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Introduction .... 
Abbreviations used in this volume 



DfNKA/u), Book VII. 


i. Descent of the glorious destiny .... 

2. Parentage of Zaraturt 






His birth, childhood, and youth till his conference 
His missions to the Karaps, and Viftisp's conversion 
Events in the last thirty-five years of his life . 
Further events till the death of Vwtasp . 
,, ,. till end of Sisinian monarchy 

8. „ „ till end of Zaratuft's millennium 

9. Atish6</ar's millennium 

10. AftsheVar-mih's millennium 

1 1 . S6shins and the renovation .... 



D Ink a/id, Book V. 

Kai-Loharisp at Jerusalem, and descent of the religion . 1 1 9 

Parentage, birth, and life of Zarat(tot. Future apostles . 122 

Events after Vwtisp's conversion and in later times . 126 

Descent of the Iranians. The tribe having a GySmara' . 127 


1 2. Two old legends of Spendarma</ and of the hero Srlt6 . 133 

13. Parentage of Zaratflft 138 

14. Demons try to injure him before and at his birth . .140 

15. Five Karap brothers opposed to Zaralfwt and his four 

brothers 143 

16. One Karap tries to kill Zaratujt five times . . .144 

I i O i >~>'-t 

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17. Another foretells his glorious destiny . 

1 8. His father disagrees with him .... 

19. And he disagrees with his father and the chief Karap 

20. Legends indicative of his good disposition 

2 1 . His going to confer with Ahha.rma.zd . 

22. His conferences with the archangels 

23. Dates of conversions, births, and deaths 

24. Five dispositions of priests and ten admonitions . 


Erratum . 




Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the Trans- 
lations of the Sacred Books of the East . . .183 

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i. In the summary account of the Spend Nask, given in 
the eighth book of the Diakard, chapter XIV, it is stated in 
§ 4 (see S. B. E., vol. xxxvii, p. 32) that many marvels, owing 
to Zaratujt, are published therein, 'just as there are some 
which, collected and selected, are noticed by the Dlnkarrf 
manuscript.' This statement evidently refers to the seventh 
book of the Dinkaro?, which contains the legendary history 
of Zaratfi.rt and his religion, related as a series of marvels 
extending from the creation to the resurrection of mankind. 
A much briefer account of some of the same details occurs 
at the beginning of the fifth book of the Dinkard, and 
appears to have been abridged from a compilation which 
was either derived partially from a foreign source, or pre- 
pared for the use of foreign proselytes. A third compila- 
tion of similar legends is found among the Selections of 
Zarf-sparam. And a careful translation of these three 
Pahlavi Texts constitutes the Marvels of Zoroastrianism 
contained in this volume. 

2. As the extent of Dk. VII is about i6,coo Pahlavi 
words (without allowing for one folio lost), it probably 
contains about four-fifths of the details included in the 
Spend Nask, the Pahlavi version of which has been esti- 
mated, in S. B. E., vol. xxxvii, p. 469, to extend to 20,500 
words. It says very little about Zaratti.rt's conferences 
with the sacred beings (mentioned in Dk. VIII, xiv, 5, 6), 
and gives no description of the other world and the way 
thither (as reported ibid. 8). But it probably contains 
many verbatim extracts from other parts of the Pahlavi 
version of the Spend Nask, which appear, however, to have 
been previously collected in the Exposition of the Good 
Religion, an older MS. than the Dlnkard, which is quoted 
as an authority in Dk. VII, i, 2. 

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3. This seventh book commences with a detailed 
statement of the descent of the glorious ruling dynasty 
from the primeval man Gaydmarc/, through his descen- 
dants, the Pe\fdarfian and Kayanian rulers, to Kai-VLrtasp. 
Among the individuals, rarely mentioned elsewhere, are the 
sacred being Hadish (the protector of homesteads in the 
Visperad), Vaegerea? the brother of king H6shang,. Pata- 
khsr6b6 king of the Arabs, and Adshnar the chancellor of 
Kai-tTs. Zaraturt and the three millennial apostles are 
also mentioned, but the contents of this first chapter are 
probably derived from the Kitrad&d Nask (see Dk. VII, 
xiii, 20) and from Yt. XIX, 25-93. 

4. Chapter II begins the legendary history of Zaratujt 
with the descent of his glory, from the presence of 
A&harmazd to the house in which Zaratu^t's mother was 
about to be born ; and, alarmed at her radiance, the Kavigs 
and Karaps, or ruling priests of the district, oblige her 
father to send her away to another valley, where P6ru- 
shasp6 resided, to whom she was afterwards married j and 
several legends are related, in which both the archangels 
and archdemons are active agents, which lead on to the 
birth of ZaratfLrt, thirty years before the end of the ninth 
millennium of the universe, and his complete genealogy is 

5. Chapter III begins with his laughing at birth, and 
describes the ill-will of the Karaps, or priests of those 
times, and their many attempts to destroy him during his 
childhood, till he openly defied them at the age of seven. 
At the end of the ninth millennium, when he was thirty 
years old, as he was bringing Hdm-water out of the fourth 
effluent of the Datti river, he met the archangel Vohumand 
who had come to invite him to a conference with 
Auharmasrf, about which no details are given. 

6. Chapter IV, however, proceeds to mention that, in 
two years, he returned from his first conference, by order 
of A&harmaxd, to preach his religion to the Ktgs and 
Karaps in the presence of their ruler, Aurvaita-dang the 
Tur. They seem to have listened attentively till he advo- 
cated Khv&ukdas, when they demanded his death, and 

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were supported by the Tur's brother ; but the Tur's son, 
who presided, remonstrated with them, and Aurvaita-dang 
himself protected him, but refused to be converted. 
Zaratujt was afterwards sent to demand slaves and horses 
from Vedvolrt, a rich Karap, who refused them arrogantly ; 
he also went to Varshad-gau in Sagastan and cured his bull 
with H6m-water, whereupon Parsharf-gau joined him in 
worship, but not in public. Zarat&rt repulsed the demons 
as in Vd. XIX, 1-4 ; he is then tempted by a Karap in 
the form of Spendarma*/, whom he also repulses. And he 
is finally sent to the court of VLrtasp, where he is relent- 
lessly opposed by the Kfgs and Karaps who obtained his 
imprisonment, during which he is saved from starvation by 
a miracle ; then some of the sacred beings arrive to assist 
him, and VLrtasp is at last converted, twelve years after 
the coming of the religion when Zarat&rt went to his first 
conference with Auharmae*/. 

7. Chapter V refers to the marvels of the last thirty-five 
years of Zarattirt's life, after VLrtasp's conversion, but says 
nothing about his own death, except that he departed to the 
best existence at the age of seventy-seven. It mentions the 
establishment of ordeals of thirty-three kinds, the victory of 
VLrtasp over Ar^asp the Khy6n, the useful works and 
advice of ZaratOrt, the compilation of the Avesta, and the 
birth of P£shydtan, the immortal ruler of Kangd«r. 

8. Chapter VI continues this account of marvels till the 
death ofVLrtasp, which occurred forty-three years later. The 
legends related are about the presentation of a heavenly 
chariot to VLrtasp by the soul of an old hero Srit6 who had 
been killed about 350 years before; and regarding the 
coming of two high-priests from the southern regions of 
the earth, ten years after the departure of Zaratfirt, to 
enquire about the religion. 

9. Chapter VII relates the marvels occurring after the 
death of VLrtasp until the end of the sovereignty of Iran ; 
mentioning king Voh6man6 who was a grandson of VLrtasp, 
the high-priest 5en6v who lived throughout the second 
century of the religion, the devastator Alexander the 
Great, the four successive high-priests who restore ortho- 

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doxy in the fifth and sixth centuries of the religion, the 
apostate Rashn-r£sh of about the same period, king 
Artakhshatar the founder of the Sasanian dynasty, his 
chancellor Tanvasar, Aturparf-t Maraspendan and his son 
surnamed Avarethrabau, with an anonymous arch-apostate 
of their time, and then king Khusrd Andsh£rvan. Finally, 
it condemns the proceedings of the devastators in later 
times, whose names are not mentioned. 

10. Chapter VIII deals with the ninth and tenth 
centuries of the religion, which bring the millennium of 
Zaratujt to a close. After a bitter lamentation over the 
anarchy in religion and government — in which parts of 
§§ 34 and 36 are taken from the Varrtmansar commentary 
on Yas. XXXII in Dk. IX, xxxii, 17, 20 — it refers to the 
arrival of ATitr6-meli6nS, ' him of the racial home,' a title 
of P6shy6tano, son of Vijtasp, and immortal ruler of 
Kangd^, who arrives with 150 disciples to restore the 
religion and destroy the wicked, including the Turkish 
demons, the Arabs, and the ecclesiastical Sh&Zaspd 1 
(Theodosius ?). In the thirtieth year before the end of this 
tenth millennium Aush&/ar, the Developer of Righteousness, 
is born, and confers with the archangels at the end of the 
millennium, when the sun stands still for ten days and 

11. Chapter IX describes the eleventh millennium, that 
of Aushedar, who produces much prosperity and progress 
which continue until the fifth century. Then the wizard 
Mahrkus appears for seven years, and produces awful 
winters in four of them, in which most of mankind and 
animals perish, till he is himself destroyed by the Dahman 
AfHn. Afterwards, Yim's enclosure is opened to replenish 
the earth with animals and men who then begin to subsist 
more upon the milk of cattle, which is plentiful; and 
Ashavahijtd interferes to diminish the slaughter of cattle. 
At the end of the fifth century two-thirds of the Iranians 
have become righteous, and in the thirtieth year before the 
end of this eleventh millennium Aushed?ar-mah, the Developer 

1 This name can be read Sh&£sfar in Byt. III. 

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of Worship, is born, and confers with the archangels at the 
end of the millennium, when the sun stands still for twenty 
days and nights. 

12. Chapter X describes the twelfth millennium, that of 
Aush&/ar-mah, during which mankind continue to improve, 
are better supplied, and have fewer wants, while deaths 
occur only through old age and the executioner. During the 
last fifty-three years, they leave off eating meat and subsist 
upon vegetables and milk, for which latter they substitute 
water for the last three years. But the old tyrant Dahak 
breaks loose, and Ker&saspd has to be roused to smite him. 
In the thirtieth year before the end of this twelfth millen- 
nium S6shans, the Triumphant Benefiter, is born ; Kai- 
Khusrd and his companions afterwards arrive to assist him, 
and the sun stands still for thirty days and nights. 

1 3. Chapter XI describes how S6shans and his assistants 
destroy all the evil remaining in the world, during the course 
of fifty-seven years, while mankind subsist for seventeen 
years on vegetables, thirty years on water, and ten years on 
spiritual food. And, at the end of these fifty-seven years, 
Aharman and the fiend are annihilated, and the renovation 
for the future existence occurs. 

14. Several of the details described in Dk. VII are 
briefly mentioned in Dk. V, i-iv, where they are introduced 
by a statement of the siege of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar 
[B&kht-Narstti) assisted by Kai-L6harasp, father of Vwtasp. 
Excepting this account of the siege, in which the Jews are 
evidently called ' a congregation or tribe ' {ram), and some 
remarks about the same ' tribe ' at the end of Chapter IV, 
all the other details which are mentioned have reference 
only to Iranians ; but they are said to be the sayings of 
Atur-farnbag as to the MS. which that tribe call really 
their Gy6mara (Chaps. I, 2, 3 ; IV, 8), as the name can be 
most plausibly read. Most of the strictly Iranian details 
have manifestly been derived from the same sources as 
were consulted by the writer of Dk. VII, that is, from the 
Pahlavi versions of the Spend and ATitradcu/ Nasks. It 
would probably be hazardous to suppose that the Jewish 
compilers of the Gemara could have had access to these 

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sources, and it might be preferable to assume that Atftr- 
farnbag was himself compiling a record of Zoroastrian 
traditions for the use of some converts from Judaism, to 
take the place of the Gemara of their former faith. 

15. The Zaratfi.rt-namak of Za^-sparam is contained in 
the latter half (Zs. XII-XXIII) of the first series of his 
Selections, the former half of which, being a paraphrase of 
the first half of the Bundahi-r, has been translated in S. B. E., 
vol. v, pp. 1 55-1 86. In Chapter XII Zaa?-sparam relates two 
of the earliest legends referring to Ma^ia- worship, which he 
had found in old MSS. The first of these describes the 
appearance of the archangel Spendarmad?, wearing a golden 
sacred girdle, at the court of king Manto/fcihar, 428 l years 
before the coming of the religion to Zarat&rt when he went 
to his conference with the sacred beings. The other is the 
legend of the warrior Sritd, the seventh brother, who was 
sent by Kal-CTs to kill the frontier-settling ox which 
threatened him, 300 years before the coming of the religion, 
with future execration by Zarat&rt. 

16. Chapter XIII refers to the descent of Zaratujt's 
glory upon his mother at her birth, and the combination 
of his spiritual and worldly natures; also detailing his 
genealogy. Chapter XIV describes the attempts of the 
demons to destroy him before and at his birth, when 
Vohtiman& entered his reasoning powers and made him 
laugh with delight and utter one form of the Ahunavair 
formula. Chapter XV is about the five Karap brothers, 
with their first cousins the Atisikhshes, all descended from 
the demon of Wrath and a sister of king Mantij^ihar ; also 
about the four brothers of Zaratfljt who seem to be 
unmentioned elsewhere. 

17. Chapter XVI details the attempts of one of the 
Karaps to destroy Zaratfat during his infancy, and the 
means by which he is preserved ; it also explains who Ragh 
and N6a?ar were. In Chapter XVII one of the Karaps 
foretells the future success of Zaratfljt. In Chapter XVIII 

1 The MSS. have 528, but this would be twenty-eight years before the 
accession of Mandr&har, see the synopsis in § 55. 

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his father hears him accused of folly, and takes him to 
a Karap to be cured. In Chapter XIX the chief Karap 
comes to the house of Zaraturt's father, and is invited to 
consecrate the food set before him ; but Zarattat objects 
and a quarrel ensues, which so much disturbs the Karap 
that he leaves the house, and drops dead from his horse on 
the road home. In Chapter XX instances are given of 
Zarattat's righteous desires, his compassionate assistance of 
people fording a river, his liberal disposition, his abandoning 
worldly desires, his pity for dogs, his wish for a good- 
looking wife, and his acceptance of progress even from the 
wicked, during his youth. 

18. Chapter XXI relates that, at thirty years of age, on 
his way to the festival of spring, he saw in a vision all man- 
kind following M&/ydmah, his first cousin, into his presence. 
He then went on to the bank of the Daltlh, and crossed its 
four channels, when he met Vohtiman6 who led him to the 
assembly of the archangels, where he received instruction 
from Auharm&sa? and saw the omniscient wisdom ; the 
archangels also subjected him to various ordeals. 

19. Chapter XXII refers to his conferences with the 
seven archangels, each at a different place, and extending 
over ten years. In Chapter XXIII, Merfydmah is con- 
verted at the end of these ten years. The next two years 
are spent on the conversion of VLrt&sp, in which Zaratfirt 
is assisted by some of the sacred beings, and the narrative 
ends by giving the dates of several other conversions, births, 
and deaths. But after its 300th year the religion is dis- 
turbed and the monarchy contested ; referring, no doubt, to 
the effects of Alexander's conquest of Persia. 

20. These three narratives appear to be the only con- 
nected statements of the Zoroastrian legend that remain 
extant in Pahlavi, and all three seem to be chiefly derived 
from the Sdsanian Pahlavi version of the Spend Nask, with 
some probable additions from the similar version of the 
A"itrad<U/ Nask, as may be gathered from the summary 
accounts of the contents of these Nasks given in Dk. VIII, 
xiii, ao-xiv, 15, and translated in S. B. E., vol. xxxvii, 
pp. 31-34. There are, however, allusions to other legends 

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regarding Zarattot to be found scattered about in Pahlavi 
literature, to which we shall return after mentioning the 
manuscript authorities for the texts translated in this 

21. The chief existing authority for the Pahlavi text of 
the Dlnkard, Books III-IX, and the only independent one 
for Book VII, is the MS. B in Bombay, which has been 
fully described in S. B. E., vol. xxxvii, pp. xxxiii-xxxvii ; 
it will therefore be sufficient here to give a short statement 
of the information which was there detailed at full length. 
This MS., written in 1659, was an unbound quarto volume 
of 39a folios when it was brought from Iran to Surat in 
1783 ; after which time 70 folios became detached from 
various parts of the MS., but nearly all these had been 
discovered more than twenty years ago. 

22. The writer of the MS. not only recorded the date of 
his own work, but also copied two previous colophons of his 
predecessors, with dates corresponding to A. D. 1516 and 
1020, and it appears that there had been an intermediate 
copy about 1355. The MS. of 1020 had been copied at 
Bakdad, possibly from the original MS. of the last editor 
of the Dinkard, which must have been completed about 
A. D. 900. 

23. For the text of Dk. V we have a second authority, 
independent of B, in the MS. K43 at Kopenhagen (see 
S. B. E., vol. xxxvii, pp. xxxvii-viii), written shortly after 
1594 and also descended from the MS. of 1020. 

24. The Selections of Za</-sparam are found in some of 
the old MSS., which also contain the D&/istan-i Dinik (see 
S. B. E., vol. xviii, pp. xv-xvii). Of the two MSS. used 
for the text of Zav^-sparam's Zaraturt-namak, K35 was 
brought from Iran to Kopenhagen in 1843. It has lost 
many folios, both at the beginning and end ; but, before 
it was so mutilated, a copy (BK) of it was made, which 
is now in Bombay and contains a copy of its colophon, the 
date of which corresponds to A. D. 1592. For the text of 
Zs. xxii, 4-xxiv, 19, which has been lost from K35, the 
translator is indebted to this old copy. The other MS. 
authority T, belonging to Ervad Tehmuras in Bombay 

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(a copy of which has been used), is dated two generations 

25. Regarding the period of Za^-sparam's career we are 
well informed by the date of the third Epistle of Manu- 
skih&r, corresponding to A.D. 881, at which time Za^-sparam 
was probably in the prime of life ; but his Selections were 
certainly compiled as late as A. D. 900, or about the same 
time as the completion of the Dinkarrf. So that the 
Pahlavi texts, from which these three narratives of the 
Zoroastrian legends have been translated, were no doubt 
all written about A. D. 900, and the information they 
contain was nearly all derived from the Pahlavi versions 
of two of the Nasks. 

26. We have reason to believe that the Pahlavi versions 
of Avesta texts were completed in the fourth century and 
revised in the sixth, after the downfall of the heretic 
Mazdak. This may not only be clearly inferred from the 
traditional account of the compilation and restorations of 
the Avesta and Zand, preserved in Dk. IV, 21-36, and 
translated in S. B. E., vol. xxxvii, pp. 412-418 ; but is also 
in accordance with the actual condition of the Pahlavi 
versions of the liturgical Avesta texts. With the exception 
of a few interpolated passages, the whole of these Pahlavi 
versions might have been written, or revised, in the time 
of king Shahpuhar II (a. D. 309-379). And the excep- 
tional passages mention no persons or events of a later 
date than the reign of king Khusrd I (a. d. 531-578) ; 
being merely references to such persons as Mazdak, the 
heretic, and certain commentators who lived about that 

27. If we examine the Zoroastrian legends, translated in 
this volume, we shall also find it difficult to discover 
a passage that clearly alludes to any historical personage 
of later date than Khusrd I, who is named in Dk. V, Hi, 3 ; 
VII, vii, 26, although the compiler of the Dinkarrf had the 
traditions of 250 years of Arab rule to draw upon for facts, 
if he had been disposed to continue the statements of the 
Pahlavi Spend Nask down to his own time. No doubt, 
these traditions may have intensified his denunciations of 

[47] b 

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the devastators in Dk. VII, vii, 29-38 ; viii, 4-9, but, like 
most Pahlavi writers, he is careful not to mention Muham- 
madanism. Dk. VII, vii, 33, 34 seem to refer to some 
particular individual of this later time ; but the references 
to Kaisar and Khakan, the Turkish demons with dishevelled 
hair, the Arab, and Shedaspd (Theodosius ?) of Arum, may 
all have been taken from a Pahlavi version revised in the 
time of Khusrd I. 

28. That the original Pahlavi version was translated from 
an Avesta text, though many Pahlavi commentaries were 
intermingled, appears certain. Apart from the numerous 
quotations from revelation (d£n6), which may be safely 
assumed to have had an Avesta original, there are many 
passages interspersed with glosses, such as the Pahlavi 
translators habitually used, as well as numerous sen- 
tences beginning with a verb, an Avesta peculiarity which 
generally disappears in an English translation. Regard- 
ing the age of this Avesta text it would be hazardous 
to speculate without further information than we yet 

29. The principal details connected with the Zoroastrian 
legends which have been noticed in other Pahlavi and 
Pazand texts, with references to the passages where they 
occur, are as follows : — 

G&s urvan informed of the future coming of Zaraturt in Bd. IV, 4. 

Z.'s genealogy and family in Bd. XXXII, 1-10. 

Summary account of Z. and Zoroastrianism, from the creation 

to the resurrection, in Dk. VIII, xiv, 1-15. 
The abode of Z.'s father, when Z. was born, was on the bank of 

the Dire^a river (Bd. XX, 32 ; XXIV, 15). 
150 demons were prevented from destroying Z., before his birth, 

by the presence of a fire in his father's house (Sis. X, 4 ; XII, 

11; Sd.XVI, 3). 
Detailed account of the birth of Z. in Dk. IX, xxiv, 1-18. 
When Z. first saw the archangels, he thought they were arch- 
demons (Ep. I, x, 9). 
Omniscient wisdom temporarily conferred upon Z., and what he 

then saw (Dk. IX, viii, 1-6 ; Byt. I, 1-5; II, 5-22). 
He saw the soul of Davins tormented in hell, excepting one foot 

(AV. XXXII, 1-6; Sis. XII, 29; Sd. IV, 3-1 1). 

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He also saw a mortal with children and an immortal without 

any, and preferred the former (Dd. XXXVII, 43). 
And he beheld the terrible condition of Keresasp's soul (Dk. IX, 

xv, 1-4). 
Advice of Auharmasrf to Zaratflrt (Sd. XXV, 6-9; LXXXI, 

The demon Envy (Aresh) converses with Z. in Dk. IX, xxxi, 

6-1 1. 
Aharman tempts Z. with the promise of 1000 years dominion, 

in Mkh. LVII, 24-29. 
About MaWdk-mah, in Dk. IX, xliv, 19. 
Z. coming to preach to king Vutasp, in Sg. X, 64-68. 
Archangels assist Z. in converting Vutasp, also the war with 

Ar^asp, in Dk. VIII, xi, 2-4. 
The war of the religion with Ar^asp mentioned in Bd. XII, 33. 
The families of Zaratfijt, Hv6v, and VLrtasp mentioned in Dk. 

VIII, xxix, 25. 
About Frash&rtar and <?amasp in Dk. VIII, xxxviii, 68 ; IX, 

xlii, 8, 9 ; xliv, 17, 18. 
About Kai- Vutasp, Frashfotar, Poru/fcast, &amasp, and Hutds 

in Dk. IX, xlv, 3-5. 
Bra</-rukhsh, or Brsu/rd-rSsh the Tur, mentioned as destroying 

the righteous man, in Dd. LXXII, 8 ; Sd. IX, 5 ; Dk. VIII, 

xxxv, 13; IX, x, 3. 
The last millenniums mentioned in Dk. IX, xxxix, 18 ; xli, 6-8. 
Events in the last two millenniums, in Byt. II, 22-III, 62. 
The resurrection described in Bd. XXX. 

30. Beyond the frequent occurrence of the names of the 
chief actors in the traditions, there are not many references 
to the Zoroastrian legends in the extant Avesta. This is 
owing to the fact that three-fourths of the Avesta texts, 
including the Nasks specially devoted to these legends, 
have been lost. The chief references to them that still 
survive in the Avesta are as follows : — 

The passing on of the kingly glory from ruler to ruler, from 
Haoshyang,ha to Kava-Haosrava, from Zarathmtra to Kava- 
Vfcstaspa and the Saoshyawt, in Yt. XIX, 25-90. 

The terror of the demons on hearing of the birth of Z., in Vd. 
XIX, 43-47. 

Z. mentioned as son of Pourushaspa in Yt. V, 1 8. 

Verethraghna gives Z. strength, health, vigour, and keenness of 
sight (Yt. XIV, 33). 


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References to Z.'s conference with Ahura Mazda, and his rejection 
of the demons, in Yas. XII, 5, 6. 

The demons attempt to destroy Z., and to tempt him, but are 
repelled by recitations, in Vd. XIX, 1-10. 

Commentary on the Ahunavair, in Yas. XIX. 

Z. converses with Haoma, in Yas. IX, 1-16. 

Fate of the soul after death revealed to Z., in Vd. XIX, 26-34. 

Z. is taught various spells, in Yt. XIV, 34-38. 

He prays that he may convert the queen Hutaosa, in Yt. IX, 26; 
XVII, 46. 

References to the battle with Are^a</-aspa, in Yt. V, 109, 113, 
1 16, 117 ; IX, 30; XVII, 50, 51. 

Z.'s reply to Frashaojtra regarding the ritual, in Yas. LXXI, 

There are also other references to Kava-Vi^dspa, Frashaoxtra, 
(?am£spa, Pouruflsta, Maidhydmau, the HaS£a</aspas, Spita- 
mas, and Saoshyawts. And the Fravashis of all the righteous 
persons receive homage in Yt. XIII. Of the unbelievers, the 
Karapans and Kavis are mentioned several times in the 
Gathas and Yarts, including the Hdm Yajt ; and the Usikhsh 
once in the Gathas. 

31. So far as these references in the Avesta extend, 
they agree with the Pahlavi versions of the legends, and 
occasionally state some further particulars. We may, 
therefore, safely conclude that these Pahlavi versions 
present a fairly complete view of the Zoroastrian legends 
current in Sasanian times. But we have another means 
of testing this conclusion more fully in the Persian Zartujt- 
namah, translated by Eastwick in the Appendix to The 
Parsi Religion, as contained in the Zand-Avasta, by John 
Wilson, D.D. (Bombay: 1843). 

33. This Zartujt-namah contains 1570 Persian couplets, 
composed by Zartujt Bahram Pazdu, apparently at the 
ancient city of Rai, and finished on August 12, 1278. But 
Eastwick's English translation was made from a good MS. 
of this poem, written by Dastur Barzu Qiyamu-d-din 
(=Kamdin) in 1636, belonging to the Wilson Collection 
and now in the library of Lord Crawford at Wigan. 
Zarturt Bahram relates how a priest of Rai, named Kai- 
Kaus, son of Kai-Khusr6, showed him an old Pahlavi MS. 

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narrating the history of Zarturt, and offered to interpret 
it, if he would undertake to paraphrase it, in Persian verse, 
for the information of others. 

33. After mentioning Z.'s grandfather and father, de- 
scended from king Fr£dun, a frightful dream of his mother 
is related, in which she sees herself attacked by wild beasts 
eager for the destruction of her son, who drives them away. 
She relates her dream to an astrologer, who prognosticates 
a wonderful career for the unborn child ; but this dream is 
an addition to the Pahlavi texts. 

34. The child is born, and laughs at birth, exciting 
admiration among the women and dismay among the 
magicians. Duransarun, their chief, comes to see the child, 
and tries to kill him with a dagger; but his hand is 
withered, and the magicians carry off the child, who is ex- 
posed to death from fire, oxen, horses, and wolves, but all 
in vain, as his mother brings him home safe on each 
occasion. Another magician, named Bartarush, then fore- 
tells that Z. cannot be destroyed, and will establish a new 
religion ; and he repeats this to the child's father, naming 
Gujt&sp as his future protector. This narrative corresponds 
with Dk. VII, iii, 2-31 ; but then follows the addition that 
he was confided to the care of an old man, named Barztn- 
karus, till he completed his seventh year. 

$5. Then Duransarun and Bartarush went together to 
see him, and tried their magic arts upon him in vain (ibid. 
3a, 33). Afterwards, when Z. was sick, Bartarush supplied 
him with filthy drugs, but he threw them on the ground, 
which seems to be another version of Zs. XVIII, 5, 6. 
Then follows a paraphrase of Dk. VII, iii, 34-48, and Zs. 
XX, 4, 5 ; XXI, 1-20, 23-27, with some additional remarks 
about worship and the Avesta being taught to Z. The 
conferences with the six archangels are more detailed than 
in Zs. XXII, and more ritualistic in their tendency. 

36. When Z. returns to the earth, he is met by the 
demons and magicians, who oppose him, but are killed or 
dispersed by the utterance of an Avesta text ; in which 
account we have an extreme condensation of Dk.VII, iv, 
36-46, 57-62. He then goes to the court of king Gurt4sp, 

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where he is hospitably received by the king, surrounded by 
his princes and wise men. With the latter Z. enters into, 
argument, and overcomes them all successively. This is 
repeated, till all the learned of the realm are vanquished in 
argument, in the course of three successive days. 

37. Then Z. produces the Avesta and Zand, and reads 
a chapter ; but the king hesitates to accept it, until he 
learns more about it ; and Z. retires to his lodgings. In 
the meantime, the wise men form a conspiracy to ruin Z., 
by secreting in his lodgings, with the connivance of his 
doorkeeper, many of the impure things used by sorcerers. 
The next day, while the king and Z. are examining the 
Avesta, the wise men denounce Z. as a sorcerer ; his 
lodgings are searched, and the impurities are brought to 
the king, who becomes angry and commits Z. to prison. 

38. Now the king had a magnificent black horse, and 
when Z. had been a week in prison, this horse fell sick, 
and was found with its four feet drawn up to its belly. 
When the king was informed, he summoned his wise men, 
but they could suggest no remedy ; so the king and all his 
people remained fasting all day and lamenting, and the 
jailer forgot to take any food to Z. till the evening, when 
he told Z. about the state of the black horse. 

39. Z. requested the jailer to inform the king that he 
could cure the horse ; and the king, on hearing this the 
next day, releases Z., who undertakes to restore the horse's 
limbs to their natural state, on receiving four solemn 
promises, one for the cure of each leg. Three of these 
promises are that the king, his son Isfendyar (= Spend-d&tf), 
and the queen, should each undertake to accept his religion 
and never forsake it ; and the fourth promise is that the 
false accusation of sorcery, made by the wise men, should 
be investigated. 

40. After each promise Z. prays vehemently, and each 
limb is restored to use. While, on the confession of Z.'s 
doorkeeper, the wise men are convicted of fraudulent deceit, 
and are sent to execution. The Persian version is here 
a highly embellished paraphrase of Dk. VII, iv, 64-70, 
especially in the horse episode. 

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41. King Gurtasp next asks Z. to pray for information 
as to the king's future position in the other world, also that 
he may become invulnerable, omniscient as to worldly 
affairs, and immortal ; but Z. tells him that he must be 
satisfied with the first wish for himself, and the remaining 
three for other persons. The next day, while the king is 
sitting in court with Z. present, horsemen arrive, who are 
the archangels Bahman and Ardabahut, with the spirits of 
the Khftrdad and Guyasp fires. They are sent to testify 
the truth of Z.'s mission, and to urge the king to accept the 
religion ; this he does, and they then depart ; when Z. 
informs the king that his four wishes will be granted, as he 
will soon see. For some of these details see Dk. VII, iv, 

4a. Zarturt then performs the Darun ceremony, having 
provided wine, perfume, milk, and a pomegranate. After 
reciting prayers from the Avesta, he gives the wine to the 
king to drink, who then falls into a trance and sees his own 
future position in heaven, and those of others. His son 
Peshdtan receives the milk which makes him immortal. 
The perfume, or incense, is given to Gamasp who obtains 
knowledge of all events till the resurrection. And 
Isfendyar, the warlike son of Gujtasp, eats one grain of the 
pomegranate and becomes invulnerable. The Pahlavi 
versions are silent about the king's four wishes and their 
fulfilment, except such hints as may be conveyed in Dk. 
VII, iv, 84-86. Afterwards, Z. reads the Avesta to the 
king and comments upon it ; concluding with praises of 
the creator. 

43. To this narrative Zarturt Bahrain adds a further 
episode of Z. asking for immortality, at the time when he 
went with Bahman to confer with the creator. His request 
is refused, but the creator gives him a drop of liquid to 
drink, like honey, and he sees everything in both worlds, 
as in a vision. When he wakes up, he relates what he saw 
in heaven and hell ; and also describes a tree with seven 
branches of gold, silver, copper, brass, lead, steel, and 
mixed iron, respectively, overshadowing the world. The 
creator explains that these seven branches represent seven 

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powerful personages who arise in successive ages of the 
world. The golden branch is Z. himself, the silver is 
Gujtasp, the copper is an A-ykanian king, the brass is 
Ardashir the Sasanian, the lead is king Bahram (Gdr), the 
steel is N6sh£rvan who destroys the heretic Mazdak, and 
the mixed iron is the malicious monarch who upsets the 
true faith. Then follow many details of the lamentable 
evils which then occur ; and when the Hazirahs x appear, 
the condition of Iran becomes still worse, as described in 
Byt. II, III, until the arrival of king Bahram the Hamavand 
from India, and Peshdtan from Kangdte, who restore the 
Iranian monarchy and religion. 

44. This additional narrative is evidently a paraphrase 
of the Pahlavi Bahman Yart, translated in S. B. E., vol. v, 
pp. 191-235; and that Pahlavi text appears to be merely 
an enlarged edition of Fargard VII of the S<Wkar Nask, of 
which a short summary is given in Dk. IX, viii. 

45. From the foregoing epitome of the Persian Zarturt- 
namah, it will be evident that its author's information was 
a combination of the statements still surviving in Dk. VII 
and Zs. XII-XXIII, so far as they suited his fancy and 
convenience. Many statements are omitted, others either 
condensed, or greatly elaborated ; but very few novelties 
can be detected, excepting such as are clearly due to the 
writer's own imagination. Whether any small residuum of 
these novelties can be attributed to other sources than the 
Persian writer's fancy, must remain doubtful until some 
older authority for such details is discovered. 

46. With regard to Z.'s vision of heaven and hell, which 
is mentioned in Zartujt Bahrain's final episode, his 
immediate informant was certainly Byt. II, n-13 ; but the 
original authority was the Spend Nask, as summarized in 
Dk. VIII, xiv, 7, 8, although Dk. VII omits this incident, 
and Zs. XXI, 21, 32 merely mentions the bodily appearance 
of the omniscient wisdom, without referring to Z.'s vision. 
The details of the conferences with the six archangels, 

1 Those specially belonging to the latter millenniums, probably meaning the 
people who were expected to make most of the last two centuries intolerably 

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which are summarized in Dk. VIII, xiv, 9, as having 
existed in the Spend Nask, are also omitted in Dk. VII, 
though briefly stated in Zs. XXII. 

47. It is worthy of notice that Z. was first sent to offer 
his religion to the Klgs and Karaps and their sovereign, 
Aurvaita-dang the Tur (see Dk. VII, iv, 2-20), who 
seem to have received his doctrines favourably, excepting 
his advocacy of Khvetuk-das *, which led to their rejection 
of his proposal. He was next sent to the Karap Vedvdlrt 
(ibid, a 1-28), whom Auharmasz/ had hitherto befriended; 
but this Karap was rejected for illiberality and arrogance. 
Z. then went to Parsha</-t6ra in Sagastan (ibid. 31-35), 
taking some Hdm-water with him, to cure an infirm bull 
belonging to this chieftain, as soon as the latter had accepted 
the religion in public ; the chieftain assented to the religion, 
though only privately, but this was sufficient to obtain the 
cure of his bull. It was only after these three trials that 
the conversion of king VLrtasp was attempted. 

48. There is some difficulty in understanding the exact 
difference between the primeval religion and that taught by 
Zaraturt. When Dk. VII, i, 9-1 1 speaks of Auharmas</ 
talking with Masye and Masyadi ; or Hadish tells them of 
A&harmazd, the archangels, and the Ahunavair (ibid. 12, 
13); or the sacred beings are said to have taught them the 
primitive arts (ibid. 14) ; or we are told of the existence of 
demons in the times of Hdshang and Takhmdrup (ibid. 1 8, 
19) ; or of AshavahLrtd in the time of king Patakhsrob6 
(ibid. 34) ; it may be urged that the mention of these beings 
in connection with the men of those times is no proof that 
their existence was known then. Because it only shows 
that the old writers, being satisfied that these beings 
existed in their own time and were immortal, only logically 
assumed that they must have existed in former times. The 
really weak point in their argument being the assumption 
of the existence of such beings in their own time. 

49. Safer conclusions may be formed by noticing the 

1 For the meaning of this term, as defined by the texts which use it, see 
S. B. E., vol. xviii, pp. 389-430. 

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dogmas that Zarat&rt most strongly advocates and repro- 
bates. When he goes to his first conference (Dk. VII, iii, 
56-62) he goes in search of righteousness. When he went to 
AurvAtrl-dang, as mentioned above, he advocated the praise 
of righteousness, scorn of the demons, and the observance 
of ceremonies; but it was only his scorn of the demons, 
which took the form of Khvetuk-das, that the Karaps 
really rejected. In Dk. VII, iv, 14, he says, 'worldly 
righteousness is the whole worship of the demons, and the 
end of the Ma^rfa-worship of Z.' Though the H6m plant 
was sacred before Z.'s birth (ibid, ii, 22-47), the H6m-water 
(ibid, iv, 29-35) seems to have been a distinctive token of 
Z.'s religion ; also chanting the Ahunavair (ibid, iv, 38, 41, 
42, 56, 61) and the Avesta in general (ibid. 6^). The 
perverted religion and demonizing of the Kigs and Karaps 
appear to have been the worst faults he had to find with 
them (ibid. 64, 67). And the archangels tell Vi-rtasp that 
the world requires the good religion which proceeds through 
Z.'s recitation, so he should chant the Ahunavair and 
Ashem-vohu, and not worship the demons (ibid. 79, 80). 
Again, when Durasrdb and Bnufr6k-r£sh partake of food 
with P6rush£sp6 and Zaraturt (ibid, iii, 34, 38), the latter 
does not object to the form of worship proposed, but to 
the person selected to conduct it ; and he then proclaims 
his own reverence for the righteous and the poor. 

50. From these statements we may conclude that the 
old writers, who have handed down these legends from 
ancient times, were of opinion that Zaratujt was not so 
much the founder of a totally new religion, as he was 
a reformer who retained as much of the prior religion as 
was not seriously objectionable. While strongly insisting 
upon the necessity of reverencing all good spirits, he strictly 
prohibited all propitiation of evil spirits. His law was to 
resist and destroy all that is evil and injurious to man, and 
to respect and honour all that is good and beneficial to him. 
According to the legends, he seems to have found little 
gross idolatry, in the form of image-worship, to reprobate. 
From the times of the idol-worship encouraged by Dahak 
in Bapel (Dk. VII, iv, 72), and of the destruction of the 

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celebrated idol-temple on the shore of Lake Ktkast by 
Kai-Khusrdi (ibid, i, 39 ; Mkh. ii, 95), we find nothing in 
the legends about this form of idolatry, till 'the oppres- 
siveness of infidelity and idol-worship,' shortly after the 
downfall of the Sasanians, is lamented (Dk. VII, viii, 6). 
Demon- worship (ibid, iii, 35 ; iv, 30 ; vii, 17, 36, 37 ; viii, 
7, 34), although a term sometimes applied to idolatry, seems 
to be often used in its literal sense of 'worship of evil 
spirits,' one form of which is described by Zaratujt (ibid. 

>v, 47-53)- 

51. Another interesting study, for which these Zoroastrian 
legends supply materials, is the traditional chronology 
which they contain; and how far it will be found, upon 
examination, to harmonize with the system stated in Bd. 
XXXIV, or to explain the manifest inaccuracies of that 
system. The matter is rather complicated, but the 
Zoroastrian system can be connected with the European 
system of chronology with some degree of probability. 

52. The epoch of Zoroastrian chronology is 'the coming 
of the religion,' but it has long been doubtful whether 
this event was the birth of Zarat&rt, or his going to 
conference with the sacred beings, or the acceptance of 
the religion by Virtasp. Any doubt, however, as to the 
meaning of the phrase, has now been removed by the 
statement in Dk. VII, viii, 51, that the first century of the 
religion is that from the time when Zaratujt came forth to 
his conference, which event happened when he was thirty 
years old (ibid, iii, 51, 60, 62). It is also stated, in Bd. 
XXXIV, 7, that Virtasp reigned thirty years before the 
coming of the religion, that is, before Zaraturt went to his 
conference. From these data it is evident that the tradi- 
tional Zoroastrian chronology makes the birth of Zarat&rt 
coincide with the accession of VLrtasp. 

53. The nearest date to these events, which is well 
defined in both the Zoroastrian and European systems of 
chronology, is that of the death of Alexander, near mid- 
summer in B.C. 323, which Bd. XXXIV, 7, 8, places 272 
years after the coming of the religion, that is, after the 
thirtieth year of Vi-rtasp's reign. And if this were the first 

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year of the religion, the death of Alexander must have 
occurred in its 273rd year, according to the Bundahw. 

54. But this has to be reconciled with the statement in 
Zs. XXIII, 12, that, after its 300th year, 'the religion is 
disturbed and the monarchy is contested;' which statement 
is expressed more definitely by AV. I, 2-6, when it asserts 
that the religion remained in purity for 300 years, but 
then Alexander came to Iran and destroyed the monarchy. 
If these statements be accepted literally, they imply that 
Alexander invaded Iran either in the 300th year of the 
religion, or shortly after that date, but certainly not before 
it. We cannot place Alexander's invasion of Iran itself at 
a later date than the battle of Gaugamela (B.C. 331) ; and 
if this were the 300th year of the religion, the death of 
Alexander (B.C. 323) must have occurred in its 308th, 
instead of its 273rd year, and the coming of the religion 
would have to be put back thirty-five years. This may be 
done with some plausibility by assuming an omission of 
thirty-five years between the reigns of Humai and Darai, 
where the Bundahij passes from traditional to historical per- 
sonages. Alexander's invasion must also have been a good 
and sufficient reason for the dissolution of the hundred- 
discipledom, or priestly college, established by S£n6, which 
lasted only till the 300th year, as Zs. XXIII, 11 informs us. 

55. If we now adopt the abbreviations A. R. for ' anno 
religionis' and B.R. for ' before the religion', we are prepared 
to compile the following synopsis of Zoroastrian Chronology 
according to the millennial system of the Bundahij, 
extended to the end of time, but dealing only with tradi- 
tional matters, combined with the European dates of the 
same events, deduced from the synchronism of A.R. 300 
with B. C. 331, as stated above in § 54 : — 

b.r. 9000, B.C. 9630. Beginning of the first millennium of 
Time ; and formation of the Fravashis, or primary ideas of the 
good creations, which remain insensible and motionless for 
3000 years (Bd. I, 8 ; XXXIV, 1). 
„ 6000, b. c. 6630. Beginning of the fourth millennium, when 
the spiritual body of Zaratuxt is framed together, and remains 
3000 years with the archangels (Dk. VII, ii, 15, 16), while 

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the primeval man and ox exist undisturbed in the world, 
because the evil spirit is confounded and powerless (Bd. I, 20, 
22; 111,1,3,5; XXXIV, 1). 
b. r. 3000, b. c. 3630. Beginning of the seventh millennium, 
when the evil spirit rushes into the creation on new-year's 
day, destroys the primeval ox, and distresses Gaydmarrf, the 
primeval man (Bd. I, 20 ; III, 10-20, 24-27 ; XXXIV, 2). 
Z. appears to remain with the archangels for 2969 years 

„ 2970, b.c. 3600. Gaydmarrf passes away (Bd. Ill, a 1-23,; 
XXXIV, 2). 

„ 2930, b. c. 3560. Masye" and Masyaot had grown up (Bd. 
XV, 2; XXXIV, 3). 

„ 2787, b. c. 3417. Accession of Hdshang (Bd. XXXIV, 3). 

„ 2747, b.c 3377. Accession of Takhmdrup (ibid. 4). 

„ 2717, b.c. 3347. Accession of Yim (ibid.). 

„ 2000, b.c 2630. Beginning of the eighth millennium. Ac- 
cession of Dahak (ibid. 4, 5). 

„ iooo, b.c. 1630. Beginning of the ninth millennium. Acces- 
sion of FreVun (ibid. 5, 6). 

„ 500, b.c. 1 1 30. Accession of Manujtfhar (ibid. 6). 

„ 428, b.c. 1058. Spendarmarf comes to Manuf£ihar at the 
time of Frasiyrfy's irrigation works (Zs. XII, 3-6). The MSS. 
have b. r. 528, but to bring this date into the reign of 
Manuj^ihar would be inconsistent with the millennial arrange- 
ment; while to assume a clerical error of one century is 
a probable explanation, as it makes the date more consistent 
with the allusion to FrSsiy<f», whose irrigation works, men- 
tioned in Bd. XX, 34 ; XXI, 6, must have been carried out 
in the latter part of Manu^ihar's reign. 

„ 380, b. c. 1010. Accession of Auz6b6 (Bd. XXXIV, 6). 

» 375> B - c - 1005. Accession of Kai-Kc^barf (ibid. 6, 7). 

„ 360, b. c. 990. Accession of Kai-t)s (ibid. 7). 

„ 300, b. c 930. Zaratuxt first mentioned by the ox that 
Srit6 killed (Zs. XII, 7-20). 

„ 210, b. c 840. Accession of Kai-Khusr6i (Bd. XXXIV, 7). 

„ 150, b.c 780. Accession of Kai-Loharasp (ibid.). 

„ 45, b. c. 675. The Glory descends from heaven at the birth 
of Duk</ak (Zs. XIII, 1). 

„ 30, b. c. 660. Accession of Kaf-Vwtasp (Bd. XXXIV, 7). 
Vohumand and Ashavahift6 descend into the world with 
a stem of Hdm (Dk. VII, ii, 24). Zaratuxt is born (ibid. 


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b. r. 23, b.c. 653. Z. is seven years old when two Karaps visit 

his father, and Durasr6b6 dies (Dk. VII, Hi, 32, 34. 45)- 
„ 15, b.c. 645. Z. is fifteen years old when he and his four 

brothers ask for their shares of the family property (Zs. XX, 1). 
„ 10, b.c. 640. Z. leaves home at the age of twenty (ibid. 7). 
a. r. 1, b. c. 630. Beginning of the tenth millennium. Z. goes 

forth to his conference with the sacred beings on the 45th day 

of the 31st year ofVijtasp's reign (Dk. VII, iii, 51-62; viii, 

51 ; Zs. XXI, 1-4). 
„ 3, B.C. 628. Z. returns from his first conference in two 

years, and preaches to Aurvaita-dang and the Karaps without 

success (Dk. VII, iv, 2-20). 
„ 1 1, b. c. 620. After his seventh conference, in the tenth year 

he goes to Vijtasp; MeVydmah is also converted (ibid. 1, 65 ; 

Zs. XXI, 3 ; XXIII, 1. 2, 8). 
„ 13, b.c 618. Twelve years after Z. went to conference, 

Viftasp accepts the religion, though hindered for two years by 

the Karaps (Dk. VII, v, 1 ; Zs. XXIII, 5, 7). 
„ 20, b.c. 611. A Kavig, son of Kundah, is converted (Zs. 

XXIII, 8). 
„ 30, b.c. 601. Defeat of Ar^isp and his Khyons (ibid.). 
„ 40, b. c. 591. Vohunlm is born (ibid.). About this time the 

Avesta is written by Gamasp from the teaching of Z. (Dk. IV, 

21; V, iii, 4; VII, v, n). 
„ 48, b. c. 583. Z. passes away, or is killed, aged seventy-seven 

years and forty days, on the 41st day of the year (Dk. V, iii, 

2; VII, v, 1; Zs. XXIII, 9). 
„ 58, b. c. 573. Arrival of the religion is known in all regions 

(Dk.VII,vi, 12). 
„ 63, b. c. 568. Frash6ftar passes away (Zs. XXIII, 10). 
„ 64, b.c. 567. Gamasp passes away (ibid.). 
„ 73, b.c. 558. Hangaurush, son of Gamasp, passes away 

„ 80, b.c. 551. Asm6k-khanvat6 passes away, and Akht the 

wizard is killed (ibid.). 
„ 91, b.c. 540. Accession of Vohuman, son of Spend-da</ 

(Bd. XXXIV, 7, 8). 
„ 100, b. c. 531. S&nd is born (Dk. VII, vii, 6). 
„ 200, b.c. 431. S6n6 passes away (ibid.; Zs. XXIII, 11). 
„ 203, b. c 428. Accession of Humat (Bd. XXXIV, 8). 

[Here ends the fragment of the old millennial system 
preserved in the Bundahi* which omits thirty-five years in 

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this place, as explained in § 54, with the effect of postponing 
the end of the millennium. It then proceeds to finish the 
chronology in its own fashion ; mentioning only three 
historical names, which are here added; the thirty-five 
omitted years being also inserted.] 

a. r. 268, b. c. 363. Accession of Daraf (ibid.). 
„ 280, b.c. 351. Accession of Ddrat, descendant of Darai 

„ 294, b.c 337. Accession of Alexander 1 (ibid.). 
„ 300, b.c. 331. Invasion by Alexander. S&nd'a hundred- 

discipledom ends, the religion is disturbed, and the monarchy 

contested (Zs. XXIII, n, 12 ; AV. I, 2-6). 
„ 308, b. c. 323. Death of Alexander (Bd. XXXIV, 8). 
„ 400, b.c 231. Benightedness arises (Dk. VII, vii, 9). 
„ 440-560, b.c 191-71*. Orthodoxy is still upheld by four 

successive high-priests (Dk. VII, vii, 8-10). 
„ 800-950, a. d. 170-320. The ninth and tenth centuries are 

represented as very evil and miserable (ibid, viii, 2-45, 61). 
„ 971, a. d. 341, AusheVar is born (ibid. 55-57). 
„ 1001, a.d. 371. Beginning of the eleventh millennium, when 

the sun stands still for ten days, and Aush&fer is thirty years 

old and confers with the sacred beings (ibid. 58-60). 
„ 1400-1500, a.d. 770-870. In this century the wizard 

Mahrkus produces seven awful winters successively, in which 

most of mankind and animals perish, including himself (ibid. 

«> 3)- 

„ 1971, a.d. 1341. Aush&</ar-mah is born (ibid. 18-20). 

„ 2001, a.d. 1371. Beginning of the twelfth millennium, when 
the sun stands still for twenty days, and AusheVar-mah is 
thirty years old and confers with the sacred beings (ibid. 

„ 2971, a.d. 2341. SdsMns is born (ibid, x, 15-18). 

„ 3001, a.d. 2371. Beginning of the preparation for the 
Renovation, when the sun stands still for thirty days, and 
SSshins is thirty years old (ibid. 19); but another passage 
(ibid, xi, 2) implies that this is the date of his birth. 

„ 3028, a.d. 2398. The renovation of the universe occurs at 
the end of the fifty-seventh year of S6shans (ibid. 4, 7). 

1 He became king of Macedon B. C 336, and of Persia in 331. 
* The erroneous dates in the Bundahu chronology (see § 57) alter this period 
to B. c. 156-36. 

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56. We must suppose that the millennial chronology, 
which the Bundahfc discontinues in the middle of the 
tenth millennium, was originally completed to the end of 
Time, as attempted in this synopsis, in accordance with the 
statements in Byt. and Dk. But the allusions to future 
events and denunciations of coming evils were, no doubt, 
of a mythological or general character, such as those still 
surviving in Dk. VII, vii, 29-32 ; viii, 40, 41, 44-46, 48-60 ; 
ix-xi. Whenever we meet with seemingly prophetic 
descriptions and denunciations, which clearly allude to 
historical events, such as those in Dk. VII, vii, 3-28 ; viii, 
2, 10, 23, 32-36, 42, 43, 47, 61, they must, of course, be 
treated as interpolations of a later date than the events 
themselves. And there are several passages that may 
belong to either class. 

