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The New York Public Library 

Astor, Lenox & Tilden Foundations 

+ * ■* 

The R. Heber Newton 



Presented by His Children 


* 1931 * 



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THE NEW Y r ;:< 


a.-:tor, lenc y ai d 

R 1981 X. 




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The Buddha-atarita of Ajtvaghosha: Books I-XV1I 

Index of Proper Names .... 

Notes and Corrections .... 

Translated by E. B. Cowell. 



i. The Larger Sukhavati-vyuha . 

Index of Words .... 

Index of Subjects 
a. The Smaller Sukhavati-vyuha . 

Index of Names and Subjects 

Index of Sanskrit Words . 


4. The Larger Prac^a-paramita-ha/daya-sOtra 

5. The Smaller Prag£a-paramita-havdaya-sutra 

Index of Names and Subjects . 
Index of Sanskrit Words . 

Translated by F. Max MOller. 

6. The Amitayur-dhyana-sutra 

Index of Names and Subjects . 

Translated by J. Takakusu. 












Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the 
Translations of the Sacred Books of the East . 


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[_AU rights reserved] 

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The Sanskrit text of the Buddha-£arita was published 
at the beginning of last year in the ' Anecdota Oxoniensia,' 
and the following English translation is now included in 
the series of ' Sacred Books of the East.' It is an early 
Sanskrit poem written in India on the legendary history 
of Buddha, and therefore contains much that is of interest 
for the history of Buddhism, beside its special import- 
ance as illustrating the early history of classical Sanskrit 

It is ascribed to Arvaghosha ; and, although there were 
several writers who bore that name, it seems most probable 
that our author was the contemporary and spiritual adviser 
of Kanishka in the first century of our era. Hiouen 
Thsang, who left India in A.D. 645, mentions him with 
Deva, Nagarg-una, and Kumaralabdha, 'as the four suns 
which illumine the world 1 ;' but our fullest account is 
given by I-tsing, who visited India in 673. He states that 
Arvaghosha was an ancient author who composed the 
Ala/«kara-.?astra and the Buddha-£arita-kavya, — the latter 
work being of course the present poem. Beside these 
two works he also composed the hymns in honour of 
Buddha and the three holy beings Amitabha, Avalokite- 
jvara, and Mahasthama, which were chanted at the evening 
service of the monasteries. ' In the five countries of India 
and in the countries of the Southern ocean they recite 
these poems, because they express a store of ideas and 
meaning in a few words 2 .' A solitary stanza (VIII, 13) is 

' Jnlien's Translation, vol. ii, p. 314. 

* See M. Fujishanoa, Journal Asi«tiqne, 1888, p. 425. 

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quoted from the Buddha-£arita in Rayamuku/a's commen- 
tary on the Amarakosha I, i. i, a, and also by U^jfvala- 
datta in his commentary on the Uwadi-sutras I, 156 ; and 
five stanzas are quoted as from Arvaghosha in Vallabha- 
deva's Subhashitavali, which bear a great resemblance to 
his style, though they are not found in the extant portion 
of this poem 1 . 

The Buddha-£arita was translated into Chinese 3 by 
Dharmaraksha in the fifth century, and a translation of 
this was published by the Rev. S. Beal in the present 
series ; it was also translated into Tibetan in the seventh 
or eighth century. The Tibetan as well as the Chinese 
version consists of twenty-eight chapters, and carries down 
the life of Buddha to his entrance into Nirvana and the 
subsequent division of the sacred relics. The Tibetan 
version appears to be much closer to the original Sanskrit 
than the Chinese ; in fact from its verbal accuracy we can 
often reproduce the exact words of the original, since 
certain Sanskrit words are always represented by the same 
Tibetan equivalents, as for instance the prepositions pre- 
fixed to verbal roots. I may here express an earnest hope 
that we may still ere long have an edition and translation 
of the Tibetan version, if some scholar can be found to 
complete Dr. Wenzel's unfinished labour. He had devoted 
much time and thought to the work ; I consulted him 
in several of my difficulties, and it is from him that I 
derived all my information about the Tibetan renderings. 
This Tibetan version promises to be of great help in 
restoring the many corrupt readings which still remain in 
our faulty Nepalese MSS. 

Only thirteen books of the Sanskrit poem claim to be 
Asvaghosha's composition; the last four books are an 
attempt by a modern Nepalese author to supply the loss 
of the original. He tells us this honestly in the colophon, 

1 Professor Peterson has remarked that two stanzas out of the five occur in 
Bhartrihari's Nltwataka. 

' We have for the present classed the Buddha-Aarita with the Mahiyana 
Sutras in default of more exact information. 

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— 'having searched for them everywhere and not found 
them, four cantos have been made by me, Amr/tananda, — 
the fourteenth, fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth.' He 
adds the date 950 of the Nepalese era, corresponding to 
1830 A.D.; and we have no difficulty in identifying the 
author. Ra^endralal Mitra in his 'Nepalese Buddhist 
Literature' mentions Amrttananda as the author of two 
Sanskrit treatises and one in Newart; he was probably 
the father of the old pa«rfit of the Residency at Kktm&ndu, 
Gunananda, whose son Indrananda holds the office at 
present Dr. D. Wright informs me that the family seem 
to have been the recognised historians of the country, and 
keepers of the MS. treasures of sundry temples. The four 
books are included in this translation as an interesting 
literary curiosity. The first portion of the fourteenth 
book agrees partly with the Tibetan and Chinese, and 
Amrttananda may have had access to some imperfect 
copy of this portion of the original ; but after that his 
account is quite independent, and has no relation to the 
two versions. 

In my preface to the edition of the Sanskrit text I have 
tried to show that Axvaghosha's poem appears to have 
exercised an important influence on the succeeding poets 
of the classical period in India. When we compare the 
description in the seventh book of the Raghuvawwa of the 
ladies of the city crowding to see prince A^a as he passes 
by from the Svayawvara where the princess Bhcgya has 
chosen him as her husband, with the episode in the third 
book of the Buddha-£arita (jlokas 13-24); or the description 
of Kama's assault on Siva in the Kumarasambhava with that 
of Mara's temptation of Buddha in the thirteenth book, we 
can hardly fail to trace some connection. There is a 
similar resemblance between the description in the fifth 
book of the Ramayawa, where the monkey Hanumat 
enters Ravawa's palace by night, and sees his wives asleep 
in the seraglio and their various unconscious attitudes, and 
the description in the fifth book of the present poem where 
Buddha on the night of his leaving his home for ever sees 
the same unconscious sight in his own palace. Nor may 

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we forget that in the Ramayawa the description is merely 
introduced as an ornamental episode ; in the Buddhist poem 
it is an essential element in the story, as it supplies the final 
impulse which stirs the Bodhisattva to make his escape 
from the world. These different descriptions became after- 
wards commonplaces in Sanskrit poetry, like the catalogue 
of the ships in Greek or Roman epics ; but they may very 
well have originated in connection with definite incidents 
in the Buddhist sacred legend. 

The Sanskrit MSS. of Nepal are always negligently 
transcribed and abound with corrupt passages, which it is 
often very difficult to detect and restore. My printed text 
leaves many obscure lines which will have to be cleared up 
hereafter by .more skilful emendations. I have given in the 
notes to the translation some further emendations of my 
own, and I have also added several happy conjectures 
which continental scholars have kindly suggested to me 
by letter ; and I gladly take this opportunity of adding in 
a foot-note some which I received too late to insert in their 
proper places \ 

I have endeavoured to make my translation intelligible 
to the English reader, but many of the verses in the 
original are very obscure. Ajvaghosha employs all the 
resources of Hindu rhetoric (as we might well expect if 
I-tsing is right in ascribing to him an ' alawkara-jastra '), 
and it is often difficult to follow his subtil turns of thought 
and remote allusions ; but many passages no doubt owe 
their present obscurity to undetected mistakes in the text 
of our MSS. In the absence of any commentary (except 
so far as the diffuse Chinese translation and occasional 
reference to the Tibetan have supplied the want) I have 
been necessarily left to my own resources, and I cannot 
fail to have sometimes missed my author's meaning, 
Prawwulabhye phale mohad udbahur iva vamanaA ; 

1 Dr. tod Boehtlingk suggests 'sau^i vUaHra'in VIII, 3, and ' vila/wba- 
keiyo' in VIII, 21, — two certain emendations. Professor Kielhom would read 
' nabhagy era ' in XIII, 47 for ' nayaty eva,' and ' tatraiva nisfnam rtshim ' in 
XIII, 50. Professor Biihler would read ' priyatanayas tanayasya' in I, 87, and 
' na tatya^a ka. ' in IV, 80. 

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but I have tried to do my best, and no one will welcome 
more cordially any light which others may throw on the 
passages which I have misunderstood. 

The edition of the original text was dedicated to my old 
friend Professor F. Max Miiller, and it is a sincere gratifi- 
cation to me that this translation will appear in the same 
volume with similar translations from his pen. 

.-, K. B. C« 

Cambridge : 

Feb. i, 1894. 

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i. That Arhat is here saluted, who has no 
counterpart, — who, as bestowing the supreme hap- 
piness, surpasses (Brahman) the Creator, — who, as 
driving away darkness, vanquishes the sun, — and, 
as dispelling all burning heat, surpasses the beautiful 

2. There was a city, the dwelling-place 1 of the 
great saint Kapila, having its sides surrounded by 
the beauty of a lofty broad table-land as by a line of 
clouds, and itself, with its high-soaring palaces 2 , 
immersed in the sky. 

3. By its pure and lofty system of government it, 
as it were, stole the splendour of the clouds of 
Mount Kailasa, and while it bore the clouds which 
came to it through a mistake, it fulfilled the imagina- 
tion which had led them thither 3 . 

4. In that city, shining with the splendour of 
gems, darkness like poverty could find no place; 

1 Vastu seems used here for vastu. ' Dhishnya. 

j, 1 They had thought that it was Kailasa. 

O] B 

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prosperity shone resplendently, as with a smile, from 
the joy of dwelling with such surpassingly excellent 

5. With its festive arbours, its arched gateways 
and pinnacles \ it was radiant with jewels in every 
dwelling ; and unable to find any other rival in the 
world, it could only feel emulation with its own 

6. There the sun, even although he had retired, 
was unable to scorn the moon-like faces of its women 
which put the lotuses to shame, and as if from the 
access of passion, hurried towards the western ocean 
to enter the (cooling) water. 

7. 'Yonder Indra has been utterly annihilated by 
the people when they saw the glories 8 acquired 
by the .Sakyas,' — uttering this scoff, the city strove 
by its banners with gay-fluttering streamers to wipe 
away every mark of his existence. 

8. After mocking the water-lilies even at night 
by the moonbeams which rest on its silver pavi- 
lions, — by day it assumed the brightness of the 
lotuses through the sunbeams falling on its golden 

9. A king, by name .Suddhodana, of the kindred 
of the sun, anointed to stand at the head of earth's 
monarchs, — ruling over the city, adorned it, as a 
bee-inmate a full-blown lotus 8 . 

10. The very best of kings with his train ever 

1 Or towers? (simhakarnaiA). 

1 For the genitive yaj asam, see Pan. II, 3. 52 (adhfgartha). 

* Va is used for iva in .Sirup. Badha, III, 63, IV, 35 ; Meghad. 
82. (Cf. infra, IV, 44.) Puradhira^ am seems used adverbially. 
Cf. the line in Vikramorv. kusumany a jerate sha/pad&A. Could 
it mean ' as a thought the lotus of the heart?' 

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BOOK I, 5-I5. 

near him \ — intent on liberality yet devoid of pride 8 ; 
a sovereign, yet with an ever equal eye thrown on 
all 8 , — of gentle nature and yet with wide-reaching 
majesty 4 . 

11. Falling smitten by his arm in the arena of 
battle, the lordly elephants of his enemies bowed 
prostrate with their heads pouring forth quantities 
of pearls as if they were offering handfuls of flowers 
in homage. 

12. Having dispersed his enemies by his pre- 
eminent majesty as the sun disperses the gloom of 
an eclipse, he illuminated his people on every side, 
showing them the paths which they were to follow. 

1 3. Duty, wealth, and pleasure under his guidance 
assumed mutually each other's object, but not the 
outward dress ; yet as if they still vied together 
they shone all the brighter in the glorious career of 
their triumphant success. 

14. He, the monarch of the .Sakyas, of native 
pre-eminence, but whose actual pre-eminence was 
brought about by his numberless councillors of 
exalted wisdom, shone forth all the more gloriously, 
like the moon amidst the stars shining with a light 
like its own 6 . 

15. To him there was a queen, named Maya, as if 
free from all deceit (maya) — an effulgence proceeding 

1 Also ' though the highest of mountains, yet bearing his wings 

' Or if applied to an elephant, 'not in rut.' 

' Or with a double meaning in Ua, ' though like .Siva, yet with 
even eyes,' i. e. not three. 

4 Or ' like the moon, yet widely burning (like the sun).' 

' Or perhaps ' shining with undiminished splendour.' If we read 
akrz't £n y athabhaA it would run, 'shining with its light undimmed 
by the stars.' 

B 2 

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from his effulgence, like the splendour of the sun 
when it is free from all the influence of darkness, — 
a chief queen in the united assembly of all queens. 

1 6. Like a mother to her subjects, intent on their 
welfare, — devoted to all worthy of reverence like 
devotion itself, — shining on her lord's family like the 
goddess of prosperity, — she was the most eminent of 
goddesses to the whole world. 

1 7. Verily the life of women is always darkness, 
yet when it encountered her, it shone brilliantly; 
thus the night does not retain its gloom, when it 
meets with the radiant crescent of the moon. 

18. 'This people, being hard to be roused to 
wonder in their souls, cannot be influenced by me if 
I come to them as beyond their senses,' — so saying, 
Duty abandoned her own subtile nature and made 
her form visible. 

19. Then falling from the host of beings in the 
Tushita heaven 1 , and illumining the three worlds, 
the most excellent of Bodhisattvas suddenly entered 
at a thought into her womb, like the Naga-king 
entering the cave of Nanda. 

20. Assuming the form of a huge elephant white 
like Himalaya, armed with six tusks 2 , with his face 
perfumed with flowing ichor, he entered the womb 
of the queen of king .Suddhodana, to destroy the 
evils of the world. 

21. The guardians of the world hastened from 
heaven to mount watch over the world's one true 
ruler; thus the moonbeams, though they shine 

1 For tushitat kayat, .cf. tushite devanikaya upapannft, 
Diryfivad. p. 83 ; and tushitakayika, Lalitav. p. 142. 
1 Cf. the Pali Maddanto, and the Lalitav. sharfdanta. 

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BOOK I, l6-28. 

everywhere, are especially bright on Mount Kai- 

22. Maya also, holding him in her womb, like a 
line of clouds holding a lightning-flash, relieved the 
people around her from the sufferings of poverty by 
raining showers of gifts. 

23. Then one day by the king's permission the 
queen, having a great longing in her mind, went 
with the inmates of the gynaeceum into the garden 

24. As the queen supported herself by a bough 
which hung laden with a weight of flowers, the 
Bodhisattva suddenly came forth, cleaving open 
her womb. 

25. * At that time the constellation Pushya was 
auspicious, and from the side of the queen, who was 
purified by her vow, her son was born for the 
welfare of the world, without pain and without 

26. Like the sun bursting from a cloud in the 
morning, — so he too, when he was born from his 
mother's womb, made the world bright like gold, 
bursting forth with his rays which dispelled the 

27. As soon as he was born the thousand-eyed 
(Indra) well-pleased took him gently, bright like a 
golden pillar ; and two pure streams of water fell 
down from heaven upon his head with piles of 
Mandara flowers. 

28. Carried about by the chief suras, and delighting 
them with the rays that streamed from his body, he 

1 From this point the Tibetan and Chinese versions agree more 
or less closely with the Sanskrit text. 

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surpassed in beauty the new moon as it rests on a 
mass of evening clouds. 

29. As was Aurva's birth from the thigh 1 , and 
Pnthu's from the hand *, and MindhatWs, who was 
like Indra himself, from the forehead 8 , and Kakshl- 
vat's from the upper end of the arm 4 , — thus too 
was his birth (miraculous). 

30. Having thus in due time issued from the 
womb, he shone as if he had come down from 
heaven, he who had not been born in the natural 
way, — he who was born full of wisdom, not foolish, — 
as if his mind had been purified by countless aeons 
of contemplation. 

31. With glory, fortitude, and beauty he shone 
like the young sun descended upon the earth ; when 
he was gazed at, though of such surpassing bright- 
ness, he attracted all eyes like the moon. 

32. With the radiant splendour of his limbs he 
extinguished like the sun the splendour of the lamps; 
with his beautiful hue as of precious gold he illu- 
minated all the quarters of space. 

33. Unflurried, with the lotus-sign in high relief*, 
far-striding, set down with a stamp, — seven such 
firm footsteps did he then take, — he .who was like 
the constellation of the seven rhhis. 

34. ' I am born for supreme knowledge, for the 
welfare of the world, — thus this is my last birth,' — 

1 Mahabh. I, 2610. * Vishwu Pur. I, 13. 

* According to the Mahabh. Ill, L 10450, he was born from his 
father's left side, but cf. Vishwu Pur. IV, 2. 

4 The MSS. vary between bhug&msa. and bhu^amsa; we might 
conjecture bhu^agradejat, but bhugimszdes&t is the only 
reading in V, 56. Beal I, 10 has ' the armpit.' 

* Ab^asamudgatani. Cf. Beal I, 16, note. 

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BOOK I, 29-4O. 

thus did he of lion gait, gazing at the four quarters, 
utter a voice full of auspicious meaning. 

35. Two streams of water bursting from heaven, 
bright as the moon's rays, having the power of heat 
and cold, fell down upon that peerless one's benign 
head to give refreshment to his body. 

36. His body lay on a bed with a royal canopy 
and a frame shining with gold, and supported by 
feet of lapis lazuli, and in his honour the yaksha- 
lords stood round guarding him with golden lotuses 
in their hands. 

37. The gods in homage to the son of Maya, 
with their heads bowed at his majesty, held up a 
white umbrella in the sky and muttered the highest 
blessings on his supreme wisdom. 

38. The great dragons 1 in their great thirst for 
the Law*, — they who had had the privilege of 
waiting on the past Buddhas, — gazing with eyes of 
intent devotion, fanned a him and strewed Mandara 
flowers over him. 

39. Gladdened through the influence of the birth 
of the Tathagata, the gods of pure natures and 
inhabiting pure abodes * were filled with joy, though 
all passion was extinguished, for the sake of the 
world * drowned in sorrow. 

40. When he was born, the earth, though 
fastened down by (Himalaya) the monarch of 
mountains, shook like a ship tossed by the wind; 
and from a cloudless sky there fell a shower full of 
lotuses and water-lilies, and perfumed with sandal- 

1 MahoragiA. * Cf. infra, floka 54. 

' Avya^an. * Suddhadhivas&A. 

' Reading hit ay a. 

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41. Pleasant breezes blew soft to the touch, 
dropping down heavenly garments ; the very sun, 
though still the same, shone with augmented light, 
and fire gleamed, unstirred, with a gentle lustre. 

42. In the north-eastern part of the dwelling a 
well of pure water appeared of its own accord, 
wherein the inhabitants of the gynaeceum, filled 
with wonder, performed their rites as in a sacred 

43. Through the troops of heavenly visitants, who 
came seeking religious merit, the pool itself received 
strength to behold Buddha, and by means of its 
trees bearing flowers and perfumes it eagerly offered 
him worship. 

44. The flowering trees at once produced their 
blossoms, while their fragrance was borne aloft in all 
directions by the wind, accompanied by the songs of 
bewildered female bees, while the air was inhaled 
and absorbed by the many snakes (gathering 
near) K 

45. Sometimes there resounded 2 on both sides 
songs mingled with musical instruments and tabours, 
and lutes also, drums, tambourines, and the rest, — 
from women adorned with dancing bracelets. 

46. ' 8 That royal law which neither Bhrtgu nor 
Angiras ever made, those two great seers the 
founders of families, their two sons iSukra and 
Wzhaspati left revealed at the end. 

1 Serpents are called v&yubhaksha. See Ind. Sprtiche, III, 
4738, and Raghuvawwa XIII, 12. Cf. also infra, VII, 15. 

' Vira^itam, 'it was manifested by.' Can tat mean 'then' or 

* We learn from jloka 52 that this is a speech uttered by the 
Brahmans of the court. 

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BOOK I, 4I-53. 9 

47. 'Yea, the son of Sarasvatl 1 proclaimed that 
lost Veda which they had never seen in former 
ages, — Vyisa rehearsed that in many forms, which 
V&rishMa helpless could not compile ; 

48. 'The voice ofValmtki uttered its poetry which 
the great seer A'yavana could not compose; and 
that medicine which Atri never invented the wise 
son of Atri * proclaimed after him ; 

49. 'That Brahmanhood which Kuaka never 
attained, — his son, O king, found out the means to 
gain it; (so) Sagara made a bound for the ocean, 
which even the Ikshvakus had not fixed before 

50. ' Ganaka attained a power of instructing the 
twice-born in the rules of Yoga which none other 
had ever reached 8 ; and the famed feats of the 
grandson of .Sura* (Krishna) .Sura and his peers were 
powerless to accomplish. 

51. ' Therefore it is not age nor years which are 
the criterion ; different persons win pre-eminence in 
the world at different places ; those mighty exploits 
worthy of kings and sages, when left undone by the 
ancestors, have been done by the sons.' 

52. The king, being thus consoled and congratu- 
lated by those well-trusted Brahmans, dismissed 
from his mind all unwelcome suspicion and rose to 
a still higher degree of joy ; 

53. And well-pleased he gave to those most 
excellent of the twice-born rich treasures with att 

1 The Vistora Par. (Ill, 3) says that S&rasvata arranged the 
Vedas in the ninth age, as Varish/fa in the eighth. 

* Atreya is the proclaimer of the .A'araka-samhila. 

* Cf. JT^ndogya Upan. V, 3, 7. 
4 Read 5aureA for .SauraiA. 

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due honour, — ' May he become the ruler of the earth 
according to your words, and may he retire to the 
woods when he attains old age.' 

54. Then having learned by signs and through 
the power of his penances this birth of him who was 
to destroy all birth, the great seer Asita in his thirst 
for the excellent Law * came to the palace of the 
*Sakya king. 

55. Him shining with the glory of sacred know- 
ledge and ascetic observances, the king's own priest, 
— himself a special student among the students of 
sacred knowledge, — introduced into the royal palace 
with all due reverence and respect. 

56. He entered into the precincts of the king's 
gynaeceum, which was all astir with the joy arisen 
from the birth of the young prince, — grave from his 
consciousness of power, his pre-eminence in asceticism, 
and the weight of old age. 

57. Then the king, having duly honoured the 
sage, who was seated in his seat, with water for the 
feet and an arghya offering, invited him (to speak) 
with all ceremonies of respect, as did Antideva * in 
olden time to Varish/Aa : 

58. ' I am indeed fortunate, this my family is the 
object of high favour, that thou shouldst have come 
to visit me ; be pleased to command what I should 
do, O benign one; I am thy disciple, be pleased to 
show thy confidence in me.' 

59. The sage, being thus invited by the king, 
filled with intense feeling as was due, uttered his 

1 Cf. *loka38a. 

* See IX, 20, 60. C reads Atideva, i. e. Indra f [The Tibetan 
reads Antadeva, ' in the end dwelling god ' or ' end having god.' 
H. W.] 

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BOOK I, 54-66. II 

deep and solemn words, having his large eyes opened 
wide with wonder : 

60. ' This is indeed worthy of thee, great-souled 
as thou art, fond of guests, liberal and a lover of 
duty, — that thy mind should be thus kind towards 
me, in full accordance with thy nature, family, 
wisdom, and age. 

61. ' This is the true way in which those seer- 
kings of old, rejecting through duty all trivial riches 1 , 
have ever flung them away as was right, — being 
poor in outward substance but rich in ascetic 

62. ' But hear now the motive for my coming and 
rejoice thereat ; a heavenly voice has been heard by 
me in the heavenly path, that thy son has been born 
for the sake of supreme knowledge. 

63. ' Having heard that voice and applied my 
mind thereto, and having known its truth by signs, 
I am now come hither, with a longing to see the 
banner of the 6akya race, as if it were Indra's banner 
being set up V 

64. Having heard this address of his, the king, 
with his steps bewildered with joy, took the prince, 
who lay on his nurse's side, and showed him to the 
holy ascetic. 

65. Thus the great seer beheld the king's son 
with wonder, — his foot marked with a wheel, his 
fingers and toes webbed, with a circle of hair be- 
tween his eyebrows, and signs of vigour like an 

66. Having beheld him seated on his nurse's side, 

1 Or 'all riches which were trifling in comparison with duty.' 
* In allusion to a festival in parts of India ; cf. Schol. Raghu- 
vaawa I v > 3- (Cf- Mrs. Guthrie's Year in an Indian Fort, voL ii.) 

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like the son of Agni (Skanda) seated on Devi's side, 
he stood with the tears hanging on the ends of 
his eyelashes 1 , and sighing he looked up towards 

67. But seeing Asita with his eyes thus filled with 
tears, the king was agitated through his love for his 
son, and with his hands clasped and his body bowed 
he thus asked him in a broken voice choked with 

68. 'One whose beauty has little to distinguish 
it from that of a divine sage 2 , and whose brilliant 
birth has been so wonderful, and for whom thou 
hast prophesied a transcendent future, — wherefore, 
on seeing him, do tears come to thee, O reverend 
one ? 

69. ' Is the prince, O holy man, destined to a long 
life ? Surely he cannot be born for my sorrow 8 . 
I have with difficulty obtained a handful of water, 
surely it is not death which comes to drink it. 

70. 'Tell me, is the hoard of my fame free from 
destruction? Is this chief prize of my family secure ? 
Shall I ever depart happily to another life, — I who 
keep one eye ever awake, even when my son is 
asleep * ? 

71. 'Surely this young shoot of my family is not 
born barren, destined only to wither! Speak quickly, 
my lord, I cannot wait ; thou well knowest the 
love of near kindred for a son.' 

72. Knowing the king to be thus agitated through 
his fear of some impending evil, the sage thus ad- 

1 I adopt Prof. Kielhorn's suggestion, pakshm&ntavilambi- 
tibruA. (Ad£ita might mean ' curved on his eyelashes.') 

* Or, reading mune, 'one whose age is so small, O sage.' 

* Ka££innajok&ya mama prasutaA. ' Obscure. 

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BOOK I, 67-78. 13 

dressed him: 'Let not thy mind, O monarch, be 
disturbed, — all that I have said is certainly true 1 . 

73. 'I have no feeling of fear as to his being 
subject to change, but I am distressed for mine own 
disappointment. It is my time to depart, and this 
child is now born, — he who knows that mystery 
hard to attain, the means of destroying birth. 

74. ' Having forsaken his kingdom, indifferent to 
all worldly objects, and having attained the highest 
truth by strenuous efforts, he will shine forth as a sun 
of knowledge to destroy the darkness of illusion 
in the world. 

75. 'He will deliver by the boat of knowledge the 
distressed world, borne helplessly along, from the 
ocean of misery which throws up sickness as its 
foam, tossing with the waves of old age, and rushing 
with the dreadful onflow of death. 

76. ' The thirsty world of living beings will drink 
the flowing stream of his Law, bursting forth with 
the water of wisdom, enclosed by the banks of strong 
moral rules, delightfully cool with contemplation, 
and filled with religious vows as with ruddy geese. 

77. ' He will proclaim the way of deliverance to 
those afflicted with sorrow, entangled in objects of 
sense, and lost in the forest-paths of worldly exist- 
ence, as to travellers who have lost their way. 

78. ' By the rain of the Law he will give gladness 
to the multitude who are consumed in this world 
with that fire of desire whose fuel is worldly objects, 
as a great cloud does with its showers at the end of 
the hot season. 

' I take asmi as meaning abam (aham ityarthavyayam), or 
should we read asti? 

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79. 'He will break open for the escape of living 
beings that door whose bolt is desire and whose two 
leaves are ignorance and delusion, — with that ex- 
cellent blow of the good Law which is so hard to 

80. ' He, the king of the Law, when he has attained 
to supreme knowledge, will achieve the deliver- 
ance from its bonds of the world now overcome by 
misery, destitute of .every refuge, and enveloped in 
its own chains of delusion. 

81. 'Therefore make no sorrow for him, — that 
belongs rather, kind sire, to the pitiable world of 
human beings, who through illusion or the plea- 
sures of desire or intoxication refuse to hear his 
perfect Law. 

82. 'Therefore since I have fallen short of that 
excellence, though I have accomplished all the 
stages of contemplation, my life is only a failure; 
since 1 have not heard his Law, I count even dwell- 
ing in the highest heaven a misfortune.' 

83. Having heard these words, the king with his 
queen and his friends abandoned sorrow and re- 
joiced; thinking, 'such is this son of mine,' he con- 
sidered that his excellence was his own. 

84. But he let his heart be influenced by the 
thought, ' he will travel by the noble path,' — he was 
not in truth averse to religion, yet still he saw alarm 
at the prospect of losing his child. 

85. Then the sage Asita, having made known the 
real fate which awaited the prince to the king who 
was thus disturbed about his son, departed by the 
way of the wind as he had come, his figure watched 
reverentially in his flight 

86. Having taken his resolution and having seen 

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BOOK I, 79-92. 15 

the son of his younger sister 1 , the saint, filled 
with compassion, enjoined him earnestly in all kinds 
of ways, as if he were his son, to listen to the sage's 
words and ponder over them. 

87. The monarch also, being well-pleased at the 
birth of a son, having thrown off all those bonds 
called worldly objects, caused his son to go through 
the usual birth-ceremonies in a manner worthy of 
the family. 

88. When ten days were fulfilled after his son's 
birth, with his thoughts kept under restraint, and 
filled with excessive joy, he offered for his son most 
elaborate sacrifices to the gods with muttered 
prayers, oblations, and all kinds of auspicious 

89. And he himself gave to the brahmans for his 
son's welfare cows full of milk, with no traces of 
infirmity, golden-horned and with strong healthy 
calves, to the full number of a hundred thousand. 

90. Then he, with his soul under strict restraint, 
having performed all kinds of ceremonies which re- 
joiced his heart, on a fortunate day, in an auspicious 
moment, gladly determined to enter his city. 

91. Then the queen with her babe having wor- 
shipped the gods for good fortune, occupied a costly 
palanquin made of elephants' tusks, filled with all 
kinds of white flowers, and blazing with gems. 

92. Having made his wife with her child * enter 
first into the city, accompanied by the aged attend- 
ants, the king himself also advanced, saluted by the 

1 This was Naradatta, see Lalitavistara, ch. vii. pp. 103, no 

* Apatyan&thim might also mean 'having her child as her 

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hosts of the citizens, as Indra entering heaven, 
saluted by the immortals. 

93. The .Sakya king, having entered his palace, 
like Bhava * well-pleased at the birth of Karttikeya 2 , 
with his face full of joy, gave orders for lavish 
expenditure, showing all kinds of honour and 
liberality 8 . 

94. Thus at the good fortune of the birth of the 
king's son, that city surnamed after Kapila, with 
all the surrounding inhabitants, was full of gladness 
like the city of the lord of wealth 4 , crowded with 
heavenly nymphs, at the birth of his son Nalakftvara. 

1 Sc. .Siva. * Shawmukha. 

* Bahuvidhapush/iyaxaskaram seems used as an adverb to 
vyadhatta, 'he made expenditure.' 
4 Kuvcra. 

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i. From the time of the birth of that son of his, 
who, the true master of himself, was to end all birth 
and old age, the king increased day by day in wealth, 
elephants, horses, and friends as a river increases 
with its influx of waters. 

2. Of different kinds of wealth and jewels, and of 
gold, wrought or unwrought, he found 1 treasures 
of manifold variety a , surpassing even the capacity of 
his desires. 

3. Elephants from Himavat, raging with rut, whom 
not even princes of elephants like Padma 8 could 
teach to go round in circles, came without any effort 
and waited on him. 

4. His city was all astir with the crowds of 
horses, some adorned with various marks and 
decked with new golden trappings, others una- 
dorned and with long flowing manes, — suitable alike 
in strength, gentleness, and costly ornaments 4 . 

5. And many fertile cows, with tall calves, ga- 
thered in his kingdom, well nourished and happy, 

1 I suppose avipi to be used as a middle aorist like abodhi 
(cf. Sirup. I, 3). Should we read avipa ? 

* I take naik&tman as 'of manifold nature.' 

* Mahapadma is the name of the elephant which supports the 
world in the south. 

* I read iptaiA. 

[4»] C 

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gentle and without fierceness, and producing excel- 
lent milk. 

6. His enemies became indifferent; indifference 
grew into friendship; his friends became specially 
united ; were there two sides, — one passed into 

7. Heaven rained in his kingdom in due time 
and place, with the sound of gentle winds and 
clouds, and adorned with wreaths of lightning, 
and without any drawback of showers of stones or 

8. A fruitful crop sprang up according to season, 
even without the labour of ploughing l ; and the 
old plants grew more vigorous in juice and sub- 

9. Even at that crisis which threatens danger to 
the body like the collision of battle, pregnant women 
brought forth in good health, in safety, and without 

10. And whereas men do not willingly ask from 
others, even where a surety's property is available 2 , 
— at that time even one possessed of slender 
means turned not his face away when solicited. 

11. There was no ruin nor murder 8 , — nay, there 
was not even one ungenerous to his kinsmen, no 
breaker of obligations, none untruthful nor in- 
jurious, — as in the days of Yay4ti the son of 

1 2. Those who sought religious merit performed 
sacred works and made gardens, temples, and 

1 Tad&>kr«ten&pi krishiframe»a. 
' I read pratibhvo, though it should be pratibhuvo. 
* Could nasaubadho (C) mean 'there was no murderer of any 

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BOOK II, 6-l8. 19 

hermitages, wells, cisterns, lakes, and groves, hav- 
ing beheld heaven as it were visible before their 

13. The people, delivered from famine, fear, and 
sickness, dwelt happily as in heaven ; and in mutual 
contentment husband transgressed not against wife, 
nor wife against husband. 

14. None pursued love for mere sensual pleasure ; 
none hoarded wealth for the sake of desires ; none 
practised religious duties for the sake of gaining 
wealth ; none injured living beings for the sake of 
religious duty. 

15. On every side theft and its kindred vices 
disappeared ; his own dominion was in peace and at 
rest from foreign interference 1 ; prosperity and plenty 
belonged to him, and the cities in his realm were 
(healthy) like the forests 2 . 

16. When that son was born it was in that 
monarch's kingdom as in the reign of Manu the 
son of the Sun, — gladness went everywhere and 
evil perished; right blazed abroad and sin was 

1 7. Since at the birth of this son of the king such 
a universal accomplishment of all objects took place, 
the king in consequence caused the prince's name to 
be Sarvarthasiddha s . 

18. But the queen Maya, having seen the great 
glory of her new-born son, like some .to'shi of the 

1 The Tibetan seems to have read paraxokamuktam for 

* Cf. VIII, 13. If we read aranyasya we must translate these 
lines, 'the cities in his kingdom seemed part of the forest 
champaign.' This line appears to be untranslated in the Tibetan. 

* He by whom all objects are accomplished. 

C 2 

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gods, could not sustain the joy which it brought; 
and that she might not die she went to heaven. 

19. Then the queen's sister, with an influence like 
a mother's, undistinguished from the real mother in 
her affection or tenderness, brought up as her own 
son the young prince who was like the offspring of 
the gods. 

20. Then like the young sun on the eastern moun- 
tain or the fire when fanned by the wind, the prince 
gradually grew in all due perfection, like the moon 
in the fortnight of brightness. 

21. Then they brought him as presents from 
the houses of his friends costly unguents of sandal- 
wood, and strings of gems exactly like wreaths of 
plants, and little golden carriages yoked with 

22. Ornaments also suitable to his age, and ele- 
phants, deer, and horses made of gold \ carriages 
and oxen decked with rich garments, and carts * gay 
with silver and gold. 

23. Thus indulged with all sorts of such objects 
to please the senses as were suitable to his years, — 
child as he was, he behaved not like a child in gravity, 
purity, wisdom, and dignity. 

24. When he had passed the period of childhood 
and reached that of middle youth, the young prince 
learned in a few days the various sciences suitable 
to his race, which generally took many years to 

25. But having heard before from the great seer 
Asita his destined future which was to embrace 

1 Cf. Satyavat"s toy horses in Mahabh. Ill, 16670. 
* Gamtri has this meaning in the Amarakosha and Hema- 

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BOOK II, 19-31. 21 

transcendental happiness, the anxious care 1 of the 
king of the present .Sakya race turned the prince to 
sensual pleasures. 

