\\h arushU a^oishran, 'the 
dark and the red sisters have delighted (in Agni).' It is 
easy to understand that the corruption of the text was 
occasioned by the simile of the fourth Pada. The words 
ushasam na gavaA seemed to demand a parallel nominative 
and a parallel accusative in the third Pada. The nomina- 
tive was svasaraA, but there was no accusative. Thus 
probably arose the reading jyaVim arushim. 



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MAiVZJALA I, HYMN 71. 77 

Verse 2. 

Note L On the Angiras as the fathers of the priestly 
tribes, see H. O., Religion des Veda, 278. 

Note 2. The phrase ushasa^ ketiiA occurs several times 
in the Rig-veda. I think that ketum usr£A means exactly 
the same ; it has been shown by Kaegi, Festgruss an 
Boehtlingk, p. 49, and by Bartholomae, Bezzenberger's 
Beitrage, XV, 185, that a genitive sing. usr&i existed. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. Ludwig refers asya to the sacrificer, Bollensen to 
Agni, and so does Sayawa. I believe that asya should be 
explained as rjtasya ; the phrase ritisya. dhltf is frequently 
used, comp. IV, 23, 8 ; IX, 76, 4 ; 97, 34 ; 111,2. See also 
Ludwig's note on III, 3 1 , 1 (vol. v, p. 65). — Prof. Max Miiller 
refers rita. to Agni. ' One might translate it by righteous : 
They established the righteous (Agni), they moved his 
mind (made him attend?).' 

Note 2. The substantive (of feminine gender) which is to 
be supplied to didhishva£, atmhyanttA, &c, seems to me 
to be gkaA or the like. Ary&A stands frequently together 
with gfraA. — Prof. Max Miiller writes : ' Could not ari be 
a feminine like £arsha»i and wis; see before, I, 70, 1. We 
should then translate, and then the people emulous, widely 
spread, never flagging [the stones also are called atrz'shita// 
atrishnagaA, X, 94, 11], and active go towards the gods.' 

Note 3. See above, 70, 1, note 1. 

Note 4. Are the prayers called ' free from thirst ' because 
they are accompanied by libations of Ghr/ta, Soma, &c. ? 

Note 5. I believe that devfin ^inma depends both on 
ikkhk and on vardhayantiA. 

Note 6. Devan, or rather deva'm, is gen. plur. ; see above, 
70, 6, with note 1. 

Verre 4. 

Note 1. The place in which vibhritaA stands would seem 
to show that it is an epithet of Matarijvan, and so it is 
understood by Ludwig and by Bergaigne (Rel. Ved. I, 54). 



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78 VEDIC HYMNS. 



But it is Agni himself, not Mataruvan, who is very fre- 
quently mentioned as vfbhr/ta or the like. As we read 
here, vfbhr/taA . . . grihe-grihe, it is said in V, n, 4. 
agnfm naraA vf bharante grjhe-grthe, ' the men carry Agni 
hither and thither, to every house;' comp. I, 70, 10; III, 
55, 4 ; X, 1, 2 ; 45, 2 ; 80, 4. Thus I believe the poet means 
to say that Mataruvan first kindled Agni, in one place of 
course, and that Agni then was brought to many places, to 
all human dwellings. I think that the text indeed can be 
understood in this way, if we suppose that the author, for 
the sake of the metre, allowed himself a hyperbaton or 
synchysis. 

We must not omit to mention that the first Pada of I, 
148, 1 is nearly identical with our passage : mathit yat 1m 
vishta/t matarfcva. This Pada is deficient by one syllable. 
If we were to read vibhritaJt, as in our passage, this would 
lead indeed to the conclusion that there is no hyperbaton 
in our verse — for the verse, 1, 148, 1, could not be explained 
in that way — but that vibhritsJi refers to MatarLrvan. 
I think, however, that it is more than doubtful that the 
verse, I, 148, 1, really ought to be corrected in this way ; 
whatever may have been the original form of that verse, it 
is quite possible, and even probable, that it differed from 
our passage just in that one word. 

Note 2. The exact meaning of Bhr/gava«a is doubtful. 
It is, of course, derived from BhWgu as vasavana, takavana, 
from vasu, taku. Agni is called Bhr/gava«a also in IV, 7, 
4. Comp. Bergaigne, I, 54. 

Note 3. With the words a" dutyam vivaya comp. IV, 9, 6. 
veshi ft u asya dutyam. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. This difficult verse evidently treats of the incest 
which the father Dyaus has committed with his daughter. 
Compare on this subject Bergaigne, Rel. Ved. II, 109 seq. 
Agni seems to be represented here as stimulating the desire 
of the father ; the 'sap' (rasa) probably is the sperm, comp. 
I, 105, 2. 



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MANflALA I, HYMN 7 1. 79 



In the second Pada, Agni, having done, as it seems, some 
mischief, goes away to the ' speckled cows.' We cannot 
say who these speckled cows were ; they evidently are 
identical with those mentioned in another passage treating 
of the same story, X, 61, 8. — Bergaigne paraphrases the 
second Pada of our verse, wrongly in my opinion, ' Agni 
sort furtivement de cette fille, de cette vache, praaniV 

The archer who shoots at Agni (third Pada) is not better 
known to us than the speckled cows. Bergaigne's opinion, 
' que cet archer n'est autre que le pere lui-meme,' is not 
very convincing. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. The traditional reading vibha'ti (' he who shines 
for thee in his house ') gives no satisfactory sense. I pro- 
pose to read vidhati. Cf. 1, 120, i. katha" vidhati apra£eta^. 

Note 2. I have some doubts as to the correctness of 
urataA (Sawhitapa/^a, iuat6) anu dyfln. IJsit, of course, is 
an epithet not of the days, but of Agni. But then we 
expect the dative. Correcting the text (arat^) is all the 
easier, because before a following vowel the dative and the 
genitive were, in the original pronunciation, identical (urata< 
anu ; see my Prolegomena, 447 sqq.) ; the spellings of the 
Saw*hitapa//4a, ujat6 anu and orate" anu, belong to the inven- 
tions of Vedic grammarians. 

Note 3. Literally, May he whom thou inchest drive on 
the same chariot with riches. Comp. such expressions as 
ratrnA r&yaA and the like. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. Comp. IV, 44, 2. yav6A vapuA abhf pr/kshaA 
sa£ante ; VII, 90, 5. 

Note 2. Comp. I, 26, 10, note 1. 

Note 3. Ludwig : nicht unter unsern freunden ward 
auszfundig gemacht die kraftspeise. Grassmann : nicht bei 
Verwandten ward uns Nahrung sichtbar. Wilson : Our 
food is not partaken of by our kinsmen. Griffith : Not by 
our brethren was our food discovered. — Ludwig and Grass- 
mann translate as if the text had ^amfshu. What the 



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8o VEDIC HYMNS. 



instrumental means is shown, I believe, for instance, by 
IV, 14, 2. vf sdryaA rarmibhi/fc ^kitanaA, ' the sun shining 
with his rays.' Thus in our passage the poet seems to me 
to say, ' We have no strong kinsmen who might add lustre 
to our strength. Agni, procure thou strength to us.' 
Comp. X, 23, 7. vidma hi te pramatim deva ^amivat, ' for 
we know, O god, thy providing care like that of a kinsman.' 
— Prof. Max Miiller proposes the translation : ' Our wealth 
is not known by our kinsmen, i.e. we cannot support them 
as we ought.' 

Verse 8. 
Note 1. The poet returns here to the myth, of which he 
had spoken in verse 5. Should the order of the verses be 
changed ?— On our verse, compare Geldner, Ved. Studien, 

II, 34- 

Note 2. Te^as seems to be here a synonym of retas, as 
in the later language. 

Note 8. Is the lord of men Agni ? See the third Pada. — 
Ishe" I consider, with Geldner, as an infinitive. 

Note 4. My translation rests on the supposition that 
dyauA is to be corrected into dy6h ; thus the ablative is 
obtained, of which the word abhfke is usually accompanied 
(comp. Lanman, 433 ; Collitz, Bezzenberger's Beitrage, X, 
15). If we leave the reading dyauA, this nominative will 
be the subject of the verb ana/. Then tigaJi must be accu- 
sative dependent on ana/, and we can scarcely avoid 
making nr/patim to depend on the infinitive ishe\ This 
is the way which Geldner has followed in interpreting 
this passage. But I cannot consider this separation of 
rv/patim from the verb ana/ very probable. 

Note 6. The exact meaning of ^anayat seems to be here, 
' he caused them to be born.' Comp. Satapatha Brahma/za 
I, 7, 4, 4. yatha tad deva retaA pra^anayan (comp. Aitareya 
Brahmana III, 34 ; see also Rig-veda X, 61, 7). 

Note 8. This may be the host of the seven /?*'shis. 
Comp. Ill, 31, 1-5 ; IV, 1, 12 seq. (?). Or the Maruts are 
alluded to (comp. below, 72, 4), though that seems to me 
less probable. 



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MAJVDALA I, HYMN 71. 8 1 



Verse 9. 

Note 1. Literally, in one day. But sadyaA has already 
in the Rig-veda the secondary meaning ' immediately, 
quickly.' 

Hot© 2. Comp. Ill, 56, 7. ra^ana mitr&'-varuwa supa«f. 

Note 3. See below, 72, 6. 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. Comp. VII, 18, a: there the words abhf v\du/i 
kaviA san are identical with our text. 

Note 2. Of the second hemistich Prof. Collitz has treated 
in Bezzenberger's Beitrage, X, 15, note. He paraphrases 
the meaning in the following way : ' Der Sinn des ganzen 
Verses ist : unsere Freundschaft mit dir, Agni, stammt aus 
alter Zeit Nun sagt man zwar " im Alter andert sich das 
Aussehn wie das der Wolke." Aber stehe du uns bei vor 
diesem Fluche.' I do not believe that this interpretation, 
though very ingenious, gives the real meaning of the Vedic 
poet. — Comp. I, 179, 1. mina'ti sriyam gaumS. tanrniam. 



[46] G 

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82 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAA^ALA I, HYMN 72. 
ASH7AKA I, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 17-18. 

i. He has brought down (i.e. surpassed) the 
wisdom of many a worshipper 1 , he who holds in his 
hand all manly power. Agni has become the lord 
of treasures, he who brought together all (powers 
of) immortality. 

2 *. All the clever immortals when seeking did not 
find the calf though sojourning round about us. 
The attentive (gods), wearying themselves, follow- 
ing his footsteps 2 , stood at the highest, beautiful 3 
standing-place of Agni. 

3. When the bright ones 1 had done service 8 to 
thee, the bright one, Agni, with GhWta through 
three autumns, they assumed worshipful names ; 
the well-born shaped their own bodies. 

4. Acquiring (or, exploring?) for themselves the 
two great worlds, the worshipful ones brought for- 
ward their Rudra-like powers 1 . The mortal, when 
(beings) were in discord 2 , perceived and found out 
Agni standing in the highest place. 

5. Being like-minded they 1 reverentially ap- 
proached him on their knees. Together with their 
wives they venerated the venerable one 2 . Aban- 
doning their bodies they made them their own 3 , the 
(one) friend waking when the (other) friend closed 
his eyes 4 . 

6. When the worshipful (gods) have discovered 
the thrice seven secret steps 1 (or, places) laid down 
in thee, they concordantly guard with them immor- 



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MAJVKALA I, HYMN 72. 83 

tality. Protect thou the cattle and that which 
remains steadfast 2 and that which moves. 

7. Knowing, O Agni, the established orders 1 of 
(human) dwellings, distribute in due order gifts 2 
that they may live. Knowing the ways which the 
gods go 3 , thou hast become the unwearied mes- 
senger, the bearer of oblations. 

8. They who knew the right way and were filled 
with good intentions, beheld from heaven the seven 
young 1 (rivers) and the doors of riches. Sarama 
found the strong stable of the cows from which human 
clans receive their nourishment 2 . 

9. The Earth has spread herself far and wide 
with them who are great in their greatness, the 
mother Aditi, for the refreshment of the bird 1 , with 
her sons who have assumed all powers of their own 
dominion 2 , preparing (for themselves) the way to 
immortality. 

10. When the immortals created the two eyes of 
heaven 1 , they placed fair splendour in him (Agni) 2 . 
Then they rush down 8 like streams let loose. The 
red ones have recognised, O Agni, those which are 
directed downwards*. 



NOTES. 

The same Rzshi and metre. — Verse 1 = TS. II, 2, 12, 1. 
Verse 3 = TB. II, 4, 5, 6. Verses 8-9 = TB. II, 5, 8, 10. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. The meaning seems to me to be : by his wisdom 
he excels all human wisdom. Prof. Max Miiller translates: 
' Agni, who holds in his hand all that men desire, conquers 

G 2 



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84 VEDIC HYMNS. 



(or, wins for himself) the praises of many a wise worshipper.' 
And the last Pada: 'he who brought together all immortal 
blessings.'— On jarvat, see VI, 6i, i; VII, 18, 18 ; VIII, 
23, 28. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. Here we have again the myth of the hidden 
Agni whom the gods seek. Agni is meant by the calf. 

Note 2. Going on foot, Sayana. 

Note 8. I follow Sayawa, Bollensen, and Ludwig in taking 
Mru as a locative. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. ' Was not Sayawa right in taking this verse as 
referring to the Maruts? Cf. VI, 48, 21. . . . suf&ta also is 
an epithet of the Maruts, I, 88, 3 ; 166, 12.' M. M. 

Note 2. As to the subjunctive, comp. Delbriick, Syn- 
taktische Forschungen, I, p. 67. The Taittirlya Brahmawa 
(II, 4, 5, 6) reads saparyan. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. I follow the Padapa/yfca which has rudrfya. But 
possibly we may have the nom. plur. rudrfy&A : ' the 
worshipful Rudriyas (i.e. Maruts) rushed forward.' 

Note 2. The translation of nemadhita is in jeopardy. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. Probably the mortals, as Ludwig understands it. 
Comp. marta/j, verse 4. 

Note 2. The venerable one is Agni. 

Note 8. Possibly the text is corrupt. In IV, 24, 3 we 
read ririkva"»*sa/* tanvaA kr*'«vata tram, 'abandoning (i.e. 
risking) their bodies they took him (Indra) for their pro- 
tector ' (comp. I, 100, 7). Should sv&h have supplanted 
another word, for instance, trim ? As the pronoun sva very 
frequently stands in apposition with tanu*, it may have 
found its way also into passages to which it did not 
belong. 



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MAtfDALA I, HYMN "]2. 85 

Note 4. The meaning seems to be that whenever the 
attention of one of the friends relaxed, another friend 
watched instead of the first. See Zeitschrift der Deutschen 
Morgenl. Gesellschaft, XLIV, 328 ; Bartholomae, Studien 
zur indogerm. Sprachgeschichte, I, 95. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. Saya«a explains the Xxih sapta pads' as the 
three times seven kinds of sacrifices, the seven Pakaya£?7as, 
the seven Havirya^rcas, the seven Somaya^was. But this 
later system of the twenty-one forms of sacrifice can 
scarcely have existed at the time of the Rig-veda Sawhita. 
Three times seven is a favourite number in Rig-vedic 
mysticism ; comp. I, 191, 12. 14; IV, 1, 16; VII, 87, 4 ; 
VIII, 46, 26 ; 69, 7 ; 96, 2 ; IX, 70, 1 ; 86, 21 ; X, 64, 8 ; 
90, 15. Possibly three times seven pieces of wood (samf- 
dhaA) are alluded to, comp. X, 90, 15, but everybody who 
has studied Bergaigne's Arithm&ique mythologique (Rel. 
Ve"d. II, 114 seq. ; see especially p. 122) will admit that 
there are ever so many possible interpretations of a passage 
like this. Prof. Max Miiller's translation is : ' The worship- 
ful gods found in thee the twenty-one words which are 
hidden in thee. They guard with them the immortal 
(Agni).' — Instead of avidan (Padapa/$a) I think we must 
read avidan. 

Note 2. Ludwig certainly is wrong in translating ' hiite 
du den wandel von tier und pflanze.' The author of this 
group of hymns is very fond of the phrase sthatu// £aratham 
and the like ; see I, 68, 1 ; 70, 3. 7. The same phrase, in 
one or the other of its possible shapes, has evidently been 
used by him here also. The plural masculine sthatWn is 
indeed very strange. Possibly J. Wackernagel is right in 
reading sthatii/* (Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XXV, 287 ; comp. 
Lanman, p. 422); the reading sthatr/« may be due to the 
neighbourhood of pasGa. This sort of blunder is very 
frequent in the text of the Rig-veda. Prof. Max Miiller 
suggests : the stabled cattle and what moves about (in the 
meadows). 



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86 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Verse 7. 



Note 1. On vayiina, comp. Pischel, Ved. Studien, I, 295. 
300. ' The thoughts of human beings.' M. M. 
Note 2. .Sunidh : Pischel, Ved. Studien, I, 32. 50. 
Note 3. ' Which lead to the gods ?' M. M. 



Verse 8. 

Note 1. Comp. I, 2<5, 10, note 1. — ' Beheld the seven young 
rivers coming down from heaven.' M. M. 

Note 2. See Delbruck, Syntaktische Forschungen, I, 87. 

Verse 9. 

Note 1. The bird seems to be Agni. 

Note 2. The Padapa/Aa gives su-apatyani. There is no 
doubt a word su-apatya, 'blessed with good offspring.' 
This is frequently used together with such nouns as rayi, 
kshaya, ish ; it stands in several passages by the side of 
pra^avat See I, 117, 19 ; II, 2, 12 ; 4, 8 ; 9, 5 ; III, 3, 7 ; 
16, 1 ; IV, 2, 11 ; X, 30, 12. But from this word should 
be distinguished sva-patya, derived from sva-pati (X, 44, 
1, &c), ' a man's own dominion,' or 'own rulership ; ' comp. 
^aspatya. This word is found here, and in some other 
passages, for instance, VII, 91, 3. vtrva ft naraA svapatyani 
kakruk, ' the heroes have exercised all the powers of their 
own dominion ;' VIII, 15,10. satra" vtrva svapatyani dadhishe, 
' thou hast assumed (Indra) all powers of thy own dominion 
altogether.' — Ludwig translates correctly, 'alle selbsther- 
lichkeit.' 

The Taittiriya Brahma«a reads kakruA for tasthuA. This 
reading evidently rests on Rig-veda IV, 34, 9 ; VII, 91, 3. 
There is no reason, however, for preferring this to the 
traditional reading of our Rik-text. 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. The sun and the moon ? This very natural 
explanation will scarcely be modified on account of passages 
like the following (iatapatha Brahma«a I, 6, 3, 38): 



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MAWDALA I, HYMN 72. 87 

' These are the two eyes of the sacrifice, the (oblations of 
butter called) A^yabhagas.' 

Note 2. Comp. below, 73, 4. 

Note 3. It is not necessary to change the text ; I believe, 
however, that the conjecture adhaA ksharanti (they stream 
downwards) would not be quite improbable. Comp. my 
Prolegomena, p. 369, note 1. — The subject seems to be the 
streams of sacrificial libations. 

Note 4. Both expressions, ' the red ones ' and ' those 
which are directed downwards,' are feminine. The red 
ones may be the dawns. But these cannot be called 
' directed downwards.' I take, therefore, the one noun as 
a nominative, the other as an accusative. Cannot ' those 
which are directed downwards ' be the libations of Ghrita 
and the like, which the dawns see? — Prof. Max Miiller 
translates : ' People recognised the red netherward mares 
(of thee), O Agni.' He supplies gvklkh or takes arushiA as 
mares, cf. V, 56, 6. 



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88 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAJVZ>ALA I, HYMN 73. 
ASHFAKA I, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 19-20. 

i. He who gives vigour like wealth acquired by 
the fathers 1 , who is a good guide like the instruction 
of a sage, who is pleased (by worship) like a comfort- 
ably resting guest 2 , (Agni) has crossed the (sacrificial) 
seat of the worshipper like a Hotri. 

2. He who being truthful like the god Savitrz' 1 
protects by his power of mind all settlements 2 , praised 
by many like impetuous splendour 3 , the truthful 
one has become dear like vital breath and worthy 
to be searched for 4 . 

3 '. (Agni) who possessing everyrefreshment dwells 
on the earth like a god, like a king who has made 
himself (valiant) friends 2 , like heroes who sit in 
front and under shelter, like a blameless wife beloved 
by her husband — 

4. Thee, O Agni, who art constantly kindled in the 
house, men have worshipped in their firm dwellings. 
They have placed in him rich splendour 1 . Be thou 
possessed of all life, a supporter of riches 2 . 

5. May the liberal givers, O Agni, attain nourish- 
ment, may the rich 1 who bestow gifts (oh us) attain 
to a full span of life. May we win in battles the 
booty of him who does not give 1 , obtaining a (rich) 
share before the gods, that we may win glory 2 . 

6. The lowing milch-cows of J&ta, assigned by 
Heaven, were exuberant with their full udders. The 
rivers imploring the favour (of the gods) from afar 



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MAAWALA I, HYMN 73. 89 

have broken through the midst of the rock with 
their floods. 

7. Imploring favour from thee, O Agni, the wor- 
shipful (gods) have won glory in the sky. They 
have made Night and Dawn of different shapes ; 
they have joined the black and red colour (to Night 
and Dawn). 

8. And may we, our liberal givers and ourselves, 
be the mortals whom thou furtherest to wealth, 
O Agni l . Like a shadow thou followest the whole 
world, having filled the two worlds (Heaven and 
Earth) and the air a . 

9. May we, O Agni, guarded by thee, conquer with 
our racers the racers, with our men the men, with 
our heroes the heroes (of our enemies). Being 
masters of the riches which their fathers 1 have con- 
quered, may our rich (givers) reach a hundred 
winters. 

10. May these hymns, O Agni, worshipper (of 
the gods), be grateful to thee, to thy mind and 
heart May we be able to bridle thee, the well- 
harnessed wealth 1 , acquiring the glory which the 
gods have assigned us. 



NOTES. 

The same Rishi and metre.— Verse 5 = MS. IV, 14, 15. 
Verse 7 = TB. II, 7, 12, 5. Verse 10 = MS. IV, 14, 15. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. Agni is compared to wealth acquired by the 
fathers, being himself pitr*"vitta, found by the forefathers 



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90 VEDIC HYMNS. 



of the Brahmanic tribes. Prof. Max Miiller proposes to 
translate : ' wealth inherited from the fathers.' 

Note 2. Comp. VII, 42, 4, and" see also VI, 16, 4a. 

Verse 2. 

Note L The first Pada is identical with the fourth of 

IX, 97, 48. There the expressions are referred to Soma. 
Note 2. On vrtg&na, comp. the quotations given above, 

I, 60, 3, note 2 ; cf. IX, 87, a. vrz^-anam rakshama»aA. 
Note 3. Comp. I, 64, 9. amatLfc na danrata". 
Note 4. Comp. II, 4, 1 (see below). 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. The first three Padas are nearly identical with 
III, 55, 21. 

Note 2. As to the meaning of hitamitra, comp. X, 108,3. 
mitram ena dadhama ; see also X, 132, 5, and H. O., 
Religion des Veda, 186, note 1. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Comp. I, 72, 10 (see above). 

Note 2. I cannot accept Pischel's translation of dhani«a// 
raytoam, ' der Reichtum fliessen lasst ' (Vedische Studien, I, 
40). — ' Be thou, who art rich in all food, the protector of 
riches.' M. M. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. On surf and arf, see Bergaigne, Rel. Wd. II, 
218 seq. AryaA may also be nom. pi. and mean * (we) the 
poor ones.' 

Note 2. ' May we win in battles the booty of the enemy, 
setting aside a share for the gods to their glory.' M. M. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. In the first Pada one syllable is wanting. 
Perhaps the ace. plur. yan had here dissyllabic value. 
Note 2. The last Pada is identical with the second of 

X, 139, 2. 



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MAJVDALA I, HYMN 73. 9 1 

Verse 9. 
Note 1. Comp. above, verse 1, note 1. 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. Comp. rakema va^maA yamam, II, 5, 1 ; agne 
jakema te vayam yamam devasya v&gina/i, III, 27, 3. As 
sudhur and sudhiira are epithets of horses, the poet of 
course could say, jak^ma sudhuraA yamam te. But Agni 
is not only a horse; he is also wealth (II, 1, 12 ; IV, 2, 
5, &c.). The combination of the two metaphors explains 
the curious expression sudhiira/z raya^. 



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92 VED1C HYMNS. 



MAA^ALA I, HYMN 74. 

ASHJAKA I, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 21-22. 

i. Going forward to the sacrifice let us repeat 
a prayer to Agni who hears us, may he be afar 
or with us — 

2. He who foremost 1 in ... .-, when the human 
tribes met (in battle), has preserved his home to the 
worshipper. 

3. And let the people say 'Agni is born, the 
slayer of foes (or, the slayer of Vn'tra), he who 
wins the prize in every battle.' 

4. The man in whose home thou art a messenger, 
and to whose sacrificial food thou eagerly comest 
for feasting, to whose worship thou impartest won- 
derful power — 

5. Such a man the people call a giver of good 
oblations, O Angiras, a friend of the gods, O son 
of strength 1 , and a possessor of a good Barhis (or 
sacrificial grass). 

6. And thou shalt conduct them hither, the 
gods 1 , that we may praise them, that they may 
eagerly come, O resplendent one, to the sacrificial 
offerings. 

7. No noise 1 of the horses of the moving chariot 1 * 
is heard any way, when thou goest on thy messen- 
gership, O Agni. 

8. When guarded by thee the racer becomes 
fearless ; the worshipper, O Agni, who is behind, 
gains the advantage 1 over him who is ahead. 



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MANDALA I, HYMN 74. 93 

9. And thou winnest, O Agni, brilliant, high 
bliss in strong heroes from the gods, O god, for the 
worshipper. 



NOTES. 

This hymn opens the section ascribed to Gotama Rahfl- 
gana, and belonging indeed, as several passages show, to 
the family of the Gotamas (comp. Zeitschrift der D. Morg. 
Gesellschaft, XLII, 22 1 ). The metre is Gayatri. — Verse 1 = 
VS. Ill, 11; TS. I, 5, 5> 1; MS. I, 5. 1 (I, 5, 5- 6). 
Verses 1-3 = SV. II, 729. 730. 732. Verse 3 = TS. Ill, 
5, 11,4; MS. IV, 10, 3. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. Or purvyaA, 'the old Agni,' cf. IX, 96, 10? (M. M.) 
Note 2. I have left untranslated the obscure word 
snfhitishu (Sayawa, vadhakariwishu). It seems to be iden- 
tical with sneliiti, which occurs VIII, 96, 13. apa snihifflt 
nr/manaA adhatta (the Sama-veda has the reading snih c ). 
Here the verb apa adhatta (comp. VI, 20, 5 ; X, 164, 3) 
and the comparison of the second hemistichs of the two 
following verses, 14 and 15, seem to show that the word 
means some kind of hostile powers, which would do very 
well for our passage. — In Taittiriya Arawyaka IV, 23 the 
word snihiti occurs in an enumeration of the 'terrible 
substances' (ghoWiA tamivaA) of Agni. — Comp. Ludwig, 
Ueber die neuesten Arbeiten auf dem Gebiete der Rig- 
veda-Forschung, p. 93. 

Verse 5. 
Note 1. See above, I, 26, 10, note 1 . 

Verse 6. 
Note 1. See Delbriick, Syntaktische Forschungen, I, 20, 

Hi. 



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94 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Verse 7. 

Note 1. On upabdf, which literally means the noise 
produced by going, see Joh. Schmidt, Kuhn's Zeitschrift, 
XXV, 55 ; Hiibschmann, Das indogermanische Vocal- 
system, 124. 

Note 2. Y6A (comp. X, 1 76, 3 ?) seems to be a genitive 
of yii, ' the going one ; ' comp. sva-yii, jubham-yu ; Lanman, 
401. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. The last syllable of asthat has the value of two 
syllables. 



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UANDALA I, HYMN 75. 95 

MAJv^ALA I, HYMN 75. 
ASH7AKA I, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA £3. 

1. Accept gladly our most widely-sounding 1 
speech, the most agreeable to the gods, thou who, 
in thy mouth, offerest the sacrificial food (to the 
gods). 

2. And may we then pronounce to thee, O highest 
Angiras, Agni, best worshipper, a prayer agreeable 
to thee and successful. 

3. Who is thy kinsman among men, O Agni ? 
Who performs worship to thee 1 ? Who art thou, 
and where dost thou rest ? 

4. Thou, O Agni, art the kinsman, the dear 
friend (' Mitra ') of men, a friend who is to be 
magnified by his friends. 

5. Sacrifice for us to Mitra and Varu»a. Sacrifice 
to the gods, (a sacrifice conforming to) the great 
Rita. '. Sacrifice, O Agni, to thy own house. 

NOTES. 

The same Rishi and metre. — Verse 1 = TB. Ill, 6, 7, 1 ; 
MS. Ill, io, 1 (IV, 13, 5). Verses 3-5 = SV. II, 885-887. 
Verse 5 = VS. XXXIII, 3 ; TB. II, 7, ia, 1. 

Verse 1. 
Note 1. Comp. VI, 68, 9. manma . . . saprathaA. 

Verse 8. 
Note 1. May we not take dajii-adhvara as a compound 
with governed final member, like vidadvasu, sadadyoni &c. ? 

Verse 5. 
Note 1. Comp. Gaedicke, Der Accusativ im Veda, 159. 



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96 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAiVZ>ALA I, HYMN 76. 
ASH7AKA I, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 24 

i. What supplication is to thy mind's taste l ? 
What (pious) thought may be, O Agni, most 
agreeable to thee ? Or who has won for himself 
thy wisdom by sacrifices ? Or with what thoughts 
may we worship thee 2 ? 

2. Come hither, Agni, sit down here as a Hotri. 
Become our undeceivable leader 1 . May Heaven 
and Earth, the all-embracing, protect thee. Offer 
the sacrifice to the gods that they may be highly 
gracious to us. 

3. Burn down all sorcerers, O Agni ; become a pro- 
tector of the sacrifices against imprecations. And 
conduct hither the lord of Soma (Indra) with his 
two bay horses. We have prepared hospitality for 
him, the good giver. 

4. With words procuring offspring, carrying thee 
(to our sacrifice) with my mouth 1 , I call 2 thee 
hither, and thou shalt sit down here with the gods. 
Perform the service of a Hotrz and of a Potr*' 8 . 
O worshipful one. Be thou a giver and a father 4 of 
riches. 

5. As thou didst perform sacrifice to the gods 
with the sacrificial food of the wise Manu ', a sage 
together with sages, thus, O highly truthful Hotri, 
perform thou the sacrifice to-day, O Agni, with thy 
joy-giving sacrificial ladle 8 . 



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MAJVDALA I, HYMN 76. 97 



NOTES. 

The same Rtshi. Metre, Trish/ubh. 

Verse I. 

Note 1. Sdyawa takes vdra in the sense of holding back' 
(comp. I, 143, 5), and makes manasaA depend on varaya. 
He says, ' he agne te tava manaso varaya nivarawayasmasv 
avasthapanaya kopetir bhuvat kidmam upagamanaw bha- 
vet.' The modern translators are evidently right in as- 
signing to vara the meaning of 'wish' or the like (comp. 
VII, 59, 2. yih vzh va>aya daxati), but they differ as to 
whether manasaA should be taken as belonging to var&ya 
or to upetiA. Ludwig translates, 'Welches nahen des 
geistes ist gegenstand der wal dir?' Grassmann, 'Welch 
Nahen ist nach deines Herzens Wunsche ? ' My opinion 
is that the tradition of the text is not quite free from 
suspicion. My doubts are based on VI, 21, 4. kas te 
yzgnik rnanase sim vdraya, 'What sacrifice (O Indra) is 
agreeable to thy mind, to thy wish?' Here we have 
a question addressed to the god, beginning with kis te, 
quite similar to the question of our poet, which begins 
with k& te. We have the word sim, as in our passage 
s&mtamL We have varaya exactly as in our passage. 
We have, by the side of varaya, a case-form of manas as 
in our passage. But we have the dative manase instead 
of the genitive manasa^. We may add that there are 
some other passages in which a dative of a similar meaning 
stands likewise by the side of varaya: thus, VIII, 82, 3. 
aram vaV&ya manyave bhuvat te indra sim (comp. bhuvat 
agne simtamk in our passage) hrale\ ' May it be, O Indra, 
according to thy wish and thy mood, may it be agreeable 
to thy heart;' VIII, 84, 4. vdraya deva manyave, 'to thy 
wish, O god, to thy mood.' 

All this tends to raise the supposition that in our 
[46] H 



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98 VEDIC HYMNS. 



passage also we should read manase varaya, which datives 
seem to depend on jawtama. We should then translate, 
' What supplication, what (pious) thought may be, Agni, 
most agreeable to thy mind and to thy wish ? ' 

Note 2. This seems to be a Pada of the defective type, 
with four syllables before the caesura and ending as if 
there were five syllables before the caesura; comp. my 
Prolegomena, 68 seq. It would be easy, however, to restore 
the normal metrical form, for instance, by reading tubhyam 
instead of te. 

Verse 2. 

Note L PuraA-eta', literally, ' he who goes before some- 
body.' 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. It would be unnatural to give to the medium 
8. huve the passive sense and not to translate it, as it must 
be translated in so many passages, ' I call (thee) hither.' 
But, if so, it is very difficult to avoid the conclusion that 
vahniA &s$i ('he who carries somebody with his mouth-,' 
comp. I, 129, 55 VI, ii, a; 16, 9; VII, 16, 9; X, 115, 3; 
see vol. xxxii, pp. 42 seq.) refers here not to Agni, the 
divine carrier, but to the human priest, who with his 
mouth, i.e. by his songs, carries Agni to his sacrifice. 
Vdhni is used very frequently indeed of human worshippers, 
and generally the transferring of epithets of the divine 
priest Agni to human priests, and vice versa, is quite to 
the taste of Vedic poets. — Comp. on S. huve and vdhniA 
asa", Neisser, Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XVIII, 320 seq. ; 
XX, 69, and below, I, 127, 8, note 1 ; S.B.E., vol. xxxii, 
p. 42. See also Delbruck, Altindische Syntax, 473, who 
very rightly observes : es liegt kein Grund vor, dem huve 
den Character einer ersten Person zu versagen. 

Note 2. On the accent of huve\ on which Ludwig bases 
very bold conclusions, see Delbruck, Altindische Syntax, 
41 ; Weber, Indische Studien, XIII, 73. 

Note 3. Comp. X, 3, 3.— On the priestly functions of the 



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MAJVaALA I, HYMN 76. 99 

Fotri, see Weber, Indische Studien, X, 141, 366, 376 seq. ; 
H. O., Religion des Veda, 391. 

Note 4. On these vocatives, see Delbruck, Altindische 
Syntax, 106. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. Manus is here a proper name ; comp. Bergaigne, 
I, 65 seq. On his priestly character, comp. H. O., Religion 
des Veda, 275. 

Bote 2. On .fuhva, comp. Pischel, Ved. Studien, II, 113. 
The ladle is meant for the flame of Agni. 



H 2 



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IOO VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAA^ALA I, HYMN 77. 
ASH7AKA I, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 25. 

i. How shall we sacrifice to Agni ? What 
words, agreeable to the god, shall be addressed 
to him, the luminous one, who, being immortal and 
righteous, the HotW, the best sacrificer, conveys the 
gods to the mortals 1 ? 

2. Bring hither by adoration the Hotrt who is 
most beneficial in sacrifices and righteous. When 
Agni repairs to the gods on behalf of the mortal 1 , 
may he be attentive in his mind, and may he 
perform the sacrifice 2 . 

3. For he is wisdom 1 , he is manly, he is straight- 
forward ; like Mitra he has become the charioteer of 
the mysterious 2 . Therefore the Aryan clans 8 , 
longing for the gods, address him, the wonderful 
one, as the first at the sacrifices. 

4. May that Agni, the manliest of men, triumphant 
with riches [?] \ come with help to our words, to 
our devotion, and (to the devotion) of those most 
powerful liberal givers who bent on the prize 2 
have constantly stirred up our prayers*. 

5. Thus Agni, the righteous Gatavedas, has been 
praised by the priestly Gotamas 1 . May he augment 
their splendour and their strength. He the knowing 
one gains increase according to his desire. 

NOTES. 
The same Rishi and metre. 

"Verse I. 
Note 1. The construction is y&A krindti devan martyeshu. 
Comp., for instance, X, 40, 2. k&A vam . . . kr*«ute sadhasthe 



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MAATOALA I, HYMN 77. IOI 

«L Ludwig translates : der unter den sterblichen der 
unsterbliche hotar . . . schafft die gotter — ' Could it be 
ishkr/woti ? ' M. M. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. The third Pada of this verse has nine syllables 
instead of eleven. If we read, as several times must be 
done, martyaya for martaya, we get ten syllables, and the 
Pada may belong to the defective type mentioned above, 
76, 1, note 2. 

Note 2. Ka. seems to me to stand here, as it several 
times does, in the first of the members of sentence con- 
nected by it. See Delbriick, Altindische Syntax, 475. 
Prof. Max Muller believes that it depends on yat: yat 
ve^, yat ka. sa b6dhati, 'Bring hither the Hotri ... so 
that Agni may invite the gods . . . and that he (the mortal 
or Agni) may be attentive, &c.' 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. Grassmann gives to kratu here and in a number 
of other passages the meaning 'der Starke.' This is in- 
admissible; comp. Bergaigne, III, 304. 

Note 2. Here we have again a Pada of ten syllables 
(see verse 2, note 1), unless bhut has dissyllabic value. 
Prof. Max Muller translates this Pada : ' like a friend he is 
the charioteer of enormous wealth.' 

Note 8. Comp. I, 96, 3 (see below). 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. On ri.sa'das, comp. above, I, 26, 4, note 1. 

Note 2. Comp. I, 92, 8. There Ushas receives the 
epithet va^aprasuta. 

Note 8. Comp. VII, 87, 3. spisaA Varuwasya ... yd 
ishayanta manma. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. This is again a Pada of ten syllables. 



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102 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAM9ALA I, HYMN 78. 

ASH77VKA I, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 26. 

i . O (7atavedas, who dwellest among all tribes, we 
the Gotamas (praise) thee with our song — we praise 
thee aloud with (songs full of) splendour. 

2. Gotama 1 desirous of riches exalts thee, as 
thou art, with his song. We praise thee aloud 
with (songs full of) splendour. 

3. We call thee, such as thou art, the highest 
winner of booty, as Angiras did. We praise thee 
aloud with (songs full of) splendour. 

4. (We praise) thee, the greatest destroyer of 
enemies (or, of Vmra), who hurlest the Dasyus 
away — we praise thee, such as thou art, aloud with 
(songs full of) splendour. 

5. We the Rahugawas 1 have recited a honey- 
sweet speech to Agni. We praise thee aloud with 
(songs full of) splendour. 



NOTES. 
The same ^tshi. Metre, Gayatri. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. This probably means, 'the descendant of 
Gotama.' See Zeitschrift der D. Morg. Gesellschaft, XLII, 
202. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. The Rahflganas seem to be a branch of the 
Gotamas; see Ajvalayana .Srautasutra XII, 11, 1. 



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MAJVDALA I, HVMN 79. IO3 

MAvV£>ALA I, HYMN 79. 
ASHTAKA I, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 27-28. 

I. 

i. The golden-haired in the expanse 1 of the 
atmosphere, the roaring 2 snake, is hasting (through 
the air) like the wind ; the brightly resplendent 
watcher of the dawn 3 , he who is like the glorious, 
ever active and truthful (goddesses)*. 

2. By thy goings the beautifully-winged (birds) 
were disparaged l ; the black bull 2 has roared, when 
here 3 (all this happened). He has come as if with 
the bounteous smiling (women) 4 . The mists fly, 
the clouds thunder. 

3. When they have led him, who swells 1 with the 
milk of .tfz'ta, on the straightest paths of fiita., then 
Aryaman, Mitra, and Varu»a, he who walks round 
the earth 2 , fill the leather-bag (the cloud) in the 
womb of the lower (atmosphere [?]) s . 

II. 

4. Agni, who art lord of booty, rich in cows, 
young son of strength \ bestow on us, O Gatavedas, 
great glory. 

5. Being lighted, a Vasu, a sage, Agni who is to 
be magnified by (pious) words, O (god) with many 
faces, shine to us so that riches may be ours. 

6. Reigning J by night by thy own power, O Agni, 
and at the break of dawn, O god with sharp teeth, 
burn against the sorcerers. 



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104 VEDIC HYMNS. 



III. 

7. Bless us, O Agni, with thy blessings, when 
our Gayatra song is brought forward (to thee), thou 
to whom reverence is due in all our prayers. 

8. Bring us wealth, O Agni, which may be 
always conquering, excellent and invincible 1 in all 
battles. 

9. Bestow on us, Agni, through thy kindness l 
wealth which may last all our life 2 , and have mercy 8 
on us that we may live. 

IV. 

10. O Gotama l , bring forward purified words, 
bring songs to the sharp-flaming Agni, desirous 
of his favour. 

1 1 . May he who tries to harm us, whether nigh 
or afar, fall down. Do thou lead us alone to in- 
crease. 

12. The thousand-eyed Agni, who dwells among 
all tribes, scares away the Rakshas. The praise- 
worthy Hotri (Agni) is praised K 



NOTES. 

The same Rishl. Metre, 1-3 Trish/ubh ; 4-6 Ushwih ; 
7-1 a Gayatri. 

What in the traditional text is one hymn, consists really 
of four independent hymns of three verses each. This is to 
be concluded from the well-known laws of arrangement of 
the Sawzhita, and is confirmed by the change of metre 
and by the reception of two of the four hymns into other 
Vedic Sawhitas : the second (verses 4-6) is found in the 
Sama-veda II, 911-913 ; Va^\ Sawmita XV, 35-37 ; Taitt. 



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MAJVDALA I, HYMN 79. IO5 

Sawhita IV, 4, 4, 5 ; Maitr. Sawhita II, 13, 8 ; the third 
(verses 7-9) in the Sama-veda II, 874-876. Besides, verses 
1-2 occur Taitt Saw*h. Ill, 1, 11, 4-5; verse a, Maitr. 
Sarah. IV, 1 a, 5; verse 4, Sama-veda I, 99; verses 8, 9, 
Maitr. Sarah. IV, ia, 4; verse 9, Maitr. Sarah. IV, 10, 6 ; 
Taitt. Br. II, 4, 5. 3- 

Vers© 1. 

Note 1. As to visara I think we should compare VII, 
36, 1. vf sanuna prfthivf sasre urvf, 'The wide earth has 
expanded with her surface.' Prof. Max Miiller observes 
with regard to this Pada : when the sky sends forth the 
rain, the lightning appears. 

Note 2. On dhiini, see vol. xxxii, p. 11a (I, 64, 5), and 
Geldner, Vedische Studien, I, a68. I do not take the word 
with Geldner for an epithet of Vata, the wind, but of the 
snake, i. e. Agni, who very probably ts to be understood 
here as in the whole Trika, as the fire of the lightning. 

Note 3. Perhaps we have here again a Pada of ten 
syllables, of the type which occurs several times in the 
preceding hymns. Or possibly the text should be corrected : 
ushasaA na naveda^, * a knower (of sacrifices, comp. IV, 33, 
4; V, 1 a, 3) like the dawns,' or ushasam naveda/* (with 
dissyllabic -am), ' a knower of the dawns.' — See Lanman, 

P- 565- 

Note 4. The waters? Or the dawns? 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. On the nasalization of aminantan in the Sam- 
hita text, see my Prolegomena, p. 471. 

Note 2. I. e. Paiganya, the thundering cloud. Comp. V, 
83, 1 ; VII, toi, 1 ; Bergaigne, Rel. V^dique, III, 37 seq. 

Note 3. Regarding yadi idam, comp. IV, 5, 11. There 
the verb belonging to yadi must be supplied ; in the same 
way our passage must be interpreted also, unless we resort 
to changing the text and accentuating the verb nonava, in 
which case the translation would be, ' when the black bull 
has bellowed here.' 



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I06 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Note 4. The women may be the showers of rain. Or 
they could be understood as the dawns, comp. ushasaA 
navedaA, verse i. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. I propose to read pfyanam. 

Note 2. On pdrjg-man, see Joh. Schmidt, Kuhn's Zeit- 
schrift, XXV, 86 ; Bartholomae, Bezzenberger's Beitrage, 
XV, 27 seq. ; Bergaigne, Rel. Ved. II, 505 ; and compare 
especially X, 93, 4. The word evidently is connected not 
with the verb gam, but with ksham, ' the earth,' of which 
we find the genitives gmaA and gmih. 

Note 3. It does not seem probable to me that upara 
means here the lower pressing-stone, as Grassmann, Ludwig, 
and Pischel (Vedische Studien, I, 109) suggest (Grass- 
mann : den Schlauch beim untern Pressstein. Ludwig : den 
schlauch ... an des steines ort. Pischel : sie legen das 
Fell mitten auf den Stein). I propose to supply ragasah ; 
comp. I, 62, 5. raga/i uparam; IV, 1, 11. rigasafi asya 
y6nau, and especially IV, 17, 14, where we find the ' womb 
of the atmosphere ' (ra^asaA asya y6nau) mentioned, quite 
as in our passage, together with the leather-bag (tva£), i. e. 
the cloud. — Bergaigne (Rel. Ved. II, 505) translates and 
explains, 'arrose la peau dans le sejour de l'inferieur,' 
c'est-a-dire fait couler les eaux du del pour l'Agni 
terrestre. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. See above, I, 26, 10, note 1. 

Verse 6. 

Note L Ra^an seems to be the participle of tig ; comp. 
VIII, 19, 31. kshapaA vastushu ra^asi. Now it is very im- 
probable that of this participle a vocative should occur; 
see Lanman, 509. I believe, therefore, that we should 
accentuate rSgan (comp. the remarks of Bartholomae, 
Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XV, 204). 

Verse 8. 
Note 1. Comp. IX, 6^, 11. rayfm . . . dush/aram. 



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MANDALA I, HYMN 79. IO7 

Verse 9. 

Note 1. As to su£etiina, comp. I, 159, 5. 
Note 2. Comp. VI, 59, 9. ray/m vlrvayuposhasam. 
Note 3. Marcflkam is a second object of dhehi, not an 
epithet of rayfm. Comp. VIII, 7, 30. 

Verse IO. 
Note 1. Comp. above, 78, 2, note 1. 

Verse 12. 

Note 1. On the use of the middle of gri with passive 
meaning, comp. Delbriick, Altindische Syntax, 264. 



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I08 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAiVPALA I, HYMN 94. 
ASH7AKA I, ADHYAYA 6, VARGA 30-32. 

i. We have sent forward 1 with thoughtful mind 
this song of praise like a chariot to the worthy 
Gatavedas. For blissful is his care for us in his 
companionship. Agni ! May we suffer no harm in 
thy friendship. 

2. He prospers for whom thou performest the 
sacrifice ; he dwells untouched * ; he acquires 
abundance of heroes. He is strong; no distress 
overtakes him. Agni ! May we suffer no harm in 
thy friendship. 

3. May we be able to light thee. Prosper our 
prayers. The gods eat the sacrificial food that is 
offered in thee. Bring thou hither the Adityas, for 
we long for them. Agni ! May we suffer no harm 
in thy friendship. 

4. Let us bring fuel and prepare sacrificial gifts 
for thee, awaking thy attention at each joint 1 (of 
the month). Help forward our prayers that we 
may live. Agni! May we suffer no harm in thy 
friendship. 

5. (He is) the shepherd of the clans ' ; by his 
nightly light the creatures walk, the two-footed and 
four-footed. Thou art the bright, great splendour 
of dawn. Agni ! May we suffer no harm in thy 
friendship. 

6. Thou art the Adhvaryu and the ancient Hotri, 
the Prarastrz* 1 , the Potri, the born Purohita 2 . 
Knowing the duties of every priest thou givest 



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MANDALA I, HYMN 94. IO9 

success, O wise one. Agni! May we suffer no 
harm in thy friendship. 

7. Thou who art beautiful, of like appearance on 
all sides, thou shinest forth even when afar like 
lightning. Thou seest, O god, even over the 
darkness of night Agni ! May we suffer no harm 
in thy friendship. 

8. May the chariot of him who presses S6ma, 
be to the front \ O gods. May our curse overcome 
the malicious ones. Accept (O gods) this prayer 
and make it prosper. Agni! May we suffer no 
harm in thy friendship. 

9. Strike away with thy weapons those who curse 
us, the malicious ones, all ghouls, be they near 
or afar. And make a good path to the sacrifice of 
him who praises thee. Agni! May we suffer no 
harm in thy friendship. 

10. When thou hast yoked to thy chariot the 
two ruddy, red horses, whom the wind drives 
forward, and thy roaring is like that of a bull, 
then thou movest the trees with thy banner of 
smoke '. Agni ! May we suffer no harm in thy 
friendship. 

11. And when thy grass-consuming sparks are 
scattered, the winged (birds) 1 also fear the noise. 
Then all goes well with thee and thy chariots. 
Agni ! May we suffer no harm in thy friendship. 

12. He makes Mitra and Varu«a get refreshing 
drink. He mysteriously turns away the anger of 
the Maruts 1 . Be merciful towards us. May their 
mind be again (as it was before). Agni ! May we 
suffer no harm in thy friendship. 

1 3. Thou art god of the gods, a wonderful Mitra 
(i.e. friend, of the gods) 1 . Thou art the Vasu 



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IIO VEDIC HYMNS. 



of the Vasus, welcome at the sacrifice. May we be 
under thy most wide-reaching protection. Agni ! 
May we suffer no harm in thy friendship. 

14. That is thy glorious (nature) that when 
kindled in thy own house, and fed with Soma, thou 
art awake S the most merciful one. Thou bestowest 
treasures and wealth on the worshipper. Agni! 
May we suffer no harm in thy friendship. 

1 5. May we be of those to whom thou, O pos- 
sessor of beautiful wealth, O Aditi \ art pleased to 
grant sinlessness in health and wealth *, and whom 
thou wilt quicken with glorious strength and with 
abundance of progeny. 

16. Do thou, O Agni, thou who knowest (how to 
grant) happiness, prolong our life here, O God ! 
May Mitra and Varu#a grant us this, may Aditi, 
the Sindhu, the Earth, and the Sky 1 ! 



NOTES. 

This hymn with the whole collection which it opens is 
ascribed to Kutsa Angirasa. The metre is Gagatt ; the 
two last verses, as is frequently the case in Gagati-hymns 
(see H. O., Prolegomena, 144 seq.), are composed in 
Trish/ubh. The hymn has been translated by Prof. Max 
Miiller, Physical Religion, p. 173. — Verse 1 = MS. II, 7,3; 
SV. I, 66 ; AV. XX, 13, 3. Verses 1, 3, 4 = SV. II, 414. 
416. 415. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. Prof. Max Miiller translates, ' Let us build up 
this hymn of praise.' To me it rather seems that the 
reading should be, as Boehtlingk-Roth have proposed, s. v. 
sam-hi, sam ahema. Comp. 1, 61, 4. asmaf It u stdmam sam 



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MAJVDALA I, HYMN 94. Ill 

hinomi ratham na tash/a-iva, 'to him I send forward a song 
of praise as a carpenter (fits out) a chariot.' Compare 
besides, IX, 71, 5 ; I, 184, 4 ; II, 19, 7 ; VI, 45, 14, &c. 

Verse 2. 
Note L Comp. vol. xxxii, p. 65, I, 37, 1 note. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Pirvan, 'joint,' seems to refer here, as it very 
frequently does in the later Vedic and post-Vedic texts, to 
the joints of the month, the sacrificial days of the full and 
change of the moon (the parvawa-sacrifices). As to the 
temporal use of the instrumental, comp. rztuna and ritubhiA ; 
Delbriick, Altindische Syntax, p. 130. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. Ludwig proposes the correction of vua'm gop£A 
into vijam gopaA (genitive). But I think it will be suffi- 
cient to write asya accented. As to vLram gop£4, comp. 
96,4. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. The Vras&stri (or Upavaktr*), literally, ' the 
commander,' is the same priest who is more usually 
designated as the Maitravaruwa. All the priests mentioned 
here (with the exception of the Purohita, see next note) 
belong to the ancient system of the ' seven Hotris' enum- 
erated, for instance, II, 1, 2. Comp. H. O., Religion des 
Veda, 383 seq. 

Note 2. The Purohita or house-priest does not, pro- 
perly speaking, belong to the number of the priests 
officiating at a sacrifice (ritvigaA), though of course the 
Purohita could act as a ritv'ig. Geldner (Vedische Studien, 
II, 144) seems to be wrong in concluding from our passage 
that 'already in the Rig-veda the Purohita, being the 
superintendent of the holy service, was a real ritv\g, i. e. 
officiating priest.' Comp. H. O., loc. cit, 374 seq. ; 379, 
note 2. 



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112 VEDIC HYMNS. 

Verse 8. 
Note 1. On pflrvaA, comp. I, 34, 10 ; V, 31, 11. 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. The regular accentuation of a determinative 
compound ('banner of smoke') would be dhflmaketuna. 
But it is very natural that the traditional text gives the 
accent of the Bahuvrihi (' he whose banner is smoke ') 
which so frequently occurs. 

Verse 11. 
Note 1. As to patatrfca£, comp. above, I, 58, 5. 

Verse 12. 

Note 1. Most probably the meaning is not that the 
Maruts are expected to turn away the anger of somebody 
else, but that the anger of the Maruts shall be turned away 
by Agni. Comp. I, 171, 1; VI, 66, 5; VII, 58, 5; 
Bergaigne, Religion Vedique, II, 401. It seems, conse- 
quently, that we should read avayata\ — On avayatahe/aA, 
scil. Indra, see vol. xxxii, p. 292 (I, 171, 6), and also IV, 1, 

4; VI, 66, 5. 

The genitives Mitrisya Varu#asya may be understood 
as depending, together with Marutam, on he/aA. In this 
case the translation would be: 'He mysteriously turns 
away the anger of Mitra and Varu#a and of the Maruts in 
order that (men) may get refreshing drink.' 

Verse 18. 

Note 1. On the frequent identification of Agni with 
Mitra, see Bergaigne, Religion Vedique, III, 134 seq. 

Verse 14. 

Note 1. On the root gar used with regard to Agni, see 
the remarks of Dr. Neisser in Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XIII, 
297 seq. 



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MAMJALA I, HYMN 94. I 1 3 

Verse 15. 

Note 1. Agni is invoked here by the name of Aditi, with 
an evident allusion to the goddess Aditi, as granting freedom 
from bonds, which is the original meaning of Aditi. Comp. 
M. M., vol. xxxii, pp. 241, 260, 262 ; H. O., Religion des 
Veda, p. 204. 

Note 2. Comp. Ill, 54, 19. On sarvdtat (sarvatati), see 
M. M.'s note, vol. xxxii, p. 260, note a, and compare 
Darmesteter, Haurvata/ et Amereta/, p. 80. See also 
Lanman, p. 386. 

Verse 16. 

Note 1. The last hemistich is the regular conclusion of 
the Kutsa hymns. 



[46] I 

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114 VEDIC HYMNS. 



M AND ALA I, HYMN 95. 
ASHTAKA I, ADHYAYA 7, VARGA 1-2. 

i. Two (sisters) of different shapes wander along, 
pursuing a good aim. The one and the other 
suckles the calf 1 . With the one (the calf) is golden, 
moving according to its wont 2 . With the other 
it is seen clear, full of fine splendour. 

2. The ten unwearied r young women 2 have 
brought forth this widely-spread germ of Tvash/r/ 3 . 
Him, the sharp-faced (Agni) who is endowed with 
his own splendour, the shining one, they 4 carry 
around among men. 

3. They celebrate his three births : one in the 
sea, one in heaven, one in the waters 1 . In the 
eastern region 2 he commanding determines the 
seasons of the dwellers on earth by his present 
power 3 . 

4. Who among you has understood this hidden 
(god) ? l The calf has by itself given birth to 
its mothers*. The germ of many (mothers), the 
great seer, moving by his own strength, comes 
forward from the lap of the active ones 8 . 

5 1 . The fair (child Agni) grows up visibly in 
them in his own glory, standing erect in the lap 
of the down-streaming (waters). Both (Heaven and 
Earth) fled away in fear of (the son of) Tvash/r*' 2 , 
when he was born, but turning back they caress 
the lion. 

6. They caress him both, like two kind women ; 
like lowing cows they have approached him in 
their own way. He has become the lord of all 



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MAJVZ>ALA I, HYMN 95. I 1 5 

powers \ he whom they anoint with sacrificial gifts 
from the right side 2 . 

7. He raises his arms again and again like 
Savitrz 1 . He the terrible pressing on ranges 
both wings 2 (of his army). He raises up his 
bright vesture from himself alone 3 . He gives 
new garments to his mothers. 

8. He assumes his fierce appearance which is 
above (i.e. the lightning?), being united with the 
cows ', the waters in his seat. The prayer purifies 
the bottom of the seer (?) 2 . This was the meeting 
among the gods 3 . 

9. The wide space encompasses thy base, the 
resplendent foundation 1 of the buffalo. Agni ! Being 
kindled protect us with all thy undeceivable guard- 
ians who are endowed with their own splendour. 

10. On the dry ground he produces a stream 1 , 
a course, a flood. With his bright floods he reaches 
the earth. Whatever is old he receives into his 
belly. He moves about within the young sprout- 
ing grass 2 . 

11. Thus, O Agni, being strengthened by fuel, 
shine thou to us with wealth-giving shine, O purifier, 
for the sake of glory. May Mitra and Varu«a grant 
us this, may Aditi, Sindhu, the Earth, and the Sky ! 

NOTES. 

The same .foshi. The metre is Trish/ubh. — Verse 1 = 
VS. XXXIII, 5 ; TB. II, 7, 12, 2. Verse % = TB. II, 8, 
7, 4. Verse 5 = TB. II, 8, 7, 4; MS. IV, 14, 8. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. The two females are evidently Night and Dawn 

I 2 



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I I 6 VEDIC HYMNS. 



(comp. below, 96, 5). The calf is Agni whose bright 
appearance by night is contrasted here with his paler 
splendour by day (comp. below, 1 27, 5). The explanation 
of Professor Hillebrandt (Vedische Mythologie, I, 331) that 
' das von ihnen wechselnd gesaugte Kalb der bald als Sonne 
bald als Mond erscheinende Lichtgott, d. h. Agni ist,' does 
not seem convincing to me. 

Note 2. I cannot follow Hillebrandt (loc. cit. 335) in 
translating svadhavan ' an Labung reich.' 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. On feminine nominatives in -asaA like atandrasa/;, 
see Lanman, Noun-Inflection, 362. 

Note 2. The ten young women are the fingers which 
produce the fire by the attrition of woods. 

Note 3. On Tvash/W as the father of Agni, see Hille- 
brandt, Vedische Mythologie, I, 522 seq.; Bergaigne, Rel. 
V£d., Ill, 47 seq. 

Note 4. Hillebrandt (loc. cit.) takes the ten fingers as 
the subject of pari nayanti, which does not seem probable. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. It is surprising that Agni's birth in the sea and 
his birth in the waters are distinguished. The poet's 
meaning is not quite clear. Prof. Max Miiller thinks of 
the rising sun and the lightning in the clouds. Comp. 
H. O., Religion des Veda, 107. 

Note 2. We ought to read pradkam ; comp. IV, 29, 3 ; 
IX, 111,3. 

Note 3. Comp. X, 85, 18, where it is said of the moon 
that she ' is born again, determining the seasons.' Thus it 
is possible that the poet understands here Agni as dwelling 
in the moon as light. Comp. on this identification Bergaigne, 
I, 159, and Hillebrandt, Ved. Mythologie, I, 330 seq. But 
this interpretation of our passage is by no means certain. 

Verse 4. 
Note 1. Possibly we should correct k£A idam vaA ni«yam ; 
comp. VII, 56, 4; 6i, 5. The translation would be: 'Who 



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MAAT0ALA I, HYMN 95. 117 

among you has understood this secret ? ' — the secret that 
a calf should give birth to cows. 

Note 2. In my opinion the mothers are the waters ; the 
calf is Agni. The meaning must be, consequently, that, as 
Agni is born from the waters thus the waters are born 
from Agni. Agni — we may try to interpret the poet's 
meaning — sends his smoke to the sky. The smoke is 
changed to clouds ; the clouds send forth water. Exactly 
the same meaning seems to be expressed in I, 164, 51. 
Comp. also Manu III, 76. agnau prastahutiA samyag 
adityam upatish/Aate, aditya^ - ^ayate vr/sh/ir vr*sh/er 
annaw tataA prag&A. — Prof. Max Miiller observes : ' The 
mothers are day and night, or heaven and earth. The 
calf, the son, Agni, being born of the night gives birth to 
the day, and being born of the day (in the evening) gives 
birth to the night. Or it may be that Agni, light, makes 
Dyaus and Pr/thivi to be visible.' — Prof. H illebrandt's 
interpretation of our verse is quite different ; see Vedische 
Mythologie, I, 335. 

Note 3. I. e. the fire is born from the waters. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. Comp. Hillebrandt, Ved. Myth., I, 371, 523. 

Note 2. I. e. the son of Tvash/r* (see above, verse 2) 
considered as identical with his father. Comp. Bergaigne, 
III, 47, and see also Aufrecht, Kuhn's Zeitschrift, I, 356. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. On daksha and its relation to kratu, comp.. 
Geldner, Vedische Studien, I, 267. 

Note 2. The poet seems to play upon words ; ' power ' 
is daksha, ' from the right side' dakshiwataA (i.e. approach- 
ing respectfully, dakshi«ikr*tya). 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. Comp. Bergaigne, Rel. V^d., Ill, 46. 
Note 2. Observe the dual form slkau ending in -au, not 
in -a. Comp. Lanman, Noun-Inflection, 576. Prof. Max 



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Il8 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Miiller translates here : ' He the terrible tries and stretches 
out the hems of his sleeves.' This may indeed be the 
meaning of si£. 
Note 3. See Geldner, Vedische Studien, II, 189. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. The cows of course are intended for the sacrificial 
food coming from the cow, such as milk and butter. 

Note 2. The two nominatives, kavMs and dh?//, can 
scarcely be right The subject seems to be the prayer which 
cleanses, as it were, Agni, and thus augments his splendour 
(comp. IV, 15, 6 ; VIII, 103, 7). Possibly we should read 
kave^ budhnam. Comp., however, IX, 47, 4. svaydm kavfA 
vidhartiri vfpraya rdtnam iikAati yadi marmr^fyate dhi'ya//. 
In this difficult verse so much is clear that the seer (kavf/*) 
is subject, and that he is stated to purify the prayers. 

Note 3. The meaning seems to be that at the sacrificial 
fire all gods assemble. 

Verse 9. 

Note 1. On dhSman, comp. M. M., vol. xxxii, p. 383 seq. 
— Prof. Max Miiller proposes the following translation: 
' Thy wide effulgence goes round the firmament, the firm 
seat of the strong one (buffalo).' 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. Ludwig takes sr6taA as a locative. But it is 
very improbable that we should have here a survival of the 
ancient locatives of stems in -s without a case-ending (Joh. 
Schmidt, Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XXVII, 306; Brugmann, 
Grundriss der vergl. Grammatik, vol. ii, p. 611). In 
Ludwig's opinion ' it follows from the corresponding gatum 
Qrmim that srotas stands for srotasi as dhanvan for dhan- 
vani.' But this is not convincing. 

Note 2. On Agni as inhabiting the sprouting grass, 
comp. Ill, 5, 8; VII, 9, 3. 'I believe this refers to the 
blades of grass used as tinder to catch the sparks of fire.' 
M. M. 



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MA^CALA I, HYMN 96. 119 

MAA^ALA I, HYMN 96. 
ASH7AKA I, ADHYAYA 7, VARGA 3-4. 

1 . Being born by strength J in the ancient way, 
lo ! he (Agni) has assumed instantly all the qualities 
of a sage. The Waters and the Dhishawa 2 have 
furthered the friend (Mitra s ). The gods have held 
Agni as the giver of wealth. 

2. By the ancient Nivid x , by Ayu's 2 wisdom he 
has procreated these children of men. With his 
irradiating look 3 (he has procreated) the Sky and 
the Waters. The gods have held Agni as the 
giver of wealth. 

3. The Aryan clans magnified 1 him as the first 
performer of sacrifices, as receiving offerings, as 
striving forward, the son of strength, the Bharata 2 , 
the bestower of mighty rain (?) 3 . The gods have 
held Agni as the giver of wealth. 

4. He, MatarLrvan x , the lord of bountiful pros- 
perity, has found a path for (his ?) offspring, he who 
has found the sun, the shepherd of the clans, the 
begetter of the two worlds. The gods have held 
Agni as the giver of wealth. 

5. Night and Dawn, who constantly destroy each 
other's appearance, suckle one young calf 1 unitedly 2 . 
The piece of gold 3 shines between Heaven and 
Earth. The gods have held Agni as the giver of 
wealth. 

6. (He is) the base of wealth, the assembler of 
all goods 1 , the beacon of sacrifice, the fulfiller of 
thought, the bird 2 . In order to guard their immor- 



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I 20 VEDIC HYMNS. 



tality the gods have held him, Agni, as the giver 
of wealth. 

7. Him who is now and who was formerly the 
abode of wealth, the earth 1 (i.e. the dwelling-place 
or support) of what is born and of what will be 
born, the shepherd and guardian of what is and 
of much that comes into being. The gods have 
held Agni as the giver of wealth. 

8. May (Agni,) the giver of wealth, present us 
with quick wealth. May the giver of wealth (pre- 
sent us with wealth) united with strong men l . The 
giver of wealth (should grant us) food together 
with valiant heroes. The giver of wealth should 



grant us long life. 
9 = 95. 11. 



NOTES. 

The same Rishi and metre. — Verses 1, 3 = MS. IV, 10, 
6. Verse 5 = VS. XII, 2; XVII, 70; TS. IV, 1, 10, 4; 
6,5,2; 7.12.3; MS. II, 7, 8. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. I.e. by the attrition of the woods, as sahasa// 
putraA. 

Note 2. Two new discussions on dhishawa have been 
given by Hillebrandt (Ved. Mythologie, I, 1 75 seq. ; comp. 
the criticisms of Ludwig, Ueber die neuesten arbeiten auf 
dem gebiete der Rgveda-forschung, 85 seq.) and Pischel 
(Ved. Studien, II, 82 seq.). Hillebrandt arrives at the 
conclusion that dhishawa is the Earth (in the dual, 
Heaven and Earth ; in the plural, Heaven, Air, and Earth), 
and besides the Vedi, i. e. the excavated spot of ground 
which serves as a kind of altar for the sacrifice. Similar is 



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MAlfDALA I, HYMN 96. 121 

Pischel's opinion. He believes that the singular dhishawa 
is everywhere to be interpreted as a proper name: the 
name of a goddess of wealth and prosperity. The dual 
dhisha«e means ' Heaven and Earth : ' thus the original 
meaning of dhishawa must have been, as Pischel concludes, 
either Heaven or Earth. He tries to show that it is Earth, 
and so does Prof. Hillebrandt. The goddess of wealth 
originally was a goddess of the earth conceived as the liberal 
giver of wealth. This goddess, Prof. Pischel thinks, was 
closely related to, or even identical with, the goddess Aditi, 
whom the same scholar also believes to be a personification 
of the Earth. 

I must confess that even this close agreement of these 
two distinguished scholars has failed to convince me. It 
is quite true that the dual dhishawe means Heaven and 
Earth, and it is possible that the singular may, at least in 
some passages, mean the Earth. But I cannot believe that 
this is the original meaning of the word. Originally, in 
my opinion, dhishiwa was an implement used at the sacri- 
fice, more especially at the Soma sacrifice. The adr! 
(Soma-stones) are said to rest in the lap of the dhishana 
(I, 109, 3). In a Ya^us Mantra referring to the sacrificial 
preparation of Soma (Va^asaneyi Sawmita VI, 26) the 
dhishawa, or more exactly the Dhisha«as, as goddesses 
(dhishawlr ka. devi7/), are mentioned together with the 
sacrificial fire, the waters, and the gravawaA, the stones. In 
a similar connection we find a Ya^us formula pronounced 
when the Adhvaryu began to beat the Soma plants with the 
Upawmisavana stone (see Weber, Indische Studien, X, 370). 
There the Soma was addressed first, and then the two 
Dhishanas : ' Do not be afraid, do not be terrified, assume 
sap (O Soma !). O two Dhishanas ! Being firm show firm- 
ness ! ' (y&g asaneyi Samhita VI, 35). Here the -Satapatha 
Brahmawa (III, 9, 4, 18) says, that some authorities refer 
the last words to the two boards (phalake) on which the 
pressing-stones rest (see Hillebrandt, Ved. Mythologie, I, 
149 seq.). But the author of the Brahmawa himself declares 
that Heaven and Earth are addressed ; for as to the boards 



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122 VEDIC HYMNS. 



used for pressing the Soma, it would be of no consequence if 
they were broken. — Other passages in which the dhishawa/* 
are mentioned in connection with the preparation of the 
Soma, are Rig-veda IX, 59, 2 ; X, 1 7, 2. In the last passage 
' the lap of the Dh.' is mentioned as in 1, 109, 3 (see above). 
The dhisha«a was anointed, 1, 102, 1. The dhishawa is men- 
tioned in connection with the waters which were fetched 
by the Adhvaryus and used at the sacrifice, X, 30, 6, and 
in connection with the sacrificial fire, III, 2, 1, and in our 
passage. I have therefore no doubt that according to 
the original meaning the Dhishawa was, as stated above, 
a sacrificial implement used chiefly, though not exclusively, 
at the pressing of the Soma. I do not venture to determine 
the exact nature of this implement, but I think that from 
the passages collected above it will be evident that it was 
a sort of support on which the pressing-stones rested. 
A similar support may have been used for the vessel 
containing the sacrificial water, and for the sacrificial fire. 
This support was considered as yielding the Soma to Indra, 
as strengthening Indra, as inciting Indra and the gods to 
liberality towards men. Thus we have a goddess Dhishawa 
who wears the aspect of a goddess of wealth. She is invoked 
as one of the Gnas in I, 22, 10 with Hotra Bharatt. Finally 
the Earth, the support of everything, was likened to this 
support of the pressing-stones and of the Soma; and 
Heaven and Earth were then considered as the two 
Dhishawas. 

Note 3. Comp. above, 94, 13, note 1. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. On the solemn formulas of invocation, called 
Nivids, see Haug's Aitareya Brahma«a, p. 32 seq. ; Weber, 
Indische Studien, IX, 355 ; H. O., Religion des Veda, 387, 
note 2. Of course, the Nivids which Sankhayana (Srauta- 
sutra VIII, 16-25) gives, cannot be those to which the 
poets of the Rig-veda several times allude. 

Note 2. On Ayu as one of the mythical ancestors of 



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HAND ALA I, HYMN 96. 1 23 

mankind, nearly related to Manu, see Bergaigne, Religion 
V^dique, I, 59 seq. 

Note 3. Ushas is called vivasvat!, III, 30, 13 (cf. 
Bergaigne, I, 86) ; we are justified, consequently, in trans- 
lating vivasvata /frakshasa, ' with the irradiating look.' But 
in giving this translation we should not forget that the 
poet no doubt at the same time intended to allude to the 
name of Vivasvat, the father of Yama. 

Verse 3. 

ZTote 1. The text has i/ata. Comp. above, I, 1, 1, note 2. 

Note 2. Agni seems to be called Bharata as belonging 
to the people of Bharatas. Comp. H. O., ' Buddha, sein 
Leben, seine Lehre, seine Gemeinde ' (first edition), p. 414 
seq. More usually Agni is designated as Bharata. 

Note 3. Sr/pradanum. On da'nu, the meaning of which 
I consider to be ' rain ' or the like, comp. the discussion 
of Prof. Max M tiller, vol. xxxii, 113 seq. The exact 
meaning of sr/pra, which should not be compared 
with the Greek Atirapos, cannot be determined. The 
etymology is a very unsafe guide in such questions, and 
neither the connection with the root srz'p, ' to creep/ ' to 
crawl,' nor with the noun sarpfs, ' butter,' seems to lead to 
a satisfactory result. The passages in which srtpra or 
compounds of this adjective occur, point to a meaning 
like ' great,' ' mighty,' ' fine.' Thus sr/prabhcjjas seems to 
be something like purubho^as or subho^as ; Indra's arms 
(karasna) are called both sr*'pra (VIII, 3a, 10) and prr'thu 
(VI, 19, 3); finally srtpradanu, which is used here as an 
epithet of Agni, and VIII, 25, 5 of Mitra and Varuwa, does 
not seem to differ very much from sudtnu. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. MatanVvan, the messenger of Vivasvat, who car- 
ried the fire from heaven to earth, was originally distinct 
from Agni, but is identified with him in several passages. 
See M. M., Physical Religion, p. 152; Bergaigne, Religion 
V^dique, I, 52 seq. ; H. O., Religion des Veda, 122. 



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124 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Verse 5. 

Note 1. Comp. above, 95, 1, and I, 113, a. rtaadvatsa. 
The calf, of course, is Agni. 

Note 2. Literally, ' turned towards each other.' 
Note 8. The gold is again Agni. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. The first Pada is identical with X, 139, 3. 

Note 2. I prefer with Ludwig to take v6A as a nomina- 
tive (comp. Lanman, Noun- Inflection, 375) instead of a 
genitive. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. Compare the very obscure verse X, 3 1 , 5. iyam 
s£ bhuya ushasam iva kshaVi, ' may she be the earth, as it 
were, of the dawns.' ' She ' may possibly be the earth, 
which would be designated here as a dwelling-place or 
support of the dawns. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. Prof. Max Miiller proposes another translation 
of sanara. He writes : ' One expects an opposition 
between turd and sanara. Sanara can hardly be the same 
as viravat in the next line. I should like to take sanara as 
a variety of sina and sanatana. Give us fleeting, i. e. daily 
wealth, and give us old, i. e. lasting wealth I ' 



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MANDAI.A I, HYMN 97. 125 

MAJVZ?ALA I, HYMN 97. 
ASH^AKA I, ADHYAYA 7, VARGA 5. 

i. Driving away evil 1 with thy light, Agni, shine 
upon us with wealth — driving away evil with thy 
light. 

2. Longing for rich fields, for a free path, and 
for wealth, we sacrifice— driving away evil with 
thy light. 

3 1 . When he stands forth as the most glorious 
one among them 2 , and when our liberal lords excel 
— driving away evil with thy light — 

4. When through thee, Agni, the liberal lords, 
and when through thee we may multiply with 
offspring — driving away evil with thy light — 

5. When the rays of the mighty Agni go forth 
on all sides — driving away evil with thy light — 

6. For thou indeed, (O god) whose face is turned 
everywhere, encompassest (the world) everywhere- 
driving away evil with thy light. 

7. Do thou carry us, as with a boat, across hostile 
powers, (O god) whose face is turned everywhere — 
driving away evil with thy light. 

8. Do thou carry us across (evil) to welfare, as 
across a stream with a boat 1 — driving away evil 
with thy light. 



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126 VEDIC HYMNS. 



NOTES. 

The same Rishi. Metre, Gayatrt. The hymn is 
addressed to Agni Suki. — Verses 1-8 = AV. IV, 33, 1-8 ; 
TA. VI, ii, i-a. Verse 1 = TA. VI, 10, 1. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. Lanman (Sanskrit Reader, p. 363) translates : 
' Driving away with flames our sin.' But agha is not 
exactly sin. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. In this verse as well as in the verses 4 and 5 — 
all commencing with the words pra yat — the principal 
clauses are wanting. As to the meaning, however, these 
clauses are supplied by the refrain ; ' driving away evil ' of 
course means ' may he drive away evil.' 

Note 2. ' Among them ' seems to mean ' among the 
liberal lords.' 

Verse 8. 

Note L Cf. Lanman, p. 434. 



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MANDALA. I, HYMN 98. 1 27 



MAA>Z>ALA I, HYMN 98. 
ASH7AKA I, ADHYAYA 7, VARGA 6. 

1. May we dwell in the favour of (Agni) Vaw- 
vanara. He indeed is a king, leading all beings 
to gloriousness l . As soon as born from here he 
looks over this whole world. Vaijvanara unites 
with the Sun 2 . 

2. Agni who has been looked and longed for ' in 
Heaven, who has been looked for on Earth — he 
who has been looked for, has entered all herbs. 
May Agni Vaixvinara, who has strongly been looked 
for, protect us from harm by day and by night. 

3. Vafcvanara ! May this be true of thee : may 
wealth and liberal givers attend us ! May Mitra 
and Varuwa grant us this, may Aditi, the Sindhu, 
the Earth, and the Sky ! 

NOTES. 

The same Rishi. Metre, Trish/ubh. — Verse 1 = VS. 
XXVI, 7; TS. I, 5, 11, 3 ; MS. IV, 11, 1. Verse 2 =VS. 
XVIII, 73; TS.1,5, 11, 1; IV.4,12,5; 7, 15. 6 ; TB. Ill, 
11, 6, 4; MS. 11,13, 11. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. Comp. VI, 70, 1. bhuvananam abhisrlyk. 
Abhijrf seems to mean, going or leading towards (abhf) 
gloriousness {srt). Prof. Pischel's opinion on the word is 
different ; see Vedische Studien, I, 53 seq. 

Note 2. As to yatate, comp. V, 4, 4. yatamana// 
rajm/bhi/s sflryasya; IX, m, 3. sam rarm/bhiA yatate 
darsatAA rathai. 

Verse a. 

Note 1. On the disappearance of Agni who is looked 
for everywhere, see M. M., Physical Religion, 264 seq. ; 
Bergaigne, Rel.V^dique, II, 75. 



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128 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAiVZMLA I, HYMN 99. 

ASH7AKA I, ADHYAYA 8, VARGA 7. 

i. Let us press Soma for £atavedas '. May he 
burn down the property of the niggard 2 . May he, 
Agni, bring us across all troubles, across all difficul- 
ties, as across a stream with a boat. 



NOTES. 

The Rishi is Karyapa Marina. Metre, Trish/ubh. — 
Verse i = TA. X, i. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. This is one of the very rare passages in which 
Agni standing alone and not accompanied by Indra or the 
Maruts &c. is mentioned as drinking Soma. It seems as 
if this verse were not composed for the regular Soma 
sacrifice, but for a special occasion. 

Note 2. Cf. Delbriick, Syntakt. Forschungen, I, 1 1 2. 



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MAJV.DALA I, HYMN I 2 7. 1 29 

MAA>Z>ALA I, HYMN 127. 
ASHTAKA II, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 12-13. 

i. I deem Agni to be the munificent Hotri, the 
Vasu, the Son of strength 1 , Gatavedas, like a priest, 
<74tavedas 2 : the best performer of the sacrifice, the 
god who with his upright body that is turned towards 
the gods, and with his flame longs for the shine of 
the (boiling) ghee 3 , of the butter that is offered in 
(the fire). 

2. May we, the sacrificers, call thee hither, the 
best of sacrificers 1 , the first of the Angiras, O priest, 
with our prayers, with priestly prayers, O bright 
one 2 : thee who like the heaven encompassest the 
earth 3 , the Hotri of human tribes, the manly flame- 
haired, whom these folks — whom all folks should 
favour in order to speed him (to our sacrifice). 

3. He indeed, shining mightily with his shining 
strength 1 , becomes the conqueror of deceitful foes 2 
— like an axe, the conqueror of deceitful foes 2 . 
He at whose onslaught 3 even what is strong melts 
away*, steady things (waste away) like forests (which 
are burnt or bend down in the storm) 8 . Conquering 
he holds himself back; he does not proceed 6 . As 
with a conquering bow-man he proceeds 6 . 

4. Even what is firm gives way before him : thus 
it is known. With hottest kindling-sticks 1 one wor- 
ships him 2 for winning his favour, one worships Agni 
for winning his favour. He who dives into many 
forests as if carving the wood with his flame, destroys 
even firm food 3 with his strength — he destroys 
even what is firm with his strength. 

[46] K 



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I3O VEDIC HYMNS. 



5. Let us place that power 1 of his in our neigh- 
bourhood 2 — (that power) which is more visible by 
night than by day 8 — (more visible) than by day to 
the unremitting 4 (worshipper). Therefore his life is 
a firm hold 6 , like (a father's) safe refuge to a son : 
(the fires) that never grow old, tending to blessings 
enjoyed or not enjoyed (before) 6 — the fires that 
never grow old, tending (to such blessings). 

6. He indeed makes a mighty noise like the host 
of the Maruts, . . .'on the rich fields, . . .'on the 
. . ,\ He, the seizer, ate the offerings 2 , he who 
has deservedly become the banner of the sacrifice. 
And when he joyously and joyfully (proceeds), all 
followed gladly on his path ; men (have followed) 
his path as for a triumphal procession. 

7. When forsooth the Kistas 1 striving for heaven, 
when the BhWgus have addressed him paying 
reverence — the BhWgus producing him by attrition, 
with worship : Agni is the lord of goods, the bright 
one, who is their 2 supporter. May the wise one 
accept the wonted coverings 3 ; may the wise one 
accept them. 

8. We invoke thee, the lord of all people, the 
common master of the house of all, to enjoy (the 
sacrifice) : (we call) thee who truly art carried by 
prayers as by a vehicle 1 to enjoy (the sacrifice): the 
guest of men in whose presence (they live) as before 
a father's (face), and all those immortals (attain) to 
strength, and the offerings among the gods (attain) 
to strength. 

9. Thou, O Agni, art borri, the mightiest by 
might \ for the divine world, the strongest one, like 
wealth for the divine world. For thy delight is 
most strong, and thy power is most brilliant And 



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MAJVDALA. I, HYMN 12 7. 131 

they walk around thee 2 , O (god) who never growest 
old, like obedient (servants), O (god) who never 
growest old. 

10. Let your praise go forth to the great Agni, 
who is mighty in his might, who awakens at dawn, 
like a winner of cattle 1 — let it go forth to Agni. 
When (the worshipper) rich in offerings has loudly 
praised him 2 in all lands 3 , he wakes* like a singer in 
front of the dawns\ the flaming one (?), the Hotri 
(in front) of the dawns 8 . 

11. Thus being seen by us, bring near to us, 
O Agni, graciously united with the gods, benig- 
nantly, great wealth benignantly. Make us behold 
great (bliss of valiant offspring 1 ), O mightiest one, 
that we may obtain such enjoyment. Produce great 
bliss of valiant offspring, O bountiful Lord, (as fire 
is produced) by attrition, for those who praise thee, 
like a strong hero in thy might. 

NOTES. 

The Rishi is Paru£Mepa Daivodasi, the metre Atyash/i 
(verse 6 Atidhr*ti). — Verses 1-3 = SV. II, 1163-1165. 
Verse 1 = SV. I, 4°5 5 VS. XV, 47 5 TS. IV, 4, 4. 8 ; 
MS. II, 13, 8 ; AV. XX, 67, 3. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. There is no doubt that the reading of the 
Rig-veda text vasum is correct ; the Sama-veda has vasoA. 
Comp. H. O., Prolegomena, p. 280. 

Note 2. 'Is it a play on the word ? Like a priest 
knowing all things ? ' M. M. 

Note 3. There is a metrical irregularity in this Pada ; it 
has six syllables instead of five before the caesura. The 
text, however, seems to be correct. 

K 2 



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132 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Verse 2. 

Note 1. The first Pada is Trish/ubh instead of <7agati. 
It would be easy to correct huvemahi, but that form is 
never found in the Rig-veda, though both huvema and 
havamahe are frequent. Thus it is very probable that we 
have here a metrical irregularity of the type described by 
H. O., Prolegomena, p. 117. 

Note 2. Comp. VIII, 60, 3. vfprebhiA jukra manmabhiA. 

Note 3. If the explanation of pdrig-man which we have 
adopted (see above, I, 79, 3, note ») is correct, it will be 
impossible, of course, to accept Bergaigne's opinion (Rel. 
V6d., II, 505, note 1) that the accusative dy^m is governed 
by parj^manam. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. In the second Pada one syllable is wanting. 
The text seems to be correct, and the irregularity apparently 
is the typical one described by H. O., Prolegomena, 
p. 68 seq. : the Pada has the tetrasyllabic beginning (before 
the caesura), and it goes on as if the beginning had been 
pentasyllabic. Several Padas of the same irregular 
structure occur in our hymn, thus in verse 9 : tvam (read 
tuam) agne 11 sahasa sahantama^ ; verse 10 : pra va/; mahe 
ii sahasa sahasvate ; ushaA-budhe 11 pam-s£ na agnaye. 

Note 2. The comparison paraju/z na, ' like an axe,' raises 
doubts as to the correctness of druham-taraA. ParajuA 
seems to point to a compound containing the element dru, 
'wood;' comp. below, 130, 4; VII, 104, 21. The second 
member of the compound would be han, which is frequently 
used with the meaning of cutting wood (II, 14, 2 ; X, 89, 7). 
Thus the reading would be dru-hantaraA (comp. vritra- 
hantama^), ' a mighty wood-cutter.' As to this use of the 
comparative, see Delbriick, Altindische Syntax, p. 196. 

Note 3. Comp. V, 7, 2. yasya sanWtau. 

Note 4. Prof. Max Miiller (Science of Thought, p. 325) 
believes that the root jru occurs here in the sense of 
shaking. To me it seems that this jruvat is a misspelling 



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MAJVDALA I, HYMN 1 2 7. 1 33 

for sruvat. The opinion of Pischel and Geldner (Vedische 
Studien, I, p. vi) is different. 

Mote 5. The meaning of the comparison which I have 
indicated by the words in parentheses, becomes clear from 
VIII, 40, 1. vana-iva v£te it. 

Note 6. The two last Padas are very obscure. In the 
last Pada but one na would seem to be comparative, not 
negative, because it has the same meaning in the last Pada, 
and because its vowel does not coalesce with the following 
initial vowel (comp. Benfey's dissertation, ' Behandlung des 
auslautenden a in na " wie " und na " nicht." ' But then 
instead of yamate a substantive meaning something like 
'hero' would be required. And also instead of the in- 
strumental dhanva-saha one should expect to find a nomi- 
native; comp. Benfey, Vedica und Linguistica, p. 180, 
note 1. — Prof. Max Miiller translates: 'Holding out (or 
resisting) he stands firm, he does not budge ; holding his 
bow he does not budge.' 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. The words te^ishflfcabhi^ arawibhi/^ are repeated, 
probably by the same poet, below, 129, 5. 

Note 2. It may be observed that several times in the 
Paru££Aepa hymns the parallelism between two subsequent 
Padas has corrupted the text, the reading of the one Pada 
being wrongly introduced into the other. For instances 
I refer to I, 129, 11, where the last vaso has been added 
from the preceding Pada, and to the last Pada but one of 
I, 1 35, 4. Possibly our Pada, which in its traditional form 
is metrically abnormal (comp., however, M. M.'s Hymns to 
the Maruts, 1st ed., p. cxii), has suffered damage in the 
same way. The comparison of I, 129, 5 would lead us to 
conjecture : te^ish/Aabhi^ arinibbiA na dvase. ' One wor- 
ships him in order that he may grant his favour as if (he 
were to help us) with hottest kindling-sticks. One worships 
Agni in order that he may grant his favour.' 

Note 3. Comp. IV, 7, 10. sthira' £it anna dayate vi 
^-ambhaiA. The food is the wood which Agni consumes. 



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134 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Verse 6. 

Mote 1. See Prof, yon Roth's translation of this verse, 
Zeitschrift der D. Morg. Gesellschaft, XLVIII, 117. On 
pr*ksham, comp. M. M., vol. xxxii, p. 30a ; Pischel, Vedische 
Studien, I, p. 96 seq. The translation of such a word can 
only be tentative. 

Note 2. To tiparasu something like vikshti (IV, 37, 3) 
seems to be supplied. 

Mote 8. Comp. the Latin expression, 'argutius quam 
verius.' Pischel, Gottinger Gelehrte Anzeigen, 1884, p. 516 
seq. ; Delbruck, Altindische Syntax, p. 196. 

Mote 4. Aprayus seems to be an anomalous formation, 
instead of aprayu, unless we have to read apriyuve. Ac- 
cording to Pischel (Gottinger Gel. Anzeigen, 1890, p. 54a), 
aprayushe would mean 'dem der da lebt.' But I do not 
think that this aprayus should be separated from aprayu, 
which, as may be seen from I, 89, 1 compared with III, 
5, 6 and X, 4, 7, is identical in meaning with, and evidently 
etymologically related to, aprayu^Mant. 

Mote 5. Gribhawavat is the contrary of agrabhana, I, 
1 16, 5. 

Mote 6. Comp. Ill, 30, 7. abhaktam £it bha^ate. 

Verse 6. 

Mote 1. Ludwig : ' in den bebauten fluren zu verehren, 
auf den wusten flachen zu verehren.' Prof. Max Miiller 
observes with regard to ish/ani/* : ' it staniA, or ish + stands 
(ish-karta), much thundering.' For Srtana he proposes the 
translation, 'ploughed field.' I have left both words un- 
translated. 

Mote 2. Adat is imperfect of ad ; there is a play upon 
words (a'dat and a-dadf^). 

Verse 7. 
Mote 1. Who the Kistas (cf. Lanman, p. 346) are is not 
known. They seem, however, either to be identical with 
the Bhrigus or to be another ancient and probably mythical 
family of priests like them. They are mentioned also in 
VI, 67, 10. 



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HAND ALA I, HYMN 1 2 7. 1 35 

Note 2. ' Their ' refers to ' goods.' 

Note 3. The fuel and libations with which Agni is 
covered ? 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. Va*has and its compounds, such as st6mavahas, 
ukthdvahas, gfrvahas, have been treated of by Dr. Neisser 
in his ingenious article on vahni, Bezzenberger's Beitrage, 
XVIII, 301 seq. (comp. on vahni, vol. xxxii, p. 37 seq.). 
Dr. Neisser tries to show that by the side of vahni, derived 
from vah = Latin vehere, and meaning 'draught-horse' (and 
besides — though Dr. Neisser does not admit this, see p. 316 
— ' a person that drives in a chariot '), there existed a second 
substantive vahni connected with the Greek ei^eadat, and 
meaning both 'erhaben' and 'erhebend,' i.e. praising the 
gods (loc. cit, p. 314). With this second vahni he connects 
vShas and its compounds. One of the principal arguments 
of Dr. Neisser is tfce fact quite correctly stated by him 
(p. 301), that 'the word vahni very frequently associates 
itself to the term \\6tri, while it does not with the com- 
pounds havyavah and havyava*hana.' This fact, indeed, 
points to the conclusion that 'those compounds belong 
to another sphere of ideas than vahni' (p. 302). But 
Dr. Neisser seems to me to go too far in concluding that 
vahni, standing as an epithet of Agni, is not derived from 
vah = vehere. Agni's action consists not only in carrying 
the sacrificial food to the gods, but also in carrying the 
gods to the sacrifice of men, and in coming to that sacrifice 
himself with his chariot and his horses. Nor do the words 
stomavahas or ukthdvahas, if derived from vah = vehere, 
necessarily presuppose the admissibility of expressions such 
as ' uktham (stomam) vahati vipraA devan zkkha. ' (p. 303), 
but those compounds may also rest on an idea conveyed 
by expressions such as ' uktham (stomal) vahati devan upa 
ya^wam,' which idea is quite Vedic. Thus st6mavahas in 
my opinion means, as an epithet of the god, ' carried by 
the stoma as by a vehicle' (comp. VII, 24, 5. esha st6ma/t 
mane' ugraya v£he dhurf-iva atyaA na va.g'ayan adhayi), or, 
as an epithet of the human worshippers, 'fitting out the 



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136 VEDIC HYMNS. 



stoma as a vehicle.' I believe that the words in question 
can thus be explained in conformity with the whole range 
of Vedic thought, and the artificial distinction of two differ- 
ent substantives vahni, &c, will be avoided. For special 
indications pointing in the same direction, which are 
furnished by the passages which contain the words here 
treated of, I refer to Bergaigne, Religion Wdique, II, 
286 seq., and to the article of Dr. Neisser himself, p. 321 

seq. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. On the metrical irregularity, see above, verse 3, 
note 1. 

Note 2. Te seems to stand for the accusative, comp. 
Pischel, Zeitschrift der D. Morgenl. Gesellschaft, XXXV, 
714 seq.; Delbriick, Altindische Syntax, 205. Or may 
the meaning be: 'and thy (worshippers) walk around 
thee . . . like obedient (servants)?' m 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. On the metre, see above, verse 3, note 1. Prof. 
Max Miiller translates, ' like a hunter for cattle.' 

Note 2. The phrase vfjvasu kshasu £\5guve occurs also, 
V, 64, 2. The same hymn contains the word su-£etuna, 
which is found in the eleventh verse of our hymn. 

Note 3. Literally, ' on all earths.' Comp. X, 2, 6. nriv&tiA 
anu kshaV*. 

Note 4. Garate, ' he wakes,' at the same time can mean 
'he sings,' and 'he is praised.' Comp. Neisser, Bezzen- 
berger's Beitrage, XIII, 298. 

Note 5. The translation ' dawn ' is conjectural only. But 

it gives a good meaning in all the passages which contain 

the word rishhti&m (besides our passage, V, 25, 1 ; VIII, 

71, 15 ; X, 6, 1). Prof. Max Miiller translates the last two 

Padas : ' he sings like Rebha at the head of all singers, 

like a clever Hotri among the singers.' — Comp. Lanman, 

p. 424- 

Verse 11. 

Note 1. I supply suvi'ryam ; see the last Pada but one. 



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MAJVOALA I, HYMN 1 28. 1 37 

MAA>Z>ALA I, HYMN 128. 
ASH7AKA II, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 14-15. 

i. He was born in Manu's firm law 1 , the Hotrz, 
the best sacrificer, according to the will of the U.yi/5 2 , 
Agni, according to his own will. Always listening 
to him who wishes to be his friend, like a treasure 
to him who aspires to renown, the unbeguiled Hotr i 
sat down in the abode of food (on the altar) ; en- 
veloped * (he sat down) in the abode of food. 

2. We render him attentive 1 , the promoter of 
sacrifice, on the path of Rite, by adoration with 
offerings, in the divine world, by (adoration) with 
offerings 2 . ' In bringing us vigour he never becomes 
worn out with this body of his : he whom Mita- 
mvan (has brought) to Manu from afar, the god 
whom he has brought from afar. 

3. In his (own) way he moves in one moment 
round the terrestrial (space), the sudden devourer 
(emitting) his sperm, the bellowing bull emitting his 
sperm, the bellower 1 , looking round with a hundred 
eyes, the god who quickly courses in the forests 2 , 
taking his seat on the lower ridges, Agni, and on 
the highest ridges. 

4. This highly wise Purohita, Agni watches sac- 
rifice and service 1 house by house; by (the power 
of) his mind he is intent upon sacrifice. By (the 
power of) his mind helpful to him who desires food 2 , 
he looks on all creatures, since he has been born, the 
guest adorned with ghee, (since) the helpful carrier 
(of the gods) 3 has been born. 



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I38 VEDIC HYMNS. 



5. When through his (Agni's) power the bounties 
grow in strength, with the roar of Agni l as with 
that of the Maruts 2 — like bounties offered to a 
vigorous man : then he by his greatness stirs up 
the gift of goods. May he protect us from misfor- 
tune and injury, from evil spell and injury. 

6. The far-reaching 1 steward 2 has taken all goods 3 
in his right hand, and strongly advancing does not 
let them loose ; desirous of glory he does not let 
them loose. For every supplicant* thou hast carried 
the oblations to the gods 4 . For every righteous 
one he procures a treasure ; Agni opens both folds 
of the door (for him). 

7. He has been established as the most blissful 
one in the enclosures of men, Agni, at the sacrifices, 
like a noble lord of the clans, a beloved lord of the 
clans at the sacrifices : he rules over the oblations of 
men to which nourishing power has been imparted K 
May he protect us from harm that comes from 
Varu»a, from harm 2 that comes from the great god. 

8. They magnify Agni the Hotri, the dispenser 
of goods. They have roused the beloved, the most 
shining steward 1 (of sacrifice) ; they have roused the 
carrier of oblations. The gods desirous of goods 
(have roused) him in whom all life dwells, who pos- 
sesses all wealth, the Hotr*, the worshipful sage, the 
lovely one for the sake of bliss ; with praises (they 
have roused), desirous of goods, the lovely one. 



NOTES. 
The same Rishl and metre. — Verse 6 = TB. II, 5, 4, 4. 



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MAJVDALA I, HYMN 128. 1 39 



Verse 1. 

Note L As to dhartmam, comp. IX, 86, 4, where it is 
said that the streams of Soma flow forward, ' dharimawi ; ' 
Bergaigne, III, 219. ' Domain, precinct, sanctuary? ' M. M. 

Note 2. The U^i^as (comp. above, I, 60, a, note 1) are 
closely related to the Bhr*gus ; they are considered as the 
first sacrificers, the first worshippers of Agni. See Ber- 
gaigne, I, 57 seq. 

Note 3. Enveloped in fuel and libations. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. Comp. M. M.'s note, vol. xxxii, p. 437. 
Note 2. Comp. Lanman, pp. 516, 518. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. Prof. Max Miiller translates the second and third 
Padas : ' again and again shouting, bellowing forth his sperm, 
yea, placing his sperm with bellowing.' 

Note 2. Of course the fuel is alluded to. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Ya^wasya adhvarasya, ' sacrifice and service ; ' 
comp. above, I, 1, 4, note 1. 

Note 2. The translation is doubtful. If the denominative 
ishuy is derived from fshu, the meaning must be ' to fly like 
an arrow,' or possibly 'to shoot arrows.' But I do not 
think that the poet can have meant to say that Agni acts 
as a vedh£& and looks on all creatures ' for him who flies 
like an arrow,' or ' for him who shoots arrows.' We should 
rather have to write ishuyate without accent, so that the 
translation would be : 'By (the power of) his mind helpful 
(Agni) flies like an arrow ; he looks on all creatures ' (comp. 
VI, 3, 5, where it is said that Agni shoots arrows). But 
possibly ishuy, which is found only here, may be a synonym 
of ishudhy, see verse 6. It may be a denominative from 
ish, influenced by the type of verbs like righy, kratuy, 



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I40 VEDIC HYMNS. 



vasuy, &c. Then the accent can be retained, and the 
translation would be as given in the text ('to him who 
desires food'). 
Note 3. On vahni, comp. above, I, 127, 8, note 1. 

Verse 5. 

Note L The cerebral n in avewa clearly points to the cor- 
rection of the text agne^ ravewa. 

Note 2. The Maruts are called bhogSJt, V, 53, 16 (stuhi 
bhqg-a'n, 'praise the liberal ones'). Here we have the 
corresponding abstract noun. 

Verse 6. 

Note L Vfhayas (comp. Bergaigne, Religion V^dique, III, 
287) seems to be formed like vfmahas, vf£etas, vfmanas. 
The meaning then will be 'of extended hayas.' The 
substantive hayas, which is not found in the texts separ- 
ately, may be derived from ^fhite or from hin6ti, and mean 
something like ' energy.' At all events it seems impossible 
to connect this adjective vfhayas with the substantive 
vihayas, 'the aerial space,' belonging to the classical lan- 
guage. 

Note 2. Comp. the remark above, I, 58, 7, note 2. 

Note 3. I propose to read vtava vf-hayaA arat/A vasu 
dadhe haste dakshi«e. Comp. IX, 18, 4. & yih visvani 
vaxya vasQni hastayoA dadhe\ 

Note 4. Comp. Pischel, Vedische Studien, I, 191. 

Note 5. Comp. VIII, 19, 1. devatra" havyam 6hire. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. I/a" kr z'ta seems to be identical with ishkrzta. 
Note 2. Regarding the metre, comp. Lanman, p. 383. 

Verse 8. 
Note 1. Comp. I, 58, 7, note 1. 



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MAJVDALA I, HYMN I4O. I4I 

MAiVZ>ALA I, HYMN 140. 
ASH7AKA II, ADHYAYA 2, VARGA 5-7. 

1. For him who sits on the Vedi (i.e. on the 
sacrificial bed), whose foundations are pleasant, for 
the brilliant Agni bring forward 1 a receptacle 2 , which 
is to him like a drink. Clothe 1 the bright one in 
prayer as in a garment, him whose chariot is light, 
whose colour is bright, the destroyer of darkness. 

2. He who has a twofold birth 1 , presses on 
towards the threefold food a ; what he has eaten 
grows again after a year 8 . With the mouth and the 
tongue of the one he (shows himself as) the noble, 
manly one; with the other (mouth) the stubborn 
(Agni) wipes off the trees *. 

3. Both his mothers 1 , dwelling together, immersed 
in darkness, and affrighted, proceed towards the 
young child who stretches forward his tongue, who 
sparkling moves about thirstily, whom men should 
attach to themselves, who agitates (the world), the 
increaser of his father 2 . 

4. Thy speedy (teams) 1 that strive to break loose 
for the benefit of the man who acts as men do, the 
swift ones, drawing black furrows — thy quick (horses), 
striving apart, the agile, swift runners, incited by the 
wind, are yoked. 

5. When he stroking his wide course proceeds 
panting, thundering, roaring, then those sparkling 
(rays) of his fly about wildly, displaying wondrous 
darkness, a large sight 1 . 

6. When he bends down over the brown (plants) x 
like a busy (servant), he roars and approaches his 



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142 VEDIC HYMNS. 



wives like a bull. Displaying his power he adorns 
his bodies with beauty ; like a terrible beast, difficult 
to seize, he shakes his horns. 

7. He clasps (the plants, &c.) that have been laid 
together and have been laid out 1 . Knowing them, 
while they know him, and being their own (friend or 
lover) he lies on them. They grow again and 
attain godhead. They produce together another 
shape of the parents 2 . 

8. The long-haired virgins 1 have embraced him. 
Having died they stand upright again for him (Agni) 
the living one (or, for him the Ayu). Delivering 
them of old age he proceeds roaring, procreating 
another vital spirit, an indestructible life. 

9. Licking everywhere the upper garment of the 
mother 1 , he spreads himself over the space with his 
mightily devouring warriors, giving strength to 
everything that has feet, licking and licking. The 
reddish white one* follows her ways 3 . 

10. Shine, O Agni, among our liberal lords, for 
thou art a mightily breathing bull, a friend of the 
house. Throwing down the (mothers) of the young 
child 1 thou hast shone, (a protector of thy friends) 
like a coat of mail in battles, hurrying around. 

11. May this well-composed (prayer), O Agni, be 
more welcome to thee than a badly-composed one — 
more welcome than even a welcome prayer. With 
the bright light of thy body win thou treasures 
for us. 

12. Grant us. Agni, for our chariot and for our 
house a ship which has its own rudders and which 
has feet 1 , which may save our strong men and our 
liberal lords and our people, and which may be 
a shelter for us. 



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MA-RTDALA I, HYMN 140. 1 43 

13. Approve, O Agni, our hymn alone. May 
Heaven and Earth and the Rivers, delightful by 
their own nature 1 , going their way 2 , (choose for us) 
bliss in cows and crops, long days ; may the red 
(Dawns) choose food for us as a choice boon. 



NOTES. 

The Rishi is Dlrghatamas Au£athya, the metre Gagatt ; 
the two last verses are Trish/ubh (comp. above the note on 
the metre of I, 94) ; the tenth verse, which is considered as 
either Gagati or Trish/ubh, begins with one Gagatl Pada 
which is followed by three Padas in TrishAibh. — No verse 
occurs in the other Sawhitas. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. Pra bhari (Padap. pra bhara) and vasaya (Padap. 
vasaya) may be 1st person. 

Note 2. Possibly the ' womb ' or ' receptacle ' (y6ni) here 
means ghn'ta or the like, for it is said of Agni that ' his 
womb is ghr/ta' (II, 3, 11), and he is called ghr*'tayoniA. 
This receptacle 'is to him like a drink,' because he con- 
sumes the ghr/ta by which he is surrounded. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. The terrestrial and the celestial birth. Comp. 
Bergaigne, I, 28 seq. 

Note 2. Bergaigne (I, 29) translates : ' . . . s'elance trois 
fois sur la nourriture,' which he explains as referring to 
' the three sacrifices of the morning, the midday, and the 
evening.' But tri-Wt clearly is an epithet of annam, not 
an adverb. The explanation of Sayawa, who understands 
the threefold food as sacrificial butter, sacrificial cakes 
(purcx/lsa), and Soma, may be correct. 

Note 3. On the locative saxovatsare, comp. Delbruck, 
Altindische Syntax, p. 117. 



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144 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Note 4. The last words evidently refer to Agni's tongue, 
i.e. his flames, wiping off as it were the firewood. But it 
is not clear what the tongue of the other one is. Sayawa 
thinks of the sacrificial spoon conceived as the tongue of 
the officiating priest : which is very artificial, but perhaps 
not too artificial for a verse like this. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. The 'two mothers' of Agni may be the two 
worlds (comp. Bergaigne, 1, 238) or the two kindling-sticks. 
— Ubh5 (masc.) instead of ubhe" is to be remarked. 

Note 2. Agni increases the wealth of the worshipper 
who has lighted the fire and may thus be considered as 
Agni's father. Comp. .Satapatha Brahmama XII, 5, 2, 15. 
Or the father may be Heaven ; on Agni as imparting 
strength to Heaven, see I, 164, 51. 

Verse 4. 

Note L The verse begins with feminines ; the ghv&h 
(comp. I, 134, 1), literally the quick ones, seem to be 
something like the niyutaA of Agni. Then follow mascu- 
lines ; the horses of Agni are male (comp. Bergaigne, I, 

143)- 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. Comp. bhflri virpaA karikrat, III, 58, 9. 

Verse 6. 

Note L The brown ones, according to Saya«a, are the 
plants. They are called brown (babhru) also in X, 97, 1. 
' Are they the dry leaves in which the spark is caught ? ' 
M. M. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. Prof. Max Miiller translates samst/ra^ vishrfraA, 
' (the flames) that are together and apart.' 

Note 2. The parents seem to be Heaven and Earth, as 
Sayawa explains. — Possibly pitnSA depends on sa£a (comp. 



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MAJVDALA I, HVMN I40. I45 

pitroA sa£a, II, 17, 7; IV, 5, 10), 'being with their 
parents they produce a new shape.' Prof. Max Miiller 
translates: 'They produce together a different shape of 
their parents.' 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. Should not the plants again be referred to? 
' I think it refers to the £valas, the flames that are hidden 
under the ashes and are lighted again.' M. M. 

Verse 9. 

Note 1. The mother is the Earth whose surface Agni 
licks. 

Note 2. I believe the Dawn is alluded to whom the 
Vedic poets represent now as preceding Agni, now as 
following him. See Bergaigne, II, pp. 14, 15. 

Note 3. For vartanir aha of the Sa*»hitapa/£a the Pada- 
paMa has vartanfA aha ; comp. Rig-veda PratLiakhya, 
Sutra 259. VartanfA of course is correct. Comp. X, 
172, 1. gava£ sa£anta vartanfm. 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. The mothers of the young child are very 
probably the mothers of Agni represented as a young child. 
They may be the Waters which Agni leaves resting on 
the surface of the earth while he himself rises to heaven. 
Or the mothers may be the woods or plants which he 
burns and thus throws them down as it were. 

Verse 12. 

Note 1. 'Which has feet in its own rudders,' M. M. 
That the ship has feet seems to mean only that it has the 
faculty of moving forward freely and quickly, and not that 
any real beings having feet are designated by this com- 
parison. The ship that carries the worshippers across all 
dangers, is the protection and help which Agni grants, or 
the sacrifice which he helps to perform. 
[46] L 



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I46 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Verse 13. 

Note 1. Comp. Geldner, Vedische Studien, I, 275. 

Note 2. YantaA seems to be corrupt ; one or two 
syllables are wanting. Something like yatayantaA (IX, 
39, 2) or vardhiyanta/r, or, as Prof. Max Miiller proposes, 
vyantaA would do. He translates: 'May Heaven and 
Earth and the Rivers . . . accepting (vyanta^) sacrifices of 
milk and corn choose for us, and may the Dawns choose 
for us food as a boon for many days.' — Cf. Lanman, 
PP- 5io. 539- 



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MAJVDALA I, HYMN 141. 1 47 



MAiV^Z>ALA I, HYMN 141. 
ASH7AKA II, ADHYAYA 2, VARGA 8-9. 

i. Lo, that beautiful splendour of the god, when 
he was born of strength, has truly come to be 
a wondrous sight. Though he slinks away 1 , the 
prayer goes straight to him 2 . They have led 
forward the flowing streams of Rita.. 

2. The powerful one 1 , rich in food, the true (friend 
of men) has entered the wondrous (body)*. His 
second (form of existence) is in the seven kind 
mothers*. • The ten young females 4 have brought 
the third (form) of this bull forth, him the guar- 
dian, in order to milk him. 