57. It has been already shown, in § 54, that the death 
of Alexander, which the Bundahu places in A.R. 273, must 
have occurred in A. R. 308 according to other traditional 
records. If this error of thirty-five years stood alone, it 
might be considered accidental ; but when we find that the 
Bundahu supplies only 284 years for the Ajkanians, to fill 
up the whole interval of 548 years between Alexander and 
Ardashir, son of Papak, we must conclude that these two 
errors were intended for the purpose which they both fulfil, 
that of postponing the end of the tenth millennium. On 
the other hand, the Sasanians who ruled for 425 years, are 
allowed 460 years in the Bundahu, which just counter- 
balances the thirty-five years omitted after the time of 
Humal. This third error may be considered unintentional, 
as it probably arose from counting the year of each suc- 
cession twice over, first in the reign of the deceased king, 
and again in that of his successor. 

58. The extent to which the Bundahu chronology is 
distorted, by these three errors, will be better understood on 
inspection of the following tabular statement than from 
any description of the results, merely observing that the 
year of the religion (a. r.) is given according to Bundahu 
dates in the first column, and according to real dates in 
the second. Several intermediate events have been inserted, 

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2 73, 















































j 265. 




Real date. 

Bd. date. 

















A. D 

• 17°. 









A. D. 

. 10. 













































for the sake of illustration, and each of their Bundahij 
dates includes its proper proportion of the errors l : — 

Bd. date. Real date. 
A. R. 265, A. R. 300. Invasion by Alexander . . 
Death of Alexander . . . 
Real date of A. R. 400 . . 
Bd. date of A. R. 400 . . . 
Real date of a. r. 800 . . 
Accession of Ardashtr . . 
Real date of A. R. 900 . . 
Accession of Shahpfihar II . 
Real date of A. R. 1000 . . 
Accession of Yazrfakan/ II . 
Bd. date of A. R. 800 . . 
Accession of KavsU/ . . . 
Execution of the Mazdakites 
Accession of Khflsrd I . . 
Bd. date of a. r. 900 . . . 
Accession of Khusrd II . . 
Bd. date of A. R. 1000 . . 
Death of YazJ&Vard III . . 

59. The object of preparing this statement has been to 
ascertain the reason for the intentional errors in the 
Bundahij chronology, and the probable period at which 
they were introduced. It has been mentioned, in § 57, that 
the effect of both the errors, which are not accidental, has 
been to postpone the end of the tenth millennium, but 
they also postpone the dates of some other events which 
are mentioned in the Zoroastrian legends. 

60. Thus, we are told in Dk. VII, vii, 9, that benighted- 
ness arises after A.R. 400, which is postponed by the errors 
from B. C. 231 to 78, but both of these times seem to have 
been equally unpropitious to the Zoroastrians. Then we 
learn (ibid. 10, 11) that in the fifth and sixth centuries, say 
a.r. 440-560, orthodoxy is still upheld by four successive 
high-priests. This period is postponed by the errors from 
B. c. 191-71 to 156-36 (see p. xxxi, n. 2), and Zoroastrianism 
was probably flourishing the whole time. So far, no reason 
for the alterations can be discovered, as the vague descrip- 
tion of events, supplied by the old writer, appears to be 

1 The basis of calculation is the real date of each event and real century, but 
the Bd. date of each Bd. century. The only Bd. data are 284 years from the 
death of Alexander to the accession of Ardashtr, and 460 years from the latter 
to the death of Y&zdakard III, as stated in § 57. 

[47] C 

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just as applicable to the original periods as to the altered 

6j. We are further informed (Dk. VII, viii, 3-45) that 
much evil and misery occur in the ninth and tenth centuries 
(a.r. 800-1000), at all events until the birth of Ausherfar 
(ibid. 55-57) in A.R. 971 ; and such events as war, invasion, 
fall of monarchy, oppression, persecution, infidelity, and 
apostasy are mentioned. Ausherfar confers with the arch- 
angels in A.R. 1001 (ibid. 58-60), and the evils afterwards 
pass away till A.R. 1400-1500 (ibid, ix, 3), when frightful 
winters occur. The evil period A.R. 800-97 1 was originally 
A.D. j 70-341, or from the middle of the reign of Volo- 
geses III to the middle of that of Shahpuhar II. But 
the Bundahij postpones this period to A. D. 451-608, 
or from the time of the Armenian revolt in the reign 
of Yazda.ka.rd II, to that of the first total defeat of a 
Persian army by the Arabs near Dhu-Qir in the reign 
of Khusrd II. The evil times were probably expected to 
continue till the end of the millennium, or later, as in the 
case of Zaratujt himself ; for Aush&/ar does not go to his 
conference till A.R. 1001, and might not be expected to 
begin to preach till A.R. ion. These dates, originally 
A.D. 371-381, comprising the remainder of the reign of 
Shahpuhar II, would be altered by Bd. to A. D. 636-645, 
a period which includes the last two great battles with the 
Arabs, that decided the downfall of the Sasanian dynasty, 
though king Yasdakard III lived some six years longer as 
a fugitive 1 . 

62. It is hardly possible that king Ardashir (a.d. 226- 
241) and his chancellor Tanvasar, when collecting and 
revising their sacred books, would have compiled the 
original traditional system of chronology, however general 
might have been the terms in which the evils were described 
by the records they possessed, because it would have been 
a voluntary confession that they had no power to remedy 

1 The authorities consulted, for Persian historical facts and dates, have been 
Noldeke, Au/sdtze zur persisclien Geschichte ; and A. von Gutschmid, 
Geschichte Irons und seiner Nochbarltinder von Alexander dem Grpssen bis 
zum Untergang der Arsaciden : edited by Noldeke. 

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the evils of their own time. But if they found the system 
in an ancient document, they might have been quite willing 
to admit that evils existed, owing to their enemies, which 
would have become much worse if they had not been 
mitigated by their own exertions. In fact, an old document 
prophesying evil which actually occurred at the time 
specified, could be used as evidence of the truth of their 
religion, and would therefore be carefully preserved. And 
it is quite certain that, if they had altered the chronology 
of an old document which foretold the time of the downfall 
of the monarchy, they could not have correctly guessed 
that time before the downfall occurred. For these reasons 
we must conclude that the original system of chronology, 
handed down by the BundahLy, was neither compiled nor 
altered in the time of Ardashir. 

63. For the long reign of Shahpuhar II (a.D. 309-379) 
the original tradition predicted not only a continuation of 
evil times, but also the birth and education of a new 
apostle, Aushedar, for the next millennium, who was 
expected to put an end to evil for about four centuries. 
His birth was to take place in A. D. 341, and his conference 
was to commence in 371. These dates are so well defined 
that, if we could discover any important religious teacher 
to whom they could refer, we might be justified in believing 
that the original chronology was compiled in his time. 
Unfortunately, we know very little of the internal history 
of Persia during this reign ; there was war with the Romans 
in 337-350 and 358-363, and on the eastern frontiers in 
the intervening period ; also a persecution of the Christians, 
beginning about 339 ; all of which fairly represent the 
predicted evils. 

64. Regarding the priesthood and religious history of 
the reign, we have only the traditions handed down in 
Pahlavi texts to guide us. In these we are told that 
Aturpa*/, son of Ma/-aspend (Dk. VII, vii, 19), was born in 
the steel period (Dk. IX, viii, 4), and lived in the reign of 
king Shahpuhar II, son of Auharma^rf (AV. p. 145 n), 
being high-priest over the religion (Dd. XXXVII, 36). He 
also collected and preserved the Nasks (Dk. VIII, i, 23), 

c 2 

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and, after he had proved his orthodoxy by ordeal (Sg. X, 
70, 71), the king proclaimed his intention of not allowing 
any more heterodoxy (Dk. IV, 27 1 ). In his old age he 
obtained a son, after devout prayer, and named him Zara- 
tujt (Pandnamak, 1); but this son also bore the Avesta 
title of Avarethrabtfu (Dk. VII, vii, 20, 21 ; VIII, xiii, 
18), who is called the son of Rajtare-vaghe«t in Yt. 
XIII, 106, showing that this latter Avesta title was adopted 
by At&rpkd himself. Finally, we meet with another 
Atu^-pa^/, son of Zaratujt, described in Peshotan's Dk. Ill, 
cxxxvii, 2, as high-priest in the reign of Yas</aka/-dT I 
(a. D. 399-420), son of Shahpuhar, and also mentioned in 
Pahl. Yas. p. 120, 11. 14, 15 Sp. (translated in Dk. VIII, 

J. 7 n). 

65. We have here, evidently, three successive high-priests, 
father, son, and grandson, and all celebrated men. The 
father had been employed in collecting and revising, or 
probably translating, some of the sacred books, and then, 
after a religious discussion, submitted himself to the ordeal 
of melted metal, as a test of his orthodoxy. The king was 
convinced, and his proclamation meant persecution of the 
heterodox, such as was commenced about A. D. 339, as 
regards the Christians. So that we may safely assume 
that Atdrp&d's ordeal took place shortly before this date, 
and probably shortly after 337, when the Roman war 
commenced. As we must also certainly assume that the 
original chronology could not have come into existence at 
a much later date than 341, when so remarkable an event 
as the birth of a new apostle was fixed by it to occur, we 
have to consider who this apostle could have been ; and 
whether it may not have been intended to identify him 
with Attirpkd's own son. 

66. In the first place, is such a suspicion consistent with 
known dates ? To represent Aush&far, according to the 
original chronology, the son must have been born A.D. 341 
(§ 6^) ; and we may suppose that the time of Aush&fer's 
conference (371) would represent the time of Aturpa^'s 

1 See S. B. E., vol. xxxvii, p. 415. 

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death, when his son succeeded him in the high-priesthood. 
If Aturparf were aged eighty-one at his death, he would 
have been fifty-one at the birth of his son, or approaching 
old age ; and he would have been born in 290, or nineteen 
years before the king. His grandson may have been born 
in 365, when his father Zaratujt was twenty-four, and may 
have succeeded that father in the high-priesthood about 
400, the second year of king Yazdakard I. As all these 
dates are reasonably consistent with the few facts that are 
known, there seems to be no impossibility in the hypothesis 
that the original chronology of AusheV/ar's birth may have 
had some connection with the date of the birth of Aturpirf's 
son. The dates assumed, with regard to these three high- 
priests, which may be slightly varied, are as follows : — 

AttVpsuf, born 290, high-priest 320, died 371. 
Zaratujt, „ 341, „ 371, „ 400. 

Atu/-pa</, „ 363, „ 400, „ 420, or later. 

67. On the other hand, we must recollect that the time 
of the birth of Ausherfar was not an isolated date which 
could be varied at pleasure, to suit any circumstances that 
might arise ; but it was intimately connected with the 
dates of birth of three other apostles, which were each 
placed at the same distance from the ends of three other 
millenniums. It would perhaps be more difficult to suit 
a new millennial system of chronology, to the accidental 
year of a particular child's birth, than to have the child 
born in a particular year of an old system already 
existing. And, if so, it may be safer to assume that 
Aturpa*/, knowing the year of the expected birth, took 
measures to secure the fulfilment of the prophecy, so far as 
the birth was concerned. If the child did not turn out so 
capable of regenerating the world as had been expected, 
that was a matter for posterity to explain. Under such 
circumstances of merely seeming fulfilment of a single 
particular, fraudulently obtained, the original prediction 
might be of any age. 

68. It does not appear that the priestly councillors 
assembled by Khusrd I (Byt. I, 7), made any alteration in 

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• •• 



the original chronology, although they slightly revised the 
Pahlavi Vendidad. In fact, the priests, who must have 
been long expecting the end of Zaratujt's millennium, were 
probably looking forward for the approaching downfall of 
the Sasanian monarchy, which might readily be understood, 
as the surest sign of the termination of this period, from 
such statements as those in Dk. VII, viii, i, a. At any 
rate, the alterations in the chronology, for the purpose of 
postponing the end of the tenth millennium till A. D. 635, 
would not have been made till some time after the ter- 
mination of the monarchy in 651, but probably long before 
the compilation of the Bundahu about 900. The effects 
of these alterations upon the dates of the evil ninth and 
tenth centuries, and upon those of the birth, conference, 
and preaching of Aush&/ar, have been already stated in 
§ 61. And their object has evidently been to adapt the 
old predictions as much as possible to real events ; for 
which purpose also, the predictions themselves have prob- 
ably been often made more definite than they were 

69. It follows, from the foregoing investigation, that the 
original chronology must have existed A.D. 341, and, in 
fact, we have found no sufficient reason for supposing that 
it was compiled as late as SasSnian times. While the 
alterations, we find in the Bundahij, could have hardly been 
made till after 651. 

70. Regarding the age in which Zaraturt lived, the dates 
stated in the synopsis of traditional chronology (§ 55), are 
B. C. 660-583, while the reign of Vi^tasp, which extends to 
the fabulous length of 120 years, or 660-540, evidently 
represents a short dynasty, including Hystaspes and his 
next four forefathers, if we accept the traditional identifica- 
tion of Vutasp with the father of Darius I. But the names 
of those four forefathers, which are known on the unim- 
peachable authority of the Behistun inscription of Darius 
himself, render it almost impossible to accept this tra- 
ditional identification, as they differ totally from those of 
the forefathers of Virtasp in the Avesta. The two dynasties 
are as follows : — 

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Behistun : HakhamanLr Avesta : Kavi Kavata 

Kaispis Kava Usa 

Ariyaramna Kava Husrava 

Arshama Aurvarfaspa 

VLrtaspa KavaVLrtaspa*. • 

Unless it can be shown that these two series of names 
have the same meaning in two different languages, there 
seems little chance of proving the identity of the two 
dynasties. We may, however, quote the instances of the 
high-priest Aturparf= Atare-pata and his son Zaratujt= 
Zarathurtra being called RArtare-vaghe/rt and Avarethra- 
bau, respectively, in the Avesta (see § 64) ; but these 
latter names seem more like titles than translations. 

71. The date of Zoroaster and his religion has formerly 
been fully discussed by Windischmann * and others, and 
the question has been lately re-examined by Williams 
Jackson 3 . He divides the ancient statements, that have 
been made on the subject, into three classes : those which 
declare that Zaraturt lived before B.C. 6000, those which 
associate his name with Ninus and Semiramis, and the 
native tradition which, as we have seen, places his life in 
the period B.C. 660-583. Singularly enough, the oldest 
writers, those who lived only two to four centuries after the 
traditional period of the lifetime of Zaraturt, are those who 
report that he lived some 6000 years before that period. 
Pliny the Elder (Nat. Hist. XXX, a) quotes Eudoxus 
(B.C. 368) as stating that Zaratujt existed 6oco years before 
the death of Plato, that is, B.C. 6347, which is also con- 
firmed by Aristotle. And he quotes Hermippus (about 
B.C. 350) as placing him 5000 years before the Trojan war, 
that is, B.C. 6184. A third mode of describing this period 

1 These were the reigning sovereigns, bnt the last two are descended from 
a collateral branch, and their actual pedigree is as follows : — Kavi Kavata, Kavi 
Aipivanghn, Kavi Pisanangh, Manus, Uzava, Aurvaifcspa, Kava Virtaspa (Bd. 
XXXI, 28, 29). 

2 Zoroastrische Studien, von Fr. Windischmann, edited by Spiegel, 1863; 
pp. 121-165, 260-313. 

3 On the date of Zoroaster, by A. V. Williams Jackson ; Journal of American 
Oriental Society, vol. xvii, pp. 1-23. 

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seems to have been used by Xanthus of Lydia (B.C. 500- 
450) * who stated that Zaraturt lived 6000 years before 
Xerxes, as quoted by Diogenes Laertius, that is, B.C. 6485. 

72. Three or four other classical writers mention similar 
statements, and Jackson points out that these extravagant 
dates are probably owing to the European writers mis- 
understanding Persian statements with reference to the 
pre-existence of Zaratujt's Fravashi. It will, in fact, be 
seen from the synopsis (§ 55) that the traditional account 
is that the spiritual body of Zarattot was framed together 
as early as the beginning of the fourth millennium, which 
occurred B.C. 6630, and this may be accepted as a close 
approximation to the three dates, B.C. 6347, 6184, and 
6485, indicated by the ancient writers, considering that 
their statements are made in even thousands of years. 

73. Pliny also mentions, on the authority of other writers 
who are not named, that another Zoroaster, a Proconnesian, 
lived a little before the time of Osthanes who accompanied 
Xerxes to Greece (B.C. 480). And, so far as time is con- 
cerned, this Zoroaster might have been the traditional 
Zaratujt who died 103 years before this journey of 

74. The old statements about Zoroaster or Oxyartes, 
the Magian king of Bactria in the time of Ninus and Semi- 
ramis, can hardly refer to the traditional Zaraturt who is 
never represented as a king, although the supreme Zara- 
thurtra of the Avesta was apparently a ruling priest. The 
time in which this Bactrian lived is also very uncertain, 
for though Semiramis has recently been placed about 
B.C. 800, her position in Albirunl's tables is certainly 1200 
years earlier. 

75. It seems, therefore, that the ancient statements, 
regarding the date of ZaratCLrt, reported by Pliny and cor- 
roborated by a few other classical writers, can be fully 
explained from the traditional system of chronology used 
in Pahlavi texts, by identifying the classical Zoroaster of 
the seventh millennium B.C. with the traditional Zaratujt 

1 There are some doubts as to the correctness of these dates. 

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in his ante-natal spiritual state, after he had ceased to be 
a mere Fravashi, or primary idea, and had become an 
intelligent, moving, and personal existence, but still a spirit. 
While the later Zoroaster of Pliny, who flourished before 
the fifth century B.C., must have lived about the same 
time as the same traditional Zaraturt after he came into 
the worldly existence, and may reasonably be identified 
with him, although Pliny had little information to give 
about him. 

76. It will be noticed that this explanation depends 
entirely upon the peculiarly artificial system of the tra- 
ditional chronology, in which the whole of time is assumed 
to consist of twelve millenniums devoted to different pur- 
poses; and if this particular system had not been in use 
at the time the statements, quoted by Pliny and Diogenes 
Laertius, were made, those statements could not have been 
explained as referring to the same individual. But if they 
do not refer to the same individual, we have only the 
options of rejecting all the statements, or believing an im- 
possible date to be literally correct ; neither of which 
decisions would be altogether satisfactory to a judicious 
mind. The only reasonable conclusion seems to be that 
the chronology based upon the twelve millenniums was in 
use in the fifth century B.C., about which time the earliest 
quoted statement seems to have been made. 

77. It will also be observed that this millennial chronology 
is inextricably associated with the idea of the primeval 
existence of all good creations in the state of Fravashis. 
These are described as spiritual existences who remained 
three millenniums unthinking, unmoving, and intangible 
(Bd. I, 8) ; and the next three millenniums they still re- 
mained undisturbed by evil, mankind being represented, 
for that period, by Gaydman/ in the world (Bd. XXXIV, 1) 
and by the spiritual form of Zaratujt in heaven (Dk. VII, 
ii, 15), while the animals were symbolized by the primeval 
ox for the same period. Six millenniums, which are half 
the duration of time, were thus appropriated to Fravashis, 
spiritual and embodied, probably before the birth of Plato, 
if we may rely upon classical statements ; and it must have 

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been before this date that the series of millenniums was 
arranged for all future history, till Time was expected to 
merge once more into Eternity at the renovation of the 

78. As we have seen that Zoroastrian tradition is very 
consistent in fixing the date of Zaratfot's activity about 
the end of the seventh century B.C., it may be asked, why 
have Avesta scholars so strongly insisted upon its greater 
antiquity? They may have had several reasons, but three, 
at least, were important. First, they had the classical 
statements which, as we have seen (§ 71), generally placed 
Zaratfljt as far back as the seventh millennium B.C., on 
the testimony of persons who lived from two to four 
centuries after the traditional date of Zarat&rt's death. 
No one, of course, could believe in the literal accuracy of 
the number of millenniums, which referred, as we have 
seen, to an imaginary period of spiritual existence, but 
this number was considered merely as an exaggeration 
which might be reduced to any amount that seemed 
reasonable. At the same time, this evidence for antiquity 
was quite sufficient, in the second place, to discredit the 
traditional date, of which these old authorities seemed 
ignorant, though it was a period then comparatively recent. 
And, if this discredit had not been sufficient to shake the 
faith of Avesta scholars in the traditional date of Zaratdrt, 
they still had a third reason for their scepticism, when they 
discovered that the language of the Avesta was not merely 
a sister of Sanskrit, but that a large portion of it was sister 
to the oldest Sanskrit with which they were acquainted, 
and which appeared to them certainly older than the time 
of Gautama Buddha, who lived about one generation later 
than the traditional Zaratdrt. 

79. How far Avesta scholars were justified in their con- 
clusions must be left for future ages to determine ; at 
present we have no really historical information about the 
origin of Zoroastrianism, and must still consider it as 
decidedly prehistoric ; though, it may be admitted that the 
Parsi calendar, as used in Persia, so far agrees with tradition, 
that it still bears witness to its own original institution in 

Digitized by 



the reign of Darius Hystaspes, as will be seen from the 
following details. 

80. The Parsi year consists of twelve months, each con- 
sisting of thirty days, with five additional days added at the 
end of the year, and the total number of 365 days never 
varies, so that, whenever a leap-year occurs in our calendar, 
the beginning of the Parsi year retreats one day in the 
Christian calendar. In this manner, the total number of 
days which the beginning of the Parsi year has retreated, 
since the institution of their calendar, records the number 
of leap-years which would have occurred in the same period 
of Christian years, if the regular leap-years had existed the 
whole time; and four times the number of leap-years 
would be the total number of years. But as leap-years 
have not been used the whole time, we have to calculate 
from astronomical data. 

81. In the first place, we want to know at what season 
the Parsi year originally began, and we learn this from 
Bd. XXV, 7, 20, where we are told that the winter of the 
rectified year ends with the five extra days, and the spring 
begins with the first month ; which means that the rectified 
year begins with the vernal equinox. We also have to 
observe that, retreating at the rate of one day every four 
years, the beginning of the year retreats all round the year 
in 1460 years ; and we know from general history that the 
period, with which we have to deal, is much more than 
1460 years and less than 2920. Then we have to ascertain 
the exact length of the tropical year, which astronomers 
say is 365*2422 days, with an infinitesimal decrement, quite 
inappreciable in the period we have in view. 

82. We may calculate back from any vernal equinox 
which occurs not too far from noon, say that of March 22, 
1 865, when the beginning of the Parsi year, according to 
Persian reckoning, had retreated to August 24, 1864, or 
210 days, in addition to a previous retreat of a whole year 
of 365 days, or altogether 575 days since the establishment 
of the calendar. So that the difference between the Parsi 
year of 365 days and the correct tropical year of 365*2422 
days had then accumulated to a total of 575 days. Divid- 

Digitized by 



ing the accumulated error of 575 days by the annual in- 
crement of 0-2422 of a day, we obtain a quotient of 2374 
years, including a.d. 1865, as the time in which this error 
had accumulated, and this carries us back to B.C. 510 as an 
approximate date of the establishment of the Parsi calendar, 
with the first day of the year coinciding with the vernal 

83. This date is, however, liable to some modifications 
for errors of observation on the part of the ancient 
astronomers, one of which errors, being constantly in one 
direction, must be taken into account. These old observers 
were not aware of the effect of refraction, which always 
makes the night seem somewhat shorter than it is in reality ; 
and this would lead them to antedate the vernal equinox 
by rather more than a day ; so that they would observe an 
apparent equinox in B.C. 505 on the same day in the Parsi 
year as that on which the real equinox occurred in B.C. 510. 
The most probable date of the establishment of the Parsi 
calendar is therefore B.C. 505, with a margin of four to 
eight years in either direction for accidental errors of 

84. A few years before this period we know, from the 
cuneiform inscriptions of Behistun, that Darius Hystaspes 
used an older calendar, when recording his early victories 
over insurgents, which consolidated his empire. It was 
a time when he was introducing many reforms in the 
government, and, being a believer in Auramazdd, his most 
influential advisers would probably be Zoroastrian priests. 
If they thought it necessary to reform the old calendar, 
the adoption of strictly Zoroastrian names for the new 
months and days in the Parsi calendar would be fully 

85. But, besides this ordinary civil calendar, in which 
new-year's day was constantly retreating, the Persians had 
a rectified calendar for religious purposes, which intercalated 
an extra month from time to time, for the purpose of 
bringing new-year's day forward again to the vernal 
equinox, and restoring the festivals to their proper seasons. 
It is this calendar which is used in Bd. XXV, and its days 

Digitized by 



and months are distinguished by the epithet vehi£aktg 
(veh + \k + ak + ig), ' belonging to what is really good,' or 
vehi^ak, 'belonging to the really good,' which, in this 
connection, may be best expressed by the word ' rectified.' 

86. This intercalation is described by Albiruni in various 
passages 1 which inform us that, after the new-year's day 
had retreated more than a month from the vernal equinox, 
the king would order the priests to arrange for the solemn 
proclamation of an extra month to be intercalated, between 
the last month of the year and the five extra days, by 
merely moving those five days from the end of the twelfth 
month to the end of the first month of the next year. The 
effect of this was to put an extra month into the earlier 
year which, beginning with the first month, would also end 
with the first month augmented by the five extra days as 
the usual termination of the year. All following years 
would begin with the second month, and end with the first 
month and the five extra days, until the second intercala- 
tion, when a year of thirteen months and five days would 
be again obtained, by merely moving the five extra days 
to the end of the second month which would thus become 
the last month of the year, while the third month would 
begin the year until the third intercalation. By these 
means, any number of intercalations could be made without 
any additional month being named, and the position of the 
five extra days always indicated the end of the rectified 
year, and that the rectified first month, which followed 
them, was to become the last month of the preceding year 
at the next rectification, or intercalation. 

87. If the Parsi calendar, as used in Persia, were es- 
tablished B. c. 505, as we have calculated, it ought to have 
been rectified by an intercalation of one month about each 
of the following years: — B.C. 381, 357, 133, 10, A.D. 115, 
239, 363, 487, 610. Albiruni (p. iai), however, has re- 
corded only one intercalation of two months in the time of 
Yasdakard I (a.d. 399-420), son of Shahpuhar, when the 

1 Sachau's Albtrfini's Chronology of Ancient Nations, pp. 12, 13, 38, 53-56, 
121, 184, 185, 230, 221. 

Digitized by 



five extra days were removed to the end of the original 
eighth month Aban, where they remained until Albiruni's 
own time (Alb. p. 56), about A.D. 1000. The reason for 
intercalating two months at once, was because the time for 
the seventh intercalation (a.d. 363) was already long past ; 
so the eighth was added three or four score years in 
advance, being due in 487. 

88. All that Albiruni says about this double intercalation 
is quite in accordance with the original establishment of 
the calendar by Darius Hystaspes, and would render any 
date more than thirty-seven years later than his reign im- 
possible 1 . With regard to the earlier intercalations (which 
must have occurred to account for the movement of the 
five extra days) that of A.D. 115 was neither in the reign 
of Vologeses I, nor in that of Vologeses III, one of whom 
must have been the Ajkdnian renovator of the Avesta. 
That of A.D. 339, if carried out punctually, would have 
been at the extreme end of the reign of Ardashir ; but the 
intercalations seem to have been usually delayed, as in the 
case of that of 363 which was delayed for thirty to fifty 
years, although it ought to have been carried out under 
the direction of one of those ultra-orthodox high-priests, 
Aturparf son of Maraspend, or his son Zaratujt, in the 
reign of Shahpuhar II. 

89. It is worthy of notice that the names of both the 
days and months, which have come down to us in this 
calendar of Darius, include the names of the six Amesha- 
spewtas, which, according to Darmesteter's hypothesis, were 
not invented till the time of Vologeses I, in the first century 
A.D. We have positive evidence that the calendar of 
twelve months of thirty days each, with five extra days to 
complete the year, must have been established in the time 
of Darius. This fact being recorded mechanically by the 
extent of the retreat of the Persian Parsis' new-year's day 
down to the present time, and by the number of months 
intercalated in their religious calendar down to the fifth 

* If the calendar had been established thirty-eight years after the death of 
Darius, the seventh intercalation would not have been due till one year after 
the death of Yaa/akan/ 1. 

Digitized by 



century A.D., being known from the position of the five 
extra days in the rectified calendar. We have no evidence 
of any change of names having been made in this calendar 
at any time ; and only positive and indisputable evidence 
could be admitted, because reformers of calendars are 
hardly ever satisfied with mere change of names, and the 
calendar itself is a permanent witness that no alteration 
can have been made in any other particular, since the 
time of Darius. 

90. Darmesteter's theory of a late origin for the Avesta 
having been mentioned, it may be allowable to add, that 
the likelihood of this theory 'does not increase upon closer 
examination. It is a brilliant hypothesis, very carefully 
prepared to meet ordinary criticism ; but it does not 
appear to convince Avesta scholars in general, for want of 
sufficient evidence, as it is very necessary to distinguish 
carefully between possibilities and probabilities ; the former 
being not admissible as evidence, unless corroborated by 
positive facts. Its chief use has been in checking the 
tendency to exaggerate the age of the Avesta, but it seems 
itself to be an exaggeration in the opposite direction, 
a returning swing of the ever-restless pendulum of judg- 
ment. On the other hand, the traditional age of the 
religion cannot be fairly considered as exaggerated, for 
the chief difficulty in accepting it as sufficiently old, is that 
the nearer our researches penetrate to that time the less 
real light we obtain. 

E. W. West. 

April, 1897. 

Digitized by 



a.d. for Anno Domini; Alb. for Albirunfs Chronology of 
Ancient Nations, translated by Sachau ; a. r. for Anno Religionis ; 
Ar. for Arabic ; A V. for the Book of Arrfa-Viraf ; Av. for Avesta ; 
B for Bombay MS. of Dfnkarrf, brought from Iran in 1783 ; B.C. 
for Before Christ; Bd. for Bundahir (S. B. E. v, 1-151), and Band 
(volume) ; Beh. for Behistun inscription ; BK for an old copy of 
K35, made when this MS. was .more complete than it is now ; 
b. r. for Before the Religion ; Byt. for Bahman Yatt (S. B. E. v, 
189-235); Chald. for Chaldee ; Chap, for chapter; Chaps, for 
chapters ; Dd. for Darfistln-1 Dinik (S. B. E. xviii, 1-276); Dk. for 
Dtnkarrf (S. B. E. xxxvii, 1-397, 406-418, and this volume); ed. 
for editor or edition ; Ep. for Epistles of Manujilhar (S. B. E. 
xviii, 277-366); Eludes irin. for £tudes iraniennes; Farh. Oim 
for Farhang-i Otm-a§vak ; gen. for genitive case ; Gesch. der Sas. 
for Geschichte der Perser und Araber zur Zeit der Sis&niden ; 
Gf. for the Tale of G6*t-t Fryan6; Heb. for Hebrew; Ibid, 
for ibidem; Ind. vers, for Indian version; J. for Jamasp's 
old MS.; K for University Library at Kopenhagen; L for 
India Office Library at London ; 1. for line ; II. for lines ; Mkh. 
for Mainy6-i Khirarf (S.B. E. xxiv, 1-113); MS. for manuscript; 
MSS. for manuscripts; n. for footnote; nom. for nomina- 
tive case; p. for page; Pahl. for Pahlavi; Pers. for Persian; 
pp. for pages ; Pt. for Peshotan's old MS. ; S. B. E. for Sacred 
Books of the East ; Sd. for Sad-dar (S. B. E. xxiv, 253-361); Sg. 
for ■Slkand-gumanik Vig&r (S. B. E. xxiv, 1 15-251); Sis. for 
Shayast-la-shayast (S. B. E. v, 237-406); Sp. for Spiegel's edition; 
T for Tehmuras's MS. of Dd., Zs., &c. ; Vd. for Vendidad, ed. 
Geldner; Vig. for Vj^irkanf-f Dinik; Visp. for Visperad, ed. 
Geldner ; vol. for volume ; Westerg. Frag, for Westergaard's Frag- 
ments ; Yas. for Yasna, ed. Geldner ; Yt. for Yart, ed. Geldner ; 
YZ. for Geiger's Yatkar-i Zarfran ; Z. for Zaratujt ; Zs. for Selec- 
tions of Zi</-sparam, first series. 

Digitized by 









' 1 [47] B 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


i. For all divisions into chapters and sections the translator is 
chiefly responsible, as the stops found in the manuscripts are not 
used systematically. 

2. Italics are used for any English words which are not expressed, 
or fully understood, in the original text, but are added to complete 
the sense of the translation. 

3. Italics occurring in Oriental words, or names, represent 
certain peculiar Oriental letters (see the ' Transliteration of Oriental 
Alphabets ' at the end of this volume), or certain abbreviated modes 
of writing Pahlavi letters. Italic a, d, b, d, e, t, h, i, f, kh, I, p, r, sh, 
u, v, zd indicate no change of pronunciation ; but g should be 
sounded like j, hv like wh, k like ch in ' church/ s like sh, and 
Avesta z like French j. 

4. In the translation words in parentheses are merely ex- 
planatory of those that precede them, and often translate Pahlavi 
glosses in the original text. 

5. For the meaning of the abbreviations, used in the notes, see 
the explanatory list after the Introduction. 

6. The manuscripts used for the Dinkarif are :• — 

B (written a. d. 1659), the only independent authority for 
Book VII; it was brought from Ir&n to Surat in 1783, and one 
folio, at the end of Chap, iv, appears to be missing. 

K 43 (written a.d. 1594 and later), No. 43 in the University 
Library at Kopenhagen, which contains another independent 
authority for Book V in its later portion. 

7. The manuscripts used for the Selections of Zarf-sparam 
are: — 

K 3S (probably written a.d. 1572), No. 35 in the same library, 
which was brought from Iran by Prof. Westergaard in 1843, along 
with No. 43. 

T, a copy of a MS. about fifty years older, belonging to Ervad 
Tehmuras Dinshawji Ankalesaria of Bombay. 

Digitized by 



DtNKA/?£>.— BOOK VII. 

Chapter I. 

i. For the gratification of the. creatorAuliaT'mas^, 
even through the complete superiority of the Mas</a- 
worshipping religion, adorned by omniscience, in the 

2. The seventh book is about the marvellousness 
of the greatest reminder of the Maarda-worshipping 
religion, ZaratuJt x of the Spltamas ; also of the 
mindfulness of that illustrious one by Auha^masrrf, 
and of his religion, arisen through the word of 
Atiharmasd, being blessed among those of the 
region of king Vistasp ; from the Exposition of the 
Good Religion 2 . ' 

3. But, before that, there is purposely written 
whatever was the progress of the character and 
effect of the good religion and its first acceptor in 
the spiritual and worldly existences ; and, after that, 

1 Nearly always spelt Zaratukhsht in the MS., the counterpart 
of the Persian form Zaratuhsht or Zaraduhsht. 

* This Nik/06-i V6h-d£n6 was evidently the name of an older 
book, from which the Dinkarrf quotes much of its information on 
religious matters. 

B 2 

Digitized by 



the prophets, apostles, and upholders in the period 
as far as Zaratust, whose guardian spirit is reverenced, 
and their religion, which is this, due to the utterance 
and splendour with which they have been blessed 
with prophecy among mankind \ 

4. According to the Mazda-worshipping religion 
and the Exposition of the Good Religion, it is the 
nature of Auharmazaf s disposition and his knowledge 
as to the complete obtainment of the first creature, 
the archangel Vohuman6, and the first progress 
spiritually among the archangels and the other 
sacred beings of the spiritual and worldly existences, 
and materially in Gaydman/, the first man, through 
concurrent and complete acceptance from the creator 
Auharm&sd, and the needful atonement in his own 
period through meditation, and the smiting thereby 
of the fiend of that period and the opposition thereof, 
by thinking of the creator's teaching, that constitute 
the whole of that first utterance 2 of the religion of 

5. According to the declaration of the good reli- 
gion about the production of existence, which is the 
praise of him who was the causer of existence and 
creator, the beneficent spirit, the first craving among 
mankind was this, that 'we be happy and be the 
creation of Auharmaiuf;' and the last, as regards 
the preservation of a remedy for mankind, is this, 
that ' the best is this, that the formation of lives be 
perfect now, though rendered sickly by him ; and 
the spiritual existences of mankind be so now, though 
the destroyer has come to the creatures.' 6. For 

1 This preliminary matter occupies the whole of Chap. I. 
1 The Yatha-ahu-vairyo, or most sacred religious formula of 
the Parsis. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER I, 4-8. 

human beings of the lineage of Gay6man/ this is the 
one thing good, when they shall perform their duty 
and good works ; and one's work is to smite one's 
own opposing fiend ; an instance presentable to any 
of the lineage, that it is important for every one of 
you to smite his own opposing fiend, is the freedom 
from molestation which occurs thereby, and the non- 
contamination of the creatures by the destroyer; 
and it is that effect which the creator of creation has 
produced for it. 

7. And this, too, is declared by the good religion, 
that through a true-spoken statement Gaydmara/ 
attained to the good spiritual lordship 1 of the arch- 
angels (that is, he was fit for the supreme heaven *). 
8. And after Gaydman/, at various periods until the 
ever-favouring 3 Zaraturt of the Spltamas, whose 
guardian spirit is reverenced ; much also was his 
acquaintance with knowledge, and his work was the 
preservation of the mankind of that time in which he 
came into notice ; moreover he became requisite for 
conference with the creator; and because of their 
superior carrying on of destiny 4 , by command of the 

1 Reading hu-ahuih, Av. hvanghevi. This section is one of 
the numerous quotations from the Pahlavi version of a lost A vesta. 
text. When we are furnished with a complete Pahl.-Av. vocabulary, 
it will be possible to recover much of the original Avesta of such 
quotations, with some degree of certainty. 

* Pahl. gar6<fmantg. Such glosses and comments, inserted 
by the Pahlavi translator, are always marked as parenthetical. 

8 Pahl. hamai-bahar ; it might be read hamai-bfddr, 'ever 

* Reading vakhsh ( = Pers. bakhsh), which is usually expressed 
by its Zvaru equivalent gad (/(traditionally gadman), and this means 
both 'destiny' and 'the star, or glory, of destiny' (Av. hvarend, 
Pers. khura). Here the first letter of vakhsh is omitted, and 
this error converts the word into khayd, the Zvaru of^-an, 'life.' 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


creator, it is declared in the good religion, that the 
combined titles of prophet (vakhshvar), acceptor, and 
promoter are enumerated of them. 

9. As Gay6marrf passed away, it l came to Masye 
and Masya61 2 , the second of worldly beings who were 
the progeny of Gay6mar^ the first ; and it is declared, 
by the word of Auharma.8^, that he spoke to them, 
when they had been produced by him, thus : ' You 
are the men I produce, you are the parents of the 
parents of all embodied existence ; and so do you 
men not worship the demons, for the possession of 
complete mindfulness is the best thing produced by 
me for you, so that you may fully observe duty and 
ordinances with complete mindfulness.' 10. And 
the bountifulness of Auhannasr*/ was extolled by 
them, and they went on with their own duty ; they 
also performed the will of the creator, enjoyed the 
advantage of the many duties of the world, and 
practised next-of-kin marriage for procreation, union, 
and the complete progress of the creations in the 
world, which are the best good works of mankind. 
1 1. The creator showed them the sowing of corn, as 
declared in the words of Auharma^ thus : ' This is 
thine, O Masye 1 ! which is an ox ; thine, too, is this 
corn ; and thine those other appliances ; henceforth 
thou shouldst know them well.' 

This must have also occurred twice in a previous copy of the MS. 
in § 28, where the word is written gin, 'life,' in the MS. B. In 
S. B.E., vol. xxxvii, Dk. VIII, xiii, 20, vakhsh has been erro- 
neously translated ' word.' 

1 The glorious destiny. §§ 9 and 10 have been previously 
translated in S. B. E., vol. xviii, pp. 411, 412. 

* Literally ' man and woman ' who grew up as plants from the 
earth fertilized by G&y6mar<f, the prototype of the human race ; 
see Bd. XV, 1-5. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER I, 9-14. 

1 2. This, too, is declared by the good religion, 
that Auharma,s*/spoke to Hadish ', one of the sacred 
beings thoroughly worthy through righteousness, 
thus: 'O Hadish, who art thoroughly worthy 
through righteousness! thou shouldst proceed to 
Masy6 and Masyadl, thou shouldst procure thy 2 
corn and bread from Masy6 and Masyadl, and 
shouldst bless theirs thus : " This corn comes up 
owing to you, and, as it came unto you from 
Auhannas^ and the archangels, may the corn ex- 
tend from you unto your descendants without dis- 
turbance from the demons ; " and two Ahunavairs 3 
are to be recited for the staying away of the demon 
and fiend.' 13. And Hadish, the thoroughly worthy 
through righteousness, went to Masye" and Masyadi, 
and he procured his corn and bread from Masyd and 
Masyadl, and it was given by them ; he also blessed 
them thus : ' May this corn come up from you, as 
from the archangels! as it came unto you from 
Auharma^ and the archangels, may it extend from 
you unto your descendants, without disturbance from 
the demons ; ' and two Ahunavairs were recited by 
him, for the staying away of the demon and fiend. 

14. And, owing to the explanation of the sacred 
beings, Masyd and Masyadl attained also to the 
manufacture of clothing, the tending of sheep, house- 
building, and primitive carpentry, the agriculture 
and husbandry of the ancients, and the memory of 
their original state ; and these proceeded from them 
through their lineage, presenting an example and 

1 Mentioned in Visp. i, 9 : ii, 1 1 : ix, 5, and recognized as a 
spirit in Pahl. Visp. i, 31 (Sp.). The spirit who assists the hus- 
bandman, see fitudes iran. ii, 201. 

* The MS. has ' his,' as in § 13, by mistake. 

* Two of the sacred Yatha-ahu-vairy6 formulas. 

Digitized by 



spreading in the world, to artificers among the 
plenitude of artificers. 

15. And after that, the destiny to be carried on 
came to Samak 1 , who was their son, and the descent 
of their collateral descendants was on to each region 
and each quarter of the world, to that extentwhich the 
creator chose for that region and quarter ; and thereby 
there was a completion of the progress and spreading 
of mankind into the various regions and quarters. 

16. At another time it came to Va6gere«? and 
H6shang 2 of the early law (pe^-daaf), for pro- 
viding in the world the law of husbandry, or cultiva- 
tion of the world, and of sovereignty or protection of 
the world. 17. And through their companionship 
and united force, given by religion, the sovereignty 
and cultivation of the world were prepared through 
progress and a succession of provisions of Auha/'- 
maaf's creatures, as well as the religion appointed 
by Auharmasaf. 18. And through that glory of 
destiny (gadi) two-thirds of the demons of Mazan6 * 
and the seven evil-instructed ones 1 of Aeshm were 
destroyed by Hdshing. 

19. After that it came to Takhm6rup s the well- 
armed, and through that glory the demon and evil 
mankind, the wizard and witch, were smitten by 
him ; idolatry was also cast out by him, and he 
propagated in his time the reverence and service of 
the creator ; the evil spirit, converted into the shape 
of a horse, was also carrying him for thirty winters. 

1 See Bd. XV, 24-26. 

* Grandsons of Sdmak, see Bd. XV, 28, and Sachau's Albirunfs 
Chronology of Ancient Nations, pp. 206, 212. 

8 The idolators of Mazandaran. See Yt. XIX, 26. 
4 Called 'seven powers' in Bd. XXVIII, 15. 

• See Bd. XXXI, 2, and Yt. XIX, 28, 29. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER I, I5-24. 

20. And it came, at another time, for the con- 
ference with Auha^ma^, to Yim l the splendid, the 
son of Vlvang,ha ; and owing to his accepting the 
four classes of the religion, which are priesthood, 
warriorship, husbandry, and artisanship, there are 
the four classes which are priesthood, warriorship, 
husbandry, and artisanship, and thereby the world 
was improved, extended, and developed ; he also 
rendered even the creatures, in a measure, immortal, 
undecaying, hungerless, thirstless, plentiful, and 
fully-settled. 2 1 . And in the good religion 2 it is 
declared, by the word of the creator Auharmaft/ to 
Yim, thus : ' Then do thou widen my world ! (that 
is, make up its measure more), then do thou extend 
my world ! (that is, make it up larger), and then 
thou shouldst accept from me the protection, nourish- 
ment, and chieftainship of the world ; and do thou 
effect such watchfulness over it, that no one shall be 
able to occasion the wounding or injury of another.' 
22. And this was accepted and done by Yim, as 
Auharmasaf commanded him ; and through the same 
glory he widened the earth three-thirds larger than 
that which it was theretofore. 23. And, in that 
realm of his, the cattle and men of the realm were 
made immortal by him, and the other creations, 
water, vegetation, and the various foods, imperish- 
able. 24. And this, too, is declared by the good 
religion, that the world was made by him like the 
supreme heaven in pleasantness ; also the enclosure 
made by Yim, constructed by him according to all 
the commands of the creator 3 , about guarding the 
creatures from perishing through the winter of 

1 See Bd. XXXI, 3-5, and Yt. XIX, 31-33. * In Vd. II, 4. 

8 As detailed in Vd. II, 22-31, 40, 41, 

Digitized by 


io dInkard, BOOK VII. 

Mahrkus, and likewise many other wonders are 
reported by the good religion. 

25. And it came, at another time, by command of 
the creator, to Frerfun the Asptgan 1 when he was in 
the pregnant womb, owing to the share of husbandry 
in the avocations of the religion, through allotment 
from the glory of Yim, and through its triumphant 
splendour. 26. And FreWun, through that triumphant 
splendour, became a responder to Dahak 2 from the 
pregnant womb, and that degraded fiend was averted 
and paralysed by him ; having come to nine years of 
age, he proceeded about his destruction, and through 
that victory Dahak was smitten by him 3 , the crea- 
tures were saved and relieved thereby, those of 
Mazandar and Mkda were smitten, their ravage and 
mischief were removed from the region of Khvanlras, 
and the region of Khvaniras was preserved for his 
three sons. 27. And owing to his husbandry, which 
is the third avocation of the religion, pestilence and 
disease were disturbed by the medical treatment even 
of pestilence itself, and he exhibited to mankind also 
many other wonders produced and useful occupation 
for the world. 

28. And, in the life-time of Fr&/un, the same 
destiny came to AirL6*, son of Fre^un, owing to 
introduction by the creator, and was diffused in him, 
and he practised humility ; the life 5 which is perfect 
is brought through a prayer from his father Freafun, 

1 See Bd. XXXI, 7, 8, and Yt. XIII, 131 ; XIX, 36. 

* The Arab usurper, or usurping dynasty, that conquered Yim 
in his old age ; see Bd. XXXI, 5, 6. 

s See Yt. XIX, 37. * See Bd. XXXI, 9, 10. 

6 Probably 'destiny;' the initial letter of vakhsh, 'destiny,' has 
been omitted, and this blunder converts the word into khaya, ' life.' 

Digitized by 



and that life ' came to him from the creator through 
the blessing of Fr&afan. 

29. And it came, through his mother, to a descen- 
dant of Fr&aftm and descendant of Alrli ; it proceeded 
with the angel NeYydsang to Manu^lhar*, and its 
entire progress was in the lineage of AJrli. 30. 
And it came to Minu^ihar, the monarch of Iran, 
and through it many wonder-wrought actions were 
performed by him ; he smote Salm and Tu^ in 
revenge for KSxik 3 , he was a responder to the super- 
fluities of foreign countries, he arranged the realm 
of Iran, improved and fertilised the land of Iran, and 
made the country of Iran victorious over foreigners. 

31. At another time it came to Auzdbd, son of 
Tumasp 4 , a descendant of Man&riihar the monarch 
of Iran ; and, through that destiny and glory com- 
bined, the new-born came to mature activity and the 
proportions of a man during childhood, through 
agriculture ; he disclosed his lamenting mother to 
the countries of Iran, he marched on to the destruc- 
tion of foreigners, to drive out and make them 
outcast from the land of Iran ; he also defeated the 
village-terrifier of the country of Iran, the wizard 
who frightened his father and fellow-immortals, 
Frangraslyak of Tur 8 ; and he developed and ferti- 

1 See note 5 on preceding page. 

s Here spelt NSresang and Man&rir. The former is the usual 
spiritual messenger of Auharmaz</; and for the lineage of the 
latter see Bd. XXXI, 9-14. It appears that the glorious destiny 
was preserved by the angel NSrydsang for some generations, and 
he conveyed it to the grandfather of Manu&Hhar (see Chap. II, 70). 

3 The three sons of Fr£</un, among whom he divided his 
dominions, with the usual result of triumvirates. 

4 See Bd.XXXI, 23; XXXIV, 6. 

» See Yt. XIX, 56-64, 77, 82, 93, and Bd. XXXI, 14, 15, 18, 
21, 22, 35 ; XXXIV, 6 ; where the Av. form Frangrasyan is further 

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lised the country of Iran, and increased the many 
streams and cultivated lands in the country of Iran. 

32. At another time it came to Kere\rasp6 the 
Saman \ owing to the share of warriorship which is 
the second avocation of the religion, through allot- 
ment from the glory of Yim 2 ; and, through it, the 
serpent Sr6bovar which was swallowing horses and 
swallowing men, the golden-heeled demon Ganda- 
rep6, and much other production of adversity by 
the demon and the fiend — the murderess of the 
creatures — were destroyed by him. 

33. At another time it came to Kal-Kobarf 8 , the 
progenitor of the Kayins ; through it he arranged the 
realm of Iran, he united the sovereignty with himself 
in the Kayan race, and he thereby occasioned much 
splendour and actions of advantage to the creatures. 

34. And it came to P4takhsr6b6 4 , son of AtrySf- 
shva 6 , son of Tdz, who was king of the Arabs, 
through the mindfulness of the archangel Ashava- 
hirt6, and his enquiry about it from its own tribe * — 

for the demon of greediness (ds6), with one similarly 

corrupted into Frisiyaz*, as it is also hereafter in Chap. II, 68; 
Zs. XII, 3. 

1 A famous hero whose exploits, like those of Hercules, have 
given birth to many legends; see S. B. E., vol. xviii, pp. 369-382. 

* Compare § 25. 

8 See Yt. XIX, 71 ; Bd. XXXI, 24, 25, 28; XXXIV, 7. 

4 Or Patasr6b6, spelt Patsr6b6 in Pahl. Vd. XX, 4 (Sp.). 

' Or AirySfshnig; evidently the same as Virafsang in Bd. 
XXXI, 6, which is spelt Avirafshangg and Airafshanig in two 
MSS. of the Iranian BundahLr. Hence we may conclude that 
Pitakhsr6b6 was a brother of Zaintgav, and a great-uncle of 
Dahdk ; but how his daughters could have been married to the 
three sons of FrSrfun, as stated in the KwnA^d Nask (see Dk. 
VIII, xiii, 9), is a chronological difficulty that throws doubt upon 
this identification. 

• The people of the primitive faith, who are supposed to have 

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I V 
CHAPTER I, 3*^37. 

destined, had rushed for the destruction of him who 
was very gentle to that tribe ' — as he had a full 
inclination for the ascendancy of the portion whose 
guidance to the lofty priestly master was owing to 
the archangel Ashavahirt6, just as the fish image 2 
of that other portion was for falling into the river ; 
and it is declared that he came to the ceremonial of 

35. At another time it came to Kai-Arsh and his 
brothers*, the descendants of Koba</; through it 
they have been all-experienced and powerful, heed- 
ful and performing wonders ; and the eldest brother 
of them, Kal-Cs, seized upon the sovereignty of the 
seven regions, and became very illustrious and full 
of glory. 36. At the same time it came to Adshnar* 
who became fully sagacious (pur-zlr), owing to the 
glory of Yim, when he was in his mother's womb, 
and many wonders were taught by him to his mother, 
through speaking from the mother's womb ; also at 
his birth he vanquished the maleficent spirit by 
uttering answers to the questions of the deadly 
Fnft&h the demon-worshipper. 37. He also attained 
to the chancellorship (farmaafarlh) of Kal-Os, and 
became administrator (rayini^ar) in his realm of 
the seven regions; the frontier speech (vim an d- 
g6bisnih) was also explained and taught by him, 

already practised most of the duties upheld by Zarathurtra before 
his appearance as a reformer. 

1 Indicating that the Arab subjects of the king had revolted, 
because he favoured those of the primitive faith who, no doubt, 
gained further favour by putting down the rebellion. 