26. Then he sought for him from a family of un- 
blemished moral excellence a bride possessed of 
beauty, modesty, and gentle bearing, of wide-spread 
glory, Yaxodhara by name, having a name well 
worthy of her, a very goddess of good fortune. 

27. Then after that the prince, beloved of the 
king his father, he who was like Sanatkumira, re- 
joiced in the society of that .Sakya princess as the 
thousand-eyed (Indra) rejoiced with his bride .Sail. 

28. ' He might perchance see some inauspicious 
sight which could disturb his mind,' — thus reflecting 
the king had a dwelling prepared for him apart from 
the busy press in the recesses of the palace. 

29. Then he spent his time in those royal apart- 
ments, furnished with the delights proper for every 
season, gaily decorated like heavenly chariots upon 
the earth, and bright like the clouds of autumn, 
amidst the splendid musical concerts of singing- 

30. With the softly-sounding tambourines beaten 
by the tips of the women's hands, and ornamented 
with golden rims, and with the dances which were 
like the dances of the heavenly nymphs, that palace 
shone like Mount Kailasa. 

31. There the women delighted him with their 
soft voices, their beautiful pearl-garlands, their play- 
ful intoxication, their sweet laughter, and their stolen 
glances concealed by their brows. 

1 The last p&da seems spurious as it is only found in C. I have 
tried to make some sense by reading buddhiA for vrtddhiA. 

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32. Borne in the arms of these women well-skilled 
in the ways of love, and reckless in the pursuit of 
pleasure, he fell from the roof of a pavilion and yet 
reached not the ground, like a holy sage stepping 
from a heavenly chariot 

33. Meanwhile the king for the sake of ensuring 
his son's prosperity and stirred in heart by the destiny 
which had been predicted for him, delighted himself 
in perfect calm, ceased from all evil, practised all 
self-restraint, and rewarded the good. 

34. He turned to no sensual pleasures like one 
wanting in self-control ; he felt no violent delight in 
any state of birth 1 ; he subdued by firmness the rest- 
less horses of the senses; and he surpassed his 
kindred and citizens by his virtues. 

35. He sought not learning to vex another ; such 
knowledge as was beneficent, that only he studied ; 
he wished well to all mankind as much as to his own 

36. He worshipped also duly the brilliant (Agni) 
that tutelary god of the Angirasas, for his son's long 
life ; and he offered oblations in a large fire, and gave 
gold 2 and cows to the Brahmans. 

37. He bathed to purify his body and mind with 
the waters of holy places and of holy feelings ; and 
at the same time he drank the soma-juice as enjoined 
by the Veda, and the heartfelt self-produced happi- 
ness of perfect calm. 

38. He only spoke what was pleasant and not 
unprofitable ; he discoursed about what was true and 
not ill-natured ; he could not speak even to himself 

1 Can ^anani mean m&tri'gr&ma ? 
* Or pearls ? (krwana.) 

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BOOK II, 32-43. 23 

for very shame a false pleasant thing or a harsh 

39. In things which required to be done, whether 
they were pleasant or disagreeable, he found no 
reason either for desire or dislike ; he pursued the 
advantageous which could be attained without 
litigation ' ; he did not so highly value sacrifice. 

40. When a suppliant came to him with a petition, 
he at once hastened to quench his thirst with the 
water sprinkled on his gift*; and without fighting, 
by the battle-axe of his demeanour he smote down 
the arrogant armed with 8 double pride. 

41. Thus he took away the one, and protected 
the seven ; he abandoned the seven and kept the 
five; he obtained the set of three and learned the 
set of three ; he understood the two and abandoned 
the two 4 . 

42. Guilty persons, even though he had sentenced 
them to death, he did not cause to be killed nor 
even looked on them with anger; he bound them 
with gentle words and with the reform produced in 
their character, — even their release was accompanied 
by no inflicted injury. 

43. He performed great religious vows prescribed 
by ancient seers ; he threw aside hostile feelings 
long cherished ; he acquired glory redolent with the 
fragrance of virtue; he relinquished all passions 
involving defilement 

1 Professor Max Mttller would read vyavaharalabdham, 'all bliss 
which could be obtained in the lower or vyavaMrika sphere/ 

* See Colebrooke's Essays, vol. ii, p. 230, note; Manu IX, 168. 

* Cf. dvifavasam (madam), Rig-vedalX, 104, a. Professor 
Kielhom would suggest dvi</darpam. 

* The Tibetan, like the Chinese, gives no help here. 

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44. He desired not to take his tribute of one- 
sixth without acting as the guardian of his people 1 ; 
he had no wish to covet another's property; he 
desired not to mention the wrong-doing of his 
enemies; nor did he wish to fan wrath in his 

45. When the monarch himself was thus employed 
his servants and citizens followed his example, like 
the senses of one absorbed in contemplation whose 
mind is abstracted in profound repose. 

46. In course of time to the fair-bosomed Yaro- 
dhara, — who was truly glorious in accordance with 
her name, — there was born from the son of Sud- 
dhodana a son named Rahula, with a face like the 
enemy of Rahu 2 . 

47. Then the king who from regard to the welfare 
of his race had longed for a son and been exceedingly 
delighted [at his coming], — as he had rejoiced at the 
birth of his son, so did he now rejoice at the birth 
of his grandson. 

48. ' O how can I feel that love which my son 
feels for my grandson ? ' Thus thinking in his joy 
he at the due time attended to every enjoined rite 
like one who fondly loves his son and is about to rise 
to heaven. 

49. Standing in the paths of the pre-eminent kings 
who flourished in primaeval ages, he practised aus- 
terities without laying aside his white garments, and 
he offered in sacrifice only those things which in- 
volved no injury to living creatures. 

50. He of holy deeds shone forth gloriously, in 

Cf. Indische Sprtlche, 568 (and ed). 

I.e. the sun or the moon, as eclipsed by the demon RShu. 

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BOOK II, 44-55. 25 

the splendour of royalty and the splendour of 
penances, conspicuous by his family and his own 
conduct and wisdom, and desirous to diffuse bright- 
ness like the sun. 

51. Having offered worship, he whose own glory 
was secure muttered repetitions of Vedic texts to 
Svayambhu for the safety of his son, and performed 
various ceremonies hard to be accomplished, like 
the god Ka in the first aeon wishing to create living 

52. He laid aside weapons and pondered the 
•Sastra, he practised perfect calm and underwent 
various observances, like a hermit he refused all 
objects of sense, he viewed all his kingdoms l like a 

53. He endured the kingdom for the sake of his 
son, his son for his family, his family for fame, fame 
for heaven, heaven for the soul, — he only desired 
the soul's continuance for the sake of duty. 

54. Thus did he practise the various observances 
as followed by the pious and established from revela- 
tion, — ever asking himself, ' now that he has seen the 
face of his son, how may my son be stopped from 
going to the forest ? ' 

55. The prudent * kings of the earth, who wish to 
guard their prosperity, watch over their sons in the 
world; but this king, though loving religion, kept 
his son from religion and set him free towards all 
objects of pleasure. 

1 Vishay&A seems used here in two senses, 'kingdoms' and 
'objects of sense.' 

* Lit. 'self-possessed,' fitmasamsthiA. Or should we read 
atmasamsth&m, ' wishing to keep their prosperity their own?' 

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56. But all Bodhisattvas, those beings of pre-emi- 
nent nature, after knowing the flavour of worldly 
enjoyments, have departed to the forest as soon as 
a son is born to them ; therefore he too, though he 
had accomplished all his previous destiny, even when 
the (final) motive had begun to germinate, still went 
on pursuing worldly pleasure up to the time of 
attaining the supreme wisdom. 

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i. On a certain day he heard of the forests 
carpeted with tender grass, with their trees resound- 
ing with the kokilas, adorned with lotus-ponds, and 
which had been all bound up in the cold season. 

2. Having heard of the delightful appearance of 
the city groves beloved by the women, he resolved 
to go out of doors, like an elephant long shut up in 
a house. 

3. The king, having learned the character of the 
wish thus expressed by his son, ordered a pleasure- 
party to be prepared, worthy of his own affection 
and his son's beauty and youth. 

4. He prohibited the encounter of any afflicted 
common person in the highroad; 'heaven forbid 
that the prince with his tender nature should even 
imagine himself to be distressed.' 

5. Then having removed out of the way with the 
greatest gentleness all those who had mutilated 
limbs or maimed senses, the decrepit and the sick 
and all squalid beggars, they made the highway 
assume its perfect beauty. 

6. Along this road thus made beautiful, the 
fortunate prince with his well-trained attendants 
came down one day at a proper time from the roof 
of the palace and went to visit the king by his 

7. Then the king, with tears rising to his eyes, 

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having smelt his son's head l and long gazed upon 
him, gave him his permission, saying, ' Go ; ' but in 
his heart through affection he could not let him 

8. He then mounted a golden chariot, adorned 
with reins bright like flashing lightning *, and yoked 
with four gentle horses, all wearing golden trappings. 

9. With a worthy retinue he entered the road 
which was strewn with heaps of gleaming flowers, 
with garlands suspended and banners waving, like 
the moon with its asterism entering the sky. 

10. Slowly, slowly he passed along the highway, 
watched on every side by the citizens, and be- 
showered by their eyes opened wide with curiosity 
like blue lotuses. 

1 1. Some praised him for his gentle disposition, 
others hailed him for his glorious appearance, others 
eulogised his beauty from his fine countenance and 
desired for him length of days. 

12. Hump-backed men coming out from the great 
families, and troops of foresters and dwarfs 8 , and 
women coming out from the meaner houses bowed 
down like the banners of some procession of the 

13. * Hearing the news, 'the prince is going out,' 
from the attendants of the female apartments, the 
women hastened to the roofs of the different man- 
sions, having obtained the leave of their lords. 

1 Cf. Wilson, Hindu Drama, vol. ii, p. 45, note. 

1 Raxmi may mean ' rays.' For aklfva cf. Soph. Philoct. 1455, 


* These are all mentioned in the Sahitya-darpana among the 
attendants in a seraglio (§81). 
4 With this description cf. Raghuv. VII, 5-12 ; Kadambart, p. 74. 

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BOOK HI, 8-21. 29 

14. Hindered by the strings of their girdles which 
had slipped down, with their eyes bewildered as just 
awakened from sleep, and with their ornaments 
hastily put on in the stir of the news, and filled with 
curiosity, they crowded round ; 

15. Frightening the flocks of birds which lived in 
the houses, with the noise of their girdles and the 
jingling of their anklets which resounded on the 
staircases and roofs of the mansions, and mutually 
reproaching one another for their hurry. 

16. Some of these women, even in their haste as 
they rushed longing to see, were delayed in their 
going by the weight of their hips and full bosoms. 

17. Another, though well able to go herself, 
checked her pace and forbore to run, hiding with 
shame her ornaments hitherto worn only in seclusion, 
and now too boldly displayed. 

18. There they were restlessly swaying about in 
the windows, crowded together in the mutual press, 
with their earrings polished by the continual collision 
and their ornaments all jingling. 

19. The lotus-like faces of the women gleamed 
while they looked out from the windows with their 
earrings coming into mutual proximity \ as if they 
were real lotuses fastened upon the houses. 

20. With the palaces all alive with crowds of 
damsels, every aperture thrown open in eager 
curiosity, the magnificent city appeared on every 
side like heaven with its divine chariots thronged 
with celestial nymphs. 

21. The faces of the beautiful women shone like 
lotuses wreathed in garlands, while through the 

1 Parasparopisita? 

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narrowness of the windows their earrings were 
transferred to each other's cheeks. 

22. Gazing down upon the prince in the road, the 
women appeared as if longing to fall to the earth ; 
gazing up to him with upturned faces, the men 
seemed as if longing to rise to heaven K 

23. Beholding the king's son thus radiant in his 
beauty and glory, those women softly whispered, 
' happy is his wife,' with pure minds and from no 
baser feeling. 

24. ' He with the long sturdy arms, who stands 
in his beauty like the flower-armed god visibly 
present, will leave his royal pomp and devote himself 
to religion,' thus thinking, full of kindly feelings 
towards him, they all offered reverence. 

25. Beholding for the first time that high-road thus 
crowded with respectful citizens, all dressed in white 
sedate garments, the prince for a while did feel a 
little pleasure and thought that it seemed to promise 
a revival of his youth. 

26. But then the gods, dwelling in pure abodes 2 , 
having beheld that city thus rejoicing like heaven 
itself, created an old man to walk along on purpose 
to stir the heart of the king's son. 

27. The prince having beheld him thus overcome 
with decrepitude and different in form from other 
men, with his gaze intently fixed on him, thus 
addressed his driver 8 with simple confidence : 

28. 'Who is this man that has come here, O 
charioteer, with white hair and his hand resting 
on a staff, his eyes hidden beneath his brows, his 

1 Cf. Uhland's ' Das Schloss am meere.' 

' <S'uddh£dhiv£s&A. * Cf. sawgihako inPaJi. 

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BOOK III, 22-35. 31 

limbs bent down and hanging loose, — is this a 
change produced in him or his natural state or an 
accident ? ' 

29. Thus addressed, the charioteer revealed to 
the king's son the secret that should have been kept 
so carefully, thinking no harm in his simplicity, for 
those same gods had bewildered his mind : 

30. 'That is old age by which he is broken 
down, — the ravisher of beauty, the ruin of vigour, 
the cause of sorrow, the destruction of delights, the 
bane of memories, the enemy of the senses. 

31. 'He too once drank milk in his childhood, and 
in course of time he learned to grope on the ground ; 
having step by step become a vigorous youth, he 
has step by step in the same way reached old age.' 

32. Being thus addressed, the prince, starting a 
little, spoke these words to the charioteer, ' What ! 
will this evil come to me also ? ' and to him again 
spoke the charioteer : 

33. ' It will come without doubt by the force of 
time through multitude of years even to my long- 
lived lord ; all the world knows thus that old age will 
destroy their comeliness and they are content to 
have it so.' 

34. Then he, the great-souled one, who had his 
mind purified by the impressions of former good 
actions, who possessed a store of merits accumu- 
lated through many preceding aeons, was deeply 
agitated when he heard of old age, like a bull who 
has heard the crash of a thunderbolt close by. 

35. Drawing a long sigh and shaking his head, 
and fixing his eyes on that decrepit old man, and 
looking round on that exultant multitude he then 
uttered these distressed words : 

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36. 'Old age thus strikes down all alike, our 
memory, comeliness, and valour; and yet the world 
is not disturbed, even when it sees such a fate visibly 

37. 'Since such is our condition, O charioteer, 
turn back the horses, — go quickly home ; how can I 
rejoice in the pleasure-garden, when the thoughts 
arising from old age overpower me ? ' 

38. Then the charioteer at the command of the 
king's son turned the chariot back, and the prince 
lost in thought entered even that royal palace as if it 
were empty. 

39. But when he found no happiness even there, 
as he continually kept reflecting, ' old age, old age,' 
then once more, with the permission of the king, he 
went out with the same arrangement as before. 

40. Then the same deities created another man 
with his body all afflicted by disease ; and on seeing 
him the son of .Suddhodana addressed the charioteer, 
having his gaze fixed on the man : 

41. 'Yonder man with a swollen belly, his whole 
frame shaking as he pants, his arms and shoulders 
hanging loose, his body all pale and thin, uttering 
plaintively the word " mother," when he embraces a 
stranger, — who, pray, is this ? ' 

42. Then his charioteer answered, ' Gentle Sir, it 
is a very great affliction called sickness, that has 
grown up, caused by the inflammation of the (three) 
humours, which has made even this strong man 1 no 
longer master of himself.' 

43. Then the prince again addressed him, looking 
upon the man compassionately, ' Is this evil peculiar 

1 .Sakroipi. 

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BOOK III, 36-5O. 33 

to him or are all beings alike threatened by 
sickness ? ' 

44. Then the charioteer answered, ' O prince, this 
evil is common to all ; thus pressed round by diseases 
men run to pleasure, though racked with pain V 

45. Having heard this account, his mind deeply 
distressed, he trembled like the moon reflected in 
the waves of water ; and full of sorrow he uttered 
these words in a low voice : 

46. ' Even while they see all this calamity of 
diseases mankind can yet feel tranquillity ; alas for 
the scattered intelligence of men who can smile 
when still not free from the terrors of disease ! 

47. ' Let the chariot, O charioteer, be turned back 
from going outside, let it return straight to the king's 
palace ; having heard this alarm of disease, my mind 
shrinks into itself, repelled from pleasures.' 

48. Then having turned back, with all joy de- 
parted, he entered his home, absorbed in thought ; 
and having seen him thus return a second time, the 
king himself entered the city. 

49. Having heard the occasion of the prince's 
return he felt himself as deserted by him, and, 
although unused to severe punishment, even when 
displeased, he rebuked him whose duty it was to see 
that the road was clear. 

50. And once more he arranged for his son all 
kinds of worldly enjoyments to their highest point ; 
imploring in his heart, ' Would that he might not be 
able to forsake us, even though rendered unable only 
through the restlessness of his senses V 

1 Rufituro. [The Tibetan seems to have read ru^&mtare, — 
nad tbar-phyin-na, 'having come to the end of illness.' H. W.] 
* I would read api n&ma sakto — . 

[4»] D 

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51. But when in the women's apartments his son 
found no pleasure in the several objects of the senses, 
sweet sounds and the rest, he gave orders for another 
progress outside, thinking to himself 1 , ' It may create 
a diversion of sentiment V 

52. And in his affection pondering on the con- 
dition of his son, never thinking of any ills that 
might come from his haste, he ordered the best 
singing-women to be in attendance, as well-skilled in 
all the soft arts that can please. 

53. Then the royal road being specially adorned 
and guarded, the king once more made the prince 
go out, having ordered the charioteer and chariot 
to proceed in a contrary direction (to the previous 

54. But as the king's son was thus going on his 
way, the very same deities created a dead man, and 
only the charioteer and the prince, and none else, 
beheld him as he was carried dead along the road. 

55. Then spoke the prince to the charioteer, 
' Who is this borne by four men, followed by 
mournful companions, who is bewailed, adorned but 
no longer breathing 8 ? ' 

56. Then the driver, — having his mind over- 
powered by the gods who possess pure minds and 
pure dwellings, — himself knowing the truth, uttered 
to his lord this truth also which was not to be 

57. 'This is some poor man who, bereft of his 
intellect, senses, vital airs and qualities, lying asleep 

1 I would read manyam&naA. 

* A technical term in rhetoric. Cf. Slhitya Darp. § 220. 

' I would read ixsv&sy avarudyate. 

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BOOK III, 51-64. 

and unconscious, like mere wood or straw, is aban- 
doned alike by friends and enemies after they have 
carefully swathed and guarded him.' 

58. Having heard these words of the charioteer 
he was somewhat startled and said to him, ' Is this 
an accident peculiar to him alone, or is such the end 
of all living creatures ? ' 

59. Then the charioteer replied to him, ' This is the 
final end of all living creatures ; be it a mean man, a 
man of middle state, or a noble, destruction is fixed 
to all in this world.' 

60. Then the king's son, sedate though he was, as 
soon as he heard of death, immediately sank down 
overwhelmed, and pressing the end of the chariot- 
pole with his shoulder spoke with a loud voice, 

61. 'Is this end appointed to all creatures, and 
yet the world throws off all fear and is infatuated ! 
Hard indeed, I think, must the hearts of men be, 
who can be self-composed in such a road. 

62. ' Therefore, O charioteer, turn back our 
chariot, this is no time or place for a pleasure- 
excursion; how can a rational being, who knows 
what destruction is, stay heedless here, in the hour 
of calamity l ? ' 

63. Even when the prince thus spoke to him, the 
charioteer did not turn the chariot back ; but at his 
peremptorily reiterated command he retired to the 
forest Padmakhawaa. 

64. There he beheld that lovely forest like 
Nandana itself, full of young trees in flower, with 
intoxicated kokilas wandering joyously about, and 

1 The Tibetan has nam thag dus-su, ' at the time of oppression 
(as by misfortune).' Does this imply a reading Srtti-kale ? 

D 2 

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with its bright lakes gay with lotuses and well- 
furnished with watering-places *. 

65. The king's son was perforce carried away to 
that wood filled with troops of beautiful women, just 
as if some devotee who had newly taken his vow 
were carried off, feeling weak to withstand tempta- 
tion, to the palace of the monarch of Alaka 2 , gay 
with the dancing of the loveliest heavenly nymphs. 

1 Sc. for cattle, cf. Mahabh. XII, 9270 (in the text read 
* Kuvera. 

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i. Then from that city-garden, with their eyes 
restless in excitement, the women went out to meet 
the prince as a newly-arrived bridegroom ; 

2. And when they came up to him, their eyes wide 
open in wonder, they performed their due homage 
with hands folded like a lotus-calyx. 

3. Then they stood surrounding him, their minds 
overpowered by passion, as if they were drinking 
him in with their eyes motionless and blossoming 
wide with love. 

4. Some of the women verily thought that he was 
Kama incarnate, — decorated as he was with his 
brilliant signs as with connate ornaments. 

. 5. Others thought from his gentleness and majesty 
that it was the moon with its ambrosial beams as it 
were visibly come down to the earth. 

6. Others, smitten by his beauty, yawned 1 as if 
to swallow him, and fixing their eyes on each other, 
softly sighed. 

7. Thus the women only looked upon him, simply 
gazing with their eyes, — they spoke not, nor did they 
smile, controlled by his power. 

8. But having seen them thus listless, be- 
wildered in their love, the wise son of the family 
priest, Udayin, thus addressed them : 

9. 'Ye are all skilled in all the graceful arts, 

1 Cf. Sihitya Darp.§ 155, 13. 

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proficients in understanding the language of amor- 
ous sentiments, possessed of beauty and gracefulness, 
thorough masters in your own styles. 

10. ' With these graces of yours ye may embellish 
even the Northern Kurus, yea, even the dances x of 
Kuvera, much more this little earth. 

ii. ' Ye are able to move even sages who have 
lost all their desires, and to ensnare even the gods 
who are charmed by heavenly nymphs. 

12. 'By your skill in expressing the heart's 
feelings, by your coquetry, your grace, and your 
perfect beauty, ye are able to enrapture even women, 
how much more easily men. 

1 3. ' You thus skilled as ye are, each set * in her 
own proper sphere, — such as this is your power, — 
I am not satisfied with your simplicity [when you 
profess to find him beyond your reach], 

14. ' This timid action of yours would be fit for 
new brides, their eyes closed through shame, — or it 
might be a blandishment worthy even of the wives 
of the cowherds 8 . 

15. 'What though this hero be great by his 
exalted glory, yet "great is the might of women," 
let this be your firm resolve. 

16. 'In olden time a great seer, hard to be 
conquered even by the gods, was spurned by a 
harlot, the beauty of Klri, planting her feet upon 

17. 'The Bhikshu Manthalagautama was also 
formerly spurned by Balamukhya with her leg, and 

1 Professor Btthler suggests Mkri<fam, cf. xloka 28. 
1 I read niyukt&n&m for viyuktanam. 
* Is this a reference to Krishna's story? but cf. Weber, Ind. 
Antiquary, vol. v, p. 354. 

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BOOK IV, IO-26. 39 

wishing to please her he carried out dead bodies for 
her sake to be buried. 

18. 'And a woman low in standing and caste 
fascinated the great seer Gautama, though a master 
of long penances and old in years. 

19. 'So .Santa 1 by her various wiles captivated 
and subdued the sage's son jfo'shyarrmga, unskilled 
in women's ways. 

20. 'And the great seer Viyvamitra, though 
plunged in a profound penance 1 , was carried captive 
for ten years in the forests by the nymph Ghrit&Al 3 . 

21. 'Many such seers as these have women 
brought to shame, — how much more then a delicate 
prince in the first flower of his age ? 

22. ' This being so, boldly put forth your efforts 
that the prosperity of the king's family may not be 
turned away from him. 

23. 'Ordinary women captivate similar lovers; 
but they are truly women who subdue the natures 
of high and low.' 

24. Having heard these words of Udayin these 
women as stung to the heart rose even above 
themselves for the conquest of the prince. 

25. With their brows, their glances, their coquetries, 
their smiles, their delicate movements, they made all 
sorts of significant gestures like women utterly 

26. But they soon regained their confidence* 
through the command of the king and the gentle 
temperament of the prince, and through the power 
of intoxication and of love. 

1 RSmay. I, 10 (Schleg. ed.). * I would read mahat tapaA. 
* Ramay. IV, 35. * Lit 'dispelled their want of confidence.' 

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27. Then surrounded by troops of women the 
prince wandered in the wood like an elephant in 
the forests of Himavat accompanied by a herd of 

28. Attended by the women he shone in that 
pleasant grove, as the sun surrounded by Apsarasas 
in his royal garden. 

29. There some of them, urged by passion, pressed 
him with their full firm bosoms in gentle collisions. 

30. Another violently embraced him after making 
a pretended stumble, — leaning on him with her 
shoulders drooping down, and with her gentle 
creeper-like arms dependent. 

31. Another with her mouth smelling of spiri- 
tuous liquor, her lower lip red like copper, whispered 
in his ear, ' Let my secret be heard.' 

32. Another, all wet with unguents, as if giving 
him her command, clasped his hand eagerly and 
said, ' Perform thy rites of adoration here.' 

33. Another, with her blue garments continually 
slipping down in pretended intoxication, stood con- 
spicuous with her tongue visible like the night with 
its lightning flashing. 

34. Others, with their golden zones tinkling, 
wandered about here and there, showing to him 
their hips veiled with thin cloth. 

35. Others leaned, holding a mango-bough in full 
flower, displaying their bosoms like golden jars. 

36. Another, coming from a lotus-bed, carrying 
lotuses and with eyes like lotuses, stood like the 
lotus-goddess Padma, by the side of that lotus-faced 

37. Another sang a sweet song easily under- 
stood and with the proper gesticulations, rousing 

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BOOK IV, 27-47. 41 

him, self-subdued though he was, by her glances, as 
saying, ' O how thou art deluded ! ' 

38. Another, having armed herself 1 with her 
bright face, with its brow-bow drawn to its full, 
imitated his action, as playing the hero. 

39. Another, with beautiful full bosoms, and having 
her earrings waving in the wind a , laughed loudly at 
him, as if saying, ' Catch me, sir, if you can ! ' 

40. Some, as he was going away, bound him 
with strings of garlands, — others punished him with 
words like an elephant-driver's hook, gentle yet 

41. Another, wishing to argue with him, seizing 
a mango-spray, asked, all bewildered with passion, 
' This flower, whose is it ? ' 

42. Another, assuming a gait and attitude like 
those of a man, said to him, * Thou who art conquered 
by women, go and conquer this earth ! ' 

43. Then another with rolling eyes, smelling a 
blue lotus, thus addressed the prince with words 
slightly indistinct in her excitement, 

44. 'See, my lord, this mango covered with its 
honey-scented flowers, where the kokila sings, as if 
imprisoned in a golden cage. 

45. ' Come and see this aroka tree, which aug- 
ments lovers' sorrows, — where the bees make a 
noise as if they were scorched by fire. 

46. ' Come and see this tilaka tree, embraced by 
a slender mango-branch, like a man in a white 
garment by a woman decked with yellow unguents. 

47. ' Behold this kuruvaka in flower, bright like 

1 Privrttya. ' I read vat&ghfirnita. 

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fresh 1 resin-juice, which bends down as if it felt 
reproached by the colour of women's nails *. 

48. ' Come and see this young aroka, covered all 
over with new shoots, which stands as it were 
ashamed at the beauty of our hands. 

49. 'See this lake surrounded by the sinduvara 
shrubs growing on its banks 8 , like a fair woman 
reclining, clad in fine white cloth. 

50. ' See the imperial power of females, — yonder 
ruddy-goose in the water goes behind his mate 
following her like a slave. 

51.' Come and listen to the notes of this intoxicated 
cuckoo as he sings, while another cuckoo sings as if 
consenting, wholly without care. 

52. 'Would that thine was the intoxication of 
the birds which the spring produces, — and not the 
thought of a thinking man, ever pondering how wise 
he is!' 

53. Thus these young women, their souls carried 
away by love, assailed the prince with all kinds of 

54. But although thus attacked, he, having his 
senses guarded by self-control, neither rejoiced nor 
smiled, thinking anxiously, 'One must die.' 

55. Having seen them in their real condition 4 , 
that best of men pondered with an undisturbed f and 
stedfast mind. 

1 I read nirmuktam, which might mean 'just exuded,' or the 
whole compound may mean (cf. Kum. Sambh. V, 34) ' like a lip 
which has given op the use of pinguent' 

* Cf. Vikramorvari, Act 11, strt-nakha-pi/alaw kuruvakam. 
' I read tira^ai^ sinduvirakaiA. 

4 For vasth&nam cf. Maitri Upan. (Comm.) VI, 1. 

* I would read asawvignena. 

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BOOK IV, 48-65. 43 

56. ' What is it that these women lack x that they 
perceive not that youth is fickle ? for this old age 
will destroy whatever has beauty. 

57. ' Verily they do not see any one's plunge into 
disease, and so dismissing fear, they are joyous in a 
world which is all pain. 

58. ' Evidently they know nothing of death 
which carries all away ; and so at ease and without 
distress they can sport and laugh. 

59. ' What rational being, who knows of old age, 
death and sickness, could stand s or sit down at his 
ease or sleep, far less laugh? 

60. 'But he verily is like one bereft of sense, 
who, beholding another aged or sick or dead, 
remains self-possessed and not afflicted. 

61. '(So) even when a tree is deprived of its 
flowers and fruits, or if it is cut down and falls, no 
other tree sorrows.' 

62. Seeing him thus absorbed in contemplation, 
with his desires estranged from all worldly objects, 
Udayin, well skilled in the rules of policy, with 
kindly feelings addressed him : 

63. ' Since I was appointed by the king as a 
fitting friend for thee, therefore I have a wish to 
speak to thee in this friendliness of my heart 

64. ' To hinder from what is disadvantageous,— 
to urge to what is advantageous, — and not to for- 
sake in misfortune, — these are the three marks of 
a friend. 

65. ' If I, after having promised my friendship, were 
not to heed when thou turnest away from the great 
end of man, there would be no friendship in me. 

1 Ki/w vind. * I would conjecture tishMen. 

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66. ' Therefore I speak as thy friend, — such rude- 
ness as this to women is not befitting for one young 
in years and graceful in person. 

67. ' It is right to woo a woman even by guile, — 
this is useful both for getting rid of shame and for 
one's own enjoyment 

68. ' Reverential behaviour and compliance with 
her wishes are what binds a woman's heart ; good 
qualities truly are a cause of love, and women love 

69. 'Wilt thou not then, O large-eyed prince, 
even if thy heart is unwilling, seek to please them 
with a courtesy worthy of this beauty of thine ? 

70. ' Courtesy is the balm of women, courtesy is 
the best ornament ; beauty without courtesy is like 
a grove without flowers. 

71. ' But of what use is courtesy by itself? let 
it be assisted by the heart's feelings ; surely, when 
worldly objects so hard to attain are in thy grasp, 
thou wilt not despise them. 

72. ' Knowing that pleasure was the best of 
objects, even the god Purawdara (Indra) wooed in 
olden time Ahalya the wife of the saint Gautama. 

73. 'So too Agastya wooed Rohi»i, the wife of 
Soma; and therefore, as -5Vuti saith, a like thing 
befell Lopamudra *. 

74. ' The great ascetic VWhaspati begot Bha- 
radva^a on Mamata the daughter of the Maruts, 
the wife of Autathya *. 

1 Agastya's wife. This seems to refer to Lopamudra' s words 
to her husband in Rig-veda I, 179; cf. also Mahabh. Ill, xcvii. 

1 This should be Utathya (cf. Mahabh. I, civ). Mamata had 
Dtrghatamas by her husband and Bharadva^a by Vrthaspati. 
The MSS. read Samata. 

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BOOK iv, 66-83. 45 

75. ' The Moon, the best of offerers, begat Budha 
of divine nature on the spouse of VWhaspati as she 
was offering a libation x . 

76. 'So too in old time Parlsara, overpowered 
by passion on the bank of the Yamuna, lay with 
the maiden Kill who was the daughter of the son 
of the Water (Agni). 

77. ' The sage VarishMa through lust begot a son 
Kapm/alada on Akshamala a despised low-caste 
woman a . 

78. 'And the seer-king Yayati, even when the 
vigour of his prime was gone, sported in the 
Aaitraratha forest with the Apsaras Vwva&. 

79. 'And the Kaurava king Y&ndu, though he 
knew that intercourse with his wife would end in 
death, yet overcome by the beauty and good 
qualities of Madrl yielded to the pleasures of 

80. 'And so Kar&la^anaka, when he carried off 
the Brahman's daughter, incurred loss of caste 
thereby, but he would not give up his love. 

81. ' Great heroes such as these pursued even 
contemptible desires for the sake of pleasure, how 
much more so when they are praiseworthy of 
their kind ? 

82. 'And yet thou, a young man, possessed of 
strength and beauty, despisest enjoyments which 
rightly belong to thee, and to which the whole 
world is devoted.' 

83. Having heard these specious words of his, 
well-supported by sacred tradition, the prince made 
reply, in a voice like the thundering of a cloud : 

1 She is called TftrS, Vishnu Pur. IV, 6. 2 Manu IX, 33. 

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84. 'This speech manifesting affection is well- 
befitting in thee; but I will convince thee as to 
where thou wrongly judgest me. 

85. ' I do not despise worldly objects, I know 
that all mankind are bound up therein; but re- 
membering that the world is transitory, my mind 
cannot find pleasure in them. 

86. ' Old age, disease, and death — if these three 
things did not exist, I too should find my enjoyment 
in the objects that please the mind. 

87. ' Yet even though this beauty of women were 
to remain perpetual, still delight in the pleasures 
of desire would not be worthy of the wise man. 

88. ' But since their beauty will be drunk up by 
old age, to delight therein through infatuation can- 
not be a thing approved even by thyself 1 . 

89. 'He who himself subject to death, disease, 
and old age, can sport undisturbed with those whose 
very nature implies death, disease, and old age, — 
such a man is on a level with birds and beasts. 

90. 'And as for what thou sayest as to even 
those great men having become victims to desire, — 
do not be bewildered by them, for destruction was 
also their lot. 

91. ' Real greatness is not to be found there, 
where there is universally destruction, or where 
there is attachment to earthly objects, or a want of 

92. ' And when thou sayest, " Let one deal with 
women even by guile," I know nought about guile, 
even if it be accompanied with courtesy. 

93. ' That compliance too with a woman's wishes 

1 Or ' even by the soul.' 

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BOOK IV, 84-IOI. 47 

pleases me not, if truthfulness be not there ; if there 
be not a union with one's whole soul and nature, 
then " out upon it " say I. 

94. 'A soul overpowered by passion, believing in 
falsehood, carried away by attachment and blind to 
the faults of its objects, — what is there in it worth 
being deceived ? 

95. 'And if the victims of passion do deceive 
one another, — are not men unfit for women to look 
at and women for men ? 

96. ' Since then these things are so, thou surely 
wouldest not lead me astray into ignoble pleasures, 
— me afflicted by sorrow, and subject to old age and 
death ? 

97. ' Ah ! thy mind must be very firm and strong, 
if thou canst find substance in the transitory 
pleasures of sense ; even in the midst of violent 
alarm thou canst cling to worldly objects, when 
thou seest all created beings in the road of death. 

98. ' But I am fearful and exceedingly bewildered, 
as I ponder the terrors of old age, death, and 
disease; I can find no peace, no self-command, 
much less can I find pleasure, while I see the 
world as it were ablaze with fire. 

99. ' If desire arises in the heart of the man, who 
knows that death is certain, — I think that his soul 
must be made of iron, who restrains it in this great 
terror and does not weep.' 

100. Then the prince uttered a discourse full of 
resolve and abolishing the objects of desire ; and 
the lord of day, whose orb is the worthy centre of 
human eyes, departed to the Western Mountain. 

101. And the women, having worn their garlands 
and ornaments in vain, with their graceful arts and 

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endearments all fruitless, concealing their love deep 
in their hearts 1 , returned to the city with broken 

102. Having thus seen the beauty 2 of the troop 
of women who had gone out to the city-garden, now 
withdrawn in the evening, — the prince, pondering 
the transitoriness which envelopes all things, entered 
his dwelling. 

103. Then the king, when he heard how his mind 
turned away from all objects of sense, could not lie 
down all that night, like an elephant with an arrow 
in its heart ; but wearied in all sorts of consultation, 
he and his ministers could find no other means 
beside these (despised) pleasures to restrain his 
son's purpose. 

1 Reading sva eva bhave from the Tibetan. 
* Reading jriyam for striyam. 

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i. He, the son of the »Sakya king, even though 
thus tempted by the objects of sense which infatuate 
others, yielded not to pleasure and felt not delight, 
like a lion deeply pierced in his heart by a poisoned 

2. Then one day accompanied by some worthy 
sons of his father's ministers, friends full of varied 
converse, — with a desire to see the glades of the 
forest and longing for peace, he went out with the 
king's permission. 