3. When the rulers, the liberal lords brought him 
forth by their power out of the depth, out of the 
buffalo's shape 1 , when from of old 2 at the purifica- 
tion of the sweet drink 8 Matari^van produces the 
hidden one (i.e. Agni) by attrition — 

4. When he is led forward from the highest 
father 1 , he climbs up the . . , 2 , the plants in his (or, 
in their ?) houses. When 'both (Heaven and Earth 
or the two Ara»is?) promote his birth, then the 
youngest one became bright by his heat 4 . 

5. Then he entered upon the mothers l in whom 
he the bright one grew up far and wide unimpaired 2 . 
When he has climbed up to the former (mothers) 
who from of old incite (him) 3 , he runs down in the 
younger, later (or, nearer) ones. 

6 1 . Then in the strivings for the day 2 they choose 
him Hotri. As if to swell their good fortune they 

l 2 



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148 VEDIC HYMNS. 



strive towards him s , when praised by many he moves 
everywhere with wisdom and power to the gods and 
to the praise of mortals * for (bringing them) refresh- 
ing drink. 

7. When he has scattered himself, the worshipful 
one, driven by the wind, like . . .*, with the sound 
(which he produces) (?), he whom it is not possible 
to drive to a place (like cattle) : on the flight of the 
burning one who speeds on his black way, whose 
birth is bright, who strays everywhere to the 
atmosphere . . .* 

8. Like a chariot that goes forward, he goes to 
Heaven with his ruddy limbs, adorned with his 
locks of flames 1 . Then his black (clouds of smoke), 
O burning one(?), the liberal ones (?) (appear) 2 . 
The birds flee as before the fierceness of a hero 8 . 

9. Through thee indeed, O Agni, Varu«a whose 
laws are firm, Mitra and Aryaman, the givers of 
good rain, are glorious, when thou the mighty one 
hast been born, everywhere encompassing with 
wisdom (all beings), as the felly encompasses the 
spokes of a wheel. 

10. Thou, O Agni, youngest (god), furtherest 
treasures and (the friendship of) the gods for him 
who performs worship, who presses Soma. May we 
thus establish thee the young one, O young (son) of 
strength, possessor of great treasures, like the winner 
in a race l . 

11. Make good fortune 1 swell for us like well- 
employed wealth belonging to the house, and like 
firm ability 2 — (fortune) which can hold both races 3 
like reins : and being full of good-will in (the sphere 
of) i?«ta, (fill our) praise of the gods (with rich 
reward). 



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MAA7MLA I, HYMN 1 4 1. 1 49 

12. And may the brilliant, joyful Hotr* with quick 
horses, with a shining chariot hear us. May he, the 
wise Agni, lead us on the best leading (paths) to 
happy welfare and to bliss. 

13. Agni has been praised with powerful 1 songs, 
he who has been brought forward furthermore for 
sovereignty. May both those our liberal lords and 
we ourselves spread out 2 (our power over all foes) 
as the sun (spreads out its light and by it destroys) 
the mist 



NOTES. 

The same JRiahl The metre is Cagatt ; the two last 
verses again are Trishftibh. — None of its verses occurs in 
the other Sa/whitas. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. The meaning seems to be that if Agni be un- 
willing to officiate at the sacrifice, the prayer nevertheless 
reaches its aim and induces him to do his duty as the 
divine Hotr*. 

Note 2. The verb sadh is very frequently connected with 
substantives such as dhiynk or the like. Comp. also ma- 
tinam ka. sa'dhanam, X, 26, 4. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. It seems probable that prikshiA is the nomina- 
tive of prtksha, and not the genitive of przlcsh. Comp. 
VI, 8, 1, where it is said of Agni 'pnkshasya vrtshnaA 
arushasya.' On the meaning of pr/ksha, see above, 1, 127, 
5, note 1. 

Note 2. The poet seems clearly to describe the second 
and third form of Agni's existence, his dwelling in the 
waters and his birth from the fire-sticks. But he is less 
explicit with regard to the first form. The epithet pitu- 



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150 VF.DIC HYMNS. 



mia would seem to point to Agni as the sacrificial fire 
and the receiver of offerings. But it is rather strange that 
this form of the god should be distinguished from the 
Agni procreated by the ten females, i.e. produced by the 
ten fingers, by the attrition of the kindling-sticks. — Prof. 
Max Miiller differs from me in referring the words dara- 
pramatim ^anayanta y6sha»aA, not to the third form of 
Agni, but to Agni in general. He translates: 'The powerful 
one, rich in food, rests always on that wondrous sight 
(Agni on the altar, garhapatya Agni). The second rests 
in the seven kind mothers (vidyudrOpa ; Agni in the 
clouds); the third is for milking the powerful one (Agni 
as the sun, adityarflpa) — the ten maidens (the fingers) have 
brought forth the guardian.' 

Note 3. Grassmann no doubt is right in proposing to 
read sapta jiva'su. Of course the waters are alluded to. 

Note 4. Read disa. pramatim (Boehtlingk-Roth). On 
Agni as the son of the ten fingers, comp. Bergaigne, II, 7. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. The buffalo Agni was hidden in the depth. 
Comp. X, 8, 1. ap£m upa-sthe mahisha^ vavardha ; 1, 95, 9. 
budhnam vi-r6£amanam mahishasya dha"ma. 

Note 2. The preposition dnu seems to stand here with 
an ablative (pra-dfvaA). 

Note 3. The literal meaning of madhva/r a-dhave" is 
indicated by passages such as I, 109, 4. £ dhavatam ma- 
dhuna; IX, 11, 5. madhav £ dhavata madhu. Comp. also 
adhavaniya. On the washing of the Soma which is techni- 
cally designated by the verb a-dhav, see H. O., Gottinger 
Gelehrte Anzeigen, 1890, p. 426 seq. ; Hillebrandt, Vedische 
Mythologie, I, ai6. — The purification of the sweet drink, 
at which Agni is produced, was probably achieved by the 
tempest. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. The highest father is Heaven. 

Note 2. The meaning of prtkshudha/* is unknown. 



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MAiVDALA T, HYMN I41. IJI 

Note 8. Yat is repeated twice, as yasya in X; 121, 2. 
yasya vtrve upa-asate pra-Ji'sham yasya deva^. 

Note 4. On ghrwa", comp. Lanman, Noun-Inflection, 335. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. The mothers are the Waters. 

Note 2. The reading, very probably, ought to be vi- 
vavndhe\ 

Note 3. Boehtlingk-Roth believe that the reading ought 
to be sanayuvaA or sana-^uraA. Sana-^iraA (cf. sana-£ura 
pitara, IV, 36, 3) seems to me quite possible, although 
there is no positive necessity for abandoning the traditional 
reading. — The 'former' mothers may be the heavenly 
Waters ; the mothers in whom Agni runs down are the 
rivers. Prof. Max Miiller adds that the former mothers 
may possibly be ' the burnt pieces of wood. Agni runs up 
in them, then leaves them to burn new pieces.' 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. On the whole verse, compare Pischel, Vedische 
Studien, I, 217. 

Note 2. Comp. above, I, 45, 7, note 1. 

Note 3. The second Pada is translated by Pischel : ' Wie 
in einen Konig drangen sie in ihn, wenn sie (Trank)opfer 
darbringen.' But verse 1 1 shows that bhagam depends on 
papr*£an£sa£. 

Note 4. Comp. Ill, 16, 4. & devlshu . . . & sirnse uta 
arin&m. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. The translation of hvaraA is quite uncertain. 
The same must be said of the rest of this Pada. 
Note 2. The sentence is incomplete. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. On jflcvan (or jfkvas), comp. M. M.'s note, vol. 
xxxii, p. 318; Hiibschmann, Vocalsystem, p. 186. The 
translation is only tentative. — Two syllables are wanting ; 



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I S.2 VEDIC HYMNS. 



we may propose a reading like sikvabhiA parishkrtta& 
(comp. H. O., Prolegomena, 76, note 3). 

Note 2. This passage is most obscure. The first words 
of the Pada are the same as above, 140, 5. The ' black 
ones ' probably are the dark clouds of smoke that surround 
Agni. But it is very strange that these clouds should be 
designated as surayaA, ' liberal ones.' And the vocative (?) 
dakshi (PadapaMa dhakshi), instead of which we should at 
least expect daksho or dakshin, is no less strange. The 
text seems thoroughly corrupt. 

Note 3. See Lanman, p. 557. 

Verse 10. 
Note L Comp. Geldner, Vedische Studien, I, iai. 

Verse 11. 

Note L Comp. above, verse 6, Pada a. 

Note 2. Comp. VIII, 24, 14. daksham prm£antam. 

Note 3. The human and the divine race. I do not 
believe that Dr. Neisser (Zur Vedischen Verballehre, 17) is 
right in interpreting yamati as an indicative. 

Verse 13. 

Note 1. The translation of jimivadbhiA is only tentative. 
Stmt (1, 151, 1) cannot be identical with .rami. 

Note 2. NfA tatanyu^ (nfsh /atanyuA, Sa*whitapa///a) of 
course is derived from tan, not from stan. Comp. I, 105, 
ia. satyam tatana sflryaA ; IV, 5, 13. sdraJt varwena tatanan 
ushasaA, &c. 



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MANDKLA I, HYMI 



MA^Z?ALA I, HYMN 142. 
ASH^AKA II, ADHYAYA 2, VARGA 10-11. 

AprJ Hymn. 

i. Being inflamed, Agni, bring hither to-day the 
gods to the man who holds forth the (sacrificial) 
ladle. Spin out the ancient thread (of sacrifice) 1 
for the sacrificer who has prepared Soma. 

2. Measure out, O Tanunapat l , the sacrifice rich in 
ghee, rich in honey, of a priest like me, of a sacrificer 
who has toiled hard. 

3. The brilliant, purifying, wonderful Nara$a*»sa * 
mixes the sacrifice with honey three times a day, 
the god worthy of worship among the gods. 

4. Agni, magnified 1 by us, bring hither the 
bright, beloved Indra. For this my prayer is 
addressed 2 to thee whose tongue is good. 

5. (Priests) hold forth the (sacrificial) ladle, 
strewing the sacrificial grass at the decorous service 
of the sacrifice; — I 1 trim 2 (the sacrificial grass) which 
best receives the gods with its wide extent, a big 
shelter for Indra. 

6 1 . May the divine doors open themselves, the 
increasers of Rita., the never sticking, large ones, 
the purifying, much-desired (doors), that the gods 
may come forth. 

7. May Night and Dawn, of glorious appearance, 
the two neighbouring (goddesses), wearing beautiful 
ornaments ', the young * mothers of JZita., sit down 
together on the sacrificial grass 3 . 

8. May the two divine HotWs, eager in praising 
(the gods), the sages with lovely tongues, perform 



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154 VEDIC HYMNS. 



for us to-day this successful sacrifice which attains 
to Heaven. 

9. The brilliant (goddess) placed among the gods, 
among the Maruts \ Hotri Bharatt 2 , I/a, Sarasvatl, 
and Maht 3 : may these worshipful (goddesses) sit 
dpwn on the sacrificial grass. 

10. May Tvash/r*, inclined towards us, pour forth 
for us, in our navel \ that wonderful seed with many 
treasures 2 , plentiful by itself, for the sake of pros- 
perity and wealth '. 

11. Letting go (the sacrificial food to the gods) 
sacrifice by thyself to the gods, O tree 1 . May* 
Agni make the offerings ready 3 , the god among the 
gods, the wise one. 

12. For Him who is accompanied by Pushan and 
by the Maruts, by the Vi^ve devaA,(by) Vftyu 1 , 
who is moved by the Gayatra song, for Indra pro- 
nounce the Svaha over the offering. 

13. Come hither to the offerings over which the 
Svaha has been pronounced, in order to feast. 
Indra! Come hither! Hear our call! Thee they 
call at the worship. 



NOTES. 

The hymn is an Aprisukta. The same Z?t'shi. Metre, 
AnushAibh. The whole hymn is closely related to I, 13. — 
Verse 10 : cf. VS. XXVII, 30; TS. IV, 1, 8, 3; MS. II, 
12, 6. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. The third Pada of this verse is identical with 
VIII, 13, 14. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. Comp. I, 13, 2, note 1. 



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MAJVDALA I, HYMN I42. 155 



Verse 3. 
Note L Comp. I, 13, a, note 1. 

Verse 4. 

Note L 'Magnified' is iRti/t; comp. the note on I, 1, 1. 
The verse is addressed to the IdaA. 

Note 2. The text has iikAa, . . . va£yate. To me there 
seems to be no doubt that this is the passive of vzk, not of 
vank. Comp. the name of the priest a&fcAavaka, and the 
phrase ikkAoktibhiA matinam, I, 61, 3 ; 184, a. The same 
passive of va£ is found III, 39, 1. rnati'A hridih & va£ya- 
mana (then follows ikkAa. . . . ^igati) ; X, 47, 7 (stomal) 
. . . manasa va^yamanaA. — It may be observed that in 
our passage as well as in III, 39, 1 and X, 47, 7, the forms 
va^yate, va£yamana, va^yamanlA are preceded by a vowel ; 
and we may infer that the poet did not say u£yate, &c, in 
order to avoid the hiatus. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. The poet begins as if he Intended to say, ' Priests 
... lay down the sacrificial grass.' But he continues, 
' I lay down.' Dr. Neisser (Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XX, 
60) tries to explain the difficulty in a way in which 
I cannot follow him. 

Note a. On the verb vrig technically connected with 
barhi'A, see Geldner, Vedische Studien, I, 152 seq., and 
compare vol. xxxii, I, 38, i, note a ; I, 64, 1, note a. 

Verse 6. 
Note 1. With the whole verse compare I, 13, 6. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. Pischel's opinion (Vedische Studien, II, 113 seq.) 
that pejaA means 'Gestalt,' 'Form,' 'Farbe,' 'rupa,' does 
not convince me. 

Note a. See Geldner, Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XXVIII, 195. 



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I=n6 vedic hymns. 



Note 3. Comp. VIII, 87, 4. S, barhfA sidatam sumat 
Geldner (Vedische Studien, II, 190) translates: 'das schone 
Opfergras.' 

Verse 9. 

Note 1. ' Should we read marteshu for manitsu ? ' M. M. 
This conjecture seems perhaps rather bold. 

Mote 2. Hotra Bharatf, i.e. the personified Offering of 
the Bharatas, seems to be one goddess, more usually called 
simply Bharati. Comp. I, 22, 10; II, 1, 11 ; III, 62, 3; 
Bergaigne, Religion Wdique, I, 32a ; H. O., Religion des 
Veda, 243, note 2. PischeTs opinion (Vedische Studien, 
II, 85) is- different. 

Mote 8. See above, I, 13, 9, note 1. 

Verse 10. 

Mote 1. On the navel as the symbol of the connection 
between father and son, see Bergaigne, I, 35, 36, and 
comp. the well-known name Nabhanedish/#a. 

Note 2. For puru varam very probably puruvaram 
should be read (Grassmann). See II, 40, 4. puruvaram . . . 
rayas p6sham vi syatam nabhim asm<5. 

Note 3. With the last Pada compare II, 40, 4, quoted in 
note 2, and 1 1, 3, 9. pra^Sm Tvash/a vf syatu na"bhim asme" ; 
see also Taittiriya Sawhita IV, 1, 8, 3. Tvash/r* is gene- 
rally considered as giving sons; see H. O., Religion des 
Veda, 234. 

Verse 11. 

Note 1. Comp. I, 13, 11, note 1. 

Note 2. The second hemistich recurs 1, 105, 14 

Note 3. See Neisser, Zur Vedischen Verballehre, 22. 

Verse 12. 

Note L The text has 'for Vayu,' not 'for (the god) 
accompanied by Vayu.' But there is no doubt that pu- 
shanvate, &c, refers to Indra, and that Vayu is named 
merely as a companion of Indra. 



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MAYDALA I, HYMN 1 43. I 57 



MAMDALA I, HYMN 143. 
ASH7AKA II, ADHYAYA 2, VARGA 12. 

i. I bring forward my most powerful, entirely 
new (pious) thought (i.e. hymn), the prayer of my 
words ' to Agni, the son of strength ; he is the child 
of the Waters 2 , the beloved one, who together with 
the Vasus has sat down on the Earth as a Hot*-? 
observing the appointed time (for sacrificing). 

2. Being born in the highest heaven Agni became 
visible to Matarirvan. By the power of his mind, 
by his greatness when kindled, his flame filled 
Heaven and Earth with light. 

3 1 . His flames are fierce; never ageing are the 
flames of him who is beautiful to behold, whose face 
is beautiful, whose splendour is beautiful. The 
never sleeping, never ageing (rays) of Agni whose 
power is light, roll forward like streams across the 
nights (?) ». 

4. Him the all- wealthy, whom the Bhrtgus have 
set to work on the navel of the earth, with the 
whole power of the world ' — stir up that Agni by 
thy prayers in his own house — (him) who alone 
rules over goods like Varu»a. 

5. He who is not to be kept back like the roar of 
the Maruts, like an army 1 that is sent forward, like 
the thunderbolt of heaven — Agni eats with his sharp 
jaws, he chews, he throws down the forests as 
a warrior throws down his foes. 

6. Would Agni eagerly come to our hymn ? 
Would He the Vasu together with the Vasus fulfil 
our desire ? Will He, the driver, stir our prayers 



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158 VEDIC HYMNS. 



that they may be successful ? (Thus thinking) 
I praise Him whose face is bright, with this my 
prayer. 

7. He who has kindled him strives 1 towards 
Agni as towards Mitra (or, towards a friend) — 
(to Agni) whose face shines with ghee, the charioteer 
of ^'ta. May he who when kindled becomes a 
racer 2 , shining at the sacrifices 3 , lift up our bright- 
coloured prayer. 

8 \ Preserve us, O Agni, never failing with thy 
never-failing, kind and mighty guardians; protect 
our people all around with those undeceived, undis- 
mayed, never slumbering (guardians), O thou our 
wish 2 ! 



NOTES. 

The same Rishi. Metre, Cagati ; the last verse Trish/ubh. 
The hymn has been translated by Kaegi, Siebenzig Lieder 
des Rigveda, p. 100. — Verse 7 = TB. I, a, 1, 12. 

Verse 1. 

Mote 1. Comp. VIII, 59, 6. vkkih matim. 

Note 2. Agni who is considered as born from the Waters, 
is identified several times with a god who, like Mataruvan, 
in my opinion had an independent origin, with Apam napat 
(' Child of the Waters '). Comp. Bergaigne, Rel. V^dique, 
II, 17 seq. ; H. O., Religion des Veda, 118 seq. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. There is no sufficient reason for transposing 
verses 3 and 4 (Kaegi). 

Note 2. Probably we should read ati aktfln ; comp. VI, 
4, 5. ati eti aktfin. — See Bergaigne, Melanges Renier, p. 96. 



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UANDALA I, HYMN I43. 1 59 



Verse 4. 

Note L Bhuvanasya seems to depend on ma^mani ; 
comp. VII, 8a, 5. bhuvanasya ma^rnana. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. Pischel (Vedische Studien, I, 231) seems to me 
to be right in denying that sink ever means ' Geschoss,' 
and in translating s^na srish/S. 'exercitus effusus.' The 
opinion of Prof, von Bradke and Prof. Bloomfield is dif- 
ferent ; see Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenl. Gesellschaft, 
XLVI,45<5; XLVIII.549- 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. The text adds the dativus ethicus va/i, ' for you ' 
(comp. Delbriick, Altindische Syntax, 206), which can 
scarcely be translated. 

Note 2. Geldner (Vedische Studien, I, 168) has shown 
that akri very probably means 'horse.' Agni is very 
frequently compared to a horse. — Comp. Ludwig, Ueber 
die neuesten Arbeiten auf dem Gebiete der Rigveda- 
Forschung, p. 54; Roth, Zeitschrift der D. Morg. Ges., 
XLVIII, 118. 

Note 3. See above, I, 31, 6, note 2. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. With Padas C D compare the verse VI, 8, 7. 
adabdhebhiA tava gopSbhiA ish/e asmSkam pahi trisha- 
dhastha surm. 

Note S. ' What is ish/e ? Is it thou our wish, or thou 
our sacrifice ? ' M. M. 



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l6o VEDTC HYMNS. 



MA7VZ7ALA I, HYMN 144. 
ASHTAKA II, ADHYAYA 2, VARGA 13. 

1 . The Hotrt 1 goes forward 2 (in order to fulfil) his 
duty by his wonderful power, directing upwards the 
brightly adorned prayer. He steps towards the 
(sacrificial) ladles which are turned to the right 8 , 
and which first kiss his foundation *. 

2. They have greeted with shouts the streams of 
Rita. 1 which were hidden at the birthplace of the 
god, at his seat. When He dwelt dispersed in the 
lap of the waters, he drank the draughts by (the 
power of) which he moves 2 . 

3. Two (beings) of the same age 1 try to draw 
that wonderful shape (Agni) towards themselves, 
progressing in turns towards a common aim *. 
Then he is to be proclaimed by us like a winner 8 
(in a contest). The charioteer * (governs all things) 
as if pulling in the reins of a draught-horse. 

4. He whom two (beings) of the same age 1 
serve, two twins dwelling together in one common 
abode, the gray one has been born as a youth by 
night as by day 2 , the ageless one who wanders 
through many generations of men. 

5. The prayers, the ten fingers 1 stir him up. 
We, the mortals, call him, the god, for his pro- 
tection. From the dry land he hastens to the 
declivities 2 . With those who approached him he 
has established new rules 3 . 

6. Thou indeed, O Agni, reignest by thy own 
nature over the heavenly and over the terrestrial 



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MAJVDALA I, HYMN 1 44. l6l 

world as a shepherd (takes care of his cattle). 
These two variegated, great (goddesses) striving for 
gloriousness, the golden ones who move crookedly ', 
have approached thy sacrificial grass. 

7. Agni ! Be gratified and accept graciously this 
prayer, O joy-giver, independent one, who art born 
in the RitiL, good-willed one, whose face is turned 
towards us from all sides, conspicuous one, gay in 
thy aspect, like a dwelling-place rich in food \ 



NOTES. 

The same ^*shi. Metre, Gagati. — No verse occurs ill 
the other Sa/whitas. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. The Hot™ is Agni. 

Note 2. Comp. Ill, 37, 7, where it is said of Agni : 
purastat eti mayaya. — The poet says eti pra, and not pri 
eti, in order to avoid the hiatus. 

Note 3. Comp. below, III, 6, 1. dakshi»a-va7. 

Note 4. ' Which first, i. e. at the time when the sacrificial 
vessels are put down, kiss his dhaman (foundation), i. e. the 
place of Agni.' Saya»a. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. Comp. IX, 75, 3. abhf fm n'tasya dohana^ 
anflshata, and VIII, 12, 32. nSbha ya^wasya dohana pra 
adhvard. I take dohana^ as ace. plur. of an abstract noun 
dohana' formed like Tarawa, bhandana, &c. But possibly it 
might be the nom. plur. either of the same noun or of 
a nomen agentis dohana : ' the streams of Rita, (the liba- 
tions?) or the milkers of Rite, hidden at the birthplace 
of the god, have greeted him With shouts.' It would 
[46] M 



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1 62 VEDIC HYMNS. 



be difficult, however, to say why the milkers of Jitta. 
(i.e. the priests?) are called 'hidden at the birthplace of 
the god.' Prof. Max Miiller thinks of a reading pari- 
vritsJt, 'surrounding Agni.' He refers the 'streams of 
Rita.' (nom.) to the water, cf. I, 105, 13. r/tam arshanti 
s/ndhavaA. 

Note 2. Svadha^ adhayat ySbhxh Tyate. In my opinion 
svadha* means ' the inherent power,' * the power of moving 
according to one's own will,' and then the drink which 
confers this power on a being, especially on the dead 
ancestors. — Comp. M. M., vol. xxxii, p. 33 seq. ; H. O., 
Religion des Veda, 531, note 2. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. According to Saya«a the two beings spoken of 
here and in the next verse are the Hotrz and the Adhvaryu. 

Note 2. See I, 130, 5. ayuafg-ata samanam artham akshi- 
tam ; III, 61, 3. samanam artham £ara«iyamana. 

Note a On bhaga£ na havyaA, see Geldner, Vedische 
Studien, I, 131. 

Note 4. The charioteer is Agni. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. See verse 3, note 1. 

Note 2. Comp. Gaedicke, Der Accusativ, p. 175. He 
translates : ' bei Tage noch bei Nacht ergrauend.' 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. Vrls (&ra£ keyontvov) is ranged in the NighawAis 
among the angulinamani and explained by Sayawa accord- 
ingly. The word seems indeed to mean ' finger.' Compare 
with our passage IX, 8, 4 ; 15, 8 ; 93, 1 ; 97, 57. 

Note 2. Comp. I, 33, 4. dhanoA adhi vishunak te* vf ayan, 
and especially X, 4, 3. dhanoA adhi pravata yasi haryan. 
I cannot follow Pischel (Vedische Studien, II, 69 seq.) in 
explaining these passages. ' Over the heavenly expanse he 
hastens down towards us.' M. M. 



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MAJVDALA I, HYMN 1 44. 1 63 

Bote 3. See Pischel, Vedische Studien, I, 300. Like 
Pischel I do not know who ' they who approached Agni ' 
are. Possibly the worshippers or priests are alluded to. 
'He received new praises with (or from) those who 
approached him.' M. M. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. Sayawa explains the two female beings here in 
question as Heaven and Earth. Does the ' crooked move- 
ment ' refer to the daily revolution of the sky ? 

Verse 7. 
Note 1. The last Pada recurs X, 64, 11. 



M 2 



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t64 vedic hymns. 



MANDALA I, HYMN 145. 
ASH7AKA II, ADHYAYA 2, VARGA 14. 

i. Ask ye him. He has come. He knows. He 
the intelligent one moves forward ; He moves along 
(his way) (?)\ In him all commands, all wishes 
dwell. He is the lord of strength, of mighty power. 

2. They ask him. He himself 1 does not ask in 
turn what he, the wise one, has grasped by his own 
mind alone 2 . He does not forget the first word 
nor another word. Unconfused he adheres to his 
own power of mind. 

3. To him go the sacrificial ladles, to him go 
the racers'. He alone may hear all my words. 
He who pronounces many praishas 2 , the conqueror, 
the accomplisher of sacrifices whose blessings are 
flawless, the young child has assumed vigour. 

4. When he has come together 1 (with his com- 
panions 2 ), he goes to greet them 3 . As soon as 
born he steals upon (his prey) together with his 
companions. He strokes the . . .* to give him 
delight and joy, when the loving ones 8 approach 
him who stands on them •. 

5. He, the animal living in the water and walking 
in the forest 1 , has been placed on the highest skin 2 
(sky ?). He has proclaimed his rules to the mortals : 
for Agni, the knowing one, is intent upon .fata 
(Right) and is true. 

NOTES. 

The same Hishi. Metre, Gagati; the last verse is 
TrishAibh. — No verse occurs in the other Sawhitas. 



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MAA'DALA I, HYMN 145. 165 



Verae 1. 

Note 1. The Sawdiita text has sS. nv lyate, the Pada text, 
sA/t nfi lyate. Comp. PratLrilkhya 314. I propose to read 
Scfau (= si ami) lyate. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. See Geldner, Ved. Studien, II, p. 188. 
Note 2. Possibly we should read svena evi. 

Verse 8. 

Note L The text (drvati^) implies that these race-horses 
are mares. Probably, as Sayawa explains, the prayers 
(stutayaA) are alluded to. See on the prayers compared 
with horses, Bergaigne, II, 284 seq. 

Note 2. Praisha is the technical designation of the 
sacrificial commands of one priest (or more especially, of 
the Maitravaruwa) to another priest ; comp. Schwab, Das 
Altindische Thieropfer, p. 90 ; H. O., Religion des Veda, 
39°- 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. SamaYata may be the third person of singular or 
of plural. 

Note 2. I supply ' with his companions ' in consideration 
of the second Pada (yii^yebhiA). It is difficult to say 
who Agni's companions are (the flames? the officiating 
priests ?). 

Note 8. Ludwig's conjecture, upa stayam £arati, is very 
ingenious. ' He stealthily approaches them.' — On upa- 
sthayam, comp. also Bollensen, Zeitschrift der Deutschen 
Morgenl. Gesellschaft, XLVII, 586. 

Note 4. The meaning of jvantam, which occurs here and 
in the obscure passage X, 61, 21 (adha gava/i upamatim 
kan^yaA anu yvantasya kasya ^it pdra lyu/i), is unknown. 
Possibly it is related to jvatra, which means something like 
'powerful' or 'prosperous.' 



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1 66 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Note 5. The prayers? The oblations? 

Note 6. Api-sthitam may have active or passive meaning, 
'he who stands on somebody or something,' and 'he on 
whom somebody or something stands.' 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. The first Pada (and probably also the fourth) 
belong to the metrical type described by H. O., Prole- 
gomena, p. 68 seq. : the first part, before the caesura, 
consists of four syllables ; and then the Pada goes on as if 
it had the pentasyllable opening. 

Note 2. After Agni's abode in the Waters and in the 
wood has been mentioned in the first Pada, the second 
Pada possibly refers to his heavenly abode to which the 
adjective upamd ('highest') seems to point. Thus the 
' highest skin ' would be the sky. But Sayawa, who refers 
it to the Vedi, may possibly be right. His explanation 
would very well agree with the second hemistich. 



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MAJV0ALA I, HYMN 1 46. 1 67 

MAA^ALA I, HYMN 146. 
ASH7AKA II, ADHYAYA 2, VARGA 15. 

i. I praise Agni who has three heads and seven 
rays (or reins) 1 , who is without flaw, sitting in the 
lap of his parents* and of whatever moves or is firm, 
who has filled (with his light) all the lights of 
Heaven. 

2. The big bull has grown up to them 1 ; the 
ageless one who from here (from this world) dis- 
tributes his blessings, the tall has stood up erect. 
He puts down his feet on the surface of the wide 
(Earth) ; his red ones 2 lick the udder (the cloud?). 

3. Walking towards their common calf the two 
well-established 1 milch-cows 2 walk about in different 
directions. They measure interminable paths ; they 
have invested themselves with all great desires. 

4. Wise poets 1 follow his track 2 who in manifold 
ways protect the ageless one with their hearts. 
Wishing to acquire him they have searched the 
river 3 . He the Sun* became visible to them, to 
the men*. 

5. He is worthy to be looked for, round about 
in his race-courses, the noble who is to be magnified 1 , 
the great one 2 , in order that the small may live, as 
he, the all-visible liberal lord, has become a pro- 
genitor for those germs in many places. 

NOTES. 

The same i?*'shi. The metre is Trish/ubh. — No verse 
occurs in the other Sawhitas. 



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1 68 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Verso 1. 

Note 1. Saya«a refers the three heads of Agni to the 
three Savanas, or the three worlds, or the three sacrificial 
fires. The last explanation seems to be most probable. 
The seven reins (rays) are, according to Saya«a, the seven 
metres or the seven flames of Agni. The last explanation 
is recommended by III, 6, 2 (see below). But it is possible 
also to think of the seven priests (sapta hotara//). — Comp. 
II, 5, 2 (see below), and Taitt. Sa/whita I, 5, 3, 2 (to which 
passage Ludwig refers): sapta te agne samfdha/i sapta 
gtoi&h sapta rtehayaJz sapta dhama priyaTzi, &c. 

Note 2. The parents are Heaven and Earth. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. The text has the dual feminine; no doubt 
Heaven and Earth are meant. 
Note 2. The horses or flames of Agni. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. On su-mdka, comp. the article of Prof. Windisch 
in Festgruss an Bohtlingk, p. 114. 

Note 2. The cows seem to be Night and Dawn ; comp. 
above, I, 95, 1 ; 96, 5. Night and Dawn are called su- 
melce, I, 113, 3. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. The priests. 

Note 2. I have translated padam nayanti in the way 
indicated by Atharva-veda XI, 2, 13. viddhasya padanfA- 
iva; comp. also Manu VIII, 44. Prof. Max Miiller 
translates, 'Wise poets lead (Agni) to the ageless place, 
keeping many things in their heart— or, lead the ageless 
Agni to his place (the sacrifice).' 

Note 8. They have tried to find Agni in his proper 
dwelling, in the water. 

Note 4. The Sun is here identified with Agni. 

Note 6. On the form nr/n standing for different cases, 



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MAJWALA I, HYMN 1 46. 1 69 

compare Lanman, Noun-Inflection, 430 ; Bergaigne, 
Religion V&iique, I, 136, note 1 ; Pis^hel, Vedische Studien, 
I, 42, and Gottinger Gel. Anzeigen, 1890, p. 541 seq. ; 
Hillebrandt, Zeitschrift der Deutschen MorgenLGesellschaft, 
XLVIII, 420. Here it seems most natural to take, nrlh, 
as Pischel has proposed, as standing for the dative plural. 
Bartholomae (Studien zur indogermanischen Sprachge- 
schichte, I, 1 18, comp. p. 48), referring to III, 14, 4, believes 
that nr/n (or, more correctly, *nr/m), both here and there 
is genitive plural, and that Agni is called 'the sun of men ' 
because men are able to light this sun themselves. To me 
it seems very doubtful that this is a Vedic idea, and as to 
the verse III, 14, 4, I believe that nr/h there is a regular 
accusative plural : Agni is called there, ' a sun that spreads 
out men over their dwellings.' 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. 1/enyaA. Comp. I, 1, 1, note 2. 

Note 2. Agni may be called mahiA, 'the great one.' 
But it seems more natural to read mahe, the ancient 
pronunciation of which word before a word commencing 
with a vowel (maha ') coincided, or nearly coincided, with 
that of mahaA. The translation then would be : 'he who 
is to be magnified in order that the great and the small 
may live.' 



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170 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAiVZ?ALA I, HYMN 147. 
ASH7AKA II, ADHYAYA 2, VARGA 16. 

1. How, O Agni, have the resplendent ones wor- 
shipped thee, aspiring through the powers of the 
Ayu\ when 2 the gods, obtaining kith and kin of both 
races 3 (human and divine ?), rejoiced in the song of 
Rita, (or Right)*? 

2. Give heed to this my proffered hymn, O 
youngest one, which is most rich in liberal gifts 1 , 
O self-dependent one ! The one abuses thee, the 
other praises thee : I thy reverer revere thy body, 
O Agni 2 ! 

3. Thy guardians, O Agni, who saw and saved 
the blind son of Mamata from distress 1 — he the 
possessor of all wealth has saved them who have 
done good deeds 2 . The impostors, trying to deceive, 
have not deceived. 

4. The niggard, O Agni, the harmful and malicious 
who injures us by falsehood : may the heavy spell 
recoil on him ; may he injure his own body by his 
evil words 1 . 

5. And, O strong one, whatever mortal knowingly 
injures another mortal by falsehood : from such a 
one, O praised Agni, protect him who praises thee. 
Agni ! Do not deliver us to distress. 



NOTES. 

The same Rishi and metre. — Verse 2 = VS. XII, 42 ; 
TS. IV, 2, 3, 4 ; MS. II, 7) 10. Verse 3 = RV. IV, 4, 13 ; 
TS. I, 2, 14,5; MS. IV, 11,5. 



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MAJVDALA I, HYMN 1 47. I7I 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. The Ayu seems to be Agni himself. Or is it 
admissible to interpret kyt>h as standing metri causd for 
ayava/* ? Then the hemistich would refer to the mythical 
sacerdotal tribe of the Ayus, the ancient worshippers of 
Agni. Comp., for instance, X> 7, 5 ; 46, 8. The translation 
would be, ' How, O Agni, have the resplendent Ayus wor- 
shipped thee, aspiring with their powers ? ' 

Note 2. ' Because.' M. M. 

Note 8. Comp. VIII, 103, 7. ubh6 toke tanaye dasma 
virpate parshi r&dh&A magh6nam. 

Note 4. As to rrtasya saman, comp. Vig. Sawh. XXII, 
2, and r/tasya jl6kaA, Rig-veda IV, 23, 8. Our Pada recurs 
IV, 7, 7 with the reading rz'tasya dhaman. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. With vikasaA mawhish//*asya compare mawhish- 
tA&bhi/i matfbhiA, VIII, 23, 23. 

Note 2. Cf. Aufrecht, Kuhn's Zeitschrift, III, 200. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. Dirghatamas the son of Mamata is the reputed 
author of this section of the first Ma«</ala which belongs 
indeed to a family of priests claiming descent from him. 
The story of the blindness of Dirghatamas and of the 
distress into which he fell is told in the Mahabharata 

I, 41 79 seq., ed. Calc. ; comp. also Geldner, Vedische Studien , 

II, 145. 

Note 2. Considering the construction of the whole verse 
from the grammatical point of view only, one will scarcely 
be tempted to translate otherwise than we have done. But 
it is rather strange that Agni is represented here as saving 
those very guardians by the aid of whom he has saved 
Mamateya. The meaning which one should expect to 
find expressed, is rather that Agni, as he has saved 
Mamateya by his guardians, has saved also, and will save, 
all pious worshippers. This meaning may be established 



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J 72 VEDIC HYMNS. 



if we consider the construction of the verse as similar, for 
instance, to that of I, 37, 12 (vol. xxxii, p. 64): marutaA 
yat ha vaA balam ^anan a>tu£yavitana, ' Maruts, with 
such strength as yours, you have caused men to tremble.' 
Thus we may, I believe, translate here, ' Agni ! With such 
guardians as thine who have seen and saved the blind son 
of Mamata from distress, he, the possessor of all wealth 
(i. e. Agni), has saved all those who have done good deeds.' 
Bergaigne (III, 191) understands the verse in the same 
way. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. The Vedic idea of the evil deeds recoiling on 
the evil-doer himself has been treated of by Bergaigne, III, 
190 seq. 



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MAJVDALA I, HYMN 148. 1 73 

MA7VZ?ALA I, HYMN 148. 
ASH7A.KA II, ADHYAYA 2, VARGA 17. 

1. When Matari.rvan . . .* had produced by attri- 
tion the Hotrt, the . . , 2 who belongs to all gods, 
whom they have established among the human 
clans, shining like the sun, resplendent that (he 
might show his beautiful) shape — 

2. They did not deceive him 1 who had granted 
a hymn (to the worshipper). Agni is my protection ; 
therewith he is satisfied. They took pleasure in all 
his 8 works — (in the works) of the singer who brought 
praise. ' 

3. Whom the worshipful (gods) 1 took and placed 
in his own seat (as priest) with their praises : him 
they 2 have carried forward, taking hold, of him in 
their search, hastening like horses that draw a 
chariot. 

. 4. The marvellous one destroys many things with 
his jaws. Then 1 the resplendent one shines in the 
forest Then the wind blows after his flame day by 
day as after the arrow of an archer, after a weapon 
that has been shot. 

5. Him whom no impostors, no harmful foes 1 , 
no harm-doers may harm when he dwells in (his 
mother's) womb, him the blind ones bereft of sight 
did not damage by looking at him 2 . His own 
friends have protected him. 



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174 VEDIC HYMNS. 



. NOTES. 
The same i?*shi and metre. — Verse 1 = MS. IV, 14, 15. • 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. The first Pada is identical with the first Pada of 
I, 71, 4 (see our note there) with the exception of the word 
vhhti/i, instead of which that parallel passage has the 
reading vi-bhritaJt, It seems impossible to explain visht&/i, 
and the concurrence of the metrical irregularity in the same 
part of the Pada — though metrical irregularities are not 
infrequent in this hymn — invites to a correction of the 
text. If vf-bhr*ta^ in I, 71, 4 (see note there) refers 
to MatarLrvan, which I consider as doubtful, it would be 
easy to find for our passage an equivalent of that word 
little differing from the traditional vish/aA, namely, Vf- 
sthita/;: 'when MatarLrvan, standing in different placls,- 
had produced him by attrition.' Of course whoever 
adopts a conjecture like this, can scarcely avoid under- 
standing vf-bhr*'ta^ in I, 71, 4 as an epithet of MatarLrvan, 
not of Agni. Another way to correct our passage would 
be to put into the text a form derived from the root vish, 
• to accomplish a work,' for instance, vishtyS, (to be read as 
trisyllabic) : ' when MatarLrvan by his effort,' &c. Grass- 
mann's vi-sitaA is quite improbable. 

Note 2. Virva-apsum (Sawhita text, vtrvapsum), evidently 
an epithet of Agni the Hotri, seems corrupt. Shall we 
read vLrva-psum ('endowed with all food') — comp. VIII, 
aa, 1 a. havam vLrvapsum vLrvavaryam— or vLrva-pusham 
(Sawh., vLrvapusham, 'all-nourishing') or vLrva-apasam 
(' doing all works ') ? Also vLrva-psnyam may be thought 
of. It is impossible, of course, to arrive at any certain 
conclusion. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. 'He' seems to be Agni. Saya«a, however, 
explains : dadanam id agnaye kurvawam eva mam. This 
would lead to a translation like this : ' (The enemies) did 



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MAWDALA I, HYMN I48. 1 75 

not deceive (me, the worshipper) who had addressed a hymn 
(to Agni).' 

Note 2. On ' his' Sayawa remarks, 'ya^amanasya mama.' 
But the word may refer to Agni. 

Verse 3. 

Note L There is no reason for abandoning here the usual 
meaning of ya^wfya. On the gods seeking after Agni, comp. 
Bergaigne, I, no. - 

Note 2. It is very probable, to say the least, that ' they ' 
are again the gods. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Is the first St dissyllabic ? More probably the 
Pada is deficient by one syllable. . 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. Two syllables are wanting before the caesura of 
the first Pada. 

Note 2. Was there a belief that a blind man by turning 
his blind eyes on somebody could do him harm ? Possibly 
we might have to translate: 'Him (his foes) blind and bereft 
of sight did not damage though looking at him (i.e. though 
turning their blind eyes on him).' — Prof. Max Miiller writes: 
' Could it be : Even the blind saw, but did not injure him 
(andha'A apayyan na dabhan) ; abhikhya", when he was seen, 
no longer in the womb?' 



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I76 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAiVZ>ALA I, HYMN 149. 
ASHZAKA II, ADHYAYA 2, VARGA 18. 

1 \ Towards great wealth this lord of the house * 
advances 3 , the strong one in the abode of strong 
wealth. Let the stones honour him as he speeds 
forward. 

2. He the manly (bull) as of men so of the two 
worlds, whose stream is drunk by living beings 1 
in consequence of. his renown — he who running 
forward has ripened in .(his mother's) womb — 

3. He who lighted up the . . . x stronghold, the 
racer, the sage, like a . . . 2 horse, shining like the 
sun, endowed with hundredfold life. 

4. He who has a twofold birth (celestial and ter- 
restrial), the flaming one has approached the three- 
fold light, all spaces of the atmosphere, the Hotrt, 
the best sacrificer, in the abode of the Waters. 

5. This is the Hotrt having a twofold birth 1 who 
has bestowed all the best gifts, out of desire of glory, 
on the quick mortal who worships him. 

NOTES. 

The same Rishi. Metre, Viriig-. — Verses 3-5 = SV. II, 
1 1 24-1 1 26. 

Verse 1. 

Wot© 1. My translation of this verse differs from that of 
Pischel, Ved. Studien, II, 100. 

Note 2. On patiA din, comp. Hubschmann, Vocalsystem, 
142; Bartholomae,ArischeForschungen,I,70; JohSchmidt, 
Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XXVII, 309 ; Pischel, Vedische Studien, 



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M AND ALA I, HYMN 1 49. I 77 

II, 93 seq. ; Bartholomae, Indogermanische Forschungen, 

III, 100 seq. 

Note 3. Comp. X, 93, 6. maha^s si vky&h S. ishate. 

Verse 2. 

Kote 1. Comp. I, 80, 4, and similar passages, in which 
the waters are called ^iva-dhanyaA, ' the prize (of contests) 
which living beings have gained.' 

Verse 3. 

Kote 1. We do not know what naVmiwl is. Possibly in 
this word two words, na 4rmi«i, are contained, so that the 
particle na would be repeated in each of the three Padas. 
The translation would then be: 'he who lighted up the 
armiwi (?) like a stronghold.' 

Kote 2. I place no confidence in the attempts to find the 
meaning of a word like nabhanyaA with the aid of etymo- 
logy only. The same word occurs in I, 173, 1 as an 
epithet of the Saman which the priest, who is compared 
to a bird, sings (g^yat sa'ma nabhanyam yatha viA). It 
occurs also in VII, 42, 1. pra krandanu^ nabhanyasya 
vetu. The connection in which these words stand, seems 
to show that the meaning is : ' the noise of the sacrificial 
fire shall arise ;' very probably the fire is compared to 
a horse, and its noise to the neighing of that horse. 
Thus nabhanya would be in VII, 42, 1, quite as in our pas- 
sage, an epithet of a horse. This epithet may refer either 
to the swift motion of the horse and of the Saman ascend- 
ing to the gods, or more probably to the gay voice of the 
horse, the loud noise of the Saman. 

Verse 5. 
Note 1. Two syllables are wanting in the first Pada. 



[46] N 

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178 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAiVZ?ALA I, HYMN 150. 
ASH7AKA II, ADHYAYA 2, VARGA 19. 

1. I thy indigent 1 worshipper say much to thee, 
O Agni, dwelling in thy protection as (in the pro- 
tection)' of a great impeller 2 . 

2. Away even from the libation of a rich man who 
is feeble, who is a niggard, who never comes forward 
and does not care for the gods. 

3. The mortal (who worships thee ?), O priest, is 
brilliant, great, most powerful in heaven. May 
we, O Agni, addicted to thee, be always foremost. 



NOTES. 

The same Rishi. Metre, Ush«ih. — Verse i = SV. I, 97. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. On arf, see Bergaigne, Religion Veclique, II, 218. 
Note 2. Or, 'of the great impeller' — the Sun-god who 
impels or stimulates his horses ? Comp. VI, 6,6} 



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MAJV0ALA I, HYMN 1 88. I 79 



MAA^ALA I, HYMN 188. 
ASH7AKA II, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 8-9. 

Apr! Hymn. 
i. Being kindled thou reignest to-day, a god with 
the gods, O conqueror of thousandfold (wealth) ! As 
messenger, as a sage, carry the oblations (to the 
gods). 

2. O Tanunapat! For him who walks in right- 
eousness the sacrifice is anointed with honey. May 
he 1 grant thousandfold food. 

3. Receiving libations, worthy of being magnified * 
bring hither to us the worshipful gods. Agni ! 
Thou art a winner of thousandfold (bliss). 

4. They have spread with might the eastward- 
turned sacrificial grass, blessing (our tribe) with 
a thousand men 1 , (at the place) where you reign, 
O Adityas ! 

5. The Prince, the Sovereign, the mighty ones, 
the eminent ones 1 , the (Divine) Doors, which are 
many and more than many, have sent forth streams 
of ghee. 

6. Adorned with gold, wearing beautiful ornaments 
you verily reign high 1 in your splendour. Sit down 
here, ye two Dawns 8 . 

7. May the two fine-voiced divine Hotrt's, the 
sages, perform as the first this sacrifice for us. 

8. Bhirati! 1/4! Sarasvati! All ye (goddesses) 
whom I invoke, promote us to splendour. 

9. Tvash/r* indeed, the eminent (god) has shaped 
all forms, all cattle. Do thou by sacrifice produce 
their increase. 

n 2 



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l80 VEDIC HYMNS. 



10. Yield up by thyself, O tree, (the sacrificial food) 
to the abode of the gods 1 . May Agni make the 
offerings relishable. 

ii. Agni going in front of the gods is anointed 
with this Gayatra song ; he shines when Svaha is 
pronounced (over the oblations). 

NOTES. 

The Rtshi is Agastya, the metre Gayatri. This Apri 
hymn is closely related to hymn X, no, the author of 
which no doubt knew and imitated our hymn. — No verses 
occur in the other Samhitis. 

Verse 2. 
Note 1. I have taken dadhat as a third person, the sub- 
ject being Tanunapat. But it may be a participle referring 
to yzgnih : ' the sacrifice which procures thousandfold food 
is anointed with honey.' 

Verse 8. 
Note 1. The text has idya/t. 

Verse 4. 
Note 1. ' This is the Dajavira sacrifice of the .Saktyas. 
Ten valiant sons are born to those who perform it.' Pa«£a- 
vimsz. Brahmawa XXV, 7, 4. 

Verse 6. 
Note 1. These are evidently names of the divine doors. — 
As to the nominative dura//, see Lanman, p. 486. 

Verse 6. 
Note 1. On adhi-vi-ra^-, comp. IX, 75, 3. adhi tripr*sh///a/< 
ushasaA vf ra^ati. 

Note 2. I.e. Dawn and Evening. 

Verse 10. 
Note 1. Literally : ' to the abode, for the gods.' Comp. 
the corresponding verse (10) of the Apri hymn X, no. 
devanam p£tha/;. 



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MAWDALA I, HYMN 1 89. l8l 

MAA^ALA I, HYMN 189. 
ASH7AKA II, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 10-11. 

i. Agni! Lead us to wealth on a good path, 
O god who knowest all rules. Drive away from us 
sin which leads us astray. We will offer to thee 
the fullest praise. 

2. Agni ! Thou who art young, help us safely 
across all difficulties. Be for us a broad, large, 
wide stronghold, for our kith and kin, with luck 
and weal 1 . 

3. Agni ! Drive away from us all plagues. (Then) 
they shall plague 1 peoples who do not stand under 
Agni's protection (Give) us back again the earth, 
O god, together with all the immortals, O worshipful 
one, that it may go well with us. 

4. Protect us, Agni, with thy unwearied guardians, 
thou who flamest in thy beloved seat. May no 
danger, O youngest of the gods, attain thy praiser, 
not now nor in future, O mighty one ! 

5. Do not deliver us, O Agni, to the harmful foe, 
to the greedy one, to the impostor, to misfortune. 
Do not surrender us, O mighty one, to one who has 
teeth, who bites, nor to one who has no teeth, nor 
to one who will hurt us. 

6. May a (god) like thee, O Agni, who art born 
according to Rita., being praised spread out a shelter 
for the body (of the worshipper that protects) from 
every one who tries to harm or to revile him. For 
thou, O god, art a descrier 1 of everything that leads 
us astray. 



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1 82 VEDIC HYMNS. 



7 1 . Thou, O Agni, distinguishing both (kinds of 
men, the pious and the impious, or the Aryans and 
the Dasyus 2 ), eagerly approachest (Aryan) men at 
(the time of) the advancing (day) 8 , O worshipful one. 
At (the time of) rest thou hast become governable 
to the man (or, to Manu ; or, thou art to be praised 
by men*); thou art to be smoothed down like 
a horse 6 by the U^fs. 

8. We have pronounced our invocations, I the 
son of Mana 1 , before this mighty Agni. May we 
obtain (our wishes) through a thousand jftshis. 
May we find a food-giving . . . rich in quickening 



NOTES. 

The same Rt'shi. Metre, Trish/ubh. — Verse i=VS. V, 
36 ; VII, 43 J XL, 16 ; TS. I, 1, 14, 3 ; 4, 43. 1 5 TB. II, 8, 
2, 3 ; TA. 1, 8, 8 ; MS. 1, 2, 13 ; IV, 10, 2 ; 14, 3. Verse 2 = 
TS. I, 1, 14. 4 5 TB. II, 8, 2, 5 ; TA. X, 2, 1 ; MS. IV, 10, 1 ; 
14, 3. Verse 3 =TB. II, 8, 2,4 ; MS. IV, 14, 3- 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. ' For health and wealth,' M. M. ; see vol. xxxii, 
P- *93- 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. If the accent is correct (Sazwh. abhyamanta, Pad. 
abhf dmanta), the clause, though containing no subordi- 
nating word, must be understood as standing in logical 
dependence on the following, or — which in our case seems 
more probable — on the preceding clause. Examples of 
this kind have been collected by Delbriick, Altindische 



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MAJVOALA I, HYMN 1 89. 1 83 

Syntax, p. 43. — That krishiiA should be nominative is very 
improbable ; comp. Lanman, Noun-Inflection, 393. See 
also Leo Meyer, Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XVI, 9. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. Prof. Max Miiller (vol. xxxii, p. 229) translates, 
' For thou, god, art the deliverer from all assaults ; ' he 
derives vishpa/ ' from vi and spar, to bind.' 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. This verse has been treated of by Geldner, 
Vedische Studien, II, 156, 158. 

Note 2. Geldner (loc. cit, 156) proposes two explanations 
for ubhayan. It may refer either to the pious and the 
impious spoken of in the preceding verses, or to prapitvam 
and abhipitvam, which words Geldner believes to be mas- 
culine. I do not attach such weight to the Avestic frapi- 
thwd (Vend. Ill, 3) as to draw, with Geldner, a conclusion 
from this word on the gender of the Vedic prapitva, and in 
every case I think that this explanation of ubhayan is very 
forced, while it is natural to refer ubhayan to the pious and 
impious, or as we may express it in conformity with Vedic 
ideas, to ' men ' (comp. manusha/* Pada 2, manave Pada 3), 
i. e. Aryans, and Dasyus (see VIII, 50, 8 ; 98, 6 ; IX, 92, 5). 
Then ubhayan vi vidvan would have exactly the same 
meaning as the words in I, 51, 8. vl ^anihi aryan ye* ka 
dasyava//. 

Note 3. On prapitva we have the two ingenious discus- 
sions of Geldner, Vedische Studien, II, 155 seq., and of 
Bloomfield in the fifth series of his Contributions to the 
interpretation of the Veda, p. 24 seq. In my opinion 
Bloomfield has not succeeded in proving that the words 
ending in -pitva (prapitva, abhipitva, sapitva, &c) contain 
the stem pitu, ' sap, drink, nourishment,' and that prapitva 
means the morning-pressure of Soma, which is usually 
designated as prataAsavana, abhipitva, the evening-pressure 
or the trztiya-savana. I do not think it necessary, how- 



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1 84 VEDIC HYMNS. 



ever, to examine here the single points of his interesting 
and elaborate discussion, for it seems to me that Geldner 
has conclusively shown that the meaning of these words is 
different from what Bloomfield believes it to be : abhipitva, 
as Geldner (p. 155) states, is 'Erholung,' 'Rast,' and 'die 
Zeit des Rastens,' ' Feierabend,' 'Abend ;' prapitva (p. 178), 
on the other hand, means ' Vorlauf," das aufs Ziel Zugehen,' 
' die vorgeriickte Tageszeit.' 

Note 4. S£sya./i, ' governable,' does not give an impos- 
sible meaning. But should we not have to correct s&msy&A 
' thou art to be praised by men ? ' 

Note 6. On akri/t, comp. Vedische Studien, I, 168, and 
above, 1, 143. 7- 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. Mana is another name of Agastya. See Zeit- 
schrift der Deutschen Morg. Gesellschaft, XLII, 221. 

Note 2. On the last words of the hymn — the regularly 
repeated conclusion of the Agastya hymns — see M. M., 
vol. xxxii, p. xx, and also Bartholomae, Bezzenberger's 
Beitrage, XV, 212. I do not think it very probable that 
isha is here the name of an autumn month, as found in the 
.Satapatha Brahmawa and others of the more modern Vedic 
texts ; to me it would seem rather strange that such 
a prayer for the fertility of that month should have formed, 
among the Agastyas, the standing conclusion of their sacri- 
ficial hymns. But the names of the two months isha and 
ur^a seem to point to the existence of two adjectives mean- 
ing ' giving food ' and ' giving sap.' — Then follows vrigina, 
used as a masculine. Geldner (Vedische Studien, I, 151) 
indicates the following passages, in which he believes that 
this masculine vragana occurs : V, 44, 1 ; VI, 35, 5 ; VII, 32, 
27 ; X, 27, 4 ; and the concluding Pada of the Agastya 
hymns. Of these passages the two first seem to be open 
to doubt as to the correctness of the text. In V, 44, 1 
the true reading may be prati£inam vr/sha«am dohase ; 
comp. verse 3, vrfeha sisuA, and I, 173, 6, where possibly 
vr/sha«am should be read instead of w^anam (Gottinger 



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MAiVKALA I, HYMN 1 89. 1 85 

Gelehrte Anzeigen, 1890, 417). In VI, 35, 5 I propose to 
read vrinagam (Gott. Gel. Anzeigen, loc. cit., 416). In VII, 
32, 27 and X, 27, 4 vr^ana (Padap. vrig&n&A ; the letter d 
follows) and vrig&neshu seem to be masculine, though it is 
not absolutely impossible to see in these forms the nom. 
plur. and loc. plur. of the neuter vrigina.. But I believe 
that any attempts to derive conclusions from these three 
passages on the meaning of the masculine wrig&na. are 
hopeless. 



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1 86 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAiVZ?ALA II, HYMN 1. 
ASHTAKA II, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 17-19. 

i \ Thou, O Agni, the flaming one, (art born) 
from out the Heavens *, thou (art born) from out 
the Waters and the stone (the flint) ; thou (art born) 
from out the forests and the herbs; thou art born 
bright, O Lord of men, (as belonging) to men :| . 

2 \ To thee, O Agni, belongs the Hotri's and the 
PotrTs office exercised at the appointed season ; to 
thee belongs the office of the Nesh/« ; thou art the 
Agnidh 2 for the righteous. To thee belongs the 
office of the Pras&stri ; thou actest as an Adhvaryu, 
and thou art the Brahman and the master of the 
house in our house 3 . . 

3 1 . Thou, O Agni, art Indra, a bull among (all) 
beings. Thou art the wide-ruling Vish«u, worthy of 
adoration. Thou art the Brahman, a gainer of 
wealth, O Brahmawaspati 2 . Thou, O Vidhartr* 
(i. e. who keepest asunder all things), art united with 
Purawdhi (or the Liberality of the^gods) 3 . 

4. Thou, O Agni, art the king \feru#a whose laws 
are firm ; thou becomest Mitra, the wondrous one, 
worthy of being magnified. Thou art Aryaman, 
the lord of beings, whom I may enjoy 1 . Thou, 
O god, art Amsa. 2 , desirous of distributing (goods) 
in the assembly 3 . 

5. Thou, O Agni, being Tvash/rz, (grantest) to 
thy worshipper abundance in heroes. To thee, 
who art accompanied by the (divine) wives l , who 
art great like Mitra, belongs relationship 2 . Thou, 



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. MAJVDALA II, HYMN I. 1 87 

the quick inciter 8 , givest abundance in horses. 
Thou, rich in wealth, art the host of men 4 . 

6. Thou, O Agni, art Rudra, the Asura of the 
high Heaven 1 ; thou, being the host of the Maruts, 
rulest over nourishment. Thou goest along with 
the flame-coloured Winds, bringing happiness to our 
home. Thou, being Pushan, protectest thy wor- 
shippers by thy own might 

7. Thou, O Agni, art a giver of wealth to him 
who does service to thee 1 ; thou art the god Savitrz, 
a bestower of treasures. Thou, being Bhaga, O lord 
of men, rulest over wealth. Thou art a protector 
in his house to him who has worshipped thee 2 . 

8. Towards thee, in the house, the lord of the 
clan, O Agni, the clans strive, towards thee, the 
bounteous king. Thou with the beautiful face 
possessest all things. Thou art equal to thousands, 
to hundreds, to ten (of others). 

9. Thee, O Agni, men (make) their father by 
their sacrifices 1 ; thee who shinest with thy body 
they (invite) to brotherhood by their (sacrificial) 
work. Thou becomest a son to him who has 
worshipped thee. As a kind friend thou protectest 
against attack. 

10. Thou, O Agni, art Htbhu, to be adored when 
near. Thou rulest over strength \ over wealth rich 
in food. Thou shinest 2 , thou burnest for the sake 
of giving (wealth). Thou art a hewer 3 , an expander 
of sacrifice. 

1 1. Thou, Agni.O god, art Aditi to the worshipper. 
Thou, being Hotra Bharati 1 , growest strong by 
prayer. Thou art \d&, living a hundred winters, 
for (the increase of) ability. Thou, the killer of 
VWtra, O Lord of wealth, art Sarasvatl 8 . 



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1 88 VEDIC HYMNS. 



12. Thou, O Agni, well kept, art the highest vital 
power. In thy lovely colour and in thy appearance 
(dwell all) beauties. Thou art great strength that 
carries us forward. Thou art abundant wealth, 
extending on all sides. 

13. The Adityas have made thee, O Agni, their 
mouth; the bright ones have made thee their 
tongue, O Sage. The Rati-sai gods (i.e. the 'boun- 
teous' gods) accompany thee at the sacrifices. In 
thee the gods eat the offering which is offered to 
them. 

14. In thee, O Agni, with (thy) mouth 1 all the 
guileless 2 immortal gods eat the offering which is 
offered to them. Through thee the mortals taste 
their drink. Thou hast been born, the bright one, 
as the child of the plants. 

1 5 K Thou art united with them and equal to 
them in strength, O well-born Agni, nay, thou sur- 
passest them, O god, when thy power * has expanded 
here in its greatness over Heaven and Earth, over 
both worlds. 

16. The liberal lords who pour out, O Agni, over 
thy praisers gifts at the head of which there are 
cows \ the ornament of which are horses : lead both 
ourselves and them to welfare. May we speak loud 
in the assembly 2 , rich in valiant men. 



NOTES. 

The Rishi is Grc'tsamada, the metre Gagati. — Verse 1 = 
VS. XI, 27 ; TS. IV, 1, 2, 5 ; TA. X, 76, 1 ; MS. II, 7, a. 
Verse a = RV. X, 91, 10. Verse 6=TS. I, 3, 14, 1 ; TB. 
Ill, 11, 2, 1. Verse 13=TB. II, 7, 12, 6. 



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MAJVDALA II, HYMN I. 1 89 



Verse 1. 

Note 1. Among the numerous texts which treat of the 
different origins of Agni (see Bergaigne, I, ao seq.), especi- 
ally the following two verses may be compared with this 
passage : VI, 48, 5. yam apa/; adrayaA vani garbham r*tasya 
piprati sahasa yaA mathita/* ^lyate nr/bhiA prithivyaV/ 
adhi sanavi ; X, 45, 1. diva// pari prathamam gagnz. agni// 
asmat dvitiyam pari ^ataveda/* trttfyam apsvi nrimiakA 
a^asram fndhana enam ^arate svadhW. 

Note 2. The text (dyubhiA tvam ajiuukshawi//) seems to 
be corrupt. I believe that tvam, which is so frequently 
repeated through this verse and through the next verses, 
has been put here in the wrong place, and that we should 
read, dyubhyaA £ .runiksham/t. 

Note 3. With the last words of this verse, comp. the con- 
clusion of verse 14. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. This whole verse is repeated, X, 91, 10. 

Note 2. In my opinion there is no doubt that instead of 
the traditional reading, agnft, the correct form is agnft. 
The word is a compound of agnf and idh and means ' the 
inflamer of the fire.' Cf. M.M., Hist of A. S. L., 1859, 
pp. 450, 469. 

Note 3. This is the most ancient list of the 'seven 
priests,' by the side of whom the grzha-pati or ' master of 
the house ' is mentioned as the eighth. Comp. the formula 
in which the Adhvaryu names the officiating priests, 
Katyiyana IX, 8, 8 seq., and see the remarks of Weber, 
Indische Studien, X, 141, 376, and my own exposition, 
Religion des Veda, 383 seq., 396. The ' Brahman ' men- 
tioned in our verse is the Brahma«a££Aaw*sin of the later 
ritual. Comp. Katyayana IX, 8, 1 1 ; .Satapatha Brahmaua 
IV, 6, 6, 5. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. On verses 3-6, see von Bradke, Dyaus Asura, 
p. 52 seq. 



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I90 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Note 2. Brthaspati or Brahmawaspati is the Brahman 
among the gods. But it is doubtful whether the title of 
Brahman in this connection should be understood in the 
later technical sense of the word, as the Ritv\g who has to 
superintend the whole sacrifice. Comp. H. O., Religion 
des Veda, 396, note 1. 

Note 3. Vidhartr* seems to be here another name of 
Bhaga ; comp. VII, 41, 2. bhagam huvema . . . y£A vi- 
dharta). It is known that no god is so frequently mentioned 
in connection with Puramdhi as Bhaga. The passages 
have been collected by Grassmann in his Dictionary, s. v. 
pura>»-dhi. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Prof, von Bradke (Dyaus Asura, 53) believes 
that the text is corrupt ; he thinks that the fourth Pada 
may have occupied the place of a lost continuation of the 
relative clause, yasya sam-bhu^am. I cannot but share 
the feeling on which Prof, von Bradke's remark rests, 
though I do not believe that the solution of the difficulty 
which he proposes is very probable. Could not the correct 
reading be yisi (instead of yasya) sam-bhu^am, ' thou goest 
to the enjoyment (of goods) ? ' Comp. VI, 7 1 , 6, where the 
traditional text has vamasya hf kshayasya deva bhflreA, 
and kshayasya doubtless should be changed into kshayasi. 

Note 2. On Ams&, as one of the Adityas, comp. Ber- 
gaigne, III, 39, 99- 

Note 8. Vidathe: comp. the note on I, 31, 6. It is 
tempting to conjecture vidhate (comp. verse 5), but there is 
no necessity for such a conjecture. Comp., for instance, 
VI, 24, 2. vidathe dati va^am. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. Gnava/j should be read without accent, as Grass- 
mann, Prof. Weber, and M. Henry (Revue Critique, Jan. ia, 
1891, p. 23) have seen. Cf. Lanman, 518, 519. 

Note 2. The meaning probably is, ' Thou art related to 
the other gods and to men,' or ' Thou art related to us.' 
Comp. VIII, 27, 10 ; 73, 12. 



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MAJVOALA II, HYMN I. 191 

Note 3. Agn! seems to be identified here with Apam 
napat, who frequently is called cLru-h£man. Comp. Win- 
disch, Festgruss an Roth, 143 seq. 

Note 4. The men, of course, are the Maruts, as is shown 
by the well-known use of jardhaA (cf. vol. xxxii, p. 67 seq.). 

Verse 8. 
Note 1. Comp. von Bradke, Dyaus Asura, 53 seq. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. As to arazwkr/te, cf. VIII, 67, 3. 

Note 2. Or, thou art a protector to him who has wor- 
shipped thee in his house. — Among the various ways for 
explaining or removing the metrical deficiency of the last 
Pada the correction dame £ (for dame) is recommended by 
verse 8. 

Verse 9. 

Note 1. Ish/fbhiA, standing by the side of Jamya, seems 
to be derived from the root yzg. Thus \g€, l^ana stand by 
the side of ja^ame, jajamana. — Cf. \shtibh\k matfbhi/*, II, 
18, 1. 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. The names of the three ^tbhus are ^*bhu, Va^a, 
Vibhvan. The word v&ga. used here evidently alludes to 
the second of these names. 

Note 2. Bergaigne (Religion V^d., II, 406) no doubt is 
right in believing that the verb vf bhasi (' thou shinest ') 
alludes to the name Vibhvan. Comp. X, 91, 1. vibhiiA 
vibhava. 

Note 3. Vi-jfkshuA again seems to convey an allusion to 
the Ribhu myth. When dividing the cup of Tvash/W into 
four cups, the ^ibhus say, sakhe vf /iksha (IV, 35, 3). 
This vf jiksha and the corresponding adjective vi-jfkshu 
should be derived from the root jas, ' to cut to pieces.' 

Verse 11. 

Note 1. Here we have the three goddesses of the Apri 
hymns, Bharati, Idk, and Sarasvati. Of the goddess 



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192 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Bharati the full name is given, Hotra Bharati, i.e. 'the 
Offering of the Bharatas.' Comp. Bergaigne, I, 322 seq. 

Note 2. Comp. VI, 61,7, where Sarasvati is called vn'tra- 
ghn?. 

Verse 14. 

Note 1. Or ' through (thee who art their) mouth.' 

Note 2. Comp. 1, 1 9, 3. visve devasa// adruhaA ; vol. xxxii, 

PP- 53, 55- 

Verse 15. 

Note 1. On this verse, compare Pischel, Vedische Studien, 

1.97- 

Note 2. On priksh&A, see above, I, 127, 5, note 1. 

Verse 16. 
Note 1. On go-agra, compare Pischel, Vedische Studien, 

1,51- 
Note 2. Viddthe: comp. the note on I, 31, <S. 



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MAJVBALA II, HYMN 2. I93 

MAJVZJALA II, HYMN 2. 
ASH7AKA II, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 20-21. 

i. Increase <7atavedas by your sacrifice 1 , worship 
Agni for ever with your offering and your prayer 2 
— him who has been kindled, the receiver of good 
offerings, the solar hero, the heavenly Hotn, the 
charioteer 3 in our settlements 4 . 

2. For thee Nights and Dawns have been lowing, 
O Agni, as milch-cows in the folds for their calf 1 . 
A steward 2 , as it were, of Heaven, thou shinest on 
the human tribes, O bountiful one, on continuous 
nights 8 . 

3. The gods have set him to work, as a steward x 
of Heaven and Earth, endowed with wonderful 
power, at the bottom of the air : Agni who is well 
known like a chariot 2 , brightly shining, deserving 
of praise like Mitra (or, like a friend) in (human) 
dwellings. 

4. They have established him who grows in the 
air, in his house, the serpent 1 with beautiful splen- 
dour like gold 2 , the winged (son ?) of Frt'sni 3 who 
lights up with his eyes both tribes (of gods and of 
men), like a guardian of the way (?) 4 . 

5. May he, the Hot*?, encompass the whole sacri- 
fice. Men strive towards him with offerings and 
prayer. (Agni) with golden jaws \ hurrying around 
in the growing (plants) 2 , lighted up the two worlds 
like the Sky with the stars. 

6. Thus mayst thou, being brightly kindled for 
our welfare or being exhausted (P) 1 , shine upon 
us with thy wealth. Carry hither to us the two 

[46] o 



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194 VEDIC HYMNS. 



worlds for the sake of happiness, Agni, O god, 
that they may eagerly partake 2 of the offering of 
the man (or, of Manus). 

7. Give us, Agni, mighty, give us thousandfold 
(gifts). Open strength for us like a door * for the 
sake of glory. Make Heaven and Earth inclined 
towards us through (our) spell. Make the Dawns 
shine like the brilliant Sun. 

8. Being kindled after dawns and nights may he 
shine with his red light like the sun, Agni, being 
a good sacrificer with the help of the offerings of 
man (or, of Manus) t , the king of the clans, and the 
welcome guest of Ayu. 

9. Thus, O Agni, ancient one, our human prayer 
has prospered among the immortals who dwell in 
the great heaven. May the cow ' when milked, yield * 
freely to the singer in our settlements hundredfold 
(wealth) of all kinds. 

10. May we, O Agni, (attain) bliss in valiant men 
by our racers, or may we shine over (all) people 
by our sacred spells. May our unconquerable lustre 
beam on high like the sun over the fivefold dwell- 
ings (of the five peoples). 

11. Be thou, O mighty one, worthy of praise 
among us, (thou) from whom the well-born, liberal 
(lords) have sought nourishment 1 , unto whom the 
strong ones, O Agni, go for sacrifice, who shinest 
in thy abode among (the worshipper's) own kith. 

1 2. May we both, O £atavedas, the praisers and 
the liberal (lords), be in thy protection, O Agni. 
Help us to good, resplendent, abundant wealth which 
is accompanied by offspring, by good progeny. 

13 = II, 1, 16. 



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MAAT0ALA II, HYMN 2. 195 



NOTES. 

The same Rishi and metre. — Verse 7 = TS. II, 2, 12, 6 ; 
MS. IV, 12, a. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. In this Pada one syllable is wanting. It may 
be thought that the first word should be pronounced 
ia^nena. For supplying the missing syllable by conjecture 
there would, however, be many ways. Comp. also H. O., 
Hymnen des Rig-veda, I, p. 79. 

Note 2. Tana giro": comp. I. 38, 13 (vol. xxxii, p. 82). 

Note 3. Dhu^-sadam. The exact meaning is, 'who 
occupies a decisive position.' 

Note 4. Vr*^aneshu : comp. I, 60, 3, note 2. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. Comp. VIII, 88, 1. abhf vatsam na svasareshu 
dhenavaA fndram g!rbhL4 navamahe. 

Note 2. See I, 58, 7, note 1. 

Note 8. See Lanman, p. 482 ; Gaedicke, p. 89. ' During 
continuous nights.' M. M. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. See I, 58, 7, note 1. 

Note 2. Ci. VIII, 84, 1. ratham na vedyam. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. I follow the conjecture of Bohtlingk-Roth, who 
propose to read hvaram. Comp. Atharva-veda IV, 1, 2 
(Ayvalayana .Srautasutra IV, 6, 3 ; .Sahkhayana Srautasutra 
V, 9, 7). suru£am hvaram. The meaning of the word is 
conjectural ; comp. I, 141, 7, note 1. If we read hvare, the 
translation could be ' brilliant like gold, in a hidden place.' 
(M. M.) 

Note 2. Comp. Pischel, Vedische Studien, I, 52. 

O 2 



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196 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Note 8. Or, the winged (bird) of Prwni? No other 
passages which make Agni the son (or the bird) of Proni 
are known to me. 

Note 4. The accent of pathas points to a genitive, 
dependent on payum, of a word which is, however, different 
from pathas. Grassmann thinks that pathas is a lengthening 
for pathas, but Lanman (Noun-Inflection, 470) is quite right 
in observing that this is hard to believe in the first syllable of 
a Pada. Should we not correct the text and read pathaA 
(gen. sing, governed by payum)? The reading pathaA 
may be due to the influence of the neighbourhood of 
payum. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. See vol. xxxii, p. 301. 

Note 2. Comp. X, 92, 1. jushkasu hari«ishu ^arbhurat. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. Ludwig translates sam-dadasvan : 'zum heile 
[dich selber] aufreibend ; ' Grassmann, ' oder seist erloschen 
du ; ' Gaedicke (p. 89), ' und wenn du verloschest ; ' Griffith, 
' a liberal giver ; ' Neisser (Bezzenberger's Beitr. XIX, 286), 
' deine Kunst zusammennehmend.' Sayawa says, ' sawda- 
dasvan samyak praya^Man.' Prof. Max Miiller suggests, 
' being a liberal benefactor.' 

Note 2. There was no reason for correcting deva-vltaye 
as Ludwig once proposed. He has himself abandoned this 
conjecture. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. As to this metaphor ('opening' strength or the 
like), comp. VIII, 5, 21. uta na/t divy&h ishaJi . . . apa dv£ra- 
iva varshathaA, and the passages collected by Dr. Hirzel, 
Gleichnisse und Metaphern im i?*g-veda (Leipzig, 1890), 
103. 

Verse 8. 
Note 1. The third Pada is repeated in X, 11, 5. 



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MAJV0ALA II, HYMN 2. 197 



Verse 9. 

Note 1. The milch-cow of course is the prayer. 

Note 2. Ishi«i seems to be an infinitive like parshawi 
neshawi tarishawi (Delbriick, Altindisches Verbum, 227 ; 
Neisser, Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XX, 43). I believe it to 
come from the root ish, ' to incite.' As to the syntac- 
tical peculiarities of these infinitives, comp. Delbriick, 
Altindische Syntax, 416. 

Verse 11. 

Note 1. Ishay is a denominative from ish, as uigay is 
derived from &rg (comp. Arvalayana Srautasutra V, 7, 3). 



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I98 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAA>X>ALA II, HYMN 3. 
ASHTAKA II, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 22-23. 

Apr! Hymn. 

i. Agni being kindled, set down on the earth, has 
stood up with his face towards all worlds. May the 
Hotrt, the purifier, the ancient, wise one, may god 
Agni sacrifice to the gods, he who is worthy (of 
being the sacrificer). 

2. Narbsamsa, anointing the abodes (of the sacri- 
fice), equal by his greatness to the three heavens, 
endowed with beautiful light, moistening the offer- 
ing, his mind being intent on scattering ghma — 
may he anoint the gods on the summit of sacrifice. 

3. Being magnified 1 in our mind, Agni, sacrifice 
for us to-day to the gods before the human 
(sacrificer) *, thou who art worthy (of being the 
sacrificer). Conduct hither the unshakable host of 
the Maruts. Sacrifice, O men, to Indra who sits on 
the Barhis. 

4. O divine Barhis ! On this (Barhis) which is 
large, rich in valiant men, which has been spread on 
this Vedi (or sacrificial altar) rich in gain, ready for 
wealth, which is anointed with ghma, sit down, 

A 

O Vasus, O VLrve devas, O Adityas 1 worthy of 
worship ! 

5. May the divine doors which are easily passable, 
open themselves wide when invoked with adoration. 
May they, the far-embracing, undecaying ones, open 
wide, purifying our glorious race 1 which is rich in 
valiant men. 

6. May Dawn and Night, grown strong from of 



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MAJVDALA II, HYMN 3. 1 99 



old, joyful like two birds (?) \ (do) their work well 
for us — they who weave, turned towards each other, 
the stretched-out warp, the ornamented form of the 
sacrifice *, (the two goddesses) flowing with plenty, 
rich in milk. 

7. May the two divine Hotrz's, the first ones, 
very knowing, very marvellous, perform the sacrifice 
rightly with their (sacrificial) verse. Sacrificing to 
the gods they anoint (them) ', observing the right 
time, on the navel of the Earth, over the three 
ridges (of the three worlds). 

8. May Sarasvatl, the accomplisher of our prayer, 
may the goddess 1/4, all-victorious Bharati — may 
the three goddesses, according to their wont, sit 
down on this Barhis and protect it, the faultless 
shelter. 

9. Through (the god's) hearing (our prayer) 
a manly son is born (to us), tawny-coloured, rich in 
gain, bringing vigour, loving the gods. May T vash/r* 
deliver for us a son, the navel (i.e. the tie that binds 
generations together), and may he then go to the 
abode of the gods. 

10 x . May the tree (i. e. the sacrificial post) stand 
by, letting loose (the offering which goes to the 
gods). May Agni make the offering ready in 
consequence of our prayers. May the prescient 
divine butcher carry the thrice-anointed offering 
to the gods. 

11. He 1 is joined with ghrtta. 2 . His womb (on 
the altar) is ghrz'ta. He rests on ghma. His 
abode is ghma. Carry hither (the gods) according 
to thy wont ! Rejoice 3 ! Carry, O bull, the offering, 
over which the Svaha has been spoken, (to the 
gods). 



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200 VEDIC HYMNS. 



NOTES. 

The same Rishi. Metre, Trish/ubh ; verse 7 : £agatt. — 
Verse 9=TS. Ill, i, 11, 2 ; TB. II, 8, 7, 4 ; MS. IV, 14, 8. 
Verse n=VS. XVII, 88 ; TA. X, 10, 2. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. The text has iht&Ji. Comp. above, I, 1, 1, 
note 2. 

Note 2. Comp. X, 53, 1. nf hf satsat (scil. agnl/i) antaraA 
pflrvaA asmat. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. It is very probable that the poet intends to dis- 
tinguish the Vasus, the Vijve devas, and the Adityas as 
three categories of gods. But then we should expect the 
accent iditykh. Comp. VII, 51, 3. kdity&h vfjve manitaA 
ka visve deva7« ka visve; X, 125, 1. aham rudr^bhiA 
vasubhiA £arami aham adityaW uta viivadevaiA. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. Comp. the Grihya Mantra addressed to the 
Mckhala, of which it is said ' varwam pavitram punati naA 
agat,' Sankhayana Grxhya II, 2, 1, &c. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. The meaning of vayya (comp. IX, 68, 8) is 
uncertain. Possibly it is derived from vf, ' the bird.' Ac- 
cording to Sayawa it would mean ' weavers ' (vanakurale 
iva). Vayyeva may be vayye iva (dual feminine), in spite 
of the artificial theory of the Pragnhya vowels; see 
Lanman, p. 361 ; H. O., Hymnen des Rig-veda, I, 456. 
Or it may be vayya iva, dual masculine or singular femi- 
nine (comp. VII, 2, 6). 

Note 2. Comp. VII, 42, 1. adhvarasya pisaA. 



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MAJVDALA II, HYMN 3. 201 

Verse 7. 
Note 1. Comp. VIII, 39, 1. a.ga(A devan anaktu na/*. 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. With the first hemistich compare especially, III, 
4, 10 (see below). 

Verse 11. 

Note 1. • He ' of course is Agni. 

Note 2. Differing from M. M., vol. xxxii, p. 185, I take 
ghrz'tam as an accusative. 

Note 8. Comp. Ill, 6, 9 (see below). 



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202 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAM9ALA II, HYMN 4. 
ASHJAKA II, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 24-25. 

i. I call for you Agni, shining with beautiful 
shine, praised with beautiful praise \ the guest of 
the clans, the receiver of fine offerings, who is 
desirable like Mitra (or, like an ally), (Jatavedas 
the god, among godly people. 

2. The Bhrzgus worshipping him in the abode of 
the waters * have verily a established him among the 
clans of Ayu. Let him surpass all worlds, Agni, the 
steward of the gods 3 , the possessor of quick horses. 

3. The gods' have established beloved Agni 
among the human clans as (people) going to settle 
(establish) Mitra '. May he illuminate the nights 
that are longing (for him), he who should be treated 
kindly by the liberal (worshipper) in his house. 

4. His prosperity is delightful as good pasture (?) ' ; 
delightful is his appearance when the burning one is 
driven forward, he who quickly shaking his tongue 
among the plants waves 2 his tail mightily like a 
chariot-horse. 

5. When they praised ' to me the monstrous 
might of the eater of the forests 2 , he produced his 
(shining) colour as (he has done) for the Usifs 3 . 
With shining splendour he has shone joyously, he 
who having grown old has suddenly become young 
(again). 

6. He who shines on the forests ' as if he were 
thirsty, who resounded like water on its path, like 
(the rattle of the wheels) of a chariot 2 — he whose 



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MAiVDALA II, HYMN 4. 203 

path is black, the hot, the joyous one has shone, 
laughing 3 like the sky with its clouds. 

7. He who has spread himself burning over the 
wide (earth), moves about like an animal, free, 
without a keeper. The flaming Agni, burning 
down the brushwood, with a black trail \ has, as 
it were, tasted the earth. 

8. Now in the remembrance of thy former bless- 
ings this prayer has been recited to thee at the 
third sacrifice 1 . Give to us, Agni, mighty strength 
with a succession of valiant men, with plenty of 
food ; (give us) wealth with good progeny 2 . 

9. Give, O Agni, such vigour to thy praiser 
together with his liberal (lords), that the Grz'tsa- 
madas, rich in valiant men, victorious over hostile 
plots, attaining (their aim) in secret, may overcome 
through thee (their rivals) who get behind 1 . 



NOTES. 

The Rishi is Somahuti Bhargava, the metre Trishfubh. — 
No verse occurs in the other Sawmit&s. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. To me there seems to be no doubt that the 
meaning of suvrzktf is something like ' beautiful prayer,' 
' beautiful song,' and then ' a god who is invoked with beau- 
tiful songs.' Thus suvnktaya// or other cases of the same 
word stand by the side of st6ma// . . . gfra^, VIII, 8, 22 ; 
of gfra/f, I, 64, 1 ; VIII, 96, 10, comp. X, 64, 4; of brahma, 
VII, 31, 1 1 ; 97, 9 ; of st6ma\k, VII, 96, 1 ; of dhitfbhi//, VI, 
61,2; of ikkh6k\\hh\h matina'm, I, 61, 3, and so on. Comp. 
also VII, 83, 9. havamahe vam vnshawa suvrjktfbhiA ; X, 
41, 1. ratham . . . suvrtktfbhiA vaydm vyush/a ushasa^ 
havamahe ; X, 80, 7. avo£ama suw*kti'm. 



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204 VEDIC HYMNS. 



This being the meaning of the word, I cannot think it 
probable — and herein I differ from the opinion pronounced 
by Prof. Max Miiller, vol. xxxii, p. 109 — that it stands in 
connection with the verb \rig in its well-known use referring 
to the Barhis. In my opinion (comp. also Geldner, Vedische 
Studien, I, 151) suvrtkti may be connected with another 
use of vrig, with the meaning of this verb ' to draw a god 
towards himself, averting him from other sacrificers ' 
(materials regarding this use of vrig have been collected 
by Geldner, loc. cit., 144). Or possibly the word may be 
derived, as Prof, von Roth believes, from rik (comp. suvita 
derived from i). It is true that the substantive rikti does 
not occur by itself : but, as Prof. Max Miiller remarks (loc. 
cit.), this would not be fatal to Prof, von Roth's etymology, 
because many other words in the Veda occur as uttarapadas 
only. If we accept this theory, we should of course have 
to separate suvr*ktf from namovrikti and svawikti. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. Comp. X, 46, 2. imam vidhantaA apam sadhasthe. 

Note 2. Literally, ' doubly.' ' In two places, in the abode 
of the waters and among the clans of man.' M. M. Com- 
pare, however, X, 46, a (see last note). 

Note 8. Devanam aratW ; comp. I, 58, 7, note 1. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. The meaning seems to be that people going to 
settle anywhere, secure safety by cererrfonies addressed to 
Mitra, i.e. possibly by concluding alliances which stand under 
the special protection of Mitra. Comp. IV, 33, 10; H. O., 
Religion des Veda, 186, note 1. — Mitra is kshetrasaclhas, 
VIII, 31, 14 

Verse 4. 

Note L Svasya-iva seems to be corrupt. Possibly we 
might read suyavasa-iva pushtlA. In X, 11, 5 we read, 
sada asi rawviA, yavasa-iva pushyate. IV, 16, 15. 6kaA na 
ra»v£ sudrisi-iva. pushtiA. — The translation of the traditional 



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MAJVDALA II, HYMN 4. 2O5 

reading would be, ' His prosperity is delightful, like that of 
a person belonging to us.' 

Note 2. Bharibhrat seems to be a participle : but then 
dodhaviti must be accented (d6dhaviti). 

Verse 6- 

Note 1. On the verb pan, comp. Pischel,Vedische Studien, 
I, 199 seq. 

Note 2. Vanad seems to be, as Grassmann has seen, 
a compound of van, ' the forest ' (comp. the genitive vanam, 
the locative v&msu), and of ad. Of Agni is said several 
times ' vanani atti.' 

Note 3. On the mythical ancestors designated as the 
Ujjfas, see Bergaigne, I, 57 seq. 

Verse 6. 
Note 1. The forests, of course, are the fuel. 
Note 2. To rathya-iva probably £akra' (nom. plur.) is to 
be supplied. 

Note 3. The ' laughing ' of the sky is the lightning (Ben- 
fey, Vedica und Verwandtes, 138). The flames of Agni 
flash through the smoke as the lightning shines in the 
clouds. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. See Geldner, Vedische Studien, II, 29 seq.; 
Roth, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenland. Gesellschaft, 
XLVIII, 107. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. The text has tritfye vidathe (comp. I, 31, 6, 
note a). Does this mean at the trztiya-savana ? Three 
vidathas are spoken of also in VI, 51,2; VII, 66, 10. 

Note 2. On the metrical irregularity, comp. H. O., Die 
Hymnen des Rig-veda, I, 67. 

Verse 9. 

Note 1. 'May prevail, destroying through thee the 
neighbours lying in ambush.' M. M. To me giiha seems to 
be connected with vanvantaA. 



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206 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAA>Z?ALA II, HYMN 5. 
ASHTAKA II, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 26. 

i. The brilliant Hotr*' 1 has been born *, the father 
to protect the fathers 3 , aspiring after noble wealth. 
May we be able to bridle the strong (horse) *. 

2. He the leader of the sacrifice towards whom 
the seven reins (or rays) are stretched, the Potrt 
promotes, as (he has done) for Manu, the divine 
eighth (rein) ; all those (reins he promotes) \ 

3. Or when he has run along, and has recited the 
sacred words 1 , and has pursued that (duty) 2 , he has 
encompassed every kind of wisdom as the felly 
(encircles) the wheel. 

4. For He has been born as the bright Pra*4strz, 
with bright power of mind. (A man) who knows 
his firm laws, mounts up on them as on the branches 
(of a tree) 1 . 

5. The lively milch-cows were attached to his, 
the Nesh/Ws, (bright) colour 1 . Was it according 
to the wish of the three sisters who have gone 
there 2 ? 

6. When (coming) from the mother the sister has 
approached, bringing ghr/ta \ the Adhvaryu rejoices 
at their- coming as corn (rejoices) at rain. 

7. May He the Ritv'xg (priest) himself make the 
Ri\.v\g (serve) for his own refreshment l . And may 
we readily gain the praise and the sacrifice 2 ; we 
have offered it, 

8. In order that He the knowing one (Agni) may 
readily serve all the worshipful (gods), this sacrifice, 
O Agni, which we have performed, rests in thee. 



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MA.tf.DALA II, HYMN 5. 207 



NOTES. 

The same i?*shi. Metre, AnushAibh. — Verse 3=SV. I, 
94 ; TS. Ill, 3,3,3; MS. II, 13, 5. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. As the Hotr* is mentioned here, the following 
verses contain each the names of the other priests as given 
in II,i,2. Only the Agnidh is left out; possibly the 
words svi/i svaya dhayase krj'wuta'm ritvik ritvlgam 
(verse 7) contain an allusion to this priest, who may well be 
termed the Rhv\g belonging to Agni and refreshing him. 

Note 2. With the first Pada of our verse, compare IX, 
64, 10. fndu// pavish/a kitanaJt. 

Note 3. The meaning seems to be : Agni, who has pro- 
tected the fathers, has been born again, and will do the 
same for the present sacrificer. 

Note 4. The strong horse, of course, is Agni. Comp. Ill, 
27, 3 (see below). On the construction (va^fnaA yamam), 
see Delbriick, Altindische Syntax, p. 417. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. On the seven rays or reins of Agni, see I, 146, 1, 
note 1. Besides the seven priests a mysterious eighth Ri\.v\g 
priest is spoken of (X, 114, 9. kam ritvlgkm ashtemam 
jflram ahu//) ; thus Agni has a mysterious eighth rarmf 
(ray or rein) besides the seven. Comp. Bergaigne, Religion 
Vedique, II, 144. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. V6£at brahmani : this seems to be an allusion to 
the Brahman priest (see verse 1, note 1). 

Note 2. V6A is third singular. See Joh. Schmidt, Kuhn's 
Zeitschrift, XXV, 91. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Comp. VIII, 13, 6. vaya^-iva anu rohate. Prof. 



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208 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Max Miiller (vol. xxxii, p. 207) translates, ' springs up like 
young sprouts.' 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. It is the Nesh/W's office to lead the wife of the 
sacrificer to the place where the sacrifice is being performed. 
Thus Agni, the divine Nesh/r*', is represented as accom- 
panied by female beings, by the ' milch-cows,' meaning the 
oblations of ghrtta, &c, or possibly the dawns. 

Note 2. Are the 'three sisters' (comp. Bergaigne, 1,321 ; 
II, 107) identical with the milch-cows spoken of in the first 
hemistich? Ludwig (vol. iv, p. 166) very appropriately 
calls attention to the fact that three cows were milked at 
the sacrifice of the full and the new moon. Comp. Hille- 
brandt, Altindisches Neu- und Vollmondsopfer, p. 12 seq. 
Three dawns are mentioned in VIII, 41, 3. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. The sister bringing ghrita. seems to be the sacri- 
ficial spoon. Is the mother the milk-vessel or possibly the 
cow? 

Note 2. Does ' their ' refer to the mother and the sister 
(cf. Delbriick, Altindische Syntax, p. 102)? Or are 'the 
three sisters who have gone there ' referred to ? 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. The one Rttvig is Agni ; the other possibly is 
the Agnidh who refreshes the Ritvig Agni. See verse 1 , 
note 1. 

Note 2. After £t we should expect, instead of dram, 
another accusative, possibly riks.m (see VII, 66, 11) : ' may 
we master the praise, the sacrifice, and the verse.' Aram 
may have found its way into the text from verse 8. 



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MAJWALA II, HYMN 6. 200. 

MAA>Z?ALA II, HYMN 6. 
ASHTAKA II, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 27. 

i. Accept, O Agni, this my piece of wood and 
this my sitting down (reverentially) l , and hear these 
words of mine. 

2. Let us worship thee, Agni, child of vigour, 
with this (piece of wood ?) 1 , O winner of horses 2 , 
with this well-spoken (hymn), O well-born one. 

3. May we thus as thy devoted servants pay 
devotion by our words to thee who acceptest words 
(of prayer), to thee who aspirest after wealth, O 
giver of wealth. 

4. Thus be thou a liberal, bountiful lord, O lord 
of goods, O giver of goods. Drive hatred away 
from us. 

5. Thus (give) us 1 rain from the sky ; thus (give) 
us unattainable strength ; thus (give) us thousandfold 
food. 

6. To him who magnifies thee, who desires thy 
help, O youngest messenger, (invoked) by our word, 
best sacrificing Hotrz, come near. 

7. For thou, Agni, O sage, who knowest both 
races (of gods and of men), passest (to and fro) 
between them, like a messenger belonging to thy 
own people \ belonging to thy allies. 

8. Thus gladden (the gods) 1 as the knowing one ; 
sacrifice, O intelligent one, in due order, and sit 
down on this Barhis. 



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2IO VEDIC HYMNS. 



NOTES. . 

The same Rishi. Metre, Gayatrt.— Verse 4=VS. XII, 
43 ; TS. IV, a, 3, 4 ; MS. II, y, io. — The hymn has been 
translated by M. M., Selected Essays, II, p. 143. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. It does not seem probable that upasad is to be 
translated here according to its meaning in the later ritual, 
as one of the preparatory ceremonies of the Soma sacrifice. 
See Weber, Indische Studien, X, 363 ; Hillebrandt, Vedische 
Mythologie, I, 300. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. AyS. may be used adverbially: comp. Ill, 12, 2 ; 
VI, 17, 15; IX, 53, a; ic6, 14. But it is more probable 
that sam/dha or gira' should be supplied from verse t. 
Comp. II, 24, 1. ay£ vidhema gir£; IV, 4, 15. aya" samfdha 
vidhema. 

Note 2. Comp. VIII, 61, 7. Irvam-ish/aye. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. The conjecture sana/*, proposed by Bohtlingk- 
Roth and Grassmann, is not necessary. The verb is to be 
supplied ; comp. the passages collected by Pischel, Vedische 
Studien, I, 19. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. Canyeva seems to be^anyaA iva, comp. 11,39, *■ 
dut^-iva hdvyft ^inya purutra"; IV, 55, 5. p£t patiA^inyat 
imhasaA mJi. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. Comp. VII, 17, 4. yakshat devan amr/t&n pipra- 
yat ka. ; VIII, 39, 9. yakshat ka piprayat ka nah. 



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MAJVDALA II, HYMN J. 211 

MA7VZ>ALA II, HYMN 7. 
ASH7AKA II, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 28. 

1. Bring us, O youngest god, Bharata \ Agni, the 
best, resplendent, much-desired wealth, O Vasu 2 ! 

2. May no malign power of a god or of a mortal 
overcome us. Help us across such hostile power. 

3. And may we dive with thee across all hostile 
powers as across streams of water. 

4. Bright, O purifier, worthy of adoration, Agni, 
thou shinest mightily ; thou hast been worshipped 
by offerings of ghrtta. 1 . 

5. Thou, O Bharata *, Agni ! hast been worshipped 
by us with offerings of heifers, of bulls, of eight- 
footed (cows) 2 . 

6. The old excellent Hot/'*' who feeds on wood 
and drinks butter, he is the wonderful son of 
strength. 

NOTES. 

The same Rishi and metre. — Verse ) =TS. I, 3, 14, 3 ; 
MS. IV, 11, 4. Verse 4 = TS. I, 3, 14, 5- Verse 6=VS. 
XI, 70; TS. IV, 1, 9, a; MS. II, 7, 7- 

Verse L 

Note 1. Agni Bharata is Agni as the protector of the 
Bharata tribe or as invoked by that tribe. 

Note 2. With the beginning of this verse, I, 44, 4 should 
be compared. 

P 2 



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212 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Verse 4. 
Note L Comp. VIII, 19, 22. agn(£ ghritibhiA (LhutaJi. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. See verse 1, note 1. 

Note 2. Roth (Petersb. Dictionary) supplies vagbhiA or 
rigbhiA ; comp. VIII, 76, 12. v££am ash/apadim. But there 
is no doubt that ash/3padi, standing by the side of vasS. and 
ukshdn, has the same meaning as in the later ritual, viz. 
a cow with calf. 



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MAtfDALA II, HYMN 8. 213 

MAA^ALA II, HYMN 8. 
ASH7AKA II, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 29. 

1. As one who runs a race 1 (praises) his chariots, 
praise thou the yoking of Agni (to the chariot of 
sacrifice), of the most glorious, bountiful (god) — 

2. Who is the best leader for his worshipper, who 
undecaying makes the malign decay \ the cheerful- 
faced who has been worshipped with offerings — 

3. He who is praised in the houses on account of 
his beauty in the evening and at dawn, whose law is 
not set at nought, 

4. The bright one who shines with his light as 
the Sun with his splendour, with his undecaying 
(flames) 1 , he who is anointed (with ghma). 

5. The hymns have strengthened Agni the de- 
voured along (the extent of) his own royalty 2 . He 
has assumed every beauty. 

6. May we unharmed stand under the protection 
of Agni, Indra, Soma, of the gods; may we over- 
come our foes.' 

NOTES. 

The Rishi is Grctsamada ; the metre is Gayatrt, the last 
verse being AnushAibh, as is frequently the case in Gayatri 
hymns (see H. O., Hymnen des Rig-veda, I, 146). — No 
verse occurs in the other Samhitas. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. Va^ayati means ' he strives for va^a,' va^ayati 
* he incites to quickness.' The accent is not always correct 
in the traditional text. 



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214 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Verse 2. 
Note 1. Comp. II, 16, i. indram a^uryam ^ariyantam. 



Verse 4. 

Note 1. As to a^araiA, ' the undecaying (flames),' comp. 
Ill, 1 8, a; VI, 5, 4; 6,2; VII, 3, 3; X, 87, ao. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. That Agni should be identified here with the 
Rishl Atri (see Bergaigne, II, 468) is very improbable. 
Possibly atri means simply 'the eater' (from ad), though 
the poet in calling him so may have intended to allude to 
the name of the Rt'shi. 

Note 2. Comp. I, 80, i seq. ar£an anu svara^yam ; 84, 
10 seq. vasviA anu svara'^yam. 



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MAiVDALA II, HYMN 9. 215 

MAiVX>ALA II, HYMN 9. 
ASHJAKA II, ADHYAYA 6, VARGA 1. 

1. The Hotrt who is found on the Hotri's seat 
has sat down (there), the fierce, the resplendent, the 
dexterous one, the protector of (his own) infallible 
laws ', the highest Vasu, he who brings thousandfold 
(gain), the pure-tongued Agni. 

2. Be thou our messenger, be our protector far 
and wide ; be thou, O bull, a leader towards 
greater wealth. O Agni ! for the continuation of 
our children and of ourselves be thou an unremitting, 
brilliant protector. 

3. May we worship thee at thy highest birth 
(-place), O Agni ; may we worship thee with praises 
in thy lower abode. I honour the womb from which 
thou hast sprung. When thou hast been kindled, 
they have offered offerings in thee. 

4. Agni, being the best sacrificer perform thou 
the sacrifice with the oblation. With thy readiness 
to hear (us) hail our gift, the wealth (which we offer). 
For thou art the treasure-lord of treasures ; thou art 
the deviser of brilliant speech. 

5. Thy wealth of both kinds 1 never fails, when 
thou art born (kindled) day by day, O wonderful one. 
Make thy singer, O Agni, rich in food ; make him 
the lord of wealth with excellent offspring. 

6. With this face of thine, as a bounteous (lord), 
a sacrificer to the gods, the best performer of sacri- 
fices with happiness, as an undeceivable guardian 
and far-reaching protector, shine among us, O Agni, 
with light and wealth. 



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2l6 VEDIC HYMNS. 



NOTES. 

The same Rtshi. Metre, Trish/ubh. — According to an 
observation of Bergaigne's, hymns of six verses composed 
in Trish/ubh should precede hymns of the same extent 
composed in Gayatrt. Though this law is not without 
exceptions (see H. O., Die Hymnen des Rigveda, I, 
202 seq.), the suspicion is raised that the hymns 9 and 10 
should each be divided into two Trikas. — Verse i=VS. 
XI, 36; TS. Ill, 5, 1 1, 2; IV, 1, 3, 3; MS. II, 7, 3. Verses 
=TS. Ill, 5, 11, 2 ; MS. IV, 10, 4. Verse 3=VS. XVII, 
75 ; TS. IV, 6, 5, 4 ; MS. II, io, 6. Verse 6=TS. IV, 3, 13, 
2 ; MS. IV, 10, 5. 

Verse 1. 

Mote 1. The long compound looks suspicious ; possibly 
it should be read ddabdhavrata/* pramati//. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. Vasu and dhana frequently receive the epithet 
ubhaya; see VI, 19, 10 ; VII, 82, 4; 83, 5; X, 84, 7. No 
doubt celestial and terrestrial goods are referred to, see II, 
14, 11 ; V, 68, 3 ; VI, 59, 9 ; VII, 97, 10 ; IX, 19, 1 ; 100, 3. 



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MANDALA II, HYMN IO. 21 7 

MA7VZ>ALA II, HYMN 10. 
ASH7WKA II, ADHYAYA 6, VARGA 2. 

i. Agni is to be invoked as the first like a father, 
when he has been inflamed by Manus * in the abode 
of Id 2 . When he has invested himself with beauty, 
the wise immortal, he, the glorious strong (horse) is 
to be smoothed (by the worshippers as by grooms). 

2. Agni with bright splendour, mayest thou hear 
my call with all my prayers, thou a wise immortal. 
The two tawny (horses) draw thy chariot or the two 
red (horses), or He the wide-ranging one has made 
the two ruddy (horses draw his chariot) 1 . 

3. They have generated the well-born (Agni) in 
her who lies on her back \ Agni became a germ in 
the manifoldly-adorned (wives) 2 . Even in the . . . 8 
the wise one dwells by night uncovered in his 
powers 4 . 

4. I besprinkle with my offering, with Ghr/ta, 
Agni who abides turned towards all beings, who 
widely extends throughout, who is mighty in his 
vigour, who shows himself most capacious by the 
food (which he consumes), and robust \ 

5. I besprinkle Him who is turned towards (us) 
from all sides ; may he gladly accept that with his be- 
nevolent mind. Agni, who is like a beautiful youth, 
who has the appearance of one eagerly striving, is not 
to be touched, when he hurries around with his body. 

6. Mayst thou know the portion (belonging to 
thee), being strong through thy desire. With thee 
as our messenger may we speak like Manu. Gaining 



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2l8 VEDIC HYMNS. 



wealth 1 I invoke with my (sacrificial) ladle, with my 
eloquence, the faultless Agni who mixes the honey- 
drink. 



NOTES. 

The same Rtshi and metre. On the position of this 
hymn in the collection and its division into Trikas, see the 
note on II, 9. — Verses 4-5= VS. XI, 23-24; TS. IV, 1, 2, 
4. 5 ; MS. II, 7, 2. 

Verse 1. 
Note 1. Comp. VII, 2, 3. Mamma samiddham. 
Note 2. id is a synonym of Idk ; i/aA pade means the 
same as f/ayaA pade. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. I cannot accept Prof. Lanman's scansion of this 
Pada (Noun-Inflection, 342), uta arushalia £akre vfbhr/tra//. 
In my opinion the only reading in conformity with the use 
of Vedic poets is uta'rusha' aha, &c. 

Verse 3. 
Note 1. Comp. Ill, 29, 3 (see below). Of course the 
kindling-stick is alluded to. 

Note 2. The wives are the plants. — Comp. Lanman, 

P- 548- 

Note 3. The meaning of shink (&ira£ \eyo'/x«w) is un- 
known. The Indian explanation (' night ') of course is 
a guess, but this guess may be right. 

Note 4. ' Uncovered by the night,' M. M. On mahobhiA, 
cf. vol. xxxii, p. 197. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. See vol. xxxii, p. 212. 

Verse 6. 
Note 1. There is no reason for conjecturing dhanasa'm 
(Ludwig). Comp. X, 65, 10. indriyam s6mam dhanasaV/ u 
imahe. 



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M AND ALA III, HYMN I. 21 9 

MA^ZJALA III, HYMN 1. 
ASH7AKA II, ADHYAYA 8, VARGA 13-16. 

i. Thou wilt have me, O Agni, as a strong 
(master) of Soma 1 : therefore thou hast made me 
the carrier (of the gods ?) to perform worship at the 
sacrifice 2 . Sending my thoughts to the gods 8 1 make 
the (press-) stone ready 4 ; I toil, O Agni : find thou 
pleasure in thy own body 6 . 

2'. Eastward we have turned the sacrifice*; may 
the prayer increase. They honoured Agni with fuel 
and adoration. They have taught (him) the sacri- 
ficial ordinances of the sages of Heaven 3 . Though 
he (Agni) is clever and strong, they have sought 
a way for him. 

3. He has conceived freshness 1 , the wise one of 
pure * powers, he who is by his birth well allied with 
Heaven and Earth. The gods have found Agni the 
conspicuous one in the waters, in the work 3 of the 
sisters. 

4. The seven young (wives) 1 made the blessed 
one grow who had been born white, ruddy in his 
growth. They ran up to him like mares 2 to a new- 
born foal. The gods wondered at Agni at his birth. 

5. Spreading with his bright limbs to the aerial 
space, purifying his power 1 by wise purifications, 
clothing himself in light, the life of the waters 2 , he 
creates mighty, perfect beauty. 

6. He has gone to (the waters) who do not eat, 
the undeceived ones, the young (daughters) of 
Heaven who are not clothed and (yet) are not naked. 



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220 VEDTC HYMNS. 



Here the former young (women) having the same 
origin, the seven sounds 1 have conceived one germ. 

7. His compact masses assuming every shape are 
spread in the womb of ghee, in the streaming of 
honey. There the swelling milch-cows have sta- 
tioned themselves. Great are the parents of the 
wonderfully mighty (Agni) who are turned towards 
each other 1 . 

8. Having been carried (in the waters) thou hast 
shone forth, O son of strength, assuming wonderful 
shapes brilliant and fierce. The streams of honey 
and ghee drip, where the male has grown by wisdom. 

9. By (his) nature he has found his father's udder 1 ; 
he has sent forth his streams and his showers 2 . 
Walking* hidden to his dear friends he has not 
been hidden to the young (daughters) of Heaven 4 . 

10. He bore (in his womb) the germ of the sire, 
of the father who begat him 1 . He, being one, 
sucked many (nurses) rich in milk 2 . Observe for 
this manly, bright one the two wives bound in 
kinship, belonging to men 3 . 

11. The great one has grown up in the wide 
unbounded space 1 . The Waters (have made) Agni 
(grow): for many glorious ones 2 (have come) to- 
gether 8 . He lay in the womb of Mta., the domestic 
(god) Agni, in the work 4 of the uterine sisters. 

12. Like a horse that carries (the prize), in the 
assembly of the great (waters) 1 , visible to his son 2 , 
he whose ... is light 3 : he who as father begat the 
ruddy cows *, he the son of the waters is the most 
manly, restless 8 Agni. 

1 3. To him, the glorious son of the waters and of 
the plants, the blessed wood * has given birth, in his 
many shapes. Even the gods, for they agreed in 



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MAM? ALA III, HYMN I. 221 

their mind, honoured him who had been born the 
most wonderful and strong. 

14. Mighty rays of light like brilliant lightnings, 
milking (the sap of) immortality in the boundless 
stable, accompanied Agni whose ... is light \ who 
had grown up in his own house, as it were in secret. 

15. I magnify thee, worshipping thee with offer- 
ings ; I magnify (thee) desirous of thy friendship, of 
thy favour. Together with the gods give help to 
him who praises thee, and protect us with thy 
domestic faces. 

16. As thy followers, O Agni, best leader, winning 
all precious (treasures), pressing onward with fertile 
glory, may we overcome the godless who seek to 
combat us. 

17. Thou hast been here as the banner of the 
gods, Agni, joy-giving, knowing all wisdom. As the 
domestic (god) thou hast harboured the mortals. 
As the charioteer thou goest along straightway after 
the gods. 

18. The immortal, the king, has sat down in the 
dwelling of the mortals, performing the sacrifices 1 . 
He the ghee-faced one has shone forth widely, Agni 
knowing all wisdom. 

19 1 . Come to us with thy gracious friendship, 
speeding, great, with thy great blessings. Bestow 
on us plentiful victorious wealth ; make our share 
glorious and adorned with fine speech. 

20. These old births of thine, O Agni, and the 
recent ones I have told forth to thee the ancient 
one. These great libations (of Soma) have been 
prepared for the manly one ; generation by genera- 
tion (Jatavedas has been placed (on the altar). 

21. (74tavedas, placed (on the altar) generation 



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222 VEDIC HYMNS. 



after generation, is kindled by the VisvAmitras, the 
indefatigable (or everlasting). May we dwell in the 
grace of him the worshipful, yea, in his blissful 
kindness. 