* Or it may be ' fish priest/ as karapo, ' a heathen priest,' and 
kerpo, ' shape, image,' are written alike in Pahlavi letters. 

» See Yt. XIX, 71 ; Bd. XXXI, 25. 

* See Yt. XIII, 131 ; Dd. XL VIII, 33. 

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14 dIkkard, book vii. 

and much other learning of advantage to mankind 
who are unaffected by the utterance of replies of 
a foreigner; he also advised the Iranian country 
with the best-instructed counsel. 

38. And its coming to Kat-Slyavakhsh 1 the 
illustrious, through the wondrous-formed Kangd^3 
being held by him for the retention of protection for 
the much splendour and suitable glory of the religion, 
from which the restoration of time, the re-arrange- 
ment of the realm of Iran, and the reunion of power 
and triumph with the religion of Kti&varmzzd are 

39. It came to Kal-Khusr6l 2 , son of Slyavakhsh, 
and through it he smote and vanquished Frangra- 
slyak 8 ofThr, the wizard, and his fellow-miscreation 
K£rs£vazd * of those of Vakgir 6 , and many other 
very evil devastators of the world ; he also joined in 
the destruction of that idol-temple which was on the 
shore of Lake K&ka.s,t*, and demolished that fiendish- 
ness which was awful. 40. On account of the 
desirableness of means for the renovation of the 
universe, he is also on a throne (nam tk6), which is 
assuredly selected by that destiny, at a secret place 
where there is an immortal preserver for his body 
until the renovation, through the will of the creator. 

41. And it came from him, after Zaraturt of the 
Spttamas came to the conference of the creator 

1 See Yt. XIX, 71, 77; Bd. XXXI, 25; Byt. Ill, 25, 26. 
» See Yt. XIX, 74, 77, 93 ; Bd. XXXI, 25. 

* See §31. 

4 Brother of Frangrasfyak, see Yt. XIX, 77 ; Bd. XXXI, 15. 

* Reading Vakgiragano, probably the inhabitants of the 
Bakyir mountain, mentioned in Bd. XII, 2, 20 as a stronghold 
of Frasiyas (=Frangrasfyak). 

* See Bd. XVII, 7 ; Mkh. II, 95. 

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CHAPTER I, 38-43. 15 

Atiharmazd, and accepted from the omniscient 
creator ACiharmazd unmixed freedom from pollution, 
the comprehensive and also recited acquaintance 
with the knowledge and work of priesthood, warrior- 
ship, husbandry, and artisanship, and the separate 
portions of the Mazda-worshipping revelation (d£nd) 
brought to king Kai-Vutasp by command of the 
creator, illuminated by the great splendour in that 
supreme sovereign of the sacred beings, and propa- 
gated by the learned of the region, in the regions 
which are seven, through the good eloquence which 
is owing to the succession of creatures until the 
renovation of the universe. 42. And through its 
production by those who will be his sons, Aush&tfar, 
AusheWar-mah, and S6shans *, the renovation in the 
existence of the creatures of Auharma^ is immortal; 
and a more remindful statement of its splendour, 
glory, and marvellousness is a statement that is 
written and found below \ 

43. And there have also been others before Zara- 
tu.?t, the prophet (vakhshvar) of desired fame in 
the Masvafa-worshipping religion ; for it is declared 
that, at times, some came from the spiritual beings 
to him who was more of a leader, and mankind have 
become as captivated by the solicitation and interro- 
gation of that affair, as now by the solicitation and 
interrogation of the religion ; the necessity for that 
period is not now necessary, because all mankind 

1 The Pahlavi transcripts of the Avesta names, Ukhshyarf-ereta, 
Ukhshyarf-nemangh, and Saoshyas, of the three apostles expected 
to revive and renovate the Parsi religion in successive millenniums. 
According to the imperfect chronology of the Bundahw, the 
millennium of Aush&far-mSh has now nearly one-fourth elapsed. 

a See Chap. XI, 7-1 1. 

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are made acquainted with the religion, and Zaraturt 
of the Spttamas, whose guardian spirit is righteous, 
is to be reverenced. 

44. Now, that which is declared in the world is 
written, about the splendour, glory, and marvellous- 
ness of the prophet of the Mas^a-worshipping re- 
ligion, the best of creations, whose guardian spirit 
is reverenced, Zaratust of the Spltdmas; and ten 
chapters are published here, as to the information 
from the Avesta, and in benediction of the religion 
of Auharmasaf K 

45. That of it which is before the birth of that 
glorious one from his mother in the present world. 

46. That of it which is from the birth of that 
illustrious one onwards, till his coming to a con- 
ference with Auhafmas*/. 

47. That of it which is from the conference on- 
wards, till his pre-eminence over prophecy in the 
world, and the acceptance of the religion by the 
exalted Kat-VLrtasp. 

48. That of it which is onwards from that, till 
the departure (vlkh^^S) of that pure soul to the 
existence which is best. 

49. That of it which is also successively after that, 
in the reign of the obedient king Kal-Vistasp. 

50. That of it which is after that, until the collapse 
(an£"avi.yn6) of the sovereignty of Iran. 

51. That of it which is also after that, until the 
end of the millennium of Zaratu^t and the arrival of 

52. That of it which is also after that, until the 
end of the millennium of Aush£dar and the arrival 
of Aush&&r-m4h. 

1 Then follow the headings of these ten Chapteis (II to XI). 

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CHAPTER I, 44 -II, 3. 17 

53. That of it which is also after that, until the 
end of the millennium of Aush&jar-mah and the 
arrival of Sdshans. 

54. And that of it from the arrival of the Tri- 
umphant Benefiter, until the wonder of the renova- 
tion and future existence ; a statement of them 
each separately. 

Chapter II. 

1. About the marvellousness of the manifestations 
before 1 the birth of that most auspicious of offsprings 
from his mother 2 . 

2. One marvel is this which is declared, that 
the creator passed on that glory of Zaraturt 
through the material existences of the creatures 3 to 
Zaraturt; when the command arose from Auhar-, the coming of that glory from the spiritual 
existence to the worldly, and to the material sub- 
stance (madftyato) of Zaraturt, is manifested as 
a great wonder to the multitude (va/ kabedanS). 
3. Just as revelation mentions it thus : ' Thereupon, 
when Auharm&s*/ had produced the material 
(dalmno) of Zarattot, the glory then, in the 

1 The MS. has pata* for p§*. 

* The contents of this chapter ate thus mentioned in the 
summary of the Spend Nask (Dk. VIII, xiv, 1 in S.B.E., vol. xxxvii, 
p. 31): — 'The Spend contains particulars about the origin and 
combination of the material existence, guardian spirit, and soul (or 
glory) of ZaratCUt ; how the creation of each one occurred in the 
spiritual existence, and in what mode it was produced for the 
worldly existence; how their connection with the parents arose, 
the coming of the parents together, the combination in the mother, 
and the birth from the mother; and whatever is on the same 

3 The writer uses two Arabic words: mS</ty4tS-i '^alqo.' 

[47] c 

Digitized by 


1 8 vhfKARD, BOOK VII. 

presence of Auharma^, fled on towards the material 
of Zaratfot, on to that germ ; from that germ it fled 
on, on to the light which is endless V from the light 
which is endless 2 it fled on, on to that of the sun ; 
from that of the sun it fled on, on to the moon ; from 
that moon it fled on, on to those stars ; from those 
stars it fled on, on to the fire which was in the house 
of Z6b s ; and from that fire it fled on, on to the 
wife of Frahimrva»3-z6i.r \ when she brought forth 
that girl who became the mother of Zaraturt.' 

4. Of that splendour, escaped at the same time 
into the earth and into the sky, the father-in-law's 
ignorance is declared, so that it is said by those in 
the village of the more instructed and invoking 
Zdts 6 , as to the self-combustion which burns the fire, 
that fuel is not necessary for its use. 5. Then they 
went on to the governor (k&dd), and he explained 
to them concerning that same (that is, he spoke to 
them) thus : ' The full glory of embodied existence 

1 Perplexed by the repetitions, some copyist has evidently 
omitted this phrase by mistake. 

* Pahl. anagar, a transcript of Av. anaghra which is always 
translated by Pahl. asar, 'endless.' The 'endless light' is the 
abode of Aubarmagrf, see Bd. I, 2. 

' Written in Pazand. 

* Also written in Pazand. In Bd. XXXII, 10, it is stated that ' the 
name of the father of the mother of Zaratuxt was Frahimrava ' (or 
Fereihimruvina in the Iranian version); but very little reliance 
can be placed on such Pazand readings of names originally written 
in Pahlavi. 

* Here written in Pahlavi letters which can also be read Zandth. 
In the text, the two preceding adjectives, farhakhtar va-khv&n, 
might be read Farakht-ruv£nan as the beginning of the name. 
But, as it stands, the text implies that Z6ts , the father-in-law of his 
son Frahim-rva»a's wife, was the master of the house, which is the 
usual oriental arrangement. 

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CHAPTER II, 4-9. 19 

is the glory of life apart from the body, so that all 
diligence devoid of this is only movement.' 

6. And it is declared that the demons, on account 
of their defeat by that glory in maintaining 1 adversity 
for the girl, were bringing on to that district three 
armaments (hend), winter, the demon of pestilence, 
and oppressive enemies; and a suspicion was cast 
by them into the minds of those of the district, that 
this harm happened to the district owing to the 
witchcraft of this girl ; so that those of the district 
quarreled dreadfully with the parents, as to the 
witchcraft of antagonism in the girl, and about 
putting her out from that district. 

7. And the father of that girl spoke even these 
words to those of the district, with much reason, 
about the unjust assertion of witchcraft relative to 
the girl, that is : ' When this girl was brought forth 
among those of mine, her whole destiny (vakhsh) 
was afterwards set forth by that manifest radiance 
of fire, where it brought out radiance from all over 
her in the dark night. 8. When this girl sits in the 
interior of the house, wherein there is no fire, and 
in the chamber (saral) of fire they increase its 
intensity (burzS), it is lighter there, where and when 
this girl sits, than there where they increase the 
intensity of the fire ; one is dazzled by the radiance 
from her body, and that of a wizard would not have 
been so glorious.' 

9. Even then, owing to the influence (sartni^n6) 
of the demons, and the Kavig and Karap 2 of the 

1 Reading dirih, but it may be garih for kSrth, ' producing.' 
* The Karaps were apparently idolatrous priests, especially those 
before the conversion of VLrtasp by Zaraturt; one being called 
' a wizard ' in Chap. Ill, 5, 42-44, another ' unsanctified ' in IV, 24, 

C 2 

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district, they did not become satisfied ; so the father 
ordered the girl to go to Paaftragtaraspd \ the father 
of a family in the country (mata) of the Spitamas, 
in the district (rWastak) of Alak ; and the girl 
obeyed the command of her father. 10. That dis- 
turbance which the demons caused, with evil inten- 
tion, for the expatriation of that girl, the sacred 
beings assiduously made the reason for the coming 
of the girl for marriage to P6rushaspd, the father of 
Zaratust, through her father sending the girl to the 
dwelling of Paaftragtarispd, the father of Pdrushaspd. 
ii» One marvel* is this which is declared, that 
when that girl, in going to that family, stood on the 
loftiest place in the country of the Spitamas, and it 
is surveyed by her, a great wonder is manifested to 
the girl, just as revelation mentions: ' It is their 8 

a third is ' deadly' in IV, 67, and a demon himself is a Karap in 
IV, 61, and has Karaps under his control in II, 45. The following 
Karaps are named in the time of Zaratflft : — Durasr6b6 mentioned 
in Chap. Ill, 4-41 ; Brarfrdk-rfish in III, 20-34, who is called 
a Turanian in III, 28 ; VaSdvdLrt in IV, 21-24 ; and Zak in IV, 67. 
Some others are named by other writers. The Kavfgs, Kais, or 
Kigs are mentioned with the Karaps in Chaps. II, 9 ; III, 50 ; IV, 
2, 6, 14, 64, 67 ; VIII, 26, 40, as equally objectionable, but their 
avocation as officials is not defined. Both classes seem to have 
held official rank, but whether their titles were tribal or official is 
uncertain. The Avesta calls them Karapan and Kavi; the latter 
word being also the royal title of the Kay&n dynasty, of which 
Vwtasp was a member. Compare Zs. XV, 1-4 ; XXIII, 8. 

1 So also in §§ 13, 70. In Bd. XXXII, 1, 2, the two old MSS. of 
the Iranian Bundahu have Padtarasp thrice and Ptrtarasp once ; 
K 20 has Spitarsp and Paitiresp ; K 20 b has Padirtaraspd and 
Paitirispd; and M6 has Padirtarasp and Paitiresp. Zs. XIII, 6, has 

* One of the marvellous manifestations mentioned in § 1. 

* Probably we should read: 'It is the voice of those sacred 
beings ' who are mentioned in § 10. As the word y aarfan, ' sacred 
beings,' is exactly simi'ar, in Pahlavi, to shan (in valtfsh an, 'their' 

Digitized by 



voice is carried away to her from them ; " do thou 
proceed to that village which is theirs ; it is very 
depressed in height and very wide in breadth, in 
which he who is living and the cattle mostly walk 
together ; besides, for thy assistance that village is 
divinely fashioned and compassionate."' 12. There- 
upon that damsel stopped, and also fully observed 
that their recital seems to be for the conveyance 
of this statement, that my action sfwuld be such as 
was ordered me by my father also. 1 3. Then that 
damsel thoroughly washed her hands, and proceeded 
from them to that village which was Paaftragtarispo's, 
and the glory came to Pdrushaspd, the son of Paaft- 

14. One marvel \% this which is declared, that the 
creator AuhaTTnaz*/ passed on the guardian spirit 
(fravahar) of Zaraturt, to the parents of Zaraturt, 
through (le-£ad6n) H6m 1 , by a marvel produced 
by cultivation. 15. Again, too, revelation says that, 
when the separation (bur In 6) of the third millen- 
nium occurred, at the end of the 3,000 years of 
spiritual existence without a destroyer, (after the 
creatures were in spiritual existence, and before the 
arrival of the fiend); then the archangels framed 
Zaraturt together, and they seated the guardian 
spirit within, having a mouth, having a tongue, and 
the proclaimer of the celestial mansions. 

or ' those '), a copyist would be liable to the blunder of leaving out 
the final word in writing val<fshan yzsd&n. Or the original 
writer himself may not have quoted enough of the text he was 
reading, to make his meaning clear. 

1 A sacred and mythical tree, described in Bd. XVIII, 1-3, and 
often personified as a sacred being. It is now represented, in 
Parsi ceremonies, by twigs of a particular plant brought from 

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1 6. Then the three millenniums of Zaraturt 1 were 
the number manifest to them through observation 
by the eye, and it seemed that he became just like 
an archangel through bodily contact with (ham- 
kerpih) 2 the archangels. 1 7. And when the separa- 
tion of the third millennium occurred, after the 
framing of Zaratust together, and before the con- 
veying of Zaraturt down to the worldly state, at the 
end of the 3,000 years of worldly existence with 
a destroyer, then Ahharmazd argued with Vohftmand 
and Ashavahistd s thus : ' Is his mother beheld by 
you, so that we may produce Zaratust ? ' 

18. And Ashavahwt6 spoke in reply thus: 'Thou 
art aware even of that, O propitious one ! about the 
Zaratu^t we shall produce, and thou and we have 
produced, thou knowest, O Auharma^! and to us 
who are the other archangels do thou announce the 
place, because its appearance thou knowest, thou 
propitious spirit Auharmasd? ! ' 

19. Then A&harmazd argued with Vohumano 
and the reminding by Ardavahistd *, Shatraver, 
Spendarmaa', KhUrdad, and Amurda^ 6 , saying: 

1 Meaning the period of Zaraturt's existence merely as a guardian 
spirit, the first period of the destroyer (§ 17) who then remained 
powerless in confusion (see Bd. I, 22). 

2 Or ' sheltering with ' (ham-kar/iih). 

' The personifications of the Avesta phrases for ' good thought ' 
and ' perfect rectitude/ who are two of the seven that hold a 
superior position among sacred beings, somewhat similar to that 
of archangels. When a Parsi speaks of Auharmazrf as the first of 
the Ameshaspends, or archangels, he does not put him on an equality 
with the rest, any more than we put a commander-in-chief on an 
equality with his troops when we call him a good soldier. 

4 Another pronunciation of Ashavahwtd. 

5 These last four archangels are personifications of the Avesta 

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CHAPTER TI, 16-24. 2 


' The conveying of Zaraturt down does not seem to 
be for me, because, having a mouth and having 
a tongue, he will be a proclaimer to the world of 
embodied beings. 20. If we convey Zarat&rt down 
on to the world of embodied beings, having a mouth 
and having a tongue, as a proclaimer of the celestial 
mansion, this is evident : they will say, concerning 
the origin of him who is my righteous man, thai we 
frame him together with the water, with the land, 
with the plants, and with the animals 1 . 21. There- 
fore we will carry off there, to the village of Pdru- 
shaspd, him whom they will call Zaratu^t of good 
lineage of both natures, both of N£ry6sang z who is 
of the archangels, and of Yim who is of mankind.' 

22. Then the archangels framed together a stem 
of H6m the height of a man, excellent in colour, 
and juicy where fresh ; also to carry off the guardian 
spirit of Zaratust to that stem of theirs, the arch- 
angels made it go forth thither from that endless 
light, and gave it up there also to the instinctive 
intellect (asnd vir). 23. Likewise their carrying 
off was manifest around, and a wall was openly 
displayed round them, but a restless one ; the Hdm 
was constantly provided with a mouth, where it was 
suitable, and sap constantly oozed from the Hdm 
where it was moist. 

24. And when thirty 3 years of the 3,000 years of 

phrases for ' desirable dominion, bountiful devotion, completeness 
or health, and immortality.' 
1 That is, as an inferior and irresponsible being. 

* Here spelt N6r6sang; see Chaps. I, 29; II, 70 ; and Zs. XIII, 
6, for this angel's influence on the royal race. 

* The MS. has 330 years, but the time intended is evidently that 
shortly before the birth of Zarat&rt, and this third 3,000 years 

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well-disturbed 1 worldly existence remained, Vohu- 
mand and Ashavalmtd then associated their pre- 
eminence together, and turned off into the embodied 
existence ; there they came up to where two birds 
had settled in quest of progeny, and seven years 
before the serpents devoured the inexperienced 
progeny. 25. For their own designs, Vohuman6 
and Ashavahistd went on, and those birds consulted 
them thus : ' We have to offer homage, and our 
want is that H6m.' 

26. The circumstances of those associated together 
in pre-eminence and the request of these for that 
H6m were a double marvel ; Vohumand seized one 
of those birds by both legs, and the other by one ; 
he also brought them that Hdm, and gave it up to 
them there, on that tree within their nest. 27. And 
they uncovered above the serpents, that have gone 
up to the progeny of the birds ; then that guardian 
spirit of ZaratU5t started up, and the serpents on 
the tree rushed also from them away towards the 
demons ; but that guardian spirit of Zaratust smote 
them on the jaws, and the serpents fell down and 
expired, which events have also occurred among 
them till now, having been requisite as regards 
a depriver of life (^an-glr) and any one of that 
species. 28. And that H6m was connected with 
that tree ; and on the summit of that tree, there 

ended either when Vut&spd accepted the religion, in Zarattot's 
forty-second year, or when Zaraturt received the religion in his 
thirtieth year, but this earlier date is the more likely. 

1 This word, hu-aibi^adig, is written in Pahlavi precisely like 
an-afbi^adfg, 'without a destroyer,' though its meaning is the 
reverse, which is an unexpected cause of perplexity to a cursory 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER II, 25-33. 2 5 

where the nest of the birds was, it grew constantly 
fresh and golden-coloured '. 

29. After the coming of her who bore Zaraturt, 
to Pdrushaspd for marriage, Vohumand and Arda- 
vahlrtd, thus associated together in their pre- 
eminence, came up there to Pdrushaspd in the 
cattle-pasture of the Spttamas, and their thoughts 
were confined to that H6m brought by them. 30. 
Then Pdrushaspd walked forth, with spiritual desire, 
up to the water of the Dalt 2 , because the require- 
ment of the spirits is the spiritual knowledge 3 that 
spirits are ever-beneficial ; and that H6m was also 
seen by him, when it had grown on that tree, on the 
inside of the nest. 31, Then Pdrushaspd thought 
thus: ' It is for me, really (raadam-^-am) to pro- 
ceed and, even as there is no reaching by me up to 
that H6m, that tree must be cut down, for apart from 
that, O H6m of Auharmaswf! thou seemest fresh, 
so that the benefit of something from thee will be 

32. Then Pdrushaspd walked on and washed 
their clothes acquiescently (patasig), and here a 
great wonder was manifest to Pdrushaspd. 33. About 
this it says that, all the while that Pdrushaspd 
washed their clothes, Vohumand then proceeded 
from the uppermost third of the tree unto the 
middle of it, whereon it was the desire of Pdru- 

1 Or it may be ' verdant.' 

* Av. Daitya, a mythic river in Atran-ve^ (Bd. XX, 13); 
a favourite place for religious rites, see Yt. V, 17, 104, 112; IX, 
25, 29; XVII, 45, 49, 61. Or it may be merely maya-t sheV, 
' brilliant water.' 

8 Reading mainfig-danisnfh, but the MS. has malnog 
d£nd-d£nfh which might be translated 'spiritual knowledge of 
religion,' though the latter Pahlavi word is unusual. 

Digitized by 


26 d!nkard, BOOK VII. 

shasp6 to be conveyed. 34. Then P6rushasp6, 
having washed the clothes, walked up to it and, 
thereupon gathering up the whole of that H$m, all 
of it was then also appropriated by him through 
assistance like that of that archangel, just as what 
thou offerest for the food-sustenance of a friend's 
son of two years or three years of age ; and it 
seemed to him that archangel 's joyful payment. 

35. Carrying off their H6m, Pdrushispd spoke of 
it to his noble (mas) wife thus : * So thou, O Duk- 
daub ! shouldst keep their H6m in custody, all the 
while that their H6m fulfils duty and routine.' 

36. One marvel is this which is declared, that 
the coming of the nature (gdhar) of the body of 
Zaratust, through water and vegetation, to the 
bodies of his parents, is manifested as a great 
wonder of the creator to the multitude. 37. As 
revelation mentions it thus : ' Thereupon, when 
Auharma^ had produced the material (dahuno) 
of Zaratu-rt: 1 , the nature of his body then, in the 
presence of Auharma^, fled on towards the material 
of Zaratu-rt.' 

38. About Khtirdad and M&rdad 2 bringing the 
cloud-water down in a compassionate manner ever 
anew, drop by drop, and completely warm, for the 
delight of sheep and men, and — with as much seed 
as the roving of two rampant bulls would thereby 
cast upon the plants which have grown, all of every 
species — they are casting it upon those other plants 
at that time, even upon the dry ones; and the 

1 Compare § 3. 

8 These two archangels have special charge of water and 
vegetation (see Sis. XV, 25-29), and here they are represented 
as acting in a manner usually ascribed to Tirtar, the Dog-star. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER II, 34-43. 27 

nature of Zaraturt came from that water to those 

39. One marvel is this which is declared, that, in 
order that the nature of Zaraturt shall come unto 
his parents, after l the mounting of the archangels 
P6rushasp6 drives six white cows, with yellow ears, 
up to those plants. 40. And here is manifested a 
great wonder, such as revelation mentions thus : 
Two 2 of those cows, unimpregnated, had become 
full of milk, and the nature of Zaraturt came 
from the plants to those cows, and is mingled with 
the cows' milk ; it is owing thereto that Pdrushispd 
drove those cows back. 41. And Pdrushaspd spoke 
to Dukd&ub thus : ' O DuWaub ! in two of those 
cows, which are unimpregnated and have not calved, 
milk has appeared ; do thou milk those cows, which 
are the splendour and glory of the cows and of any 
embodied existence whatever.' 42. And Dukdfaub 
arose and, taking that pail of hers which had a four- 
fold capacity, she also milked from them the milk 
which was in them, and a great part of what they 
gave up to her she had to throw away ; and the 
nature of Zaratu.rt was in that milk. 

43. One marvel is this which is manifested in the 
struggle of the adversary for concealing and spoiling 
that milk,/«.y/ as revelation mentions thus : There- 
upon, at that time, the demons formed themselves 
into an assembly, and the demon of demons growled 
thus : ' You demons become quite unobservant : 
that food is really supplied fresh, so that the forma- 
tion is settled which will extend as far as to that 

1 Reading akhar instead of ad&n, ' then.' 
1 In some places the singular number is used, in others the 

Digitized by 



man who will be the righteous Zarattet ; which of 
you will undertake his destruction, all the while that 
he exists for mankind, so as to make him more con- 
temptibly impotent?' 44. A'dshmak 1 , astute in 
evil, growled thus : ' I will undertake his destruc- 
tion.' 45. Astute in evil, he rushed away with 
thrice fifty of the demons who are Karaps of 
Ajfeshmak; and that village was partly uprooted 
and partly destroyed 2 by him, fellow-workers were 
ruined, and the number of fellow-<eaters of broken 
victuals, attending the great, was not broken up, 
among whom was he that had repelled his authority. 

46. // is declared that, afterwards, P6rushasp6 
asked again for that Hdm from DuWaub, and he 
pounded it, and with that cows' milk 3 , into which 
the nature of the body of Zaraturt had come, he 
here mingled the guardian spirit of Zaratujt, and 
the nature of the body came at once into union 
with it. 

47. One marvel is this which is declared, that 
Pdrushaspd and Duka&ub drank up that H6m and 
milk, when they were mingled together and an- 
nounced to Auharmas^ ; and here occurred a com- 
bination of the glory, guardian spirit, and bodily 
nature of Zaraturt into a manchild. 48. And a 
great wonder is manifested to both of them, through 
that which revelation mentions thus : Thereupon, 
both have embraced the first lime* with desire 

1 The whirlwind demon; see Bd. XXVIII, 24. Compare 
Chap. IV, 61. 

* The usual effects of a hurricane. 

' The mingling of milk with pounded Hdm still constitutes part 
of the Parsi ceremonial ; see Haug's Essays, 3rd ed., p. 405. 

4 Pahl. ' ko/a 2 laid fratflm vapdido havrfnd.' 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER II, 44-53. 29 

for a son, and the demons shouted out unto them, 
in the villainous speech of sinfulness, thus : ' Why 
shouldst thou act like this, vile x Pdrushaspd ? ' 
whereupon they started up like people who are 
ashamed. 49. A second time they have embraced, 
and the demons shouted out unto them, in villainous 
speech ; whereupon they started up like people who 
are ashamed. 50. A third time they have embraced 
thus, with desire for a son; and the demons shouted 
out unto them, in villainous speech ; whereupon they 
started up like people who are ashamed. 51. And 
they spoke with one another about it, and continued 
at this duty, and accomplished it 2 , saying: 'We will 
not so stop without accomplishing something, not 
even though both Rak and NdaJar should arrive here 
together 3 .' 52. Then that manckild who was the 
righteous Zaratust became complete, and here below 
there came together the nature of the body, the 
guardian spirit, and the glory of Zaratu.rt in the 
womb of his mother. 

53. One marvel is this which is declared, that, 
after the combination of Zaraturt in the womb of 
his mother, the demons strove anew wonderfully 

1 Reading anig, but it may be intended for hana=aS, ' O.' 
1 Pahl. 'afshan madam hlr s«fto, aSghshSno pavan akdsh irdz 

* Evidently an old proverb, implying a fixed determination what- 
ever catastrophe may happen, even if one's ancestors of the eleventh 
or twelfth generation shall appear. Nd<fer (Av. Naotara) was 
a son of King Manujtfhar (Bd. XXXI, 13, 23), and R£k was 
a nephew of N&fer (Bd. XXXI, 31), doubtless the same as Ra^an 
(Bd. XXXII, 1 ; XXXIII, 3) which seems to be a Pazand mis- 
reading of Alri£6, or ErL&S, see Zs. XVI, 11-13, and compare the 
genealogies in Chap. II, 70 and Zs. XIII, 6. The proverb is 
used again in Chap. Ill, 19, and the names are mentioned in 
HI, 39- 

Digitized by 


30 bIukard, book vii. 

to cause the death of Zaratu-rt in his mother's womb, 
and she who bore him was rendered sickly by them 
through the sharpest of sharp and afflictive pain, 
until she wished to ask the wizard physicians for 
a desirable remedy. 54. And here is manifested a 
great wonder, just as revelation says : ' It is then 
a voice of theirs is carried away there to her from 
the higher region, from Auharmasaf and from the 
archangels, thus : " Thou damsel who goest! do not 
proceed thither, because anything of theirs is 
destruction through wizard medical treatment ; for 
healthfulness wash thy hands thoroughly, and those 
hands shall take firewood, and upon it thou shalt 
offer meat for the sake of the infant, thou shalt offer 
up cows' butter to the fire for his sake ; thou shalt 
likewise heat it at the fire for his sake, and shalt 
quaff (palmed) it off at improper time for his sake, 
and thou wilt become well."' 55. Then at once 
that damsel washed her hands thoroughly, and she 
did just as she had heard, and became well \ 

56. One marvel is this which is manifested to the 
multitude when three days remained to his coming 2 
forth; in the manner of the sun, at the approach 
of its uprising, when its first advancing twilight is 
diffused, his body is then announced as revelation 
says : ' It is then when in those last three nights 
during which Zaratu^t was in the womb, where he 
still subsisted three days till afterwards born, that 
the village of Pdrushaspd became all luminous. 57. 
Then spoke the horse-owners and cattle-owners of 
the Spitamas, in running away, thus: "It is requisite 
to be forgiven s ; the village of Pdrushasp6, on which 

1 Compare Zs. XIV, 2-5. * Literally ' going.' 

* Apparently an appeal for mercy. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER II, 54-62. 

that fire 1 is in every crevice, is disturbed by con- 
fusion 2 ." 58. Then, on running together again, 
they said : " It is not fully forgiven for the village 
of Pdrushaspd ; fire is on it in every crevice and it 
is disturbed by confusion ; unto him is born, at his 
house, a brilliant manchild." ' 

59. This, too, is one of the wonders, when the 
report of the marvellousness of the birth of that 
manchild and of his great glory, is due to statements 
of Yim and also others, brilliant in carrying on the 
destiny which had entered them from the sacred 
beings. 60. Wherein Yim spoke to the demons 
thus : ' Here below the pure and righteous Zaratust 
will be born, who will produce for you who are 
demons that absence of intercession which is pre- 
pared for you (that is, he will produce for you 
a thoroughly-harassed actual inactivity, an absence 
of intercession so that you are not able to pray on 
your own account, and no one prays for you).' 

61. It is declared that the report about the birth 
of Zara.tu.rt, and concerning his prophesying, is 
explained (avazandi-hast6) only by the illustrious, 
suck as Yim and Fr&#m and many learned people ; 
but the sacred beings are also heard through the 
tongues of the animals scattered in the world, in 
order that even that witness shall arise as regards 
his prophesying. 62. fust like that which is de- 
clared, that in the reign of Kal-Us there was an ox, 
and a splendour had come to his body from the 
sacred beings ; and whenever a dispute as to the 
frontier arose between Iran and Turin, that ox was 
brought, and the boundary between Iran and Turan 

1 Assuming that niram stands for nt r<£, a variant of nura. 
* Or ' terrified with fear.' 

Digitized by 



was truly shown by him. 63. And because, when an 
Iranian had to seek a decision as to a Turanian in 
a dispute and lies occurred, the Turanians were 
constantly convicted through the showing of the 
boundary by the ox, and happened to be defeated 
by the Iranians — and, besides that, their envy also 
arose as to Kal-Us, even of his ownership — there- 
fore, on account of his possession of that wonder, 
the Turanians proceeded about the smiting and 
destruction of that ox, and through their sorcery 
and witchcraft the mind of Kal-Us was disturbed 
about that ox, and he went to a warrior, whose name 
was Srltd \ and ordered him to kill that ox ; so that 
man came to smite the ox. 64. And here is mani- 
fested a wonder of importance by that ox, such as 
revelation mentions thus : ' To him spoke the ox, in 
grave words, thus : " Thou shouldst not murder me, 
O Sritd ! thou seventh 2 of those of this race ; you 
will atone for this malice when Zarattot, the most 
desirous of righteousness among the existences, 
arrives and proclaims thy bad action in revelation ; 
and the distress in thy soul becomes such as is 
declared by that passage where it says : ' As death 
occurs to him, that of VWak 3 and the like occurs.' 
65. It is declared that that man, when this wonder 
was thus seen by him proceeding from the ox, did 
not kill it, but went back to Kai-Us and told him 
what he had seen. 66. Kal-Us then still, on account 
of the amazing deceitfulness of the demons and 
wizards, ordered the same man to smite that ox ; 

1 This legend is also told, with farther details, in Zs. XII, 7-25. 

* Compare Zs. XII, 10. 

* The mother of Dandle, who first committed adultery in an 
aggravated form (see Dd. LXXII, 5 ; LXXVIII, 2). 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER II, 63-68. 33 

and that man proceeded also again to the ox, and 
though it was carrying on still much of that talk, he 
did not lend an ear to it, but killed it. 

67. Regarding the sole-created ox 1 , too, it is 
declared that, on meeting its destruction by the evil 
spirit, it bellowed thus: 'Though thou thinkest it as 
to us, O evil spirit, astute in evil ! that thou art in 
every way a winner by destruction, it is not to our 
destruction thou art even then an attainer in every 
way (that is, it is not possible for thee so to 
annihilate that we shall not arise again) ; even now 
I proclaim that that man, Zaratust of the Spltamas, 
will arrive in that last revolution, who will produce 
distress for the demons, the assistants of the demon, 
and also the wicked who are bipeds.' 

68. Likewise the marvellousness of Zaratfot's 
defeat of the demons, owing to his glory and by 
means of his sagacity, even before he had come into 
the world by birth ; when Frasiyiz' 2 the wizard is 
amazingly distressed through seeking that glory of 
his by desire of the demons, just as revelation 3 
mentions thus : ' Thereupon Frasiyaz/, the very 
powerful Turanian, rushed away, O ZaratU5t of the 
Spltamas ! to the wide-formed ocean a first, a second, 
and a third time; and he wished to obtain that glory 
which is specially for those of the countries of Iran, 

for the born and the unborn, and which is for the 
righteous one; but he did not attain to that glory.' 

1 Pahl. t6ra-t aSvak-darfo, the primeval ox, from whom the 
animals and plants have all descended (see Bd. Ill, 14, 17, 18; 
1^1-5; X, 1 ; XIV, 1-3; XXVII, 2). 

' The same person as Frangrasiyak of Chaps. I, 31, 39 ; II, 69 ; 
XI, 3. 

» In Yt. XIX, 56-62; V, 42. 

[47] D 

Digitized by 



69. And this, too, is mentioned, that to all the seven 
regions the villain Frangrasiyak rushed away, and 
the glory of Zaraturt was sought by him V 

70. Here is an enumeration of the worthy lineage 
of ZaratuJt 2 : — Zaratust was son of P6rushasp6, son 
of Paaftragtaraspd, of Urugadhasp*, of Hae£ad&sp6*, 
of -A^khshnu**, of Pa£trasp*, of Are^dhanm*, of 
Hardhar*, of Spitam, of Vaedirt*, of Nayazem**, 
of Alrli s , of Durasrdbd, of Manu^ilhar monarch of 
Iran, of Manus-khurnar, of Manus-khurnak whom 
N6r6ksang implanted in 4 Vizak*, daughter of Air- 
yak*, son of Thritak*, of Bitak*, of Frazu.vak*, of 
Zu-yak*, of Fraguzak* 8 , of Guzak* 6 , daughter of 
hitik, son of FreWun monarch of Khvaniras, son 
of Pur-t6ra the Aspigan, of Nevak-t6ra the Aspigan, 
of S6g-t6ra the Aspigan, of B6r-t6r4 the Aspigan, 
of Kan&r-tdra 7 the Aspigan, of Siyah-t6ra the 
Aspigan, of Sp6t6-t6ra the Aspigan, of GeTar-t6ra 
the Aspigan, of Ramak-tdra 8 the Aspigan, of Van6- 
fravi.m the Aspigan, of Yim monarch of the seven 

1 See Yt. XIX, 82. 

2 Compare the genealogy in Zs. XIII, 6 ; Bd. XXXII, r, and that 
quoted there from the Vi^trkarrf-i DSnig. The names marked here 
with an asterisk are written in Pazand, or partly so. 

8 Ayazem, of Ra^an, in Bd. The latter name is Ragira in Vig., 
but £ri£6 in Zs. XVI, 13. 

4 This wants confirmation, but varzta 36n can hardly be 
a name as assumed in Vi^., where it is altered to Varsi</-d6n. 

6 The g is of the old form like s. 

• The G is omitted, but see Bd. XXXI, 14. 

7 Or Kutal-t6r& ; this generation is omitted both in the Vj^irkarrf 
and Bundahif. 

8 This generation is interlined in the MS. of the Dfnkart/. The 
Bundahi-f , XXXI, 7, also omits Nevak-t6ra ; and the Vi^irkarrf omits 
B6r-t6ra, Siyah-t6ra, Sp&6-t6ra, and Ramak-tdra. The termina- 
tion t6ri is merely the ZvarL? equivalent of gau. In Irinian MSS. 
the Pahlavi t and u are practically written alike in most cases. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER II, 69-III, 4. 35 

regions, son of Vivangha, of Ayang.harf*, of Anan- 
g,ha^*, son of H6shang the Pe\yda<afian monarch of 
the seven regions, son of Fravak, of Siyamak, of 
Masya, of Gaydmaraf the first man. 

Chapter III. 

1. About the marvellousness which is manifested 
after the birth of that most auspicious of offsprings 
from his mother, till his coming to a conference with 
Auhanna^ \ 

2. One marvel is this which is declared, that on 
being born he laughed outright ; the seven midwives 
(dayah) 2 , who sat around him, were quite frightened 
thereby; and those terrified ones spoke thus: 'What 
was this, on account of grandeur or contempt ? when, 
like the worthy man whose pleasure is due to 
activity, the man's child so laughs at the birth owing 
to him.' 3. Pdrushaspd also spoke thus : ' Bring out 
this manchild to the sheepjv&» clothing which is 
soft ; the affair was owing to thee, owing to the 
virtue of thee who art Duk^aub, that the advent of 
glory and coming of radiance to this manthild was 
openly seen when he laughed outright at his birth.' 

4. One marvel is this which is declared, that 
P6rushasp6 afterwards went to a Karap, Durasrdbd 
by name, who was the most renowned for witchcraft 
in that district, and informed him of the birth of 
Zarat&ft and the wonders which were manifested 

1 The contents of this chapter refer chiefly to ' the rearing of 
Zaratfot.' For the other matters mentioned in Dk. VIII, xiv, 2, 
see Zs. XIV, 6-12. 

* Sis. X, 15 prescribes 'ten women.' Zs. XIV, 13 mentions 
' seven wizards (yituko).' 

D 2 

Digitized by 


36 . dInka/jc, book vii. 

therein ; he also brought him to the house for the 
purpose of seeing Zaratust. 5. That wizard, owing 
to the coming on of vexation at that glory in Zara- 
tdst, desired with evil intention a really mischievous 
deceit (sh£do), to compress with his paws (g6v) the 
tender head of that full-glorious child, to cause his 
death. 6. And here is manifested a great wonder 
to the multitude, just as revelation mentions it thus : 
' Thereupon the paws of that deadly one (mar) are 
driven back to behind him (that is, reversed ( un) 
backwards) ; nor ever after did that deadly one be- 
come again a devourer of meat with his jaws by 
means of those paws.' 7. That Karap also, besides 
that, examined the marks and evil specks on Zara- 
tfot 1 ; and P6rushasp6, in awful alarm as to the 
dispersion of the emanation of splendour (4 p-dihth) 
from Zaratu^t, hastened (sarin!*/) to make Zaratitst 

8. One marvel is this which is declared, that the 
Karap Durasr6b6, through witchcraft, cast such fear 
of Zaraturt into the mind of P6rush£sp6, and so 
injured the mind of P6rushasp6, that, owing only to 
that very fear as regards himself, he asked the Karap 
for the death of Zaraturt. 9. Also about 2 the mode 
of putting to death for which P6rushasp6, owing to 
the distraction (vish6pi^n6) by which he becomes 
helpless, asks Dur4sr6b6 ; and that Karap is bring- 
ing much firewood together, and to shelter (nipa- 
yidano) Zaratust amid that firewood, to stir up a fire, 
and to make Ablaze with the wood were the remedy 
he arranged (virasto); and P6rushasp6 acted accord- 

1 Compare Zs. XVI, 1-3. 

8 Pahl. madam-m^, where m<f=£i, 'what? whatever,' is used 
for -i£, ' also,' as often happens. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER III, 5~I2. 37 

ingly. 10. And here is manifested a great wonder 
to the multitude, just as revelation mentions it thus : 
' Neither was fire among the vegetation on a tree 
(that is, it does not come on), nor has fire seized 
upon plants ; but on rushed, at dawn 1 , that son-loving 
mother, and she came forth to him intelligently 
(hushumdnd), and seizing him, thereby removed 
him with her right hand aloft as he sat V 

11. One marvel is this which is declared, that 
after Pdrushaspd spoke to the Karap Durasrobd 
about the fire not burning the child, he asked anew 
about putting Zaratu^t to death ; then to ensconce 
(nipayldfanS) Zaratust in a narrow path, and de- 
spatch many oxen on that path, so that he may be 
trampled on by the feet of the oxen at night, were 
the remedy that Karap proposed (giray!^5) to 
P6rusha.sp6; and P6rushasp6 acted accordingly. 12. 
Here also is manifested a wonder of grandeur to the 
multitude, just as revelation mentions: 'It was that 
ox walked on which had become sorrowful (that is, 
its sorrow was great owing to another ox) and it was 
aged and walked before that one (before the leading 
ox), it also hastened before that other (that is, it 
stood up before Zaratu,?t), and he was greatly pitied 
by it for the whole day, so that it kept away the 
oxen from him, being the first that walked thither 
and the last that walked away ; on rushed at dawn 
that son-loving mother, forth to him she came intelli- 

1 Reading pavan aush, but it might be pavan hush, 'with 
sense,' here and in § 14, where there is nothing to indicate that the 
child was out all night, but in §§ 12, 18 he is evidently rescued the 
next morning. 

s Pahl. ' madam pavan austakS.' Compare Zs. XVI, 7. 

Digitized by 


38 dInkard, BOOK VII. 

gently, and seizing him, thereby removed him with 
her right hand aloft as he sat V 

13. One marvel is this which is declared, that. 
P6rushasp6 came a second time (idano) to that 
Karap also about the oxen not trampling on Zara- 
turt, and asked anew about the mode of putting 
Zaraturt to death ; then to ensconce Zaratust near 
a drinking-pool (i&khOr) in the domain (gShan), 
and to drive many horses to that drinking-pool, so 
that he may be trampled on by the hoofs of the 
horses, were the substituted 2 remedy that Karap 
proposed; and PdrOshaspd acted accordingly. 14. 
And here is manifested a great wonder to the 
multitude, just as revelation mentions thus : * That 
horse walked on which had become fully-hoofed 
(that is, its hoofs were very thick) ; it is yellow-eared 
and it walks before that one (before the leading 
horse), and it hastens before that other (that is, it 
stood up before Zaraturt), and was the first that 
walked on thither, and the last that walked away ; 
on rushed at dawn that son-loving mother, forth to 
him she came intelligently, and seizing him, thereby 
removed him with her right hand aloft as he sat V 

15. One marvel is this which is declared, that 
Pdrushaspd came again to that Karap, spoke also 
about the horses, too, not trampling on Zaraturt, and 
asked anew as to what may be the mode of putting 

1 Compare Zs. XVI, 5. 

8 Possibly 'supplementary' or 'gratuitous.' The word is 
nirmato which, as a noun, means the gratuity or honorarium 
paid to a priest for acting as a substitute for another. Its etymology 
is obscure, unless it be an abbreviation of nirumandt, 'strength,' 
used in the legal sense of ' refresher.' 

* Compare Zs. XVI, 6. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER III, 13-19. 39 

Zaraturt to death ; then to have Zaraturt carried off 
into the den (surak) where a wolf's cubs (hOnu^kan) 
are slaughtered, so that when the wolf arrives and 
sees the slaughtered cubs, she will wrathfully growl 
and mangle Zaraturt in revenge for those cubs, was 
the remedy that Karap proposed ; and Pdrushaspd 
acted accordingly. 16. And here is manifested 
a great wonder to the multitude, just as revelation 
mentions : ' It is when that wolf came on, several 
Yu^yasts 1 , towards Zarat&rt, the wolf was struck 
dumb by the assistance of the sacred beings, so that 
its mouth was down at the cubs, one with the other.' 
17. One marvel is this which is declared, that 
Sr6sh a the righteous and Vohumand proceeded to 
him, and a woolly (kuru^ak) sheep was brought by 
them unto him; the nurses (dayagan) 8 also were 
terrified, apart from him, the whole night. 18. Then 
on rushed at dawn that son-loving mother, forwards 
from the position 3^ that woolly sheep she' walked, 
and she, the mistress of the domain (zan-1 gehan), 
spoke thus: 'Thou runnest on violently (utayuto) 
in excess ; ' for she considered in this way, that ' the 
wolf is so much better to that son than thou art * 
good to me, when I shall show his 6 bone or blood 
in thy sight 6 .' 19. Forwards to him has she come 

1 The Yu^yast is a distance of sixteen Roman miles of a thousand 
paces each (see Dk. VIII, xx, 19, note). But the writer of the 
scripture here quoted could have had no idea of the distance he 
was mentioning. 

2 A sacred being who personifies ' obedience,' and is a special 
protector of man, particularly at night. 

8 It may also be read dehtgan, ' the country-folk.' 

4 Or ' she would be.' * Or ' they show my.' 

6 This seems to be a bitter reproach addressed to her husband ; 

but the ambiguity of the Pahlavi makes its exact meaning rather 


Digitized by 




intelligently and, seizing him, she thereby removed 
him, through the grace (dahisno) of the sacred 
beings, aloft as he sat ; and she, the mistress of the 
domain, spoke thus : 'I shall not give thee up again, 
my son, not even though both Rak and N&dar should 
arrive here together 1 .' 

20. And it is declared that, afterwards, the Karap 
Durasr6b6, with a malicious disciple, came to the 
same district and noticed about the advancement of 
Zaratust; and they saw no means for injuring or 
putting him to death, but his condition (mindavam) 
•was a marvel as full of vigour as this which is 
declared, that Bradr6k-resh, the Karap, growled thus : 
— 21. 'Then I, who am the most far-seeing of the 
people in that district of ours as to witchcraft, see 
upon their district that well-directing (that is, he 
understands good commands) produce of develop- 
ment (that is, the increase which continually becomes 
more, which has come and which will arrive), with 
good flocks (that is, he understands to keep good 
sheep), with good herds (that is, he understands to 
keep a herd which is better than another's), the 
well-exerting (that is, he understands to do work 
which is better than another's), well-fighting (that 
is, he understands to do battle well), and perfectly 
liberal (that is, he understands to exercise beneficial 
liberality) bantling (hunu^ko) of P6rushasp6 2 , in 
the three nights while he was begotten out of 

1 See Chap. II, 51. Compare Dk. V, ii, 4; Zs. XVI, 8-13. 

2 The Pahlavi version of an Avesta text, here translated, is 
a fair specimen of the complication produced by appending a gloss 
to every epithet. It is useful as a combination of translation and 
lexicon, but it is apt to be perplexing, unless all the glosses are 
carefully omitted by the reader who can dispense with a lexicon. 

Digitized by 



CHAPTER III, 26^26. </ 41 

his parents. 22. Unto him will Vohumand come 
in the embodied world (that is, Vohumand will 
come unto Zarattot), and conducting him unto a 
conference, his good religion will extend into the 
seven regions ^the earth ; and so I shall not even 
let him produce in his mind (that is, he will not 
know) where and how I shall murder him ; and a 
token of this matter, that one speaks truly, is this, 
that I state it beforehand, promptly after the full 
hearing of the statement of the matter, when you 
heard this statement.' 

23. Pdrushaspd advanced, conveyed in a four-in- 
hand chariot ' ; then, on hearing that statement, and 
when they had heard that statement, Pdrushaspd 
started forth, conveyed in that four-in-hand chariot. 
24. And Pdrushaspd spoke to Braafrdk-rdsh, the 
Karap, thus : ' Bra^rdk-r^sh, thou Karap ! whatever 
men they shall behold, cry out when at birth ; even 
the offspring of that secluded person they behold in 
death, cry out when at birth 2 ; but what was that 
which they beheld at the birth of my son ? 25. When 
at birth he laughed outright ; was that also beheld 
in thy son, when at birth did he laugh outright ? 
26. When Vohumand comes unto him, into this 
embodied existence, it is also said by him on his 
return : " O Pdrushaspd ! where is thy servant 3 ? " 
So, O Karap ! concerning him who is my son, it is 
beheld that he was seen sagaciously by thee.' 

For restoring the original Avesta, the Pahlavi translation, without 
the glosses, is usually the best guide. 

1 Pahl. 4-ayu^un6 rae" (Av. iathruyukhta and ratha). 

* This seems to be the meaning of Pahl. ' zag-tt tan6 arm6rt6- 
dahunih pavan irdz khaditund marglh, amat pavan zerkhununo, 
bara bekhund.' 

8 Pahl. 'Pdrushaspd! aSghat bandako ? ' 

Digitized by 


42 d!nkaiu>, BOOK VII. 

27. And * when P6rushasp6 enquired of him thus : 
' What was the matter with thee when, through 
bringing thee unto that son of mine, he was thereby 
offered ; and thou lookedst long up away from him 
in height, and thou lookedst long down away from 
him in depth, and thou lookedst long out away from 
him in different directions ? ' 28. The Turanian, 
Brad?r6k-r£sh the Karap, spoke in reply thus : 
' When through bringing me unto that son was thy 
offering of him, and 1 2 looked long up away from 
him in height, then the radiance and glory out of 
him kept together up to the sun, and through him 3 
I have accompanied them on the boundary of its 
radiance and glory ; so that I saw this, that mankind 
through speaking to the soul may attain to the 
firmament of the sun ; but this, namely, how the 
routine (daafistanS) is in the supreme heaven, was 
not seen by me. 29. When through bringing me 
unto that son of thine was thy offering of him, and 
I looked long down in depth away from thy offering 
of him, then the radiance and glory out of him kept 
together unto the sky which is below this earth, and 
through him 4 to the boundary of its radiance and 
glory; but this, namely, how the routine is in that 
sky, was not seen by me. 30. And when through 
bringing me unto that son of thine was thy offering 
of him, and I looked long out away from him in 
different directions, then the radiance and glory 
from him kept together for adorning this earth, and 

1 The first five words of § 28 are here inserted in the MS., so as 
to combine the two sentences in a perplexing manner. 

2 The MS. has afat for afam by mistake. * Or 'that.' 

4 The differences of form in §§ 28-30 are probably due to errors 

of copyists. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER III, 27-35. 43 

through him I have accompanied them on the boun- 
dary of its radiance and glory ; so that I saw this, 
that only from the action of this one the future exist- 
ence will arise ; but the routine of the future exist- 
ence was not seen by me. 31. This son of thine 
thinks thus : " I will make a grander material exist- 
ence than that of any other ; " so he will also make 
thy spiritual one, where thou goest : and this son of 
thine will remain in the great protection of Virtasp, 
not in thine.' 

32. One marvel is this which is declared, that when 
Zaratfot was seven years old, that Durasrdbd being 
joined by Bra^r6k-resh the Karap at the village of 
P6rushasp6, on account of the little previous seeing 
of Zaratu-rt by the latter, they saw Zaraturt in that 
neighbourhood when a hut (ka^ako) was constructed 
by him with the children ; and they sat with evil 
intention to injure the mind of ZaratU-rt through 
witchcraft, and for that reason fear and terror were 
cast by them upon the children. 33. Here a great 
wonder became manifest to them, owing to the 
powerful intellect, cautiousness, and practice of Zara- 
turt, just as revelation mentions thus : ' When the 
other children were excessively terrified at their own 
silliness of speech, Zaraturt did not quite close the 
eye in his mind as regards them.' 