3. Having mounted his good horse Kawthaka, 
decked with bells and bridle-bit of new gold, with 
beautiful golden harness and the chowrie waving \ 
he went forth like the moon * mounted on a comet. 

4. Lured by love of the wood and longing for the 
beauties of the ground s , he went to a spot near at 
hand* on the forest-outskirts; and there he saw a 
piece of land being ploughed, with the path of the 
plough broken like waves on the water. 

* ' The white bushy tail of the Tibet cow, fixed on a gold or 
ornamented shaft, rose from between the ears of the horse.' 
Wilson, Hindu Drama, I, p. 200. 

* The Tibetan has tog-la ljon-dan chu-skyes tog-can, ' like him 
who has the sign of a tree and water-born (lotus,) (mounted) on a 
comet,' but with no further explanation. Could this mean the 
moon as oshadhipati and as kumu e*a ? 

* Should we read -guneikAuA for -gnn&kihzAi 

4 Nikri'sh/ataram; one MS. reads vikrish/a-, 'ploughed.' 

[4»] * 

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5. Having beheld the ground in this condition, 
with its young grass scattered and torn by the 
plough, and covered with the eggs and young of 
little insects which were killed, he was filled with 
deep sorrow as for the slaughter of his own kindred. 

6. And beholding the men as they were plough- 
ing, their complexions spoiled by the dust, the sun's 
rays, and the wind, and their cattle bewildered with 
the burden of drawing, the most noble one felt ex- 
treme compassion. 

7. Having alighted from the back of his horse, he 
went over the ground slowly, overcome with sorrow, 
— pondering the birth and destruction of the world, 
he, grieved, exclaimed, ' this is indeed pitiable.' 

8. Then desiring to become perfectly lonely in his 
thoughts, having stopped those friends who were 
following him, he went to the root of a rose-apple in 
a solitary spot, which had its beautiful leaves all 
tremulous (in the wind). 

9. There he sat down on the ground covered with 
leaves 1 , and with its young grass bright like lapis 
lazuli ; and, meditating on the origin and destruction 
of the world, he laid hold of the path that leads to 
firmness of mind. 

10. Having attained to firmness of mind 2 , and 
being forthwith set free from all sorrows such as the 
desire of worldly objects and the rest, he attained 

1 The MSS. add -khoravatyam, an obscure word, which may 
be connected with khura or perhaps should be altered to 
-koravatyam, i.e. 'covered with sharp-pointed leaves,' or 'covered 
with leaves and buds.' [The Tibetan has gcaft-mar ldan-pai 
sa-gzhi der-ni de zhugs-te, 'on the pure ground here he sitting.' 
This might point to so*tra jrau^avatyaw. H. W.] 

* Query, xamavaptamanaAsthitiA for -manaAsthiteA. 

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BOOK V, 5-I7. 51 

the first stage of contemplation, unaffected by sin, 
calm, and ' argumentative '.' 

11. Having then obtained the highest happiness 
sprung from deliberation 8 , he next pondered this 
meditation, — having thoroughly understood in his 
mind the course of the world : 

12. ' It is a miserable thing that mankind, though 
themselves powerless 8 and subject to sickness, old 
age, and death, yet, blinded by passion and ignorant, 
look with disgust on another who is afflicted by old 
age or diseased or dead. 

13. ' If I here, being such myself, should feel dis- 
gust for another who has such a nature, it would not 
be worthy or right in me who know this highest 

14. As he thus considered thoroughly these faults 
of sickness, old age, and death which belong to all 
living beings, all the joy which he had felt in the 
activity of his vigour, his youth, and his life, vanished 
in a moment 

15. He did not rejoice, he did not feel remorse ; 
he suffered no hesitation, indolence, nor sleep ; he 
felt no drawing towards the qualities of desire ; he 
hated not nor scorned another. 

16. Thus did this pure passionless meditation 
grow within the great-souled one ; and unobserved 
by the other men, there crept up a man in a beggar's 

1 7. The king's son asked him a question, — he said 
to him, ' Tell me, who art thou ? ' and the other 
replied, 'Oh bull of men, I, being terrified at birth 

1 Savitarka, cf. Yoga-sutras I, 42. (Read anasrava-.) 

* Two syllables are lost in this line. * ArasaA. - 

E 2 

Digitized by 



and death, have become an ascetic for the sake of 

1 8. * Desiring liberation in a world subject to de- 
struction, I seek that happy indestructible abode,— 
isolated from mankind, with my thoughts unlike 
those of others, and with my sinful passions turned 
away from all objects of sense 

19. ' Dwelling anywhere, at the root of a tree, or in 
an uninhabited house, a mountain or a forest, — I 
wander without a family and without hope, a beggar 
ready for any fare, seeking only the highest good.' 

20. When he had thus spoken, while the prince 
was looking on, he suddenly flew up to the sky ; it 
was a heavenly inhabitant who, knowing that the 
prince's thoughts were other than what his outward 
form promised, had come to him for the sake of 
rousing his recollection. 

21. When the other was gone like a bird to 
heaven, the foremost of men was rejoiced and 
astonished ; and having comprehended the meaning 
of the term dharma 1 , he set his mind on the 
manner of the accomplishment of deliverance. 

22. Then like Indra himself, and having tamed 
his senses, — desiring to return home he mounted 
his noble steed ; and having made him turn back 
as he looked for his friends, from that moment he 
sought no more the desired forest. 

23. Ever seeking to make an end of old age and 
death, fixing his thoughts in memory on dwelling in 
the woods, he entered the city again but with no 
feelings of longing, like an elephant entering an 
exercise-ground* after roaming in a forest-land. 

24. ' Happy truly and blessed is that woman whose 

1 Dharmasaw^tfam ? * Cf. II, 3. 

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BOOK V, 1 8-3O. 53 

husband is such as thou, O long-eyed prince ! ' So, 
on seeing him, the princess exclaimed, folding her 
hands to welcome him, as he entered the road. 

25. He whose voice was deep-sounding like a 
cloud heard this address and was filled with profound 
calm ; and as he heard the word ' blessed l ' he fixed 
his mind on the attainment of Nirvana. 

26. Then the prince whose form was like the peak 
of a golden mountain, — whose eye, voice, and arm 
resembled a bull, a cloud, and an elephant 2 , — whose 
countenance and prowess were like the moon and 
a lion, — having a longing aroused for something 
imperishable, — went into his palace. 

27. Then stepping like a lion he went towards the 
king who was attended by his numerous counsellors, 
like Sanatkumara in heaven waiting on Indra re- 
splendent in the assembly 8 of the Maruts. 

28. Prostrating himself, with folded hands, he 
addressed him, ' Grant me graciously thy permission, 
O lord of men, — I wish to become a wandering 
mendicant for the sake of liberation, since separation 
is appointed for me.' 

29. Having heard his words, the king shook like 
a tree struck by an elephant, and having seized his 
folded hands which were like a lotus, he thus ad- 
dressed him in a voice choked with tears : 

30. ' O my son, keep back this thought, it is not 
the time for thee to betake thyself to dharma; they 
say that the practice of religion is full of evils in the 
first period of life when the mind is still fickle. 

1 Sc. nirvr»ta. 

a Ga^amegharshabhabahunisvanakshaA? So Chinese 
translation, Beal, st. 356. 
* I read samitau. 

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31. ' The mind of the thoughtless ignorant young 
man whose senses are eager for worldly objects, and 
who has no power of settled resolution for the hard- 
ships of vows of penance, shrinks back from the 
forest, for it is especially destitute of discrimination. 

32. 'It is high time for me to practise religion, 
O my child of loved qualities 1 , leaving my royal 
glory to thee who art well worthy to be distinguished 
by it ; but thy religion, O firm-striding hero, is to 
be accomplished by heroism ; it would be irreligion 
if thou wert to leave thine own father. 

33. ' Do thou therefore abandon this thy resolu- 
tion ; devote thyself for the present to the duties of 
a householder ; to a man who has enjoyed the plea- 
sures of his prime, it is delightful to enter the 

34. Having heard these words of the king, he 
made his reply in a voice soft like a sparrow's : ' If 
thou wilt be my surety, O king, against four contin- 
gencies, I will not betake myself to the forest 

35. ' Let not my life be subject to death, and let 
not disease impair this health of mine ; let not old 
age attack my youth, and let not misfortune destroy 
my weal.' 

36. When his son uttered a speech so hard to be 
understood, the king of the 3akyas thus replied: 
' Abandon this idea bent upon departure ; extrava- 
gant desires are only ridiculous.' 

37. Then he who was firm as Mount Meru ad- 
dressed his father : ' If this is impossible, then this 
course of mine is not to be hindered ; it is not right 
to lay hold of one who would escape * from a house 
that is on fire. 

1 Or ' lover of religion.' * Read nu/Hkramishum. 

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BOOK V, 31-45. 55 

38. 'As separation is inevitable to the world, but 
not for Dharma 1 , this separation is preferable; will 
not death sever me helplessly, my objects unattained . 
and myself unsatisfied?' 

39. The monarch, having heard this resolve of his 
son longing for liberation, and havingagain exclaimed, 
'He shall not go,' set guards round him and the 
highest pleasures. 

40. Then having been duly instructed* by the 
counsellors, with all respect and affection, according 
to the jastras, and being thus forbidden with tears 
by his father, the prince, sorrowing, entered into his 

41. There he was gazed at by his wives with rest- 
less eyes, whose faces were kissed by their dangling 
earrings, and whose bosoms were shaken with their 
thick-coming sighs, — as by so many young fawns. 

42. Bright like a golden mountain, and bewitching 
the hearts of the noble women, he enraptured their 
ears, limbs, eyes, and souls by his speech, touch, 
form, and qualities. 

43. When the day was gone, then, shining with 
his form like the sun, he ascended the palace, as the 
rising sun ascends Mount Meru, desiring to dispel 
the darkness by his own splendour. 

44. Having ascended, he repaired to a special 
golden seat decorated with embellishments of dia- 
mond, with tall lighted candlesticks ablaze with 
gold, and its interior filled with the incense of black 

45. Then the noblest of women waited during the 

1 This accompanies the soul at death; cf. Manu VIII, 17. 
* Does this allude to Uddyin? or should we translate it 'being 
shown the way ?' 

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night on the noblest of men who was like Indra him- 
self, with a concert of musical instruments, as the 
crowds of heavenly nymphs wait on the son of the 
Lord of wealth 1 upon the summit of Himavat, white 
like the moon. 

46. But even by those beautiful instruments like 
heavenly music he was not moved to pleasure or de- 
light ; since his desire to go forth from his home to 
seek the bliss of the highest end was never lulled. 

47. Then by the power of the heavenly beings 
most excellent in self-mortification, the Akanish/Aas, 
who knew the purpose of his heart, deep sleep was 
suddenly thrown on that company of women and 
their limbs and gestures became distorted 8 . 

48. One was lying there, resting her cheek on her 
trembling arm ; leaving as in anger her lute, though 
dearly loved, which lay on her side, decorated with 

49. Another shone with her flute clinging to her 
hand, lying with her white garments fallen from her 
bosom, — like a river whose banks are smiling with 
the foam of the water and whose lotuses are covered 
with a straight line of bees 8 . 

50. Another was sleeping 4 , embracing her drum as 
a lover, with her two arms tender like the shoot of 
a young lotus and bearing their bracelets closely 
linked, blazing with gold. 

51. Others, decked with new golden ornaments 

1 Sc. Kuvera. I follow Professor Max Mailer's suggested reading 
himava£££iras!va for the MS. himavadgirisfra. 

* With this description of the sleeping women compare that in 
the R&mayaaa, V, 10. 

* The bees represent the flute held in the lotus-like hand. 

* I would read tathaparl 

Digitized by 


book v, 46-59. 57 

and wearing peerless yellow garments, fell down alas! 
helpless with sleep, like the boughs of the Karai- 
kara broken by an elephant 

52. Another, leaning on the side of a window, 
with her willow-form bent like a bow, shone as she 
lay with her beautiful necklace hanging down, like a 
statue 1 in an archway made by art 

53. The lotus-face of another, bowed down, with 
the pinguent-lines on her person rubbed by the 
jewelled earrings, appeared to be a lotus with its 
stalk bent into a half-circle, and shaken by a duck 
standing on it s . 

54. Others, lying as they sat with their limbs 
oppressed by the weight of their bosoms, shone in 
their beauty, mutually clasping one another with 
their twining arms decorated with golden bracelets. 

55. And another damsel lay sound asleep, embrac- 
ing her big lute as if it were a female friend, and 
rolled it about, while its golden strings trembled, 
with her own face bright with her shaken earrings. 

56. Another lay, with her tabour, . . . 

57. Others showed no lustre with their eyes shut; 
although they were really full-eyed and fair-browed, 
— like the lotus-beds with their buds closed at the 
setting of the sun. 

58. Another, with her hair loose and dishevelled, 
and her skirts and ornaments fallen from her loins, lay 
with her necklace in confusion, like a woman crushed 
by an elephant and then dropped. 

59. Others, helpless and lost to shame, though 

1 £&labham^ik& ? 

* This is a hard verse, but the woman's face above the bent body 
seems to be compared to the duck standing on the flower and 
bending its stalk. 

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naturally self-possessed and endued with all graces of 
person, breathed violently as they lay and yawned 
with their arms distorted and tossed about 

60. Others, with their ornaments and garlands 
thrown off, — unconscious, with their garments spread 
out unfastened, — their bright eyes wide open and 
motionless, — lay without any beauty as if they were 

61. Another, with fully-developed limbs, her mouth 
wide open, her saliva dropping, and her person ex- 
posed, lay as though sprawling in intoxication, — she 
spoke not, but bore every limb distorted. 

62. Thus that company of women, lying in differ- 
ent attitudes, according to their disposition and 
family, bore the aspect of a lake whose lotuses were 
bent down and broken by the wind. 

63. Then having seen these young women thus 
lying distorted and with uncontrolled gestures, — 
however excellent their forms and graceful their 
appearance, — the king's son felt moved with scorn. 

64. 'Such is the nature of women, impure and 
monstrous in the world of living beings; but deceived 
by dress and ornaments a man becomes infatuated 
by a woman's attractions. 

65. ' If a man would but consider the natural state 
of women and this change produced in them by 
sleep, assuredly he would not cherish his folly ; but 
he is smitten from a right will and so succumbs to 

66. Thus to him having recognised that difference 
there arose a desire to escape in the night ; and then 
the gods, knowing his purpose, caused the door of 
the palace to fly open. 

67. Then he went down from the roof of the 

Digitized by 


BOOK V, 6O-74. 59 

palace, scorning those women who lay thus distorted; 
and having descended, undauntedly he went out first 
into the courtyard \ 

68. Having awakened his horse's attendant, the 
swift JCAamdaka, he thus addressed him : 'Bring me 
quickly my horse Kamthaka *, I wish to-day to go 
hence to attain immortality. 

69. ' Since such is the firm content which to-day is 
produced in my heart, and since my determination is 
settled in calm resolve, and since even in loneliness 
I seem to possess a guide, — verily the end which I 
desire is now before me. 

70. 'Since abandoning all shame and modesty 
these women lay before me as they did, and the two 
doors opened of their own accord, verily the time is 
come to depart for my true health.' 

71. Then, accepting his lord's command, though 
he knew the purport of the king's injunctions, as 
being urged by a higher power in his mind, he set 
himself to bring the horse. 

72. Then he brought out for his master that noble 
steed, his mouth furnished with a golden bit, his 
back lightly touched by the bed on which he had 
been lying, and endued with strength, vigour, speed, 
and swiftness 8 ; 

73. With a long chine, and root of the tail and 
heel, — gentle, with short hair, back, and ears, — with 
his back, belly, and sides depressed and elevated, — 
with broad nostrils, forehead, hips, and breast *. 

74. The broad-chested hero, having embraced him, 

* Cf. Mahabb. II, 32. 

1 Spelt in the MSS. sometimes K ami A aka, but not always clear. 

* Read^avatvaropapannam for MS.^avatvalo-. 

4 Cf. the description in Shakespeare's Venus and Adonis. 

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and caressing him with his lotus-like hand, ordered 
him with a gentle-toned voice, as if he were desirous 
to plunge into the middle of an army : 

75. 'Oftentimes have evil enemies been over- 
thrown by the king when mounted on thee; do 
thou, O best of steeds, so exert thyself that I too 
may obtain the highest immortality '. 

76. ' Companions are easy to be found in battle 
or in the happiness obtained by winning worldly 
objects or in attaining wealth; but companions 
are hard for a man to find who has fallen into mis- 
fortune or when he flies for refuge to Dharma. 

77. ' And yet all those who in this world are com- 
panions, whether in sinful custom or in seeking for 
Dharma, — as my inner soul now recognises, — they 
too are verily sharers in the common aim. 

78. ' Since then, when I attain this righteous end, 
my escape from hence will be for the good of 
the world, — O best of steeds, by thy speed and 
energy, strive for thine own good and the good of 
the world.' 

79. Thus having exhorted the best of steeds like 
a friend to his duty, he, the best of men, longing to 
go to the forest, wearing a noble form, in brightness 
like fire*, mounted the white horse as the sun an 
autumnal cloud. 

80. Then that good steed, avoiding all noises 
which would sound startling in the dead of night and 
awaken the household, — all sound of his jaws hushed 
and his neighing silenced, — went forth, planting his 
hurrying steps at full speed. 

81. With their lotus-like hands, whose fore-arms 

1 Yathavat=yatha. 

* Asitagati seems here used like krt'shnagati, 'fire.' 

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BOOK V, 75-87. 6l 

were adorned with golden bracelets, the Yakshas, 
with their bodies bent down, threw lotuses and bore 
up his hoofs as he rushed in startled haste. 

82. The city-roads which were closed with heavy 
gates and bars, and which could be with difficulty 
opened * even by elephants, flew open of their own 
accord without noise, as the prince went through. 

83. Firm in his resolve and leaving behind with- 
out hesitation his father who turned ever towards 
him \ and his young son, his affectionate people and 
his unparalleled magnificence, he then went forth 
out of his father's city. 

84. Then he with his eyes long and like a full- 
blown lotus, looking back on the city, uttered a 
sound like a lion, ' Till I have seen the further shore 
of birth and death I will never again enter the city 
called after Kapila.' 

85. Having heard this his utterance, the troops of 
the court of the Lord of wealth 8 rejoiced ; and the 
hosts of the gods, triumphing, wished him a success- 
ful accomplishment of his purpose. 

86. Other heavenly beings with forms bright like 
fire, knowing that his purpose was hard to fulfil, pro- 
duced a light on his dewy path like the rays of the 
moon issuing from the rift of a cloud. 

87. But he with his horse like the horse of Indra, 
the lord of bay horses, hurrying on as if spurred in 
his mind, went over the leagues full of many con- 
flicting emotions 4 , — the sky all the while with its 
cloud-masses checkered with the light of the dawn. 

1 Apadhriyante MSS., but I read apavri-. 

* Abhimukham. * Sc. the Yakshas. 

* Or perhaps 'six leagues.' 

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1. Then when the sun, the eye of the world, was 
just risen, he, the noblest of men, beheld the hermit- 
age of the son of Ehrigu, 

2. Its deer all asleep in quiet trust, its birds tran- 
quilly resting, — seeing it he too became restful, and 
he felt as if his end was attained. 

3. For the sake of ending his wonder and to show 
reverence for the penances observed, and as express- 
ing his own conformity therewith \ he alighted from 
the back of his horse. 

4. Having alighted, he stroked the horse, exclaim- 
ing, 'AH is saved,' and he spoke well-pleased to 
A^aflfdaka, bedewing him as it were with tears from 
his eyes : 

5. 'Good friend, thy devotion to me and thy 
courage of soul have been proved by thy thus 
following this steed whose speed is like that of 
Tarkshya *. 

6. ' Bent even though I am on other business, I am 
wholly won in heart by thee, — one who has such a 
love for his master, and at the same time is able to 
carry out his wish. 

7. ' One can be able without affection, and affec- 
tionate though unable; but one like thee, at once 
affectionate and able, is hard to find in the world. 

1 Svim >tanuvartit£« rakshan. [The Tibetan has the 
obscure ran-gi rjes-su bsruh-va la=sva + anu + rakshan ? H. W.] 
1 An old mythic representation of the sun as a horse. 

Digitized by 


BOOK VI, I-I5. 63 

8. ' I am pleased with this noble action of thine ; 
this feeling is seen towards me, even though I am 
regardless of conferring rewards. 

9. ' Who would not be favourably disposed to one 
who stands to him as bringing him reward ? but even 
one's own people commonly become mere strangers 
in a reverse of fortune l . 

10. ' The son is maintained for the sake of the 
family, the father is honoured for the sake of our 
own (future) support ; the world shows kindness for 
the sake of hope ; there is no such a thing as un- 
selfishness without a motive. 

ii. 1 Why speak many words ? in short, thou hast 
done me a very great kindness ; take now my horse 
and return, I have attained the desired wood.' 

12. Thus having spoken, the mighty hero in his 
desire to show perfect gentleness 2 unloosed his 
ornaments and gave them to the other, who was 
deeply grieved. 

13. Having taken a brilliant jewel whose effect 
illumined his diadem, he stood, uttering these 
words, like the mountain Mawzdara with the sun 
resting on it : 

14. 'By thee with this jewel, O A'-iafwda, having 
offered him repeated obeisance, the king, with his 
loving confidence still unshaken, must be enjoined 
to stay his grief. 

15. '"I have entered the ascetic-wood to destroy 
old age and death, — with no thirst for heaven, with 
no lack of love nor feeling of anger. 

1 Gantbhavati may be a quaint expression for para^ano 
bhavati, — this seems the meaning of the Tibetan. Or we might 
readranyo bhavati. 

* Ann' xawsa (for anrtxamsya), see Pawini V, 1, i3oga»a. 

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1 6. ' " Do not think of mourning for me who am 
thus gone forth from my home ; union, however long 
it may last, in time will come to an end. 

17. ' " Since separation is certain, therefore is my 
mind fixed on liberation; how shall there not be 
repeated severings from one's kindred ? 

18. ' " Do not think of mourning for me who am 
gone forth to leave sorrow behind ; it is the thralls 
of passion, who are attached to desires, the causes of 
sorrow, for whom thou shouldst mourn. 

19. "'This was the firm persuasion of our prede- 
cessors, — I as one departing by a common road am 
not to be mourned for by my heir. 

20. ' " At a man's death there are doubtless heirs to 
his wealth ; but heirs to his merit are hard to find on 
the earth or exist not at all. 

21. ' " Even though thou sayest, ' He is gone at a 
wrong time to the wood,' — there is no wrong time 
for religious duty (dharma), life being fragile as 
it is. 

22. ' " Therefore my determination is, ' I must seek 
my supreme good this very day;' what confidence 
can there be in life, when death stands as our 
adversary ? " 

23. ' Do thou address the king, O friend, with 
these and such-like words ; and do thou use thy 
efforts so that he may not even remember me. 

24. ' Yea, do thou repeat to the king our utter 
unworthiness ; through unworthiness affection is lost, 
— and where affection is lost, there is no sorrow.' 

25. Having heard these words, JCAamda., over- 
whelmed with grief, made reply with folded hands, 
his voice choked by tears : 

26. 'At this state of mind of thine, causing afflic- 

Digitized by 


BOOK VI, 16-35. 65 

tion to thy kindred, my mind, O my lord, sinks down 
like an elephant in the mud of a river. 

27. ' To whom would not such a determination as 
this of thine cause tears, even if his heart were of 
iron, — how much more if it were throbbing with 

28. ' Where ' is this delicacy of limb, fit to lie only 
in a palace, — and where is the ground of the ascetic- 
forest, covered with the shoots of rough kuya grass ? 

29. 'When, on hearing thy resolve, I first brought 
thee this horse, — it was fate only, O my lord, which 
made me do it, mastering my will. 

30. 'But how could I, O king, by mine own will, — 
knowing this thy decision, — carry back the horse to 
the sorrow of Kapilavastu ? 

31. 'Surely thou wilt not abandon, O hero, that 
fond old king, so devoted to his son, as a heretic 
might the true religion ? 

32. ' And her, thy second mother, worn with the 
care of bringing thee up,— thou wilt not surely forget 
her, as an ingrate a benefit ? 

33. ' Thou wilt not surely abandon thy queen, 
endowed with all virtues, illustrious for her family, 
devoted to her husband and with a young son, as a 
coward the royal dignity within his reach ? 

34. ' Thou wilt not abandon the young son of 
Yafodhara, worthy of all praise, thou the best of the 
cherishers of religion and fame, as a dissolute spend- 
thrift his choicest glory ? 

35. ' Or even if thy mind be resolved to abandon 
thy kindred and thy kingdom, thou wilt not, O 
master, abandon me, — thy feet are my only refuge. 

1 A common expression (which occurs also in Persian poetry) 
to imply the incompatibility of two things. 

[4»] " * 

Digitized by 



36. ' I cannot go to the city with my soul thus 
burning, leaving thee behind in the forest as Sumitra 1 
left the son of Raghu. 

37. 'What will the king say to me, returning to 
the city without thee ? or what shall I say to thy 
queens by way of telling them good news ? 

38. ' As for what thou saidst, " thou must repeat 
my unworthiness to the king"- — how shall I speak 
what is false of thee as of a sage without a fault ? 

39. ' Or even if I ventured to speak it with a heart 
ashamed and a tongue cleaving to my mouth, who 
would think of believing it ? 

40. ' He who would tell of or believe the fierce- 
ness of the moon, might tell of or believe thy faults, 
O physician of faults. 

41. 'Him who is always compassionate and who 
never fails to feel pity, it ill befits to abandon one 
who loves ; — turn back and have mercy on me.' 

42. Having heard these words of ICAa.mda. over- 
come with sorrow, — self-possessed with the utmost 
firmness the best of speakers answered : 

43. 'Abandon this distress, JCfamda., regarding 
thy separation from me, — change is inevitable in 
corporeal beings who are subject to different births. 

44. ' Even if I through affection were not to aban- 
don my kindred in my desire for liberation, death 
would still make us helplessly abandon one another. 

45. ' She, my mother, by whom I was borne in the 
womb with great thirst and pains, — where am I now 
with regard to her, all her efforts fruitless, and where 
is she with regard to me ? 

46. ' As birds go to their roosting-tree and then 

1 This is the Sumantra of the Rimayana II, 57. 

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BOOK VI, 36-55. 67 

depart, so the meeting of beings inevitably ends in 

47. 'As clouds, having come together, depart 
asunder again, such I consider the meeting and 
parting of living things. 

48. ' And since this world goes away, each one of 
us deceiving the other, — it is not right to think any- 
thing thine own in a time of union which is a 

49. 'Since the trees are parted from the innate 
colour of their leaves, why should there not still 
more be the parting of two things which are alien to 
each other ? 

50. ' Therefore, since it is so, grieve not, my good 
friend, but go ; or if thy love lingers, then go and 
afterwards return. 

51. ' Say, without reproaching us, to the people in 
Kapilavastu, " Let your love for him be given up, and 
hear his resolve. 

52» ' " Either he will quickly come back, having 
destroyed old age and death ; or else he will himself 
perish, having failed in his purpose and lost hold of 
every support"' 

53. Having heard his words, Kamthaka, the noblest 
of steeds, licked his feet with his tongue and dropped 
hot tears. 

54. With his hand whose fingers were united with 
a membrane and which was marked with the auspi- 
cious svastika, and with its middle part curved 1 , the 
prince stroked him and addressed him like a friend : 

55. ' Shed not tears, Kawthaka, this thy perfect 

1 Professor Kielhorn suggests *akra-madhyena, ' with a wheel in 
its centre,' cf. VIII, 55. 

F 2 

Digitized by 



equine nature has been proved, — bear with it, this 
thy labour will soon have its fruit.' 

56. Then seizing the sharp jewelled sword which 
was in KAamdaka's hand, he resolutely drew out 
from the sheath the blade decked with golden orna- 
ments, like a serpent from its hole. 

57. Having drawn it forth, dark blue like a blue 
lotus petal, he cut his decorated tiara and his hair, 
and he tossed it with its scattered muslin into the 
air as a grey goose into a lake. 

58. And the heavenly beings, with a longing to 
worship it, seized it respectfully as it was thrown up ; 
and the divine hosts paid it due adoration in heaven 
with celestial honours. 

59. Having thus divorced his ornaments and 
banished all royal magnificence from his head, and 
seeing his muslin floating away like a golden goose, 
the stedfast prince desired a sylvan dress. 

60. Then a celestial being, wearing the form of a 
hunter, pure in heart, knowing his thoughts, ap- 
proached near him in dark-red garments ; and the 
son of the sSakya king thus addressed him : 

61. ' Thy red garments are auspicious, the sign of 
a saint; but this destructive bow is not befitting; 
therefore, my good friend, if there is no strong pre- 
ference in the matter, do thou give me that dress 
and take this of mine.' 

62. The hunter replied, ' It has given me my 
desire l , O giver of desires, as by this I have inspired 

1 I have taken drat as from a + ra, but Professor Kielhorn 
suggests that it might mean 'near.' 'Although in this dress 
I make the deer come confidently close to me and then kill 
them, yet take it if you want it,' [The Tibetan seems to have 
read kamasirat, — Q dod-pa sfihvpo las, 'from essence of desire.' 

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BOOK VI, 56-68. 69 

animals with confidence and then killed them ; but 
if thou hast need of it, O thou who art like Indra, 
accept it at once and give me the white dress.' 

63. With extreme joy he then took that sylvan 
dress and gave away the linen one ; and the hunter, 
assuming his heavenly form, having taken the white 
garment, went to heaven. 

64. Then the prince and the attendant of the 
horse were filled with wonder as he was thus going, 
and forthwith they paid great honour anew to that 
sylvan dress. 

65. Then the great-souled one, having dismissed 
the weeping ATsawda, and wearing his fame veiled 
by the sign of the red garment, went towards the 
hermitage, like the king of mountains wrapped in an 
evening cloud. 

66. While his master, thus regardless of his 
kingdom, was going to the ascetic-wood in mean 
garments, the groom, tossing up his arms, wailed 
bitterly and fell on the ground. 

67. Having looked again he wept aloud, and 
embraced the horse Kawthaka with his arms ; and 
then, hopeless and repeatedly lamenting, he went 
in body to the city, not in soul. 

68. Sometimes he pondered, sometimes he la- 
mented, sometimes he stumbled, and sometimes he 
fell ; and so going along, wretched through his de- 
voted attachment, he performed all kinds of actions 
in the road without conscious will. 

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i. Then having left the weeping tear-faced 
KAamda., — indifferent to all things in his longing for 
the forest, he by whom all objects are accomplished, 
overpowering the place by his beauty, entered that 
hermitage as if it were fully blessed. 

2. He the prince with a gait like the lion's, having 
entered that arena of deer, himself like a deer, — by 
the beauty of his person, even though bereft of his 
magnificence, attracted the eyes of all the dwellers 
in the hermitage. 

3. The drivers of wheeled carriages also, with 
their wives, stood still in curiosity, holding the yokes 
in their hands, — they gazed on him who was like 
Indra, and moved not, standing like their beasts of 
burden with their heads half bent down. 

4. And the Brihmans who had gone outside for 
the sake of fuel, having come with their hands full 
of fuel, flowers, and kusa grass, — pre-eminent as 
they were in penances, and proficients in wisdom, 
went to see him, and went not to their cells. 

5. Delighted the peacocks uttered their cries, as 
if they had seen a dark-blue cloud rising up ; and 
leaving the young grass and coming forward, the 
deer with restless eyes and the ascetics who grazed 
like deer * stood still. 

1 A form of ascetic observance, see Mah&bh. I, 3644; V, 4072. 
Cf. infra, xloka 15. 

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BOOK VII, I— 13. 71 

6. Beholding him, the lamp of the race of Iksh- 
vaku, shining like the rising sun, — even though 
their milking was over, being filled with joy, the 
oblation-giving cows poured forth their milk. 

7. ' It is one of the eight Vasus or one of the two 
Ajvins, descended here,' — these words arose, uttered 
aloud by the sages in their astonishment at seeing 

8. Like a second form of the lord of the gods \ 
like the personified glory of the universe, he lighted 
up the entire wood like the sun come down of his 
own accord. 

9. Then he, being duly honoured and invited to 
enter by those dwellers in the hermitage, paid his 
homage to the saints, with a voice like a cloud in 
the rainy season 2 . 

10. He, the wise one, longing for liberation, tra- 
versed that hermitage filled with the holy company 
desirous of heaven, — gazing at their strange penances. 

1 1. He, the gentle one, having seen the different 
kinds of penance practised by the ascetics in that 
sacred grove, — desiring to know the truth, thus ad- 
dressed one of the ascetics who was following him : 

12. 'Since this to-day is my first sight of a 
hermitage I do not understand this rule of penance ; 
therefore will your honour kindly explain to me 
what resolve possesses each one of you.' 

13. Then the Brahman well- versed in penance 
told in order to that bull of the .Sakyas, a very bull 
in prowess, all the various kinds of penance and the 
fruit thereof. 

1 Lekharshabha is a rare name of Indra. 
* A conjectural reading. 

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14. ' Uncultivated food, growing out of the water, 
leaves, water, and roots and fruits, — this is the fare 
of the saints according to the sacred texts ; but the 
different alternatives of penance vary. 

15. 'Some live like the birds on gleaned corn, 
others graze on grass like the deer, others live on 
air with the snakes, as if turned into ant-hills \ 

16. ' Others win their nourishment with great 
effort from stones, others eat corn ground with their 
own teeth ; some, having boiled for others, dress for 
themselves what may chance to be left 

1 7. ' Others, with their tufts of matted hair con- 
tinually wet with water, twice offer oblations to Agni 
with hymns; others plunging like fishes into the 
water dwell there with their bodies scratched by 

18. 'By such penances endured for a time, — by 
the higher they attain heaven, by the lower the 
world of men ; by the path of pain they eventually 
dwell in happiness, — pain, they say, is the root of 

19. The king's son, having heard this speech of 
the ascetic, even though he saw no lofty truth in it 2 , 
was not content, but gently uttered these thoughts 
to himself: 

20. 'The penance is full of pain and of many 
kinds, and the fruit of the penance is mainly heaven 
at its best, and all the worlds are subject to change ; 
verily the labour of the hermitages is spent for but 
little gain. 

1 Cf. the legend of the princess Sukanyi, given in Wilson's note, 
Hindu Drama, I, p. 263. 

* Cf. Beal, 517 (or perhaps 'though he had not himself yet 
attained the highest truth '). 

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BOOK VII, 14-27. 73 

21. ' Those who abandoning wealth, kindred, and 
worldly objects, undertake vows for the sake of 
heaven, — they, when parted, only wish to go to a 
still greater wood of their own again *. 

22. * He who by all these bodily toils which are 
called penances, seeks a sphere of action for the sake 
of desire, — not examining the inherent evils of mun- 
dane existence, he only seeks pain by pain. 

23. ' There is ever to living creatures fear from 
death, and they with all their efforts seek to be 
born again; where there is action, there must in- 
evitably be death, — he is always drowned therein, 
just because he is afraid. 

24. 'Some undergo misery for the sake of this 
world, others meet toil for the sake of heaven ; all 
living beings, wretched through hope and always 
missing their aim, fall certainly for the sake of 
happiness into misery. 

25. ' It is not the effort itself which I blame, — 
which flinging aside the base pursues a high path 
of its own ; but the wise, by all this common toil, 
ought to attain that state in which nothing needs 
ever to be done again. 

26. 'If the mortification of the body here is 
religion, then the body's happiness is only irreligion ; 
but by religion a man obtains happiness in the next 
world, therefore religion here bears irreligion as its 

27. 'Since it is only by the mind's authority that 
the body either acts or ceases to act, therefore to 
control the thought is alone befitting, — without the 
thought the body is like a log. 

1 Their desired heaven will only be a fresh penance-grove. 

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28. ' If merit is gained by purity of food, then 
there is merit also in the deer; and in those men 
also who live as outcasts from all enjoyments, through 
being estranged from them by the fault of their 

29. ' If the deliberate choice of pain is a cause of 
merit, why should not that same choice be directed 
to pleasure ? If you say that the choice of pleasure 
carries no authority, is not the choice of pain equally 
without authority ? 

30. ' So too those who for the sake of purifying 
their actions, earnestly sprinkle water on themselves, 
saying, "this is a sacred spot," — even there this 
satisfaction resides only in the heart, — for waters 
will not cleanse away sin. 

31. 'The water which has been touched by the 
virtuous, — that is the spot, if you wish for a sacred 
spot on the earth; therefore I count as a place of 
pilgrimage only the virtues of a virtuous man \ — 
water without doubt is only water.' 