22. Bring thou, O strong one, this sacrifice of ours 
to the gods, O wise one, as a liberal giver. Bestow 
on us, O Hotri, abundant food ; Agni, obtain by 
sacrificing mighty wealth for us. 

23. Procure, O Agni, for ever, to him who im- 
plores thee, (the gift of) nourishment \ the wonderful 
acquiring of the cow. May a son be ours, offspring 
that continues our race. Agni, may this favour of 
thine abide with us ! 



NOTES. 

The Rishi is Vijvamitra Gathina, the metre TrishAibh. — 
Verse 1 = MS. IV, 11, 2. Verse 19 = MS. IV, 14, 15. 
Verse 23 = SV. I, 76 ; VS. XII, 51 ; TS. IV, 2, 4, 3 ; MS. 
11,7, "; IV, 11, 1 ; 12,3. 

Comp. on this hymn Geldner, Vedische Studien, I, 157 
seq., and the article of Regnaud, Etudes V^diques, l'hymne 
III, 1 du Rig-Veda. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. Vakshi, which is very frequent as 2nd person of 
vah, occurs also as belonging to var (see VII, 98, 2. piti'm it 
asya vakshi), and in this sense no doubt it is to be under- 
stood in our passage. — Ludwig and Geldner take tavasam 
vakshi agne as a parenthesis. G. translates : ' Du hast 
mich zu deinem Somaschenken — denn dich gelustet nach 
dem starken, o Agni — bestellt, dass ich vor den Weisen 
opfern soil' To me it seems more natural to understand 
the first Pada as one continual clause ; vakshi is accented 
on account of the logical dependence in which this clause 



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MAJVDALA III, KYMN I. 223 

stands, the clause being considered, even without a sub- 
ordinating word, as a dependent one. See Delbriick, Alt- 
indische Syntax, p. 42 ; A. Mayr, Sitzungsberichte der 
phil. hist. Classe der Kais. Akademie der Wissenschaften, 
Vol. LXVIII (Vienna, 1871), 248, 259. — If we were to con- 
sider vakshi as a locative infinitive (see Bartholomae's theory 
on such infinitives, Indogermanische Forschungen, II, 271 
seqq.), the translation would be : ' Thou hast made me, 
O Agni, a strong carrier of Soma at the carrying (of the 
oblations),' &c. I do not think, however, this interpretation 
of vakshi very probable, nor is it, as far as I can see, 
favoured by any passage which contains the word. — For 
somasya tavasam, Prof. Max Muller suggests the translation 
' strong of Soma,' i. e. full of Soma. 

Mote 2. The text has vidathe. 

Mote 3. The traditional text has iik/a. d"dyat, which 
means, ' shining towards or as far as the gods.' The verb 
di with akkha. occurs still in two other passages of this 
Mawrfala, in 15, 5 and 55, 3. In the first of these passages 
the text seems to be correct : devan akk/ia. dfdyana/%, 
' shining as far as the gods.' In the second passage I believe 
that we ought to read iikAa. didhye purvyawi, ' I think of 
the ancient things,' or more exactly, ' I send my thoughts to 
the ancient things.' In the same way it seems to me very 
probable that in our verse didhyat would be the correct 
reading, for the participle refers to the priest who says of 
himself, ' I make the stone ready ; ' and this priest does not 
send his light (dfdyat) but his thoughts (didhyat) to the 
gods. Comp. I, 132, 5 = 139, 1. deva'n AkkJta na dhitaya/z ; 
III, 4, 3, and numerous passages which represent the mati, 
the giraA, &c, as going towards (ikk/ia.) the gods, such as 
III, 39, 1 ; 42, 3 5 VII, 10, 3 ; 36, 9 ; X, 43, 1 ; 47, 6.— 
Prof, von Roth (Zeitschrift der D. Morg. Ges., XLVIII, 108) 
speaks of the ' haufige Verwechslungen von Formen der 
beiden Wurzeln 2 di scheinen und 1 dhi wahrnehmen, den- 
ken.' The reading diftyat in our verse, and didye III, 55, 
3, may rest on the influence of III, 15, 5. deva'n a£Ma 
dfdyanaA. 



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224 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Note 4. On the accent of yung6 the same may be said as 
above (note i) regarding the accent of vakshi. 
Note 5. I. e. cause the fire to flare up. 

"Verse 2. 

Note 1. The verses 2, 3, and 4 have been translated by 
Bergaigne, Religion Vddique, I, 109. 

Note 2. Many sacrificial rites are performed from west to 
east; comp. with regard to the Barhis, I, 188, 4; X, 110, 
4 ; with regard to the sacrificial ladle, III, 6, 1 ; V, 28, 1 ; 
to the Havirdhanas, Va,£as. Sawzhita V, 17. Thus the 
whole sacrifice is spoken of as proceeding in an eastward 
direction ; see X, 66, 12. praȣam naJt yagtlim pra nayata ; 
X, 87, 9. yagtt&m praȣam . . . pra naya. 

Note 3. Comp. Mahabharata XIV, 280. tasmat svayaw* 
skdhi yagns vidhanam. Vidatha indeed is here an equivalent 
of vidhana. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. The meaning seems to be that Agni won vigour 
(mayaA) by dwelling in the waters (see Pada 3) ; comp. the 
well-known words apaA hf stha maya^-bhiiva/* (X, 9, 1), 
' for you, O waters, give vigour.' 

Note 2. More exactly, of purified faculties. 

Note 3. The accent apasi, instead of apasi, looks very 
suspicious. It is easy, but perhaps too easy, to correct 
apasi, as possibly in III, 6, 7. apaA should be read for apa//. 
(In I, 31, 8 ; 151, 4 Grassmann is wrong in assuming 
a neutral stem apas- 'die Arbeit.') To me Ludwig's 
conjecture upasi (in the lap of the sisters, i.e. of the 
waters) seems excellent Upasi occurs in V, 43, 7 ; X, 27; 
13 in the meaning of upasthe. Thus upasi svasritoam 
would be the same as apam upasthe ; comp. I, 144, 2 ; 
VI, 8, 4 ; IX, 86, 25 ; X, 45, 3 5 4<5, 1. 2, &c— Comp. 
below, verse 11, note 4. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Of course the seven wives are the rivers or 
waters. 



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MAJVDALA III, HYMN I. 225 

Note 2. I cannot adopt Prof. Weber's conjecture asvaA 
(Altiranische Sternnamen, 10). His translation is : ' Die 
Gotter liefen zu dem wundersamen Agni bei seiner Geburt 
(neugierig) hinzu, wie die jungen Madchen zu einem neu- 
gebornen Kinde.' 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. For kratum punanaA, cf. Ill, 31, 16; VIII, 12, 

"; 13.1; 53, <5- 

Note 2. I take pari as belonging to vasanaA ; s6k'\k and 
Syuh are objects. Comp. X, 16, 5. ayuA vasana^ ; X, 53, 3. 
sih iyuh S. agat surabhfA vasanaA. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. The number of the seven sounds (comp. Sten 
Konow, Das Samavidhana-brahmawa, p. 33, note 3) seems 
to be connected with the seven i?;'shis, see IX, 103, 3. v&niA 
r/shiwam sapta (comp. IX, 62, 17). The seven sounds 
seem to be identified with the seven rivers also in III, 7, 1 
(see below). Comp. Bergaigne, Religion Vedique, II, 132 ; 
H. O., Religion des Veda, 117, note 1. 

Verse 7. 
Note 1. Heaven and Earth. 

Verse 9. 

Note 1. Comp. Bergaigne, Religion Wdique, II, 99. 

Note 2. See volume xxxii, 441 seq. (I, 2, 3, note 1). 

Note 8. Here I believe we have an anacoluthon. The 
poet seems to have intended to say, ' Him who walked . . . 
the daughters of Heaven saw.' — Prof. Max Miiller translates 
this hemistich : ' He found him (the father) moving along 
with dear friends, with the young maidens of Heaven — he 
was not hidden.' 

Note 4. Agni was hidden to the gods but not to the 
waters. 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. The verse X, 3, 2, though very obscure, seems 
to contain a similar idea. Should the meaning be that 

[46] Q 



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226 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Agni bears in his womb the Dawn, the daughter of 
Heaven ? 

Note a. The waters. 

Note 8. This phrase, which I have translated as literally 
as possible, is very obscure. The two wives seem to be 
wives of Agni. Are they Night and Dawn (the two 
sabardughe, III, 55, 12?), whose designation as 'belonging 
to men ' seems not to be impossible ? Or the two kindling- 
sticks (comp. V, 47, 5) ? Or the two Darvis (V, 6, 9) ? 

Verse 11. 

Note 1. Comp. V, 42, 17. urau devaA anibadhe syama. 

Note 2. This is feminine. 

Note 3. The phrase yarasaA sam hf purvfifc occurs also 
X, 46, 10. It may have been, as Geldner believes, a pro- 
verbial locution. But the verb which it is most natural to 
supply, seems to be gam (i, ya), so that the meaning may 
have been : ' Many superior (wives) are wont to assemble,' 
i. e. where one such wife is, there will be many. This is 
applied here to the waters, in X, 46, 10 to such beings as 
ishaJi, utayaA or the like. That yards may be meant for 
the waters is shown by VII, 36, 6, where the yasasaJt 
vavajana"^, mentioned by the side of Sarasvatt, evidently 
are the waters. — It should be observed that several 
expressions of this hymn have been made use of by the 
author of X, 46. 

Note 4. Or rather ' in the lap ' (upasi). Comp. above, 
verse 3, note 3. 

Verse 12. 

Note 1. With regard to akra^ I adopt the translation 
proposed by Geldner (Ved. Studien, I, 168). — On the 
accent of mahmam, see Lanman, p. 398. 

Note 2. This seems to be the human worshipper. I can- 
not follow Prof, von Roth, Zeitschrift der D. Morg. Gesell- 
schaft, XLVIII, 118, who explains sunave as a corrupt third 
person of the verb su. 

Note 3. See above, I, 44, 3, note 1. 



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MAiVDALA III, HYMN I. 227 

Note 4. The dawns. 

Note 6. Comp. above, I, 36, 1, note 2. 

Verse 13. 
Note 1. Vana : the wood considered as a wife. 

Verse 14. 
Note 1. See verse 1 2, note 3. 

Verse 18. 
Note 1. The text has vidathani. 

Verse 19. 
Note 1. Comp. Kuhn, Kuhn's Zeitschrift, I, p. 445. 

Verse 28. 

Note L f/am, which more especially means the nourishing 
substance of the cow. Comp. H. O., Religion des Veda, 
72, 326. — Prof. Max Miiller translates : ' Procure to him 
who implores thee, O Agni, exuberant land for ever, rich 



Q 2 

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228 VEDTC HYMNS. 



MAJVZ7ALA III, HYMN 2. 

ASHZAKA II, ADHYAYA 8, VARGA 17-19. 

To Agni Vaisvanara. 

i. For Vawvanara, the increaser of Rha., for Agni 
we produce 1 a Dhisha«4 2 like purified ghee. And 
verily 3 by their prayer the invoking men (accom- 
plish) him, the Hotr*', as the axe accomplishes a 
chariot. 

2. By his birth he has given splendour to both 
worlds (Heaven and Earth). He became the praise- 
worthy son of his parents, Agni, the carrier of 
oblations, never ageing, with satisfied mind, unde- 
ceivable, the guest of men, rich in light. 

3. Through the power of their mind, within the 
sphere of their superior strength the gods have 
procreated Agni by their thoughts. Desirous of 
winning the prize 1 I address Him who shines with 
his splendour, who is great in his light, as (one who 
desires to win the prize addresses his) race-horse. 

4. Desirous of winning the choice, glorious, and 
praiseworthy prize (which is the gift) of the joy-giver, 
we choose the boon of the Bhr/gus 1 , the Us'ig *, who 
has the mind of a sage, Agni, who reigns with his 
heavenly light 

5. Men, having spread the sacrificial grass, holding 
the sacrificial ladle, have placed here in front (as 
Purohita), for the sake of (the divine) blessing, Agni 
renowned for strength, with great splendour, united 
with all the gods, the Rudra of sacrifices 1 , who 
accomplishes the oblations of active (worshippers). 

6. O (Agni) whose flame is purifying, around thy 



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MAiVDALA III, HYMN 2. 229 

dwelling, O Hotri, the men who at the sacrifices 
have spread the sacrificial grass, O Agni, seeking 
(how to do) honour (to thee), and (desiring) thy 
friendship, surround thee (reverentially) ; — bestow 
thou wealth on them ! 

7. He has filled the two worlds (Heaven and 
Earth) and the great Sun, when the active ones 
(i.e. the priests) held him fast who had been born. 
He the sage is led round for the performance of 
worship, like a racer for the winning of the prize ', 
with satisfied mind. 

8. Adore ye him, the giver of offerings, the best 
performer of worship ; honour ye him the domestic 
GStavedas. Agni, the charioteer of the mighty 
.tf/ta, he who dwells among manifold tribes, has 
become the Purohita of the gods. 

9. The immortal Usigs have purified three logs 
for the vigorous x Agni 2 who wanders round the 
earth 8 : of these they have placed one among the 
mortals for their enjoyment ; two have passed into 
the sister world *. 

10. The food offered by men has sharpened him, 
the sage of the tribes, the lord of the tribes, as 
an axe. Busily he goes to the heights and to the 
depths. He has held fast the germ in these worlds. 

11. He the generator, the strong one, stirs in the 
resplendent bellies like a roaring lion, Vauvanara 
with his broad stream of light, the immortal, dis- 
tributing goods and treasures to his worshipper. 

12. VaLrvanara has mounted the firmament, the 
back of heaven, as of old, glorified by those who are 
rich in good thoughts. He, creating wealth for the 
creatures as of old, goes watchful round the common 
course. 



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23O VEDIC HYMNS. 



13. The righteous, worshipful priest deserving of 
praise, the dweller in heaven 1 whom MatarLrvan 
has established (on earth) : him we approach whose 
way is bright and hair golden, the resplendent Agni, 
for the sake of ever new welfare. 

14. Like the flaming one (the sun ?) on his way, 
the quick one, of sun-like aspect, the banner of 
heaven, who dwells in light, who wakes at dawn — 
Agni the head of heaven, the unrepressed, him we 
approach with adoration, the strong one mightily. 

15. The joy-giving, bright Hotri, in whom is no 
falsehood, the domestic, praiseworthy dweller among 
all tribes, like a splendid chariot, wonderful to be- 
hold, established by Manus : him we constantly 
approach for the sake of wealth. 



NOTES. 

The same Rishl The metre is Cagati. — Verse 7= VS. 
XXXIII, 75. Verse 9 = MS. I, 3, 35. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. Literally, ' we generate.' 

Note 2. On the meaning of this word, which I may be 
allowed to leave in its Sanskrit form, I refer to I, 96, 1, 
note 2. 

Note 8. Literally, 'doubly.' Comp. below, III, 17, 5, 
note 1. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. W&gam sanishyan refers to the worshipper who 
desires to obtain va'^a (quick strength, and the booty or 
prize obtained by it), and in the comparison, to the owner 
of a race-horse who desires to win the race. 



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MANDALA III, HYMN 2. 23 1 



Verse 4. 



Note 1. Comp. I, 60, 1 (see above). 

Note 2. Comp. Bergaigne, Religion V^dique, I, 57 seq. 

Verse 5. 
Note 1. Comp. von Bradke, Dyaus Asura, p. 54. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. Again, as in verse 3, va^asataye means, with 
reference to the race, ' for the winning of the prize,' and 
with reference to sacrifice, 'for the obtainment of quick 
strength, of booty, &c.' 

Verse 9. 

Note 1. See above, I, 36, 1, note 2. 

Note 2. Agni is stated here to have one terrestrial and 
two celestial forms : the fire belonging to men, and, it 
seems, sun and lightning. Comp. M. M., Physical Religion, 
229 ; Bergaigne, Religion Wdique, I, 22. With regard to 
the three forms of Agni, compare also H. O., Religion des 
Veda, 106 seq. 

Note 8. On parjjman, comp. above, I, 79, 3, note 2. 

Note 4. Into the celestial world. 

Verse 18. 

Note 1. I read divikshayam (Bergaigne, Rel. V^dique, I, 
55, note). The blunder has been caused by X, 63, 5. 

dadhire" divi kshayam. 



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232 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAJVZ?ALA III, HYMN 3. 

ASHTAKA II, ADHYAYA 8, VARGA 20-21. 

To Agni VamvAnara. 

i. They have worshipped Vairvanara with his 
broad stream of light with prayers 1 and treasures 
in order that he may walk on firm ground. For 
immortal Agni honours the gods, and from of old 
he has not violated the laws. 

2. The wonderful messenger goes between the 
two worlds (heaven and earth), the Hotri who has 
sat down, the Purohita of Manus. He takes care of 
his wide dwelling day by day, Agni who, incited by 
the gods, gives wealth for our prayers. 

3. The priests have exalted with their thoughts 
Agni, the banner of sacrifices, the achiever of sacri- 
fice 1 . From him in whom they have put together 
their (sacrificial) works and their prayers, the sacrificer 
desires blessings. 

4. The father of sacrifices, the miraculous lord of 
those who know prayers (P) 1 , Agni, is the measure 
and rule* of the sacrificers ; he has entered the two 
manifold-shaped worlds ; the sage beloved by many 
people is glorified in his foundations. 

5. The gods have established here in great beauty 
Agni the bright with his bright chariot, whose every 
law is golden 1 , VaLrvanara who dwells in the waters, 
who finds the sun, the diver, the swift one covered 
with strength, the quick one. 

6. Agni, spreading out with his thought the mani- 
fold-adorned sacrifice, together with the gods and 



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MAWDALA III, HYMN 3. 233 

with the people of Manus, goes as a charioteer to 
and fro with (gods and men) who accomplish the 
sacrifice, the quick, domestic (god), the dispeller of 
curses. 

7. Agni, be wakeful * in our life which may be 
blessed with offspring; swell with sap; shine upon 
us (plenty of) food. Stir up vigour and the great 
ones, O watchful (god). Thou art the Usig (or 
willing one) of the gods, the good-minded (lord) of 
prayers. 

8. The lord of the tribe, the vigorous 1 guest, the 
guider of prayers, the Usif (or willing one) of those 
who invoke him, <7atavedas, the light of worship — 
him men constantly praise with adoration, with 
solicitations for their welfare. 

9. The resplendent, joyous god, Agni on his 
chariot, has with his might encompassed the dwell- 
ings. May we honour in our house with beautiful 
prayers * his commands who is rich in manifold 
prosperity. 

10. O VaLrvanara, I love thy statutes by which 
thou hast found the sun, O far-seeing one. When 
born thou hast filled the worlds, heaven and earth ; 
Agni, thou encompassest all these (beings) by 
thyself. 

n. For Vaiivinara's wonderful deeds he the sage 
alone has by his great skill mightily 1 let loose (his 
powers ?). Agni has been born exalting both his 
parents, Heaven and Earth, rich in seed. 

NOTES. 

The same J?/shi and metre. — Verse 10 = MS. IV, 11, 1. 
Verse 11 = TS. 1,5, 11, 1. 



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234 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Verse 1. 

Note L A meaning like ' prayer ' seems to recommend 
itself for most of the passages in which the substantive vfp 
occurs, for instance, V, 68, i. pra vaA mitraya gayata varuwaya 
vipa* giri ; IX, 22, 3. etc" put£A vipaj^/taA somasaA . . . vipa" 
vi an&m/« dhfyaA; IX, 65, 12. aya* kitt&A vip£ anaya hanA 
pavasva dhaYaya ; III, 10, 5 (see below), &c. As the verb 
vip means ' to be in trembling agitation,' the same word as 
a substantive may designate enthusiastic thoughts or 
prayers. Comp. v£pate mat?, IX, 71, 3 ; X, 11, 6, and the 
nouns v/pra, vip&r^ft, vipodha'. We need not enter here 
upon the question, whether some concrete trembling or 
shaking objects also were designated as vtpaJt, and whether 
Bergaigne (Religion Ve'dique, I, p. vii) is right in taking 
the v/p aya£-agra, with which Trita killed the boar 
(X, 99, 6), as a ' priere a pointe de fer ' (comp. Macdonell, 
Journ. R. Asiatic Society, 1893, p. 431 ; 1895, p. 185). — In 
our verse v/paA may be either nominative or accusative. 
I have translated it as an accusative ; in the case of the 
nominative the translation would be : ' The prayers have 
worshipped Vaijvanara with treasures.' 

Verse 3. 
Note 1. The text has vidathasya. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Asura// vipaA-^ftam. On the meaning of asura, 
which implies the possession of secret, supernatural power, 
see H. O., Religion des Veda, 162 seq. — Comp. von Bradke, 
Dyaus Asura, pp. 64-65. 

Note 2. 'Richtschnur und Weg der Opferer,' Pischel, 
Vedische Studien, I, 306. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. Literally, ' whose rules are yellow.' The mean- 
ing is that Agni's whole sphere of activity bears the golden 



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MAJVDALA III, HYMN 3. 235 

yellow colour. Sayawa gives the interesting remark 
' haritva£am iti .rakhantaram,' but no doubt hdrivratam is 
right. 

Verse 7. 

Bote 1. Comp. Neisser, Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XIII, 
297. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. Comp. I, 36, 1, note a. 

Verse 9. 
Note 1. Comp. II, 4, 1, note 1. 

Verse 11. 

Note 1. Prof. Max Miiller proposes to translate, ' has sent 
forth his great song,' and observes, ' Might not bnhat be 
like brzhat sama, a name of a hymn ? ' 



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236 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAA^ALA III, HYMN 4. 

ASHTAKA II, ADHYAYA 8, VARGA 22-23. 

Apr! Hymn. 

1. Log by log 1 be kind towards us. Flash 
by flash grant us thy, the Vasu's, favour 2 . Bring 
hither, O god, the gods that we may sacrifice. 
Sacrifice, O Agni, as a kind friend to thy friends. 

2. Thou whom the gods, Varu«a, Mitra, Agni, 
thrice every day bring hither by sacrifice day by 
day, Tanunapit, make this our sacrifice honey-sweet, 
having its abode in ghee \ (this sacrifice) which 
worships (the gods). 

3. (Our adoring) thought rich in all boons goes 
forward for worshipping as the first the Hotri of 
the sacred food (i/), for saluting the strong bull with 
adoration and homage. May he, the best sacrificer, 
incited (by our prayers) sacrifice to the gods \ 

4. Upwards your 1 course has been directed at 
the worship; upwards (your) flames 2 are gone; ready 
(for receiving you) is the air 3 . Or the Hotri has 
sat down at heaven's navel. We spread out the 
sacrificial grass which receives the gods. 

5 1 . Choosing in their mind the sevenfold work of 
the Hotrz's 2 , enlivening everything (the gods) came 
hither in the right way. (The divine doors 3 ) with 
men as their ornaments 4 , born at the sacrifices 6 , 
have come hither and thither to this sacrifice, many 
of them. 

6. Hither (shall come) the two Dawns 1 , the 
neighbourly (goddesses) of glorious appearance 2 . 



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MAJVDALA III, HYMN 4. 237 

Of different forms, they both smile. (They shall 
come) that Mitra and Varu«a may be satisfied with 
us, and Indra accompanied by the Maruts with their 
powers 8 . 

7. I catch hold of the two divine Hotr/s first. 
The seven strong ones 1 rejoice according to their 
wont. Teaching the right, they proclaim the right, 
the guardians of law, contemplating the law. 

8 1 . May Bharatt, in concord with the Bharatfs, 
I /a with the gods, Agni with men, SarasvatI with 
all (beings) belonging to SarasvatI (come) hither; 
may the three goddesses sit down on this sacrificial 
grass. 

9. O divine Tvashtri, grant us and send forth 
this our seed which is to thrive : (the seed) from 
which a manly son is born able and skilful, who 
sets to work the press-stones, loving the gods. 

10. O tree \ send (the offering) forth to the gods. 
May Agni the slaughterer make the offering ready. 
May the same, the very true Hotrt, sacrifice according 
as he knows the generations of the gods. 

11. Agni, being kindled, come hither, on one 
chariot with Indra, with the quick gods. May Aditi, 
the mother of noble sons, sit down on our sacrificial 
grass. With Svaha may the immortal gods rejoice. 



NOTES. 

The same Rishi. Metre, TrishAibh. — Verse 9 = TS. 
Ill, 1, ii, 1 ; MS. IV, 13, 10. Verse 10 =VS. XXVII, 
21 ; TS. IV, 1,8,3; MS. II,i2,6. 



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238 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Verse 1. 

Note 1. Agni is invoked as personified in each log of fuel 
which is put on the sacrificial fire. 

Note 2. Comp. VII, 39, 1. sumatfm vasvaA. 

Verse 2. 
Note L Comp. II, 3, 1 1. ghrrtam asya y6niA. 

Verse 3. 

Note L Comp. X, no, 3. s&k enan yakshi ishitaA ya,fiyan 
(cf. also X, 1 10, 9). 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. The text has the dual vim. But who are the 
two beings addressed? According to Saya«a, Agni and 
the Barhis, which does not seem very probable. The 
structure of the phrase gives the impression — though this 
impression is by no means certain — that vam, which belongs 
to gatu, is to be supplied to sokimshi also. If we are right 
in this supposition, are not the two beings in question the 
two first of the three sacred fires, the Ahavaniya and 
Garhapatya ? These two fires are frequently spoken of in 
the ritual texts as of a dyad, with the omission of the third 
fire. — Prof. Max Miiller proposes to change vam into va. 
According to him the meaning may be : Either the road 
has been made upward, i. e. the flames have gone upward 
to the sky, or Agni has sat down at heaven's navel. 

Note 2. Comp. VII, 43, 2. urdhva' JoKwshi devayflni 
asthu-6. 

Note 8. Possibly the words urdhva' sokimshi pristhita 
r&g&msi may form one clause, ' upwards (your) flames are 
gone towards the sky.' M. M. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. On this verse, comp. Pischel, Vedische Studien, 
II, 115 seq. 

Note 2. On the seven priests of the ancient Soma 
sacrifice, comp. H. O., Religion des Veda, 383 seq. 



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MAJTOALA III, HYMN 4. 239 

Note 3. That this subject is to be supplied, is shown by 
the regular composition of the Apr! hymns. It is con- 
firmed by the word purvtt, which is evidently an epithet of 
the divine doors ; comp. I, 188, 5 ; VII, 2, 5. 

Bote 4. ' In human form.' M. M. 

Note 6. The text has vidatheshu. 

Verse 6. 

Note L I. e. Night and Dawn. 

Note 2. Comp. above, I, 14a, 7. 

Note 3. Comp. M. M., vol. xxxii, p. 196 seq. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. Comp. above, 1, 127, 5, note 1. Pischel (Vedische 
Studien, I, 96) may be right in taking the seven pnkshasa/* 
as the Angiras, the sapta vfpraA. 

Verse 8. 
Note 1. The verses 8-1 1 are repeated in VII, 2, 8-1 1. 

Verse 10. 
Note 1. The tree is the sacrificial post (yupa). 



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24O VED1C HYMNS. 



MAM9ALA III, HYMN 5. 
ASH7AKA II, ADHYAYA 8, VARGA 24^25. 

1. Shining Agni has awoke over against the 
Dawns, the priest who traces the footsteps of the 
sages 1 . With his broad stream of light kindled by 
the pious, the carrier (of the gods) has opened the 
two doors of darkness. 

2. Agni has grown strong by praises, by the 
speeches of the praisers, by hymns, the adorable 
one. Loving many aspects of Jtita. the messenger 
has shone up at the bursting forth of the Dawn. 

3. Agni has been established among the tribes 
of men, the son of the waters, Mitra 1 , acting in the 
right way. The delightful, worshipful one has 
reached the top ; the priest has become one who 
should be invoked by prayers. 

4. Agni becomes Mitra 1 , when he has been kin- 
dled; he the Hotri (Agni becomes) Mitra ; he, 
<7atavedas, (becomes) Varuwa. The quick Adh- 
varyu, the domestic (god, Agni, becomes) Mitra, 
the Mitra (i.e. friend or ally) of the rivers and of the 
mountains. 

5. He observes the deceiver's dear summit 1 , the 
footstep of the bird 1 ; the vigorous one 8 observes 
the course of the Sun. Agni observes at his(?) 
navel the seven-headed (song?) 8 ; tall (Agni) ob- 
serves the enjoyment of the gods. 

6. The Ribhu* has created for himself a good 
name worthy of being magnified, he, the god who 
knows all laws. The skin of the herbs 2 , the bird's 
footstep 3 rich in ghee : Agni watches (all) that, never 
failing. 



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MAiVDALA III, HYMN 5. 24 1 

7. Agni has approached the place 1 rich in ghee 
(the altar), with broad passages, (the place) long- 
ing (for him), longing (himself). He the resplendent, 
bright, tall purifier has made his two parents 2 new 
again and again. 

8. As soon as born he has grown by the grass \ 
when the sprouting (grass-)blades strengthen him 
with ghee. Like waters beautiful on their precipitous 
path, Agni, being in the lap of his parents, has 
escaped into wide space. 

9. Receiving praise the vigorous one 1 has shone 
forth with his fuel, on heaven's summit, on the 
earth's navel. May Agni worthy of being magnified, 
(being) Mitra and MatarLrvan, the messenger, carry 
hither the gods that they may receive our sacrifice. 

10. The tall one has, by (receiving) fuel, upheld 
the firmament, Agni, becoming the highest of lights, 
when Matarlyvan for the sake of the BhWgus 1 
kindled the carrier of oblations, (Agni) who dwelt 
in secret. 

ii = 1II, 1, 23. 

NOTES. 

The same Rishi and metre. — No verse occurs in the 
other Samhitas. 

Verse L 

Note 1. On pada-vf, comp. Pischel, Vedische Studien, 
I, 299. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. Mitra has here and in verse 4 two meanings : it 
is the name of the god Mitra, with whom Agni is identified 
(Bergaigne, Religion V^dique, III, 134 seq.), and it means 
also 'friend' or 'ally' (comp. H. O., Religion des Veda, 
186, note 1). See von Bradke, Dyaus Asura, p. 13. 
[46] R 



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242 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Verse 4. 
Note 1. See verse 3, note 1. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. All this is very enigmatical. In the parallel pas- 
sage, IV, 5, 8, we have, instead of ripiA agram, the reading 
rupaA agram, which is confirmed by verse 7 of the same 
hymn (agre rupaA) and by X, 13, 3 (pa«£a padani rupaA anu 
aroham); in support of the reading rip&A, on the other 
side, the verse, X, 79, 3 (ripa// upasthe antaA), may be 
quoted. The meaning of nip is unknown ; rip means 
' deceit ' and ' deceiver : ' but what is the summit of the 
deceiver? Bergaigne (Religion Vddique, II, 77 seq.) has 
tried to solve the riddle, but it is really hopeless. — The 
meaning of the following words, padaw* v6A, is not quite so 
obscure ; there is at least some probability that the bird is 
Agni himself (cf. below, III, 7, 7), or possibly the sun. The 
latter explanation is advocated by Prof. Max Miiller, who 
writes : ' May it not be a description of sunrise ? priyam 
ripaA agram I do not understand ; but padam \di is the 
place of the bird, as in I, 130, 3. veA na garbham, the nest 
of the bird or of the sun. This nest is covered by a stone, 
is in fact the vra^a, which has to be opened to let out the 
light of day. It is also the yoni or the altar. RipaA 
agram may possibly be the summit of the Pawi or of Vr/'tra, 

X, 79, 3-' 

Note 2. See above, I, 36, 1 , note a. 

Note 3. Sapta-jirshan (' seven-headed ') occurs again in 
two other passages of the Rig-veda (VIII, 51, 4, and X, 67, 
1) ; in both it is an epithet of words which signify ' hymn ' 
or ' prayer ' (arka, dhi). Possibly a similar word should be 
supplied here. But why are the prayers called ' seven- 
headed?' Does this refer to unknown technicalities of the 
Vedic liturgy ? Does it stand in connection with the seven 
tones of the scale, with the expression sapta dhttayaA, with 
the number of the seven Hotris ? ' Celui qui a sept tetcs 
est sans doute un personnage Equivalent a lui seul au 



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MANDALfi III, HYMN 5. 243 

groupe des sept pretres,' says Bergaigne (II, 145), which is 
very ingenious, but should not be given as a doubtless fact. 
— Prof. Max Miiller observes that saptarirshan may be, 
like saptasya, the vra^a of Pa«i, opened by Agni, IV, 51, 4, 
and that Bnhaspati is called saptasya, IV, 50, 4, and 
saptagu, X, 47, 6. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. Agni is here called .tfibhu in his quality as 
a skilful artisan. See Bergaigne, Religion V^dique, II, 408. 

Note 2. There seems to be no doubt that sasa (comp. 
sasya) means ' herb ' or possibly ' grain ' in X, 79, 3 ; the 
text there has sasam nd pakvam ; comp. I, 66, 2. yivsJi na 
pakva//. The same meaning is quite admissible in I, 51, 3 ; 
V, ai, 4 ; VIII, 72, 3 ; though these passages are too uncer- 
tain for deciding anything. I cannot find any reason for 
believing that we have here and in IV, 5, 7 ; 7, 7 (see below), 
another word derived from the root sas, and meaning ' the 
sleeper.' At all events I neither pretend to know what 
mysteries are hidden under the ' skin of the herbs,' nor 
what stories may have happened to the ' peau du dormeur ' 
(Bergaigne, II, 78 seq.). 

Note 3. See verse 5, note 1. 

Verse 7. 

Note L Y6nim, literally ' womb.' 
Note 2. Probably Heaven and Earth. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. Prof. Max Miiller refers this to the grass of the 
barhis, or the tender blades in which the spark is caught 
and kept alive by ghee. 

Verse 9. 

Note 1. Comp. above, I, ^6, 1, note 2. 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. I have adopted, though I do not believe it cer- 
tain, Grassmann's opinion on the meaning of pari in this 
connection. Comp. H. O., Religion des Veda, 133, note 4. 

R 2 



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244 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAiVZ?ALA III, HYMN 6. 
ASH7AKA II, ADHYAYA 8, VARGA 26-27. 

i. Bring forward, ye pious singers, stirred in 
your thoughts 1 , (the ladle) which is turned towards 
the gods. Carrying (the sacrificial butter) from left 
to right 2 it turns eastward, rich in strength, bringing 
the offering to Agni, full of ghee. 

2. When born thou hast filled the two worlds, 
nay thou hast even exceeded them, O friend of 
sacrifices 1 . May, O Agni, thy seven-tongued horses 2 
move along, by the greatness of heaven and earth*. 

3. Heaven and Earth the worshipful 1 establish 
thee as Hotn for the house, whenever the pious 
human tribes offering food magnify the bright light. 

4. (Thou art) seated, the great one, in a firm 
place 1 , between the two mighty Heavens 2 , thou who 
art longed for — (between) the two united 3 never- 
ageing, inviolable wives, the two juice-yielding milch- 
cows 4 of the far-reigning one 6 . 

5. Thy, the great (god's) laws, O Agni, are great. 
Through the power of thy mind thou hast spread 
out the two worlds. Thou hast become a messenger 
at thy birth, thou, O bull, the leader of the tribes. 

6. Or bind to the pole by means of thy (art of) 
harnessing the two long-maned, red (horses) of Rita., 
that swim in ghee 1 , and carry hither, O god, all 
gods ; perform splendid worship, O (Jatavedas ! 

7 1 . Even from heaven thy shining lights have 
shone; thy splendour follows many resplendent 
dawns, when the gods, O Agni, praised the cheerful 
Hotrz's work 2 who eagerly burns in the forests 3 . 



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MAiVCALA III, HYMN 6. 245 

8. Whether it be the gods who rejoice in the 
wide air, or those who dwell in the heavenly light, 
or those who are helpful 1 , ready to hear our call, 
and worshipful ; or whether the horses of thy 
chariot, O Agni, have turned themselves hither — 

9. Come hither with them, O Agni, on one chariot 
or on many chariots, for thy horses are powerful. 
Bring hither, after thy nature, the thirty and the 
three gods with their wives, and rejoice (in the 
Soma). 

10. He is the Hotrt whose sacrifice even the two 
wide worlds salute over and over again for the sake 
of prosperity. Turned to the east 1 , the two well- 
established 2 (goddesses, Heaven and Earth), the 
righteous, true ones stand as at the sacrifice 3 of 
(Agni) the right-born. 

11 = III, 1, 23. 



NOTES. 

The same Rishi and metre. — Verse i=TB. II, 8, 2, 5 ; 
MS. IV, 14, 3. Verse 9= AV. XX, 13, 4. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. The translation of manana* is conjectural, and 
based only on the etymology. The passage St ft ra^anam 
manana^i agnbhwata, IX, 70, 3, does not help us much. 
* Does not X, 47, 7. stdmkA hridisprisaA manasa va£ya- 
mana/e, indicate the original reading, manasa vafyamanam?' 
M. M. 

Note 2. The srukaA are called dakshiwavr/taA, I, 144, 1. 
By the word dakshiwavaV the poet probably intended to 
designate the ladle also as procuring a Dakshiwa (sacrificial 
fee) to the priest. 



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246 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Verse 2. 

Note 1. On praya^yu, see M. M., vol. xxxii, p. 335, and 
Pischel, Ved. Studien, I, 98. 

Note 2. The flames of Agni. 

Note 8. Comp. below, 7, 10. The meaning seems to be : 
by thy (Agni's) greatness which is equal to that of Heaven 
and Earth. 

Verse 3. 

Note L I refer yagnly&saJt, though it is a plural, to 
Heaven and Earth. Comp. Delbriick, Altindische Syn- 
tax, 103. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. The Padapa/Aa has dhruvaA. I think it should 
be dhruve\ comp. II, 41, 5. dhruve sadasi uttame . . . asate ; 
IX, 40, a. dhruve' sadasi sidati. 

Note 2. I.e. Heaven and Earth. 

Note 3. Askra seems derived from a-sa£ (Joh. Schmidt, 
Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XXV, 71). 

Note 4. Or 'the two milch-cows which instantly give 
milk,' if sabar- is to be connected with the Greek &4>ap ; 
comp. Bartholomae, Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XV, 17. 

Note 5. Vish«u is not the only god who is called uru- 
gaya, and there is no reason therefore why the epithet 
should not be referred here to Agni. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. Comp. Lanman, Noun- Inflection, pp. 402,413. — 
See below, IV, 2, 3. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. See Geldner, Vedische Studien, I, 114 seq. 

Note 2. Should the accent be apaA? Comp. Ill, 1, 3, 
note 3. 

Note 3. It is very probable that uradhak (comp. Ill, 34, 
3 ; VII, 7, 2) is an epithet of Agni. We should expect the 
genitive ; uradhak, which violates the construction, seems 



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MAJV0ALA III, HYMN 6. 247 

to stand metri causa. Or is uradhak an accusative sin- 
gular neuter, so that the literal translation would be : ' When 
the gods praised the work, burning in the forests, of the 
Hoto"? 

Verse 8. 

Note L On ffma, comp. Pischel, Vedische Studien, I, 223. 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. Comp. above, II, 2, 7. 

Note 2. See Windisch in the Festgruss an Boehtlingk, 
p. 114. 

Note 3. There is one syllable above the number ; the 
metre and meaning would be all right if we were to read 
adhvare" (for adhvareva) : ' (the two goddesses) stand at the 
sacrifice,' &c. Prof. Max Miiller explains : ' Adhvara'-iva, 
like two sacrifices, like two sacrificial altars, barhis.' 



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248 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAA>Z>ALA III, HYMN 7. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 1-2. 

1. They who have risen out of the drink of the 
white-backed one, have entered the two parents, 
the seven sounds. The (all-)encompassing parents 
come together ; they go forth to aspire after long 
life 1 . 

2. The milch-cows dwelling in heaven 1 are the 
mares of the manly one. He has bestridden the 
goddesses who carry the sweet (food) 2 . Thee who 
livest in peace in the abode oi Rita., the one cow s 
circumambulates, making her way. 

3. He has mounted the (mares) 1 that became 
well-manageable, the wise lord, the finder of riches. 
He with the dark blue back, with many faces, has 
made them depart from the drink of the brush- 
wood 2 . 

4. Giving mighty vigour to the never-ageing son 
of Tvash/r* 1 , the streams 2 carry Him the firmly 
fixed one. Flashing in his abode with his limbs 
he has entered upon the two worlds as if they were 
one. 

5. They know friendship towards the manly, the 
red one, and they delight in the command of ruddy 
(Agni), (the gods) shining from heaven, resplendent 
with bright shine, to whose host I /a belongs, the 
mighty praise. 

6. And finding it out by following the noise they 
brought to the great one's great parents a song 
of praise, when the bull about nightfall (?) has 
grown strong according to the singer's own law 1 . 



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MAJV.DALA III, HYMN 7. 249 

* 

7. With the five Adhvaryus the seven priests 
watch the beloved footstep which the bird has 
made 1 . Turned forwards the never-ageing bulls 2 
rejoice: for they, being gods, have followed the 
laws of the gods. 

8 = 111,4,7- 

9. The many (mares) are full of desire for the 
mighty stallion. For the manly, bright one, the 
reins easily direct (the horses) 1 . Divine Hotrz! 
Thou who art a great joy-giver and wise, bring 
hither the great gods and the two worlds 2 . 

10. The dawns, O wealth-giver, the mighty sacri- 
ficers 1 , well spoken and bright have shone with 
wealth. And by the earth's greatness 2 , O Agni, 
forgive us even committed sin 3 , that we may be 
great. 

ii = III, 1, 23. 



NOTES. 

The same Rishi and metre. — No verse of this hymn 
occurs in the other Sawhitas. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. On the meaning of this difficult verse con- 
jectures only can be given. The white-backed one may 
be Agni. If this is right, 'they who have risen out of 
Agni's drink,' may be Agni's rays or flames (ye rajmayaA 
. . . prakarshe»odga££Aanti, Saya«a) ; these flames enter 
upon the two mothers, i.e. Heaven and Earth, and upon 
the seven sounds, the sacrificial songs which are identified 
with the terrestrial and celestial seven rivers (comp. above, 
III, 1, 6). All this rests on the supposition that the tradi- 
tional text is correct Now Ludwig remarks with reference 



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250 VEDIC HYMNS. 



to the pronoun ye : ' Warscheinlicher ist, dass wir hier eine 
archaistische anwendung der form auf e fur fern, vor uns 
haben,' and Griffith says that ye is 'apparently used for 
the feminine.' I do not believe in this possibility, but for 
ye (ya) the true reading may be y&{h). In this case the 
seven vawis would be subject : ' They who have risen out of 
the drink of the white-backed one, the seven sounds have 
entered the two parents.' The meaning of this may be : 
The sacrificial songs, rising as it were out of the offering 
made to Agni, and in the same way the streams of water 
which, in the shape of clouds of smoke rise out of the offer- 
ing (comp. I, 164, 51), have gone to Heaven and Earth. 

That the parents in the third Pada are again Heaven 
and Earth is shown by X, 65, 8. parikshfta pitara . . . 
dyavapr/thivf. It may be observed that the author of 
X, 65 (see especially the verses 6-8) evidently imitated the 
expressions of the hymn, III, 7. ' The coming together of 
Heaven and Earth marks the beginning of the day and of 
the year.' M. M. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. On divakshas, comp. Joh. Schmidt, Pluralbil- 
dungen der Neutra, 417 seq. 

Note 2. The milch-cows, mares, or goddesses seem to be 
the celestial waters or Dawns. 

Note 3. Comp. X, 65, 6, quoted at the end of this note. 
Is the cow (Va£, according to Saya«a) the Dawn which 
daily returns in her due way? Or the butter offered to 
Agni ? In our verse and in the parallel passage, X, 65, 6, 
the vartanf of the cow is mentioned ; it may be observed 
that the vartanf of Ushas is referred to in X, 17 a, 1. 4. 
And Ushas is represented in I, 123, 9 as coming to the 
nishkrttd : comp. X, 65, 6. yS. gauA vartanfm pari-eti ai/i- 
krftam. 

Verse 3. 
Note L See verse 2. 

Note 2. The meaning may possibly be the following. 
The Waters dwell in the plants as their sap (comp. H. O., 



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MAJVDALA III, HYMN J. 25 1 

Religion des Veda, 113). Agni, when burning or drinking 
as it were, the brushwood, destroys this dwelling of the 
Waters ; he makes the Waters depart from the wood. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. On Agni as the son of Tvash/rj, see Hillebrandt, 
Vedische Mythologie, I, 522 seq. 

Note 2. 'Could vahata/* be the suyimaA of verse 3?' 
M. M. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. Or, ' when the singer's bull . . . has grown strong 
according to his own law'? The bull, of course, is Agni. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. See above, 5, 5. 6. 
Note 2. The flames of Agni ? 

Verse 9. 

Note L RajmayaA, ' the reins,' at the same time means 
' the rays ' (of Agni). SuyamaV* being an apposition to 
rasm&yaA, one is tempted to derive it from the root yam, 
' to direct,' but it may contain the word ySma, ' the way,' 
and mean 'having a good way.'— It is difficult to believe 
that rasm&ya/t suyama^ is a second subject of vrz'shayante, 
in which case the translation would be: 'The many (mares) 
are desirous of the mighty stallion, the . . . reins (or rays) 
of the manly, bright one.' 

Note 2. ' Bring hither to the two worlds the great gods.' 
M. M. 

Verse 10. 

Note L On prikshi-prayagaJt, comp. M. M., vol. xxxii, 
p. 335 ; Pischel, Vedische Studien, I, 98. 

Note 2. The meaning seems to be: By thy greatness 
which is equal to that of the earth. 

Note 3. Comp. X, 63, 8. krtt£t akr/tat ^nasaA. See 
also I, 24, 9; VI, 51, 8. 



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252 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAMPALA III, HYMN 8. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 3-t. 

1. The worshippers of the gods anoint thee at 
the sacrifice, O lord of the forest 1 , with heavenly 
honey 2 . When standing upright bestow wealth 
(on us) here, or when abiding in this mother's lap 3 . 

2. Situated in front of the kindled (fire), accepting 
our sacred spell which protects from old age and 
gives valiant offspring, driving away far from us 
lack of thoughts 1 , rise up 2 for the sake of great 
prosperity. 

3. Rise up, O lord of the forest, on the summit 
of the earth. Erected by skilful erection bestow 
splendour on (the worshipper) who fits out the 
sacrifice as a vehicle '. 

4. A well-clothed youth dressed has come hither. 
He becomes more excellent when born 1 . Wise 
sages full of pious thoughts, longing for the gods in 
their mind, bring him forth. 

5. He who has been born is born 1 in the 
auspiciousness of days, growing up in the assembly 
and at the sacrifice 2 . Wise, active men purify him 
by pious thoughts ; the priest approaching the gods 
raises his voice 3 . 

6. You whom the worshippers of the gods have 
fastened down (in the earth), or whom the axe has 
fashioned, O lord of the forest : may those divine 
posts 1 standing (here) take care to bestow on us 
treasures with offspring. 

7. (The posts) which have been hewn on the 
earth and fastened down, and to which the sacrificial 



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MAJVDALA III, HYMN 8. 253 

ladles have been raised * : may they, giving bliss to 
our fields 2 , eagerly seek precious goods for us 
among the gods. 

8. May the Adityas, the Rudras, the Vasus, the 
good leaders, Heaven and Earth, the Earth 1 and 
the Air — may the gods unanimously bless this 
sacrifice; may they raise up the banner of the 
sacrifice (the Yupa). 

9. Like swans ranging themselves in rows, array- 
ing themselves in brightness the sacrificial posts 
have come to us. Led up by the sages they go 
forward as gods to the abode of the gods. 

10. Like horns of horned animals the sacrificial 
posts with their head-pieces 1 are seen on the earth. 
Hearing (us) in the emulating call of the invoking 
(priests) may they protect us in the racings of 
battles. 

11. O lord of the forest, rise with a hundred 
branches ; may we rise with a thousand branches 
(offspring) — thou whom this sharpened axe has led 
forward to great prosperity. 



NOTES. 

The same i?**shi. The metre is Trish/ubh (verses 3 and 7 
Anush/ubh). 

This Sukta is a collection of liturgical verses that refer 
to the erecting and anointing of the sacrificial post, and to 
the winding of a rope about it See Aitareya Brahmawa 
II, 2; Ajvalayana .SVautasutra III, 1, 8 seq. ; Saiikhayana 
.Srautasutra V, 15, a seq. ; Schwab, Das Altindische Thier- 
opfer, 68 seq. ; Bergaigne, Recherches sur l'Histoire de la 
Liturgie Vedique, 16. On the ritual acts referring to the 
sacrificial post which seem to be connected with ancient 



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254 VEDIC HYMNS. 



tree- worship, comp. also H. 0., Religion des Veda, 90 seq., 
256.— Verses 1-5 =TB. Ill, 6, 1, 1. 3; MS. IV, 13, 1. 
Verse 3 = MS. I, 2, 11. Verse 4=TA. I, 27, 2. Verse 10 
=TB. II, 4, 7, 11. Verse n=TS. I, 3, 5, 1 5 VI, 3, 3, 3. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. The tree of which the sacrificial post is made. 

Note 2. The post is anointed with butter, see Schwab, 
La, 69. This butter is spoken of as honey also in the 
Ya^us, which refers to this rite, ' May the god Savitr* 
anoint thee with honey,' Taittiriya Sa/«hita I, $,6, 1. 

Note 3. In the lap of the mother Earth. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. Amati has nothing to do with the verb am ; it is 
the contrary of matf. See Rig-veda IV, 11, 6. amatim . . . 
imhaA . . . duAmati'm ; X, 33, 2, and such passages of the 
younger Vedic Sawhitas as V&g. Sazwh. XVII, 54 (apa 
amatim du/miatfm ba'dhamana^). The same is the opinion 
of Geldner (Ved. Studien, II, 184, note 4). 

Note 2. The sacrificial post is addressed. 

Verse 3. 
Note 1. Comp. below, III, 24, 1. 

Verse 4. 

Note L The sacrificial post, round which a rope of grass 
(Schwab, Thieropfer, p. 49) is tied, is compared here with 
a well-dressed youth. This seems to contain an allusion 
to the Upanayana ceremony, at which the youth was 
invested with the sacred girdle, and which was considered 
as a second birth (comp. Pada B : • He becomes more 
excellent when born'). There is no doubt that this 
rite is as old and older than the Rig-veda ; see H. O., 
Religion des Veda, 466 seq. It may be noted that several 
Gr/hya-sutras prescribe the use of our verse at the Upana- 
yana (Ajvalayana I, 20, 9, &c). 



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MAiVDALA III, HYMN 8. 255 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. Does this expression refer again to the second 
birth (see the preceding note)? 

Note 2. The text has vidathe. 

Note 3. Comp. V, 76, 1. tit vfprawam devayaV* v&k&h 
asthu^. The conjecture devaya'm easily suggests itself, 
but it is not necessary. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. In the Rig-veda, svaru means the sacrificial post 
itself, not, as in the later ritual texts (Schwab, Thieropfer, 
pp. 11, 74), that splinter of the wood of the sacrificial post 
(yOpajakala), with regard to which Katyayana (VI, 3, 
1 7) prescribes : ' YApajakalam asyam (scil. r&ranayam) 
avaguhati.' ' He hides the splinter of the wood of the 
sacrificial post in the rope (tied round the post).' — See 
Weber, Indische Studien, IX, 222. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. Comp. below, IV, 6, 3. 

Note 2. Comp. VIII, 71, 12. kshaftraya sa'dhase. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. The Earth is mentioned twice, firstly together 
with the Heaven, in the compound Dya'vd-Ksha'ma, and 
then separately as Prtthiv!. 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. On the wooden head-piece of the sacrificial post 
(/fcashala), see Schwab, Das Thieropfer, p. 9. 



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256 VEDIC HYMNS. 



UANDALA III, HYMN 9. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 5-6. 

1. We, thy friends 1 , have chosen thee for our 
protection, (we) the mortals (thee) the god, the 
offspring of the Waters, the blessed one with fine 
splendour 2 , who gloriously advances, the unmenaced 
one. 

2. When thou, finding pleasure in the wood, hast 
gone to thy mothers, the Waters, that return of 
thine, Agni, (to this world) should not be slighted, 
when dwelling afar* thou hast come hither. 

3. High above (all) pungent sharpness thou hast 
grown up 1 , and verily thou art kind-hearted. Some 
go forward here and there ; others sit around thee, 
in whose friendship thou abidest 2 . 

4. He who has passed beyond (all) failures, 
beyond all hindrances 1 , the guileless, watchful ones 2 
have found him as a lion (is found), when he had 
gone into the Waters ; 

5. He who had run as it were by his own might, 
Agni, who thus dwelt in concealment — Him Mata- 
rbvan brought hither from afar, from the gods, when 
he had been produced by attrition (of the woods). 

6. (And thus) the mortals have taken thee up, 
O carrier of sacrificial food towards the gods ', be- 
cause thou, O (god) belonging to Manus, protectest 
all sacrifices by the power of thy mind, O youngest 
one! 

7 1 . This is something glorious; herein thy 
wonderful power shows itself even to the simple, 
that the cattle lie down round about thee when 



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MAiVDALA III, HYMN 9. 257 

thou hast been kindled, O Agni, at the approach of 
darkness 2 . 

8. Make your offerings in (Agni), the best per- 
former of worship, the sharp one who purifies with 
his flames 1 . Serve ye obediently the god, the quick 
messenger, the agile, the old, the adorable. 

9 1 . Three hundred and three thousand gods and 
thirty and nine did service to Agni. They sprinkled 
him with ghee and spread out for him the sacrificial 
grass : then they made him sit down as a Hotrt. 



NOTES. 

The same Rishi. The metre is Brzhati ; the last verse 
is TrishAibh. — Verse i = SV. I, 62. Verse 2 = SV. I, $$. 
Verse 9 =VS. XXXIII, 7 ; TB. II, 7, 12, 2. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. For this expression, compare I, 30, 7; VIII, 21, 
2.9. 
Note 2. Comp. VIII, 19, 4. subhagam sudTditim. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. Comp. I, 81, 5. ati vi'jvam vavakshitha; 102, 8. 
ati idam v/jvam bhuvanam vavakshitha. 

Note 2. The different officiating priests seem to be 
alluded to. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Comp. 1,42, 7. ati naA saj£ata^ naya ; VII, 97,4. 
parshat na^ ati s&s^ataA ; Lanman, Noun-Inflection, 467. 
Note 2. The gods who searched for Agni. 

Verse 6. 

Note L For dev^bhyaA havyavahana, comp. X, 1 1 8, 5 ; 
119, 13; 150,1. 

[46] S 



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258 VEDTC HYMNS. 



Verse 7. 

Note 1. Comp. Prof, von Schroeder's translation of this 
verse, Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XXIX, 205. 

Note 2. Regarding apirarvar^, comp. VIII, 1, 29; Geldner, 
Vedische Studien, II, 178. I cannot adopt the conclusions 
of Prof. Bloomfield, Contributions to the Interpretation of 
the Veda, Fifth Series, p. 36. ' Wild animals run away 
from the fire at night, tame animals are attracted by it.' 
M. M. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. For this Pada, comp. VIII, 43, 31 ; 102, 11 ; X, 
21,1. 

Verse 9. 

Note 1. This verse is identical with X, 52, 6. 



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MA.ATOALA III, HYMN IO. 259 

MAA>#ALA III, HYMN 10. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 7-8. 

i \ Thee, O Agni, the highest king of human 
tribes, the god, thoughtful mortals kindle at their 
worship. 

2. Thee, O Agni, the Rhv'ig, the Hotrt, they 
magnify at the sacrifices. Shine as the guardian of 
Rita, in thy own house 1 . 

3. He indeed who may worship thee, the C&ta- 
vedas, with fuel, acquires abundance in valiant men, 
O Agni ; he will prosper. 

4. May He, the banner of the sacrifices, Agni, 
come hither with the gods, anointed by the seven 
Hotrz's J for the sake of the man who offers sacrificial 
food. 

5. Bring ye forward an ancient, mighty speech to 
Agni, the Hotrt, who is like a worshipper bearing 
the lights of prayers l . 

6. May our prayers increase Agni, since he is 
born deserving of praises, the conspicuous one, for 
the sake of great strength and wealth. 

7 1 . May Agni, as the best sacrificer at the worship 
(of men), perform the sacrifice to the gods for the 
man devoted to the gods. As a joyous Hotri thou 
reignest (passing) beyond (all) failures. 

8. Thus, O purifier, shine on us glorious abun- 
dance in heroes. Be the nearest (friend) to those 
who praise thee, for their welfare. 

9. Thus the priests full of admiring praise, having 
awoke, kindle thee, the immortal carrier of sacrificial 
food, the increaser of strength. 

s 2 



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260 VEDIC HYMNS. 



NOTES. 

The same Rishi. The metre is Ush«ih. — Verse 5 = SV. I , 
98 ; TB. Ill, a, 11, 1. Verse 7=SV. I, 100. 

Verse 1. 
Note 1. The first Pada is identical with VIII, 44, 19. 

Verse 2. 
Note 1. Comp. above, I, 1, 8. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. The most ancient list of officiating priests at the 
Soma sacrifice contained seven priests. See H. O., Religion 
des Veda, 383 seq. Hence Agni is called saptihota, cf. Ill, 
29, 14- 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. On vfp, see the note on III, 3, 1. As to the 
' lights ' of the vipas, comp. vSika/t gy6t\A-agr&A, VII, 101, 1, 
the expression ^yoti^sh/oma — though this word is not 
known in the Rig-veda — and the materials collected by 
Bergaigne, Religion VeVlique, I, 285. 

Verse 7. 
Note 1. The second Pada is identical with I, 15, 12. 



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MAJVDALA III, HYMN II. 26 1 

M AND ALA III, HYMN 11. 
ASHrAKA III, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 9-10. 

i. Agni is the Hotn, the Purohita of our worship, 
he who dwells among many tribes, He knows the 
sacrifice in due order. 

2. He, the immortal carrier of oblations, the 
\Js\g~ 1 , the messenger, with satisfied mind, Agni 
sets himself in motion * (incited) by the thought (of 
praying men ?). 

3. Agni takes heed 1 (of us) by the thought (the 
prayer ?), the banner of the sacrifice, the ancient 
one ; for his purpose triumphs 2 . 

4. The gods have made Agni, the old-renowned 
son of strength, the Gatavedas, their carrier (to- 
wards the sacrifice) \ 

5. Agni the undeceivable one who goes before the 
human tribes, he is the quick chariot ', ever new. 

6. Overcoming all attacks, He, the uninjured 
mind (power) of the gods, Agni, is most mightily 
renowned. 

7. Through the vehicle 1 (which carries the gods) 
towards the delights (of sacrifice), the worshipping 
mortal attains the dwelling-place 2 of (Agni) whose 
flames are purifying. 

8. May we, the priests, by our prayers obtain all 
the blissful gifts of Agni (Jatavedas. 

9. Agni ! May we win all the best things in 
(the trials of) strength. In thee the gods have 
established them 1 . 



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262 VEDIC HYMNS. 



NOTES. 

The same Kishi. The metre is Gayatri. — Verse 2= VS. 
XXII, 16; TS. IV, i, 11,4; MS. IV, 10, 1. Verses 5, 7, 6 
= SV. II, 906-908. Verse 5=TB. II, 4, 8, 1. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. Comp. Bergaigne, Religion V^dique, I, 57 seq. 
Note 2. On the intransitive use of rinv&ti, comp. Gae- 
dicke, Der Accusativ im Veda, p. 53. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. The meaning seems to be that Agni is intent on 
his purpose (irtham, Pada 3); comp. I, io, 2. tit mdra// 
drtham /fcetati. 

Note 2. Comp. Neisser, Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XX, 42. 

Verse 4. 
Note 1. See the note on I, 127, 8. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. On Agni considered as a chariot, see Bergaigne, 
Religion Vedique, I, 144. 

Verse 7. 

Note L Comp. I, 127, 8, note 1. 
Note 2. Comp. above, III, 2, 6. 

Verse 9. 

Note 1. I.e. all the best things (Pada 1) ; comp. VI, 5, 2. 
tv£ vasuni . . . & irire yagniykssJt. 



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MANDALA III, HYMN 12. 263 

MAA>Z>ALA III, HYMN 12. 
ASHTAKA III, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 11-12. 

To Indra-AgnI. 
i. Indra-Agni, in consequence of our prayers 
come hither to the pressed (Soma), to the precious 
cloud \ Drink of it incited by our thoughts (i. e. by 
our prayers). 

2. Indra-Agni, the brilliant 1 sacrifice of him 
who praises you goes forward together (with the 
Soma libations, the praises, &c). Thus drink this 
pressed (Soma) ! 

3. By this stirring sacrifice I choose Indra and 
Agni who show themselves as sages 1 ; may they 
here satiate themselves with Soma. 

4. I call the bounteous 1 , the killers of foes 2 , the 
united conquerors, unconquered, Indra-Agnt, the 
greatest winners of booty. 

5. The praisers rich in hymns, knowing all the 
ways (of the sacrifice), laud you. Indra-Agni, 
I choose the food (which you give). 

6. Indra-Agni, you have hurled down by one 
deed the ninety strongholds together of which the 
Dasas were the lords. 

7. Indra-Agni, the thoughts (of the worshippers) 
go forward towards (you) from the work (of sacrifice) 
along the paths of JZtta.. 

8. Indra and Agni, yours are powerful abodes 
and delights. You cross the waters : this is the 
deed which belongs to you \ 

9. Indra and Agni, you display the lights of 
heaven in your deeds of strength; that mighty 
deed of yours has been known far and wide. 



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264 VEDTC HYMNS. 



NOTES. 

The same Rtshi and metre. The hymn is addressed to 
the couple Indra and Agni. — Verses i-3=SV. II, J9-21. 
Verse i=VS. VII, 31; TS. I, 4, 15. 1; MS. I, 3, 17. 
Verses 4-6 = S V. II, 1 053- 1 054. Verses 5-8 = SV. 1 1, 925- 
928. Verse 5=MS. IV, 11, 1. Verse 6=TS. I, 1, 14, 1 ; 
MS. IV, 10, 5. Verses 9, 7, 8=SV. II, 1044-1045. Verse 9 
= TS. IV, a, 1 i, 1 ; 3, 13, 8 ; TB. Ill, 5, 7, 3 ; MS. IV, 10, 
4; 11, 1. 

Verse 1. 

Note L ' Cloud,' of course, means that which comes from 
the cloud. In the Soma hymns of the ninth Ma»</ala, the 
word nabhaA seems frequently to refer to the water with 
which the Soma is mixed (see IX, 69, 5 ; 71, 1. 3 ; 74, 4; 
83, 5 ; 86, 14; 97, 21 ; Prof. Hillebrandt's opinion on these 
passages is different, see his Vedische Mythologie, I, 212). 
Perhaps we should go too far in believing that in our verse 
the poet invited the gods to come and drink that water, 
but possibly the mixture of water and of the juice of the 
Soma plant descending from heaven and nourished by the 
heavenly waters represented itself to the poet's mind as 
something coming from, and thus being identical with, the 
cloud. 

Verse 2 

Note 1. On ketanaA, Prof. Max Miiller remarks, ' perhaps 
which appeals to you ... so that they take note of it.' 

Verse 3. 

Note L There may be doubts about kavi££Aada. Prof. 
Max Miiller remarks, ' is it, wishing for sages ? ' I think 
that my translation is recommended by X, 81, 1. pratha- 



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MAYDALA III, HYMN \2. 





Verse 4. 

Note 1. Comp. I, 169, 5. i&yaA tosAtam&A ; VIII, 38, 2. 
to-rasa rathayavana . . . fndragni, and Brugmann in Kuhn's 
Zeitschrift, XXIV, 24. 

Note 2. Or, the killers of Vrrtra. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. On aptiir and aptflrya, comp. Pischel, Vedische 
Studien, I, 122 seq., and H. O., Gottingische Gelehrte 
Anzeigen, 1 889, 4 seq. 



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266 VEDTC HYMNS. 



MANDALA III, HYMN 13. 
ASHrAKA III, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 13. 

i. To this god Agni I sing 1 for you most power- 
fully. May he come to us with the gods ; may he, 
the best sacrificer, sit down on the sacrificial grass. 

2. The righteous one to whose skill the two 
worlds (Heaven and Earth) and (all) blessings cling 
— Him the men rich in offerings magnify, Him those 
who long for gain, that they may obtain his blessing. 

3. He, the priest, is the guide of these (men) 1 , 
and he indeed (is the guide) of sacrifices. Praise 
ye this Agni who is the giver, the winner of wealth. 

4. May this Agni give us most blissful shelter 
for our (sacrificial) feast, whence he may shower 
wealth on us in heaven, the (human) dwellings 1 , and 
in the waters. 

5. The singers kindle Agni, the Hotrz, the lord 
of the tribes, the. brilliant, the wonderful, with his 
excellent thoughts \ 

6. And mayst thou, the best invoker of the gods, 
help us in our spell, in our hymns. Shine bliss on 
us, Agni whom the Maruts strengthen 1 , the greatest 
winner of thousandfold (wealth). 

7. Now bestow on us thousandfold wealth with 
offspring and prosperity, splendid, most powerful, 
and undecaying abundance in heroes, O Agni ! 



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MAJVDALA III, HYMN 13. 267 



NOTES. 

The Rishi is Rtshabha. VaLrvamitra. The metre is 
Anush/ubh. — Verses 6, 7 = MS. IV, 11, 2. — Comp. con- 
cerning this hymn, Aitareya Brahma»a II, 40. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. Ar£a (ar£a) may be first or second person. 
Comp., for instance, VI, 16, 22. pra vaA sakhlya£ agnaye 
st6mam . . . ar£a gaya £a vedhase ; X, 50, 1. pra vdJi mahe 
. . . ar£a (Sawhitap. ar£a) vijva'naraya vijvabhtive, and see 
Benfey, Die Quantitatsverschiedenheiten in den Sawhita- 
und Pada-Texten der Veden, III, p. 8. — On the metre of 
the second Pada, comp. my Prolegomena, p. 188. 

Verse 3. 

Note L Perhaps we should supply, on account of the 
preceding nominative, vfpraA (' priest ') : of these (priests). 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. KshitibhyaA seems to me to be co-ordinated 
with divf and apsii a"; comp. X, 89, 11. The locative 
kshitfshu would not have suited the metre as well as the 
dative. Prof. Max Miiller proposes to translate : ' Whence 
he may shower wealth on our dwelling, whether he be in 
the sky or in the waters.' 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. Comp. X, 172, 2. a" yahi vasvya dhiya". 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. Comp. Sankhayana .Srautasutra VIII, 16. indraA 
marutvan . . . marutstotraA marudgawaA marudvrzdha/* 
marutsakha. 



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268 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAiVZ>ALA III, HYMN 14. 
ASHTAKA III, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 14. 

i. The joy-giving Hotri has taken his place at 
the sacrifices 1 , He the true, the sacrificer, the highest 
sage, the worshipper. Agni whose chariot is lightning, 
the son of strength, whose hair is flame, has spread 
forth his light over the earth. 

2. It 1 has been offered to thee — be pleased with 
the adoring speech 2 — to thee who is observant of it, 
O righteous, strong one. Bring hither thou who art 
wise, the wise (gods). Sit down on the sacrificial 
grass in the middle (of it) for bliss, O worshipful one ! 

3. To thee, Agni, Night and Dawn who further 
thy strength 1 , shall hasten on the paths of the wind. 
When (the mortals) anoint the ancient one * with 
offerings, they 3 stand in the house as on a chariot- 
seat 4 . 

4. Mitra and Varu»a, O strong Agni, and all the 
Maruts shall sing to thee a pleasant song, when 
thou, O son of strength, standest with thy flames, 
a sun spreading out men 1 over the (terrestrial) 
dwellings. 

5. We have given thee thy desire to-day, sitting 
down near thee adoringly with outstretched hands 1 : 
sacrifice thou to the gods as a priest with thy mind 
most skilled in sacrifice, with unerring thoughts, 
O Agni ! 

6. From thee indeed, O son of strength, proceed 
manifold divine blessings and gains 1 . Give us 
thousandfold true wealth according to thy guileless 
word, O Agni ! 



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MANDALA Ill, HYMN 1 4. 269 

7. What we have done here for thee at this 
sacrifice, we mortals, O skilful and thoughtful god, 
take thou notice of all that, O (god) with the good 
chariot 1 ; make all this (sacrificial food) here savoury, 
immortal Agni ! 



NOTES. 

The same Rtshi. The metre is Trish/ubh. — Verse 5 = 
VS. XVIII, 75- 

Verse 1. 
Note 1. On vidatha, comp. I, 31, 6, note 2. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. The subject to be supplied seems to be n&tn&A- 
uktiA. 

Note 2. The words namaA-uktim ^Tishasva form a paren- 
thesis, as Ludwig has seen. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. It is possible that here, as in several other pas- 
sages, a confusion between the two verbs va^ayati and 
va^aydti has taken place. If the reading were va^ayanti, 
we should have to translate, ' Night and Dawn who are 
striving together (as if running a race against each other ?).' 

Note 2. The ancient one is Agni. 

Note 3. The two goddesses, Night and Dawn. 

Note 4. The Padapa/^a has vandhiira-iva, which may be 
the dual of vandhur (1, 34 9). But more probably it should 
be vandhure-iva (nom. dual, neuter or loc. sing.), comp. I, 
64, 9. £L vandhiireshu . . . tasthau ; I, 139, 4. adhi vam 
sthama vandhtire; III, 43, 1. vandhuresh/M/*, and see III, 
6, 10. adhvareVa. On contracted Pragr*'hya vowels, see 
H. O., Die Hymnen des Rig-veda, I, p. 456. 



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27O VEDIC HYMNS. 



"Verse 4. 

Note L On nrfn and the different theories proposed for 
this word, see above, I, 146, 4, note 5. 

Verse 5. 
Note L Comp. X, 79, 2. uttanahasta^. 

Verse 6. 
Note 1. For this hemistich, comp. VI, 13, 1 ; 34, 1. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. The traditional text has tvdm v/jvasya sura- 
thasya bodhi, which can only mean, ' take thou notice of 
every one who has a good chariot' — which Bergaigne 
(Quelques observations sur les figures de rhetorique dans 
le Rig-veda, p. 15) explains : ' Le char en question est la 
priere qui amene le dieu au sacrifice.' I believe that the 
text is corrupt ; instead of surathasya I think we should 
read surathasya (=suratha asya). 



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MAiWMLA III, HYMN 1 5. 27 I 

MAA>Z?ALA III, HYMN 15. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 15. 

1. Flaming with thy broad stream of light beat 
away fiends, sorcerers, plagues. May I dwell in 
the protection of the great, well-protecting (god), 
under the guidance of Agni who readily listens to 
our call. 

2. Be thou our protector when this dawn shines 
forth, be thou (our protector) when the sun has risen. 
Cherish, O Agni, well-born in body, this praise of 
mine as (a man rejoices) in the birth (of a son), in 
his own offspring 1 . 

3. Beholding men, shine thou after many (dawns) \ 
O bull, Agni, red in the dark (nights). O Vasu! 
Lead us and bring us across anguish. Help us, 
the Usigs*, to wealth 3 , thou youngest (of the gods) ! 

4. Shine, O Agni, thou the invincible bull, who 
hast conquered all strongholds and all delights, the 
leader of the first, the protecting 1 , mighty sacrifice, 
O (S&tavedas, best guide. 

5. O singer, thou who art wise, brightly shining 
towards the gods 1 , bring to us thy many perfect 
shelters, and gain like a victorious car 2 ; Agni, (carry) 
thou (hither) towards us the two well-established 3 
worlds (Heaven and Earth). 

6. O bull, increase and rouse our gains. Agni ! 
(Increase) for us the two worlds (Heaven and Earth) 
rich in milk, O god together with the gods, shining 
with beautiful shine ! May a mortal's hatred never 
enclose us. 

7 = 111, 1, 23. 



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272 VEDIC HYMNS. 



NOTES. 

The Rishi is Utkila Katya, the metre Trish/ubh. — 
Verse i=VS. XI, 49; TS. IV, i, 5, 1 ; MS. II, 7, 5; 
III, i ; 6. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. Comp. VII, 1, 21. tanaye nitye ; X, 39, 14. nit- 
yam na sunum tanayam dadhana^, and besides II, 26, 3. 
^anena . . . vis£ . . .^anmana . . . putra/A ; Hirzel, Gleich- 
nisse und Metaphern im Rig-veda, 77. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. For this expression, compare IV, 19, 8 ; IX, 71, 
7 ; X, 31, 7, and especially III, 6, 7 ; VI, 39, 4. 

Note 2. The poet compares himself and his friends with 
the mythical priestly tribe of the Usigs (Bergaigne, Religion 
Vddique, I, 57 seq.), using, as it seems, at the same time 
the word usfgaJi in its adjective sense ' the willing ones.' 

Note 3. The Padapa/Aa is right in giving raye" ; comp. 
VIII, 26, 13. subhi Valerate. 

Verse 4. 
Note 1. Is the text correct ? I think that p&y6A should 
be corrected into payo or payuA: 'the leader and protector 
of the first mighty sacrifice.' The mistake may have been 
caused by the genitives which surround the word. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. Geldner (Vedische Studien, I, 160) translates this 
hemistich: 'Die vielen sicheren Zufluchtsorte (=Opfer- 
platze) bis zu den Gottern erleuchtend als Weiser, o Sanger.' 
I do not believe that s&rma. is the object of didy&naA ; and 
' Zufluchtsorte = Opferplatze ' is too much in the style of 
Sayawa. I take a^Midra s&rma. as depending on abhi 
vakshi ; comp. I, 34, 6. tridha'tu sirma. vahatam. 

Note 2. For abhi vakshi va^m, comp. Ill, 30, 11 ; VI, 
21, 12. 

Note 3. On sum£ka, comp. Windisch, Festgruss an 
Boehtlingk, 114. 



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KIANDALA III, HYMN 1 6. 273 

MAiVZ>ALA III, HYMN 16. 
ASHTAKA III, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 16. 

i. This Agni rules over abundance in valiant 
men, over great happiness. He rules over wealth 
consisting in offspring and cows ; he rules over the 
killing of foes. 

2. O Maruts 1 , ye men, cling to this furtherer 2 who 
possesses joy-furthering boons — (the Maruts) who* 
in battles overcome ill-minded (foes), who have 
deceived the enemy 4 day by day. 

3. As such, O bounteous Agni, prepare 1 us riches 2 
and wealth in valiant men, which, O highly glorious 
one, may be most exalted, rich in offspring, free from 
plagues, and powerful. 

4. The maker who victoriously (stands) over all 
beings, the maker who makes the praise arrive 
among the gods 1 : he stands firm among the gods, 
among the host of heroes, firm also in the praise of 
men. 

5. Give us not up, Agni, to want of thought 1 nor 
to want of heroes nor to want of cows, O son of 
strength, nor to the scoffer. Drive away hostile 
powers 2 . 

6. Help us at this sacrifice, O blessed one, with 
mighty gain which is accompanied by offspring, O 
Agni ! Let us be united with greater, gladdening, 
glorious wealth, O thou of mighty splendour ! 



[4«] T 

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274 VEDIC HYMNS. 



NOTES. 

The same Risbi. The metre is Pragatha, each Pragatha 
distich being composed of one Br/hati and one Satobrchatt. 
The position of the Sukta in the collection and the opening 
words of verse 3 show that the three Pragathas are not 
independent, but form one hymn. — Verse 1 =s SV. I, 60. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. Comp. VII, 18, 25. imam naraA marutaA s&r- 
£ata anu. 

Note 2. The passages which Grassmann gives for the 
meaning of vr/dh, * starkend, erquickend,' I, 167, 4 ; X, 89, 
10, are quite doubtful. Probably we should have to alter 
the accent and read vrzdham. 

Note 3. The relative clause seems to refer to the Maruts, 
not to the goods (rayaA). 

Note 4. Comp. VI, 46, 10. ye - . . . iatrum adabh&A. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. Literally, ' sharpen.' 

Note 2. The genitive seems, as is also Prof. Ludwig's 
opinion, to be the partitive genitive, so that the literal 
meaning would be : ' Prepare us (a deal) of riches and of 
wealth,' &c. Comp. pfba sutasya, 'drink of the pressed 
Soma,' &c. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. On iikrlA dev&hu a* duvaA, comp. IV, a, 9 ; 
VIII, 31, 9. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. On amati, comp. above, III, 8, 2, note. 
Note 2. Comp. VI, 59, 8. apa dv&hamsi a* kr*"tam. 



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MAJVDALA III, HYMN 1 7. 275 

MAWZ?ALA III, HYMN 17. 
ASHTAKA III, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 17. 

i. He who is inflamed after the primitive ordi- 
nances, is anointed with ointments 1 , the giver of all 
treasures, he whose hair is flame, whose stately robe 
is ghee, the purifier, skilled in sacrifice, Agni — that 
he may sacrifice to the gods. 

2. As thou hast performed, O Agni, the HotWs 
duty for the Earth, as thou hast done it for Heaven, 
O (Patavedas, full of intelligence, in the same way 
sacrifice with this offering to the gods. Prosper 
this sacrifice to-day as thou hast done for Manus. 

3. Thou hast three lives, O (Jatavedas, and three 
births from the Dawn *, O Agni ! Being wise, sacrifice 
with these to the favour of the gods, and bring 
luck and welfare to the sacrificer. 

4. Praising Agni full of splendour, full of beauty, 
we adore thee, O £atavedas, deserving to be 
magnified. Thee the gods have made their mes- 
senger, their steward 1 , and carrier of offerings, the 
navel of immortality. 

5. O Agni, the Hotrt who before thee was an 
excellent sacrificer, who verily 1 sat down and brought 
luck by himself 2 : sacrifice according to his rules, 
O intelligent one, and set down our sacrifice at the 
feast of the gods. 

NOTES. 

The Rishi is Kata VaLrvamitra, the metre TrishAibh. — 
Verse 1 = TB. I, a, 1, 10. Verse 3 = TB. Ill, i, 11,2; 

T 2 



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276 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MS. IV, ii, i ; 12, 5. Verse 4 = TB. Ill, 6, 9, 1 ; MS. IV, 
13. .5- 

Vers© 1. 

Note L Possibly the poet intended to allude also to the 
other meaning of aktubhiA, which means both ' ointments ' 
and 'nights.' The nights render Agni conspicuous and 
anoint {zng) him as it were with beauty. I do not believe 
that the existence of a Vedic word aktii, ' ointment,' should 
be denied; cf. Bechtel, Nachrichten d. Gottinger Ges. d. 
Wiss. 1894, p. 398. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. See Bergaigne, Religion V^dique, II, 14. Prof. 
Max Miiller translates : Three lives are thine, the dawns are 
thy three birthplaces, or three dawns are thy birthplaces. 

Verse 4. 
Note 1. See above, I, 58, 7, note 1. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. Literally, 'doubly.' Grassmann is right in 
observing that the Vedic poets show a certain predilection 
for the word dvita" when speaking of Agni's being estab- 
lished and doing his work at the sacrifice. Prof. Max 
Miiller thinks of Agni's two homes, earth and heaven. 

Note 2. On the Hotr* more ancient than Agni, comp. 
Bergaigne, Religion Wdique, 1, 109. Probably this simply 
refers to the Agni or the fire used at former sacrifices. 



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MAJVDALA III, HYMN l8. 277 

MA.VZ>ALA III, HYMN 18. 
ASH7A.KA III, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 18. 

i. Be kind, O Agni, when we approach thee, as 
a friend a friend, as parents 1 , a straight leader. 
For full of deceit are the tribes of men : burn thou 
against (all) malign powers so that they turn back. 

2. Burn, O Agni, the nearer enemies, burn the 
curse of the distant evil-doer. Burn, O Vasu, 
seeing the unseen ones. May thy never-ageing, 
never- tiring flames 1 spread out. 

3. Wishing for (thy blessings), O Agni, by fuel 
and ghee I offer this sacrificial food for (the attain- 
ment of) advancing power and of strength ; wor- 
shipping thee with my spell as far as I have power 
(I offer) this divine prayer for the attainment of 
hundredfold blessings). 

4. (Shining) forth with thy flame, O son of strength, 
praised (by us), bestow mighty vigour on those who 
toil for thee, bright luck and welfare, O Agni, on 
the Visvamitras ! We have cleaned thy body many 
times. 

5. Give us treasures, O best gainer of riches : 
such indeed art thou, Agni, when thou hast been 
kindled. In the blessed praiser's house thou hast 
placed, together with wealth, thy mighty(?) arms 1 , 
thy marvellous shapes. 

NOTES. 

The same Rishi and metre. — Verse 2 = TA. IV, 5, 5. 
Verse 3 = AV. Ill, 15, 3- 



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278 VF.DIC HYMNS. 



Verse 1. 

Note 1. It is rather strange that Agni is compared with 
the two parents. Generally it is the two Ajvins, or Heaven 
and Earth, or the pair of Indra and Varu«a, &c, who are 
compared with father and mother (see Hirzel, Gleichnisse 
und Metaphern im Rigveda, 71 seq.). No doubt in our 
verse the dual was chosen on account of the metre. — I do 
not think that Bollensen (Orient und Occident, 11,473) an( ^ 
Kirste (Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XVI, 297) are right in 
believing that a dative of pitn' is found here, and in trans- 
lating : ' as a good (son) to his father.' 

Verse 2. 

Note L The meaning of ay^saA is doubtful ; comp. 
Brugmann in Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XXIV, 24 seq. ; M. M., 
vol. xxxii, p. 371 (VI, 66, 5); von Bradke, Festgruss an 
Roth, 124. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. On sr/pra, see I, 96, 3, note 3. Karasna must 
mean something like ' arm,' though the exact meaning is 
doubtful. In VIII, 32, 10 the compound srtprakarasna 
occurs. Prof. Max Miiller writes : ' Thou hast brightly 
assumed a body with soft arms or with stretched-out arms, 
if we do not read sr/prakarasna.' 



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MAJVDALA III, HYMN 1 9. 279 

MAA>Z?ALA III, HYMN 19. 
ASHFAKA III, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 19. 

i. I choose Agni as Hotri at this sacrificial meal, 
the clever sage all-knowing and not foolish. May 
he, the excellent sacrificer, sacrifice for us amid the 
host of the gods ; may he obtain liberal boons 
(for us) for the sake of wealth and strength. 

2. To thee, O Agni, I stretch forth the (ladle) 
rich in sacrificial food, splendid, full of gifts, full of 
ghee. From left to right, choosing the host of the 
gods \ he has established the sacrifice with gifts and 
goods 2 . 

3. Whoever is favoured by thee, is blessed 
with the sharpest spirit. Favour him with good 
offspring, O god rich in favours l ! Agni, may we, 
(dwelling) in the copiousness of manliest wealth, be 
rich in perfect praise of thee, the Vasu. 

4. On thee indeed, O Agni, sacrificing men have 
put many faces of (thee) the god \ Bring hither 
then the host of the gods, O youngest one, when 
thou wilt sacrifice to-day to the divine host 2 . 

5. When the gods will anoint thee as the Hotri 
at the sacrificial meal making thee sit down for the 
sacrifice, be thou here, O Agni, our furtherer, and 
bestow glory on our bodies. 

NOTES. 

The Risbi is Gathin Kaurika, the metre Trish/ubh. — 
Verse 3 = TS. I, 3, 14, 6 ; MS. IV, 14, 15. 



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280 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Verse 2. 

Note 1. Comp. below, IV, 6, 3. This parallel passage 
shows that pradakshi«ft belongs to urawaA, not to arret. 
Agni is represented as choosing, i.e. inviting the host of 
the gods by moving around the sacrificial food from left to 
right. See concerning the Paryagnikarawa, which seems 
to be alluded to, Hillebrandt, Neu- und Vollmondsopfer, 
42 seq. 

Note 2. Or, ' with the (divine) givers and with the 
Vasus.' 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. Boehtlingk-Roth seem to be right in reading 
jiksho. Comp. VIII, 52, 8. yasmai tvam . . . .rfksho jfkshasi 
dlrushe. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. They have inflamed many fires, each of which is 
a face of the god Agni. 

Note 2. Or, ' that thou mayest sacrifice,' &c. See Del- 
briick, Syntaktische Forschungen, I, 148. 



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MANDALA III, HYMN 20. 28 1 

MAA>Z>ALA III, HYMN 20. 
ASH7-AKA III, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 20. 

1. The carrier (of the gods) 1 calls by his hymns 
Agni, Ushas (dawn), the two Asvins, Dadhikri 2 at 
daybreak. May the gods rich in light, unanimously 
longing for our sacrifice, hear us. 

2. Agni, threefold is thy strength ; three are thy 
abodes; three are thy many tongues, O thou who 
art born in J&tal And three, O Agni, are thy 
bodies beloved by the gods. With these protect 
our prayers unremittingly, 

3 1 . Agni! Many are the names, O Gatavedas, 
of thee the immortal one, O self-dependent god ! 
And whatever the secret powers of the powerful 2 
are, thou all-enlivener, in thee they have placed 
together (those) many (powers), O (god) after whose 
relations men ask s . 

4. Agni is the divine leader of the divine tribes 
like Bhaga, the guardian of the seasons 1 , the 
righteous. May He, the killer of VWtra 1 ', the 
ancient one, the possessor of all wealth, bring the 
singer across all troubles. 

5. I invite hither 1 Dadhikri 2 , Agni, and the 
goddess Ushas, BWhaspati and the god Savitrz, 
the A.rvins, Mitra and Varu«a and Bhaga, the 
Vasus, Rudras, and Adityas. 

NOTES. 

The same Rishi and metre. — Verse % = TS. II, 4, 11, 
a; III, 2, 11, 1; MS. II, 4, 4. Verse 3 = TS. Ill, 1, 
11,6. 



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282 VEDIC HYMNS. 



"Verse 1. 

Note 1. The 'carrier' of the gods is the Hotr*. See 
above, I, 127, 8, note 1, and compare the article of 
Dr. Neisser quoted there. See also M. M., vol. xxxii, 
pp. 40-43 (I, 6, 5). 

Note 2. On Dadhikra or Dadhikravan, the deified horse 
of Trasadasyu, see Pischel, Vedische Studien, I, 124 ; Lud- 
wig, vol. iv, p. 79; H. O., Religion des Veda, 71. Prof. 
Max Miiller writes, ' It seems to me some form of Agni 
generally in company with matutinal gods.' 

"Verse 3. 

Note L The reader who compares this passage with 19, 
4, will observe a general resemblance pointing to the 
conclusion that both verses belong to the same author. 

Note 2. M&ySA maymam : comp. concerning the idea of 
mayf, H. O., Religion des Veda, 163, 294. 

Note 3. With pr/sh/abandhu, comp. bandhupr/^A, ban- 
dhvesha. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Perhaps ritu-ptUi should be changed into n'ta- 
P&A : ' the god who protects the Rita., the righteous.' 
Note 2. Or ' the killer of foes.' 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. Possibly we have to read, on account of the 
metre, iha hve. 
Note 2. See above, verse 1, note 1. 



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MAiVDALA III, HYMN 21. 283 

MAA>Z>ALA III, HYMN 21. 

ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 21. 

i. Take this our sacrifice to the immortals; 
accept graciously these offerings, £atavedas. 
O Agni, partake of the drops of fat and ghee, 
O Hotrt, having sat down as the first. 

2. To thee, O purifier, the drops of fat mixed 
with ghee drip down. O (god) who followest thy 
own ordinances, give us the best boon for this feast 
to which the gods come eagerly. 

3. To thee, the priest, O Agni, (belong) the drops 
dripping with ghee, O good one ! Thou art kindled 
as the best i?z'shi. Be a furtherer of our sacrifice ! 

4. For thee, O liberal one 1 , full of power, the 
drops of fat and ghee drip down, O Agni ! Praised 
by the sages thou hast come hither with mighty 
light. Accept graciously the offerings, O wise one ! 

5. For thee the richest fat 1 has been taken out 
from the midst. We give it to thee. On thy skin, 
O Vasu, the drops drip down. Accept them eagerly 
for each of the gods. 

NOTES. 

The same fiishi. Verses 1 and 4 are TrishAibh, verses 
2 and 3 Anush/ubh, verse 5 Virarfrupa Satobrzhatl. 

The hymn belongs to the ritual of the animal sacrifice. 
It has to be recited, according to the prescription of the 
later Vedic texts, while the vapa (omentum) of the 
sacrificial animal is roasted and the drops of fat drip down 
from it. See Schwab, Das Altindische Thieropfer, p. 1 14 



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284 VEDIC HYMNS. 



seq., and the Sutra texts quoted by him (for instance, 
Ajvalayana Srautasutra 111,4, *)• Bergaigne (Recherches 
sur l'Histoire de la Liturgie V^dique, 18) seems to be right 
in observing: ' Bien qu'il (1'hymne III, 21) soit recite" tout 
d'une piece dans le pajubandha, pendant la cuisson de la 
vapa, pour les gouttes de graisse qui tombent dans le feu, 
sa complexity metrique . . . le trahit et nous y fait voir une 
simple collection de vers liturgiques.' It may be observed, 
however, that the two last verses seem to form a distich of 
an irregular Pragatha type; comp. H. O., Die Hymnen des 
Rigveda, vol. i, p. 118. — Verses 1-5 = TB. Ill, 6, 7, 1. 2 ; 
MS. IV, 13, 5. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. On the word idhrigu, cf. Bloomfield, American 
Or. Soc. Proceedings, March, 1894, p. cxxiii. 

Verse 5. 

Note L Vapakhyaw haviA, Sayawa. This explanation is 
evidently correct. After the sacrificial animal has been 
killed, the omentum, which is very rich in fat, is first drawn 
out of its body and offered. See H. O., Die Religion des 
Veda, 360 seq. 



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MAJ\TDALA III, HYMN 22. 285 

MAA^ALA III, HYMN 22. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 22. 

i. This is that Agni with whom the desiring 
Indra took the pressed Soma into his body. 
Having obtained thousandfold strength like a 
horse, a racer 1 , thou art praised, O (7atavedas! 

2 \ Thy splendour, O Agni, which dwells in 
heaven and on earth, in the plants, O worshipful 
one, and in the waters, wherewith thou hast spread 
through the wide air — that light of thine is fierce, 
waving ', man-beholding. 

3. Agni, thou goest to the floods of heaven. 
Thou hast spoken to the gods who are liberal (?) \ 
(Thou goest) to the waters which (dwell) on high 
in the ether of the sun, and to those which approach 
below. 

4. May the fires of the soil united with those on 
the hill-sides 1 , without guile graciously accept our 
sacrifice and plentiful food free from all plague. 

5 = 111, 1, 23. 

NOTES. 

The same i?»shi. The metre is TrishAibh, except in 
verse 4 which is AnushAibh. — A conjecture on the ritual 
use for which the hymn has been composed, see in the note 
on verse 4. — Verses 1-5 = VS. XII, 47-51 ; TS. IV, 2, 4, 
2. 3; MS. II, 7, 11. — A sort of commentary on this 
hymn is found in the £atapatha Brahmawa VII, 1, 1, 
22 seq. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. In the traditional text the words, * a horse, 
a racer,' are accusatives. But it is the atya who attains 



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286 VEDIC HYMNS. 



(san) the vSga. and who is called va^fn (comp. M. M., 
vol. xxxii, pp. 116, 44a, and on sapti, ibid. p. 10a): see 
I, 130, 6; III, a, 7 ; 38, 1 (V, 30, 14; IX, 93, 1 ; 96, 15, 
&c.) ; VII, 24, 5 5 IX, 43. 5 5 8a, a ; 85, 5 ; 86, 3 ; 96, ao ; 
X, 96, 10 (I, 5a, 1, and III, a, 3 do not contradict this). 
Pischel (Vedische Studien, I, 105) believes that atyam na 
stands for AtyaA na, which seems impossible to me. But 
I think that we should correct the text and read ityaA 
na saptiA. The preceding accusatives have caused the 
blunder. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. Comp. Grassmann, Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XVI, 165. 
Note 2. Comp. ketu-6 aroava^ sffryasya, VII, 63, a. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. In the translation of dhfshwya I have followed 
Pischel, Vedische Studien, II, 87, though this translation is 
quite uncertain. Should the meaning be : ' the gods who 
dwell on the dhishwya altars ' ? 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Agni purishya, i. e. the fire dwelling in the soil 
(comp. Roth in Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XXVI, 64), is mentioned 
very frequently in the Mantras belonging to the Agni- 
£ayana, i. e. to the construction of the brick altar. Agni is 
considered as residing in the soil used at that rite. Now in 
the Ya^us texts the whole of our hymn occurs among the 
texts to be recited at the Agni£ayana (Taitt. Szmh. IV, 2, 
4, a, &c. ; comp. also Arvalayana .SrautasOtra IV, 8, ao). 
Perhaps we may conjecture, therefore, that the Agni£ayana 
rite in its simplest form was known already in the Rig-veda 
period, and that our hymn was destined for it. — The 
pravana fires (fires dwelling on the hill-sides) may be the 
fires dwelling in the rivers which run down the pravawas or 
descents. 



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MANDALA III, HYMN 2%. 287 

MAA>Z?ALA III, HYMN 23. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 23. 

i. Produced by attrition, well preserved in his 
abode, the young sage, the leader of worship, Agni 
ever young in the forests 1 that grow old — (7atavedas, 
has here assumed immortality *. 

2. The two Bharatas 1 , Deva^ravas and Devavata, 
in the midst of wealth have produced by attrition 
Agni the skilful (god). Agni, look forth with 
mighty wealth, and then be * for us a guide of food 
day by day. 

3 1 . The ten fingers have brought him to the 
birth, the ancient, beloved (Agni), well born in his 
mothers 2 . Praise, O Devasravas, the Agni of 
Devavata who 8 should be the lord of people. 

4. I have laid 1 thee 2 down in the best (place) of 
the earth 8 , in the place of I/a 3 , in the auspiciousness 
of days. O Agni, as the god who has belonged to 
Manus 4 , shine with wealth on the Dr/shadvatf, on 
the Apaya, on the Sarasvatl. 

5 = 111, 1, 23. 

NOTES. 

The Rt'shls are Dev&rravas Bharata and Devavata Bha- 
rata (see verse 2); the metre is TrishAibh (verse 5 
Satobrmati). — No verse occurs in the other Samhitas. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. The 'forests' are the fuel. 'Does the poet 
mean : Never consumed in the consumed wood or forests, 



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288 VEDIC HYMNS. 



i. e. the fire burns and is kept alive while the wood is burnt 
up?' M. M. 

Note 2. Or, ' he has received the drink of immortality ' — 
which may refer to the ghee offered in the fire. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. On the tribe of the Bharatas haying their seats, as 
verse 4 seems to show, on the borders of the Sarasvatl and 
of the Dn'shadvatl, see H. O., Buddha (first edition), 413 
seq. 

Note 2. This is an imperative in -tat, signifying, as 
Delbruck has shown (Syntaktische Forschungen, III, 2 seq. ; 
Altindische Syntax, 363), an injunction to be carried out 
after something else has been done or has happened. Agni 
is first to look about (vf parya), and shall then become 
(bhavatat) a guide of food, i. e. he shall lead plenty of food 
to the worshipper's house. — Prof. Max Miiller translates 
isham neta", ' a guide to food.' 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. Should this Satobrthati, standing alone among 
TrishAibh verses, be considered as forming a distich to- 
gether with verse % ? Comp. H. O., Die Hymnen des Rig- 
veda, vol. i, p. 102, note 7. 

Note 2. The woods. 

Note 8. Agni, not Devavata, is referred to. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Or, 'he has laid.' The form may be first or 
third person, present or perfect. 

Note 2. Agni is addressed. 

Note 3. The best place of the earth, the place of I/a 
(i. e. of the nourishment coming from the cow, of the ghee 
offered into Agni) is the sacrificial ground or more 
especially the spot on which the sacrificial fire is estab- 
lished. 

Note 4. Or ' to men.' The Padapa//fca has manushe, but 
manushaA seems more probable. 



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MAJVDALA III, HYMN 24. 289 

MAA^ALA III, HYMN 24. 
ASHTAKA III, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 24. 

1. Agni, be victorious in battles ; thrust away the 
plotters. Difficult to overcome, overcoming malign 
powers, bestow splendour on (the worshipper) who 
fits out the sacrifice as a vehicle 1 . 

2. Agni, thou art kindled with nourishment \ the 
immortal offerer of a feast (to the gods). Accept 
graciously our worship. 

3. Agni, wakeful one, son of strength, into whom 
offerings are poured, sit down with thy splendour 
on this sacrificial grass of mine. 

4. Agni, together with all Agnis, with the gods 
exalt our prayers and those who are respectful at 
the sacrifices. 

5. Agni, give wealth to the worshipper, abun- 
dance in valiant men ; further us * that we may be 
rich in sons. 



NOTES. 

The Risbi is Vuvamitra, the metre Gayatrt, the first 
verse Anush/ubh. On this combination of a begin- 
ning AnushAibh with Giyatris following, comp. H. O., 
Die Hymnen des Rig-veda, vol. i, p. 148. — Verse 1 = VS. 
IX, 37. Verse 5 = TS. II, 2, 12, 6; MS. IV, 12, 2; 14, 6. 
[46] U 



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290 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Verse 1. 

Note 1. See above, III, 8, 3, and on ya^wavahas, I, 127, 
8, note 1 ; Bergaigne, Religion Wdique, II, 287, note %. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. I/a*: especially designating the nourishment 
coming from the cow (personified as I/a), such as ghee. 

Verse 6. 
Note 1. Literally, ' sharpen us.' 



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MAiVDALA III, HYMN 25. 29 1 

MAA>Z>ALA III, HYMN 25. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 25. 

i. Agni, thou art for ever the wise son of Heaven 
and of the Earth, the all-wealthy one. In thy 
peculiar way 1 sacrifice here to the gods, O intelli- 
gent one ! 

2. Agni, the knowing, obtains (for his worshipper) 
heroic powers ; he obtains (for him) strength, being 
busy for the sake of immortality. Bring then the 
gods hither, O (Agni), rich in food. 

3. Agni, the wise, shines on Heaven and Earth, 
the two immortal goddesses who encompass all 
people — he who rules through his strength, and who 
is full of light through adoration. 

4. Agni and Indra, come hither to the sacrifice in 
the house of the worshipper rich in pressed (Soma), 
never failing, ye two gods, at the drink of Soma. 

5. Agni, thou art kindled in the house of the 
waters, (our) own (god), O son of strength, (7atavedas, 
who exaltest the abodes (in which thou dwellest) by 
thy blessing. 

NOTES. 

The same Rishi. Metre, Vira,£\— Verse 4= MS. IV, 12, 6. 

Verse 1. 
Note 1. On r/dhak, see Pischel, Vedische Studien, II, 45. 



U 2 

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292 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAM9ALA III, HYMN 26. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 26-27. 

i. With our offerings revering in our mind Agni 
Vauvinara, the follower of truth, the finder of the 
sun — we, the Kurikas 1 , desirous of goods, call with 
our prayers the god who gives rain, the charioteer, 
the cheerful. 

2. We call that beautiful Agni to help us.Vaisva- 
nara, MitarLrvan the praiseworthy 1 ; we the men 
(call) Brzhaspati 2 for (the worship) of the divine 
host, the priest who hears us, the guest who swiftly 
glides along. 

3. Vaisvanara, neighing like a horse, is kindled 
by the women \ by the Kurikas, from age to age ; 
may this Agni give us abundance in valiant men 
and in horses and treasures, he who wakes among 
the immortals. 

4. May the Va^as 1 come forward, the Agnis with 
their powers. United 2 they have harnessed the 
spotted deer for their triumphal procession 3 . The 
Maruts, mightily growing, the all-wealthy, make the 
mountains tremble, the unbeguiled ones. 

5. The Maruts who possess the beauty of Agni \ 
belong to all races of men. We implore their fierce, 
strong help. They are tumultuous, the sons of 
Rudra, clothed in rain, hot-spirited like lions 2 , givers 
of rain. 

6. We implore with our best praises every host, 
every troop (of the Maruts) 1 , the splendour of Agni, 



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MAMDALA III, HYMN 26. 293 

the power of the Maruts. With the spotted deer as 
horses 2 , with gifts that cannot be taken away, they 
go to the sacrifice wise in the (sacrificial) ordinances s . 

7. Agni am I, by birth CPatavedas. Ghee is my 
eye ; (the drink of) immortality is in my mouth. The 
threefold song 1 traversing the aerial space, the im- 
perishable Gharma 2 , the sacrificial food am I by name. 

8. With three purifying strainers he (Agni) puri- 
fied the song, with his heart the thought, discovering 
the light. The mightiest treasure he produced by 
the powers of his own nature, and then he looked 
over heaven and earth. 

9. Carry him who is the inexhaustible spring with 
a hundred rills, who has knowledge of prayers (?), 
the father of (every speech) that should be uttered, 
the roaring one 1 , gladly excited in the lap of his 
parents — carry him the truth-speaking across (all 
dangers), O ye two worlds ! 



NOTES. 

VLrvamitra is the Rishi of this Sflkta with the exception 
of the seventh verse of which the Atman or Brahman is the 
A'z'sht. The metre is Gagati verses 1-6, Trish/ubh verses 
7 _o._ Verse 5 = TB. II, 7, 12, 3. Verse 7 = VS. XVIII, 
66; MS. IV, 1 a, 5. 

The position of this Sflkta in the collection shows that it 
is to be divided into three independent hymns. This is 
confirmed by the metre, the first and second of these three 
hymns being in Gagati, the third in Trish/ubh, and also by 
the contents : the first hymn is addressed to Agni VaLrv&- 
nara, the second to Agni accompanied by the Maruts, 
the third contains mystical speculations about the nature 
and the deeds of Agni. 



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294 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Verse 1. 

Note 1. The Kmikas are identical with the Vijvamitras, 
or possibly the latter form one branch of the Kurikas ; see 
H. O., Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Ge- 
sellschaft, XLII, 209. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. On the relation of Mataruvan to Agni, see above, 
I, 96, 4, note 1. 

Kote 2. Brthaspati, though in his origin distinct from 
Agni, is here identified with him, like MatarLrvan. 

Verse 3. 
Note 1. By the ten fingers. Comp. above, I, 71, 1. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. I adopt the interpretation of Bergaigne (Religion 
Vetlique, II, 405, note 1) and Pischel (Vedische Studien, I, 
46). V&gkh seems to be the proper name synonym with 
/?*bhavaA ; the Maruts may be called YSgkh as they are 
called several times RibhukshinaA. But it is possible that 
we should have to translate simply, ' May the powers of 
strength,' &c. ; comp. below, 27, 1. 

Note 2. Possibly we have to supply, ' united with their 
spotted deer, with their beauty,' &c. ; see II, $6, 2. yagnzlA 
sammula/t pr/shatibhiA rishtibhift ; VII, 56, 6. sriyi sam- 
mulayfc. Or the meaning may be, ' the Maruts united with 
Agni or with the Agnis;' comp. I, 166, 11. sammijlaA 
Indre. 

Note 3. On jubhi, see M. M., I, 87, 3, note 2 (vol. xxxii, 
p. 162). 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. Or, they receive their beauty through Agni. 

Note 2. Of heshakratu the probable explanation has 
been given by Pischel, Vedische Studien, I, 48. See also 
von Bradke, Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XXVIII, 297. 



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MANDALA. Ill, HVMN 26. 295 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. Comp. V, 53, 11, vol. xxxii, p. 320. 
Note 2. Comp. II, 34, 4, vol. xxxii, p. 302, note 5. 
Note S. The text has vidatheshu. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. Comp. VIII, 51, 4. arkam saptarirsha«am . . . 
tridha'tum uttame" padd. Is the song called tridha'tu because 
it is sung by the three Udgatr*s (singers) ? Or because it 
generally comprises three verses (see H. O., Zeitschrift der 
Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, XXXVIII, 

453)? 
Note 2. The Gharma is the offering of hot milk brought 

to the Ajvins. On the probable meaning of this offering, 

see H. O., Religion des Veda, 447 seq. 

Verse 9. 

Note 1. The translation of me/f (comp. IV, 7, 11 ; 
Atharva-veda XI, 7, 5 ; Taitt. Sa>wh. V, 7, 8, 1) is quite 
conjectural. 



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296 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAA^ALA III, HYMN 27. 
ASHTAKA III, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 28-30. 

1 . Forward (goes) your * strength tending heaven- 
ward, rich in offerings, with the (ladle) full of ghee. 
To the gods goes (the worshipper) desirous of their 
favour. 

2. I magnify 1 with prayer Agni who has know- 
ledge of prayers (?), the accomplisher of sacrifice, 
who hears us, and in whom (manifold wealth) has 
been laid down. 

3. O Agni, may we be able to bridle thee the 
strong god 1 ; may we overcome (all) hostile powers. 

4. Agni, inflamed at the sacrifice, the purifier who 
should be magnified, whose hair is flame — him we 
approach (with prayers). 

5. With his broad stream of light the immortal 
Agni, clothed in ghee, well served with oblations, is 
the carrier of offerings at the sacrifice. 

6. Holding the (sacrificial) ladles, performing the 
sacrifice they have with right thought pressingly 
brought Agni hither 1 for help. 

7. The HotW, the immortal god goes in front 
with his secret power 1 , instigating the sacrifices 2 . 

8. The strong (horse, i.e. Agni) is set at the races. 
He is led forth at the sacrifices, the priest, the 
accomplisher of sacrifice. 

9. He has been produced * by prayer, the excel- 
lent one. I have established 2 him, the germ of 
beings, for ever the father of Daksha 3 . 



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MANDALA III, HYMN 27. 297 

10. I have laid thee down 1 , the excellent one, 
with the nourishment 2 of Daksha, O thou who art 
produced by power, O Agni, thee the resplendent 
one, O U-ri^ 3 . 

1 1 . The priests, eager to set to work the Rita. \ 
kindle with quick strength Agni the governor 2 , him 
who crosses the waters 3 . 

12. I magnify 1 the child of vigour at this sacri- 
fice, who shines under the heaven, the thoughtful 
Agni. 

13. He who should be magnified and adored, who 
is visible through the darkness, Agni, the manly, is 
kindled '. 

14. Agni, the manly, is kindled, he who draws 
hither the gods like a horse. The (worshippers) rich 
in offerings magnify him. 

15. We the manly ones will kindle thee the manly 
(god), O manly Agni who shinest mightily. 



NOTES. 

The same i?*shi. The metre is Gayatrt. — The position 
of the hymn in the collection shows that it is to be divided 
into Trikas, and this is confirmed by the ritual use of 
several of these Trikas (see Bergaigne, Recherches sur 
l'Histoire de la Liturgie V^dique, 19, note 1). Some of the 
Trikaa at least, however, do not seem to form independent 
hymns ; verse 10 very probably stands in connection with 
verse 9, and the same seems to be the case with verses 1 a 
and 13. Ludwig (IV, 305) and Bergaigne (loc. cit.) consider 
the whole Sukta as a collection of Samidhenis or verses to 
be recited for each piece of wood thrown into the fire. 
Comp. Hillebrandt, Neu- und Vollmondsopfer, 77. — Verse 1 



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298 VEDIC HYMNS. 



= TS. II, 5, 7, 2; TB. Ill, 5, 2, i ; MS. I, 6, 1 ; IV, 14, 3- 
Verses 2, 3 = TB. II, 4, 2, 4. 5 ; MS. IV, 11, 2. Verse 4 
= TS. II, 5, 8, 6 ; TB. Ill, 5, 2, 3. Verses 5-6 = TB. Ill, 
6, i, 3 ; MS. IV, 10, 1 (verse 5 = MS. IV, 11, 2). Verses 
7-9 = SV. II, 827-829. Verses 13-15 = SV. II, 888-890 ; 
TB. Ill, 5, 2, 2 ; AV. XX, 102, 1-3. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. Of the priests and sacrificers ? 

Verse 2. 
Note 1. The text has !7e. 

Verse 3. 
Note 1. Comp. above, II, 5, 1. 

Verse 6. 
Note 1. Comp. IV, 17, 18. vayim hf £ te £akr*'ma 
saba'dha/4. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. Mayayi : comp. H. O., Religion des Veda, 163, 
294. 
Note 2. Vidithani: comp. I, 31, 6, note 2. 

Verse 0. 
Note 1. This seems to mean, ' he has been set to work.' 
Note 2. A dadhe must be first person (comp. nf dadhe, 

verse 10) for the bhutimam garbhaA is Agni. 
Note 3. Or, the father of intelligence. Daksha is the 

personified intelligence. Comp. vol. xxxii, p. 245 seq. ; 

Bergaigne, Religion V^dique, III, 93 seq. 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. See above, III, 23, 4. 

Note 2. The text has il<L, the same word as in 24, 2. — 
Prof. Max Miiller observes, ' Could it be, ni tv4 dadhe i&, 
I have placed thee on the altar with nutriment, son of the 
strength of Daksha ? ' 

Note 3. Or, ' the willing one.' 



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MAJVDALA III, HYMN 27. 299 

Verse 11. 