34. One marvel is this which is declared, that 
when these two Karaps came to the dwelling of 
P6rushasp6, he ordered the preparation of food for 
their eating ; and his prepared food is chewed up 
(irdz khayal-att), with a gobletful (pur ddlakS) of 
mare's milk. 35. He also spoke to Durasrob6 thus : 
' Thou art the most spirit-worshipping l of mankind 

1 Literally ' demon-worshipping ; ' it is not clear that idolatry is 

Digitized by 


44 dInkard, book vii. 

in our district ; do thou worship this of mine.' 36. 
A great marvel, owing to the sagacity of Zaratust at 
a childish age, is just as revelation mentions that 
Zaraturt spoke thus : ' I worship this, O father ! it 
is not that which it is necessary for me to worship 
that he should worship.' 37. And P6rushasp6 spoke 
thus : ''// is not that of mine thou worshippest, and 
it is that of mine he should worship.' 38. As many 
as three times those persons (gabraan) carried on 
those assertions ; when up stood Zaratfrrt and spoke 
concerning them, and he broke forth with that 
eternal statement 1 , namely : ' The righteous I rever- 
ence, men or women ; the poor I reverence, men or 
women ; not the wicked, men or women ; when any 
one whatever shall join P6rushasp6, where he shall 
be celebrating worship, the worship shall then be 
suitable to the worshippers, that is, he shall worship 
that which it is necessary to worship.' 

39. One marvel is this which is declared, that 
afterwards Durisr6b6 the Karap shouted to Zaratdst 
thus : ' Evil was thy reckoning 2 which, owing to the 
conduct of fate (bahar), I, the foremost of the exist- 
ences embodied in Rak and N6dar 3 , bring to thee ; 
I am made further worthy where thy fate is carried 
away from me ; now is the joy (parkan) which 
I convey to him * through bringing it on, and this 

intended, but rather some form of worship antecedent to Zoroastrian 
Mazda-worship which latter had not yet been established. The 
author of this legend must have supposed that it differed very little 
from the religion of P6rushisp6. 

1 Reading sakhun-i leyalmin which is written in Pahlavi 
exactly like dashind rigel<?, 'the right foot.' 

* Pahl. marakS, possibly for marg, 'death.' ' 

" See Chap. II, 51, note. 

4 Probably referring to his companion Bra<fr6k-r&sh who, accord- 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER III, 36-44. 45 

will occur, so that I may observe he will kill thee 
with the evil eye in the house.' 40. And here is 
a great wonder which became manifest about Zara- 
tust, in the sagacity of his reply to that deadly one 
at that childish age, which was just like this which 
revelation mentions, that spoke thus : 'With- 
out the joy of a murderer I observe, with propitious- 
ness and complete mindfulness, that it is thee 
I notice in that house which is thine V 

41. One marvel is that which, after this reply of 
Zaratu.rt to Durasr6b6, became manifest in that 
Karap, just as revelation mentions thus : ' The 
deadly one became disabled and stupefied as long as 
the milking of ten mares in milk whose milker is 
only one.' 

42. One marvel is this which is declared, that 
when that wizard emerged from that stupefaction, 
he then shouted again to Zaratust in the same 
manner, Zaraturt uttered that same reply, and the 
deadly one became anew disabled and stupefied as 
long as the milking of twenty mares full of milk 
whose milker is only one. 

43. One marvel is this which is declared, that 
again when that wizard emerged from that stupe- 
faction, he then shouted to Zaratu-rt in the same 
manner, Zaraturt uttered that same reply, and the 
deadly one becomes anew disabled and stupefied as 
long as the milking of thirty mares full of milk whose 
milker is only one. 

44. One marvel is this which is declared, that 
when that wizard emerged from that stupefaction, he 

ing to most accounts, was the murderer of Zaratu^t ir» his old age. 
This tradition is mentioned in Dk. VII only here and in § 22. 
1 Alluding to Durasr6b6's own fate, see § 45. 

Digitized by 



then grumbled thus : ' Do ye have the horse driven 
for us, and turn round the chariot wherein you harness 
it; for really this smiting one (ganak) will destroy 
me through the arrival of the sacred 'text and through 
his possession of authority.' So they had the horse 
driven, and it was harnessed to the chariot by them. 
45. And here is manifested a great wonder to the 
multitude, just as revelation mentions thus : ' When 
he had proceeded several Yu^yasts 1 in driving, he 
stopped in his distress through being terrified, and 
this occurred which I mention for a warning 2 , his 
semen was expelled, so that it arose in his skin and 
burst it 3 , and his loin thereby broke from his thigh ; 
he then died outright, then his progeny, and then the 
offspring of his progeny.' 

46. One marvel is this which is declared that, even 
before the coming o/Zaratilst to a conference *, there 
is manifested in him a mind which is more capacious 
than the whole world, and more exalted than every 
worldly possession, with an understanding whose 
strength is perfectly selected, an intellect of all- 
acquiring power, and a sagacity of all-deciding 
ability ; also with the much heedfulness ^the kingly 
glory, and the full desire for righteousness, the effi- 
cacious diligence and authority, and even the superi- 
ority in mightiness and grandeur of the priestly 
glory. 47. Also the handsomeness of body and 
completeness of strength which are in the character 
of these four classes of his, which are priesthood, 

1 See § 16 n. 

* Pahl. ' avo p&s yema/e/unam.' 

8 Or 'in his back and broke it,' if we suppose that p6st, 'skin,' 
stands for p6ft, 'back.' Compare the same legend in Zs. XIX, 

* With the sacred beings. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER III, 45-5I. 47 

warriorship, husbandry, and artisanship ; besides a 
perfect friendship for the sacred beings and the 
good, and an awful enmity for the demons and the 
vile. 48. That is the nature by which the habits 
(daa'olh) of mankind and bipeds, the perfection and 
completeness of the sacred beings through the crea- 
tiveness of A&harmazd, and its own commemoration 
of them are provided. 49. So that the sacred beings 
shall bring a report, as to his superiority, from every 
one of those who are and were and will be, and of 
his coming for reminding us of Atiharmasd and of 
the lord-and-mastership (ahu-va-ra^ih) of the world, 
also of the preservation of the creations therein 
(ay£, from the destroyer, by the tongue 
of the many-mannered (kabed-saradfako) sage, the 
fully-virtuous one of the age producing no harm 
(avazand-dahlg) in the world. 50. And the de- 
mons on this account, that this is he whom many 
Kigs * and Karaps have to influence the good to con- 
found and destroy, then also kept their promise and 
practised friendship. 

51. And on the completion of thirty years beyond 
his birth 2 , the archangel Vohumand came on in 
commemoration of Auharma^, when he was bring- 
ing his H6m-water (maya-l H6mlgan) s from the 

1 See Chap. II, 9 n. 

* The remaining contents of this and the following chapter are 
thus summarized in Dk. VIII, xiv, 3, 4 : — ' His attainment on 
maturity, at thirty years of age, to a conference with Auharma«</; 
and the occurrence of seven conferences in ten years. Many 
marvels, owing to him are published therein, just as there are 
some which, collected and selected, are noticed by the Dinkarrf 
manuscript,' that is, in this seventh book, in which, however, the 
details of the seven conferences do not occur; but some are 
mentioned in Zs. XXI, 8-XXII, 13. 

8 See Visp. XI, 2. 

Digitized by 


48 bInkard, book vii. 

river Aevatak \ just as this which revelation men- 
tions thus : ' When Zaratfot came forth to the third 
effluent (bara-ta^unlh), that of the good Daiti, 
he further proceeded through that; and when he 
marched onwards from that, a man was seen by him, 
who marched from the southern quarter. 52. That 
was Vohumand, and it seemed to him that Vohumand 
was of early form (so that he is more discerning as 
to a person) and foreseeing (that is, he was before- 
hand in everything) ; it seemed to him that Vohu- 
mand was as much in height as three men's spears ; 
and it seemed to him, as to Vohumand that a glossy 
twig (arus talc) was brought by him in his- hand, 
through carrying off which branch the plant was not 
injured by him ; that became the spiritual twig of 
the religion, and this was indicated by it, that it is 
necessary to proceed as uninjuriously by the religion. 
53. There is some one who says that it became a 
reminder of the spiritual existence, and this was indi- 
cated by it, that it is necessary to proceed as unin- 
juriously in the world, so that peace may exist with 
every one. 

54. When he came onward to the fourth effluent, 
as far as the Aushan-ruaf of the good Dattt (which 
was the name of it) and he was in it, Zaraturt was 
bringing the H6m-water from the middle of it ; and 
on the ascent Zaraturt, bringing his right foot out of 
the Aushan-rud?, covered himself with his clothes, 
and upon that Vohumand, advancing, joined him in 

1 Literally 'single-flowing.' In Bd. XXIX, 4, 5, it is Naivt&k 
■which has been translated as ' navigable ' in Bd. XX, 34, and as 
'flowing in a channel' in Dk. VIII, xxxvii, 38, 42 ; IX, xvi, 16. — 
From § 54 it appears to have been a channel of the good D£iti 
river which flows from Air&n-ve£ (see Bd. XX, 13). 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER III, 52-60. 49 

55. And that man enquired of him thus : ' Who 
art thou ; from whom of them art thou 1 ? ' He 
replied: ' I am Zaraturt 2 of the Spitamas.' 

56. The words of Vohumand were : ' Zaraturt 
of the Spitamas ! about what is thy foremost distress 
(that is, for what is thy need when thou becomest 
quite distressed) ; about what is thy foremost 
endeavour ; and for what is the tendency of thy 
desire (lak kamakS-dahisnih) ?' '57. The reply 
of Zaraturt was thus : ' About righteousness, I con- 
sider my foremost distress ; about righteousness my 
foremost endeavour; and for righteousness the 
tendency of my desire (that is, my need is for that 
thing, and I am a distressed seeker of righteous- 

58. The words of Vohumand were: 'O Zaraturt 
of the Spitamas ! that which is righteousness is ex- 
isting (that is, a real thing is, as it were, that which 
is righteousness), so that whatever is that which is 
righteousness is thus what is one's own.' 59. And 
Zaraturt spoke thus : ' That which is righteousness 
exists, and concerning that I am completely clear 
and aware ; but where and how is that radiance which 
is that whose arrival is through Vohumand.' 

60. And Vohumand spoke to him thus : ' O Zara- 
turt of the Spitamas ! deposit this one garment which 
thou earnest, so that we may confer with him by 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XLII, 7 c (Sp.). 

2 According to the numbering of the folios in the old Bombay 
MS., written in 1659, nine folios were here separated from it last 
century. They contained the text as far as the end of Chap. IV, 
and the first eight of them were found at Naosari about twenty 
years ago and copied. But all Indian copies, written before that 
time, omit this mislaid text. See S. B. E., vol. xxxvii, pp. xxxvi, 
xxx vii. 

[47] E 

Digitized by 



whom thou art produced and by whom I am pro- 
duced, who is the most propitious of spirits, who is 
the most beneficent of existences, and who is he that 
I, who am Vohumand, am testifying (that is, I am 
a reminder of him).' 

6 1. Thereupon, Zaraturt thought thus: 'Good is 
he who is the creator, who is better than this re- 
minder.' 62. Then they proceeded in company, 
Vohumand and Zaratust; Vohumand first and 
Zaraturt after. 

Chapter IV. 

1. About the marvellousness which is manifested 
from the first conference onwards till the end of the 
seventh conference which occurred within the dura- 
tion of ten years, also his pre-eminence in prophecy 
in the world, and the acceptance of the religion by 
the exalted Kal-Vlrtasp, as happened after the ten 
years of conference. 

2. In the first two years, one marvel is this which 
is declared, that when he was back from the first 
conference, he then, by the first command of the lord 
and creator A&harma.zd, recited the unique formula 
(aylno) in an assemblage (ram) of Kigs and Karaps, 
the prophecy of his Masaa-worshipping religion and 
commemoration of Auharma^, as he chanted with 
a loud voice, and invited mankind to the religion of 
Auharma^. 3. Just as this passage of revelation 
mentions thus : ' Thereupon, the thorough inspection 
for this material existence of those with a sacred 
girdle, provided with dwellings and provided with 
cattle, was altogether arranged by Zaratllrt.' 

4. And when their announcement (niv£di$n6) for 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER III, 6 1 -IV, 7. 5t 

speaking to be heard was issued \ then Zaratu-rt, on 
becoming exalted, called out unto the embodied 
world of righteousness to extol righteousness and to 
scorn the demons *. 5. ' The homage of the Mazda- 
worship of Zaraturt, and the ceremonial and obeis- 
ance for the archangels are the best for you I assert ; 
and of deprecation (aya^i^nlh) for the demons next- 
of-kin marriage is really the best intimation, so that, 
from the information which is given as to the trust- 
worthiness of a good work, the greatest are the most 
intimate of them, those of father and daughter, son 
and she who bore him, and brother and sister.' 

6. It is declared that, upon those words, innumer- 
able demon-worshipping Kigs and Karaps have 
rushed upon Zaraturt and strove for his death, just 
like this which revelation states : — ' It is then a 
number (mar) have run away who have sat in the 
vicinity of Tur's progeny (hunu.rko) 3 , the arbitrator ; 
and the shame of the brother of Tur arose, like that 
of a person whose shame was that they spoke of his 
next-of-kin marriage so that he might contract it.' 

7. This Tur was Aurvaita-dang * the Tur, the 
scanty giver, who was like a great sovereign of that 

1 From this point §§ 4-8 and 1 1 have been already translated in 
S. B. E., vol. xviii, pp. 412, 413, in illustration of the meaning of 
Khvetflk-das in Sasanian times and later. 

2 Av. staomi ashem; naismf daSvd (Yas. XI, 19 ; XII, 1). 

' An opprobrious term for the progeny of evil beings and 
animals, also used by a Karap when speaking of Zaratfot in Chap. 
Ill, a 1. 

* As this name has not been found in the extant Avesta, its 
correct reading is uncertain. In Zs. XX, 8, it can be read Aur- 
vaito-dih, in which dih is the Pahl. translation of Av. dang,hu, 
of which dang is a Pahl. transliteration; and the whole name 
may mean ' friendly to the province,' which seems suitable to this 
particular ruler. The MS. appears to have d£ng. 

E 2 

Digitized by 



quarter ; many troops and much power were also 
maintained by him, and the multitude (mar) told 
him they would seize the great one from him who is 

8. But the progeny of Aurvaiti-dang the Tur, the 
scanty giver, spoke thus : ' Should we for that speech 
destroy him, this great one who mingles together 
those propitious words for us — where we are thus 
without doubt as to one thing therein, such as next- 
of-kin marriage, that it is not necessary to contract 
it — it would make us ever doubtful whether it might 
be necessary to contract it' 

9. And Aurvaita-dang the Tur, the scanty giver, 
spoke thus : ' Thou shalt not destroy that man whom 
mine eyes have seen as the most loving-eyed of the 
whole embodied existence ; he will attain strength, 
for it has not seemed to me, when thou destroyest 
him on this account, that wisdom has arisen for a 
long time ; so that no rule (a hank 6) 0/" wisdom will 
arise, in this earth, which is so counselling (han^a- 
manig) as this one is (that is, when they destroy 
a man who is counselling, wisdom will not arise for 
a long while).' 

10. Aurvalta-dang the Tur, the scanty giver to his 
own people, also spoke thus : ' For me thou art a pure 
man who is counselling.' 

1 1 . And Zaratust spoke thus : ' I shall not always 
be that quiet speaker, by 1 whom that I have men- 
tioned is the most propitious thing to be obtained ; 
and of interfering 2 speaking and managing the 
temper there is a next-of-kin marriage, and the high- 

1 Or 'from.' 

* It may be ' parenthetical or ambiguous.' 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER IV, 8-I5. 53 

priest who has contracted ' it is to perform the cere- 

1 2. And here the good spiritual lordshipand mighti- 
ness of glory of Zaratust, those which are provided 
for commemoration of the supreme lord and creator 
A&harmazd, are manifested as a great wonder to the 
multitude, and there is rendered visible the great 
pre-eminence which is in him as a prophet of the 
creatures, which for the baseness (nanklh) of the 
deceitful Agash 2 , the secret-moving and deceiving- 
natured, is the concealed control of a good disposi- 
tion. 13. Then idleness, like even the habit of fear 
and nature of apostasy, is an attractor of every one 
of the multitude, when it extends to much length ; 
little by little, too, that guide and combatant becomes 
a petitioner for greatness, and it is manifest through 
that compassion (tang-libbem^lh) and superior 
mindfulness of his, and through the glory of that 
stout champion, there are much fame and treasure. 

14. The nobles of Aurvaita-dang the Tur, the 
ruler of the land, were angry and clamourers for 
Zaratust's death ; but he invited the Klgs and Karaps 
to the religion of Auharma^, just as this passage of 
revelation states that Zaratu^t also spoke thus : 
' Worldly righteousness, O Aurvaita-dang, thou Tur 
and scanty giver ! is the whole of the worship of the 
demons and the termination of the Ma2^a-worship of 
Zaratfot.' 15. And Aurvaita-dang the Tur, the 
scanty giver, spoke thus : ' O Zaratu^t of the 
Spitimas ! thou shalt not attract me to this evil in 
which thou really art.' 

1 Or, perhaps, 'celebrated.' 

1 The demon of the evil eye (see Bd. XXVIII, 33) ; Av. Ag- 
hashi.Vd. XX, 3, 7, 9. 

Digitized by 



1 6. Zaraturt also spoke thus : ' Atiharmasd en- 
quired of me thus : " O Zaratust ! when thou hast 
come away to us, among the spiritual lords, who of 
the people in thy material existence was the protector 
of the powerful men who are warriors, that was most 
seeking benefit, most seeking cattle, most extensively 
associating, most fully-supplying (that is, he gives 
out most things), and most hospitable 1 (that is, one 
saw the door of a prince's (khidivo) treasury) ? " 
I replied to him thus : " Aurvatta-dang the Tur, the 
scanty giver." ' 

17. ' And he spoke in reply to me thus : " Him, 
O Zaratust ! thou shalt attract, 'first of the men who 
are warriors, to thinking about, speaking about, and 
acting about this religion which is Auharma^'s and 
Zaratuit's. 18. If you attract him, O ! and 
he believes in it and also gives currency to this reli- 
gion of thine, and sits before thee in discipleship, this 
that one calls discipleship of thine he shall undertake, 
and the religion he hears fully he shall propagate 
(rubak va<5f duny£n) ; he is also ever after, O Zara- 
tust ! the first of the men who are warriors, the one 
most seeking benefit, most seeking cattle, most ex- 
tensively associating, and most hospitable of those 
who have yet been born aw^who will henceforth be 
born. 19. And if you do not attract him, O Zaratfot ! 
and he does not believe in it, nor gives currency to 
this religion of thine, nor hears it, nor even sits 
before thee, nor would sit before thee, so that it is 
obvious to me that he is not attracted, thou shalt 
speak unto him thus, O Zaraturt : ' Thou art a 
stricken supplicant for righteousness, and a producer 
of lamentation for the souls of Tanapuhar sinners 

1 Literally ' most many-doored.' 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER IV, 16-23. 55 

worthy of death ; ' for even so it is, and for this 
reason he becomes worthy of death, because the 
existence of the religion is known to him." 20. What 
I tell thee, O Aurvalta-dang, thou Tur and scanty 
giver ! is that thou art a stricken supplicant for 
righteousness, a producer of lamentation for the 
souls of Tan<2puhar sinners worthy of death.' 

2i. One prodigy of the demons is specified, who 
was the enemy of whatever sacred beings there are, 
a Karap, Va£dv6Lyt ' by name, of those unsanctified 
(ayastan) by Auharma^a? 2 . 22. And Auharma^ 
spoke thus : ' I so befriend that man, O Zaratu^t ! 
who is put forward by me over the creatures, whom 
thou shah invite (khvan£.r), I who am Auharnias*/, 
because I am through righteousness opposed to harm 
(that is, through virtue I keep harm away from the 
creatures), and the archangels are opposed to harm. 
23. Therefore do thou proceed, O Zarattot ! and 
thou shalt demand from him for me (that is, keep 
as my property) a hundred youths of vigour (t6sh 
tal) 3 , girls, and teams of four horses ; so do thou 
speak to him thus: " O V&ivofrt ! Auharma^ 
demands from thee a hundred youths of vigour, 
girls, and teams of four horses ; if thou givest them 

1 Here written in Pizand, but the Pahlavi form, Vedvofat, occurs 
in §§ 23, 24. 

* Or 'of the non-worshippers of A&harm&zd.' 

s For an instance of gifts of slaves see the Pahlavi inscription on 
an engraved stone from Baghd&d, in Indian Antiquary, vol. xi, 
p. 224, 11. 2, 3 of inscription: 'kevan btdun va-kani^ako . . . 
lakhvSr . . . shedVunam . . . va-zak shibi rfcft va-shiba" kanfca- 
ko&n shedrunt : ' — ' Now ... I send back a slave-boy and slave- 
girl . . . and those seven slave-boys and seven slave-girls are sent.' 
This inscription was probably engraved in the seventh century, 
judging from the forms of the letters. 

Digitized by 



56 pJnkard, BOOK VII. 

to him, splendour and glory are thine through that 
giving ; and if thou dost not give to him, evil destiny 
is thine through that not-giving." ' 

24. Then Zaraturt walked on to that V£dvofot of 
those unsanctified, and spoke to him thus : ' O V£d- 
votot of the unsanctified ! that which Auharmas^ 
demands from thee is a hundred youths of vigour, 
girls, and teams of four horses ; if thou givest them 
to him, splendour and glory are thine through that 
giving ; and if thou dost not give to him, evil destiny 
is thine through that not-giving.' 25. And that 
Karap shouted in reply to Zarat&st thus : ' For me 
there is no more from thee (that is, there is no 
opulence for me from thy action), nor from Auhar- 
mz.zd; I am more of a divinity (bagtar) and am 
more forward in opulence than even Auharma^; 
many droves of a thousand swine are also acquired 
by me.' 

26. On went Zaratdst, up to Auharmas^ and up 
to the archangels, and Zaratfot spoke thus : ' O 
Atihstrmazd, propitious spirit, creator of the world of 
embodied beings, thou righteous one ! thus spoke he 
in reply to me : " For me there is no more from 
thee, nor from Auharmasa?; I am more of a divinity 
than thee or even Auhafmas^, and many droves of 
a thousand swine are acquired by me." ' 

27. And Auharma^ spoke thus: 'Owing to the 
splendour and glory of those which are ours, O Zara- 
tust ! that man has acquired arrogance (that is, the 
cattle we produced are the many cattle of his 
arrogance). 28. This will be his retribution for it 
then, however, when he does not reach further alive 
at the end of the third night x ; in that third night 

' Apparently the third night after death, on the passing away of 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER IV, 24-32. 57 

they will have stood aloof from alongside his life 
(that is, they will have stood away from assisting it) ; 
those seven of them who are radiant and bright- 
eyed {sptdb dotsar) make him rush up on high, 
and up there on high he shall be fed upon mouldy 
bread (pa man).' 

29. One marvel 'is the great healthfulness owing to 
the Hdm-water and the bringing of this by Zaraturt 
from the river Dattt, which is manifested when 
Vohumand was conveying him to the conference. 
30. Just as is declared in the words of Auharmar^ 
to Zaratu^t thus : ' For them is the H6m-water 
which thou bringest, O Zarattot! not for those 
demon-worshipping people who worship the demons, 
or for a satisfier of courtezans (^h-vi^ar) ; they 
shall sprinkle it on to that bull thou shalt bring 
forward, who is a four-year-old of exhausted vigour, 
black-haired and useful ; on drinking up the water, 
that bull will become quite sound from that 

31. Thereupon, Zaratust went on first into the 
embodied existence, on which dwelt, at the end of 
Sagastan x , that same Parshad? whose title was T6ra 
{the Bull). 32. Parsha^-t6ra 2 also spoke to him 

which the soul is supposed to have its destination determined, 
until the resurrection (see Ha</6kht Nask, II, 18; III, 17). If the 
seven sacred beings who stand aloof from him be the archangels, 
they treat VSdvowt very leniently ; but this legend treats of a period 
which it assumes to be earlier than the laws of Zaratuxt. 

1 The modern Sfstan, bordering upon Afghanistan and Bulfi- 

* Av. Parsha</-gau, mentioned twice in Yt XIII, 96, 127, but 
it is not certain that both allusions refer to the same individual. 
The name also occurs in Bd. XXIX, 5, but only in one old MS. ; in 
all others another name is given, though the locality appears to be 

Digitized by 


58 vIukard, book vii. 

thus : ' O Zaratust of the Spltamas ! give me this 
H6m-water which thou bringest.' 33. And Zara- 
tust spoke thus : ' Do thou praise righteousness, O 
Parshaa?-t6ra ! and scorn the demons ; also utter the 
profession l of the Masrfa-worship of among 
the iniquitous.' 34. // was praised by Parshaaf-t6ra, 
and the demons were scorned by him ; yet he did 
not speak among the iniquitous as to his accepting 
the Ma-zda-worship of Zaratust. 35. Forward to 
him came Zaraturt at that praise of righteousness, 
for him was that H6m-water which Zaratust brought ; 
not for those demon-worshipping people who have 
worshipped the demons, but for that bull of his 
which Zaratust brought forward, a four-year-old of 
exhausted vigour, black-haired and useful ; owing to 
that bringing forward of the water, the bull became 
quite sound from that infirmity. 

36. One marvel as that which is declared regard- 
ing the rushing of the evil spirit for the slaughter of 
Zaraturt, just as revelation 2 mentions thus : ' From 
the northern quarter forth rushed the deadly evil 
spirit, and thus shouted he, astute in evil, the deadly 
evil spirit : " Rush on, O fiend ! and destroy the 
righteous Zaraturt." 37. On to him they rushed, 
the fiend, the demon B<W, and secret-moving Pesti- 
lence, the deceiver. 38. Zaratust chanted aloud 
the Ahunavair; the fiend was confounded at that, 
and away they rushed, the demon B&d and secret- 
moving Pestilence, the deceiver. 39. And the 
fiends shouted thus : " Thou art scornfully observing, 
O evil spirit ! (that is, anything to the purpose thou 

nearly the same. In § 31 the first part of the name is here written 

1 The Fravarang, Yas. XI, 16. ■ Pahl. Vd. XIX, 1-4. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER IV, 33-44. 59 

dost not thoroughly observe, and what thou orderest 
us to do is not possible) ; the death of him who is 
Zaraturt of the Spitamas is not contemplated by us." 

40. Owing to the full glory of the righteous Zara- 
tixst, he perceived in his mind thus : M The wicked 
demons, astute in evil, consult together about my 
death ; " and up stood Zaraturt, forth went Zaratust.' 

41. Here is manifested a great wonder to the multi- 
tude, in that which is mentioned thus : ' And a stone 
was put forth by the righteous Zaraturt, that was 
held in his hand, and the size of a hut, and which 
was obtained by him from the creator Auharma^, 
the spiritual Yatha-ahu-vairy6 V 

42. And one marvel is this which is manifested 
not only in the country of Iran to Iranians, but in 
every land and to every race : the shattering of the 
demons' bodies through the chanting of the Ahuna- 
vair aloud by ZaratusL 43. Just as that which 
a passage 2 mentions thus: ' I worship the resources 
of the Kayan glory, with which the righteous Zara- 
tust was associated in thinking about, speaking 
about, and acting about the religion which was, 
of all embodied existences, the most righteous in 
righteousness, the most lordly in sovereignty, the 
most radiant in radiance, and the most glorious in 
glory. 44. At his appearance 3 the demons have 
fallen before him, at his appearance their semen 
(mayagan) also drops, at his appearance the 
courtezan is also withdrawn by them from mankind ; 

1 The first three words of the Ahunavair formula. 
* See Yt. XIX, 78-81. 

3 Reading v£n<f»dahakih, but the first letter is omitted in all 
three occurrences of the word. 

Digitized by 


60 dJnkarj), book vii. 

on hearing J him they lamented, very violently is it 
lamented by the demons. 45. By the Ahunavair, 
which the righteous Zaratust chanted aloud to them, 
all the demons are seized and buried in the earth, 
where the complete shattering of their bodies is 
manifest.' 46. So that, after the shattering of their 
bodies, it became evident to those in the world that 
they were not able to do mischief in the bodily form 
of a demon, and they have been declared of the 
nature of sacred beings to mankind, but manki»d 
fully understood that they are not sacred beings,, 
but demons. 

47. Zaratust revealed (gushflfto) to mankind by 
the word of Auharmaza?, how in this religion the 
latter tells in words to Zaratust where and how, in 
the embodied existence, mankind consider a demon 
as exalted or as a high-priest, because they are 
where they say that they must consider some one as 
high-priest. 48. So Auharma^^ spoke to Zaratust 
thus : ' How do they who are good people, O Zara- 
tust ! consider a demon as exalted ? and how are 
they that even tell a demon thus : " We should 
accept you," because the demons speak thus : " It 
will happen to you " ? ' 

49. And Zaratust spoke thus : ' Only for the 
reason, O Auharmas*/! that people hasten on to 
that which is a jungly plain without dwellings, where 
no one resides from the departure of light until sun- 

1 If the word be Pahlavi, it is probably intended for jnayan, 
' hearing'; but it may be merely an approximate transcript of Av. 
snaodhewtif, which word, if this be the case, must have puzzled 
Sasanian scholars as much as it does those of the present time. 
As a transcript, the word might be read sn6diyan, and we might 
guess the meaning of the phrase to be ' thereupon weeping they 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER IV, 45-53. 6l 

rise arrives, when it is two Hasars * of night, and 
again silently (agdp) from sunset until their 
returning together when the two Hasars of night 
are gone, they hear that no work, no men, and no 
voices of dogs are there. 50. Then they say as to 
that, on arriving back, thus : " We have consulted 
with the demons there ; when we request (z46m) 
monarchy (sastarih) and leadership from them, 
they give them to us; when we request the 
possession of flocks and opulence from them, they 
give them to us." ' 

51. Then AuhatmazA spoke thus : ' How can they 
do such a thing for them, O Zaratu.Jt ! (that is, how 
does it happen that it is continually given by 
them for those that speak thus : " It happened to 
us ") ? ' 

52. And Zarattot spoke thus: 'They speak 
variously, O Auhanna^fl?! as to that generosity; 
there is one who speaks thus : " I have ever after 
been possessing more flocks, so long as I am in 
consultation with the demons ;" and there is another 
who speaks thus : "I have ever after been worse 
and more ill-fated, so long as we are in consultation 
with those demons ; " according as they possess 
a full subsistence for themselves from the demons 
(that is, when they diversely subsist fully on what- 
ever they bespeak from the demons).' 53. Zaraturt 
also spoke thus : ' So they speak about it, O Auhar- 
ma.zd\ thus: "Observe further, where any one of 
us returns he is either shrunk together (that is, he 
holds his head down to his chest), or shrunk away 
(that is, he looks quite aside), or is only pleasantly 

1 Av. hathra, which, as a measure of time, varies from one to 
two hours (see Farh. Oim, p. 43, 11. 1-3). 

Digitized by 


62 dJnka/uv BOOK VII. 

cast down and, owing to acquiescence in him, the 
demons tempt (nes,hund) him away out of man- 
kind." ' 

54. And Atiharmazd spoke thus: 'According to 
thy wish, do thou, O Zaratu-rt! fully observe thy 
existence, upwards from the head, downwards from 
the sole * of the foot, and afar on various sides ; and 
thou shouldst beseech before and behind and in 
every direction, for we are not as to thee as the 
demons are as to mankind, we give away everything 
only in invisibility ; but the demons, through close 
connection, when they rush out, tempt only with 
pleasantness. 55. Even unto thee, Zaraturt ! 
a fiend will rush, a female, golden-bodied and full- 
bosomed (so that she wears a bodice), and she 
rushes to request companionship from thee; a 
female, golden-bodied and full-bosomed, to request 
conversation from thee, to request co-operation from 
thee. 56. But thou shouldst not grant her com- 
panionship, nor conversation, nor shalt thou prescribe 
any conduct for her ; afterwards, to revert her 
downwards, thou shalt utter aloud that triumphant 
saying the Yatha-ahu-vairy6.' 

57. Zarattat proceeded to the habitable and 
friendly world, for the purpose of fully observing 
that beaten track (khipi^no) of the embodied 
existence ; then that fiend came forward when he 
sat in the vicinity of a garment — that garment 2 
which, when Vohumand was conveying him to the 
conference, was deposited by him — a female, golden- 
bodied and full-bosomed, and companionship, con- 

1 Assuming that lSlya stands for ze'rih; the only difference, in 
Pahlavi writing, being in the first letter. 
* See Chap. Ill, 60. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER IV, 54-62. 63 

versation, and co-operation were requested by her 
from him ; she also whined (dandled) : ' I am 
Spendarmaaf V 

58. And Zaraturt spoke thus : ' She who is 
Spendarmadf was fully observed by me in the light 
of a cloudless day, and that Spendarma^ appeared 
to me fine behind and fine before and fine all round 
(that is, in all positions she was handsome) ; do 
thou turn thy back, and I shall know if thou art 

59. And the fiend spoke to him thus: ' O Zara- 
turt of the Spitamas ! where we are, those who 
are females are handsome in front, but frightfully 
hideous behind ; so do not make a demand for my 
back.' 60. After she had protested a third time, the 
fiend turned her back, and she was seen by Zara- 
tttst behind in the groin; and when matter was 
exuded, it was full of serpents, toads, lizards, centi- 
pedes, and frogs. 

61. And that triumphant saying, the Yatha-ahu- 
vairyd, was uttered aloud by Zaratust ; then that 
fiend was annihilated, and A"^shmak 2 the Karap 
rushed forth. 62. And he grumbled in leaving, 
thus : ' The misery which is here below is such as I 
have obtained, because, owing to thee, I thought 
that thy sacred beings were more joyful than any 
heroes who through defeat go to hell ; I proceed 
more joyfully than the sacred beings, as regards the 
life in the body, so that I fully deceive the life in 
thy body, and thou art fully deceived by me as 
regards thine.' 

1 The female archangel Bountiful Devotion, in whose special 
charge are the earth and virtuous women; see Sis. XV, 5, 20-24. 
3 See Chap. II, 44, 45. 

Digitized by 


64 d!nkard, book vir. 

63. Zaratfot also revealed (gush 6ft 6) this secret 
to mankind, and their knowledge hmv to test a 
demon is manifested therein, even by a great won- 
der of the same nature to mankind : the visible 
rushing of the demons into the world before Zara- 
tust, and their bodies being afterwards shattered by 
the loud chanting of revelation by Zaratu^t from the 
Avesta announced, which was the acceptance of its 
truth by the ruler Vbtasp and the people of that 
time ; and if this had not been so, and VLrtasp and 
those of his time were not accepting the Avesta 
which was announced by ZaratUst in this fashion, 
through their considering it false, it would not have 
reached unto us. 

64. One marvel is this, with which, too, he who 
was became aware from revelation, about 
the vileness and perverted religion of Zak of the 
deadly Karaps of Vistasp and many other Kais and 
Karaps who were at the residence of Virtasp, their 
combination for the death of Zaraturt, the prepara- 
tion for severe abuse of him to Vwtasp, and 
influencing Vi^tasp for his death by command of 
Virtasp, which extends to awful imprisonment and 
punishment. 65. Afterwards, too, his knowledge 
about his preservation therefrom, the manifestation 
of his wondrousness, and the evidence concerning 
his attainment unto prophesying; also after the 
continuance of the last questioning of the ten years 
of conference, his departure alone, by the advice and 
command of Auharm&z*/, to the residence of VLftasp 
and the precinct (var) of that terrible conflict. 66. 
His uttering, on the horse-course (aspanvar) of 
Vi.ftasp, a reminder of the power and triumph of 
Auhannasdf over himself, as he invited Vwtasp to 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER IV, 63-69. 65 

the religion of Auharmazrf ; and with great wisdom 
Viitisp heard the words of Zaraturt, on account of 
his own complete mindfulness and spiritual knowledge 
of ritual, and would have asked for an outpouring of 

67. But thereupon, too — before the words of 
Zaraturt were fully heard by him, and he could have 
understood the character of Zaraturt — owing to the 
demonizing of the deadly Zak and the rest of those 
Klgs and Karaps, spoken out with slanderous know- 
ledge and perverse actions to VLrtasp about ZaratuJt, 
there then occurred his consignment of to 
that confinement and punishment as stated in the 
words of Zaraturt thus : ' I have spoken about their 
three enquiries, and I am bound by thirty of them, 
I with thirty-three fetters of murderers, wicked ones, 
and demon-worshippers 1 . 68. But the hunger of 
manhood's inclination 2 violently affected the strength 
of my legs, but the hunger of manhood's inclination 
violently affected the force of my arms, but the 
hunger of manhood's inclination violently affected 
the hearing of my ears, but the hunger of manhood's 
inclination violently affected the sight of my eyes, 
and it would force away my bosom up to my back 
(so that it 3 would stay behind at my back) through 
the continuance of that deadly hunger of manhood's 

69. And here, through the mightiness of Zaratujt 
— who proceeded alone to the terrible combat with 

1 Compare Zs. XXIII, 5. 

* Reading gu*n-giraih; but it might be duf-viraih, 'bad 
provision.' He was left to starve to death in prison. 

* The bosom. The idea of the writer appears to have been that 
in case of utter starvation the chest would totally collapse, so that 
the breast bone would touch the spine. 

[47] F 

Digitized by 




evil, where there became manifest, in the mode which 
is written, the descent of his life into so much 
punishment, due to hunger and thirst, heavy fetters, 
and other misery unto which the strength of human 
nature is attaining, but unto which it is not destined 
— is manifested a great wonder to king Vistdsp and 
his officials, when his full-glorious person was found 
by them alive in awfulness, imprisonment, and those 
other transformations (paafga.staklh) of long-con- 
tinued starvation. 

70. One marvel is this, that the sacred beings con- 
trived, for the sake of (va/ vahan-i) his preservation 
from that awfulness, a body possessing life, and on 
his account it became lifeless and imperceptible ; 
afterwards, in the great session of VLrtasp and the 
assembly of the world, Zaratu^t, through the strength 
and blessedness of the true word, restored the same 
body anew, like that which is issuing in the state- 
ment of the wonder about the splendid horse of 
Vijt&sp 1 . 

71. One marvel is his telling and disclosing the 
thoughts of king Vutasp and of those of the realm, 
and many other concealed matters, through spiritual 

72. One marvel is several matters of evil deceit 
(vad ^amas) which Dahak had done in Bapel 2 

1 This very slight allusion to the cure of Viftasp's horse by 
Zaratflf I is sufficient to show that this legend existed in the ninth 
century ; but the writer of the Dinkarrf seems inclined to trace it 
back to a tale that he vaguely relates in the earlier part of this 
section, and which he evidently found in older writings ; this tale, 
however, does not mention a horse, but only an animated body. 
The Persian Zaraturt-nama developes the legend of the sick horse, 
whose legs are drawn up to its belly, into 160 couplets. 

2 Babylon; see Yt. V, 29-31 ; XV, 19-21. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER IV, 7O-75. 67 

through witchcraft, and mankind had come to idol- 
worship through that seduction, and its increase was 
the destruction of the world ; but through the 
triumphant words of the religion, which Zaratust 
proclaimed opposing it, that witchcraft is all dissi- 
pated and disabled. 

73. One marvel is this which is manifested, with 
wonders owing to Zaratu^t, in controversy about the 
religion with the famous learned of the realm, among 
whom, known for learning in the world, are the 
investigators (girayagano) of the words of speech ; 
and among those things which are more surprisingly 
controversial are those later (sibastar) words which 
are to save their creatures by a later religion. 74. 
Also to proclaim its truth intelligibly, and to make 
king Vistasp and those previously learned men with- 
out doubt as to the truth of the religion, the creator 
Auharnias^ sends some spirits, Vohumand, Ashava- 
hirt6, and the propitious fire \ as a reminder to 
Vistisp about the true prophesying of Zaratu^t, and 
the desire of Auhanna^ for the acceptance of the 
religion of Masda-worship by VLrtlsp and for its 
propagation in the world. 

75. The wondrousness which is manifested to 
Vutasp and those of the realm — both through the 
travelling (vdzidand) of those archangels down 
from the sky to the earth, and in their travelling to 
the abode of Vutasp — was like this which revelation 
mentions thus : ' Then he who is the creator Au- 
harmazd spoke to them, to Vohumand, Ashava- 
hist6, and also the fire of Auharma^, the propitious, 
thus : " Proceed ! you who are archangels, unto the 

1 Compare Zs. XXIII, 7. 
F 2 

Digitized by 


68 dInka/h), book vii. 

abode of VLrtasp, whose resources (afzar) are cattle 
and who is far and widely famed, with a view to his 
reliance upon this religion (that is, till he shall stand 
up for this religion) ; and, as regards the answering 
words of the righteous Zaratust of the Spitamas, to 
approve the nature (zag .ran) of those words." 76. 
The archangels proceeded unto the abode of Virtasp, 
whose resources are cattle and who is far and widely 
famed ; their radiance, in that lofty residence, seemed 
to him, that Vi.rtasp, a heaven of complete light, 
owing to their great power and triumph ; this was 
so that, when he thus looked upon it, the exalted 
Kai-VLstasp trembled, all his courtiers (p£sako) 
trembled, all his chieftains (padfo) were confused, 
and he of the superior class was like the driver of 
a chariot-horse. 

77. 'And the fire of Auharma^a? spoke, in the 
words of heroes, thus : " Fear not, for there is no 
fearing for thee, thou exalted Kai-Vistasp ! they 
have. not come for alarming thy abode, as a reminder 
of the deputed envoys of Ar^asp x ; there have not 
come, for alarming thy abode, the two Khy6ns of 

1 Av. Are£-a<f-aspa, king of the Zfoyaonas (Pahl. Khy6ns), men- 
tioned in Yt. V, 109, 113, 116; XVII, 50 ; XIX, 87. His war with 
Virtisp, for the purpose of compelling the latter to abjure his new 
religion, is described in the Yarfk&r-i ZarrrSn (see Geiger in 
SUzungsberickten der p.-p. und h. Ciasse der k. bayer. Akad. der 
Whs. 1890, Bd. II, pp. 43-84). Aigasp sends two envoys, Vidrafr 
the wizard and Ntmkhvast of the Hazdrs, to demand VLrtSsp's sub- 
mission; this is refused defiantly by advice of Zartr, the king's 
brother; and both nations prepare for war. When the Iranians 
meet the Khydns, VLrtasp consults his vazfr Gamasp, who prog- 
nosticates prodigious slaughter. And, after losing most of their 
chieftains (including twenty-three brothers and sons of Vwtasp), 
the Iranians utterly annihilate the Khy6n army. This war is 
called the ' war of the religion ' in Bd. XII, 33 ; Byt. Ill, 9. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER IV, 76-81. 69 

Aigasp who demand tribute and revenue (sak va- 
bdz6) ; and there has not come, for alarming thy 
abode, the all-overpowering thief who is an injurer, 
or the dog who is a highwayman. 78. We are three 
who have come over (taristS) to thy abode, Vohu- 
mand, Ashavalmtd, and also the fire of the propitious 
lord ; of these thy knowledge is most wisely most 
just. 79. If thou helpest vision, so that it becomes 
wisdom for thee, the worldly existence requires the 
good religion of the Masafa-worshippers, which pro- 
ceeds purely through the recitation which Zaraturt 
of the Spltamas teaches. 80. Do thou chant the 
Ahunavair, do thou praise perfect righteousness l , 
and utter no worship 2 for the demons i because the 
desire of Auharniaz^, as regards thee, is for thy 
reliance upon this religion ; it is also the desire of 
the archangels, and the desire, as regards thee, of 
the other sacred beings who are beneficent (^apir- 
dahako) and righteous. 

8 1. ' " And as the recompense in this life, if you 
praise the good and pure religion of the righteous 
Zaratfot of the Spltamas, we will give unto thee 
a long reign and sovereignty, and the long lifetime 
of a life of 150 years; we will give unto thee Good 
Integrity and Rectitude 3 which is long-continued in 
desire for constantly assisting, good for assistance 

1 That is, recite the Yatha-ahu-vairy6 and the Ashem-vohu 

* Pahl. a-ai'zifnlh, literally, a 'non-worship/ which may mean 
something worse than 'no worship;' but 'execration or male- 
diction' is usually expressed by gazisn, 'cursing,' which is written 
exactly like yazisn, 'worship.' 

8 Pahl. Aharijvang and RaY-astijnih, the equivalents of Av. 
Ashu-vanguhi and RasSstit who are spiritual personifications 
of the qualities mentioned in the text. 

Digitized by 



through constantly assisting, and not passing away ; 
and we will give unto thee a son, PSshydtan x is his 
name, he is immortal, and so is undecaying, hunger- 
less, and thirstless, living and predominant in both 
existences, those of the embodied beings and of the 
spirits. 82. But, as the recompense in this life, if 
you do not praise the good and pure religion of 
the righteous Zaratust of the Spltamas, we will not 
convey thee up on high, and we will order thine 
end ; the vultures which are mindful of decay will 
see and eat up those and these of thine, thy blood 
will reach the ground, and the waters will not reach 
thy body." ' 

83. One marvel is that connected with the confi- 
dence (v<£z/ari-hastan6) of VLstasp in the religion, 
even through that occurrence of the speech of the 
archangels ; and, afterwards, the obedience (patya- 
sai ?) of his thoughts in the case of the delays 
through the bloodshed owing to Ar^asp 2 the Khy6n 
and his attendant heroes (pas-gurd&no) through- 
out the same Khydns, because of the acceptance of 
the religion. 84. Also, for the sake of daily and 
visibly showing to Vistasp the certified victory over 
Ar^iLsp and the Khy6ns, and his own superior 
position, unceasing rule, splendour, and glory, the 
creator Auharma^ sends, at the same time, the 
angel Neryosang 3 to the abode of Vwtasp, as a 
reminder for the archangel Ashavahi^t6 to give to 
VLrtisp to drink of that fountain of life, for looking 

1 Written PSshya6tan6, both here and in Chap. V, 12. He is 
the immortal priestly ruler of KangoVz, who was expected to come 
to restore the religion in Iran in the time of Aush&fer, see Bd. 
XXIX, 5 ; Byt. Ill, 25-32, 36-42, 51, 52. 

2 Here written Ar^adaspd; see § 77. 

s Written N6r6ksang here and in § 85. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER IV, 82-86. 71 

into the existence of the spirits, the enlightening food 
by means of which great glory and beauty are seen 
by Vmasp. 

85. Just as this passage of revelation mentions 
thus : ' And he who is the creator Auhannas*/ spoke 
to the angel NeYydsang thus : " Proceed and travel, 
O N£ry6sang the assembler l ! unto the abode of 
Virtasp, whose resources are cattle and who is far 
and widely famed, and thou shalt say this to Ashava- 
hlrtd, thus : ' O AshavahLrto ! do thou authoritatively 
take this fine saucer (tasto), which is fully finer than 
the other saucers that are made (that is, the cup 
(fclm) is as fine as is possible to make for royalty), 
and carry up to Vistasp the H 6m and Vars ' l (mui) 
which are for us ; and do thou give it 3 unto the 
ruler Vwtasp to drink up, by whose word it is 
accepted.' " 86. Ashavahi.rt6 authoritatively taking 
the fine saucer from him, also, thereupon, gave it 
unto the exalted ruler Kai-Vwtasp to drink from * ; 
and the ruler of the country (dlh), the exalted Kai- 
Vi^tasp, lay down when divested of his robes, and 
he spoke to Hut6s 6 thus : " You, O Hut6s ! are she 

1 Compare Vd. XXII, 7. 

2 A lock of three, five, or seven hairs from the tail of a white 
bull, that is tied to a metal thumb-ring which is put into the 
Hdm-strainer when the H6m-juice is about to be poured through 
it. See Haug's Essays, 3rd ed., pp. 397-403. This ring and 
lock of hair may be the relic of a hair-sieve that may have been 
used for straining the H6m-juice in former times. 

* The saucer, or cup, of strained H6m-juice. 

4 The foregoing twenty-six words, excepting two, have been 
here repeated by the writer of the old Bombay MS., after turning 
over a folio. 

5 Av. Hutaosa, wife of VLrtasp and descendant of N6</ar (Av. 
Naotara) ; see Yt XV, 35, 36. According to the later authority 
of the Yarfkar-1 Zarlran, § 48, she was also a sister of Virtas-p. 

Digitized by 


72 dinkard, book vit. 

whom the prompt ability (t£z6 hunar) of Zaraturt of 
the Spltamas should reach ; and through the dili- 
gence of the prompt ability of Zaraturt of the 
Spltamas, you 1 would expound the religion of 
Atiharmazd and Zaratust."' 

87. One marvel is this which is declared, that 
when Vistasp, accepting the religion, praises right- 
eousness, the demons in hell are disabled, and the 
demon Aeshm 2 rushes to the country of the Khydns 
and to Ar^asp, the deadly one of the Khy6ns, because 
he was the mightiest of the tyrants at that time ; and 
the most hideous of all, of so many of them in the 
country of the Khy6ns, are poured out by him for 

88. And here, too, is manifested a great wonder 
also to the host (ram) of Iran who have been coming 
there, unto the residence of Ar^asp the Khy6n, like 
this which revelation mentions thus : ' Then, just at 
the time his legion is separately displayed, Aeshm 
the unredeemable (tan^puharak) adheres (g&re- 
v&d6) to him, as being himself without escort 
(agur6h), and quite opposes (bara sperez&dd) 
him, because : " You, who are a Khy6n, have become 
unlucky through want of success after you engage 
in conflict!" 89. Henceforth, it is not that the 
victory of Iran has come over foreigners and 
Khy6ns — through companionship at the abode of 
that man who is mightier by the birth of Zaratust 

The similarity of her name to that of Atossa, the wife and sister of 
Cambyses, whom Darius afterwards married, is striking. 

1 As the verbal forms of the present third person singular and 
second person plural are alike in Pahlavi, it is doubtful which 
personal pronoun to use. 

* The demon of Wrath; see Bd. XXVIII, 15-17. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER IV, 87-V, I. 73 

of the Spltamas — when that hideous sovereignty of 
Aiyasp, the deadly Khydn, is swallowed up by him 
(Vistdsfi), for the confusion of the deadly species 
(that is, they are further smitten by him, one through 
the other ; and are swallowed together by him, 
mutually struggling and through mutually devour- 
ing). 90. And apart from him, that bitter and well- 
hardened Khydn that is quite disabled by him the 
good Vistdsp, that deadly fiend is disturbed about 
him of eloquent abilities (Zaratfist); and so he 
grumbled at the hideous sovereignty thus : ' Prompt 
ability comes into existence and the Khy6n came ; 
thereupon prompt ability comes into existence and 
the Iranian has come V 

Chapter V. 

1. About the marvellousness which is manifested 
from the acceptance of the religion by Vistasp on- 
wards till the departure (vikh£sS) of Zaratu.rt, 
whose guardian spirit is reverenced, to the best 
existence, when seventy-seven years 2 had elapsed 
onwards from his birth, forty-seven onwards from 

1 According to the numbering of the folios of the old MS. of 
1659 (brought from Persia to India in 1783) one folio, numbered 
313 in Persian words, is here missing. It has not yet been found 
in India, and, owing to folio 3 1 2 apparently completing a sentence, 
and folio 314 evidently beginning a new chapter, the loss of text 
is hardly perceptible. It would have filled the next two pages. 

2 The MS. has '57 years,' through _5"0 ' 50 ' being written 
instead of -J"* '70'; but see Chap. Ill, 51 which states the interval 
of thirty years between his birth and conference. 

Digitized by 


74 dInka/sd, book vii. 

his conference, and thirty-five years onwards from 
the acceptance of the religion by Vistasp 1 . 