32. Thus he uttered his discourse full of various 
arguments, and the sun went down into the west ; 
then he entered the grove where penances had now 
ceased and whose trees were gray with the smoke 
of the (evening) oblations ; 

33. Where the sacred fires had been duly trans- 
ferred when kindled to other spots, — all crowded 
with the holy hermits who had performed their 
ablutions, and with the shrines of the gods murmur- 
ing with the muttered prayers, — it seemed all alive 
like the full service of religion in exercise. 

34. He spent several nights there, himself like 

1 Gu»&n eva? 

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600K VII, 28-42. 75 

the moon, examining their penances; and he de- 
parted from that penance-field, feeling that he had 
comprehended the whole nature of penance. 

35. The dwellers of the hermitage followed him 
with their minds fixed on the greatness of soul 
visible in his person, as if they were great seers 
beholding Religion herself, withdrawn from a land 
invaded by the base. 

36. Then he looked on all those ascetics with 
their matted hair, bark garments, and rag-strips 
waving, and he stood considering their penances 
under an auspicious and noble tree by the way-side. 

37. Then the hermits having approached stood 
surrounding the best of men ; and an old man from 
among them thus addressed him respectfully in a 
gentle voice : 

38. ' At thy coming the hermitage seems to have 
become full, it becomes as it were empty when thou 
art gone, — therefore, my son, thou wilt not surely 
desert it, as the loved life the body of one who 
wishes to live. 

39. ' In front stands the holy mountain Himavat, 
inhabited by Brahmarshis, ra^arshis, and surarshis ; 
by whose mere presence the merit of these penances 
becomes multiplied to the ascetics. 

40. ' Near us also are holy spots of pilgrimage, 
which become ladders to heaven; loved by divine 
sages and saints whose souls are intent on devotion 
and who keep their souls in perfect control. 

41. 'From hence, again, the Northern quarter is 
especially to be fitly followed for the sake of pre- 
eminent merit; even one who was wise starting 
towards the south could not advance one single step. 

42. * Hast thou seen in this sacred grove one who 

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neglects all ceremonies or who follows confused 
ceremonies or an outcast or one impure, that thou 
dost not desire to dwell here ? Speak it out, and 
let the abode be welcomed. 

43. 'These hermits here desire thee as their 
companion in penance, thee who art like a store- 
house of penance, — to dwell with thee who art like 
Indra would bring prosperity even to VWhaspati.' 

44. He, the chief of the wise, when thus addressed 
in the midst of the ascetics by their chief — having 
resolved in his mind to put an end to all existence — 
thus uttered his inward thought : 

45. 'The upright-souled saints, the upholders of 
religion, become the very ideal of our own kindred 
through their delight in showing hospitality ; by all 
these kind feelings of thine towards me affection is 
produced in me and the path which regards the self 
as supreme 1 is revealed. 

46. ' I seem to be all at once bathed by these 
gentle heart-touching words of thine, and the joy 
now throbs in me once more which I felt when I 
first grasped the idea of dharma. 

47. ' There is sorrow to me when I reflect that I 
shall have to depart, leaving you who are thus 
engaged, you who are such a refuge and who have 
shown such excessive kindness to me, — just as there 
was when I had to leave my kindred behind. 

48. ' But this devotion of yours is for the sake of 
heaven, — while my desire is that there may be no 
fresh birth ; therefore I wish not to dwell in this 
wood ; the nature of cessation is different from that 
of activity. 

49. ' It is not therefore any dislike on my part or 

• Obscure, cf. Mablbh. V, 1593. 

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book vii, 43~5 6 - 77 

the wrong conduct of another, which makes me go 
away from this wood ; for ye are all like great sages, 
standing fast in the religious duties which are in 
accordance with former ages.' 

50. Then having heard the prince's discourse, 
gracious and of deep meaning, gentle, strong, and 
full of dignity, the ascetics paid him especial honour. 

51. But a certain Brahman who was lying there 
in the ashes, tall and wearing his hair in a tuft, and 
clothed in the bark of trees, with reddish eyes and 
a thin long nose, and carrying a pot with water 1 in 
his hand, thus lifted his voice : 

52. ' O sage, brave indeed is thy purpose, who, 
young as thou art, hast seen the evils of birth; he who, 
having pondered thoroughly heaven and liberation, 
makes up his mind for liberation, — he is indeed 
brave ! 

53. 'By all those various sacrifices, penances, and 
vows the slaves of passion desire to go to heaven; 
but the strong, having battled with passion as with 
an enemy, desire to obtain liberation. 

54. ' If this is thy settled purpose, go quickly to 
VindhyakoshZ&t ; the Muni Ar&da. lives there who 
has gained an insight into absolute bliss. 

55. ' From him thou wilt hear the path to truth, 
and if thou hast a desire for it, thou wilt embrace 
it ; but as I foresee, this purpose of thine will go on 
further, after having rejected his theory. 

56. ' With the nose of a well-fed horse, large long 
eyes, a red lower lip, white sharp teeth, and a thin 
red tongue, — this face of thine will drink up the 
entire ocean of what is to be known. 

' Conjectural. Dr. von Bdhtlingk suggests ku«</4vahasto, ' the 
back of whose band was like a kumda.' 

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57. 'That unfathomed depth which characterises 
thee, that majesty and all those signs of thine, — - 
they shall win a teachers chair in the earth which 
was never won by sages even in a former age.' 

58, The prince replied, ' Very well,' and having 
saluted the company of sages he departed; the 
hermits also having duly performed to him all 
the rites of courtesy entered again into the ascetic- 

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i. Meanwhile the attendant of the horse, in deep 
distress, when his unselfish master thus went into 
the forest, made every effort in the road to dis- 
solve * his load of sorrow, and yet in spite of it all 
not a tear dropped from him. 

' 2. But the road which by his lord's command he 
had traversed in one night with that horse, — that 
same road he now travelled in eight days, pondering 
his lord's absence. 

3. And the horse Kawrthaka, though he still went 
on bravely, flagged and had lost all spirit in his 
heart ; and decked though he was with ornaments, 
he had lost all his beauty when bereft of his 

4. And turning round towards that ascetic-grove, 
he neighed repeatedly with a mournful sound ; and 
though pressed with hunger, he welcomed not nor 
tasted any grass or water on the road, as before 2 . 

5. Slowly they two at last came back to the 
city called after Kapila, which seemed empty 
when deserted by that hero who was bent on the 

1 Vigraha seems here used in an unusual sense. Cf. Tennyson's 
' Home they brought her warrior dead, &c.' 

* I read n&bhinananda, supposing na to have been written 
on the margin and inserted in the wrong place, otherwise abhis 
must be used for abhi. [This is confirmed by the Tibetan, which 
translates abhinananda by mnon-par ma dga, where mnon-par is 
the usual translation of the preposition abhi. H. W.] 

Digitized by 



salvation of the world, — like the sky bereft of 
the sun. 

6. Bright as it was with lotus-covered waters, 
adorned also with trees full of flowers, that garden 
of his, which was now like a forest, was no longer 
gay with citizens who had lost all their gladness. 

7. Then those two, — who were as it were silently 
forbidden by the sad inhabitants who were wander- 
ing in that direction, their brightness gone and 
their eyes dim with tears, — slowly entered the city 
which seemed all bathed in gloom. 

8. Having heard that they had returned with 
their limbs all relaxed, coming back without the 
pride of the .Sakya race, the men of the city shed 
tears in the road, as when in old days the chariot of 
the son of Dararatha came back. 

9. Full of wrath, the people followed .AT^awdaka 
in the road, crying behind him with tears, ' Where 
is the king's son, the glory of his race and kingdom ? 
he has been stolen away by thee.' 

10. Then he said to those faithful ones, ' I have 
not left the king's son; but by him in the unin- 
habited forest I weeping and the dress of a house- 
holder were abandoned together.' 

1 1. Having heard these words of his those 
crowds adopted a most difficult resolve; they did 
not wipe away the tears which fell from their eyes, 
and they blamed their own (evil) hearts on account 
of the consequences of their actions ; 

12. Then they said, 'Let us go this very day 
into that forest, whither he is gone, whose gait is 
like the king of elephants ; without him we have 
no wish to live, like the senses when the souls 

Digitized by 


BOOK VIII, 6- 20. 8l 

1 3. ' This city bereft of him is a forest, and that 
forest which possesses him is a city ; the city with- 
out him has no charms for us, like heaven without 
the lord of the Maruts, when VWtra was slain V 

14. Next the women crowded to the rows of 
windows, crying to one another, ' The prince has 
returned ; ' but having heard that his horse had an 
empty back, they closed the windows again and 
wailed aloud. 

15. But the king, having undertaken religious 
observances for the recovery of his son, with his 
mind distressed by the vow and the sorrow, was 
muttering prayers in the temple, and performing 
such rites as suited the occasion. 

16. Then with his eyes filled with tears, — taking 
the horse, his whole soul fixed on the horse, — over- 
come with grief he 2 entered the palace as if his 
master had been killed by an enemy. 

17. And entering the royal stable, looking about 
with his eyes full of tears, Ka*»thaka uttered a loud 
sound, as if he were uttering his woe to the people. 

18. Then the birds that fed in the middle of the 
house, and the carefully cherished horses that were 
tied near by, re-echoed the sound of that horse, 
thinking that it might be the return of the prince. 

19. And the people, deceived by an excessive 
joy, who were in the neighbourhood of the king's 
inner apartments, thought in their hearts, ' Since the 
horse Kawthaka neighs, it must be that the prince 
is coming.' 

20. Then the women, who were fainting with 

1 Quoted by Ugyvaladatta, on Uwadi-sutxas 1, 156. 
1 Sc. itTiiandaka. 
[43] G 

Digitized by 



sorrow, now in wild joy, with their eyes rolling to 
see the prince, rushed out of the palace full of hope, 
like flickering lightnings from an autumn cloud. 

21. With their dress hanging down, and their 
linen garments soiled, their faces untouched by 
collyrium and with eyes dimmed by tears; dark 
and discoloured and destitute of all painting l , like 
the stars in the sky, pale-red with the ending of 
night ; 

22. With their feet unstained by red, and un- 
decked by anklets, — their faces without earrings, 
and their ears in their native simplicity, — their 
loins with only nature's fulness, and uncircled by 
any girdle, — and their bosoms bare of strings of 
pearls as if they had been robbed. 

23. But when they saw A^andaka standing help- 
less, his eyes filled with tears, and the horse, the 
noble women wept with pale faces, like cows aban- 
doned by the bull in the midst of the forest 

24. Then the king's principal queen Gautaml, 
like a fond cow that has lost her calf, fell bursting 
into tears on the ground with outstretched arms, 
like a golden plantain-tree with trembling leaves. 

25. Some of the other women, bereft of their 
brightness and with arms and souls lifeless, and 
seeming to have lost their senses in their despon- 
dency, raised no cry, shed no tear, and breathed 
not, standing senseless as if painted*. 

26. Others as having lost all self-control, fainting 
in their sorrow for their lord, their faces pouring 
tears from their eyes, watered their bosoms from 

1 Is ad^anayS used here irregularly in the fern, to distinguish 
it from a% ana, ' the pinguent?' 
* Conjectural. 

Digitized by 


BOOK VIII, 21-32. 83 

which all sandal-wood was banished, like a mountain 
the rocks with its streams. 

27. Then that royal palace was illumined with 
their faces pelted by the tears from their eyes, as a 
lake in the time of the first rains with its dripping 
lotuses pelted by the rain from the clouds. 

28. The noble women beat their breasts with 
their lotus-like hands, falling incessantly, whose fin- 
gers were round and plump, which had their arteries 
hidden and bore no ornaments, — as creepers tossed 
by the wind strike themselves with their shoots. 

29. And again how those women shone forth, 
as their bosoms rose up together after the blow 
from the hand, and trembled with the shock, — 
like the streams, when their pairs of ruddy geese 
shake, as the lotuses on which they sit wave about 
with the wind from the wood 1 . 

30. As they pressed their breasts with their 
hands, so too they pressed their hands with their 
breasts,— dull to all feelings of pity, they made 
their hands and bosoms inflict mutual pains on 
each other. 

31. Then thus spoke Yarodhari, shedding tears 
with deep 2 sorrow, her bosom heaving with her 
sighs, her eyes discoloured with anger, and her 
voice choking with emotion through the influence 
of despondency : 

32. 'Leaving me helplessly asleep in the night, 
whither, O A^awdaka, is he, the desire of my heart, 

1 This is an obscure verse, — yath&pi is not clear; I have 
taken yathi as a 'how' of admiration. The latter lines seem to 
compare the hand swaying with the motion of the bosom to the 
bird seated on the tossed lotus. 

1 Is vigadha for agadha, or should we read vig&dA&i 

G 2 

Digitized by 



gone? and when thou and Kawthaka are alone 
come back, while three went away together, my 
mind trembles. 

33. 'Why dost thou weep to-day, O cruel one, 
having done a dishonourable, pitiless, and unfriendly 
deed to me ? Cease thy tears and be content in 
thy heart, — tears and that deed of thine ill agree. 

34. 'Through thee, his dear obedient faithful loyal 
companion, always doing what was right, the son 
of my lord is gone never to return, — rejoice, — all 
hail ! thy pains have gained their end. 

35. ' Better for a man a wise enemy rather than 
a foolish friend unskilled in emergencies ; by thee, 
the unwise self-styled friend, a great calamity has 
been brought upon this family. 

36. ' These women are sorely to be pitied who 
have put away their ornaments, having their eyes 
red and dimmed with continuous tears, who are as 
it were desolate widows, though their lord still 
stands as unshaken as the earth or Mount Himavat. 

37. 'And these lines of palaces seem to weep 
aloud, flinging up their dovecots for arms, with the 
long unbroken moan of their doves, — separated 
verily, with him, from all who could restrain them. 

38. ' Even that horse Kamthaka without doubt 
desired my utter ruin ; for he bore away from hence 
my treasure when all were sound asleep in the 
night, — like one who steals jewels. 

39. ' When he was able to bear even the onsets of 
arrows, and still more the strokes of whips, — how 
then for fear of the fall of a whip, could he go carry- 
ing with him my prosperity and my heart together ? 

40. ' The base creature now neighs loudly, filling 
the king's palace with the sound ; but when he 

Digitized by 


BOOK VIII, 33-48. 85 

carried away my beloved, then this vilest of horses 
was dumb. 

41. ' If he had neighed and so woke up the people, 
or had even made a noise with his hoofs on the 
ground, or had made the loudest sound he could with 
his jaws, my grief would not have been so great' 

42. Having thus heard the queen's words, their 
syllables choked with tears and full of lament, slowly 
ATAamdaka uttered this answer, with his face bent 
down, his voice low with tears, and his hands clasped 
in supplication : 

43. ' Surely, O queen, thou wilt not blame Kaw- 
thaka nor wilt thou show thy anger against me, — 
know that we two are entirely guiltless, — that god 
amongst men, O queen, is gone away like a god. 

44. ' I indeed, though I well knew the king's com- 
mand, as though dragged by force by some divine 
powers, brought quickly to him this swift steed, and 
followed him on the road unwearied. 

45. 'And this best of horses as he went along 
touched not the ground with the tips of his hoofs as 
if they were kept aloft from it ; and so* too, having 
his mouth restrained as by fate, he made no sound 
with his jaws and neighed not. 

46. ' When the prince went out, then the gate was 
thrown open of its own accord ; and the darkness of 
the night was, as it were, pierced by the sun, — we may 
learn from hence too that this was the ordering of fate. 

47. ' When also by the king's command, in palace 
and city, diligent guards had been placed by thou- 
sands, and at that time they were all overcome by 
sleep and woke not, — we may learn from hence too 
that this was the ordering of fate. 

48. 'When also the garment, approved for a 

Digitized by 



hermit's dwelling in the forest, was offered to him at 
the moment by some denizen of heaven, and the 
tiara which he threw into the sky was carried off, 
— we may learn from hence too that this was the 
ordering of fate. 

49. ' Do not therefore assume 1 that his departure 
arises from the fault of either of us, O queen; 
neither I nor this horse acted by our own choice ; he 
went on his way with the gods as his retinue.' 

50. Having thus heard the history of the prince's 
departure, so marvellous in many ways, those women, 
as though losing their grief, were filled with wonder, 
but they again took up their distress at the thought 
of his becoming an ascetic. 

51. With her eyes filled with the tears of despon- 
dency, wretched like an osprey who has lost her 
young, — Gautamt abandoning all self-control wailed 
aloud, — she fainted, and with a weeping face ex- 
claimed : 

52. ' Beautiful, soft, black, and all in great waves, 
growing each from its own special root, — those hairs 
of his are tossed on the ground, worthy to be en- 
circled by a royal diadem. 

53. 'With his long arms and lion-gait, his bull- 
like eye, and his beauty bright like gold, his broad 
chest, and his voice deep as a drum or a cloud, — 
should such a hero as this dwell in a hermitage ? 

54. 'This earth is indeed unworthy as regards 
that peerless doer of noble actions, for such a vir- 
tuous hero has gone away from her, — it is the merits 
and virtues of the subjects which produce their king. 

55. ' Those two feet of his, tender, with their 

1 Should we read pratipattum for pratigantum? 

Digitized by 


BOOK VIII, 49-62. 87 

beautiful web spread between the toes, with their 
ankles concealed, and soft like a blue lotus, — how 
can they, bearing a wheel marked in the middle, 
walk on the hard ground of the skirts of the forest ? 

56. ' That body, which deserves to sit or lie on 
the roof of a palace, — honoured with costly garments, 
aloes, and sandal-wood, — how will that manly body 
live in the woods, exposed to the attacks of the cold, 
the heat, and the rain ? 

57. 'He who was proud of his family, goodness, 
strength, energy, sacred learning, beauty, and youth, 
— who was ever ready to give, not to ask, — how 
will he go about begging alms from others ? 

58. ' He who, lying on a spotless golden bed, was 
awakened during the night by the concert of musical 
instruments, — how alas! will he, my ascetic, sleep 
to-day on the bare ground with only one rag of 
cloth interposed ? ' 

59. Having heard this piteous lamentation, the 
women, embracing one another with their arms, 
rained the tears from their eyes, as the shaken 
creepers drop honey from their flowers. 

60. Then Yasodhara fell upon the ground, like 
the ruddy goose parted from her mate, and in utter 
bewilderment she slowly lamented, with her voice 
repeatedly stopped by sobs : 

61. ' If he wishes to practise a religious life after 
abandoning me his lawful wife widowed, — where is 
his religion, who wishes to follow penance without 
his lawful wife to share it with him ? 

62. ' He surely has never heard of the monarchs 
of olden times, his own ancestors, Mahasudarsa 1 and 

1 Mah&sudassana is the name of a king in Grdtaka 1, 95. 

Digitized by 



the rest, — how they went with their wives into the 
forest, — that he thus wishes to follow a religious life 
without me. 

63. 'He Hoes not see that husband and wife are 
both consecrated in sacrifices, and both purified by 
the performance of the rites of the Veda, and both 
destined to enjoy 1 the same results afterwards, — he 
therefore grudges me a share in his merit. 

64. 'Surely it must be that this fond lover of 
religion, knowing that my mind was secretly quar- 
relling even with my beloved, lightly and without 
fear has deserted me thus angry, in the hope to 
obtain heavenly nymphs in Indra's world ! 

65. ' But what kind of a thought is this of mine ? 
those women even there have the attributes which 
belong to bodies, — for whose sake he thus practises 
austerities in the forest, deserting his royal magnifi- 
cence and my fond devotion. 

66. ' I have no such longing for the joy of heaven, 
nor is that hard for even common people to win if they 
are resolute* ; but my one desire is how he my beloved 
may never leave me either in this world or the next. 

6 7. ' Even if I am unworthy to look on my husband's 
face with its long eyes and bright smile, still is this 
poor Rahula never to roll about in his father's lap ? 

68. ' Alas ! the mind of that wise hero is terribly 
stern, — gentle as his beauty seems, it is pitilessly 
cruel, — who can desert of his own accord such an 
infant son with his inarticulate talk, one who would 
charm even an enemy. 

69. 'My heart too is certainly most stern, yea, 

1 I read bubhukshu for bubhukshuA. 

* Api, I think, should properly follow ^anasya. 

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BOOK VIII, 63-75. 89 

made of rock or fashioned even of iron, which does 
not break when its lord is gone to the forest, de- 
serted by his royal glory like an orphan, — he so well 
worthy of happiness.' 

70. So the queen, fainting in her woe, wept and 
pondered and wailed aloud repeatedly, — self-pos- 
sessed as she was by nature, yet in her distress she 
remembered not her fortitude and felt no shame. 

71. Seeing Yarodhara thus bewildered with her 
wild utterances of grief and fallen on the ground, all 
the women cried out with their faces streaming 
with tears like large lotuses beaten by the rain. 

72. But the king, having ended his prayers, and 
performed the auspicious rites of the sacrifice, now 
came out of the temple ; and being smitten by the 
wailing sound of the people, he tottered like an 
elephant at the crash of a thunderbolt. 

73. Having heard (of the arrival) of both Kk&m- 
daka and Kawthaka, and having learned the fixed 
resolve of his son, the lord of the earth fell struck 
down by sorrow like the banner of Indra when the 
festival is over \ 

74. Then the king, distracted by his grief for his 
son, being held up for a moment by his attendants 
all of the same race, gazed on the horse with his 
eyes filled with tears, and then falling on the ground 
wailed aloud : 

75. ' After having done many dear exploits for me 
in battle, one great deed of cruelty, O Kawthaka, 
hast thou done, — for by thee that dear son of mine, 
dear for his every virtue, has been tossed down in 
the wood, dear as he was, like a worthless thing. 

1 Cf. I, 63. 

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76. ' Therefore either lead me to-day where he is, 
or go quickly and bring him back again; without 
him there is no life left to me, as to one plunged in 
sickness without the true medicine. 

77. ' When Suvarctanish/yfclvin was carried away by 
death, it seemed impossible that Srimgayai 1 should 
not die ; and shall I, when my duty-loving son is 
gone, fear to set my soul free, like any coward ? 

78. ' How should not the mind of Manu himself be 
distracted, when parted from his dear virtuous son *, 
— (Manu) the son of Vivasvat, who knew the higher 
and the lower, the mighty lord of creatures, the 
institutor of the ten chieftains 8 . 

79. ' I envy the monarch, that friend of Indra, the 
wise son of king A^a 4 , who, when his son went into 
the forest, went himself to heaven, and dragged out 
no miserable life here with vain tears. 

80. ' Describe to me, O beloved one, the court of 
that hermitage, whither thou hast carried him who is 
as my funeral oblation of water ; these my vital airs 
are all ready to depart, and are eager for it, longing 
to drink it.' 

81. Thus the king, in his grief for his separation 
from his son, — losing all his innate firmness which 
was stedfast like the earth, — loudly lamented as one 
distraught, like Dasaratha, a prey to his sorrow for 

1 See Mahabh. XII, 31. The Sa»%faya for Smsg-aya. 

* Does this refer to his losing his son Sudyumna, who was 
changed to a woman, Visiura Pur. IV, 1 ? 

* Da j akshatraknt is an obscure phrase; [the Tibetan renders 
it by rgyal-rigs bcu byas, 'king-race ten made;' rgyal-rigs is the 
ordinary translation of kshatriya. H. W.] 

* D&raratha. 

Digitized by 


BOOK VIII, 76-87. 91 

82. Then the wise counsellor, endued with religious 
learning, courtesy, and virtue, and the old family 
priest, spoke to him as was befitting in these well- 
weighed words, neither with their faces overwhelmed 
by grief nor yet wholly unmoved : 

83. ' Cease, O noblest of men, thy grief, regain 
thy firmness, — surely thou wilt not, O firm hero, 
shed tears like one of no self-control; many kings 
on this earth have gone into the forests, throwing 
away their royal pomp like a crushed wreath. 

84. ' Moreover, this his state of mind was all pre- 
determined ; remember those words long ago of the 
holy sage Asita ; " He will never be made to dwell 
even for a moment contentedly in heaven or in an 
emperor's domain." 

85. ' But if, O best of men, the effort must be 
made, quickly speak the word, we two will at once 
go together ; let the battle be waged in every way 
with thy son and his fate whatever it be.' 

86. Then the king commanded them both, ' Do 
you both go quickly hence, — my heart will not 
return to quiet, any more than a bird's in the woods 
longing for its young.' 

87. With a prompt acquiescence at the king's 
order the counsellor and the family priest went to 
that forest ; and then with his wives and his queen 
the king also, saying, ' It is done,' performed the 
remainder of the rites. 

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i. Then the two, the counsellor and the family 
priest, beaten by the king with his scourge of tears, 
went with every effort to that forest in the hurry of 
affection, like two noble horses goaded. 

2. Having come at last full of weariness to that 
hermitage, accompanied by a fitting train, — they dis- 
missed their royal pomp and with sober gestures 
entered the abode of Bhargava. 

3. Having saluted that Brahman with due respect, 
and having been honoured by him with due rever- 
ence in return, having seated themselves, plunging 
at once into the subject, they addressed Bhargava, 
who was likewise seated, concerning their errand. 

4. ' Let your honour know us to be respectively 
imperfect proficients in preserving the sacred learning 
and in retaining the state-counsels, — in the service of 
the monarch of the Ikshvaku race, pure in his valour 
and pure and wide in his glory. 

5. 'His son, who is like 6ayanta, while he himself 
is like Indra, has come here, it is said, desirous to 
escape from the fear of old age and death, — know 
that we two are come here on account of him.' 

6. He answered them, ' That prince of the long 
arms did indeed come here, but not as one un- 
awakened ; "this dharma only brings us back again," 
— recognising this, he went off forthwith towards 
Ara^a, seeking liberation.' 

7. Then they two, having understood the true 

Digitized by 


BOOK IX, I-I4. 93 

state of things, bade that Br&hman at once farewell, 
and wearied though they were, went on as if they 
were unwearied, thither whither the prince was gone. 

8. As they were going, they saw him bereft of all 
ornaments \ but still radiant with his beauty, sitting 
like a king in the road at the foot of a tree, like the 
sun under the canopy of a cloud. 

9. Leaving his chariot, the family priest then went 
up to the prince with the counsellor, as the saint 
Aurvaseya* went with Vamadeva, wishing to see 
Rama when he dwelt in the forest. 

10. They paid him honour as was fitting, as .Sukra 
and Awgiras honoured Indra in heaven ; and he in 
return paid due honour to them, as Indra in heaven 
to .Sukra and A/»giras. 

1 1 . Then they, having obtained his permission, sat 
down near him who was the banner of the .Sakya race; 
and they shone in his proximity like the two stars of 
the asterism Punarvasu in conjunction with the moon. 

12. The family priest addressed the prince who 
shone brightly as he sat at the foot of the tree, as 
Wzhaspati addressed Indra's son Gayanta, seated in 
heaven under the heavenly tree pari^ata : 

1 3. ' O prince, consider for a moment what the 
king with his eyes raining tears said to thee, as he 
lay fainting on the ground with the arrow of thy 
sorrow plunged into his heart. 

14. '"I know that thy resolve is fixed upon reli- 
gion, and I am convinced that this purpose of thine 
is unchanging 8 ; but I am consumed with a flame of 

1 Is srigzyi for sra^d? 

* Agastya, the son of Urvarf. Vamadeva was D&raratha's 

" Conjectural. [The Tibetan reads the second line, khyod-kyi 

Digitized by 



anguish like fire at thy flying to the woods at an in- 
opportune time. 

15.'" Come, thou who lovest duty, for the sake of 
what is my heart's desire, — abandon this purpose 
for the sake of duty ; this huge swollen stream of 
sorrow sweeps me away as a river's torrent its 

16. ' " That effect l which is wrought in the clouds, 
water, the dry grass, and the mountains by the wind, 
the sun, the fire, and the thunderbolt, — that same 
effect this grief produces in us by its tearing in 
pieces, its drying up, its burning, and its cleaving. 

17. '" Enjoy therefore for a while the sovereignty 
of the earth, — thou shalt go to the forest at the time 
provided by the jastras, — do not show disregard for 
thy unhappy kindred, — compassion for all creatures 
is the true religion. 

18. "' Religion is not wrought out only in the 
forests, the salvation of ascetics can be accomplished 
even in a city; thought and effort are the true 
means ; the forest and the badge are only a coward's 

19. ' " Liberation has been attained even by house- 
holders, Indras among men, who wore diadems, and 
carried strings of pearls suspended on their shoulders, 
whose garlands were entangled with bracelets, and 
who lay cradled in the lap of Fortune. 

20. ' " Bali and Va^rabahu, the two younger 
brothers of Dhruva, Vaibhra^a, Asha^4a, and A*»ti- 

byun-var gyur-var don-ni ces-pao, 'I know thy purpose which 
is about to arise (or which has arisen) in thy mind.' Can they 
have read bhivinam or bhavitam ? H.W.] 
1 I read vriitii. 

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book ix, 15-26. 95 

deva 1 , and kanaka also, the king of the Videhas, 
and king Sena^it's son, his tree of ripe blessing 2 ; 

21. ' " Know that all these great kings who were 
householders were well skilled in attaining the merit 
which leads to final bliss, — do thou also therefore 
obtain both 8 simultaneously — royal magnificence and 
the control over the mind. 

22. '"I desire, — when I have once closely em- 
braced thee after thy kingly consecration is once 
performed, and while thou art still wet with the 
sacred water, — when I behold thee with the pomp 
of the royal umbrella, — in the fulness of that joy to 
enter the forest" 

23. ' Thus did the king say to thee in a speech 
whose words were stopped by tears, — surely having 
heard it, for the sake of what is so dear to him, thou 
wilt with all affection follow his affection. 

24. ' The king of the .Sakyas is drowned in a deep 
sea of sorrow, full of waves of trouble, springing 
from thee; do thou therefore deliver him helpless 
and protectorless like an ox drowning in the sea. 

25. ' Having heard that Bhtshma who sprang from 
Ganga's womb, Rama, and Rama the son of Bhrzgu, 
— all did what would please their fathers; — surely 
thou too wilt do thy father's desire. 

26. ' Consider also the queen, who brought thee 

' Cf.1,57; IX, 60. 

* My reading pakadrumam is conjectural, Paradrumau as two 
old kings would be a possible reading. Senajit's son is praised for 
his philosophical depth in Mahabh. XII, 6524, &c.; he is there 
called Medhavin. [The Tibetan has brtan-pai (dhruva) nu 
vo, 'the firm one's younger brother (?);' it also has jgro dan ljon- 
fin-can for pakadruma, 'having a tree of — ?' It takes sena^i- 
taxAa T&gHa.h as ace. plural. H.W.] 

* Ubhe«pi, although with pragnhya e. 

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up, who has not yet gone to the region inhabited by 
Agastya 1 — wilt thou not take some heed of her, 
who ceaselessly grieves like a fond cow that has lost 
her calf ? 

27. ' Surely thou wilt succour thy wife by the 
sight of thee, who now mourns widowed yet with 
her lord still alive, — like a swan separated from her 
mate or a female elephant deserted in the forest by 
her companion. 

28. ' Thy only son, a child little deserving such 
woe, distressed with sorrow, and * . . . . — O deliver 
Rahula from the grief of his kindred like the full 
moon from the contact of Rami ! 

29. ' Burned with the fire of anguish within him, 
to which thy absence adds fresh fuel, — a fire whose 
smoke is sighs and its flame despair, — he wanders 
for a sight of thee through the women's apartments 
and the whole city.' 

30. The Bodhisattva, — whose perfection was ab- 
solute, — having heard the words of the family priest, 
reflected for a moment, knowing all the virtues of 
the virtuous, and then thus uttered his gentle reply : 

31. 'I well know the paternal tenderness 8 of the 
king, especially that which he has displayed towards 
me ; yet knowing this as I do, still alarmed at sick- 
ness, old age, and death, I am inevitably forced to 
leave my kindred. 

32. ' Who would not wish to see his dear kindred, 
if but this separation from beloved ones did not 
exist ? but since even after it has been once, separa- 

1 The south, — the region of the god of death. 

* Five syllables are here lost, — apakvasattvam ? 

* Should we read tanayaprasaktam? 

Digitized by 


BOOK IX, 27-38. 97 

tion will still come again, it is for this that I abandon 
my father, however loving. 

33. ' I do not however approve that thou shouldst 
consider the king's grief as caused by me, when in 
the midst of his dream-like unions he is afflicted by 
thoughts of separations in the future. 

34. * Thus let thy thoughts settle into certainty, 
having seen the multiform in its various develop- 
ments; neither a son nor kindred is the cause of 
sorrow, — this sorrow is only caused by ignorance. 

35. ' Since parting is inevitably fixed in the course 
of time for all beings, just as for travellers who have 
joined company on a road, — what wise man would 
cherish sorrow, when he loses his kindred, even 
though he loves them * ? 

36- * Leaving his kindred in another world, he 
departs hither ; and having stolen away * from them 
here, he goes forth once more ; " having gone thither, 
go thou elsewhere also," — such is the lot of man- 
kind, — what consideration can the yogin have for 
them 8 ? 

37. ' Since from the moment of leaving the womb 
death is a characteristic adjunct *, why, in thy affec- 
tion for thy son, hast thou called my departure to 
the forest ill-timed ? 

38. 'There may be an "ill time" in one's attain- 
ing a worldly object, — time indeed is described as 

1 Some letters are here lost in the original. 

* Pralabhya, cf. Horace, 'vivens moriensque fefellit' [The 
Tibetan has rab-tu bslas-nas, ' having deceived.' H. W.] 

* The Tibetan has for the fourth line de-ltar (evaw) dor»ldan 
skye-la rjes-su rten rnam ci, 'thus what kind of reliance is there 
on man who is of a leaving disposition ?' Should we read in the 
original ityevam fane tyigini ko«nurodhaA ? 

4 Can anubadh&ya be wrongly used for anubandh&ya.? 

[4'] H 

Digitized by 



inseparably connected with all things 1 ; time drags 
the world into all its various times ; but all time 
suits a bliss which is really worthy of praise *. 

39. ' That the king should wish to surrender to 
me his kingdom, — this is a noble thought, well 
worthy of a father; but it would be as improper 
for me to accept it, as for a sick man through greed 
to accept unwholesome food. 

40. ' How can it be right for the wise man to 
enter royalty, the home of illusion, where are found 
anxiety, passion, and weariness, and the violation 
of all right through another's service ? 

41. 'The golden palace seems to me to be on 
fire ; the daintiest viands seem mixed with poison ; 
infested with crocodiles 8 [is the tranquil lotus-bed}' 

42. Having heard the king's son uttering this 
discourse, well suitable to his virtues and knowledge 
of the soul, freed from all desires, full of sound 
reasons, and weighty, — the counsellor thus made 
answer : 

43. ' This resolve of thine is an excellent counsel^ 
not unfit in itself but only unfit at the present time ; 
it could not be thy duty, loving duty as thou dost, 
to leave thy father in his old age to sorrow. 

44. ' Surely thy mind is not very penetrating, or 
it is ill-skilled in examining duty, wealth, and 
pleasure * — when for the sake of an unseen result 
thou departest disregarding a visible end. 

1 Cf. P4». HI, 3, 44. 

1 I.e. mukti can never be ill-timed. But this is an obscure floka. 
* The remainder of the prince's speech is lost. By Beat's 
translation from the Chinese, fifteen verses are wanting. 
4 The three well-known 'secular' ends of human action. 

Digitized by 


BOOK IX, 39-52. 99 

45. ' Again, some say that there is another birth, — 
others with confident assertion say that there is not ; 
since then the matter is all in doubt, it is right to 
enjoy the good fortune which comes into thy hand. 

46. ' If there is any activity hereafter, we will 
enjoy ourselves in it as may offer ; or if there is no 
activity beyond this life, then there is an assured 
liberation to all the world without any effort. 

47. ' Some say there is a future life, but they do 
not allow the possibility of liberation ; as fire is hot 
by nature and water liquid, so they hold that there 
is a special nature in our power of action 1 . 

48. 'Some maintain that all things arise from 
inherent properties, — both good and evil and exist- 
ence and non-existence ; and since all this world 
thus arises spontaneously, therefore also all effort 
of ours is vain. 

49. ' Since the action of the senses is fixed, and 
so too the agreeableness or the disagreeableness of 
outward objects, — then for that which is united to 
old age and pains, what effort can avail to alter 
it ? Does it not all arise spontaneously ? 

50. 'The fire becomes quenched by water, and 
fire causes* water to evaporate; and different 
elements, united in a body, producing unity, bear 
up the world. 

51. 'That the nature of the embryo in the womb 
is produced as composed of hands, feet, belly, back, 
and head, and that it is also united with the soul, — 
the wise declare that all this comes of itself sponta- 

52. ' Who causes the sharpness of the thorn ? or 

1 I.e. it cannot be abolished. * I read gamayanti. _ . 

t «2 537832 A 

Digitized by 



the various natures of beasts and birds ? All this has 
arisen spontaneously ; there is no acting from desire, 
how then can there be such a thing as will ? 