Note 1. ' Setting to work the Right (Rita) ' means here 
' performing the sacrifice.' The sacrifice is considered as 
a sphere especially pervaded by the power of Rita.. Comp. 
H. O., Religion des Veda, 197. 

Note 2. Yantiiram (comp. VIII, 19, 2. agnfm tfishva 
yanturam ; Lanman, 486) must be the same as yantaVam 
(comp. iMLprvp? [M. M.] See de Saussure, Mdmoire sur le 
Systeme Primitif des Voyelles, p. 207; but comp. also 
Kretschmer, Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XXXI, p. 447). To me it 
seems to be an accommodation to apturam, facilitated 
probably by the influence of the genitive yantiir. See 
Lanman, Noun-Inflection in the Veda, p. 486; Wacker- 
nagel in Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XXV, 287. 

Note 3. See Pischel, Vedische Studien, I, 122 seq. ; 
H. O., Gottingische Gelehrte Anzeigen, 1889, p. 4 seq. 

Verse 12. 

Note 1. The text has i/e. In the same way i/enya/* 
verse 13, 1/ate verse 14. 

Verse 13. 

Note 1. Observe sdm idhyate here and verse 14, s^m 
idhimahi verse 15. The verses. 13-15 form one Trika. 



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300 VEDIC HYMNS. 



M AND ALA III, HYMN 28. 
ASHFAKA III, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 31. 

i. O Agni Gatavedas, accept graciously our offer- 
ing, the sacrificial cake at the morning libation, 
O god who givest wealth for our prayers. 

2. The sacrificial cake, O Agni, has been baked 
or made ready for thee : accept it graciously, O 
youngest (god). 

3. Agni, accept eagerly the sacrificial cake which 
has been offered, which has stood overnight. Thou 
art the son of strength, established at the sacrifice. 

4. At the midday libation, Gatavedas, accept here 
graciously the sacrificial cake, O sage. Agni, the 
wise ones do not diminish at the sacrificial distri- 
butions 1 the portion which belongs to thee, the 
vigorous one *. 

5. Agni, at the third libation take joyfully the 
sacrificial cake, O son of strength, which has been 
offered. And in thy admirable way place our wakeful 
sacrifice, blessed with treasures, before the immortal 
gods. 

6. Agni, grown strong, O 6&tavedas, accept 
graciously our offering, the sacrificial cake which has 
stood overnight. 



NOTES. 

The same Rtshi. The metre is Gayatrl in verses 1, 2, 6, 
Ushwih in verse 3, TrishAibh in verse 4, and Cagati in 
verse 5. — No verse occurs in the other Sawhitas. 



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MAiVDALA III, HYMN 28. 5OI 

This Sukta and the following are, as their position at the 
end of the Anuvaka and the number of their verses show, 
later additions to the original collection. The 28th hymn 
contains verses destined for the offerings of sacrificial 
cakes to Agni at each of the three Savanas. Quite in the 
same way hymn 52, which also belongs to the later 
additions, refers to sacrificial cakes offered to Indra. The 
oblation of such cakes to Indra at each Savana is found 
also in the later Vedic ritual (comp. Katyayana IX, 9, 
2 seq. ; Weber, Indische Studien, X, 369, 376), and several 
verses of III, 52 are indicated there as Puronuvakya verses 
for those very offerings ; see A-rvalayana £rautasutra V, 4, 
2. 3. After each cake-offering to Indra follows the 
Svish/akn't-oblation to Agni : and for these oblations 
Arvalayana (loc. cit. Sutra 6) prescribes verses 1 , 4, and 5 
of our hymn, according to the order of the three Savanas. 
From the text of the hymn it seems to be evident that 
verses 1-3 have been composed for the first, verse 4 for the 
second, and verses 5-6 for the third Savana. With this 
distribution the change of the metres evidently stands in 
connection. In accordance with the theories of the later 
Vedic theologians, we have here the Gayatri as the charac- 
teristic metre of the first, the Trish/ubh of the second, the 
£agati of the third Savana. 

Comp. also Arvalayana VI, 5, 25, and the very ingenious 
but at the same time somewhat hazardous observations of 
Bergaigne, Recherches sur l'Histoire de la Liturgie V^dique, 
16 seq. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. The text has vidatheshu. 
Note 2. Comp. I, 36, 1, note 2. 



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302 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAyVZJALA III, HYMN 29. 
ASHTAKA III, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 32-34. 

I '. This is the support on which the rubbing (for 
producing the fire) is performed * ; the creative organ 3 
has been prepared. Bring hither the house-wife 4 ; 
let us produce Agni by rubbing in the old way. 

2. In the two fire-sticks dwells Citavedas, as the 
germ (lies) safe in pregnant women — Agni who 
should be magnified 1 day by day by wakeful men 
who bring offerings. 

3. Place it x skilfully into her who lies extended *. 
Having conceived she has quickly given birth to the 
manly one. He whose summit is red — bright is his 
splendour — the son of 1/4 has been born in the (due) 
way 3 . 

4. In the place of I /a, on the navel of the earth 
we will lay thee down, (^atavedas, that thou, O Agni, 
mayst carry the offerings (to the gods). 

5. Rub, ye men, the truthful sage, the wise, 
the immortal, the fair-faced. Bring forth, ye men, 
Agni, the banner of sacrifice, the first in the front, 
the gracious one. 

6. When they produce him by rubbing with their 
arms, he shines forth flaming in the wood like a red 
race-horse. Like the bright one on the path of the 
Asvins 1 the unrestrained (Agni) spares the stones, 
burning the grass 2 . 

7. Agni, when born, shines forth resplendent, the 
racer, the priest, praised by the sages, the giver of 
rain, whom the gods placed in the sacrifices, to be 



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MAtfDALA III, HYMN 29. 303 

magnified, as the omniscient carrier of the sacrificial 
offerings. 

8. Sit down, O Hotri, in the space which is thine, 
as the knowing one. Place the sacrifice in the abode 
of good works (i.e. on the altar). Eagerly longing 
for the gods thou shalt worship the gods by 
offerings. Agni, bestow mighty vigour on the 
sacrificer. 

9. Produce a mighty 1 smoke, ye friends. With- 
out fail go forward towards strength. This Agni is 
the conqueror in battles, rich in valiant men, he by 
whom the gods have overpowered the Dasyus. 

10. This is thy birth-place in due time whence 
born thou shonest forth ; knowing it, O Agni, sit 
down on it, and make our prayers prosper. 

11. He is called Tantynapat as the Asura's germ. 
Narasawsa he becomes when he is born, MatarLrvan 
when he has been shaped in the mother \ And he 
has become the rush of the wind in his swift course 2 . 

12. Rubbed forth by skilful rubbing, established 
by skilful establishing, as a sage, O Agni, perform 
excellent sacrifices. Sacrifice to the gods for him 
who is devoted to the gods 1 . 

13. The mortals have generated the immortal 
one, the . . ,\ advancing one with strong jaws. The 
ten unwedded sisters 2 united take care of the man 
(Agni) when he has been born. 

14. He the god of the seven Hotrz's shone forth 
from of old, when he flamed up in his mother's lap, 
at her udder. Day by day the joyous one never 
closes his eyes, when he has been born from the 
Asura's (i.e. of the Heaven's ?) belly 1 . 

15. The onsets of (Agni) when he attacks his 
enemies, are like those of the Maruts. (He is) the 



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304 VEDIC HYMNS. 



first-born (son) of the sacred spell. They know every 
(fire) 1 . The Kimkas have raised their brilliant 
spell ; they have kindled Agni, every one in his 
house. 

16. After we had chosen thee here to-day, O wise 
Hotrt, while this sacrifice was going on, thou hast 
firmly sacrificed and firmly laboured. Come to this 
Soma, expert and knowing ! 



NOTES. 

The same i?*shi. The prevalent metre is TrishAibh. — 
Verses 1, 4, 10, ia are Anush/ubh; verses 6, 11, 14, 15, 
Cagati. 

The Stikta, which belongs to the later additions (see the 
note on hymn 28), consists of a number of verses and small 
groups of verses referring to the production of fire by the 
attrition of the two fire-sticks. The order in which the 
verses stand does not always agree with the natural order 
of the ritual acts. — Verse 3 = SV. I, 79. Verse 3 = 
VS. XXXIV, 14. Verse 4 = VS. XXXIV, 15 ; TS. Ill, 5, 
11,1; MS. I, 6, a. 7 ; IV, 10, 4 ; 1 1, 1. Verse 8 = VS. XI, 
35 ; TS. Ill, 5, 11, 3 ; IV, 1, 3, 3 ; MS. II, 7, 3 ; IV, 10, 4. 
Verse 10 = VS. Ill, 14 ; XII, 5a ; XV, ,56 ; TS. I, 5, 5, 3 5 
IV, 2, 4, 3 5 7. 13. 5; TB. I, a, 1, 16 ; II, 5, 8, 8; MS. I, 
5, 1 ; 6, 1 ; AV. Ill, 30, 1. Verse 13 = TB. I, a, 1, 19. 
Verse 16 = VS. VIII, 20 ; TS. I, 4, 44, 2 ; MS. I, 3, 38 ; 
AV. VII, 97, 1. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. The verses 1-3 a, b have been translated by Muir, 
Original Sanskrit Texts, V, p. 309. 

Note 2. On the adhimanthanarakala, the piece of wood 
on which the lower fire-stick is laid, see -S'atapatha Brah- 



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MAJV0ALA III, HYMN 29. 305 

mana III, 4, 1, 20. so'dhimanthanam jakalam adatte agner 
^anitram asity atra hy agnir^ayate. Schwab, Das Altin- 
dische Thieropfer, p. 78 seq. 

Mote 8. Pra^anana seems to be used in the concrete 
sense as the male organ. As such, the poet may have 
considered the so-called pramantha in the generation of 
Agni, which is described as having the shape of the male 
organ (Schwab, loc. cit, 78 ; see also Roth, Zeitschrift der 
Deutschen Morgenl. Gesellschaft, XLIII, 591). It does not 
seem very probable that the darbhapi«g-ula of which Saya«a 
thinks should be meant. 

Not© 4. Sayawa explains this as meaning the Ara«i (fire- 
stick), i. e. the lower Arawi, the receptacle of the upper fire- 
stick. In the Taittiriya Brahmawa I, 2, 1, 13 the two 
Arawis are addressed as mahi virpatni. 

Verse 2. 
Note 1. The text has idyaA. 

Verse 3. 

Mote 1. The upper fire-stick or, more accurately, the 
pramantha. 

Mote 2. Comp. above, II, 10, 3. The lower Aram is 
alluded to, which is considered as a wife and more particu- 
larly as the nymph Urvayi (Katyayana V, 1, 30, &c). 

Mote 8. Prof. Pischel (Vedische Studien, I, 301) takes 
the genitive llkykh as dependent on vayiine : * wurde der 
Sohn geboren am Orte ( Wege) der Opferspende.' To me 
it seems unnatural not to connect llkykh with putra^, which 
words are connected also by the Sandhi (the Sawhita text 
has f/ayas putr6, not i/ayaA putr6). 

Verse 8. 

Mote 1. For yaman ( cf. I, 37, 3 ; III, 2, 14 ; VI, 15, ,5. 
Should not the bright one on the path of the Ajvins be the 
sun ? Siyawa thinks of the chariot of the Ajvins, which 
also may be right. 

[46] X 



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306 VEDIC HYMNS. 

Note 2. Are the stones and the grass identical with the 
stones and grass-blades occurring in the later ritual of the 
agnyadheya and agnimanthana (.Satapatha Br. II, i, i, 8 ; 
III, 4, i, 2i ; Katyayana IV, 8, i6, &c.)? 

Verse 0. 
Note 1. Literally, a manly, strong, or bull-like smoke. 

Verse 11. 

Note 1. This is a play upon words (Matarkva and ami- 
mita matari, ' he has been shaped in the mother'). 

Note 2. Von Bradke (Dyaus Asura, p. 51) : des Windes 
Heerde (?) wird er, wenn er dahingleitet. 

Verse 12. 

Note 1. This Pada is identical with I, 15, 12. It is 
a galita. 

Verse 13. 

Note 1. The meaning of asreman (comp. X, 8, 2. asrema - 
vatsaA [i.e. Agni] jfmlvan aravtt) is unknown. 
Note 2. The ten fingers. 

Verse 14. 
Note 1. Comp. von Bradke, loc. cit, 50. 

Verse 15. 

Note 1. Or prathama^m brahmawaA vtrve ft viduA : 'all 
(people) know him the first-born (son) of the sacred spell'? 
Comp. I, 34, 2. s6masya venam inu v^ e '* viduA. — Prof. 
Max Miiller writes : ' Prathama^aA is the wind, X, 168, 3. 
It might here refer to the Maruts, who are often said to 
sing prayers ; they know all about Brahman (prayer).' 



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MAWDALA IV, HYMN I. 307 

MAJVZ>ALA IV, HYMN 1. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 4, VARGA 12-15. 

i. Thee, O Agni, the gods concordantly have 
ever set to work as their divine steward ; with this 
intention x they have set thee to work. They have 
generated 2 thee, O worshipful one 2 , the immortal 
among the mortals, the wise, god-loving god ; they 
have generated every wise, god-loving (Agni) 3 . 

2. Do thou, [O Agni \] turn to brother Varu»a, 
towards the gods 2 with thy kindness 3 , to (Varu«a) 
who accepts the sacrifice, to the eldest (god) who 
accepts the sacrifice, the righteous Aditya who 
supports the (human) tribes, the king who supports 
the (human) tribes. 

3. O friend, turn to thy friend (Varu»a), as 
a wheel of a chariot 1 rapidly (follows) the swift 
(horse), for our sake, O wonderful one, rapidly. 
O Agni, find mercy (for us) with Varu»a, with the 
all-brilliant Maruts. Bless (us), O flaming one, 
that we may propagate ourselves, that we may 
press onward ; bless us, O wonderful one ! 

4. Mayst thou, O Agni, who knowest Varu«a, 
deprecate for us the god's anger. Being the best 
sacrificer, the best carrier (of the gods), flaming, 
remove from us all hatred. 

5. As such, O Agni, be for us the lowest 1 (god) 
with thy help, our nearest (friend) while this dawn 
shines forth. Being liberal (towards us), cause, by 
sacrificing, Varu»a to go away from us. Love 
mercy ; readily hear our call. 

x 2 



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308 VEDIC HYMNS. 



6. His, the fortunate god's, appearance is excellent, 
and most brilliant among mortals. Like the bright, 
heated butter of the cow (the appearance) of the 
god is lovely, like the bountifulness of a milch-cow. 

7. Three 1 are those highest, true, and lovely 
births of this god Agni. Being enveloped in the 
infinite 2 he has come hither, the bright, brilliant, 
shining Aryan. 

8. He, the messenger, longs for all seats, the 
Hotri with the golden chariot, with the lovely 
tongue, with the red horses, of marvellous appear- 
ance, brilliant, always lovely like an assembly 
abundant in food. 

9. He, the kinsman of sacrifice, has enlightened 
men \ They lead him forward by a great rope 2 . 
He dwells in his (the mortal's) dwelling, accomplish- 
ing (his task). The god has obtained the com- 
panionship of the mortal. 

10. May this Agni, the knowing one, lead us to 
the god-given treasure which belongs to him 1 . 
That (treasure) which all the immortals have 
created by their thought, which Dyaus, the father, 
the begetter (has created) : that real (treasure) they 
have besprinkled 2 . 

11. He has been born in the dwellings as the 
first, at the bottom of the great (air) l , in the womb 
of this air 2 , footless, headless, hiding both his ends, 
drawing towards himself (his limbs ?), in the nest 
of the bull 3 . 

12. The host 1 came forth wonderfully at first, in 
the womb of 7??ta, in the nest of the bull 2 , lovely 
and young, of marvellous appearance, and brilliant s . 
Seven friends * were born for the bull. 

13. Here our human fathers have sat down 1 , 



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MAiVDALA IV, HYMN I. 309 

aspiring after Rita. 2 . Invoking the dawns 3 , they 
have driven out the milch-cows which dwelt in the 
rock-stable, in the prison. 

14. Having rent the rock they cleaned themselves. 
Others around told forth that (deed) of theirs. 
Taking . . ; as an instrument (?) \ they sang triumph- 
antly 2 . They found the light; they chanted their 
prayers. 

1 5. Longing for the cows in their mind, those ' 
men, the U-ri^is 1 , have opened with godly words 
the fast-holding, closed rock, which enclosed and 
encompassed the cows, the firm stable full of cows. 

16. They have devised the first name of the 
milch-cow ; they have found the three times seven 
highest (names or essences) of the mother l . The 
hosts 2 , understanding this, acclaimed. The red 
one 8 became visible through the brilliant (milk ?) 4 
of the cow. 

1 7. The confused 1 darkness disappeared ; the 
sky appeared in splendour; the shine of the 
goddess Dawn rose up. The Sun ascended to 
the wide plains, beholding right and wrong deeds 
among the mortals. 

18. Then, afterwards, being awoke they looked 
around; then they took that treasure given by 
Heaven, all the gods in all the houses. O Mitra, 
may true (fulfilment) belong to (our) prayer, 
O Varu«a ! 

19. I will address flaming Agni, the Hotri, the 
supporter of everything 1 , the best sacrificer. He 
has perforated, as it were, the pure udder of the 
cows, (and has made flow the milk) purified like the 
poured sap of the Soma shoots. 

20. He, the Aditi (i. e. the freedom) of all the 



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3IO VEDIC HYMNS. 



worshipful gods, the guest 1 of all men, Agni, choos- 
ing (for us) the protection of all gods — may he, 
Gatavedas. be merciful. 



NOTES. 

The Rtshi is Vamadeva, the metre TrishAibh, except in 
verses 1-3, the metres of which are Ashri, Ati^agati, and 
DhWti respectively.— Verses 4-5= VS. XXI, 3-4; TS. II, 
5,12,3; IV, a, 11, 3; TB. Ill, 7,1 j, 3; 13,6; tA.N, 4 ,4; 
IV, 20,3 ; MS. IV, 10,4 ; 14, 17. Verse 20=VS. XXXIII, 
16 ; TB. II, 7, 12, 5. — The hymn has been translated and 
commented upon by Bergaigne, Quarante Hymnes du 
Rig-v^da, p. 1 1 seq. 

This Sukta seems to be composed of two independent 
hymns. Grassmann believed that the first three verses are 
the fragment of one hymn, and that verses 4-20 form 
a second hymn. His reason was that verses 1-3 are 
composed in metres similar to Atyash/i, while the rest are 
composed in Trish/ubh. I think that he was on the right 
way, but his opinion should be slightly modified. In 
verses 1-5 Agni is invoked to appease the anger of Varuwa ; 
while, on the other hand, no allusion to Varu«a occurs in 
verses 6-20. I believe, therefore, that the first hymn 
should be considered as consisting of verses 1-5 ; it is 
composed in the metres of the Atyash/i class (1-3) with 
two concluding TrishAibh verses (4, 5). The second hymn 
comprises the verses 6-20. The arrangers of the Sawhita, 
however, considered these two hymns as one, as is shown 
by the position which they have assigned to it, before the 
second Sukta, which has the same number of verses (20) 
as this first Sukta. Comp. my Prolegomena, p. 141. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. I. e. with the intention that he should act as the 
steward of the gods. As to /ti kratva, comp. I, 138, 3. iti 



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MANDALA IV, HYMN I. 3II 

kratva bubhi^Tir^. Delbriick, Altindische Syntax, p. 530, 
paraphrases fti kratva : mit Entschluss ' so sei es.' 

Note 2. Saya#a, whom Ludwig follows, seems to be right 
in explaining ya^ata as a vocative (' ya^aniya '), and Janata 
as 3rd plural (' a^anayan '). Bergaigne takes both forms 
as 2nd plural imperative : ' honorez l'immortel chez les 
mortels ; engendrez le Dieu qui honore les Dieux.' 

Note 8. I cannot believe that Bergaigne is right in trans- 
lating v/jvam a'devam, 'celui qui honore tous les Dieux.' 
His theory is that 'vfovam depend . . . de a", qui logique- 
ment gouverne le terme deva a l'accusatif.' 

Verse 2. 

Note L The metre shows, as Benfey (Vedica und Ver- 
wandtes, p. 19, note 1) has pointed out, that this vocative 
agne is a spurious addition. 

Note 2. Should we not read devam ? ' Turn to brother 
Varuwa with thy kindness, towards the god who accepts 
the sacrifice.' 

Note 3. Or ' for the sake of his kindness,' ' for winning 
his favour (for the mortals) ' ? Sumatf may be dative ; see 
Lanman, p. 38a ; Brugmann, Grundriss der vergleichenden 
Grammatik, II, p. 602. Comp. I, 186, 10. ikkhk sumnaya 
vavr/tiya devan, ' may I turn to the gods for the sake of 
their favour.' 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. I believe that rathyeva (Padapa/Aa rathya-iva) 
stands for rathyam-iva. Comp. Lanman, p. 331 ; Roth, 
Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, 
XLVIII, p. 681 seq. Prof. Max Miiller refers rathy4-iva 
to two horses ; he translates : ' O friend, bring hither thy 
friend, as two swift chariot-horses bring rapidly a swift 
wheel.' 

Verse 5. 
Note 1. I. e. the nearest to men. 



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312 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Verse 7. 

Note L Literally ' thrice.' But I think that we should 
correct trf (' three '). The same blunder seems to occur in 
III, 56, 5. trf sadhastha sindhavaA triA (read trf) kavlnam, 
' Three are your abodes, O rivers ; three (are those) of the 
sages.' Comp. also III, 56, 8 ; I, 116, 4. 

Note 2. This seems to mean, in the infinite sky. 

Verse 9. 

Note 1. Manusha^ seems to be ace. plur. ; comp. VII, 86, 
7. a^etayat akitak, 'he has enlightened the unenlightened 
ones.' Bergaigne takes manushaA as a genitive depending 
on ya^wabandhuA, ' nls du sacrifice de Manus.' 

Note 2. Bergaigne compares IX, 87, 1, where it is said 
that they lead Soma to the sacrificial grass like a horse by 
ropes (ikkhk barh/^ rajan£bhiA nayanti). Saya»a says, 
stutirupaya ra^gva, 'by a rope which has the shape of 
praises.' 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. Comp. below, verse 18. 

Note 2. I. e. anointed, adorned. ' Poured down.' M. M. 

Verse 11. 

Note 1. MahiA budhne* seems to mean, maha£ ra^asaA 
budhne* ; comp. r&gasaA budhnam, I, 52, 6 ; budhne* ra^asaA, 
II, 2, 3 ; mah&A r&gasaJt, I, 6, 10 ; ra^asaA mahaA, 1, 168, 6 ; 
man? ra^asi, IX, 68, 3. 

Note 2. With the second Pada, compare IV, 17, 14. 
tvdJi&h budhne* ra^asaA asya y6nau. 

Note 8. The bull seems to be Agni himself. Comp. 
verse 12. 

Verse 12. 

Note 1. The word jardha (or jardhaA ? see note 3), which 
in most passages is applied to the host of the Maruts (see 
vol. xxxii, p. 67 seq.), seems here to refer to the company 
of the Arigiras or seven Rish\s, alluded to in the fourth 



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MAJVDALA IV, HYMN I. 3 1 3 

P&da. The seven i?zshis, 'our fathers' (verse 13), have, 
with the aid of Agni, rent the mountain and delivered the 
cows or dawns (verses 13 seqq. ; IV, a, 15 seq.). Comp. 
H. O., Religion des Veda, p. 145 seq. 

Note 2. The bull again seems to be Agni. Comp. 
verse 1 1, note 3. 

Note 8. Do these epithets (comp. verse 8, Pada 3) refer 
to the jardha (host) ? Or are they applied to Agni, so that 
we would have to translate : ' Lovely was the young one 
(Agni), of marvellous appearance, and brilliant ' ? In this 
way Bergaigne interprets the passage. If this translation 
is right, sirdhaJt may be considered as neuter, and the first 
Pada could be translated: The first host came forth 
wonderfully. 

Note 4. Evidently the seven Rishis (see note 1). Ber- 
gaigne : Les sept prieres ? ou les sept rivieres ? 

Verse 13. 

Note 1. The seven .tfzshis sat down for chanting and 
sacrificing, by which they have opened the mountain-prison 
of the cows. 

Note 2. The mention of Rita, in this connection is both 
Vedic and Avestic. Comp. Darmesteter, Ormazd et 
Ahriman, p. 146 ; H. O., Religion des Veda, p. 144, note a. 

Note 8. The cows in this myth seem to be a mythical 
representation of the dawns. Comp. M. M., Science of 
Language, II, p. 584 ; H. O., Religion des Veda, pp. 147, 
149 seq. 

Verse 14. 

Note 1. Parvayantra (comp. j!6kayantra, IX, 73, 6) is 
quite doubtful. Does there exist a stem parva, meaning 
possibly, 'the herd of cattle'? And can we translate, 
' they who had their (battering- ?) machines directed on the 
cow-herds ' ? Or, ' holding the herds with their instruments 
(i. e. with the ropes used for drawing the cows out of the 
cavern)'? — Prof. Max Miiller suggests the translation, 'the 
cattle-drivers,' and writes, ' Does it stand for paru-yantra- 



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3 14 VEDIC HYMNS. 



saJi ? Yantra seems the same as yoktra, or something like it, 
cf. X, 94, 7, 8. Pajuyantra would be they who hold the 
ropes of the cattle, who drive them away.' Bergaigne's 
translation, ' n'ayant rien (d'autre) pour conduire le Detail ' 
(paru-ayantra), and that of Roth (' die der Sperre ledigen 
Thiere [parvaA ayantrisaA] erhoben ein Freudengeschrei,' 
Zeitschr. der D. Morg. Gesellschaft, XL VIII, 678), do not 
carry conviction, nor does a conjecture like pajva" yantaraA 
('the leaders of the cattle together with the cattle itself 
shouted triumphantly'), seem to furnish a satisfying solu- 
tion of the difficulty. 

Note 2. See Geldner, Vedische Studien, I, 120. 

Verse 15. 

Note 1. On the Uji^s, compare Bergaigne's Religion 
Vedique, I, 57 seq. 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. The mother seems again to be the cow, or more 
exactly the Dawn considered as the mother of the cows 
(mata" gavam, IV, 5a, a. 3 ; VII, 77, a), and as the mother 
of the A'z'shis (IV, a, 15). Comp. V, 45, a. & flrva't gavam 
matfi ^anatf gat. The seven names of the cow are men- 
tioned also in I, 164, 3, its three times seven names, in 
VII, 87, 4. 

Note 2. Bergaigne (Quarante Hymnes, p. 14) and Pischel 
(Ved. Studien, II, iai seq.) give to the word vra the 
meaning 'woman' (Bergaigne: 'femme,' particulierement 
' femme en rut,' ' femme amoureuse '). I prefer to follow 
the opinion of Bechtel, Nachrichten der Gottinger Gesell- 
schaft der Wissenschaften, philolog.-historische Klasse, 
1894, p. 393 seq. The hosts seem to be the assembly of 
the Risbis. 

Note 8. The dawn. 

Note 4. Comp. IX, 81, 1 (H. O., Religion des Veda, 
p. 147, note 1). dadhnS yat im unnitaA yarasa gavam, ' When 
(the Somas) have been drawn, together with the brilliant 
curds of the cow.' The brilliant milk of the cow which the 



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MANDALA IV, HYMN I. 3 1 5 

.fo'shis have obtained, seems to be considered as a magical 
means for procuring to men the aspect of the brilliant light 
of the dawn. Comp. H. O., Religion des Veda, p. 450. 

Verse 17. 

Mote 1. On dudhitam, comp. Geldner, Ved. Studien, II, 
9, and see Rig-veda II, 17, 4; IV, 16, 4. 

Ver/ie 19. 
Mote 1. Comp. vol. xxxii, p. 330 (V, 54, 10, note 1). 

Verse 20. 

Mote 1. ' Guest ' is atithi/; ; the play on words (aditi/t and 
atithi/*) is untranslatable. 



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3l6 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAM9ALA IV, HYMN 2. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 4, VARGA 16-19. 

i. He who has been established as the steward 
among the mortals, the immortal, righteous one, and 
among the gods, being a god himself, the Hotri, the 
best sacrificer shall mightily flame x ; Agni shall rise 
up 1 with the offerings of Manus. 

2. Here, O Agni, son of strength, thou goest for 
us to-day as a messenger, thou who art born, between 
the two races (of men and gods), having harnessed, 
O tall one, thy puissant, manly, brilliant (stallions) 1 . 

3. Harnessing the two mighty, red steeds that 
swim in ghee — (the' steeds) of Rita., I think, that 
are most swift with their mind*, the ruddy ones, 
thou goest (as a messenger) between you, the gods, 
and the tribes of men 2 . 

4. O Agni, with thy good horses, and thy good 
chariot, rich in bounties, bring hither from among 
them (the gods) 1 Aryaman, Varuwa, and Mitra, 
Indra and Vish»u, the Maruts and the A^vins, to 
him who offers good oblations. 

5. This sacrifice, O Agni, is rich in cows 1 , in 
sheep and horses, in manly friends; it is never to 
be despised ; it is rich in nourishment, O wonderful 
lord 2 , rich in offspring; it is long-lasting wealth, 
broad-based, with (brilliant) assemblies. 

6 1 . Be a self-strong protector, O Agni, of the man 
who in the sweat of his brow brings fuel to thee 2 , or 
heats his head desirous to worship thee. Deliver 
him from every harmful man. 



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MAJV0ALA IV, HYMN 2. 317 

7. The man who brings food to thee who art 
desirous of food, he who stirs up 1 the cheerful guest 
and rouses him, the godly man who kindles thee. in 
his dwelling : to him may belong lasting and generous 
wealth. 

8. The sacrificer who praises thee in the evening 
and in the morning and gratifies thee : that liberal 
man thou shouldst bring across all distress, like 
a well-impelled horse 1 , (dwelling) in his house. 

9. The man who worships thee, the immortal one, 
O Agni, and who honours thee, holding the sacri- 
ficial ladle — may he, the toiling (sacrificer), not be 
deprived of wealth ; may no distress that comes 
from a harmful (foe), surround him. 

10. That mortal whose well-ordered sacrifice thou, 
as the god, acceptest, O Agni, as a liberal giver, 
may his worship J be welcome, O youngest god, (the 
Hotrz's work performed) for a worshipper whose 
helpers we may be. 

1 1. May he, the knowing one, distinguish wisdom 
and folly of mortals \ like straight and crooked backs 
(of horses) 2 . And for the sake of wealth and noble 
offspring, O god, grant us Diti and keep off Aditi s . 

12. The undeceived sages instructed the sage 
(Agni), setting him down in the dwellings of Ayu 1 . 
Hence mayst thou behold, O Agni, with thy eyes 2 
these beings visible and secret (that move) on the 
Arya's ways 8 . 

13. Bring thou, O Agni, youngest (god), who art 
a good guide, a plentiful, brilliant treasure to the 
worshipper who presses Soma, who serves thee and 
toils, to help him, O brisk one, who fillest the dwell- 
ings of peoples. 

14 1 . And whatsoever we have done, O Agni, out 



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3l8 VEDIC HYMNS. 



of devotion for thee, with our feet 2 , with our hands, 
with our bodies: (in those deeds of ours) the wise 
have held up the Rite, aspiring after it, like those 
who manage a chariot by means of the two pole- 
arms (?) 8 . 

15. And may we be born from the Dawn, the 
mother, as the seven priests 1 , as the first worshippers 
among men 2 . May we be the Angiras, the sons of 
Heaven. May we flaming break the rock which 
contains the prize of the contest 8 . 

16. And as our first, ancient fathers, O Agni, were 
aspiring after Rita} — they attained to pure devotion*, 
chanting their litanies. Cleaving the earth they 
disclosed the red (cows). 

1 7. The pious men, well performing the acts (of 
worship), resplendent, melting 1 the generations of 
the gods 2 like ore*, kindling Agni, strengthening 
Indra, went along 4 , besieging the stall of cows. 

18. He looked (on the gods) as on herds of cattle 1 
in a rich (pasture) 2 , when the generations of the 
gods (were) near him, O mighty one 8 . After (the 
generations) of the mortals the Urvarfs* have 
pined, for the growing strong of the Arya s , of the 
nearer Ayu 6 . 

19. We have done our work for thee; we have 
been good workers — the brilliant dawns have shone 
out Rita. 1 , — brightening 2 the perfect Agni who mani- 
foldly shines with fine splendour, (brightening) the 
god's beautiful eye. 

20. We have recited these hymns for thee, the 
sage, O Agni, worshipper (of the gods) ' ; accept 
them ! Blaze up ; make us wealthier. Bestow great 
wealth on us, O bountiful one ! 



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MAWKALA IV, HYMN 2. 319 



NOTES. 

The JZishi is Vamadeva, the metre TrishAibh. — Verse 5= 
TS. I, 6, 6, 4; III, i, 11, 1 ; MS. I, 4, 3. Verse 6 = TA. 
VI, 2, 1. Verse n=TS. V, 5, 4, 4. Verse i6=VS. 
XIX, 69 ; TS. II, 6, 12, 4. Verses i6-i 9 =AV. XVIII, 3, 
a 1 -24. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. On this use of these infinitives, comp. Delbriick, 
Altindische Syntax, p. 41a. — ManushaA seems to be gen- 
itive; comp. II, 2, 6. havya' manusha^ ; II, 2, 8. h6trabhi>4 
. . . manushaA ; I, 76, 5. manushaA havfrbhiA. 

Verse 2. 
Note 1. Comp. below, IV, 6, 9. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. As to the horses of Rita, comp. above, III, 6, 6. 
In spite of the different accent there is no doubt that 
ghr/tasnuva, which occurs in that verse, is the same word 
as ghrj'tasnu, in our verse, a compound of ghr/'ta with 
a noun snu which seems to be different from sanu, and 
connected with the root sna (cf. ghrz'tasna - , IV, 6, 9 ; and 
see Bechtel, Hauptprobleme der Indogerm. Lautlehre, 
p. 211). Vrzdhasnu, on the other hand, seems to be no 
compound, but an adjective formed like vadhasnu, ni- 
shatsnu. It is evident, however, that the poet here 
employed the two words vrz'dhasnu and ghr/tasnu as 
parallel expressions. 

Note 2. Read martam (for martan ; gen. plur.). Comp. 
below, verse 11 ; VI, 47, 16. visaJt manushyan, where we 
ought to read manushyam. See Lanman, p. 353 ; Pischel, 
Vedische Studien, I, p. 44 ; Bartholomae, Studien zur Indo- 
germanischen Sprachgeschichte, I, p. 48. 



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320 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Verse 4. 

Note 1. ' Could it be Mitrim esham, the rapid Mitra ? ' 
M.M. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. The meaning is, it is rich in reward consisting in 
cows, &c. 

Note 2. The text has asura. Cf. H. O., Religion des 
Veda, p. j 64. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. With the first Pada, comp. below, 12, 2. 

Note 2. On svdtavari, see Benfey, Vedica und Lin- 
guistica, p. 1 seqq. ; Lanman, p. 559 ; Joh. Schmidt, Kuhn's 
Zeitschrift, XXVI, p. 357 seq. ; H. O., Prolegomena, 
p. 471. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. Nufshat is not derived, as is the case for 
instance with £ jishamahi, VIII, 24, 1, from (ni-)jas (Grass- 
mann, Ludwig), but from ni-ja (Bohtlingk-Roth) ; comp. 
VII, 3, 5. ni.rf.rana/* atithim. We must read, consequently, 
nij/jat, formed like dadhat (3rd sg. subj. pres., or possibly 
nom. sing. part. pres.). 

Verse 8. 
Note 1. Bohtlingk-Roth conjecture harmyavan ' im 
Hause, im Stall gehalten.' It is true that beasts may be 
kept in the harmya ; comp. VII, 56, 16 ; X, 106, 5 ; 
Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, p. 149. But I do not think 
that ' being kept in the harmya ' could be expressed by 
harmya-vat. Hemyavat seems to be derived from the 
root hi, and to have the same meaning as ajuheman ; such 
a word very well fits into a phrase referring to a swift 
horse. Hemyavat stands to heman in the same relation 
as omya'vat to oman. All this was pointed out first by 
Ludwig (vol. iv, p. 22). 

Verse 10. 
Note 1. Literally the HotWs work (performed for such 
a Ya^amana). 



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MA7VJMLA IV, HYMN 2. 32 1 



Verse 11. 

Note 1. I read mdrtam (gen. plur.) ; comp. above, verse 
3, note 2. It is possible, however, to leave the text un- 
changed ; in this case the translation would be : ' May he, 
the knowing one, distinguish wisdom and folly, the (wise 
and foolish) mortals like straight and crooked backs (of 
horses).' 

Note 2. Comp. vitapr/sh/Aa, ' straight-backed,' a frequent 
epithet of horses. 

Note 8. For Prof. Max M tiller's interpretation of this 
passage, comp. vol. xxxii, p. 256. See also Bergaigne, Rel. 
V^dique, 111,97 ; Pischel, Vedische Studien,I, 297 seq. It 
is very strange that the poet should ask the god to keep off 
Aditi (comp. I, 152, 6. aditim urushyet) who must here be 
considered, consequently, as a malevolent deity. I think that 
this conception of Aditi is derived from the idea of this 
goddess as punishing sin ; it is the same goddess who may 
free the sinner from the bonds of sin and who may fetter 
and destroy him. Keeping off Aditi seems to mean, con- 
sequently, removing from the mortal the danger of being 
bound by the fetters of sin ; the idea is the same as above 
in IV, 1, 5, where Agni is invoked to make Varuwa, the son 
of Aditi, go away (comp. H. O., Religion des Veda, p. 336, 
note 1). In that case granting Diti would mean granting 
freedom from those same fetters. (On Diti, who very 
appropriately has been called a mere reflex of Aditi, see 
M. M., loc. cit. ; Bergaigne, III, 97 seq.) 

Verse 12. 

Note 1. On Ayu, the mythical ancestor of the human 
race, see Bergaigne, Religion V^dique, I, p. 59 seq. 

Note 2. On padfohfA, comp. Pischel, Ved. Studien, I, 228 
seq. ; Bartholomae, Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XV, 3 seq. ; 
Bloomfield, Contributions to the Interpretation of the Veda, 
Second Series, p. 32 seq. (American Journal of Philology, 
XI, 3,50 seq.). I believe that in our verse pa</bhfA should 
be derived from a noun pis, and translated, ' with thy eyes,' 
[46] Y 



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322 VEDIC HYMNS. 



while in verse 14 we ought to read padbhfA, and to 
translate, ' with the feet.' 

Note 3. Pischel (Ved. Studien, I, 229, note 1) believes 
that aryaA is nom. sing., referring to Agni. But compare 
VI, 51, 2. rigix marteshu vriginS. ka. pAiyan abhf kashle 
stira/i aryi/t evan. This verse makes it very probable 
that aryaA is a genitive dependent on eVai//, eVan (' behold- 
ing right and wrong deeds among the mortals, the Sun 
looks upon the Arya's ways '). On the stem arf, ' the Arya,' 
see Pischel, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen 
Gesellschaft, XL, p. 1 25. 

Verse 14. 

Note 1. This verse has been commented upon by Pischel, 
Ved. Studien, I, 229 seq. 

Note 2. On padbhi/i or rather padbhi/i, comp. verse 12, 
note 2. 

Note 3. In translating bhur(f I have followed, though 
not without doubt, the theory of Pischel, Ved. Studien, 
I, 239 seq.— Pischel seems to be right in making ritim 
depend both on yemuA (comp. IV, 23, 10) and on ajusha«£A 
(comp. above, IV, 1, 13, and below, verse 16). 

Verse 15. 

Note 1. The seven ^/'shis or Angiras, the sons of Heaven 
and the Dawn (cf. above 1, 16). 

Note 2. nrfa (or rather nr/m) is genitive plural. See 
Lanman, p. 430 ; Pischel, Vedische Studien, I, p. 42. 

Note 3. Here we have again the seven /?*shis breaking 
the mountain in which the cows were imprisoned. 

Verse 16. 

Note 1. The apodosis is wanting. As verse 15 shows, 
the meaning is: As our fathers have done their mighty 
deeds, aspiring after Jiita., thus may we do the same. 

Note 2. SiiKt (Padap. stiki ft) possibly stands for stikim 
ft; cf. Roth, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen 
Gesellschaft, XLVIII, p. 680. Or may we correct sukl It... 



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MAiVBALA IV, HYMN 2. 323 

dltihiti (instr. sing.), ' they went along in pure devotion ' ? 
Dltihiti seems to be what is called in III, 31, i ; IX, 102, 
1. 8, ritisya. ditihitiA. 

Verse 17. 

Note 1. See Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, p. 252. 

Note 2. Evidently the pious men, not the gods, form the 
subject. I propose to read, therefore, devam (gen. plur.) 
^anima; cf. verse 18 devSnam yat ^anima. They kindle 
Agni ; they strengthen Indra : in short, they treat the 
divine people as the smith treats the metal. 

Note 3. I do not enter here upon the archaeological 
question as to the meaning of ayaA. Comp. on this much- 
discussed question especially Max Miiller, Biographies of 
Words, p. 252 seq. ; Schrader, Sprachvergleichung und 
Urgeschichte (2nd ed.), p. 271 seq. ; von Bradke, Methode 
der arischcn Alterthumswissenschaft, p. 93 seq. 

Note 4. Cf. X, 61, 13. parishadvana/* agman. 

Verse 18. 

Note 1. Yzswih is genitive sing. ; it depends on yutha". 
Cf. V, 31, 1 ; VI, 19, 3. 

Note 2. There is no reason for taking, as Lanman 
(p. 516) does, kshumati as ace. plur. neut, which would 
be kshumanti. See Joh. Schmidt, Pluralbildungen der In- 
dogermanischen Neutra, p. 237 ; Bartholomae, Kuhn's 
Zeitschrift, XXIX, p. 493. Bartholomae translates, ' bei 
einem wolhabenden.' 

Note 8. Is this vocative ugra right ? It would be easy to 
correct, with Ludwig, ugra" ('when the mighty generations 
of the gods were near him ') or ugra//, as suggested by 
Delbruck (Grassmann's Translation, vol. i, p. 573): 'the 
mighty one (Agni) looked on them,' &c. 

Note 4. I believe that Geldner (Ved. Studien, I, 260, 
note 1) is right in contending that Urvajt, wherever it 
occurs, is the name of an Apsaras and nothing else. The 
name of Ayu, occurring in the fourth Pada, confirms this ; 
for Ayu, as is well known, is the son of Purfiravas and of 
the nymph Urvari. Geldner translates, 'Selbst mit den 

Y 2 



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324 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Sterblichen hatten die Urvarls Mitleid.' But I do not 
think that kr*p means 'having compassion.' In my 
opinion we should, with Ludwig, supply ^anima to mar- 
tanam, so that deva'nam ^anima in the second Pada 
corresponds with martanam (^anima) in the third. This 
^anima is an accusative which depends on akn'pran (' they 
pined after . . . ,' cf. IX, 85, 11. na"ke supar«am upapapti- 
va'rasam glraA ven&'nam akr/panta purv"A ; X, 74, 3. ye" 
krz'pawanta ratnam). Thus the meaning seems to be: 
When the cows had been conquered, and when Agni looked 
over the generations of the gods that were near him, the 
Urv&ris, i. e. the Apsarases such as Urv&rt, longed for the 
love of mortals such as Purflravas, and for the propagation 
of the human generations ; they gave birth to children such 
as Ayu. 

Note 5. Or ' of the indigent ' ? Or is aryaA nom. plur. 
fern, referring to the Urvaris ? Or nom. sing. masc. refer- 
ring to Agni ? 

Note 6. On Ayu, see note 4. But I cannot tell why he 
is called the nearer Ayu. Is this nearer Ayu opposed, as 
a nearer or later (upara) ancestor, to the pitdraA parisaA 
pratnasa/*, the Arigiras, mentioned in verse 16 ? The same 
nearer Ayu (upara which stands there in opposition to 
pdrvabhi//) is mentioned also in I, 104, 4, connected, as it 
seems, with some Apsarases. I do not pretend to be able 
to interpret that very difficult verse, but I am convinced 
that it has been misinterpreted both by Roth (Siebenzig 
Lieder, p. vii) and by Bergaigne (I, 60). 

Verse 19. 

Mote 1. I. e. the dawns have sent forth their shine, which 
is a visible manifestation of the eternal law of Rita.. 

Mote 2. The construction is : we have been good workers, 
brightening &c. The words, 'the brilliant dawns have 
shone out Rita,' are a parenthesis. 

Verse 20. 
Mote 1. The text is nearly identical with the first hemi- 
stich of I, 73, 10 (see above). 



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MANDAhA IV, HYMN 3. 325 

MANDALA IV, HYMN 3. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 4, VARGA 20-22. 

i. Draw Rudra hither for your protection 1 , the 
king of sacrifice, the truly sacrificing Hotrt of the 
two worlds 2 , the golden-coloured Agni, before the 
unseen thunderbolt (strikes you). 

2. This is the home which we have prepared for > 
thee as a well-dressed, loving wife (prepares the 
marriage-bed) for her husband 1 . Directed hither- 
ward, dressed (in offerings and prayers ?) 2 sit down. 
These (sacrificial ladles or prayers ?) are turned 
towards thee, O most skilful one 3 ! 

3. To him who hears us, who is not proud, who 
beholds men, to the merciful, immortal god recite 
a prayer, O worshipper, a hymn — (to Agni) whom 
the presser (of Soma), the Madhu-presser, magnifies 
like the pressing-stone J . 

4. Thou who art well-intentioned, give heed to 
this our toiling 1 , to this Rita.*, O observer of ^'ta ! 
When will our hymns share in thy rejoicings ? When 
will our friendship dwell in thy house ? 

5. How wilt thou, O Agni, before Varima, and 
how wilt thou, and which sin of ours wilt thou 
blame before Dyaus ? How wilt thou speak to 
bountiful Mitra, to the Earth? What (wilt thou 
say) to Aryaman, to Bhaga ? 

6. What wilt thou say, O Agni, when thou hast 
grown strong on the Dhish«ya altars 1 ? What to 
strong Vita who goes forward in triumph 2 ? To 
the Nasatya s who goes round the earth 4 , to . . . 6 ? 
What, O Agni, to Rudra, the man-killer ? 



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326 VEDIC HYMNS. 



7. How (wilt thou speak) to great Pushan who 
brings prosperity ? What (wilt thou say) to martial 
Rudra, the giver of offerings 1 ? What sin 2 wilt thou 
announce to wide-ruling Vish»u, what, O Agni, to 
the mighty weapon (of the gods) ? 

8. How wilt thou answer, when thou art asked, 
to the righteous 1 host of the Maruts ? How to the 
mighty Sun, to the quick Aditi 2 ? Accomplish 
thy work, O Catavedas, thou who knowest the 
Heaven ! 

9. I magnify x the Rita of the cow 2 ruled by Rita. 
and also by the raw one 3 , the honey-sweet, ripe 
(milk), O Agni. Though being black this (cow) 
swells of bright drink, of ... 4 milk. 

10. With Rita indeed, with the milk of the back \ 
the bull has been anointed, Agni the man. Without 
trembling he moved on bestowing his vigour. The 
speckled bull has poured out his bright udder 2 . 

11 1 . By the Rita the Angiras have broken the 
rock and cleft it asunder ; they have shouted 
together with the cows. Prosperously the men 
have surrounded 2 the Dawn. The Sun appeared 
when Agni (the fire) had been born s . 

1 2. By the Rita, the immortal, uninjured J god- 
desses, the Waters, O Agni, with their honey-sweet 
waves have sped forward 2 for ever to flow (along 
their course), like a racer incited by shouting when 
(the race-horses) are let loose. 

13. Go never on thy crooked way to the spirit 
(which avenges the guilt) of anybody 1 , of a vassal 
who has trespassed, or of a friend. Require not (of 
us) a sinful brother's debt 2 . May we not have to 
suffer under the spirit which avenges a friend's or 
a (hostile) deceiver's guilt 3 . 



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MANDALA IV, HYMN 3. 327 

14. Protect us, O Agni, with all thy protection, 
thou who art protected, O martial one \ and art 
gladdened (by us). Sparkle forth, and destroy even 
strong evil ! Slay the Rakshas even though it has 
grown large. 

15. Be gracious, O Agni, through these our 
hymns. Touch, O hero, this wealth moved by our 
prayers. And accept, O Angiras, our sacred words. 
May the praise, beloved by the gods, resound to 
thee \ 

16. I, the priest, have rehearsed to thee the 
omniscient one, O Agni, worshipper (of the gods), 
all these songs, these inmost words, these recitations 
and words of wisdom, to thee the wise one, with 
prayers and hymns. 



NOTES. 

The same Rishi and metre.— Verse 1 = SV. I, 69 ; TS. 
I, 3, 14, 1 ; TB. II, 8, 6, 9 ; MS. IV, 11, 4- Verse 6 = 
MS. IV, 11,4. 

Verse 1. 

Hote L On the identification of Agni with Rudra, comp. 
Bergaigne, Rel. Wdique, III, 36 ; von Bradke, Dyaus Asura, 
p. 54 (Rig-veda I, 27, 10; III, 2, 55 VIII, 72, 3). 

Note 2. The second Pada of this verse is identical with 
VI, 16,46. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. Cf. Hirzel, Gleichnisse und Metaphern im Rig- 
veda, p. 69. 

Mote 2. On parivitaA Saya«a remarks, yash/avyadevais 
te^obhir va parivitaA. In the commentary on I, 128, 1, on 
the other hand, he says, r/tvigbhiA paridhibhir va parito 
vesh/itaA. 



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328 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Note 3. I take su-apaka as a compound of su and a-paka 
(comp. Vkg. Sawh. XX, 44 = Taitt. Br. II, 6, 8, 4 = Maitr. 
Sawh. Ill, 11, 1, where Tvash/r* is called apakaA). In 
Rig-veda VI, u, 4 we read : adidyutat so apaka/* vibhava ; 
in VI, 12,2. S. yasmin tve* sti apake ya^atra, &c. Should 
we not correct in both passages suapakaA, suapake ? 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. The pressing-stone (graVan) is frequently con- 
sidered as speaking, as praising the gods. Cf. Hillebrandt, 
Vedische Mythologie, I, p. 152 sq. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. The Padapa7^a has .fdmyai. I think it should 
be simy&A. 

Note 2. I. e. to this sacrifice, which is considered as one 
of the chief manifestations of Rita. See H. O., Religion 
des Veda, p. 197. 

. Verse 6. 

Note 1. At the Soma sacrifice fire burns on eight altars 
called Dhishwya ; see Weber, Indische Studien, X, pp. 366, 

375- 

Note 2. See vol. xxxii, p. 164. 

Note 8. This is the only passage in the Rig-veda in 
which nasatya occurs in the singular. 

Note 4. On parjginan, cf. above, I, 79, 3 note. 

Note 5. Kshe (cf. Lanman, pp. 440, 448, 534) is evidently 
corrupt. But neither Bollensen's conjecture, uksh«e, nor 
those of Ludwig (£akshe, yakshe), carry conviction. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. It is very strange to find Rudra here desig- 
nated as 'giver of offerings.' But it seems too bold 
to explain haviA-de as a dative of havi//-ad ('eater of 
offerings '). 

Note 2. I read with Grassmann repa/i (' sin ') for retaA 
(' sperm '). 



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MAJVDALA IV, HYMN 3. 329 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. The text has rz'taya, used as an adjective (see 
Bergaigne, Rel. Vedique, III, 216). 

Note 2. Aditi is masculine and seems to be an epithet 
(' unrestrained, free ') of the Sun. Cf. vol. xxxii, p. 262 ; 
Bergaigne, III, 92. Probably at the same time the word 
is intended to allude to the goddess Aditi. 

Verse 9. 

Note 1. The text has i/e, on which Ludwig says, ' so viel 
wie ni/e.' tie of course cannot be the same as ni/e, but 
should we not conjecture ni/e? Cf. above, IV, 1, 11. 
vr/'shabhasya ni/e, and IV, 1,12. ritisya y6na vr/shabhasya 
ni/e\ The translation would be, 'By Rita, the Rita, is 
restrained in the nest of the cow.' 

Note 2. The ' Rita of the cow,' if the reading is correct 
(see note 1), seems to be the milk. 

Note 8. The ' raw one ' is the cow as opposed to the ripe 
milk. 

Note 4. The meaning of ^amarya (&ira£ Xtyotxtvov) is 
unknown. Cf. Bergaigne, II, 398, note 1. Sayawa reads 
ga amaryewa. * I should prefer gk amartyena.' M. M. 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. Does this mean, with the milk that comes from 
the ridge of heaven ? Cf. IV, 20, 4. sam andhasa mamada/* 
prishtftyena. 

Note 2. This Pada seems to be an imitation of VI, 66, i, 
where Prwni ('the speckled one') is the mother of the 
Maruts : sakr/t jukram duduhe prisniA HdhaA. See vol. 
xxxii, p. 368. 

Verse 11. 

Note 1. Here we have again the same myth of the 
Angiras and the cows, to which so many allusions are found 
in the preceding hymns. 

Note 2. The red cows of the myth are the dawns ; the 



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33© VEDIC HYMNS. 



Ahgiras besiege the stronghold in which these cows are 
imprisoned. 

Note 3. On the kindling of the fire as a charm by which 
the sun is made to rise, see H. O., Religion des Veda, 
p. 109 seq. The Ahgiras kindle the fire for performing 
their sacrifice ; thereby they make the sun rise. 

Verse 12. 

Note 1. The same epithet is applied to the waters also 
in X, 104, 8. 

Note 2. The optative dadhanyu^ is very strange. Pro- 
bably we ought to read dadhanvuA. 

Verse 13. 

Note L The meaning seems to be that Agni is requested 
not to turn against the sacrificer a spirit which has to 
avenge the guilt committed by a third person. ' Why not 
read ya^wam ? Go not secretly to anybody's sacrifice, not 
of a hostile house, not of a friend. Do not require (of us) 
a sinful brother's debt. May we not feel the might of 
friend or foe.' M. M. 

Note 2. Geldner (Ved. Studien II, 157) translates and 
interprets : ' tilge nicht, O Agni, die Schuld eines falschen 
Bruders,' namlich die Schuld an die Manen, also dem Sinn 
nach ' mache ihn kinderlos.' This is quite unacceptable. 

Note 3. The text is evidently corrupt. I propose to 
read : ma* sakhyuA yaksham ma" rip6^ bhu^ - ema. Comp. V, 
70, 4. ma" kasya adbhutakratu yaksham bhu^ema tantfbhiA. 

Verse 14. 

Note 1. I cannot adopt Bergaigne's opinion on sumakha 
(Quarante Hymnes, p. 75). 

Verse 15. 
Note 1. Or, awake for thee. 



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MANDALA IV, HYMN 4. 331 

MAiVZ>ALA IV, HYMN 4. 
ASHJAKA III, ADHYAYA 4, VARGA 23-25. 

i. Produce thy stream of flames like a broad 
onslaught. Go forth impetuous like a king with 
his elephant 1 ; . . . 2 after thy greedy onslaught, 
thou art an archer; shoot the sorcerers with thy 
hottest (arrows). 

2. Thy whirls fly quickly. Fiercely flaming touch 
(them). O Agni, (send forth) with the ladle * thy 
heat, thy winged (flames) ; send forth unfettered thy 
firebrands all around. 

3. Being the quickest, send forth thy spies against 
(all evildoers). Be an undeceivable guardian of this 
clan. He who attacks us with evil spells, far or 
near, may no such (foe) defy thy track. 

4. Rise up, O Agni ! Spread out against (all 
foes) ! Burn down the foes, O (god) with the sharp 
weapon ! When kindled, O Agni, burn down like 
dry brushwood, the man who exercises malice 
against us. 

5. Stand upright, strike (the foes) away from us ! 
Make manifest thy divine (powers), O Agni ! 
Unbend the strong (bows) of those who incite 
demons (against us) 1 . Crush all enemies, be they 
relations or strangers. 

6. He knows thy favour, O youngest one, who 
makes a way for a sacred speech like this. Mayst 
thou beam forth to his doors all auspicious days 
and the wealth and the splendour of the niggard. 

7. Let him, O Agni, be fortunate and blessed 
with good rain, who longs to gladden thee with 



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332 VEDIC HYMNS. 



constant offerings and hymns through his life in his 
house. May such longing ever bring auspicious 
days to him. 

8. I praise thy favour ; it resounded here. May 
this song (which is like) a favourite wife, awaken for 
thee K Let us brighten thee, being rich in horses 
and chariots. Mayst thou maintain our knightly 
power day by day. 

9. May (the worshipper) here frequently of his 
own accord approach thee, O (god) who shinest in 
darkness 1 , resplendent day by day. Let us worship 
thee sporting and joyous, surpassing the splendour 
of (other) people. 

10. Whoever, rich in horses and rich in gold, 
approaches thee, O Agni, with his chariot full of 
wealth — thou art the protector and the friend of him 
who always delights in showing thee hospitality. 

11. Through my kinship (with thee) I break 
down the great (foes) by my words '. That (kin- 
ship) has come down to me from my father Gotama. 
Be thou attentive to this our word, O youngest, 
highly wise Hotri, as the friend of our house. 

1 2. May those guardians of thine, infallible Agni, 
sitting down together protect us, the never sleeping, 
onward-pressing, kind, unwearied ones, who keep off 
the wolf, who never tire. 

13 1 . Thy guardians, O Agni, who seeing have 
saved the blind son of Mamata from distress — He 
the possessor of all wealth has saved them who 
have done good deeds. The impostors, though 
trying to deceive, could not deceive. 

14. In thy companionship we dwell, protected by 
thee. Under thy guidance let us acquire gain. 
Accomplish both praises 1 , O (thou who art the) 



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M AND ALA IV, HYMN 4. 333 

truth ! Do so by thy present power, O fearless 
one! 

15. May we worship thee, O Agni, with this log 
of wood. Accept the hymn of praise which we 
recite. Burn down those who curse us, the 
sorcerers. Protect us, O (god) who art great like 
Mitra, from guile, from revilement, and from dis- 
grace. 

NOTES. 

The hymn is addressed to Agni Rakshohan. The same 
JZishi and metre. — Verses i-i5=TS. I, 2, 14, 1-6; MS. 
IV, 11, 5. Verses 1-5= VS. XIII, 9-13; MS. II, 7, 15. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. On fbhena, cf. Pischel-Geldner, Vedische Studien, 
I, p. xv. 

Mote 2. The meaning of druwanaA, which evidently should 
be pronounced druwanaA (H.O., Prolegomena, p. 478), is 
uncertain. This verb is stated to occur still in one other 
passage, Maitr. Sawh. II, 4, 2. tad ya eva>« vidvant suram 
pibati na hainaw druwati (dru«ati, two MSS.). But should 
we not read there hruwati ? [And possibly in our passage, 
as Prof. Max Muller observes, hru«ana/t ?] 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. On^uhva, see Pischel, Vedische Studien, II, 113. 
Wherever butter is poured out with the ladle, the flames 
arise. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. The third Pada is identical with X, 1 16, 5 b. 

Verse 8. 

Mote 1. Or ' resound to thee ' (sam ^areta). Cf. above, 
3, 15. Shall we read, in consideration of this parallel 



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334 VEDIC HYMNS. 



passage, sdm devavata ^aratam iyim gi'A (' may this song 
beloved by the gods resound ' or ' awaken ') ? 

Verse 8. 
Note 1. On d6shavastaA, see above, I, i, 7, note 1. 

Verse 11. 

Note 1. I have taken mah&A as ace. plural. If it is.gen. 
singular, the translation will be : ' Through my kinship with 
the great (Agni) I break down (my foes) by my words.' 

Verse 13. 

Note 1. This verse is identical with I, 147, 3. See the 
notes there. The original place of this verse seems to be 
in the first MaWala, because it mentions Mamateya. 

Verse 14. 

Note 1. Probably the praise or song of the gods and of 
men. See vol. xxxii, p. 439. 



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MAJV.DALA IV, HYMN 5. 335 

MAiVZ?ALA IV, HYMN 5. 

ASHTAKA III, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 1-3. 

i. How may we unanimously offer mighty light l 
to bountiful Agni Vaisvfinara ? With his mighty 
perfect growth he supports the high bank 2 like a 
pillar. 

2. Do not reproach Him, the self-dependent one, 
who has given this bounty to me, the god to the 
mortal, the clever one to the simple, the wise im- 
mortal, the most manly, restless * Agni Vaisvanara. 

3. Agni, the sharp-pointed, the mighty bull with 
thousandfold sperm, has proclaimed to me the great, 
doubly-powerful * Saman, the prayer, having found, 
as it were, the hidden track of a cow s . 

4. May Agni, he who is rich in wealth, whose 
teeth are sharp, consume with his hottest flames 
those who violate the laws founded by Varuwa, the 
beloved, firm (laws) of attentive Mitra. 

5 '. They who roam about like brotherless girls 2 , 
of evil conduct like women who deceive their hus- 
bands, being wicked, sinful, and untrue — they have 
created for themselves this deep place 3 . 

6. On me, however small, but innocent, thou, 
O purifying Agni, hast fiercely placed this mighty, 
deep, vigorous prayer, like a heavy burden, this 
Prrsh/fe 1 , consisting of seven elements 2 . 

7. Let our prayer which purifies Him, through 
the power of mind (inherent in it), reach Him who 
is the common (property of all men) alike, the good 
(name ?) of Vrism on the skin of the herbs, on the 
summit of the . . .'. 



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3.?6 VEDIC HYMNS. 



8. What should be openly uttered by me of this 
speech ? They secretly speak of that which is 
hidden 1 . When they have uncovered, as it were, 
the water of the cows 2 , he guards the beloved 
summit of the . . . 3 , the footstep of the bird*. 

9. He has found in secret that great face of the 
great ones which the bright cow accompanied 1 , 
the ancient (face) shining in the abode of J&ta., the 
quickly running, quickly moving. 

10. And resplendent near his parents (Heaven 
and Earth), in their presence, he thought of the 
secret, good (name ?) of "Prism. The tongue of 
the manly, forward-bent flame (seized) that which 
was near at hand in the highest abode of the mother, 
the cow 1 . 

11. I speak, when being asked, JZita. (i.e. truth), 
out of reverence (for Agni, or for the gods), out of 
hope 1 placed in thee, O ^atavedas, as I am here 2 . 
Thou rulest over all this wealth whatever (dwells) 
in heaven and earth. 

1 2. Which of this wealth is ours, what treasure ? 
Mayst thou who knowest it declare to us (that 
treasure), O G&tavedas ! What is the highest (aim) 
of this our way, is hidden. We have not come 
scolding to an empty (P) 1 place. 

13 1 . What is the limit, what the objects? What 
pleasant (wealth) may we obtain as swift (horses 
gain) the prize ? When will the Dawns, the divine 
consorts of the immortal, expand over us with the 
sun's splendour ? 

14. And what do those insatiable ones here say, 
O Agni, with their sapless, feeble, weak speech that 
has to be listened to ? Let them unarmed fall into 
nothingness. 



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hi AND ALA IV, HYMN 5. 337 

15. The face of this kindled, manly Vasu has 
shone gloriously in the house. Clothed in brilliancy, 
with his shape beautiful to behold, the bountiful has 
shone like a house 1 with its wealth. 



NOTES. 

The hymn is addressed to Vawvanara. The same ^ishi 
and metre. — No verse occurs in the other Sawhitas. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. Cf. especially I, 45, 8 (above, p. 43). br*Mt 
bha'A bfbhrataA hzvifi. 

Note 2. Cf. vol. xxxii, p. 93 (I, 38, u, note 2). 

Verse 2. 
Note 1. See above, I, 36, 1, note 2. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. DvibarhaA is neuter. See Lanman, p. 560 ; Joh. 
Schmidt, Pluralbildungen der Indogermanischen Neutra, 
p. 133. 

Note 2. Agni has discovered the Saman which he pro- 
claims to the mortal, like the track of a lost cow. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. See H. O., Religion des Veda, p. 539. 

Note 2. Abhratdra// cannot be accusative plural fern., as 
Zimmer (Altindisches Leben, p. 419) seems to take it. 
The correct interpretation has been given by Pischel, 
Vedische Studien, I, p. 299. 

Note 8. I.e. hell. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. In the younger Vedic ritual certain Stotras are 
technically designated as prishtAa. or ' backs ' of the liturgies 
[46] z 



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338 VEDIC HYMNS. 



(see, for instance, Weber, Indische Studien, X, 385). Does 
the word stand here in the same sense? Or should we 
correct pr&h/>4am ? 

Note 2. The seven tones of the scale ? 

Verse 7. 

If ote 1. This passage is obscure. The text runs thus : 
sasasya barman adhi £aru prhncA agre rup&A arupitam 
(arupitam SawhitapaAfca) ^abaru. As to the first words, 
see III, 5, 6. To k&ru possibly a noun like nama should 
be supplied (cf. below, verse 10). The last Pada (cf. 
above, III, 5, 5, note 1) is simply untranslateable. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. Of the milk alluded to in the third Pada ?— On 
niwfk, cf. Lanman, p. 436 ; Joh. Schmidt, Pluralbildungen 
der Indogerm. Neutra, p. 397. 

Note 2. The water of the cows is the milk, cf. X, 12, 3. 
Roth (Zeitschr. der D. Morgenl. Gesellschaft, XLVIII, 
682) : als sie den Schatz der Kiihe entdeckt hatten (var 
iva=varam iva). 

Note 3. RupaA agram. 

Note 4. Comp. above, III, 5, 5 with note 1 ; III, 5, 6, 
note 2. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. The sun, the face of the great gods (cf. 1, 1 15, 1), 
accompanied by the dawn ? 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. Is the meaning of all this that Agni, shining on 
the altar between heaven and earth, desires, and consumes 
with his flames, the oblation of butter which has its home 
in the udder of the cow ? 

Verse 11. 

Note 1. On Irasa, see Lanman, p. 492 seq. ; Bartholomae 
Indogermanische Forschungen, 1, 182 seq. ; Bechtel, Haupt- 



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MAJVDALA IV, HYMN 5. 339 

probleme der Indogerm. Lautlehre, p. 262. This noun is 
not to be derived from the root s&s, but from sams. 
Note 2. Compare I, 79, 2 (with note 3). 

Verse 12. 

Note 1. Comp. X, 108, 7, where the Pawis say to Sarama : 
rdku padam alakam S. ^agantha (' the place is empty (?) ; 
thou hast come in vain '). 

Verse 13. 

Note 1. This verse has been treated of by Pischel, Ved. 
Studien, I, 306. 

Verse 16. 

Note 1. On this comparison, see Hirzel, Gleichnisse und 
Metaphern im Rigveda, p. 102 seq. 



Z 2 



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34° VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAA^ALA IV, HYMN 6. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 4-5. 

i. Stand upright for us, O Agni, Hotrt of the 
sacrifice, the best performer of sacrifices among the 
gods. For thou art the master of every thought ; 
thou promotest the worshipper's prayer. 

2. The unerring Hotrt has sat down among the 
people, joy-giving Agni, the wise one at the sacri- 
fices \ Like Savitri he has sent his light upward. 
Like a builder he has reared his smoke up to 
the sky. 

3 1 . (The ladle) glowing, filled with gifts, with 
butter, is stretched forth. From left to right (does 
Agni move) choosing the divine people. Upright 
(stands) the (sacrificial) post like a new-born foal * ; 
well-placed, well-established it anoints the victims 8 . 

4. After the sacrificial grass has been spread 
and the fire kindled, the delighted Adhvaryu has 
stationed himself upright. Agni, the HotW, chosen 
from of old, goes round thrice, like a shepherd. 

5. As Hotrt, measuredly running, Agni, the joy- 
giving, sweet-tongued, the righteous, 'goes around 
by his own might. His flames run forward like 
race-horses ; all beings are afraid when he has shone 
forth. 

6. Beautiful, O fair-faced Agni, is thy aspect, who 
art terrible and manifold ; pleasant (it is). As they 
have not hindered thy light by darkness, no bespat- 
terers have left stains on thy body. 

7. He whose mother (P) 1 has not been hindered 
from giving birth, nor his father and mother when- 



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MAJTOALA IV, HYMN 6. 34 1 

ever they were incited (?) 2 : this Agni, the purifier, 
well-established like Mitra s , has shone among the 
tribes of men, — 

8. Agni, whom the twice-five sisters 1 , dwelling to- 
gether, have engendered among the human tribes, who 
awakes at dawn, who is bright like an elephant's (?) 2 
tooth, whose mouth is beautiful, who is sharp like 
an axe. 

9 1 . Agni, those golden horses of thine swimming 
in ghee, the red ones which go straight forward, the 
fleet ones, the brilliant, manly, wonderful horses, 
puissant stallions, have called hither the divine 
people. 

10. Those victorious, never-tiring ', fierce flames 
of thine, O Agni, which move about, hasten 2 to 
their goal like hawks ; they roar mightily like the 
host of the Maruts. 

11 1 . (This) hymn has been produced for thee, 
O Agni, when thou wert kindled. May (the priest) 
recite the litany ; mayst thou distribute (treasures) 
to him who sacrifices. Men have set down Agni 
as the Hotrt, the Usifs, adoring (Him), the praise 
ofAyu 2 . 

NOTES. 
The same Hishi and metre. — Verse 6=TS. IV, 3, 13, 1. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. The text has vidatheshu. Cf. above, I, 31, 6 
note. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. With the first hemistich compare above, III, 19, 2. 
See also VI, 63, 4. 



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342 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Note 2. On akra, see Geidner, Vedische Studien, I, 168. 

Note 3. The meaning seems to be that the sacrificial 
post, which has been anointed itself, imparts ointment to 
the victim tied to it. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. The meaning of s£tu is uncertain. Boehtlingk- 
Roth give ' receptaculum.' Joh. Schmidt (Kuhn's Zeitschrift, 
XXV, p. 29, cf. Hubschmann, Indogerm. Vocalsystem, 
p. 75) translates ' Mutterleib,' and connects the word with 
strf. If ' womb ' is right, it seems to be the womb from 
which Agni was born. 

Note 2. Does this ish/au belong to ish, ' to incite,' or to 
ish, ' to wish ' ? ' Whenever he (Agni) wishes.' M. M. 

Note 3. On the well-established Mitra, comp. H. O., 
Religion des Veda, p. 186, note 1. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. The ten sisters of course are the fingers. 

Note 2. In translating atharyaA na dantam I have fol- 
lowed the opinion of Pischel (Vedische Studien, I, 99) on 
the meaning of atharf, though his theory is very doubtful. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. With this description of Agni's horses, comp. 
above, IV, 2, 2. 3. 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. On ayasaA, cf. above, III, 18, 2, note 1. 
Note 2. See Geidner, Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XXVII, 234. 

Verse 11. 

Note 1. The second hemistich of this verse is nearly 
identical with V, 3, 4. 
Note 2. Cf. narafamsa, vol. xxxii, p. 439. 



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MANDALA IV, HYMN J. 143 

HlhNDKLh IV, HYMN 7. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 6-7. 

i. This (Agni) has been established here as the 
first by the establishers, the Hotrz, the best sacrificer 
who should be magnified at the sacrifices, whom 
Apnavana and the Bhrz'gus have made shine, 
brilliant in the woods, spreading to every house. 

2. Agni ! When will the splendour of thee, the 
god, appear in the right way ? For verily the 
mortals have seized thee who shouldst be magnified 
in the houses. 

3. Seeing the righteous, wise one, like the heaven 
with the stars, who produces joy at all sacrifices, 
from house to house — 

4. The quick messenger of Vivasvat who rules 
over all human tribes : Him the Ayus have brought 
hither to every house, the light, him who belongs to 
the Bhr/gus. 

5. Him the knowing one they have set down in 
the right way as the Hotrz, the gay one with his 
purifying flames, the best sacrificer with his seven 
(forms x ) — 

6. Him who is enveloped in many mothers, in 
the wood \ who does not rest thereon (?) 2 , who is 
brilliant, though hidden in secret, easily to be found, 
and striving for all that is desired. 

7. When the gods rejoiced in the ... of the 
herbs 1 , in that udder 2 , in the foundation of ./?/'ta 3 , 
the great Agni, to whom offerings are made with 
adoration, the righteous one, always approached 
eagerly for the sake of sacrifice. 



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344 VEDIC HYMNS. 



8 1 . Thou, the knowing one, hast eagerly per- 
formed the messengership of the sacrifice, looking 
over both ends, over the two worlds. Thou goest 
as a messenger, chosen from of old, thou who 
knowest best the ascents to heaven. 

9. Thy path is black. Light is before thee, the 
red one. Thy flame is speedy. This is one of the 
wonders : when the virgin conceives (thee as her) 
child 1 , thou becomest a messenger, as soon as thou 
art born. 

10. As soon as he is born, his strength shows 
itself, when the wind blows upon his flame. He 
turns his sharp tongue among the dry brushwood. 
Even solid food he tears to pieces with his teeth. 

1 1. When he thirstily has grown strong by thirsty 
food l , restless Agni appoints a thirsty messenger. 
Consuming (the wood) he follows the ... 2 of the 
wind. He seems to drive forward a quick horse ; 
the racer speeds along. 



NOTES. 

The same .foshi. The metre is £agati in verse 1, 
AnushAibh in verses 3-6, TrishAibh in verses 7-1 1. — Verse 
i=VS. Ill, 15; XV, 26; XXXIII, 6; TS. I, 5, 5, ii 
MS. I, 5, 1. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. The seven flames or tongues of Agni ? The 
seven Hotrn ? The seven Ratnas ? 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. Cf. IX, 107, 18. pari g6bhi// uttaraA sfdan vaneshu 
avyata. 



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MAJVDALA IV, HYMN "J. 345 

Note 2. Possibly we might conjecture Imtam, ' who rests 
thereon.' 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. On sasasya, cf. above, III, 5, 6, note 2. Vfyuta 
seems to be a locative standing parallel with the locative 
fldhan. We have here sasasya vfyuta . . . r/tasya dha'man, 
quite as in V, 21, 4 the two accusatives ritasya y6nim and 
sasasya y6nim stand parallel. The meaning of vfyuta, 
however, seems to me quite uncertain. Is it an action- 
noun derived from vi-yu, ' to separate,' ' to keep off,' or from 
(vi-) va, ' to weave ' ? Professor Max Miiller proposes : ' at 
the removal of the grass or tinder in which the spark is 
kept.' 

Note 2. sasmin fidhan ; cf. below, 10, 8. 

Note 3. Cf. above, I, 147, 1. 

Verse 8. 
Note 1. With this verse, compare below, hymn 8, verse 4. 

Verse 8. 
Note 1. The wood, the child of which is Agni. 

Verse 11. 

Note 1. I take anna here. as an instrumental. — Compare 
with our passage VII, 3, 4. trz'shu yat anna samavrtkta 
^ambhaiA ; X, 79, 5. y&k asmai annam trt'shu adadhati ; 
X, 91, 7. tr/shu yat anna vevishat vitfsh/Aase ; X, 113, 8. 
agnf^ na ^ambhaiA tr/shu annam avayat. 

Note 2. me/fm ; cf. above, III, 26, 9. 



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346 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MANDALA IV, HYMN 8. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 8. 

i. I press on for you with my prayer to the 
all-possessing messenger, the immortal bearer of 
offerings, the best sacrificer. 

2. He, the great one, knows indeed the place 
of wealth \ the ascent to heaven ; may he, (there- 
fore,) conduct the gods hither. 

3. He, the god, knows how to direct the gods for 
the righteous (worshipper), in his house. He gives 
(us) wealth dear (to us). 

4. He is the Hotri; he who knows the office 
of a messenger, goes to and fro (between men and 
gods), knowing the ascent to heaven. 

5. May we be of those who have worshipped 
Agni with the gift of offerings, who cause him to 
thrive and kindle him. 

6. The men who have brought worship to Agni, 
are renowned as successful by wealth and by power- 
ful offspring. 

7. May much-desired wealth come to us day by 
day ; may gains arise ampng us. 

8. He (Agni), the priest of the tribes, (the priest) 
of men, pierces (all hostile powers) by his might as 
with a tossing 1 (bow). 



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MANDALA IV, HYMN 8. 347 



NOTES. 

The same Risbi. The metre is Gayatrl. — Verse i=SV. 
I, ia; MS. II, 13,5. 

Verse 2. 
Note 1. Comp. Pischel, Ved. Studien, II, 118. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. Kshipra* evidently is an instrumental. Cf. kshi 
pradhanvan, kshipreshu, kshiprewa dhanvana, II, 24, 8. 



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348 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAA>£>ALA IV, HYMN 9. 
ASHTAKA III, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 9. 

i. Agni, have mercy! Thou art great, who hast 
come to this pious man to sit down on the sacrificial 
grass. 

2. He who cannot be deceived, the zealous, the 
immortal has among men become the messenger 
of all. 

3. He, the joy-giving Hotri, is led around the 
sacred seat at the heaven-aspiring sacrifices. And 
he sits down as the Fotri also. 

4. Agni sits down also as (the sacrificer's) wife 1 
at the sacrifice, and as the master of the house in 
the house, and as the Brahman *. 

5. Thou zealously approachest as the Upavaktr*' 1 
of the people who perform the sacrificial service, and 
(thou approachest) the offerings of men. 

6. And thou zealously performest the messenger- 
ship for the man in whose sacrifice thou takest 
pleasure, in order to bear the mortal's offering (to 
the gods). 

7. Find pleasure 1 in our rites, in our sacrifice, 
O Angiras. Hear our call ! 

8. May thy unerring chariot, by which thou 
protectest the worshippers, encompass us from 
every side. 



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MANDALA. IV, HYMN 9. 349 



NOTES. 

The same JZishl and metre. — Verse 1 = SV. 1, 23. Verse 8 
= VS. Ill, 36 ; MS. I, 5, 4- 5- "• 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. ' Wir vermuten : utagna agnir adhvare ... die 
correctur diirfte evident sein.' Ludwig. The same con- 
jecture has been proposed already in 1868 by Prof. Max 
Miiller (Chips, 2nd ed., vol. iii, p. 157). In my opinion the 
traditional text is correct. 

Note 2. The Brahman very probably is not the Brahman 
of the later ritual, but the Brahma«a£Mawsin. See H. O., 
Religion des Veda, p. 396. 

Verse 5. 

Note L The Upavaktr* is identical with the Prajastrz or 
Maitravaru»a of the later ritual. H. O., Religion des Veda, 
p. 390. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. On £t>shi, cf. Bartholomae, Studien zur Indog. 
Sprachgeschichte, I, 21. 



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35° VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAMPALA IV, HYMN 10. 
ASHJAKA III, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 10. 

I *. O Agni ! May we to-day successfully perform, 
with thy heedfulness 2 , this praise 8 which touches 
thy heart, which is like a horse, like auspicious 
power of the mind. 

2. For verily thou, O Agni, hast become the 
charioteer of auspicious power of the mind, of real 
ability, and of the mighty J&ta. 

3. Through these our hymns direct thyself hither- 
wards to us like the sun with its light 1 , O Agni, 
gracious with all thy faces. 

4. May we to-day worship thee, O Agni, praising 
thee with these songs. Thy roarings thunder like 
(the thunder) of Heaven. 

5. Thy sweetest aspect, O Agni, shines near us 
for glory's sake, now by day, now by night, like 
gold. 

6. Like purified ghrz'ta is thy stainless body ; (it 
is) brilliant gold : that (body) of thine has shone 1 , 
O self-dependent one, like gold. 

7. For even a malice which one has committed, 
thou verily drivest away entirely, O righteous Agni, 
from the sacrificing mortal \ 

8. May our friendship, O Agni, our brotherhood 
with you, the gods, be blessed. This is our navel 
(i. e. relation) in our seat, in this udder l . 



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UANDALA IV, HYMN IO. 35 1 



NOTES. 

The same Rishl The metre is stated to be Padapaiikti 
(verses 4, 6, 7, Padapaiikti or Ushwih ; verse 5, Mahapada- 
pankti ; verse 8, Ush«ih) : see on this metre M. M., 
vol. xxxii, p. xcviii seq. ; H. O., Prolegomena, p. 98 ; 
Kiihnau, Die Trish/ubh-Cagati-Familie, p. 234 seq. — 
Verse i = SV. I, 434; MS. I, 10,3. Verses 1-3= SV. II, 
1127-1129 ; VS. XV, 44-46. Verses i-4=TS. IV, 4, 4, 7. 
Verse 1, 2, 4 = MS. II, 13, 8. Verse 3 = MS. IV, 10, 2. 
Verse 6=TS. II, 2, 12, 7; MS. IV, 12, 4. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. The Avasana in this verse ought to stand before 
hr*dispr«am, not after this word, as the traditional text 
places it. i?*dhyama, consequently, cannot be accented. 

Note 2. Dr. Neisser's opinion on 6ha is different 
(Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XVIII, 312). 

Note 8. I read st6mam, which is frequently found as the 
object of the verb r/dh, and which in several passages 
receives the epithet hridisprts. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. On the syntactical form of this comparison, see 
Bergaigne, Melanges Renier, p. 95. 

Verse 6. 
Note L Or rotate, ' shines ' ? 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. The Avasana ought to stand before martat. Cf. 
above, verse 1, note 1. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. Cf. above, IV, 7, 7. The meaning seems to be : 
in this sacrificial place, where the cows give milk. 



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352 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAA^ALA IV, HYMN 11. 
ASHFAKA III, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 11. 

i. Thy auspicious face, O mighty Agni, shines in 
the neighbourhood of the sun l . Brilliant to see, it 
is seen even by night. Soft to behold is the food 
in thy (beautiful) body 2 . 

2. Agni, disclose (wise) thoughts for him who 
praises thee ; (disclose) the opening, when thou, 
O strong-born, hast been praised with trembling. 
Grant unto us, O very great one, such a rich prayer 
as thou with all the gods wilt hold dear, O brilliant 
one. 

3. From thee, O Agni, genius is born, from thee 
(wise) thoughts, from thee beneficent hymns. From 
thee comes wealth adorned with heroes 1 to the thus- 
minded mortal who worships thee. 

4. From thee the racer is born that wins booty, 
whose energy expands round-about \ the helpful, 
of true strength ; from thee delightful wealth sent 
by the gods ; from thee, O Agni, the swift and 
impetuous horse. 

5. Thee, O Agni, the pious mortals seek to win 
by their prayers as the first, thee the god with 
agreeable speech, O immortal, who drivest away 
malice, the household god, the lord of the house, 
the wise one. 

6. (Drive) far from us senselessness and anguish ; 
(drive) far all ill-will from him whom thou attendest 1 . 
Be gracious at evening, Agni, son of strength, to him 
whom thou, the god, attendest with welfare. 



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MAYDALA IV, HYMN II. 353 



NOTES. 

The same Rishi. Metre, Trish/ubh. — Verse i=TS. IV, 
3. *3> »• 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. Comp. above, IV, 10, 5. rotate upake. 

Note 2. Literally, ' in thy appearance ' (rup6). Thus the 
Soma is stated, IX, 16, 6, to purify itself rupe avyaye, 
literally, ' in the appearance of the sheep,' i. e. in the filter 
made of sheep's hair. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. See Lanman, p. 560 ; Pischel, Ved. Studien, II, 

in- 
verse 4. 

Note 1. On vfhayaA, see V. Henry, Les livres VIII et IX 
de l'Atharva-veda (1894), p. 40 (AV. VIII, 2, 7). 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. Probably the correct Padapa/Aa reading would 
be, as Prof. Bartholomae (Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XV, 
190) has noticed, yam nipasi (cf. Pada d : yam . . . sa£ase). 
If yat is correct, the translation will be: '(drive) far all ill- 
will when thou protectest (us).' — Bartholomae proposes 
either to change asmat to asmat, or to interpret it as an 
equivalent of asmat. It is possible, though in my opinion 
not very probable, that the text should be changed. The 
ablative asmat very frequently depends on Slt6. 



[46] A a 

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354 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAA^ALA IV, HYMN 12. 
ASHJAKA III, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 12. 

I. May the man who holds the sacrificial ladle 
and kindles thee, O Agni, who thrice prepares food 
for thee on this day, victoriously overcome (his foes) 
through his lustre, wise through the power of thy 
mind, O (Jatavedas. 

2 1 . He who toiling brings fuel to thee, doing 
service to thy, the great (god's) face, O Agni, 
kindling thee at evening and at dawn — he prospers, 
obtains wealth, and destroys his enemies. 

3. Agni is master of mighty royal power 1 ; 
Agni (is master) of gain, of the highest wealth. He, 
the youngest, self-dependent (god) in the right way 
distributes treasures to the mortal worshipper. 

4. Whatever sin, O youngest (god), we have 
committed against thee in thoughtlessness, men as 
we are \ make thou us sinless before Aditi ; release 
us from (every) guilt on all sides, O Agni ! 

5. Even from great guilt, O Agni, from the prison 
of gods and of mortals — let us, thy friends, never 
be harmed ; grant luck and weal to kith and kin. 

6 1 . As you formerly have released, O Vasus, the 
buffalo cow bound by the foot, O worshipful gods, 
thus take away from us this distress. May, O Agni, 
our life be further prolonged. 



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MAJVDALA IV, HYMN 12. 355 



NOTES. 

The same Rishi and metre. — Verse 4=TS. IV, 7, 15, 6; 
MS. Ill, 16, 5. Verse 5 = MS. IV, 11, 1. Verse 6=TS. 
IV, 7, 15,7; MS. III,i6,5; IV, 11, 1. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. With the beginning of this verse, comp. above, 
IV, 2, 6. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. Comp. Roth, Zeitschr. der D. Morg. Ges., 
XLVIII, 114. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Grassmann is right in giving to purushatra' the 
meaning 'unter den Menschen,' and in observing with 
reference to our passage: 'wo die Bedeutung "nach 
Menschenweise " (s. purushata) besser passt.' The same is 
the opinion of Bohtlingk-Roth. No doubt we should 
read purushata; cf. VII, 57, 4=X, 15, 6. yat vaJt agaA 
purushata karama ; IV, 54, 3. a£itti yat kakrimi . . . puru- 
shatvata. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. This verse is identical with Rig-veda X, 1 26, 8. 



a a 2 



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356 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAiVZ>ALA IV, HYMN 13. 
ASHJAKA III, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 13. 

i. Benevolent Agni has looked on the breaking 
of the shining dawns, on the bestowal of treasures. 
Come to the dwelling of the virtuous (mortal), ye 
A^vins. The god Surya rises with his light. 

2. The god Savitri has sent his light upward ', 
shaking his banner 2 like a warrior who fights for 
cows 8 . Varu»a and Mitra follow the law, when 
they make the Sun rise on heaven. 

3. Him whom (the gods) dwelling in firm peace, 
and never losing their object, have created for dis- 
persing the darkness — Him, the Sun, the all-observer, 
the seven young fallow mares carry forward. 

4. With (thy horses) most ready to run thou 
goest 1 forward, spreading out thy web (of light), 
removing (from the world) the black cloth (of dark- 
ness), O god. The rays of the Sun have shaken 2 
the darkness, and have sunk it into the waters like 
a hide. 

5. Unsupported, unattached, spread out down- 
wards-turned — how is it that he * does not fall down ? 
By what power of his does he move ? Who has 
seen (that) ? Erected as the pillar of Heaven he 
protects the firmament. 



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MAWZJALA IV, HYMN 1 3. 357 



NOTES. 

The same Rishi and metre. — Verse 4=TB. II, 4, 5, 4. 

This hymn and the next evidently form a couple. They 
have the same number of verses, and are composed in the 
same metre. They are both addressed to Agni in his 
matutinal character, or rather to the Ajvins, who are in- 
voked to partake of the matutinal oblation (13, 1 ; 14, 1. 4). 
The first verse of 13 is quite similar to that of 14 ; the 
same may be said of the second verses of the two hymns ; 
the concluding verse of both is identical. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. Cf. above, IV, 6, 2. 

Note 2. Cf. Zend drafsha, ' banner.' 

Note 8. Cf. IV, 40, 2. sdtv& bharishaA gavisha^. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. The Sun is addressed. 

Note 2. It is more natural to take davidhvataA as nom. 
plur. than as gen. sing. (Ludwig). 

Verse 5. 
Note 1. The Sun. 



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358 VEDIC HYMNS. 



M AND ALA IV, HYMN 14. 
ASHTAKA III, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 14. 

1. Agni G&tavedas, the god, has looked on the 
dawns that shine with all their might 1 . Come hither, 
O Nasatyas 2 , wide-ruling (gods), on your chariot to 
this our sacrifice. 

2. The god Savitr? has sent his shine upward, 
producing light for the whole world. The Sun, 
shining with his rays, has filled Heaven and Earth 
and the air. 

3. The red one \ carrying hither (bliss) 2 , has 
come with her light, the great, brilliant one, shining 
with her rays. Ushas, the goddess, awakening (all 
beings) to welfare, goes along on her well-yoked 
chariot. 

4. May those chariots and horses, most ready to 
drive, drive you l hither at the break of dawn. For 
these Somas are for you l that you may drink the 
honey-drink 2 . Rejoice, O manly ones, at this sacri- 
fice. 

5. = IV, 13, 5. 

NOTES. 

The same Rishi and metre. — No verse of this hymn 
occurs in the other Samhitas. On the parallelism in which 
IV, 14 stands to IV, 13, see the introductory note on 
IV, 13. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. On mahobhiA, see vol. xxxii, p. 196 seq. (I, 165, 
5, note 3). Here the word refers to the powerful light of 



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MAtfX>ALA IV, HVMN 14. 359 

the dawn, not of Agni, cf. VI, 64, 2. ushaA devi r6£amana 
mahobhiA. 

Note 2. On the mention of the Nasatyas (A^vins) in this 
connection, compare the introductory note on IV, 13. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. The Dawn as before. 

Note 2. That an object like ' bliss ' is to be supplied, is 
shown by such passages as I, 48, 9. ushaA . . . avahant! 
bhflri asmabhyam saubhagam; I, 92, 3. (the Dawns) isham 
vahantM sukrfte sudanave ; 1, 1 13, 15. (the Dawn) avahanti 
p6shya varya«i. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. The text has the dual of the pronoun. The 
Ajvins are addressed. 

Note 2. It is the peculiar character of the Ajvins that 
they drink madhu ; see Hillebrandt, Vedische Mythologie, 
vol. i, p. 239 seq. H. O., Religion des Veda, p. 208, note 4 ; 
p. 367, note 2. 



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360 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAMPALA IV, HYMN 15. 
ASHTAKA III, ADHYAYA 5, VARGA 15^16. 

1. Agni, the Hotrz, he who is a strong horse, is 
led around at our sacrifice, the god worshipful among 
the gods. 

2. Agni goes thrice 1 around the sacrifice, like a 
charioteer, conveying the enjoyment 2 to the gods. 

3. Agni, the lord of booty, the sage, has circum- 
ambulated the oblations, bestowing treasures on the 
worshipper. 

4. This (is the Agni) who is kindled in the front 
for Devavata's son, the Sringaya. 1 , the brilliant (god), 
the deceiver of foes. 

5. May the strong mortal be the master of this 
(god), of an Agni like this, with sharp teeth and 
bountiful. 

6 '. Him they clean day by day like a racer that 
wins (booty), like (Soma), the red young child of 
Heaven 2 . 

7. When Sahadeva's son, the prince, thought of 
me with two bay horses \ I rose up like one who is 
called. 

8. And immediately I accepted from Sahadeva's 
son, the prince, those adorable two bay horses which 
he offered me. 

9. May this prince Somaka, Sahadeva's son, live 
long, for your sake, O divine Asvins ! 

10. Give long life, O divine Asvins, to this son 
of Sahadeva, the prince ! 



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MAWDALA IV, HYMN I 5. 36 1 



NOTES. 

The same Rishi. Metre, Gayatrt. — Verses i-3=TB. Ill, 
6, 4, I ; MS. IV, 13, 4. Verse 3 = SV. I, 30 ; VS. XI, 25 \ 
TS. IV, 1, a, 5; MS. I, 1,9. 

The first three verses are characterised by the constant 
allusions to Agni's being carried around, and, in connection 
therewith, by the frequent repetition of the preposition pari. 
Probably these verses formed an independent Tri£a-hymn, 
the position of which would be according to the laws of 
arrangement of the Samhita; this Tri£a seems, conse- 
quently, to belong to the original collection of hymns. The 
verses 4-10, on the other hand, or at least the verses 7-10, 
would seem to be a later addition ; the verses 4-6 can be 
considered as a Tri£a belonging to the original Samhita, 
though in this case it is difficult to explain why the verses 
7-10, which do not contain any reference to Agni, have 
been inserted here at the end of the series of Agni hymns. 
Another argument against the separation of the verses 4-6 
from the rest of the Sukta is the mention of the prince 
Sringaya. in verse 4 : verses 7-10 refer to a prince Somaka 
Sahadevya, and we know from the Aitareya Brahrna«a 
(VII, 34, cf. Satapatha Brahmana II, 4, 4, 4) that this 
prince also belonged to the Sr*«gaya tribe. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. Cf. above, IV, 6, 4. 

Note 2. I. e. the offering which the gods enjoy. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. This SWagaya Daivavata is mentioned also in 

VI, 27, 7. 

Verse 6. 

Note L The first Pada of this verse is identical with the 
first Pada of VIII, 10a, ia. 



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362 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Note 2. The red young child of Heaven seems to be the 
Soma. The Soma frequently is called arusha (' red '), and 
is said to be cleansed by men ; in IX, 33, 5 ; 38, 5, the 
expression divi/t slsuA ('the young child of Heaven') is 
used with regard to him. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. I. e. when he thought of presenting me with the 
two horses. 



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MAWDALA V, HYMN I. 365 



MANDALA V, HYMN 1. 
ASHJAKA III, ADHYAYA 8, VARGA 12-13. 

i. Agni has been wakened by the fuel of men, in 
face of the Dawn who approaches like a milch-cow. 
His flames stream forward to the sky like quick 
(birds) that fly up to a branch. 

2. The Hotrt has been wakened that there may 
be sacrifice for the gods. Gracious Agni has stood 
upright in the morning. When he has been kindled, 
his brilliant stream of flames has been seen. The 
great god has been released from darkness. 

3. When he has wakened the string of the crowd 
(of worshippers) 1 , the bright Agni anoints himself 
with bright cows*. Then the Dakshiwi is yoked, 
striving for gain 3 . He who stands upright has, by 
the sacrificial ladles, sucked her who lies extended *. 

4. Towards Agni the minds of the pious turn 
together as (all) eyes (turn) to the sun. When both 
Dawns of different colour 1 give birth to him, the 
white racer is born at the beginning of days. 

5. For He, the noble one, has been born at the 
beginning of days, the red one has been laid down 
in the woods that have been laid down. Agni, the 
Hotrz, the best sacrificer, has sat down, bestowing 
his seven treasures on every house. 

6. Agni, the Hotri, the best sacrificer, sat down 
in the mother's lap, in the sweet-smelling place, the 
young sage growing up in many places, the 
righteous one, the supporter of tribes, and kindled 
in their midst. 



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364 VEDIC HYMNS. 



7. They magnify with adorations that priest 
efficacious at sacrifices, Agni the Hotri, who has 
spread himself over heaven and earth according to 
^*ta ; they groom (Agni), the own racer (of men), 
with Ghr/ta. 

8. He who likes to be groomed, is groomed in 
his own (abode), the house-friend', praised by sages, 
our auspicious guest, the bull with a thousand horns 
who has the strength of such a one. O Agni ! By 
this power thou surpassest all other (beings). 

9. O Agni ! Thou overtakest all other (beings) in 
one moment (for the sake of him) to whom Thou 
hast become visible as the fairest one, thou who 
shouldst be magnified, the wonderful, brilliant one, 
the beloved guest of human clans. 

10. To thee, O youngest (god), the tribes bring 
tribute, O Agni, from near and far. Behold l the 
grace of the most glorious (god) ! Mighty, O Agni, 
is thy great and glorious shelter. 

1 1 . Mount to-day, O shining Agni, the shining 
car, in the neighbourhood of the worshipful (gods). 
Knowing the paths,' the wide air 1 , bring hither the 
gods that they may eat the oblation. 

12. We have pronounced an adoring speech to 
the holy sage, to the manly bull. GavishMira ador- 
ingly has sent his song of praise to Agni as the gold 
(i. e. the sun) far-reaching (is sent by the gods 
upward) to the sky. 



NOTES. 

The Rtshis are Budha Atreya (cf. verse 1, abodhi) and 
Gavish/Aira Atreya (cf. verse 12). The metre is TrishAibh. — 
Verse i = SV. I, 73 ; AV. XIII, 2, 46 ; VS. XV, 24 ; TS. 



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MANDALA V, HYMN I. 365 

IV, 4, 4, i. Verses i-2=MS. II, 13, 7. Verses i~3 = SV. 
II, 1096-1098. Verse 5=TS. IV, 1, 3, 4. Verse 6= MS. 
IV, 11, 1 ; TB. I, 3, 14, 1. Verse 9=TB. II, 4, 7, 10. 
Verse io=MS. IV, 11, 4; TB. II, 4, 7, 9. Verse i2=MS. 
11,13,7; TB. IV, 4, 4, 2; VS. XV, 25. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. The meaning seems to be : when Agni has set 
into motion the string (representing the prayers, &c.) by 
which the worshippers tie and instigate him and the other 
powers of the sacrifice. Cf. IV, 1, 9. pra tarn (scil. agnfm) 
mahya" raranaya nayanti ; IX, 87, 1. ajvam na tva (scil. 
s6mam) va^/nam mar^ayantaA ikMa barhfA rnsa.nS.bhiA 
nayanti. See also I, 163, 4. 5. 

Note 2. I.e. with bright ghr/ta. 

Note 3. The Dakshi«a or sacrificial gift offered by the 
Ya^-amana to the ministrant priests, is represented here 
as a car which is yoked in the morning. Cf. Bergaigne, 
Rel.V^dique, I, 128; III, 283. 

Note 4. ' He who stands upright ' is Agni ; ' she who 
lies extended ' seems to be the cow, i. e. the ghr**ta which 
Agni sucks by means of the sacrificial ladles. — See also 
Pischel, Vedische Studien, II, 113, from whose interpreta- 
tion I differ. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. I.e. Night and Dawn. ' 

Verse 8. 

Note L I cannot adopt the conjectures of Bartholomae 
(Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XV, 197) on sv6 damunaA. 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. The human worshipper seems to be addressed ; 
the ' most glorious one ' is very probably Agni. 

Verse 11. 

Note 1. Vidvan, which may be construed with the genitive 
or with the accusative, stands here with both cases. 



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366 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAA>X>ALA V, HYMN 2. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 8, VARGA 14-15. 

i." The young mother carries in secret the boy 
confined l ; she does not yield him to the father. 
People do not see before them his fading 2 face laid 
down with the Arati s . 

2. Who is that boy, O young woman, whom thou, 
the Peshi l , earnest ? It is the queen who has borne 
him. Through many autumns the fruit of the womb 
has increased. I saw him born when his mother 
gave birth to him. 

3. I saw him the gold-toothed, brilliant-coloured 
preparing his weapons far from his dwelling-place \ 
After I have offered to him the ambrosia cleared 
(from all impure mixture) 2 — what may the Indra- 
less, the hymnless do to me ? 

4. I saw him, the highly shining (Agni), walking 
far from his dwelling-place, like (a bull) together 
with the herd '. Those (women) have not held 
him, for he has been born. The young women 
become grey 2 . 

5. Who have separated my young bull from the 
cows that * had no cow-herd, not even a stranger ? 
May those who have held him, let him loose. May 
he, the knowing one, lead the cattle towards us. 

6. Him, the king of dwellings (?)', the dwelling- 
place of people, the Aratis have laid down 2 among 
men. May the spells of Atri loose him. May the 
reproachers become reproachable (themselves). 

7. Thou hast loosed the bound »SunaAyepa from 



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MAJVDALA V, HYMN 2. 367 

the thousand sacrificial posts ; for he toiled (wor- 
shipping thee). Thus, O Agni, loose from us the 
fetters, O knowing Hotrt, sitting down here. 

8 l . For thou hast gone away 2 from me, because 
thou wert angry ; (this) the protector of the laws 
of the gods 3 has told me. (But) Indra, the knowing 
one, has looked after thee. Instructed by him, 
O Agni, I have come hither. 

9. Agni shines with mighty light ; he makes all 
things visible by his greatness. H e conquers godless, 
wicked wiles. He sharpens his two horns in order 
to pierce the Rakshas. 

10. And may the roarings of Agni mount up to 
the sky, with sharp weapons in order to kill the 
Rakshas. In his rapture his flames break down 
(everything); the godless hindrances do not hold 
him back. 

1 1. This song of praise, O strong-born (Agni), 
I, the priest, have fashioned for thee, as a skilful 
workman (builds) a chariot 1 . If thou acceptest that 
(praise), O god Agni, may we conquer thereby waters 
together with the sun. 

1 2. May the bull x with mighty neck, grown 
strong, with no foe to resist him, get together 
the niggard's wealth. Thus the immortal (gods) 
have spoken to this Agni : may he grant protection 
to the man who has spread the Barhis ; may he 
grant protection to the man who brings offerings. 



NOTES. 

The Rishi of verses 1, 3-8, 10-12 is Kumara Atreya, or 
Vrisa. Cana ; or both are the .foshis of these verses. Of 
the verses a and 9 Vma alone is the Rishi. The metre is 



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368 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Trish/ubh (verse 12, Sakvarl). — Verse 9 = AV. VIII, 3, 24. 
Verses 9, io=TS. I, 2, 14, 7. Verse n=TB. II, 4, 7, 4. 

A part of this hymn is very obscure. I do not think, 
as does Prof. Geldner (Festgruss an Roth, 192), that the 
story of the Sa/yayanakam (see Sayawa's commentary, and 
compare Paȣavi#wa Brahmawa XIII 3, 12), of the Puro- 
hita Vrisa, who drives with the king on the royal chariot 
and kills a boy, throws any real light on the difficult points 
of the hymn. Nor does it seem to me that, as is the 
opinion of Prof. Hillebrandt (Zeitschrift der Deutschen 
Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, XXXIII, 248 seq.), the first 
six verses, which Hillebrandt considers as an independent 
hymn, contain a description of how the fire which they 
try to produce by the attrition of the Arawis, does not 
appear. In my opinion the hymn — which is really one 
hymn as the tradition gives it — is a prayer of a person 
who suffers, who feels himself bound by the fetters of 
distress (verse 7) and persecuted by the power of Rakshas 
(verses 9, 10). Agni, formerly resplendent, has decayed 
and has forsaken him : may Agni be restored to his former 
might (verse 6), and may we ourselves be released from 
all distress (verse 7, &c). Possibly the hymn is connected 
with the rite of Punaradheya, where the sacrificial fire 
which has brought no luck to the sacrificer, is extinguished, 
and after an interval a new fire is established (H.O., 
Religion des Veda, p. 353). There may of course be other 
special points, beyond the reach of our conjectures, which, 
if known, would elucidate several of the obscure allusions 
so frequent in the first verses of the hymn. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. The boy very probably is Agni. — With the 
words samubdham guha bibharti, cf. 1, 158, 5. susamubdham 
ava-adhu/*. 

Note 2. Not without hesitation I translate minat as if 
it were the middle minanam. Possibly the word means : 
'which violates (the ordinances),' i.e. which does not shine 
and bring luck to men as it usually does. Na seems, as it 



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MAJVDALA V, HYMN 2. 369 

usually does (cf. Delbriick, Altindische Syntax, p. 543)> 
to belong to the whole clause, and not to minat. 

Note 3. Bohtlingk-Roth and Grassmann conjecture 
aratnau ; Hillebrandt, aratau ; Geldner (Festgruss an Roth, 
192), aratau. Geldner seems to be right (cf. verse 6), 
though it will scarcely be possible to determine what con- 
crete being was here thought of. Geldner says, ' Gemeint 
ist die PLra&ka, welche die Gluth des Feuers entfuhrt hat ; ' 
but, as has already been observed, I do not think that this 
traditional story on the meaning of our hymn is of any 
real value. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. The meaning of Peshi is unknown. The word 
seems anyhow to describe the wrong mother as low or 
contemptible. Agni is degraded by sojourning with her, 
while his proper nature is glorious, for he is the queen's 
son. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. Agni has forsaken his proper dwelling. 

Note 2. On vipr/kvat, cf. Taitt. Sawhita III, 1, 6, 2. 
yuni^-mi tisra// vipr/£aA sftryasya te ; V&g: Sa/whita IX, 4. 
sampr/£au sthaA sam ma bhadrd«a prmktam ; vipr/£au 
sthaA vf ma papmana prmktam. Vi-prik seems to mean, 
consequently, ' to free something from an admixture,' and 
amr/tam vipr/kvat seems to be ambrosia in which dwells 
the power of getting free from bad admixtures. Thus in 
the passage quoted from the Taitt. Sawhita the Sun is 
referred to as thrice cleared from all impure elements. It 
is quite uncertain whether the expression used here refers 
or not to the myth of the churning of the ocean (Geldner, 
loc. cit.), and I do not think that we should translate 
amWtam vipr/kvat, as Geldner does, ' das was sich als 
Nektar ausscheidet.' 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. I read with Bohtlingk-Roth sumidyutham. 
Note 2. The young women seem to be hostile beings of 
[46] B b 



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370 VEDIC HYMNS. 



the same kind as the young woman mentioned in verse 2. 
They try to seize Agni, but he has been born already; 
his fiery, unassailable nature has been formed. I do not 
pretend to know what it means that then those female 
foes become grey with age. ' I think they are the Dawns 
who hold Agni in the dark ; but when he escapes and 
is actually born, they, the Dawns, become grey.' M. M. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. The relative pronoun yesham seems to refer both 
to the bull (maryakam) and to the cows (g6bhiA). The 
bull probably is Agni who has been separated from the 
cows, i. e. the oblations, prayers, &c. (?) ' Possibly the bull 
Agni, the rising sun, has been separated from the cows, the 
clouds or dawns.' M. M. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. Vasa'm ra^anam. I cannot follow the interpre- 
tation of Pischel, Vedische Studien, I, 210. 

Note 2. Or nf daduA, ' they have bound him'? Cf. ava 
sn'^antu in the third Pada, and nfditam in verse 7. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. The whole verse is nearly identical with X, 32, 6. 

Note 2. I consider afyeA (cf. Bartholomae, Arische 
Forschungen, II, 7a, 76; Studien zur Indogermanischen 
Sprachgeschichte, I, 21) as 2nd sing, pluperfect of the 
root i. 

Note 8. Varu«a ? 

Verse 11. 

Note 1. With the second Pada compare I, 130, 6 ; V, 

*9> 15- 

Verse 12. 

Note 1. The bull of course is Agni. 



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MAWflALA V, HYMN 3. 371 

MAiV£>ALA V, HYMN 3. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 8, VARGA 16-17. 

i. Thou, Agni, art Varu»a, when born ; thou 
becomest Mitra when kindled. In thee, O son of 
strength, the Visvedevas (dwell). Thou art Indra 
for the mortal worshipper. 

2. Thou becomest Aryaman when thou bearest * 
the secret name of the maidens, O self-dependent 
one. They anoint (thee) with cows 2 like the well- 
established Mitra s , when thou makest husband and 
wife one-minded. 

3. For thy glory the Maruts have cleansed them- 
selves \ who are thy fair and brilliant offspring, 
O Rudra 2 ! The footprint of Vishwu which is put 
down in the highest place : therewith thou protectest 
the secret name of the cows. 

4. • By thy beauty, O god, the gods are beautiful 
to behold 1 . Assuming many (powers or goods) 
they attached themselves to immortality. Men have 
set down Agni as the Hotri, the Usigs, honouring 
(him), the praise of Ayu 2 . 

5. There is no (other) Hotrz before thee, a better 
sacrificed ; no one surpasses thee, O self-dependent 
one, by wisdom. And that house of which thou art 
the guest, he 2 , O god, will overcome the mortals by 
his sacrifice. 

6. May we overcome the mortals, O Agni, pro- 
tected by thee, striving for wealth, awaking (thee) 
with offerings ; may we (overcome mortals) in the 
contest, in the distribution l of days ; may we (over- 
come them) by wealth, O son of strength ! 

b b 2 



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372 VEDIC HVMNS. 



7. If a man should turn upon us sin or guilt, 
bring ye the evil on him who pronounces evil spells 
(against us). Destroy, O knowing one, such a curse, 
O Agni, (of a man) who injures us by falsehood. 

8. Thee, O god, the ancient (mortals) have made 
their messenger at the break of this (dawn), and 
have sacrificed with their oblations, when thou goest 
along, O Agni, in the abode of wealth, a god kindled 
by the mortals and by the Vasus. 

9. Protect the father — drive away (evil) as the 
knowing one — (the father) who is considered 1 as 
thy son, O son of strength 2 . When, O sapient 
(Agni), wilt thou look upon us ? When wilt thou, 
who knowest Rita., requite (human deeds) ? 