2. One marvel is this which is declared that, 
when Zaraturt chanted revelation in the abode of 
Vi^tasp, it was manifest to the eye that it is danced 
to with joyfulness, both by the cattle and beasts of 
burden, and by the spirit of the fires which are in 
the abode. 3. By which, too, a great wonder is 
proclaimed, like this which revelation mentions 
thus : ' There seemed a righteous joyfulness of all 
the cattle, beasts of burden, and fires of the place, 
and there seemed a powerfulness of every kind of 
well-prepared spirits and of those quitting the abode 
(man-hishanS), "that will make us 2 henceforth 
powerful through religion," when they fully heard 
those words which were spoken by the righteous 
Zaratust of the Spitamas.' 

4. And one marvel is the provision, by Zaraturt, 
of the achievement of ordeal, that indicator of the 
acquitted and incriminated for sentence by the judge, 
in obscure legal proceedings ; of which it is said in 
revelation there are about (iigun) thirty-three kinds. 
5. These, too, the disciples of Zaraturt kept in use, 
after that time, until the collapse of the monarchy of 
Iran ; and the custom of one of them is that of pour- 
ing melted metal on the breast, as in the achieve- 
ment of the saintly (hu-fravarafo) Aturpaaf son of 
Maraspend, through whose preservation a know- 

1 The contents of this chapter and the next, as far as VI, 11, 
may be connected with the following summary in Dk. VIII, xiv, 
9 : — ' Information also as to many other things which are marvellous, 
and as to a summary of the statements of these seven enquiries, 
which is derived from knowledge of every kind.' For the seven 
enquiries, see Zs. XXII. 

2 Or, perhaps, ' make the abode.' 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER V, 2-8. 75 

ledge about the religion was diffused in the world ; 
and of the manifestation, too, through that great 
wonder, this is also said, on the same subject, in the 
good religion, that of those many, when they behold 
that rite of ordeal, it convinces the wicked ones l . 

6. One marvel is that which is afterwards mani- 
fested, after the former captivity of Zaratu^t 2 and 
his speaking about the religion to Vistasp and those 
of the realm 3 , such as the acceptance of the religion 
by Vi.stasp and that which Zaratust said to him at 
his original arrival, as regards the declaration of 
a ruler's religion, thus : ' Thine is this disposition, 
and this religion which is calling (khr6sakS) is 
a property of that description which thou puttest 
together, O Kal-VirtAsp! so that *ythou wilt accept 
this disposition of thine, thou wilt possess this 
religion which exists (that is, the learning of learn- 
ings), and be the ruler that shall cause its progress ; 
thou wilt possess in this disposition of thine, as 
it were, a new support (stunak6), and any one 
will uphold thee by upholding it, as thou art the 
possessor of the support of this religion.' 7. Also 
the victory of Virtasp over Ar^asp the Khy6n and 
other foreigners in that awful battle*, just as Zara- 
turt explained unto Vistasp in revelation ; and much 
which is declared by revelation. 

8. One marvel is the disclosure by Zaratust, in 
complete beneficence, medical knowledge, acquain- 
tance with character, and other professional reten- 
tiveness (plshakS-glrukih), secretly and completely, 
of what is necessary for legal knowledge and spiritual 

1 §§ 4> 5 are already translated in AV. p. 145. 

a See Chap. IV, 67-69. * See Chap. IV, 73. 

4 See Chap. IV, 88-90. 

Digitized by 


76 vInkaud, book vii. 

perception ; also the indication, by revelation, of the 
rites for driving out pestilence (sigo), overpowering 
the demon and witch, and disabling sorcery and 
witchcraft. 9. The curing of disease, the counter- 
action of wolves and noxious creatures, the liberating 
of rain, and the confining of hail, spiders, locusts, 
and other terrors of corn and plants and adversaries 
of animals, by the marvellous rites which are also 
relating to the worship of Khurda^ and Amurdaaf \ 
and many other rites which were kept in use until 
the collapse of the monarchy of Iran ; and there are 
some which have remained even till now 2 , and are 
manifested with a trifle of marvellousness by the 
sacred fires. 10. And the disclosure to mankind 
of many running waters from marvellous streams 
(ardaya), and remedies for sickness which are 
mixed (fargar^ak6) by well-considering physicians ; 
many are spiritual and celestial, gaseous (vayig) 
and earthy ; and the worldly advantage of others, 
too, is the praise (l^fo) which ought to come to one 
for angelic 3 wisdom. 

1 1. One is the marvel of the A vesta itself, which, 
according to all the best reports of the world, is 
a compendium of all the supremest statements of 

12. One marvel is the coming of this also to 

1 These two archangels personify health and immortality, 
respectively (see Chap. II, 19), and are supposed to have special 
charge of water and plants. 

* The ninth century, unless this phrase be copied from one of 
the sources of the Dfrikar<£ 

3 The MS. has yazdano-khira</5fh which has the meaning 
given in the text; but this word can also be read geh£no- 
khirarfolh, 'worldly wisdom,' though gShano is the more usual 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER V. 9 -VI, 2. TJ 

Vi.rtasp, which the archangels announced as a recom- 
pense for accepting the religion l , as he saw Peshyd- 
tan the happy ruler, that immortal and undecaying 
son, not wanting food, large-bodied, completely 
strong, fully glorious, mighty, victorious, and resem- 
bling the sacred beings; the unique splendour of 
P£shy6tan for the sovereignty of Kangd^s in 
yonder world, as allotted to him by the creator 
Auharmastff, is manifested even through that great 
wonder to the multitude 2 . 

Chapter VI. 

i. About the marvellousness which is manifested 
after the departure (vtkh£26) of Zaratfot, whose 
guardian spirit is reverenced, to the best existence, 
and in the lifetime of Vbtasp. 

2. One marvel is this which is declared by revela- 
tion, about the provision of a chariot 3 by Srlt6 4 of 
the Visraps * ; this is through a famous wonder and 

1 See Chap. IV, 8i. 

* It is singular that nothing is stated here about the death of 
departure of ZaratArt, which event, according to § i, ought to have 
concluded this chapter. But in Chap. Ill, 39, Durasr6b evidently 
foretells that Zarattat will be killed by the evil eye of Br2rfr6k-r§sh. 
In Dk. V, iii, 2, the killing of Zaratfot by Br&frd-rSsh the Tflr is 
merely mentioned. In Zs. XXIII, 9, it is stated that Zarat&rt 
passes away (yidirhdb) forty-seven years after his conference and 
preaching to Viftisp. While the modern Persian Zaratujt-nama 
does not mention his death, though it speaks of Bartarush as his 
chief enemy in his younger days. But compare Chap. Ill, 22. 

5 Pahl. xdi which is written exactly like the Pahlavi ciphers for 
twenty-two and, no doubt, stands for Av. ratha. 

4 So spelt ten dmes in §§ 2-11, but here Sr&td. It is also Srhd 
in Dk. V, iii, 2. 

8 PahLVisrapan in §§ 9, 11 and Dk.V, iii, 2; but here it is 

Digitized by 



the coming of a report about the marvellousness of 
that chariot to Vbt&sp, Vmasp's begging that 
chariot from Srtt6, and Srltd saying in reply to 
Vistasp : ' That chariot is for a righteous man, in 
which the soul of Srltd in the Wktime of Srlt6's 
body ', and that of that man in the lifetime of his 
body, come visibly together once in the worldly 
existence.' 3. And the soul of Srltd, through the 
generosity of that Srltd, presents that chariot to 
the eyesight of that man of righteousness ; thereby 
it becomes evident he had seen it, and is told not to 
act in another manner. 4. The exalted Kal-Vtetasp, 
as becoming from revelation more particularly aware 
of this marvel about the future at that time, and for 
the sake of this marvel being published to the 
worldly existence (g£hanlglh), and of his becoming 

Visrapdn, and in § 7 the first letter is omitted, leaving only israpan. 
In Pahl. Vd. XX, 11 (Sp.) we have Srit-1 ird-»» (in L4), which latter 
name may also be israp&no, though more likely to be read 
Serzano when considered by itself. It is almost certain that the 
person mentioned in Pahl. Vd. XX, 1 1 is intended to be the same as 
that named here in the text. But it is doubtful if this person be 
the Av. Thrita son of Sayuzdri (or Saizdri) of Yt V, 72 ; XIII, 113. 
As the legend in the text appears to refer to the soul of Srtt6, or 
Thrita, revisiting the world to meet Virtasp, this Srit6 may have 
been the warrior Sritfi, the seventh brother, employed by Kai-Us, 
about 350 years earlier, to kill the frontier-settling ox of that time, 
but there seem to be no means of so identifying him with absolute 

1 This is the literal meaning of the Pahl. ' mun ruban-f Srhd 
pavan zfndagih-f Srtt6 tano,' but it is not quite consistent with 
Srii6's return to the earth as a spirit. The Indian copyists seem 
to have observed this, as they have omitted several words, so as to 
alter the meaning to the following : — ' That chariot is for a man of 
the righteous, with whom Srltd in the \ikfime of that man's body 
comes visibly together, &c.' But the sentence is not quite gram- 
. matical. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER VI, 3-9. 79 

more invoking for the supremacy of the Ma^a- 
worshipping religion, became discernible by those of 
the realm, is sought for, and is most attended. 

5. A great wonder became manifest to Virtasp 
and those of the world, just as revelation mentions 
thus : ' Thereupon the archangels are letting forth 
the soul of that Srit$ from the light of the supreme 
heaven, from the light on to the earth created by 
Auharmastff ; and the soul of Vistisp proceeded from 
him into the light to meet it. 6. Virtasp proceeded 
on to the propitious south (rapttvlno); he was 
producing more gain than the gainers, and he 
was more inquisitive than the inquisitive ; to all 
whom he saw he spoke, and unto such as spoke he 
listened ; when he gazed at them looking simul- 
taneously they stood up, and obeisance was offered 
by them unto the soul and person of Vi^tisp.' 

7. Immediately upon that no delay occurred until 
there came on at a run — besides the soul of Srito of 
the Visraps — the most horrid (agrandtum) of 
demons, from the horrid northern quarter of the 
horrid destroyer (zaafar), that was himself black, 
and his deeds, too, were very black. 8. And as 
he comes himself, so also he grumbles to the soul 
of Sritd thus: 'Give a maintenance (khvarag) to 
Vlstasp who is thy driver 1 , for the sake of good 
fellowship and service, and for that, righteousness is 
suitable unto a pure one; do not give it as a thing 
which is protective (that is, do not give it for the 
sake of worldly gratuity), but for love of the 
righteousness which is owing to the perfect exis- 

9. When those words were fully heard by Sritd of 

1 This speech seems intended as veiled irony. 

Digitized by 


80 vInkard, book vii. 

the Visraps, the early bestower (levlno-vakhsh), 
he stood still and so he spoke in words thus : ' For 
righteousness I give thee, O mighty Kat-Virtasp ! 
this chariot which is without a driver, only for love 
of the righteousness which is owing to the perfect 
existences.' 10. As much for righteousness as is 
best for righteousness, and as much for the soul as 
is best for the soul, the gift of the whole was secured 
(that is, its acceptance was announced as often as 
three times). 

ii. Then that chariot became two chariots, one 
spiritual and the other worldly ; in the worldly one 
the exalted Kai-Vutasp travelled forth unto the 
village of the N6dars 1 in the joyfulness of good 
thoughts, and in the spiritual one the soul of Srit6 of 
the Visraps travelled forth unto the best existence. 

12. One marvel is this which is declared that in 
fifty-seven years onwards from the acceptance of the 
religion by Zaratu-rt 2 , the arrival of the reKgion is 
published in the seven regions*; and within the 
lifetime of Virtasp, the circumstance (aeVun&lh) is 
manifested by the coming of some from other regions 
to Frashdrtar of the Hvdbas * for enquiry about the 

1 N6<fer (Av. Naotara) was a son of king Man Acinar (Bd. 
XXXI, 13) and an ancestor of king Virtasp. Virtasp being a des- 
cendant of Kal-Kava<f (Bd. XXXI, 28, 29) who was the adopted son 
of Auz6b6 (Bd. XXXI, 24) a son of Zagh, son of Marvak, son of 
N6<fcr (Bd. XXXI, 23 corrected from XXXIII, 5). Hut6s, the wife 
of Vwtasp, was also of the village of the N6</ars (Yt. XV, 35). 

* That is fifty-seven years after the conference of Zaratfirt (see 
Chap. V, 1). 

* See the summary in Dk. VIII, xiv, 10 : — ' Likewise, about the 
communication of Zaratflft's knowledge of the Mas</a-worshipping 
religion to the world, his attracting mankind to the religion, and 
the ages, after Zaratflft, until the renovation of the universe.' 

* Av. Ferashaonr6 Hv6gvd(Yas. LI, 17); he was a brother 

Digitized by 



religion, even as revelation mentions thus : ' Two 
whose names are thus, Spltdly 1 and Arezrasp6 2 , who 
have hastened unto Frashd^tar of the Hvdbas in 
search of wisdom.' 

13. Thus much splendour and wonder ofVist&sp 
and those of die realm regarding Zaratftst 3 , and 
thus much due to the coming of the archangels 
from the sky to the earth before Vistasp, as evi- 
dence about the true prophesying ^/"Zaraturt 4 ; and 
that, too, about P£shy6tan e , the chariot of Srltd *, 
and other subjects seen written above, are declared 
by the Avesta, which is the same that they accepted 
from Zaraturt, as the culmination 7 (az/ariganih) of 
Auharmastffs words. 14. And if this splendour, 
glory, and wonder that are written above as regards 
what those learned men of the realm saw — which 
are in the statement revealed by the Avesta — had 
not occurred, king Virtisp and those learned men 
of the realm would not have seen what this Avesta 
had revealed to them — which was thus much 
splendour and wonder reported by it to them — and 
not one word about leaving its preservation to us 
would be annexed. 

of (rimisp (Dk. V, ii, 12 ; iii, 4; Zs. XXIII, 10), and the father 
of Zaratfot's wife Hv6vi. The Hv6vas (Pahl. Hvobas) were 
a numerous family. 

1 Av. gen. Spit6if (Yt. XIII, 121). He was high-priest of 
Fradarfafsh, the south-east region. 

* Av. Erezraspa (ibid.) He was high-priest of Vida<fafsh, the 
south-west region (see Bd. XXIX, 1). These foreign envoys were 
brothers, each being a son of UspSsnu. 

8 See Chap. IV, 73. * See Chap. IV, 74-82. 

6 See Chap. V, 12. • See §§ 2-1 1. 

7 See Chap.V, 11. 

[47] G 

Digitized by 


82 dJnkarjd, BOOK VII. 

Chapter VII. 

1. About the marvellousness which is manifested 
after thetimeofVist&sp until the collapse (han^af- 
tano) oft\iz sovereignty of \rkn. 

2. There is marvellousness which is manifested 
after VLstasp until the collapse of the sovereignty of 
Iran, apart from the blessedness of ordeal, the 
accomplishment of other Avestic rites, the great 
power over the sacred fires, and many other 
religious observances which were connected with 
the disciples of Zaratust. 

3. Even after the devastation which* happened 
owing to Alexander, those who were rulers after 
him brought back much to the collection from a 
scattered state 1 ; and there are some who have or- 
dered the keeping of it in the treasury of Shapan '-. 

4. Likewise there is to be brought forward what 
there is concerning the names of rulers and high- 
priests, such as arrive for it at times and periods, 
which are each consecutive, as Organizers of the 
religion and the world ; also of the tyrant or 
apostate, who is manifest at various periods, for the 
disturbance of the religion and monarchy and the 
penance of the world, with the coming of the peni- 
tential one. 

1 Referring to king Valkhaj the Afkanian (probably Vologeses I, 
see S. B. E., vol. xxxvii, p. 413); possibly also to Ardashfr 

s So here, but usually written Shapfg£n, and sometimes Shas- 
pigSn. It was no doubt a royal treasury, and Dk. V, iii, 4, calls 
it so, but uses the words gan^o-f khutfayin, in which Gamasp 
is said to have deposited the Avesta and Zand written in gold upon 
ox-hides. If ShapigSn be a corruption of sh&yagin, ' royal,' it is 
singular that some copyist has not corrected the spelling. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER VII, 1-8. 83 

5. Such as Vohumand, son of Spend-daa? 1 , of the 
rulers, about whom it says even this in the Avesta, 
that he is Vohumand, the just, who is the most 
efficient of the assembly of Ma.zda-worshippers. 
6. And vSen6v 2 of the high-priests, as about him it 
says even this : ' The religion becomes a hundred 
years old when iSendv is born, and two hundred 
years when he passes away ; he was also the first 
Mazafa-worshipper with a life of a hundred years, 
and who walks forth upon this earth with a hundred 

7. Also Alexander of the devastators, as it says 
even this of him in revelation 3 , that in those three 
winters, which are of like purpose (ham-ayasako), 
that Aeshm * would set up a deadly king in the im- 
penitent world, who is the evil-destined Alexander. 

8. And of the high-priests are Arcsvak 6 , the 
interpretation of whose name is ' the pure word ; ' 
Srutv6k-spad&k 6 , the interpretation of whose name 
is ' the propitious recitation ; ' Zrayang.hau 6 , the in- 
terpretation of whose name is ' the ocean exis- 
tence ; ' and Spe»t6-khratvau 6 , the interpretation of 

1 Av. Spe«td-data of Yt. XIII, 103, a son of VLrtasp, with 
whom Avesta dynastic history ends. He was the Persian Isfendiyar, 
and his son Vohumand is unknown to the Avesta. The Ajitradarf 
Nask (Dk. VIII, xiii, 18) mentions a 'Namun, son of Spend-sh£<f,' 
which probably stands for ' Vohuman6, son of Spend-da</,' but this 
appears to have been in a Pahlavi supplement compiled in Sasanian 
times. He is also mentioned in Bd. XXXIV, 8, a chapter ' about 
the computation of years by the Arabs,' according to the Iranian 

2 Av. Sa6na of Yt. XIII, 97, where the last clause of the passage 
here translated from the Avesta occurs. Compare Zs. XXIII, n. 

3 Not in the extant Avesta. 4 The demon of Wrath. 

* Av. gen. Erezvau and Srfit6-spadau in Yt. XIII, 115. 

• These two names are written in their Av. gen. forms, as they 
occur in Yt. XIII, 115. 

G 2 

Digitized by 


84 d!nkar2), book vii. 

whose name is ' the propitious wisdom.' 9. Because 
it says even this about them, namely : ' I mention 
thy manifestation, and also the tokens of its 
publicity when this religion of thy Mazda-wor- 
shippers becomes four hundred years old* ; in 
this law benightedness (161yaih) arises, and the 
embodied existences see the manifestation through 
calculation of the planets and also the stars ; and 
whoever, too, are mine are so for a century, through 
the average opinion of thirty medium winters for 
a man 2 ; and the righteous Ar^vak and those three 
others are they of the most righteous existences, 
over whom they are the most masterly and most 
authoritative in that time.' 10. And this, too, that 
they who glorify the religion of the Ma-saa-wor- 
shippers in the fifth and sixth centuries are they; 
and no persons save their souls, -except those who 
remain for the arrival of the four 3 interpretations 
that arise through the authority of these four 
individuals, Aresvak, Srut6-spadh#u 4 , Zrayang,hau, 
and Spe«t6-khratvtfu who, all four of them, seek 
tJieir thoughts, words, and deeds in the sacred text 

11. Also Rashn-r£sh 5 is the apostate of that 

1 If the chronology in Bd. XXXIV, 7, 8 were correct, the interval 
between the first revelation of the religion and the death of 
Alexander would be 272 years, and this would make the 400th year 
of the religion coincide with b. c. 195. 

* That is, for a generation. The meaning appears to be, that 
these four successive high-priests insure the continuance of orthodox 
religion for more than a century, or well into the sixth century of 
the religion, as mentioned in § 10. 

8 The MS. has the cipher for ' three,' by mistake. 

* Here written in Avesta characters. 

° In Dk. Ill, cxcviii, 2, this apostate is said to have been an 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER VII, 9-I4. 85 

time, as some one 1 says unto Kashn, one of the sacred 
beings, and about many besides this one, thus : ' All 
who are creatures of the beneficent spirit are dis- 
tressed by their persecution, but put trust in those 
men, Arezvak and those three others.' 

12. And of the organizers of the period is 
Artakhshatar 2 , son of Papak, as it says even this 
about him, namely : ' Which is that ruler who is 
powerful, more striving than the Kayans, and 
mighty, an embodiment of the sacred commandments 
and awfully armed 8 ; in whose abode Aharlrvang *, 
the virtuous and radiant, walks forth in maiden 
form, beneficent and very strong, well-formed, high- 
girded, and truthful, of illustrious race and noble ? 
13. Whoever it is that, on the occurrence of strife, 
seeks prosperity for azmsetf with his own arm; who- 
ever it is that, on the occurrence of strife, encounters 
the enemies with his own arm.' 

14. Tanvasar 5 is also for his assistance, as it says 

associate (ham-p<ftgar) of the Christian ecclesiastic Akvan, and 
yells out ten admonitions contradicting those of the righteous S&nov 
who is mentioned in § 6 (see Peshotan's edition, vol. v, pp. 239, 
311). It does not follow that he was a contemporary of S&n6v, 
and here he seems to be placed fully two centuries later. 

1 Probably Auharmaz*/. 

2 The founder of the Sasanian dynasty, who reigned as king of 
the kings of Persia, a.d. 226-241. 

* Most of these qualities are applied to the angel Srdsh, the 
personification of obedience (see Yas. LVII, 1); also to Kavi Viftispa 
and Karsna, son of Zbaurvawt, in Yt. XIII, 99, 106. 

4 Av. Ashif vanguhi, 'good rectitude,' personified as a female 
angel ; her description is given in Yt. XIII, 107, and is similar to 
that of Anahita in Yt. V, 64. 

6 So spelt here and in §§ 17, 18, thrice in all; it is also thrice 
spelt Tansar, in Dk. Ill, last chapter, 7 ; IV, 25, 25, and this 
mis-spelling has led to the mis-pronunciation T6sar. It appears, 
however, that Tanvasar is a transposition of Tanvars, ' hairy- 

Digitized by 



this, too, about them : ' Zaraturt asked again thus : 
" Who is he who is the most salutary for a country, 
which the demons have exhausted of everything 
virtuous, over which his authority is brought and 
which is wicked and teaching falsehood ?" 15. Au- 
hanria-s^ spoke thus : " An autocrat (sastar), to cure 
a country, who has not gone mad (that is, he does 
not annoy the good) and is well-directing (that is, he 
gives virtuous commands), who is also of noble race, 
and likewise a priest who is acquainted with war, of 
a famous province, and righteous, are most salutary 
for that country. 16. And I tell thee this, that the 
apostasy of destruction is just like the four-legged 
wolf which the world gives up to running astray 
(var^ak-takhshi.rnfh) (that is, owing to its action 
they are leading it off as astray; which is so that even 
he who is not opulent is rendered sickly, that they 
{the apostates) may take away his things by the 
hand of the assassin (khunyan); and they shall 
lead the world, the dwelling for his residence, into 
wandering. 17. But that wicked (a^aruno) strife 
descended upon that country, besides that wicked 
demon-worship, besides that wicked slander; and 
not even that wicked strife, nor that wicked demon- 
worship, nor that wicked slander, is dissipated from 

bodied,' because we are told that Tansar, or Tanvasar, was so 
called on account of all his limbs being covered with hair (vars). 
This statement occurs in the introduction to Tanvasar's letter to 
Gushnaspshah (Ar. (?asnasf-shah), king of Pa<fashkhvargar (Ar. 
Farshvidgar) and Tabaristan ; and is made on the authority of 
an old Pahlavi copyist, Bahr&m Khurzad, whose Pahlavi was 
translated into Arabic by Ibn al-Muqaffa in the middle of the 
eighth century, and that into Persian early in the thirteenth 
century (see Darmesteter's edition in Journal Asiatique for 1894, 
pp. 185-250, 502-555)- 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER VII, I5-20. 87 

that country until the time when they attach the 
grant of approval to him, the spiritual leader, 
the eloquent (pur-guftar), truthful-speaking, and 
righteous Tanvasar. 18. And it is when they 
grant approval to the spiritual leader, the truthful 
speaker of eloquence, the righteous Tanvasar, that 
those of the country obtain redress (beshasaganlh) 
when they seek it, and nodeviation (anayuinakoih) 
from the religion of Zaraturt." ' 

19. As to the nature of the questions and state- 
ments of the organizer of the religion, Aturpa^ 1 son 
of Maraspend, about the connection of the glory 
with the race, it also says this, that 'though 
righteousness may arise from the statements and 
prosperity of the Turanians when extracted by 
questions, it is said that its acceptance occurs there 
through complete mindfulness 2 ; they benefit the 
embodied world of righteousness, and produce 
distress for the fiend ; in like manner, they rely upon 
Vohumand, and Zaraturt is their delight through 
the report of the birth of ZuraX&st from us who are 
archangels. 20. This liberality for thee is from us 
who are archangels, and Aturpaaf, the very best 
well-destined man arose ; and this, too, do thou say 
about him, that it is the steel age in which that 
man, the organizer of development and organizer of 
righteousness, Atu^pa^ son of Maraspend, of the 
convocation, begets Avarethrabau V 

1 A high-priest who was prime minister of king Shahpuhar II 
(a.d. 309-379). He is often mentioned in Pahlavi writings, but in 
the Avesta he is only alluded to, apparently, by the title RiLrtare- 
vaghe«t in Yt. XIII, 106. 

2 A translation of Av. spe«ta-4rmaiti, the archangel Spen- 

8 So written, all three times in Pazand. He is the Avarethra- 

Digitized by 



21. This Avarethrabau, too, is an organizer whose 
righteous guardian spirit we reverence, and in 
memory of Manusilhar, the well-destined, and a pro- 
genitor of Aturpad? 1 , it says that 'only from him 
comes Avarethrabau ; ' and then also arises this one 
of the adversaries of the religion, the apostate of 
apostates, whom they have even called the Mazdag- 
like (Mazdagtg-i^) 2 . 22. As it says this, too, 
about them, namely : ' This religion of mine thou 
dost survey with thoughts of spiritual life, thou dost 
very thoroughly inspect it, O Zaratust ! when many, 
aware of apostates, call the performance of righteous- 
ness and even the priesthood innocence, and few are 
frank and practising it.' 23. In the revelation of the 
Masda-worshippers is this, namely : ' Thoroughly 
look into revelation, and seek a remedy for them 
and any whatever of them who have become dis- 
turbing in the embodied existence, and uncapttvated 
by the orthodox (ayin-au mdnd) righteousness which 
is owing to the perfect existences ; and so they divide 
the religion of the Masok-worshippers through 
division of race, they speak regarding the action of 
their own followers, and give the endowment to 
their own. 24. They grant supplies of food, so that 
they may say the food is proportional to the hunger ; 
they speak of procreation, and say that they say 
lineage is through the mothers ; and they approve 
of wolfishness, so that they would act something like 

bangh, son of Rartare-vaghe«t of Yt. XIII, 106, better known as 
Zarattift, son of Aturparf in his old age, for whom the Andar'z-f 
Aturparf-i Maraspendan was written. 

1 Whose pedigree is traced back to Manu^ihar in Bd. XXXIII, 3. 

a Probably some disciple of Minih, the heretic who had been 
put to death a.d. 276-7. Mazdag was put to death a.d. 528. 
See S.B.E., vol. xxxvii, pp. 257 n, 278 n. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER VII, 21-2 7. 89 

wolves in the performance of gratifying their desires, 
like that of the wolf's progeny behind the mother. 
25. Moreover, they form their lineage through the 
mothers ; buying their women as sheep, they shall 
carry off for profit even that son or brother who is 
the progeny, those that we have produced for your 
companionship ; you are not predominant, but have 
remained in companionship ; you do not even believe 
them, but you do not establish an ordeal, although 
it is evident that you will be acquitted ; they lie 
even to their children, so that the advance of the 
promise-breaker is through them, and even in their 
own persons V 

26. Here k speaks about the organization of the 
religion by the glorified 2 Khusroi, son of Kavidf, 
thus : ' Upon their lingering behind, a man is pro- 
duced who is righteous, the Glorified one 2 , an 
approver (kh&nWar) of speech who is wise, whom 
the convocation, on hearing the words that he utters, 
speaks of as a high-priest ; that is when he gives 
out penance (srdshlglh), so that he may effect the 
punishment of sinners. 27. The constant out- 
pouring of perplexity (p&£ shariafan) by the per- 
verters is the fear of that hero, as regards that 

1 This quotation, from a Pahlavi version of an Avesta text, would 
probably be very applicable to the state of the Persian people at 
many periods in the fourth and fifth centuries, when heresy was 
prevalent and orthodox Zoroastrianism was by no means universal. 
Some of the evils mentioned are inseparable from slavery at all 

J Literally ' immortal-soulled,' An6shak-ruban, the usual title 
of king Khusrd I, who reigned a.d. 531-578. Before he became 
king, a. d. 528 or 529, he had summoned an assembly of priests to 
condemn the heretic Mazdag, when the last important revision 
of the Pahlavi versions of the Avesta probably took place (see Byt. 
I, 6-8, and Noldeke's Gesch. der Sas. pp. 463-466). 

Digitized by 


90 d!nka/jz», book vii. 

convocation, when he casts them forth by expulsion 
from the vicinity, so that he may make them extin- 
guished very quickly ; owing to that, they, whose 
producer is even he who is a person destroying the 
righteous man, become gloomy on account of the 
Glorified one, through his smiting the spiritual life 
of apostasy ; just as now, when he who is gloomy, 
and of scattered intellect, is gloomy owing to you 
of the Spitamas.' 28. This, too, it states, namely : 
' In every way, I tell thee, O Zaratust of the Spita- 
mas ! that their time is mistrustful (av^ar) as to 
him who is an open friend, and most deceitful both 
to the wicked and the righteous ; the Glorified one 
is a controller (ayukhtar) exalting the creatures, 
and whoever is possessing the creatures of the 
righteous ones 1 , so that he remains again at work in 
the doings of the Glorified one, is he who is a com- 
biner of the actions and an utterer of the true replies 
of that Glorified one.' 

29. And about the occurrence of a symptom of 
the devastators of the sovereignty and religion of 
the country of Iran one wonder, which is associated 
with the religion, is even this which it mentions 
thus : ' Thereupon, when the first symptom of a 
ravager of the country occurs, O righteous Zara- 
tust ! then the more aggressive and more unmerciful 
in malice becomes the tyrant of the country, and 
through him, too, they ravage (r£sh£nd) the house, 
through him the village, through him the community, 
through him the province, and through him even 
the whole of that manifestation in the country of 
any teaching whatever that occurs through the 
ravager of the country ; and so the country should 

1 Of the good spirits. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER VII, 28-32. 91 

keep a man who is observant and learned on the 
watch, because information is in his mind. 30. 
Thereupon, when the second symptom of a ravager of 

the country occurs, <2fc. 1 

31. Thereupon, when the third symptom of a ravager 
of the country occurs, the priestly people are dis- 
turbing the tradition, so that they speak nothing 
wisely ; it is even on this account they do not accept 
them, and it is not when one speaks truly that the 
ravager of the country believes them, and through 
him, too, they ravage the house, through him the 
village, through him the community, through him the 
province, and through him even the whole of that 
manifestation in the country of any teaching what- 
ever that occurs through the ravager of the country ; 
and so, too, the country should keep a man who is 
observant and learned on the watch, because infor- 
mation is in his mind. 32. Thereupon, when the 
fourth symptom of a ravager of the country occurs, 
it upsets the replenishment of the fires, and upsets 
those men of the righteous, so that they shall not 
undertake the care of them ; and thus they shall not 
convey the holy-water to him who is a priestly 
authority, so that they may not produce the seizing 
upon the stipend of the priestly authorities by him 
who is the ravager of the country ; through him, too, 
they ravage the house, through him the village, 
through him the community, through him the pro- 
vince, and through him even the whole of that 

1 The whole of this section is omitted in the old MS., evidently 
by mistake. Perhaps the second symptom of devastation was con- 
nected with the evil deeds of the warrior class, but this is very 
uncertain. Passages of four or five words are also omitted by the 
MS. in §§31,32. 

Digitized by 



manifestation in the country of any teaching what- 
ever that occurs through the ravager of the country ; 
and so, too, the country should keep a man who 
is observant and learned on the watch, because 
information is in his mind.' 

33. About the collapse of the sovereignty of Iran, 
it also states this, namely: 'That very villain (mar), 
O Zaratust ! brings those provinces on to running 
astray, so that he may make those quite dissevered 
which constitute the existence of that powerful sove- 
reignty ; and then he is a thorough assailant of the 
righteous, then he is are assailant of the righteous 
with eagerness. 34. That same deadly one (mar), 
O Zaratust ! does not continue living long after- 
wards ; moreover his offspring disappear (that 
is, they perish utterly) ; but his soul falls to the 
bottom of the gloomy existence which is horrible 
hell, and upon their bodies every kind ^unseemly 
unhappiness comes from themselves, owing to their 
own actions when they give approval to the im- 
prisonment of a guardian of spiritual affairs who is 
eloquent, true-speaking, and righteous. 35. Against 
that deadly one he contends, O Zaratust ! for the 
spiritual lordship and priestly authority that I approve 
as good for the whole embodied existence ; also 
against the preparation of a decree to produce evil 
decisions, and against the dismissal of litigants, 
whether heterodox or orthodox, who are of a family 
of serfs of a far-situated village and are making 

36. 'And as to the land, too, over which he 
wanders, the evil spirit utterly devastates their 
country through pestilence and other misery ; and, 
moreover, strife which is tormenting falls upon that 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER VII, 33-39. 93 

country, besides demon-worship which is iniquitous, 
and besides slander which Is iniquitous. 37. And 
the strife which is iniquitous is not to be dissipated 
(apasi-aitano) from that country, nor the demon- 
worshippers who are iniquitous, nor the slander 
which is iniquitous, before the time when they give 
approval to him, to the priest who is a guardian 
of spiritual affairs, who is eloquent, true-speaking, 
and righteous; and it is when they give him 
approval, that they obtain healthfulness for their 
country when they pray for it, and not irregularly 
from him, O Zaratust!' 

38. And this which is recounted is a statement 
that is execrated {nafrlg-alto) by many, details 
from the Avesta as to occurrences that will arise 
after VLrtasp until the dispersion (angdvisno) of 
the sovereignty of Iran from the country of Iran ; 
it is also declared that this which is written happened 
to the knowledge of those of the world. 39. This, 
too, is about the evidence of the above : — ' And 
if this which is declared from the Avesta, as to what 
happens after Kai-Vbtasp until the end of the sove- 
reignty of Iran, should not have happened, and it 
being the pre-eminence of the Avesta which really 
became this present treasure, it thereby ensues, 
owing to its position in that former*, and the 
manifest absence of the destruction of those rulers 
and high-priests from Vlrtasp onwards in this latter 2 , 
that it could not be connected with us V 

1 The above declaration from the Avesta. 

* The present Avesta itself. 

* Meaning perhaps that, for some good reason, it could not be 
communicated to us in the extant Avesta. If § 39 be not a later 
addition to this chapter, it implies that the prophetical quotations 
from the Avesta, regarding the history of the religion after the time. 

Digitized by 


94 dinkard, book vii. 

Chapter VIII. 

i. About the marvellousness which is manifested 
and is openly specified after the collapsing of the 
sovereignty of Iran and the country of Iran ; also the 
end of the millennium of Zaratfot and the arrival 
of Aushedar the descendant of Zaratfot '. 

2. There is this marvellousness, really over- 
throwing the blessedness of the knowledge of former 
government, revealed by the Avesta about the ninth 
and tenth centuries, that which is an indicator of 
circumstances (ae^unSlh) now visible, such as the 
dispersion of the sovereignty of Iran from the 
country of Iran, the disturbance of just law and 
custom, the predominance of those with dishevelled 
hair 2 , and the haughty profession of ecclesiastics 3 . 
3. Also the collection and even connection of all 
their four systems of belief (v^z/ari-hastano) 4 to- 

of Virtasp, were no more extant in the Avesta, when the Dinkarrf 
was compiled, than they are now. 

1 The contents of Chaps. VII-XI have some connection with the 
following summary in Dk. VIII, xiv, 11, 12: — '■And about the 
nature of the advancement of the people of the period, the separa- 
tion of centuries and millenniums, and the signs, wonders, and 
perplexity which are manifested in the world at the end of each 
millennium in the world. Also as to the birth and arrival of 
Aushe</ar, son of ZarattYst, at the end of the first millennium, and 
a report of him and his time, and of the many destroyers of the 
organizers of the period between Zaratujt's millennium and the 
coming of Aush&fer.' 

2 This meaning for vlg&rdo -vars is chiefly based upon the use 
of vigird in AV. XXXIV, 5, for a woman's hair being 'combed.' 
These invaders of Iran from the east, at the end of the first 
millennium of the religion, are mentioned in Byt. II, 22, 24, 28 ; 
HI, 1, 6, 13. They are called ' Turkish demons' in § 47. 

3 The Byzantine Christians. 

* Zoroastrianism, Muhammadanism, Christianity, and either 
Judaism or Idolatry. 

Digitized by 



gether for the upper rank; the coming of one 
working with the sacred beings to the inferior, the 
transient, and the captive of the period; and the 
dispersion and downfall of dependent and public 
men in their time. 

4. The disappearance of a disposition for wisdom 
from the foreigners in the countries of Iran, which 
is an indication of shame at the truth of the religion, 
and at the praise, peace, liberality, and other good- 
ness whose provision has lodgement in a disposition 
for wisdom. 5. Also the abundance of the decisions 
of apostasy, the falsehood, deceit, slander, quarrel- 
someness, fraudulence, ingratitude, discord, stingi- 
ness, and other vileness whose real connection is 
a disposition to devour, neglecting heedfulness for 
the archangels of fire, water, and worldly existence \ 
6. The oppressiveness of infidelity and idol-worship, 
the scarcity of freedom, the extreme predominance 
of avarice in the individuals (tan 6) of mankind, the 
plenitude of different opinions about witchcraft, and 
the much inclination of many for paralyzing the 
religion of the sacred beings. 

7. The annihilation of the sovereignty of man- 
kind one over the other, the desolation of localities 
and settlements by severe actual distress, and the 
evil foreign potentates who are, one after the other, 
scattering the valiant ; the destruction among cattle 
and the defilement of the spirit of enjoyment, owing 
to the lodgement of lamentation and weeping in the 
countries of Iran, the clamour of the demon-wor- 
shipper in the country, and the unobtainable stature, 
non-existent strength, blighted destiny, and short 

1 Ashavahwt6, Khurda</, and Spendarma</. 

Digitized by 



life of mankind. 8. Also the abundance of ordi- 
nances (ayino) 1 of various descriptions, the approval 
of the apostate among tyrants and the non-approval 
of the Zoti 2 who is well-disposed and wise, the 
coming of the Zoti to want, and all the other adver- 
sity, disruption, and running astray which are over- 
powering even in districts and localities of the 
countries of Iran. 

9. The maintenance of no ritual (apandlh) of 
the religion of the sacred beings; the weakness, 
suffering, and evil habits of those of the good re- 
ligion ; the lamentation and recantation (khustukth) 
of the upholders of the religion ; and the wickedness 
and extermination of good works in most of the 
countries of Iran. 10. Also much other misery in 
these two centuries is recounted in the Avesta, which 
passed away with them and is also now so visible 
therein, and manifestly occurs in them. 

11. This, too, is a statement (nisang-i) as to 
them, which revelation mentions thus : ' That is the 
age mingled with iron (that is, from every side they 
perceive it is of iron) in which they bring forth into 
life him who is a sturdy praying apostate. 12. This 
is their sturdiness, that their approval is unobservant 
of both doctrines (ainako); and this is their pray- 
ing, that whenever it is possible for them they shall 
cause misery to others ; also when an old man 
publicly advances into a crowd (galako) of youths, 
owing to the evil times in which that man who is 
learned is born, they are unfriendly to him (that is, 
they are no friends of the high-priests of the priestly 
assembly). 13. They are freely speaking (that is, 

1 Or it may be h£n6, ' squadrons.' 

a The chief officiating priest in religious ceremonies. 

Digitized by 


chapter vin, 8-16. 97 

they utter phrases smoothly), they are wicked and 
are fully maliciously talking, so that they shall make 
the statements of priests and high-priests useless ; 
they also tear asunder the spiritual lordship and 
priestly authority, and shall bring the ruler and 
priestly authority into evil behaviour as vicious, but 
they bring together those who are singular. 14. Any- 
thing they say is always mischief (agih), and that 
district which had a judge they cast into the smiting 
precinct, into hell ; it is misery without any inter- 
mission they shall inflict therein, till they attain unto 
damnation (darvandih) through the recitation they 
persevere in, both he who is the evil progeny dis- 
seminated by the apostate and he who is the 
villainous wolf full of disaster and full of depravity.' 
15. 'Here below they fight, the friend with him 
who is a friend, they also defraud (ziv£nd) him of 
his own work (that is, whenever it is possible for 
them, they shall seize upon his property), and they 
give it to him from whom they obtain prosperity in 
return ; if not, they seek him who is acting as a con- 
federate (nishin-gun), and they make that other 
one defraud the poor man (so that they shall seize 
upon his property) ; they also cheat him when he 
shall make complaint. 16. I shall not again produce 
such for thee, no friend here for him who is a friend, 
no brother for him who is a brother, no son for 
him who is a father, nor yet a father for him who is 
a son ; admonished, but not convinced, they become 
the abode of the will of the place, so that they 
subsist in every single place where it is necessary 
for them to be, in each that is necessary for them 
they march on together, and on the way they 
reflect upon the path of blessedness and the 
[47] h 

Digitized by 


98 dInkard, BOOK VII. 

manifold learning they utter owing to knowledge 
of me V 

1 7. ' These three, bur increase, learning, and 
reward, we fully understand through the ascendancy 
of him who is ignoble, and through the downfall of 
him who is noble and superior to him of little 
thorough instruction who, in every thing, will be at 
the foot of the tyrant. 1 8. Thinking of a priest one 
becomes spiritual, thinking of a tyrant one becomes 
a Kavig 2 ; a demon in disposition is an incipient 
demon, a Kavlg in disposition is himself attracted 
towards a youth.' 

19. Then, when character and wisdom recede 
from the countries of Iran (that is, they depart), so 
that destitution and also winter, produced by demons 
who are worshipping the demon, rush together from 
the vicinity of disaster (vdighn) on to the countries 
of Iran, where even rain becomes scanty and pesti- 
lence is secretly advancing and deceiving, so that 
deaths become numerous ; thus even he of perverted 
wisdom, who is wicked, and the apostate also, who 
is unrighteous, rush together in companionship. 
20. As what one says they all exclaim thus : ' Con- 
sume and destroy, O ruler ! for it is to be consumed 
and destroyed by thee ; destroy even the fire, 
consume even as food those who are the protection 
of the association enforcing religious obedience, and 
those leading on the poor man of the righteous 
dispensation by their guidance.' 21. So that they 
shall make him thoroughly detached and smite him; 

1 So far, this statement (§§ n-16) seems to be ascribed to 
Auharmazrf; but what follows (§§ 17, 18, 20) appears to represent 
the sentiments of some Iranians of those later times. 

8 See Chap. II, 9 n. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER VIII, 17-26. 99 

likewise wisdom is the wealth they bring him, and it 
is when property is being carried off by them, that 
the wisdom conveyed by them arises. 

22. 'And in that age, O righteous one of the 
Spltamas ! the coming of my desire is not purely for 
thee, nor is a thorough belief of the departure of life, 
so that the bringing and conducting of a speaker of 
promises (mitragdv) is not necessary; those of the 
perfect apostate injure this discourse of thine, the 
Avesta and Zand, so that they shall make it 
thoroughly weak ; and those of the perfect apostate 
harass their own souls, for love of the wealth which 
he produced.' 

23. And about the ninth and tenth centuries this 
also it says, that, ' as that age proceeds, this is what 
occurs, O Zaratust of the Spltamas ! when many 
apostates utter the righteousness of priestly instruc- 
tion and authority, which is wickedness towards me, 
they cause begging for water, they wither vegetation, 
and they put down all excellence which is due to the 
manifestation of righteousness.' 

24. Again Zaratu.rt enquired of him thus: 'What 
do they so produce by that, O Atiharmazdl when 
they cause begging for water, they wither vegetation, 
and they put down all excellence due to the mani- 
festation of righteousness?' 25. And Auharmas^/ 
spoke thus : ' They so produce those things among 
them, O Zaraturt ! when they mention a greater 
reward for bantlings and relations than that of their 
own souls (that is, they talk more concerning their 
allowance, where it is that for their own). 26. More- 
over, they give to the Kigs and Karaps, for some 
repute with the shepherd people of the husbandman, 
and with the swift-horsed people of the warrior, as 

h 2 

Digitized by 



though they would provide us • here below with 
a large share of meat, that they would make our 
privilege, just as we ' here supply him with meat 
whom we render greatly precious. 27. The property 
of even a wicked man here below, O Zaratust! in the 
average opinion among the disorganized (anara- 
stano) is a dignified provision (that is, we form 
a strong opinion, the approval of which is more to 
be asserted as being the -opinion of a poor righteous 
man, about a worthy righteous man whose manifest 
righteousness is a homage (franamisno) to duty 
and good works).' 

28. Again he enquired of him thus : ' Is there so 
perfect a manifestation here below, in the age of the 
worldly existence of the religion of the Mazdz-wor- 
shippers (that is, is there a lodgement of the religion 
of the Ma^a-worshippers in any one) ? ' 29. And 
Auharma^ spoke thus : ' It is so, among those men 
of mine 2 , O Zaratust! for here below there are priests 
who are eloquent, and they, too, are men voluble and 
requisite in the embodied existence, all-beneficent 
and producing the destruction of harm and the 
wizard ; the people of the wicked tyrant say also 
regarding them, that, excepting thee, O Zaratust ! 
they rightly practise righteousness more largely, 
more powerfully, and more volubly. 30. Blind are 
those of the fiend, who are consulting with thee and 
are unaware of the tyrant ; and observant are also 
those of the fiend who consult with them and think 
of their intelligence, and oppose the imbecile (ana- 
kaslh-aum6nd) apostate who is near them, so that 

1 The archangels. 

2 Reading minam, instead of madam which is unintelligible 

Digitized by 



they say * this, namely : " As to this which thou 
tellest us, it is evidently not so as thou sayest," of 
which they speak thus : " This duty of thy man is 
not mine (that is, it is not necessary for me to 
perform) nor thine (that is, it is not necessary even 
for thee to perform), because // is not this which is 
righteousness (that is, not a good work)." 31. For 
this one is produced for these words and thoughts 
of thine, of whom thou, too, art aware, he who is 
whatever is here below of Aush&sar 2 of thoughtful 
controversy, O Zaratfot of the Spltamas ! for he 
brings into notice, through the intermingling of 
his own soul, him who is righteous, or has not 
become so! 

32. This, too, he says, namely : ' Of those, O 
Zaratu,rt of the Spitamas! who come in the ninth 
and tenth centuries, I tell thee that they are of the 
fiend of Greed (Azl) ; it is in her womb that they 
are to be fashioned, they who assist those who 
would be vicious, through pre-eminence in leader- 
ship, or through excellence in subserviency.' 

33. And this, too, it says about them : ' Those 
men are much to be destroyed ; ' so it is said by 
Auharmasaf that ' these who are righteous, who 
carry away a corpse in this world, distress their 
fire, according to every high-priest 3 , and even long- 
flowing water ; their bodies, which are really cess- 
pools * of a terrible character, become very assisting 
for the tormentors whose corpses are grievously 
wicked. 34. Concerning them I tell thee, O Zara- 

1 To the apostate. 

2 See §§ 55-60 and Chap. I, 42 n. Here spelt Aukhsh&fer. 

3 Reading dastfir, instead of vastur. 

* Pahl. maya-vakhdfin = Pers. ab-gfr. 

Digitized by 



tust of the Spttimas ! that, in the ninth and tenth 
centuries, there come those who are the brood of the 
fiend and the wound-producer (reshgir) * of the 
evil spirit; even one of them is more to be destroyed 
than ten demon-worshippers 2 ; ' they also produce 
extermination for these who are mine, for these of 
my religion, whom they call a provision for destruc- 
tion (that is, when it is possible to live in our way, 
and ours are wicked, they diminish in superiority). 

35. Even the iniquity that they shall commit in 
leadership and subserviency, the sin which is smiting 
thee, they call a trifle (khalak6), O pure one of the 
Spltamas ! and the smiter, they say, is he whom 
these of thy religion of Maa/a-worshippers smite. 

36. Besides thee, O Zaratust! they distress those 
duties, too, which are to be acquired by thy people 
(lagan 6) ; they think scornfully of this ceremonial 
of thine, scornfully of thy worship, O Zaratfot ! and 
they think scornfully of both the two blessed utter- 
ances 3 , the Avesta and Zand, which were proclaimed 
to thee by me who am the most propitious of spirits. 

37. They foster villainous outrage, and they say the 
best work for mankind is immoderate fighting whose 
joyfulnessis due to actions that are villainous; those, 
too, that they exterminate are the existences due to 
the spirits, they exterminate their own souls, they 
exterminate the embodied existences of the world ; 
and they produce lamentation for the soul, and even 
the religion, as regards what is the mode of controll- 
ing orthodox people together with the iniquitous of 
the same period.' 

38. And this, too, it says, that enquired 

1 Or it may be riyagSr, 'hypocrite.' 2 Or ' idolators.' 

8 Pahl. vairiganth = Av. urvata. 

Digitized by 



of Atiharmazd thus : ' So what shall we prescribe 
for those who are not capable, through being poor 
(that is, they have no means), nor have they troops, 
nor a protector over them, and they have many per- 
secutors ?' 39. And Auharmasflf spoke thus : ' The 
strong-minded l man, through understanding, is a 
token of the development of those who, not being in 
the army, are capable ; their persecutors also are 
many, and the passing over of authority is owing to 
the iniquitous of the same period.' 

40. This, too, it says, that Zaratust enquired thus : 
' Is he, O AuharmasflM who is a Kal or a Karap, or 
he who is a most evil ruler in authority, mingled 
again with the good ? ' 41. And Auharmasof spoke 
thus : ' Even he 2 .' 

42. Zaratfot also enquired thus : ' Is he, too, 
O Auharmaz^! who is one of those of the good 
sovereignty, mingled again with the good ; or these, 
such as the Kaisar and Khakan 3 ?' 43. And 
Auha#"ma&/ spoke thus : ' Even that former, O 
Zaraturt ! ' 

44. About the same iniquitous 4 this, too, he says, 
namely : ' When they are aware and understand 
about the sayings (galimako) due to righteousness, 
they are pleased, so that a bribe seems better to 
them than duty and good works; they love the 
darkness rather than light, the existence they love 

1 Assuming that t6shto-mlnijn6 is a miswriting of toshfno- 

* That is, after expiating his misdeeds by his allotted punishment. 
The last thirteen Pahlavi words of §§ 42, 43 are also added here 
by mistake in the MS. 

3 The Byzantine emperor and the sovereign Kh£n of the invaders 
from the east. 

' Mentioned in §§ 37, 39. 

Digitized by 


104 dInkard, book vii. 

is the worst existence rather than the best existence, 
and they promote difficulty. 45. Concerning them, 
too, I tell thee that they are more to be destroyed 
than the leaping (shas/6) serpent which is like 
a wolf or a lion, and they ever advance in malice 
and persecution from that time till when that man 
arrives who is isfitrd-mehonS 1 the righteous, with 
the victorious club. 46. He has marched with fifty 
triplets of men 2 who are disciples, powerful and 
tall, looking after duties and ordinances, wide- 
shouldered, stout-armed, and very hairy (kabed- 
millh), so that their appearance is rough and of 
a black colour 3 , wherefore the demon and the 
iniquity proceeding from him fear them. 47. He 
also smites the evil spirit, together -with his creatures; 
and those three manifest branches, that worship the 
fiend with simultaneous worship, are really these 
who march for eminent service on horses, even the 
Turkish demons with dishevelled hair, the Arab, 
and also Shedaspd 4 the ecclesiastical Aru-man. 