53. ' Others say that creation comes from ljvara, — 
what need then is there of the effort of the conscious 
soul l ? That which is the cause of the action of 
the world, is also determined as the cause of its 
ceasing to act. 

54. * Some say that the coming into being and 
the destruction of being are alike caused by the 
soul; but they say that coming into being arises 
without effort, while the attainment of liberation is 
by effort. 

55. 'A man discharges his debt to his ancestors 
by begetting offspring, to the saints by sacred lore, 
to the gods by sacrifices; he is born with these 
three debts upon him, — whoever has liberation 
(from these,) he indeed has liberation. 

56. ' Thus by this series of rules the wise pro- 
mise liberation to him who uses effort; but however 
ready for effort with all their energy, those who 
seek liberation will find weariness. 

57. 'Therefore, gentle youth, if thou hast a love 
for liberation, follow rightly the prescribed rule; 
thus wilt thou thyself attain to it, and the king's 
grief will come to an end. 

58. ' And as for thy meditations on the evils of 
life ending in thy return from the forest to thy 
home, — let not the thought of this trouble thee, my 
son, — those in old time also have returned from the 
forests to their houses. 

59. 'The king Awbartsha 2 , though he had 

' Purusha. * Probably ihe son of N&bhSga. 

Digitized by 


BOOK IX, 53-64. IOI 

dwelt in the forest, went back to the city, sur- 
rounded by his children ; so too Rama, seeing the 
earth oppressed by the base, came forth from his 
hermitage and ruled it again. 

60. ' So too Drumaksha, the king of the .Salvas, 
came to his city from the forest with his son ; and 
S&mkrtti Aartideva \ after he had become a Brah- 
marshi, received his royal dignity from the saint 

61. 'Such men as these, illustrious in glory 
and virtue, left the forests and came back to their 
houses ; therefore it is no sin to return from a her- 
mitage to one's home, if it be only for the sake of 

62. Then having heard the affectionate and loyal 
words of the minister, who was as the eye of the 
king, — firm in his resolve, the king's son made 
his answer, with nothing omitted or displaced*, 
neither tedious 8 nor hasty: 

63. ' This doubt whether anything exists or not, 
is not to be solved for me by another's words; 
having determined the truth by asceticism or quiet- 
ism, I will myself grasp whatever is ascertained 
concerning it. 

64. 'It is not for me to accept a theory which 
depends on the unknown and is all controverted, 
and which involves a hundred prepossessions ; what 

1 This might mean Awitideva (cf. I, 57, IX, 20) the son of 
Sarakrrii, but in Mahibh. XII,ioi3 we have Rambdeva the son of 
Samkrsti; cf. Burnouf on Rudraka and Udraka, Introduction, p. 386. 
[The Tibetan takes sSwikri'ti as sbyin-sreg-dan-bcas, 'together 
with burnt offering/ H.W.] Would this imply an old reading 
sahuti?— For Awtideva's connection with VarishMa see Mahabh. 
XII, 8591. 

* I read avy astam. * Or ' prejudiced i ' 

Digitized by 



wise man would go by another's belief? Man- 
kind are like the blind directed in the darkness 
by the blind. 

65. ' But even though 1 cannot discern the truth, 
yet still, if good and evil are doubted, let one's mind 
be set on the good; even a toil 1 in vain is to be 
chosen by him whose soul is good, while the man 
of base soul has no joy even in the truth. 

66. ' But having seen that this "sacred tradition" 
is uncertain, know that that only is right which 
has been uttered by the trustworthy; and know 
that trustworthiness means the absence of faults ; 
he who is without faults will not utter an un- 

67. ' And as for what thou saidst to me in regard 
to my returning to my home, by alleging Rama and 
others as examples, they are no authority, — for in 
determining duty, how canst thou quote as autho- 
rities those who have broken their vows ? 

68. 'Even the sun, therefore, may fall to the 
earth, even the mountain Himavat may lose its 
firmness ; but never would I return to my home as 
a man of the world, with no knowledge of the truth 
and my senses only alert for external objects. 

69. * I would enter the blazing fire, but not my 
house with my purpose unfulfilled.' Thus he 
proudly made his resolve, and rising 'up in ac- 
cordance with it, full of disinterestedness, went 
his way. 

70. Then the minister and the Brahman, both 
full of tears, having heard his firm determination, 
and having followed him awhile with despondent 

1 MSS. khedo. 

Digitized by 


BOOK DC, 65-72. IO3 

looks, and overcome with sorrow, slowly returned 
of necessity to the city. 

71. Through their love for the prince and their 
devotion to the king, they returned, and often 
stopped looking back 1 ; they could neither behold 
him on the road nor yet lose the sight of him, — 
shining in his own splendour and beyond the reach 
of all others, like the sun. 

72. Having placed faithful emissaries in disguise 
to find out the actions of him who was the supreme 
refuge of all, they went on with faltering steps, 
saying to each other, 'How shall we approach 
the king and see him, who is longing for his dear 

1 Another reading give* 'full of reproach.' 

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i. The prince, he of the broad and lusty chest, 
having thus dismissed the minister and the priest, 
crossed the Ganges with its speeding waves and 
went to Ra^agrzha with its beautiful palaces. 

2. He reached the city distinguished by the five 
hills, well guarded and adorned with mountains, and 
supported and hallowed by auspicious sacred places \ 
— like Brahman 8 in a holy calm going to the upper- 
most heaven. 

3. Having heard of his majesty and strength, and 
his splendid beauty, surpassing all other men, the 
people of that region were all astonished as at him 
who has a bull for his sign and is immovable in his 
vow s . 

4. On seeing him, he who was going elsewhere stood 
still, and he who was standing there followed him in 
the way ; he who was walking gently and gravely ran 
quickly, and he who was sitting at once sprang up. 

5. Some people reverenced him with their hands, 
others in worship saluted him with their heads, some 
addressed him with affectionate words, — not one 
went on without paying him homage. 

6. Those who were wearing gay-coloured dresses 
were ashamed when they saw him, those who were 
talking on random subjects fell to silence on the 

1 Tapoda is the name of a tirtha in Magadha. 
* Svayawbhft. * Siva. 

Digitized by 


BOOK X, I- 1 2. IO5 

road ; no one indulged in an improper thought, as at 
the presence of Religion herself embodied. 

7. In the men and the women on the highway, 
even though they were intent on other business, 
that conduct alone with the profoundest reverence 
seemed proper which is enjoined by the rules of 
royal homage; but his eyes never looked upon 

8. His brows, his forehead, his mouth, or his 
eyes, — his body, his hands, his feet, or his gait, — 
whatever part of him any one beheld, that at once 
riveted his eyes. 

9. Having beheld him with the beautiful circle of 
hair between his brows 1 and with long eyes, with his 
radiant body and his hands showing a graceful 
membrane between the fingers, — so worthy of ruling 
the earth and yet wearing a mendicant's dress, — the 
Goddess of Ra^agrtha was herself perturbed. 

10. Then Srenya.*, the lord of the court of the 
Magadhas, beheld from the outside of his palace the 
immense concourse of people, and asked the reason 
of it ; and thus did a man recount it to him : 

11. 'He who was thus foretold by the Brahmans, 
" he will either attain supreme wisdom or the empire 
of the earth," — it is he, the son of the king of the 
5akyas, who is the ascetic whom the people are 
gazing at.' 

12. The king, having heard this and perceived its 
meaning with his mind, thus at once spoke to that 
man : ' Let it be known whither he is going ; ' and the 
man, receiving the command, followed the prince. 

1 So the Tibetan. The Sanskrit text seems corrupt here. Cf. 
I, 65 c. 
* A name of Bimbisara, see Buraouf, Introd. p. 165. 

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13. With unrestless eyes, seeing only a yoke's 
length before him \ with his voice hushed, and his 
walk slow and measured, he, the noblest of mendi- 
cants, went begging alms, keeping his limbs and his 
wandering thoughts under control. 

14. Having received such alms as were offered, 
he retired to a lonely cascade of the mountain; 
and having eaten it there in the fitting manner, 
he ascended the mountain Pawdava 2 . 

1 5. In that wood, thickly filled with lodhra trees, 
having its thickets resonant with the notes of the 
peacocks, he the sun of mankind shone, wearing his 
red dress, like the morning sun above the eastern 

16. That royal attendant, having thus watched 
him there, related it all to the king Srenya. ; and the 
king, when he heard it, in his deep veneration, 
started himself to go thither with a modest retinue. 

1 7. He who was like the PaWavas in heroism, and 
like a mountain in stature, ascended Pawwava, that 
noblest of mountains, — a crown-wearer, of lion-like 
gait, a lion among men, as a maned lion ascends a 

18. There he beheld the Bodhisattva, resplendent 
as he sat on his hams, with subdued senses, as if the 
mountain were moving 8 , and he himself were a peak 
thereof, — like the moon rising from the top of a cloud. 

19. Him, distinguished by his beauty of form and 
perfect tranquillity as the very creation of Religion 

1 Hardy explains this ' he does not look before him further than 
the distance of a plough or nine spans ' (Manual of Buddhism, 


* Cf. Lalitavistara. 

* I.e. as if he, not the mountain, were entitled to the name a*ala. 

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BOOK X, 13-26. IO7 

herself, — filled with astonishment and affectionate 
regard the king of men approached, as Indra the 
self-existent (Brahman). 

20. He, the chief of the courteous, having 
courteously drawn nigh to him, inquired as to the 
equilibrium of his bodily humours; and the other 
with equal gentleness assured the king of his 
health of mind and freedom from all ailments. 

21. Then the king sat down on the clean surface 
of the rock, dark blue like an elephant's ear ; and 
being seated 1 , with the other's assent, he thus spoke, 
desiring to know his state of mind : 

22. ' I have a strong friendship with thy family, 
come down by inheritance and well proved; since 
from this a desire to speak to thee, my son, has 
arisen in me, therefore listen to my words of 

23. ' When I consider thy widespread race, 
beginning with the sun, thy fresh youth, and thy 
conspicuous beauty, — whence comes this resolve of 
thine so out of all harmony with the rest, set wholly 
on a mendicant's life, not on a kingdom ? 

24. • Thy limbs are worthy of red sandal-wood 8 
perfumes, — they do not deserve the rough contact 
of red cloth ; this hand is fit to protect subjects, it 
deserves not to hold food given by another. 

25. 'If therefore, gentle youth, through thy love 
for thy father thou desirest not thy paternal kingdom 
in thy generosity, — then at any rate thy choice must 
not be excused, — accepting forthwith one half of my 

26. * If thou actest thus there will be no violence 

1 Nri'popavuya ? with Srsha Sandhi. 
* Lohita£andana may mean 'saffron.' 

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shown to thine own people, and by the mere lapse of 
time imperial power at last flies for refuge to the 
tranquil mind; therefore be pleased to do me a 
kindness, — the prosperity of the good becomes very 
powerful, when aided by the good l . 

27. * But if from thy pride of race thou dost not 
now feel confidence in me, then plunge with thy 
arrows into countless armies, and with me as thy ally 
seek to conquer thy foes. 

28. 'Choose thou therefore one of these ends, 
pursue according to rule religious merit, wealth, 
and pleasure ; for these, love and the rest, in reverse 
order, are the three objects in life ; when men die 
they pass into dissolution as far as regards this 

29. 'That which is pleasure when it has over- 
powered wealth and merit, is wealth when it has 
conquered merit and pleasure; so too it is merit, 
when pleasure and wealth fall into abeyance ; but all 
would have to be alike abandoned, if thy desired 
end * were obtained. 

30. 'Do thou therefore by pursuing the three 
objects of life, cause this beauty of thine to bear its 
fruit ; they say that when the attainment of religion, 
wealth, and pleasure is complete in all its parts, then 
the end of man is complete. 

31. 'Do not thou let these two brawny arms lie 
useless which are worthy to draw the bow ; they are 
well fitted like MandhitWs to conquer the three 
worlds, much more the earth. 

' [The Tibetan translates the fourth line, dam-pa-mams dan 
bcas-pas dam-pai dpal gphel-lo,' by being with the good the prosperity 
of the good increases.' H.W.] 

* Nirviwa. 

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BOOK X, 27-39. IO9 

32. ' I speak this to you out of affection, — not 
through love of dominion or through astonishment ; 
beholding this mendicant-dress of thine, I am filled 
with compassion and I shed tears. 

33. ' O thou who desirest the mendicant's stage of 
life, enjoy pleasures .now ; in due time, O thou lover 
of religion, thou shalt practise religion ; — ere old age 
comes on and overcomes this thy beauty, well worthy 
of thy illustrious race. 

34. ' The old man can obtain merit by religion ; 
old age is helpless for the enjoyment of pleasures ; 
therefore they say that pleasures belong to the 
young man, wealth to the middle-aged, and religion 
to the old. 

35. ' Youth in this present world is the enemy of 
religion and wealth, — since pleasures, however we 
guard them, are hard to hold, therefore, wherever 
pleasures are to be found, there they seize them. 

36. ' Old age is prone to reflection 1 , it is grave and 
intent on remaining quiet ; it attains unimpassioned- 
ness with but little effort, unavoidably, and for very 

37. ' Therefore having passed through the decep- 
tive period of youth, fickle, intent on external objects, 
heedless, impatient, not looking at the distance, — 
they take breath like men who have escaped safe 
through a forest. 

38. ' Let therefore this fickle time of youth first 
pass by, reckless and giddy, — our early years are the 
mark for pleasure, they cannot be kept from the 
power of the senses. 

39. ' Or if religion is really thy one aim, then offer 

1 Vimar*ayanti? 

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sacrifices, — this is thy family's immemorial custom, 
— climbing to highest heaven by sacrifices, even 
Indra, the lord of the winds, went thus to highest 

40. ' With their arms pressed 1 by golden brace- 
lets, and their variegated diadems resplendent with 
the light of gems, royal sages have reached the same 
goal by sacrifices which great sages reached by self- 

41. Thus spoke the monarch of the Magadhas, 
who spoke well and strongly like Indra 8 ; but having 
heard it, the prince did not falter, (firm) like the 
mountain Kailasa, having its many summits varie- 
gated (with lines of metals). 

1 Vidash/a; cf. samdash/a in Raghuv. XVI, 65. 
* Valabhid, ' the smiter of the demon Vala.' 

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i. Being thus addressed by the monarch of the 
Magadhas, in a hostile speech with a friendly face, — 
self-possessed, unchanged, pure by family and per- 
sonal purity, the son of 5uddhodana thus made 
answer : 

2. 'This is not to be called a strange thing for 
thee, born as thou art in the great family whose 
ensign is the lion l — that by thee of pure conduct, 
O lover of thy friends, this line of conduct should 
be adopted towards him who stands as one of 
thy friends. 

3. ' Amongst the bad a friendship, worthy of their 
family, ceases to continue (and fades) like prosperity 
among the faint-hearted; it is only the good who 
keep increasing the old friendship of their ancestors 
by a new succession of friendly acts. 

4. ' But those men who act unchangingly towards 
their friends in reverses of fortune, I esteem in my 
heart as true friends ; who is not the friend of the 
prosperous man in his times of abundance ? 

5. ' So those who, having obtained riches in the 
world, employ them for the sake of their friends and 
religion, — their wealth has real solidity, and when it 
perishes it produces no pain at the end. 

6. • This thy determination concerning me, O king, 
is prompted by pure generosity and friendship 2 ; 

1 So the Tibetan explains haryamka, sen-ges mcan-pai 

1 The Sanskrit of this line is corrupt and does not scan. The 

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I will meet thee courteously with simple friendship ; 
I would not utter aught else in my reply. 

7. ' I, having experienced the fear of old age and 
death, fly to this path of religion in my desire for 
liberation ; leaving behind my dear kindred with 
tears in their faces, — still more then those pleasures 
which are the causes of evil. 

8. ' 1 am not so afraid even of serpents nor of 
thunderbolts falling from heaven, nor of flames 
blown together by the wind, as I am afraid of these 
worldly objects. 

9. ' These transient pleasures, — the robbers of our 
happiness and our wealth, and which float empty and 
like illusions through the world, — infatuate men's 
minds even when they are only hoped for, — still 
more when they take up their abode in the soul. 

10. ' The victims of pleasure attain not to happi- 
ness even in the heaven of the gods, still less in the 
world of mortals ; he who is athirst is never satis- 
fied with pleasures, as the fire, the friend of the 
wind, with fuel. 

11. 'There is no calamity in the world like plea- 
sures, — people are devoted to them through delu- 
sion; when he once knows the truth and so fears 
evil, what wise man would of his own choice desire 
evil ? 

12. 'When they have obtained all the earth 
girdled by the sea, kings wish to conquer the other 
side of the great ocean ; mankind are never satiated 

Tibetan renders it as follows: hhyod-kyi (te) nes-pa (vinif/ia- 
y&h) gan-zhig bdag-la dmigspa di, 'whatever a determination of 
thine imagines of me, to this (answering I would say).' I would 
read vibh&vya mam eva. The translation given above is con- 

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BOOK XI, 7-18. II3 

with pleasures, as the ocean with the waters that fall 
into it. 

13. 'When it had rained a golden shower from 
heaven, and when he had conquered the continents 
and the four oceans, and had even obtained the half 
of 5akra's throne 1 , Mandhatr? was still unsatisfied 
with worldly objects. 

14. ' Though he had enjoyed the kingdom of the 
gods in heaven, when Indra had concealed himself 
through fear of VWtra, and though in his pride he 
had made the great .fo'shis bear his litter*, Nahusha 
fell, unsatisfied with pleasures. 

15. 'King (Pururavas) the son of \dk, having 
penetrated into the furthest heaven, and brought 
the goddess Urvarf into his power, — when he 
wished in his greed to take away gold from the 
J?*'shis *, — being unsatisfied with pleasures, fell into 

16. 'Who would put his trust in these worldly 
objects, whether in heaven or in earth, unsettled as to 
lot or family, — which passed from Bali to Indra, and 
from Indra to Nahusha, and then again from Nahusha 
back to Indra ? 

.17.' Who would seek these enemies bearing the 
name of pleasures, by whom even those sages have 
been overcome, who were devoted to other pursuits, 
whose only clothes were rags, whose food was roots, 
fruits, and water, and who wore their twisted locks 
as long as snakes ? 

18. ' Those pleasures for whose sake even Ugri- 
yudha*, armed terribly as he was with his weapon, 

1 DivySvadSna, pp. 213-224. ' Mabibh. V, 532. 

» MahSbh. I, 3147. 

4 See Harivanua, ch. xx. He was armed with a discus. 

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found death at Bhlshma's hands, — is not the mere 
thought of them unlucky and fatal, — still more the 
thought of the irreligious whose lives are spent in 
their service ? 

19. 'Who that considers the paltry flavour of 
worldly objects, — the very height of union being 
only insatiety, — the blame of the virtuous, and the 
certain sin, — has ever drawn near this poison which is 
called pleasure ? 

20. ' When they hear of the miseries of those who 
are intent on pleasure and are devoted to worldly 
pursuits *, such as agriculture and the rest, and the 
self-content of those who are careless of pleasure, — 
it well befits the self-controlled to fling it away 2 . 

21.' Success in pleasure is to be considered a 
misery in the man of pleasure, for he becomes in- 
toxicated when his desired pleasures are attained; 
through intoxication he does what should not be 
done, not what should be done ; and being wounded 
thereby he falls into a miserable end. 

22. ' These pleasures which are gained and kept 
by toil, — which after deceiving leave you and return 
whence they came, — these pleasures which are but 
borrowed for a time 3 , what man of self-control, if he 
is wise, would delight in them ? 

23. 'What man of self-control could find satis- 
faction in these pleasures which are like a torch of 
hay, — which excite thirst when you seek them and 
when you grasp them, and which they who abandon 
not keep only as misery * ? 

24. ' Those men of no self-control who are bitten by 

1 Dharmabhi*. (Cf. V, 5, 6.) * I would read k&mU. 
* For yafttaka cf. P&». IV, 4, ai. * I would read paripinti. 

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BOOK XI, I9-30. 115 

them in their hearts, fall into ruin and attain not bliss, 
— what man of self-control could find satisfaction in 
these pleasures, which are like an angry, cruel serpent? 

25. ' Even if they enjoy them men are not satis- 
fied, like dogs famishing with hunger over a bone, — 
what man of self-control could find satisfaction in 
these pleasures, which are like a skeleton composed 
of dry bones ? 

26. ' What man of self-control could find satisfac- 
tion in these pleasures which are like flesh that has 
been flung away, and which produce misery by their 
being held only in common with kings, thieves, 
water, and fire 1 ? 

27. 'What man of self-control could find satisfac- 
tion in these pleasures, which, like the senses 2 , are 
destructive, and which bring calamity on every hand 
to those who abide in them, from the side of friends 
even more than from open enemies ? 

28. ' What man of self-control could find satisfac- 
tion in those pleasures, which are like the fruit that 
grows on the top of a tree, — which those who would 
leap up to reach fall down upon a mountain or into 
a forest, waters, or the ocean ? 

29. ' What man of self-control could find satisfac- 
tion in those pleasures, which are like snatching up 
a hot coal, — men never attain happiness, however 
they pursue them, increase them, or guard them ? 

30. ' What man of self-control could find satisfac- 
tion in those pleasures, which are like the enjoyments 
in a dream, — which are gained by their recipients 
after manifold pilgrimages and labours, and then 
perish in a moment ? 

1 I.e. any one of these can seize them from us. * Ayatana. 

I 2 

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31. ' What man of self-control could find satisfac- 
tion in those pleasures which are like a spear 1 , 
sword, or club, — for the sake of which the Kurus, 
the VWshms and the Awdhakas, the Maithilas and 
the Damdakas suffered destruction ? 

32. 'What man of self-control could find satisfac- 
tion in those pleasures which dissolve friendships 
and for the sake of which the two Asuras Su#*da and 
Upasuwda perished, victims engaged in mutual 
enmity ? 

33. ' None, however their intellect is blinded with 
pleasure, give themselves up, as in compassion, 
to ravenous beasts 2 ; so what man of self-control 
could find satisfaction in those pleasures which are 
disastrous and constant enemies ? 

34. 'He whose intellect is blinded with pleasure 
does pitiable things; he incurs calamities, such as 
death, bonds, and the like ; the wretch, who is the 
miserable slave of hope for the sake of pleasure, 
well deserves the pain of death even in the world of 
the living. 

35. 'Deer are lured to their destruction by songs 8 ,in- 
sects for the sake of the brightness fly into the fire, the 
fish greedy for the flesh swallows the iron hook, — 
therefore worldly objects produce misery as their end. 

36. ' As for the common opinion, " pleasures are 
enjoyments," none of them when examined are 

1 The Chinese translation seems to take f ula as a stake for 
impaling criminals in ver. 864. 

s The text is corrupt. I would read kravyatsu natmanatn. 
The va in line 1 is for iva, a rare form, but allowed by Sanskrit 
lexicographers. Perhaps we should translate iam&ndhasaw^tfa, 
'these men who are called "blinded with pleasure."' 

5 Cf. Kadambari (Calc. ed.), p. 27, 1. 6 infra. 

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BOOK XI, 31-43. II7 

worthy of being enjoyed ; fine garments and the rest 
are only the accessories of things, — they are to be 
regarded as merely the remedies for pain. 

37. ' Water is desired for allaying thirst ; food in 
the same way for removing hunger; a house for 
keeping off the wind, the heat of the sun, and the 
rain ; and dress for keeping off the cold and to cover 
one's nakedness. 

38. ' So too a bed is for removing drowsiness ; 
a carriage for remedying the fatigue of a journey ; a 
seat for alleviating the pain of standing ; so bathing 
as a means for washing, health, and strength. 

39. ' External objects therefore are to human 
beings means for remedying pain, not in themselves 
sources of enjoyment ; what wise man would allow 
that he enjoys those delights which are only used as 
remedial ? 

40. ' He who, when burned with the heat of bilious 
fever, maintains that cold appliances are an enjoy- 
ment, when he is only engaged in alleviating pain, — ■ 
he indeed might give the name of enjoyment to 

41. ' Since variableness is found in all pleasures, I 
cannot apply to them the name of enjoyment ; the 
very conditions which mark pleasure, bring also in 
its turn pain. 

42. ' Heavy garments and fragrant aloe-wood are 
pleasant in the cold, but an annoyance in the heat 1 ; 
and the moonbeams and sandal-wood are pleasant 
in the heat, but a pain in the cold. 

43. 'Since the well-known opposite pairs 4 , such 

1 I have adopted Professor Kielhom's suggested reading sukhaya 
jite fay asukhaya ghanne. 
1 Cf. n avcroixia of the Pythagoreans (Arist. Ethics, 1, 6). 

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as gain and loss and the rest, are inseparably con- 
nected with everything in this world, — therefore no 
man is invariably happy on the earth nor invariably 

44. * When I see how the nature of pleasure and 
pain are mixed, I consider royalty and slavery as the 
same ; a king does not always smile, nor is a slave 
always in pain. 

45. ' Since to be a king involves a wider range of 
command, therefore the pains of a king are great ; 
for a king is like a peg *, — he endures trouble for the 
sake of the world. 

46. ' A king is unfortunate, if he places his trust 
in his royalty which is apt to desert and loves crooked 
turns * ; and on the other hand, if he does not trust in 
it, then what can be the happiness of a timid king ? 

47. ' And since after even conquering the whole 
earth, one city only can serve as a dwelling-place, 
and even there only one house can be inhabited, is 
not royalty mere labour for others ? 

48. ' And even in royal clothing one pair of gar- 
ments is all he needs, and just enough food to keep 
off hunger ; so only one bed, and only one seat ; all 
a king's other distinctions are only for pride. 

49. ' And if all these fruits are desired for the sake 
of satisfaction, I can be satisfied without a kingdom ; 
and if a man is once satisfied in this world, are not 
all distinctions indistinguishable ? 

50. 'He then who has attained the auspicious road 
to happiness is not to be deceived in regard to plea- 
sures ; remembering thy professed friendship, tell me 
again and again, do they keep their promise ? 

1 Cf. Isaiah xxii. 83, 34 ("•?*). 

1 Professor Kielhorn would read ramkamitre. 

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BOOK XI, 44-58. II9 

51. ' I have 'not repaired to the forest through 
anger, nor because my diadem has been dashed 
down by an enemy's arrows ; nor have I set my 
desires on loftier objects 1 , that I thus refuse thy 

52. ' Only he who, having once let go a malignant 
incensed serpent, or a blazing hay-torch all on fire, 
would strive again to seize it, would ever seek 
pleasures again after having once abandoned them. 

53. ' Only he who, though seeing, would envy the 
blind, though free the bound, though wealthy the 
destitute, though sound in his reason the maniac, — 
only he, I say, would envy one who is devoted to 
worldly objects. 

54. ' He who lives on alms, my good friend, is not 
to be pitied, having gained his end and being set on 
escaping the fear of old age and death ; he has here 
the best happiness, perfect calm, and hereafter all 
pains are for him abolished. 

55. ' But he is to be pitied who is overpowered by 
thirst though set in the midst of great wealth, — who 
attains not the happiness of calm here, while pain 
has to be experienced hereafter. 

56. ' Thus to speak to me is well worthy of thy 
character, thy mode of life, and thy family ; and to 
carry out my resolve is also befitting my character, 
my mode of life, and my family. 

57. ' I have been wounded by the enjoyment of the 
world, and I have come out longing to obtain peace ; 
I would not accept an empire free from all ill even 
in the third heaven, how much less amongst men ? 

58. ' But as for what thou saidst to me, O king, 
that the universal pursuit of the three objects is the 

Sc. as rule in heaven, Ac. 

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supreme end of man, — and 1 thou saidst that what I 
regard as the desirable is misery, — thy three objects 
are perishable and also unsatisfying. 

59. ' But that world in which there is no old age 
nor fear, no birth, nor death, nor anxieties 2 , that 
alone I consider the highest end of man, where there 
is no ever-renewed action. 

60. ' And as for what thou saidst, " wait till old 
age comes, for youth is ever subject to change ; " — 
this want of decision is itself uncertain ; for age too 
can be irresolute and youth can be firm. 

61. 'But since Fate 8 is so well skilled in its 
art as to draw the world in all its various ages 
into its power, — how shall the wise man, who 
desires tranquillity, wait for old age, when he knows 
not when the time of death will be ? 

62. ' When death stands ready like a hunter, with 
old age as his weapon, and diseases scattered about 
as his arrows, smiting down living creatures who fly 
like deer to the forest of destiny, what desire can 
there be in any one for length of life ? 

. 63. ' It well befits the youthful son or the old man 
or the child so to act with all promptitude that they 
may choose the action of the religious man whose 
soul is all mercy, — nay, better still, his inactivity. 

64. ' And as for what thou saidst, " be diligent in 
sacrifices for religion, such as are worthy of thy race 
and bring a glorious fruit," — honour to such sacrifices ! 
I desire not that fruit which is sought by causing 
pain to others * ! 

1 I would read anartha ity attha (for ity artha). 
* AdhayaA. 

' Ko, 'who?' seems here used for 'fate.' Professor Kielhorn 
would read — Yadamtako gzgad vaya^su sarveshu varan vikarshati. 
4 Yad is by ate is the true reading. 

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BOOK XI, 59-7O. I2l 

65. ' To kill a helpless victim through a wish for 
future reward, — it would be an unseemly action for 
a merciful-hearted good man, even if the reward of 
the sacrifice were eternal ; but what if, after all, it is 
subject to decay ? 

66. ' And even if true religion did not consist in 
quite another rule of conduct, by self-restraint, moral 
practice and a total absence of passion, — still it 
would not be seemly to follow the rule of sacrifice, 
where the highest reward is described as attained 
only by slaughter* 

67. ' Even that happiness which comes to a man, 
while he stays in this world, through the injury of 
another, is hateful to the wise compassionate heart ; 
how much more if it be something beyond our sight 
in another life ? 

68. ' I am not to be lured into a course of action 
for future reward, — my mind does not delight, O 
king, in future births ; these actions are uncertain 
and wavering in their direction, like plants beaten by 
the rain from a cloud. 

69. ' I have come here with a wish to see next the 
seer Araafa who proclaims liberation; I start this 
very day, — happiness be to thee, O king ; forgive 
my words which may seem harsh through their abso- 
lute freedom from passion \ 

70. ' * Now therefore do thou guard (the world) like 
Indra in heaven ; guard it continually like the sun 
by thy excellencies; guard its best happiness here ; 

1 I read s amatattva. 

1 This verse is obscure, — the division of the clauses is uncer- 
tain, the Chinese translation giving only six; but ava seems to 
occur eight times. The Tibetan has its equivalent sruns nine 

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guard the earth; guard life by the noble 1 ; guard 
the sons of the good ; guard thy royal powers, O 
king ; and guard thine own religion. 

71. ' As in the midst of a sudden catastrophe aris- 
ing from the flame of (fire), the enemy of cold, a bird, 
to deliver its body, betakes itself to the enemy of 
fire (water), — so do thou, when occasion calls, betake 
thyself, to deliver thy mind, to those who will 
destroy the enemies of thy home V 

72. The king himself, folding his hands, with a 
sudden longing come upon him, replied, ' Thou art 
obtaining thy desire without hindrance ; when thou 
hast at last accomplished all that thou hast to do, 
thou shalt show hereafter thy favour towards me.' 

73. Having given his firm promise to the mon- 
arch, he proceeded to the VaLrva»rtara hermitage ; 
and, after watching him with astonishment, as he 
wandered on in his course, the king and 3 his cour- 
tiers returned to the mountain (of Ra/agiri). 

1 So the Tibetan. 

* This is a very hard verse, but the obscure Chinese translation 
helps to explain it, w. 912-915. I read in c, himlmatrum, 
i.e. water, as the enemy of the enemy of cold (fire). The bird flies 
to water to stop the effects of fire ; as the king is to destroy his 
enemies by means of their enemies, cf. Manu VII, 158. Here, 
however, it seems to mean also that he is to destroy his passions 
by their opposites; the home (kshaya) is the suromum bonum, 
nirvdwa. — I read samplava for sambhava, as the two words are 
confused in XII, 24 and 28. 

* K& seems used in a very artificial manner with the ellipsis of 
the substantive which should follow it; cf. Amarakosha III, 4, i, 
6 (we might also read pr&pad). 

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i. Then the moon of the Ikshvaku race turned 
towards the hermitage of the sage Arada 1 of tran- 
quil life, — as it were, doing honour to it by his beauty. 

2. He drew near, on being addressed in a loud 
voice ' Welcome ' by the kinsman of Kalama, as he 
saw him from afar. 

3. They, having mutually asked after each other's 
health as was fitting, sat down in a clean place on 
two pure wooden seats. 

4. The best of sages, having seen the prince 
seated, and as it were drinking in the sight of 
him with eyes opened wide in reverence, thus 
addressed him: 

5. 'I know, gentle youth, how thou hast come 
forth from thy home, having severed the bond of 
affection, as a wild elephant its cord. 

6. ' In every way thy mind is stedfast and wise, 
who hast come here after abandoning royal luxury 
like a creeper-plant with poisonous fruit 

7. ' It is no marvel that kings have retired to the 
forest who have grown old in years, having given 
up their glory to their children, like a garland left 
behind after being used. 

8. 'But this is to me indeed a marvel that thou art 
come hither in life's fresh prime, set in the open field 

1 AHL& holds an early form of the Samkhya doctrine. 

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of the world's enjoyments, ere thou hast as yet tasted 
of their happiness. 

9. ' Verily thou art a worthy vessel to receive this 
highest religion ; having mastered it with full know- 
ledge, cross at once over the sea of misery. 

10. 'Though the doctrine is generally efficient only 
after a time, when the student has been thoroughly 
tested, thou art easy for me to examine from thy 
depth of character and determination.' 

n. The prince, having heard these words of 
Arad&t, was filled with great pleasure and thus made 
reply : 

12. 'This extreme kindliness which thou showest 
to me, calmly passionless as thou art, makes me, im- 
perfect as I am, seem even already to have attained 

13. ' I feel at the sight of thee like one longing to 
see who finds a light, — like one wishing to journey, 
a guide, — or like one wishing to cross, a boat. 

14. 'Wilt thou therefore deign to tell me that 
secret, if thou thinkest it should be told, whereby thy 

• servant may be delivered from old age, death, and 

15. AraoJa, thus impelled by the noble nature of 
the prince, declared in a concise form the tenets of 
his doctrine : 

16. ' O best of hearers, hear this our firmly-settled 
theory, how our mortal existence arises and how it 

17. '"The evolvent" and "the evolute," birth, 
old age, and death, — know that this has been called 
the reality by us ; do thou receive our words, O thou 
who art stedfast in thy nature. 

18. ' But know, O thou who art deep in the search 

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BOOK XII, 9-26. 125 

into the nature of things, that the five elements 1 , 
egoism, intellect, and "the unmanifested " are the 
" evolvents ; " 

19. ' But know that the "evolutes" consist of in- 
tellect, external objects*, the senses, and the hands, 
feet, voice, anus, and generative organ, and also the 

20. ' There is also a something which bears the 
name kshetrafwa, from its knowledge of this "field" 
(kshetra or the body) ; and those who investigate 
the soul call the soul kshetra^wa. 

21. ' Kapila with his disciple became the illu- 
minated, — such is the tradition ; and he, as the illu- 
minated, with his son is now called here Pra^apati. 

22. 'That which is born and grows old and is 
bound and dies, — is to be known as "the manifested," 
and " the unmanifested" is to be distinguished by its 

23. ' Ignorance, the merit or demerit of former 
actions, and desire are to be known as the causes of 
mundane existence ; he who abides in the midst of 
this triad does not attain to the truth of things, — 

24. ' From mistake 8 , egoism, confusion, fluctua- 
tion, indiscrimination, false means, inordinate attach- 
ment, and gravitation. 

25. 'Now "mistake" acts in a contrary manner, 
it does wrongly what it should do, and what it should 
think it thinks wrongly. 

26. ' " I say," " I know," " I go," " I am firmly 

1 These are the tanmatram or subtile elements. 
1 Vishay&n, corresponding to the gross elements. The in- 
tellect, buddhi, is both an evolver and an evolute. 

* Should we read viparyayad? Cf. Samkhya, aphor. Ill, 37. 

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fixed," it is thus that " egoism " shows itself here, 
O thou who art free from all egoism. 

27. 'That state of mind is called "confusion," 
O thou who art all unconfused, which views under 
one nature, massed like a lump of clay, objects that 
thus become confused in their nature. 

28. ' That state of mind which says that this mind, 
intellect, and these actions are the same as " I," and 
that which says that all this aggregate is the same as 
" I ,"— is called " fluctuation." 