10. The father 1 adoring gives many names to 
thee, O Vasu, if thou shouldst take pleasure therein. 
Will not Agni, delighting in his divine power, grant 
us his favour, he who has grown strong ? 

11. Thou indeed, O Agni, youngest one, bringest 
thy praiser across all dangers. Thieves have been 
seen and deceitful men; dishonest people have come 
with unknown designs. 

12. These our processions have been directed 
towards thee. Yes, to thee, the Vasu, this guilt has 
been confessed. Verily this Agni, grown strong, 
will never surrender us to the curse nor to him who 
does harm to us. 

NOTES. 

Thei?/shi isVasamita Atreya; the metre is Trish/ubh. — 
No verse of this hymn occurs in the other Sawhitas. 

Verse 2. 
Note 1. I think that we must read bfbharshi. 



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MAtfflALA V, HYMN 3. 373 

Note 2. I.e. with butter. 

Note 3. On Mitra as the god of alliances, and the 
anointing of Mitra — possibly of an object that represents 
Mitra — see H. O., Religion des Veda, p. 186, note 1. Cf. 
also Pischel, Vedische Studien, I, 92 seq. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. I.e. they have adorned themselves. Cf. VII, 
39, 3. urav antarikshe mar^ayanta xubhra^. 
Note 2. Rudra of course is here a name of Agni. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. SudHsaA, which I have translated as nom. plur., 
may also be understood as gen. sing. : ' by thy beauty, 
who art beautiful to behold, O god, the gods, assuming, &c.' 

Note 2. Cf. Narlramsa. — This hemistich is nearly 
identical with IV, 6, 11. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. Comp. above, III, 17, 5. 
Note 2. The construction is rather free. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. Vidatheshu ahnam : cf. above, I, 31, 6, note 2 
(p. 26 seq.). 

Verse 8. 

Note L See Neisser, Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XVIII, 

3 JO - 

Note 2. Bergaigne (Religion V^dique, II, 103) proposes 

to read yodhi without accent and to derive it, as Delbriick 

does, from yu (not from yudh) ; he translates the first 

hemistich : ' Protege-nous, ^carte le pere qui passe pour 

ton fils.' I think that he is right as to the verb yu, but 

that the accent of yddhi is correct ; the words y6dhi vidvan 

form a parenthesis. Agni is invoked to protect the father 

of the sacrificing tribe (comp. verse 10), or the father of 



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374 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Agni himself, i.e. the sacrificer or the priest, who is him- 
self considered, at the same time, as the son of Agni (see 
Bergaigne, I, 37 seq. ; Geldner, Vedische Studien, I, 167). 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. ' The father ' may either be the father spoken 
of in verse 9 (see verse 9, note a). Or the word may refer 
to Agni : ' He who adores thee, gives many names to thee, 
if thou, the father, O Vasu, &c* 



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MAtfDALA V, HYMN 4. 375 

MAA^ALA V, HYMN 4. 
ASH7A.KA III, ADHYAYA 8, VARGA 18-19. 

i. Thee, O Agni, the treasure-lord of treasures, 
I gladden at the sacrifices, O king! May we, 
striving for gain, conquer gain through thee; may 
we overcome the hostilities of mortals. 

2. Agni, the bearer of oblations, our ever-young 
father, is mighty, brilliant, beautiful to behold among 
us. Shine (on us) food with a good household 1 . 
Turn all glory towards us 2 . 

3. Establish Agni as the Hotri, the sage of the 
clans, the lord of human clans, the bright purifier, 
whose back is covered with ghee, the omniscient 
May he obtain the best goods (for us) among the 
gods. 

4. Enjoy thyself, O Agni, joined with \dk, uniting 
thyself with the rays of the sun. Enjoy our fuel, 
O (Jatavedas, and bring the gods hither that they 
may eat our offerings. 

5. Welcome, as our household-god and the guest 
in our dwelling, come to this our sacrifice as the 
knowing one. Dispelling, O Agni, all (hostile) 
attempts, bring to us the possessions of those who 
are at enmity with us. 

6. Drive away the Dasyu with thy weapon, 
creating strength for thy own body. When thou 
bringest the gods across (to us), O son of strength, 
then, O manliest Agni, protect us in (our striving 
for) gain. 

7. May we worship thee, O Agni, with hymns, 
with offerings, O purifier with glorious light. Stir for 
us wealth with all goods ; bestow on us all riches ! 



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376 VEDIC HYMNS. 



8. Enjoy, O Agni, our sacrifice, our offering, 
O son of strength who dwellest in three abodes. 
May we be well-doers before the gods. Protect us 
with thy thrice-protecting shelter. 

9. Bring us across all difficulties and dangers, 
O G&tavedas, as with a boat across a river. Agni, 
being praised with adoration as (thou hast been 
praised) by Atri, be a protector of our bodies. 

10. When I, the mortal, call thee, the immortal, 
thinking of thee with humble mind \ bestow glory 
on us, O (S&tavedas ; may I attain immortality, 
O Agni, with my offspring. 

11. The well-doer to whom thou, O Agni G&ta- 
vedas, createst pleasant freedom, will happily attain 
wealth with horses and sons, with valiant men and 
cows. 

NOTES. 

The same Risbi and metre. — Verse i=TS. I, 4, 46, 2. 
Verse 2=TS. Ill, 4, 1 1, 1 ; MS. IV, is, 6 ; 14, 15. Verse 
5=AV VII, 73, 9 ; TB. II, 4, 1, 1 ; MS. IV, 11, 1. Verse 
9=TB. II, 4. 1. 5; TA. X, a, i; MS. IV, 10, 1. Verses 
10, n=TS. I, 4, 46, 1. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. According to the traditional text, su-garhapatya'A 
must be an epithet of ishaA. But the conjecture of 
Bohtlingk-Roth, su-garhapatydA, has great probability : 
' as the good protector of our household, shine food on us.' 
Cf. AV. XII, 2, 45=TB. I, 2, 1, 20. 

Note 2. The second hemistich is nearly identical with 
III, 54, 22. 

Verse 10. 

Note L See Pischel, Vedische Studien, I, 221. 



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MAJVDALA V, HYMN 5. 377 

MAJVDALA V, HYMN 5. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 8, VARGA 20-21. 

Apr! Hymn. 

i. Sacrifice sharp ghrita. to the well-kindled light, 
to Agni (7atavedas. 

2. May the unbeguiled Nara$a#*sa make this 
sacrifice ready; for he is a sage with honey in his 
hand. 

3 1 . Agni, magnified by us, bring hither to our 
help the bright, beloved Indra, with easy-going 
chariots. 

4. Soft like wool * spread thyself (O Barhis). The 
hymns have been sung to thee. Be to us for success, 
O beautiful (Barhis) ! 

5. O divine, easily passable doors, open your- 
selves for our protection. Fill the sacrifice (with 
bliss) further and further ! 

6. We approach (with prayers) Night and Morn- 
ing, whose face is beautiful, the increasers of vital 
strength, the two young mothers of fiita. 

7. On the wind's flight, magnified, ye two divine 
Hotrts of man, come hither to this our sacrifice. 

8 '. 1/4, Sarasvati, and Mahl, the three comfort- 
giving goddesses, they who do not fail, shall sit 
down on the sacrificial grass. 

9. Come hither as a friend, Tvashiri, and mighty 
in welfare, and also by thyself, protect us in every 
sacrifice. 

10. Where thou knowest, O tree (i. e. sacrificial 



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378 VEDTC HYMNS. 



post), the secret names of the gods, to that place 
make the offerings go. 

ii. Svaha to Agni and Varu«a ! Svaha to Indra 
and the Maruts ! Svaha to the gods for our offering ! 



NOTES. 

The same Rishi. Metre, Gayatri. — Verse i=VS. Ill, %. 
Verse 9=TS. Ill, i, n, a. Verse io=TB. Ill, 7, a, 5. 

Verse 3. 
Mote 1. The first hemistich is identical with I, 142, 4. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. On fir/ta-mrada^, see Lanman, Noun-Inflection, 
p. 560. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. This verse is identical with I, 13, 9. 



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MAffDAhA V, HYMN 6. 379 

MAA^ALA V, HYMN 6. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 8, VARGA 22-23. 

1. I think of that Agni who is a Vasu, to whom 
the milch-cows go home, the swift horses (go) home, 
(our) own racers (go) home. Bring food to thy 
praisers ! 

2. He is Agni who is praised as the Vasu, he to 
whom the milch-cows come together, and the quickly 
running horses, and the well-born liberal patrons. 
Bring food to thy praisers ! 

3. For Agni, dwelling among all tribes, gives a 
racer to the clan. Agni (gives a racer) that is truly 
helpful for (winning) wealth 1 : he (the racer) being 
well cherished, will attain precious gain. Bring food 
to thy praisers ! 

4. May we kindle thee 1 , Agni, O god, the brilliant, 
never ageing, in order that yon highly miraculous 
fuel of thine 2 may shine in the sky. Bring food to 
thy praisers ! 

5. To thee \ O Agni, our oblation is offered with 
a Rik, O lord of bright splendour, highly brilliant, 
wonderful lord of the clan, carrier of oblations! 
Bring food to thy praisers ! 

6. Those Agnis make everything precious prosper 
in the Agnis ; they drive forward (precious wealth) ; 
they incite it ; they speed it hither in the due way l . 
Bring food to thy praisers ! 

7. Those flames of thine, O Agni, the racers, have 
boasted mightily — they who with the flight of their 



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380 VEDIC HYMNS. 



hoofs have made tremble 1 the stables of the cows. 
Bring food to thy praisers ! 

8. Bring fresh food with fine dwellings, O Agni, 
to us, thy praisers ! May we be of those who have 
praised (thee), who have thee as their messenger, 
house by house. Bring food to thy praisers ! 

9. Thou warmest in thy mouth, O highly brilliant 
one, the two (sacrificial) ladles full of butter. And 
mayst thou fill us (with gifts) at our hymns, O lord 
of strength ! Bring food to thy praisers ! 

10. Thus 1 they have driven, they have led*, 
Agni in the due way by prayers and sacrifices. May 
he bestow on us plenty of valiant men, and that 
plenty of swift horses (wished for) 8 . Bring food to 
thy praisers ! 



NOTES. 

The same Rishi. The metre is Pahkti. — Verse 1 = SV. 
I, 425. Verses i-2=VS. XV, 41, 42; MS. II, 13, 7. 
Verses 1, 3, 2=SV. II, 1087-1089. Verse 3=TB. Ill, 11, 
6, 4. Verse 4=SV. I, 419 5 AV. XVIII, 4, 88; MS. II, 
13, 7. Verses 4, 5, 9=SV. II, 372-374; TS. IV, 4, 4, 6. 
Verse 9= VS. XV, 43 ; TS. II, 2, 12, 7- 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. At first sight the conjecture of Bohtlingk-Roth 
and Grassmann, rayfm, is very tempting, cf. IX, 12, 9. 
rayfm . . . su-abhuvam ; X, 1 22, 3. rayfwa . . . su-abhuva. 
I believe, nevertheless, that on closer examination the 
traditional text will prove correct. Sa pritaA evidently 
refers to the racer (vi^fn) cf. I, 66, 4=69, 5. va^f na prtta* 
(cf. also X, 101, 7. prtetta axvan) : then it follows that 
su-abhuvam also refers to the racer, and raye (cf. 1, 100, 16 ; 
III, 53, 16) will be quite right. 



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MAiVDALA V, HYMN 6. 38 I 



Verse 4. 

Note 1. Te stands for the accusative ; see Pischel, Zeit- 
schrift der Deutschen Morgenland. Gesellschaft, XXXV, 
715 ; Delbruck, Altindische Syntax, p. 205. 

Note 2. This refers to the sun. By kindling the sacred 
fire men make the sun rise. See H. O., Religion des Veda, 
p. no. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. The pronoun ' to thee ' stands twice, te in the 
first Pada (where it is repeated from the first Pada of 
verse 4, £ te agne), and tubhyam (or rather tiibhya) in the 
fourth Pada, unless we construe te haviA. 

Verse 6. 
Note 1. See Pischel, Vedische Studien, II, 127. 

Verse 7. 
Note 1. See Gaedicke, Der Accusativ, p. 57. 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. On the nasalization of eva'ft, cf. H. O., Prolego- 
mena, p. 469 seq. * 

Note 2. Pischel (Vedische Studien, II, 127) explains 
agak as a^-ush, the contrary of sa^dsh. Bartholomae 
(Studien zur Indogermanischen Sprachgeschichte, II, 159, 
note 2 ; cf. Indogermanische Forschungen, III, 108, note 1) 
conjectures igur (=&gma.n) yamuA : 'sie haben ihn jetzt 
auf seiner Bahn festgehalten.' I believe, as Sayawa does, 
that this a^mryamuA contains two independent verbs, aguh 
and yamuA, which are quite correct forms of the roots zg 
and yam (see Delbruck, Altindisches Verbum, p. 65). As 
to ag, cf. VI, 2, 8. agyise dgne va^f nd; V, 30, 14. itydJt 
nd va^tf raghu^ a^yaminaA; as to yam II, 5, 1. jakdma 
v&ginaJi (i.e. agne^) yamam. But should not the accent 
be yamu/r ? 

Note 8. The fourth P4da is identical with VIII, 6, 24. 



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382 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAA7Z?ALA V, HYMN 7. 
ASH7AKA III, ADHYAYA 8, VARGA 24-25. 

1. O friends, (bring) together your united food 
and praise to Agni, the strongest (god) of (human) 
dwellings, the offspring of Vigour, the mighty one — 

2. At whose onslaught 1 , wherever it be, men 
rejoice in the seat of men, whom the worthy ones 
kindle, whom (human) creatures produce. 

3. When we get together the food and the offer- 
ings of men, he has grasped, with the strength of 
his splendour, the rein of Ritai. 

4. He indeed produces light even by night to 
him who is afar, when he, the ever-young purifier, 
destroys the lords of the forest 

5. He at whose officiating (men) pour down the 
offering of their sweat on the paths — to Him who is 
noble by his own nature, the worlds have risen as 
to ridges (oT hills) — 

6. He whom the mortal has acquired, the much- 
desired (god), for the refreshment of every one, the 
sweetener of nourishment, the homestead for the 
Ayu — 

7. He indeed, the beast, mows off deserts and 
habitable land like a mower, the golden-bearded 
with brilliant teeth, the Ribhu of undecaying 
strength. 

8. The bright one for whom (the ghma) streams 
(quickly) like an axe \ as at (the sacrifice of) Atri. 
Him the well-bearing mother has born, as soon as * 
she had enjoyed love 3 . 

9. He who satisfies thee for refreshment, O Agni 



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MAY0ALA V, HYMN J. 383 

who drinkest butter : mayst thou bestow splendour, 
renown, and (wise) mind on such mortals x . 

10. Thus I have seized upon the spirit of Adhri^f (?) 
as upon a head of cattle given by thee '. May then 
Atri, O Agni, overcome the Dasyus who do not 
give (to the Brahmans) ; may Isha overcome the 
men (who do not give). 



NOTES. 

The JZishi is Isha Atreya (cf. verse 10) ; the metre is 
Anush/ubh (verse 10, Pankti). — Verse i=VS. XV, 29; 
TS. II, 6, 11, 4 ; IV, 4, 4, 3 ; MS. IV, n, 1. Verses 2, 3 
=TS. II, 1, 11, 3 ; MS. IV, 13, 4. 

Verse 2. 
Note 1. Yasya sam-ritau: see I, 127, 3. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. With the expression svadhiti^-iva riyate (Lan- 
man, Noun-Inflection, p. 375), compare V, 48, 4. rltfm 
parar6A-iva. Of course we must ask: what is the thing 
that streams so brightly and quickly as an axe moves ? 
The thing in question is stated to stream (riyate) for Agni 
now as it did at Atri's sacrifice. The expression 'as at 
Atri's sacrifice ' seems to show that something like prayers 
or libations is alluded to. The verb riyate, on the other 
hand, seems to point either to rivers, or to streams of Soma 
or of Ghrita.. Thus, considering that Ghnta is mentioned 
much more frequently in connection with Agni than Soma, 
we are led to the conclusion that the poet speaks here of 
streams of Ghrita. Should we not for sikiA read suki, 
which would be here as in IV, 1, 6 ; VI, 10, 2 ; IX, 67, 12, 
an epithet of Ghr/ta ? ' He for whom the bright (Ghrita) 
streams quickly like an axe.' The origin of the reading 



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584 VEDIC HYMNS. 



sukiA may easily be accounted for ; the word was thought 
to refer to Agni. — Another interpretation of this hemistich 
has been given by Benfey, Vedica und Linguistica, p. 177. 

Note 2. Krawa" : cf. I, 58, 3, note 1 (p. 47). 

Not© 3. ' Sobald sie den Liebesgenuss erlangt hatte.' 
Pischel, Ved. Studien, I, 71. 

Verse 9. 
Mote 1. The first hemistich speaks of the worshipper in 
the singular, the second in the plural. 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. This hemistich is quite obscure. With manyiim 
S. dade, cf., for instance, X, 48, a. dasyubhyaA pari nr*'m«am 
£ dade. Adhr(^aA may be the genitive of a proper name, 
as I have translated it ; but this is quite doubtful. Was 
the hymn intended for a charm in which the sacrificer 
seized a head of cattle which represented the spirit of an 
enemy, and thus deprived that enemy of his courage? 



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MAJVBALA V, HYMN 8. 385 

MAA^ALA V, HYMN 8. 
ASHJAKA III, ADHYAYA 8, VARGA 26. 

i. Thee, O Agni, the men who love Rita, have 
kindled, the ancient ones thee the ancient, for the 
sake of bliss, O (god) who art produced by strength ; 
the highly-brilliant, worshipful, in whom all refresh- 
ment dwells, the household god, the lord of the 
house, the chosen. 

2. Thee, O Agni, the clans have set down, the 
ancient guest, the flame-haired lord of the house, 
with mighty light, with many shapes, the winner of 
prizes, giving good shelter and good help, who is 
busy among the decayed (wood) '. 

3. Thee, O Agni, the human clans magnify, who 
knowest (the art of sacrificial) libations, who sepa- 
ratest (what was mixed) \ the highest bestower of 
treasures, who, (though) dwelling in secret, O blessed 
one, (yet) art visible to all, mightily roaring, an 
excellent sacrificer, shining with ghee. 

4. Thee, O Agni, the supporter, we, always have 
praised with our songs and have sat down near thee 
with adoration. Thus being kindled, O Angiras, be 
pleased with us, as a god through the mortal's bril- 
liant (offering) \ with thy glorious splendours. 

5. Thou, O Agni, manifold-shaped, bestowest 
vigour on every house in thy ancient way, O much- 
praised one! Thou rulest with might over much 
food. This impetuousness of thine, when thou 
rushest forward impetuously, is not to be defied. 

6. Thee, O Agni, when kindled, O youngest one, 
the gods have made their messenger and bearer of 

[46] c c 



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386 VEDIC HYMNS. 



oblations. Thee who extendest over wide spaces, 
who dwellest in ghee, into whom offerings are poured, 
they have made their eye, impetuous, stirring 
thoughts. 

7. Thee, O Agni, on whom offerings of ghee are 
poured, (men) desirous of thy favour have kindled 
from of old with good fuel. Thus, grown strong, 
increased by the plants, thou spreadest thyself over 
the terrestrial spaces. 



NOTES. 

The same .fo'shi. Metre, £agati. — Verse 3=TS. Ill, 3, 
11, a. Verses 6, 7 = TB. I, a, 1, 12. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. The Padapi/^a gives ^arat-vfsham. I prefer 
this explanation to ^ara-dvfsham (' who hates decay '). 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. Agni is, in the later ritual, worshipped as 
' separator ' (viviki), if the sacrificer's fires have become 
mixed with other fires. See TaittirJya Brahmawa III, 7, 
3, 5 ; .Satapatha Brahmawa XII, 4, 4, a (where this very 
verse is quoted), &c. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. For yajasi, Bohtlingk-Roth conjecture yaLrasa, 
which seems to me a conjectura nimis facilis. I think 
that the adjective yajasi is right, and that a noun, meaning 
'offering' or the like, should be supplied. Cf. above, IV, 
1, 16, note 4. 



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MANDALA. V, HYMN 9. 387 

MAJV^ALA V, HYMN 9. 
ASHrAKA IV, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 1. 

i . Thee, O Agni, the god, mortals bringing offer- 
ings magnify. I deem thee the Gatavedas. Carry 
then the offerings (to the gods) in thy due way. 

2. Agni is the Hotrt of the dwelling where they 
offer gifts and spread the sacrificial grass, he with 
whom sacrifices, with whom glorious gains assemble. 

3. And he whom the kindling-stick has born, the 
young one, like a young (calf), the supporter of 
human clans, Agni the best sacrificer — 

4. And thou showest thyself hard to seize like 
a son of ... 1 , thou who art a burner of many woods, 
O Agni, like an animal (that consumes all grass) 
on a meadow 2 . 

5 1 . And he whose smoky 2 flames come together, 
when Trita in heaven blows upon him like a smelter, 
sharpens (him) as in smelting (him) s . . . 

6. May I through thy protection, O Agni, and 
through the praises of Mitra — may we 1 , like dis- 
pellers of malice, overcome the dangers of mortals. 

7. Bring this wealth to us, O powerful Agni, to 
(these our) men. May he * give us dwelling ; may 
he 1 give us prosperity ; may he * help us in winning 
booty. And help us to grow strong in fights ! 

NOTES. 

The i?/shi is Gaya Atreya (cf. V, 10, 3); the metre is 
Anush/ubh (verses 4 and 7, Pankti). — Verse 1 =TB. II, 4, 
i,4- 

C c 2 



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388 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Verse 4. 

Note 1. PutraA na hvaryaVzam. The meaning of hvarya 
is conjectural. Cf. on hvara, to which it very probably is 
related, I, 141, 7, note 1 ; II, 3, 4, note 1. Does hvarya 
mean 'serpent,' or a kind of horse (VI, 2, 8. AtyaJt na 
hvaryaA slsuA) ? 

Mote 2. The last Pada is identical with VI, 2, 9. Con- 
sidering the occurrence of the word hvarya here and in 
VI, 3, 8 (see note 1) we cannot believe that this is merely 
a casual coincidence. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. On this verse, compare Neisser, Bezzenberger's 
Beitrage, XX, 40 ; Macdonell, Journal Roy. As. Soo, 1893, 
p. 446. 

Note 2. DhumfnaA may be gen. sing.: 'he whose, the 
smoky (god's), flames.' 

Note 8. Ludwig and Neisser (Bezz. Beitr., loc. cit.) 
regard dhmatarf (Padap. dhmatari) as a nom. sing, mascu- 
line. I think that Geldner (Vedische Studien, 1, 146, note 1) 
and Bartholomae (Indogermanische Forschungen, I, 496, 
note 3) are right in explaining it as a locative infinitive. 
Compare also Johansson, Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XXX, 415 ; 
Joh. Schmidt, Pluralbildungen der Indogermanischen 
Neutra, p. 247. Macdonell translates, 'as in a smelting 
furnace.' 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. The poet, who has begun his sentence in the first 
person singular (' may I '), goes on in the plural. 

Verse 7. 
Note 1. ' He,' i. e. Agni, or ' it,' i. e. the wealth ? 



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MAYBALA V, HYMN IO. 389 

MAiVZPALA V, HYMN 10. 
ASH7AKA IV, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 2. 

i . Agni, bring us the mightiest splendour, O liberal 
one 1 ! With wealth and plenty cleave a path for us 
to booty. 

2. Thou, O wonderful Agni, (protect) us, through 
thy power of mind, through the bounteousness of 
thy strength. Upon thee mysterious power has 
entered. (Thou art) indeed * like worshipful Mitra. 

3. Thou, O Agni, increase for our sake the do- 
minion and the prosperity of those liberal givers, 
(of those) men who have accomplished liberalities 
(towards us) for our songs of praise. 

4. They who adorn prayers for thee, O bright 
Agni, the givers of horses 1 : those men are powerful 
in their power, whose glory awakes by itself (shin- 
ing) more mightily than even the sky 2 . 

5. Those shining flames of thine, Agni, go fiercely 
along, like lightnings (flashing) around the earth, 
like a thundering chariot bent on victory. 

6. Now then, Agni, (come) for our protection, and 
for the reward of the urgent (worshipper)! May 
our liberal patrons pass across 1 all regions 2 ! 

7. Thou, O Agni, Angiras, who hast been praised 
and who art being praised, bring us, O Hotri, wealth 
which overpowers (even) skilful men, to thy praisers, 
and thou shalt be praised by us. And help us to 
grow strong in fights l . 



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390 VEDIC HYMNS. 



NOTES. 

The same Rishl. Metre, Anush/ubh (verses 4, 7, Pankti). 
— Verse i = SV. I, 81. The hymn seems to stand parallel 
with V, 9. 

Verso L 
Note L On adhrigo, compare above, III, 21, 4, note 1 
(p. a8 4 ). 

Verse 2. 
Note 1. Kr&tti : see 1, 58, 3, note 1 (p. 47) ; von Bradke, 
Dyaus Asura, p. 35 ; Pischel, Vedische Studien, I, 71. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Sumbhanti isvu-rkdhasaA ; see X, 21, 2. 

Note 2. On the ablative dependent on a positive, 
compare Speijer, Sanskrit Syntax, p. 78, and see also 
Delbruck, Grundriss der vergleichenden Grammatik 
(Brugmann), III, 1, 216; Pischel, Gottinger Gelehrte 
Anzeigen, 1884, 509. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. On the use of this infinitive, see Delbruck, Alt- 
indische Syntax, p. 416. 
Note 2. The last Pada is identical with IV, 37, 7. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. The last words are identical with those of V, 9, 
16, 17. 



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MAJVZMLA V, HYMN II. 391 

MAA>Z>ALA V, HYMN 11. 
ASHTAKA IV, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 3. 

i. The guardian of people, the watchful one, 
Agni, the highly dexterous, has been born, for the 
sake of new welfare. With ghrtta. on his face, with 
his mighty, heaven-touching (light) he, the bright 
one, brilliantly shines for the Bharatas. 

2. Agni, the beacon of sacrifice, the first Purohita* 
men have kindled in the threefold abode 2 . (Driving) 
on the same chariot with Indra and with the gods, 
he, the highly wise Hotri, has sat down on the 
Barhis for sacrificing. 

3. Though not cleansed, thou art born bright from 
thy two mothers 1 . Thou hast arisen as the joy- 
giving sage belonging to Vivasvant 2 . They have 
strengthened thee by ghr/ta, O Agni, into whom 
oblations are poured. Smoke, reaching the sky, 
has become thy beacon. 

4. May Agni straightway come to our sacrifice. 
Men carry Agni here and there, house by house. 
Agni has become the messenger, the carrier of 
oblations. Choosing Agni they choose a thoughtful 

(god). 

5. For thee, O Agni, is this sweetest speech, for 
thee this prayer ; may this one do thy heart good ' ! 
The prayers fill thee with power and strengthen 
thee, like great rivers the Sindhu. 

6. Thee, O Agni, who wert hidden, dwelling here 
and there in every wood, the Angiras have dis- 
covered \ Thus thou art born, produced by attrition, 
a mighty force. Thee, O Angiras, they call the 
son of strength. 



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392 VEDIC HYMNS. 



NOTES. 

The Rishi is Sutambhara Atreya, the metre Cagati. — 
Verses i, 6, a=SV. II, 257-259; TS. IV, 4. 4, 2-3. 
Verses 1, 6, 5=MS. II, 13, 7. Verses 1, 6 = VS. XV, 
27-28. Verse 3=TB. II, 4,3.3- 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. This Pada is identical with the first Pada of X, 
122, 4- 
Note 2. The three sacrificial fires are alluded to. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. The two kindling-sticks. 

Note 2. VivasvataA is genitive, not ablative, as Pischel, 
Vedische Studien, I, 241, believes. Agni opens his earthly 
career by doing service at the sacrifice of Vivasvant, i. e. 
originally, in my opinion, the first man. Comp. H. O., 
Religion des Veda, p. 122. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. On the curious spelling manisha - iyam in the 
Samhita text, instead of mantsheyam, see the Rig-veda 
Praturakhya 163 ; H. O., Prolegomena, p. 386. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. The ancestors of the priestly tribes, being the 
first priests themselves, discover Agni. 



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MAMJALA V, H*MN 12. :,V 393 



MAJVZ7ALA V, HYMN 12. 
ASH7AKA IV, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 4. 

i. To the mighty, sacrificial Agni, to the bull 
of Rita.*, the Asura, I bring this prayer and this 
song, which is turned towards him, to (him) the 
bull, as well-clarified ghrita (is poured) into his 
mouth at the sacrifice. 

2. O knower of Rita., know the Rita ! Bore for 
many streams of Rita. I (do) not (serve) a Yatu x 
by violence nor by falsehood ; I serve the Rita of 
the red bull 2 . 

3. How, O Agni, performing the Rita, through 
Rita., mayst thou become a witness of our newest 1 
hymn ? The god, the protector of the seasons, 
knows of my seasons 2 . I (do) not (know another) 
lord but him who attains (for us) this wealth. 

4. Who, O Agni, are thy fetterers to (fetter) the 
impostor J ? What brilliant guardians were success- 
ful ? Who, O Agni, drink the drink of falsehood ? 
Who are the protectors of untrue speech ? 

5. These friends of thine, O Agni, turning them- 
selves from (thee) 1 , they who had been kind, have 
become unkind. They have harmed themselves 
by their own speeches, uttering wrong words to the 
righteous. 

6. He who magnifies thy sacrifice, O Agni, by 
adoration, and serves ' the Rita, of the red bull : 
may a large, good dwelling come to him, to the 
offspring of the advancing Nahusha. 



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394 VEDIC HYMNS. 



NOTES. 

The same Rishi ; the metre is TrishAibh. — No verse of 
this hymn occurs in the other Samhitas. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. The genitive rttasya seems to depend on vrishne, 
not on manma. On the connection of Agni with the Rita., 
see Bergaigne, III, 229 seq. ; H.O., Religion des Veda, 201. 

Verse 2. 
Note 1. A bad demon. 
Note 2. Of Agni. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. I think that navyaA stands for navyasaA. 
Thus Ludwig translates : ' des neuen liedes.' It seems 
evident that it is not the nominative of navya, 'praise- 
worthy ' (Bohtlingk-Roth, Grassmann). 

Note 2. Probably we ought to read ritapa" r*ta*nam. 
Cf. IV, 23, 4. devaA bhuvat navedaA me rit&nSun, and see 
III, 20, 4, note 1 (above, p. 282). The translation will be : 
' The god, the protector of Rita, knows of my (deeds of) 
Rita.' 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Or ripava^ ? ' Who, O Agni, are the impostors 
who fetter thee ? ' 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. On vfshuwaA, compare V, 34, 6 : asunvataA 
vlshwiaJi sunvata^ vridh&A. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. The second verse (rrtam sapami arushasya 
vrishnaA) shows with evidence that for sa pati we ought to 
read sapati (see Roth, Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XXVI, 49, and 
compare on the expression ritam sap, Geldner, Vedische 
Studien, II, 135). 



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MANDALA. V, HYMN 1 3. 395 

MAJVZ7ALA V, HYMN 13. 
ASHTAKA IV, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 5. 

1. Praising we call 1 thee ; praising let us kindle l 
thee, Agni, praising, for thy help. 

2. Desirous of riches, we devise to-day an 
effective song of praise, of Agni the heaven-touching 
god 1 . 

3. May Agni take pleasure in our prayers, he who 
is the Hotrt among men. May he sacrifice * to the 
divine host. 

4. Thou, O Agni, art widely extended, the gladly 
accepted, desirable Hotrt ; through thee they spread 
out the sacrifice. 

5. The priests make thee grow, O Agni, the 
greatest acquirer of wealth, the highly praised one. 
Bestow thou on us abundance of heroes. 

6. Agni ! Thou encompassest the gods as the 
felly (encompasses) the spokes (of a wheel). Thou 
strivest ' for brilliant wealth. 

NOTES. 

The same ^«shi. The metre is Gayatri. — Verse 3= MS. 
IV, 10, 2 (cf. TS. V, 5, 6, 1). Verses 2-4= SV. II, 755~757- 
Verse 4=TB. 11,4, 1,6 ; MS. IV, 10, 2. Verse 5=TS. I, 4, 
46, 3; MS. IV, 11, 4. Verse 6=TS. II, 5, 9, 3. As the 
S&ma-veda forms a Triia. of the verses 2-4, not 1-3 or 
4-6, we have here an instance of those liberties which the 
arrangers of the Sima-veda not unfrequently took with 
regard to the Rig-veda text (see H. O., Zeitschrift der 
Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, XXXVIII, 469 



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396 VEDIC HYMNS. 



seq.) ; we have no reason, in such a case, to resort to such 
an expedient as changing the traditional order of verses in 
the Rig-veda text. 

Verse 1. 
Note 1. We have first the indicative, then the optative. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. Divisprfca/; no doubt is genitive sing, referring 
to Agni, not nominative pi. referring to the worshippers. 

Verse a. 

Note 1. Ludwig is right in observing here : ' eigentlich er 
spreche die ya^yas als einladung fur die gotten* 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. On ringzse, comp. Bartholomae, Indogerma- 
nische Forschungen, II, 281 ; Neisser, Bezzenberger's Bei- 
trage, XX, 59. I take the form here as and singular. 



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MAM) ALA V, HYMN 1 4. 397 

MAWZ?ALA V, HYMN 14. 
ASHTAKA IV, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 6. 

1. Awaken 1 Agni by thy song of praise, kindling 
(him) the immortal one. May he place our offerings 
among the gods. 

2. Him, the immortal god, the mortals magnify at 
their sacrifices, the best sacrificer among the tribe 
of men. 

3. Him indeed they all magnify, the god, with the 
(sacrificial) ladle that overflows with ghrtta., Agni, in 
order that he may bear the oblation. 

4. Agni when born has shone, killing the Dasyus, 
(killing) darkness by light. He has found the cows, 
the waters, the sun '. 

5. Worship Agni, the sage who should be magnified, 
whose back is covered with ghrtta. May he come 
and hear my call 1 . 

6. They have made Agni grow by ghrtta., him 
who dwells among all tribes, and by longing, eloquent 
praises. 

NOTES. 

The samei?*shi and metre. — Verse i=TS. IV, I, 11,4; 
MS. IV, 10, 1 ; VS. XXII, 15. Verse 3=TS. IV, 3, 13, 8 ; 
MS. IV, 10, 1. Verse 4=MS. IV, 10, 2. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. We have no reason and, unless we write bodhaya, 
no right for taking bodhaya as an equivalent of bodhayani 
(Ludwig). 



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398 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Verse 4. 

Note 1. Agni is considered here, as is done frequently, 
as the performer of deeds which properly belong to Indra 
(see H. O., Religion des Veda, 98 seq.). Indra is the 
conqueror of the cows and of the waters ; as to the sun, it 
may be said of both gods with the same right that they 
have acquired it for mankind (Religion des Veda, no seq. ; 
15c seq.). 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. Although me can be accusative (Pischel, 
Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, 
XXXV, 714 seq.), I have no doubt that it is here genitive, 
and depends on havam. Cf. II, 24, 15. veshi me havam ; 
X, 61, 4. vttdm me ya^wam. 



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MAtfDALA V, HYMN 1 5. 399 

MAjVZJALA V, HYMN 15. 
ASHTAKA IV, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 7. 

i. I bring a prayer to the worshipper, the renowned 
sage, the glorious, ancient one. Agni is the highly 
gracious Asura, taking his seat in ghrzta, the holder 
of wealth, supporting goods. 

2. By Rita, they have supported the. supporting 
Rita., near the powerful (performer) 1 of sacrifice, in 
highest heaven, the men who sit 2 on the supporting 
support of the sky, and who with born (men) 
attained to the unborn. 

3. Dispelling anguish 1 they spread out for the 
ancient one 2 his bodies 3 , mighty vital power, difficult 
to overcome. May he, the new-born, traverse the 
spaces. They have stood round him as round an 
angry lion. 

4. When thou earnest, spreading out, man after 
man like a mother, for their nourishment and for 
their sight, when thou growest old * assuming life 
after life, thou goest around by thyself in manifold 
shapes. 

5. May gain protect now the boundaries of thy 
strength, the wide, firmly supporting milkstream 1 
of wealth, O god ! Putting down thy foot in secret 
like a thief 2 , thou hast enlightened and freed Atri 
for the sake of wealth mightily 3 . 



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4<X> VEDIC HYMNS. 



NOTES. 

The Z?/shi is Dharuwa Angirasa (cf. dharuwaA visvaA 
agnlA, verse I ; ritim dharuwam, diva^fc dharman dharuwe, 
verse 2 ; dogham dharu«am, verse 5) ; the metre, Trishfubh. 
— No verse of this hymn occurs in the other Sawhitas. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. It may be asked whether siki, beside its mean- 
ing 'the powerful (helper),' may also mean 'the power.' 
This would suit very well, V, 30, 10. sdm ta'A (scil. gSJt) 
fndraA asngat asya s£kaUi; VI, 19, 4. tim vaA mdram 
/fcatfnam asya sSkalk ihd nunam va^aydntaA huvema. The 
translation then would be: 'by the power of sacrifice/ 
Bohtlingk-Roth conjecture sSke. 

Note 2. I believe that sediishaA stands for the nominative, 
cf. devU dbibhyushaA, I, 11, 5; S. B. E. XXXII, p. 28. 
This sediishaA led on to a second accusative standing for 
the nominative, nr?n. — The men sitting on the support of 
the sky seem to be the forefathers who have established the 
universal laws, the Angiras. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. I consider awmoyiivaA as nom. plur. ma.sc, but it 
may also be gen. sing, masc, or ace. plur. fern., as an 
epithet either of Agni or of his tanvaA. 

Note 2. The ancient one (purvya) seems to be Agni 
(cf. verse 1). 

Note 8. Cf. VI, 46, 12. ydtra sdrksaA tanvaA vitanvat^. 

Verse 4. 
Note 1. I think, like Ludwig, that ^arase should be ac- 
cented. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. These are accusatives. — Cf. on this passage, 
Pischel, Vedische Studien, I, 39 seq. 

Note 2. Cf. H. O., Prolegomena, p. 73. 

Note 8. Cf. VI, 1, 2. mahaV/ r£ye kitiyantaJt. — See 
Geldner, Ved. Studien, I, 268. 



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MAJVDALA V, HYMN 1 6. 4OI 

MAA>Z>ALA V, HYMN 16. 
ASH7AKA IV, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 8. 

1. Sing ] (a song that gives) mighty vital power, 
to the light, to god Agni, whom the mortals have 
placed in front * like Mitra by their praises 3 . 

2. For he, Agni, the Hotri of men, day by day, 
in the arms of Daksha, discloses the offering in the 
due way, as Bhaga ' (discloses) a treasure. 

3. (We abide [?]) in his praise, the liberal (god's), 
in his friendship, the mightily brilliant one's, in whom, 
the loudly roaring Aryan, all (beings) have put 
together their strength. 

4. For verily, O Agni, (thou belongest [?]) to 
them 1 through thy bounteousness 2 in (bestowing) 
abundance of heroes. Him indeed, the vigorous one, 
his glory the two worlds could not encompass 3 . 

5. Now then, Agni, come hither and, being praised, 
bring treasure * to us who, we ourselves and our 
liberal givers, may acquire welfare together. And 
help us to grow strong in fights. 

NOTES. 

The J?ishi is Puru Atreya (cf. 17, 1) ; the metre Anush- 
Aibh (verse 5, Pankti). This hymn and V, 17 are parallel 
hymns; the concluding words of both are identical (see 
also V, 9, 7 ; 10, 7).— Verse 1 = SV. I, 88. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. Anfca may be first or second person. 
[46] D d 



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402 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Note 2. Dadhire puriA: they have made him their 
Purohita. 
Note 8. Comp. above, V, 9, 6. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. On Bhaga, the divine Bestower or Dispenser of 
riches, cf. Herbert Baynes. The Biography. of Bhaga 
(Actes du huitieme Congres intern, des Orientalistes, Sect. II, 
fasc. t, pp. 83 seq.). 

Verse 4. 

Note L To them, i. e. the Maghavans. Compare below, 
18, 3. 4- 

Note 2. Ma/tthana seems to be instrumental. Comp. 10. 
a; 18, a. 

Note 3. Agni is himself yahva ; so na cannot be the 
comparative particle, but it must be the negation. Simi- 
larly it is said in II, 16, 3 that Heaven and Earth cannot 
encompass the indriya of Indra ; cf. also X, 37, 7. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. V5ryam seems to depend on S. bhara. With the 
whole phrase compare the first Pada of V, 17, 5. 



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MAJVDALA V, HYMN 1 7. 403 

MAA^ALA V, HYMN 17. 
ASHZAKA IV, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 9. 

i. May the mortal truly by sacrifices, O god, 
(magnify) the stronger one for help ; may the 
Puru, when good service has been performed, 
magnify Agni (and thereby draw him) hither for 
his aid. 

2. For thou art manifestly considered as his 
(i.e. Agni's) disposer, highly brilliant by thyself 1 : 
(magnify then Agni who is) a firmament of bright 
splendour, lovely beyond 2 thought 3 . 

3. (It is) yonder (sun ?) who verily has been 
yoked by his (i. e. Agni's) light * through the 
impetuous speech 2 — (by the light of Agni) whose 
flames mightily shine as if (they were made to shine) 
by the sperm of heaven 3 . 

4. Through his, the wise one's, insight there is 
wealth on his, the wonderful (Agni's), chariot. And 
Agni is praised, he who is to be invoked among all 
peoples. 

5. Now indeed our liberal lords have manifestly 
attained 1 treasure. Offspring of vigour ! Protect 
us for the sake of victory! Help us to welfare! 
And assist us to grow strong in fights ! 



NOTES. 

The same JZishi and metre. — No verse occurs in the 
other Sawhit&s. 

D d 2 



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404 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Verse 2. 

Note 1. I have translated the text in its traditional 
form, which I think is correct On the vocative vidharman, 
comp. Delbriick, Altindische Syntax, p. 106. One could 
think, however, of reading vidharman as a locative, and 
svayarastare, and of considering manyase as a first person, 
like ar£ase, &c. : ' For in his extension, brilliant by itself, 
I manifestly comprehend that firmament,' &c. 

Note 2. Cf. VIII, 72, 3. ant&A LWAanti tam^ane rudram 
paraA manishaya. ' Ueber alle Vorstellung hinaus.' Ludwig. 

Note 3. If we read svayasastaraA, vidharman, and explain 
manyase as second person, the following translation of this 
difficult verse may be attempted: 'Thou art manifestly, 
indeed, considered as very brilliant by thyself in its (the 
firmament's) extension : that firmament of bright splendour 
(I praise), lovely beyond thought.' It is not very probable, 
however, that asya should refer to anything else but Agni. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. Siyawa, whom Ludwig follows, very probably is 
right in interpreting asau as the sun. — On the Sandhi, 
compare Roth, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenland. 
Gesellschaft, XLVIII, 679. 

Note 2. Through the sacred spell, by which the sun is 
made to rise through the kindling of the fire. — Cf. VIII, 1 7, 
15. tugi . . . gribhS.. 

Note 3. Does this mean that Agni's flames shine like 
lightning which receives its light from the waters of the 
cloud, the sperm of heaven? Cf. IX, 74, 1, where it is 
said of the Soma mixed with water : divaA retasa sa£ate. 

Verse 6. 

Note L I think that sa£anta should be accented, because 
it is connected with hi. 



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MAJVCALA V, HYMN 1 8. 405 

MAA^ALA V, HYMN 18. 
ASHTAKA IV, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 10. 

i. May Agni, beloved of many, the guest of the 
house \ be praised in the morning, the immortal who 
delights 2 in all offerings among the mortals. 

2 '. To Dvita who by the liberal power of his 
dexterousness carries away injury 2 , this praiser of 
thine, O immortal, prepares Soma in the due way. 

3. I call for your sake Him who flames through 
long life, with the speech that belongs to the liberal 
patrons 1 whose chariot moves uninjured, O giver 
of horses 2 ; 

4. And in whom (dwells) brilliant thought, who 
guard the hymns of praise in their mouth, (whose) 
sacrificial grass is spread in the realm of the sun : 
they have invested themselves with glory. 

5. On the liberal patrons who have given me 
fifty horses for my song of praise 1 , bestow brilliant, 
mighty, high glory, O Agni ; on those men (bestow 
glory) with (valiant) men, O immortal ! 

NOTES. 

The Rishi is Mrtktavahas Dvita Atreya (see verse 2) ; 
the metre is the same. — Verse i = SV. I, 85. Verse 5= 
TB. II, 7, 5, a. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. VLraA . . . atithiA : cf. above, V, 3, 5. 
Note 2. On ran with the accusative, compare Gaedicke, 
p. 76. 



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406 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Verse 2. 

Bote 1. Compare on this verse Macdonell, Journal Roy. 
As. Sot, 1893, p. 463 seq. 

Note 2. Dvita, who seems to be identified with Agni, is, 
in the same way as Trita (see Bloomfield, Proceedings 
Amer. Or. Soc, March, 1894, p. cxix seqq.), supposed to 
take away human sin and all sorts of mischief and misfortune 
(cf. VIII, 47, 16. Tritaya ka. Dvitaya ka. ushaA dushvapnyam 
vaha). Thus he is invoked here as carrying away mrjkta, 
i.e. injury. 

Verse S. 

Note 1. The speech of the priest belongs to the sacrificer 
who has engaged him. 

Note 2. This seems to be Agni, with an evident allusion 
to the human giver of horses (see verse 5). 

Verse 6. 

Note L Sadhastuti seems to be instrumental. Cf. Lan- 
man, p. 381. 



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UANDALA V, HYMN 1 9. 407 

MAJVZ?ALA V, HYMN 19. 
ASHTAKA IV, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 11. 

i. They are born for retirement 1 . Out of the 
cover he 2 has shone forth, being a cover himself. 
In the lap of the mother he looks about s . 

2. Causing him to discern (the pious and the 
impious ?), they have sacrificed. With unwinking 
eyes they protect his manly power. They have 
penetrated into the firm stronghold l . 

3. The people of .Svaitreya 1 , his clans, have 
thriven brilliantly. Brzhaduktha with a golden 
ornament at his neck, is eager for the race as if 
by this honey-drink 2 . 

4. Like the dear milk of love 1 — (a thing) un- 
related with two (things) related * — like the gharma 
vessel with booty in its belly — undeceived, the 
deceiver of all 8 . 

5. Sporting, O beam of light, appear to us, 
joined with the ash, with the wind. May those 
well sharpened ... of his, standing on . . . , be sharp 
like . . . '. 

NOTES. 

The Rishi is Vavri Atreya (cf. verse 1. pra vavre^ vavrlA 
£iketa). The metre is Gayatr! in verses 1, 2, Anush/ubh 
in verses 3, 4, Vira</rupa in verse 5. — No verse occurs in 
the other Samhitas. 

This Sukta seems to be anything rather than an ordinary 
Agni hymn. It may be a collection of verses belonging 
to an Akhyana, or of verses serving another purpose which 
we can scarcely hope to discover. In several parts of this 



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408 VEDIC HYMNS. 



Sukta I must content myself with translating the words 
without being able to elucidate the poet's meaning. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. I translate the noun avastha* in accordance with 
the Vedic meaning of the verb ava-stha. Possibly it means 
the secret parts, cf. avastha, AV. VII, 90, 3 (B.-R.). Ludwig 
translates : ' Ein zustand erzeugt einen andern,' and para- 
phrases, ' Nur zustande und formen, gestalten lernen wir 
kennen, das wesen des gottes bleibt uns verborgen.' This 
seems too modern. Prof. Max Miiller proposes: 'The 
remnants (afterbirth) have been brought forth. Skin has 
shone forth from skin.' — On the question who are the 
beings ' born for retirement,' I do not venture any conjecture. 

Note 2. Is Agni meant ? 

Note 3. Cf. X, 5, 1. (Agni/t) asmat hrid&A bhdr^anma vf 
£ash/e. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. The meaning seems to be that the worshippers 
(possibly the first worshippers, the Angiras), by discovering 
Agni and by worshipping him, have conquered the hostile 
strongholds. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. .Svaitreya is mentioned as a victorious hero also 
in I, 33, 14- 

Note 2. Does this phrase allude to the rite of offering, 
at the Va^apeya sacrifice, to the horses that were going to 
run the sacred race, a naivara £aru ? In the Mantras con- 
nected with this rite the words occur: ' Drink of this honey- 
drink' (asya madhvaA pibata). See Rig-veda VII, 38, 8 ; 
Taittiriya Sa#*hita I, 7, 8, 2 ; Weber, Ueber den Va^apeya, 
P-3°- 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. The retas ? 

Note 2. Does this refer to an offering or the like, com- 
posed of two substances related among each other (such as 



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MAJVDALA V, HYMN 1 9. 4O9 

milk and butter), and a third substance unrelated (such 
as rice) ? Of course all this is absolutely uncertain. 
Note 3. Is this Agni ? 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. The meaning of dhrtsha^-, vakshf, vakshawestha" 
is unknown. — On the first hemistich of this verse, compare 
Pischel, Vedische Studien, II, 54. 



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4IO VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAJVDALA V, HYMN 20. 
ASHTAKA IV, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 12. 

i \ Whatever good, O Agni, best acquirer of gain, 
thou thinkest (fit), praise thou 2 that (good), which 
is celebrated in songs, among the gods as our 
share. 

2. They, Agni, who do not set into motion for 
thee (prayers or offerings), when grown full of 
mighty strength ', turn away to encounter the hatred 
and the tricks of him who follows another (i. e. 
a wrong) law 2 . 

3. We choose thee as our Hotri, Agni, the giver 
of skill ; offering delight (to thee) we call with our 
prayer (thee), the foremost at the sacrifices. 

4. So that we, O strong one, (may be ready) for 
thy favour, for wealth and ftita., O highly wise one : 
thus may we day by day rejoice 1 with cows and 
rejoice with heroes. 

NOTES. 

The Rt'shi is Prayasvanta Atreya (cf. verse 3. prayasvan- 
taA havimahe), the metre AnushAibh, verse 4 Pankti. — 
Verse i = VS. XIX, 64. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. Professor Max Miiller proposes to read v&ga.s£- 
tamam, as in IX, 98, 1. Pischel (Vedische Studien, I, 200) 
translates this verse : ' O Agni, das ruhmenswerte Gut, das 
du fur geeignet haltst, das preise du zugleich mit unsern 
Liedern (no girbhfr yd^am) den Gottern an (diis vendita).' 
He explains : * Agni soil den Gottern Gut bringen und sie 



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MAJWJALA V, HYMN 20. 411 

veranlassen, es den Menschen fiir die Lieder zu schenken.' 
I cannot follow Pischel's theory about the identity of the 
roots pan and pa« (comp. about paw the quotations col- 
lected by Bartholomae, Indogermanische Forschungen, 

III, 180); and the paraphrase ' diis vendita ' seems inad- 
missible to me. I differ from Pischel, besides, in the inter- 
pretation of yii^am ; cf. ray/m . . . yu^am, IV, 37, 5 ; raya" 
yu^a", VII, 43. 5 ; 95, 4- 

Note 2. Neisser, Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XX, 55, explains 
panaya as standing for panayama, and compares V, 56, 
a(?). 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. On vrtdh with the genitive, compare Delbriick, 
Altindische Syntax, p. 158 ; Macdonell, Journal Roy. As. 
Soc., 1893, P- 433- Grassmann's conjecture vrfddha(v) is 
a failure. 

Note 2. With the second hemistich compare VS. 
XXXVIII, 20 (Satapatha Brahmawa XIV, 3, 1, 9); TAr. 

IV, n, 4 (cf.V,9,7). 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Syama stands, as the accent shows, in an inde- 
pendent clause. Prof. Max Miiller proposes to change 
the accent : ' So that we . . . may for thy favour-, for wealth 
and Rita, day by day rejoice with cows.' 



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412 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAM9ALA V, HYMN 21. 
ASH7AKA IV, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 13. 

1 . Let us lay thee down, as Manus did. Let us 
kindle thee, as Manus did. O Agni Angiras, sacrifice 
to the gods for the worshippers of the gods as (thou 
didst) for Manus. 

2. For thou, O Agni, art kindled, highly pleased, 
among human people. To thee the (sacrificial) 
ladles proceed in due order, O well-born one who 
drinkest butter. 

3. Thee all the gods unanimously have made 
their messenger. Serving thee, O sage, they mag- 
nify at the sacrifices (thee) the god. 

4. Let the mortal magnify for your sake Agni, 
the god, with worship as is due to the gods. Being 
kindled, O brilliant one, shine ! Sit down in the 
abode ' of Rite ; sit down in the abode ' of herbs 2 . 



NOTES. 

The Rish\ is Sasa Atreya (cf. verse 4) ; the metre is the 
same. — Verse i=TB. Ill, 11, 6, 3. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Literally ' in the womb.' 

Note 2. On sasa, see III, 5, 6, note a. Is the abode 
(or womb) of the herbs the Barhis? ' Is it satyasya?' M.M. 



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UANDALA V, HYMN 22. 413 

MAJVZ>ALA V, HYMN 22. 
ASH7AKA IV, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 14. 

i. Lo, VLrvasiman! Like Atri sing to him who 
purifies with his flames, to the Hotri who should 
be magnified at the sacrifices, most delightful in 
the clan. 

2 *. Lay down Agni ^atavedas, the god, the 
priest. May the sacrifice which best encompasses 
the gods, proceed to-day in due order. 

3. We, the mortals, approaching thee, the atten- 
tive-minded god, for thy help, have thought of thy 
desirable aid. 

4. Agni, be intent on this — on this our word ', 
O strong one. As such, O strong-jawed 2 lord of 
the house, the Atris strengthen thee by their 
praises ; the Atris beautify thee by their prayers. 

NOTES. 

The Rishi is VLrvasiman (see verse 1) ; the metre is the 
same. — No verse of this hymn occurs in the other Sawzhitas. 

Verse 2. 
Note 1. With this verse compare below, V, 26, 7. 8. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. The verb £it stands here first with the genitive 
asya, then with the accusative idam v&kiJi. 

Note 2. Compare vol. xxxii, p. 301 (II, 34, 3, note 3). 



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414 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAJVZ7ALA V, HYMN 23. 
ASHrAKA IV, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 15. 

1. Agni, bring hither, through the power of thy 
splendour, powerful wealth which may manifestly 
prevail over all tribes in the (contests for) booty. 

2. O powerful Agni ! Bring hither that wealth 
powerful in battles. For thou art the true, won- 
derful giver of booty rich in cows. 

3. For all men who have spread out the sacrificial 
grass, unanimously ask thee, the beloved Hotrt in 
the seats (of sacrifice), for many boons. 

4. For he who dwells among all tribes, has in- 
vested himself with power against assault '. Agni ! 
In these dwelling-places shine to us richly, O bright 
one, shine brilliantly, O purifier ! 

NOTES. 

The .tf/shi is Dyumna Viyva£arsha«i Atreya (cf. verse 1) ; 
the metre is the same. — Verses 1-2 =TS. I, 3, 14, 6-7. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Is abhi'mati (abhfmati ?) a dative ? Should we 
read abhimati-saha// (cf. X, 83, 4) as a compound : ' he has 
been established as the conqueror of assaults.' 



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MAJVDALA V, HYMN 24. 415 

MAJVZ7ALA V, HYMN 24. f 

ASHTAKA IV, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 16. 

i. Agni, be thou our nearest (friend) and our 
kind, protecting guardian. 

2. Agni is Vasu, renowned as Vasu (or, renowned 
by goods). Obtain, (and) bestow (on us), most bril- 
liant wealth \ 

3. Listen to us then; hear our call; deliver us 
from every harmful man. 

4. We entreat thee now, O brightest, shining 
(Agni), for thy grace, for our friends. 

NOTES. 

The .# *'shis are the Gaupayanas or Laupayanas, Bandhu 
(verse 1), Subandhu (verse 2), .Srutabandhu (verse 3), 
Viprabandhu (verse 4). The metre is Dvipada Vira^g-. — 
Verses 1, 2, 4, 3 = VS. Ill, 25-26. Verses 1, 4, 2, 3 = MS. 
I, 5, 3. Verses 1, 2, 4 = SV. II, 457-459 5 VS. XV, 48 ; 
XXV, 47- Verses 1, 4. 2 = TS. I, 5, 6, 2-3 ; IV, 4, 4, 8. 
Verse 1 = SV. I, 448. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. The accusative dyumittamam rayfm seems to 
depend both on ikkhk nakshi and on dkh. I cannot find 
any reason for preferring the reading of SV. and TS. 

dyumattama^: (Ludwig). 



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416 VEDIC HYMNS. 



M hND ALA V, HYMN 25. 
ASH7AKA IV, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 17-18. 

i. Address thy song 1 for your sake to the god 
Agni, for his help. He is our Vasu. May the son 
of the dawns(?) 2 give us (wealth). May the righteous 
one help us across our enemies. 

2. He is the true one, whom the men of old, 
whom the gods have kindled, the Wotri with the 
delightful tongue, rich in splendour with glorious 
shine. 

3. As such, with thy widest thought and with thy 
best favour, shine wealth on us, excellent Agni, for 
our beautiful praises '. 

4. Agni reigns among the gods, Agni among 
mortals, entering among them. Agni is the carrier 
of our offerings. Serve ye Agni with prayers ! 

5. Agni gives to the worshipper a son most 
mightily renowned, a knower of mighty spells, most 
excellent, unconquered, who brings renown to his 
lord '. 

6. Agni gives a good lord who is victorious in 
battles with his men ; Agni (gives) a steed, swiftly 
running, victorious (in races), unconquered. 

7. Sing mightily to Agni the (song) which may 
best bring him (to us), O (god) rich in splendour * ! 
From thee (proceeds) wealth (mighty) like a buffalo- 
cow 2 ; from thee proceed gains. 

8. Thy brilliant flames resound mightily like the 
pressing-stone (of the Soma) '. And thy roaring 
arose like thunder by itself from heaven *. 



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UANDAhA V, HYMN 25. 417 

9. Thus we have paid homage, desirous of goods, 
to powerful Agni. May he, the highly wise one, 
help us, as with a ship, across all enemies. 



NOTES. 

The Rishis are the VasfiyavaA AtreyaA (cf. verse 9) ; 
the metre is AnushAibh. Verse 5=MS. IV, n, 1. Verse 6 
= MS. IV, 11, 1. Verse 7 = SV. I, 86 ; VS. XXVI, 12 ; 
TS. I, 1, 14, 4. The Sukta consists of hymns of three 
verses each. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. On g&si, comp. Neisser, Bezzenberger's Bei- 
trage, XX, 70, note 1 ; Bartholomae, Indogermanische 
Forschungen, II, 278, 283. 

Note 2. RishHinSixa : comp. above, I, 127, 10, note 5. 

Verse S. 
Note 1. On suvrikti, comp. above, II, 4, 1, note 1. 

Verse 5. 
Note 1. I.e. to his father ? Or to his patrons ? 

Verse 7. 
Note 1. This vocative very probably refers to Agni. 
Note 2. Or ' like a king's consort ' ? It may be doubted 
whether the difference of accent (mahishi and mahishi') 
holds good for the Rig-veda. — Comp. on mahishiiva, Roth, 
Zeitschr. der Deutschen Morgenland. Gesellschaft, XLVIII, 
680. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. Brz'hat is not the name of the Saman ; cf. X, 
64, 15 (100, 8). grava yatra madhu-sut u£yate brmat. 
Comp. Hillebrandt, Vedische Mythologie, I, p. 153. — The 
singular u£yate is explained by the connection with grava. 

Note 2. With the last Plda comp. the conclusion of 
V, 52, 6 (vol. xxxii, p. 312). 
[46] E e 



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41 8 VEDIC HYMNS. 



MAA>Z>ALA V, HYMN 26. 
ASH7AKA IV, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 19-20. 

i. Agni, purifier! With thy splendour, with thy 
delightful tongue, O god, bring hither the gods and 
perform the sacrifice. 

2. Thee therefore we approach, who swimmest in 
ghrita. 1 , O (god) with brilliant light, thee of sun-like 
aspect. Bring hither the gods that they may feast. 

3. Let us kindle thee, O sage, the brilliant offerer 
of feasts (to the gods), O Agni, the mighty (god) at 
the sacrifice. 

4. Agni, come hither with all the gods to the gift 
of the offering. We choose thee as our Hotri. 

5. Bring to the sacrificer who presses (Soma), Agni, 
abundance of heroes. Sit down on the sacrificial 
grass together with the gods. 

6. Being kindled, Agni, conqueror of thousandfold 
(wealth), thou makest the ordinances (of the world) 
thrive, the praiseworthy messenger of the gods. 

7 1 . Lay down Agni G^tavedas, the carrier of offer- 
ings, the youngest, the god, the priest. 

8. May the sacrifice which best encompasses the 
gods, proceed to-day in due order. Spread the 
sacrificial grass that (the gods) may sit down on it 

9. May the Maruts, the A^vins, Mitra and Varu«a 
sit down on this (sacrificial grass), the gods with all 
their folk. 



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MAYDALA V, HYMN 26. 4 1 9 



NOTES. 

The same /?tshis. Metre, Gayatri. • Verses 1-3 = SV. II, 
871-873. Verse i = TS. I, 3, 14, 8; 5, 5, 3; IV, 6, 1, 2 ; 
MS. I, 5, 1 ; II, 10, 1 ; IV, 10, 1 ; VS. XVII, 8. Verse 3 
=TS. 1, 1, 11, a; VS. II, 4; comp. MS. 1, 1, 13. Verse 7 = 
MS. IV, 11, 1. 

As V, 26, this SAkta also consists of Trika. hymns. 

Verse 2. 
Note L Comp. above, IV, 2, 3, note 1. 

Verse 7. 
Note 1. With verses 7 and 8, compare above, V, 2a, 2. 



e e 2 



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420 VF.DIC HYMNS. 



MAA^CALA V, HYMN 27. 
ASHTAKA IV, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 21. 

i. The good lord has presented me with two oxen 
together with a car, the most brilliant Asura among 
the liberal givers 1 . Tryaruwa, the son of Trivr/'- 
shan, O Agni VaLyvanara 2 , has distinguished him- 
self by (his gift of) ten thousand (cows ?) s . 

2. To him who gives me one hundred 1 and twenty 
cows and two fallow steeds, harnessed and well- 
yoked, to Tryaruwa grant thy protection, Agni Vais- 
vanara, who art highly praised and grown strong. 

3. Thus, O Agni, desiring thy favour 1 , Trasa- 
dasyu 2 (sings) for the ninth time 3 to thee the 
youngest (god) — Tryaru«a who responds to my, the 
strong-born's, many hymns with (the gift of) a yoked 
(chariot) 4 — 

4 \ Who may thus announce me 2 to Asvamedha 
the liberal (prince) : may he give to him who with 
his verse strives for gain ; may he give to him who 
lives in the Jitta. for (acquiring) wisdom 3 — 

5. A^vamedha whose gifts, a hundred speckled 
bulls, delight me like Soma juices with threefold 
admixture \ 

6. Indra-Agni ! Bestow on Asvamedha, the giver 
of a hundred (bulls), abundance of heroes and mighty 
royal power, like the never-ageing Sun in heaven. 



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MAJV.DALA V, HYMN 27. 42 1 



NOTES. 

The ^j'shis are Tryaruwa Traivmhwa, Trasadasyu Pauru- 
kutsya, and Ajvamedha Bhirata, or, according to others, 
Atri alone. The metre is TrishAibh in verses 1-3, 
Anush/ubh in verses 4-6. 

The position of this Sukta shows that it is a later 
addition to the original collection. 

Verse L 

Note L With Delbruck, Grassmann, von Bradke (Dyaus 
Asura, p. 67) I read maghonam instead of maghona/fr. Cf. 
Ill, 3, 4. dsura/s vipaA-£ftam. 

Note 2. On the invocation of Agni in Danastutis, comp. 
H. O., Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesell- 
schaft, XXXIX, 87. 

Note 3. Geldner (Ved. Studien, I, a68) is right in ob- 
serving: 'Hier ist unter sahasram eine bestimmte Geld- 
oder Wertsumme zu verstehen,' and in adding that it is 
not necessary that such a sum consisted in cows. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. On sati, ' one hundred/ compare Delbruck, 
Altindische Syntax, p. 82. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. Cf. X, 148, 3. sumatfm £akanaA. 

Note 2. That is, very probably, a descendant of Trasa- 
dasyu. 

Note 3. I do not adopt Sayawa's explanation navamaw* 
= navatamam, though I do not know what the number 
* nine ' means here. Ludwig is absolutely right in ob- 
serving ' dass man eben hier, wo es sich um specielle 
concrete, uns aber sonst her nicht bekannte verhaltnisse 
und ereignisse handelt, eben sich bescheiden muss, nichts 



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422 VEDIC HYMNS. 



zu wissen.' — Prof. Max Muller believes that navish/Aaya 
makes navamam for navatamam excusable : ' to the newest 
god the newest song.' 

Note 4. Sayawa supplies to yuktena, not rathena, but 
manasa. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. I do not think that Ludwig is right in believing 
that with verse 4 a new, independent section begins. — 
Comp. on this verse, vol. xxxii, p. 304 (II, 34, 7, note 3). 

Note 2. Me may be accusative, as it frequently is. 
Should it be a dative, we should have to translate : ' Who 
may tell Ajvamedha for my sake.' 

Note 3. Medham can scarcely depend on dadat ; wisdom 
is not a gift which liberal princes may bestow on singers. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. Of milk, curds, and barley. See Hillebrandt, 
Vedische Mythologie, I, p. 209. 



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MAiVDALA V, HYMN 28. 423 

MAiVX>ALA V, HYMN 28. 
ASH7AKA IV, ADHYAYA 1, VARGA 22. 

i. Agni kindled has sent his light to the sky; 
turned towards the dawn he shines far and wide. 
(The sacrificial ladle) goes forward with adoration, 
rich in all treasures, magnifying the gods with sacri- 
ficial food. 

2. Being kindled thou reignest over immortality ; 
thou attendest for welfare the man who prepares the 
sacrificial food. He whom thou furtherest, acquires 
all wealth and puts in front hospitality (towards 
thee), O Agni \ 

3. Agni, show thy prowess for the sake of great 
bliss. May thy splendours be highest. Make our 
householdership easy to conduct \ Set thy foot on 
the greatness of those who show enmity to us. 

4. I adore thy beauty, Agni, who hast been kindled, 
who art highly exalted. A bull, brilliant art thou. 
Thou art kindled at the sacrifices. 

5. Being kindled, Agni into whom offerings are 
poured, sacrifice to the gods, best sacrificer, for thou 
art the carrier of oblations. 

6. Sacrifice into (Agni) ; exalt Agni, while the 
sacrifice is going on. Choose him for your carrier 
of oblations. 



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424 VEDIC HYMNS. 



NOTES. 

The Rishi is Virvavara Atreyt (cf. verse i) ; the metre 
is Trish/ubh in verses i and 3, Gagatl in verse 2, Anush/ubh 
in verse 4, Gayatri in verses 5 and 6. Verse 3=AV. VII, 
73, 10 ; VS. XXXIII, 12 ; TS. II, 4, z, x ; 5, a, 4 ; MS. IV, 
11, 1. Verse 5=TS. II, 5, 8, 6. Verses 5-6=TB. Ill, 

5, *, 3- 

The Stikta is a later addition to the original Sa/whita. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. Should not dhatte be accented ? ' He whom thou 
furtherest and (who) puts in front hospitality (towards 
thee), O Agni, acquires all wealth.' 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. Cf. X, 85, 23. sam ^-aspatyam suyamam astu 
dev&A. The additions to the single Mandalas seem, as 
a rule, to be of later origin than the hymns of the tenth 
Mawrfala (see H.O., Prolegomena, p. 265); so it may be 
conjectured that the author of our verse imitated that 
passage of the great marriage hymn. 



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APPENDICES. 



I. INDEX OF WORDS. 

II. LIST OF THE MORE IMPORTANT PASSAGES QUOTED 
IN THE NOTES. 



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The following is not (like the Index to vol. xxxii) a complete Index 
verborum to the hymns translated in this volume, but only an Index of all 
the words which can be of any importance. It contains all rare, difficult, 
and doubtful words, all words of any mythological importance, and 
especially all words about which something is said in the Notes. 

Three figures refer to MaWala, hymn, and verse, a small figure to a 
note. If a word occurs in a note only, the passage is put in parentheses. 

M.W. 



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I. INDEX OF WORDS. 



a, demonstr. pronoun : ayft, II, 6, a\ 
Am/a, one of the Adityas, II, i, 4*. 
a.md\, Soma shoot, IV, 1, 19. 
amhaib-yti, dispelling anguish, V, 15, 

J 1 . 
amhatf, distress, I, 94, 2. 
dmhas, evil, distress, anguish, I, 36, 

14; 58, 8; 9; III, 15, j; IV, 

»»8; 9; 3, 14; «»6; ", *• 
aktu, night, I, 36, 16 ; 68, 1 ; 94, 5 ; 

II, 10,3; I1I,7,<>; IV, 10, 5; 
4ti aktuA (conj. ati aktffn), I, 

'43. 3*- 
aktu, ointment : aktti-bhLfe aeyate, 

III, 17, i\ 

akrf, a racer, I, 143, 7*; 189, 7*; 
HI,!,!! 1 ; IV, 6, 3». 

akshan, eye: jatam i&kshamtb aksha- 
bhl6, I, 128, 3. 

akshf, eye : diviA aksht (ti, I, 7a, io'. 

ikshita, imperishable, I, 58, 5. 

Skshiyamana, inexhaustible, III, 
a6, 9. 

agotS, want of cows, III, 16, 5. 

agopa, without a keeper, II, 4, 7. 

Agnf, fire, and god of fire, 1, 1, 1, &c; 
III, a, 9*; agnfm-agnim, I, ia, 
2; agnfni agnf£ sam idhyate, 
I, ia, 6; agne agnfbbiA, I, 26, 
10 ; agnfm (2 vaha agne), 1, 44, 
8" ; vay&i ft agne agnayaifc te 
any€, 1, 59, 1 ; fndram agnfm, 
III, 1 a, 3 ; purtshyasaA agni- 
jib, III, aa, 4; ague vijvebhib 
agnf-bhii, III, 34, 4 ; agne 
fndrafr 4a, Ill, 35, 4; agnayaib 
agnfshu, V, 6, 6. 

agni - jihvi, fire - tongued : agni- 
jihva*, I, 44, 14. 



agnfdh, the Agntdh (priest): agnft 

(conj. agnft), II, 1, a*. 
agni-jrf, possessing the beauty of 

Agni, III, a6, 5 1 . 
agra, summit: ripifr igram, III, 5, 

5 1 ; agre, at first, I, 31, 5; "» 

front of, I, ia7, 10. 
agriyd, foremost: agriyam, 1, 13, 10. 
agrU, virgin: agrtivaA, I, 140, 8'; 

111,29,13*. 
agM, evil, I, 97, i>-8 ; ia8, 5 ; V, 3, 

7 ; harmful foe, I, 189, 5. 
agha-yit, harmful, IV, 2, 6 ; 34, 3. 
agha-yu, harmful, I, 37, 3 1 ; 147, 4; 

IV, a, 9. 
agh£-;amsa, attacking with evil 

soells, IV, 4, 3 ; V, 3, 7. 
agbnya, cow, IV, », 6. 
ang£: ySt ang£, whatever, I, t, 6. 
Angiras, N. of Agni, I, 1, 6; 31, 1 ; 

17; 74, 5? IV, a, 15; 3, 15; 

9, 7? V, 8, 4; 10, 7; ", 6; 

at, 1 ; gytshtimm dngiraslm, 

I, ia7, » 5 angiraMamaA, the 

highest Angiras, I, 31, a; 75, 

a ; — pi. the Angiras (/Ushis), I, 

71, a r ; IV, 3, 11 1 ; V,ii,6<;- 

ahgirasvit, I, 31, 17; 45, 3; 

78,3. 

aJftta, unseen, IV, 3, 1. 

iiitti, folly, IV, a, 1 1 ; thoughtless- 
ness: &itti-bhi£, IV, ia, 4. 

ai<t£avaka, a certain priest, (I, 14a, 

4»). 
iiiMdra, flawless, I, 58, 8; II, 3, 8; 

III,i5,5. 
aM&idra-Oti, whose blessings are 

flawless, I, 145, 3. 
diyuta, unshakeable, II, 3, 3. 



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428 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



zg, to drive : fit a;ate, he raises up, 

1, 95, 7 ; tit a^an, they have 
driven out, IV, i, t j ; a a^iti, 
may he lead, V, a, 5 ; sam a#ati, 
may he get together, V, 2, 12 ; 
a^ur yamu/>, V, 6, io*. 

ag&, goat, I, 67, 5 1 . 

agin, undecaying, never ageing, I, 

58, a; 4; 127, 5! 9? i43i 3! 

M4, 4 5 H*t a; II, 8,4'; III, 

2, a; 6,4; 8, a; 18, a; 23, 1 ; 
V, 4, a. 

%asra, unwearied, 1, 189, 4 ; III, 1, 
ai; a6, 7. 

%ata, unborn, V, 1 5, a. 

agzmi, unrelated, IV, 4, 5 ; V, 19, 4. 

a^iri, agile, I, 140, 4 ; III, 9, 8. 

a^urya, undecaying, 1, 146,4; II, 3, 
5; 8, a; III, 7,4; 7! aWyam 
(conj. agary&i), 1,67, 1*. 

dg-tfata-keta, with unknown design, 

, V, 3, „. 

ag-ma, course, III, a, 13. 

a^-raan, race, I, $5, 6. 

%ra, plain : brihatiA a^-ran, IV, 1, 17. 

aitg, to anoint, I, 95, 6, &c; — sam- 
irtagi, he has shaped, I, 188, 9; 
sim aAgatab, II, 3, 7 1 ; trfdha 
sam-aktam, thrice-anointed, II, 

3, 10; aktu-bhiA a^-yate, III, 
17, i 1 ; ankte, he anoints him- 
self, V, 1, 3 ; anakti, IV, 6, 3'. 

atigl, ointment : a%f-bhL6, I, 36, 

13". 
Itandra, unwearied, 1 7a, 7 ; 95, 

a'; IV, 4, 1 a. 
atasa, brushwood, I, 58, a ; 4 ; II, 4, 

, 7 5 111,7, 3*; IV, 4, 4 5 7, 10. 
dtithi, guest, I, 44, 4; 58, 6 ; 73, i»; 

II, 2, 8 ; 4, 1 ! HI, a, » ; 3, 8 ; 

26, a; IV, 1, 20 1 ; 2, 7; V, 1, 
„ 8; 9 5 3» 5; 4, 5; 8, 2; 18, 1. 
atUrta, unconquered, V, 35, 5. 
atr/'pi, insatiable, IV, 5, 14. 
atka, vesture, I. 95, 7. 
itya, racer: atyaA n£ prcsh/Mm 

roiate, I, 58, 2';— I, 65, 6; 

149, 3; 11,4,4 5 HI. a, 3; 7! 

7, 9 ; atyam ni siptim, III, 22, 

i» ; IV, 2, 3 ; V, 25, 6. 
Atn, V, 2, 6 ; 7, 10 ;— pi. the Atris, 

V, aa, 4 ;— atri-vit, I, 45, 3' ; 
t V, 4, 9 ; 7, 8 1 ; aa, 1. 
atri, devourer, II, 8, 5'. 
atrfn, ghoul, I, 36, 14 1 ; 20; 94, 9. 
atha, and, I, 26, 9. 



atharf, elephant (?) : atharyaA na" 

dantam, IV, 6, 8*. 
ad, to eat : Sdat, I, 127, 6*. 
adit, having no teeth, I, 189, 5. 
idabdha, undeceivable, I, 76, 2 ; 95, 

9; 128, 1; 143, 8; II, 9,6 ; 

III, 1, 6 ; IV, 4, 3 ; V, 19, 4. 
idabdhavrata-pramati, protector of 

infallible laws, II, 9, i 1 . 
adas: asafi, yonder (sun), V, 17, 3 1 . 
idabhya, undeceivable, I, 31, 10 ; 

III, 11,5; 26,4; V, 5, 2. 
Aditi, 1, 94, 16; 95, 11 ; 98, 3 ; II, 

1, n; HI, 4, 11; IV, 12, 4; 

matS Aditi/>,I,73, 9; — a name of 

Agni, 1, 94, 15' ; — Freedom, IV, 

1, 20 1 ;— iditim urushya, IV, a, 

n'j-m., IV, 3,8*. 
idripita, undismayed, 1, 143, 8; not 

proud, IV, 3, 3. 
idripta, never foolish, I, 69, 3. 
ideva, godless, III, 1, 16 ; V, a, 9 ; 10. 
Sdeva-yu, not caring for the gods, I, 

150, a. 
£dbhuta, mysterious, wonderful, I, 

77, 3'; 94, n; 13; 14a, 3; 

10 ; II, 7, 6 ; V, 10, a ; 33, a ; 

— secret, IV, 2, 12. 
idman, food, I, 58, 2. 
*dri, rock, I, 70, 4" ; 71, a ; 73, « ; 

149, 1; IV, 1, 14; 15; 2, 15 1 ; 

3, 11 ; — press-stone, III, 1, 1. 
adrfih, guileless, II, 1, 14* ; III, 9, 

4 ; a2, 4. 
adrogM, guileless, III, 14, 6. 
ddvayat, truthful, III, 29, 5. 
idvayavin, in whom is no falsehood, 

HI, a, 15. 
4dha, then : idha ksbaranti (for 

a.dhi.6 ksharanti ?), I, 7a, 10'. 
ddhi, prep, with abL, on behalf of : 

rit&ailhi, I, 36, n l . 
£dhi-iti, remembrance, II, 4, 8. 
adhi-minthana, the support on which 

the rubbing (for producing 

the fire) is performed, 111, 

39, 1*. 
adhtvasi, upper garment, I, 140, 9. 
idhrigu, liberal, III, 21, 4 1 ; V, 10, 1. 
Adhrfc? V, 7, x©». 
ddhvan, way, I, 31, 16; 71, 9; 

Adhvana* deva-yanin, I, 72, 7*. 
adhvard, worship, rite, sacrifice, I, 

1, 4 1 ; 8 ; 12, 7,&c. : adhvarim 

ya,ja, I, 26, 1 ; p£ti£ adhvarit- 

«ain, I, 44, 9 ; ra^antam adh- 



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INDEX OF WORDS. 



429 



varanam, I, 45, 4 ; yag-«asya 
adhvarasya, I, 128, 4* ; adhvark- 
iva (conj. adhvari-iva), III, 6, 
io s ; adhvarasya pra-neta', III, 
23, i. 
adhvara-jr", beautifier of sacrifices, 

I, 44, 3'- 
adhvariy, to be as an Adhvaryu: 

adhvari-yasi, II, 1, 2. 
adhvari-y£t, performing the sacrificial 

service, IV, 9, 5. 
adhvaryu, the Adhvaryu priest, I, 

94,6; II, 5,6; III, 5,4; IV, 

6, 4 ; adhvaryfi-bhii, pa£4a-bhii>, 

111,7,7. 
anagna, not naked, III, 1, 6. 
anagni-tra, not standing under Agni's 

protection, I, 189, 3. 
anadat, not eating, III, 1, 6. 
ananti, infinite, IV, 1, 7*. 
anapa-vr/jg-yi, interminable, 1, 146, 3. 
anamM, free from plagues, III, 16, 

3 ; ". 4- 

anarvan, untouched, I, 94, 1' ; un- 
attainable, II, 6, 5. 

anavadyi, blameless, I, 31, 9; 71, 

8; 73, 3- 

anavabhrd-radhas, with gifts that can- 
not be taken away, III, 26, 6. 

anasvat, together with a car, V, 27, 1. 

anakWta, whom it is not possible to 
drive to a place, I, 141, 7*. 

anaga, sinless, IV, 12, 4. 

anagai-tvi, sinlessness, I, 94, 15. 

aniyata, unsupported, IV, 13,5. 

anayudhd, unarmed, IV, 5, 14. 

anind, feeble, I, 150, 2. 

anindrii, Indra-less, V, 2, 3. 

ani-baddha, unattached, IV, 13, 5. 

ani-badhii, unbounded, III, t, n 1 . 

anibhr/sh/a-tavishi, of undecaying 
strength, V, 7, 7. 

ani-mani, immeasurable, I, 27, 11. 

animishat, never slumbering, 1, 14 3, 8. 

am-misham, with unwinking eyes, 
V, 19, 2. 

ani-mesham, unremittingly, I, 31, 12. 

anird, sapless, IV, 5, 14. 

ani-vr/'ta, unrestrained, III, 29, 6. 

anishahgd, without a quiver, I, 31, 

«3* 
amka, face, II, 9, 6 ; III, 1, 15 ; 19, 

4 1 ! IV, 5, 9'; 15; 10, 3; 11, 

1; 12,2; V, 2, 1. 
anu, prep, with ablat., I, 141, 3'. 
anukthd, hymnless, V, 2, 3. 



anupa-kshita, undecaying, III, 13, 7. 
anush/£u, by one's present power, I, 

95, 3- 
anush/Auya, by one's present power, 

IV, 4, 14. 
anu-satyd, follower of truth, 1 1 1, 26, 1 . 
anu-svadham, according to one's 

wont or nature, II, 3, 11 ; III, 

6,9. 
anfina, without flaw, I, 146, 1 ; II, 

10,6; III, 1,5; IV, 2, 19; 5, 1. 
inrigu, sinful, IV, 3, 13. 
anr/td, sinful, IV, 5, 5. 
anr/ta, falsehood, V, 12, 4. 
anehas, unmenaced, III, 9, 1. 
antai>-vidv4ms, knowing, I, 72, 7. 
antatna, nearest (friend), I, 27, 5 ; 

III, 10, 8; V, 24, 1. 
antara, closest, I, 31, 13; nearer, 

III, 18, 2 ; — in the midst, 1, 

44, '*• 
antariksha, air, I, 73, 8 ; HI, 6, 8 ; 

8,8; 2a, 2 ; IV, 14,2; V, 1, 11. 
anti, nigh, I, 79, 1 1 ; 94, 9. 
andhi, blind, I, 147, 3* ; 148, 5 1 . 
andhas, darkness, I, 94, 7. 
andhas, sap, IV, 1, 19. 
anna, food : sthirSi anna, I, 127, 4"; 

IV, 7, 10; tri-vr/t annam, I, 
140, a"; iinnS, instr., IV, 7, n 1 . 

anniyat, desirous of food, IV, 2, 7. 
any&d-anyad, the one and the other, 

I, 95, i. 
anya-vrata, following another law, 

V, 20, 2. 

ap, pi., water, Waters, 1, 36, 8 ; 95, 
3 1 ; 96,1; 2; IV,3,i2,&c; gar- 
bhai>ap2m, I, 70, 3 ; III, 1,12 ; 
13; 5, 3; apam napSt, I, 143, 
i*; III, 9, 1: apam up&-sthe, 

1, 144, 2 ; apam sadhi-sthe, I, 
149, 4; II, 4, » ; 3yu<& ap2m, 
III, 1, 5; mitrib apa7>, III, 
9, 2 ; ap-su jritim, III, 9, 4 ; 
apSm duroȣ, III, 25, 5; avin- 
dat ap&d, V, 14, 4'. 

apatya, offspring, I, 68, 7. 
apara-#ita, unconquered, III, 12, 

9 ; V, 25, 6. 
apari-vrrta, uncovered, II, 10, 3. 
apajyi, bereft of sight, I, 148, 5*. 
apas, work, I, 68, 5 ; 69, 8 1 ; 70, 8 ; 

II, 3,6; 111,3, 3; «i 7 ; IV, 

2, 14 ; see apas. 

apis, active, I, 31, 8 ; yi, 3 ; 95, 4 ; 

III, a, 5; 7; 8, 5;— work: 



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43Q 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



apasi (conj. upasi), III, i, 3'; 
11 4 ; aplfr (conj. ipab), III, 

6,7». 
apasyu, ever active, I, 79, 1. 
ap&d. footless, IV, 1, 11. 
apara, boundless, III, 1, 14. 
api-dhf, covering, I, 127, 7 s . 
api-jarvar£, approach of darkness, 

111,9,7*. 
api-sthita, standing on, I, 145, 4'. 
dpfirvya, wonderful, III, 13, 5. 
iprinat, not giving, V, 7, 10. 
ap-tur, crossing the waters, III, 27, 

11*. 
ap-tflrya, crossing the waters, III, 

12, 8\ 
Apnavana, IV, 7, 1. 
dpnasvat, rich: apnasvatishu urv£- 

rlsu, I, 127, 6. 
apya, living in the water, I, 145, 5. 
apra-3yu(s), unremitting, I, 127, 5'. 
aprati-skuta, unrepressed, III, 2, 14. 
apra-dr;'pita, unconfused, I, 145, 2. 
apra-mr*shy£, not to be despised, 

IV, 2, 5. 

apra-yuM&at, never failing, unre- 
mitting, I, 143, 8; II, 9, a; 
IIIj 5, 6 ; 20, 2. 

apra-vita, virgin, IV, 7, 9'. 

apsu-s&d, dwelling in the waters, 

"I, 3,5- 
abhi-kbyiK, looking at, I, 148, 5'. 
abhi-gtfu, on one's knees, I, 72, 5. 
abhf-dyu, striving for heaven, I, 

127,7; IH.37, i- 
abhi-pitvd, the time of rest, I, 189, 

,2 3 

abhf-mati, plotter, III, 24, 1; assault, 

V, 33, 4*. 

abhimati-sih, victorious over hostile 

plots, II, 4,9. 
abhi-y<i^, attack, III, 11, 6 ; V, 4, 5. 
abhf-jasti, curse, I, 71, 10; V, 3, 7 ; 

12. 
abhuasti-Mtana, dispel ler of curses, 

III, 3, 6. 
abhijasti-pavan, protector against 

imprecations, I, 76, 3. 
abhwrf, leading to, or striving for, 

gloriousness, I, 98, i 1 ; 144, 6. 
abhfsh/i, victory, V, 17, 5. 
abhislui-kr/t, helpful, IV, 11, 4. 
abhi-hrut, injury, 1,128, 5; anything 

leading astray, I, 189, 6 1 . 
abhflce with ablat., I, 71, 8*. 
abhrd, cloud, I, 79, 2. 



abhritri, brotherless : abhratara£, 

IV, 5, 5*. 

abhva, wondrous, I, 140, 5 ; mons- 
trous might, II, 4, 5. 

am, to plague : abhf amanta, I, 

189, 3 l - 

ama, vehemence, I, 66, 7 ; fear : 
ame dhlt, I, 67, 3. 

amiti, impetuous splendour, I, 73, 2 s . 

amati, lack of thoughts, senseless- 
ness, 111,8, 2 1 ; 16,5; IV, 11,6. 

amartya, immortal, I, 44, 1 ; 1 1 ; 58, 
3 5 1II,a, 11; 10,9; 11,2; 24, 
a; 37, 5; 7; IV, 1, 1; 8, 1 ; 9, 
2 ; V, 4, 10. 

amardhat, never failing, III, 25, 4. 

ama-vat, violent, impetuous, I, 36, 
30 ; IV, 4, 1. 

amftra, enemy, III, 18, 2 ; IV, 4, 4 ; 

12, 2. 
amitra-dambhana, deceiver of foes, 

IV, i 5 ,4- 

amitra-yudh, attacking the enemies, 

III, 29, 15. 
ctminat, innocent, IV, 5, 6. 
amiva-Htana, driving away sickness : 

amiva-itftanam, I, 12, 7. 
imtvi, plague, I, 189, 3 ; III, 15, 1. 
amflra, not foolish, unerring, wise, 

I, 68, 8 1 ; 72,2: 141, 12; III, 

>9, >; 35, 3 5 IV, 4, 12; 6, 2; 

amrikta, uninjured, inviolable, III, 

6,4; 11,6; IV, 3, I2 1 . 

amrita, immortal (Agni), I, 26, 9' ; 
44, 5 1 ; 58, 1; 70, 4', &c.;— pi. 
the immortal gods, I, 59, 1, 
&c. ; — immortality, I, 13, 5 s ; 
68, 4 1 ; 73, i 1 ; 6; III, 1, 14; 

33, ;'; 35, 3; v, 3, 4; 28, 2; 

amritasya nStohim, III, 17, 4 ; — 
ambrosia, I, 71, 9*; III, 26, 7; 

V, 2, 3 ». 

amr<ta-tv&, immortality, I, 31, 7 ; 

73, 9 5 9 6 , 6 ; V, 4, 10. 
aW/tyu, immortal, III, 2, 9. 
ayas, ore, IV, 2, 17 s . 
aytf, thus, III, 12, 2. 
ayfe, never-tiring (flame), III, 18, 

a 1 ; IV, 6, 10. 
ar£, spoke of a wheel, I, 141, 9 ; V, 

13, 6. 

arakshls, benevolent, II, 10, 5. 
arana, stranger, V, a, 5. 
arani, kindling-stick, I, 127,4*; III, 
39, a ; V, 9, 3. 



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INDEX OF WORDS. 



431 



aratf, steward (?), I, 58, 7'; 59,2; 
128, 6; 8; II, 2, a; 3; 4. a; 

III, 17, 4; IV, 1, 1; 2, 1; V, 
a, i'. 

dram, enough, I, 66, 5 ; d&at dram, 
he satisfies, I, 70, 5 ; readily, 
II, 5, 7*i 8; puru va dram 
(conj. puruvaYam), I, 142, 10* 

aram-krit, doing service, II, 1, 7 1 . 

drarivams, niggardly, I, 147, 4; 150, 
2 ; III, 18, 2. 

drati, malign power, II, 7, 2 ; III, 
18, 1 ; 24, 1 ; IV, 4, 4 ; aratau 
(conj. for aratau), V, 2, i*; pi., 
V, 2, 6. 

arati-ydt, niggard, I, 99, i J . 

arati-vdn, malicious, I, 147, 4. 

drSvan, niggard : dravnaA, I, j6, 15 ; 
16. 

an', poor: arydA, I, 70, i 1 , 2 ; 71, 3*; 
150, i 1 ; — he who does not give, 
niggard, I, 73, 5V; II, 8, 2; 

IV, 4, 6 ; V, 2, 12. 

arf, the Arya : arylfr, IV, 2, 12 s ; 

18 8 . 
drish/a, uninjured, V, 18, 3. 
drishvat, unharmed : drishyantaii, 

II, 8, 6. 
aruad, red, I, 73, 7 ; II, 1, 6. 
anwi, the red (cow, or Dawn), I, 

140, 13; IV, 1, i6»; a, 16; 

I4» 3 1 . 
drupita ? IV, 5, 7 1 . 
arushd, red, ruddy, I, 36, 9; 141, 8; 

II, 2, 8; III, 1, 4; 7, 5; 15, 
3; 29,6; IV, 15,6"; V, 1, 5; 
arushS, the two ruddy horses, 
1,94, 10; II, 10, a 1 ; IV, a, 3; 
arushasajb, I, 146, a*; IV, 6, 9 ; 
arushdsya vr/sh»aA, V, ia, a"; 6; 
— drushim (conj.drushi£?),I,7i, 
i 1 ; drushtfr, I, 7a, 10 4 . 

arushd-stupa, whose summit is red, 

III, a9, 3. 
drfikshita, soft, IV, 11, 1. 
arepds, stainless, IV, 10, 6. 

arkd, song, I, 141, 13 ; HI, 36, 7 1 ; 

8; IV, 3, 15; 10,3; V, 5, 4. 
ari, to sing, praise : arian, III, 14, 

4; driami, IV, 4, 8; Inrikhb, 

V, 6, 8 ; drianta£, V, 1 3, 1 ; dria, 
V, 16, i 1 ; aa, 1; 35, 7;— abhf 
kardm arian, they sang tri- 
umphantly, IV, 1, 14* ; — pri 
arian ti, III, 13, 5; prd aria, 
I sing, III, 13, i 1 . 



arif, flame, I, 36, 3 ; ao, &c. 
arifs, flame, IV, 7, 9 ; V, 17, 3. 
arna, flood : divl& draam, III, 23, 3. 
arnavd, waving, III, as, 2*. 
drnas, wave, IV, 3, 13. 
drtha, aim, I, 144, 3*; III, 11, 3 - ; 

IV, 6, 10. 
drbha, small, I, 146, 5. 

arbhakd, little : arbhak6bhyai>, I, 27, 

'J- 
drmint in narmini? (I, 149, j 1 ). 
aryd, Aryan, IV, 1, 7; (3, 12 3 ; 18 6 ;) 

V, 16, 3. 

Aryamdn, I, 26, 4 ; 36, 4 ; 44, 1 3 ; 

79, 3; Mi, 9; H, », 4; IV, 2, 

4 ; 3, 5 ; V, 3, a. 
arvd>Ji : arvaVJiam ydkshva, sacrifice 

and bring hither, 1, -45, 10. 
drvat, horse, I, 27, 9; 73, 9; 145, 

3 1 ; H,2,io; IV, 15, 6; V, 6, 

1; 2. 
drvan, horse, I, 149, 3; IV, 7, 11; 

11,4. 
arhdna, deservedly, I, 127, 6. 
drhat, worthy, I, 94, 1; II, 3, 1; 3 ; 

V, 7, 2. 
av, to protect, bless, help : dv££, I, 

27, 7 ; avisha/>, III, 13, 6, &c. 
dva : agn&fr dvena for ague" rdvena, 

I, 128, s'. 

avadyd, disgrace, IV, 4, 15. 

avdni, course, I, 140, 5;— river, V, 

II, 5- 

avamd. lowest (god), IV, 1, 5. 
dvara, later (or, nearer), 1, 141, 5 ; — 

lower, II, 9, 3. 
dvasana, not clothed, III, 1, 6. 
avdstat, below, III, 22, 3. 
ava-stha, retirement, V, 19, i'. 
avasyu, desiring help, II, 6, 6. 
avitri, helper, I, 36, 2 ; 44, 10; III, 

19, 5- 
dvi-mat, rich in sheep, IV, 2, 5 1 . 
avishydt, wishing to drink, I, 58, 2. 
avishyfi, greedy, 1, 189, 5. 
aviratS, want of heroes, III, 16, 5. 
avr/kd, without danger, 1, 31, 13; — 

keeping off the wolf, IV, 4, 12. 
ai, to eat: prd ajana, III, 21, 1. 
atatru, without a foe, V, 2, 12. 
asdni, thunderbolt, I, 143, 5. 
aids, cursing, IV, 4, 15. 
djiva, unkind, V, 12, 5. 
asfrshan, headless, IV, 1, 11. 
dsraan, stone (flint), II, 1, 1; III, 

39,6. 



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432 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



itma-vraya, dwelling in the rock- 
stable, IV, i, i j. 

ajramishfta, never tiring, IV, 4, 12. 

irrita, not resting on (?), IV, 7, 6 s . 

atva-d2van, giver of horses, V, 18, 3*. 

aVva-pesas, the ornament of which 
are horses, II, 1. 16. 

a/vam-ish/i, winner of horses, 11,6, a*. 

Arva-medha, N. p., V, 27, 4-6. 

If va-radhas, giver of horses, V, 10, 4 1 . 

(Lsv%, mare, III, 1, 4 ; 7, 2 s . 

a/vin, rich in horses, IV, 2, 5 1 ; V, 
4,11. 

Ajvfnau, du., the two Ajvins, I, 44, 
a; 8; 14; III, 20, 1; 5; 29, 
«' ; IV, 2, 4; 13, 1; 15, 9; 10; 
V, 26, 9. 

irvya, of the horses, I, 74, 7. 

£sha//f>a, invincible, III, 15, 4. 

ash/ami, eighth (rein or priest of 
Agni), II, 5, 2 1 . 

ash/£-pad?, eight-footed (i.e. cow 
with calf). H, 7, 5 a . 

as, to be : pr£ astu, may it be fore- 
most, I, 13, 9; — sat4& >ta bhd- 
vataA ia, I, 96, 7 ; tvam tKn 
sim ia prdti hx asi, thou art 
united with them and equal to 
them, II, 1, 15. 

as, to throw : ava-asya, I, 140, 10. 

asat, nothingness, IV, 5, 14; — untrue, 
V, 12, 4. 

asana, weapon, I, 148, 4. 

asaman4, striving apart, I, 140, 4. 

asam-dita, unfettered, IV, 4, 2. 

asam-mrish/a, not cleansed, V, 11, 3. 

asaj&it, not sticking together, I, 13, 
6 ; 142, 6. 

isasat, never sleeping, I, 143, 3. 

asita, black, IV, 1 3, 4. 

asu, vital spirit, I, 140, 8. 

asura, the Asura, miraculous lord, 
II, 1, 6; III, 3, 4 1 ; 29, 14 1 ; 
IV, 2,5'; V, 12, 1; 15, 1; 27,1. 

asurya, mysterious power, V, 10, a. 

asta, stall, I, 66,9; — home: astam 
yanti, V, 6, 1. 

asta-tlti, homestead, V, 7, 6. 

astri, archer, I, 66, 7; 70, 11; 71, 
5 1 ; 148,4; IV, 4, 1. 

astr/ta, indestructible, I, 140, 8. 

aspandamana, without trembling, 
IV, 3, 10. 

asmad, pers. pronoun : asmakam 
astu, may he be ours, 1, 13, to ; 
pri \ai> imahe, we entreat for 



ru, I, 36, 1 ' ; -nb untranslated, 
66, 9' ; sib nab, thus (give) us, 
11,6,5'; argasmaVVjii^ 1 . 
asma-druh, he who deceives us: 

asma-dhruk, I, 36, 16. 
asmadryak, turned towards us, V, 

4, »• 
asma-yu, inclined towards us, I, 

142, 10. 
asn'dh, not failing, I, 13, 9 ; V, 5, 8. 
asredhat, unerring, III, 14, 5. 
asreman ? Ill, 29, 13 1 . 
asvapna^, never sleeping: asvapna- 

gih, IV, 4, 12. 
ihan, day, I, 71, 2 ; dirgha' iha, I, 

140, 13 ; ihnab, by day, IV, 10, 

5 ; igre ihnam, V, 1, 4 ; 5. 
£hi, snake, I, 79, 1. 
ahGryi, not to be led astray : ahfir- 

yavfr (conj. for ahffryaA), 1, 69, 4'. 
ihraya, fearless, I, 74, 8; glorious, 

III, 2, 4. 

dhrayana, fearless, IV, 4, 14. 

ak6, near, II, 1, 10. 

3-kshita, habitable, V, 7, 7. 

agas, sin, IV, 3, 5 ; 12, 4 ; V, 3, 7; 

12. 
S-jgni, birth: tisrlfr Z-g&oib, III, 

17, 3 1 - 
St, then, I, 148, 4 1 . 
a-tilni, an expander : ya^ri&m I- 

tdniA, II, 1, 10. 
atithy*, hospitality, 1, 76, 3 ; IV, 4, 

10 ; V, 28, a. 
atman, vital breath : atmSC-iva sivab, 

I, 73, «• 
a-dadi, seizer : 3dat J-dadfA, I, 1 27, 

6". 
Adityd, IV, f, 2 ; pi., the Adityas, 

1, 45, 1; 94, 3 5 188,4; II, 1, 

«3J 3, 4 1 5 111,8,8; 20,5. 
2-deva, godly, II, 4, 1 ; devam &• 

devam, IV, 1, i 4 . 
a-dhavi, purification, I, 141, 3'. 
i-dhrish, attack, II, 1, 9. 
adhrd, weak: adhrasya, I, 31, 14*. 
anushlk, in due order, I, 13, 5 1 ; 58, 

3; 72,7; 11,6, 8; III, 11, 1; 

IV, 4, 10; 7, 2; 5; i», 35 V, 
6,6'; 10; 9, 1; 16,2; 18, 2; 
21, 2 ; 22, 2 ; 26, 8. 

ap : pan Spa, he has won, I, 76, 1. 
Apayg, N. of a river, III, 23, 4. 
ipf, companion, I, 26, 3 ; 31, 16 ; 
IV, 3, 13- 



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INDEX OF WORDS. 



433 



3-pr/M6ya, whose leave should be 
asked, I, 60, 2. 

apya, companionship, I, 36, 12 ; HI, 
2,6. 

ama, raw, IV, 3, 9*. 

Z-yagishtba, best performer of sacri- 
fices, II, 9, 6. 

ayasa, of iron, I, 58, 8. 

3yu, the living, I, 31, 2*; 11 ; 66, 
1 ; 140, 8; 147, i 1 ;— lively : 
3yuvaA dhenava£, II, 5, 5; — 
Ayu, N. p., I, 96, 2* ; II, 2, 8 ; 
4,2- IV, 2, 12'; iSV; V, 7, 
6; jamsam iy6b, IV, 6, 11*; 
V, 3. 4* 5 P'v the Ayus, I, 58, 
3"; 60. 3; IV, 7, 4 5— n-» l»"e, 
HI, 3, 7- 

ayudha, weapon, V, j, 3. 

Styus, life : vijvam &yub, I, 73, 5 ; 
Kyub apffrn, III, 1, 5*; dirgham 
ayuA pra-yikshe, III, 7, 1 ; 
trim ayGmshi, III, 17, 3 1 , &c. 

a-r6dhana, ascent, IV, 7, 8 ; 8, 2 ; 4. 

ffrtana? I, 127, 6 1 . 

Krtvi^ya, duty of a priest, I, 94, 6. 

Krya, the Aryan, I, 59, 2 ; visab 
Mb, I, 77, 3 s ; 96,3. 

avi'A-njgtka, (I, 44, 3 1 ). 

Svf/>-tya, visible, I, 95, 5. 

av.'s, manifest : avi'A bhava, I, 31, 
3 1 : Mb babhfftha, V, 1, 9; 
avfc kr/nute, V, 2, 9. 

3-jis, hope: a-jasa, IV, 5, n 1 . 

aVa, region, V, 10, 6. 

arina, old(?), I, 27, 13'. 

3*6, swift racer, I, 60, 5 ; IV, 7, 11. 

aju-ajvya, plenty of swift horses, V, 
6, 10. 

aju-yil, quickly, IV, 4, 2. 

3-jusukshani, flaming, II, 1, 1. 

ajushana\ aspiring after, IV, 1, 13. 

jbu-heman, quick inciter, II, 1, 5*. 

3s : upa Isate, they approach rever- 
entially, 1, 36, 7; III, 2, 6;— 
sam-asate, they lie down round 
about, III, 9, 7. 

its, mouth : asiK, I, 76, 4 1 ; 140, 2 ; 
II, 1, 14' ; in the presence of, 

IV, 5, 10 ; manifestly, V, 17, 2 ; 

5 ; 23, »• 
asan, mouth, I, 75, 1; III, 26, 7; 

V, 6, 9 ; 18, 4. 

£sf, face: yasya asaya, in whose 

presence, I, 127, 8. 
SsSt, adv., near, I, 27, 3. 
3-suti, drink, II, 1, 14. 



[46] 



Ff 



asuri, of the Asura : gdrbha* 3sur&6, 

III, 29, 11. 
askra, united, III, 6, 4 s . 
3sya, mouth, II, 1, 13; V, 12, 1. 
2-huta, see hu. 
3-huVya, to be led astray : a-htfrya£ 

(conj. ahfiryib), I, 69, 4 1 . 

i : ayate, he proceeds, I, 127, 3* ; 
yantai, corrupt for vyantaA ? I, 
140, 13 1 ; »anfm yate, striving 
for gain, V, 27, 4 ;— ddhi ihi, 
think thou (of us), I, 71, io* ; — 
sib nu iyate (Samhitl : s3 nvf- 
yate), conj. sanu (=s£ anu) 
iyate, I, 145, i 1 ; — iatab fyase, 
thou passest between, 1 1, 6, 7 ; — 
apa aiyeA, V, 2, 8 ; — upa & imasi, 
we approach, I, t, 7 ; — pari-et&, 
will overtake, 1, 27, 8 ; — pra-yati 
yagte, adhvar6, white the sacri- 
fice is going on, III, 29, 16; 
V, 28, 6 ; pra-yai devfibhyaA, 
that the gods may come forth, 
I, 142,6; £tipra, I, 144,1 s ;— 
nd prati-itaye, not to be with- 
stood, I, 36, 10 ;— sam yanti, 
come together, I, 31, 10; see 
sam-yit. 

id, nourishing power, sacred food: 
ML kritani, 1, 128, 7 ; i/46 pad€, 
I, 128, 1 ; II, 10, i s ; h6taram 
\lib, III, 4 , 3- 

1/3, ' Nourishment,' N. of a goddess, 

I, 13, 9 l ; 3«, " $ ; 142,9; 188, 
8; II, 1, 11 1 ; 3, 8; III, 1, 
*3'; 4, 8; 7, 5! 27, 10*; V, 
4, 4; 5, 8; ilayah pad£, III, 
23, 4*; *9, 4; i/t(, instr., Ill, 
24,2 ; f/ayaA putrid, 111,29, 3 s . 
f/a-vat, rich in nourishment, IV, 

2,5- 

itaA-Qti, who from here distributes 
his blessings, I, 146, 2. 

(ti, thus : iti kratvS, with this inten- 
tion, IV, 1, i 1 . 

itthJ[, truly, I, 36, 7 ; 141, 1 ; V, 17, 
1 ; itthft dhiya", with right 
thought, III, 27, 6. 

ittM-dhi, thus minded, IV, 11, 3. 

id5m, this : asmai (after the plural 
yd), I, 67, 8 1 ; asmai (verb to 
be supplied), I, 70, 4 1 ; yidi 
id&m, when here (all this 
happened), I, 79, 2 s ; yfidi 
idam, as I am here, IV, 5, 11 s ; 



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434 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



there, II, 5, 5: esham (conj. 

esham), IV, a, 4'. 
ida" iit-idS /Ht, now-now, IV, 10, 5. 
idhma, fuel, I, 94, 4 ; III, 18, 3. 
in: in6shi, thou drivest away, IV, 

10, 7 ;— pr£ ainot, he has driven 
forward, I, 66, 10. 

ini, strong, I, 149, 1. 

fndu, Soma, V, 18, a. 

Indra, I, 13, ia; 14a, 4; 5; la ; 
13; II, 1, 3 5 3, 3; 8, 6; III, 
4, 6; 11 ; aa, 1 ; 35, 4; IV, 
a, 17; V,a,8; 3,1; 5, 3 ; 11 ; 

1 1, a ; I'ndram agnim, III, la, 3. 
Indragnf, du., Ill, ia, 1; a; 4-9; 
. V, a 7 , 6. 

IndravfshnQ, du.. Indra and Vishnu, 
IV,a, 4 . r r . 

inv, to stir up, to further: (nvati, 
I, ia8, 5; i'nvatai>, I, 141, 4; 
invasi, I, 94, 10; 141, 10; V, 
a8, 2 ; mvantaA, IN, 4, 5 ; in- 
vire, V, 6, 6. 

fbha, elephant, IV, 4, i 1 . 

fbhya, rich, I, 65, 7. 

iva : svena-iva, read svena evi ? I, 

«45. **• 
ish, to long, seek: U/frMnta, I, 68, 
8 ; Mb&nUb, I, 72, 2 ; ishuii, 

t III, 1, a. 

isn, to incite: ishe, infin., I, 71, 8* ; 

ishdyanta man ma, they have 

stirred up our prayers, I, 77, 

4*; ishaai, II, 2, 9 s ; ishiUt, III, 

3» 2; 4. 3; ", i- 
feh, food, I, ia, 11 ; 27, 7 ; 36, 11, 
&c. ; V, 6, 1-10 ; ish&n net2, 

111,23,2'. 

ish£, food-giving, I, 189, 8*. 

Ishi, N. p., V, 7, 10. 

ishany: ishanyanti, they speed it 

hither, V, 6, 6 1 . 
ishay, to seek nourishment : isha- 

yanta, II, 2, n 1 . 
ishira, vigorous, quick, I, 128, 5; 

HI. 2, 13 ; 5.4- 
ishudhyit, supplicant : ishudhyat£, I, 

128, 6\ 
ishuy, to fly like an arrow, to shoot 

arrows (?) : ishCyate, I, 128, 

4*. 
ishu-y&t, desiring food (?), I, 128, 4 s . 
ish/ani? I, 127, 6\ 
ish/f, wish, search, I, 143,8*; 145, 

1; 148, 3 ; IV, 4, 7. 
ish/f, sacrifice, II, 1,9'. 



ish/f, incitement (?), IV, 6, 7*. 

t : pri tmahe va£, we entreat for 
you, I, 36, i 1 ;— I imahe, we 
implore, III, 26, 5. 

id, to magnify : i/e, I, 1, i*;'44, 
4; HI, 1, 15; 27, 2 ; «*; IV, 
3, 3; 9 1 ; i'/ate, I, 36, 1; 
128, 8; III, 6, 3 ; 10, 2 ; 13, 
a; »7. «4 ; V, 1, 7; 8, 3; 9, 
1; 14, 2; 3; 21, 3; Vata, I, 
96, 3 1 ; i«e, V, ia, 6 ; Vita, V, 
17, 1; 21, 4; tVlna, II, 6, 6; 
28, 1 ; T/it4, I, 13, 4 1 ; 142,4'; 

II, 3, 3 i V, 5, 3 ; 7. 