1 So spelt here, but in Dk. IX, xli, 6, it is A*"itrag-m6h6n6, 
and other slight variations occur in the best MSS. of Bd. XX, 7, 31 ; 
XXIX, 5 ; Byt. Ill, 25,26; Dd. XC, 3 ; but they can all be traced to 
an original ^itr6-m6han = Av. Anthr6-maSthanem, 'of the 
racial home,' a title applied both to the river and the immortal 
sacerdotal ruler of Kangd<rs. The latter is supposed to be 
PSshy6tano, a son of king Vwtisp, who is expected to restore 
religious rites in Ir&n and throughout the world. 

2 With 150 disciples, as stated in Byt. Ill, 27, 29, 42. Here it 
is written levat<? 50 3-gabriSn. 

8 Byt. Ill, 27, 29, 42, states that they wear black marten fur. 

4 In Byt. Ill, 3, 5, 8, 21, this name is written SheV&sprh which 
can also be read ShgaSsfaj, and is probably a corrupt pronunciation 
of the name of some Byzantine emperor or general (such as 
Theodosius) who had signally defeated the Persians some time in 
the fifth to seventh century, in which period Zaratuit's millennium 
probably ended. 

Digitized by 



48. ' And he has then to attract men, contented 
and discontented, mostly through the incentive of 
duty ; he who is not contented (that is, not agreeing 
with what he says) contentedly pays respect to him, 
O Zaratu-rt! (so that he brings him into the religion). 
49. Likewise, through that club, he makes one press 
in the same manner : so that one is distressed by his 
hand to hold others in contempt, through the valiant 
arm and through the youthful bodily organs. 50. 
And he attaches power and triumph to his religion 
of Adharmazd, and through that power and triumph 
they become ever respected thenceforth, when those 
arrive who are the sons of Zaratust, who shall pro- 
duce the renovation in an existence undecaying and 
immortal, hungerless and thirstless, the long-con- 
tinued perpetuity including all.' 

51. And about the separation (burinako) of the 
ten centuries in the one millennium of Zarattot, and 
the tidings of Aush&fer 1 , son of Zaraturt, it says 
also this, namely : ' When that century fully elapses 
which is the first of the religion of the Masda- 
worshippers, from the time when Zaratust came 
forward to his conference, what is the separation of 
this first century?' 52. And Auha^ma^ spoke 
thus : ' The sun conceals itself. 53. ' What is the 
separation after the second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, 
seventh, eighth, ninth, or tenth century?' 54. And 
Auharmasdf spoke thus : ' The sun conceals itself! 

55. Then, when thirty winters of the tenth cen- 
tury are unelapsed (that is, thirty winters are 
remaining) a maiden, who is Shemig-abu 2 , walks up 

1 See Chap. I, 42. 

* 'Having a renowned father,' the Zv&ris of Av. Srutarf-fedhri, 
Yt. XIII, 141. 

Digitized by 



to the water ; she that is the mother of that famous 
AusheaJar, and her former lineage is from V6hu- 
rbk6-i Frahanyan * in the family of f saafvastar, the 
son of Zaratu^t that is brought forth by Arang-. 
56. Then she sits in that water and drinks it, and 
she kindles in a high degree those germs which 
were the third of the last that the righteous Zaratdrt 
was dropping forth originally, and they introduce 
that son whose name is the Developer of Righteous- 
ness 2 . 57. Though she is fifteen years old, the girl 
(kanig) has not before that associated with men 3 ; 
nor afterwards, when she becomes pregnant, has she 
done so before the time when she gives birth. 

58. When that man becomes thirty years old, the 
sun stands still in the zenith (balistS) of the sky 
for the duration of ten days and ten nights, and 
it arrives again at that place where it was first 
appointed by allotment, where it occupies one 
finger-dreadth out of the four finger-dreadths, and it 
shines over all the regions which are seven. 59. So, 
too, O Zaraturt ! of them themselves, their declara- 
tion is thus, that they know that the separation of 
the millennium, which this religion has heard about 
by listening, is thus ; and of those who do not even 
then know, that it is something which is different. 

60. Then, when that man becomes thirty years 
old, he confers with the archangels, the good rulers 
and good providers ; on the morrow, in the daylight 
of the day, it is moreover manifest, when the 
embodied existence is thus undistressed — without 

1 See Yt. XIII, 97. 

*■ The Pahlavi interpretation of AfishSrfar which is an im- 
perfect transcript of the Av. Ukhshya</-ereta of Yt. XIII, 128. 
8 Pahl. ' levaUf gabraano bara vepayWo.' 

Digitized by 



a Kal and without a Karap (that is, not deaf and 
blind to the affairs of the sacred beings), and is to 
be appropriated (that is, has not made its own self 
apart from the affairs of the sacred beings), and is 
produced full of life — that it has become extending 
(valan), and remains again great in various places 
in Alran-v^f where the good Daltl 1 is. 

61. These are the characteristics as regards the 
two centuries which are the ninth and tenth ; the 
accuracy of what was to come has continued and 
this has happened, and both are declared as regards 
the accuracy which is stated on evidence as to what 
will happen. 

Chapter IX. 

1. About the marvellousness which is after the 
end of the millennium of Zaraturt and the arrival 
of Aush£dar, until the end of the millennium of 
Aush&tfar and the arrival of Aushedar-mah ; and as 
to tidings of the same period. 

2. The marvellousness of Ausheafar as to birth 2 , 
glory of person, sayings and actions ; the standing 
of the sun ten days amid the sky 3 ; the perishing of 
the fiend of the four-legged race ; the production 
of a three-spring cloudless influence 4 for vegetation; 
the weakening of superfluity and destitution ; the 
extreme strengthening of alliance ; the gratification 
due to the good friendship of foreigners ; the great 
increase of the wisdom of religion ; and the praise 

1 See Chap. Ill, 51, 54 ; Bd. XX, 13. It is the name of a river. 

2 See Chap. VIII, 55-57. " " See Chap. VIII, 58. 
4 Pahl. ' 3-zarem<&' an-az/argarfh.' 

Digitized by 



of Aushedar's smiting with a serpent-scourge of 
several kinds in the religion 4 of the Ma^a-wor- 

3. The mightiness of the resources in the fifth 
century of the same millennium ; the manifestation 
of the wizard Mahrkus x for seven years, in the year 
which is reported in all the regions which are seven ; 
the coming on and arrival of the winter of Mahrkus, 
the perishing of most ^mankind and animals within 
three winters and in the fourth, through the awful^ 
ness of those winters and the witchcraft of Mahrkus ; 
and the dying away of Mahrkus of scanty progeny 
(ga^uk6-zahijn5), during the fourth winter, through 
the Dahman Afsdn 2 . 4, The opening of the en- 
closure made by Yim, the coming of mankind and 
animals therefrom, and the complete progress of 
mankind and animals again, arising specially from 

5. After those winters, the abundant and great 
increase in the milk of cattle, and the abundant 
nourishment 0/" mankind by milk; the less distress 
of body in cattle, the fullness and prosperity of the 
world, the celebrity of assembled mankind, and the 
great increase of liberality. 6. Also the feebleness 

1 Av. Mahrkusha of Westergaard's Fragment VIII, 2,. who is 
evidently a wizard or fiend ; according to Pahl. Vd. II, 49 (Sp.) the 
evil winter which was foretold to Yim is called the winter of 
Markus. In later times this name has been understood as Heb. 
Malk6s, 'autumnal rain; ' so the idea of the fatal freezing winter 
of Mahrkus, the intender of death, was abandoned for that of the 
deluging rain of Malkds, as in Mkh. XXVII, 28. In Dd. XXXVII, 
94, both snow and rain are mentioned as produced by Mahrkus or 
Markus (as it is always written in Pahlavi), and in Sd. IX, 5 only 
his name is stated. The most complete account of him is given in 
our text. 

2 The Afrfn of the Ameshaspends. 

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of poverty among mankind,/***/ like what revelation 
mentions thus : ' Even so he, O Zaraturt ! though 
he be more unfortunate than he who is accepting 
from him, is like the creator whose bounty of 
permanent liberality does thus, in the embodied 
existence, remain in his dwelling.' 

7. And this, too, it says, namely: 'When that 
winter passes away, of which it is said that it is 
boisterous and destructive 1 , then a wild beast, black 
and wide-travelling, walks up to the Masda-worship- 
pers, and thus it thinks, that they who worship 
Mazda will therefore not finally hate us more than 
him who is their own progeny, the son whom they 
thus bring up as a Mazda-worshipper here below, in 
fondness and freedom from malice towards well- 
yielding cattle. 

8. ' Then Ashavahi-rtd calls out to the Mazda- 
worshippers from the upper region, and thus he 
speaks : " You are for the worship of Mazda ; let no 
one of you become such a slaughterer of cattle as 
the slaughterers you have been before. 9. Recom- 
mend increase in gifts, recommend neighbourliness 
in person ; are you worshipping Mazda ? do you 
slaughter cattle ? do you slaughter those of them 
which give you assistance, which speak to you thus : 
' On account of your helpfulness one tells you that 
you are worshipping Mazda and you may eat ? ' 
I am in neighbourliness before that, until the time 
when you exclaim : ' Mine are the serpent and toad.' 

10. ' " And you recommend increase, you recom- 
mend neighbourliness, and the Mazda-worshippers 
slaughter cattle, even those of them who give them 

1 The Pahlavi version of Av. 'stakhrahe" meretd zaya' in 
Westerg. Frag. VIII, 2. 

Digitized by 



assistance, so that you are worshipping Masafa and 
you eat ; I am in neighbourliness before that, until 
the time when you exclaim : ' Mine are the serpent 
and toad.' 

ii.'" Contentedly the Mazda-worshippers slaughter 
cattle, contentedly the cattle of the Mazda-worship- 
pers let them butcher 1 , and contented are the cattle 
when they do not butcher them; contentedly the 
Mazda-worshippers eat cattle, and contented are 
the cattle when they eat them. 12. And then, when 
there are spirits, the slaughterers and whatever they 
slaughter, the butchers and whatever they butcher, 
and the eaters and whatever they eat are alike 
watched by them'" 

13. And this, too, it says, namely: 'When that 
century fully elapses, which is the fifth in the second 
millennium as regards the religion of the Mazda- 
worshippers, then of all those who are upon the 
earth, the existences which are both wicked and 
righteous, two-thirds in the land of Iran are righteous 
and one-third wicked ; and so likewise the Turanians 
and those who are around Iran remain non-Iranian 
around Iran ; the chief increase in dwellings here 
below, of those in the embodied existence, remains 

just as now.' 

14. And this, too, it says, namely: 'When that 
millennium has fully elapsed, which is the first of the 
religion of the Mazda-worshippers, what is the 
separation after the first century ? ' 15. And Auha^- 
mazd spoke thus: 'The sun conceals itself! 16. 
' And what is the separation after the second, third, 
fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth, or tenth 

1 Assuming that bur'zavand stands for burinfend which occurs 
in § 12. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER IX, 11-22. Ill 

century ? ' 17. And Auharmasa? spoke thus : ' The 
sun conceals itself! 

18. Then, when thirty winters of the tenth century 
are unelapsed (aranakS), a maiden, who is Shaplr- 
abu \ walks up to the water ; she that is the mother 
of that good Aush&/ar-mah 2 , and her former lineage 
is from Vdhu-rd>£6-t Frahdnyan 8 in the family of 
Isa^vistar, the son of Zarattot that is brought forth 
by Aran^ - . 19. Then she sits in that water and 
drinks it, and she kindles in a high degree those 
germs which were the second of the last that the 
righteous Zarattot was dropping forth originally, 
and they introduce that son whose name is the 
Developer of Worship 4 (that is, he augments 
liberality). 20. Though fifteen years old, the damsel 
(zihanako) has not before that associated with men ; 
nor yet afterwards, when she becomes pregnant, has 
she done so before the time when she gives birth 6 . 

21. When that man becomes thirty years old, the 
sun stands still in the zenith of the sky for the 
duration of twenty days and nights e , and it shines 
over all the regions which are seven. 22. So, too, 
the declaration of them themselves is that they know 

1 'Having a good father,' the Zvarir of Av. Vanghu-fedhri, 
Yt. XIII, 142. 

8 See Chap. I, 42. 3 See Chap. VIII, 55-57. 

4 The Pahlavi interpretation of Aush§</ar-mah which is an 
imperfect transcript of the Av. Ukhshyarf-nemangh of Yt. 
XIII, 128. 

6 Compare the summary in Dk. VIII, xiv, 13, as follows: — 
' The arrival of Aush§</ar-mah, son of Zaraturt, at the end of the 
second millennium ; information about him and his time, and the 
destroyers of the organizers who were within the millennium of 

• The MS. omits a clause here, which occurs in Chap. VIII, 58, 
possibly by mistake, as part of it is given in Chap. X, 19. 

Digitized by 



that the separation of the millennium, which this 
religion has heard about by listening, is even thus ; 
and of those who do not even then know, that it is 
something which is different. 

23. When that man becomes thirty years old, he 
confers with the archangels, the good rulers and 
good providers ; on the morrow, in the daylight of 
the day, it is moreover manifest, when the embodied 
existence is thus undistressed — without a Kat and 
without a Karap (that is, not blind and not deaf to 
the affairs of the sacred beings), and is to be 
appropriated (that is, has not made its own self apart 
from the affairs of the sacred beings), and is produced 
full of life — that it has become extending, and is 
again great in various places in Airan-v^" where 
the good Daltl is. 

Chapter X. 

1. About the marvellousness which is after the 
end of the millennium of AusheWar and the arrival 
of AusheWar-mah, until the end of the millennium of 
AusheVar-mah and the arrival of Soshans ; and as 
to tidings of th.z same period. 

2. The marvellousness of AusheVar-mah as to 
birth \ glory of person, sayings, and actions ; the 
standing of the sun amid the sky twenty days long 2 ; 
and the increase of the milk of cattle arrives at 
a maximum (afartum), just as what it says, that 
one milks only one mature cow (tdra az) for a 
thousand men, and that he brings as much milk 
as a thousand men require; also the feebleness of 

1 See Chap. IX, 18-20. * See Chap. IX, 21. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER IX, 23-X, 6. TI3 

hunger and thirst is just as it says, that by only 
a single ration one becomes satisfiedy<w three nights, 
and whoever eats a leg of mutton has plenty for 
himself for three days and nights. 3. The diminu- 
tion of decay and extension (v£shih) of life, the 
increase of humility and peace, and the perfection of 
liberality and enjoyment in the world. 

4. Like this which revelation states, that, when 
the first ten winters in the last millennium pass away, 
the Masflk-worshippers then make enquiry together 
thus : ' Are we really more hairy-headed (sar-vars- 
z'^-tar) than occurred before, owing to the well- 
yielding cattle, so that food and clothing are less 
necessary for us ? Has affection come to us more 
completely, owing to those cattle, than it was ours 
before ? Have we grown up less deteriorated in the 
hair, by old age, than those grown up before ? Are 
the thoughts, words, and deeds of our women and 
children more instructed than they were before ? 
5. And has this thing occurred, that he is classed 
as disqualified who in training a child has become 
quite retrogressive (pas-Gruzd), and is his penalty 
arranged ? Does the fiend think of the Karap class, 
and are they utterly destroyed by her through those 
whose thoughts are most evil, devoid of righteous- 
ness, and devoid of a liking for righteousness ? 6. 
Near here, in the disturbance of the existences, does 
that happen as heard by us from the ancients, when 
listening to the true proclaimers of the Masda- 
worshippers ? And now, even when our numbers 
are so greatly maintaining this dispensation, do we 
sanctify (aharaylnem) righteousness (that is, do we 
perform duty and good works) more vociferously 
and more strenuously ? ' 
[47] I 

Digitized by 



7. This, too, it says, even that no one passes 
away in the last millennium, other than those whom 
they smite with a scaffold weapon 1 , and those who 
pass away from old age. 8. When fifty-three years 
of that millennium of his have remained, the sweet- 
ness and oiliness in milk and vegetables are so 
completed that, on account of the freedom of man- 
kind from wanting meat, they shall leave off the 
eating of meat, and their food becomes milk and 
vegetables. 9. When three years have remained, 
they shall leave off even the drinking of milk, and 
their food and drink become water and vegetables. 

10. And in his millennium are the breaking 
(lanako) of the fetters of Dahak 2 , the rousing of 
Keresaspo 3 for the smiting of Dahak, the arrival 
of Kal-Khusr6 4 and his companions for the assis- 
tance of Sdshans in the production of the renovation 
of the universe, and the provision of most of man- 
kind with the Gathic disposition and law; also the 
occurrence of many other wonders and marvels is 
manifest in that millennium of his. 

11. And this, too, it says, namely: 'When that 
millennium has fully elapsed, which is the second 
of the religion of the Ma^a-worshippers, what is 
the separation after the first century ? ' 12. And 
Auharma^ spoke thus: 'The sun conceals itself.' 
13. 'And what is the separation after the second, 

1 Reading pavan d&r snesh, as in some modern copies; but 
the old MS. of 1659 has run the last two words together, so as to 
produce pavan d&rSgush, ' as destitute,' which must be wrong. 

1 For details see Byt. Ill, 55-57 ; Bd. XXIX, 9; Dd. XXXVII, 97; 
Dk. IX, xv, 2. It may be noticed that this release of the demoniacal 
tyrant is expected to follow the triumph of strict vegetarianism. 

» See further Byt. Ill, 59-61 ; Bd. XXIX, 7, 8. 

* See Mkh. XXVII, 59-63 ; LVII, 7 ; Dd. XXXVI, 3. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER X, 7-l8. II5 

third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth, or 
tenth century ?' 14. And Auharm&suf spoke thus : 
' The sun conceals itself! 

15. And when thirty winters of the tenth century 
are unelapsed, that maiden, who is G6bak-abu \ 
walks up to the water ; she that is the mother of that 
testifying S6shans who is the guide to conveying 
away the opposition of the destroyer, and her former 
lineage is from V6hu-rd^6-t Frahanyan 2 in the family 
of Isa^vastar, the son of Zaratust that is brought 
forth by Aran^ - . 16. 'That maiden whose title is 
All-overpowerer is thus all-overpowering, because 
through giving birth she brings forth him who over- 
powers all, both the affliction owing to demons, and 
also that owing to mankind V 1 7. Then she sits in 
that water, when she is fifteen years old, and it 
introduces into the girl him 'whose name is the 
Triumphant Benefiter, and his title is the Body- 
maker; such a benefiter as benefits (savine^o) the 
whole embodied existence, and such a dody-maker, 
alike possessing body and possessing life, as petitions 
about the disturbance of the embodied existences 
and mankind V 18. Not before that has she asso- 
ciated with men; nor yet afterwards, when she 
becomes pregnant, has she done so before the time 
when she gives birth 6 . 

1 ' Having a testifying father,' the Pahlavi of Av. Ereda<f-fedhri, 
Yt. XIII, 142. 

2 See Chap. VIII, 55-57. 

* The Pahlavi version of Yt. XIII, 142, latter clause. 
4 From the Pahlavi version of Yt. XIII, 129. 

* Compare the summary in Dk. VIII, xiv, 14, 15, as follows: — 
' The coming and arrival of S6shans, son of Zaraturt, at the end 
of the third millennium, the destroyers of the organizers who were 
within the millennium of Aush6</ar-mah, the arrival of Soshans, 

I 2 

Digitized by 


Il6 niiiKARD, BOOK VII. 

1 9. When that man becomes thirty years old, the 
sun stands still in the zenith of the sky for the 
duration of thirty days and nights, and it arrives 
again at that place where it was appointed by 

Chapter XI. 

1. About the marvellousness which is after the 
end of the millennium of AusheWar-mah and the 
arrival of the Triumphant Benefiter, until the end 
of the fifty-seventh year of S6shans and the produc- 
tion of the renovation among the existences. 

2. Concerning the marvellousness of S6shans as 
to splendour and glory of person, it says that ' when 
the coming of the last rotation of those rotations 
of the seasons of Aush£dar-mah occurs, the man 
Sdshans is born x whose food is spiritual and body 
sunny (that is, his body is as radiant as the sun) ; ' 
also this, that ' he looks on all sides with six-eyed 
power (6-d61sarih), and sees the remedy for perse- 
cution by the fiend.' 

3. This, too, that with him is the triumphant 
Kayin glory ' which the mighty Freafan 2 bore when 
Az-i Dahak 3 was smitten by him; also Kai-Khusr61 4 
was bearing it when the Tur Frangrasiyak s was 
smitten by him; also Frangrasiyak bore it when 
the Drv£ Zenigak 6 was smitten by him ; and Kai- 

and information about Sdshans and his time. Also, as to the 
renovation of the universe and the future existence, it is declared 
that they arise in his time.' 

1 The date here indicated seems to be about twenty-eight years 
later than that intended in Chap. X, 15-19. 

8 See Chap. I, 25. s See Chap. I, 26. 

* See Chap. I, 39. 5 See Chap. I, 31, 39. 

* Av. Drvau Zainigauj, an Arab chieftain who invaded Iran 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER X, 19-XI, 7. 117 

Vlstasp 1 shall bear it when you fully attract him 
to righteousness, and through it he shall carry 
off the fiend from the concerns of the world of 
righteousness '.' 

4. And this, too, that in fifty-seven of his years 
there occur the annihilation of the fiendishness of 
the two-legged race and others, and the subjugation 
of disease and decrepitude, of death and persecution, 
and of the original evil of tyranny, apostasy, and 
depravity; there arise a perpetual verdant growth 
of vegetation and the primitive gift of joyfulness ; 
and there are seventeen years of vegetable-eating, 
thirty years of water-drinking, and ten years of 
spiritual food. 

5. And all the splendour, glory, and power, which 
have arisen in all those possessing splendour, glory, 
and power, are in him on whom they arrive together 
and for those who are his, when many inferior 
human beings are aroused splendid and powerful ; 
and through their power and glory all the troops of 
the fiend are smitten. 6. And all mankind remain 
of one accord in the religion of Auharma^, owing 
to the will of the creator, the command of that 
apostle, and the resources of his companions. 

7. At the end of the fifty-seven years the fiend 
and Aharman are annihilated, the renovation for 
the future existence occurs, and the whole of the 
good creation is provided with purity and perfect 

in early times and killed many with his evil eye, till the Iranians 
invited Frangrasfyak to destroy him (see Darmesteter's French 
translation of part of Chap. XLI of Iranian Bundahw in Annales 
du Muse'e Guimet, vol xxii, p. 401). 

1 See Chap. I, 41. 

4 From a Pahlavi version of Yt. XIX, 92, 93, with the second 
and third clauses transposed. 

Digitized by 


1 1 8 dJnkard, book vii. 

splendour. 8. Just as revelation states thus : 
' When that millennium has fully elapsed, which 
is the third of the religion of the Ma-s^a-worshippers, 
that Ma^a-worshipper whose name is so Trium- 
phant 1 then marches forward from the water 
Kanyisa 2 with a thousand companions and also 
maidens of restrained disposition and blindly- 
striving behaviour 3 ; and he smites the wicked 
people who are tyrannical, and annihilates them.' 

9. Then those Ma^a-worshippers smite, and 
none are smiting them. 10. Then those Mas^a- 
worshippers produce a longing for a renovation 
among the existences, one ever-living, ever-beneficial, 
and ever desiring a Lord. 11.' Then I, who am 
Auhannasraf, produce the renovation according to 
the longing among the existences, one ever-living, 
ever-beneficial, and ever desiring a Lord.' 

1 See Chap. X, 17. 

2 Reading the name as Pizand ; if it were Pahlavi it would have 
to be read Kinm&sSf, because Iranian Pdz. yi is very like Pahl. 
mi. It is Kydnsih in Bd. XIII, 16; XX, 34; XXI, 6, 7, and 
represents Av. Kasava, the brackish lake or sea of Sagastan. 

s Reading ' va-bigar-#-i vand khfm va-kftr-/5akho ras,' ami 
assuming that bigar is Ar. bikr, as an Arabic word is occasionally 
used in the DinkarJ (see Chap. II, 2 n) though very rarely. Bd. 
XXX, 17, mentions 'fifteen men and fifteen damsels' as assisting 
S6shlns at the time of the renovation of the universe. 

Digitized by 



Chapter I. 

i. The triumph of the creator Auhamiasaf, and 
glory of complete wisdom, is the divine (ahulg) 
religion of Masa&i-worship. 

2. The fifth book is about the sayings of the saintly 
Atur-farnbag 1 , son of Farukhzaaf, who was the leader 
of the orthodox, even as to the manuscript which is 
called Gy£mara *. 3. The collected replies of Atur- 

1 He was the leader of the orthodox about a.d. 815-835, and 
held a religious disputation with the heretic Ab&lir in the presence 
of the Khaltfah Al-Mamun (a.d. 813-833), as detailed in the 
Ma<figan-t Gu^astak AbSlu. He was also the first compiler of 
the Dinkartf, probably of its first two Books, which are not yet 
discovered, as well as of some of the materials for the other Books. 
(See S. B.E., vol. xxxvii, p. 411, n. 1.) 

* The name of this MS. can be only guessed. It occurs three 
times in each of the two MS. authorities, B and K43, and the 
simplest reading of five of these six occurrences would be 
Stmr£, so that the remaining one (Sarma) may be neglected as 
a corruption. A final a in Pahlavi is a very certain indication 
of a Semitic word, for if a final of similar form occurs in an 
Iranian word, it represents either h or kh; so if the name were 
Iranian, its most probable reading would be Simurkh. But, in 
§ 3, it is intimated that the MS. belonged to an ancient tribe, or 
congregation (ram) ; it also seems, from Chap. IV, 8, 9, that the 
religion of this tribe was not so inconsistent with Zoroastrianism 
as to prevent its members being taught that orthodox faith ; and 
§§ 4> 5 of tne present chapter appear to quote from that MS. some 

Digitized by 


120 DiNKARD, book v. 

farnbag, son of Farukhza^, the leader of the ortho- 
dox, about several significant questions that are the 
wonder of the moderns, which are like the friendly 
words, spoken by him as to those of the ancient 
tribe 1 (kadmon-raman) who call it really their 
Gy£mara, which are obtaining 2 a like wonder for 
them openly accessible to him 3 . 

4. About the unswerving and co-operating chief- 
tainship of those forefathers who went in mutually- 
friendly command of troops, and the complete 
enclosure of that tribe within the military control of 
Bukht-Narsih V 5. About the disabling of vicious 
habits and evil deeds, which are entirely connected, 
and of the heinous demon-worship and mischief which 

particulars regarding the siege of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar. 
From these circumstances we may suspect that Atur-farnbag, 
while collecting materials for his Dfnkar</, had asked some Jewish 
friends what information their MSS. contained regarding the old 
Persians, as the two peoples had been in contact, more or less, 
ever since the time of the Achaemenian dynasty. If he did so 
enquire, the Jews would naturally search in the Talmud, in which 
references to the Persians still survive, though the text is no 
longer complete. The question is, therefore, whether the MS., 
whose name has been provisionally read Simra, can have had 
any connection with the Talmud. It will be at once evident to 
any Pahlavi student that Pahl. si may be read gy6 equally well, 
and that we have no better reason for reading Simra than for the 
Gy6mara, which has been put into the text, as a suggestion 
that Atur-farnbag was really referring to the Gem art of the 
Jews, the supplement to their commentary upon Scripture. 
Whether this can be clearly proved remains to be seen, and 
positive evidence seems scanty. 

1 Or ' congregation.' * Or 'including (van dig).' 

5 Pahl. ' munjdno ham-shkup-vindtg irdz aub&f yehamtunwnfg.' 
From which it appears as if there had been a mutual interchange 
of information between him and his Jewish friends. 
* The Pahlavi form of Bu'At-i-najar, or Nebuchadnezzar. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER I, 4-9. 121 

are owing to them, through the ruler Kat-Loharisp 1 
being sent, with Bukht-Narsih, from the country of 
Iran to B£ta-Makdis 2 of Arum, and their remaining 
in that quarter. 6. And the orthodox belief in the 
rude particulars of religious custom in the mutual 
deliberation of those of the tribe, the acquaintance 
with religion of a boor {durustako-i), the difficult 
arrangements, and the enquirer doubtful of the reli- 
gion after the many controversial, deliberative, and 
cause-investigating questions and answers adapted 
to the importunities of that wordy disciple 3 . 

7. About how the accepting of this religion by 
the prophets before Zaratust occurred*, how the pure 
and saintly Zaratust of the Spltamas came s , and who 
will afterwards come as bringers of the same pure 
and good religion &?/rafter 6 . 8. That is, of the 
prophets, apostles, and accepters of the religion, 
there were they who accepted it concisely and com- 
pletely such as Gaydman/ was, from whom came 
irregularly (durustakS) such as Masye - and Siyamak, 
Ha6shang, Takhmdrup, Yim, FreVun, Manusiihar, 
the Saman, the Kayan, and also many other leaders 
in those times 7 . 9. And their acceptance expressly 
at various times is produced for action, and thereby 
the adversity of the creatures is removed, benefit 

1 The father of Kai-Vwtisp (see Bd. XXXI, 28, 29 ; XXXIV, 7). 
His expedition to Jerusalem is mentioned in Pahl. Mkh. XXVII, 
67, and by some Arab writers. 

2 ' The holy place,' a title of Jerusalem. 

8 Not identified. From this point to Chap. IV, 7, Alur-farnbag 
must have used the same authorities as the writer of Dk. VII ; 
but he returns to the Gy^mari in Chap. IV, 8. 

4 Dk. VII, i, 7-40. ' • Ibid. 41. ' Ibid. 42. 

7 See the details in Dk. VII, i, 7-40. §§ 1-8 have been already- 
translated in Grundriss der iranischen Philologie, ii, 93-94. 

Digitized by 



and prosperity are sought, the world is controlled, 
and the creator and good creations are propitiated. 

Chapter II. 

i. In the pure light and equal to the archangels — 
collected together and reckoned together, since the 
original creation, and completely unmixed — Zara- 
tust was spiritually fashioned and provided unde- 
fectively for the acceptance and propagation of the 
religion in the world K 2. And when he is sent for 
the manifestation of restrained saintliness (m6klh) 
and bodily substance, great glory and radiance become 
as much discernible in him as the same had come 
into the posterity of Yim who are Porushaspd- 2 , his 
father, and Duka&ub 3 who is his mother ; and also 
while he is being born and for the duration of life, he 
produced a radiance, glow, and brilliance from the 
place of his own abode, that issued intensely and 
strongly, like the splendour of fire, to distant 
lands 4 . 

3. Also about the wizards and witches, tyrants, 
Kigs, and Karaps, and other miscreants who have 
produced outrage for him during his birth and child- 
hood, with desire for his destruction ; who have 
manifestly come about his death or disablement, and 
even so far as those who have come into the visible 
assembly about the destruction of his glory and 
other causes ^helplessness 6 . 4. And also including 
the wolves and other wild beasts, to whom he was 

1 Dk. VII, ii, 1, 2, 14-21, 36-42, 46, 47 ; Zs. XIII, 4. 

* Ibid. 13. « Ibid. 3-8; Zs. XIII, 1-3. 
4 Ibid. 56-58; Zs. XIV, 7. 

• Dk. VII, iii, 5-14; Zs. XVI, 1-7. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER II, 1-8. 123 

cast forth by those of Pdrushaspd's kinsmen who 
were wizards, and the kindred of those frequenting 
demon-worship, but only as a test l . 

5. In like manner it is declared that, on account 
of Vohumand being welcome to him, he laughed out- 
right at birth 2 . 6. His coming for conference with 
Auharma^ 3 , and owing to his accepting the religion, 
Aharman and many demons and fiends have come 
to him with exhibition of fear, offering of service, 
and the argument and entreaty of supplicants ; and 
all these have returned from him disapprovingly, 
defeatedly, and confusedly, through the pure pro- 
clamation of his Avesta, the unique perfection of 
AuharmasdTs will *, and the indication of a prepared 
armament (vfrast6-z£nth), a declared reward, a 
powerful sovereignty, and a way of injury to the 

7. Also the triumph of the sacred beings in the 
end, and the peculiarity of the joint control of the 
demons ; how, before that, they rushed openly into 
the world and have dwindled, their bodily forms are 
shattered 5 , and they are so converted into secret 
decay, that their supplicants, deceived and de- 
ceivers, became awful disputants through confession 
of it. 

8. And when, through completely accepting the 
religion from Adha.rma.zd, he came to the obedient 
king Kal-Virtasp to attract those of the world, he 
exhibited glorious actions of many kinds and. the 

1 Dk. VII, iii, 15-19; Zs. XVI, 8-1 1. 

* Ibid. 2; Zs. XIV, 12, 13. 

* Ibid. 60-iv, 1 ; Zs. XXI, 11-XXII, 13. 
4 Dk.VII, iv, 36-41, 61, 62. 

* Ibid. 42. 44-46, 63. 

Digitized by 


124 DtNKA/JD, BOOK V. 

smiting of demons and fiends ; and he openly spoke 
the thoughts of king VLstasp and many of the multi- 
tude about hidden matters *, thus : ' A person is 
possessing life only by destiny, and without his body, 
but with a like destiny, the person possessing life 
is restored ; ' he was also opposing many wizards, 
demon-worshippers, demon-consulters, and those 
seduced by 2 deceivers who are awful disputants. 
9. And this was the utterance of those twelve stars 
whose names are those of the twelve zodiacal con- 
stellations, and the primitive learned of Bipel 3 , that 
have come to these, who are asking questions of the 
chief rulers of Khvanlras, have to justify it, in the 
controversy, with the spiritual and material customs 
and rude observances which are diversely mlkifested, 
onwards from tlie time ofWm. the splendid «nd the 
evidence of it, discernible with him, was that of 
Vohuman6, AshavahLrto, the fire, and some other 
good spirits 4 . 

10. Afterwards, too, the estimating and weighing 
of the whole utterance of the religion of Adharmazd 
were held out by him to Vistasp and those of the 
world, as very accountably a wonder ; and further, 
too, he remained as it were more conflicting with 
fellow-disputants than his own words opposing the 

11. Also when, through the effect of glory and 
the struggle/br being saved, every class of apostles 
and prophets and manifestation of tokens and such- 
like were, with certain and striking evidence, casting 
down blessings, even thereupon the obedient king 

1 Dk. VII, iv, 65, 71. 

2 B has ' and demon-separatists (va-sh§d£-gvl</ak£nV 

8 Dk. VII, iv, 72. * Ibid. 74, 85; Zs. XXIII, 7. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER II, 9-I5. I25 

Kal-Vistasp's fear of the adversary of religion, and 
also other causes, arose, on account of which he 
was then accepting the propagation of the religion \ 
when its great glory and beauty 2 were seen by him. 
12. At first, Zarir 3 , Spend-daaM, Frashd^tar, and 
(^amasp *, several of the realm wko were noble, con- 
spicuous, and well-acting, the good and princes of 
mankind, beheld visibly the will and desirableness of 
Auharma2d? and the archangels, and the progressive 
religion of the creatures, fit for those completely 
victorious (hu^iraganig). 

13. Lastly, the seizure and capturing (girini^no) 
by the demons are beheld and watched ; and they 
have remained opposing, owing to the number of 
idolators competing wranglingly. 14. And much 
conflict and slaughter occurred, which arose purely, 
so that the mingling of the religion in the world 
proceeded e . 

15. There are also his pure new bringers and 
complete controllers of the same religion, Aush&fer 7 , 
Aush£dar-mah 8 , and S6shans 9 ; and through the 
complete progress of this religion of Auhamuuro?, all 
the good creatures become without disturbance and 
all-radiant 10 . 

1 Dk. VII, iv, 87. 

• K43 has v&rdzb; but B, omitting the first letter, has \d(6, 
' praise.' 

s A brother and commander-in-chief of Vwtasp, killed in the 
battle with Ar^asp, see Bd. XXXI, 29 ; YZ. 54-56. 
4 A son of VLrtasp; see Dk. VII, vii, 5 ; YZ. 82-85. 
8 Two brothers, see Chap. Ill, 4 ; Dk. VII, vi, 1 2 ; Zs. XXIII, 1 o. 

• See Chap. Ill, 1. 7 Dk. VII, viii, 55-ix, 13. 

• Dk. VII, ix, 18-x, 10. 9 Dk. VII, x, 15-xi, 5. 
10 Dk.VII,xi, 6-1 1. 

Digitized by 


i26 dJnkard, book v. 

Chapter III. 

i. About that which is manifested as regards the 
propitiousness, forward intellect, and complete virtue 
of Zaratu^t, it is openly declared that, according to 
his explaining statements, there occurred such events 
as the victory of Kal-Vistasp and the Iranians over 
Ar^asp 1 and an army of Khydns and other foreigners 
of innumerable kinds, and details on that subject ; 
also other assistance of Vistasp and those of the 
realm in other necessities. 

2. The killing of Zaratust himself by Bri^r6-resh 2 
the Tur ; the provision of a chariot by Srlt6 s of the 
Vlsraps ; and whatever is on those subjects. 

3. Also, specially, matters in the times to come, 
each consecutively, when therein arrive devastators 
such as Alexander *, and the killer of Akr£-khira«fo 6 , 
Mahrkus 6 , Dahak 7 , and other devastators; extenders 
of belief (vira.vl.m-valan) such as the Messiah 
(Mashikh), Manih 8 , and others ; periods such as the 
steel age 9 , that mingled with iron, and others ; and 
organizers, restorers, and introducers of religion, such 

1 Dk. VII, iv, 77, 83, 84, 87-90; v, 7 ; this victory occurred in 
the thirtieth year of the religion, see Zs. XXIII, 8. 
a Dk. VII, v, 12 n. » Dk. VII, vi, 2-1 1. 

4 Dk. VII, vii, 7. 

5 Or Aghr6rarf (A v. AghraSratha), killed by his brother 
Frasiyaz; or FrangrSsiyak of Tur, see Bd. XXIX, 5 ; XXXI, 15, 

• Dk. VII, i, 24; ix, 3. T Ibid, i, 26. 

8 A heretic who nourished a.d. 2 16-242 ; see Dk. IX, xxxix, 13 11. 

• According to Byt. II, 21, 22, the steel age was the time of 
Khusrd An6sh£rvan, and that mingled with iron at the end of 
Zaratfrst's millennium. 

Digitized by 




as Artakhshatar \ Atbrp&d 2 , KMsrdl 3 , PSshy6tan *, 
Aush&fer, Aush&/ar-mah, S6shans 6 , and others. 

4. The formation of custom, and the indications 
which have come to manifestation and will arrive at 
various periods ; and the proclamation of these, too, 
by Camasp •, from the teaching of Zaratust, is what 
he wrote, together with the Avesta and Zand, upon 
oxhides, and it was written with gold, and kept in 
the royal treasury 7 . 5. And it was from it the high- 
priests of the rulers made many copies ; and after- 
wards, too, it is from it that it happened, both to the 
less intelligent and the corrupters, that they were 
introducing different opinions and different views. 

Chapter IV. 

1. About the selectness and perfection of the race 
of Iran, that is, how the destroyer and the mingling 
of defects came into the creation, first into the dis- 
tribution of the race [of mankind] 8 from the children 
of Slyamak 9 , and good intellect, good disposition, 

1 Ar</ashfr PapaMn (a.d. 226-241), the founder of the Sasanian 

J Son of Maraspend, and prime minister of Shahpuhar II 
(a.d. 309-379)- 

' AndshSrvan (a.d. 531-578). 

* A son of Virtasp and immortal ruler of Kangd«s, see Dk. VII, 
iv, 81. 

B See Chap. II, 15. * See Chap. II, 12. 

7 This was the original Avesta prepared by order of Vwtasp, as 
stated in the last chapter of Dk. Ill, § 3 (see S. B. E., vol. xxxvii, 
p. xxxi). 

8 B omits the words in brackets. 

• Son of MasyS, called Samak in Dk. VII, i, 15. 

Digitized by 


128 d!nkard, book v. 

proper affection, proper praise, proper modesty, 
observance of hope, liberality, truth, generosity, good 
friendship, and other capability, glory, and proper 
duty are more particularly included for Fravak 1 , and 
again altered for frontier peoples. 

2. Such-like goodness and glory, again, through 
selection from a promiscuous origin — even till the 
coming on of various new contaminations, from the 
demons, among the children of Fravak — were for 
Haoshang and Vaegere</ 2 , as Haoshang through 
superior glory was ruler of the world, and Vaegereaf 
through provincial government (dahyukanlh) be- 
came the cultivator and cherisher of the world ; and 
their well-destined descendants 3 aggrandized the 
race of the monarchs among the well-born provincial 
governors (dahyukan). 

3. In union, such-like glory and goodness pro- 
ceeded, mutually connected, in various ages as settled 
by the annals (margin), and the frontiers of Atur 4 
are penetrated ; also in various annals there were in 
succession such men as Takhmorup, Yim, Fr&tfun 
the Aspigan, and Kixik of Iran, the progenitor of 
Minus, Manus-khvarnar, and Manu^ihar 6 . 

4. And, besides including this one, who was a 
monarch of superior glory, and other monarchs such 
as are also in the same race 6 , the Kayans 7 were 

1 Son of Sfyamak ; he was progenitor of the fifteen undeformed 
races of mankind (see Bd. XV, 25, 30, 31). 

* Dk. VII, i, 16-18. s K43 has 'children.' 

4 Probably Assyria; but it is possible to read atval as Ar. 
a/val, and to translate ' ancient frontiers.' 

8 For the foregoing names see Dk.VII, i, 19-30; ii, 70. 

• Such as Auz6b6 in Dk. VII, i, 31. 

7 From Kai-Kobarf to Kaf-Khusrd, as stated in Dk. VII, i, 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER IV, 2-9. I29 

chosen. 5. Even thus, as regards the Kayans, the 
annals have always to consider him who is monarch 
as the right one, who is a fellow-descendant of the 
lineage, and in whom the glory is residing. 

6. The creator Auharma^ has informed Neryd- 
sang 1 , his own reminder, that a similar instance is 
the supreme Zaratustship, and the glory of the reli- 
gion due to the same ; also many other reasons, 
which are recountable, are declared in the Avesta, 
indications known only to an Iranian person of the 
best lineage. 7. And this, too, he has said, namely : 
' Great glory and goodness of this description are 
appropriatable by the same race, and are even now 2 
visibly manifest' 

8. About what are the requirements of the tribe 
of those who call this really their Gyemara and how 
they are effected by our acquaintance with revelation, 
that is, by much recitation of it ; only, several occa- 
sions (yavar i-^and) are necessary in these times. 
9. Also action and precaution are possible for them, 
and among the actions and precautions one is to 
assume more especially law and custom, and what- 
ever was perverted by us and again made true ; and, 
as to those taught, several persons who are intel- 
lectual, seeking means, and friends of the soul, have 
come to teach complete delusions to them ; also for 
the same tribe and whomever it is proper to teach, 
when it is necessary for them, even a worldly 

1 The usual messenger of Auharmas*/, see Dk. VII, iv, 84, 85. 

2 B has 'even anew,' by writing kevan backwards, which 
converts the word into navak. From Chap. I, 7 to this point, 
the compiler could have found very little of his materials in a 
Jewish MS., excepting such as had been recently obtained from 
Persian sources. 

[47] K 

Digitized by 


130 dInkard, book v. 

priestly authority is guiding for that same tribe, 
because he has come \ 

1 It would seem that the tribe professed a different religion, but 
one that bore some resemblance to the Parsi faith in certain 
essential particulars. The remaining five-sixths of Dk. V are 
devoted to a miscellaneous collection of religious subjects, resem- 
bling a Riv&yat. 

Digitized by 



K 2 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Digitized by 



Chapter XII. 

i. About the coming of the religion at a given 
time being a resemblance such-like as the birth of 
a child through two united powers, which are the 
reception of semen by females in procreation, and 
delivering it back, to the fathers, and a period of 
struggling and intermingling, especially by two 
means : a monarchy with 2 religion of the same 
tenets (ham-va/6-d£n6ih), and the existence of 
similar tenets to those of the monarchy in the 
custom of the religion. 2. The religion of the 
Ma^a-worshippers, when the period of material 

1 Z&f-sparam was Dastur of Sirkin, about thirty parasangs 
south of Kirmdn, in a.d. 881. At a later date, probably about 
a.d. 900, he compiled three series of Selections, from religious 
texts then extant, and these have been preserved by the Parsis in 
the same MSS. as contain the D£</ist&n-i Dinfk (see the Intro- 
duction). The first eleven chapters of this first series of Selections 
have been already translated in S. B. E., vol. v, pp. 155-186, as 
they refer to some of the subjects detailed in the BundahLr. The 
remaining chapters are here translated, except the last which refers 
to the Nasks and Gathas, and will be found in S. B. E., vol. xxxvii, 
pp. 401-405. The MS. authorities for the text are K35 and T 
(see p. 2 and Introduction). 

' T has 'devoid of.' 

Digitized by 



organization is being converted again into a spiritual 
nature, became manifest on the earth, first through 
Spendarmad 1 and afterwards through Atiharmazd, 
like the reception of a child by mothers and de- 
livering it back to the fathers. 

3. The manifestation of the religion through 
Spendarmad was at that time when Frasiyaz/ 2 kept 
back the water from the country of Iran, and 
brought the water again ; in damsel form she was 
a speaker for its manifestation, in reply to foreigners, 
at the house of ManuyMiar 3 , the monarch of the 
country of Iran. 4. She was also dressed, and wore 
radiant clothing which shone out on all sides for 
the length of a Hasar *, which is a distance, like a 
Parasang ; and, tied on her waist, she wore a golden 
sacred girdle which was the religion of the Mazda- 
worshippers itself. 

5. As to the belt of the religion, it is that to which 
are connected the thirty-three fetters upon the thirty- 
three sins 6 , according to which all sin is divided ; so 
that (ku) the damsels, by whom the tied sacred girdle 
of Spendarmad was seen, have become impetuous 
(taftlgS) after that for a tied girdle, on account of 
its seeming beautiful. 

6. And this was the motherhood which is supplied 
through Spendarmad, as a gift, in the year 528 

1 The female archangel who has special charge of the earth and 
virtuous women (see Dk. VII, ii, 19 n). 

* See Dk. VII, i, 31 ; and regarding his irrigation canals, see 
Bd. XX, 17, 34; XXI, 6. 

3 See Dk. VII, i, 29. 

* A thousand steps of the two feet, or Roman mile ; see Bd. 
XXVI, 1. 

1 Thirty sins are detailed in Mkh. XXXVI, and thirty-three good 
works in XXXVII (see S. B. E., vol. xxiv, pp. 71-75). 

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before Zaratfot came out to his conference \ which 
is one of their statements from the annals of the 
religion in a manuscript of the ancients. 

7. The name of Zaraturt is also cited on the 
earth at 300 years before his conference 2 . 8. For 
Iran, at the supplication even of the priests in the 
land, and for the sake of the pacification of a dispute 
arisen, Auharmasaf produced a great ox, by whom 
the boundary of Iran next to Turan was intimated 
by pawfng with his hoofs, and he was kept in a jungle. 
9. Whenever contention arose, the boundary was 
fully made known by that ox, until it was the wish 
of Kal-Os to take, fully covetously, a portion of the 
land of Tftran back into Iran, and he saw that the 
ox is about to act very ill-naturedly, because it was 
not besought with forms which were prescribed for 
it, where a boundary was intimated by it 3 . 

10. There were seven brothers, and he who was 

1 If this coming to conference with the spirits be ' the coming of 
the religion/ in the thirtieth year of VLr tasp's reign, then, according 
to Bundahif chronology, these 528 years will carry us back to 
twenty-eight years before the accession of Man(k£ihar. As any 
alteration in the date of Manu.r£fhar's accession would disturb the 
millennial arrangement of Bd. XXXIV, it is probable that some 
copyist has miswritten the ciphers, and we ought to read 428. 
This legend appears not to occur elsewhere. 

* According to Bd. XXXIV, 7, Kaf-tts reigned from 360 to 210 
years before ' the coming of the religion.' At this point a dislocation 
of the text occurs in all existing MSS., owing to the misplacement 
of a loose folio in some unknown copy written before 1530; the 
contents of this folio, §§ 8-16, are found in the existing MSS. 
three folios further on (after Chap. XIV, 14), and are here restored 
to their original position, as determined by the meaning of the 

* T has ' by that ox.' This legend is also told in Dk. VII, ii, 

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the seventh was called Sritd 1 the Seventh, the 
largest in body and chief in strength, belonging to 
those instructed in many subjects for Kai-Us, and 
he was among his princes. 11. Kai-Us summoned 
him into his presence and ordered him thus : ' Go 
and kill that ox in the jungle ! ' 

12. Sr!t6 went, and the ox whom he wished to 
kill expostulated with him, in human words, thus : 
' Do not kill me ! for though thou canst kill me, he 
whose guardian spirit is in the H6m, the death- 
dispeller, will also become manifest on the earth, he 
whose name is Zaraturt of the Spitamas 2 , and will 
proclaim thy bad action in the world. 13. And the 
distress in thy soul becomes such as is declared in 
revelation thus : " As it occurs to him, so it does to 
Vadfok 3 , when they mention his iniquity," and thy 
death becomes the like and, owing to death, it is 
mixed up with hers (that is, owing even to hers is 
the death of Sritd).' 

14. When those words were heard by him, Srlt6 
turned back, and went again to Kai-Us ; also by his 
manner, and even apart from this, he stated * what 
the ox had spoken with awfulness, and also thus : 

1 Srftd, the seventh son (compare Dk. VII, ii, 64), is not easy to 
identify. He could not have been Thrita the father of KeresSspa, 
because this Thrita the Samin is said to have been a third son in 
Pahl. Yas. IX, 30 (Sp.). He may have been Sritd of the Vfsraps, 
whose soul visited Vijt&sp in the latter part of his reign, about 350 
years later, regarding which a legend is related in Dk. VII, vi, 
2-1 1, and again mentioned in Dk. V, iii, 2 ; but there is a want of 
corresponding details for identification. 

8 This is the citation of his name mentioned in § 7. 

8 The mother of Dahak, whose iniquity is considered as equal 
to that of the evil spirit, see Dd. LXXII, 5 ; Dk. IX, x, 3. 

4 T has 'also by his manner he intimated and separately 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XII, 1 1 -20. I37 

' I am more desirous than any one who is in the 
earth created by righteousness, that you should now 
order destruction for the ox.' 

15. And Kai-Os uttered his will, with the con- 
viction of superior wisdom, thus : ' It is not certain 
whether he whose guardian spirit is in the H6m, 
the death-dispeller, is himself, or not ; and if he be, 
and be born *, whether he will become manifest, or 
not ; ' and he commanded with severity, thus : ' Go 
and kill it!' 

16. And Srit6 spoke thus: '// is not that I am 
without strength to kill, because its reprieval by me 
was owing to its remonstrance, mentioned to me, 
that a high-priest is to arise V 

17. So it is declared thus, in another revelation 
(d£n6 zagdl) 3 , when the Turanians were backward 
in heart, Kal-Os spoke thus : ' Go out to a certain 
jungle, in which dwell many chiefs of the witches, 
and they will cut thee up without any striving of 

18. And Srito went up to the jungle, where many 
witches saw him, who kept their jaws open, and they 
spoke about the handsome man thus : ' Slay and do 
not spare !' 19. And compassion having gone out 
of his heart, he went back to the other jungle and, 
with his fist, he broke the back of the ox in three 
places ; and the ox, awfully convulsed (skifto bar- 
hamako), kept up an outcry. 

20. After the slaughter of the ox, owing to its 
convulsed state which was heard by him, the 

1 T omits ' and be born.' 

2 The misplaced folio, which begins with § 8, ends here, but it 
is not quite certain that a few lines of text are not still missing. 

8 T has ' at another time (£6n zagat).' 

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remembrance of it then became grievous to Sritd ; 
and he went back to Kal-Us, and informed him how 
it was, and begged him that he should finish off by 
slaying him 1 , because his life was not desirable. 