29. 'That state of mind is called "indiscrimination," 
O thou who art discriminating, which thinks there is 
no difference between the illuminated and the un- 
wise, and between the different evolvents. 

30. ' Uttering " namas " and " vasha/," sprinkling 
water upon sacrifices, &c. with or without the recital 
of Vedic hymns, and such like rites, — these are de- 
clared by the wise to be " false means," O thou who 
art well skilled in true means. 

31. 'That is called "inordinate attachment," by 
which the fool is entangled in external objects through 
his mind, speech, actions, and thoughts, O thou who 
hast shaken thyself free from all attachments. 

32. ' The misery which a man imagines by the 
ideas " This is mine," " I am connected with this," 
is to be recognised as " gravitation," — by this a man 
is borne downwards into new births. 

33. 'Thus Ignorance, O ye wise, being fivefold 
in its character, energises towards torpor, delusion, 
the great delusion, and the two kinds of darkness '. 

34. ' Know, that among these indolence is " tor- 
por," death and birth are " delusion," and be it clearly 

1 Cf. Simkhyakirika, 48. 

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BOOK XII, 27-43. 127 

understood, O undeluded one, that desire is the 
" great delusion." 

35. ' Since by it even the higher beings are de- 
luded, therefore, O hero, is this called the "great 

36. ' They define anger, O thou angerless one, as 
" darkness ; " and despondency, O undesponding, they 
pronounce to be the " blind darkness." 

37. ' The child, entangled in this fivefold ignorance, 
is effused in his different births in a world abounding 
with misery. 

38. 'He wanders about in the world of embodied 
existence, thinking that I am the seer, and the 
hearer, and the thinker, — the effect and the cause. 

39. 'Through these causes 1 , O wise prince, the 
stream of " torpor " is set in motion ; be pleased to 
consider that in the absence of the cause there is 
the absence of the effect 

40. ' Let the wise man who has right views know 
these four things, O thou who desirest liberation, — 
the illuminated and the unilluminated, the manifested 
and the unmanifested. 

41. ' The soul, having once learned to distinguish 
these four properly, having abandoned all (ideas of) 
straightness or quickness 8 , attains to the immortal 

42. ' For this reason the Brahmans in the world, 
discoursing on the supreme Brahman, practise here 
a rigorous course of sacred study and let other 
Brahmans live with them to follow it also.' 

43. The prince, having heard this discourse from the 
seer, asked concerning the means and the final state. 

1 Cf. ver. 23. 

* It rises above all relative ideas ? The text may be corrupt. 

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44. ' Wilt thou please to explain to me how, how 
far, and where this life of sacred study is to be led, 
and the limit of this course of life * ? ' 

45. Then Arfida, according to his doctrine, de- 
clared to him in another way that course of life 
clearly and succinctly. 

46. ' The devotee, in the beginning, having left 
his house, and assumed the signs of the mendicant, 
goes on, following a rule of conduct which extends 
to the whole life. 

47. ' Cultivating absolute content with any alms 
from any person, he carries out his lonely life, indif- 
ferent to all feelings, meditating on the holy books, 
and satisfied in himself. 

48. ' Then having seen how fear arises from 
passion and the highest happiness from the absence 
of passion, he strives, by restraining all the senses, 
to attain to tranquillity of mind. 

49. ' Then he reaches the first stage of contempla- 
tion, which is separated from desires, evil intentions 
and the like, and arises from discrimination and which 
involves reasoning 2 . 

50. ' And having obtained this ecstatic contempla- 
tion, and reasoning on various objects, the childish 
mind is carried away by the possession of the new 
unknown ecstasy. 

51.' With a tranquillity of this kind, which disdains 
desire or dislike, he reaches the world of Brahman, 
deceived by the delight 

52. ' But the wise man, knowing that these reason- 
ings bewilder the mind, reaches a (second) stage of 
contemplation separate from this, which has its own 
pleasure and ecstasy. 

1 Dharma. * Cf. Yoga-stitras I, 42. 

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BOOK XII, 44-62. 129 

53. ' And he who, carried away by this pleasure, 
sees no further distinction, obtains a dwelling full of 
light, even amongst the Abhasura deities. 

54. 'But he who separates his mind from this 
pleasure and ecstasy, reaches the third stage of con- 
templation ecstatic but without pleasure. 

55. ' Upon this stage some teachers make their 
stand, thinking that it is indeed liberation, since 
pleasure and pain have been left behind and there 
is no exercise of the intellect 

56. ' But he who t immersed in this ecstasy, strives 
not for a further distinction, obtains an ecstasy in 
common with the .Subhakrztsna deities. 

57. ' But he who, having attained such a bliss 
desires it not but despises it, obtains the fourth stage 
of contemplation which is separate from all pleasure 
or pain. 

58. ' The fruit of this contemplation which is on 
an equality with the Vrzhatphala deities, those who 
investigate the great wisdom call the VWhatphala l . 

59. ' But rising beyond this contemplation, having 
seen the imperfections of all embodied souls, the 
wise man climbs to a yet higher wisdom in order to 
abolish all body. 

60. ' Then, having abandoned this contemplation, 
being resolved to find a further distinction, he be- 
comes as disgusted with form itself as he who knows 
the real is with pleasures. 

61. ' First he makes use of all the apertures of 
his body ; and next he exerts his will to experience 
a feeling of void space even in the solid parts 2 . 

62. ' But another wise man, having contracted his 
soul which is by nature extended everywhere like 

1 The great fruit. * An obscure verse ; cf. Pali Diet. 

[43] K 

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the ether, 1 — as he gazes ever further on, detects a 
yet higher distinction. 

63. ' Another one of those who are profoundly 
versed in the supreme Self, having abolished himself 
by himself, sees that nothing exists and is called a 

64. ' Then like the Mu«fa-reed's stalk s from its 
sheath or the bird from its cage, the soul, escaped 
from the body, is declared to be " liberated." 

65. 'This is that supreme Brahman, constant, 
eternal, arid without distinctive signs; which the 
wise who know reality declare to be liberation. 

66. ' Thus have I shown to thee the means and 
liberation; if thou hast understood and approved 
it, then act accordingly. 

67. ' Gaigtshavya * and Canaka, and the aged 
Par&sara, by following this path, were liberated, and 
so were others who sought liberation.' 

68. The prince having not accepted his words but 
having pondered them, filled with the force of his 
former arguments, thus made answer : 

69. ' I have heard this thy doctrine, subtil and 
pre-eminently auspicious, but I hold that it cannot 
be final, because it does not teach us how to abandon 
this soul itself in the various bodies. 

70. ' For I consider that the embodied soul, 
though freed from the evolutes and the evolvents, is 
still subject to the condition of birth and has the 
condition of a seed 8 . 

71. ' Even though the pure soul is declared to be 

1 Cf. Bh£shlpari>fcMeda, jloka 25. 

1 Aki«*anya. » Cf. Ka/*a Up. VI, 17. 

4 Mahibh. IX, § 50; Tattvakaumudt, § 5. 

* This is expanded in the Chinese, w. 984, 985. 

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BOOK XII, 63-79. 131 

"liberated," yet as long as the soul remains there 
can be no absolute abandonment of it. 

72. ' If we abandon successively all this triad, yet 
"distinction" is still perceived ; as long as the soul itself 
continues, there this triad continues in a subtil form. 

73. 'It is held (by some) that this is liberation, 
because the " imperfections " are so attenuated, and 
the thinking power is inactive, and the term of 
existence is so prolonged ; 

74. ' But as for this supposed abandonment of the 
principle of egoism, — as long as the soul continues, 
there is no real abandonment of egoism. 

75. ' The soul does not become free from qualities 
as long as it is not released from number and the 
rest ; therefore, as long as there is no freedom from 
qualities, there is no liberation declared for it. 

76. ' There is no real separation of the qualities 
and their subject ; for fire cannot be conceived, apart 
from its form and heat 

77. 'Before the body there will be nothing em- 
bodied, so before the qualities there will be no 
subject ; how, if it was originally free, could the 
soul ever become bound 1 1 

78. 'The body-knower (the soul) which is un- 
embodied, must be either knowing or unknowing; 
if it is knowing, there must be some object to be 
known, and if there is this object, it is not liberated. 

79. ' Or if the soul is declared to be unknowing, 
then of what use to you is this imagined soul ? Even 
without such a soul, the existence of the absence of 
knowledge is notorious as, for instance, in a log of 
wood or a wall. 

1 I read kasmat for tasmat. 
K 2 

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80. ' And since each successive abandonment is 
held to be still accompanied by qualities, I maintain 
that the absolute attainment of our end can only be 
found in the abandonment of everything.' 

81. Thus did he remain unsatisfied after he had 
heard the doctrine of Ara<&; then having decided 
it to be incomplete, he turned away. 

82. Seeking to know the true distinction, he went 
to the hermitage of Udraka 1 , but he gained no clear 
understanding from his treatment of the soul. 

83. For the sage Udraka, having learned the 
inherent imperfections of the name and the thing 
named, took refuge in a theory beyond Nihilism, 
which maintained a name and a non-name. 

84. And since even a name and a non-name were 
substrata, however subtil, he went even further still 
and found his restlessness set at rest in the idea that 
there is no named and no un-named ; 

85. And because the intellect rested there, not 
proceeding any further, — it became very subtil, and 
there was no such thing as un-named nor as named. 

86. But because, even when it has reached this 
goal it yet returns again to the world, therefore the 
Bodhisattva, seeking something beyond, left Udraka. 

87. Having quitted his hermitage, fully resolved 
in his purpose, and seeking final bliss, he next 
visited the hermitage, called a city, of the royal 
sage Gaya. 

88. Then on the pure bank of the Nairawf^ana 
the saint whose every effort was pure fixed his 
dwelling, bent as he was on a lonely habitation. 

89. Five mendicants, desiring liberation, came 

1 Cf. Burnouf, Introd. p. 386 n. It is written Rudraka in XV, 89. 

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book xii, 80-97. *Z3 

up to him when they beheld him there, just as the 
objects of the senses come up to a percipient who 
has gained wealth and health by his previous merit. 

90. Being honoured by these disciples who were 
dwelling in that family, as they bowed reverently 
with their bodies bent low in humility, as the mind 
is honoured by the restless senses, 

91. And thinking, 'this may be the means of 
abolishing birth and death,' he at once commenced 
a series of difficult austerities by fasting. 

92. For six years, vainly trying to attain merit \ 
he practised self- mortification, performing many 
rules of abstinence, hard for a man to carry out. 

93. At the hours for eating, he, longing to cross 
the world whose farther shore is so difficult to 
reach, broke his vow with single jujube fruits, 
sesame seeds, and rice. 

94. But the emaciation which was produced in 
his body by that asceticism, became positive fatness 
through the splendour which invested him. 

95. Though thin, yet with his glory and his 
beauty unimpaired, he caused gladness to other 
eyes, as the autumnal moon in the beginning of 
her bright fortnight gladdens the lotuses. 

96. Having only skin and bone remaining, with 
his fat, flesh and blood entirely wasted, yet, though 
diminished, he still shone with undiminished grandeur 
like the ocean. 

97. Then the seer, having his body evidently 
emaciated to no purpose in a cruel self-mortifica- 

1 This is the Tibetan reading [las-ni thob-bzhed lo drug-tu, 
'wishing to obtain (the fruits of good) works, during six years.' 

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tion, — dreading continued existence, thus reflected 
in his longing to become a Buddha: 

98. ' This is not the way to passionlessness, nor 
to perfect knowledge, nor to liberation; that was 
certainly the true way which I found at the root 
of the Gambu 1 tree. 

99. ' But that cannot be attained by one who has 
lost his strength,' — so resuming his care for his 
body, he next pondered thus, how best to increase 
his bodily vigour : 

100. 'Wearied with hunger, thirst, and fatigue, 
with his mind no longer self-possessed through 
fatigue, how should one who is not absolutely 
calm reach the end which is to be attained by 
his mind ? 

1 01. 'True calm is properly obtained by the 
constant satisfaction of. the senses ; the mind's self- 
possession is only obtained by the senses being 
perfectly satisfied. 

102. ' True meditation is produced in him whose 
mind is self-possessed and at rest, — to him whose 
thoughts are engaged in meditation the exercise of 
perfect contemplation begins at once. 

103. ' By contemplation are obtained those con- 
ditions 8 through which is eventually gained that 
supreme calm, undecaying, immortal state, which 
is so hard to be reached.' 

104. Having thus resolved, ' this means is based 
upon eating food,' the wise seer of unbounded wis- 
dom, having made up his mind to accept the con- 
tinuance of life, 

105. And having bathed, thin as he was, slowly 

1 The rose apple, see V, 8. * DharmaA. 

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BOOK XII, 98-II3. I35 

came up the bank of the Nairarigana, supported as 
by a hand by the trees on the shore, which bent 
down the ends of their branches in adoration. 

106. Now at that time Nandabala, the daughter 
of the leader of the herdsmen, impelled by the gods, 
with a sudden joy risen in her heart, had just come 

107. Her arm gay with a white shell, and wear- 
ing a dark blue woollen cloth, like the river Yamuna, 
with its dark blue water and its wreath of foam. 

108. She, having her joy increased by her faith, 
with her lotus-like eyes opened wide, bowed down 
before him and persuaded him to take some milk. 

109. By partaking that food having made her 
obtain the full reward of her birth, he himself be- 
came capable of gaining the highest knowledge, 
all his six senses being now satisfied, 

1 10. The seer, having his body now fully robust, 
together with his glorious fame, one beauty and one 
majesty being equally spread in both, shone like 
the ocean and the moon 1 . 

in. Thinking that he had returned to the world 
the five mendicants left him, as the five elements 
leave the wise soul when it is liberated. 

112. Accompanied only by his own resolve, 
having fixed his mind on the attainment of per- 
fect knowledge, he went to the root of an As- 
vattha tree 2 , where the surface of the ground was 
covered with young grass. 

113. Then Kala 8 , the best of serpents, whose 

1 Fame is often compared for its brightness to the moon. 

* Ficus religiosa or pipul tree. 

* He is the NSga king, (rltaka I, 72. 

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majesty was like the lord of elephants, having been 
awakened by the unparalleled sound of his feet, 
uttered this praise of the great sage, being sure 
that he was on the point of attaining perfect 
knowledge : 

1 14. ' Inasmuch as the earth, pressed down by 
thy feet, O sage, resounds repeatedly, and inas- 
much as thy splendour shines forth like the sun, 
thou shalt assuredly to-day enjoy the desired fruit 

115. ' Inasmuch as lines of birds fluttering in the 
sky offer thee reverential salutation, O lotus-eyed 
one, and inasmuch as gentle breezes blow in the 
sky, thou shalt certainly to-day become the Buddha.' 

116. Being thus praised by the best of serpents, 
and having taken some pure grass from a grass- 
cutter, he, having made his resolution, sat down 
to obtain perfect knowledge at the foot of the great 
holy tree. 

117. Then he sat down on his hams in a posture, 
immovably firm and with his limbs gathered into 
a mass like a sleeping serpent's hood, exclaiming, 
' I will not rise from this position on the earth 
1 until I have obtained my utmost aim.' 

118. Then the dwellers in heaven burst into 
unequalled joy ; the herds of beasts and the birds 
uttered no cry ; the trees moved by the wind made 
no sound, when the holy one took his seat firm in 
his resolve. 

4 For tavat read yavat. 

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i. When the great sage, sprung from a line of 
royal sages, sat down there with his soul fully re- 
solved to obtain the highest knowledge, the whole 
world rejoiced ; but Mara, the enemy of the good 
law, was afraid. 

2. He whom they call in the world Kamadeva, 
the owner of the various weapons, the flower- 
arrowed, the lord of the course of desire, — it is 
he whom they also style Mara the enemy of 

3. His three sons, Confusion, Gaiety, and Pride, 
and his three daughters, Lust, Delight, and Thirst 1 , 
asked of him the reason of his despondency, and 
he thus made answer unto them : 

4. ' This sage, wearing the armour of resolution, 
and having drawn the arrow of wisdom with the 
barb of truth, sits yonder intending to conquer my 
realms, — hence is this despondency of my mind. 

5. ' If he succeeds in overcoming me and pro- 
claims to the world the path of final bliss, all this 
my realm will to-day become empty, as did that of 
the disembodied lord when he violated the rules 
of his station *. 

6. ' While, therefore, he stands within my reach 

1 For these cf. also ver. 14, and XV, 13. 

* This probably refers to the legend of Nimi-videha, see Vishwu 
Pur. IV, 5 ; it might be ' the king of the Videhas.' There may 
be also a secondary allusion to the legend of Anaftga and Siva. 

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and while his spiritual eyesight is not yet attained, 
I will assail him to break his vow as the swollen 
might of a river assails a dam/ 

7. Then having seized his flower-made bow and 
his five infatuating arrows, he drew near to the 
root of the A^vattha tree with his children, he 
the great disturber of the minds of living beings. 

8. Having fixed his left hand on the end of the 
barb and playing with the arrow, Mara thus ad- 
dressed the calm seer as he sat on his seat, pre- 
paring to cross to the further side of the ocean of 
existence : 

9. ' Up, up, O thou Kshatriya, afraid of death ! 
follow thine own duty and abandon this law of 
liberation ! and having conquered the lower worlds 
by thy arrows, proceed to gain the higher worlds 
of India. 

10. ' That is a glorious path to travel, which has 
been followed by former leaders of men ; this men- 
dicant life is ill-suited for one born in the noble 
family of a royal sage to follow. 

11. 'But if thou wilt not rise, strong in thy pur- 
pose, — then be firm if thou wilt and quit not thy 
resolve, — this arrow is uplifted by me, — it is the 
very one which was shot against Suryaka 1 , the 
enemy of the fish. 

12. 'So too, I think, when somewhat probed by 
this weapon, even the son of I<& s , the grandson of 
the moon, became mad ; and .Sazwtanu 8 also lost 

1 The sun, alluding to his amour with Va</av£. (The lake is 

called vipannamtnam in .ffttusamh&ra I, ao.) 
3 Pururavas. (Professor Buhler suggests spri'sh/aA.) 
' Does this mean ViAtravtrya the grandson of .Samtanu, see 

Vishau Pur. IV, 20? 

Digitized by 


book xm, 7-19. 139 

his self-control, — how much more then one of 
feebler powers now that the age has grown de- 
generate ? 

13. ' Therefore quickly rise up and come to thy- 
self, — for this arrow is ready, darting out its tongue, 
which I do not launch even against the £akravaka 
birds, tenderly attached as they are and well de- 
serving the name of lovers.' 

14. But when, even though thus addressed, the 
>5akya saint unheeding did not change his posture, 
then Mara discharged his arrow at him, setting in 
front of him his daughters and his sons 1 . 

15. But even when that arrow was shot he gave 
no heed and swerved not from his firmness; and 
Mara, beholding him thus, sank down, and slowly 
thus spoke, full of thought : 

16. ' He does not even notice that arrow by which 
the god .Sambhu was pierced with love for the 
daughter of the mountain * and shaken in his vow ; 
can he be destitute of all feeling? is not this that 
very arrow ? 

17. ' He is not worthy of my flower-shaft, nor my 
arrow " gladdener," nor the sending of my daughter 
Rati (to tempt him) ; he deserves the alarms and 
rebukes and blows from all the gathered hosts of 
the demons.' 

18. Then Mara called to mind his own army, 
wishing to work the overthrow of the .Sakya saint ; 
and his followers swarmed round, wearing different 
forms and carrying arrows, trees, darts, clubs, and 
swords in their hands ; 

1 9. Having the faces of boars, fishes, horses, asses, 

1 See ver. 3. * UmS. 

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and camels, of tigers, bears, lions, and elephants, — 
one-eyed, many-faced, three-headed, — with protu- 
berant bellies and speckled bellies ; 

20. Blended with goats, with knees swollen like 
pots, armed with tusks and with claws, carrying 
headless trunks in their hands, and assuming many 
forms, with half-mutilated faces, and with monstrous 
mouths ; 

21. Copper-red, covered with red spots, bearing 
clubs in their hands, with yellow or smoke-coloured 
hair, with wreaths dangling down, with long pendulous 
ears like elephants, clothed in leather or wearing no 
clothes at all ; 

22. Having half their faces white or half their 
bodies green, — red and smoke-coloured, yellow 
and black, — with arms reaching out longer than a 
serpent, and with girdles jingling with rattling bells. 

23. Some were as tall as palm-trees, carrying 
spears, — others were of the size of children with 
projecting teeth, others birds with the faces of rams, 
others with men's bodies and cats' faces ; 

24. With dishevelled hair, or with topknots, or 
half-bald, with rope-garments or with head-dress 
all in confusion, — with triumphant faces or frowning 
faces, — wasting the strength or fascinating the mind. 

25. Some as they went leaped about wildly, others 
danced upon one another, some sported about in the 
sky, others went along on the tops of the trees. 

26. One danced, shaking a trident, another made 
a crash, dragging a club, another bounded for joy 
like a bull, another blazed out flames from every 

27. Such were the troops of demons who encircled 
the root of the Bodhi tree on every side, eager to 

Digitized by 


BOOK XIII, 20-33. *4 r 

seize it and to destroy it, awaiting the command of 
their lord. 

28. Beholding in the first half of the night that 
battle of Mara and the bull of the Sakya race, the 
heavens did not shine and the earth shook and the 
(ten) regions of space flashed flames and roared. 

29. A wind of intense violence blew in all direc- 
tions 1 , the stars did not shine, the moon gave no 
light, and a deeper darkness of night spread around, 
and all the oceans were agitated. 

30. The mountain deities 2 and the Nagas who 
honoured the Law, indignant at the attack on the 
saint, rolling their eyes in anger against Mara, 
heaved deep sighs and opened their mouths wide. 

31. But the god-sages, the JSuddhadhiv&sas 3 , 
being as it were absorbed in the perfect accomplish- 
ment of the good Law, felt only a pity for Mara in 
their minds and through their absolute passionless- 
ness were unruffled by anger. 

32. When they saw the foot of the Bodhi tree 
crowded with that host of Mara, intent on doing 
harm, — the sky was filled with the cry raised by 
all the virtuous beings who desired the world's 

33. But the great sage * having beheld that army 
of Mara thus engaged in an attack on the knower of 
the Law s , remained untroubled and suffered no per- 
turbation, like a lion seated in the midst of oxen. 

1 Virvak should be corrected vishvak. 

* MahtbhrttaA. This might mean simply 'the rulers of the 

» In Pali Suddhavasa. Cf. Ill, 26. 

* Buddha himself, viewing all this ab extra. 

5 The Tibetan seems to read dharmavidheA for dharmavidaA, 
as it has chos-kyi cho-ga de-ni, '(injurer) of that law of dharma.' 

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34. Then Mara commanded his excited army of 
demons to terrify him ; and forthwith that host 
resolved to break down his determination with their 
various powers. 

35. Some with many tongues hanging out and 
shaking, with sharp-pointed savage teeth and eyes 
like the disk of the sun, with wide-yawning mouths 
and upright ears like spikes, — they stood round 
trying to frighten him. 

36. Before these monsters standing there, so dread- 
ful in form and disposition, the great sage remained 
unalarmed and untroubled, sporting with them as if 
they had been only rude children '. 

37. Then one of them, with his eyes rolling wildly, 
lifted up a club against him ; but his arm with the 
club was instantly paralysed, as was Indra's of old 
with its thunderbolt 2 . 

38. Some, having lifted up stones and trees, found 
themselves unable to throw them against the sage ; 
down they fell, with their trees and their stones, like 
the roots of the Vindhya shattered by the thunderbolt. 

39. Others, leaping up into the sky, flung rocks, 
trees, and axes ; these remained in the sky and did 
not fall down, like the many-coloured rays of the 
evening clouds. 

40. Another hurled upon him a mass of blazing 
straw as big as a mountain-peak, which, as soon as it 
was thrown, while it hung poised in the sky, was shat- 
tered into a hundred fragments by the sage's power. 

41. One, rising up like the sun in full splendour, 
rained down from the sky a great shower of live 

1 Prof. Btthler suggests svabalebhyaA, ' as with his own tossed hair.' 
* Cf. Satap. Br. XII, 7, 3; Vishnu Pur. V, 30 ; Kum. Sambh. II, ao. 

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BOOK XIII, 34-48. 143 

embers, as at the end of an aeon blazing Meru 
showers down the pulverised scoriae of the golden 

42. But that shower of embers full of sparks, 
when scattered at the foot of the Bodhi tree, became 
a shower of red lotus-petals through the operation 
of the great saint's boundless charity. 

43. But with all these various scorching assaults 
on his body and his mind, and all these missiles 
showered down upon him, the tSakya saint did not 
in the least degree move from his posture, clasping 
firmly his resolution as a kinsman. 

44. Then others spat out serpents from their 
mouths as from old decayed trunks of trees ; but, 
as if held fast by a charm, near him they neither 
breathed nor discharged venom nor moved. 

45. Others, having become great clouds, emitting 
lightning and uttering the fierce roar of thunderbolts, 
poured a shower of stones upon that tree, — but it 
turned to a pleasant shower of flowers. 

46. Another set an arrow in his bow, — there it 
gleamed but it did not issue forth, like the anger 
which falls slack x in the soul of an ill-tempered 
impotent man. 

47. But five arrows shot by another stood motion- 
less and fell not, through the saint's ruling guidance, 
— like the five senses of him who is well experienced 
in the course of worldly objects and is afraid of 
embodied existence. 

48. Another, full of anger, rushed towards the 
great saint, having seized a club with a desire to 

1 DhOryamd»o is a difficult word, connected with ■/dhvn' or 

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smite him ; but he fell powerless without finding an 
opportunity, like mankind in the presence of faults 
which cause failure \ 

49. But a woman named Meghakall, bearing a 
skull in her hand, in order to infatuate the mind of 
the sage, flitted about unsettled and stayed not in 
one spot, like the mind of the fickle student over 
the sacred texts. 

50. Another, fixing a kindling eye, wished to burn 
him with the fire of his glance like a poisonous 
serpent ; but he saw the sage and lo ! he was not 
there, like the votary of pleasure when true happiness 
is pointed out to him *. 

51. Another, lifting up a heavy rock, wearied 
himself to no purpose, having his efforts baffled, — 
like one who wishes to obtain by bodily fatigue that 
condition of supreme happiness which is only to be 
reached by meditation and knowledge. 

52. Others, wearing the forms of hyenas and lions, 
uttered loudly fierce howls, which caused all beings 
round to quail with terror, as thinking that the 
heavens were smitten with a thunderbolt and were 

53. Deer and elephants uttering cries of pain ran 
about or lay down, — in that night as if it were 
day screaming birds flew around disturbed in all 

54. But amidst all these various sounds which 
they made, although all living creatures were shaken, 
the saint trembled not nor quailed, like GaiWa at 
the noise of crows. 

1 Cf. randhropanip&tinosnarthSA, -Sakunt. VI. 

* He had not eyes to see the object which he looked for. 

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BOOK XIII, 49-62. 145 

55. The less the saint feared the frightful 
hosts of that multitude, the more did Mara, the 
enemy of the righteous, continue his attacks in grief 
and anger. 

56. Then some being of invisible shape, but of pre- 
eminent glory, standing in the heavens, — beholding 
Mara thus malevolent against the seer, — addressed 
him in a loud voice, unruffled by enmity: 

57. 'Take not on thyself, O Mara, this vain 
fatigue, — throw aside thy malevolence and retire 
to peace x ; this sage cannot be shaken by thee any 
more than the mighty mountain Meru by the wind. 

58. ' Even fire might lose its hot nature, water 
its fluidity, earth its steadiness, but never will he 
abandon his resolution, who has acquired his merit by 
a long course of actions through unnumbered aeons. 

59. ' Such is that purpose of his, that heroic effort, 
that glorious strength, that compassion for all beings, 
— until he attains the highest wisdom, he will never 
rise from his seat, just as the sun does not rise, with- 
out dispelling the darkness. 

60. ' One who rubs the two pieces of wood obtains 
the fire, one who digs the earth finds at last the 
water, — and to him in his perseverance there is 
nothing unattainable, — all things to him are reason- 
able and possible. 

61. ' Pitying the world lying distressed amidst 
diseases and passions, he, the great physician, ought 
not to be hindered, who undergoes all his labours for 
the sake of the remedy knowledge. 

62. 'He who toilsomely pursues the one good 
path, when all the world is carried away in devious 

1 Or 'go to thy home.' 
[ 4 a] L 

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tracks, — he the guide should not be disturbed, like 
a right informant when the caravan has lost its 

63. 'He who is made a lamp of knowledge when 
all beings are lost in the great darkness, — it is not 
for a right-minded soul to try to quench him, — like 
a lamp kindled in the gloom of night 

64. 'He who> when he beholds the world drowned 
in the great flood of existence and unable to reach 
the further shore, strives to bring them safely 
across, — would any right-minded soul offer him 

65. ' The tree of knowledge, whose roots go deep 
in firmness, and whose fibres are patience, — whose 
flowers are moral actions and whose branches are 
memory and thought, — and which gives out the 
law as its fruit, — surely when it is growing it should 
not be cut down. 

66. ' Him whose one desire is to deliver mankind 
bound in soul by the fast snares of illusion, — thy 
wish to overthrow him is not worthy, wearied 
as he is for the sake of unloosing the bonds of 
the world. 

67. ' To-day is the appointed period of all those 
actions which have been performed by him for the 
sake of knowledge, — he is now seated on this seat 
just as all the previous saints have sat. 

68. ' This is the navel of the earth's surface, 
endued with all the highest glory; there is no 
other spot of the earth than this, — the home of 
contemplation, the realm of well-being. 

69. 'Give not way, then, to grief but put on 
calm; let not thy greatness, O Mara, be mixed 
with pride ; it is not well to be confident, — fortune 

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BOOK XIII, 63-73. I47 

is unstable, — why dost thou accept a position on 
a tottering base ? ' 

70. Having listened to his words, and having 
seen the unshaken firmness of the great saint, Mara 
departed dispirited and broken in purpose 1 with 
those very arrows by which, O world, thou art 
smitten in thy heart 

71. With their triumph at an end, their labour 
all fruitless, and all their stones, straw, and trees 
thrown away, that host of his fled in all directions, 
like some hostile army when its camp has been 
destroyed by the enemy. 

72. When the flower-armed god 2 thus fled away 
vanquished with his hostile forces and the passion- 
less sage remained victorious, having conquered all 
the power of darkness, the heavens shone out with 
the moon like a maiden with a smile, and a sweet- 
smelling shower of flowers fell down wet with dew. 

73. 8 When the wicked one thus fled vanquished, 
the different regions of the sky grew clear, the moon 
shone forth, showers of flowers fell down from the 
sky upon the earth, and the night gleamed out like 
a spotless maiden *. 

1 I read hatodyamo. 

1 Mara as identified with Kamadeva, cf. ver. 2. 

* Should we read tatha hi for tathapi ? 

4 Here the original work of Arvaghosha ends according to the 
gloss at the close of the Cambridge MS. C ; the four remaining 
books were added, to supply an old lacuna, by Amrrtananda, 
a modern Nepalese author. The Chinese and Tibetan translations 
seem to agree with the Sanskrit for part of the fourteenth book, 
but they soon diverge widely from it The four books are included 
in the translation as a literary curiosity. 

L 2 

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i. Then, having conquered the hosts of Mara by 
his firmness and calmness, he the great master of 
meditation set himself to meditate, longing to 
know the supreme end. 

2. And having attained the highest mastery in 
all kinds of meditation, he remembered in the 
first watch the continuous series of all his former 

3. ' In such a place I was so and so by name, 
and from thence I passed and came hither,' thus 
he remembered his thousands of births, experi- 
encing each as it were over again. 

4. And having remembered each birth and each 
death in all those various transmigrations, the com- 
passionate one then felt compassion for all living 

5. Having wilfully rejected the good guides in 
this life and done all kinds of actions in various 
lives, this world of living beings rolls on helplessly, 
like a wheel. - 

6. As he thus remembered, to him in his strong 
self-control came the conviction, 'AH existence is 
unsubstantial, like the fruit of a plantain.' 

7. When the second watch came, he, possessed 
of unequalled energy, received a pre-eminent divine 
sight, he the highest of all sight-gifted beings. 

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BOOK XIV, I- 1 8. I49 

8. Then by that divine perfectly pure sight he 
beheld the whole world as in a spotless mirror. 

9. As he saw the various transmigrations and 
rebirths of the various beings with their several 
lower or higher merits from their actions, compas- 
sion grew up more within him. 

10. 'These living beings, under the influence 
of evil actions, pass into wretched worlds, — these 
others, under the influence of good actions, go 
forward in heaven. 

11. 'The one, being born in a dreadful hell full 
of terrors, are miserably tortured, alas ! by many 
kinds of suffering; 

12. 'Some are made to drink molten iron of the 
colour of fire, others are lifted aloft screaming on 
a red-hot iron pillar; 

13; 'Others are baked like flour, thrown with 
their heads downwards into iron jars; others are 
miserably burned in heaps of heated charcoal ; 

14. 'Some are devoured by fierce dreadful dogs 
with iron teeth, others by gloating crows with iron 
beaks and all made as it were of iron; 

15. 'Some, wearied of being burned, long for 
cold shade; these enter like bound captives into 
a dark blue wood with swords for leaves. 

16. 'Others having many arms are split like 
timber with axes, but even in that agony they do 
not die, being supported in their vital powers by 
their previous actions. 

17. 'Whatever deed was done only to hinder 
pain with the hope that it might bring pleasure, 
its result is now experienced by these helpless 
victims as simple pain. 

18. 'These who did something evil for the sake 

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of pleasure and are now grievously pained, — does 
that old taste produce even an atom of pleasure 
to them now? 

19. 'The wicked deed which was done by the 
wicked-hearted in glee, — its consequences are reaped 
by them in the fulness of time with cries. 

20. 'If only evil doers could see the fruits of 
their actions, they would vomit hot blood as if 
they were smitten in a vital part. 

21. 'And worse still than all these bodily tor- 
tures in hell seems to me the association of an 
intelligent man with the base. 

22. 'Others also, through various actions arising 
from the spasmodic violence of their minds, are 
born miserable in the wombs of various beasts. 

23. 'There the poor wretches are killed even in 
the sight of their kindred, for the sake of their 
flesh, their skin, their hair, or their teeth, or through 
hatred or for mere pleasure. 

24. 'Even though powerless and helpless, op- 
pressed by hunger, thirst, and fatigue, they are 
driven along as oxen and horses, their bodies 
wounded with goads. 

25. 'They are driven along, when born as ele- 
phants, by weaker creatures than themselves for 
all their strength, — their heads tormented by the 
hook and their bodies kicked by foot and heel. 

26. 'And with all these other miseries there is 
an especial misery arising from mutual enmity and 
from subjection to a master. 

27. 'Air-dwellers are oppressed by air-dwellers, 
the denizens of water by the denizens of water, 
those that dwell on dry land are made to suffer 
by the dwellers on dry land in mutual hostility. 

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BOOK XIV, 19-36. 151 

28. 'And others there are who, when born again, 
with their minds filled with envy, reap the miserable 
fruit of their actions in a world of the PirWs desti- 
tute of all light ; 

29. ' H aving mouths as small as the eye of a needle 
and bellies as big as a mountain, these miserable 
wretches are tortured with the pains of hunger and 

30. ' If a man only knew that such was die con- 
sequence of selfishness, he would always give to 
others even pieces of his own body like .Sibi. 

31. 'Rushing up filled with hope but held back 
by their -former deeds, they try in vain to eat 
anything large, however impure. 

32. 'Others, having found a hell in an impure 
lake called the womb, are born amongst men and 
there suffer anguish. 

33. ' Others, ascetics, who have performed merito- 
rious actions go to heaven ; others, having attained 
widely extended empire, wander about on the earth ' ; 

34. ' Others as Nagas in the subterranean regions 
become the guardians of treasures, — they wander 
in the ocean of existence, receiving the fruits of 
their deeds.' 

35. Having pondered all this, in the last watch 
he thus reflected, 'Alas for this whole world of 
living beings doomed to misery, all alike wandering 
astray ! 

36. ' They know not that all this universe, desti- 
tute of any real refuge, is born and decays through 
that existence which is the site of the skandhas 
and pain; 

1 Heaven and earthly empire are alike transient 

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37. 'It dies and passes into a new state and 
then is born anew.' Then he reflected, 'What is 
that which is the necessary condition for old age 
and death ? ' 

38. He saw that when there is birth, there is old 
age and death, then he pondered, 'What is that 
which is the necessary condition for a new birth 1 ?' 

40. He perceived that where there has been the 
attachment to existence s there arises a (previous) exist- 
ence ; then he pondered, ' What is that which is the 
necessary condition for the attachment to existence?' 

41. Having ascertained this to be desire, he 
again meditated, and he next pondered, 'What is 
that which is the necessary condition for desire?' 