Venya, to be magnified, I, 79, 5; 
146, 5; III, 27, 13; V, 1,9; 

„ '4, 5- 

Wya, worthy of being magnified: 
fayaA, I, 1, 2; 12, 3»; 75, 4; 
188, 3; 11,1,4! HI, 2, 2; 5, 
6; 9; 9, 8; i7, 4; 27, 4 5 29, 
2; 7; IV, 7, 1; 2; V, 22, 1. 

ir : iratam, may they arise, IV, 8, 
7 ; trayidhyai, he shall rise up, 
IV, 2, i 1 ;— a-irire, they have 
raised, set to work, I, 143,4; 

III, 11, 9; 29, 15;— nf erire, 
they have roused, I, ia8, 8; 
11,2,3; IV, 1, 1. 

Ivat, like this, IV, 4, 6 ; 15, 5. 

h, to rule : irata, I, 36, 16; II, 7, 2 ; 
vasvaA he, I, 71, 9; yavat tie, 
as far as I have power, III, 18, 3. 

Mini, master, lord, I, 73, 9 ; 79, 4 ; 

Mi, 3- 
ish: ishate, they flee, I, 141, 8 ; — "A 
ishate, he advances, I, 149, i 2 . 

uktha\ hymn, litany, I, 27, 12; 71, 

2; 140,13; H,8,5; HI, 5, a; 
13,6; 20, 1; IV, 3, 4; 16; 6, 
11; ", 3; V, 4, 7; 6,9; 18,4. 

ukthavlhas, (I, 127,8"). 

uktha-sas, chanting litanies IV, 2, 16. 

ukthfn, rich in hymns, III, 12, 5. 

ukthya, praiseworthy, I, 79, 1 2 ; III, 

2, 13; is; i«>,6; 26, 2; v, 26, 6. 

uksh, to sprinkle: atikshan, III, 9, 

9 ; satyam ukshan, IV, 1, 10. 
uksh, to grow. See vaksh. 
ukshan, bull, I, 146, 2 ; II, 7, 5 ; 

111,7,6; 7*; V, a 7 , 5. 
ugra, strong, mighty, 1, 1 37, 1 1 ; III, 

26,5; IV, a, 18 s . 
Ugra-deva: ugrf-devam, I, 36, 18 1 . 



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INDEX OF WORDS. 



435 



uAatha, hymn, I, 73, 10 ; 143, 6 ; 
IV, a, ao; V, 13, 3. 

uttana : uttanS, lying extended on 
her back, II. 10, 3 1 ; III. 39, 
3'; V, 1, 3*;— nyah uttinaA, 
spread out downwards-turned, 
IV, 13, 5- 

utt£n£-hasta,with outstretched hand, 

III, 14, 5 1 - 

ut-vit : ut-vitai ni-v4ta£, to the 

heights and to the depths, III, 

a, 10. 
utsa, spring, III, 36, 9. 
udanya*, of water, II, 7, 3. 
udyat a-sru>, the sacrificer who raises 

the spoon, I, 31, 5. 
und, to moisten : havyam undan, 

II, 3, 2. 
upa-iKbhrrt, the bringing : flr.ja'm upa- 

Jtbhnti, I, 138, 3. 
upa-iti, approaching, supplication, I, 

76, i l ; III, 18, 1. 
upa-kshetz-i, follower, III, 1, 16. 
upabdi, noise produced by going, I, 

74, 7 1 - 
-upa-mg, high up, I, 31, 15 1 . 
upamiK, likeness, (I, 31, 15 1 ). 
upa-mKda, enjoyment, III, 5, 5. 
upa-mft, supporting, I, 59, 1* ; pillar, 

IV, 5, 1. 

upara, lower, I, 79, 3*; 138, 3; 
uparasu, in our neighbourhood, 

I, 137, 5 s ; uparasya, nearer, 
IV, 3, 1 8* ; uparin, getting be- 
hind, II, 4, 9 1 . 

upa-vaktrj, the U. priest, IV, 9, 5'. 
upas, lap : upasi (conj. for apasi), 

(in, 1,3 s ; 11 4 ). 

upa-sacl, sitting down (reverentially), 

II, 6, 1'. 
Upa-stuti, I, 36, 10 1 ; 17 1 . 
upa-stuti, praise, I, 148, 3. 
upi-stha, lip, I, 95, 4; 5; pitr6A 

upa-sthe, I, 31, 9 ; 146, 1 ; III, 
5, 8 ; s6, 9 ; apiKm up£-sthe, I, 
144, 3 ; maxdb upA-sthe, III, 8, 
1; 39, 14; V, 1, 6; 19, 1. 

upa-sthayam iarati, he goes to greet 
them, I, 145, 4*. 

tipaka, neighbouring, I, 143, 7; III, 
4,6. 

upak6, near at hand, I, 37, 6 ; IV, 
10, 5; 11, 1. 

upeti, see upa-iti. 

ubh : ubdhim, closed, IV, 1, 15; — 
sam-ubdham, confined, V, 3, i 1 . 



ubhi, both: ubha' for ubhe 1 . I, 140, 
3<; ubh6 fti tok6 ft! t&naye, I, 

147, i*. 
ubhiya, both, I, 36, 9 1 ; 31, 7; 
ubhayan, both (kinds of men, 
the pious and the impious), I, 
189,7'; of both kinds (wealth), 

II, 9, 5 1 - 
uru, wide : uru kshayaya Jakr.re, I, 

36, 8 ; urvf, the wide (Earth), I, 

146, 3; II, 4, 7; uru, wide 

space, III, 1, ii*. 
uru-gayS, wide-ruling, II, 1, 3 ; III, 

6,4*; iv, 3,7; 14, 1. 

uru-^T4yas, extending over wide 

spaces, V, 8, 6. 
uru-vWW*, far-reaching, V, 1, 13. 
unwlmsa, widely-renowned: uru- 

sawisaya, I, 31, 14. 
urushy, to guard, deliver : urushya, 

I, 58, 8; 9; IV, 3, 6; to keep 
off: iditim urushya, IV, 3, 11*; 
urushyit, he has escaped into 
wide space, III, 5, 8. 

urvira, field, I, 137, 6. 
Urviri: urvl»i£, IV, 2, 18'. 
urviyK, far and wide, I, 141, 5 ; II, 

3,5; HI, 1, 18; V, 38, 1. 
ulkS, firebrand, IV, 4, 3. 
us, see vas. 

uridhak, eagerly burning, III, 6, 7 s . 
Vjfg, (Agni) the Viig (or willing 

one), III, 3,7; 8; 11, a 1 ; 37, 

10 3 ; — pi., the IW^s, mythical 

priests, I, 60, a 1 ; 4; 138, i* ; 

189, 7 5 II, 4, 5 s ; HI, 3, 4*; 

95 15, 3*5 IV, 1, 15 1 : V, 3, 4. 
ush, to burn down: ushnin, II, 4, 

7 ; — nf oshatat, burn down, IV, 

4, 4- 

ush, to shine. See vas. 

usha£-budh, awakening with the 
dawn, I, 44, 1; 9 ; 65,9; "7, 
10; III, s, 14; IV, 6, 8. 

ushar, dawn : usrsL6, gen. sing., I, 
71, 2 s . 

ushas, dawn, 1, 71, 1 ; 94, 5 ; ushasaA 
navedaA, I, 79, I s ; vastoA 
ushasai, I, 79, 6 ; dosha" ushasi, 

II, 8, 3 ; IV, 3, 8 ; priti dosh&n 
ushasam, IV, 13, 2; ushasaA 
vi-rok6, III, 5, 2; ushasaA vf- 
ush/au, III, 15, 2; IV, 1, 5; 
14,4; — Dawn, the goddess, I, 
44, i 1 ; »; 8; 14; 111, 17, 3 1 ; 
30, 1; IV, 3, 15; 3, n J ; V, 1, 



F f 2 



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436 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



i; a 8, i; xish&b gar&h, lover of 
the Dawn, I, 69, i 1 ; 9; devf 
ush'ib, III, 20, 5; IV, 1, 17; 
14, 3 ; dosham ushasam, Night 
and Morning, V, 5, 6 ; — du., 
nakta ka ushasa, I, 73, 7 ; 
ushasau, the two Dawns, Night 
and Dawn, I, 188, 6 2 ; III, 4, 
6'; 14, 3; V, 1, 4 ;-ushasaA, 
the Dawns, I, 44, to ; II, a, a ; 
7; 8; III, 5, i; IV, 1,13 s ; a, 
>9! 5, i?; «4, 1; ushiA vi- 
bhatft, III, 6, 7 ; ushisaii flshuA, 

III, 7, 10 ; ushasam agram, IV, 

•5,i. 
nshasanakta, Dawn and Night, II, 

3,6. 
usrf, bright, I, 69, 9. 
usra 1 , milch-cow, IV, 1, 13 ; see also 

ushar. 
usWya, ruddy cow, III, i, 1a 4 ; IV, 

5,8'; 9. 

utf, blessing, protection, 1, 36, 1 3, &c. 

ffdhan, udder, 1,69, 3 1 ; 146, 2 ; III, 
J9, 14; IV, 1,19; 3, 10; pituA 
udhaii, III, 1, 9 1 ; sasmin udhan, 

IV, 7, 7 s ; «o,8'. 
ffma, helpful, III, 6, 8'. 

firg : mini Or^yantiA, giving mighty 

vigour, III, 7, 4- 
wg, vigour: urglm pate, I, 26, 1; 

(trgab naplt, I, 58, 8 ; II, 6, a ; 

HI, a7, ia; V, 7, 1; 17, 5; 

Qrg&Jb putram, I, 96, 3 ; Orga" 

pinvasva, III, 3, 7. 
ffrna-mradas, soft like wool, V, 5, 4'. 
firnu: vf Qrnot, he has revealed, I, 

68, 1 ; vi auraot, he has opened, 

I, 68, 10. 
firdhva, straight, standing erect, I, 

36, 13; m; 95, 5, &c. 
Ormi,wave, 1,27,6 ; 44, •* ! 95, i°- 
(irmya, night, II, 4, 3. 
flrvi, stable, stall, prison, I, 7a, 8 ; 

III, 1, 14; IV, a, 17; 12, 5. 
flh : fih6, he is considered, V, 3, 9'. 

W, to go, &c. : Wwvati, he procures, 
1, 128,6; he hastens, 1, 144, 5 ; 
arta tmana divaA, arose, V, 25, 
8* ; — abhf aruA, they ran up to, 
III, 1, 4 ;— ut-aritha, thou hast 
sprung, II, 9, 3 ; ut iyarti vtOam, 
he raises his voice, III, 8, 5' ; 
ut arta, it rose up, IV, 1, 17; 



ut aram, IV, 15, 7 ; — prS arhb, 
they have risen, III, 7, 1; pri 
iyarmi, I stretch forth, III, 19, 
2 ; pr4 arta, it came forth, IV, 
1,12 ; — vi n'nvatijhe discloses, I, 
58, 3 ; vf Wnvan, they opened, 
I, 69, 10 ; vf W«vati,he opens, I, 
128, 6 ; V, 16, 2 ;— sam-arata, he 
has come together, I, 145, 4 1 ; 
sam Wnvati, it accomplishes, III, 
a, 1 ; he sets himself in motion, 

III, 11, a'; sain-WtaA, erected, 
, IV, ,3,5. 

r/kvan, singer, III, 13, 5. 

Wgmfya, praiseworthy, III, a, 4. 

rik, see ark. 

rik, hymn, (sacrificial) verse, I, 36, 
11; II, 3,7; V, 6, 5; 37, 4. 

rig, ring, to press on, strive forward : 
riHgas%n&, 1, 58, 3 ; 96, 3 ; 
rifigin, I, 95, 7 ; riiigate, I, 141, 
6; 143, 7 5 II, 1, 8; a, 5 ; 
r/w^ase, I press on, IV, 8, 1 ;-^ 
abhi rigyale, I, 140, a ; — 2 
Wtfjjase. V, 13, 6'; — n( ringate, 
he throws down, 1, 143, 5 ; nf 
ringe, I catch hold, III, 4, 7. 

nipika, (I, 44, 3'). 

rigd, rightly, II, 3, 7; right deeds, 

IV, 1, 17. 

rigM-iHk, going straight forward, IV, 

6,9. f 
rj£-u-mushk£, puissant, IV, a, a ; 6, 9. 
rigu-yit, righteous, V, 12, 5. 
rink, debt, IV, 3, 13 5 . 
r/'ta, the .Rita, Right) 1, 1, 8 ; 75, 5" ; 

79, 3 ; '+1, 1; 11; HI, 4, 7; 
6, 6; IV, 1, .3'; 2, 3 1 ; 14 s ; 

'6; 19'; 3, 4*; 9-"; 5, n; 

V, 1,7; 12, i 1 ; 6'; 15, a; ao, 
4 ; WtSt 4dhi, on behalf of Rita, 
I, 36, 11 1 ; Wtasya vratK, I, 65, 
3; Wtasya y6ni, I, 65, 4; III, 
1, 11; IV, 1, ia; V, ai, 4; 
dhaYam Wtasya, I, 67, 7 1 ; V, 
1 a, a ; WtJt sapantaA, I, 67, 8; 
68, 4 ; Wtasya preshiA Wtasya 
dhitfA, I, 68, 5 1 ; dadhan Wtam, 
I, 7', 3'; Wtasya dhenivaA, I, 
73, 6 ; Wtasva pathS, I, ia8, a ; 
yahvtfti Wtasya, matara, 1, 14a, 
7 > V, 5, 6 ; Wtasya dhuA-sadam, 
I, '43, 7 ! Wtasya dohanaA, 
streams of JUta, I, 144, a 1 ; 
rathtt Wtasya, III, a, 8 ; IV, 
10, a ; Wtasya saman, I, 147, 



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INDEX OF WORDS. 



437 



i 4 ; r/tam yat§, I, 188, 2 ; pQr- 
\Xi> r/tasya sam-druaib, III, 5, 
2; r/tasya sadasi, III, 7, 2; 
gop&6 r/tasya, III, 10, 2 ; r/'- 
tisva pathy&> anu, III, 12, 7; 
r/'tasya yoge vanushai, eager to 
set to work the Rita, III, 27, 
11 1 ; r/'tena r/tam nf-yatam, IV, 
3, 9', 1 ; r/tasya pade, IV, 5, 9 ; 
r/tisya dhaman, IV, 7, 7 s ; r/'- 
tisya rajmi'm, V, 7, 3 ; r/'tena, 
in the right way, III, 4, 5 ; 5, 
3 ;— adj., righteous, IV, 3, 8 1 . 

rita-Ait, intent upon Rita. (Right), 
Ii M5, 5 ; IV, 3, 4 5 V, 3, 9. 

riti-gita, born in or lrom the Rita. : 
riti-gitab, I, 36, 19; 144, 7 ; 
189, 6 ; III, 6, 10 ; 20, 2. 

rita-gfi&, knowing the right way, I, 
72, 8. 

r/ta-pS, protecting the Rita, (III, 
20, 4 >; V, i*. 3 «). 

r/ta-pra < g'ata,born from Rita, 1, 65,10. 

r/'ta-pravtta, penetrated by .Rita, I, 

7°, 7- 
r/'tay, to perform the Rita. : r/tayan 

r/tena, V, 12, 3. 
r/ta-yat, righteous, II, 1, 2; IV, 8, 

3 ; V, 27, 4. 
r/*ta-yu, loving Rita, V, 8, 1. 
r/ta-van, righteous, I, 77, 1 ; 2 ; 5 ; 

III, 2, 13; 6, 10; 13, 2; 14, 

2; 20,4; IV, 1,2; 2, 1; 6, 5; 

7,,3 ; 7 ; 10, 7 ; V, 1, 6 ; 25, 1. 
r/ta-vr/dh, increaser ot Rita, I, 13, 

6; 44,14; '4*. 6 ; hi, 2, 1. 

r/tfi, season, I, 95, 3* ; V, 12, 3 s . 
r/tu-fM, observing the right time, 

II, J, 7- 

r/tu-pS, guardian of the seasons, 

111,20,4'; V, 12, 3 s . 
ritvig, ministrant, priest, I, 1, 1 ; 
44, 11; 45,7; 60, 3; 11,5, 7 1 ; 

III, 10,2 ; V, 22, 2; 26, 7. 
r/'tvfya, at the appointed season, I, 

143, 1; II, 1, 2; III, 29, 10. 
r/'dh, to accomplish : r/dhyihna, I, 

31,8; IV, 10, i 1 . 
r/dhak, in one's peculiar way, III, 

*5, i'. 
/Wbhu,II,i,io'; 111,5,6'; V.7,7- 
r/shi, a fti'shi, I, 1, 2 ; 31, 1 ; 66, 4 ; 

III, 21, 3 ; sahasram r/shibhL6, 

1, 189, 8. 
rjshi-kr>t, making (one) a Kishi, I, 

31, 16'. 



r/shu, pi., dawns (?), I, 127, 10*; V, 

25, i' 2 . 
r/shva, tall, I, 146, 2 ; III, 5, 5; 7 ; 
10; IV, 2, 2. 

6ka: ekai>-eka£, every one, III, 29, 

15- 
£ka-ayu, of unique vigour, I, 31, 5. 
ena, variegated : eni iti, I, 144, 6 1 . 
enas, sin, I, 189, 1 ; III-, 7, io" ; IV, 
t ",4; 5; V, 3,7. 
eman, course, path, 1, 58, 4* ; IV, 7, 9. 
eva, way : evai£, in due way, I, 68, 

4 ; 95, 6 ; evena, in his way, I. 

128, 3; aryib fivaiA, IV, 2, 12 3 ; 

—the going, I, 79, 2. 
eva, thus, I, 76, 5 ; 77, 5 ; 95, 11 ; 

III, 17, 2 ; evam, Samh., V, 6, 

io 1 . 
eshi, rapid, (IV, 2, 4'). 

6ka, homestead, I, 66, 3. 
o^ayimana, displaying his power, 1, 

140, 6. 
6tfish/i>a, richest : 6,jish/Z>am m£da£, 

III, 2t, 5 '. 

6s!iadhi, herb, I, 59, 3 ; 98, 2 ; II, 
1, 1; 4, 4; III, 1, 13; 5, 8"; 
22, 2 ; V, 8, 7. 

6ha, heedfulness, IV, 10, i*. 

Kanva. I, 36, 8; 10' ; 11 ; 17 ; 19; 
kaav&saZi, I, 44, 8 ; Kinvasya 
sGnavaA, I, 45, 5. 

katidhS iit, everywhere, I, 31, 2. 

kadiC 4ana, never, I, 150, 2. 

kan : tasya iakan, therewith he is 
satisfied, I, 148, 2 ; iakanib, 
loving, III, 5, 2 ; kanishaA,take 
joyfully, III, 28, 5; *akana£, 
delighting, desiring, V, 3, 10 ; 
27, 3' :— a /take, he desires, III, 
3, 3 ; it >ake, I love, III, 3, to. 

kanyl, maiden, 1,66,8*; kanfnam, 

V, 3, ». 
kaya : kayasya iit. of whomsoever, 

I, 27, 8 ; kayi, how, V, 12, 3. 
kar, to praise, (I, 45, 4'). 
karasna, arm: sr/'pra' karasni, III, 

18, s 1 . 
karmanya, able, III, 4, 9. 
karman, work, deed, I, 31,8; III, 

12, 6. 
kalyaaa, beautiful, I, 31, 9. 
kavf, sage, I, 12, 6; 7 ; 13, 2 ; 8, 

&c. ; I, 95, 8' ; dhfrasaA kava- 

yab, I, 146,4'- 



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438 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



kavf-kratu, having the mind of a 
sage, thoughtful, I, i, 5 ; III, 
»,4I »4»7; *7, n; V, 11,4. 

knvi-ibid, showing himself as a sage, 

III, 12, 3 \ 

kavi-tama,thehighestsage,III, 14, 1. 
kavi-prasasti, praised by sages, V, 1 , 8. 
kavi-sast£, praised by the sages, III, 

21,4; 29,7. 
kavyata, wisdom, I, 96, 2. 
ka : kftyaminaA, finding pleasure, 

III, 9, 2. See kan. 
k2mya,of love: dugdhamnSkamyam, 

v » «9, 4*. A 

kari, race : bhigarn ni kare", I, 141, 

10 1 ; — triumph : abhf karam 

arian, IV, 1, 14 s . 
kSru, singer, I, 31, 8; 9; 148, 2; 

11,2,9; HI. 6, »• 
kavya, quality of a sage, wisdom, 

I,7a, i 1 ; 96, 1; 11,5,3 5 I", 

1, 8; 17; 18; IV, 3, 16; 11, 

3 ; v, 3, 5. 

kash/Aa, pi., the (aerial) arena, 1, 59, 
6 ; race-course, I, 146, 5. 

kfyat, however small, IV, 5, 6. 

kirf, poor, humble, I, 31, 13*; V, 
4, 10 1 . 

Kist*: KistasaA.the Kistas, 1, 127,7'. 

kupaya, agitating, I, 140, 3. 

kumari, prince, IV, 15, 7-10 ; boy, 
V,2,.'; 2. 

kulua, axe, III, 2, 1. 

Kujiki, pi., the Kuiikas, III, 26, i 1 ; 

3; a9, 15- 

kG4it-arthfn, striving for all that is 
desired, IV, 7, 6. 

kri, to make, &c: yajjtfim kr/notana, 
I, 13, 12; kr/'nuhi, I, 31, 8; 
kridhf na£ ray6, help us to 
wealth, III, 15, 3*; krm6ti 
devan maYtyeshu, he conveys 
the gods to the mortals, I, 77, 
i 1 ; karikrataA, displaying, I, 
140, 5 1 ; krU&A (read parish- 
krita£?), adorned, I, 141, 8'; 
dhiyS/fcikre, 111,27,9'; krantai, 

IV, 2, 14 ; ikarma te, we have 
done our work for thee, IV, 2, 
19; — aYam karat, he may 
readily serve, II, 5, 8 ; uru 
iakrire, they have made wide 
room for, I, 36,8 ; satrtt >&ak- 
Tanib, 1,72, 1 ; — a krinoshi, thou 
givest, 1,31,7; 3. kn'nudhvam, 
bring hither, 1, 77, 2 ;— apa i 



kr/'dhi, drive away, III, 16, 5* ; 
— nf kai>, he has brought down 
(i. e. surpassed), 1,72, i 1 ; — piri- 
krrta, made ready, III, 28, 2 ; — 
sam akr/'nvan tegase, they have 
sharpened, III, 2, 10; see 
kranS. 

kridhu, weak, IV, 5, 14. 

krip: akn'pran, they have pined, 
, IV,2,i8\ 

kr»p, body, I, 127, 1 ; 128, 2. 

kreshtf, human race, I, 36, 19 ; 59, 
5 ; 74, a ; 189, 3 ;— tribe, clan, 
v > »> 6; 19, 3:— dwelling, II, 
2, 10. 

krishaa, black, I, 58, 4* ; 73, 7 ; 
141, 8'; krisbnib vr/shabhai, 
1,79, a 1 ; darkness, I, 140, 5 ; 
krishnasu, in the dark nights, 

"I, '5,3- 

krfchna-adhvan, whose path is black, 
II. 4, 6. 

krishna-gamhas, speeding on his 
black way, I, 141, 7. 

kr/'shna-pruta, immersed in dark- 
ness, I, 140, 3. 

krishnd-vyathi, with a black trail, 

11,4, 7 1 . 

kr<shȣ-sita, drawing black furrows, 
I, 140, 4. 

k/«'p: /fakr/panta dMbhf*, they 
chanted their prayers, IV, 1, 14. 

k£ta, desire, I, 146, 3. 

ketu, light, shine, splendour, I, 36, 
M5 IV, 7, 4; 14, a; V, 7, 4; 
ketfim usraA, I, 71, 2*;— ketu, 
beacon, banner, I, 27, 12 ; III, 
1, 17; 2, 14; V, 11, 3; vidi- 
thasya, I, 60, 1 ; yagAasya, I, 
96,6; 127,6; III, n, 3; a9, 
5 ; V, 11, 2 ; yagtfanam, III, 3, 
3 ; adhvarasya, III, 8, 8 ; adh- 
varanam, III, 10, 4. 

kevala, alone, I, 13, 10. 

kejin, long-baired, I, 140, 8 ; long- 
maned, III, 6, 6. 

kr&tu, power of mind, wisdom, I, 
65, 9; 67, 2; 68, 3; 69, 2; 
73, a; 77, 3 1 ! "8, 4; 141,6; 
9! 143, a; 145, 2; II, 5, 4; 
HI, a, 3; 6, 5; 9, 6; 11, 6; 
IV, 5, 7 ; 10, 1 ; 2 ; 12, 1 ; V, 
10, 2; 17, 4;— mind, 1,66, 5*; 
will, I, 68, 9'; fti kratva, with 
this intention, IV, 1, i 1 ; — power, 
I, 127,9; "8,5; III, 1, 5 1 . 



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INDEX OF WORDS. 



439 



krand, to neigh, bellow, roar : kran- 
dat, I, 36, 8 ; aiikradat, I, 58, 
2 ; kanikradat, bellowing, I, 
128, j 1 ; krandan, III, 36, 3. 

kram : pan akramit, he has circum- 
ambulated, IV, 15, 3. 

knUa', as soon as, I, 58, 3 1 ; V, 7, 
8* ; indeed, V. 10, 2'. 

kru/, to sport : kriVantaA, IV, 4, 9 ; 
krf/an, V, 19, 5. 

kshatrd, royal power, IV, 4, 8 ; V, 
27, 6. 

kshatrfya, royal power, IV, 12, 3'. 

kshap, night: kshapaii (conj. ksha- 
pib), I, 44, 8 2 ; kshapa£ (conj. 
kshipaA), nights and dawns, I, 
70, 7 1 : kshapii, by night, 1, 79, 
6 ; kshapai> sam-yatai, II, a, 2'. 

kshapS-vat, earth-protecting, 1,70,5'. 

ksham, earth, (I, 79, 3') ; III, 8, 7. 

kshaya, dwelling, I, 36, 8; 74, 4; 
'44.7! 111,3,6; 3,3; n,7*; 
V, o, 3; is, 6; 23, 4; divl 
kshayam (conj. divikshayam), 

111,2,13'. 

kshar, to flow : ksharasi, I, 27, 6 ; 
ksharanti, I, 73, 10. 

kshS, earth, I, 67, 5'; 95, 10; 96, 
7 1 > 189, 3 ; vuvisu kshasu, I, 
127, io 2 ,'. 

kshaman, earth, IV, 2, 16. 

kshi, to dwell: ksheti, I, 94, 2; 
kshesh) antai>, going to settle, 
II, 4, 3'; kshaya/., III, 8, 1; 
kshepayat, may he give us 
dwelling, V, 9, 7 ; — prfthivfm 
upa-kshiti, he dwells on the 
earth, I, 73, 3 ;— prati-kshiyan- 
tam, who abides turned towards, 

II, 10, 4; — to rule: kshayan, 
111,25,3; kshayasi, IV, 5, 11. 

kshitf, dwelling, human settlement, 
I, 59i 1; 6 5, 5; 7h 7; 73, 4 5 
11,2, 3; 111,3,9! 13, 4 . 14, 
4; IV, 5, 15 1 ; V, 7, 1 ;— tribe, 

III, 18, 1 ; V, 1, 10; kshitinam, 
dai'vinam, III, 30,4. 

kshfp,finger: dl>akshi'pai>, III, 23, 3. 
kshipra', a tossing (bow ?), IV, 8, 8. 
kshi, to fail : kshiyate, II, 9, 5. 
kshu-mat, rich in food, II, 1, 10; 4, 

8; 9,5; IV, 3, i8». 
ksh6 ? IV, 3, 6'. 

kshetra, dwelling-place, V, 3, 3" ; 4. 
kshetra-s&ihas, giving bliss to our 

fields, 111,8,7*. 



kshema, safety, peace, 1, 66, 3 ; 67, 2. 
kshema-yit, living in peace, III, 7, 3. 
ksh6da, stream, I, 65, 5 ; 6' ; 10. 

kh£. opening, IV, 11, 2. 

khya : priti akhyat, he has looked 
on, IV, 13,1; 14,1; — vfakhyan, 
they looked around, IV, 1, 18. 

gani, troop: ganam-ganam, III, 26, 

6 ; crowd, V, 1, 3. 
ganya, belonging to the host, III, 

7.5- 
gabhiri, deep, IV, 5, 5* ; 6. 
gam, to go: ^agamyat, I, 58, 9; 

pari-sidantai> agman, IV, 2, 17 4 ; 

— iiibi gamema, wemay obtain, 

IV, 5, 13 ; — sam-gatani, com- 
prised, 1,31,5'; sam-^agmana'- 
su kr/sh/fshu, when the human 
tribes met (in battle), I, 74, 2 ; 
man asa sam ghgmdii, they agreed 
in their mind, III, 1, 13. 

giya, home, I, 74, 2 ; dominion, V, 

10,3. 
garbha, womb, I, 65, 4 ; 148, 5;— 

fruit of the womb, germ, I, 95, 

a; 4; 146, 5; II. 'o, 3; HI, 
1, 6; 10'; 2, 10; 29, 2; 11 ; 

V, 2, 3 ; bhfltanam garbham, 
III, 27,9 ; — child, son: garbha£ 
ap8m, vlninim, &c, I, 70, 3 ; 
III. 1, is; 13; 5, 3; garbhaA 
virudhim, II, i, 14 ; dadhate 
garbham, IV, 7, 9'. 

garbhM, pregnant, III, 29, 2. 

garh, to blame : garhase, IV, 3, 5. 

gavisha, see go-isha. 

givish/i, see g6-ishfi. 

GivishtMn, V, 1, 12. 

gavya, of the cows, I, 72, 8 ; IV, 

2, 17; — bliss in cows, 1, 140, 13. 
gavy at , longing for the cows, I V, 1 , 1 5 . 
gi, to go: pra-^igataA, coming 

forward, I, 150, 3. 
gi, to sing : iikba. agnfm glsi, V, 

25, i'. 
gatu, path, course, I, 71, 2 ; 7.2, 9 ; 

95. 10; 96. 4; HI, «. »; 4, 4- 
giyatra, Gayatra song, 1, 12, 1 1 ; 27, 

4; 79,7; 188, 11. 
giyatri-vepas, moved by the Gayatra 

song, I, 142, 12. 
gib, to dive : ati gihemahi, II, 7, 3. 
gir, praise, prayer, I, 26, 5 ; 59, 4' ; 

II, 2, 1* &c. 



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44© 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



girf, hill, I, 65, 5. 

gfrvawas, loving pra : ses, I, 45, 2 ; II, 

6,3- 
gu : ^oguve, he has loudly praised, 

1, 127, io*. 
gur : £ugurva»i (ti, eager in praising, 

I, 142, 8 ;— abhi £UguryaZ», ap- 
prove, I, 140, 13. 

guru, heavy: mantra£ gur4&, I, 

M7,4. , A 

guh, to hide : guhamanai>, IV, 1, 1 1. 

guh, covert : guha 1 guham, I, 67, 6'. 

guha, in secret, I, 65, 1 ; 67, 3 ; II, 
4, 9 1 ; HI, 1, 9; 14; V 2, 1; 
15, 5 ; guha bhavantam, santara, 
the hidden one, I, 67, 7; 141, 
3; III, 5, 10; V, 8, 3; guha 
hitam, hidden, IV, 5, 8 l ; 7, 6 ; 
V.,,,6. 

guhya, secret, I, 72, 6 ; IV, 5, 10 ; 

V, 3» * ! 3 ! 5, 10. 
gri, to praise, I, 44, 6, &c. ; g/v'»ite, 
he is praised, I, 79, 12* ;— desh- 
nam abhi grimhi, hail our gift, 

II, 9, 4; abhi grinilib, they 
salute, III, 6, 10 ; girai abhf 
grina'ti, he responds to my 
hymns, V, 27, 3. 

gri : ^agri-v&nsaA, having awoke, III, 
10,9; a^Tgarfti, he has awaken- 
ed, V, 1, 3 1 . See gri. 

gritsa,clever,lll,i,2; 19,1; IV, 5, 2. 

Ur/'tsa-mada : gn'tsa - madSkai, II, 

4,9- 

gridhnu, greedy, I, 70, 1 1*. 

gr/ha-pati, master of the house, I, 
", 6; $6, 5; 60,4; II, 1, 2 s ; 
IV, 9, 4 ; 1 ', 5 ; V, 8, 1 ; 2. 

g6, cow, I, 31,12, &c; 95, 8 l ; V, 
', 3 > 3> a > £stam ni gaVaA, I, 
66, 9 ; tfdha£ na g6ntm, 1, 69, 
3 ; puru-damsam sanfm g6b, 

III, 1. 23 ; eka gauA, III, 7, 
2 3 ; guhyam na'mag6nam, V, 3, 
3 ; avindat gU, V, 14, 4 1 ; 
anasvanta gava, two oxen with 
a car, V, 27, 1. 

g6-agra, at the head of which are 

cows, II, 1, 16'. 
go-ish£, fighting for cows, IV, 13, 2 s . 
g6-ish/i, 'striving for cows,' battle, 

, I. 36, 8 ; (45, 7 »). 
go-r^ika, (I, 44, 3 1 ). 
G6tama, I, 79, 10 ; IV, 4, 11 ; pi., 

the Gotamas, I, 60, 5 ; 77, 5 ; 

78, 1 ; »>. 



gopS, shepherd, guardian, protector, 

I»9«. 7; II, 9i » ; 6; HI, 15. 

2; V, 2, 5; n, 1; 12, 4; 

gopam Wtasya, 1, 1, 8 ; III, 10, 

2 ; vi»am gopStt, 1, 94, 5 1 ; 96, 4. 
g6-mat, rich in, or consisting in, 

cows, I, 79,4; III, 16, 1; IV, 

a.5 1 ; V, 4, 11; 24,2; vra^am 

g6-mantam, full of cows, I V, 1, 

'5- 
gaurf, buffalo cow : gauryam, IV, 

12, 6. 
gna*, wife, IV, 9, 4'. 
gnavat, accompanied by the divine 

wives : gnavai (conj. gnavai>), 
, II, i,5 l . 
grabhana-vat, a firm hold, I, 127, 5*. 
gritma, hamlet, I, 44, 10. 
gravan , pressing-stone (of the Soma) , 

IV, 3, 3' ; V, 25, 8'. 

ghanS, club, I, 36, i6 ] . 

gharmi, offering of hot milk to the 

Asvins, III, 26, 7 s ; the gharma 

vessel, V, 19, 4. 
ghush : ghoshi, it resounded, IV, 4, 8. 
ghri, to besprinkle : jigharmi, II, 

1,0, 4 5 5- 

ghrina, heat: ghWna, I, 141, 4*. 

ghriti, the Ghr/ta, or ghee, 1, 72, 3 ; 
127, 1, &c; II, 3, ii»; 5, 6'; 
ghr/'tani aksharan, I, 188, 5 ; 
ghr/tam ni pGtim, III, 2, 1 ; 
ghr/tebhii H-huUJb, worshipped 
bv offerings of gbrita, 11,7, 4 1 ! 
/UjH ghr/tam ni taptam, I V, 1 , 6. 

ghrita-aliavana, to whom ghrita ob- 
lations are poured out, 1, 12, 5 ; 

45, 5- 
ghriti-nirnig, whose stately robe is 

ghee, III, 17, 1 ; 27, 5. 
ghrita-prishfta, whose back is 

covered with ghee, I, 13, 5 ; 

V, 4, 3 ; 14, 5- 
ghr/ta-pratika, whose face shines 

with ghee, 1, 143, 7 ; III, 1,18; 

V.ii.i. 
ghr/ta-prasatta, taking his seat in 

ghee, V, 15, 1. 
ghr/ta-prush, ghWta-sprinkling, I, 

45, » ; II, 3, »• 
ghrita-yoni, having his abode in 

ghee, (I, 140, 1*); HI, 4, 2'; 

V, 8, 6. 
ghrita-vat, rich in ghee, I, 142, 2 ; 

IH,5,6; 7? «>*• 



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INDEX OF WORDS. 



441 



ghrfta-j/Mit, dripping with ghee, III, 



'•/ta-jn.acf 



ghrita-m, adorned with ghee, 1, 128, 

4! V, 8, 3. 
ghr/ta-snft, swimming in ghee, IV, 

6,9. 
ghrita-snu, swimming in ghee, 111, 

6#; IV, 2,3*; V, 26, 2. 
ghr/t&i, (the ladle) full of ghee, III, 

6, 1 ; 19, 2; 27, 1 ; IV, 6, 3 ; 
^ V, 28, 1. 
ghrishvi, brisk, IV, 2, 13. 
ghora, terrible, IV, 6, 6. 
ghosha, noise, III, 7, 6. 

In., and : £a ratham for Aaratham, I, 
70, 7* ; (in the first member), 
I, 77, 2 s . 

Aakri, maker, III, 16, 4. 

Aaksh, to look : jatarn Aaksha»a/> 
akshibhiii, I, 128, 3 ; — dnu Aa- 
Aaksha, V, 2, 8 ;— abhi Aakshase, 
v , 3, 9 5— vf Aash/e, I, 98, 1; 
V. 19, i s ; — na/» kr/dhi sam- 
Aakshe, make us behold, I, 127, 
11. 

Aakshana, appearance, I, 1 3, 5. 

Aaksbas, look, sight, I, 96, 2 s ; V, 

15, 4- 
Aat, to hide : A&tantam, I, 65, 1 ; — 
prd Aitayasva, drive away, V, 

4, 6- 

Aatufr-aksha, four-eyed : Aatut- 
akshifr, I, 31, 13*. 

Aatuivpad, four-footed, I, 94, 5. 

AanaA-hita, with satisfied mind, III, 
a, 2; 7; n, 2. 

Ainas : Aana-6 dhaA, accept, 1, 26, 10. 

Aandra, gold, 1 1, 2, 4 s . 

Aandra-ratha, with a shining chariot, 
I, 141, 12; III, 3,5. 

Aar, to move, walk : Aarathaya g'.- 
vase, that we may walk and 
live, I, 36, 14 ; Jara'tha (conj. 
Aarathl), I, 66, 9 1 ; AarataA 
dhruvasya, of whatever moves 
or is firm, I, 146, 1; guha Ai- 
rantaw, III, 1, 9 s ;— nU> Aarati, 
he comes forward, I, 95, 4 ; — 
te pari Aaranti, they walk around 
thee, I, 127, 9*;— vi Aaranti, 
spread around, I, 36, 3 ; — abhl 
vi Aaranta, they have come 
hither and thither, III, 4, 5. 

Aaratha, all that moves, (I, 66, 9 1 ) ; 
sthatuA Aarftham, I, 58, 5'; 



68, 1 ; 70, 7 s ; sthatam Aaratham, 
I, 70, 3 ; sthitrth Aar.ltham Aa, 

I, 72, 6'. 
Aarishnu, speedy, IV, 7, 9. 
Airman, skin: saslsya Aarma, III, 

5> 6 *; 7 1 ; — Aa>ma-iva, like a 
hide, IV, 13, 4. 
Aarshanf, human tribe, I, 127, 2 ; 

III, 6, 5; 10, 1 ; IV, 7, 4; 8, 
8 ; V, 23, 1. 

Aarshawi-dhr/t, supporting the human 

tribes, IV, 1, 2. 
Aarshani-prS, filling the dwellings of 

people, IV, 2, 13. 
Aash&la-vat, with head-pieces, III, 

8, 10 1 . 
Aayu, respectful, III, 24, 4. 
Aaru, beautiful, I, 58, 6, &c. ; Aium, 

loc, I, 72, 2 S . 
AaYu-pratika, cheerful-faced, 11,8,2. 
Ai : ni-Atfyya, revering, III, 26, 1 ; — 

vf Ainavat, may he distinguish, 

IV, 2, ... 
Aikitvit-manas, attentive-minded, V, 

22, 3. 
Ait, to shine, light up : Aitayantam, 

II, 2, 4 ; Aitayat, II, 2, 5 ; Aita- 
yema, II, 2, 10; Aitrewa Aikite 
bhisg, II, 4, 5 ; Aiketa, II, 4, 
6; A6kitanai, resplendent, III, 
29, 7 ; Aiketa, he has dis- 
tinguished himself, V, 27, 1; — 
prfi Aiketa, he has shone forth, 

V, 19, 1 ; — vi Aikite, it shines, 1, 

71,7*. 
Ait, to see, watch, be intent on : 
Aiketa, I, 67, 7 ; Aflcetat asmai, 
may he pay attention to this 
(sacrificer), 1, 69, 9 ; Aitayantaii, 
awaking attention, I, 94, 4 ; 
Aetati, I, 128, 4; III, 11, 3'; 
A«tate, III, 14, 2; Aikitinlfr 
aAfttan, seeing the unseen ones, 

III, 18, 2; Aetataii, attentive, 

IV, 5, 4; Aikiddhf.V, as, 4 '; 
Aetayat, he has enlightened, 

IV, 1,9'; Aitayan, enlightening, 

V, 15, 5*; Aikitvan, knowing, 
I, 68, 6, &c. ;• -a" Aiketa, he has 
understood, I, 95, 4 ; — Aeti pr5, 
it has been known, 1 1 1, 1 2, 9 ; — 
vf Ait4yantai>, causing to discern, 
V, 19, 2 ; — sam- Aikitvan, look- 
ing over, IV, 7, 8. 

Aiti, pile, (I, 67, io 1 ). 
Aitta, mind, V, 7, 9. 



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442 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



ii'tti, splendour (?), I, 67, io 1 . 

tftti, thought, III, a, 3; 3, 3; 

wisdom, IV, a, 11. 
iitri, bright, excellent, I, 66, 1 ; 

6, Ac. 
iitrd-bhinu, with bright splendour, 

I, 37, 6 ; II, 10, a ; V, a6, a. 
iitra-yama, whose way is bright, 

III, 3,, 3. 
iitra-joiis, of bright splendour, V, 

17, *• 
jKtrlrravajMama, whose glory is 

brightest, I, 1, 5 ; 45, 6. 
iud, to quicken, promote : tod±y&s\, 

I> 94> 15 ; iodayata, I, 188, 8. 
kr'A : vi jtr/tanti, they get off, I, 67, 8. 
jt&ana, brilliant, II, 5, 1*; III, 13, 

a; — n., splendour, light, I, 13, 

11; 111,3,8; IV, 7, a. 
A&tishtba, most famous, I, 65, 9 ; 

most shining, I, 128, 8; most 

brilliant, V, 37, 1. 
Jtodi, driver, I, 143, 6. 
fodayat-mati, stirring thoughts, V, 

8, 6. 
iyu : 2 tva aiukyavxub, they have 

made thee speed hither, 1, 45, 8. 

A/bad, to show oneself: Aftadayati, 

HI, 9, 7- 
AbaytL, shadow, I, 73, 8. 

gaibirz, belly, I, 95, 10 ; III, 2, n; 
aa, 1; 39, 14 1 . 

gm, to be born : gigtfon&b, I, ia, 3 ;- 
gat&b and gam-tvaA, I, 66, 8' ; 
ganayat, he caused to be born, 
I) 7', 8 " ; gatasya ta. jjayama- 
nasya /fa IcshSm, the earth (i.e. 
the support) of what is born 
and what will be born, I, 96, 
7 1 i gayemahi, we may multiply 
with offspring, I, 97, 4 ; ^ana- 
mast, III, 3, i 1 ; gal&l) gayate, 
III, 8, 5 1 ; ganata, they have 
generated, IV, 1, 1; gat&n 
ubhayan, the two races (of men 
and gods), IV, a, 3 ; ganitos, 
from giving birth, IV, 6, 7 ; — 
& gayamlnam (conj. gaya- 
mina), 1, 60, 3 1 ;— pragagfli-van, 
generator, III, 3, 11. 

gana, man, people, I, 36, 2, &c. ; 
dafvyam ganam, the divine host, 
I» 3«, «7; 44.6. 45, I 1 ,*; 9i 



»°; v , »3, 3; g*n&ya simte, 
I, 36, 19- , 
ganas, tribe : ganasf iti ubM fti, both 
tribes (of gods and of men), II, 

a > 4- 
gini, wife, I, 66, 8 ; g&nayab s£- 
n?/li>, 1, 71, 1 ; — woman, III, 36, 

3 1 ; IV, 5, 5. 

ganitri, begetter, I, 76, 4* ; ganita, 

r6dasyo£, I, 96, 4 ; pii&fr ka. 

garbham ganitu* ka, III, r, io 1 ; 

dyauii pit! ganitiK, IV, 1, 10. 
gani-tva, who will be born : gini- 

tvam (conj. gahi-tva£), 1, 66, 8'. 
gdniman, birth, III, 1, 4; 30; trfA 

ganimini, IV, 1, 7; — devanam 

ganimani, 111,4, IO > IV, s, 17; 

18;— offspring, V, 3, 3. 
ganus, birth : gan&sha, by birth, by 

nature, I, 94, 6; III, 1,3; 9; 

3, a ; ganusham, I, 141, 4. 
gantti, people, human creature, I, 

45, 6, &c. ; manusha£ gantfi- 

bhifr, III, 3, 6. 
ganman, birth : manushasyaginasya 

fma, 1,70, 3 ; devanam ganma, 
70, 6 ; ganma-iva nityam 
tanayam, III, 15, 3"; — birth- 
place: parame' ganman, II, 9, 
3; — race: ubhayaya ganmane, 
1,31,7; divyfya ganmane, 1,58, 
6 ; devan (i.e. devam) ganma, 

I, 67, 3*, 6 ; ganmani (ti ubhfi 
(ti, I, 14 1, 11*; ganma ubhaya, 

II, 6, 7; ganman-ganman, gen- 
eration by generation, III, 1, 
ao; ai. 

ganya, belonging to one's own 
people : gany£-iva (conj. gin- 
yaA-iva), II, 6, 7'. 

gabaru ? IV, 5, 7'. 

gambha, jaw, I, 143,5; 148, 4! 
IV, 7, 10. 

gar.seegW. 

garana, sound (?), 1, 141, 7'. 

garat-visha, busy among the de- 
cayed (wood), V, 8, a 1 . 

Cara-bodha, N.pr.: Gara-bodha, I, 
37, io 1 . 

garitri, praiser, I, 189, 4; II, 9, 5; 
111,7,6'; 13, a; 5; 15,5! V, 
3, 11. 

gariman, old age, I, 71, 10. 

givish/Aa, most swift, IV, 2, 3. 

ga", people : nab gU, I, 143, 8. 

gai-paty£, householdership,V, a8, 3'. 



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INDEX OF WORDS. 



443 



g&grrri, watchful : gUgriv'tb, I, ji, 9 ; 
III, a, 12; 3,7; 24,3; *6»3 5 
38,5; 29,2; V, n, 1. 

Gtta-vedas, I, 44, 1 ; 5; 45, 3, &c; 

127, 1'. 

^Sna, birth : trfoi g&na, I, 95, 3. 

gamarya?, IV, 3, 9*. 

gimi, kinsman, I, 31, 10; 65, 7 ; 71, 
7 s ; 75, 3! 4; IV >„4t5; V, 19, 
4 ; gSmtnam svasr/nam, uterine 
sisters, III, 1, n ; lokam^ami'm, 
the sister world, III, a, 9*. 

gayst, wife, I, 66, 5 ; IV, 3, a». 

g%yb, victorious, I, 67, i'. 

]jiri, lover, I, 66, 8 ; 69, i* ; 9. 

gi, to conquer, to gain :'jjayati, I, 
36, 4;— sam-^igivan, 111, 15, 4. 

gmv, to stir: ginvate, III, 2, 11; 
^inva,III,3,7; 15,6;— upapra 
ginvan, they have excited, I, 
7i, i 1 . 

gfvri, aged, I, 70, 10. 

gihma, down-streaming, I, 95, 5. 

gihva", tongue, I, 140, 2 ; II, 1, 13 ; 
4,4; III, 20,3; IV, 5, t o; 7, 
10 ; V, 26, 1. 

g\r&, quick, I, 44, 11; 111,3,6. 

gira-a/va, with quick horses, I, 141, 

gira-danu, rich in quickening rain, 
I, 189, 8. 

g\v, to live : givase, 1, 36, 14 ; 72, 7 ; 
79, 9;#'v2tave, 1,94,4. 

gni, living, I, 68, 3 ;— life, 1, 140, 8. 

giva-dhanya, the prize (of contests) 
which living beings have gained, 
. ,0, "49, 2 1 ). 

givapita-sarga, whose stream is drunk 
by living beings, I, 1 49, 2 1 . 

giva-yagi, a sacrifice of living 
(victims), I, 31, 15. 

gur, seegW. 

gush, to be pleased, accept gladly : 
gushasva, 1, 12, 12; 75,1; 144, 
7; gushanta, I, 68, 3 ; 9 ; a- 
gushran, 1,71, i,&c; gushanta 
pantham, they followed gladly 
his path, I, 127, 6; tanvam 
gushasva, III, 1, i°; goshi, find 
pleasure, IV, 9, 7'; — prSti 
goshayete iti, they caress, I, 

95, 5 ; 6- 
gush/a, welcome, I, 44, 2 ; 4 ; — 

grateful, I, 73, 10. 
guhu-asya, whose mouth is the 

sacrificial spoon, I, 12, 6. 



guhuriWS, leading astray, I, 189, 1. 

guhtf, sacrificial ladle, I, 58, 4* ; 76, 
5*5 M5, 3; H, 10, 6; IV, 4, 
i'| V, 1, j; sapta guhva£, I, 
58, 7*. 

gfi, to speed, incite : gun&b, I, 27, 7 ; 
gunfci, I, 71, 6; gugu-vat, 
impetuous, IV, 11, 4. 

gff ( speedy: guva*, 1, 140, 4'. 

gQtf, speeding, 1, 137, 2 ;— solicita- 
tion, 111,3,8 ;— yagflasya gutyff, 
stirring, III, 13, 3. 

gtirmi, flaming (?), I, 127, 10. 

gfirv, to consume: ni-gurvan, IV, 
7,11. 

gri, to grow old: gtiryati, I, 128, 2 ; 
gugurvffn, II, 4, 5; gffryat-su, 

III, 23, 1; garayan, making 
decay, 1 1, 8, 2*; garase, V, 1 5, 4 ». 

gri, to praise: garate, he is praised (?), 

I, 59, 7 ! — *& m * e #H*ta, may 
it resound to thee, IV, 3, 15'. 

gri, to be awake : garate, I, 59, 7 ; 
127, io«; garase, I, 94, 14* 5/*- 
rasva, III, 3, 7 1 ; — sam garatam, 
may it awaken, IV, 4, 8 1 . 

gitri, conqueror, I, 66, 3 ; V, 25, 6. 

g6nya, noble, I, 71,4; 128,7; 140, 

2; 146,5; n, 5, «; v, 1,5. 

gosha, desire : gosham 8, I, 77, 5. 

gohdftra, to be invoked, II, 10, 1. 

g#3, to know : S. gimta, accept, I, 
94, 8 ;— pra-ganan, prescient, II, 
3, 10; anu pra-ganan, HI, 36, 
8 ;— vi-ginan, discriminating, I, 
69, 3' ;— sam ganata, they were 
concordant, I, 68, 8 1 ; sam- 
ganana^, being like-minded, I, 

«, 72 > s - 
gyayas, better, I, 37, 13. 

gyeshtba, the first, 1, 137, 3 ; eldest, 

IV, 1,3. 

gyotfi>-ratha, whose chariot is light, 

I, 140, 1. 
gy6tis, light, I, 36, 19; 59, 3 ; III, 

26, 8 ; divaii gy6tii>, I, 69, 1; 

vipam gy6tf»»shi, III, 10, 5"; 

vidanta gy6t\b, IV, 1, 14; sva<6 

nagy6ti£, IV, 10, 3 1 . 
grayas, space, I, 95, 9; 140, 9; V, 

8,7- 

takvan, N. of an animal, I, 66, a 1 . 

taksh, to fashion : hridS. tashfan 
mantran, I, 67, 4 ; tataksha, 
III, 8, 6; ataksham, V, 2, 11. 



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444 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



ta/it, lightning, I, 94, 7. 

tit-qgas, having the strength of such 
a one, V, 1, 8. 

tan, to spin out, stretch out : tan turn 
tanushva, I, 142, 1 ; tanlum 
tatim, II, 3, 6; tanvanai) ya#- 
/7am, III, 3, 6 ; — ava tanuhi, un- 
bend, IV, 4, 5 ; — a-tatantha,thou 
hast spread, III, 22, 2 ;— iti nib 
tatanyu£, may they spread out, 
I, 14 r, 13*;— vf tanvate, V, 13, 

♦ ; 15, 3 s . 

tan, continuation : jajvata tana, 
constantly, I, 26, 6 1 ; tana, for 
ever, I, 77, 4; 11, 2, i s ; III, 
25, 1 ; 27, 9 ; — tokasya nab tine 
tanflnam, II, 9, 2. 

tanaya, offspring, I, 96, 4 ; III, 15, 
2' ; — tokasya tinaye,of kith and 
kin, I, 31, 12* ; tokfi iti tanayc, 
I, 147, i 9 ; tokaya tanayaya, I, 
189, 2; IV, 12, 5. 

tanayitnu, thunderbolt, IV, 3, 1. 

tana, see tin. 

tanfl, body: tanva£, I, 31, 12; 72, 
3 ; 5 s ; iMMnta retaA mithiA 
tantfshu, I, 68, 8 1 ; tine tanff- 
nam, II, 9, 2 ; tan vim ^ushasva, 
III, 1, I s ; tanva su-^-ata, III, 
15, 2 ; tantf-bhLt, IV, 2, 14 ; 
tanva£ tanvate vi, V, 15, 3*. 

tanti-kr/t, the body's creator : tanfl- 
kr»t, I, 31, 9. 

TinO-napat, 'son of the body,' 1, 13, 
a 1 ; 142, a; 188, 2; III, 4, 2; 
29, 11. 

tanA-rui, shining with his body, 1 1 , 
1,9. 

tintu, thread (of sacrifice), I, 142, 
1; — tintum tatam, warp, II, 3, 
6;— web (of light), IV, 13,4. 

tand, to grow tired: tandate (by 
conjecture), I, 58, i 1 . 

tanyatu, thunder, V, 25, 8. 

tap, to burn, heat: tipo fti, tipa, 
III, 18, 2; tatipate, IV, 2, 6. 

tapish/i>a, hottest, IV, 4,1; 5, 4. 

tipu, hot, II, 4, 6. 

tipu/hgambha, with fiery jaws, I, 
36, 16 ; 58, 5. 

tipus, heat : tapGmshi, IV, 4, 2. 

tamai>-han, destroyer of darkness, I, 
140, 1. 

timas, darkness: dvara timasai>, 
III. 5, 1; tirifr timamsi dar- 
jata£, III, 27, 13. 



tarani, strongly advancing, tri- 
umphant, I, 128, 6; III, 11, 3*; 
*9, n; IV, 4, 12. 

tiras, advancing power, III, 18, 3. 

tirutr;*, a winner, I, 27, 9. 

tirus: dakshasya tirushaii, of su- 
perior strength, III, 2, J. 

tavis, strong, III, 1, 1 1 ; 2; 13. 

tavishi, powerful, III, 12, 8. 

tavishi, strength, I, 128, 5; III, 3, 

5 5 26. 4- 
tivyawis, most powerful, I, 143, 1; 

V, 17, 1. 
tiyu, thief, 1,65, 1 ; V, 15, 5 «. 
tavaki, thy, 1, 94, 11. 
tigiti, sharp, I, 143, 5. 
tigmi, sharp, IV, 6, 8; 7, 10; V, 

19,5- 
tigma-anika, sharp-faced, I, 95, 2. 
tigmi-ayudha, with sharp weapons, 

V, 2, 10. 
tigmi-^ambha, with sharp teeth, I, 

79,6; IV, 5, 4; 15, 5- 
tigmi-bhrish/i, sharp-pointed, IV, 

5,3- 
tigmi-^o^is, sharp-flaming, I, 79, 10. 
tkmi-heti, with the sharp weapon, 

IV, 4, 4- 

tig, to sharpen : te^-amanai, sharp- 
ened, III, 8, 11. 

titvishini, rushing forward impetu- 
ously, V, 8, 5. 

tir, see tri. 

tiriA-ahnya, kept over night, I, 45, 
10 1 ; 111,28,3; 6. 

tiraA-hita, dwelling in concealment, 

111,9,5- 
tinuiA, throughout, II, 10, 4. 
tiras, through, III, 27, 13. 
tu : tfitava, he is strong, I, 94, 2. 
tu,p, to stir, press on ward: tutug-ySt, 

I, 143, 6; tuw^aminai", III, 1, 

16; tu^e, IV, 1, 3. 
tdg, impetuous : log& girit, V, 1 7, 3*. 
tuturi, conqueror, I, 145, 3. 
tud, to strike : ni tundate (conj. 

nu tandate), I, 58, i'. 
ttiri, quick, I, 68, 9 ; 96, 8 ; III, 4, 

11; IV, 3, 8. 
tunpa, seed, I, 142, 10; III, 4, 9. 
Turvlra, I, 36, 18 1 . 
Turvfti. I, 36, 18 1 . 
tuvi-gri,mightilydevouring, 1, 140,9. 
tuvi-grtva, with mighty neck, V, a, 1 a. 
tuvi-rati, strong-born, IV, 11, 2; 

V, a, 11; 27, v 



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INDEX OF WORDS. 



445 



tuvi-dyumna, highly glorious, III, 
16, 3; 6. 

tuvf-brahman, knower of mighty 
spells, V, 35, 5. 

tuvfjrava^-tiima, most mightily re- 
nowned, III, II, 6 ; V, 25, 5. 

tuvishmat, mighty, IV, 5, $. 

tuvi-svan, loudly roaring, V, 16, 3. 

tuvi-svanas, roaring mightily, IV, 6, 
10 ; V, 8, 3. 

tuvi-svani, loudly roaring, I, 58, 4 ; 
127,6. 

tUrni, swift, III, 3, 5 ; 11, 5. 

tfi'rni-tama, quickest, IV, 4, 3. 

tri, to get through, to overcome : 
ataran, I, 36, 8 ; taVan, III, 24, 
1 ; turystma, V, 9, 6 ; tarishani, 
may they pass across, V, 10, 6'; 
tuturyat, may he traverse, V, 
15, 3 ;— titirvaWa.fr 5ti sridhaii, 
I, 36, 7 ; iti tarema, I II, 27, 3; — 
with prS, to prolong, promote : 
pra-tiran, I, 44, 6 ; pra tira, I, 
94, 16; III, 17, 2; prA tirasi, 
IV, 6, 1 ; prd taVi pra-taram, 
IV, 12, 6;— v( tint, he has 
crossed, I, 69, 5'; 73, 1; vi- 
taVitrata, progressing, I, 144, 3. 

tr/»a, grass, III, 29, 6. 

tr/d, to perforate : atr/nat, IV, 1, 
19; — anu tr/ndhi, V, 12, 2. 

trip, to satiate oneself: s6masya 
trimpatam, III, 12, 3. 

tn'sh, to be thirsty: tatr/shanlfr, I, 
31, 7*; aUi'-ihyanti<&, free from 
thirst, I, 71, 3V; tatr/sh3»46, 
11,4,6. 

trishu, thirsty, greedy, I, 58, 2 ; 4 ; 
IV, 4, 1; 7, "• 

trwhu-*yut, moving about thirstily, 

I, 140, 3. 

tr/sh/a, pungent sharpness, III, 9, 3. 
tegas, sharp splendour, I, 71, 8 a ; 

sharpness : sim akn'nvan t6gase, 

III, 2, 10. 
ttgishtbi, hottest, I, 127, 4'. 
tigips, sharpest, III, 19, j. 
toka, children : tok£ tanaya, kith 

and kin, I, 31, 12 1 ; 147, i 5 ; 

189, 2 ; IV, 12, 5; ni'tye toke, 

II, 2, 11; tokisya tine tanfi- 
nSm, II, 9, 2 ; tokftya tugi, IV, 

«, 3- 
toka-vat, with offspring, III, 13, 7. 

todi, an or the impeller, I, 150, i s . 
taii, bounteous, III, 12, 4 1 . 



tm&na, by oneself, by one's own 

power, I, 69, 10 ; 79, 6, &c. 
tmanya, thyself, I, 188, 10. 
trayaA-triwuat, thirty-three (gods), 

I, 45. »• 
Trasidasyu, V, 27, 3'. 

tri : trasate, may he protect, 1, 128, 
5 17. 

trif, protector, (I, 72, $ , ) i 

trltr/, protector, I, 31, 12; V, 24, 1. 

tri, three, I, 13, 9, &c. ; tri ro*a- 
nani, the threefold light, I, 
149, 4 ; tisr/-bhya/> 8 va>am, 

II, 5,5"; tisrifrdevft, 11,3,8; 

III, 4, 8; V, 5, 8; trini jatii 
trf sahasrani trimjit H deviib 
nava >a, 111,9, 9 : trini 2y(Wshi, 
tisrai, %-gS.mb, III, 17, 3'; tri, 
tisrib, III, 20, 2. 

Irimi&t, thirty: trinwaUm trfn 4a 

devan, III, 6, 9. 
Tr'-aruwa, V, 27, 1-3. 
tri-ajir, with threefold admixture 

(Soma), V, 27, 5 1 . 
Triti, V, 9( 5- 
tri-dha'tu, threefold : arkifr tri- 

dMtab, III, 26, 7 1 . 
tri-mfirdhan, having three heads, I, 

146, i 1 . 
tri-varfitha, thrice-protecting.V, 4, 8. 
tri-vishfi, thrice, IV, 6, 4 ; 15, 2'. 
tri-vr»t, threefold : tri-vr»t innam 

I, 140, 2». 
tri's, thrice: trib sapU, I, 72, 6 1 ; 

trib iban, III, 4, 2 ; Irib (read 

tri?), IV, 1, 7 ». 
tri-sadhasthi, dwelling in three 

abodes, V, 4, 8 ; — threefold 

abode, V, 11, 2*. 
Traivr/sh»4, the son of Trivr/'shan, 

V, 27, 1. 
tva#, skin, III, 21, 5 ;— leather-bag 

(cloud), I, 79, 3*; — tvaii upa- 

masyam, I, 145, 5*. 
tvid, pers. pron. : tv6 iti, in thee, I, 

26, 6 ; 36, 5 1 ; 6 ; te, ace, 1, 

127, 9*; V, 6, 4' ; te ttibhyam, 

V,6 )5 '. 
tvadrik, directed towards thee, V, 

3, 12. 
Tvash/ri, N. of a god, I, 13, 10; 

95, a'; 5*5 143, 10; 188, 9; 

H,i,5; 3,9 5 111,4,9; V, 5,9- 
tvS-Qta, guarded by thee, I, 73, 9 ; 

74, «; in, 19, 3; IV, 4, m; 

V, 3, 6. 



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446 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



tvit-data, given by thee, V, 7, 10. 
tv2-duta, with thee as messenger, 

II, 10,6; V, 6,8. 
tvi-yS, desire of worshipping thee, 

IV, 2, 6 ; 14. 

tvS-vat, like thee : tvK-vin, 1, 1 89, 6. 
Tvish/ri, son of Tvashfr/, III, 7, 4 1 . 
tvish, see titvishani. 
tvfshi, impetuous power, I, 71, 5 ; 

V, 8, 5. 

tveshi, impetuous, fierce, I, 36, ao ; 
66, 6; 70, 11; 95, 8; 143, 3; 

II, 9, 1; III, 22, »; 26, 5; 
IV, 6, 10 ; V, 8, 6. 

tvesbitha, fierceness, I, 141, 8. 

tveshi-pratika, with sharp point, I, 
66,7. 

tsar: tatsara, he steals upon (his 
prey), 1, 145, 4 ;— iva tsarat, he 
stealthily approached, I, 71, 5. 

dam/, to bite : d&rate, I, 189, 5. 
damsani, wonderful deed, III, 3, 

11 ; wonderful power, III, 9, 7. 
dimsas, wonderful deed, I, 69, 8. 
diksha, mind, I, 68, 8; — power, 

ability, skill, I, 76, 1 ; 95, 6 l ; 

141, u'; HI, 2,3: n,» ; IV, 

10, 2; V, 10, 2; 18, 2; 20, 3; 

diksham (conj. yakshim), IV, 

3, 13 s ; Daksha personified, 

III, 27. 9'; 10; V, 16, 2;— 
skilful, I, 59, 4; III, 14,7. 

diksha-pati, lord of power, I, 95, 6. 
dikshas, ability, II, 1, 11. 
dakshayya, to be treated kindly, II, 

4, J- 

dakshinatis, from the right side, I, 

95. «*• 
dakshina, the sacrificial gift, V, 1, 3*. 
dakshina-avrit, turned to the right, 

I. 144, «*• 
dakshiwa-v&h, carrying from left to 

right, III, 6,1'. 
digdhr/, burner, V, 9, 4. 
datvat, having teeth, I, 189, 5. 
Dadhi-kra, III 20, I s ; 5. 
din, house : patiA din, lord of the 

house, I, 149, i*. 
danta, tooth : atharvaA ni dintam, 

IV, 6, 8». 

dabh, to deceive : dfpsanta£ ni de- 
bhu£, I, 147, 3 ; dadabhanta, I, 
148, 2; dabhan, I, 148, 5; — 
jatr.im i-dabhu£, III, 16, 2. 

dibha, deceiver, V, 19, 4*. 



dabhri, few, I, 31, 6. 

dim, house: dim-su, I, 141, 4. 

dima, house, I, 1, 8, &c. ; II, 1, 7* ; 
8 ; tittib apam dime, I, 67, 
io" ; dime-dame, house by 
house, I, 128, 4; IV, 7, 3; V, 
r, 5 ; 6, 8. 

dimGnas, domestic, friend of the 
house, I, 60, 4 1 ; 68, 9; 140, 
10; 141, 11 ; III, 1, 11; 17; 
-, 15; J, 6; 5, 4; IV, 4. «» ; 
11. 5 5 V, 1,8' ; 4, 5; 8, 1. 

dim- pat i, master of the house, I, 
127, 8; V, 22, 4;— dim-pat?, 
husband and wife, V, 3, 2. 

dimya, domestic, III, 1, 15 ; 2, 8. 

day, to bestow : dayasva, 1,68,6; — 
vi diyamanai>, distributing, III, 
2, 11 ; vi dayate, he tears to 
pieces, IV, 7, 10. 

dirvt, sacrificial ladle, V, 6, 9. 

darjati, conspicuous, beautiful, I, 

36, 9; '41, '; 144, 7; in, 1, 
3; 10,6; 27, 13. 

dira-pramati : disa-pramatim. read : 
diia primatim, I, 141, 2*. 

datasy : sim dajasya, forgive, III, 7, 
10. 

das : sam-dadasvSn, being ex* 
hausted(?), II, 2, 6 1 . 

dasmi, wonderful, I, 77, 3 ; 148, 4 ; 

II, 1,4; 9, 5 5 IH, i,7; 5, a; 
IV, 1, 3 5 6, 9 ; V, 6, 5 ; 17, 4. 

dasmit, possessed of wonderful 
power, I, 74, 4. 

Disyu, I, 36, 18; 59, 6; V, 4, 6 ; 
pL, the Dasyus, I, 78, 4; III, 
»9, 9 ; V, 7, 10 ; 14, 4- 

dah, to burn : daha, I, 1 2, 5, &c. ; 
dhikshat, burning, II, 4, 7 ;— 
inu dhakshi, II, 1, 10 ; — pri 
dhakshi,l,76, 3 ; priti dahatat, 
burn against, III, 18,1; — sim 
daha, I, 36, 14 ; 20. 

da, to give : inu dub, they give way, 

I, 1 27, 4 ; — ni piri dat, he will 
not surrender, V, 3, 12. 

di, to bind : n(-dadu£, (V, 2, 6*) ; 

nf-ditam, V, 2, 7. 
da (do), to cut, to shear : dati, I, 65, 

8 ; V, 7, 7. 
datr/, giver, I, 13, 11. 
daVi, mower, V, 7, 7. 
dtfoa, gift, V, 27, 5. 
davin : da vine, for the sake of giving, 

II, i, 10. 



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INDEX OF WORDS. 



447 



das, to offer, worship : dad&a. I, 36, 
4, &c. ; \£b tubhyam dajat, I, 
68, 6; dltat, IV, 2, 9; d&at 
y&Jb asmai dram, who satisfies 
him, I, 70, 5 ; nimai dibit, I, 
71, 6; agn&ye dash/i avase, I, 

»»7, •*'• 
da/, worship, I, 137, 7. 
da\»fi-adhvara, performing worship, 

I, 75, 3 1 - 
dxivims, worshipper, liberal giver, 

I, 1, 6 ; 27, 6, &c. 
dis : abhi-dasati, he tries to harm, 

1.79, "• 
dlsa-patni, (strongholds) of which 

the Dlsas are the lords, III, 

12, 6. 
dKsvat, munificent, I, 127, 1 ; II, 4, 

3 ; IV, 2, 7 ; V, 9, 2. 
Dfti, IV, 2, 11*. 
didrikshenya, worthy to be looked 

for, I, 146, 5. 
didriksheya, visible, III, 1, 12, 
didyu, arrow, I, 71, 5. 
didyut, shaft, I, 66, 7. 
didhishayya, worthy to be searched 

for. desirable, 1,73, 2 4 ; 11,4, 1. 
didhishu, seeking to obtain, 1, 71, 3*. 
div, see dyu. 
divaA-rui, shining from heaven, III, 

7,5. 
div&kshas, dwelling in heaven, III, 

. 7,2'. 

divl-tarlt, more than by day, 1, 127, 

5 3 - 
divi-kshayi, dweller in heaven : divi- 

kshayam (conj. for divf kshi- 

yam), III, 2, 13'. 
divftmat, going to heaven, I, 26, 2. 
divish/i, the striving for day, I, 45, 

7 1 ; 141, 6: — heaven-aspiring 

sacrifice, IV, 9, 3. 
divi-sprw, attaining to Heaven, I, 

142,8; V, 11, 1; 13, 2 1 . 
divyi, heavenly, I, 143, 5; 144.6; 

III, 2, 4; — divine: divyaya 

jinmane, 1, 58, 6. 
dfs, quarter of the world : dba£, I, 

31, 14*; pri ditam (for pra- 

di/am), I, 95, 3». 
dt, did!, to shine, I, 36, 11, &c; 

rayim asmasu didihi, shine upon 

us with thy wealth, II, 2, 6 ; 

didayet, may he illuminate, II, 

4, 3 ; diciyat (conj. ditihyat), 

III, i, 1'; devan ikkba. dtdy- 



InaA, brightly shining towards 

the gods. III, 15, 5 1 ; dfdyatam 

bWhit, III, 27, 15. 
didi-vams, resplendent, I, 12, 5 ; 10, 

&c. 
diciivi, shining, I, 1, 8. 
didhiti, (adoring) thought, devotion, 

111,4, 3; IV, 2, i6»; V, 18, 4. 
dirghi, long-lasting: dirghift rayiA, 

IV 1, 5. 
dirgha-Hyus, long living, I V, 1 5, 9 ; 1 o. 
dirghifyu-jo/Hs, flaming through long 

life, V, 18, 3. 
du£-it&, trouble, misfortune, danger, 

1, 99, 1; 128, 5; HI, 20, 4; 

V, 3, » 1 ; 4, 9 I 9, 6. 
du£-ukt£, evil word, I, 147, 4. 
dufr-eva, of evil conduct, IV, 5, 5 ; 

V, a, 9- 
dui6-ga, trouble, I, 99, 1 ; 189, 2. 
dub-g&ha, difficulty, V, 4, 9. 
dofr-gr/bhi, difficult to seize, 1, 140, 6. 
dofr-gribhiy : du£-gr>bhiyase, thou 

showest thyself hard to seize, 

V, 9, 4- 
duA-d&bha, undeceivable, III, 2, 2 ; 

IV, 9, 2 ; 8. 
du£-dhita, badly-composed (prayer). 

1,140,11. 
du£-dhT, malicious, I, 94, 8 ; 9; III, 

16, 2. 
dut-mati, hatred, ill-will, III, 15, 6 ; 

IV, 11, 6. 
dub-iimsa, one who curses, I, 94, 9. 
dugdhi, milk, V, 19, 4 1 . 
AuiAbhni, misfortune, I, 189, 5. 
dudhita, confused, IV, 1, 17 1 . 
dur, gate, door, I, 68, 10; II, 2, 7 1 ; 

IV, 4, 6 ; dura£, the doors (of 
heaven), I, 69, 10; 188, 5'; 
riyifr duraA, I, 72, 8. 

duriti, see da6-iti. 
dur6ka-jo*is ; he to whose flame 
men do not get accustomed, 

1, 66, 5 1 - 

duroni, house, 1, 69, 4 ; 5 ; 70, 4', &c 

durgi, see du£-g&. 

duryi, pi., dwelling, IV, 1, 9; 18; 

2, 12. 

duvas, worship, I, 36, 14 s ; III, 2, 
6; 16,4; IV, 2, 9; 8,6. 

duvasan£, hastening, IV, 6, 10*. 

duvasy, to exalt : duvasyati, I, 78, 
2; III, 3, 1 ; duvasyan, III, 1, 
2; 13; duvasyita, III, 2, 8; 

V, 28, 6. 



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44» 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



dush, to violate : dGdushat, III, 3, 1. 
dustaYa, invincible, I, 79, 8'; II, 2, 

10; 111,24, «; v, 15, 3. 

duh, to milk: dohase, I, 141, 2; 

amritam duhanai>, III, 1, 14. 
duhitrf, daughter, I, 71, 5 1 . 
dfitS, messenger (Agni), I, 12, 1 ; 8 ; 

3 6 > 3-5 ; 44. a ; 3 ; 9 ; " ; 

58, 1 ; 60, 1 ; 72, 7; 74, 4 ; 
188, 1; II, 6,(5; 7; 9,2; III, 
3, 2 ; 5, 2 ; 9 ; 6, 5 ; 9, 8 ; 1 1, 
2; 17,4; IV, 1,8; 2, 2; 7,4; 
9; 11 ; 8, t; 9, 2; V, 3, 8 ; 
8,6; 11, 4; 21, 3 ; 26,6. 

dutya, the work of a messenger : 
dfltyam (yasi), I, 12, 4 ; 44, 12 ; 
74, 7 ; messengership, 1, 71, 4 » ; 
IV, 7, 8 ; 8, 4 ; 9, «• 

dfire-bhfl, far-shining, I, 65, 10. 

dri, to rend: dadr/-v&»saA, IV, 1,14. 

drilbi, strong, I, 71, 2 ; 72, 8. 

druika, beautiful, I, 27, 10; — sight, 
I, 65, 10 ; 69, 10. 

druya, visible, IV, 2, 12. 

dr»'sh<it-vati, N. of a river, III, 23,4. 

devd, god, I, 1, 2, &c. ; dev&£> deve- 
bhU>, devSnam, &c, 1, 1, 5 ; 
13. 11 5 3>. 1; 9! 68, a 1 ; 94, 
13; 142, 11; 11, 3, 1 ; IV, 15, 
1 ; devam-devam, this or that 
god, I, 26, 6 ; bhuva£ devanam 
pitS pulrib san, I, 69, 2 ; de- 
vifnam ginna, I, 70, 6 ; devSn 
(i. e. devSm) ^4nma, I, 71, 3",' ; 
IV, 1, 2 2 ; 2, 17 s ; pgtha* de- 
vebhya£, I, 188, 10 1 ; devftnam 
^dnimani, III, 4, 10; devfoSm 
gutty^ namani, V, 5, 10 ; de- 
v&aab sirvayi villi, V, 26, 9 ; — 
vfjve de\U, II, 3, 4 1 ; V, 3, 1 ; 
26,4 ; — divine, I, 1, 1 ; III, 20, 
4; dvttraA devfa, I, 13, 6; II, 
3. 5; V, 5, 5; deva barh'A, II, 
3,4; dhfyam devim, III, 18, 
3 ; devfa> p&lriib, IV, 5, 13. 

deva-avf, eagerly longing for the 
gods, III, 29, 8. 

devS-kama, loving the gods, II, 3, 9 ; 
III, 4, 9. 

devi-gushta, agreeable to the god, 

1. 77, 1. 
devi-j? Ota, sent by the gods, I V, 1 1 , 4. 
devi-titi, the divine world, host of 

the gods, I, 127, 9; 141, 10; 

111,19,2; 4; 26, 2; IV, 6,3; 

9 ; dev4-tatS, among the gods, 



I, 58, 1; 95, 8»; 128, 2; III, 

19, 1 ; IV, 6, 1. 

deva-trft, to the gods, 1,128,6"; III, 

1, 22 ; — among the gods, III, 8, 

7 ; V, 20, 1. 
deva-tv£, divinity, I, 68, 4 ; 69, 6 1 . 
devadry£&t, turned towards the 

gods: devadrftim, III, 6, i*. 
devapsarai>-tama, most agreeable to 

the gods, I, 75, 1. 
devi-bhakta, god-given, IV, 1, 10. 
deva-yae-yS, worship as is due to the 

gods, V, 21,4. 
deva-yit, worshipping, or longing 

for, the gods, pious, I, 36, i 4 ; 

77,3; HI, 5,1; 6,1; 3; 8, 1 ; 

4; 6; 10, 7; 29, 12; IV, 2, 

17; 11, 5; V, 1, 4; 21, 1. 
deva-ya', approaching the gods, III, 

8,5 s . 
deva-y&na, (the ways) which the 

gods go : adhvanai deva-ytfaan, 

I, 7 », 7 8 - 
deva-y6, godly, IV, 2, 7 ; 9, 1. 
devi-vSta, beloved by the gods, III, 

20, 2 ; IV, 3, 15;— Devavata, N. 
p., 111,23, 2. 

deva-vghana, drawinghither the gods, 
III, 27, 14. 

deva-vftama, most excellently re- 
pairing to the gods, I, 36, 9. 

devi-viti, feast of the gods, I, 12, 
9; HI, 17,5; 21, 2. 

dev£vyata£-t ama, which best receives 
the gods with its wide extent, 
I> 14*, 5; IV, 26, 8; V, 22, 2. 

devd-vya/f as, receiving the gods, III, 

4,4- 
deva-jas, for each of the gods, III, 

21, 5. 

Dev£-.»ravas, N. p., Ill, 23, 2 ; 3. 
deva-hfltama, best invoker of the 

gods, III, 13,6. 
devaMti, invocation of the gods, I, 

12, 12. 
dt\>LfH, turned towards the gods, 1, 

127, 1. 
devi', goddess, I, 13, 9; III, 7, 2*; 

»5, 3; IV, 14, 3 5 tisrifr devii, 

11,3,8; 111,4,8; V, 5, 8. 
devya, godhead, I, 140, 7. 
deshni, gift, II, 9, 4. 
Daiva-vatS, (Agni) of Devavata, III, 

a 3> 3;— son of Devavlta, IV, 

15, 4'- 
daivya, divine, I, 27, 12 ; II, 5, 2; 



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INDEX OF WORDS. 



449 



III, ao, 4 ; dafvya h6tlr3, I, 13, 
8'; 14a, 8; 188, y, II, J, 7 ; 
III, 4, 7 ; V, 5, 7 ; dafvyam 
g&nam, host of the gods, I, 31, 

17; 44.6; 45. jV; 9; >°; v, 

13, 3 ; dafvyani vratJt, I, 70, a ; 
dafvyai. jam it 8, II, 3, 10; mi- 
dhuna dafvyena, III, 8, i a ; vi- 
iasi dafvyena, IV, 1, 15; daf- 
vyani, divine powers, IV, 4, 5. 

do, see da. 

d6gha, milkstream, V, 1 5, 5 1 . 

doshit, evening : dosha" ushlsi, II, 8, 
3 ; IV, a, 8 ; priti doshkm 
ushisam, IV, 1 a, a; V, 5, 6; 
doshft, at evening, IV, 11, 6. 

doshl-vastar, shining in the darkness, 
1,1,7'; IV, 4, 9 1 . 

doh£na, stream (?), I, 144, a 1 . 

dyavakshami, du., Heaven and Earth, 
1,96, 5; 140, 13; 111,8, 8 1 . 

dyaviprithivl^du., Heaven and Earth, 
I, 31, 8; II, 1, 15; a, 357; III, 
3,11; as, 3 5 a*.?; IV, 14, a. 

dyu, sky, heaven, Heaven, I, 31, 4*, 
&c. ; 67, 5*; upa-mtf divib, 
I. 3'. 15 1 ; div&b j\& sifau, I, 

58, a ; mOrdha' divl6, I, 59, a ; 
III, a, 14 ; divii br/bati*, I, 

59, 5 ; 71, a ; dyaui nS bhtfma, 
I, 65, 3 1 ; divib gy6tib, I, 69, 1 ; 
mah6 pitre dive, I, 71, 5 1 ; IV, 
1, 10 ; dyaui> (conj. dy6A), I, 
71, 8*; divife akshf fti, I, 7a, 
io 1 ; pirijminam-iva dySm, I, 
137, a 8 ; dySvi prithivl' fti, 
Heaven and Earth, I, 143, a; 
vfjva divib ro/fen2, I, 146, 1 ; 
111,6,8; 1 a, 9; dyG-bhii> tvam 
(conj. dyu-bhyaA), II, 1, 1* ; 
asura& mab&b divib, II, 1, 6; 
divii-iva aratLfe, II, a, a ; dvau£ 
ni stri-bhiA, II, a, 5 ; IV, 7, 
3 ; tisrlfr diva*, II, 3, a ; divift 
kavinSm, III, 1, a ; div^A pr/- 
thivy&fr, III, 1, 3; 6, a 5 ; 3; 
as, 1 ; IV, 5, 11 ; divaT. yahvfa, 
III, 1,6; 9* ; div&b prishtb&m, 
III, 2, ia ; divf kslidyam (conj. 
divikshayim) III, 2, 13' ; ketum 
div&b, III, 2, 14; div&b niibha, 

III, 4, 4 ; virshman div!6, III, 
<i, 9; dyM, III, 6, 4 s ; diva> 
aVnam, III, aa, 3 ; divib putr&i, 

IV, 3, 15; div&b flkitvan, IV, 
3, 8 ; div&b a-r6dhanan ; , IV, 



7, 8 ; 8, 3 ; 4 ; div&6 skam- 
bh&b, IV, 13, 5; div&fr jfjum, 

IV, 15, 6*; diva> Mt br/hdt, 
more mightily than even the 
sky, V, 10, 4*; di\ib dh&rman, 

V, 15, a*; divifr ni retasa, V, 

, «7, 3*. 

dyu, day : dive-dive, day by day, I, 
1, 3 ; 7, &c. ; diva7> purvaA, 
before daybreak, I, 60, a ; £nu 
dytfn, day by day, 1,71,6 ; 148, 
4; III, 33, a; IV, 4, 8; 9; 
dfvl niktam, I, 98, 3 ; 144, 4"; 
triA & divib, I, 143, 3 ; dyu- 
bhiA, day by day, III, 3, 3 ; V, 
16, 3. 

dyukshi, heavenly, II. 3, 1. 

dyut, to shine : vf abhf dyaut, mayest 
thou beam forth, IV, 4, 6 ; — vf 
didyuta£, make shine, II, 3, 7 ; 
vf adyaut, thou hast shone forth, 
III, 1, 8; 18; vf didyutinlfr, 
flashing, III, 7,4 ; — sam adyaut, 

III, 5, *■ 

dyfi-bhakta, assigned by Heaven, I, 

73, 6 ; IV, 1, 18. 
dyu-mat, brilliant, I, 74, 9; II, 7, 

1; 9, 6; III, 10,8; 13,7; V, 

*;> 4- 
dyumat-tama, most brilliant, V, 34, a 1 . 
dyumnl, splendour, I, 73, 4, &c. ; 

dyumnafA, with (songs full of) 
'splendour, I, 78, 1-5; dyum- 

nasya savasS, V, 7, 3. 
dyumnA-vat, brilliant, III, 39, 15. 
dyumnfn, brilliant, 1, 36, 8. 
dyumnfn-tama.most brilliant, I, 127,9." 
drapsi, spark, I, 94, 1 1 ; — banner, 

IV, 13,3*. 
dravit, see dru. 

dravi»a£-das, giver of wealth, 11,6, 3. 

dravinaA-dS, giver of wealth, I, 9*, 
1-8; II, 1,7. 

drivwas, wealth, I, 96, 8 ; — wealth- 
giver, III, 7, 10. 

dravinasyu, aspiring after wealth, II, 
6, 3 5 V, 1 3, 2. 

dru, to run: dravit, speedily, I, 44, 
7; dravatim, III, 14, 3; drfl- 
ainifr? IV, 4, i s . 

dru-anna, feeding on wood, II, 7, 6. 

drub, guile, IV, 4, 15. 

dru-h£ntara, a mighty woodcutter, 

(I, "7, 3 4 ). 
druham-tar5, conqueror of deceitful 
foes, I, 137, 3*« 



[46] 



Gg 



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45° 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



dvay£, falsehood, I, 147, 4 ; 5 ; V, 

3, 7; 12, 2. 

dvar, door : dvaraA devfA, the divine 
doors, I, 13,6; 142,6; 11,3, 
5 ; V, 5, 5 ; dvani, the two folds 
of the door, I, 128, 6; dvara 
t£masa/>, III, 5, 1. 

dvlb p&nka., twice five, IV, 6, 8 1 . 

dvi-ginman, of double birth (Agni), 

I, 60, i 1 ; 140, a 1 ; 149, 4; 5- 
Dviti, V, 18, a*. 

dviiff, forsooth, verily, I, 127, 7 ; II, 

4, a 1 ; III, a, i»; 17, 5'. 
dvi-pdd, two-footed, I, 94, 5. 
dvi-baYhas, twofold, I, 71, 6; — 

doubly-powerful, IV, 5, 3 1 . 
dvi-m3tr/, having two mothers, I, 

3', 2 1 . 
dvfsh, hostile power, I, 97, 7 ; II, 

7, 2; 3; HI, 15, ». 
dveshaA-yfit, driving away malice, 

IV, 11, 5; V, 9 , 6. 
dveshas, hatred, malice, II, 6, 4 ; 

IV, 1. 4 ; «o, 7; V, ao, 2 ;— 

hostile power, III, 16,5"; 27, 3. 

dhakshi (SamhitE : dakshi), voc. (?), 
O burning one (?), I, 141, 8 ! . 

dhikshu, burning, II, 4, 4. 

dhakshus, burning, 1, 141, 7. 

dhan : dhandyan, they set into 
motion, I, 71, 3; — dadhanyuA 
(read dadhanvuA >), IV, 3, 12 2 . 

dhina, prize, I, 31, 6 ; 8 ; 36, 4. 

dhanam-^ayi, winning the prize, I, 

74, 3- 
dhana-sa', gaining wealth, II, 10, 6 1 . 
dhana-spnt, winner of prizes, I, 36, 

10 ; V, 8, 2. 
dhanfn, rich, I, 150, a ; — containing 

the prize of the contest, IV, 2, 

15 s . 
dhanuv, dry land : dhanoA adhi, I, 

M4, 5 • 

dhanya, precious, III, 1, 16. 
dhanv, to run along : dadhanve, 

II, 5, 3 ; dadhanvuA, (IV, 3, 

dhan van, dry ground, I, 95, 10 ; 

—desert, V, 7, 7. 
dhanva-sih, a conquering bowman, 

I, 127,3'. 
dham, to melt : dh£mantai>, IV, 2, 
17' : — upadhamati dhmatari, V, 

dharhnan, firm law, I, 138, i 1 . 



dharuna, supporter : dhartwaA rayi- 
nam, I, 73, 4»; supporting, V, 
15, 1 ; a ; 5 1 ; — firm ground, 

HI, 3, 1. 

dharnasi, firm, 1, 1 4 1 , 1 1 ; — supporter, 
V, 8, 4. 

dharaf, supporter, 1, 127, 7. 

dhartr/, supporter, V, 1, 6 ; 9, 3. 

dharman, law, ordinance, III, 3, 1 ; 
V, 26, 6; prathama'anu dhaVma, 
III, 17, 1; ami dharma, III, 
17, 5 ;— support, V, 15, 2. 

dha, to put, place, give: dadhire, I, 
36, 8, &c. ; iinab dhab, accept, 
I, 26, 10 ; dadhire, have been 
laid down, I, 59, 3' ; dddhanaA, 
obtaining, I, 73, s s ; mfikib naA 
dujMtSya dhay>i>, do not deliver 
us to distress, 1, 147, 5 ; dadhat, 
3rd pers. or part., I, 188, a 1 ; 
dadhire puraT?, they have placed 
in front (as Purohita), III, 2, 5 ; 
dhishva, III, 6, 6 ; didhishantu, 
may they bestow, III, 8, 6; 
dh2mahe,may we acquire,V,i6, 
5 ;— '£ dadhe, I have established, 
III, 27, 9*; — ni dadhe, he has 
established, I, 36, 19 ; nf dadhe, 
I have laid down, III, 23,4'; 
27, io' ; ni dadhuA (conj. 111 
daduA?), V, 2, 6 J ; ni dhatte 
puraT,, V, 28, 2 1 ; — vi-dhjfti, he 
worships (conj. for vi-bha'ti), 

I, 7i,6"; vi dha£, distribute, I, 
72, 7 ; IV, 6, 11 ; vi dadhau, 
he determines, I, 95, 3. 

dhi, to suckle : dhapayete iti, I, 96, 
5;adhayat, 1,144, 2; III, 1, 10; 
V, 1, 3*; — upa dhapayete iti, 1, 

95, 1. 
dhlt;/, establishes IV, 7, 1. 
dMna: pin dhanam akt6A, about 

nightfall (?), Ill, 7, 6. 
dhaman, foundation, I, 95, 9 1 ; 144, 

»*; HI, 3, 4 5 IV, 7, 7J— abode, 

II, 3, a; n ;— statute, law, III, 
2, 10; 7, 6; IV, 5, 4;— form: 
sapta dhgma-bhii,, IV, 7, 5 1 . 

dhayas, prospering, I, 31, 13; — 
refreshment, refreshing drink, 
1,72,9; 94, 12; 14", 6; 11,5, 
7 5 V, 7, 6; 9; 15,4. 

dhaVa, stream : dharam rrtasya, I, 
67, 7 1 ; V, is, 3 ; dhaYi/6 udan- 
yiMva, II, 7, 3; dhariA, III, 
1, 8 ; 9. 



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INDEX OF WORDS. 



451 



dhstv : nf dhivate, he runs down, I, 

141, 5. 
dhlsf, drink, I, 140, i"; III, 7, i 1 ; 

/; IV, 3,9; V, 12,4. 
dhita-van, in whom (wealth) has 

been laid down, 111, 27, 2. 
dhiyam-dha', thoughtful, I, 67, 4 ; 

72, 2. 
dhiy3-vasu, giving wealth for pray .r, 

1. 58,9; 60, 5; 111,3,2; 28,1. 
Dhishana, N. of a goddess, I, 96, 1* ; 

III, 2, i«. 

dhishnya, liberal (?), 111,22, 3'. 

dhi'shnyi, the Dhishnya altar, IV, 3,6'. 

dht, to think: d-van iJtkba. didhyat 
(conj. for dfdyat). Ill, 1, 1* ; — 
iinu vratam dfdhyanaA, contem- 
plating the law, III, 4, 7. 

dM, (pious) thought, prayer, I, 1,7; 
27, ii, &c. ; 95, 8*; III, n, 
2 ; 3 ; 12, 1 ; yantaVam dhi'nSm, 
111,3,8; dhiyJt iakre, III, 27, 
9 1 ; iakn'panta dhfbhiA, IV, 1, 
14. 

dhitf, thought, I, 68, 5 1 ; 71, 3' ; III, 
»*. 7; 13, 5! V, 35, 3; devo- 
tion, I, 77, 4 ; pious thought, 
i. e. hymn, or prayer, I, 143, 1 ; 

„ "44,5! IV, 5,7. 

dhira, wise, I, 65, 2% &c. 

dhuni, roaring, I, 79, 1* 

dhur, to harm : iidhQrshata, V, 1 2, 5. 

dhur, pole, III, 6, 6. 

dhfi, to shake: idhOnot, I, 59, 6; 
davidhava, 1, 140, 6 ; dodhav'iti, 
he waves, II, 4, 4* ; adhfinutam, 
you have hurled down, III, 12, 
6; davidhvat, shaking, IV, 13, 
2 ; diividhvataA, having shaken, 

IV, 1 3,4' ;— ava-dhOnushe, thou 
hurlest away, I, 78, 4. 

dhdfr-sid, charioteer, I, 143, 7 ; II, 

2, i». 

dhflma, smoke, I, 36, 9; III, 29, 9 ; 

IV, 6, 2 ; V, 11, 3. 
dhGmS-ketu, whose banner is smoke, 

1,27, »; 44. 3- 
dhuma-ketu, banner of smoke, 1, 94, 

10'. 
dhflmfn, smoky, V, 9, 5 1 . 
dhflrtf, mischief, I, 36, 15 ; 128, 7. 
dhr/', to hold : dadhJtra, 1 , 66, 3 , &c. ; 

— ni-dhSriyantai>, setting down, 

IV, 2, 12. 
dhr/ta-vrata, whose laws are firm, I, 

44i M; «4'» 9; II, », 4- 



dhr/sh : 3 dadharshit, may he defy, 

IV, 4, 3 ; n& a-dhr/she, not to 

be defied, V, 8, 5. 
dhr/shig-? V, 19, 5 1 . 
dhr/shatSt, fiercely, I, 71, 5 ; IV, 4, 

2 ; 5, 6. 
dhW»h/ju-y3[, fiercely, V, 10, 5. 
dheni, stream, I, 141, 1 ; shower, 

lll,i,9 4 . 
dhenu, milch cow, I, 66, 2 ; 73, 6 ; 

Hi 2, 2; 9 1 ; 5. 5'; HI, 1, 7; 

6, 4 ; IV, 1, 6 ; 16; dhenu iti, 
I, 146,3*; diviikshasaA dhena- 
vaA, III, 7, 2», 

dhma, see dham. 

dhmltr/, smelter, V, 9, 5. 

dhra^ : upa dhr%antam, speeding 

forward, I, 149, 1. 
dbrag-'mat, hasting, I. 79, 1. 
dhruvi, firm, I, 36, 5', &c. ; iirdtab 

dhruvasya, I, 146, 1 ; dhruvg 

(for Pada : dhruv£6), III, 6, 4 1 . 
dhruvi-kshema, dwelling in firm 

peace, IV, 13, 3. 
dhvams : dhvasiyantam, sparkling, 

I, 14c, 3 ; dhvasayantaA, I, 

140, 5. 
dhvasman, bespatterer, IV, 6, 6. 
dhvr/, see dhur. 

ni, ' like,' and n&, ' not,' I, 127, 3". 

nalcis, not, I, 27, 8 ; 69, 7. 

nakla, Night : nakti hi. ushlsa, 1, 
73, 7 ; naktam, by night, I, 98, 
a; J»7, 5; 144-4*; V, 7,4. 

nakta-yS, by night, IV, 11, 1. 

nikti, Night: nakti* ushasa£, 11,2, 2. 

Niktoshisa, du., Night and Dawn, I, 

13,7; 96,5; 14*, 7- 
naksh, to reach: n£kshante, I, 66, 

9 ; — abhf nakshati, I, 95, 10. 
nad: nanadat, roaring, I, 140, 5; 

111,2, 11. 

napat, offspring: urraii napSt, I, 58, 
8; II, 6, 2; HI, 27, 12; V, 
17, 5 ; — apam napat, the child of 
the Waters, 1, 143, i'; 111,9, '• 

naptri, offspring: Grg&b niptre, V, 

7, 1. 
nabhanya? I, 149, 3*. 

nibhas, cloud, I, 71, 10; II, 4, 6 ; 

III, 12, i'. 
nam : a-nimam, to direct, IV, 8, 3. 
nima£-ukti, praise, I, 189, 1 ; III, 

14, 2». 
namas, adoration, reverence, I, 1, 7, 

2 



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452 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



&c. ; namasa, adoringly, III, 

14, 5- 

namasy, to worship, adore : namasy- 
anti, I, 36, 19; namasyi, I, 44, 
6 1 ; namasyan, I, 72, 5 ; nama- 
syita, III, 2, 8; namasyamaA, 
III,i7,4; namasy<inta£, adoring, 
IV, 6, 11. 

namasya, to be adored, venerable, 

1, 7*, 5 s ; 11, 1,3; 1°; 111,5, 

a; 27, 13- 
namasvfn, adorer, I, 36, 7. 
Nanbamsa.'songof men* or 'praised 

by men,' I, 13, 3" ; 142, 3; II, 

3, 1; 111,29, »' ; V, 5, 2. 
nirya, manly power, I, 72, 1 1 . 
nava, new, young, I, 31, 8, &c. ; — 

navyaws, navyas?, I, 27, 4 ; 60, 

3; «4'. 5; 143, 1 ; HI, 2, 13; 

niviyasa, I, 12, n; — navyaA, 

gen., V, 12, 3' ;— navish/£a, 

youngest, V, 27, 3. 
nava-^a", new-born, iV, 6, 3. 
nava-^ata, new-born, V, 15, 3. 
navati, ninety: navatim puraA, III, 

12, 6. 

navamam, for the ninth time, V, 

27, 3 s - 
Nava-vastva, I, 36, i8\ 
navedas, watcher : ushasaA navedaA, 

I, 79, i s ;-*-witness, V, u, 3. 
navya, young, I, 141, 10; 189, 2. 
naj, to attain : nasate, V, 4, 11 ; — 2 

anaf, I, 71, 8. 
na» : n&tat, it disappeared, IV, 1, 17. 
Nahusha, N. of a clan, I, 31, n*; 

V,i2,6. 
Nahus, (I, 31, n 9 ). 
nSika, sky, firmament : pip&ia nakam 

str/bhiA, I, 68, 10 ;— III, 2, 12 ; 

5, 10; IV, 13, 5; V, 1,1 ; 17,2. 
nana-rathim, on many chariots, III, 

6, 9. 

nandf, delight : nandye, I, 145, 4. 
Nabhanedish/Aa, (I, 14 a, 10 1 ). 
niKbhi, navel, centre, I, 59, 1*; 142, 

io»; III, 5, 5; IV, 10, 8; 

nSbhiA pr/'thivyilA, I, 59, a ; 

«43, 4! II, 3, 7! HI, 5, 9; 
29, 4 ; pra-j&m nSbhim, II, 3, 
9 ; divaA nSfbha, III, 4, 4; 
amr/tasya nsHbhim, III, 17, 4. 
nSman, name : deva-tvam nSma, 
amr/tam nama, I, 68, 4' ; nS- 
mani dadhire yaj-niyini, I, 72, 
3 ; prathamam nama dhenoVj, 



IV, 1, 16 ; guhyam ntoia, V, 3, 

2; 3; 5, 10; bhffri nima da- 

dhati, V, 3, 10. 
naYl, wife, I, 73, 3. 
naVmin!? I, 149, 3'. 
nav3[, boat : navayi, I, 97, 8 1 . 
Nasatya, IV, 3, 6';— du., the Ajvins, 

IV, .4, .'. m 
nims, to kiss : nimsate, I, 144, i 4 . 
nf-kama, desirous of, III, 1, 15. 
niksh : vi-nikshe, to pierce, V, 2, 9. 
ni-iiri, watchful, III, 9, 4. 
ninfk, secretly, IV, 5, 8'. 
ninyi, hidden, 1, 95, 4 1 ; inmost, IV, 

3,16. 
nftya, one's own, I, 66, 1' ; 5; 71, 

I ; 140, 7; t 4 8, 3; 5; II, 2, 

II ; — true (friend of men), I, 
141, 2*;— nftyam, constantly, I, 

, 73,4. 
nitya-aritra, with its own rudders, 

1, I4O, 12*. 

nid : nidam'.A, scolding, IV, 5, 12. 
nid, scoffer, III, 16, 5 ; — revilement, 

IV, 4, 15. 
ninitsu, who tries to revile, 1, 189, 6. 
ninditrt, reproacher, V, 2, 6. 
nfndya, reproachable, V, 2, 6. 
ni-mfsh, closing of the eyes, 1,72, 5*. 
ni-v&tana, invocation, I, 189, 8 ; 

— recitation, IV, 3, 16. 
ni-vdt, depth : ut-vStafr ni-valaA, III, 

2, 10. 

ni-va>tana, return, III, 9, 2. 

ni-vfd, the Nivid formula, I, 96, 2'. 

nishka-griva, with a golden ornament 
at his neck, V, 19, 3. 

nf-hita, laid down, I, 7a, 6. 

ni, to lead: padam nayanti, they 
follow his track, 1, 146, 4*; — 
pari nayanti, they carry around, 
I, 95, 2* ; pan ntyate, he is led 
around, IV, 15, 1. 

ni/d, nest, IV, 1, 11 ; 12. 

nithi, song, IV, 3, 16. 

nitha-vfd, knowing all the ways, III, 

«. I2 ' 5 - 
nila-pr/'sh/Aa, with the dark blue 

back, III, 7, 3. 

nu, to low, roar : ndvanta, 1, 66, 10 ; 

nonava, I, 79, 2 ;— to shout 

(hymns of praise) : ndvanta, I, 

69, 10 ; — abhf pra nonmna£, I, 

78, 1-5; abhi anCshata, they 

have greeted with shouts, I, 144, 

2; IV, 1, 16; abhf ar.flshata, 



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INDEX OF WORDS. 



453 



(the hymns) have been sung, 

V, 5, 4 ;— sim navanta, IV, 3, 

ii. 
nu, now : nu Jit nu, I, 58, i 1 ; nu ta 

pursf H, I, 96, 7. 
nutana, present, recent, 1, 1, 2 ; III, 

1, 20. 
nunam, now : adyi nfinim ifa, 1, 13, 

6 ; nfinim aparim, now and in 

future, I, 1 $9, 4. 
nr», man : nrjn (for various cases), 

I, 146, 4 «; III, 14, 4'; IV, 2, 

1 5* ; V, 1 5, 2* ; nara£ nnrutaA, 

III, 16, 2 1 ; j&mse nr/nsibn, III, 

16, 4. 
nr»'-/rakshas, beholding men, III, 15, 

j ; 22, 2 ; IV, j, 3. 
nrz-tama, manliest, I, 59, 4 ; 77, 4 ; 

III, 1, 12; 19, 3; IV, 5, 2; 

V, 4, 6- 
nr/-piti, lord of men, I, 71, 8 s ; II, 

I, 1 ; 7- 

nri-pe\ias, (the divine doors) with 
men as their ornaments, III, 4, 

5','. 
nr/mni, manly power, I, 67, 3 ; V, 

19, 2. 
nri-vit, with men, V, 18, 5. 
nr/'vit-sakhi, rich in manly friends, 

IV, 2, 5 1 . 

nr/'-sidana, seat of men, V, 7, 2. 
nr/'-han, man-killer, IV, 3, 6. 
netri, leader, III, 15, 4; 20, 4; 

isham netS, III, 23, 2 1 . 
nedish/Aa, near, nearest, I, 127, 11 ; 

IV, 1, 5. 
nema-dhiti, discord, I, 72, 4 s . 
nemi, felly, I, 141, 9! "» 5. 3 ! V, 

■3,6. 
nesha-tama, best leading, 1, 141, 12. 
nesh/n', the N. priest, II, 5, 5 1 . 
nesb/ra, office of the Neshir; (priest), 

II, 1, 2. 

nau, boat : n^vS-iva, I, 97, 7 ; 99, 
1 ! V, 25, 9 ; sindhum ni nlvl, 

V, 4, 9 ; nSvam nftya-aritrim 
pat-vitim, I, 140, 12 1 . 

nyiSJ, directed downwards : nWiA, 
I, 66, 10* ; 72, 10*. 

pakvi, ripe, I, 66, 3 ; IV, 3, 9. 

paiati, baked, III, 28, 2. 

pan>an, five : idhi pidAa krrsh/ishu, 
over the fivefold dwellings (of 
the five peoples), II, », 10. 

pa«*i»at, fifty, V, 18, 5. 



pat: patyate, he rules, I, 128, 7; 

patyase, thou possessest, II, 1,8. 
pat, to fly: pitanti mfhaA, I, 79, 2. 
patangi, winged (flames), IV, 4, 2. 
patatrfn, winged, I, 58, 5*; 94, 11. 
patari, winged : prunyab patarim, 

11,2,4. 
pati, lord, I, 26, 1, &c. ; pitiA din, 

I, 149, 1*;— husband, I, 66, 8; 

71, 1; IV, 3,2'. 

piti,g-ush/i (nan), (a wife) beloved 

by her husband, I, 73, 3. 
pati-np, deceiving her husband, IV, 

5, 5- 
pitni, consort: deviA pitniA, IV, 5, 

«3- 
pitnt-vat, together with the wife, I, 

72,5; 111,6,9- 
pitman, flight, I, 141, 7; V, 5, 7. 
pat-vit, having feet, I, 140, 9; pat- 

vittm navam, I, 140, 12'. 
pitvan, flight, V, 6, 7. 
pathya, path, III, 14, 3. 
pad, to fall : padish/i, 1, 79, 1 1 ;— iva 

padyate, IV, 13, 5. 
pid, foot : padiA ni dadhati, I, 146, 

2 ; pad-bhi'A (conj. for pa/-bhf£), 

IV, 2, 14 s . 

padi, footstep, footmark, track, I, 
65, 2; 67, 6'; IV, 5, 3 ; padim 
nayanti, they follow his track, 
I, 146, 4 1 ; padim vW, III, 5, 
5 1 ; 6 ; IV 5, 8*; padim Vish- 
nob upa-miin,V, 3, 3; — standing- 
place, abode : pade param6, I, 

72, 3 ; 4 ; trw sapti gfihyani 
pads', steps or places, I, 72, 6 1 ; 
\fob pade 1 , I, 128, 1; r/tisya 
pade, IV, 5, 9 ; matuA pad£ 
paramf, IV, 5, 10. 

pada-vf, following the footsteps, I, 

72, 2' ; 111,5, i'. 
pan, to praise: pinanta, II, 4, 5 1 ; 

paniyanta, III, 6, 7; panaya, 

V, 20, i\\ 

pinish/Aa, most wonderful, III, 1,13. 
piniyams, highly miraculous, V, 6, 4. 
panff, praise, I, 65, 4. 
piyas, milk, I, 66, 2 ; 79, 3; IV, 3, 

9; ">• 
piyasvat, rich in milk, II, 3, 6. 

par, see pri. 

pira, distant, III, 18, 2. 

paraA-pa 1 , a protector far and wide, 

11,9,2; 6. 
paraju, axe, I, 127, 3 ; IV, 6, 8. 