21. Kal-Us spoke thus : 'Shall I slay thee, for 
it was not designed by thee ? ' 

22. And Sritd spoke thus : ' If thou wilt not slay 
me, then I shall slay thee.' 

23. Again Kal-Us spoke thus: 'Do not thou 
slay me, for I am the monarch of the world.' 

24. Srlt6 continued his discontent, until Kal-Us 
ordered him thus : ' Go out to a certain jungle, 
because a witch in the shape of a dog is in it, and 
she will slay thee.' 

25. Then Srlt6 went out to that jungle, and that 
witch in the shape of a dog was- seen by him ; after 
he smote the witch, she became two ; and he con- 
stantly smote them till they became a thousand, and 
the host (girdo) of them slew Srlt& on the spot. 

Chapter XIII. 

1. About the glory of Zaraturt becoming manifest 
even before his birth, it is thus declared, that forty- 
five years before the time when Zaratfot came out 
to his conference 2 , when Fr6no gave birth to the 
mother of Zaraturt 3 , whom they called Dukdak, it 

1 T has ' that he should command the slaying of him.' 

2 That is, forty-five years before he was thirty years old (see 
Chap. XXI, 1-14). 

5 It is necessary to translate in this manner, to agree with Dk. 
VII, ii, 3, but the text, which is ambiguous, runs as follows: — 
' amat FrSn5g (FrSno-t ?) Zaraturt am, zyaran Dfiktfak6g karhuntd, 

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CHAPTER XII, 2 1 -XIII, 6. 1 39 

came down from the endless light, in the manner of 
fire, and mingled with the fire which was before her ; 
and from the fire it mingled with the mother of 
Zaraturt \ 

2. For three nights it was manifest, to all passers- 
by, as a species of fire in the direction of the house, 
and passers on the road always saw great radiance. 
3. Also when she became fifteen years old, the radi- 
ance of that glory which was in her, was even such 
that, on the path she was walking along, its bright- 
ness was then shed by her 2 . 

4. About the combination of Zaratfot, whose 
guardian spirit is reverenced; that is, his guardian 
spirit, in the H6m, and his glory are given the cow's 
milk, by his father and mother drinking it up 3 , and 
his spiritual life (ahvd) came into the combination, 
as was proclaimed by his statements in the manuscript 
about the Guidance of the Ceremonial *. 

5. About the backward connection of Zaraturt 
with Auharmaz*/, through the two who are Yim, the 
best of the worldly existences, and Nery6sang of the 
spirits. 6. The enumeration of the lineage of Zara- 
turt is Zaratu^t, son of P6rushasp6 6 , of Purtarasp6, 

zerkhuntd ; ' which might also be translated thus : ' when Fr£nS, 
the mother of Zaratfot, whom they called DuLfek, was born.' 
This Fr6n6, whether mother or daughter, does not seem to 
correspond with any Freni mentioned in the Avesta. 

1 See Dk.VII, ii, 2, 3. * Ibid. 7, 8. 

8 Ibid. 46, 47. 

* Not identified, but probably like the Nfrangistan. 

6 This genealogy was, no doubt, derived originally from the 
same source as that in Dk. VII, ii, 70, but there are several 
variations, especially in orthography, which are here preserved, 
unless clearly copyist's blunders. The names marked with an 
asterisk are written in Pazand. 

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of Ahurva«asp6, of HaS&u&spd, of Alkhshnu-y, of 
Pattiraspd, of Are^adarct*, of Kharedhar*, of Sptta- 
man, of VaedLrtd, of Ayazem, of Frl*, of Arif*, of 
Durasr6b6, of Manfo&har, of Manto-khurnar, of 
Manto-khurnak, whom N£ry6sang the messenger 
of Auhanna.^ drought, and whose mother was 
Vlzag, daughter of Aryag, of Sritak, of Bltak, of 
Fraztoak, of Ztoak, of Fraguzag, of Guzag, daughter 
of Airi^, son of Fr&tfm of the Aspigans to the total 
of ten Aspigans, of Yim, of the Vlvang.has, of the 
Ayang.has, of the Ananghas, of Hoshang, of Fravak, 
of Slyamak, of Masiya, of Gay6man£ 

Chapter XIV. 

1. About the wonderful striving of the fiend for 
the destruction of Zaratu^t. 2. When it became 
near to his birth, the Fever demon, the Pain demon, 
and the Wind demon of Aharman, each one with 
150 demons, have come out to kill Zaraturt, and 
from his spirit they have gone forth to his mother. 
3. And she is hurried from there by Fever, Pain, 
and Wind ; and at the distance of one league (para- 
sang) there was a wizard, Impudent (Storko) by 
name, who was the most medical of wizards ; in hope 
of practice he stood up from his seat, as she stopped 
in her progress. 

4. A messenger of Abha.rma.zd uttered a cry 
thus : ' Do not go to a wizard ! for they are not 
healing (bdshazintafar) for thee ; but go back to 
the house, wash thy hands on the morrow with cow's 
butter held over the fire, also burn (tip 6) * firewood 

1 T has 'consume (viddzb).' 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


and incense for thy own self and thy progeny which 
is in thy womb.' 5. And she acted accordingly and 
became well x ; and the co-operators of the demon, 
and those of equal power, who had not obtained 
their remedy from her body, are again exposed 2 , and 
spoke thus : ' On account of the existence of fire 
from all sides we have not succeeded ; it is a help 
for every one who is her friend more than opponent ; 
therefore it was not for us, because of the power 
within her.' 

6. The same night as she gave birth, Aharman 
selected commanders and arrayed his champions 
(gurd) ; there are some who are with one thousand 
demons, and there are some who are with two 
thousand demons; pursuing a»^ attacking they have 
contended. 7. The opposing stand of the sacred 
beings 3 , especially of the glory itself at the family * 
fire, was manifest at that birth ; and for its splendour 
and brightness (parfrdko), settled opposite a distant 
place, they have then found no remedy. 

8. At last, Aharman sends Ak6man6 5 on, and 
spoke to him thus : ' Thou canst be very spiritual, 
who canst be most intimate ; thou canst go with 
deceit into the mind of Zaratuxt, and make him turn 

1 Compare Dk. VII, ii, 53-55. 

2 T has 'and all the co-operators who had entered her body, 
and those of equal power who had reached them, returned helpless 
from them.' 

3 Thus summarized in Dk. VIII, xiv, 2 : — ' Also about the 
arrival of both spirits, the good one for developing, and the evil one 
for destroying ; the victory of the good spirit, and the rearing of 
Zaratfot.' The ' rearing ' is continued in Chaps. XV-XX. 

* Assuming that tfr stands for ^r°f du</ak. 
6 The archdemon of ' evil thought' (Bd. XXVIII, 7) and special 
opponent of Vohumano, the archangel of ' good thought.' 

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his mind to us who are demons.' 9. And Auhar- 
mazd sends Vohumand on against him ; Ak6man6 
advanced to the front, and had come forward to the 
door, and wished to go inside. 

10. Vohumand schemingly (^arakogarlha) turn- 
ed 1 back, and exclaimed to Akdmand thus : ' Go 
insidel' 11. Akdmand imagined thus: 'There is 
nothing to be accomplished by me of what was 
mentioned to me, for Vohumand has gone back.' 
12. And Vohumand went inside, and mingled with 
the reason (vardm) of Zaratfot, and Zaratust laughed 
outright 2 , for Vohumand is a gratifying spirit. 

13. Also seven wizards 3 were seated before him, 
and owing to the light in the dwelling, his having 
laughed at birth was conveniently seen, which is 
opposed to the habit of the rest of mankind who cry 
out at birth and are quite terrified. 

14. Also, at the same time of birth, he authori- 
tatively accepted the religion from Atmarmas^, as 
it is stated in revelation, that he spoke at birth thus : 
' As is the will of the spiritual lord (ahvd) mayst 
thou be who art the officiating priest (zdtd) (that is, 
mayst thou be the leader of the creatures) *.' 

1 5. As Zaratfot, on account of his worldly body, 
spoke with a worldly voice, Atiha.rma.zd spoke in 
reply to him, on account of the spirits, thus : ' So 

1 Assuming that sib stands for va* to. 

* Compare Dk. VII, iii, 2; V, ii, 5. This laughing is not 
mentioned in Dk. IX, xxiv. 

* ' Seven midwives ' are mentioned in Dk. VII, iii, 2. 

4 This is one form of the Pahlavi Ahunavair (see Dk. IX, xxiv, 
4). At this point the text in the MSS. is interrupted by the 
erroneous insertion of Chap. XII, 8-16, the contents of a loose folio 
in some former copy, which have been restored to their original 
position in this translation. 

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CHAPTER XIV, 9-XV, 4. 1 43 

mayst thou be the priestly authority (raaf shae), and 
so mayst thou be virtuous, owing to whatsoever 
righteousness occurs; and I confidently proclaim thee 
righteous (that is, I am thy controller) '.' 

16. Another day, Pdrushaspo went and enquired 
of the wizards who kept in front at the place, thus : 
' What is the cause when infants cry out at birth, 
beyond that which occurs when they laugh out- 
right 2 ? ' 17. And they replied thus : ' Because 
those who are made to cry have seen mortality as 
their end, and those having laughed have seen their 
own righteousness.' 

Chapter XV. 

1. About the brothers who were a band of 
opponents of Zaratfot. 2. The Karaps and Ausikh- 
shes 3 were brothers' sons, and have become the 
devastation (gastaragih) of the Iranians; the 
devastators of the Iranians (Eranan) were from 
Kdkhar&/ 4 , and Kdkhar&/ was born from A£shm 
and Manu-yak, the sister of Manu^ilhar 6 . 3. At the 
place where Zaratu.rt was born, five brothers have 
been, whose names were Brarf-rukhsh, Bra^-rdyi^n, 
Bra^-resh the Tur, Hazin, and Vadast*. 4. Their 

1 Compare Dk. IX, xxiv, 4. * Compare Dk. VII, iii, 24, 25. 

* Av. 'Karapa Usikhsh-/5a' of Yas. XLIV, 20 c; the Kavi, 
a third class of pre Zoroastrian priests, is also mentioned ibid. 20 d. 
Compare Dk. VII, ii, 9 n. 

4 Av. Ka^flaredha, Yas. LX, 6, 7 (Sp.) where it is translated 
by kast&r, 'diminisher, devastator,' of whom it is here said to be 
the father; see also Yt. Ill, 9, 12, 16. 

" Compare the legend of the descent of the ape and bear from 
a demon and Yimak, sister of Yim, in Bd. XXIII, 1. 

* As these names do not occur in the Avesta, their pronunciation 

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brotherhood of five — of which the middle one was 
Brid?-r£sh the Tur, who became more of an adver- 
sary of Zaraturt — was a semblance of the brother- 
hood of five who were sons of P6rushasp6, of whom 
the middle one was Zaratu-rt. 

5. Of the four brothers of Zaraturt, the names of 
the two before Zaratu-rt were Ratu^tar and Rangurtar, 
and of the two after him Nodarlga and Niv€disK 
6. The middle position of Zaratu^t is for the reason 
that he is so produced at that time, as an inter- 
medium of the early narrators and the later narrators, 
that three millenniums came before him and three 
after. 7. So that he has prescribed to the creatures 
in what manner he would teach the ancients as to 
what had occurred, and in what manner it is also to 
be done as regards what will occur ; as is stated in 
the Gathas 2 thus : ' Both those I ask of thee, 
O Atiharmazd] even whatever has happened till 
now, and whatever shall happen henceforth ? ' 

Chapter XVI. 
1. About the trials (auzmayisno) which occurred 

has to be guessed so as to give a probable meaning -to the Pahlavi 
spelling. The writing of the last name is complicated ; it is written 
■£" and & in the two MS. authorities, which forms can be most 
obviously read Vasam and Saman, but Saman can also be read 
as the Zv&ris yad<tf=dast, ' a hand;' this leads to the conclusion 
that the original name underlies the form Vadast, and this is 
confirmed by the name of the Karap Va6dv6ijt written at full 
length in Dk. VII, iv, 21-24. See ibid, ii, 9 n. 

1 These brothers seem unmentioned elsewhere, and the existence 
of the elder two would imply another mother. The pronunciation 
of the names is guessed. 

s Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 14 a. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XV, 5-XVI, 6. I45 

to him whose practice was lawful, and the signs of 
prophecy that are seen therein, it is thus declared, 
namely ; ' Another day, when the child had been 
born, P6rushasp6 called one of those five brothers of 
the race of Karaps, and spoke thus : " Fully observe 
the marks and specks of my son Zaratu-rt." ' 

2. The Karap went and sat down before Zaratust, 
and the head of Zaraturt was thereupon severely 
twisted by him, in order that he should be killed ; 
but he, being fearless, watched the wizards whose 
terror was distressing \ 3. As it was in those ten 
nights for hospitality, Auhar masw? sent Spendarmaa?, 
Argdvisur, and Ardai-fravan/ 2 down to the earth, 
by way of female care;' thereupon no variation 
occurred to the child, and, further, the hand of that 
Karap was withered 8 , and that wizard demanded the 
life 4 of Zarattot from P6rushasp6 for the harm from 
him, which sprang upon hinu^ from his own action. 

4. At the same time P6rushaspd took Zaraturt, 
and gave him to the Karap, that he might do with 
him according to his own will. 5. He seized him 
and threw him out, at the feet of the oxen who were 
going on a path to the water; the leader of that 
drove of oxen stood still in his vicinity, and 150 oxen, 
which walked behind it, were kept away from him 
thereby ; and P6rushasp6 took him, and carried him 
back to the house 6 . 

6. Also the second day, the Karap threw him out 

1 Assuming that v6shtg stands for vSshig=b§shig. 

2 The three female spirits that represent the earth, pure water, 
and guardian spirits, respectively. 

* Compare Dk. VII, iii, 4-7. 

* Assuming that the MS. d6n6 stands Jordan. 

* Compare Dk. VII, iii, n, 12. 

[47] L 

Digitized by 



at the feet of the horses; and the leader of the 
horses stood still in the vicinity of Zaratu.?t, and 
1 50 horses, which walked behind it, were kept away 
from him thereby ; and P6rushasp6 took him, and 
carried him back to the house \ 

7. Also the third day, firewood is gathered 
together by the Karap, and Zarat&rt is deposited 
on it by him, the fire is stirred up by him, yet with 
the same result (ham-bun-i£), the child is not 
burnt by it, and those marks, which existed and 
were made upon him, were a preservation from it 2 . 

8. And the fourth day, he is thrown by the Karap 
into the lair (ashyanako) of a wolf; the wolf was 
not in the lair, and when it wished to go back to the 
den (surako), it stopped when it came in front of 
some radiance, in the manner of a mother, at the 
place where its cub was. 9. In the night, Vohumand 
and Srosh the righteous brought a woolly (kQru- 
jako) sheep with udder full of milk into the den, 
and it gave milk to Zaratust, in digestible draughts 
(guvarako guvarako), until daylight 3 . 

10. In the dawn, the mother of Zaratust went to 
that place, in the expectation that it would be 
necessary to bring a skeleton out of the den, and 
the woolly sheep came out and ran away; his mother 
supposed that it was the wolf, and she spoke thus : 
' Thou hast devoured to repletion ; mayst thou 
endure for ever without it!' 11. She went farther, 
and when she saw Zaratust quite safe, she then took 
him up and spoke thus ; ' I will not give thee to any 
one during life, not though both the provinces of 
Ragh and Nddar should arrive here together V 

1 Compare Dk. VII, iii, 13, 14. * Ibid. 9, 10. 

* Ibid. 15-17; V, ii, 4. * Ibid. 18, 19. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XVI, 7-XVII, 3. 1 47' 

1 2. Because these princes were among the spiritual 
from two provinces which are in Atur-paaakan, such 
as are at sixty leagues (para sang) from .ATist; 
Zaraturt arose from Ragh, and Virtasp from N6^ar. 
1 3. And of these two provinces, Ragh was according 
to the name of \Lr\k6, son of Dur£sr6bd, son of 
MantoMiar 1 , from whom arose the race of Zaraturt ; 
and N6dar was according to the name of N6dar, 
son of Manan£ihar, from whom arose the race of 

Chapter XVI I.. 

1. These were his tokens at Birth: — One day, 
one of those five brothers of the Karaps saw 
Zaratust, and he looked a long while upwards, 
downwards, and on all sides around 2 . 

2. P6rushasp6 enquired thus : ' What was there 
when thou lookedst upwards, what when thou 
lookedst downwards, and what when thou lookedst 
on all sides ? ' 

3. And he replied thus, namely ; 'When I looked 
upwards, it was for this reason, when I saw that our 
souls s that go up to the sky, will go up to the best 

1 Compare Chap. XIII, 6 ; Dk. VII, ii, 70. 

s Compare Dk. VII, iii, 27-30. 

* Assuming that the MS. gad<f, ' glory, or destiny/ has lost an 
initial n, with which it was originally nism<f=Chald. NO?>J <the 
soul ; ' as the copyists have not been aware of the existence of this 
ZvirLr equivalent for rub&n, 'the soul,' for some centuries, it has 
been altered into gadrf, by the omission of its first letter, in nearly 
all but the very oldest existing MSS., such as K20 and M6 in Bd. 
XV, 3-5, and even there the medial m is really missing, though 
apparently existing in the final d ; the irregularity of using s for sh- 
is common in Pahlavi. 

L 2 

Digitized by 



existence \ owing to the words of this soul of man- 
kind. 4. When I looked downwards, I saw that, 
owing to the action of this one, the demon and fiend, 
the wizard and witch become buried below the earth, 
and fall paralyzed back to hell. 5. And when 
I looked on all sides, I saw that the words of this 
one will extend through the whole earth ; and when 
they have become as the law of the seven regions, 
each person is kept clothed with a robe (kapah) 
of seven skins, in which the glory of the seven 
archangels has arisen.' 

6. And Brafl?-rukhsh the Tur went forth; when 
he went to the right side (arako), Zaratu-rt hastened 
away to the left, and when he went to the left side, 
Zaraturt hastened to the right, and he is thereby 
concealed from Brartf-rukhsh the Tur, who has not 
met with him. 

Chapter XVIII. 

1. About his diverse want of participation {gvld 
akhve^lh) with his parents this also is declared, 
that the demons, at an assembly of wizards, pro- 
duced an outcry for a conference (ham-vaid 
layisno) thus : ' That son of P6rushasp6 is sense- 
less and foolish and secretly corrupted; no one, 
man or woman, will consider or accept him as 

2. The tidings came to P6rushasp6, and Porfi- 
shaspd spoke unto Zaraturt thus : ' I thought that 
I had begotten a son who would become a priest, 
a warrior, and a husbandman, and now thou 

■■ ■ ■ — — 1 .. H -- - ii 1 1 1 .i ii 1 p 1 ■ ■■■ ». 

1 The ordinary heaven, see Dd. XX, 3. 

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wouldst be foolish and secretly corrupted ; thou 
shouldst proceed to the Karaps, so that they may 
cure thee! 

3. Zarattat gave answer thus : ' I am he that is 
thy son, a priest, warrior, and husbandman.' 4. And, 
by command of Pdrushaspd he harnessed two 
horses to a chariot (var^lnS), and he went with 

5. When they came to the place according to the 
decision of P6rushasp6, into the presence of one 
Karap of those said five brethren, that wizard took 
a cup and made water, and spoke thus : ' This he 
should drink who is a son of thine, so that he may 
become well ; ' and he acted with this conviction, 
that so he would change to the same nature as 

6. Zaraturt spoke to P6rushasp6 thus : ' Thou 
mayst give it back to him who is thy protector and 
high-priest;' and he arose (akhe^id^) 1 and went 
back to their place. 

7. On the way, Zaraturt gave their two horses 
water, on account of their thirst ; and he thought 
thus : ' Unprofitable was my going to the residence 
of the Karaps, except in this manner, when, through 
giving water to the horses, my soul was then 

Chapter XIX. 

About his interfering talk (andarg-g6bi^n5ih) 
with the iniquitous, this also is declared, that one 

1 T has 'he saluted (niy&ytd).' This legend has not yet been 
found elsewhere. 

Digitized by 



day Dur£sr6b6 1 the Karap, as it were from the same 
five brethren, came out to the house of Pdrushaspd ; 
and Pdrushaspd placed a bowl (famako) of mare's 
milk before him, and spoke to him thus : ' Conse- 
crate it.' 

2. Zaratust expostulated with Pdrushaspd thus : 
' I will consecrate it.' 3. Pdrushaspd spoke thus : 
' He should consecrate, and the grace is to be 
offered up by you 2 ; ' and as many as three times 
they mutually disputed. 

4. Then up stood Zaratuyt, and his right foot 
struck at the bowl and emptied it, and he spoke thus : 
' I reverence righteousness, I reverence the righteous 
and the poor, men and women ; do thou, O 
Pdrushaspd ! prepare a portion for him in whom 
there is worthiness.' 

5. And Duresrdbd spoke unto Zaratust thus : 'As 
some of my portion of daily food was first thrown 
away by thee, it is I who will bring it on both thy 
lives, and will utterly destroy thee.' 6. Zaratuyt 
spoke interruptingly 3 thus : ' With complete mind- 
fulness I will look upon thee with both eyes, and 
will utterly destroy thee.' 

7. And, for a long time, they constantly looked, 
one at the other, with unshrinking gaze; but the 
divine nature of Zaraturt is victorious over the 
witchcraft of that wizard, and Durdsrdbd is further 
disturbed ; he also asked for his horse and spoke 
thus : ' On account of this boy, it is impossible for 
me to stay." 

1 So spelt in Zs., but Durasrdbd in Dk. ; also the former has 
always Pdrushaspd, but the latter Pdrushaspd. Compare the same 
legend in Dk. VII, iii, 34-45. 

Pahl. ' val<f ag yaztdo, afed \&g dahLrn5.' •• Or ' inwardly.' 


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8. He sat upon the horse, and when he had gone 
a little way, he fell off from the horse, through severe 
distress, and died ; and the children of his children's 
children have died upon the same spot l . 

Chapter XX. 

I. About the righteousness of his desires it is 
thus declared, that when he became fifteen years 
. old, the sons of P6rushasp6 demanded a portion 
from their father, and their portions are allotted out 
by him. 2. Among the clothes there was a girdle, 
the width of which was four finger-dreadlhs; and of 
the four 2 portions around and the girdle, which it 
was possible to bring forth, Zaraturt selected the 
latter and tied it on him self. 3. This was owing to 
the precepts (parvanakan) of Vohumand who came 
into his reason at birth ; as to whatever is not the 
custom his mind was now quite closed, and in that 
which is the custom it was impetuously exercised 
by him. 

4. About his compassionate disposition and the 
streams of the Arag province 8 , this also is declared, 

1 Probably meaning that he died childless. 

* The MSS. have ' three/ but there were five sons (Chap. XV, 5), 
and the numbers are written in ciphers which are very easily 

' Pahl. 'Aragistan 6dhav6 (T dha)'='odha-t ArangfstanS' of 
P. Vd. I, 77 (Sp.); compare Av. 'upa aodhaSshu Rang.hayau/ 
of Vd. I, 19 j Yt. XII, 18. In the Iranian Bd. XX, 8 we are told 
that ' the Arang river is that of which it is said that it comes out 
from Alburs in the land of Surak, which they call also Sham 
(Shim) ; and it passes on through the land of £gipt6s, which they 
call also Misr, and there they call it the swift river itgipitfiis.' It is 

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that there was a river, and from them the body of 
a naked woman floated, for the reason that, on account 
of the strength and swiftness of the river, a woman, 
except when she was quite naked while she was in 
it, was not able to pass ; and an old person, such as 
he who is of seventy years and is called in revelation 
a Han6 \ for want of power (apaafiyavandlh r£i), 
was not able to go back through it by his own 
strength. 5. Zaratust came on to the bank of the 
water, and of women and old people seven persons 
had come, and are passed on by him, in the manner 
of a bridge 2 ; it was an emblem of the spiritual 
performers 8 of bridging work, that is, of those pro- 
viding a passage to heaven. 

6. About his liberal disposition it is declared, that 
the fodder of P6rushasp6, which was stored for the 
beasts of burden, was not only for the beasts of 
P6rushasp6 in a scarcity, but also for distribution 
among the beasts of others, which, owing to their 
hunger on account of the scarcity, then constantly 
ate off the tails of each other ; and it was given to 
them plentifully. 

7. About his abandoning worldly desire, and his 
laying hold of righteousness of way, this, too, is 
declared, that when he became twenty years old, 
without the consent {btn akamaklh) of his father 
and mother, he wandered forth and departed from 

one of the two mythical rivers which were supposed to bound the 
Iranian world, and seems to represent the Aras as a northern and 
the Nile as a western boundary. Arang often becomes Arag in 
Pahlavi, just as sang becomes sag. 

1 Av. hand in Vd. Ill, 19, 20; &c. 

2 Probably holding each other's hands. 

* The sacred beings who assist the righteous souls to pass over 
the ITimad bridge. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XX, 5-I3. I53 

their house, and openly enquired thus : ' Who is 
most desirous of righteousness and most nourishing 
the poor ? ' 8. And they spoke thus : ' He who is 
the youngest (k£hist6) son of Aurvalt6-dih x the 
Tur, who every day gives an iron caldron (farnak), 
which is the height of a horse, full of bread and 
milk and other food, unto the poor.' 9. Zaraturt 
went on to that place, and with his co-operation, for 
the nourishment of the poor, some of the chief men 
performed duty by carrying forth food for the poor. 

10. About his compassion, not only upon man- 
kind, but also his other creatures, this, too, is 
declared, that a bitch was seen by him, which had 
given birth to five 2 puppies, and it was three days 
then that she had not obtained food 8 . 11. Whom- 
ever she saw, she then advanced her mouth towards 
him, and became as it were prostrated ; Zaratfot 
provided a remedy, by swiftly bringing up bread for 
her, but when he was bringing it she had expired. 

1 2. About his own desire for the good quality 4 of 
a wife, on account also of the will of his parents, and 
his not mingling his own seed before a suitable 
obtainment, this, too, is declared, that when his father 
sought a wife for him, Zaratu-rt argued with the 
bride (n£shi) thus : ' Show me thy face, so that 1 
may find out (barkham) its kind of appearance, and 
this, too, whether its appearance be undesirable, or 
shall not be gratifying ; ' and the bride turned away 
her face from him. 1 3. And Zaratust spoke thus : 

1 See Dk. VII, iv, 7 n. 

2 T has * seven,' but this difference may have arisen from an 
erroneous mode of writing the ciphers in T. 

1 T has ' a bone for food.' 
* T has * good child-bearing.' 

Digitized by 



'Whoever takes away a sight from me, does not 
practise respect for me.' 

14. About his having accepted progress even 
from the iniquitous, that listened sinfully desirous, 
who accepted so much advantageousness as was 
manifest, this, too, is declared, that he came into an 
assembly who were well known in the place for 
much knowledge, and he enquired of them thus : 
'What is most favourable for the soul ? ' 15. And 
they spoke thus : ' To nourish the poor, to give 
fodder to cattle, to bring firewood to the fire, to pour 
H6m-juice into water, and x to worship many demons 
with words, with the words which are called revela- 
tion (d£n6).' 16. Then Zaratust nourished the 
poor, foddered the cattle, brought firewood to the 
fire, and squeezed H6m into water, but never are 
any demons whatever worshipped with words by 

Chapter XXI. 

1. About his coming to thirty years of age it is 
thus declared, that on the lapse of thirty years 
onwards from his appearance, on the day An6ran of 
the month Spendarma*/ 2 , he had proceeded in that 
direction in which there occurred the ^-called festival 
of spring {ga.sn6-l vahar) 3 , forty-five days beyond 

1 T inserts ' not ' here, which is clearly wrong, and must have 
been introduced by some copyist who did not observe that the 
assembly, though learned, was sinful ; and that the object of the 
anecdote is to exhibit Zaratftrt's ability to distinguish between good 
works and sin, when still untaught by the sacred beings. 

2 On the last day of the twelfth Parsi month. 

3 The Maidhy6zaremaya season-festival, held on the fifteenth 
day of the second Parsi month. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XX, 14-XXI, 6. t55 

new-year's day, at a place become specially noted, 
where people went, from many quarters, out to the 
place of festival (ga.sn6kkr). 

2. When Zarat&rt, for the sake of going off to 
the festival place, halted on the way in walking, he 
chanced upon a solitary (a^vatak) plain, and he 
saw, in a vision, that mankind and a much-adorned 
worldly existence were kept away to the north, so 
that all the people in the earth have become fully 
manifest in the north. 3. And he at the head 
(pa van t£kh) of them was Me^ydmah, son of 
Arastil 1 , even as Arastal was brother of P6rushasp6 2 ; 
Medfy6mah was the leader of all mankind who have 
gone out to the presence of Zaratu^t, and he became 
their guide, so that first Me^y6mah and afterwards 
the whole material existence are attracted. 

4. And about his coming out to the conference, on 
the lapse of those forty-five days, at the place of 
festival at dawn on the day Dadv6 3 -pavan-Mitr6 of 
the month Arda.vah.istt. 5. And Zaratu^t, for the 
purpose of squeezing the H6m, went forth to the 
bank of the water of the Daltlh, because it is the 
river* of the conference for the supremacy {patth) 
of ZaratfLst, and is the water of Ava\n 6 which has 
consisted of four channels (b£ta). 6. Zarattot also 

1 See Yt. XIII, 95. 

* So M&/ydm&h was first cousin of ZaratiLrt, and became his 
first convert; see also Chap. XXIII, 1. 

* The Pahlavi letters represent Av. dadhvau, 'creator' ; com- 
pare the Khvdrizmian name jSj of the fifteenth day of the month 
in Sachau's Albirunl, p. 57, 1. 35. The date here given is the 
fifteenth of the second month, as in § 1. 

4 Assuming that rurf stands for ru</. 

6 Probably Anihita, the female spirit of pure water, mentioned 
by her title Ar6dvisur in Chap. XVI, 3. 

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passed on through it; and its first channel was up to 
the ankle \ the second up to the knee, the third up 
to the parting of the two thighs, and the fourth up 
to the neck. 7. This was an indicator that his 
religion comes four times to supremacy; the mani- 
festations of which are through Zaratust, Aush£dar, 
Aush&afer-mah, and Sdshans 2 . 

8. When he came up from the water, and put on 
his clothes, he then saw the archangel Vohumano 3 
in the form (ayulnako) of a man, handsome, brilliant, 
and elegant, who wore his hair curve-tailed 4 , because 
the curved tail is an indication of duality ; who had 
put on and wore a dress like silk, than which there 
was no making anything superior, for it was light 
itself; and his height was nine times as much as that 
of Zaratfot 

9. He also enquired of Zaratust 5 thus: 'Who 
mayst thou be, and from whom of them mayst thou 
be ? also what is mostly thy desire, and the endeavour 
in thy existence ? ' 10. And he replied thus : ' I am 
Zarattot of the Spltamas ; among the existences 
righteousness is more my desire, and my wish is that 
I may become aware ^"the will of the sacred beings, 
and may practise so much righteousness as they 
exhibit to me in the pure existence.' 

1 1. And Vohumand directed Zaratust 6 thus : ' Do 

1 Literally ' up to the leg (zang).' 

* The past and future apostles of Zoroastrianism. For the last 
three, see Dk. VII, ix-xi. 

' Compare Dk. VII, iii, 51-54. 

4 Assuming that va^dumak isa variant of the usual ga^dumak. 
The scorpion (va^dum) would be a sign of duality, as, being 
a noxious creature, it was produced by the evil spirit Aharman. 

* Compare Dk. VII, iii, 55-59. 

* Compare ibid, iii, 60-62. 

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CHAPTER XXI, 7-I9. 157 

thou proceed to an assembly of the spirits ! ' 1 2. As 
much as Vohumand walked on in nine steps, Zara- 
turt did in ninety steps, and when he had gone 
ninety steps farther than him, he saw the assembly 
of the seven archangels. 1 3. When he came within 
twenty-four feet of the archangels, he then did not 
see his own shadow on the ground, on account of 
the great brilliancy of the archangels ; the position 
of the assembly was in Iran, and in the direction of 
the districts on the bank of the water of the Daitlh. 
14. Zaraturt offered homage, and spoke thus : 
' Homage to Atiharmazd, and homage to the arch- 
angels ! ' and he went forward and sat down in the 
seat of the enquirers. 

1 5. As to the asking of questions by Zaraturt, he 
enquired of Auharmazaf thus : ' In the embodied 
world which is the first of the perfect ones, which 
the second, and which the third ? ' 16. And Auhar- 
mz.2d replied thus: 'The first perfection is good 
thoughts, the second good words, and the third 
good deeds.' 

17. ZaratU5t also enquired thus: 'Which thing 
is good, which is better \ and which is the best of 
all habits?' 18. And Auharmastf? replied thus: 
' The title 2 of the archangels is good, the sight of 
them is better, and carrying out their commands is 
the best of all habits.' 

19. Afterwards he demonstrated the duality of 
the original evolutions (bun ga^tano) 8 , and the 
divergence in each control, and spoke thus : ' Of 
those spirits, he who was wicked preferred the 

1 Both MSS. have ' worse ' here. 

* This title, ameshaspenta, is 'immortal benefactor.' 

' The two prime movers in creation. 

Digitized by 



practice which is iniquitous (Aharman's desire was 
for the practice which is iniquitous), and the spirit 
of righteousness, the propitious (Auharmasaf ) prefers 
righteousness V 20. Specially he demonstrated the 
divergence in each control of the exhibitors of light, 
and he spoke thus : ' Neither our thoughts 2 , nor 
desires, nor words, nor deeds, nor religion, nor 
spiritual faculties agree s ; he who is loving light, his 
place is with the luminaries ; and he who is loving 
darkness is with the dark ones *.' 

21. On the same day also, his omniscient wisdom 
appeared three times : as regards the same first 
questions, it pointed out the sky in great light and 
splendour, and in its exhibition of the prevention of 
darkness, at the sight of which it becomes an opposing 
existence as regards that darkness. 22. And it 
exhibited its own appearance proportionally to the 
sky, when it kept its head at the summit of the sky, 
its feet at the bottom of the sky, and its hands 
reached to both sides of the sky ; the sky also kept 
it covered, in the manner of a garment. 

23. The six archangels 6 were manifest by their 
similar stature (ham-ba^nih), in such manner that 
it is obvious each one successively is apparently one 
finger's breadth shorter than the other. 24. The 
archangels exhibited three kinds of achievement 

1 Quoted from Pahl. Yas. XXX, 5 ab. The words in parentheses 
are glosses inserted by the Pahlavi translator. 

* Both MSS. have ' spirits ' by inserting a stroke in the middle 
of the Pahlavi word. 

8 An imperfect quotation, omitting glosses, from Pahl. Yas, 
XLIV, 2 cde (Sp.). 

A similar idea is expressed in Vd. XIX, 30, but the Pahlavi 
version of half of it is lost, 

• Apart from Auharmazrf, their president. 

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CHAPTER XXI, 20-XXII, 2, 1 59 

(pasakhtan) 1 for the religion; first, by means of 
fires, and Zaratust walked three steps on them, with 
the words, 'good thoughts, good words, and good 
deeds,' and was not burnt ; and secondly, hot metal 
is poured on to his chest, cooled thereby, and, grasp- 
ing it with his hand, he held it for the archangels. 
25. Auharmasaf spoke thus : ' After the establishment 
of the pure religion, when a dispute occurs in the 
religion, those who are thy disciples will pour it on 
to a spiritual lord, they will take it up with the hand, 
and will thoroughly believe in him who is over the 
whole embodied existence.' 26. The third was 
cutting with a knife, and the vital parts (ahv6n) 
becoming visible, which are inside the abdomen, 
with a flowing forth of blood ; and, after the hands 
are rubbed over it, it became healed. 27. And this 
is pointed out, namely : ' Thy and thy correligionists' 
accepting of the pure religion is, as to the steadfast 
in other religions, such that, through such-like 
burning of fire, pouring of hot metal, and through an 
operation with a sharp instrument, there is no per- 
version from the good religion.' 

Chapter XXII. 

1. About the seven questionings (7-fra^nolh), 
with reference to religion, of the seven archangels, 
which occurred in seven places 2 . 

2. For the occurrence of the first questioning*, 
that of Auharma.^, the person of Zaratu^t, who was 

1 By way of ordeal, a relic of the old faith in incantation. 

s Compare Dk. VIII, xiv, 5, 6, 9. 

* This has been narrated in the preceding chapter. 

Digitized by 



the upholder of Adhartmzd, came out to a conference 
on the bank of the water of Daitlh \ 

3. For the occurrence of the second, which is 
Vohuman6's, five animals out of the five species 2 
which are the worldly tokens of Vohuman6, have 
come with Zaratust to a conference on Hugar and 
Ausind 8 ; and on that day also, before their coming 
out to the conference, their tongues are fully liberated 
and spoke with human words. 4. And among the 
rest 4 is a fish of one species, Arzuva 6 by name ; of 
those in burrows (khanoiganti) are the white ermine 
and white marten; of the flying creatures (vayan- 
dag&n) is the Karript 6 , a bird like a species of water- 
fowl ; of the wide-travellers (farakhvo-raftarano) 
is the hare which is showing wild beasts the way to 
the water ; and of those suitable for grazing (^arakd- 
ar^antgan) is the white ass-goat ; with human words 
they also accepted the religion from Auharmas^. 
5. With the chieftainship of the five species they 
are intrusted, so that the like animals also, with 
their own voices, and as much as their knowledge is 
capable, shall recount the powerfulness of 'the religion. 

1 See Dk. VII, Hi, 51, 54. 

s These species, which are named in § 4, are those mentioned in 
the A vesta, Visp. I, 1. 

• Av. Hukairya of Yt. XII, 24, and Us-hindu of Yt. VIII, 32, 
described in Bd. XII, 5, 6, as two neighbouring mountains, for the 
pure water of ArSdvisur falls from the summit of Hugar to Ausind 
which stands in the circumambient ocean. 

4 The remainder of K 35, the MS. brought by Westergaard from 
Kirman, is lost ; but an old copy of it (BK, see the Introduction) 
exists in Bombay, which supplies the missing text, as an authority 
independent of T. 

• See Bd. XIV, 26 ; apparently the same as the Aria, or Kar, 
the chief of fish, ibid. XV11I, 3, 5 ; XXIV, 13. 

• See Bd. XIV, 23; XIX, 16; XXIV, 11. 

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6. And freedom from assault, exemption from per- 
secution, and proper maintenance of the five species 
of animals, were prescribed by him l to Zaratust with 
seemingly very awful admonition. 

7. For the occurrence of the third questioning, 
which is Ardavahlstd's, the spirits of the fires have 
come out with Zaratust to a conference at the T6fdn 
water 2 ; and, in that questioning, care for the proper 
maintenance of the Varahran fire 3 , and the pro- 
pitiation of all fires, is explained to him. 

8. For the occurrence of the fourth questioning, 
which is ShatveVs, the spirits of the metals have come 
with Zaratust to a conference at Saral 4 , a settlement 
on the Ml van 4 ; and he was fully admonished about 
various proper preservations of the metals, and as 
to not producing warlike accoutrements of gold. 

9. For the occurrence of the fifth questioning, 
which is SpendarmaaTs, the spirits of the regions, 
frontiers, stations (austamin), settlements (ruafa- 
stakan), and districts, as many as were desirable, 
have come out with Zaratu-rt to a conference where 
there is a spring (khanlg6-a£) which comes out 
from the Asnavad mountain 6 , and goes into the 
Daltlh, like those of Sataves who is blowing the 
Palrlgs 6 . 10. And Zaratdst was also thus ad- 

1 By Vohuman6, as the protector of useful animals. 

* Possibly the Te^end river, the Zend or Z6ndak of Bd. XX, 7, 15. 

* The Bahrain, or sacred fire at places of worship. 

* Names not clearly identified, and readings uncertain. 

8 In Atur-patak4n, and the Gfhnasp, fire was established upon 
it (see Bd. XII, 2, 26 ; XVII, 7). 

* Pahl. 'SatavSs-i PaJrJg damano ino %un.' Referring probably 
to Yt. VIII, 8, 9. Satavgs is the southern chieftain of the stars, as 
correctly stated in the Iranian Bundahw (compare Bd. II, 7; 
XIII, 1 2) ; and the Palrigs are meteors. 

[47] M 

Digitized by 



monished by her, about the care and propitiation 
of the earth : that each district is to be intrusted 
to a faithful testifier (g6kas-i vaz>ar), each settle- 
ment to a judge acquainted with the law, each 
station to an officiating priest (mag6pato) of just 
intentions, and each frontier to a pure priestly 
authority (ra^o) ; over all is proclaimed the coun- 
cillor of the spirits, the supreme priest (mag6pa- 
tino magopato), and through him the sovereignty 
of Auharma^rf is provided. 

fi. For the occurrence of the sixth questioning, 
which is KhurdadTs, the spirits of seas and rivers 
have come with Zaratuit to a conference at the 
Asnavad mountain 1 , and he was told about the care 
and propitiation of water. 

1 2. For the occurrence of the seventh questioning, 
which is Amhrdad's, the spirits of plants have come 
out with Zaraturt to a conference on the precipitous 
bank of the Dare^a 2 , on the bank (bar) of the 
water of Dattlh, and different places ; and he was 
informed about the care and propitiation of plants. 

13. The seven questionings are explained within 
the length of these winters, which are of five months, 
and within ten years 3 . 

1 See § 9. 

2 Pahl. ' pavan Dare^-in zbar'= Av. 'Dre^ya paid zbarahi' of 
Vd. XIX, 4 ; a mythical river in Afrin-ve^-, where P6rushasp6 
resided (Bd. XX, 32). 

* The Pahlavi is rather vague, but it is clear that Zaratfift starts 
for his conference at thirty years of age (Chap. XXI, 1), returns from 
it ten years later (Chap. XXIII, i), and the conversion of VwtSsp 
occupies two years longer (Chap. XXIII, 5), occurring when 
Zaratuft was forty-two years old and thirty-five years before his 
passing away at the age of seventy-seven (Chap. XXIII, 9). 

At this point another dislocation of text occurs in all existing 

Digitized by 



Chapter XXIII. 

1. On the completion of revelation, that is, at the 
end of the ten years, M&afydmah, son of Arastai, 
became faithful to Zaratust. 

2. Afterwards, on having obtained his requests 1 , 
he came back to the conference of A&h&rmazd, 
and he spoke thus : ' In ten years only one man has 
been attracted by me.' 3. And Auhannasdf spoke 
thus : ' There will be days when so few are not 
attracted by you, who are themselves the occasion 
of the resurrection of the world ; when, apart from 
Dahak 2 , the beneficence of the formation of the 
renovation of the universe attracts every one besides, 
and the impenitence of Dahak is destroyed.' 

4. When he came out from the presence of 
Auha^ma^, with the same paradox, he thereby 
indicated his religion as complete to Spendannadf 
through his intelligence. 

5. In the two years after that 8 , the Kavigs and 

MSS., owing to the accidental interpolation of three loose folios of 
another text, between this chapter and the next, in some unknown 
copy written before 1530. In the MSS. the text is written con- 
tinuously, without division into chapters. But the connection of 
this chapter with the next one, which is here restored to its proper 
position, is clearly shown by the reference to the ' ten years ' of 
conference, with which this chapter ends, and the next one begins. 
The accidentally interpolated text is here classified as Chaps. XXIV 
and XXV, but its real connections have not yet been traced. 

1 That is, the replies of the archangels to his enquiries. 

2 See Dk. VII, i, 26. He was chained by FrSrfun in Mount 
Dim&vand, to escape in the latter days, to be slain by Keresasp, 
and to be specially punished at the resurrection (Bd. XII, 31 ; 
XXX, 16; Byt. Ill, 55-61). 

8 See Dk. VII, iv, 2. 

M 2 

Digitized by 



Karaps of Vistasp, in the manner of opponents 
(ham£staranih), propounded thirty-three enquiries 
(khv&stako) 1 to him, so that by command of 
Viitisp he became the explainer of those thirty- 
three enquiries. 6. Of the thirty-three habits 2 of 
iniquity, come for opposition to the religion of the 
sacred beings ; of the declaration, by revelation, of 
those thirty-three indications of fetters 3 ; and of the 
restraint of the thirty-three iniquitous practices by 
the thirty-three best good works, there are state- 
ments in revelation. 7. Including the acceptance of 
the religion by Viitisp from Zaratust, after the re- 
demonstration of its judicially multiform prophecy 
and spiritual character, which are looked into 
through the evidence of three speakers about them, 
the archangels who, with worldly manifestation, 
have become apparent unto Vistasp and his coun- 
cillors and mighty ones ; they are Vohumand, Arda.- 
vahirt6, and the Burdn-Mit^-6 fire *. 

8. About the reward which existed before the 
beneficence of Zaratust, and its being seen how, 
through guidance by Auharma^, it is demonstrated 
by him to those of the world, so that Meafy6mah is 
attracted in the tenth year in the forest of reedy 
hollows (kanyastano* vesako) which is the haunt 
of swine of the wild-boar species (khazura-1 varaso 
gas) ; in the twentieth year the Kavig who is son 

1 See Dk. VII, iv, 67. 

3 Reading sbn = Pers. san; but the MSS. have d$n6, 
' religions.' The thirty sins and thirty-three good works, detailed 
in Mkh. XXXVI, XXXVII, are certainly referred to at the end of 
this section. 

8 Compare Chap. XII, 5, and Dk. VII, iv, 67. 

* See Dk.VII, iv, 74. 

8 Hybrid Zvarw of Pers. nayistan. 

Digitized by 



of Kundah l is attracted ; in the thirtieth year the 
Khy6ns 2 arrive, who make an incursion (van/ako) 
into the countries of Iran, owing to the Kavigs, 
those who are more of their own race ; and in the 
fortieth year Vohundm, son of Avar6$tar 3 , is born. 

9. In the forty-seventh year Zaratust passes away, 
who attains seventy-seven years and forty days in 
the month Ardavahistd, on the day Khur 4 ; and for 
eight rectified (v£hiiako) months, till the month 
Dadv6 and day Khur, he should be brought /orward 
as to be reverenced. 

10. In the same month Ardavahistd, in the sixty- 
third 6 year, Frashdrtar 6 passed away, and in the 
sixty-fourth year (7amasp 7 , the same as became the 
priest of priests after Zaratfut ; in the seventy-third 
year Hangaurush, son of (^amasp 8 ; in the eightieth 
year Asm6k-khanvat6 9 , and also in the eightieth 

1 Or Kunih which is the name of a demon (see Sg. XVI, 13, 16, 
18, 19) ; but such an identification is uncertain. 

* Av. Zfayaona of Yt. IX, 30, 31 ; XVII, 50, 51. Compare 
Dk. VII, iv, 77, 83, 84, 87-90; v, 7. 

* Av. gen. ' Vohu-nemang,hd Avaraor tr6i s ' of Yt. XIII, 104. 

* The eleventh day of the second month. 

5 T has 43 d, and the date is lost in the other MS. authority. 
But 43d is highly improbable for two reasons : first, it would make 
this date the only one out of chronological order in the series here 
given ; secondly, it would render it inconsistent with the statement, 
in Dk. VII, vi, 12, that two priests came, from other regions, to 
ask Frashdtfar about the religion, fifty-seven years after it had been 
accepted by Zaratu\rt. By substituting 63d (the Pahlavi cipher 
most likely to be corrupted into 43 d) both these inconsistencies 
are removed. 

* See Dk. VII, vi, 12 ; V, ii, 12. 
7 See Dk.V, ii, 12; iii, 4. 

* Av. gen. ' Hang.haurushd G£maspanahe" ' of Yt. XIII, 104. 

* Av. gen. ' Asmd-toanvatd' of Yt XIII, 96, and Westergaard's 
Yt. XXII, 37. 

Digitized by 



year Kabed-us-spae \ who is called also Akht the 
wizard, is killed. 

n. Of the six great upholders of the religion 
there are the two daughters of Zaratust, whose 
names are FrenS and Srito 2 , with Aharubo-stdtd, 
son of M&/y6mah 3 , and another three, who are 
renowned for their religion for a hundred years, 
who are Vohun6m * that is born in the fortieth year 
of the religion, 6en6 6 is afterwards born and passes 
away in the two-hundredth year, and as to his 
hundred-discipledom *, it exists day and night till the 
three-hundredth year. 12. Afterwards the religion 
is disturbed and the monarchy is contested (^angl- 

13. About the three customs (daafo) which Zara- 
ttot prescribed as the best : — The first of them is 
this : ' Do not go without others, except with 
magisterial authority (apatkar ra^lha);' the second 
is : ' Though they shall proceed unlawfully as to 
you, consider your actions lawfully beforehand ; ' 
and the third is : ' Next-of-kin marriage, for the 

1 As kabed is Zvarif for 'many,' we may assume that kabed-uj 
=Av. nom. pouriu which usually becomes pouru in compounds; 
so that the compound name, or title, in the text, probably repre- 
sents Av. Pouruspadha (Yt. X, 109, in), 'having many 
troops,' a suitable title for Akht the wizard (Av. Akhtya of Yt.V, 
82) who is said, in Gf. I, 2, to have invaded a district with an army 
of seven myriads. He was killed, in Zoroastrian fashion, by the 
recital of a religious formula. 

1 There was a third daughter, Pdruifst (see Bd. XXXII, 5), but 
she may not have survived her father. 

' Av. gen. ' Ashastv6 Maidhy61-maung,h6u ' of Yt. XIII, 106. 

4 See § 8. 

6 He was born in the 100th year ; see Dk. VII, vii, 6. 

• This seems to be the sixth upholder of the religion, the third 
of those lasting about a century. 

Digitized by 



sake of the pure progress of your race, is the best 
of the actions of the living, which are provided for 
the proper begetting of children V 

Chapter XXIV. 

1. About the five dispositions of priests, and the 
ten admonitions with which all instruction as to 
religion is connected 2 . 

2. Of those five dispositions the first is inno- 

3. The second is discrimination among 3 thoughts, 
words, and deeds ; [to fully distinguish the particu- 
lars of destruction from indestructiveness, such as 

1 This chapter ends the first series of Selections of Za</-sparam, 
and is immediately followed in the MSS. by a second series. It is 
evident from the extent of this chapter, as compared with the 
amount of text contained in the three misplaced folios (see 
p. 162, n. 3), that this chapter could have occupied only about one 
folio and a half in the dislocated MS., so that the second series 
mpst have commenced on the same folio as contained the end of 
this chapter, and that Chaps. XXIV, XXV cannot have belonged to 
this series. The three misplaced folios contain two distinct texts ; 
the first (Chap. XXIV) is an Iranian version of the Five Dispositions 
of priests and the Ten Admonitions, and is here translated ; the second 
(Chap. XXV) contains some details about the Nasks and Gathas, 
and has been already translated in S.B.E., vol. xxxvii, pp. 401-405. 

* This Iranian version of the Dispositions and Admonitions is 
more complete than the Indian version, which, like the Bundahu, 
was brought from Iran five or six centuries ago, and is found in 
two MSS. (Pt. and J) written in India about 500 years ago, and 
now in the libraries of Dasturs Dr. Peshotan and Dr. Jamasp, 
respectively. Passages which occur only in the Iranian version are 
here enclosed in brackets, and other differences between the two 
versions are mentioned in the notes. 

3 The Indian version has ' of.' 

Digitized by 



noxious creatures from cattle ; and of production 
from unproductiveness, such as the righteous and 
worthy from the wicked and unworthy]. 

4. The third is authoritativeness, because that 
priestly master is always wiser and speaking more 
correctly who is taught wisely and teaches with 
more correct words. 

5. The fourth is to 1 [understand and consider 
the ceremonial as the ceremonial of Auharmas^, 
and the essentials with all goodness, beneficence, 
and authority ; to be steadfast in his religion, and 
to consider the indications of protection (sayag) 2 
which are established for his religion. 6. To main- 
tain the reverence of the luminaries prayerfully, 
also the reverence of the emanations 3 from the six * 
archangels, be they fire, be they earth, or be they of 
bodily form, and of the creatures which are formed 
by them ; also the pure cleansing from dead matter, 
menstruation, bodily refuse, and other hurtfulness ; 
this is in order that they may be characterised, 
and thereby constituted, as better-principled, more 
sensible 6 , and purer, and they may become less 
faulty. 7. The reverence of mankind is to consider 
authoritatively about knowledge and property ; the 
reverence of cattle is about fodder, little hardship, 
and moderate maintenance ; the reverence of plants 
is about sowing and ripening for the food of the 
worthy. 8. The ceremonial which is glorifying all 

1 Ind. vers, has only : ' to celebrate the ceremonial of the sacred 
beings with the correct words, inward prayers, and complete 
mastery of the text (narm-nasgSha) in the ritual.' It omits 
§§ 6-8 altogether. 