42. He saw that desire arises where there is 
sensation, and he next pondered, ' What is that 
which is the necessary condition for sensation?' 

43. He saw that sensation arises where there is 
contact 8 , and he next pondered, 'What is that 
which is the necessary condition for contact?' 

44. He saw that contact arises through the six 
organs of sense; he then pondered, 'Where do 
the six organs of sense arise ? ' 

45. He reflected that these arise in the organ- 
ism 4 , he then pondered, ' Where does the organism 

1 A verse (39) is omitted here containing the third step bhava 
(cf. Chinese translation, 1150, 1151), 'He perceived that when 
there has been a (previous) existence [involving previous actions] 
there is a new birth; then he pondered, "What is that which is the 
necessary condition for a previous existence arising? " ' (Cf. Burnouf, 
Introd. pp. 485-506 ; Childers in Colebrooke's Essays, vol. i, 1873.) 

1 Upadanam. * Sc. between the senses and their objects. 

* Namarupa, sc. 'name and form,' i.e. the individual consisting 
of mind and body, as the embryo in the womb. 

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BOOK XIV, 37-54- 153 

46. He saw that the organism arises where 
there is incipient consciousness ; he then pon- 
dered, 'Where does incipient consciousness arise ?' 

47. He reflected that incipient consciousness arises 
where there are the latent impressions left by former 
actions ; and he next pondered, ' Where do the 
latent impressions arise ? ' 

48. He reflected exhaustively that they arise in 
ignorance ; thus did the great seer, the Bodhisattva, 
the lord of saints, 

49. After reflecting, pondering, and meditating, 
finally determine, 'The latent impressions start into 
activity after they are once developed from ignor- 

50. ' Produced from the activity of the latent im- 
pressions incipient consciousness starts into action ; 
(the activity) of the organism starts into action on 
having an experience 1 of incipient consciousness ; 

51. ' The six organs of sense become active when 
produced in the organism ; sensation is produced 
from the contact of the six organs (with their ob- 
jects) ; 

52. 'Desire starts into activity when produced 
from sensation ; the attachment to existence springs 
from desire ; from this attachment arises a (continued) 
existence ; 

53. ' Birth is produced where there has been a 
(continued) existence ; and from birth arise old age, 
disease, and the rest ; and scorched by the flame of 
old age and disease the world is devoured by death ; 

54. 'When it is thus scorched by the fire of 

1 Samparikshya is a doubtful reading; I supply vn'ttiA with 

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death's anguish great pain arises ; such verily is the 
origin of this great trunk of pain/ 

55. Thus having ascertained it all, the great Being 
was perfectly illuminated ; and having again medi- 
tated and pondered, he thus reflected, 

56. ' When old age and disease are stopped, 
death also is stopped ; and when birth is stopped, 
old age and disease are stopped ; 

57. 'When the action of existence is stopped, 
birth also is stopped ; when the attachment to exist- 
ence is stopped, the action of existence is stopped; 

58. 'So too when desire is stopped, the attachment 
to existence is stopped; and with the stopping of 
sensation desire is no longer produced ; 

59. ' And when the contact of the six organs is 
stopped, sensation is no longer produced ; and with 
the stopping of the six organs their contact (with 
their objects) is stopped ; 

60. 'And with the stopping of the organism the six 
organs are stopped ; and with the stopping of inci- 
pient consciousness the organism is stopped ; 

61. 'And with the stopping of the latent impres- 
sions incipient consciousness is stopped; and with 
the stopping of ignorance the latent impressions have 
no longer any power. 

62. ' Thus ignorance is declared to be the root of 
this great trunk of pain by all the wise ; therefore it 
is to be stopped by those who seek liberation. 

63. 'Therefore by the stopping of ignorance all 
the pains also of all existing beings are at once 
stopped and cease to act' 

64. The all-knowing Bodhisattva, the illuminated 
one, having thus determined, after again pondering 
and meditating thus came to his conclusion : 

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book xiv, 55-72. 155 

65. ' This is pain, this also is the origin of pain in 
the world of living beings ; this also is the stopping of 
pain ; this is that course which leads to its stopping.' 
So having determined he knew all as it really was. 

66. Thus he, the holy one, sitting there on his 
seat of grass at the root of the tree, pondering by 
his own efforts attained at last perfect knowledge. 

67. Then bursting the shell of ignorance, having 
gained all the various kinds of perfect intuition, he 
attained all the partial knowledge of alternatives 
which is included in perfect knowledge *. 

68. He became the perfectly wise, the Bhagavat, 
the Arhat, the king of the Law, the Tathagata, He 
who has attained the knowledge of all forms, the 
Lord of all science. 

69. Having beheld all this, the spirits standing 
in heaven spoke one to another, 'Strew flowers on this 
All- wise Monarch of Saints.' 

70. While other immortals exclaimed, who knew 
the course of action of the greatest among the former 
saints, ' Do not now strew flowers — no reason for it 
has been shown.' 

71. Then the Buddha, mounted on a throne, up in 
the air to the height of seven palm-trees, addressed all 
those Nirmita BodhisattvaA *, illumining their minds, 

72. ' Ho ! ho ! listen ye to the words of me who 
have now attained perfect knowledge ; everything is 
achieved by meritorious works, therefore as long as 
existence lasts • acquire merit. 

1 Doubtful. I suppose it means that he knew all hypothetical as 
well as categorical propositions. 

' These Nirmiti BodhisattvaA seem to be the nim- 
m&waratf dev& of the southern Buddhists with their nimmitd 
kdmi or self-created pleasures. 

* Abhavam. 

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73. ' Since I ever acted as liberal, pure-hearted, 
patient, skilful, devoted to meditation and wis- 
dom, — by these meritorious works I became a 

74. ' After accomplishing in due order the entire 
round of the preliminaries of perfect wisdom, — I have 
now attained that highest wisdom and I am become 
the All-wise Arhat and (7ina. 

75. ' My aspiration is thus fulfilled ; this birth of 
mine has borne its fruit ; the blessed and immortal 
knowledge which was attained by former Buddhas, is 
now mine. 

76. ' As they through the good Law achieved the 
welfare of all beings, so also have I ; all my sins are 
abolished, I am the destroyer of all pains. 

77. ' Possessing a soul now of perfect purity, 
I urge all living beings to seek the abolition of 
worldly existence through the lamps of the Law.' 
Having worshipped him as he thus addressed them, 
those sons of the Ginas disappeared. 

78. The gods then with exultation paid him wor- 
ship and adoration with divine flowers ; and all the 
world, when the great saint had become all-wise, 
was full of brightness. 

79. Then the holy one descended and stood on 
his throne under the tree; there he passed seven 
days filled with the thought, 'I have here attained 
perfect wisdom.' 

80. When the Bodhisattva had thus attained per- 
fect knowledge, all beings became full of great 
happiness ; and all the different universes were 
illumined by a great light. 

81. The happy earth shook in six different ways 
like an overjoyed woman, and the Bodhisattvas, each 

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book xiv, 73-88. 157 

dwelling in his own special abode, assembled and 
praised him. 

82. ' There has arisen the greatest of all beings, 
the Omniscient All-wise Arhat — a lotus, unsoiled by 
the dust of passion, sprung up from the lake of 
knowledge ; 

83. 'A cloud bearing the water of patience, pouring 
forth the ambrosia of the good Law, fostering all the 
seeds of merit, and causing all the shoots of healing 
to grow ; 

84. 'A thunderbolt with a hundred edges, the 
vanquisher of Mara, armed only with the weapon of 
patience ; a gem fulfilling all desires, a tree of para- 
dise, a jar of true good fortune \ a cow that yields 
all that heart can wish ; 

85. 'A sun that destroys the darkness of delusion, 
a moon that takes away the scorching heat of the 
inherent sins of existence, — glory to thee, glory to 
thee, glory to thee, O Tathagata ; 

86. ' Glory to thee, O Lord of the whole world, 
glory to thee, who hast gone through the ten 
(Balas 2 ) ; glory to thee, O true hero amongst men, 
O Lord of righteousness, glory to thee ! ' 

87. Thus having praised, honoured, and adored 
him, they each returned to their several homes, after 
making repeated reverential circumambulations, and 
recounting his eulogy. 

88. Then the beings of the Kamavaiara worlds, 
and the brilliant inhabitants of the Pure Abodes, the 

1 The bhadrakumbha was the golden jar filled with consecrated 
water, used especially at the inauguration of a king. 

' The ten balas are ten kinds of spiritual knowledge peculiar to 
a Buddha; but 'the ten' may be the ten dharmas, see Childers. 

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Brahmakiyika gods, and those sons of Mara who 
favoured the side of truth *, 

89. The Paranirmitavasavarti beings, and the 
Nirmaxarataya^ ; the Tushita beings, the Yamas, 
the Trayastriwwad Devas, and the other rulers of 

90. The deities who roam in the sky, those who 
roam on the earth or in forests, accompanying 
each their own king, came to the pavilion of the 
Bodhi tree, 

91. And having worshipped the Gina. with forms 
of homage suitable to their respective positions, 
and having praised him with hymns adapted to their 
respective degrees of knowledge, they returned to 
their own homes. 

1 These terms are all explained in Childers' Diet sattaloko. 
For the better-inclined sons of M&ra, cf. the dialogue between 
those of the right side and the left side before Mara in the 
Lalitav. XXI, cf. also XXIII. 

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i . Daily praised by all the various heavenly beings, 
the perfectly Wise One 1 thus passed that period of 
seven days which is designated ' the aliment of joy *.' 

2. He then passed the second week, while he was 
bathed with jars full of water by the heavenly beings, 
the Bodhisattvas and the rest 

3. Then having bathed in the four oceans and 
being seated on his throne, he passed the third week 
restraining his eyes from seeing. 

4. In the fourth week, assuming many forms, he 
stood triumphant on his throne, having delivered a 
being who was ready to be converted. 

5. A god named Sama*»takusuma, bearing an 
offering of flowers, thus addressed with folded hands 
the great Buddha who was seated there : 

6. 'What is the name, O holy one, of this 
meditation, engaged in which thou hast thus passed 
four whole weeks with joy, deeply pondering ? ' 

7. ' This is designated, O divine being, "the array 3 
of the aliment of great joy," like an inaugurated 
king, who has overcome his enemies and enjoys 

8. Having said this, the saint possessing the ten 

1 Sambuddha. 

* Prfty&blra; this book corresponds closely with Lalitav. 

* Vyftha. 

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pre-eminent powers, full of joy, continued, 'The 
former perfect Buddhas also did not leave the 
Bodhi tree. 

9. ' Here the Klesas and the Maras together with 
ignorance and the Asravas have been conquered 
by me ; and perfect wisdom has been attained able 
to deliver the world. 

10. ' I too, resolved to follow the teaching of the 
former Buddhas, remained four whole weeks in the 
fulfilment of my inauguration V 

1 1. Then Mara, utterly despondent in soul, thus 
addressed the Tathagata, ' O holy one, be pleased 
to enter Nirv4#a, thy desires are accomplished.' 

12. ' I will first establish in perfect wisdom worlds 
as numerous as the sand, and then I will enter 
Nirva»a,' thus did the Buddha reply, and with a 
shriek Mara went to his home. 

13. Then the three daughters of Mara, Lust, 
Thirst, and Delight 2 , beholding their father with 
defeated face, approached the Tathagata. 

14. Lust, with a face like the moon and versed in 
all the arts of enchantment, tried to infatuate him 
by her descriptions of the pleasures of a house- 
holder's life. 

15. 'Think, "If I abandon an emperor's hap- 
piness, with what paltry happiness shall I have 
to content myself? When success is lost, what 
shall I have to enjoy ?" — and come and take refuge 
with us. 

16. ' Else, in bitter repentance, thou wilt remember 
me hereafter, when thou art fallen.' — But he listened 

1 Query abhishekadikaryataA? 

* Cf. XIII, 3 and 14. Cf. also Lalitav. XXIV (arati ?). 

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BOOK XV, 9-24. l6l 

not to her words, closing his eyes in deep meditation 
like one who is sleepy. 

17. Then Thirst, shameless like one distressed 
with thirst, thus addressed him who was free from 
all thirst : ' Fie, fie, thou hast abandoned thy family 
duties, thou hast fallen from all social obligations ; 

18. 'Without power no asceticism, sacrifice, or 
vow can be accomplished, — those great .tfzshis 
Brahman and the rest, because they were endowed 
with power, enjoy their present triumph. 

19. 'Know me to be the power called Thirst 1 , 
and worship thirst accordingly; else I will clasp 
thee with all my might and fling away thy life.' 

20. Motionless as one almost dead, he continued 
in meditation, remembering the former Buddhas ; 
then Delight next tried to win him who was indeed 
hard to be won by evil deeds. 

21. ' O holy one, I am Delight by name, fostering 
all practicable delights, — therefore making me the 
female mendicant's tutelary power, bring delight 
within thy reach.' 

22. But whether flattered or threatened, whether 
she uttered curses or blessings, he remained absorbed 
in meditation, perfectly tranquil like one who has 
entered Nirva*a. 

23. Then the three, with despondent faces, having 
retired together on one side, consulted with one 
another and came forward wearing the appearance 
of youthful beauty. 

24. Folding their hands in reverence they thus 
addressed the Tathagata, 'O holy one, receive us as 
religious mendicants, we are come to thy one refuge. 

1 Sc. Desire. 
[43] M 

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25. ' Having heard the fame of thy achievements, 
we, the daughters of Namuii, have come from the 
golden city, abandoning the life of a household. 

26. ' We are desirous of repressing the teaching 
of our five hundred brothers, — we would be freed 
from a master, as thou thyself art freed from all 

27. Having his mind continually guided by the 
conduct which leads to Nirvaxta, and setting himself 
to remember the (former) Buddhas, he kept his eyes 
closed, absorbed in meditation. 

28. Then again, having resolved on their new 
plan in concert, these enchantresses, assuming an 
older aspect, approached once more to delude him. 

29. ' We have come here after wandering under 
the dismal avatara of slaves 1 , — thou art the avatara 
of Buddha, — do thou establish us, mature, in the 
true Bauddha doctrine. 

30. 'We are women of older age, much to be 
pitied, bewildered by the fear of death, — we are 
therefore worthy to be established in that doctrine 
of Nirva*a which puts an end to all future births.' 

31. These words of the enchantresses were heard 
by him, yet he felt no anger ; but they all became 
the victims of old age, through the manifestation of 
his divine power. 

32. Having beheld him plunged in meditation, 
immovable like the mountain Meru, — they turned 
away their faces and they could not retain their 

33. Bending their feet, with decrepit limbs, they 

1 1 read d&sa- for d&ta.-; could there be a reference to the ten 

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BOOK XV, 25-42. 163 

thus addressed their father: ' O father, do thou, 
the lord of the world of Desire, restore us to our 
own forms.' 

34. His daughters were dear, but he had no power 
to alter the effect of the will of Buddha ; then their 
father said to them, 'Go to the refuge which he gives.' 

35. Then they in various guises, bent humbly at 
his feet, implored the perfect Buddha, ' Pardon our 
transgression, whose minds were intoxicated with 

36. The teacher, that mine of Forgiveness, in 
silence restored them by his will; and having 
repeatedly worshipped and praised him they went 
joyfully to their home. 

37. Then again Mara, the lord of the world of 
Desire, lost to shame, taking the form of the head 
of a family, thus addressed him from the sky : 

38. ' I worshipped thee long ago, foretelling that 
thou wouldest become a Buddha; and by my 
blessings thou hast to-day become Buddha Tatha- 

39. ' As thou didst come from thine own kingdom, 
so now having returned as Tathagata, with a name 
corresponding to the reality be a king Tathigata. 

40. ' Having gone to that royal station, do thou 
meditate on the three jewels, and cherish thy father 
and mother, and delight Yarodhara, — 

41. ' Possessed of a thousand sons, and able to 
deliver the world, be successively the supreme lord 
of every world from the Yama heaven onwards K 

42. ' Having become also the supreme lord of all 

1 Mara rules the four heavens from the Yama to the Paranirmi- 
tavaravartin, Mahabrahman the twenty Brahmalokas above them. 

M 2 

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Bodhisattvas, thou shalt attain Nirvana ; O wise seer, 
repair to the hermitage of Kapila in order to beget 
those sons. 

43. ' As thou art the king of the Law, so shall 
thy sons also be all Tathagatas, and all the activity 
and cessation of existence shall depend upon thee, 
O Gina.' 

44. To him thus speaking the All-wise replied, 
' Hear, O shameless one ; thou art Mara, not the head 
of a clan, the upholder of the race of the .Sakyas. 

45. 'A host like thee, though they came in 
myriads, could not harm me, — I will go to my king- 
dom gradually, I will bring the world to perfect 

46. ' Thou art utterly vanquished, O Namu^i, go 
back to thy own home ; I will go hence to turn the 
wheel of the Law in Varanasl.' 

47. He, on hearing this command, saying with a 
deep sigh, ' Alas ! I am crushed,' left him and went 
despondent and companionless through the sky to 
his home. 

48. Then he, the conqueror of Mara, rising from 
that throne, set forth to journey alone to the holy 

49. The heavens became covered with clouds when 
they saw the chief of saints, and the king of the Nagas 
Mu£ilinda made a petition in reverential faith : 

50. ' O holy one, thou art all-wise, there will be 
stormy weather for seven days, — wind, rain, and 
darkness, — dwell for the time in my abode.' 

51. Though himself possessed of all supernatural 
power, the holy one thought of the world still in- 
volved in embodied existence, and sitting on that 
jewel-seat he remained absorbed in contemplation. 

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BOOK XV, 43-60. 165 

52. That king of the Nagas there protected the 
Buddha, who is himself the source of all protection, 
from the rain, wind, and darkness, covering his body 
with his own hood. 

53. When the seven days were past and the Naga 
had paid his homage and was gone, the Gina. pro- 
ceeded to the bank of a river, near a forest of 
goat-herds , . 

54. As the Sugata stayed there during the night, 
a deity, who bore the name of the Indian fig-tree, 
came up to him, illumining the spot where he was, 
and thus addressed him with folded hands : 

55. 'The fig-tree was planted by me when I was 
born as a man, bearing the name of Buddha; and it 
has been fostered like the Bodhi tree in the hope 
of delivering myself from evil. 

56. ' By the merit of that action I myself have 
been born in heaven ; in kindness to me, O my lord, 
do thou dwell seven days in triumph here.' 

57. 'So be it,' said the chief of all saints, the true 
Kalpa tree to grant the wishes of the faithful votary, 
and he stayed under the fig-tree, absorbed in con- 
templation, spreading lustre around like a full moon. 

58. There he dwelt seven days; and then in a 
forest of Datura trees, sitting at the foot of a palm, 
he remained absorbed in contemplation. 

59. Spending thus in different spots his weeks of 
meditation, day and night, the great saint, pondering 
and fasting, went on in his way, longing to accom- 
plish the world's salvation. 

60. Then two wealthy merchants from the land 

1 A^ap&laka is in Pili Costus speciosus; but it may here be 
a proper name. 

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of Uttara Utkala 1 , named Trapusha and Bhallika, 
journeying with five hundred waggons, 

6 1. Being freed from a sin which involved a 
birth as pretas 2 , both joyfully worshipped Buddha 
with an offering of the three sweet substances' 
and milk; and they obtained thereby auspicious 

62. They obtained pieces of his nails and hairs for 
a Afaitya and they also received a prophecy of their 
future birth, and having received the additional 
promise, ' Ye shall also obtain a stone *,' they then 
proceeded on their way elsewhere. 

63. Then Buddha accepted alms in his bowl, 
offered by the goddess who dwelt in the Datura 
grove, and he blessed her with benedictions. 

64. The Gina then blessed the four bowls as one, 
which were offered by the four Maharajas ', and ate 
with pleasure the offering of milk. 

65. Then one day the G'ma. ate there an Harttakl 
fruit • which was offered to him by <5akra, and having 
planted the seed he caused it to grow to a tree. 

66. The king of the Devas carried the news thereof 
joyfully to the Deva-heavens ; and gods, men, and de- 
mons watered it with reverential circumambulations. 

67. On hearing the news of the Harttakl seed, and 
remembering the whole history from first to last, a 
daughter of the gods named Bhadrika, who had been 
a cow in her former birth T , came from heaven. 

1 Northern Orissa. 

" Pretadosha? or the evil inflicted by a preta? 

9 Sc. sugar, honey, and ghee. 

4 With the mark of Buddha's feet on it? 

* The rulers of the lowest devaloka. 

• Terminalia chebula. T Cf. Mahibh. V, 7553. 

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BOOK XV, 61-77. 167 

68. She, the daughter of the gods, smiling with 
her companions, thus addressed the £ina, bringing 
him a garment of rags, dependent from a bough : 

69. * I beg to bring to thy notice — what ? O 
Buddha! — accept this garment of rags, by whose 
influence I am now a daughter of heaven named 

70. 'By the further development of this merit 
thou shalt become a Bodhisattva' — uttering this 
blessing the Teacher accepted the rags. 

71. Beholding the tattered rags, the gods, crowd- 
ing in the sky, filled with wonder, and uttering cries 
of hi hi, flung down upon him garments of heavenly 

72. * These are not fit for a religious mendicant,' 
— so saying, he did not accept even one of them, — 
only thinking in his calm apathy, ' these are fit for 
imperial pomp and a householder's luxury.' 

73. He desired a stone slab and some water in 
order to wash the dirt away, — *Sakra at that moment 
dug out a great river full of water ; 

74. And four stones are brought to him by the 
four Maharajas, — on one he himself sat, on another 
he performed the washing ; 

75. On another he performed the drying, and 
another he flung up into the sky; the stone as it 
flew up reached the blazing city * and astonished all 
the worlds. 

76. After paying their worship in many ways, 
Trapusha and Bhallika duly raised an excellent 
A'aitya and they called it .Sllagarbha. 

77. The ascetics of that neighbourhood paid their 

The sun ? or the sphere of fire ? 

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homage to the ' Three Stones ' when they were made 
into a ATaitya, and the noble stream flowed widely- 
known as the * Holy River.' 

78. Those who bathe and offer their worship in 
the holy river and reverence the Aaitya of the three 
stones, become great-souled Bodhisattvas and obtain 

79. Then seated under a palm-tree the holy one 
pondered: 'The profound wisdom so hard to be 
understood is now known by me. 

80. * These sin-defiled worlds understand not this 
most excellent (Law), and the unenlightened shame- 
lessly censure both me and my wisdom. 

81. 'Shall I proclaim the Law? It is only pro- 
duced by knowledge; having attained it thus in 
my lonely pondering, do I feel strong enough to 
deliver the world ? ' 

82. Having remembered all that he had heard 
before, he again pondered ; and resolving, ' I will 
explain it for the sake of delivering the world,' 

83. Buddha, the chief of saints, absorbed in con- 
templation, shone forth, arousing 1 the world, having 
emitted in the darkness of the night a light from the 
tuft of hair between his eyebrows. 

84. When it became dawn, Brahman and the other 
gods, and the various rulers of the different worlds, 
besought Sugata to turn the wheel of the Law. 

85. When the Gina. by his silence uttered an 
assenting 'so be it,' they returned to their own 
abodes ; and the lion of the .Sakyas also shone there, 
still remaining lost in contemplation. 

86. Then the four divinities (of the Bodhi tree), 

1 Ctfloka 118. 

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BOOK XV, 78-93. I69 

Dharmaru^i and the rest, addressed him, 'Where, 
O teacher of the world, will the holy one turn the 
wheel of the Law ? ' 

87. * In Vara*ast, in the Deer Park will I turn the 
wheel of the Law ; seated in the fourth posture \ 
O deities, I will deliver the world.' 

88. There the holy one, the bull of the .Sakya 
race, pondered, ' For whom shall I first turn the 
wheel of the Law ? ' 

89. The glorious one reflected that 2 Rudraka 
and Ari^a were dead*, and then he remembered 
those others, the five men united in a worthy 
society 4 , who dwelt at K&rt. 

90. Then Buddha set out to go joyfully to K&si, 
manifesting as he went the manifold supernatural 
course of life of Magadha. 

91. Having made a mendicant (whom he met) 
happy in the path of those who are illustrious 
through the Law, the glorious one went on, illu- 
mining the country which lies to the north of 

92. (Having stayed) in the dwelling of the prince 
of the Nagas, named Sudarcana, on the occurrence 
of night, he ate a morning meal consisting of the 
five kinds of amb osia, and departed, gladdening 
him with his blessing. 

93. Near Va*ara 8 he went under the shadow 

1 Sc. the padmasana (Yoga-sutras II, 46), described as that in 
which the left foot is bent between the right leg and thigh, and the 
right foot is bent between the left foot and thigh. 

* It is written thus here, cf. XII, 86. * Nirvfttau. 

4 BhadravargtyaA, also called Pam^avargf y&A, cf. XII, 89. 

6 Query VarawS, one of the rivers from which Benares is said to 
derive its name, — or is it a village near Varawast, the Anila of the 
Lalitav. p. 528 ? 

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of a tree and there he established a poor Brah- 
man named Nandin in sacred knowledge. 

94. In Va«ara in a householder's dwelling he 
was lodged for the night; in the morning he par- 
took of some milk and departed, having given his 

95. In the village called Vu»*dadvtra he lodged 
in the abode of a Yaksha named Vu*»da\ and 
in the morning after taking some milk and giving 
his blessing he departed. 

96. Next was the garden named Rohitavastuka, 
and there the Naga-king Kama»dalu with his 
courtiers also worshipped him. 

97. Having delivered various beings in every 
place, the compassionate saint journeyed on to 
Gandhapura and was worshipped there by the 
Yaksha Gandha. 

98. When he arrived at the city Sarathi, the 
citizens volunteered to be charioteers in his ser- 
vice ; thence he came to the Ganges, and he bade 
the ferryman cross. 

99. 'Good man, convey me across the Ganges, 
may the seven blessings be thine.' ' I carry no 
one across unless he pays the fee.' 

100. ' I have nothing, what shall I give ?' So 
saying he went through the sky like die king of 
birds ; and from that time Bimbisara abolished the 
ferry-fee for all ascetics. 

101. Then having entered Vara«asl, the Gina., 
illumining the city with his light, filled the minds 
of all the inhabitants of Kari with excessive in- 

1 This may be A'uwda. 

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BOOK XV, 94-IO9. 171 

102. In the .Sankhamedhlya garden, the king of 
righteousness, absorbed in meditation, passed the 
n *ght, gladdening like the moon all those who 
were astonished at his appearance. 

103. The next day at the end of the second 
watch 1 , having gone his begging round collecting 
alms, he, the unequalled one, like Hari, proceeded 
to the Deer Park. 

104. The five disciples united in a worthy so- 
ciety *, when they beheld him, said to one another, 
4 This is Gautama who has come hither, the ascetic 
who has abandoned his self-control. 

105. 'He wanders about now, greedy 8 , of im- 
pure soul, unstable and with his senses under no 
firm control, devoted to inquiries regarding the 

106. ' We will not ask after his health, nor rise 
to meet him, nor address him, nor offer him a 
welcome, nor a seat, nor bid him enter into our 

107. Having understood their agreement, with 
a smiling countenance, spreading light all around, 
Buddha advanced gradually nearer, holding his staff 
and his begging-pot. 

108. Forgetful of their agreement, the five 
friends, under his constraining majesty, rose up 
like birds in their cages when scorched by fire. 

109. Having taken his begging-bowl and staff, 
they gave him an arghya, and water for washing 
his feet and rinsing his mouth; and bowing 

1 Does this y&madvaye mean at noon, counting the ahoritra 
from sunrise to sunrise? 
* Cf. supra, 89. * Or perhaps ' irregular.' 

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reverentially they said to him, 'Honoured Sir, 
health to thee.' 

no. 'Health in every respect is ours, — that 
wisdom has been attained which is so hard to be 
won,' — so saying, the holy one thus spoke to the 
five worthy associates : 

in. 'But address me not as "worthy Sir," — 
know that I am a Gina, — I have come to give the 
first wheel of the Law to you. Receive initiation 
from me, — ye shall obtain the place of Nirvft»a.' 

112. Then the five, pure in heart, begged leave 
to undertake his vow of a religious life ; and the 
Buddha, touching their heads, received them into 
the mendicant order. 

1 1 3. Then at the mendicants' respectful request 
the chief of saints bathed in the tank, and after 
eating ambrosia he reflected on the field of the 
Law 1 . 

114. Remembering that the Deer Park and the 
field of the 6 ina were there, he went joyfully with 
them and pointed out the sacred seats. 

1 1 5. Having worshipped three seats, he desired 
to visit the fourth, and when the worthy disciples 
asked about it, the teacher thus addressed them : 

116. 'These are the four seats of the Buddhas 
of the (present) Bhadra Age, — three Buddhas have 
passed therein, and I here am the fourth possessor 
of the ten powers.' 

117. Having thus addressed them the glorious 
one bowed to that throne of the Law, decked with 
tapestries of cloth and silk, and having its stone 

1 Does this mean the country round Benares, as the land where 
all Buddhas turned the wheel of the Law ? 

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BOOK XV, IIO-II9. 173 

inlaid with jewels, like a golden mountain, guarded 
by the kings of kings, 

In the former fortnight of AshaaJia, on the day 
consecrated to the Regent of Jupiter, on the lunar 
day sacred to Vish»u, and on an auspicious conjunc- 
tion, under the asterism Anuradha 1 , and in the 
muhurta called the Victorious, in the night, — he 
took his stand on the throne. 

118. The five worthy disciples stood in front, 
with joyful minds, paying their homage, and the son 
of .Suddhodana performed that act of meditation 
which is called the Arouser of all worlds ; 

Brahman and the other gods came surrounded 
by their attendants, summoned each from his own 
world; and Maitrlya* with the deities of the 
Tushita heaven came for the turning of the wheel 
of the Law. 

119. So too when the multitude of the sons of 
the £inas and the Suras gathered together from the 
ten directions of space, there came also the noble 
chief of the sons of the Glnas, named Dharma- 
£akra \ carrying the wheel of the Law ; 

With head reverentially bowed, having placed 
it, a mass of gold and jewels, before the Buddha 
and having worshipped him, he thus besought him, 
4 O thou lord of saints, turn the wheel of the 
Law as it has been done by (former) Sugatas.' 

1 The seventeenth Nakshatra. 

* Is this the same as Maitreya, who is to be the future Buddha 
and who now awaits his time in the Tushita heaven ? The Cam- 
bridge MS. interchanges Maitreya and Maitrtya in XVI, 53. 

* 'Em Buddha (der das Rad des Gesetzes in Bewegung setzt), 
TrikWax. I, 1, 8/ St. Petersburg Diet, 

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i. The omniscient lion of the .Sakyas then 
caused all the assembly, headed by those who be- 
longed to the company of Maitrtya 1 , to turn the 
wheel of the Law. 

2. 'Listen, O company belonging to Maitrtya 1 , 
ye who form one vast congregation, — as it was 
proclaimed by those past arch-saints, so is it now 
proclaimed by Me. 

3. ' These are the two extremes, O mendicants, 
in the self-control of the religious ascetic, — the one 
which is devoted to the joys of desire, vulgar and 

4. 'And the other which is tormented by the 
excessive pursuit of self-inflicted pain in the mor- 
tification of the soul's corruptions, — these are the 
two extremes of the religious ascetic, each devoted 
to that which is unworthy and useless. 

5. 'These have nothing to do with true asce- 
ticism, renunciation of the world, or self-control, with 
true indifference or suppression of pain, or with 
any of the means of attaining deliverance. 

6. 'They do not tend to the spiritual forms of 
knowledge, to wisdom, nor to Nirva«a; let him 
who is acquainted with the uselessness of inflicting 
pain and weariness on the body, 

1 The Maitriya-vargty&A ? 

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BOOK XVI, I-l6. 175 

7. 'Who has lost his interest 1 in any pleasure 
or pain of a visible nature, or in the future, and 
who follows this middle Path for the good of the 
world, — 

8. ' Let him, the TatMgata, the teacher of the 
world, proclaim the good Law, beginning that mani- 
festation of the good Law which consists of the 
(four) noble truths, 

9. ' And let the Buddha proclaim the Path with 
its eight divisions. I too who am now the perfectly 
wise, and the TatMgata in the world, 

10. 'Will proclaim the noble Law, beginning with 
those sublime truths and the eightfold Path which 
is the means to attain perfect knowledge. 

11.' Instructing all the world I will show to it 
Nirvana; those four noble truths must be heard 
first and comprehended by the soul. 

12. 'That must be understood and thoroughly 
realised by the true students of wisdom, which has 
been known here by me, through the favour of all 
the Buddhas. 

13. ' Having known the noble eightfold Path, and 
embraced it as realised with joy, — thus I declare 
to you the first means for the attainment of liber- 

14. ' Having thus commenced the noble truths, 
I will describe the true self-control ; this noble 
truth is the best of all holy laws. 

15. 'Walk as long as existence lasts, holding fast 
the noble eightfold Path, — this noble truth is the 
highest law for the attainment of true liberation. 

16. ' Having pondered and held fast the noble 

1 Nirata seems used here for virata. 

Digitized by 



eightfold Path, walk in self-control; others, not 
understanding this, idle talkers full of self-conceit, 

17. 'Say according to their own will that merit 
is the cause of corporeal existence, others maintain 
that the soul must be preserved (after death) for its 
merit is the cause of liberation. 

18. ' Some say that everything comes spontane- 
ously; others that the consequence was produced 
before ; others talk loudly that all also depends on a 
Divine Lord. 

19. 'If merit and demerit are produced by the 
good and evil fortune of the soul, how is it that good 
fortune does not always come to all embodied beings 
(at last), even in the absence of merit ? 

20. ' How is the difference accounted for, which 
we see in form, riches, happiness, and the rest, — 
if there are no previous actions, how do good and 
evil arise here ? 

21. 'If karman is said to be the cause of our 
actions, who would imagine cogency in this assump- 
tion ? If all the world is produced spontaneously, 
who then would talk of the ownership of actions ? 

22. 'If good is caused by good, then evil will be 
the cause of evil, — how then could liberation from 
existence be produced by difficult penances x ? 

23. ' Others unwisely talk of l^vara as a cause, — 
how then is there not uniformity in the world if 
livara be the uniformly acting cause ? 

24. ' Thus certain ignorant people, talking loudly 
" he is," " he is not," — through the demerits of their 
false theories, are at last born wretched in the 
different hells. 

1 I.e. viewed as an evil in themselves. 

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BOOK XVI, 17-33. 177 

25. ' Through the merits of good theories vir- 
tuous men, who understand noble knowledge, go to 
heavenly worlds, from their self-restraint as regards 
body, speech, and thought. 

26. * All those who are devoted to existence are 
tormented with the swarms of its evils, and being 
consumed by old age, diseases, and death, each one 
dies and is born again. 

27. ' There are many wise men here who can dis- 
course on the laws of coming into being ; but there 
is not even one who knows how the cessation of 
being is produced. 

28. 'This body composed of the five skandhas, 
and produced from the five elements, is all empty 
and without soul, and arises from the action of the 
chain of causation. 

29. 'This chain of causation is the cause of 
coming into existence, and the cessation of the series 
thereof is the cause of the state of cessation. 

30. ' He who knowing this desires to promote the 
good of the world, let him hold fast the chain of 
causation, with his mind fixed on wisdom ; 

31. 'Let him embrace the vow of self-denial for 
the sake of wisdom, and practise the four perfec- 
tions ', and go through existence always doing good 
to all beings. 

32. 'Then having become an Arhat and con- 
quered all the wicked, even the hosts of Mara, and 
attained the threefold wisdom, he shall enter 

33. ' Whosoever therefore has his mind indifferent 

1 The four brahmavih&r&A, sc. charity, compassion, sympathy 
with others' joy, and stoicism. 

[4»] M 

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and is void of all desire for any further form of exist- 
ence, let him abolish one by one the several steps of 
the chain of causation l . 

34. ' When these effects of the chain of causation 
are thus one by one put an end to, he at last, being 
free from all stain and substratum, will pass into 
a blissful Nirva«a. 

35. ' Listen all of you for your own happiness, 
with your minds free from stain, — I will declare to 
you step by step this chain of causation. 

36. ' The idea of ignorance is what gives the root 
to the huge poison-tree of mundane existence with 
its trunk of pain. 

37. ' The impressions * are caused by this, which 
produce [the acts of] the body, voice, and mind; 
and consciousness arises from these impressions, 
which produces as its development the five senses 
and the mind (or internal sense). 

38. 'The organism 8 which is sometimes called 
samgnd. or sawdarrana *, springs from this ; and from 
this arises the six organs of the senses, including 

39. ' The association of the six organs with their 
objects is called " contact ;" and the consciousness of 
these different contacts is called " sensation * ; " 

40. ' By this is produced thirst, which is the desire 

1 Cf. Childers in Colebrooke's Essays, I, p. 453. 

1 These samskariA constitute predispositions or tendencies. 

' Literally * the name and the form,' the individual, consisting of 
mind and body. 