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454 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



pariis, beyond : pari* manishiyl, V, 

17, 2*. 
paiistat, on high, III, 22, 3. 
para-vita*, from afar, I, 36, 18 ; 73, 

6 ; HI, 9, 5- 
pari, prep., from, I, 31, 4 ; — for the 

sake of, III, 5, 10 1 . 
pari-kshft, encompassing, III, 7, 1. 
piri-jman, walking round the earth, 

i. 79. 3'; >*7» **; nit »»9 8 ; 

IV, 3,6*; V, 10,5. 
piri-takmya, the decisive moment, 

I, 3i, °V- 
pari-bSdh, hindrance, V, 2, 10. 
pari-bhff, encompassing, I, 1, 4 ; 97, 

6; 141,9; HI. 3, »°- 
pin-vita, enveloped, 1, 128, 1*; III, 

8, 4 ' 5 IV, 1, 7. 

parish/i, encompassing, I, 65, 3 1 . 
pirinas, abundance, III, 24, 5; V, 

10, 1. 
parishfi, searching, (I, 65, 3'). 
parushi, speckled, V, 27, 5. 
pirvan, joint (of the month) : pir- 

vana-parvana, I, 94, 4 1 . 
paliti,grey, I, 144, 4; fern, pilikni, 

V, 2, 4 «. 

pav.'tra, purification, 1 1 1 , 1 , 5 ; — puri- 
fying strainer, 111, 26, 8. 

pa», to see: iti paryasi, I, 94, 7; 
— pari ap&ryanta, they have 
searched, I, 146, 4; — vf pajya, 
look forth, III, 23, 2*. 

pis, eye: pa/-bhf*, IV, 2, 12*; pa/- 
bhi* (conj. pad-bhi'*), IV, 2, 14*. 

paj6, animal, beast: pajva" ni tayum, 
I, 65. "V; pa»uA r.a jfjva, I, 
65, 10; (Agni), II, 4, 7; V,7, 
7; cattle, I, 67, 6«; 72,6; III, 

9, 7; IV, 2, 18 1 ; V, 2, 5; 
victim, IV, 6, 3. 

paju-pa', shepherd, 1, 1 44, 6 ; IV, 6, 4. 
paiu-sS, winner of cattle, 1, 1 27, io 1 . 
pajvi-yantra, taking ... as an instru- 
ment (?), IV, 1,14. 
pastya, dwelling, IV, 1, 11. 
pa: si* pati (conj. sipiti), V, 12, 6 1 . 
p&ta, simple, I, 31, 14 ; III, 9, 7 ; 

„ IV, 5,*. 
pagas, stream of light, I, 58, 5 ; III, 

14, 1; 15. 1 ; *9» 3! IV, 4, 1; 

V, 1, 2. 
pSthas, abode, I, 188, io 1 ; II, 3, 9 ; 

III, 8, 9 ; pSthifr (conj. pa- 

thi*?), II, 2, 4 «. 
payfi, guardian, 1, 31, 12 ; 13; 95, 9 ; 



M3, «; M7, 3; 189, 4; II. 1, 
7 5 4,4; HI, I5.4 1 ; IV, 2,6; 

„ 4, 3; «*; v, 12, 4 . 

parthiva, dweller on earth, I, 95, 3 ; 
— the terrestrial (space), 1, 118, 
3 ; 144, 6 ; p-rayamsi parthiva, 
V,8,7. 

pavaki, purifier, 1, 12, 9 ; 10; 13, 1 ; 

60, 4 ; 95, 11; 14*. 3; 6; II. 
3, 1; 7, 4 5 HI, 5, 7; 10, 8; 

17, 1 ; 21, 2; 27, 4; iv, 5,6 ; 

6. 7 ; V, 4, 3 ; 7 ; 7, 4 ; 26, 1. 
pavaka-.ro/ti, whose flame is purify- 
ing, III, 2, 6. 

pavaki-zoJis, purifying with his 
flames, III, 9, 8'; 11, 7; IV, 

7, 5 5 V, 22, 1. 
p3j-a, fetter, V, 2, 7. 

pitu, food, I, 69, 3 ; V, 7, 6. 

pitu-mit, rich in food, I, 141, 2*; 
144,7; IV, 1,8. 

pitri, father : mahi pitrfi div£, I, 71 , 
5 ; pitu* paramSft (Heaven), I, 
I 4 I , 4 1 ; pitu* H ganitbb ka., 

III, 1, io 1 ; pitit ya.gflsmam, III, 
3, 4;— V, 3, 9 s ; io 1 ;— du., 
parents, I, 140, 7 1 ; III, 7, i 1 ; 
18, i 1 ; pitr6* upi-sthe, I, 146, 
i J ; III, 26, 9; matara pitara, 

I V, 6, 7 ;— pitira* Ahgirasa*, I, 
71, 2 1 ; pita pitr»-bhya* Gtive, 

II, 5, 1*; pitira* manushya*, 
IV, 1, 13 1 ; pitira* pirasa* 
pratn&a*, IV, 2, 16. 

pitr/-vitti, acquired by the fathers, 

1,73. i 1 ; 9- 
pltrya, paternal: sakhya" pftryani, I, 

71, 10. 
pinv, to swell: pinvamina*, III, 1, 

7; pinvasva, III, 3,7. 
pi/, to adorn : pip&a, I, 68, 10. 
pijinga-rGpa, tawny-coloured, II, 

3,9- 
piy, to abuse : piyati, I, 147, a. 
putrfn, with sons, V, 4, 1 1. 
punar : puna* astu si* asmai, may it 

(the spell) recoil on him, 1, 147, 

4 ; puna*, give us back, 1, 189, 3. 
p6r, stronghold : pQ*-bhf* ayasibhi*, 

I, 58, 8;— I, r 4 9, 3; 189, »; 

III, 12,6; 15,4; V, 19, 2. 
pura*-etr/J leader, I, 76, 2'; III, 

I', 5- 
pura*-ga\ going in front, I, 188, 11. 
pura*-sad, sitting in front, 1,73, 3. 
puri*-hita, the Purohita, I, 1,1; 



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INDEX OF WORDS. 



455 



44. Jo'; »*; 58, 3; 94. 6«,»; 
128, 4; 111,2,8; 3, 2; 11, 1; 
V, ii,2. 
Puram-dhi, Liberality of the gods, 

II, 1, 3 s . 

puras, in front : dadhire" purlt, III, 
a, 5 ; V, 16, 1*. 

puriK, before (with gen.), I, 71, 10 ; 
^ —formerly, I, 96, 7. 

purishya, of the soil : purishyasaA 
agniyafr, III, 22, 4 1 . 

pur6, many, 1, 36, i*, &c; III, 4, 
5 s ; puru vi aram (conj. puru- 
varani), 1, 142, io a ; anu pUrvte, 
HI, 15, 3 1 ;— mightily, 1,127, 3. 

puru-anika, with many faces, I, 79, 5. 

puru-kshu, rich in food, I, 68, 10 ; 

III, *5, 2- 

puru-^andra, rich in splendour, I, 

27, n; II, 2, 12; III, 25, 3; 

V, 8, 1. 
puru-tril, in many places, I, 70, to ; 

146, 5. 
puru-dawtsa, wonderful, III, 1, 23. 
puru-drub, full of deceit, III, 

18, 1. 
purudha-pratika, with many faces, 

HI, 7, 3- 
purudha, manifoldly, IV, 2, 19. 
puruni£-stha, growing up in many 

places, V, 1,6. 
Puru-nitha, N. pr., I, 59, 7. 
puru-peja, manifoldly-adorned, II, 

10, 3 J - 
puru-pd/as, manifold-adorned, III, 

3,6. 
puru-pra/asta, praised by many, I, 

73. *• 
puru-priyi, beloved of many, I, 12, 

*; 44. 3; 45, 6 ; III, 3, 4; V, 

18, 1. 
puru-praishi, he who pronounces 

many Praishas, I, 145, 3". 
puru-rffpa, of all kinds, manifold- 
shaped, II, 2, 9; V, 8, 2; 5. 
puru-vasu, rich in wealth, II, 1, 5. 
puru-vara, with many treasures, 

bountiful : puru-varam (conj. 

for puru va dram), I, 142, io a ; 

—II, 2, 2; IV, 2, 20; 5, 15. 
puruvaVa-push/i, lord of bountiful 

prosperity, 1, 96, 4. 
purusha-triH : conj. purusha-ta', men 

as we are, IV, 12, 4 1 . 
puru-stuta, praised by many, I, 141, 

6;V,8, 5 . 



puru-spr/h, much desired, 1, 142, 6; 

II,7,i; IV, 8,7; V,7,6. 
puni-hutl, much-invoked, I, 44, 7. 
Pururavas, I, 31, 4. 
puro&r, sacrificial cake, III, 28, 1-6. 
pur6hita, see puraA-hita. 
push, to make prosper: pushyasi, I, 

94, 6 ; V, 26, 6 ; pusliyata, I , 

94, 8; pushyati, III, 10, 3; 

pushyantaA causing to thrive, 

IV, 8, 5. 
pusb/f, prosperity, I, 65, 5 ; 77, 5 ; 

I', 4, 4 ; V, 10, 3. 
push/i-mat, with prosperity, III, 

i3,7. 
pushfim-bhara, bringing prosperity, 

IV, 3, 7- 
push/i-vardhana, augmenter of pros- 

perity, I, 31, 5. 
pu, to purify: punana£, II, 3, 5; 

kratum punanaA, III, 1, 5 1 ; 

punanti, III, 8, 5 ; apupot, III, 

26, 8 ;— abhf punatT, IV, 5, 7. 
pfita, purified, I, 79, 10. 
pfita-daksha, of pure powers, III, 

«, 3*- 

Pflru, the Pfirus, I, 59, 6 ; V, 17, 1. 

pdfrva, former, ancient, 1, 1, 2, &c. ; 
pflrva-vit, as for the ancients, 
I, 31, 17 ;— diva* ptfrvaA, before 
daybreak, 1, 60, 2 ; to the front, 
1, 94, 8 1 ; manushat ptfrvaA, II, 
3, 3'; tvat h6ta prfrvaA, III, 
17, 5;— eastern: pflrvam anu 
pra-diVam, I, 95, 3. 

pfirva-tha, in the old way, III, 29, 1. 

pflrvyi, ancient, I, 26, 5 ; 94, 6 ; 

in, '4, 3"; 23, 3; V, 15, 3*;— 

foremost, I, 74, a 1 . 
Pflshan, II, 1,6; IV, 3, 7. 
pfishan-vat, accompanied by Pflshan, 

1,142, 12. 
pr/' or par, to bring across : piparshi, 

thou leadest forward, 1,31,6*; 

parshi, II, 7, 2; parshat, III, 

20, 4; pipr/tam, III, 26, 9; 

parshati dvisha£, may he help 

us across our enemies, V, 25, 1 ; 

9;— ati paraya, I, 97, 7; ati 

parsha, I, 97, 8 ; ati parshat, I, 

99, 1. 

pr/', to till : pflrdhi, 1,36,12; papra, 
I, 69, 1 ;— ipapri-van, I, 73, 8 ; 
146, 1; & apr/'nat, III, 2, 7 ; 3 
ipriaab, III, 3, 10; 3 aprSA, 
IV, 14, 2; — pra-pra prwiitana, 



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456 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



fill (with bliss) further and 
further, V, 5, 5. 

pr/ksh, nourishment, I, 71, 7 1 ; 73, 
5; II, 1,6. 

pr/kshS, power, 1,127,5'; II, 1 , x 5 J 
— powerful, I, 141, 2 1 ; sapti 
pr/'kshasai>, III, 4, 7 1 . 

pr/kshS-praya^, mighty sacrificer, 
111,7, 10 1 . 

pr/kshudh : pr/kshudha£ ? 1,141,4 s . 

pr/i: pr/fltfanti, they fill, I, 79, 3; 
prz'SWte, they grow, I, 128, 5 ; 
papr/'^anasaA, swelling, I, 141, 
6 s ; papn>3si, make swell, I, 
141, 11*; — timase vi-pr»ie, for 
dispersing the darkness, IV, 1 3, 
3 ; vi-pr«kvat, cleared from ad- 
mixture, V, 2, 3*; — sam-prifcta- 
r\ib, being united, I, 95, 8. 

pr/t, battle, I, 27, 7 5 79, 8 ; V, 9, 
7; 10, 7; 16, 5; 17,5. 

pritana, battle, III, 16, 2 ; 24, 1. 

pWtana^ya, racing of battle, III, 8, 
10. 

pr/'tan&-yu, seeking to combat, ill, 
1, 16. 

pr/tana-sih, powerful in battles, III, 
29,9; V, »3, a. 

pritanyit, foe, II, 8, 6. 

pr/tsutf, hostility, V, 4, 1. 

pr/'thivi, earth, Earth : nifbhiA pW- 
thivyU, I, 59, 2; III, 29, 4; 
agniA dlti r6ma pr/thivyft/j, I, 
6s, 8 ; kshSm and pr/'thivtm, I, 
67, 5; dyaVa pr/thivi' iti, Heaven 
and Earth, I, 143, 2; diva7> 
pr»'thivyft&, III, 1, 3 ; mahinS 
pr/thivy&&, III, 7, io'; virsli- 
man pr/'thivy&&, III, 8, 3 ; vare 
a pr/thivyKA, III, 23, 4* ; divSA 
sOnu* pr/thivySA, III, 25, 1 ; — 
Earth, 1,72,9; 94, 16 ; 95,11; 
98, 3 ; III, 8, 8 1 517,2; IV, 3, 5. 

prfthu, broad, I, 65, 5 ; II, 1, 12. 

prithu-pa^as, with broad stream of 
light, III, 2, n; 3, 1 ; 5, 1 ; 

*7, 5- 
pr/lhu-pragana, with broad passages, 

111,5,7. 
pr/thu-pragaman, proceeding on bis 

broad way, I, 27, 2. 
pr/thu-bndhni, broad-based, IV, 2,5. 
pr/jani", the speckled (cow), I, 71, 5 1 . 
pr/ini, speckled, IV, 3, io* ; — Pruni, 

the mother of the Maruts, II, 

», 4 3 ; IV, 5, 7'; >o. 



pr;shat-ajva, with the spotted deer 
as horses, III, 26, 6 s . 

pr/shatf, the spotted deer, III, 26, 4*. 

pr/sh/a-bandhu, after whose rela- 
tions men ask, III, 20, 3'. 

pr<sh/M, back, I, 58, 2 1 ; IV, 2, 1 1*; 
ridge, V, 7, 5 ; — a certain 
Stotra? IV, 5,6'. 

pr/sh/£ya, of the back : piyasa prish- 
tbyena, IV, 3, io 1 . 

p&ras, the ornamented form : yagMi- 
sya p&aA, II, 3, 6*. 

Pfcht, V, 2, 2'. 

p6tr/, the Potri priest, I, 94, 6 ; 1 1 , 

5, *; IV, 9, 3- 
potri, service of a Potri, I, 76, 4 s ; 

II, 1, a. 
posha, welfare, I, 1, 3 ; V, 5, 9. 
poshayitnu, which is to thrive, III, 

4, 9- 

pyai, to swell : pipayanta, they were 
exuberant, I, 73, 6; pipayat, 
may he augment, I, 77, 5 ; 
pfyanai> (conj. piyanam), I, 79, 
3*; ptpaya, it has prospered, 
11,2,9; pipy Snai>, rich in milk, 
III,i,io*; — pripipaya,increase, 
111,15,6. 

pra-avitr», protector, I, 12, 8 ; 
furtherer, III, 21, 3. 

pra-avfs, zealous, IV, 9, 2. 

pra-keti, splendour, I, 94, 5. 

pra-Aetas, provident, wise, I, 44, 7 ; 
ti; II.io, 3; 111,25,1; 29,5. 

pra>£, to look for : prhbtih, 1, 98, a 1 . 

pra-#4nana, the creative organ, III, 
19, i». 

pra-jft, children : pra-ga£ uti (conj. 
pra-^feu), I, 67, 9'; pra-^am 
vf syatu, may he deliver a son, 

II, 3, 9- 

prag&vat, procuring offspring, I, 76, 
4 ; pra^tt-vat rldhas, abundance 
of progeny, I, 94, 15; accom- 
panied by offspring, II, 2, 12; 

III, 8, 6; 16, 6; rich in off- 
spring, III, 16, 3; IV, 2,5. 

pra-tarana, carrying forward, II, 1, 

12. 
prl-tavas, strong, IV, 3, 6. 
prdti, equal to, II, 1, 8 ; 15 ; 3, 2. 
pratftya, to be listened to, IV, 5, 14. 
pratni, old: pratnim, I, 36, 4 ; II, 

7,6; IH,9,8. 
pratn£-th3, in the ancient way, I, 

96, 1; 111,2, 12; V, 8, 5. 



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INDEX OF WORDS. 



457 



praty58i, turning back, I, 95, 5 ; 
11,3, 1; HI, 18, 1. 

prath, to spread out : prathayan 
nrih, III, 14, 4; paprathan<U>, 
V, 15, 4 ; — vi prathantam, may 
they open wide, II, 3, 5; v( 
prathasva, spread thyself,V, 5,4. 

prathaml : prathama' anu dharma, 
after the primitive ordinances, 

III,i7,i. 
prathama-ga, first-born (son), III, 

29, >5\ 
pra-dakshwi't, from left to right, 

III, 19, .'; IV, 6, 3. 
pra-diva, ancient, II, 3, 1. 
pra-di'vas, from of old, I, 141, 3*; 

IV, 6, 4 ; 7, 8 ; V, 8, 7. 
pradis, commandment : praduaA, 

(I, 3i, 14'). 
pra-diV, region : pra-dfjam (conj. 

for pri duam), I, 95, 3'. 
pr4-niti,guidance,III,i5, 1; IV,4,i4. 
pra-netrz, leader, II, 9, 2 ; III, 23, 1. 
pra-pitvd, the time of the advancing 

day, I, 189, 7 »,« 
pri-bharman, the bringing forward, 

I, 79, 7- 
pra-bhff, eminent: pra-bhvft (dura*), 

1, 188,5'; 9. 

pri-bhflti, copiousness, III, 19, 3. 

pr5-mati, guardian, 1, 31, 9 ; 10; 
14; 16; 141, 2* ;— kindness, I, 
71, 7; care, 1,94, 1. 

pra-mahas, highly exalted, V, 28, 4. 

pri-ya^yu, friend of sacrifices, III, 
6, 2 1 . 

pri-yata, forward-bent, IV, 5, 10. 

prayata-dakshina, giving sacrificial 
fees, 1, 31, 15. 

pra-yantri, giver, I, 76, 4*. 

prayas, joy, delight, feast, I, 31, 7 ; 
45, 8; 58, 7 s ; 71, 3; III, 11, 
7; 12,8; IV, 5, 6; 15, 2 2 . 

prayasvat, offering enjoyment, I, 
60, 3; 111,6, 3; V, 20, 3. 

pra-yi', onset, III, 29, 15. 

pravaȣ, hill-side, III, 22, 4. 

pra-v£t, declivity, I. 144, 5 s ; — pre- 
cipitous: pra-vata, III, 5, 8. 

pra-va>ya, to be openly uttered, IV, 
5,8. 

pra-vid, finding out, III, 7, 6. 

pra-jlmsya, deserving of praise, II, 

2, 3; n. 

pra-iastd, praised, glorious, precious, 
I, 36, 9 ; 60, 1 ; 66, 4. 



pri-jasti, praise, I, 26, 9 ; 70, 9 ; 

74. 6 ; 148, 3 ; V, 9, 6 ; 16, 1. 
pra-j3str/, the PnuSstW priest, I, 94, 

6 1 ; II, 5, 4. 
pra-jtstri, office of the PraiistW 

priest, II, 1, 2. 
pra-jfsh, command, I, 145, 1. 
pra-sdh, power, V, 23, 1. 
pri-siti, onslaught, IV, 4, 1. 
pra-stf, sprouting grass, 1, 67, 9*; 

95, 10 2 ; 111,5,8. 
Praskanva, I, 44, 6; 45, 3. 
pra'-svanita, roaring, I, 44, 12'. 
pra-hoshi, libation, I, 150, 2. 
praH-g-ihva, stretching forward his 

tongue, I, 140, 3. 
pragma, eastward-turned (barhfs), 

1,188,4. 
priKS*, inclined towards, II, 2, 7 ;— 

eastward : praTMam ya^jjiim 

iakrima, III, 1, 2 2 ; prtiti iti, 

III, 6, 1 o 1 ;— turned forwards, 

. 111.7,7- 

prini, breath : Kyub prtna7.>, 1, 66, 1. 

prataA-yavan, coming early in the 
morning, I, 44, 13 ; 45, 9. 

prataA-sivi, morning libation, III, 
28, 1. 

priyi, beloved, 1, 13, 3, &c. ; dear= 
<f>i\os, I, 67, 6 1 ; sapti priyasa*, 
seven friends, IV, 1,12; priySm 
tva kr/navate, he gratifies thee, 

IV, 2, 8. 

priya-dhama, whose foundations are 

pleasant, I, 140, 1. 
Priya-medha: priyamedha-v5t, I, 

45. 3 1 J priyd-medhIA, I, 45, 4 '. 
pri, to please: pnnanih, I, 73, 1; 

pfprishati, he longs to gladden, 

IV, 4, 7;— 2 pipraya/;, gladden 

(the gods), 11,6,8". 
prlti, well-cared for, I, 66, 4' ; 69, 5. 
prush, to sprinkle, shower : prushiti, 

1, 58, 2 ; prushndvat, III, 13, 4. 
pretrj, friend, I, 148, 5. 
presha. instigation, I, 68, 5'. 
praisha, sacrificial command of a 

priest, (I, 145, 3«). 

phalgva, feeble, IV, 5, 14. 

bit, lo! I, 96, 1 ; 141, 1. 
bandhana, fetterer, V, 12, 4. 
bandhuta, kinship, IV, 4, 11. 
babhrf, carrying (the prize), III, 1, 
12. 



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458 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



babhrff, brown (plants), I, 140, 6'. 
barhish/Aam, most powerfully, III, 

13, 1. 

barhfshmat, he who has spread the 
Barhis, V, 2, 1 2. 

barhfs, the sacrificial grass, 1,12,4; 
i3i 5 5 7 ; 9, &c-; pra^Vnam 
barhiA, I, 188, 4 ; deva barhii, 

II, 3, 4 ; midhye S barhiA, III, 

14, 2. 

barhi-sid, sitting on the Barhis, II, 

3,3- 
ball, tribute, I, 70, 9 ; V, 1, 10. 
bahu, many : bahvfi £a bhuyasiA ia 

yUdttnb, I, 188, 5. 
bahuli, large, I, 189, 2. 
badh, to drive away: bSdhamanaA, 

III, 8, 2 ; btfdhasva, beat away, 
III,i5,i. 

bahu, arm, III, 29, 6. 

budh, to take notice: bodhi, III, 

14, 7; V, 24, 3 ; s&b ka. b6- 
dhati, may he be attentive, I, 
77, 2';— to think: b6dhat, IV, 

15, 7* ;— ftbodhi, he has been 
awakened, V, 1, 1 ; 2 ; bfidhya- 
manajf), awaking, V, 3, 6 ; 
bodhaya, awaken, V, 14, i 1 ; — 
vf bodhaya, awaken, I, 12, 4. 

budhni, bottom, base, I, 95, 8* ; 9 ; 
96, 6 ; II, 2, 3 ; mahii budhne' 
xigasab, IV, 1, n 1 ; — depth, I, 

M«» 3'- 
brihit, great : brihit bhSb, I, 45, 

8' ; br/hatf iveti bri°, I, 59, 4 ; 

3 brihit vadema, loud, II, 1, 

16; mightily, III, 3, n 1 ; V, 

25,8'. 
Br/hit-uktha, V, 19, 3. 
brjhat-uksh, mightily growing, III, 

26,4. 
brihdt-ketu, with mighty light, V, 

8,2. 
br»h£t-diva, dwelling in the great 

heaven, II, 2, 9. 
brihit-bhSnu, with bright light, I, 

27, 12; 36, 15. 
BWhit-ratha, I, 36, i8 l . 
Br/haspiti, III, 20, 5 ; 26, 2 2 . 
bradhni, ruddy, III, 7, 5. 
brahmin, the Brahman (priest), II, 

>,**; 3 s ; IV, 9, 4 s . 
biY:hman, (sacred) spell, I, 31, 18; 
II, 2,7; 10; III, 8, 2; 13, 6; 
18, 3 ; V, 2, 6 ; prathama- < j8A 
brihmana<& 111,29,15'; — sacred 



word, II, 5, 3 1 ; IV, 3, 15 ; 4, 
6 ; — prayer, hymn : voiema 
brdhma, I, 75, 2 ; brahmanaA 
pate, Brahmanaspati, II, 1, 3 ; 
ikari brihma, IV, 6, n. 
brfl : upa-bruv£, I invoke, 1, 188, 8. 

bhaga, good fortune, I, 141, 6*; 
1 1 1 ;— love, V, 7, 8 s ;— a winner 
(in a contest), I, 141, io 1 ; 144, 
f;— Bhaga, the god, I, 44, 8 ; 
II, 1, 7; HI, »o, 4; 5; IV, 3, 

5 ; v, 16, 2 1 . 

bhag, to obtain : bha^anta . . . nsXrna, 
I, 68, 4 ; bhaktam dbhaktam 
ava<&, blessings enjoyed or not 
enjoyed (before), I, 1 27, 5 s ; — 
S. naJ> bhaj»a, let us partake, I, 
»7, 5- 

bhadra, good, I, 1, 6 ; fortunate, I, 
67, 2 ; blissful, 1, 94, 1 ; glorious, 

1, 94, 14, &c. 

bhadra- soM, with glorious light, V, 

4, 7- 
bhand : thlndamane fti, of glorious 
appearance, I, 142, 7; III, 4, 
6 s ; bhandamanai,, glorified, III, 

2, 12 ; bhandate, he is glorified, 

111,3.4- 
bhandish/Aa, most glorious, I, 97, 3 ; 

V, 1,10'. 
Bharati, Agni the B., I, 96, 3'; pi., 

the Bharatas, V, 11, 1. 
Bharit-va^a, the Bharadvafas, I, 

, 59, 7- 

bhirgas, splendour, I, 141, t. 

bharv, to chew : bhirvati, I, 143, 5. 

bhas: pri babhasat, may he con- 
sume, IV, 5, 4. 

bhasman, ash, V, 19, 5. 

bhi, to shine : ami bhasi, III, 6, 7 ; — 
vi-bhSti,heshines(conj.vidhati), 
1,71,6'; vf bhlsi, thou shinest, 
II, 1, 10V; vf bhahi, I, 95, 11. 

bhiU>-rig\ka, whose rifg-ika (?) is light, 
1,44,3'; HI, 1, 12; 14. 

bhigi, share, portion, I, 73, 5*; II, 
10, 6; III, 1, 19. 

bhiga-dheya, portion, III, 28, 4. 

bhagayG, desirous of distributing 
(goods), II, 1, 4. 

bha'-tvakshas, whose power is light, 

I, M3, 3- 
bhlnfi, ray, I, 36, 3; 97, 5; III, 1, 
14; flame, I, 143, 3; V, 1, 1; 
light, splendour, II, 2, 8, &c. 



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INDEX OF WORDS. 



459 



bhanu-mSt, shining, V, i, 1 1. 
bhama, splendour, 1 1 1, 26, 6 ; — flame, 

V, 2, 10. 
bMmfn, luminous, I, 77, 1. 
bhari, burthen, I, 31, 3. 
BhaYata, (Agni) of the Bharata tribe, 

II. 7, i 1 ; 5 :— BhaYata, the two 

Bharatas, III, 33, 2'. 
Bharati : H6tra BhaYati, I, 142, 9 ! ; 

II, 1, 11 1 ;— 1, 188, 8; 11,3,8; 

bharati bhaYatibhii>, III, 4, 8. 
bhas, light : br/hat MiSA, I, 45, 8 1 ; 

iv, 5, i 1 ;— 11, 4, 5; IV, 7, 9- 

bhiksh, to implore, I, 73, 6 ; 7. 

bhid : ava bhet, he cut down, 1, 59, 6. 

bhug- : bhoVate, receives nourish- 
ment, f, 72, 8'; bhuife, to en- 
joy, 1, 127, 8 ; 11 ; bhujam, for 
the enjoyment, III, 2, 9 ; — yasya 
sam-bhu^am, whom I may en- 
joy, II, 1, 4 '. 

bhu.g-man, fertile : bh%ma (conj. 
bhuwna), I, 65, 5 1 - 

bhur : ^arbhurat, hurrying around, 
II) *, 5> ^rbhuranai", II, 10, 
5 ; bhur&nta, they have made 
tremble, V, 6, 7 1 ;— pari-^arbhu- 
ranai>, hurrying around, I, 140, 
10. 

bhura»yu, quick, I, 68, 1. 

bhurig, pole-arm (.'), IV, 2, 14*. 

bhuvana, world, I, 31, 2; 73, 8 ; 

II, 3, 1; III. 2, 10; 3, 10; 
IV, 14, 2 ; bhuvanasya ma^-mi- 
na, I, 143, 4-V being, I, 98, 1; 

III, 16, 4 . 

bhti : satli> ia. bhavataA 4a, of what 
is and what comes into being, 
I, 96, 7 ;— bhavatat, be, III, 23, 
2'; — pari bhdvat, he encom- 
passed, I, 68, 2 ; pari babhCtha, 
thou hast excelled, I, 69, 2. 

bhflman, earth, 1, 65, 3' ; 1 1, 4, 7 ; — 
being : eta" bhflma, 1, 70, 6 ; 
— world : vwvlni bhffma, 1 1, 4, 

„ 2;— V, 7, 5- 

bhuyams, many, I, 31, 6. 

bhuri, rich, I, 73, 4 ; — bhffri kritva*, 
many times, III, 18, 4. 

bhuii-poshm, rich in manifold pros- 
perity, III, 3, 9. 

bhuri-retas, rich in seed, III, 3, 11. 

bhuYi-varpas, manifold-shaped, III, 

A- 3 ' 4 * 
bhurni, quick, I, 66, 2 ; III, 3, 5. 

bhfish, to be busy : bhffshan, I, 140, 



6; III, 95, 2; — upa bhushema, 
may we honour, III, 3, 9; — pari 
bhtishasi vratam, thou adminis- 
tered the law, I, 31, a; pari 
bhfishanti. they celebrate, I, 
95, 3 i pari bhushatL he takes 
care of, III, 3, 2 ; pari bhflsha- 
tha/>, you display, III. 12, 9. 

bhrj, to bring : nimib bharantafr, I, 
1,7; bhaY fti bh&fr, I, 128, 2 ; 
bibharshi (conj. bibharshi), V, 
3, 2 1 ; — ut-bhr/ta, taken out, III, 
2i, 5;— pra jabhrire, I, 72, 4; 
pra bhara (Samhita: bhari), 
2nd or rst person, I, 140, i 1 ; 
prf-bhr/ta, proffered, 1, 147, 2 ; — 
vi bharanta, they have brought 
to different places, I, 70, io' ; 
vi-bhrita£, brought to many 
places, I, 71, 4' ; dispersed, 1, 
144, 2 ; vi bharibhrat, quickly 
shaking, II, 4, 4 s . 

Bhr/gavana, Bhr/gu-like, I, 71,4* ; — 
belongingtottieBhr/gus, IV,7,4. 

Bhrigu, I, 6o, 1 ;— bhr/gavaA, the 
Bhr/gus, I, 58, 5; 127. 7; 143, 

4; II, 4, 2; 111,2, 4*; 5, 10; 

IV, 7,,. 

bhr/mi, quick, I, 31, i6\ 

bho^ana, food : vi'jvasya bho^ana, 
O food on which everything 
lives, I, 44, 5' ;— possession, V, 

4, 5- 
bhoyya, bounty, I, 128, 5. 
bhram<i, whirl, IV, 4, 2. 
bhraj-, to shine : bhra^ante, I, 44, 

12; abhra/, I, 66, 6 ; IV, 6, 5. 
bhra' ( gat-r/shfl', with brilliant spears, 

I, 31, 1. 
bhriHtri, brother, 1, 65, 7 ; bhrataram 

varunani, IV, 1, 2 ; bhrittuA 

rin&m, IV, 3, 13*. 
bhratri, brotherhood, II, 1, 9 ; IV, 

10, 8. 

mamhana, bountifulness, IV, 1, 6; 

V, 10, 3; ma/nhaYi, instr., V, 
16,4'; 18,2. 

mamhish/Aa, most rich in liberal 

gilts, I, 147, 2 1 . 
makshu, quickly, I, 58, 9, &c. 
maghd, wealth, III, 13, 3;— liberal 

boon, III, 19, 1; — liberality, V, 

«o, 3- 
magha-vat, generous, I, 58, 9; 140, 
10. 



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460 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



maghi-van, liberal giver, I, 31, 12 ; 

58,9; 73. 5 ; 8; 77, 4; 98, 3; 

127, 11; 140, 12 ; 141, 13; 

M«, 5; II, 6, 4; V, 16, 3; 18, 

3 ; 5 ; magh6na£ (conj. magh6- 

nam), V, 27, i 1 . 
ma^nin, greatness, power, I, 128, 

5; mi. «; 143, "54 1 ; 11, 1, '5- 

matf, (pious) thought, I, 60, 5 ; III, 
26, 8;— prayer, I, 141, 1; 142, 
4 ; 111,5,3; IV, 3, 16; va£U. 
matfm, I, 143, i 1 . 

math or manth, to produce by 
attrition: miithit, 1, 71, 4 ; 148, 
1; mathn£nta£, I, 127, 7; 
mithi/r, I, 127, 11; mathiyiti, 

I, 141, 3; mathita\ III, 9, 5; 
dmanthish/am, III, 23, 2; 
manthama, III, 29, 1; miinthata, 
III, 29, 5; manthanti, III, 29, 
6; mathydmanaA, V, 11, 6; — 
nf£-mathita£, produced by attri- 
tion, III, 23, 1; 29, 12. 

mnd or mand, to be pleased, rejoice : 
mdndasva (with gen.), I, 26, 5 ; 
madayante, I, 59, i 1 ; madii- 
yasva, II, 3, n»; III, 6, 9; 
madanti, III, 4, 7 ; 7, 7 ; mida- 
yantam, III, 4, 11; mSdantam, 
III, 26, 9; madayethSm, IV, 
14, 4 ; — abhf pri mande, I glad- 
, den, V, 4, 1. 

mad, pronoun : me, ace, V, 27, 4*. 

mada, delight, I, 127, 9 ; V, 2, 10. 

madhu, sweet drink : madhvai a- 
dhav6, I, 141, 3 s ;— honey, I, 
142, 3; 188, 2; III, 1, 7; 8; 
m&dhuna dafvyena, III, 8, i a ; — 
honey-drink, V, 19, 3'. 

madhu-^ihva, honey-tongued, I, 1 3, 
3 5 44i 6 ; 60, 3. 

madhu-peya, honey-drink, IV, 14, 4'. 

madhu-pri'4,mixing the honey-drink, 

II, 10,6. 

mitdhu-mat, rich in honey, I, 13, 2 ; 

142, 2 ; honey-sweet, I, 78, 5 ; 

111,4,2; IV, 3, 9; 12;— sweet 

(food), III, 7, 2. 
madhumat-tama, sweetest, V, 11, 5. 
madhu-vaias, sweet-tongued, IV, 

6,5- 
madhu-sut, Madhu-presser, IV, 3, 3. 
madhu-hastya, with honey in his 

hand, V, 5, 2. 
madhyata\&, out from the midst, III, 

21,5. 



madhyama, middle: madhyameshu, 

I, 27, 5- 

man : manvata, they have devised, 
IV, 1, 16; minyase, thou art 
considered, V, 17, 2 1 ,'. 

mananS, thought, III, 6, i 1 . 

mdnas, thought : minab na" sady£6, 
1,71,9; mind : mdnasaA viraya, 
1, 76> >' i ghr/ta-prusha manasi, 
his mind being intent on scatter- 
ing ghr/ta, II, 3, 2 ; manasa sam 
gagmtib, they agreed in their 
mind, III, 1, 13. 

mantehtt, (pious) thought : manisha 
(Pada text for manisMA?), I, 
70,1 s ; 76,1; 111,8,5; prayer, 
IV, 5, 3 5 6, ,; V, 11, 5';- 
thoughtful mind, I, 94, 1 ; — wise 
thoughts, IV, 11, 2; 3; — par£6 
manishdya, beyond thought, V, 
17, 2*. 

manishfn, thoughtful man, I, 13,5 ; 
III, 10, 1. 

mdnu, man, I, 96, 2 ; 140, 4 ; V, 2, 
1 2 ; — manave, to the man, or to 
Manu, 1, 189, 7 4 ; — Manu, N.p., 

I, 3«, 4; 36, >°; 19; 68, 7 ; 
128, 2. 

mdnuA-hita, instituted by Manus, I, 

13,4 s ; HI, *» «5- 
Mdnu-^ata, offspring of Manu, I, 

45, »*• 
Manu-vat, like Manu, II, 10, 6. 
manusha, man, I, 31, 11*. 
manushya, man, I, 59, 4 ; — belonging 

to men, 111, 1, 10. 
Manushvit, as for Manu, I, 31, 17 ; 

II, 5, 2 ; III, 17, 2; as Manus 
did, 1,44, 11; V, 21, 1. 

minus, man, (I, 31, 11*); I, 36, 7; 
111,26,2; IV,,, 9 >; 6, i,;V, 
3, 4 ; 5, 7 ; mdnushai,, (Aryan) 
men, I, 189, 7*; — m£nusha£, of 
the man, or, of Manus, II, 2, 6 ; 
8 ; — Manus, N. p., I, 26, 4 ; 76, 
5 1 ; 128,1; II, 10, 1; IV, 2, i 1 ; 
mdnusha£ puri6-hitaA, III, 3, 
2 ; — MdnushaA ^antu-bhiA, III, 
3, 6 ; man6tr/*, deviser, II, 9, 4. 

mantra, hymn, I, 31, 13; spell, I, 
67, 4 ; 5 ! 147, 4 5 prayer, I, 
74, 1. 

mand, see mad. 

mandid, joy-giving, cheerful, I, 26, 
7, &c. ; lovely, delightful, V, 17, 
2 ; 26, 1. 



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INDEX OF WORDS. 



461 



mandr&-j-ihva, with lovely tongues, 

I, 142, 8; — with agreeable 
speech, IV, 11, 5; — with the 
delightful tongue, V, 25, 2. 

mandrd-tama, most delightful, V, 

22, 1. 
mandr£-tara, a great joy-giver, III, 

7, 9- 
manman, thought, I, 26, 2 1 ; III, 14, 
5 ; IV, 6, 1 ;— prayer, I, 77, 4 ; 
127, 2; 140, 1; n; 148, 2; 

II, 4, 8; III, 11, 8; IV, 3, j ; 
15 ; 5,6; 11, 2; V, 12. 1. 

manma-sa'dhana, fulfiller of thought, 
I, 96, 6. 

manyft, spirit, V, 7, 10 1 . 

mamaka, mine, I, 31, 11*. 

mayaA-bhff, comfort-giving, 1,13,9; 
III,i6,6; IV, n, 4; V, 5, 8. 

mayas, happiness, I, 31, 7; fresh- 
ness, III, 1, 3 1 . 

Marut : marutaA, the Maruts, I, 31, 
1; 44, 14; 94. n; "8, 5; 
142, 9' ; III, 26, 4-6; 29, 15; 
IV, 1, 3; 2, 4; V, 3, 3; 5, 11; 
26, 9; marfitam-iva svan££, I, 
'43, 5; marutam jardhaii, II, 
3, 3 > IV, 3, 8 ; vlive marutaA, 

III, 14, 4 ; naraA maruta/>, III, 
16, 2 1 . 

marutvat, accompanied by the 
Maruts, I, 142, 12 ; III, 4, 6. 

marut-vr/'dh, whom the Maruts 
strengthen, III, 13, 6'. 

marta, mortal, man : mdrtan (for 
martam, gen. plur ?), I, 70, 6 1 ; 

IV, 2, 3*; 11'; martSya (for 
martyaya ?), I, 77, 2 1 ; martam 
j&msani, praise of mortals, I, 
141, 6«. 

martya, the mortal, I, 26, 9' ; mir- 
tyeshu devJtn krw6ti, I, 77, i 1 ; 
devdsya mSrtyasya tz, II, 7, 2. 

marya, manly, I, 77, 3. 

maryaki, young bull, V, 2, 5'. 

marya-jri, like a beautiful youth, II, 
10,5. 

marySfda, limit, IV, 5, 13. 

mah : mamahantam, may they grant, 
I, 94, 16 ; 95, 11; inamahe^ me, 
he has presented me, V, 27, 1 ; — 
to exalt : mahayanta, III, 3, 3; 
mahayan, III, 3, 11; mahaya, 
III, 24, 4 : mahayaminaA, III, 
25, 5 ; — fim mahema (conj. 
sam ahema), I, 94, i 1 . 



mih, great : mahib (ace. pi.), I, 31, 
3*, &c. ; IV, 4, ii'; mah mam, 
of the great (waters), III, 1, 12 1 . 

mih, greatness: mahe, III, 7, 10. 

maha, great: mahib, I, 146, 5'. 

mahan, greatness: mating mahdt- 
bhiA, I, 72, 9. 

mihas, power: mihx6-bhi/&, II, 10, 
3 4 ; III, 4, 6*; with all their 
might, IV, 14, i 1 ; — mightily: 
mah&fe raye jfitiyan, V, 15, 5 s . 

mAhi, great, I, 79, 4. 

Mihi-keru : rrahi-keravaA, I, 45, 4 1 . 

mahi-tvi, greatness, might, I, 59, 5 ; 
6 ; mahi-tvS, I, 67, 9 ; 68, 2 ; 
growth, III, 1, 4. 

mahind, greatness, III, 6, 2 ; 7, io*. 

mahiman, greatness, I, 59, 7. 

mahi-ratna, possessor of great trea- 
sures, I, 141, 10. 

mahi-vrata, lord of high laws, 1, 45, 3. 

mahishi, buffalo, I, 95, 9' ; 141, 3'. 

mahishi, queen, V, 2, 2 1 ; buffalo- 
cow, V, 25, 7*. 

Mahf, 'the Great One,' N. of a god- 
dess, I, 13,9'; 142, 9; V, 5, 8. 

ml, to create, produce : amimita, 
he produced, II, 4, 5; mimite, 
III, 1, 5 ; imimita (matari), he 
has been shaped, III, 29, it 1 ; 
mfmanam, preparing, V, 2, 3 ; — 
upa m3si, measure out, I, 142, 
2 ; — vi rig&b mame, he passes 
through the air, I, 58, 1; vi- 
m'inab, traversing, III, 26, 7 ; — 
(■am-rmKya, building, I, 67, 10. 

makis, not, I, 147, 5. 

Matarfjvan, I, 31, 3 ; 60, 1 ; 71, 4 1 ; 
96,4'; 128, 2; 141, 3; 143,3; 
148, 1; III, 2, 13; 5, 9; 10; 
9, 5 ; 26, 2 1 ; 29, ii'. 

matrz, mother : mStil Adit i b, I, 72, 
9; mother (Earth), I, 140, 9 1 ; 
matbb, II, 5, 6 1 ; mattiii upa- 
sthe, III, 8, i s ; 29, 14; V, 1, 
6; amirruta matari, 111,29, 1 1 1 ; 
\x'\b sapti mat6£ paramani, IV, 
1, 16' ; matuA ushdsaA, IV, 2, 
15; matuA g6A, IV, 5, io' ; 
mat2 yuvati'A, V, 2, 1 ; 2 ; matX- 
iva, V, 15, 4;— du., ubhK mi- 
tira, I, 140, 3 1 ; matdnt samiit", 
the parents turned towards each 
other (Heaven and Earth), III, 
1,7"; parents, III, 2, 2; 5,7*; 
7, i 1 ; V, 11, 3' ; mata>a pitdra, 



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462 



VEUIC HYMNS. 



IV, 6, 7 ; yahvf fti Wtdsya ma- 
tir3, V, 5, 6;- pi., mothers, I, 
95, 7 ; 141, 5 1 ; vatsifr xtAXrib 
£-anayata, 1,95,4 s ; sapt4 .riva'su 
mS'r/shu, I, 141, 2 s ; rr&trib 
a.\>ib, III, 9, 2; stibium ma- 
trishu, III, 23, 3; jlrvatishu 
matrrshu, IV, 7, 6. 

ma'dhyandina. midday: mtfdhyandine 
sivane, III, 28, 4. 

M&na,N.p.: m^nasyasOnfiA, 1,189,8*. 

mlnavasyit, acting as men do, I, 
140, 4. 

mSnusha, man, I, 58, 5, &c. ; — 
belonging to men, I, 44, 10 1 ; 
128, 7; human, I, 59, 5; 60, 
3 ; manushasya ^dnasya ginma, 
I, 70, 2 ; manushi vi'/, I, 72, 
8; dhiifr mftnusha, II, 2, 9; 
human (sacrifice!*) : rnanushat 
pffrvaA, II, 3, 3*;— belonging to 
Manus, III, 9, 6; mlnushe 
(conj. msfnushaA), III, 23, 4*. 

Mimatey£, son of MamatS, 1,147, 3'. 

m^ya 7 , wonderful power, 1, 144, 1; — > 
secret power, III, 20, 3*; 27, 
7 1 ;— wile, V, a, 9. 

mSyfn, powerful, III, 20, 3. 

MSruta, of the Maruts: jirdbmb 
■naVutam, I, 127, 6; II, t, 6; 
IV, 6, .0. 

mai-g-alyi, liking to be groomed, V, 
1,8. 

man/ ka, mercy, I, 79, 9*. 

mS-vat, like me, I, 14 1, 2. 

mShina, mighty, 111, 6, 4 ; 7, 5. 

mi, to erect: miyamana£, III, 8, 
3 ; — ni-mimyuA, they have 
fastened down, III, 8, 6 ; nf- 
mita, III, 8, 7. 

miksh, to mix: mimikshatl, I, 142, 
3 ; ghr;'tam mimikshe, he is 
joined with ghr/'ta, II, 3, n*. 

mita-dru, measuredly running, IV, 
6,5. 

mitra, friend, I, (36, 17') ; 67, 1 ; 
75, 4 ;— friend or Mitra, the 
god, I, 96, i* ; II, 2. 3; 4, 1; 
I'l, 5, 3 ;- Mitra, the god, I, 
* 6 » 4; 3 6 > 4; 44, 13; 58, 6; 
77, 3*; 79, 3 5 94, n 1 ; '3 l I 
16; 95, 11; 9 8 >3; Mi, 9; 143, 
7; II, ', 45 IH, 4,2; 6; 5,9; 

14, 4; ' v , >, Ig ; 2. 4; 3, 5 ; 

5,4; 6,7 s ; 13, »; V, 3,1; »'; 
9, 6; 10, a; 16, 1; a6, 9; 



mitnfjthe two Mitrasi.e. Mitra 

andVaruna, I, 36, xy 1 ; ksheshy- 

4nta/j ni mitram, II. 4, 3- ; 

mitrli agnfA bhavati, III, 5, 4. 
mitra-mahas, great like Mitra, I, 44, 

12; 58, 8; II, 1,5; IV, 4, 15. 
MitraVaVunau, du., Mitra and Varu«a, 

I,7i,9 s ; 75, 5; HI, 20, 5. 
mftrya, belonging to one's allies, II, 

6,7. 
mithas, mutually, 1, 26, 9 ; — together, 

I, 68, 8. 
mithuna, twin, I, 144, 4. 
miyedha, sacrificial meal, III, 19, 1 ; 5. 
miyedhya, sacrificial, 1,26, 1 ; — holy : 

I, 3<>,9; 44, 5- 

mish : nf mish ;ti, he closes his eyes, 

III, 29, 14. 
mfh, mist, I, 79, 2 ; 141,13. 
ml, to break (a law): minanti, I, 

69, 7 ; yasya vratam nd ml'yate, 

II, 8, 3; — to impair: minati, 1, 
71, 10;— minat, fading, V, 2, 
i a ; — a'aminanta (Samhita text: 
"ntaii), they were disparaged, 
1, 79, »' ! — amemySne ity a-me- 
myane, constantly destroying, 
1, 9 6 » 5 >— pri minanti, they di- 
minish, III, 28,4 ; pra-minata£, 
trespassing, 1 V, 3, 13; pri 
minati, he destroys, V, 7, 4. 

mUbvims, bountiful, I, 27, 2; 11,8, 
1; 111, 16, 3; IV, 3, 5; 5, i ; 

«5, 5- 

nm*, to loosen : muiyase, I, 31, 4. 

mud, joy, I, 145, 4. 

mumukshG, striving to break loose, 
I, 140, 4. 

muhu<6-gir, the sudden devourer, I, 
"8, 3. 

mfirdhan, head : mfirdha divaii, I, 
59, 2; III, 2, 14; mfirdhSnam 
tatipate, IV, a, 6; — summit: 
mfirdhan ya^nasya, II, 3, 2. 

mri, to die : mamrfishiA, I, 140, 8. 

mri: pra' mr/'nihi, crush, IV, 4, 5. 

mr/'kta-v5has, carrying away injury, 

y, is, 2«. 

mr/ga, animal, I, 145, 5. 

ttiriii, to injure: marliyati, mrik- 
sh'shfa, I, 147, 4 ; 5 ; V, 3, 7. 

mrig, to rub : marg£yanta£, I, 60, 
5; marmr(jenya, to be smoothed 
down, I, 189,7; II, 10, 1; — 
to clean, brighten : marmr/s-ma, 

III, 18, 4; marmngata, IV, 1, 



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INDEX OF WORDS. 



463 



14 ; mirmrigaiab, IV, 2, 19 ; 
maryayema, IV, 4, 8 ; marmr/'- 
gyinte, IV, 15, 6 ; mar^ayanta, . 
they have cleansed themselves, 
V, 3, 3 1 ; — to groom : mr/jjanti, 
V, i, 7 ; mrigyate, V, 1, 8 ;— 
pari marmnyyate, purifies, I, 
95, 8 2 . 
mriJ,to be merciful : mr//.iya. I, ia, 
9; mr/7a, I, 36, ia; 94, u ; 

IV, 9, 1. 

mr/Vayat-tama, most merciful, I, 94, 

14. 
mrifiki, mercy, IV, 1,3; 5. 
mris : abhi mr/Vate, he strokes, I, 

145, 4 ; n4 abhi-mrwe, not to 

be touched, II, 10, 5. 
mrish, to forgive: mtmr/shai, I, 31, 

16; to forget: ma" prS marshi- 

shtbab, I, 71, 10; ni tit pra- 

mr/she,it should not be slighted, 

III, 9, a. 
me/f, roaring (?), Ill, a6, 9 1 ; IV, 7, 

11 s . 
mStr/, builder, IV, 6, a. 
mMis, f.it, III, ai, 1 ; a ; 4 ; 5'. 
mMha, sacrifice, I, 77, 3. 
medhJf, wisdom, V, 27, 4. 
m6dhira, wise, I, 31, a ; 1 27, 7 ; 142, 

n; III, 1, 3; 21,4. 
me"dhya, holy, V, 1, ia. 
Metlhya-atithi, I, 36, 10 1 ; 11; 17'. 
meni, woman, I, 95, 6. 

yaksh with pri, to aspire after : 
pra-yAkshan vasu, II, 5, 1 ; pra- 
yakshe, III, 7, 1. 

yakshd, a spirit, IV, 3, 13',* (bis). 

yig, to sacrifice : yikshi, I, 13, 1 ; 
3«, 17; 36, 6; y&h/ave, I, 13, 
6; yagSiim yakshatam, 1, 13, 8; 
arv8n*am ydkshva, I, 45, 10; 
yaj-adhyai, III, 4, 3 ; iyagab 
hotrdm, III, 17, 2 ; ySt y%asi, 
III, 19, 4* ; dhruvam ayai>, III, 
29,16; ya^atha y a, see y ag&t ha ; — 
ava yakshva, cause, by sacri- 
ficing, to go away, IV, 1, 5 ; — 
8 y&gati, procures (blessings) by 
sacrificing, I, a6, 3 ; a-yig-ase, 
I, 94, 2 ; at ya#a, produce by 
sacrifice, I, 188, 9 ; & yag-asva, 
obtain by sacrificing, III, 1,2a; 
a-y%ante, they bring hither by 
sacrifice, III, 4, 2 ; & yakshat, 

V, 13, 3 1 . 



ya?ata, to be worshipped, worship- 
ful, I, 59, 7; "8, 8; 11,5,8; 

III, 5, 3; IV, 1, 1'; 15,8; V, 

I, 11; 8,1. 

yigatra, deserving worship, worship- 
ful, I, 65, a 1 , &c. 

ya^Stha, the sacrificing, sacrifice : 
ya^ithaya, III, 4, 1 ; 5,9; 17, 
1 j 19, 5; V, 1, 2; 11, 2. 

ya^-amana, sacrificer, 1, 127, 2 ; V, 
a6, 5- 

y&gishtba, best sacrificer, I, 36, 10 ; 

44, 5; 58, 7; 77, 1; 127, 1; 

128, 1; 149, 4; II, 6, 6; III, 

10,7; 13, 1; 14, 5 ; IV, 1,4; 

19; a, 1; 7, 1 ; 5; 8,1; V, 14, 2. 
yigiyams, the best, or excellent, 

sacrificer, II, 9, 4; III, 4, 3; 

«7, 55 19,1; IV, 6,1; V, 1,5; 

«; 3, 5- 
ya^&i, sacrifice, I, 1, 1; 4 1 , &c; 

II, a, 1 1 ; yagninam adhvara- 
jri'yam, I, 44, 3'; mGrdhan 
yagfi&sya, II, 3, a ; ya£«asya 
netari, II, 5, a ; rudram yag%£- 
n3m, III, a, 5 1 ; ketum yagHi- 
nam, III, 3, 3; 11, 3; 29, 5 ; 
pita ya^anam, III, 3, 4; 
ya.fnam-ya^nam, III, 6, 10; 
ya^nasya nets' prathamasya, III, 
«5, 4- 

yap^fd-bandhu, kinsman of sacrifice, 

IV, ,, ,'. 

ya£«4-vat, performing the sacrifice, 

111,27,6. 
yag-84-vanas, accepting the sacrifice, 

IV, ,, a. 
ya£7?£-v£has, fitting out the sacrifice 

as a vehicle. III, 8, 3 1 ; a«, i 1 . 
yagiid-s'idh, performer or promoter 

of sacrifices, I, 96, 3 ; 128, 2. 
ya^a-sSdhana, accomplisher of 

sacrifices, I, 145, 3. 
yigSiyi, worshipful, 1, 27, io' ; 7a, 

3; 4; 6; 73, 7 ; M8, 3'; II, 

3, 4; HI, ', 21; 2, 13; 6, 3; 

IV, 1, ac; V, 10, a ;— sacrificial, 

V, ,2, .. 

ya>yu, s crificer, I, 31, 13; III, 

»9, 4- 

y%van, sacrificer, 1, 13,12; III, 14,1. 

yat : yatate, he ranges (the wings of 
his army), I, 95, 7'; he unites 
with, 1, 98, 1* ; yitanaii, ranging 
themselves, III, 8, 9 ;— yatate, 
he stands firm, III, 16, 4; — 



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464 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



yatayise, thou wilt requite, V, 

, 3,9- 
yatafr, since, I, 128, 4. 
yata-sruyfr, holding forth the sacri- 
ficial ladle(s), I, 142, 1 ; 5 ; 
HI, 2, 5; 27,6; IV, 2,9; 12, 

1 ; — to which the sacrificial 
ladles have been raised, 111,8,7'. 

yad, adv. when (repeated twice), I, 

141, 4 s . 
yadi, when : y5di idam, when here 

(all this happened), I, 79, 2 s ; — 

as I am, IV, 5, 1 i s . 
Yadu, I, 36, i8\ 
yantfir, governor, III, 27, 11 s . 
yantri, guider: yantaram dhinSm, 

III, 3, 8;— guide, III, 13, 3. 
yam, to command : yauta, 1,27,7; — 

to hold : yayantha, I, 59, 1 ; 
yamati, it can hold, 1, 141, 11*; 
yemanim, last-holding. IV, 1, 
1 5 ; yemuA, they have held up, 

IV, 2, 14; — to bridle: jakema 
yamam, I, 73, io 1 ; II, 5, i 4 ; 
III, 27, 3; yamate, he holds 
himself back, I, 137, 3 ; — Syami 
te, it has been offered to thee, 
III, 14, 2' ; — to lead: a.i»ur 
yamuA, V, 6, 1 o* ; - a-yemir£, 
they have turned themselves 
hither, 111,6, 8; — fit yawyamjti, 
he raises again and again, I, 95, 
7 ; fit yawsate, may he lift up, 
1> 143, 7 ; — nf-yata, ruled, IV, 
3, 9 ; — with prd, to bestow : 
prd yamsi, III, 1, 22 ; prd 
yandhi, bestow, IV, 2, 20 ; pr£- 
yata, IV, 15, 8; — vf yamsat, 
may he spread out, I, 189, 6; — 
sam ayamsta, he pulls in (the 
reins), I, 144, 3. 

yama, twin : yam&6 ha gat&j yam&6 

ifani-tvam, I, 66, 8'. 
Yayati: yayati-vat, I, 31, 17. 
yava, barley, I, 66, 3 ; corn, II, 5, 6. 
yivasa, meadow, V, 9, 4. 
yavasa-ad, grass-consuming, I, 94, 

11. 
yavish/Aa, the youngest (god, Agni), 

1,26,2; 44,4; 141, 4; 10; 147, 

2; 189,4; 11,6,6; 7,1; IH,i5, 

J! «9, 4 5 IV, 2, 10; 13; 4, 6; 

>i; «*, 3 ; 4; V, 1, 10; 3, 11. 
ydvish/Aya, youngest (Agni), I, 36, 

6; 15; 44, 6; HI, 9, 6; 23, 

2 ; V, 8, 6 ; 26, 7. 



ydvya, bliss in crops, I, 140, ij. 
yajii-tama, most glorious, II, 8, 1. 
yajas, bringing glory, glorious, I, 
1, 3; 31, 8; 60, 1; II, 3, 5; 

III, 1, 19; V, 15, 1; jaj&sab 
(fern.), Ill, 1, 11*,'; ya»asa g6b, 
through the brilliant (milk ?) of 
the cow, IV, 1, 16 4 ; martasya 
yajasa, through the mortal's 
brilliant (offering), V, 8, 4'. 

yliasvat, glorious, 1, 79,1*; III, 16,6. 
yahfi, young son : sahasaifr yaho fti, 

I, 26, io 1 ; 74, 5' ; 79, 4. 
yahvS, vigorous, I, 36, i 2 ; III, 2, 

9 1 ; 3,8; 5,55 9! 28, 4; IV, 5,6; 

V, 16, 4'; restless, III, 1, 12*; 

IV, 5, *; 7, 11;— young, V, 1, 
1 ;— yahvft, new, I, 59, 4 ;— 
sapta yahvft, I, 71, 7 2 ! 7», 8' ; 
III 1, 4'; IV, 13, 3;-divai, 
yahvtt, young (daughters), 111, 
1, 6 ; 9 4 ;— yahvt fti matiri, I, 
»4*, 7 s ; V, 5, 6. 

yi, to go : yiJmi ritnam, I pray for 
treasure, I, 58, 7" ; ysfsat, may 
he drive on, I, 71, 6 3 ;— iiiba. 
yahi, come hither, I, 31, 17; 
devifn iUfoa y&ave, I, 44, 4'; — 
ava-yatam (conj. ava-yatif), I, 
94, 1 2 1 ; ava yasisish/£a/>, mayest 
thou deprecate, IV, 1, 4. 

Yatfi, a bad demon, V, 1 2, 2 1 . 

yatu-^fi, inciting demons, IV, 4, 5. 

yatu-maVat, ally of the Yatus : yatu- 
mavataub, I, 36, 20. 

ya'tri, avenger (?), I, 70, 11 s . 

yama, procession, V, 3, 12. 

ySman, way, III, 2, 14 ; 29, 6'. 

yu : yfiyushataA, ihey try to draw 
towards themselves, 1, 144, 3; — 
yuyodhf, drive away, I, 189, 1 ; 
3; 11,6,4; y6dhi, V, 3, 9 s ;— 
& yuvamanaA, seizing, I, 58, 2 ; 
3-y6yuvanaA, drawing towards 
himself, IV, 1, 11 ; — vf yoshat, 
may he be deprived of, IV, 2,9. 

yfi, going : y6b, I, 74, 7* 

yukti, see yu^-. 

yukta-gravan, who sets to work the 
prcs-stones, III, 4, 9. 

yuga, generation, tribe : manusha 
yuga", 1, 144, 4 ; II, 2, 7 ;— age: 
yuge-yuge, III, 26, 3. 

jug, to harness, yoke : yuginam, I, 
65, 1 1 ,*; ayukthaA, I, 94, 10; 
ayukshata, III, 26, 4; dakshina 



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INDEX OF WORDS. 



465 



yufvate, V, 1, j s ; yukti, V, 27, 
3 ; 3*; — to join: nri-bhib yuktai, 
1, 69, 8 ; — yurlg€, I make ready, 

III, 1, i*. 

yu£, share : y%am, V, 30, i 1 . 
yfij-ya, companion : yu^yebhlfr, I, 

»45, 4*. 
yfidh, the fighting, I, 59, 5 ; battle, 

I. 140, 10; V, 35, 6. 
yuvati, young woman : da/a yuvata- 

ynb, 1,95, 3 J ;— III, 1,6; V,3, 

» ; * ; 4*- 

yuvan, young, I, 13, 1 ; 37, 13 ; 7», 
8; 141, 10; 144.4; HI, 33, 1; 

IV, 1, 13; V, 1, 6; yfiva su- 
vasaA, III, 8,4* ;— see yavishftte, 
yavish/Aya. 

yushmad.pron.: vaA.dativus ethic us, 

1. 143, 7 1 ; vam, III, 4,4'. 
y(itha,herd, I, 58, 5; IV, 3, 18; V, 

2, 4 1 - 

yflpa, sacrificial post, (I, 13, 1 1 1 ) ; 

V, 2, 7. 

y6ga, the yoking, II, 8, 1 ;— setting 
to work, III, 37, 11. 

yogya", the harnessing, III, 6, 6. 

y6ni, womb, I, 149, 3; II, 3, 11 ; 
9, 3 5 r/tasya y6nau, I, 65, 4 ; 
III, 1, 11 ; IV, i, 13; V, 21, 
4 X ; uparasya y6nau, I, 79, 3*; 
ghr/tasya v6nau, III, i, 7; 
riyasaA y6nau, IV, 1, 11; — 
couch, I, 66, 5 ;— receptacle, I, 
140, i"; — birthplace, I, 144, 2 ; 

III, 39, 10;— abode: samane 
y6ni, I, 144, 4 ; su-kritasya 
y6nau, III, 39, 8; — place, III, 
5, 7 1 ; home, IV, 3, 3. 

yoshan, young female : dlra y6- 
shana£, I, 141, 3 4 ; abhrataraA 
na yfehanab, IV, 5, 5*. 

y6s : jam ybb, with luck and weal, 
I, 189, 3; III, 17, 3; 18, 4; 

IV, i*» 5- 

ra»ih,to hasten : rarahanSA, 1, 148,3. 
rawihya, rapidly, IV, 1, 3. 
rakshas, pi., rakshamsi, the Rakshas 
(devils), I, 79, 12; IV, 3, 14; 

V, 3, 9 ; 10. 

rakshas, sorcerer, I, 36, 15 ; 76, 3 ; 

79.6; III, 15,1; IV,4,i; 4,15. 
raksnasvin, sorcerer, 1, 12, 5 ; 36, 30. 
raghu, swift, IV, 5, 13. 
raghu-dru, quickly running, I, 140, 

4 ; V, 6, 2. 



[46] 



H 



raghu-y£t, quickly moving, IV, 5, 9. 
raghu-syad, swift runner, I, 140, 4 ; 

111,36,3; IV, 5, 9; V, 35,6. 
r%as, air, atmosphere, aerial space, 

I, 58, 1; 5; 79, »; i4«i 7! 

•49.4; II, », j; 4; in, 1,5; 

4, 4 s ; 36, 7 ; rigamb y6nau, 

IV, 1, n». 
r%ish<£a, straightest, I, 79, 3. 
ran, to rejoice, delight : ranayanta, 

I, 147, 1; rananti, III, 7, 5; 
ranayanta, IV, 7, 7 ; havya" 
ranyati, V, 18, i*. 

ra/ia, battle : rane-rane, I, 74, 3. 
ra»v, to be joyful : ranvite' fti, II, 

3,6. 
ranva, pleasant, lovely, I, 65, 5 ; 66, 

3-5; 138, 8; II, 4, 4; IV, 1, 

8 ; — gay, joyous, cheerful, 1,144, 

7; II, 4, 6; III, 26, 1; IV, 

7, 5 ; V, 7, 2. 
ratna, treasure : yami rat nam, I, 

58, 7 s ; vasu ratna, III, 2, 11 ; 

kr/dhf ratnam, III, 18, 5. 
ratna-dhS, bestower of treasures, 1 1, 

1,7- 
ratna-dha'tama, highest bestower of 

treasures, I, 1, 1 ; V, 8, 3. 
ratna-dheya, bestowal of treasures, 

IV, 13, 1. 
rdtna-vat, blessed with treasures, 

111,28,5. 
ratha, chariot : ratham-iva v€dyam, 

II, 2, 3* ; ratha^ na sasniA, like 
a victorious car, III, 15, 5. 

rathira, charioteer, III, 1,17; 26, 1. 

rath", drawing a chariot : irvisaii 
rathya£, 1, 148, 3 ; III, 6, 8 ; — 
charioteer, I, 77, 3 ; III, 3, 6; 
IV, 15, 2 ; rathft adhvaranam, 

I, 44, 2 ; rathiifr r/tasya, III, 2, 
8 ; IV, 10, 2. 

rathya, of a chariot : atyaA rathyai>, 

II, 4, 4; rathya-iva (supply 
*akr&?), II, 4, 6«; *akram 
rathyS-iva (rather rathyam- 
iva?), IV, 1, 3 ». 

rad, to cleave : ritsi, V, 10, 1. 
radhra : radhrasya for idhrasya, (I, 

3i, 14*). 

rapas : rapamsi, Pada text instead 
of apamsi, I, 69, 8 2 . 

rabh : s4m rebhire, they have em- 
braced, I, 140, 8 ;— abh( sam 
rabhante, they take care of, 1 1 1, 
29, 13. 
h 



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466 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



ribhas, vigour, I. 145, 3. 

rabhasi, robust, II, 10, 4 1 ; fierce, 

111,1,8. 
ram-su, joyously, II, 4, 5. 
rim-si'jfihva, with lovely tongue, IV, 

rayi, riches, treasures : kshapa-van 

rayiKiim, I, 70, 5 1 . 
rayi-piti, treasure-lord: rayi-pitiA 

rayiaam, I, 60, 4; 72, 1 ; II, 

9,4- 
rayi-vfd, gainer of wealth, II, 1, 3 ; 

111,7,3. 
rayishiKh, conqueror of wealth, I, 

58, 3. 
rava, shouting, roaring, I, 71, 2 ; 94, 

10 ; agne ravena (Pada : agn&6 

ivena), I, 128, 5'. 
ra^anst, rope, (I, 13, n 1 ) ; IV, 1, 9 1 ; 

V, 1, 3 1 - 
rajmi, ray, I, 59, 3 ; IV, 13, 4 ; 14, 
* ! 3 ! V, 19, 5 ;— sapti nu- 
miyab, seven rays or reins, II, 

5, 2;— rein, I, 141, 11; III, 7, 
9 1 ; r;tfeya rajmi'm, V, 7, 3. 

rasa, sap, 1,71, 5 1 . 

Rihugana, plur., the RahGgasas, I, 

78, 5 l - 
ra, to give : rSsate, 1, 96, 8 ; rarishe, 

II, i l 5; rarimi, II, 5, 7; 

raVanai, a liberal giver, III, 1, 

22 ; IV, 1, 5; 2, 10. 
rig, to be king or lord : rifgantam 

adhvar&iam, I, 1, 8; 45, 4; 

ra^asi, I, 36, 12 ; 188, 1 ; rij-an 

(conj. ra^an), I, 79, 6';-vi- 

rifcatha, I, 188, 4 ;— idhi vi- 

rgg-ataA, you reign high, I, 188, 

6 1 . 
ra>an, king, I, 59, 3 ; 5, &c. ; 

raVSna mitraVanini, I, 71, 9*; 

i%S VanwaA, II, 1, 4; IV, 1, 

2 ; r%a vuSfm, II, 2, 8 ; vasam 

ra^anam, V, 2, 6 1 . 
ratd-havya, who has made offerings : 

rata-havya£, I, 31, 13 4 ; — to 

whom offerings are made, IV, 

7,7. 
rati, gift, I, 60, 1 ; II, 1, 16; 111,2, 

4; 19, 2*- 
rStini, full of gifts, III, 19, 2 ; IV, 

6, 3. 

Rati-s&>, pi., the R3tisi> or 'boun- 
teous 'gods, II, 1, 13. 
rittri, night, 1, 94, 7. 
radh.to worship: dradhi, I, 70, 8 s ; — 



ma 1 na£ riradhaA, give us not up, 

III, 16, 5. 

rifdhas, abundance, wealth, 1, 94, 15 ; 

11,9,4- 

rSdhya, beneficent, IV, 11, 3. 

rf!my4, night, II, 2,8. 

ra>16-kama, desirous of riches, I, 
78, 2. 

ri, to let loose : arin&t, III, 3, 1 1 1 ; — 
svddhitiA-iva riyate, it streams, 
V, 7, 8' ; — niralti, he destroys, 
I, 127,4; 148,4- 

ri* : ririkvamsaA, abandoning, I, 72, 
5 s ; — with pr5, to exceed : pri 
rirMe, I, 59, 5 ; pri rUyase, II, 
1, 15 ; pri riktha/>, III, 6, 2. 

rip, deceiver: priyam ripifr agram, 

HI, 5, 5'. 
ripfi, impostor, I, 36, 16 ; 147, 3 ; 

M8.5 5 189, 5; IV, 3, 13 s ; V, 
3, 1 1 ; ripive (conj. ripivaA ?), 
V,i2,4'. 

ririkshu, who tries to harm, 1, 189, 6. 

rijSdas, triumphant with riches (?), 
1,26,4'; 77, 4 1 - 

rish, to do harm : rfshatai>, I, 1 j, 5 ; 
36, 15; mH rishama, may we 
suffer no harm, I, 91, 1-14 ; 

IV, 12, 5 ; reshayanti, I, 148, 
5; rishate, 1,189, 5; V, 3, 12. 

rish, harm, I, 98, 2. 

rishanyu, harmful foe, I, 148, 5. 

rih, to lick : rerihat sacla, licking and 
licking, I, 140, 9 ; rihanti uahaA, 
I, 146, 2 ; — paVi rih&n, licking 
everywhere, I, 140, 9. 

ri, see ri. 

ru : r6ruvat, roaring, I, 140, 6. 

rukma, gold, I, 96, s 1 ; IV, 10, 5 ; 
6; V,., 12. 

rukmin, with golden ornaments, I, 
66, 6. 

ru>, to shine : ro/tate, I, 58, 2, &c. ; 
rurukvSn, I, 149, 3; su-rula. 
ruAan&Jb, III, 15, 6 ; ro^ata, IV, 
10, 6 1 ;— aViro/fase, thoushinest 
forth, I, 94, 7 ; — pri arofeyat, it 
filled with light, I, 143, 2 ; — vi- 
r64amftnam, I, 95, 2; 9 ; v{ 
ro/fase, II, 7, 4 ; vi-ruruituifr, 
they have made shine, IV, 7, 1. 

ru.f , to break : ru^an, 1, 7 r, 2 ; adrim 
ru^ema, IV, 2, 15*;— vi ruga, 
destroy, IV, 3, 14. 

Rudri, a name of Agni, I, 27, 10 s ; 
IV, 3, i' ; rudram yagnknlim, 



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INDEX OF WORDS. 



467 



I I I, a, 5 1 ;— Rudra, the father of 
the Maruts, II, 1,6; IV, j, 6 ; 
7 ; V, 3, j» ;— pi., the Rudras, I, 
45,i; 58, 3; IH, 8, 8; 20,5. 

Rudriya, Rudra-like : rudriya, 1, 72, 
4'; — pi., the sons of Rudra, III, 
26,5. 

rudh : vi rodhat, he grows up, 1,67,9. 

rGp: rupaA? IV, 5,7'; 8. 

rfuat, bright, brilliant, III, 29, 3; 

IV, 3, 9; 5, 15; ", 1; V, 1, 
2;— red, IV, 7, 9. 

r&»at-firmi,with fiery waves, I, 58,4*. 
ruh : vay&fr-iva anu rohate, he 

mounts up as on the branches 

(of a tree), II, 5, 4 1 . 
rtipa, appearance, I, 71, 10; 95,8; 

IV, 11, t*. 
r6ku, empty (?), IV, 5, 12 1 . 
r£k«as, property, I, 31, 14. 
reg, to tremble: ire.jetSin, I, 31, 

3 ; reyante, they roll forward, 

1, M3.3- 

r6tas, seed, sperm, I, 68, 8 1 ; 71,8; 
128, 3 ; retaA (read repaA), IV, 
3, t ; diviA ni retasa, V, 17, 3 s . 

repas, sin : repaA (conj. for retai), 
IV, 3, 7*; stain, IV, 6, 6. 

rebhi, singer, I, 127, io'. 

revat,rich : revan, I, 27, 12 ;— revat, 
with riches, I, 79, 5; 95, »; 
11,2,6; 9,6; III, 7, 10; 18, 
4; 5: 23, 2; 4; V, 23, 4. 

reshani, harm-doer, I, 148, 5. 

raf, wealth : rayai, gen., I, 68, 10 1 ; 
yasat raya" sa-ratham, 1,71,6*; 
raylfc dura£, I, 72, 8; niyaA 
su-dhura£, I, 73, io 1 ; raySA 
juibi, III, 16, 3 s . 

rok£, shining light, 111,6, 7. 

toka.nk, lignt : vi'jvi diva* rotana', I, 
146, 1 ; UI,i2,9 ; diva£ roiane, 
III, 6, 8; trf rotanam, I, 149, 
4; ut-tamai> ro&inanam, III, 
5, jo; ro^ane' stfryasya, III, 
22, 3. 

roiana-stha, dwelling in light, III, 

2, 14. 

rok.s, splendour, V, 26, 1. 

rodast, du., the two worlds, Heaven 
and Earth, I, 31, 3, &c. ; I, 59, 
2; 4 ! ; 111,7,9*; V, ,6,4 s - 

r6dhas, bank, IV, 5, i*. 

r6man, hair, I, 65, 8. 

r6hita, red (horses), I, 94, 10; II, 
10, 2 ; III, 6,6; IV, 2, 3 ; 6, 9. 

H 



rohit-ajva, lord of red horses, I, 45, 
2 ; IV, 1, 8. 

lok£, world : lokam ^amfm, III, 2, 
9 4 ; — sve u loke, space, 111,29, 
8 ;— surabhau u lok£, in the 
sweet-smelling place, V, 1, 6 ; 
lokam syonam, pleasant free- 
dom, V, 4, 11. 

vaktva, (speech) to be uttered, III, 
26,9. 

vakvan? I, 141, 7'. 

vikvara, moving crookedly : vikvari 
l'ti, I, 144, 6 1 . 

vaksh, to grow : ukshita, I, 36, 19 ; 
II, 3, 6 ; V, 8, 7 ; ukshamanam 
rajjusi, II, 2, 4; vavakshe, III, 
5, 8: vavaksha, IV, 7, 11;— ati 
vavakshitha, III, 9, 3 1 ; — abhf 
vavakshe, he has grown up, I, 
146, 2. 

vakshane-sthS ? V, 19, 5 1 . 

vakshatha, growth, IV, 5, 1. 

vakshi? V, 19, 5'. 

\ak, to pronounce (a prayer) : 
voiema, I, 74, 1 ; 75, 2 ; va>- 
yate, I, 142, 4*; — anu v64at 
brabmawi, II, 5, 3 1 ; — with pra, 
to announce : pr£ \oiai>, I, 27, 
4; pra-v6itati, V, 27, 4; pi a 
vavaia, he indicates, I, 67, 8. 

va>as, word : v&Aab, instr., I, 26, 2 2 ; 
adroghena vaiasa satyam, ac- 
cording to thy guileless word, 
III,i4,6; — prayer, I, 26,io,&c. 

vajtasytf, eloquence, II, 10, 6. 

vatasyu, eloquent, V, 14, 6. 

vatli, to stir : vafyamana, III, 6, 
1 ; vaiyantam, may they move 
along. III, 6, 2. 

vat : ipi vatayamasi, we render 
attentive, I, 128, 2 1 . 

vatsa, calf, I, 72, 2'; 95, i' ; 4'; 
146, 3; II, 2, 2. 

vadha, weapon, I, 94, 9; V, 4,6. 

van, to accept : vanoshi, I, 31, 13 4 ; 
vanishish/a, 1, 127, 7 ; vaner l'ti 
vaneb, II, 6, 1 ; vanvanai>, III, 
8, 2 ; — to gain, win : van6shi, I, 
31, 14 1 ; vavne, I, 36, 17; 
vanema, I, 70, i 2 ; II, 5, 7; 
vanvantaA, attaining (their aim), 

II, 4, 9 ! vanate, may he obtain, 

III, 19,1; V, 4, 3; — toconquer, 
overcome : vanuyama, I, 73, 9 ; 

h 2 



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468 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



vanavat, V, 3, 5 ; vanuy&ma, V, 

3, 6 ; — vanu'sha£, addicted to, 
eager, I, 150, 3 ; III, 27, n ; 
vavanai), thou wilt hold dear, 

IV, n, 2 ; — to grant : vanate, 

V, 3, 10 ; — 2 vanase, win thou, I, 

140, 11 ;— sam vanamahe, we 
get together, V, 7, 3. 

vana, forest - fuel, wood, I, 58, 5 1 ; 
11,4,6'; 111,1,13'; 9,2; 23, 
i l ; vane a vitam. IV, 7, 6 1 ; — 
tree: garbhaii vinanam, I, 70, 
3 ; 9 ;— forest : vani-iva yat sthi- 
ram, 1, 127, 3*;— I. "8. 3*. &c. 

vanid, eater of the forests, II, 4, 5*. 

vanargu, walking in the forest, I, 

J 45, 5 1 - 
vanaspdti, lord of the forest, tree (i.e. 
sacrificial post), I, 13, 11 1 ; 142, 
ii' ; 188, 10; II, 3, 10; III, 

4, io 1 ; 8, i 1 ; 3; 6; n ; V, 

5, to ; — vanaspitin pr£ minSti, 

V, 7, 4- 
\initri, winner, III, 13, 3. 
vanfn, wooden stick, 1, 58, 4 ;— tree, 

1,94, io? M°, »• 
vand,to worship, salute: vandadhyai, 

1,27, 1; 111,4, 3- 
vandaru, reverer, I, 147, 2 ; V, 

1, 12. 
vandya, venerable, I, 31, 12 ; 79, 7 ; 

11,7,4- 
vandhura, chariot-seat : vandhure- 
iva (conj. for vandhurS-iva), 

III, i 4) 3 4 - 

vap : & Qpishe, thou pourest forth, I, 

3', «• 

vapfiA-tara, very marvellous, II, 3, 7. 
v£pusha : vapushaya darjat&m, won- 
derful to behold, III, 2, 15. 
vapushy, to wonder : vapushyan, III, 

I, 4. 

vapushya, of marvellous appearance, 

IV, 1,8; 12; V, 1,9. 

vapus, a wondrous sight, wonder, I, 

141, i; IV, 7, 9; wondrous 
body, wonderful shape, I, 141, 
* 2 ; «44, 3; 148, 1; III, r, 8; 
18, 5- 

vayaA-knt, giver of strength : vayaA- 

kr»t, I, 31, 10. 
vayaA-dha', giving vigour, I, 73, 1 ; 

II, 5, 9 ; IV, 3, i°- 
vayaA-vr/dh, increaser of vital 

strength, V, 5, 6. 
vayas, vigour, strength, vital power, 



I, 66, 4, &c. ; vaya£-vayai>, life 

after life, V, 1 5, 4. 
vaya - , branch, I, 59, 1 ; II, 5, 4'; V, 

1, 1. 
vay 1, weaver (?) : vayya-iva,(ll,3,6'). 
vayuna, established order, rule : vid- 

vfn vayunini, I, 72, 7 1 ; 189, 1 ; 

III, 5, 6; vayuna navt adhita, 
I, 144. 5*i MS, 5 ; vayfinam 
vaghatim, III, 3, 4'; vaytine, 
in the due way, III, 29, 3 s ; — 
k£K vayuna 1 , what are the objects, 

IV, 5, 13. 

vara, wish : minasab varaya, to thy 
mind's taste, 1, 76, i 1 ; a choice 
boon, I, 140, 13 ; tisr»-bhya£ 
& varam, according to the wish 
of the three (sisters), II, 5, 5 ; 
desire, II, 10, 6. 

vara, the holding back : n£ vdraya, 
he is not to be kept back, I, 

, '43, 5- ) 

varivas, wide space, I, 59, 5. 
Varuna, I, 26, 4 ; 36,4; 44, 14 ; 79, 

3; 94, "", 16; 95, 11; 98, 3; 

128,7; 141* 9; 143, 4! II, 1, 

4 ; III, 4, 2; 6; 5, 4; 14, 4; 
IV, 1,2-5; J8; 2,4; 3,5; 13, 

*; v, 3, 1; 5, 11 ; »<s, 9 . 

varfitha, shelter, I, 58, 9 ; 148, a ; 

189, 6. 
varfithya, protecting, V, 24, 1. 
vSrenya, elect, desirable, excellent, 

I, 26, 2 ; 3 ; 7, &c. 
varjfas, splendour, III, 8, 3; 22, 2 ; 

, 24, '• 
var»a, colour, I, 73, 7 J II, i, 1 2 ; 4, 

5 ; — (bright) colour, splendour, 
11,5,5; IV,5, 13;— appearance, 
I, 96, SI— race, II, 3,5'. 

vartanf, way : vartanft (Pada : var- 

tanfA), I, 140, 9*;— III, 7, 2. 
vardhana, increaser : virdbanam 

pituA, I, 140, 3*. 
vaVpas, sight, shape, I, 140, 5'; 7; 

141,3. 
varman, armour, I, 31, 15; 140, 10. 
varshi-nirni^, clothed in rain, III, 

26,5. 
vdrshish/i>a, most powerful, III, 13, 

7; 16, 3; 26,8; V, 7, 1. 
virshman, summit : varshman divlt, 

111,5,9; virshman pr/thivy£6. 

111,8,3. 
vava'ta, a favourite wife, IV, 4, 8. 
vavrS, prison, IV, 1, ij. 



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INDEX OF WORDS. 



469 



vavrf, cover, V, 19, t. 

vir, to be willing, long for, love: 
urat&6, 1, 1 2, 4 ; uratfo ujdntam, 
I, 71, 1; urata£ (read ujate?), 
I, 71, 6 J ; imnasi, I, 94, 3; 
ujatft, I, 145, 4 s ; II. 4, 3 5 
vakshi, III, 1, i'; ujantam 
ujiniA, III, 5, 7; vavaj3n&&, 

III, 20, 1 ; vavajana, III, ti, 1 ; 
iwatf, loving, IV, 3, 2 ;— anu 
vash/i, I, 127, 1 ;— abhf vash/i, 

IV, ,,8. 

vaja, heifer, II, 7, 5. 

vajfn, lord, III, 23, 3. 

vfehaz-kn'ti, the word Vasha/, 1 , 3 1 , 5. 

vas, to shine: ui^Mntim, I, 71, 1 ; 
fishuA, III, 7, 10; ritamavasran, 
IV, 2, W. 

vas, to clothe : vasishva, I, 26, 1 ; 
vasaya (Sawhita : vlsayS), 
clothe, or I clothe, I, 140, i 1 ; 
jrfyam vasana£, II, 10, 1 ; jukra' 
vasanaA, arraying themselves in 
brightness, III, 8, 9; rtuat 
vasanaA, clothed in brilliancy, 

IV, 5, 15; — pari vasanaA, III, 

», 5*- 

vas, to dwell: avasayat, he has 
made depart, III, 7, 3 ;— prdti 
avasaya£, thou hast harboured, 
III, 1, 17; — sam-vasini6, dwell- 
ing together, IV, 6, 8. 

vis, dwelling (?) : vasita i%anam, 

V, 2, 6'. 

vasatf, dwelling, I, 31, 15 ; 66, 9'. 

vasana, garment, I, 95, 7. 

vasavya, wealth, II, 9, 5'. 

vasish/£a, the highest Vasu, II, 9, 1. 

vasu, excellent : vlsvibhiA dhitf-bhiA, 
III, 13, 5' ;— wealth, treasure, 
goods, 1, 27, 5,&c. ; vkvai> vasu* 
(conj. vfjva vasti), I, 128, 6*; 
vasva& i%ati, I, 143, 4 ; vdsu 
ratna, HI, 2, 11; goods, or 
Vasus, III, 19, 2';— see vasyas. 

Vasu, ep. of Agni, I, 31, 3 ; 44, 3 ; 
45, 95 60, 4; 79, 5; 127, 1'; 
11,7, 1; III, 4, i*; 15, 3 ; 18, 
2; «9, 3 5 *«.5; IV, 5, 15; V, 
3, 10; 12 ; 6,1 ; 2; 24,2; 25, 
1 : vasuA vasfinam asi, 1 , 94, 13; 
visub vasu-bhi£, I, 143, 6; — 
pi., the Vasus, a class of gods, I, 

45, 1; 58,3; M3,'; ii>3, 4 1 ; 

III, 8, 8; 19, 2'; 20, 5; IV, 
12,6; V, 3, 8. 



vasu-davan, giver of goods, II, 6, 4. 
vasu-dhiti, dispenser of goods, I, 

128, 8. 
vasu-dhiti, place of wealth, IV, 8, 2 1 . 
vasu-pati,lordof wealth, II, 1, 11 ; 6, 

4; V, 4, 1. 
vasu-yS, desire for wealth, I, 97, 2. 
vasu-yu, desirous of goods, I, 128, 

8; III, 26, 1; V, 3,6; 25,9. 
vasuvit-tami, the greatest acquirer 

of wealth, I, 45, 7. 
vasu-jravas, renowned as Vasu (or, 

as goods), V, 24, 2. 
v£stu, daybreak : vastoA ushasaii, I, 

79, «• 
vastri, illuminator: kshap&n vasta, 

, ('. I, 7')- 

vastra, clothing, I, 26, 1. 

vasman, cloth, IV, 13, 4. 

vasyas, better things, I, 31, 18; — 
bliss, I, 141, 12 ; welfare, II, 1, 
16 ; — greater wealth, II, 9, 2 ; — 
wealthier, IV, 2, 20. 

vah, to carry: valcshi, (III, 1, i 1 ); 
havyaya v6/i>ave, I, 45, 6; III, 
29, 4 ; — abhf vakshi v£gam, III, 
15, 5*; — 8. vakshati, may he 
conduct, I, i, 2 ; & vakshat, may 
he carry hither, III, 5, 9 ; a 
vakshi, bring, III, 14, 2 ; a- 
vahantt, carrying (bliss), IV, 

Mi 3*. 

vahat, stream, III, 7, 4*. 

v£hish/£a, (horses) most ready to 
drive, IV, 13, 4; 14,4. 

vAhni, driven (on a chariot) : vihni- 
bbib devafii, 1, 44, 13' ; — carrier 
(of the gods), I, 60, 1 ; 128, 4 s ; 

in, 1,1; 5, 1; 11, 4 1 ; *<>, t 1 ;— 

carrying: vahniA SssK, I, 76, 4 1 ; 

— horse : vihnayaA, 1 1 1, 6, 2* ; — 

vdhni and vShas, (I, 127, 8'). 
vihni-tama,bestcarrier(of the gods), 

IV, 1, 4- 
va, to blow : viftaA inu vati, I, 148, 

4 ; — ava vati, he blazes down, I, 

58,5. 

va: vivisasi, thou winnest, I, 74, 9 ; 
— a-vfvisati, (who) invites, 1, 1 2, 
9 ; 58, 1 ; a-vivasasi, thou in- 
vitest, I, 31, 5 2 ; — & vivasanti, 
they seek to win. IV, ir, 5. 

v3, to weave : sawjvayanti fti sam- 
vayanti, II, 3, 6. 

vaghat, worshipper, I, 31, 14; 36, 
'3*; 58, 7 J IV, 2, 13 ; invoking, 



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47Q 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



Ill, 2, i ; 3, 8; 8, io; sacri- 
fice,-, HI, 3, 4 . 

va*, word, I, 79, 10. 
v%a, strength, 1, 27, 8',*; n ; 77, 
5 ; II, 1, io 1 ; 12 ; 2, 7 ; 4, 8 ; 

6, 5; III, 10, 6; 11, 9; 19, 1; 

2*1 1 ; 25, »; 3; 37. 1; 11; 29, 

9; \%isya patiA, I, 145, 1 ;— 
deed of strength, III, 12, 9; 
— booty, I, 27, 5, &c. ;— prize, 
gain, III, 2, 3 1 ; 4, &c. ; abhf 
vakshi vsfgam, III, 15, 5* ; — 
race (striving for gain, contest 
for booty), I, 27, 7 1 ; 9 ' ; 36, 

,„ 2; I". 27,75 V, 23, 1. 

V%a, pi., the Va,gas, III, 26, 4 '. 

vSga-gasbara, with booty in its belly, 
„ V, 19, 4. 

vaja-pati, lord of booty, IV, 15, 3. 

vS(ja-prasfita, bent on the prize, I, 
. 77, 4 2 . 

va^am-bhara, winning the prize, I, 
60, 5 ; winning booty, IV, 11, 4. 

va^ay, to run a race : va,jayan-iva, 
II, 8, i 1 ; — to further strength : 
va^ayanti (ti, III, 14, 3 1 ;— to 
drive forward: va^ayate, IV, 
7,11 ;— to strive for gain : va^a- 
yantt, V, 1,3; va^a-yantstfr, V, 
4,1. 

va,ja-yu, bent on victory, V, 10, 5 ; — 
eager for the race, V, 19, 3. 

vaga-vat, bestowing strength, I, 31, 
18. 

va^a-jravas, renowned for strength, 
I",2,5. 

va^a-ssttama, highest winnerof booty, 
1,78,3; HI, 12,4; V, 13, 5; 
20, i 1 . 

vifca-sati, winning of the prize, III, 
2, 7 1 . 

va.jfn, strong, II, 2, 11 ; 111,6, 1 ;— 
the strong horse, racer, I, 66, 
4 1 , &c; II 5, i«; 111,27,3'; 
4fvai> n£ va^T, III, 29, 6. 

vagina, strength, III, 20, 2. 

vftni, sound : sapta vMb, III, 1, 6' ; 

7, i 1 . 

vifta, wind, I, 79, 1 ; 148, 4 ; IV, 7, 
10; 11 ; vSttaii) arunafA, II, 1, 
6; vStasya pathyabhiA, III, 14, 
3 ; vtftasya saigaA, III, 29, 1 i s ; 
vatasya patman, V, 5, 7 ; Vata, 
the god, IV, 3, 6. 

vata-tadita, stirred by the wind, I, 
58, 4; I4«, 7-. 



vSIta-^fita, stirred or driven by the 

wind, I, 58, 4 ; 65, 8 ; 94, 10 ; 

140, 4. 
vami, happy, I, 141, 12; — pleasant 

(wealth), IV, 5, 13. 
Vayu, the god, I, 142, I2 1 ;— vayu, 

wind, V, 1 9 , 5. 
var, water, II, 4, 6 ; usn'yanam v&&- 

iva, IV, 5, 8. 
vara, treasure, I, 128, 6; V, 16, 2. 
vara, tail, II, 4, 4. 
vara»a, stubborn, I, 140, 2. 
vaYa-vat, long-tailed, I, 27, 1. 
varya, excellent wealth, treasure, I, 

26,8; 111,8,7; V,i6, 5 «; ,7, 

5 ; desirable boon, I, 58, 3 ; 

III, 21, 2 ; V, 23, 3 ; best gifts, 
„ 1, 149, 5; HI, ii,9- 

va/, to roar, low: avjbayaA, I, 31, 
4 1 ; vaviranSA, 1, 73, 6 ; vaviiire, 

11,2,2. 

vajra, lowing, I, 95, 6. 

valias, vehicle, (I, 127, 8 1 ) ; III, 

„ 11, 7'. 
vahish/Aa, which may best bring, V, 

25, 7. 
vi, to weave. See vS. 
vi, bird: ver (ti ve\6, I, 72, 9 1 ; 96, 

6«; III, 5, 5 1 ; 6; HI, 7, 7'; 

IV, 5, 8 4 ; vayai., I, 141, 8; 
vayya-iva? II, 3, 6 1 . 

vf, away from, I, 150, 2. 

vf-adhvan, straying everywhere, I, 
, Mi,7. 

vi-ush, the break of dawn, V, 3, 8. 

vf-ush/i, dawning : vf-usb/ishu, I, 44, 
3 ; 4 ; 8 ; III, 20, 1 ; ushasai, 
vi-ushrau, at the break of dawn, 
III, 15,2; IV, 1,5; i 4 , 4 . 

vl-oman, heaven : param£ vi-omani, 
I, 143, 2 ; V, 15, 2. 

vi-gaha, diver, III, 3, 5. 

vi-^akshana, far-seeing, III, 3, 10. 

vi'-/farsha»i, dwelling among all 
tribes, I, 31, 6«; 78,1; 79,12; 
, IH,2,8; 11, 1. 

vi-tetas, wise, I, 45, 2 ; II, 10, 1 ; 
2 ; IV, 5, 2 ; 7, 3. 

\ig : vevi^-6 (ti, they are affrighted, 
„ Ii M°, 3. 

vi^-van, continuing our race : sflnuA 
tanaya* vig3-va, III, 1, 23. 

vid, to find : vevidina£, acquiring 
(or, exploring?), I, 72, 4 ; avidan 
(conj. avidan), I, 72, 6 1 . 

vid, to know : yatha vide, as it is 



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INDEX OF WORDS. 



471 



known, I, 127, 4 ; vidvan, 
knowing (with gen. and ace), 
V, 1, 11 1 ;— pin veda, I, 31, 5'; 
— vf vidv&i, distinguishing, I, 

vid, knowledge: vida, I, 31, r8. 
viditha, sacrifice, I, 31, 6 2 ; 60, I s ; 
143, 7; HI, 1, i a 5 18; 3, 3; 

4.5; 8,5; 14, »*; »7,7'; IV, 

6, 2 ; tr/'tfye vidathe, II, 4, 8 1 ; 
— viditha, sacrificial ordinances, 
III, 1, 2 s ; 26, 6*; — sacrificial 
distribution, III, 28, 4 ; vidi- 
theshu ahnam, V, 3, 6 1 ;— 
assembly, II, 1, 4 s ; 16*. 

vidathya, influential in council, (I, 
31,6 s ). 

vidu£-tara£, the greatest sage, I, 31, 

14; H, 3,7- 

vidus, possessed of knowledge, I, 71, 
10 1 . 

vidmana'-apas, active in wisdom, I, 
31, i 1 . 

vi-dyut, lightning, III, 1,14 ; V, 10, 5. 

vidyut-ratha, whose chariot is light- 
ning, III, 14, t. 

vidh, to worship : vidhema, I, 36, 
2 ; vidhaULb, I, 73, 1, &c. 

vidh, vyadh, to pierce, to shoot: 
vfdhya, IV, 4, 1. 

Vidhartri, he who keeps asunder 
all things, II, 1, 3 s . 

vf-dharman, sphere, III, 2, 3 ;— dis- 
poser, V, 17, 2 l , S . 

vip, to tremble : pri vepayanti, they 
make tremble, HI, 26, 4. 

vfp, prayer, III, 3, i 1 ; 7; vipSm 
jry6tim;>hi, III, 10, 5. 

vipaA-iit, knowing prayers, III, 3, 

4'; » 6 , 9; 27. 2- 
vipanyS: vipanyaya,in thy admirable 

way, III, 28, 5; vipanyS, won- 
derfully, IV, 1, 12. 
vipanyu, full of admiring praise, III, 

10, 9. 
vipra, priest, I, 27, 9, &c. ; sapta 

vfpri&, 111,7,7; IV, 2, i 5 >. 
vi-bhaktri, distributor : vi-bhaktS, 

I, 27, 6. 
vi-bnltf, resplendent, 111,6, 7. 
vibhJt-van, resplendent, I, 58, 9 ; 59, 

7 ; 66, 2 ; 69, 9 ; 148, 1 ; 

4! 111,3,9; IV, 1, 8; 12; V, 

1, 9; 4, 2. 
vibha-vasu, rich in splendour, I, 44, 

10; III, 2, a; V, 25, 2 ; 7 1 . 



vi-bhti, mighty, I, 31, 2; 141, 9; 

III, 6, 9; V, 4, 2; 5, 9; vi- 
bhv& (duraA), I, 188, 5' ;— far- 
extending, 1, 65, 10; — spreading, 

. IV, 7, 1. 
vi-bhr/tra, widely-spread, I, 71, 3* ; 

95, 2 ; wide-ranging, II, 10, 2. 
vf-bhrish/i, shine, I, 127, 1. 
vibhva-sdh, overpowering skilful 

men, V, io, 7. 
vi-mana, measure. Ill, 3, 4 s . 
vf-yuta? IV, 7, 7'. 
vi-i%, Prince, I, 188, 5. 
virukmat, shining, I, 127, 3. 
vf-rOpa, of different shapes or forms, 

4, 6 ; —of different colour, V, 1, 

4 1 - 
VirQpa : virOpa-va>, I, 45, 3. 
vi-rok£, the bursting forth : ushasa/> 

vi-rok£, III, 5, 2. 
vivasvat, irradiating: vivasvat (conj. 

vivasvan), I, 44, i'; vivasvati 

j&kshasa, I, 96, 2 s . 
Vivasvat, N. pr., I, 31,3; 58, i',«; 

IV, 7, 4; V, 11, 3 s . 
vivasvan, the shining forth : vivasvat 

(conj. vivasvan) ushasai>, at the 
rising of the dawn, 1,44,1'. 

vfvUi, separating, V, 8, 3'. 

vfx, house, clan, tribe : vij£-vue, I, 
27, io J , &c. ; vbam n£ vijvah, 
I, 70, 4 s ; manusM \it, I, 72, 8 ; 
riigi vijam, II, 2, 8; vuSm 
kavim vijpiitim, III, 2, 10; 
puraA-eta' vuiKm matiushinim, 
III, 1 1, 5 ; yiszb martin, IV, 2, 
3*; vuib itithi-6, V, 18, 1 ; de- 
vifsaA slrvaya vija, the gods 
with all their folk, V, 26, 9. 

vi-jfkshu, a hewer, II, 1, io 3 . 

vupati, lord of the clans, I, 12, 2; 
26, 7; 27, 12; 31, 11; 60, 2; 
128,7; II, 1,8; III,2,io; 3, 
8; 13,5 5 V, 4, 3; 6,5. 

vbpdtnt, housewife, III, 29, I 4 . 

vupa', lord of clans, (I, 70, 4 s ). 

vi'jva, every one : vijSm n£ vuvaA, 
I, 70, 4 J ; vfjvam idam, this 
whole world, I, 98, 1 ; vfjve 
dev8L&, II, 3, 4'; V, 3, 1; 26,4; 
vi'jvam ft viduA, III, 29, 15 1 . 

vijvi-apsu? I, 148, i*. 

vbva-Syu, having a full life, or, in 
whom all life dwells, I, 27, 3 ; 
67,6; >o; 73,4? i28,8;vijv5- 



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472 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



3yu& (conj. vi.rva-ayoj&), I, 68, 

5 s . 
vbvi-ayus, adv., eternally (?), (I, 

68, 5'). 
vijva-kr/'sh/i, extending over all 

dominions, I, 59, 7 ; belonging 

to all races of men, III, 26, 5. 
vuva-Aarshani, dwelling among all 

tribes, I, 27, 9*; HI. »» »5J V, 

6,3 5 >4, 6; *3, 4- 
vuvi-ganya, encompassing all people, 

111,25,3. 
vLfvata£-mukha, whose face is turned 

everywhere, I, 97, 6 ; 7. 
vuvi-tfirti, all-victorious, II, 3, 8. 
vifva-thl, everywhere, I, 141,9. 
vuva-darvata, visible to all, I, 44, 

10; 146,5; V,8, 3. 
vbva-deva, accompanied by the 

Vuve deviA, I, 142, 12. 
vi»va-devya, belonging to all gods, I, 

148, 1 ; united with all the gods, 

III, 2, 5. 

vuvidha, everywhere, I, 141, 6 ; 
always, V, 8, 4. 

vbva-dhayas, possessing every re- 
freshment, I, 73, 3 ; V, 8, 1. 

vLrva-bharas, supporter of everything, 

IV, 1, 19'. 

vijva-bhlnu, all-brilliant, IV, 1, 3. 
vLrvam-inva, all-embracing, I, 76, 2 ; 

— all-enlivener, III, 20, 3. 
vi/va-rflpa, all-shaped, I, 13, io; 

assuming every shape, III, 1,7. 
viiva-vara, rich in all boons, III, 4, 

3; giver of all treasures, III, 

17, 1 ; with all goods, V, 4, 7 ; 

rich in all treasures, V, 28, 1. 
virva-vi'd, all-knowing, III, 19, 1 ; — 

omniscient, III, 29, 7; V, 4, 3. 
vijva-vedas, all-possessor, possessor 

of all wealth, I, 12, 1 ; 36, 3; 

44, 7 ; 128, 8; 143, 4; 147, 3; 

III, 20, 4; 25, 1 ; 26, 4; IV, 

8, 1. 
vLfva-srushfi, always listening, I, 

128, 1. 
Vuva-saman, V, 22, 1. 
Vijvitmitra, pi., the Vuv|niitras, III, 

1,21; 18,4. 
vijvifyu-poshas, lasting all our life, 

,1,79.9*- 
vijvaM, day by day, III, 16, 2. 
vish, to accomplish: y'mddbx, I, 27, 

to; vevishat, busy, III, 2, 

10. 



vfshuna, manifold, IV, 6, 6; — turning 

oneself from one, V, 12, 5'. 
vishu-rtipa, in manifold shapes, V, 

15, 4- 

vishtii I, 148, i 1 . 

Vfelwu, II, 1, 3 ; IV, 3, 7 ; V, 3, 3. 

vishpaj, descrier : vishpa/, 1, 189, 6 1 . 

vfshvak, in all directions, I, 36, 16 ; 
IV, 4, 2. 

vi-sara, expanse, I, 79, i 1 . 

vi-stfr, laid out: vi-stiraA, I, 140,7'. 

vi-havi, the emulating call, III, 8, 10. 

v(-hayas, far-reaching, I, 128, 6 1 ; 
whose energy expands round- 
about, IV, 1 1, 4 1 . 

vt, to accomplish, pursue, perform 
eagerly: vivSA rapamsi (rather 
viver apawxsi), I, 69, 8*; vfahi 
(hotram), I, 76, 4 ; v€b, II, 5, 
3* ; IV, 7, 8 ; — to come or 
approach eagerly, to move : 
veshi, I, 74, 4 5 189, 7; IV, 9, 
5 ; 6 ; vtb, he repairs, I, 77, 2 ; 

IV, 7, 7 5 vetu, 1,77,4; veti.I, 
141, 6; vHaye, that they may 
eagerly come or partake, I, 74, 
6; II, 2, 6'; see also vttf; — 
vihf, accept eagerly, III, 28, 3 ; 
— vyanta£, tending to, I, 127, 
5 ; vyantu, may they eagerly 
seek, III, 8, 7 ; vihf mr//ikam, 
love mercy, IV, 1, 5 ; m& veb, 
require not, IV, 3,1 3; — & ddtyam 
vivaya, he has undertaken the 
messengership, I, 71, 4'; — upa 
vetu, may he come, V, 11, 4 ; 
— pri-vita, having conceived, 
III, 29, 3 ; — prtiti vihi, accept 
eagerly, III, 21, 5. 

vi, to envelop. See vyi. 
vf, eager: vfi>, I, 143,6. 
vi/6, strong, safe, I, 127, 3 ; 5 5 IV, 

3, 14 ;— fortress, 1,71, 2. 
vi/u-gambha, with strong jaws, III, 

»9» 13. 
vita, straight, IV, 2, 1 1. 
vftf, (sacrificial) feast : vftaye, 1, 1 3, 

2; 74,4; 142, 13; III, 13,4; 

V, 26, a. 

vitl-hotra, offerer of a feast (to the 

gods), III, 24, 2 ; V, 26, 3. 
vira, hero, a manly son, I, 73, 3, &c. 
vird-pejas, adorned with heroes, IV, 

vira-vat, with valiant heroes, I, 1 2, 
11; 96,8; 111,24,5; V,4, 11. 



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INDEX OF WORDS. 



473 



viravat-tama, high bliss of valiant 

offspring, I, i, 3. 
virudh, plant, I, 67, 9 ; 141, 4 ; gar- 

bhaii vtrudhlm, II, 1, 14. 
viryJ, mighty deed, III, 12, 9; — 

heroic power, III, 25, 2. 
vri, to choose: vr/nimahe, I, 12, 1, 

&c. ; yritntk, he demands, 1, 67, 

1; — uri»46, "choosing, III, 19, 

a ; IV, 6, 3 ; chosen, IV, 6, 4 ; 

7,8. 
vri, to hold back, hinder: varate, I, 

65, 6 ; viranta, IV, 6, 6 ; avlri, 

IV, 6, 7 ; — Spa vr/'dhi, open, II, 
a, 7 ; £pa avar (ty &vat>, he has 
opened, III, 5, 1 ; apavran, they 
have uncovered, IV, 5, 8 ; apa 
vran, they disclosed, IV, a, 16; 
— ktfmam 3-vaYat, would he 
fulfil our desire, I, 143, 6; — 
pari-vrita, hidden, I, 144, a ; 
— see Orau. 

vr/kti-barhis, havingspread the sacri- 
ficial grass, I, is, 3 1 ; III, a, 5 ; 
6 i V, a 3, 3 ; — where they spread 
sacrificial grass, V, 9, a. 

vrigina, settlement, I, 60, 3*; 73, 
a* ; II, a, 1* ; 9 ; — enclosure, I, 
128, 7 ;— masc. ? I, 189, 8*. 

vrigini, wrong, dishonest, IV, 1, 17 ; 

V, 3, "J 1*1 5- 
vr/^in5-vartani, following crooked 

ways, I, 31, 6',\ 

vrifig, to trim : vriHgi, I, 14 a, 5*; — 
to turn : vrinlkti, IV, 7, 10 ; — S. 
vr/kshi, may I draw on myself, 
(I, 37, 13 s ); — pari vr/nakti, he 
spares, III, 29, 6. 

vrr'tri, foe, I, 36, 8 1 . 

vr/tra-haiha, the killing of foes, III, 
16,1. 

vrftra-hSn, slayer of foes or of 
Vritra, I, 59, 6 1 ; 74, 3; II, 1, 
11; III, ia, 4»; ao, 4». 

vr»trahan-tama, the greatest de- 
stroyer of enemies (or of 
Vr/tra), I, 78, 4. , 

vrithS, lightly, I, 58, 4 1 ;— wildly, I, 

'4°, 5- 

vr/ddhi-jo^is, mightily brilliant, V, 
16, 3. 

vr/dh, to increase, grow, &c. : var- 
dhamlnam, increasing, I, 1, 8, 
&c. ; vavr/dhasva, be magnified, 
I, 31, 18; vr/dh£, for welfare, 
prosperity, III, 3, 8 ; 6,10; IV, 



2, 18; vriddhi, grown full of, 
V, ao, a 1 ; — vaYdhanti, they 
nourish, I, 65, 4 ; — vardhaya- 
masi, we extol, I, 36, 1 1 ; var- 
dhaya gfra&, make prosper, III, 
39, 10; — vf vavr/dhe (conj. vi- 
vavr/'dhe), I, 141, 5*. 

vridh, furtherer, III, 16, a*. 

vr/dha, helper, furtherer, (III, 16, 
a") ; IV, a, 10. 

vrj'dhasinS, growing : vr/dhasanfcu, 
in the growing (plants), II, a, 5 2 . 

vr»°dha-snu, mighty, IV, 3, 3 1 . 

vr/shan, manly, bull, I, 36, 8"; io', 
&c. ; III, 39, 9' ; r/tasya vrishne, 
V, 12, i 1 ; arushasya vr/shnaA, 
, V, 12, 2*. 