2 T has 'limit (kustak).' 

* T has ' issue.' * T has ' seven.' 

5 Or 'more fragrant;' hu-b6dtar has both meanings. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XXIV, 4- 1 4. 1 69 

the sacred beings, praises the luminaries and worldly 
creations improperly, and is antagonistic to them, 
because complete glorification is proper through 
complete recitation of the ritual ; and the ceremonial 
of any one whatever is his own proper duty pro- 
fessionally, so long as it is possible to keep proceed- 
ing with very little sinfulness]. 

9. The fifth is to struggle prayerfully 1 , day and 
night, with your own fiend 2 , and all life long not to 
depart from steadfastness, nor allow your proper 
duty 3 to go out of your hands. 

10. And the first of those ten admonitions is to 
proceed with good repute, for the sake of occasioning 
approving remarks as to 4 the good repute of your 
own guardian and teacher, high-priest and master 6 . 

11. The second is to become awfully refraining 
from evil repute, for the sake of evil repute not 
occurring to relations and guardians. 

12. The third is not to beat your own teacher 
with a snatched-up stick, and not to bring scandal 
upon his name, for the sake of annoying him, by 
jittering that which was not heard from your own 

13. The fourth is //W whatever is taught liberally 
by your own teacher, you have to deliver back to the 
worthy, for the sake of not extorting a declaration of 
renown froni the righteous 6 . 

14. The fifth is that the reward of doers of good 

1 Ind. vers, has : ' to remain in diligence intelligently.' 

2 Ind. vers, has : ' opponent.' 

8 Ind. vers, has : * steadfastness in religion, and to be diligent in 
your proper duty.' But it omits the rest of the sentence. 
4 Ind. vers, has : ' for the sake of the appropriateness of.' 
6 Or ' father.' 
8 T has : ' not extracting the purity of the righteous.' 

Digitized by 



works and the punishment of criminals have to be 
established by law, for the sake of progress \ 

1 5. The sixth is to keep the way of the good open 
to your house, for the sake of making 2 righteousness 
welcome in your own abode. 

16. The seventh is that, for the sake of not 
developing the fiend insensibly in your reason, you 
are not to keep it with the religion of the good 3 , 
nor to remain in impenitence of sin. 

1 7. The eighth * is that, for the sake of severing 
the fiend from the reason, you have to force malice 
away from your thoughts, and to become quickly 
repentant of sin. 

18. The ninth is to fully understand the forward 
movement 6 of the religion, also to keep the advanc- 
ing of the religion further forwards, and to seek your 
share of duty therein; and on a backward move- 
ment, when adversity happens to the religion, to 
have the religion back again, and to keep your body 
in the continence (makavadlh) of religion. 

19. The tenth is that there is to be a period of 
obedience (Sr6shdarlh) towards the ruler and 
priestly authority, the high-priesthood of the re- 
ligious *. 

1 Ind. vers, adds : ' of religion.' 

* Ind. vers, inserts : ' a token of;' and T has : ' making the righte- 
ousness of the sacred beings in writing welcome.' 

8 Ind. vers, has : ' not to maintain malice with the good,' which 
is more probable, and k£no, 'malice,' is easily corrupted into 
d£n6, ' religion,' in Pahlavi writing. 

4 This eighth admonition is omitted in the Iranian MSS. 

6 Ind. vers, adds : ' and backward movement.' 

* Chapter XXV, about the three divisions of revelation, is trans- 
lated in S. B. E., vol. xxxvii, pp. 401-405. 

Digitized by 



Digitized by 



i. The references, in this index, are to books, chapters, and sections ; 
the chapters being denoted by the larger ciphers. 

2. Though different forms of the same name may occur in the text, only 
one form is usually given in the index, to which the references to all forms 
are attached; except when the forms differ so much as to be widely 
separated in the index. 

3. Pazand forms are printed in italics, as their orthography is usually 
corrupt. In all such italicised names any letters which would elsewhere be 
italic are printed in roman type. 

4. Abbreviations used are : — Av. for Avesta, Dk. for DTnkan/, Int. for 
Introduction, m. for mountain, meas. for measure, MS. for manuscript, 
n. for footnote, Pahl. for Pahlavi, patron, for patronymic, r. for river, Zs. 
for Selections of ZiW-sparam. 

Digitized by 



Abllij, heretic, Dk. V, 1, a n. 

Aban, month, Int. 87. 

Aeshm, demon, Dk. VII, 1, 18 ; 4, 

87, 88 ; 7, 7. 
Aivatak, r., Dk.VII, 3, 51. 
Agash, demon, Dk. VII, 4, 12. 
Aharuvang, angel, Dk. VII, 7, 12. 
Aharman, demon, Int. 13, 29 ; Dk. 

VII, 11, 7 ; V, 2, 6 ; Zs. 14, 6, 

8 ; 21, 8 n, 19. 
Aharubo-stStd, man, Zs. 23, 11. 
Ahunavair, Int. 16, 30, 48, 49; Dk. 

VII, 1, 12, 13 ; 4, 38, 42, 45, 

Ahtirva<&sp6, man, Zs. 13, 6. 
Airan-v&, land, Dk. VII, 2, 30 n ; 

8, 60 ; 9, 23. 
Airty man, Dk. VII, 2, 70 ; Zs. 13, 

6;— prince, Dk. VII, 1, 28-30 ; 

2,70; V,4, 3; Zs.13, 6. 
Atryak, man, Dk.VII, 2, 70; Zs. 

13, 6. 
AirySfshnig, man, Dk. VII, 1, 34 n. 
Airygfshvi, man, Dk. VII, 1, 34. 
AkhrS-khira</8, prince, Dk. V, 3, 3. 
Akht, wizard, Int. 55 ; Zs. 23, 10. 
Ak6man8, demon, Zs. 14, 8-1 1. 
AkvSn, Christian priest, Dk. VII, 7, 

11 n. 
Alak or Arik, district, Dk. VII, 2, 9. 
Albtrflnt, Int. 74, 86-88. 
Alburz, m., Zs. 20, 4 n. 
Ameshaspentas, Int. 89. 
Amurda</, angel, Dk. VII, 2, 19; 5, 

9; Zs. 22, 12. 
Anahita, angel, Zs. 21, 5 n. 
Anang,baA, man, Dk. VII, 2, 70 ; 

Zs. 13, 6. 
Aneran, day, Zs. 21, 1. 
AQshnar, priest, Int. 3 ; Dk. VII, 1, 

Arabs, Int. 10; Dk. VII, 1, 34; 8,47. 
Arab victories, Int. 61. 
Arag, land, Zs. 20, 4. 
Arang, r., Zs. 20, 4 n. 

Aran.p, woman, Dk. VII, 8, 55 ; 9, 

18 ; 10, 15. 
Arista?, man, Zs. 21, 3 ; 23, 1. 
Archangels, Int. 4, 10, 11, 15, 18, 

19. 29, 35. 48, 49, 55. <Si 5 Dk. 

VII, 1, 4, 7, 12, 13, 34 ; 2, 16, 

18, 21, 22, 34, 39, 54; 3, 51; 

4, 5, 22, »6, 75, 76, 80, 83 ; 6, 

"J 8, 5, "35 7, 19, 20; 8, 5, 

26 n, 60; 9, 23; V, 2, 1, 12; 

Zs. 17, 5 ; 21, 8, 12-14, 18, 23, 

24 ; 22, 1 ; 23, 2 n, 7. 
Archdemons, Int. 4, 29. 
Ar</ai-fravar</, angel, Zs. 16, 3. 
Ardashir the Sasanian, Int. 43, 57, 

58, 62, 88. 
An/avahijt6, angel, Int. 41; Dk. 

VII, 2, 19, 29; Zs.22, 7; 23, 

7 ; month, Zs. 21, 4 ; 23, 9, 1 o. 
Argdvisur, angel, Zs. 16, 3 ; 21, 5 n. 
Are,ja</-aspa, king, Int. 30. 
Aregadbarsn, man, Dk.VII, 2, 70 ; 

Zs. 13, 6. 
Aresh, demon, Int. 29. 
Arezrasp6, priest, Dk. VII, 6, 12. 
Awzvak, priest, Dk. VII, 7, 8-1 1. 
Ar^asp, king, Int. 7, 29, 55; Dk. 

VII, 4, 77, 83,84,87-89; 5,7; 

V, 2, 12 n; 3,1. 
Aristotle, Int. 71. 
Ariyaramna, ruler, Int. 70. 
Ariz, fish, Zs. 22, 4 n. 
Armenian revolt, Int. 61. 
Arshama, ruler, Int. 70. 
Artakhshatar, king, Int. 9 ; Dk. VII, 

7, 12 ; V, 3, 3. 
Arflm- Asia Minor, Dk. V, 1, 5. 
Arfiman, nation, Dk.VII, 8, 47. 
Arzuva, fish, Zs. 22, 4. 
Ashavahutd, angel, Int. 11, 48, 55 ; 

Dk. VII, 1, 34; 2, 17, 18, 24, 

25 5 4, 74, 75, 78, 84-86 ; 8, 5 

n ; 9, 8 ; V, 2, 9. 
Ashem-vohfl, Int. 49 ; Dk. VII, 4, 

80 n. 

Digitized by 




Ashu-vanguhi, angel, Dk. VII, 4, 

81 n. 
Ajkanian, dynasty, Int. 43, 57. 
Asnavad, m., Zs. 22, 9, n. 
Aspigan, patron., Dk. VII, 1, 25 ; 2, 

7o;V,4» js Zs.13, 6. 
Assyria, land, Dk. V, 4, 3 n. 
Atossa, queen, Dk. VII, 4, 86 n. 
Atfir, land, Dk. V, 4, 3. 
Atur-farnbag, priest, Int. 14; Dk. 

. V 2 !> 2 > 3- 
AttirpU, priest, Int. 9, 64-67, 70, 

88 ; Dk. VII, 5, 5; 1, 19-" 5 

- V * 3 ' 3- 
Aturpa^akan, land, Zs. 16, 12 ; 22, 

9 m 

AGharmaz^, Int. 4-6, 18, 29, 30, 47, 
48; Dk. VII, l,i, 3,4.5.9-13. 
17, 20-22, 38, 41, 43, 44, 46; 
2, 2, 3, 14, i7->9, 3«, 37, 47, 
54; 8, 1,48. 49, 5i; 4, *, 12, 
14, 16, 17,21-27,30,41,47-49, 
51-54, 6 5, 66, 74, 75, 77, 80, 
84-86; 5, 12; 6,5, 13; V, 15; 
8, 16 n, 24, 25, 29, 33, 38-43, 
5°, 52, 54; 9, '5, 17; 10, 12, 
14; ll,6,n; V,l, 1; 2,6,8, 
10, 12, 15; 4, 6; Zs. 12, 2, 8; 
13, 5,6; 14, 4,9, M, 15; 15, 
7; 16, 3; 21, 14-16, 18, 19, 
23 n, 25; 22,2,4,10; 23,2-4, 
8 ; 24, 5. 

— king, Int. 64. 

AuramazdJ, Int. 84. 

Aurva<&spa, king, Int. 70. 

Aurvaita-dang, king, Int. 6, 47, 49, 
55 ; Dk. VII, 4, 7-J0, 14-16, 

Aflrvaito-dih, king, Zs. 20, 8. 

Afishan-r(W, r., Dk. VII, 3, 54. 

AusheWar, apostle, Int. 10, 11, 55, 
61, 63, 66-68 ; Dk. VII, 1, 42, 
51,52; 4,8i n; 8, 1, 31, 5i, 
55; 9, 1, 2; 10,i; V, 2, 15; 
3,3; Zs.21, 7. 

AGshe</ar-mah, apostle, Int. 11, 12, 
55 ; Dk. VII, 1, 42, 52, 53 5 8, 
1, 18; 10, 1,2; 11, 1, 2; V, 2, 
15 ; 3, 3 ; Zs. 21, 7. 

Ausikhsh, Int. 16; Zs. 15, 2. 

Ausind, m., Zs. 22, 3. 

Afiz6b6, king, Int. 55 ; Dk. VII, 1, 
31; 6,11 n; V, 4,4 n. 

Atizn, angel, Zs. 21, 5. 

Avarethrabmi, priest, Int. 9, 64, 70 ; 
Dk.VII,7, 20, 21. 

Avar6jtar, man, Zs. 23, 8. - 

Avesta, Int. 7, 3°, 36, 37, 42, 49, 55, 
64,70,78, 90; Dk. VII, 1,44; 
4,63; 6, 11; 6, 13, 14; 7, 5, 
38,39; 8, 2, 10, 22, 36; V, 2, 
6 ; 4, 6. 

Avesta scholars, Int. 78, 79, 90. 

Avestic rites, Dk. VII, 7, 2. 

Avirafshan§g, man, Dk. VII, 1, 34 n. 

■djang,ha&, man, Dk. VII, 2, 70 ; 
Zs. 13, 6. 

Ayaxtm, man, Dk. VII, 2, 70 n; 
Zs. 13, 6. 

A%-\ Dahak, king, Dk. VII, 11, 3. 

Babylon, Dk. VII, 4, 72, n. 
Bactria, Int. 74. 
Bahman, angel, Int. 41, 43. 
BahmanYajt, MS., Int. 44. 
Bahram G6r, king, Int. 43. 
Bahram-i Hamavand, king, Int. 43. 
Bahram Khflrzad, copyist, Dk. VII, 

7, 14 n. 
Bakyir, m., Dk. VII, 1, 39 n. 
Bapel, city, Int 50 i Dk. VII, 4, 7 2 ; 

V, 2, 9. 
Bartarfish, karap, Int. 34, 35 ; Dk. 

VII, 5, 12 n. 
BarzinkarQs, man, Int. 34. 
Barzu Kamdm, dastQr, Int. 32. 
Behistfin inscription, Int. 70, 84. 
Beta-Makdis= Jerusalem, Dk.V, 1, 

Bitak, man, Dk. VII, 2, 70 5 Zs. 

B6r-t6ra, man, Dk. VII, 2, 70. 
BnU-rSsh=Bra</r6k-r$sh, Int. 29; 

Zs. 15, 3. 
Brarfrok-rSsh, karap, Int. 49 ; Dk. 

VII, 2, 9 n; 3, 20, 24, 28, 32, 

39 n; 5, 12 n; V, 3, 2. 
Bri<i-r6yijn, karap, Zs. 15, 3. 
Bra^-rukhsh, karap, Zs.15, 3 ; 17, 6. 
B<W, demon, Dk. VII, 4, 37, 38. 
Buddha, Int. 78. 

14 ; Dk. V, 1, 4, 5. 
Bundahu, MS., Int. 15, 53-59, 6l , 

62, 68, 69. 
Bfirain-Mitr6, fire, Zs. 23, 7- 

Cambyses, king, Dk. VII, 4, 86 n. 
Ch in Oriental words is printed K. 
Christian persecution, Int. 63, 65. 
Chronology, Int. 51-89. 
Creator, Dk. VII, 1, 4-6, 8, 10, 1 1, 
15, 19,21, 24, 25,28,41; 2, 2 ; 

Digitized by 




3, 61 ; 4, 3, 13, 41, 74.75,84, 
85; 5, is; 9, 6; U, 6; V, 1, 

1, 9; 2,i; 4, 6. 

D3<ftstln-t Dinik, MS., Int. 34 ; Zs. 

12, o n. 
DadvS, month, Zs. 23, 9. 
Dadv6-pavan-Mitr6, day, Zs. 21, 4. 
Dahak, king, Int. 12, 50, 55; Dk. 

VII, 1,36, 34 n; 4, 72; 10, 10; 

V, 3,3; Zs.12, 13 n; 23, 3. 
Dahirmn ASria, ritual, Int. 11 ; Dk. 

VII, 9, 3. 
Da't, r., Dk. VII, 2, 30. 
Daiti, r., Int. 5, 18 ; Dk. VII, 3, 

5i. 54! 4, 29; 8, 60; 9, 23; 

Zs. 21, 5, 13; 22, 2, 9, 12. 
DaraT, king, Int. 54, 55. 
Dare^a, r., Int. 29 ; Zs. 22, 12. 
Darius Hystaspes, Int. 70, 79, 84, 88, 

89 ; Dk. VII, 4, 86 n. 
Darmesteter's hypothesis, Int. 89, 90. 
Darun, rite, Int. 42. 
Davans, man, Int. 29. 
Demons, Int 30, 36, 48, 49; Dk. 

VII, 1,9, is, i 3) 18, 19, 34; 2, 

6 , 9, IO , 43, 45, 48-50, 53, 60, 
66-68; 8,47, 50; 4, 4, 5, 14, 
33-35, 40, 42, 44-48,. 50, 52-54, 
63, 80,87; 5, 8; 6, 7; 7, 14; 
8,46; V, 2, 6, 8, 13; Zs. 14, 

2, 5, 6 ; 17, 4 ; 18, 1. 
Demon-worship, Int. 50 ; Dk. VII, 

4, 3°, 35, 67 ; 7, 17, 36 I V, 1, 
5 i 2, 4. 

Demon-worshipper, Dk. VII, 1, 36 ; 

7, 37 ; 8, 7, 34 5 V, 2, 8. 
Destroyer, Dk. VII, 1, 5, 6 ; V, 2, 6. 
Dhfl Qir, defeat at, Int. 61. 
Dimavand, m., Zs. 23, 3 n. 
Dinkan/, MS., Int. 1, 2, 21-23 ; Dk. 

V, 1, 2 n. 
Diogenes Laertius, Int. 71, 76. 
Dk. V, i-iv, contents, Int. 14. 
Dk. VII, Int. 2 ; contents, Int. 3-13. 
Dflhfcfib, woman, Int. 55 ; Dk. VII, 

2, 35, 41, 42, 46, 47 ; 3, 3 ; V, 

2, 2 ; Zs. 13, 1. 
Dfir&nsarfin, karap, Int. 34, 35. 
DtirSsrobd, karap, Int. 49, 55 ; Dk. 

VII, 2,9 n; 3,4,8, 9, 11, 20, 

32, 35,39,4i; 5, 12 n; Zs.19, 

1, 5, 7- 
— prince, Dk. VII, 2, 70 ; Zs. 13, 6; 

Drvg ZSnigak, chief, Dk. VII, 11, 3. 

Eastwick's translation of the 

namah, Int. 31, 32. 
Egiptos, land, Zs. 20, 4 n. 
Enclosure made by Yim, Dk. VII, 

Epistle of ManGjtfhar, Int. 25. 
Ertfo, man, Dk. VII, 2, 70 n; Zs. 

16, 13. 
Eudoxus, Int. 71. 
Evil spirit, Int. 55 ; Dk. VII, 1, 19 ; 

2, 67 ; 4, 36, 39 ; 8, 47. 
Exposition of the good religion, MS., 

Int. 3 ; Dk. VII, 1, 2, 4. 

Farukhza*/, priest, Dk. V, 1, 2, 3. 
Fiend, Int 13; Dk. VII, 1, 6, 12, 

13, 26, 32 ; 4, 36-39, 55, 57, 

59-<5i; 8, 30, 32; 9,2; 10,5; 

11, 7 ; V, 2, 6, 8 ; Zs. 17, 4. 
Five dispositions of priests, MS., Zs. 

24, 1-9. 
Frada^afsh, region, Dk. VII, 6, 12 n. 
Fraguzak, man, Dk. VII, 2, 70 ; 

Zs. 13, 6. 
Frahanyln, patron., Dk. VII, 8, 55 ; 

9, 18; 10,15. 
Frahimrvana, man, Dk. VII, 2, 3. 
Fratfh, heretic, Dk. VII, 1, 36. 
Frangrlsiyak, king, Dk. VII, 1, 31, 

39 i 2, 69 ; 11, 3. 
Frashfotar, priest, Int. 29, 30, 55 ; 

Dk. VII, 6,12; V, 2, 12; Zs. 

28, 10. 
Frasiyav=Frangrasiyak, Int 55 ; 

Dk. VII, 1, 39 n ; 2,68; V, 3, 

3 n ; Zs. 12, 3. 
Fravak, man, Dk. VII, 2, 70 ; V, 4, 

1, 2 ; Zs. 13, 6. 
Fravashis, spirits, Int. 30, 55,72,75, 

Frazusak, man, Dk. VII, 2, 70 ; 

Zs. 13, 6. 
Fre</un, king, Int. 33, 55 ; Dk. VII, 

1, 25, 26, 28, 29, 34 n; 2, 61, 

70 ; 11, 3 ; V, 1, 8 ; 4, 3 ; Zs. 

13, 6 ; 23, 3 n. 
Fr§n6, woman, Zs. 13, 1 ; another, 

23, 11. 
Ft u, man, Zs. 13, 6. 

Gandarep6, monster, Dk. VII, 1, 32. 
Gathas quoted, Zs. 16, 7. 
Gaugamela, battle, Int 54. 
Gay6man/, man, Int. 3, 55, 77 ; Dk. 

VII, 1,4, 6-9; 2,70; V,l,8; 

Zs. 13, 6. 

Digitized by 




Gefar-t6ra, man, Dk. VII, 2, 70. 
Gobak-abfi, woman, Dk. VII, 10, 15. 
Good works, Dk. VII, 1, 6. 
Gdjfirvan, Int. 29. 

Gushnaspshah, king, Dk. VII, 7, 14 n. 
Gfijnasp fire, Int. 41 ; Zs. 22, 9 n. 
Gujtasp, king, Int. 34, 36, 41-43. 
Guzak, princess, Dk. VII, 2, 70; Zs. 

13, 6. 
GygmarS, Int 14 ; Dk. V, 1, 2, 3 ; 


Gamasp, priest, Int. 29, 30, 42, 55 ; 
Dk. VII, 4, 77 n ; 6, 12 n ; 7, 
3 n ; V, 2, 12 ; 3, 4 ; Zs. 23, 10. 

Hadish, angel, Int. 3, 48 ; Dk. VII, 

1, t2, 13. 
Ha§/&a<&spas, family, Int 30. 
Hae>a<fisp6, man, Dk. VII, 2, 70 ; 

Zs. 13, 6. 
Hakhamanij, ruler, Int. 70. 
Hangafirfish, priest, Int. 55 ; Zs. 23, 

Hand, septuagenarian, Zs. 20, 4. 
Haoma, angel, Int. 30. 
Haoshyangha, king, Int. 30. 
Hardhar, man, Dk. VII, 2, 70 ; Zs. 

13, 6. 
Hasar of length, Zs. 12, 4. 

— time, Dk. VII, 4, 49. 
Hazan, karap, Zs. 15, 3. 
Hazarahs, Int. 43. 

Heaven (best existence), Dk. VII, 6, 

1, 11. 

— (supreme), Dk. VII, 1, 7, 24. 
Hercules, Dk. VII, 1, 32 n. 
Hermippus, Int. 71. 
H6m-juice, Dk.VII,4, 85 ; Zs.20, 

Horn plant, Int 49, 55 ; Dk. VII, 

2, 14, 22, 23, 25, 26, 28-31, 34, 
35,46; 4,85; Zs. 12, 12, 15; 
13, 4 ; 20, 16 ; 21, 5. 

H6m-strainer, Dk. VII, 4, 85. 
H6m-water, Int. 5, 6, 47 ; Dk. VII, 

3, 51, 54; 4, 29, 30,32, 35- 
H6shang, king, Int. 3, 48, 55 ; Dk. 

VII, 1, 16, 18 ; 2, 70 ; V, 1, 

8 ; 4, 2 ; Zs. 13, 6. 
Hfigar, m., Zs. 22, 3. 
Hfimai, queen, Int. 54, 55, 57. 
Hundred-discipledom, Int. 54, 55. 
Hutos, queen, Int. 29, 30 ; Dk. VII, 

4, 86; 6, 11 n. 

Hvfibas, tribe, Int. 29 ; Dk. VII, 6, 

Hv8vi, woman, Dk. VII, 6, 12 n. 
Hvyaonas, nation, Dk. VII, 4, 77 n. 
Hystaspes, king, Int. 70. 

Idolators, Dk. VII, 1, 18 n. 

Idolatry, Int. 50 ; Dk. VII, 1, 19 ; 
4 72 

Idol-temple, Int. 50 ; Dk. VII, 1, 39. 

India, Int. 43. 

Iran, land, Int. 9, 43, 54 ; Dk. VII, 
1» 30,31, 33, 38, 5°; 2,62,68; 
4,42,81 n, 88, 89; 5, 5, 9; 7, 
», 2, 29, 33, 38, 39; 8, 1, 2, 4, 
7-9. 19; 9, 13; V, 1, 5; 4, 1, 
3 ;Zs. 12,3,8,9; 21, 13; 23,8. 

Irlnian, Int 14 ; Dk. VII, 2, 63, 70 
n ; 4, 90 ; V, 4, 6. 

Iranian Bundahu, Dk. VII, 1, 34 n ; 
2, 9 n ; 7, 5 n ! Zs. 22, 9 n. 

— country, Dk. VII, 1, 37. 

— monarchy, Int. 43. 

Iranians, Int. 11, 14; Dk. VII, 2, 
63 5 4, 42, 77 n ; 8, 16 n ; 11, 
3 n ; V, 3, 1 ; Zs. 15, 2. 

Isa</vastar, man, Dk. VII, 8, 55 ; 9, 
18; 10, 15. 

Isfendyar, prince, Int 39, 42 ; Dk. 
VII, 7, 5 n. 

J in Oriental words is printed G. 
Jerusalem, Int. 14 ; Dk. V, 1, 2 n. 
Jews, Int. 14 ; Dk. V, 1, 2 n. 

Kabed-tij-spag, wizard, Zs. 23, 10. 
Kai=Kavig, Dk. VII, 4, 64; 8, 40, 

60; 9, 23. 
Kai-Arsh, prince, Dk. VII, 1, 35. 
Kai-Kafis, priest, Int. 32. 
Kai-KhQsr6i, king, Int. 12, 50, 55 ; 

Dk. VII, 1,39; 10,io; 11,3; 

V,4, 4 n. 
Ka?-Koba</, king, Int 55 ; Dk. VII, 

. 1, 33;„6, 11 "I V,4, 4 n. 
Kai-Loharasp, king, Int. 14, 55 ; Dk. 

V, 1, 5- 
Katsar, Int. 27 ; Dk. VII, 8, 42. 
Kaf-Siyavakhsh, prince, Dk. VII, 1, 

Kai-Us, king, Int. 3, 15, 55; Dk. 
VII, 1, 35, 37 ! 2, 62, 63, 65, 
66; 6, 2 n; Zs. 12, 9-11, 14, 
a 15, J7, 20, 21, 23, 24. 

Kai-Vutasp, king, Int. 3, 29, 55 ; Dk. 
VII, 1,41,47, 49; 4, 1,76,77, 
86 ; 6, 6 ; 6, 4, 9, 1 1 ; 7, 39 5 
11,3; V, 1,5 n; 2,8, 11; 3, 1. 

Kangdis, fortress, Int 7, 10, 43 ; 

Digitized by 




Dk.VII, 1, 38; 4, 81 n; 6, ia ; 
V, 8, 3 n. 

KanyisS, lake, Dk. VII, 11, 8. 

Kar, fish, Zs. 22, 4 n. 

Karap, Int 4-6, 16, 17, 47, 49, 55 ; 
Dk. VII, 2, 9, 45 5 S, 4, 7-9, 
11, 13, 15, 20, 24, 26, 28, 33, 
34,39,41,5°; 4, 2, 6, «4, 21, 
25, 61, 64, 67; 8, 36, 40, 60; 
9,23; 10,5? V,2, 3; Zs.15, 
2; 16, 1-4,6-8; 17,i; 18,3,5, 
7; 18, 1 ; 28,5. 

Karapans, Int. 30. 

Kar<iar-t8r3, man, Dk. VII, 2, 70. 

Kanipt, bird, Zs. 22, 4. 

Karsna, man, Dk. VII, 7, 13 n. 

KavaV, king, Int. 58 ; Dk. VII, 7, 36. 

Kava Husrava, king, Int. 30, 70. 

— Kavata, king, Int. 70. 

— Usa, king, Int. 70. 
Kavig, Int 4, 55 5 Dk.VII, 2, 9; 

8, 18; Zs. 23, 5, 8. 
Kavis, Int. 30. 
Kavi Vutaspa, king, Int. 30, 70 ; Dk. 

VII, 7, 12 n. 
KaySn glory, Dk. VII, 4, 43 ; 11, 3. 
Kay&ns, Int. 3 ; Dk. VII, 1, 33 ; 2, 

9n; 7, ia ; V, 1, 8 ; 4,4,5. 
KeresaspS, hero, Int. 13, 29; Dk. 

VII, 1, 32 ; 10, 10 ; Zs. 28, 3 n. 
Kersevazd, prince, Dk. VII, 1, 39. 
Khakan, Int. 27 ; Dk. VII, 8, 42. 
Khalifah, Al-MSmfln, Dk. V, 1, 2 n. 
Khflr, day, Zs. 23, 9. 
Khfirda./, angel, Dk.VII, 2, 19, 38 ; 

5,9; 8,511; Zs. 22. 11. 
Khflrdad fire, Int. 41. 
Khusro I, king, Int. 9, 26, 27, 58, 

68; Dk.VII, 7, 26; V, 3, 3. 

— II, king, Int. 58, 61. 
Khvaniras, region, Dk. VII, 1, 26 ; 

2, 70 ; V, 2, 9. 
KhvetQkdas, Int. 6, 47, 49 ; Dk. VII, 

4, 4 n. 
Khy8ns, nation, Int. 7, 55 ; Dk.VII, 

4,77,83,84, 87-90; 5, 7; V, 

3, 1 ; Zs. 23, 8. 
Kig, Int. 6, 47, 49 ! Dk. VII, 2, 9 n ; 

8, 5°; 4,2, 6, 14, 67; 8, 26; 

V, 2, 3. 
Kirman, town, Zs. 12, o n. 
KobaV, king, Dk. VII, 1, 35. 
K6khare4 Zs. 15, 2. 
Kundah, Int. 55 ; Zs. 23, 8. 
KQtai-t6ra, man, Dk. VII, 2, 70 n. 

Kaupis, ruler, Int. 70. 

[471 N 

KeJast, lake, Int. 50 ; Dk.VII, 1, 39. 
iTeshmak, demon, Dk. VII, 2, 44, 

45; 4,6i. 
Kiibshnus, man, Dk. VII, 2, 70; 

Kmvad bridge, Zs. 20, 5 n. 
jKist, Zs. 16, 12. 
ATitradaV nask, Int. 3, 14, 20 ; Dk. 

VII, 1,34 n; 7, 5»- 
ATitr6-meh6n8, prince, Int. 10 ; Dk. 

VII, 8, 45- 

Macedon, Int. 55 n. 
M3da,land, Dk.VII, 1,26. 
MaVigan-T Gu»-astak Abaiij, MS., 

Dk. V, 1, 2 n. 
Mahrkus, wizard, Int. 11, 55 ; Dk. 

VII, 1,24; 8, 3; V,3, 3. 
MaidhySzaremaya, festival, Int. 18; 

Zs. 21, 1 n. 
Manih, heretic, Dk. VII, 7, 21 n ; V, 


Man&rak, princess, Zs. 15, 2. 
Mantbir, for Mantb/Khar, Dk. VII, 

1, 29 n. 
ManQj-khfirnak, man, Dk. VII, 2, 

70 ; V, 4, 3 ; Zs. 18, 6. 
MSnGj-khfirnar, man, Dk. VII, 2, 

70 ; V, 4, 3 ; Zs. 13, 6. 
Manflj/Khar, king, Int. 15, 16, 55 ; 

Dk. VII, 1, 29-31; 2, 51 n, 70 ; 

6, 11 n; 7, 21 ; V, 1, 8; 4, 3 ; 

Zs. 12, 3; 18, 6; 16, 3 ; 16, 13. 
MSraspend, priest, Int. 64, 88 ; Dk. 

v ", 6, 5 ; 7, 19, 20. 
Marvels of Zoroastrianism, Int 1. 
Majvak, man, Dk. VII, 6, 11 n. 
Masyafit, woman, Int 48, 55 ; Dk. 

VII, 1, 9. 12-14. 
Masye, man, Int. 48, 55 ; Dk. VII, 

1,9, 11-14; 2,70; V, 1,8; 4, 

1 n ; Zs. 13, 6. 
MSzandar, land, Dk. VII, 1, 26. 
MSzandaran, land, Dk. VII, 1, 18 n. 
Mazand, demons of, Dk. VII, 1, 18. 
Mazda, Dk. VII, 9, 7-10. 
Mazdag, heretic, Int. 26, 43 ; Dk. 

VII, 7, 21, 26 n. 
Mazdakites, sect, Int. 58. 
Ma&/a-worship, Int. 15, 49; Dk. 

VII, 1, i, 2, 4, 41, 43, 44; 8, 

35 n; 4, 2,5,14,33,34,74,79; 

8,4, 12 n; V, 1, 1. 
Maz^a-worshippers, Dk. VII, 7, 5, 

6,9, 10, 23; 8, 28, 35, 51; 9, 

2,7,8, 10, 11, 13, 14; 10,4,6, 

11 ; 11, 8-10; Zs. 12, 2, 4. 

Digitized by 


1 7 8 


M&/ydmih, roan, Int. iS, 19, 39, 30, 

55; Zs.31, 3; 28,1,8,11. 
Messiah, Dk. V, 3, 3. 
Millennial apostles, Int. 3. 
Misr, land, Zs. 20, 4 n. 
Mivin, river (?), Zs. 22, 8. 
Mu><W, angel, Dk. VII, 2, 38. 

NamkhvSst of the Hazars, Dk. VII, 

4, 77 n. 
Nasks, Int. 64. 

Nayazem, man, Dk. VII, 2, 70. 
Nebuchadnezzar, king, Int. 14 ; Dk. 

V, 1, 3 n. 
Neresang, for Nerydsang, Dk. VII, 

1, 39 n. 

N6r6ksang, for NSrySsang, Dk. VII, 

2, 21 n, 70; 4, 84 n. 
NdrySsang, angel, Dk. VII, 1, 29 ; 

2, 2i ; 4,84,85; V,4, 6; Zs. 

13, 5, 6. 
Nevak-t6r2, man, Dk. VII, 2, 70. 
Next-of-kin marriage, Dk. VII, 1, 

10; 4, 5, 6, 8, 11 ; Zs. 23, 13. 
Ninus, king, Int. 71, 74. 
NJrangistSn, MS., Zs. 13, 4 n. 
Niv&du, man, Zs. 15, 5. 
N&far, man, Int. 17; Dk. VII, 2, 

51; 8, 19, 39 ; 4, 86 n; 6, 11 n; 

Zs. 16, 11-13. 
N&ferigl, man, Zs. 15, 5. 
N6<fers, tribe, Dk. VII, 6, 11. 
Non-Iranian, Dk. VII, 9, 13. 
N6sh&rvSn, king, Int. 43. 
NumuV&rih-i YasLmo, MS., Zs. 13, 


Oldest dates explained, Int. 72. 
Ordeal, Int. 7, 18, 64, 65 ; Dk. VII, 

5, 4. 5 ; 7, 2 ; Zs. 21, 34-27. 
Osthanes, Int. 73. 

Ox, frontier-settling, Dk. VII, 2, 

62-66 ; Zs. 12, 8-25. 
— sole-created, Int. 55, 77 ; Dk. 

VII, 2, 67. 
Oxyartes, king, Int. 74. 

PaiashkhvSrgar, land, Dk. VII, 7, 

14 n. 
Parfiragtarasp6, man, Dk. VII, 2, 9, 

10, 13, 70. 
/Wfra.j«=Paitirasp6, man, Dk. 

VII, 2, 70; Zs. 13,6. 
Pairigs, meteors, Zs. 22, 9. 
Papak, prince, Dk. VII, 7, 12. 
Parsha</-t6ra, man, Int. 6, 47 ; Dk. 

VII, 4, 31-34. 

Parsi calendar, Int. 79-89 ; how 
rectified, Int. 85. 

Patakhsr6b6, king, Int. 3, 48 ; Dk. 
VII, 1, 34- 

Persia, Int. 55 n, 63, 79. 

P&dadian, Int. 3 ; Dk. VII, 2, 70. 

P&hyotan, prince, Int. 7, 10, 43, 43 ; 
Dk. VII, 4, 81; 6, 13; 6, 13; 
V, 3, 3. 

Pestilence, demon, Dk. VII, 4, 37, 

Plato, Int. 71, 77. 

Plinv the Elder, Int. 71, 73, 75, 76. 

PSrfmst, woman, Int. 39, 30. 

P6r(ishasp6, man, Int. 4, 30, 49 ; Dk. 
VII, 2, 10, 13, 21, 29-35, 39- 
41, 46-48, 56-58, 70 ; 3, 3, 4, 
7-ii, 13, 15, 3i, 23, 24, 26, 27, 
32,34, 37, 38; V, 2, 2, 4; Zs. 
13, 6; 14, 16; 15, 4; 16, 1, 
3-6 ; 17, 2 ; 18, 1, 2, 4-6 ; 19, 
1-4 ; 20, 1, 6 ; 21, 3. 

Pouraspadha, wizard, Zs. 23, 10 n. 

Proconnesian Zoroaster, Int. 73. 

Purtaribp6, man, Zs. 18, 6. 

PQr-tSra, man, Dk. VII, 2, 70. 

Ra^an, man, Dk. VII, 2, 51 n, 70 n. 
Ragirn, man, Dk. VII, 2, 70 n. 
Rai, city, Int. 32. 
Mk, man, Dk. VII, 2, 51 ; 8, 19, 

39 ; or Ragh, Int. 17 ; Zs. 16, 

Ramak-t6ra, man, Dk. VII, 2, 70. 
Rangu/tar, man, Zs. 15, 5. 
Rasfctat, angel, Dk. VII, 4, 81 n. 
Rashn, angel, Dk. VII, 7, 11. 
Rashn-resh, apostate, Int. 9 ; Dk. 

VII, 7, 11. 
Ra\rtare-vaghe»t, priest, Int. 64, 70 ; 

Dk. VII, 7, 19 n. 
Ratfijtar, man, Zs. 15, 5. 
Renovation of the universe, Int. 13, 

55,77 5 Dk. VII, 1,41, 42, 54; 

10, 10 ; 11, 10, 11 ; Zs. 23, 3. 
Romans, Int. 63, 65. 

Sacred beings, Int. 6, 15, 19, 48, 53, 
55; Dk. VII, 1,4, 12, 14, 41; 
2, 10, 61, 62 ; 3, 47-49 5 4, 
21, 46, 62, 70, 80 ; 5, 13 ; 6, 6, 
60 ; V, 2, 7 ; Zs. 14, 7 ; 21, 10. 

Sacred fires, Dk. VII, 7, 2. 

Sagastan, land, Int. 6, 47 ; Dk. VII, 

Salm, prince, Dk. VII, 1, 30. 

Samak, man, Dk. VII, 1, 15. 

Digitized by 




Samin, patron., Dk. VII, 1, 3a ; V, 

Sanskrit, Int. 78. 
Saoshyant, apostle, Int. 30. 
Sara}, town, Zs. 22, 8. 
Sasinian, Int. 9, 31, 50, 57, 68, 69. 
Sataves, star, Zs. 22, 9. 
Selections of Zao'-sparam, Int. 1,15, 

Semiramis, queen, Int. 71, 74. 
ShahpOhar II, king, Int. 26, 58, 61, 

63, 64, 88 ; Dk. VII, 7, 19 n. 

— Ill, king, Int. 64, 87. 
Sham = Sham, land, Zs. 20, 4 n. 
Shapan, Dk. VII, 7, 3. 
Shapigan or Shasptgan, Dk. VII, 7, 

3 1. 
Shapir-abfl, woman, Dk. VII, 0, 18. 
Shatraver, angel, Dk. VII, 2, 19. 
Shatver, angel, Zs. 22, 8. 
Shgoasfaj (Theodosius ?), Int. 10, 

37 ; Dk. VII, 8, 47 n. 
SheJasp8, Dk. VII, 8, 47. 
Shemtg-abfl, woman, Dk. VII, 8, 55. 
Sirkan, town, Zs. 12, o n. 
Siyah-tori, man, Dk. VII, 2, 70. 
Siyamak, man, Dk. VII, 2, 70 ; V, 

I, 8 ; 4, 1 ; Zs. 13, 6. 
Siyavakhsh, prince, Dk. VII, 1, 39. 
S8g-t8ra, man, Dk. VII, 2, 70. 
SSshans, apostle, Int. 12, 13, 55; 

Dk. VII, 1, 42, 53 ; 10, 10, 15; 

II, 1, 2; V, 2, 15; S, 3; Zs. 

Spendarma*/, angel, Int. 6, 15, 55; 
Dk.VII,2, 19; 4, 57, 58; 8, 
5 n ; Zs. 12, 2, 3, 5, 6 ; 18, 3 ; 
22, 9 ; 28, 4. 

— month, Zs. 21, t. 
Spend-dak, prince, Int. 39, 55 ; Dk. 

VII, 7, 5; V,2, 12. 
Spend nask, Int. 1, 2, 14, 20, 27, 46 ; 

Dk. VII, 2, 1 n. 
Spentd-khratvau, priest, Dk. VII, 7, 

8, 10. 
Sp§td-t8ra, man, Dk. VII, 2, 70. 
Spitam, man, Dk. VII, 2, 70; Zs. 

13, 6. 
Spftamas, tribe, Int. 30; Dk. VII, 

2,9,11,29, 57; 7, 37; 8, 22, 

Spitfiu, priest, Dk. VII, 6, 12. 
Sritak=Thritak, man, Zs. 13, 6. 
Srit6, hero, Int. 8, 15, 55 ; Dk. VII, 

2,63,64; 8, 2, 3, 5, 7-9, 11, 

13; Zs. 12, 10, 12-14, 16, 18, 

20, 22, 24, 25. 


Srito, woman, Zs. 2% 11. 
Sr8b8var, snake, Dk. VII, 1, 32. 
Sr8sb, angel, Dk. VII, 3, 17 ; Zs. 

Srutv6k-spa*ak, priest, Dk. VII, 7, 

8, 10. 
S<Wkar nask, Int. 44. 
Surak, land, Zs. 20, 4 n. 

Sen6v, priest, Int. 9, 54, 55 ; Dk. 
VII, 7> 6; Zs. 28, 11. 

Tabaristan, land, Dk. VII, 7, 14 n. 
Takhm3rup, king, Int. 48, 55 ; Dk. 

VII, 1,195 V, 1>8; 4,3. 
Talmud, MS., Dk. V, 1, 2 n. 
Tanapfihar, sin, Dk. VII, 4, 19, 20. 
Tanvasar, priest, Int. 9, 62 ; Dk. 

VII, 7, 14, 17, 18. 
Tass, man, Dk. VII, 1, 34. 
Te^end, r., Zs. 22, 7 n. 
Ten admonitions, MS., Zs. 24, 10- 

Tbritak, man, Dk. VII, 2, 70. 
Tutar, star, Dk. VII, 2, 38 n. 
TS.pan, r., Zs. 22, 7. 
Trojan war, Int. 71. 
T6g, prince, Dk. VII, 1, 30. 
Tflmasp, prince, Dk. VII, 1, 31. 
Tflr, land, Dk. VII, 1, 31, 39. 
— = Turanian, Int. 6, 47 ; Dk. VII, 

4, 6-10, 14-16, 20; 5, 12 n; 

11, 3 ; V, 3, 2 ; Zs. 16, 3, 4 5 
17,6; 20,8. 

TMn, land, Dk. VII, 2, 62 ; Zs. 

12, 8, 9. 

Turanian, Dk. VII, 2, 9 n, 63, 68 ; 
3, 28 ; 7, 19 ; 9, 13 ; Zs. 12, 17. 
Turkish demons, Dk. VII, 8, 47. 

Vrugadhasp, man, Dk. VII, 2, 7°. 

Usikhsh, Int. 3a 

UspSsnu, man, Dk. VII, 8, 12 n. 

Va</ak, woman, Dk. VII, 2, 64 ; Zs. 

12, 13. 
Vadast=Va8dv8ut, Zs. 16, 3- 
Vaedist, man, Dk. VII, 2, 70; Zs. 

13, 6. 

Vaedv6bt, karap, Int. 6, 47; Dk. 

VII, 2, 9 n; 4,21,23,24. 
Viegere*/, prince, Int. 3 ; Dk. VII, 

I,i6; V,4,2. 
Vakgir, land, Dk. VII, 1, 39. 
VanSfravlrn, man, Dk. VII, 2, 70. 
Varahran fire, Zs. 22, 7. 
Vars, hair, Dk. VII, 4, 85. 

Digitized by 




Vantmansar nask, Int. 10. 

Verethraghna, angel, Int 30. 

Vidaifofsh, region, Dk. VII, 6, ia n. 

Vidrafr, wizard, Dk. VII, 4, 77 n. 

Vigirhu-J-'i D&rfg, MS., Dk. VII, 2, 
70 n. 

Virafsang, man, Dk. VII, 1, 34 n. 

Visperad, MS., Int. 3. 

Vtsraps, tribe, Dk. VII, 6, 2, 7, 9, 
11 ; Zs. 12, ion. 

Virtasp, king, Int. 6-10, 14, 19, 29, 
47,49,52,55,7o; Dk.VII, 1, 
2; 2, 9 n; 3, 31; 4, 63-67, 
<59-7i, 74-76, 83-85, 89, 90; 
6,1,2,6,7, 12; 6, 1,2,5,6,8, 
1 in, 12-1457, 1, 2,5 n, 38, 39; 
V, 2, 8, 10 ; 3, 1 ; Zs. 16, 12, 
13 ; 23, 5, 7- 

Vivang,ha, man, Dk. VII, 1, 20 ; 2, 
70 ; Zs. 13, 6. 

Vizak, woman, Dk. VII, 2, 70; Zs. 
13, 6. 

Vohflman8, angel, Int. 5, 16, 55 ; 
Dk.VII,l, 4; 2,17,19,24-26, 
*9, 33; 3, 17,22,26,51,52,54, 
56, 58-60, 62 ; 4, 29, 57, 74, 75, 
78; 7, 19; V,2, 5, 9; Zs. 14, 
9-12; 16,9; 20,3; 21,8, 11, 
1 2 ; 22, 3, 6 n. 

— king, Int 9, 55 5 Dk.VII, 7, 5. 
Vohfin&m, man, Int. 55 ; Zs. 23, 8, 

Vahu-ro*6, man, Dk.VII, 8, 55; 9, 

18 ; 10, 15. 
Vologeses I, king, Int. 88, 89. 

— Ill, king, Int. 61, 88. 

Wilson's Parsi Religion, Int. 31. 
Witch, Dk. VII, 1, 19 ; 5, 8 ; V, 2, 

x • 2s 1*7 a. 
Witchcraft, Dk. VII, 2, 6, 7, 63 ; 3, 

4, 8; 4,72; 6, 8; 8, 6. 
Wizard, Dk. VII, 1, 19, 3,, 39 ; 2, 

8, 53, 54, 66; 3, 5, 42-44; 8, 

29 ; V, 2, 3, 4, 8 ; Zs. 14, 3, 13, 

Wrath, demon, Int. 16. 

Xanthus of Lydia, Int. 71. 
Xerxes, king, Int. 71, 73. 

YaAar-i Zartrln, MS., Dk. VII, 4, 

77 n, 86 n. 
Yatha-ahu-vairy6, Dk. VII, 1, 4 n, 

12 n; 4,41,56,61. 

Yazdakan/I, king, Int. 64, 66, 87, 
88 n. 

— II and III, kings, Int. 58, 61. 

Yim, king, Int. 55 ; Dk.VII, 1, 20- 
22, 24, 25, 26 n, 32, 36 ; 2, 21, 
59-61,70; 9,4; V,l, 8; 2,2, 
9; 4,3; Zs. 13, 5, 6; 15, an. 

Yimak, princess, Zs. 15, 2 n. 

Yim's enclosure, Int. 11. 

Yffcyast, meas., Dk. VII, 8, 16, 45. 

Za</-sparam, priest, Int. 15, 25 ; Zs. 

12, o n. 
Zigh, man, Dk. VII, 6, 1 1 n. 
Zainigiv, prince, Dk. VII, 1, 34 n. 
Zak, karap, Dk. VII, 2, 9 n ; 4, 64, 


Zand, Int. 37 ; Dk. VII, 8, 22, 365 

Zarathurtra, apostle, Int 30; Dk. 

Zaratdrt, apostle, Int. 1-4, 6-8, 10, 
i5-»7, 19, ao, 29, 32-43,46-50, 
52, 55, 61, 70-75, 77, 78 ; Dk. 
VII, 1, 3, 34, 43, 5« J 2, 2, 3, 
9«, 10, 14, 15-22, 24 n, 27, 29, 
36-40, 42, 43, 46, 47, 52, 53, 56, 
60, 61, 64, 68-70; 3, 1 n, 4, 
5, 7-9, "-16, 20, 22, 32, 33, 36, 
38-43, 46, 51, 54, 57, 59, 61, 
62 ; 4, 3-6, 11, 12, 14, 16-19, 
22-27, 29-31, 33-36, 38,40-43, 
45, 47-49, 51-55, 57, 58, 60, 61, 
63, 64, 66, 67, 69, 70, 72-74, 86, 
90; 5,1,2,4-8; 6, 1, 12, 13; 
7, 2, 14, 18, 19, 22, 29, 33-35, 
37 ; 8, 1, 24, 25, 27, 29, 36, 38, 
40, 42, 43, 48, 50, 51, 55, 56, 59 ; 
9, 1, 6, 18, 19; 10, 15; V.l, 
7 ; 2, 1 ; 8, 1, 2, 4 ; Zs. 12, 6, 
7; 13, 1,4-6; 14, 1, a, 8, 12, 
15; 15, i, 3, 4-6; 16, 1-4, 6, 
7,9-13; 17,»,6; 18, 2, 3, 6, 
7; 19,2,4-7; 20,2,5,9, ii- 
iS, 16; 21, 2, 3, 5-9, 11, 12, 14, 
»5, 17,245 22, 2,3,6-12, 13 n ; 
23, 1, 7-11, 13. 

Zaratdrt of the Spitamas, Dk. VII, 
1,2,8,41,43,44; 2,67,685 3, 
55, 56, 58, 60; 4, 15, 32, 39, 
59, 75, 79, 81, 82, 86, 89 ; 5, 3 ; 
7,28; 8,23,31, 32, 34; V, 1, 
7 ; Zs. 12, 12 ; 21, 10. 

Zaratftrt, priest, Int 64, 66, 70, 88. 

Zaratust-namak of Zs., contents* 
Int 15-19 ; MSS., Int 24. 

Digitized by 




Zaratfbtship, Dk. V, 4, 6. 

Zarir, prince, Dk. VII, 4, 77 n ; V, 

a, 12. 
Zarturt Bahrain Pazdfl, writer, Int. 

3», 43, 4«- 
Zartart-namah, Persian, Int. 31, 45, 

46 ; Dk. VII, 4, 70 n ; 5, n n ; 

contents, Int. 31-44. 
Zbaurvant, man, Dk. VII, 7, u n. 
Zend, r., Zs. 22, 7 n. 
Z6u, man, Dk. VII, 2, 3, 4. 

ZSndak, r., Zs. 22, 7 n. 
Zoroaster, Int. 74, 75. 
Zoroastrian epoch, Int. 52. 
— legends, Int. 14, sc, 37, 5'. 59 5 

scattered in other Pahl. texts, 

Int. 39; in At., Int. 30, 31. 
Z8ti, priest, Dk. VII, 8, 8. 
Zrayang,hau, priest, Dk. VII, 7, 8, 

Zusak, man, Dk. VII, 2, 70; Zs. 



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