Vnshan, N. pr., I, 36, io 1 . 

vrishabhS, bull (Agni), I, 31, 5, &c. ; 

1, 141, 2»; IV, 1, ,i»; ia»; V, 

2, 12'; krishn&i v/vshabh5i>, I, 

79, **. 

vrfehay : vrisha-yase, thou rushest on 
(ace.) like a bull, I, 58, 4*;— 
vrisha-yinte, they are full of 
(sexual) desire, III, 7, 9. 

vrishff, rain, II, 5, 6; 6, 5. 

v€das, property, I, 70, 10 ; 99, 1 ; 

V,3,12. 

v£di, sacrificial altar: vedi fti asy2m, 

II, 3, 4. 

vedi-sid, sitting on the sacrificial 

bed, I, 140, 1. 
v6dya, well known : rStham-iva vecl- 

yam, II, 2, 3'; — renowned, V, 

15, 1. 
vedha£-tama, best worshipper, I, 

75, »• 
vedhas, worshipper, 1, 60, 2 ; 65, 10 ; 

69, 3; ^l, i l ; 73, 10; "I, >o, 
5; 14, 1; IV, 2, 15; 20; 3, 

3 ; 16; 6, 1 ;— helpful, I, 128, 

4 (bis). 

vepas, trembling, IV, 11, 2. 
veji, vassal, IV, 3, 13. 
veshana, officiating, V, 7, 5. 
Vauvtnari, I, 59, 1-7; 98, 1-3; 

III, 2, 1 ; 11 ; 12; 3, 1; 5 ; 
10; 11; 26, 1-3; IV, 5, 1 ; 2; 
V, 27, i»; 2. 

v6liri, draught-horse, I, 144, 3. 

vya^asvat, far-embracing, II, 3, 5. 

vy&Mshtba, most capacious, II, 10, 4. 

vyithis, track, IV, 4, 3. 

vyadh, see vidh. 

vya (vl), to envelop : ava-vyayan, re- 



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474 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



moving, IV, ij, 4; — & vit4m, 
enveloped, IV, 7, 6 1 ; — p4ri- 
vita, dressed (in offerings and 
prayers?), IV, j, 2*. 

vy6man, see vi-oman. 

vra,p, to go: vavi%a, III, 1, 6; — 
abhi-vr%an, proceeding, I, 58, 
5 s ; abhivra^at-bhiib, approach- 
ing, I, 144, 5 s - 

vngi, stable, IV, 1, 15 ; V, 6, 7. 

vrata, law, I, 31, 1 ; a ; 12 ; 65, 3 ; 
6 9> 7 5 II, 8, 3; III, 3, 9; 4, 
7 5 6,5! 7.7; IV, 13. a; vratst. 
dhruva", I, 36. 5 1 ; II, 5, 4; 
daivyani vrata, I, 70, 2;— 4nu 
vratam, according to his will, I, 
128, 1;— duty, I, 144, 1. 

vrata-psf, guardian of the law, I, 31, 
10; III, 4, 7 ; V, 2, 8 8 

vra/i: m&gy&yasa/>j£ms?im%.vriksh\, 
may I not fall as a victim to the 
curse of my better, I, 27, 13 2 ; 
vrik»3sa£, hewn, III, 8, 7. 

vrit, host, IV, 1, 16 2 . 

vrfta, host : vratam-vratam, III, 
26, 6. 

vrldh : vradhanta, they have boasted, 
„ V, 6, 7. 

vradhan-tama, most powerful, I, 
150, 3. 

vri/, finger: d4/a vriiab, I, 144, 5'. 

sums, to recite : 4/amsan, I, 67, 4 ; 
man ma /amsi, II, 4, 8 ; — to 
teach: r/t4m simsantaJb, III, 

, 4,7- 

jimsa, curse, I, 27, 1 3* ; 94, 8 ; III, 
1 8, 2 ; ja»jsat agh2t, from evil 
spell, I, 128,5; — praise, I, 141, 
6* ; 11 ; jamse nWmun, III, 16, 
4 ; ubliSt j&msa, IV, 4, 14 1 ; 
ja»jsam ay6A, IV, 6, 1 I s ; V,3,4 2 . 

/ak, to be able: /akn4vama, I, 27, 
13 ; /akema yamam, I, 73, to 1 ; 
II, 5, i 4 ; III, 27, 3 ; jakema 
sam-fdham, I, 94, 3 ; — to help 
to: /agdhi (with gen.), II, 2, 
12; III,i6,6; /agdhi svastaye, 

t V,.7,5. 

/4kti, skill : /4kti, I, 31, 18. 

/agm4, mighty, I, 143. 8. 

/a/ft-vat, full of power, III, 21, 4. 

/at4, hundred : /at2 ka. vim/atim ka., 
V, 27, 2'. 

/at4-atnian, endowed with hundred- 
fold life, I, 149, 3. 



jatadavan, giver of a hundred (buHs), 
V, 27, 6. 

/ati-dhara, with a hundred rills, III, 
26, 9. 

/at4-val/a, with a hundred branches, 
111,8, 11. 

/ata-seya, attainment of hundred- 
fold blessings, III, 18, 3. 

/at4-hima, living a hundred winters, 

II, 1, 11. 

jata-hima, pi., a hundred winters, I, 

73,9- 

jatfn, hundredfold, I, 31, 10; II, a, 
9 ; /atinibhi£, with his hundred- 
fold blessings, I, 59, 7. 

/4tru, enemy : /4trum a-dabhuA, III, 
16, 2 4 . 

/atru-y4t, being at enmity, V, 4, 5 ; 
28,3. 

/ad, to be glorious : /a/adr£, 1,141,9. 

/apb4, hoof, V, 6, 7. 

/am, to toil (esp. in performing 
worship) : /a/amani, who has 
toiled hard, I, 141,10; 142,2 ; 

III, 18, 4; IV, 2, 9; 13; 
a/amish/Aaii, III, 29, 16; 4/a- 
mish/a, he toiled, V, 2, 7. 

jam, bliss, luck : /am \6b, with luck 

and weal, 1, 189, 2 ; III, 17, 3 ; 

18,4; IV, 12, 5; /4mna£/ota, 

111,13,6; /4m kr/dhi, IV, 1,3 ; 

/4m asti, he satisfies, V, 7, 9 ; 

/4m hr/'d6, V, 11, 5. 
/amiy, to toil : jam-ay6, III, 1, 1. 
/4mi, toiling, (sacrificial) work : 

/4myi, II, 1,9'; /4myai (read 

/4mysU> ?), IV, 3, 4 1 . 
/amitr/, the sacrificial butcher, or 

slaughterer, (I, 13, 12 1 ) ; II, 3, 

10; III, 4, 10. 
/am-gay4, bringing happiness to our 

home, II, 1, 6. 
j4m-tama, most agreeable, beneficial, 

blissful, I, 76, i 1 ; 77, 2; 128, 

7 ; HI, 13, 4- 
£4mbara, I, 59, 6. 
/am-bhu, refreshing, 1, 65, 5 ; bringing 

luck, III, 17, 5. 
/ayfi, reposing, I, 31, a. 
/arani, fault (?), I, 31, 16'. 
/ar4d, autumn : tisra7> jar4da£, I, 

72,3- 
/4ru, weapon, IV, 3, 7. 
/4rdha, host, I, 71, 8"; IV, 1, la 1 ,'; 

/4rdhaya marutam, IV, 3, 8. 
/4rdhas, host : /4rdhaA mSrutam, I, 



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INDEX OF WORDS. 



475 



i*7, 6; H, i, 6; IV, 6, io; 

marutam jardha£, II, 3, 3; 

nartfm jardhai>, 11,1,5*; ^rdhaA 

divyatn, III, 19, 4; — jardhaA, 

m. or n.? IV, 1, 12',*. 
jarman, shelter, protection, 1, 58, 8, 

&c. ; jarmani syam, III, 15, 1 ; 

iiibidra jarma, III, is, 5 1 . 
jarma-sad, sitting under shelter, I, 

, 73, 3- 

■rarya, arrow, I, 148, 4. 

jivas, strength, might, power : javasa 
(conj. j&vasai/), I, 27, 2 1 , &c; 
j&vasaA jushmi'»a£ pStiA, 1, 145, 
1 ; javasaA pate, V, 6, 9. 

j&vish/Aa, most powerful, I, 77, 4 ; 
mightiest, I, 127, 11. 

jajvat : jajvata tana, constantly, I, 
26, 6 1 ; /Irvattfr, constant, I, 27, 
7 ; £anaya jajvate, all people, I, 
36, 19; ji/vataA, many, 1,72, 1'. 

j&rvat-tamam, for ever, III, 1, 23. 

jasti, hymn, praise, IV, 3, 3; 15. 

ja, to sharpen, further: ji/'hi, III, 
16, 3 1 ; »4, 5 1 ; •'"'•'•te, V, 2, 9; 
9, 5 ;— ati jfjite, I, 36, 16 ;— ni- 
jfshat, he stirs up, IV, 2, 7'. 

jakl, powerful, V, 15, 2'. 

Sata-vaneya, N. pr., I, 59, 7. 

jas, to teach, instruct : juasuA, III, 
1, 2; IV, 2, 12; — anu-jishfa, 
instructed, V, 2, 8 ; — pri jassi, 
thou inst rudest, I, 31, 14 ; pra- 
jasat, commanding, I, 95, 3. 

s3s, command, 1, 68, 9. 

jasana, command, III, 7, 5. 

jasani, teacher, I, 31, 11. 

jasus, command, instruction, I, 60, 

2; 73, 1. 

jfcya, governable, I, 189, 7*. 

jikvan,plur., locks of flames, 1, 141,8'. 

jiksh, to help one to, to favour with 
a thing (gen.) : jfksha, I, 27, 
5; III, 19, 3 ; yih te jlkshlt, 
who does service to thee, 1, 
68, 6 1 . 

jikshu, rich in favours: jiksh6/> 
(conj. .tikslio), III, 19, 3 1 . 

jiti-pr/sh/M, white-backed, III, 7, i 1 . 

jfmi-vat, powerful (?), I, 141, 13'. 

jirina? II, 10, 3'. 

jiva, kind, bounteous, gracious, 
blessed: I, 31, 1 ; 79, 2; 143, 
8; III, 1, 9; »9I IV, 10, 8; 
n, 6; V, 24, 1. 

suu, the young one : pasu£ na tuvz, 



like a pregnant cow, (I, 65, to 1 ) ; 

young calf, 1, 96, 5 1 ; the young 

child "(Agni), I, 140, 3; 145, 3; 

V, 9, 3 ; a foal, III, 1, 4 ; div46 

jfjum, (Soma) the child of 

heaven, IV, 15, 6*. 
jftu-mati, the mother of the young 

child, I, 140, io 1 . 
sfjvan (?), young : paj(L6 n£ jirvsL, I, 

. , 6s > IO '- 
jira, sharp, III, 9, 8. 

jukrf, bright, 1, 12, 12, &c; — bright- 
ness: jukrg vasanaA, III, 8, 9. 

jukrS-varna, whose colour is bright, 
I, 140, 1 ; 143, 7. 

jukra-jo&s, brightly shining, II, 2, 3. 

jui, to shine forth, flame up : j64asva, 

1, 36, 9 ; jujukvan, flaming, I, 
69, 1 ; ;u£ayanta£, the re- 
splendent ones, 1, 147, 1 ; juju- 
icxnk, I, 149, 4 ; Am nai soka, 
III, 13, 6; isoiat, III, 29, 14; 
ju&idhyai,IV, 2, i'; — to kindle: 
juAintaJb agnfm, IV, 2, 17 ; — 
apa na* jdjuiat agham, driving 
away evil with thy light, I, 97, 
1-8 ; — jiuugdhf & rayfm, shine 
upon us with wealth, I, 97, 1 ; — 
vf j6suJ&nab, flaming. III, 15, 1. 

idk, flash : juM-juii, flash by flash, 
III, 4, 1. 

siii, brilliant, bright, I, 31, 17, &c. ; 
V, 7, 8 1 ; AMm stiiayaib, I, 72, 
3 1 ; jdii ft (for juiim'ft?), IV, 

2, 16'. 

jhii-gmman, whose birth is bright, 

t I, Hi, 7- 

juJi-^-ihva, pure-tongued, II, 9, 1. 
j<Ui-dant, with brilliant teeth, V, 7,7. 
j6ii-pejas, brightly adorned, 1, 144, 1. 
jujti-prat'ika, whose face is bright, I, 

143,6. 
juii-bhrajas, brightly resplendent, I, 

, 79, 1. 
jWi-varna, brilliant-coloured, V, 2,3. 
Stmab-skpa, V, 2, 7. 
junam, prosperously, IV, 3, 1 1. 
jubh,to adorn, beautify: sumbhanti, 

V, 10, 4 1 ; 22,4. 
jubh, a triumphal procession, I, 127, 

6; 111,26,4*. 
jubham-ya', going in triumph, IV, 

3, 6«- 

jubliri, beautiful, III, 26, 2. 
jurudh, gift, I, 72, 7". 
.rush, see jvas. 



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476 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



jushka, dry (wood), I, 68, 3. 
jushma, roaring, IV, 10, 4 ; — power, 

V. 10, 4; 16, 3. 
jushmfn, mighty, powerful, I, 145, 

1: III, 16, 3; V, 10,4. 
jushmin-tama, strongest, I, 127, 9. 
jfira, mighty, I, 70, 11 ; — hero, IV, 

3, 15. 
jura-sati, strife of heroes : j(ira-sara, 

I,3i,6. 
jflshi, song of praise, III, 7, 6. 
jr/nga, horn, III, 8, 10; V, 2, 9. 
jr/ftgfn, horned animal, III, 8, 10. 
jr/dh : jardha, show thy prowess, V, 

28, 3. 
seva, a kind friend, I, 58, 6 ; 69, 4 ; 

73, 2; — friendship, III, 7, 5. 
^-vridha, joy-furthering, III, 16, 2. 
jesha, offspring, V, 12, 6. 
;6ka, flame, IV, 6, 5. 
soiib-kerd, whose hair is flame, I, 

45, 6; 127, 2; III, 14, 1 ; 17, 

1 ! »7, 4 ; V, 8, 2. 
joiishtba., brightest, V, 24, 4. 
jo>tishmat, flaming, II, 4, 7. 
.roll's, splendour, flame, 1, 12, 12, &c. 
stut, to drip down : jiotanti, III, 1, 

„ 8; 21,2; 455. 
jyava, dark: jyaVim (conj. jyavii?), 

I, 71, i'; jyavg, the two tawny 

horses, II, to, 2. 
jyetS, reddish, I, 71, 4. 
jyen4, hawk, IV, 6, 10. 
jyent, the reddish whiteone, 1, 1 40, 9'. 
jrath, to let loose : jurathat, I, 128, 

6 ; — v( j'unthab, release from, 

IV, ,2,4. 
jram : jajramanaii, toiling, IV, 12, 2. 
jramayu, wearying oneself, I, 72, 2. 
jravayat-pati, who brings renown to 

his lord, V, 25, 5'. 
jravas, glory, renown, I, 31, 7, &c. ; 

/ravase, I, 73, 5*. 
jravasya, glorious, II, 10, 1. 
jravasyit, aspiring to renown, I, 

128, 1. 
jravasya', desire of glory, I, 128, 6; 

M9, 5- 

/ravasyu, glorious, V, 9, 2. 

jravSyya, glorious, celebrated, I, 27, 
8; 31,5; V, 20, 1. 

jra, seem. 

jri, to rest, abide : asi jrit&Jb, I, 75, 
3 ; III, 9, 3 ; /wriyani, dwelling 
here and there, V, 1 1, 6 ; — a/ret, 
he has spread forth, established, 



III, 14, 1; 19, 2; — to send: 
flrdhvim ajret, he has sent up- 
wards, IV, 6,2; 13,2; 14, 2 ; 
ajret, he has sent, V, 1, 12 ; 28, 
1 ; — 6t srayasva, rise up, III, 8, 
2 ; — with vi, to open (intr.) : vf 
j ray ant 3m, 1, 1 3, 6 ; 142,6; II, 
3, 5 ; vi jrayadhvam, V, 5, 5. 

jri, to cook : jri»4n, 1, 68, i 1 ; /ijrft£, 
he has ripened, I, 149, 2; jri- 
nishe, thou warmest, V, 6, 9. 

sr\, splendour, beauty, glory, I, 72, 
io 1 , &c. ; /rfyam vasana£, II, 
10,1; jriy6,gloriously,IV,5,i5. 

jru, to hear : jrudhi, I, 26, 5, &c. ; 
jruvat (conj. sruvat), it melts 
away, I, 127, 3* ; jr6shamanai>, 
hearing, III, 8, 10 ; — vi irin- 
vire, they are renowned, IV, 

8, 6. 

jrtiti, glory, II, 2, 7. 

jrut-karna, with attentive ears, 1, 44, 

, 13; 45,7- 

jrutya, glorious, I, 36, 12. 

■rrush/i, obedience, I, 67, i* ; 111,9, 
8 ; — hearing, readiness to hear, 
1,69, 7; II, 3,9; 9,4- 

/rush/i-vin, ready to listen, hearing, 
I, 45, 2 ; III, 27, 2 ;— obedient, 

I, 127, 9- 
jreni-jas, in rows, III, 8, 9. 
jvas, to hiss : jvasiti ap-su, I, 65, 9 ; 

— abhi-svas&n, panting, I, 140, 

5 ;— Irushibi&b, aspiring after, I, 

147, 1; IV, 2, 14; 16. 
jvisivat, mightily breathing, I, 140, 

10. 
jvatri, power (?), I, 31, 4*. 
jvanti? I, 145, 4*. 
jvetd, white (horse?), I, 66,6';- 

jvetSm gzgnax&m, who had been 

born white (Agni), III, 1, 4. 
A'vaitreyi, V, 19, 3'. 

samyit-vira, with a succession of 

valiant men, II, 4, 8. 
samvatsari, year: samvatsarfi, after 

a year, I, 140, a*. 
s&kman, company: sakman (Ioc.), I, 

31, 6\ 
sa-kshita, dwelling together, 1, 140, 3. 
sikhi, friend, I, 31. 1; 75, 4 ; III, 

9, i'; sikha sakhye, I, 26, 3; 
III, 18, 1; sikhl 'sikhyu6 ni- 
mi'shi rdkshaminife, I, 72, 5' ; 
guhisikhi-bhiA, III, 1,9 s . 



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INDEX OF WORDS. 



477 



sakhi-yAt, wishing to be a friend, I, 
128, 1. 

sakhya, friendship, I, 26, 5 ; 71, 10; 
94,1-14; 111,9,3 5 IV, 10,8. 

sagh, to sustain : asaghno£, I, 31, 3. 

sai (saji), to be united with, ac- 
company: siiasva na£, stay with 
us, I, 1, 9; satese, II, 1, 3; 
sajiire, II, 1, 13;— to attend, 
worship: saiante, I, 59, 6 ; sa- 
/fanta, 1, 73, 4 ; saiantam, I, 9ft, 
3 ; — to follow : saiante, 1, 60, 
2 ; sisakshi, I, 73, 8;— to hold, 
cling, adhere: sisakti, I, 66, 2; 
sa£ate (Icritva), I, 145, 2 ; sa- 
iante, III, 13, 2 ; sajiata, III, 
16, 2 ; — saifanta, they have at- 
tained, V, 17, 5 1 ; — anu saiate 
vartanfa, she follows her ways, 
I, 140, 9*;— apa satire, they 
turn away to encounter, V, 20, 
a ; — abhi saiante, go towards, I, 
71, 7 1 ; — a sfUyam, whom men 
should attach to themselves, I, 
140, 3. 

sa-/*anas, graciously united, 1, 1 27, 1 1. 

sa>a, together with : sail san, being 
attached, I, 71, 4 ; — III, 13, 2 ; 

IV - 5» "»• „ , 

sa-^atyl, relationship, II, 1, 5*. 

sa-£i'tvan : sa-j-i'tvlnl, united con- 
querors, III, 12, 4. 

sa-£ush, united with : sa-gdb, I, 44, 
2; 14. 

sa-£6sha, unanimous, concordant, I, 
65, 2 ; 72, 6. 

sa-^oshas, in concord with, unani- 
mous, III, 4, 8 ; 8, 8; 20, 1 ; 

22, 4! IV, 5.1; v »4. 4; 21,3; 

23. 3- 

sawr^nita-rupa, of familiar form, I, 

69, 9- 

sittri, sitting down, III, 17, 5. 
sit-pat i, lord of beings, II, 1, 4; — 

a good lord, V, 25, 6 ; 27, 1. 
satya, true, truthful, I, 1, 5 ; 73, 2 ; 

79, 1 5 98, 3 ; kr/avdn satySt, I, 

70, 8 ; satyam, true (fulfilment), 
IV, 1, 18;— satyam, verily, I, 1, 
6 ; — efficacious, I, 67, 5 ; — real, 
IV, 1, 10. 

satya-girvlhas, truly carried by pray- 
ers as by a vehicle, I, 127, 8 1 . 

satyi-tara, highly truthful, I, 76, 5 ; 
III,4,io. 

satyi-titi, truth, IV, 4, 14. 



satyi-dharman, whose ordinances 

are true, I, 12, 7. 
satya-manman, truthful, I, 73, 2. 
satya-ya^-, truly sacrificing, IV, 3, r. 
satya-vai, truth-speaking, III, 26,9. 
satyi-jushma, truly strong, I, 59, 4 ; 

IV, n, 4. 
satrap altogether, 1, 71,9; — together: 

satrft inbranii, I, 72, 1. 
satra-saha, always conquering, I, 

79,7- 

sitvan, warrior, 1, 140, 9 ; IV, 13, 2 s . 

sad, to sit : upa sidan, they rever- 
entially approached, I, 72, 5; — 
pari-sadantai>, besieging, IV, 2, 

17*. 

sidana, (priestly) seat, I, 31, 17; — 
seat, abode, I, 95, 8 ; 96, 7. 

sa-drij, of like appearance, I, 94, 7. 

sadman, seat, I, 67, 10; the (sacri- 
ficial) seat, I, 73, 1 ; IV, 1, 8 ; 
9, 3; V, 23, 3. 

sady££-artha, immediately success- 
ful, I, 60, 1. 

sadyas, instantly, I. 27, 6, &c. ; 
quickly, I, 71,9. 

sadhani-tva, companionship, IV, 1, 9. 

sa-dhanf, companion : sa-dhanyai, 
IV, 4, 14. 

sadlia-ma'd, rejoicing, V, 20, 4. 

sadha-miKdya, sharing in rejoicings, 

IV, 3, 4- 
sadh£-stuti, song of praise, V, 18, 5'. 
sadha-stha, abode, II, 9, 3 ; III, 6, 

4; 7» 4; ", 8; 23, 1 ; 25, 5; 

apiKm sadhi-sthe, I, 149, 4; II, 
4, 2 ; trf sadha-stha, III, 20, 2. 

sadhryadi, together, IV, 4, 12. 

san, to win : sanema, I, 73, 5 ; 189, 
8 ; sanishyan, sanishyanta£, de- 
sirous of winning, III, 2, 3'; 
4; 13, 2 ; sanishamahe, III, 11, 
9 ; sasa-vtra, having obtained, 
III,22,i; sasa-viK/wsaA, success- 
ful, IV, 8, 6; sanishanta, they 
were successful, V, 12, 4 ; — 
see also si. 

sana, old, I, (27, 13'); 95, 10; III, 
1, 6 ; 20. 

sanakSt, from of old, III, 29, 14. 

sanatl, from of old, II, 3, 6 ; III, 

3, i- 
sanaya, ancient, III, 20, 4. 
sanara, united with strong men, I, 

96, 8'. 
sana-jruta, old-renowned, III, 1 1, 4. 



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478 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



sana-g-fi, inciting from old, 1, 141, 5'. 

sanf, efficient, I, 27, 4 ; — sanf, gain : 
sanaye, I, 31, 8 ; sanfm go h, the 
acquiring of the cow, III, 1, 
23 ; sanim yat6, V, 27, 4. 

sanitW, a gainer, winner: sdnita, I, 
17,9 5 36,J3; sanituA.V, 12, 3. 

sa-ni/a, dwelling in the same nest, 
I, 69, 6; 71, 1. 

sanutar, far, V, 2, 4. 

sanemi, entirely, IV, 10, 7. 

santya (voc.), good, I, 36, 2 ; 45, 5 ; 

9; 111,21, 3. 

sap, to serve, worship : rita sapantaii, 
I, 67, 8 ; 68, 4 ; sapema, IV, 4, 
9; sapami, V, 12, 2; sipati 
(Pada : sa£ pati), V, 12, 6'; — 
to attach oneself: sapanta, V, 

sapatni, the two wives, III, 1, 10* ; 

6, 4. 
sapary, to worship, do service: 

saparyati, I, 12, 8; saparySmi 

prayasa, I, 58, 7 s ; saparyan, I, 

72, 3 a ; saparyataA, I, 144, 4; 

saparyema saparyavaA, II, 6, 3 ; 

saparyata, III, 9, 8 ; V, 14, 5 ; 

25, 4; asaparyan, III, 9, 9; 

saparyantaA, V, 2j, 3; — g sa- 

paryan, IV, 12, 2 ; — vi saparyan, 

I, 70, 10. 
saparyu, devoted servant, II, 6, 3. 
sapti-gihva, seven-tongued, 111,6,2*. 
sapti-dhatu, consisting of seven 

elements, IV, 5. 6*. 
saptin, seven : sapta g uhvi.li, I, 58, 

7;yahvi2>, I, 71, 7; 72,8'; III, 

1, 4 1 ; rajmayaA, II, 5, 2 1 ; vSntb, 

III, 1, 6"; 7, i 1 ; hotrfcii, III, 
4, 5*; pr/kshffeaA, III, 4, 7 1 ; 
vi'praA, III, 7, 7; IV, 2, 15'; 
hotn'-bhiA, III, 10, 4 1 ; priyasaA, ' 

IV, 1, 12; dhflima-bhiA, IV, 7, 
S l ; ritnl, V, 1, 5 ;— tn'A sapti, 
I, 72, 6 l ; IV, 1, i6\ 

sapti-rajmi, having seven rays (or 
reins), I, 146, i 1 . 

saptS-jiva : sapta-jivasu, read : sapti 
jivtfsu, I, 141, a 3 . 

sap'.aVirshan, seven-headed,! II, 5, 5'. 

sapti-hotr/, the god of the seven 
Hotrif, III, (10, 4 1 ); 29, 14. 

sapti, racer: atyam na saptim, III, 
22, i 1 . 

sapr£tha£-tama, most widely ex- 
tended, I, 45, 7*; most widely- 



sounding, I, 75, i 1 ; most wide- 
reaching, I, 94, 13. 

sa-prithas, widely extended : jaYma 
sa-pritha£, a big shelter, 1, 142, 
5;— V, 13, 4- 

sabai>-dugha, juice-yielding, 1 1 1, 6, 4*. 

sibandhu, bound in kinship, III, t, 
10. 

sa-bifdh, pressing: sa-ba'dhaii %. ka- 
kruA, 111,27,6'. 

sa-ba'dhas, urgent, V, 10, 6. 

sabhS-vat, with (brilliant) assemblies, 
IV, 2, 5. 

sim, together : yajasaA sam h( pflr- 
vtt, many glorious ones have 
come together, III, 1, 11*. 

sama, every, V, 24, 3. 

samid, contest : tveshiA samit-su, I, 
66, 6 ; 70, 11. 

sd-manas, one-minded, V, 3, 2. 

samana', alike, IV, 5, 7. 

s&m-antam, in the neighbourhood 
of, V, 1, 11. 

sa-manyu, concordant, IV, 1, 1. 

samaya, through the midst, I, 73, 6. 

sa-marya, assembly, III, 8, 5 ; — con- 
test, V, 3, 6. 

samana, companion, I, 69, 8' ; — 
common, I, 127, 8, &c. ; sama- 
n£m aYtham, I, 144, 3*. 

sam-iti, meeting, I, 95, 8. 

sam-ithd, battle, I, 73, 5 ; — assembly, 
III, 1, 12. 

sam-fdh, log of wood, fuel, 1, 95, 1 1 : 
II, 6,i ; III, 1, 2; 10, 3; IV, 
4, IS! V, 1, 1 ; 4, 4; 6, 4 s ; 
tisriA sam-i'dhai", III, 2, 9; 
samft-samit, log by log, III, 

4, ;'• 

samudra, ocean, I, 71, 7 ; 95, 3'. 
s4m-/vti, battle, 1 , 3 1 , 6 : — onslaught, 

I, 127, 3*; V, 7, 2'. 
sim-okas, dwelling together, 1, 144, 4. 
sam-gamana, assembler, I, 96, 6. 
sam-tarutra, victorious, III, 1, 19. 
sam-dm, the shine (of the sun), I, 

66, 1 ;— appearance, aspect, II, 

1, 12; III, 5, 2; IV, 1, 6; 

6, 6. 
sam-dr/sh/i, aspect, 1, 144, 7 ; II, 4, 

4; IV, 10, 5. 
sam-bhu^a, enjoyment, (II, 1, 4'). 
sam-mi/la, united, III, 26, 4*. 
samyaS*, turned towards each other: 

sanviW fti sam-Uf, I, 69, 1 ; 96, 

5 2 ; 11,3,6; III.i, 7 ';-united: 



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INDEX OF WORDS. 



479 



sam-Ufa, III, 29, 13; sam- 

ya»iam, V, 7, 1. 
sam-y&t: ksh£pa6 sam-y£ta£, on 

continuous nights, II, 2, 2 s . 
sam-ra^, the Sovereign, I, 188, 5; 

III, 10, 1. 
sam-r%at, king: sam-r%antam, I, 

27, 1. 
sam-vat, space, V, 15, 3. 
sam-sdd, companionship, I, 94, 1 ; — 

assembly, IV, 1, 8. 
sam-sti'r, laid together: sam-sti'raA 

vi-stfrai>, I, 140, 7 1 . 
sam-sthi, abode, V, 3, 8. 
sam-h&t, a compact mass, III, 1, 7. 
sayavan, accompanying, I, 44, 13. 
s£-yoni, having the same origin, III, 

I, 6. 

sarany, to speed: saranyan, III, 1, to. 

sa-r£tham, on one chariot with, I, 

71, 6 s ; III, 4, 11; 6, 9; V, 

II, 2. 
Sarima, I, 72, 8. 

Sarasvatt, N. of a goddess, I, 13. 9'; 

142,9; 188, 8; II,i, ii l ,»; 3, 

8; III, 4, 8; V, 5, 8;-N. of 

a river, III, 23, 4. 
saYiman, swift course, III, 29, 1 1 2 . 
s&rga, rush : vfrasya sarga£, III, 29, 

n*; — the letting loose, IV, 3,12. 
saYga-pratakta, urged forward, I, 

65, 6. 
sarpi£-asuti, drinking butter, II, 7, 

6; V, 7, 9; ai, 2. 
sarpi's, butter, I, 127, 1 ; V, 6, 9. 
sarvi-tati, health and wealth, I, 94, 

15. 
sivana, libation, III, 1, 20; tr/ti'ye 

savane, III, 28, 5 ; ma'dhyandine 

savane, III, 28, 4. 
sd-vayas, of the same age, I, 144, 

3 1 ; 4- 
Savitr/, I, 36, 13; 44,8; 73,2; 95, 

7 l ; H,i,7; 111,20,5; IV, 6, 

2; 13, 2; 14, 2. 
saj/t, see sa>. 

saiiit, hindrance, III, 9, 4 1 . 
sasi, herbs, III, 5, 6*; IV, 5, 7 1 ; 

7,7*; V, 21,4 s . 
sasahf, victorious, III, 16, 4. 
sasni, victorious, III, 15, 5. 
sa-sriit, flawing, I, 141, 1. 
sah, to overcome, be victorious : 

sahvan, III, 11, 6 ; sahasva, III, 

24, 1 ; asahanta, III, 29, 9 ; 

sasaTia, V, 25, 6 ; — abhi sasdhat, 



it may prevail, V, 23, 1 ;— nii>- 
s£hamanai>, conquering, I, 127, 
3 ;— pra-sikshat, victorious, IV, 
12, 1. 

sahaA-k/v'ta, produced by strength, 
1,45, 9 5 HI, 27, 10; V, 8, 1. 

sahaA-^a, strength-begotten, I, 58, 1. 

saha£-vridh, augmenter of strength, 
I, 36, 2; III, 10,9. 

sahan-tama, mightiest, I, 127, 9. 

sahantya, conqueror, I, 27, 8. 

sihamana, victorious, IV, 6, 10. 

s&has, strength: sanasa£ yaho fti, 
I, 26, io 1 ; 74, 5 1 ; 79, 4 ; sflno 
(ti s^hasaA, I, 58, 8; 127, 1 ; 
143, t ; III,i,8; 11,4; 24,3; 
25,5; 28, 3; 5; IV, 2, 2; 11, 
6 ;„ V, 3, 9 ; 4, 8 ; sahasa ,jaya- 
mana£, I, 96, i 1 ; sdhasaA yilab 
gini, I, 141, 1 ; sahasa£ yuvan, 
O young (son) of strength, I, 
141, 10; sdhasaA putr£6, II, 7, 
6; III, 14, 1 ; 4; 6; 16, 5 ; 
»8, 4: V, 3, 1; 6; 4, 6; 11, 
6 ; — sAhaA, (Agni our) strength, 

I, 36, 18; — sihasl, strongly, I, 
98, 2 ;— might, power, 1, 1 27, 9 ; 
10 ; V, 1, 8 ; devasya sahasa, V, 
3, 10; abhi'-mati sihaA dadh£, 
V, 23, 4 1 ; — violence, V, 12, 2. 

sahasani, mighty, strong, I, 189, 8 ; 

II, 10, 6 ; V, 25, 9. 

sahasa- vat, mighty, strong, 1, 189, 5 ; 

III, 1, 32; V, 20, 4. 
sahasin, strong, IV, 11, 1. 
sahasya, strong, I, 147, 5 ; II, 2, 1 1 ; 

V, 22, 4. 
sahasra, thousand: sahasrani jatsJ 
dlia, II, 1, 8 ; sahasrat yu~p.it, 
V, 2, 7 ; diji-bhib sahasraiA, V, 

27, 1*. 

sahasra-akshi, thousand-eyed, I, 79, 
12. 

sahasra-^it, conqueror of thousand- 
fold wealth, I, 188, 1 ; V, 26, 6. 

sahasram-bharl, bringing thousand- 
fold gain, II, 9, 1. 

sahasra-retas, with thousandfold 
sperm, IV, 5, 3. 

sahasra-vat, thousandfold, III, 13, 7. 

sahasra-vaba, with a thousand 
branches, III, 8, 11. 

sabasra-vira, blessing with a thousand 
men, I, 188, 4 1 . 

sahlsra-.rr/nga, witha thousand horns, 
V, ., 8. 



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48o 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



sahasra-sa', a winner of thousandfold 
bliss, I, 188, 3. 

sahasra-sa'tama, the greatest winner 
of thousandfold wealth, III, 
1 3, 6. 

sabasnn, thousandfold, I, 31, 10; 
188, 2; 11,3,7- 

sShasvat, mighty, strong, I, 97, 5 ; 
127, 10; 189,4; 111,14,3; 4; 
V, 7, 1 ; 9, 7 ; 23, 2. 

sShiyas, mightier, I, 71, 4. 

sahflti, joint invocation, I, 45, 10. 

sahvat, strong, I, 58, 5. 

sa : si'sasantai>, wishing to acquire, 
I, 146, 4. 

s3 : anava-syantai artham, never 
losing their object, IV, 13, 3; — 
vi syatu, may he pour forth, I, 
142, 10 ; pra-£&n vi syatu, may 
he deliver a son, II, 3, 9 ; vi 
syasva, send forth, III, 4, 9 ; 
vi sahi, disclose, IV, 11, 2. 

siti, acquirement (of wealth), suc- 
cess, I, 36, 17 ; 143, 6 ; V, 5, 

4 ; 9i 7- 

stttu, womb, mother (?), IV, 6, 7'. 

sadh, to prosper (intr.) : sadhati, I, 
94,2; — sifdhatematwfr, the prayer 
goes straight to him, 1, 141, i*; 
stfdhan, straightway, III, 1, 
17 ; — to prosper (tr.), further: 
sadhdya, I, 94, 3 ; pra-taram 
sadhaya, I, 94, 4 ; sadhan, I, 
96, i ; — to accomplish, perform: 
sadhayantl dhi'yam, II, 3, 8; 
sSdhan, III, 1, 18 ; 5, 3. 

sadhat-ish/i, accomplishing the obla- 
tions, III, 2, 5 ; 3, 6. 

sSdhana, performer : ya^nlsya (vidd- 

thasya) sSdhanam, 1,44, 1 1 ; III, 

. 3, 3 ; 27, a ; 8 ;— giver, V, 20, 3. 

sadhishfAa, best, I, 58, 1. 

sadhu, good, 1,67, 2 ; — going straight 
(to his aim), 1, 70, 1 1 ; straight- 
forward, I, 77, 3 ; III, 18, 1;— 
real, IV, 10, 2 ; efficacious, V, 

>,7- 
sadhu-ya', straightway, V, 11, 4. 
sanasf, successful, winning (booty), 

I, 75. 2; IV, 15,6. 
sanu, ridge, 1, 1 28, 3 ; diva7> nd sanu, 

I, 58, 2 ; £dhi sanushu trishu, 

II, 3, 7 ;— surface, I, 146, 2 ;— 
top, III, 5, 3. 

saman, song : r/tasya saman, I, 147, 
i 4 ; — the Saman, IV, 5, 3. 



sa'm-ra.g-ya, sovereignty, I, 141, 13. 
sarathi, charioteer (Agni), 1, 144, 3*. 
sarasvati, beings belonging to Saras- 

vatf, III, 4, 8. 
Saha-devyd, Sahadeva's son, IV, 1 5, 

7-10. 
siwha, lion, I, 95, 5 ; III, 9, 4; 11 ; 

26. 5 ; V, 15, 3. 
sit, wing (of an army): sfiau, I, 

95.7*. 
si(n)i : nf-siktam, poured down, I, 

71, 8 ; — pari-sikta, poured, IV, 
1, 19. 

sita, bound : padi sitSm, IV, 1 a, 6. 

sidh, to scare away : sedhati, I, 79, 
12. 

sidhra, successful, 1, 142, 8 ; effective, 
V, 13,*. 

sfndhu, river, stream, I, 27, 6 ; 72, 
»o ; 73. 6; 97, 8; 99, 1 ; 143, 
3 1 M*,, 4*5 HI, 5, 4; V, 4, 9; 
gzmi/b sindhtinam, I, 65, 7 ; pi., 
the Rivers, I, 140, 13; — the 
river Sindhu, I, 44, 1 2 1 ; 94, 16 ; 
95, ««; 98, 3; V, 11, 5 ; sin- 
dhuA nS kshodai,, I, 65, 6 1 ; 10. 

sima, self, 1,95, 7 s ; 145, 2". 

siv, see syfl. 

su, to bear. See sfi. 

su, to press Soma: sunvatlfr, I, 94, 
8 ; sunavSma, 1,99, 1 ; sunvatfi, 

1, 141, 10; V, 26, 5; s6mam 
sutam, III, 22, 1. 

su-agnf, possessed of a good Agni 
(lire) : su-agnaya£, I, 26, 7 ; 8 
(bis). 

su-a&i, fleet, IV, 6,9. 

su-adhvari, best performer of wor- 
ship, I, 44, 8; 127,1; II, 2,8; 
111,2,8; 9,8; V, 9, 3; 28,5; 
— receiving good sacrifices, I, 
45, i 1 ; — ya^-ne su-adhvar£, at 
' the decorous service of the 
sacrifice, I, 142, 5 ; — splendid 
worship, III, 6, 6; 29, 12 ; V, 
17, 1. 

su-anlka, with beautiful face, II, r, 
8 ; IV, 6, 6. 

su-apatyd, with good offspring, I, 

72, 9»; 11,2,12; 4, 8; 9,5;— 
blessed with offspring, III, 3,7 ; 
consisting in offspring, III, 16, 
1 ; — good offspring, III, 19, 3. 

su-apas, good worker, IV, 2, 19 ; V, 

2, 11. 

su-apasySC, great skill, III, 3, 11. 



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INDEX OF WORDS. 



48l 



su-apika, most skilful, IV, 3, a*. 

su-antfs, endowed with beautiful 
light, II, 3, a. 

su-artha, pursuing a good aim, I, 95, 
1 ; — well-employed, 1, 141, 11. 

su-avas, giving good help, V, 8, a. 

su-inra, with good horses, IV, a, 
4 ; — rich in horses, IV, 4, 8 ; 10. 

su-ifvya, abundance in horses, II, 
1,5; III, a6, 3. 

su-adhT, of a good mind, kind, well- 
wisbing, I, 67, a; 70, 4 «; 71, 
8 ; — with good intentions, 1, 73, 
8 J IV, 3, 4 ; — full of pious 
thoughts, III, 8, 4 ; — longing, 
V, 14, 6. 

su-abhu, truly helpful: riye' su- 
Sbhuram, V, 6, 3*. 

su-tfca, whose mouth is beautiful, IV, 
6,8. 

su-Shuta, best receiver of offerings, 
I, 44, 4 ; 6 ; III, a7, 5. 

su-ukt£, well-spoken (prayer), I, 36, 
1 5 7o, 5 ; II, 6, a. 

su-upayanS, easy of access, I, 1, 9. 

su-karman, well performing the acts 
(of worship), IV, a, 17. 

su-k?rtf, beautiful praise, I, 60, 3 ; — 
glory, V, 10, 4. 

su-krit, well-doing : su-knte sukrit- 
taraA, I, 31, 4; righteous, I, 
j 28, 6; who has done good 
deeds, 1, 147, 3*; virtuous, well- 
doer, IV, 13, 1 ; V, 4, 8; 11. 

su-kriti, good works, III, 29, 8. 

su-ketu, bright, III, 7, 10. 

su-krdtu, highly wise, I, ia, 1 ; 128, 
4; III, 1, aa ; IV, 4, n; V, 
n, a; ao, 4; 35, 9;— full of 
good-will, I, 141, 11; 144, 7; 

IH, 3, 7- 
sukratu-yg, high wisdom, I, 31, 3. 
su-kshitf, with fine dwellings, V, 6, 8. 
su-kshetriya', desire for rich fields, 

I, 97, a. 
su-khS, easy-going, V, 5, 3. 
sukhd-tama, easy-moving : sukhi- 

tame (r£the), I, 13, 4. 
su-gS, a good path, I, 94, 9 ; — going 

well, 1,94, »• 
sugltu-yS, desire for a free path, I, 

97, a- 

su-girhapatyi, with a good house- 
hold. V, 4, a 1 . 

su-fuidrft, resplendent, I, 74, 6 ; IV, 
a, 19 5 v , 6, 5 ; 9- 

[46] I 



su-tetana, through thy kindness, I, 

79,9*; benignantly, I, 127, 11. 

sh-gaU, well born, I, 65, 4 ; 72, 3 1 ; 

II, 1, 15; 2, 11; 6, 2; III,i5, 
a; 23, 3 5 V, 6, 3; 21,2. 

su-jfihva, with beautiful tongue(s), I, 

13, 8; 14a, 4. 
su-gQrnt, glowing, IV, 6, 3. 
su-#y6tis, rich in light, III, ao, 1. 
suti, the pressed (Soma), III, 13, 

1; 3. 
sutii-vat, rich in pressed (Soma), III, 

, as, 4- 
suta-soma, having pressed Soma, I, 

44, 8; 45, 8; 14a, 1 ; IV, 3, 13. 
su-tuka, quick, I, 149, 5. 
su-d&nsas, endowed with wonderful 

power, II, 3, 3. 
su-daksha, highly dexterous, II, 9, 

1; 111,4,9 5 a3, a; V, 11, 1. 
sudaoa-tara, more visible, 1, 137, 5*. 
su-dfmu, giving good rain, 1, 44, 14 ; 

45, 10; 141,9; HI, a<S, »5 5? 
a9, 7 ; — blessed with good rain, 

IV, 4, 7- 

su-davan, good giver, I, 76, 3. 
su-dfna, auspicious day, IV, 4, 6 ; 7. 
sudina-tvd, auspiciousness of . days, 

III, 8, 5 ; sudina-tve' innim, 
HI, 33, 4. 

su-diditi, with fine splendour, III, 

9, i*. 
su-ditf, resplendent, III, a, 13 ; 17, 

4 ; 37, 10; V, 35, s ;— glorious 

splendour, V, 8, 4. 
sudftgha, flowing with plenty, II, 3, 

6 ; su-dugha* usr&&, IV, 1,13. 
su-drw, full of beauty, III, 17, 4 ; 

V, 3. 4 l . 

su-drotka, beautiful to behold, V, 
4, a. 

sudr/jika-rflpa, with his shape beauti- 
ful to behold, IV, 5, 15. 

su-dev£, a friend of the gods, I, 74, 5. 

su-d6gha, rich in milk, III, 15, 6. 

su-dyut, brilliant, I, 140, 1 ; 143, 3. 

su-dyumni, splendid, III, 19, 3. 

su-dy6tman, brilliant, I, 141, 13 ; 
II, 4, «• 

su-dravutas, possessor of beautiful 
wealth, I, 94, 15. 

su-dhita, well-composed (prayer), I, 
140, 11 ; — blissful gift, III, 11, 
8 ; — well-preserved, III, 33, 1 ; 
lying safe, III, 29, 2 ; — well- 
ordered, IV, 3,10; — well-placed, 



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482 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



IV, 6, 3 ; well-established, IV, 
6,7 s ; V, 3,3. 

su-dhf, wise, IV, 2, 14. 

su-dbur. well-harnessed: raylft su- 
dhuraA, I, 73, io" ; hart fti su- 
dhura, well-yoked, V, 37, 3. 

suni£-m£th, skilful rubbing, III, 29, 
12. 

su-nidh!(, skilful establishing, III, 
39, 12. 

su-ntthi, the best leader, II, 8, 2 ; 
III, 8, 8. 

su-patha, good path, I, 189, 1. 

su-pare£, beautifully-winged, 1, 79, a. 

su-pini, with graceful hands, 1 , 7 1 , 9 1 . 

su-putri, with noble sons, III, 4,11. 

su-pQta, well-clarified, V, it, 1. 

su-p&as, wearing beautiful orna- 
ments, 1, 1 3, 7 ; 142,7'; 1 88, 6. 

supra-ayani, easily passable, 11,3,5; 

V, 5, 5- 
supra-avya, ready, I, 60, 1. 
su-pritika, whose face is beautiful, 

Ii 94, 7! 143, 3 5 HI, 29, 5; 
V, 5, «. 
su-pr4turti, gloriously advancing, 

III, 9. 1. 
su-pranfti, a good guide, I, 73, 1 ; 

III. 1, 16; 15,4; IV, 3,13. 
su-prayas, receiver of good offerings, 

II, 2, 1 ; 4, 1. 

su-bandhu, well-allied, III, 1, 3. 

su-barhfs, possessor of good sacri- 
ficial grass, I, 74, 5. 

su-bhiga, blessed, I, 36, 6 ; III, 1, 
4! »3; 9, «*; '*, <»; 18, 5; 

IV, 1, 6 ; 4, 7 ; V, 8, 3. 
su-bhara, rich in gain, II, 3, 4 ; 9. 
sfi-bhr/'ta, well kept, II, 1, 12. 
su-makha, martial, IV, 3, 7 ; 14 1 . 
su-m£t, together, I, 142, 7*; — see 

sumat-yfitba. 

su-matf, favour, I, 31, 18, &c. ; III, 
4, 1* ; V, 27, 3 1 ; kindness : su- 
matf, IV, 1, 2». 

sumdt-yfitha, together with the herd : 
sumlt-yfltham (conj. for su- 
mit yfttham), V, 2, 4'. 

sumdt-ratha, on his chariot, III, 3, 9. 

su-manas, gracious, kind-hearted, I, 
36, 2, &c. ;— joyous, IV, 4, 9. 

su-manman, rich in good thoughts, 

III, 3, 12. 

su-mahas, very great, IV, n, 2. 
su-miti, skilful erection, III, 8, 3. 
su~mr»/ik£, merciful, IV, 1, 20 ; 3, 3. 



su-m6ka, well-established, 1, 146, 3 1 ; 

III,6,ie*; 15,5'; IV, 6, 3. 
su-medhas, wise, II, 3, 1 ; III, 15, 5. 
sumna, blessing, III, 2, 5; 3, 3;— 

favour, grace, V, 3, 10 ; 24, 4 ; 

— pleasant, III, 14, 4. 
sumna-yu, desirous of favour, I, 79, 

jo; 111,37, 1; V, 8, 7. 
su-ya^, excellent sacrificer, V, 8, 3. 
su-y%^&, skilled in sacrifice, III, 

17, 1. 
su-yama, well-manageable, III, 7, 3 ; 

(4 4 ) I V, 38, ,«. 
su-yavasa, good pasture : suyavafa- 

iva, conj. for svasya-iva, II, 4, 4 1 . 
su-ySmi, easily directing, III, 7, 9'. 
su-y%, well-yoked, IV, 14, 3. 
su-r&na, joyous, III, 3, 9; 39, 14. 
su-ratha, with good chariot : su- 

rathasya (conj. su-ratha asya), 

III, 14, 7 1 J— IV, 3, 4 ;— rich in 

chariots, IV, 4, 8. 
surabhf, sweet-smelling, V, 1, 6. 
su-rSdhas, rich in wealth, IV, 2, 4 ; 

5,4- 
su-rukm£, adorned with gold, I, 

188, 6. 
su-rfii, with beautiful splendour, II, 

*»4; in. a, 5; 7, 5; »5, <s; 
iv, 2, n. 

su-r6tas, fertile, III, 1, 16. 
su-virias, full of fine splendour, I, 

95. i- 
su-vSi, adorned with fine speech, 

III, i, 19; — well-spoken, III, 
7, 10. 

su-v&ias, fine-voiced, I, 188, 7. 
su-v&as, well-clothed, III, 8, 4 ; 

IV, 3, 2. 

suvita, welfare, I, 141, 12 ; 189, 3; 
11,2,6; 111,2, 13; IV, 14,3; 

V, 11, 1. 

su-viditra, bounteous, II, 1, 8 ; 9, 6. 
su-vfra, rich in heroes, in valiant 

men, I, 31, 10; II, 1,16; 3,4; 

5; 4, 9L ln i '9, 9;— giving 

valiant offspring, III, 8, 2. 
su-vfrya, abundance in heroes, bliss 

of valiant offspring, I, 36, 6 ; 

17, &c. ; I, 127, ii 1 ; — host of 

heroes, III, 16, 4. 
su-vriktf, praised with beautiful 

praise, II, 4, i 1 ; — beautiful 

prayer, or praise, III, 3, 9 ; V, 

35, 3 l . 
su-v6da, easily to be found, IV, 7, 6. 



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INDEX OF WORDS. 



483 



siwlmsa, kind-spoken, I, 44, 6. 
siwarman, well-protecting, III, 15, 

1 ; V, 8, 2. 
siwasti, best praise, III, 26, 6. 
siwipra, strong-jawed, V, 22, 4'. 
su-juvi, fine child, I, 65, 4. 
siweva, propitious, I, 37, 3 ; kind, 

gracious, II, 1, 9; III, 39, 5; 

IV, 4, 13; V, 15, 1. 
stw6ka, with pure splendour, 1, 70, 1 . 
su-jrl", in great beauty, III, 3, 5. 
sti-samjita, well-sharpened, V, 19, 5. 
su-sanitr;. best gainer, III, 18, 5. 
su-sa»»dr»j, beautiful to behold, I, 

M3, 3. 

su-samiddlia, well-kindled, I, 1 3, 1 ; 

V, 5, 1. 

su-sarofdh, good fuel, V, 8, 7. 
su-sff, well-bearing, V, 7, 8. 
sti-sflta, well-born, II, 10, 3. 
su-stuta, highly praised, V, 37,- 2. 
su-stutf, rich in perfect praise, III, 

«9» 3- 
su-hava, easy to invoke, readily 

hearing (our) call, I, 58, 6 ; III, 

6,8; 15, 1 ; IV, 1,5. 
su-havfs, offering good oblations, IV, 

su-havyi, giver of good oblations, I, 

74.5- 
su-hiranyi, rich in gold, IV, 4, 10. 
sfl, to give birth: suvate fti, ih-y 

give birth, V, i, 4 ; — asfita, V, 2, 

* ; 7, 8. 
stt, a progenitor, 1, 146, 5. 
sGktA, see su-uktd. 
sfid, to further: sGdayat, I, 71, 8; 

susfldaA, I, 73, 8; — to shape: 

asOdayanta, I, 72, 3; — to make 

ready: susfklati, I, 142, 11*; V, 

5, 2 ;— sfidayati, III, 4, 10; — 

sGdaya, accomplish, IV, 4, 14; 

— sfldaySti pra, may he make 

ready, II, 3, 10. 
sfinu, son, I, 1, 9, &c; I, 59, 4 1 ; 

III, 1, 12 1 ; sOno fti sabasa£, I, 

58,8; 127, 1; III, 1,8; 11,4; 

nftya£ sGn&6, I, 66, i 1 . 
sfinu-mat, rich in sons, III, 24, 5. 
sGnrita-vat, rich in loveliness, 1, 59,7. 
stfra,Sun, I, 71,9; 141,13; M9, 35 

III, 15, 2. 
sfirf, the rich man, liberal lord or 

patron, I, 31,7, &c. ; 1,73. 5 1 ; 

141,8 s . 
sflrya, the sun, or Sun, I, 59, 3 ; 98, 

I 



1; 146, 4*; III, 14, 4; IV, 1, 
«7; 13, 1-4; >4» a," V, 1, 
4 ; 4, 4; karanam sflryasya, III, 
5, 5 ; rojtane 1 sflryasya, III, 22, 
3 ; divi suryam-iva a^dram, V, 
27, 6. 

sr», to run: sasrinib, I, 149, 2; 
sasr/vibnsam-iva, III, 9, 5 ; — 
pr£ sarsrate fti, they go forth, 
1 1 1, 7, 1 ; pri sisrate, they stream 
forward,V,i , 1 ; pra-sarsranasya, 
advancing, V, 12, 6 ; — vf sasrub, 
they have broken through with 
their floods, I, 73, 6. 

srig, to let loose: sena-iva sr/shrS, 
like an army that is sent for- 
ward. I, 66, 7 ; 143, 5 1 ; sn^t 
didyum asmai, he shot an arrow 
at him. I, 71, 5 ; srUhtSb, 1,72, 
10 ; — ava sriga, let go, I, 13, 1 1; 
ava-snfpan, letting go (the sacri- 
ficial food to the gods), I, 142, 
11; II, 3, 10; ma" ava srigzb, 
do not deliver, I, 189, 5 ; — upa 
sriga, yield up, I, 188, 10 ; upa- 
sri£&nti, they pour out, II, 1, 
16 ;— vf srigi, emit, I, 36, 9 ;— 
sim nab sriga,, let us be united, 
I, 31, 18; III, 16, 6. 

SriHgaya, son of Devavata, I V, 1 5, 4'. 

srini, sickle : srinyl, I, 58, 4*. 

sr/prd, mighty (:), III, 18, 5'. 

sripr4-danu, bestower of mighty 
rain (?), I, 96, f. 

sena, army, 1, 66, 7; sena-iva sr/sh/if, 

, 1, M3, 5 1 - 
sotri, presser (of Soma), IV, 3, 3. 
s6ma, Soma, (juice), I, 44, 14 ; 45, 
10; 99, i 1 ; III, 12, 3; 22, 1 ; 
29, 16; somasya tavasam, III, 

I, i 1 ; s6ma\b, IV, 14, 4 ; V, 27, 
5 1 ; — Soma, the god, I, 65, 10; 

II, 8, 6. 

s6ma-ahuta, fed with Soma, 1, 94, 14. 
S6maka, Sahadeva's son, IV, 15, 9. 
s6ma-pati, lord of Soma (Indra), I, 

76, 3. 
s6ma-piti, drinking of Soma : s6ma- 

pftaye, I, 44, 9. 
soma-peya, drink of Soma, I, 45, 9 ; 

III, 25, 4. 

somya, one who offers Soma, I, 
31, 16. 

saubhaga, prosperity, delight, happi- 
ness, I, 36, 17 ; III, 8, 2 ; 3; 
11; 15,4; 16, 1; V, 28, 3. 

i 2 



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484 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



saubhaga-tvi, happiness, I, 94, 16. 

saumanasi, graciousness, 1, 76, 2 ; 
kindness, III, 1, 21. 

skambhi, pillar, IV, 13, 5. 

stan, to thunder : stan&yan, I, 58, 2 ; 
140, 5 ; stanayanti abhrtf, I, 79, 
2 ; pn£ stanayanti, IV, 10, 4. 

stabhu-ydmana, firmly fixed, III, 

7, 4- 
sta(m)bh, to uphold : tastambha, I, 

6 7> 5;— fit astambhit, he has 

upheld, III, 5, 10 ; — upa stabha- 

yat, he supports, IV, 5, 1 ; 

stabhSyat upa dyim, he has 

reared ... up to the sky, IV, 6, 2. 
stayam, stealthily : upa stayam iarati, 

conj., (I, 145, 4*)- 
stu, to praise : stivanaA, praised, I, 

12, n; 31, 8, &c. 
stubh : pra-stubhanlA, incited by 

shouting, IV, 3, 12. 
stubhvan, uttering (sacred) shouts, 

I, 66, 4. 
stri, to strew : strwiita, I, 13, 5 ; 

str»ian&ai> barhf£, I, 142, 5. 
Stri, star : pipeja mfkam stribhii&, I, 

68, 10; dyauA nastri-bhi£, II, 

», 5 5 IV, 7, 3. 
steni, thief, V, 3, 11. 
stoki, drop, III, ai, 1-5. 
stotri, praiser, I, 58, 8 ; II, 1, 16 ; 

HI, 5, »• 

stoma, praise, song of praise, I, 12, 
12, &c. ; stomaiA (conj. st6- 
mam), IV, 10, i 8 . 

st6mavahas, (I, 127, 8 1 ). 

stha, to stand: QrdhvaZ, tfsh/Aa, I, 
36, 13; — abhf tishtta, set thy 
foot on, V, 28, 3 ; — '& tasthuA, 
they have assumed, I, 72, 9*; — 
fipa sthat, he has approached, 
I, 68, 1 ; see upa-sthayam ; — 
pra-sthiti, ready, III, 4, 4'; — 
abhf pr4 asthat, he gains ad- 
vantage, I, 74, 8 1 ; — with vf, to 
spread : vf tish/Aate, I, 58, 4 ; 
vf tastbe, I, 72, 9 ; vf asthat, I, 
65, 8 ; 141, 7 ; vf asthiran, they 
are scattered, I, 94, 1 1 ; vf 
tish/Aase, V, 8, 7. 

sthatfi, what stands : sthat 6,6 kari- 
tham, what is movable and im- 
movable, I, 58, 5' ; 68, i J ; 70, 

7* J (7 *,«')• 
sthatri, that which stands : sthatam 
/taratham, I, 70, 3 ; what re- 



mains steadfast: sthatrfn, I, 

7*, 6*. 
sthiri, solid: sthir^ iit anna 1 , IV, 

7, 10. 
sthuni, a column : sthtfna-iva upa- 

mft, I, 59, 1*. 
snihiti ? I, 74, 2*. 
sneliiti, (I, 74, 2»). 
splr, spy, IV, 4, 3; — observer: 

spajam vf/vasya gigatah, IV, 

'3, 3- 

sparhi, desirable, lovely, I, 31, 14; 
II, 1, 12; IV, 1,6; 7; 12. 

spW: aspar fty aspaA, thou bast 
freed, V, 15, 5 ; — ava sprrdhi, 
protect, V, 3, 9. 

sprit, to touch : spmanti, I, 36, 3. 

spr»haydt-varj»a, having the appear- 
ance of one eagerly striving, II, 

10, 5. 

sphatf, increase, I, 188, 9. 

sphur, to sparkle : pr&i sphura, IV, 

3, '4- 

smit-fidhnt, with full udders, 1, 73, 6. 

smi, to smile, laugh : smiyamanabhUi, 

I> 79> 2 * > smijamanaJb (dyauA), 

11, 4, 6 s ; smayete fti, III, 

4, 6. 

syfl : syfltam, well-stitched, I, 3 1, 15. 
syona-kr«t, making comfortable, I, 

3i. 15- 
syona-.»T, comfortably resting, I, 

73. i*- 
sravat, river : sravata£ sapti yahvW, 

1,71,7- 
sravatba, streaming, III, 1, 7. 
sridh : asredhantaA, without fail, 

III, 29, 9. 
srfdh, failure, I, 36, 7 ; III, 9, 4 ; 

10, 7. 

sru, to flow : sruvat (conj. for jru- 

vat), it melts away, I, 127, 3*. 
srfiji, sacrificial ladle, I, 144, 1 ; V, 

M,3; aif 2- 
sr6tas, stream, I, 95, 10'. 
sv& : tanva/6 krmvata svA7>, I, 72, 5* ; 

svasya-iva, conj. suyavasa-iva, 

11, 4, 4 1 - 

svab-dns, of sun-like aspect, I, 44, 

9; III, 2, 14; V, 26,2. 
sviifc-nara, the solar hero, II, 2, 1 ; — 

realm of the Sun, V, 18, 4. 
svLfr-vat, together with the sun, I, 

59,4; V, 2, 11. 
sva£-vfd, finding the sun, I, 96, 4 ; 

UI,3,5; «o; 26,1. 



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INDEX OF WORDS. 



485 



sva-gfirta, delightful by their own 

nature, I, 140, 13. 
svi-^enya, noble by his own nature, 

V, 7, 5- 

svi-tavat, self-strong, IV, a, 6. 

svad, to taste: svadante, II, 1, 14 ; 
asvadayat, II, 4, 7 ; — to make 
relishable, savoury : sisvadat, I, 
188, 10; svada, III, 14,7. 

sv£-dharman, following his own 
ordinances, III, 21, 3. 

svadhS, inherent power: svadhtfbhiA, 
by one's self, by the power of 
his own nature, I, 95, 4 ; III, 
26, 8 ; svadhiyi, according to 
their wont, II, 3, 8 ; III, 4, 7 ; 
by himself, III, 17, 5 ; by his 
own power, IV, 1 3, 5 ; — svadhSA 
adhayat, he drank the draughts, 

I, »44, »*• 
svadhg-vat, self-dependent, I, 36, 1 2 ; 

M4, 7; 147, »; HI, ao, 3; IV, 

5,2; 10, 6; 12, 3; V, 3, 2; 5; 

moving according to one's wont, 

I, 95, ''» moving by his own 

strength, I, 95, 4. 
sva-dhiti, axe, III, 2, 10; 8, 6 ; 11 ; 

V, 7, 8». 
svan, to resound : svanit, II, 4, 6. 
svana, noise, I, 94, 11. 
sva-paty£, a man's own dominion : 

sva-patyani (conj. for su-apat- 

yani), I, 72, 9'. 
svayaj&Mara, highly brilliant by 

oneself, V, 17, 2*,*. 
svi-yajas, endowed with his own 

splendour, I, 95, 2 ; 5 ; 9. 
sva-yu, free, II, 4, 7. 
svar, sun, or Sun : suVai> nd sam-drik, 

I, 66, 1; svaA drufke, I, 66, 

io"; 69, 10; svaA (loc.), I, 70, 

8' ; 9 1 ; svifr vividuA, I, 71, 2 ; 

sva£ ni, I, 148, 1 ; II, 2, 7 ; 8 ; 

10; 8,4; svifr mahat, III, 2, 7; 

sure, IV, 3, 8 : £vf£ svaA abha- 

vat, IV, 3, n* ; suYa£ vaYnena, 

IV, 5, 13 ; sv&& ni gy6tU>, IV, 
10, 3 1 ; avindat g&b apaA svaA, 

V, .4, 4 1 - 
sva-i%, king, I, 36, 7. 
sva-i%ya, royalty, II, 8, 5 s . 
svaru, sacrificial post, III, 8, 6 1 ; 9 ; 

10; IV, 6, 3. 
svarnr/, sun-hero : svarnai (?), (I, 

7°, 9 1 )- 
svartha, see su-artha. 



svisara, fold, II, 2, 2. 
svisr/, sister, I, 65, 7; II, 5, 6 1 ; 
svisSraA, I, 71, i a ; tisiii, II, 

5, 5»; da/a, III, 29, 13 s ; dvi'A 
pdd>a, IV, 6, 8 1 ; apasi svisrinhn, 
III,i,3*; 11. 

svasti, happiness, welfare, 1, 1, 9, &c. ; 
svastf-bhiA, safely, I, 189, 2 ; — 
with welfare, happily, II, 9, 6; 
IV, 11,6; V, 4, 11. 

svadana, sweetener, V, 7, 6. 

svadu-kshidman, having sweet food, 

„ I, 3', »5- 

svadman, sweetness, I, 69, 3 1 . 

svlni, roaring, V, 2, 10; 25, 8; — 
thundering, V, 10, 5. 

svani'n, tumultuous, III, 26, 5. 

svftha, the wordSv&ha, 1, 13, 13; III, 
4, 1 1 ; V, 5, 1 1 ; svalii havyam 
kartana, pronounce the Svaha 
over the offering, I, 142, 12. 

svaTi^-kr/'ta, (offerings) over which 
the Sviha has been pronounced, 

1, 142, 13; II, 3, "• 
svftha-kr/'ti, pronouncing Sv&ha, I, 

188, 11. 
svid, to sweat : sisvidiniL6, IV, 2, 6. 
svlda, sweat, V, 7, 5. 

haossi, swan, I, 65, 9 ; III, 8, 9. 

han, to kill, slay: hawsi, I, 31. 6; 
^•(ghlmsataii, I, 36, 15 ; ahan 
(without an object), 1, 69, 8 1 ; — 
vf gihi, smite, I, 36, 16. 

liar: haryamana, longed for, III, 

6, 4 ; — pr£ti harya, accept 
graciously, I, 144, 7 ; prati 
haryai>, thou acceptest, V, 2, 1 1. 

niri, golden, 1, 95, 1:— bay horse, 
fallow steed : hkri-bhyam, I, 
76,3; IV, 15,7*; hart fti, IV, 
15,8; V, 27, 2. 

han-kesa, whose hair is golden, III, 

2, 13. 

harft, pi., the golden horses, IV, 6, 
9 1 ; harfta£ saptS yahvfe, the 
seven young fallow mares, IV, 

13, ^• 
biri-vrata, whose every law is golden, 

HI, 3, 5 1 . 
haryata, delightful, III, 5, 3. 
hava, invocation, I, 45, 3. 
havi£-£dya, eating the oblation, V, 

1, »; 4,4- 
haviA-kr/t, preparer of the sacrificial 
food, I, 13,3. 



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486 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



haviA-da 1 , giver of offerings, IV, 3, 7'. 

havf£-pati, master of sacrificial food, 
I, 13, 8. 

havU>- vith, bearer of oblations, 1 , 7 3 , 7 . 

havfs, sacrificial food, I, 12, 10, &c. 

havi'shmat, rich in sacrificial food, 
offering sacrificial food, I, 12, 
9, &c. ; I, ia8, 2*. 

haviman, invocation, I, 12, 3. 

havya, to be proclaimed : bhaga& nd 
havyai, I, 144, J*;— to be in- 
voked, 111,5, 3; v , >7, 4- 

havyd, sacrificial food : havyaya 
v6/Aave, I, 45, 6 ;— I, 74. 4, &c. 

havyd-dati, giver of offerings, III, 
3, 8 ; — gift of offerings, IV, 8, 
5 5 V, 26, 4. 

havya-vSh, bearer of oblations, 
carrier of offerings, I, 12, 2; 
6; 44, 8; 67, 3; 128, 8; III, 
2, »; 5. «o; «°, 9; u, *; 17, 
4 ; 27, 5 ; 29, 7 ; iv, 8, i ; v, 4, 
a ; 6, 5 ; 28, 5. 

havya-vifhana, carrier of oblations, 
I, 36, 10; 44,2; 5; V, 8, 6; 
11,4; 25, 4 ; 28, 6 ; dev£bhya£ 
havya-vahana, III, 9, 6'. 

haskartri. producing joy, IV, 7, 3. 

hi, to give (up to) : ^ahlti, I, 95, 7. 

hi : ut-£ihani/>, flying up, V, 1, 1. 

hi, to incite, stir up : hinvatu, I, 27, 
11; hinuhi, I, 143,4; hinvanti, 
I, 144, 5 ; hiyani, driven for- 
ward, II, 4, 4 ; hinvl, he speeds 
along, IV, 7, 11; hinvire, they 
drive forward, V, 6, 6 ; — sam 
ahema (conj. for sam mahema), 
we have sent forward, I, 94, 1 . 

hiti-mitra, who has made himself 
(valiant) friends, I, 73, 3*. 

hiranya, gold, IV, 10, 6. 

hfra»ya-ka»a, golden-haired, 1, 79, 1. 

hfranya-danta, gold-toothed, V, 3, 3. 

hiranyaya, golden : hiranydyt iti, I, 
144, 6. 

hfraaya-ratha, with the golden 
chariot, IV, 1, 8. 

hfranya-rtipa, golden-coloured, IV, 

3, I; 

hiri-jipra, with golden jaws, II, 3, 5 1 . 

hfri-jmaxru, golden-bearded, V, 7, 7. 

hu, to offer, sacrifice : hfiyate, I, 26, 

6, &c; *uhure, II, 9, 3 ;— 



2-hutaA, worshipped by offer- 
ings, into whom offerings are 
poured, I, 36, 8, &c; II, 7, 4'; 
5 ; III, 34, 3, &c. ; a-£ubvlna£, 
receiving libations, I, 188, 3 ; 
SLgnhota, with Ace, make offer- 
ings in, III, 9, 8. 

hurls, on a crooked way, IV, 3, 13. 

hr/, to take: vi-haran, spreading out, 
IV, 13,4. 

hr»,to be angry : hr/'»!yamlna£, V, 2, 8 . 

hr/d, heart, mind, I, 60, 3, &c. 

hr/di-spr«, touching the heart, IV, 
10, 1*. 

hr/sh : harshat, joyous, 1, 137, 6; — 
ut-harsh&yanti, they delight, V, 

, 27,5. 

hnshivat, joyful, I, 137, 6. 

heVas, anger, I, 94, i3»; IV, 1, 4. 

hemya'-vat, well-impelled, IV, 2, 8 1 . 

heshd-kratu, hot-spirited, III, 26,5*. 

h6tr», the Hotr/ priest, I, 1, 1; 5, 
&c; 1,94, 6; II, 9,1; III, 17, 
5 ; hottri dafvyl, I, 13, 8 1 ; 
142,8; 188,7; II, 3, 7; HI, 
4, 7 > V, 5, 7 ; — saptS h6tn'-bhi£, 
III, 10, 4. 

hotri-vurya, election as Hotr;, I, 

3«>3- 

hotr/-s4dana, the Hotrfs seat, 1 1, 9, r. 

hotri, service of a HotW, the HotW*s 
office, I, 76, 4 ; II, », 2 ; III, 
17, 3 ; sapta hotrani, III, 4, 5*. 

hotra-vaTijCarrier of offerings, V,s6,7. 

h6trl, oblation, I, 36, 7 ; II, 3, 8 ;— 
H6trl BhaVat?, I, 143, 9'; II, 
1, 11 1 ; — the HoWs work, wor- 
ship, IV, 3, io 1 . 

hotrl-vld, knowing the art of sacri- 
ficial libations, V, 8, 3. 

hru, see hvri. 

hvSras, tricks, V, 30, 3. 

hvlri, serpent (?), I, 141, 7'; hvare 
(conj. hvaram), II, 3, 4 1 . 

hvlryd? V, 9, 4'. 

hvri : upa hvaYate, he slinks away, 
1,141,1';— hrunlnlfr? (IV, 4 ,i f ). 

hve, to call, invoke : huvema, 1, 137, 
3 1 ; \hi huve (read ih5 hve ?), 
Ill, 30, 5' ;— v4hnL& IstC 3 huv£, 
I, 7^, 4, V ;— vi-hviyimahe, we 
call (thee) in emulation (with 
other people), I, 36, 13*. 



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II. LIST OF 
THE MORE IMPORTANT PASSAGES 

QUOTED 

IN THE NOTES. 



RIG-VEDA 

PACK 

I, 1,8 a6o I, 61, 4. 

6, 10 3" 6 *> 5- 

10, 3 262 62, 9 . 

n,5 400 *4> »• 

15, 12 ... . 260,306 <>4, 5» 

io> 3 x 9» °4> 9 • 

22, 10 ... . 132, 156 64, 14 

24,9 251 66,2. 

26, 10 . . . . 86 66, 4 . 

27, 10 ... . 3*7 *9> 3 • 
29, 4. . . . , 71 69,5. 
30,7 *57 7o,7. 

31, 8 4 7°, 1° 

32, 14 ... . 73 7i, « • 
33,4 l6 ' 7i,3. 

33, 14 ... . 408 7'» 4' 

34, 2 3»6 72 . 

34,3 6 9 72,5. 

34,6 28,272 73,8. 

34, 9 a6 9 76, 5 • 

34, 10 ... . 112 80, 4. 

37,3 3<>5 81,5. 

37, 13 ... . 173 84, 18 

38, 13 ... . 195 88,3. 

43,7 57 89,1. 

44,4 axx 89,10 

47,1 44 92,3- 

48,9 359 93,8. 

48, 10 ... . 40 95, * • 

5i,3 »43 95,3- 

51,8 183 95,9- 

52, 1 286 95, 10 

52,6 3«3 9 6 , 3 

53, 7 6 3 9 6 » 5 • 

60, 1 331 100, 7 

61, 3 I55» *°3 i°°» l6 



PACE 

HO 

I06 

18 

303 

IO5 

90, 369 

'9 

343 

380 

65 

380 

7« 
78 
294 
65 

174 

66 

66 

66 

3'9 

177 

257 

3 

84 

134 

59 

359 

101 

168 

27 

150 

63 

101 

168 

84 
380 



Digitized by 



Google 



488 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



PAGE 


PAGE 




I, 102, I . 








122 


I, 164, 6 .... 62 




102, 8 








257 


164, 35 . 






66 




104,4 








3H 


164, 51 






"7, M4, 


250 


105,3 








78 


166, 2 . 






58 




105, 12 








152, 162 


166, 11 






294 




1°5, »4 








156 


166, 12 . 






84 




>°9, 3 








121, 122 


167, 4 . 






374 




109,4 • 








150 


168,6 








312 




111, 1 








«5 


'69,5 








265 




112, 15 








35 


171, 1 . 








112 




113. « 








124 


171,2 . 








53 




"3.3 








168 


171,6 . 








112 




"3, «S 








359 


»73, 1 








177 




115,1 








338 


173,6 








184 




116,1 








7 


179, 1 • 








81 




116,4 








312 


184,2 








155 




116,5 








»34 


184, 4 • 








in 




116,6 








59 


185,2 








58 




118,9 








59 


186,4 








69 




"9, 3 








. 62 


186, 10 








3" 




119, 10 








59 


188, 4 








224 




120, 1 








79 


188,5 








339 




120, 2 








46 


II, 1, 1 . 








7i 




122,14 








7i 


1,2. 








. in 




123,9 . 








250 


1,4- 








27 




"7,5 








192 


I, II 








. 156 




128, 1 








327 


i, ia 








9» 




"9,5 








. 98, 133 


2,2. 








76 




129, n 








133 


», 3- 








312 




'30,3 








242 


2, 6. 








3'9 




>30, 4 








132 


3, 8. 








3'9 




13°. 5 








. 162 


3,9- 








156 




130,6 








286, 37a 


3, « 








• M3i 238 




»33, 5 








. 223 


4, 1. 








90 




»34, 1 








144 


5,1. 








• 91,381 




»34, 5 








58 


5,9. 








, 168 




'35,4 








'33 


5,5- 








76 




>38, 3 








310 


5,7. 








• 71 




139, 1 








223 


• 11, 12 








7i 




>39»» 








35 


Mi » 








133 




139,4 








269 


14,11 








216 




142,7 








239 


16, 1 , 








214 




M3,5 








97 


16,3 








402 




M3,7 








184 


i7,4 








315 




I44,i 








*45 


»7, 7 








M5 




146, 1 








207 


18, 1 








191 




147,3 








334 


19, 7 








in 




148,1 








78 


»4i 1 








210 




151,1 








152 


24,8 








347 




151, 4 








224 


Mi 15 








398 




152,6 








321 


26, 3 








272 




158,5 








368 


34,4 • 








395 




'59,5 








107 


35,3 . 








53 




»63,4; 5 






365 


3<>,3 . 








294 




164,3 








314 


37,6 








*5 





Digitized by 



Google 



LIST OF IMPORTANT PASSAGES. 



489 



Hi 39, 1 
40,4 
4i»5 
111,1,6 

2,' 
2,3 
2,5 

2,7 
a. 14 

4 
3 
10 



3, 

4: 



4, 

5,6 

5,8 

6,i 

6,2 

6,6 

6,7 

6,9 

6, 10 

7,1 
7,9 
8,1; 
8, 10 
8, 11 

'°, 5 
11, 8 

13, 2 
'4,4 

15,2 
15,5 
'6,4 
18, 3 
34, 1 
37,1 
27,3 
27,7 
38,4 

»9, 3 
39,11 

29, 13 

29, H 
30,7 . 
30,11 

30, 13 

30, 15 
31,1 . 

31, i-5 
31, 16 
34,3 
38,1 
39,1 
43, 1 
43. S 
49,4 



PACE 
2IO 
156 
346 

19 
123 

286 
327 
286 

305 

421 

323 

20I 

134 

Il8 

l6l, 224 

168 

319 

224, 272 
20I 
269 
225 

25 
12 

35 
12 

234 
14 
210 
169 

4° 
333 

151 
214 

254 
294 

91, 207 
161 

27 

29, 318 
10 
76 
360 

134 
373 
123 
29 

323 

80 

225 

246 

286 

155 

269 

30 
5,4' 



III, S3, '6 



19 

12 



54 

54, 

54,2 

55,3 • 

55,4 

55,6 

55," 

55, «2 

55,ai 

56,5 



56, 
56, 



58, 
58,9 
59,2 
61,3 

62,3 
IV, 1, 4 
',5 
1,6 

«, 9 
1, 11 

I, 12 
1,12 

2,3 
2,5 
2,9 

3,15 
4,15 

5,' 
5,7 
5,8 
5, 10 
5, 11 

5, 13 
6,3 
6,8 

6,9 

6, 11 

7,4 
7,7 
7,9 

7, 10 

7,ii 
9,6 

II, 6 
14,2 
15,6 
16,4 

16, 15 

17,14 

17, 18 
18,4 . 
19,8 , 



seq. 



PACE 
380 
48 

"3 

376 

223 

78 

25 

76 

226 

90 

312 

81 

312 

44 

'44 

65 

162 

156 

112 

40 

383 

365 

106, 329 

329 

80 

246 

9' 

274 

3'4 

210 

44,5<> 
243, 243 
242 

145 

105 

152 

255, 

76 

319 

27, 373 

78 

171, *43 

48 

'33 
295 

78 

254 

80 

118 

3'5 
204 

106, 312 
298 

59 
272 



280 



Digitized by 



Google 



490 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



PAGE 


PACK 


IV, 19, 10 ... 69 


V, 56, 6 . . . . 87 


30,4 . 






329 


57,2 . 






39 


*3, 4 • 






• i«>5, 394 


57,5 • 






65 


*3, 8 . 






• 65, 77, 171 


58,6. 






*5 


33, 10 






322 


59,8 . 






35 


*4, 3 • 






84 


64,2 . 






136 


*9, 3 • 






116 


68,1 . 






*34 


33,3 • 






>9 


68,3 . 






216 


33, 10 






a 04 


70,4 . . 






330 


34,9 • 






86 


76, 1 . 






*55 


35, 3 • • 






191 


83, 1 • 






105 


36, 3 • 






151 


VI, 1, 2 . 






400 


37, 3 • 






134 


>, 9 • 






26 


37,5 • 






4" 


2,8 . 






381, 388 


37,7 • 






390 


*, 9 • 






388 


40, a . 






357 


3,5 • 






»39 


4a, 1 . 






65 


4,5 • 






. 158 


44,* • 






79 


5,* • 






, 262 


50,4 • 






*43 


5, 4 • 






314 


50, 11 






7« 


6,2 . 






314 


5i,4 • 






*43 


6,6 . 






178 


5a, a ; 3 






3'4 


8,1 . 






*7, 149 


54,3 • 






355 


8,7 . 






'59 


55,5 • 






aio 


to, a . 






383 


V, 1, 4 . 






59 


11, a . 






. 98 


1, 10 . 






73 


11,4 . 






3*8 


3,4 • 






34* 


ia, a . 






328 


3,6 . 






27 


13, 1 • 






270 


4,4 • 






137 


»5, 5 • 






. 3<>5 


6,9 • 






226 


16, a . 






*5 


7, a . 






133 


16,9 . 






98 


7,6 . 






68 


16, 15 






35 


11, 4 • 






73,78 


l6, 22 






267 


12, a . 






63 


16,27 






71 


ia, 3 . 






105 


16,43 






90 


M,3 • 






3 


l6, 46 






3*7 


ai, 4 . 






*43, 345 


17,15 






210 


*5, 1 . 






136 


19, 3 • 






• 1*3,3*3 


a8, 1 . 






3, "4 


«9,4 • < 






400 


*9, 15 






370 


19, 10 






316 


30, 10 






400 


30,5 • 






93 


30, >4 






381 


ao, 11 






36 


31, 1 . 






3*3 


31,4 • 






97 


31, 11 






112 


21, 12 






373 


34,6 . 






394 


34,3 . 






190 


42, «3 






53 


*7, 7 • 






361 


4*, 17 






226 


31,3 • 






. 69 


43, 7 • • 






224 


34, « • 






370 


44, 1 • 






184 


35,5 • 






. 184, 185 


45, a . 






3'4 


37,3 • 






46 


47,5 • 






226 


38,4 • 






73 


48,4 . 






383 


39,4 • 






273 


53, " 






295 


45, >4 






in 


53, »6 






140 


46, 10 






374 


56, a . 






411 


46,12 






400 



Digitized by 



Google 



LIST OF IMPORTANT PASSAGES. 



491 



VI, 47, 16 


48,4 • 


48,5 • 


48, a 1 


51, 2 . 


51,8 . 


59,8 . 


59,9 • 


61,1 . 


61, 2 . 


61,7 . 


63,4 • 


64,2 . 


66,1 . 


66,5 • 


67, 10 


68,9 . 


7°, 1 • 


70,4 • 


71,6 . 


VII, 1, 21 . 


2,3 • 


2,5 . 


2,6 . 


2,7 • 


2, 8-11 


3,3 • 


3,4 • 


3,5 . 


4,3 . 


7,2 . 


9,3 • 


9,5 . 


10, 5 • 


", 1 . 


16,9 . 


17,4 • 


18, 2 . 


18, 18 


18,25 


22, 8 . 


34,5 • 


31, 11 


3.2, 27 


36,1 . 


36,6. 


38,8 . 


39, 1 • 


39,3 • 


4°, 3 • 


43, 1 . 


42, 4 . 


43,* • 


43,4 • 


43,5 • 



PACE 






319 




VII, 48, 3 


25 




5i,3 • 


71, 


[89 


56,4 • 


84 




56,6 . 


27, 203, 322 


56, 16 . 


251 




57,4 • 


274 




58,5 < 


107, 


216 


59,3 . 


84 




61,5 


203 




63, 2 . 


192 




66, 10 . 


341 




66, 11 . 


359 




77,2 . 


329 




77, 3 • 


112 




82,4 . 


134 




82,5 . 


95 




83,5 


127 




83,9 


3 




86,7 . 


190 




87,3 • 


272 




87,4 • 


218 




9«>,5 


239 




91,3 


200 




9», 3 • 


11 




95,4 • 


239 




96, 1 


214 




97,4 


345 




97,9 • 


320 




97, 10 • 


58 




98,2 . 


246 




101, 1 , 


63, 118 


104, 21 


40 




VIII, i, 29 . 


72 




5, 16 . 


50 




5,21 


98 




5,25 • 


210 




5,33 • 


81 




6,24 . 


84 




7, 30 • 


274 




8, 22 


46 




12, it 


135, 


286 


12, 32 . 


203 




13, 1 • 


184, 


185 


13,6 . 


105 




13, 14 


226 




15, 10 • 


408 




17, 15 • 


238 




19, 1 


373 




19, 2 


18 




19,4 


'77, 


2CO 


•9, 22 


90 




I9,3i 


238 




21,259 


63 




22, 12 


411 




23, 23 



PAGE 

71 

200 

ri6 

394 
320 

355 
112 

97 

116 

286 

205 

27, 208 

3H 

59 

216 

'59 

216 

203 

312 

101 

3'4 

79 

4 

86 

411 

203 

257 

71, 203 

216 

222 

105, 260 

132 

358 

35 

196 

35 

43 
381 

107 
203 
225 
161 
225 
207 

154 

86 

404 

140 

299 

257 

212 

41, 106 

257 

174 

171 



Digitized by 



Google 



492 



VEDIC HYMNS. 



VIII, 33, s8 
34, 1 
24, 14 
as, 5 

26, 13 

27, 10 
31,9 
3i,i4 
32, 10 

35,19 
38,2 

39,1 

39, a 
39,9 

40, 1 
4', 3 

41, 10 

43,a 

43,31 

44, >9 

47,i6 

49,* 

50, 2 

5<>,8 

5i,4 
52,8 
53,6 
59,« 
60,3 
61,7 
67,3 

71,12 

71, 15 

73,3 

73, 13 

74,6 

76,9 

76, 12 

82,3 

84,1 

84,4 

87,4 

88,1 

96, 10 

9 6 > »3 
98,6 

101, 16 

102, 11 
102, 12 

102, 22 

103,7 
103,8 

103, 13 

IX, 5, 3 • 
5,10 







84 


IX, 8,4 . 






320 


11,5 • 






152 


13,9 • 






123 


15,8 . 






272 


16, 6 . 






190 


18,4 . 






274 


19,1 . 






204 


33, 3 . 






• "3, *78 


33,5 • 






44 


38,5 • 






265 


39, 3 . 






201 


40, 2 . 






7> 


43,5 • 






210 


47,4 • 






• 133 


5°, * • 






208 


53,3 . 






. 62 


59,3 . 






53 


62,17 






358 


63, 11 






260 


64, io 






406 


65,13 






56 


66, 1 . 






. 56 


67, 12 






183 


68,3 • 






242, 295 


68,8 . 






280 


69,5 • 






225 


7<>,3 • 






»58 


7i,i; 






• 133 


7», 3 • 






. 210 


7«» 5 • 






191 


7i,7 • 






355 


73,6 . 






136 


74,1 • 






343, 337, 4<>4 


74,4 • 






. 190 


75,3 • 






3 


76,4 • 






44 


81, 1 . 






212 


82, 2 . 






97 


83,5 • 






'95 


85,5 • 






97 


85,11 






156 


86,3 . 






»95 


86,4 • 






203 


86,14 






93 


87, 1 . 






. 183 


87,3 . 






19 


93,5 • 






358 


93,1 . 






361 


96, 10 






40 


96, 20 






118, 171 


97,31 






35 


97, 34 






29 


97,48 






3 


97,57 






12 


98,1 . 



PACE 
162 
150 
380 
162 

353 
140 
216 

334 
362 
363 
146 
246 
286 
118 

41 
210 

123 

335 
IO6 
207 
334 

3 

383 

312 

200 

264 

345 
364 

334 

in 

272 

313 

404 

264 

161, 180 

65,77 

3M 

386 

364 

286 

334 
286 

139 
364 

3 »3, 365 

90 

183 

163 

93 

286 
264 

65,77 
90 
162 
410 



Digitized by 



Google 



LIST OF IMPORTANT PASSAGES. 



493 



FAGS 


PACE 


IX, too, 3 . . 




316 


X, 48, 2 . . . . 384 


102, i; 8 . 




323 


49,6 . 






36 


i«>3,3 






225 


50,1 . 






267 


106, 14 . 






210 


52,6 . 






. 258 


107, 18 






344 


53. ' • 






200 


in, 2 






• 65, 77 


53,2 . 






• 3,73 


in, 3 






116, 127 


53,3 • 






• 225 


X, 1, 2 . 






78 


53, 6 .. 






43 


2,6 . 






136 


61,4 . 






398 


3»» • 






225 seq. 


6i,7 • 






80 


3,3 • 






98 


61,8 . 






79 


4, 3 • 






16a 


61, 13 






333 


4,7 • 






134 


61, 14 






73 


5, 1 . • 






408 


6l, 31 






165 


6,1 . 






136 


«3, 5 • 






231 


7,5 • 






171 


63,8 . 






• 351 


8,1 . 






150 


64, 4 • 






203 


8, a . 






306 


64, 11 






163 


9, 1 . 






224 


«4, 15 






417 


m,5 • 






196, 204 


65 . . 






250 


11, 6 . 






*34 


65,6 . 






250 


«, 3 • 






338 


65,8. 






350 


13,3 • 






243 


65, «o 






II, 3l8 


14, 10; 1 


1 




29 


66, 13 






334 


15, 6 . 






355 


66,13 






11 


16, s . 






225 


67, 1 . 






343 


17, a . 






123 


7o,7 • 






11 


ai, 1 . 






358 


70, 10 






13 


21, a . 






390 


73,5 • 






35 


33,7 • 






80 


74,3 • 






334 


26,4 . 






149 


76,3 • 






69 


37,4 • 






I84, I85 


79, * • 






270 


37,7 • 






402 


79,3 • 






• 343, 343 


»7, 13 






224 


79,5 • 






345 


30,6 . 






, 122 


80, 4 . . 






78 


3i,5 • 






"4 


80,7 . 






303 


3i,7 • 






273 


81, 1 . 






264 


32,6 . 






370 


83,6 . 






62 


33, * • 






2 54 


83,4 • 






414 


33,7 • 






36 


84,7 ■ 






216 


39,4 • 






19 


85,18 






116 


39,io 






59 


85, 19 






37 


39, '4 






58, 272 


85,»3 






434 


40, a . 






100 


87,9 . 






224 


41, 1 . 






203 


87, 18 






20 


44, 1 • 






86 


87,30 






3I 4 


44,4 • 






48 


89,7 • 






133 


45, « • 






189 


89, «o 






374 


45,3 . 






7« 


89,11 






367 


45, 10 






59 


9o, 15 






85 


46, a . 






204 


91, 1 . 






191 


46,8 . 






171 


91,7 • 






345 


46, 10 






226 


91,10 






189 


47,6 . 






»43 


93, 1 . 






196 


47,7 • 






»55, »45 


93,4 • 






106 



Digitized by 



Google 



494 



VEDIC HYMNS. 





FACE 




PACE 


X, 93, 6 . . . 


• 177 


X, 118, 5 . . . 


257 


93, io . . 


• 19 


119, 13 . 


. . 


257 


94, 7 ; 8 . 


. 3H 


121, 2 


. . 


15' 


94, 1 1 . . 


• 77 


122,3 • 


. . 


380 


96, 10 . . 


. 286 


122,4 • 


. . 


392 


97, 1 . . . 


• 144 


•23, 4 


. . 


65 


99, 6 . . . 


• *34 


125, 1 


. . 


2O0 


100, 8 . . 


• 417 


126, 8 


. . 


355 


101, 7 . • 


. 58, 380 


132.5 


. . 


90 


103, 3 . . 


• 29 


133, 3 


i . 


71 


104, 8 . . 


• 330 


138,6 


. . 


27 


106, 5 . . 


. 320 


«39,a 


. . 


90 


108, 3 . . 


• 90 


139, 3 


. . . 


124 


108,7 • • 


• 339 


147, 1 


. . . 


69 


no . . . 


. 180 


148,3 


. . . 


71,421 


110,3 . . 


. 238 


150, 1 


. 1 . 


257 


110,4 . . 


. 224 


»59, 5 


. . . 


19 seq. 


110,9 . . 


. 238 


•<>4, 3 


. . . 


93 


no, 10 . . 


. 180 


168, 3 


. . . 


3 c6 


113,8 . . 


• 345 


172, 1 


• . . 


U5 


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. 207 


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250 


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. . . 


267 


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• 35 


»7<>, 3 


. . . 


94 


118,3 . 


• 3 


190,2 . . . 


27 




ATHARVA-VEDA. 




IV, ,, 2 . . 


• »95 


XI, 2, 13 . . . 


168 


V, 4, 3 • • 


. . 11 


7, 5 • • • • 


295 


28,7 • 


. . 11 


XII, 2, 45 . . . 


376 


VI, 43, 3 • 


• 30 


4, 6; 12; 26 . 


20 


VI 1,90, 3 • 


. . 408 


XV, 12, 6; 10 . . 


20 


VIII.3, 7 • • 


• • 353 


XIX, 39, 6-8. . 


II 




vAgasaneyi-saj/hitA. 




V,i 7 . . 


. . 224 


XX, 44 . 


328 


VI, 26. . 


. . 121 


XXII, 2 . 


171 


35- • 


. . 121 


XXIII, 57 . 


27 


IX, 4 . . 


• • 369 


XXVIII, 7 . 


n 


XVII, 54- • 


. . 354 


XXXVIII, i 


10 . 


411 



M AITRAY A #1 YA-SA.A/HITA. 

11,4,2 . . . . 333 

TAITTIRlYA-SAJ/HITA. 

Ill, I, 6, 2 . . . 

IV, 1,8, 3 . . • 

2, 4, 2 . . . 

V,7,8, 1 . . . 



I, 3, 6, 1 . 


. 12, 254 


5, 3, 2 . 


. 168 


6,6,1 . 


. 20 


7, 8, 2 . 


. 408 


11,4, 11,4 . 


. 20 



369 
156 

286 

295 



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LIST OF IMPORTANT PASSAGES. 



495 



aitareya-brAhmaa^a. 



40. 



PAGE 
253 
367 



PAGE 

111,34 8o 

VII.34 36i 



I» 6, 3, 38 . 

tt 7,4,4 • 

II, I, I, 8 . 

4,4,4 • 

111,4, 1, 20 . 

4, 1,21 • 

9, 4, "8 . 



1,2, », "3 
2, 1, 20 



DATAPATH A-BRAhMA^A. 

IV, 6, 6, 5 . . 
VII, 1, 1, 22 seq. 
XII, 4, 4, 2 • • 



86 

80 
306 

361 
304 seq. 
306 



5, 2, 15 
XIV, 3, 1, 9 . 

9, 4, 3 • 



taittirIya-brAhmaa^a. 



305 
376 



HI, 7, 3, 5 



189 

285 
386 
144 

411 
19 



386 



paa > atavo/.sa-brAhmaa 7 a. 

XIII, 3, 12 . . . 3S8 XXV, 7, 4 ... 180 

taittirIya-Araatyaka. 



IV, ,1,4 

33. 



V, 9, 7 .... 411 

AsvalAyana-srautasOtra. 



411 

93 



III, 1, 8 seq. 

4, I • 
12,4 . 



253 

284 

5 



IV, 8, 20 

V, 7, 3 • 
XII, 11, 1. 



286 
197 



V, 15, 2 seq 
VIII, 16 . . 



sAnkhAyana-srautasOtra. 

253 VIII, 21 .... 20 

267 

kAtyAyana-srautasOtra. 



IV, 8, 16 . . 
VI, 3, 17. . 
IX, 8, 8 seq. 



306 

255 
189 



IX, 8, 11 . 

XII, 6, 10. 

XXIV, 3,42. 



189 

44 
44 



.SANKHAYANA-G/?/HYASCrTRA. 

II, 2, 1 . . . . 200 V, 5, 4 .... j 

MANU. 

VIII, 44 .... 168 

mahAbhArata. 

XIV, 280 .... 224 



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FOR THE SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST 499 



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500 TRANSLITERATION OF ORIENTAL ALPHABETS, 





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Sacred Books of the East 

TRANSLATED BY VARIOUS ORIENTAL SCHOLARS 
AND EDITED BV 

THE RIGHT HON. F. MAX MULLER. 

»% This Series is published with the sanction and cooperation of the Secretary of 
Stale for India in Council. 

BBPOBT presented to the AOADEMIE DBS INSCRIPTIONS, Kay 11, 
1883, by M. BXVE8T BEVAH. 

' M. Renan pr&ente trois nouveanx une seconde, dont l'inte>£t historique et 
volumes de la grande collection des religienx ne sera pas inoindie. M. Max 
"Livres sacres de l'Orient" (Sacred Miiller a sn se procurer la collaboration 
Books of the East), que dirige a Oxford, des savans les plus eminens d'Europe et 
avec une si vaste erudition et une critique d'Asie. L'Universit^ d'Oxford, que cette 
si sure, le savant associe' de l'Acad^mie grande publication honore an plus haut 
des Inscriptions, M. Max Miiller. ... La degrl, doit tenir a continuer dans les plus 
premiere sirie de ce beau recueil, com- larges proportions une ceuvre aussi philo- 
posce de 24 volumes, est presque achevee. sophiquement concue que savamment 
M. Max Miiller se propose d'en publier executed.' 

EXTBACT from the Q17ABTEBX.Y REVIEW. 

' We rejoice to notice that a second great edition of the Rig- Veda, can corn- 
series of these translations has been an- pare in importance or in usefulness with 
nounced and has actually begun to appear, this English translation of the Sacred 
The stones, at least, out of which a stately Books of the East, which has been devised 
edifice may hereafter arise, are here being by his foresight, successfully brought so 
brought together. Prof. Max Miiller has far by his persuasive and organising 
deserved well of scientific history. Not power, and will, we trust, by the assist- 
a few minds owe to his enticing words ance of the distinguished scholars he has 
their first attraction to this branch of gathered round him, be carried in due 
study. But no work of his, not even the time to a happy completion.' 

Professor E. HABDY, Inaugural lecture in the University of Freiburg, 1887. 
' Die allgemeine vergleichende Reli- internationalen Orientalistencongress in 
gionswissenschaft datirt von jenem gross- London der Grundstein gelegt worden 
artigen, in seiner Art einzig dastehenden war, die Ubersetzung derheiligen Biicher 
Unternehmen, zu welchem auf Anregung des Ostens' {the Sacred Books of the 
Max Miillers im Jahre 1874 auf dem East). 

The Bon. ALBERT S. 0. CANNING, 'Words on Existing Beligions.' 
* The recent publication of the " Sacred a great event in the annals of theological 
Books of the East" in English is surely literature.' 



OXFORD 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 

LONDON: HENRY FROWDE 

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE, AMEN CORNER, E.C. 



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SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST: 



FIRST SERIES. 

Vol. I. The Upanishads. 

Translated by F. Max Muller. Part I. The JTMndogya- 
upanishad, The Talavakara-upanishad, The Aitareya-arawyaka, 
The Kaushitaki-brahma«a-upanishad, and The Va^asaneyi- 
sawhila-upanishad. Second Edition. 8vo, cloth, \os. 6d. 

The Upanishads contain the philosophy of the Veda. They have 
become the foundation of the later Veddnta doctrines, and indirectly 
of Buddhism. Schopenhauer, speaking of the Upanishads, says : 
'In the whole world there is no study so beneficial and so elevating 
as that of the Upanishads. It has been the solace of my life, it will 
be the solace of my death! 

[See also Vol. XV.] 

Vol. II. The Sacred Laws of the Aryas, 

As taught in the Schools of Apastamba, Gautama, Vasish/tfa, 
and Baudh&yana. Translated by Georg BOhlkr. Part I. 
Apastamba and Gautama. Second Edition. 8vo, cloth, \os. 6d. 

The Sacred Laws of the Aryas contain the original treatises on 
which the Laws of Manu and other lawgivers were founded. 

[See also Vol. XIV.] 

Vol. hi. The Sacred Books of China. 

The Texts of Confucianism. Translated by James Legge. 
Part I. The Shu King, The Religious Portions of the Shih 
King, and The Hsiao King. Second Edition. 8vo, cloth, 1 2s. 6d. 

Confucius was a collector of ancient traditions, not the founder of 
a new religion. As he lived in the sixth and fifth centuries B. C. 
his works are of unique interest for the study of Ethology. 
[See also Vols. XVI, XXVII, XXVIII, XXXIX, and XL.] 

Vol. IV. The Zend-Avesta. 

Translated by James Darmesteter. Part I. The Vendtdad. 
Second Edition. 8vo, cloth, 14*. 

The Zend-Avesta contains the relics of what was the religion of 
Cyrus, Darius, and Xerxes, and, but for the battle of Marathon, 



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might have become the religion of Europe. It forms to the present 
day the sacred book of the P arsis, the so-called fire-worshippers. 
[See also Vols. XXIII and XXXI.] 

Vol. V. Pahlavi Texts. 

Translated by E. W. West. Part I. The Bundahij, Bahman 
Ya*t, and Shayast la-shayast. 8vo, cloth, 1 2s. 6d. 

The Pahlavi Texts comprise the theological literature of the revival 
of Zoroaster's religion, beginning with the Sassanian dynasty. They 
are important for a study of Gnosticism. 

[See also Vols. XVIII, XXIV, XXXVII, and XLV1I.] 

Vols. VI and IX. The Quran. 

Parts I and II. Translated by E. H. Palmer. Second Edition. 
8 vo, cloth, a i s. 

This translation, carried out according to his own peculiar views 
of the origin of the Qur'dn, was the last great work ofE. H. Palmer, 
before he was murdered in Egypt. 

Vol. vii. The Institutes of Vishmi. 

Translated by Julius Jolly. 8vo, cloth, iar. 6d. 

A collection of legal aphorisms, closely connected with one of the 
oldest Vedic schools, the KaMas, but considerably added to in later 
time. Of importance for a critical study of the Laws of Manu. 

Vol. viii. The Bhagavadgtta.with The Sanatsufatiya, 
and The Anugita. 

Translated by Kashinath Trimbak Telakg. Second Edition. 
8vo, cloth, i or. 6d. 

The earliest philosophical and religious poem of India. It has been 
paraphrased in Arnold's 'Song Celestial.' 

Vol. X. The Dhammapada, 

Translated from Pali by F. Max Muller ; and 

The Sutta-Nipata, 
Translated from Pali by V. Fausb5ll ; being Canonical Books 
of the Buddhists. Second Edition. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

The Dhammapada contains the quintessence of Buddhist morality. 
The Sutta-Nipdla gives the authentic leaching of Buddha on some 
of the fundamental principles of religion. 



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Translated from Pali by T. W. Rhys Davids, i. The Maha- 
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Sutta. 3. The Tevigga, Suttanta; 4. The Akankheyya Sutta ; 
5. The Aetokhila Sutta; 6. The Maha-sudassana Suttanta; 
7. The Sabbasava Sutta. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 
A collection of the most important religious, moral, and philosophical 
discourses taken from the sacred canon of the Buddhists. 

Vol. XII. The 6atapatha-Brahma«a, according to the 
Text of the Madhyandina School. 

Translated by Juuus Eggfxing. Part I. Books I and II. 
8vo, cloth, 1 2s. 6d. 

A minute account of the sacrificial ceremonies of the Vedic age. 
It contains the earliest account of the Deluge in India. 
[See also Vols. XXVI, XLI, XL1II, and XLIV.] 

Vol. XIII. Vinaya Texts. 

Translated from the Pali by T. W. Rhys Davids and Hermann 

Oldenberg. Part I. The Patimokkha. The Mahavagga, I-IV. 

8vo, cloth, 1 ox. 6d. 

The Vinaya Texts give for the first lime a translation of the moral 

code of the Buddhist religion as settled in the third century B. C. 

[See also Vols. XVII and XX.] 

Vol. xiv. The Sacred Laws of the Aryas, 

As taught in the Schools of Apastamba, Gautama, Vasish/Aa, 
and Baudhayana. Translated by Georg Buhler. Part II. 
VasishMa and Baudhayana. 8vo, cloth, \os. 6d. 

Vol. XV. The Upanishads. 

Translated by F. Max Muller. Part II. The Ka/Aa-upanishad, 
The Muwrfaka-upanishad, The Taittinyaka-upanishad, The 
Br/hadarawyaka-upanishad, The .Svet&rvatara-upanishad, The 
PraxSa-upanishad, and The Maitraya»a-brahma«a-upanishad. 
Second Edition. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

Vol. XVI. The Sacred Books of China. 

The Texts of Confucianism. Translated by James Legge. 
Part II. The Y! King. 8vo, cloth, iox. 6d. 
[See also Vols. XXVII, XXVIII.] 

Vol. XVII. Vinaya Texts. 

Translated from the Pali by T. W. Rhys Davids and Hermann 
Oldenberg. Part II. The Mahavagga, V-X. The ATullavagga, 
I— III. 8vo, cloth, ioj. 6d. 



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Vol. xviii. Pahlavi Texts. 

Translated by E. W. West. Part II. The Da<fistan-i Dinik 
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Vol. xix. The Fo-sho-hing-tsan-king. 

A Life of Buddha by Ajvaghosha Bodhisattva, translated from 
Sanskrit into Chinese by Dharmaraksha, a.d. 420, and from 
Chinese into English by Samuel Beal. 8vo, cloth, ior. 6d. 

This life of Buddha was translated from Sanskrit into Chinese, 
A.D. 420. // contains many legends, some of which show a certain 
similarity to the Evangelium infantiae, tfc. 

Vol. XX. Vinaya Texts. 

Translated from the P£li by T. W. Rhys Davids and Hermann 
Oldenberg. Part III. The A\illavagga, IV-XII. 8vo, cloth, 
\os. 6d. 

Vol. XXI. The Saddharma-pu»darlka ; or, The Lotus 
of the True Law. 

Translated by H. Kern. 8vo, cloth, 1 2s . 6d. 

' The Lotus of the True Law' a canonical book of the Northern 
Buddhists, translated from Sanskrit. There is a Chinese transla- 
tion of this book which was finished as early as the year 286 A.D. 

Vol. XXII. <7aina-Sutras. 

Translated from Prakrit by Hermann Jacobi. Part I. The 
A^iranga-Sutra and The Kalpa-Sutra. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

The religion of the Gainas was founded by a contemporary of Buddha. 
It still counts numerous adherents in India, while there are no 
Buddhists left in India proper. 

[See Vol. XLV.] 

Vol. XXIII. The Zend-Avesta. 

Translated by James Darmesteter. Part II. The Sfrdzahs, 
Yafts, and Nyayix. 8vo, cloth, 10*. 6d. 

Vol. XXIV. Pahlavi Texts. 

Translated by E. W. West. Part III. Dina-i Maindg- 
Khirarf, Sikand-gumanik Vig&r, and Sad Dar. 8vo, cloth, 
1 ox. 6d. 



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SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST: 



SECOND SERIES. 

Vol. XXV. Manu. 

Translated by Georg Buhler. 8vo, cloth, 2 if. 
This translation is founded on that of Sir William fonts, which 
has been carefully revised and corrected with the help of seven native 
Commentaries. An Appendix contains all the quotations from Manu 
which are found in the Hindu Law-books, translated for the use of 
the Law Courts in India. Another Appendix gives a synopsis of 
parallel passages from the six Dharma-sAtras, the other Smritis, 
the Upanishads, the Mahdbhdrala, 6;c. 

Vol. XXVI. The »Satapatha-Brahma«a. 

Translated by Julius Eggeling. Part II. Books III and IV. 
8vo, cloth, I2f. 6d. 

Vols, xxvii and xxviii. The Sacred Books of China. 

The Texts of Confucianism. Translated by James Legge. Parts 
III and IV. The LI K\, or Collection of Treatises on the Rules 
of Propriety, or Ceremonial Usages. 8vo, cloth, 25*. 

Vol. XXIX. The Grzhya-Sutras, Rules of Vedic 
Domestic Ceremonies. 

Part I. -Sankhiyana, Ajvalayana, Paraskara, Khadira. Trans- 
lated by Hermann Oldenberg. 8vo, cloth, 12*. 6d. 

Vol. XXX. The Gr/hya-Sutras, Rules of Vedic 
Domestic Ceremonies. 

Part II. Gobhila, Hirawyakcrin, Apastamba. Translated by 
Hermann Oldenberg. Apastamba, Ya^a-paribhasha-sutras. 
Translated by F. Max Muller. 8vo, cloth, 12s. 6d. 
These rules of Domestic Ceremonies describe the home life of the 
ancient Aryas with a completeness and accuracy unmatched in any 
other literature. Some of these rules have been incorporated in the 
ancient Law-books. 

vol. XXXI. The Zend-Avesta. 

Part III. The Yasna, Visparad, AfrfnagSn, Gahs, and 
Miscellaneous Fragments. Translated by L. H. Mills. 8vo, 
cloth, 12s. 6d. 

Vol. xxxii. Vedic Hymns. 

Translated by F. Max Muller. Part I. 8vo, cloth, iSs. 6d. 
[See also Vol. XLVI.] 

Vol. XXXIII. The Minor Law-books. 

Translated by Julius Jolly. Part I. NSrada, Bnhaspati. 
8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 



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Vol. xxxiv. The Vedanta-Sutras, with the Com- 
mentary by 6ankaraiarya/ Part I. 

Translated by G. Thibaut. 8vo, cloth, 1 2$. 6d. 
[See also Vol. XXXVIII.] 

Vols. XXXV and xxxvi. The Questions of King 
Milinda. 

Translated from the Pali by T. W. Rhys Davids. 
Part I. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. Part II. 8vo, cloth, 12s. 6d. 

Vol. XXXVII. Pahlavi Texts. 

Translated by E. W. West. Part IV. The Contents of the 
Nasks, as stated in the Eighth and Ninth Books of the 
Dlnkard. 15*. 

Vol. xxxviii. The Vedanta-Sutras. Part II. 8vo, 

cloth, with full Index to both Parts, 1 2s . 6d. 

Vols, xxxix and XL. The Sacred Books of China. 
The Texts of Taoism. Translated by James Leggk. 8vo, 
cloth, 2 1 s. 

Vol. XLI. The 6atapatha- Brahmawa. Part III. 
Translated by Julius Eggeung. 8vo, cloth, 12*. 6d. 

Vol. XLII. Hymns of the Atharva-veda. 
Translated by M. Bloomfield. 8vo, cloth, 2 if. 

VOL. XLIII. The .Satapatha-Brahmawa. 

Translated by Julius Eggeling. Part IV. Books VIII, 
IX, and X, 12s. 6d. 

Vol. XLIV. The 6atapatha-Brahma«a. 

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