4 The Nimarupa is properly the organised body (rupa) and the 
three mental skandhas, vedani, samgr&, and the sawskarSA, which 
are together called nama. 

' Vedani. 

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BOOK XVI, 34-46. 179 

of being troubled x by worldly objects ; " attachment 
to continued existence," arising from this, sets itself 
in action towards pleasure and the rest ; 

41. ' From attachment springs continued exist- 
ence, which is sensual, possessing form, or formless * ; 
and from existence arises birth through a returning 
to various wombs. 

42. ' On birth is dependent the series of old age, 
death, sorrow and the like; by putting a stop to 
ignorance and what follows from it, all these succes- 
sively surcease. 

43. ' This is the chain of causation, having many 
turns, and whose sphere of action is created by igno- 
rance, — this is to be meditated upon by you who 
enjoy the calm of dwelling tranquilly in lonely 
woods 8 ; 

4 He who knows it thoroughly reaches at last to 
absolute tenuity ; and having become thus attenuated 
he becomes blissfully extinct 

44. 'When you have thus learned this, in order 
to be freed from the bond of existence, you must 
cut down with all your efforts the root of pain, 

45. ' Then, being set free from the bonds of the 
prison-house of existence, as Arhats, possessing 
natures perfectly pure, you shall attain Nirva«a.' 

46. Having heard this lesson preached by the 
chief of saints, all the mendicants comprehended the 
course and the cessation of embodied existence. 

1 Samk.le.ra, — should we read sams lesha ? 

* I.e. in the eleven k&malokas, the sixteen rupabrahmalokas, 
and the four arupabrahmalokas. 

* The metre shows that two short syllables are wanting in the 
line, vij'ana (vana) vurama/amibhiA. 

N 2 

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47. As these five ascetics listened to his words, 
their intellectual eye was purified for the attainment 
of perfect wisdom : 

48. The eye of dharma 1 was purified in six 
hundred millions of gods, and the eye of wisdom in 
eight hundred millions of Brahmans 2 . 

49. The eye of dharma was purified in eighty 
thousand men, and even in all beings an ardour for 
the Law was made visible. 

50. Everywhere all kinds of evil became tran- 
quillised, and on every side an ardour for all that 
helps on the good Law manifested itself. 

51. In the heavens everywhere the heavenly 
beings with troops of Apsarases uttered forth great 
shouts, ' Even so, O noble being of boundless 
energy ! ' 

52. Then Maitreya addressed the holy one, 'O 
great mendicant, in what form has the wheel been 
turned by thee ? ' 

53. Having heard this question asked by the 
great-souled Maitreya, the holy one looked at him 
and thus addressed him : 

54. ' The profound subtil wheel of the Law, so 
hard to be seen, has been turned by me, into which 
the disputatious Ttrthikas cannot penetrate. 

55. 'The wheel of the Law has been turned, 
which has no extension, no origin, no birth, no 
home, isolated, and free from matter ; 

56. ' Having many divisions, and not being with- 
out divisions *, having no cause, and susceptible of 
no definition, — that wheel, which is described as 

1 Dharma£ak>huA, the eye to discern the Law? 
1 The divine inhabitants of the Brahmalokas. 
* Anirvyuha/H? 

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BOOK XVI, 47-65. l8l 

possessing perfect equilibrium, has been proclaimed 
by the Buddha. 

57. 'Everything subject to successive causation 
is like a delusion, a mirage, or a dream, like the 
moon seen in water or an echo, — it lies stretched out 
on the surface, not to be extirpated, but not eternal. 

58. ' The wheel of the Law has been described as 
that in which all false doctrines are extirpated ; it is 
always like the pure ether, involving no doubts, ever 

59. ' The wheel of the Law is described as with- 
out end or middle, existing apart from " it is " or " it 
is not," separated from soul or soullessness. 

60. 'The wheel of the Law has been here set 
forth, with a description according to its real nature, 
— as it has a limit and as it has not a limit, in its 
actual quantity and quality. 

61. 'The wheel of the Law has been here set 
forth, described as possessing unique attributes, 
apart from the power of the eye and so too as 
regards the sense of hearing or smell ; 

62. 'Apart from the tongue, the touch, or the 
mind, — without soul or exertion ; 

' Such is this wheel of the Law which has been 
turned by me ; 

63. ' He makes wise all the ignorant, — therefore 
is he called the Buddha * ; this knowledge of the laws 
of reality has been ascertained by me of myself, 

64. ' Apart from all teaching by another, therefore 
is he called the self-existent, — having all laws under 
his control, therefore is he called the lord of Law. 

65. ' He knows what is right (naya) and wrong 
(a nay a) in laws, therefore is he called Nayaka; he 

1 Buddha seems here to identify himself with his Law. 

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teaches unnumbered beings as they become fit to 
be taught. 

66. ' He has reached the furthest limit of instruc- 
tion, therefore is he called Vinayaka, from his point- 
ing out the best of good paths to beings who have 
lost their way. 

67. ' He has reached the furthest limit of good 
teaching, he is the guide to all the Law, — attracting 
all beings by his knowledge of all the means of 
conciliation ; 

68. ' He has passed through the forest of mundane 
existence, therefore is he called the Leader of the 
Caravan ; the absolute ruler over all law, therefore 
he is the Gina., the lord of Law. 

69. ' From his turning the wheel of the Law he is 
the lord of all the sovereigns of Law ; the master- 
giver of the Law, the teacher, the master of the Law, 
the lord of the world ; 

70. ' He who has offered the sacrifice, accom- 
plished his end, fulfilled his hope, achieved his 
success, the consoler, the loving regarder, the hero, 
the champion, the victorious one in conflict ; 

71. 'He has come out from all conflict, released 
himself and the releaser of all, — he is become the 
light of the world, the illuminator of the knowledge 
of true wisdom ; 

72. ' The dispeller of the darkness of ignorance, 
the illuminer of the great torch, the great phy- 
sician, the great seer, the healer of all evils, 

73. ' The extractor of the barb of evil from all 
those who are wounded by evil, — he who is pos- 
sessed of all distinctive marks and adorned with all 

74. ' With his body and limbs every way perfect, 

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BOOK XVI, 66-8l. 183 

of pure conduct and perfectly clear mind, possessed 
of the ten powers, having great fortitude, learned 
with all learning, 

75. ' Endowed with all the independent states \ 
he who has attained the great Yana, the lord of all 
Dharma, the ruler, the monarch of all worlds, the 

76. 'The lord of all wisdom, the wise, the 
destroyer of the pride of all disputers, the om- 
niscient, the Arhat, possessed of the perfect know- 
ledge, the great Buddha, the lord of saints ; 

77. ' The victorious triumphant overthrower of 
the insolence and pride of the evil Mara, the perfect 
Buddha, the Sugata, the wise one, he who brings 
the desired end to all beings, 

78. ' Ever cognisant of past acts, never speaking 
falsely, a mine of perfect excellence and of all 
good qualities, the destroyer of all evil ways, the 
guide in all good ways 8 , 

79. ' The ruler of the world, the bearer of the 
world, the master of the world, the sovereign of 
the world, the teacher of the world, the preceptor 
of the world, he who brings to the world the Law, 
virtue, and its true end, 

80. ' The fount of an ambrosia which quenches 
the scorching of the name of all pain, and the 
powerful luminary which dries up the great ocean 
of all pain, 

81. 'He who brings all virtue and all true wealth, 
the possessor of perfect excellence and all good 
qualities, the guide on the road of wisdom, he who 
shows the way to Nirvana, 

1 Eighteen in all. See Burnouf, Lotus, pp. 648, &c. 
* Query sadvntti for samvr/tti? 

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82. 'The Tathagata, without stain, without at- 
tachment, without uncertainty. — This is the com- 
pendious declaration in the turning of the wheel of 
the Law. 

83. 'A concise manifestation of a Tathagata's 
qualities is now declared by me; for a Buddha's 
knowledge is endless, unlimited like the ether; 

84. 'A narrator might spend a Kalpa, but the 
virtues of the Buddha would not come to an end, — 
thus by me has the multitude of the virtues of the • 
Buddha been described. 

85. 'Having heard this and welcomed it with 
joy go on ever in happiness; this, Sirs, is the 
Mahayana, the instrument of the Law of the perfect 
Buddha, which is the establisher of the welfare of 
all beings, set forth by all the Buddhas. 

86. ' In order that this methodical arrangement 
of the Law may be always spread abroad, do you 
yourselves always proclaim it and hand it on. 

87. 'Whosoever, Sirs, hears, sees, and welcomes 
with joy this methodical arrangement of the Law, 
which is a mine of happiness and prosperity, and 
honours it with folded hands, 

88. 'Shall attain pre-eminent strength with a 
glorious form and limbs, and a retinue of the holy, 
and an intelligence of the highest reach, 

89. ' And the happiness of perfect contemplation, 
with a deep calm x of uninterrupted bliss, with his 
senses in their highest perfection, and illuminated 
by unclouded knowledge. 

90. ' He shall assuredly attain these eight pre- 
eminent perfections, who hears and sees this Law 

1 I read naishkarmya for naishkramya. 

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BOOK XVI, 82-99. 185 

with a serene soul and worships it with folded 

91. 'Whosoever in the midst of the assembly 
shall gladly offer a pulpit to the high-minded teacher 
of the great Law, 

92. ' That virtuous man shall assuredly attain the 
seat of the most excellent, and also the seat of a 
householder, and the throne of a universal monarch ; 

93. 'He shall also attain the throne of one of 
the guardian-spirits of the world, and also the 
firm throne of .Sakra, and also the throne of the 
Vajavartina^ gods, aye, and the supreme throne of 
Brahman ; 

94. ' And also with the permission of the Bodhi- 
sattva who is seated on the Bodhi throne he shall 
obtain the throne of a teacher of the good Law 
who has risen to perfect knowledge. 

95. ' These eight seats shall the pure-souled one 
attain who offers joyfully a seat to him who pro- 
claims the Law. 

96. 'Whosoever with a believing heart, after 
examination, shall utter applause to the pious man 
who proclaims this carefully arranged Law ; 

97. 'Shall become a truthful and pure speaker, 
and one whose words are to be accepted, — one 
whose utterances are welcome and delightful, whose 
voice is sweet and gentle ; 

98. ' Having a voice like a Kalavinka bird \ with 
a deep and sweet tone, having also a pure voice like 
Brahman's *, and a loud voice with a lion's sound. 

99. 'He as an all-wise and truthful speaker shall 

1 A kind of sparrow. 

* Or ' having a voice of pure spiritual truth ?' 

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obtain these eight excellences of speech, who utters 
applause to one who proclaims the good Law. 

ioo. 'And whosoever, after writing this method 
of the Law in a book, shall set it in his house and 
always worship it and honour it. with all reverential 

101. 'And uttering its praises shall hand the 
doctrine onward on every side, he, the very pious 
man, shall obtain a most excellent treasure of 

102. 'And a treasure of insight 1 , and a treasure 
of prudence 2 , and a treasure of good spells, and 
a treasure full of intelligence, 

103. 'And a treasure of the highest wisdom, 
and the most excellent treasure of the Law, and 
a treasure of knowledge, the means to attain the 
excellences of the good Law, — 

104. 'These eight treasures shall that high- 
minded man attain who joyfully writes this down 
and sets it in a sure place and always worships it 

105. ' And he who, himself holding this method 
of the Law in his mind, sets it going around him, 
shall obtain a complete supply for liberality for the 
good of the world, 

106. ' Next, a complete supply of virtuous dis- 
positions, a most excellent supply of sacred know- 
ledge, a supply of perfect calmness, and that which 
is called spiritual insight, 

107. 'A supply of the merit caused by the good 
Law, a most excellent supply of knowledge, a 
supply of boundless compassion, which is the 
means to attain the virtues of the perfect Buddha. 

1 I read mah&matinidhanam for mahaprati-. 
' Gati? 'resources?' 

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108. ' He, full of joy, shall obtain these eight 
supplies who himself holds this method of the Law 
in his mind and sets it going abroad. 

109. 'And he who shall declare this method of 
the Law to others, shall have himself purified by 
great merit and shall be prosperous and possessed 
of supernatural powers. 

no. 'He shall become a universal monarch, a 
king of kings, and even a ruler among the guardians 
of the world l , an Indra ruler of the gods ", and even 
the ruler of the Yama heaven •, 

in. 'Yea, the ruler of the Tushita heaven, and 
the ruler of the Sunirmita^, and the king of the 
VasavartinaA 4 , and the lord of the Brahmaloka ; 

112. 'Yea, Mahabrahman, the highest of Sages, — 
and in the end he shall even become a Buddha, — he, 
possessing a thoroughly pure intelligence, shall obtain 
these eight sublime rewards of merit. 

113. 'And he who, thoroughly intent, with a 
believing heart, and filled with faith and devotion, 
shall hear this method of the Law as it is preached, 

114. 'He shall have his intellect made perfectly 
pure, his mind calmed with boundless charity, and 
his soul happy with boundless compassion, and he 
shall be filled with boundless joy; 

115. ' His soul constantly calm with universal in- 
difference, rejoicing in the four contemplations, 
having reached the ecstatic state of absolute in- 
difference 6 , and with his senses abolished, 

1 16. * With the five transcendent faculties attained, 

1 Sc. the Mahar^as of the first heaven. 

5 In the second Devaloka. * The third Devaloka. 

* These are the fourth, fifth, and sixth Devalokas. 

1 Samirupya? 

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and destroying the aggregate of latent impressions, 
he, endowed with supernatural powers, will attain 
the samadhi called *Surawgama. 

117. 'He, having his soul pure, will attain these 
eight forms of absolute spotlessness ; yea, wherever 
this method of the Law will prevail universally, 

118.' There will be no fear of any disturbance 
in the kingdom, no fear of evil-minded thieves, nor 
fear of evil beasts ; 

119.' There will be no fear of plagues, famines, or 
wildernesses ; and no alarm shall spread, caused by 
quarrel or war; 

120. 'There shall be no fear from the gods nor 
from Nagas, Yakshas, and the like, nor shall there 
be anywhere any fear of any misfortune. 

121. 'These eight fears shall not be found there 
where this Law extends ; it is all briefly explained, 
my friends, — all that arises from holding it sted- 

122. 'A yet higher and most excellent merit is 
declared by all the Buddhas, even although all living 
beings were to. practise complete self-restraint 

123. ' Let a man worship the Buddhas, honouring 
them always with faith ; from that comes this pre- 
eminent merit, as is declared by the &inas. 

1 24. 'And whosoever joyfully worships a Pratyeka- 
Buddha, they shall become themselves Pratyeka- 
Buddhas ; therefore let every one worship them. 

125. 'There is pre-eminent merit from the wor- 
ship of one Bodhisattva, and they shall all them- 
selves become Bodhisattvas, let every one worship 

126. 'Therefore there is pre-eminent merit from 
the worship of one Buddha, — they shall all them- 

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BOOK XVI, 117-132. 189 

selves become Cinas, let every one devoutly worship 
them; and he too shall obtain this pre-eminent 
merit who hears this or causes others to hear it 

127. ' And whosoever in days when the good Law 
is abolished abandons love for his own body and 
life and proclaims day and night these good words, 
— pre-eminent is his merit from this. 

128. ' He who wishes to worship constantly the 
lords of saints, the Pratyeka-Buddhas and the Arhats, 
let him resolutely produce in his mind the idea of 
true wisdom and proclaim these good words and 
the Law. 

129. 'This jewel of all good doctrines, which is 
uttered by the Buddhas for the good of all beings, 
— even one who lives in a house will be a Tathagata 
for it, where this good doctrine prevails. 

130. 'He obtains a glorious and endless splendour 
who teaches even one word thereof; he will not 
miss one consonant nor the meaning who gives this 
Sutra to others. 

131. ' He is the best of all guides of men, no other 
being is like unto him ; he is like a jewel, of im- 
perishable glory, who hears this Law with a pure 

132. 'Therefore let those who are endowed with 
lofty ambitions, always hear this Law which causes 
transcendent merit ; let them hear it and gladly wel- 
come it and lay it up in their minds and continually 
worship the three jewels with faith.' 

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[i '. When the heavenly beings with Brahman at 
their head and the Bodhisattvas intent on self-morti- 
fication * heard this glorification of the Law uttered 
by the lion of the .Sakyas, they were desirous to 
hear again this which is so difficult to find, and they 
went to the city and worshipped him, propitiating his 
favour ; in the dark fortnight of the month Asha^/4a 
on the lunar day sacred to Agni, with the moon in 
the constellation called Kar«a (?) and on an auspicious 
day, — he, remembering the Buddha worlds and being 
desirous to save all creatures, set off on his journey, 
longing for disciples with his father at their head.] 

2. The associated Brahmans, accompanied by the 
inhabitants of Klrt who had gone to the Deer Park, 
and the mendicants to the number of thirty, were 
rendered resplendent by the chief of saints ; Klrika 
the harlot of Klrf went to the heaven of the gods, 
after she had worshipped the Gina. and attached her 
sons to the service of the glorious one; the con- 
queror of the world then made thirty rejoicing offi- 
ciating priests of K&rt his disciples, initiating them 
in the course of perfect wisdom ; and the son of 
Maitraya«l 8 and Maitra, the preceptor of hosts of the 
twice-born, named Pftroa, obtained true wisdom from 
the chief of saints and became a noble mendicant 

3. The priest of the lord of the city Marakata, a 

1 This is a doubtful verse, the metre is faulty. 

* I read tapasyapare. * Burnouf, Lotus, p. 489. 

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BOOK XVII, 1-6. 191 

Brahman named A^aya, and his son Nalaka, well 
versed in sacred learning and full of answers to 
questions, and an ascetic named Dhriti, dwelling in 
the Vindhya, and an invincible Brahman ascetic 
Sawgayin with his disciples, — these all, dwellers in 
the Vindhya, — when they came to him for refuge, the 
chief of saints initiated as mendicants, touching them 
with his hand bearing the mark of a wheel ; moreover 
the Naga Elapatra came to the abode of the best of 
saints, and stood resplendent there, perfectly calm in 
his demeanour and worshipping him with his rosaries. 

4. There was also a female ascetic of Mathura 
named Trikavyamgika, and a Brahman named Vid- 
yakara, — their son was named Sabhya, a dweller in 
the district called tSVetabalarka, a wise ascetic, proud 
of his wisdom, — he went into the Deer Park, wearing 
the aspect of one perfectly illumined, and desiring 
the highest wisdom from the chief of mendicants ; 
seeking from the omniscient admission to the noble 
life, he became renowned as the mendicant Sabhya 
in all assemblies. 

5. The son of Lalitaprabudhi, born after worship 
paid to the best of trees on the bank of the stream 
Vara*4, — renowned in the world as Yaroda, — wise 
from the besprinkling of the ambrosia of the words 
of the king of heaven, — remembering all former dis- 
courses which he had heard, came with his friends to 
the wood in the Deer Park, accompanied by his 
glory ; and the holy one, touching his head with his 
hand, made him the guru of the chief Bhikshus. 

6. The glorious one, named the great Buddha, 
proceeded with the mendicants in an auspicious com- 
pany, and having manifested his triumphal march for 
the salvation of the world, entered the city of K&sl. 

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A poor Brahman, named Svastika, a native of Vara- 
«asi, obtained riches from heaven through the favour 
of the glorious one, and having received adoption as 
a slave in the G'ma. faith, became a mendicant and an 
Arhat at the hands of the great teacher. 

7. Blessing the king of Kid 1 Divodasa and the 
citizens with gold, corn, and other riches, — taking up 
his abode in different places in forests, caves, moun- 
tains, he at last came in his rambles to the river 
Gahnavi. The boatman who conveyed the Gina. 
across the Ganges worshipped him and offered him 
milk with due services of reverence, and became a 
mendicant through his favour and by the China's com- 
mand found a dwelling in the Buddha's hermitage in 
the grove. 

8. The glorious one, after he had crossed the 
Ganges, went to the hermitage of K&yapa at Gaya, 
called Uruvilva ; there, having shown his super- 
natural power, he received as Bhikshus the Klryapas, 
Uruvilva, and others, with more than a thousand of 
their disciples, having endued them forthwith with 
all kinds of spiritual knowledge and with the power 
to abandon all worldly action ; then accompanied by 
three hundred disciples Upasena at the command of 
his maternal uncle became an ascetic. 

9. The glorious one made seven hundred asce- 
tics enter Nirvana who dwelt in the wood Dharma ; 
and the lord of the Law also caused the daughters 
of Naxadika, Strata and others, who dwelt in 
the village, to become the first female ascetics ; and 
in the city of Ra^ageha, having enlightened in 
right action and in activity the king Bimbisara, 

1 K&sM. 

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BOOK XVII, 7-12. 193 

the monarch, who is to be considered as the elder- 
born in perfect knowledge, he made him who was 
the devoted follower of the Buddha, a Bodhisattva 
and a Sakridagamin. 

10. In another village named Naradya there was 
a Brahman Dharmapalin and a Brahman woman 
named .Salya ; their seventh son named Upatishya 1 , 
who had studied the entire Veda, became a Buddhist 
mendicant ; so too there was a great pandit, a Brah- 
man named Dhanyayana, who dwelt in the village 
Kolata, and his son; — him and the son of Salt named 
Maudgalya the great saint received as the best of 
Bhikshus, pre-eminent disciples. 

11. Next he ordained as a mendicant the keen- 
witted maternal uncle of .Saliputra 1 , Dlrghanakha by 
name ; then travelling in the realm of Magadha, the 
glorious one, being honoured by the inhabitants 
with alms and other signs of devotion, and delivering 
them from evil, dwelt in the convent given by the 
seer Geta., attracting to himself many of the monks ; 
and after ordaining as a mendicant a native of Mi- 
thila, named Ananda, with his companions, he dwelt 
there a year. 

1 2. The Brahman named K&yapa, a very Kuvera 
for wealth, and a master in all the sciences connected 
with the Veda, an inhabitant of Ra^ageha, being 
pure-minded and wearing only one garment, left all 
his kindred and came seeking wisdom in asceticism ; 
— when this noble youth came to the Bodhi tree and 
practised for six years a penance hard to carry out, 
then he paid worship to the chief of saints who had 
attained perfect knowledge, and he became the well- 

1 Sc £&riputra. 
[49] O 

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known Klryapa, the chief of ascetics, the foremost 
of the Arhats. 

13. The saint Naradatta, dwelling on Mount 
Himavat, remembering the wholesome words of his 
maternal uncle, came to the Sugata with his disciples, 
and the holy one admitted them all into the order 
of the Gina. ; then a woman named .Sakti, and an- 
other named Kamala, pre-eminent in Brahmanical 
power, came to the Sugata and fell down at his feet, 
and then standing before him they were received 
by the saint, and made happy with the staff and 

14. Seven hundred disciples of the ascetic Ru- 
draka, remembering the noble words of their teacher, 
becoming mendicants according to the doctrine of 
the Gina, flocked round him paying him their homage 
and carrying their staves ; next a seer, named Rai- 
vata, joyfully uttering his praises, having finished 
his course of discipline, became a mendicant, full of 
devotion to the guru, counting gold and clay as the 
same, well versed in sacred spells and meditation, 
and able to counteract the three kinds of poisons 
and other fatal harms. 

15. Having received as followers and disciples 
certain householders of •Sravastt, Pur»a and others, 
and given them alms-vessels, — and having made 
many poor wretches as rich as Kuvera, and maimed 
persons with all their limbs perfect, and paupers and 
orphans affluent, — and having proclaimed the Law, 
and dwelt two years in the forest Getaka delivering 
the suppliants, the glorious one, having taught again 
the saint Ceta, and established the Bhikshu Puma, 
once more proceeded on his way. 

16. Then the glorious one went on, protecting 

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BOOK XVII, I3-I9. 195 

the merchant-caravans by the stores of his own 
treasures from the troops of robbers, next he went 
into the neighbourhood of Ra^ageha wandering with 
his begging-vessel which had been given by the 
merchants. In the wood called Venn, filled with 
5al trees, he ate an offering of food prepared by the 
enriched robbers, and he received as mendicants 
five hundred of them and gave them their begging- 
vessels and the other requisites. 

17. At the invitation of Buddha's son, .Suddho- 
dana gave this message to his envoys AT^andaka 
and Udayin, 'Thy father and mother, some noble 
ladies, headed by Yasodrzh, and this my young son 
have come in the hope of seeing thee, under the 
idea that thou art devoted to the world's salvation ; 
what shall I tell them ? ' They two went, and re- 
verentially saluting the Buddha in the vihara called 
Ve»u, they told him the message with their eyes 
filled with tears. 

18. .Oandaka and Udayin accepted his counsel, 
and, being delighted at the mighty power of Buddha, 
became great ascetics ; and the great G'ma. took 
them with him and proceeded from that wood 
with the disciples, the mendicants, and the saints. 
Going on from place to place, and dwelling in each 
for a while and conferring deliverance and confirming 
the disciples, the mendicants, and the Arhats, he at 
last reached the wood Nigrodha, illuminating the 
district by his glory, shaking the earth and putting 
an end to misery. 

19. 1 He again stirred up his followers in the 
doctrine of the Buddha, and then went on with the 

1 Several phrases are obscure in this verse. 
O 2 

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crowds of inhabitants gathered round him, instructing 
his shaven mendicant-followers, as they begged alms, 
while the gods brought his precepts to their minds *. 
He forbade the mendicants to enter the city and 
went to Ra^ageha himself with his own followers ; and 
then the king who dwells apart from all doubt 1 , the 
Cina, who knows at once all the history of every 
Bhikshu, instructed the ascetic (Udayin) in proclaim- 
ing wisdom to others. 

20. In accordance with the Gina's command that 
prince of ascetics, Udayin, went to the city of 
Kapila; there he, the lord of all possessors of 
supernatural powers, instructed the king as he stood 
in the assembly in the boon of the eight hundred 
powers ; and coming down from heaven he uttered 
to the king and his court a discourse on the four 
sublime truths, and the king, with his mind en- 
lightened, having worshipped him, held intercourse 
with him, attended by his courtiers, offering every 
form of homage. 

21. The monarch, rejoiced at the sight of the 
<7ina, praised his feet, worshipping them with eight 
hundred presents; and the Sugata departed, and 
made manifest in the sky in his one person a form 
comprehending the universe; first as fire, then 
ambrosia, then the king of beasts, an elephant, the 
king of horses, the king of peacocks 8 , the king of 
birds, Maghavan, the ten rulers of the world headed 
by Yama, the sun, the moon, the hosts of stars, 
Brahman, Vish»u, and .Siva. 

22. The sons of Diti, the four (Maharajas) with 

1 Obscure. * Dvaparcstha? 

3 Sikhira/ might mean 'the king of flames,' &c. 

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BOOK XVII, 20-25. 197 

Dhrztarish/ra at their head, the hosts of Yogins with 
the king Drumasiddha, the (heavenly) ascetics, the 
Vasus, the Manus, the sons of the forest, the creatures 
of the waters headed by the makara, the birds 
headed by Gariu/a, and all the kings in the different 
worlds with the lord of the Tushita heaven at their 
head, and those in the world of the dead 1 the domain 
of Bali, — whatever is conspicuous in the universe the 
holy one created it all, becoming the universal one. 

23. When the king had thus been instructed, the 
lord of saints went to the Satya heaven, and then 
from the sky, seated on his own throne*, he pro- 
claimed the twelvefold Law ; then he restored 
Gautami and Anugopa and many other women to 
sight, and filled all the assembled people with joy ; 
and established others in Nirvana and in the Law. 
Then .Suddhodana full of joy invited him to a feast 
given to the whole assembly, and he accepted it by 
his silence. 

24. The lion of the .Sakyas, having been thus 
invited, went with the congregation of his followers 
to the place, after having shown a mighty miracle. 
Then the earth shook, a shower of flowers fell, the 
various quarters of space became illumined and a 
wind blew ; and the heavenly beings, Brahman, .Siva, 
Vishnu, Indra, Yama, Varu«a, Kuvera, the lord of 
Bhutas, the lord of the winds, Nimti, Fire with his 
seven flames, and the rest, stood resting their feet on 
the serpent .Sesha, and followed leading the gods 
and gandharvas in their dance in the sky. 

25. Making millions of ascetics, disciples, Arhats, 

1 Martya seems here to be used for mri'ta. 

4 Or must we take sva as put for svar, ' in heaven?' 

Digitized by 



sages, mendicants, and fasters, — and delivering from 
their ills the blind, the humpbacked, the lame, the 
insane, the maimed as well as the destitute, — and 
having established many persons of the fourth caste 
in the true activity and inaction and in the three 
yanas 1 , with the four sawgrahas* and the eight 
a*»gas 8 , — going on from place to place, delivering, 
and confirming the Bhikshus, in the twelfth year he 
went to his own city. 

26. Day by day confirming the Bhikshus, and 
providing food for the congregation, in an auspicious 
moment he made a journey to Lumbint with the 
Bhikshus and the citizens, Brahman and Rudra being 
at their head, with great triumph and noise of musical 
instruments. There he saw the holy fig-tree and he 
stood by it remembering his birth, with a smile ; and 
rays of light streamed from his mouth and went forth 
illumining the earth ; and he uttered a discourse to 
the goddess of the wood, giving her the serenity of 

27. * Having come to the Lumbint fig-tree he 
spoke to Paurvika the daughter of Rahula, and 
Gopika the daughter of Maitra, and his own 
Saudhanl Kausika; and he uttered an affectionate 
discourse honouring his mother by the tank Vasatya ; 
then speaking with Ekasawgt the daughter of Maha- 
kautuka and Sautasomt in the wood Nigrodha, he 
received into the community some members of his 
own family, headed by Sundarananda, and one 
hundred and seven citizens. 

1 Burnouf, Lotus, p. 315. 

1 Apparently the four means of conciliating dependents. 

8 The eightfold path of Buddhist morality. 

4 Much of this stanza is obscure. 

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BOOK XVII, 26-3O. 199 

28. Having declared the glory of the Law of 
Buddha, he built a round Stupa and gave a royal 
coronation to Saunu 1 , sending him into the wood 
pre-eminent with the holiest saints and Afaityas, and 
bidding him worship the sacred relics ; and having 
commanded Rahula, GautamI, and the other women 
led by Gopika, with staves in their hands, as shaven 
ascetics, to practise the vow of fasting called aho- 
ratra ', and after that the Laksha&utya ceremony 8 
and then the rite called 3Wngabheri 4 , and that 
called Vasuwzdharika 6 . 

29. The Ashtesahasrika of sacred authority 6 , — 
the Geya 7 and the Gatha, the Nidana and the 
Avadana, and that which is called the Sutra of the 
great Yana, the Vyakara 8 and the Ityukta, the 
Gataka, the work called Vaipulya, the Adbhuta* 
and the Upaderet, and also the Udanaka 10 as the 
twelfth. — Teaching (these sacred texts) and making 
current the Yana for common disciples, that for 
Pratyeka Buddhas, and the Mahayana, and pro- 
claiming them all around, accompanied by thirteen 
and a half bodies of mendicants, the conqueror of 
the world went out of the city of Kapila. 

30. After displaying miracles in the city of Ka- 

1 Or the grandson of the king? 

9 See Ri^endralal Mitra, Nepalese Buddhist Literature, p. 221. 

8 Ibid. p. 275. * Ibid. p. 230. • Ibid. p. 271. 

' Naigama ? The Ash/asahasrika seems not to be reckoned here 
among the following twelve texts of peculiar authority with the 
Northern Buddhists. But Burnoufs authorities include it in that 
called ' Sutra.' 

7 For the following twelve names see Burnouf, Introd. pp. 51-66. 

' More properly Vyakarawa. 

* Burnouf calls it adbhutadharma. 

" Burnouf, Introd. p. 58. 

Digitized by 



pila, and having paid honour to his father, and 
having made Rahula and his companions Arhats, 
and also the Bhikshuwts with Gautamt and Gopika 
at their head, and various women of all the four 
castes; and having established Saunu 1 on his im- 
perial throne, and the people in the <7ina doctrine, 
and having abolished poverty and darkness, and 
then remembering his mother, he set forth, after 
worshipping Svayawbhu, towards the northern 
region with Brahman, Vishmi, and Siva, as men- 
dicants in his train. 

31. The glory of the Avadana of the birth of 
the lion of the .Sakyas has thus been described 
by me at length and yet very concisely; it must 
be corrected by pandits wherever anything is 
omitted, — my childish speech is not to be laughed 
at, but to be listened to with pleasure. 

Whatever virtue I may have acquired from de- 
scribing the king of the Law, the deliverer from 
mundane existence, who assumes all forms, — may 
it become a store of merit for the production of 
right activity and inactivity in others, and for the 
diffusion of delight among the six orders of beings 8 . 

Thus ends the seventeenth sarga, called the 
Progress to Lumbint, in the great poem made by 
Asvaghosha, the Buddha-^arita 3 . 

1 Or Saunava, see floka 28. 

* Sc. the sha</ g atayas, the 'six paths,' are gods, men, Asuras, 
&c, Pretas, brutes, and the inhabitants of the different hells. 

* C adds here on the last page the following lines : ' The poem 
about Buddha, very difficult to obtain, was written by AmrMnanda 
in the year indicated by a cipher, the arrows (of Kama), and a nine 
[=Newdr Sawvat 950, or a.d. 1830], in the dark fortnight of 
the month Margaitrsha (Nov.-Dec.) and on the day ruled by the 

Digitized by 


BOOK XVII, 31. 20I 

seventh astrological house Smara. Having searched for them 
everywhere and not found them, four sargas have been made 
by me, — the fourteenth, fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth.' The 
beginning of another version of these lines is given in P, but D 
omits them. The name of Amnt&nanda occurs in Ra^endral&l 
Mitra's Nepalese Buddhist Literature as the author of three 
treatises, — two in Sanskrit, the jK"Aando»mr*'talati (p. 79), the 
Kalyinapamiavin.ratika' (p. 99), translated in Wilson's Works, 
vol. ii, and the VtrakujivadSna (p. 274) in New&rt. Com- 
pare Cowell and Eggeling's Catalogue, pp. 18, 24; in p. 18 he 
is associated with the date ns. 916 (a.d. 1796). 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 



Akanish/£Lfr, the, book V, verse 47. 

Akshamaia, IV, 77. 

Agastya, IV, 73 ; IX, 9, 26. 

Agni, IV, 76 ; VII, 17. 

Agni, son of, (Skanda), I, 66. 

Amgiras, I, 46 ; IX, to. 

Amgirasas, the, II, 36. 

A*a, VIII, 79. 

A^apila-vana, XV, 53. 

Ajaya, XVII, 3. 

Atri, I, 48. 

AnugopJ, XVII, 23. 

Awitideva, I, 57 ; IX, 20, 60. 

Amdhakas, the, XI, 31. 

Apsaras, I, 94 ; IV, 11, 28, &c. 

Ambarisha, IX, 59. 

AriWa, VII, 54; IX, 6; XI, 69; 

XII, 1-81 ; XV, 89. 
Alakl, III 65. 
Ajvinau, the, VII, 7. 
Asita, I, 54, 67, 85; 11,15; VIII, 

Ahalyl, IV, 72. 

AkimiznyU, XII, 63 (cf. 83). 
Atreya, I, 48. 
Ananda, XVII, 11. 
Abhasuraui, the, XII, 53. 
AshlL/Aa, IX, 20. 

Ikshvakavas, the, I, 49; VII, 6: 

IX, 4; XII, 1. 
Indra (Maghavat, Sakra, &c), I, 7, 

»7, *9, 63, 9» i II, «7 ; IV, 73 ; 
V, 22, 27,87; VI, 62; VII, 3, 
43; VIII, 13,64,73,79; IX, 5, 
10,12; X, 19, 39,41; XI, 13, 
14,16,70; XIII,9,37;XV,65, 
73; XVI, 93, no. 

t»vara, f/a, IX, 53; X, 3; XVII, 
21,24, 3°- 

Ugrayudha, XI, 18. 
Uttare kuravaA, the, IV, 10. 
Udayin, IV, 8, 24, 62 ; XVII, 17, 

18, 20. 
Udraka, XIL 82-86 (cf. Rudraka). 
Upatishya, XVII, 10. 
Upasujfida, XI, 32. 
Upasena, XVII, 8. 
Uruvilva, XVII, 8. 
Urva»t, XI, 15. 

JUshya/runga, IV, 19. 

Ekajamgt, XVII, 27. 
Elapatra, XVII, 3. 

AWa, XI, 15; XIII, 12. 

Autathya, IV, 74. 
Aurva, I, 29. 
Aurv&reya, IX, 9. 

Ka.II.51; XI,6.(?). 

Kakshfvat, I, 29. 

Kawthaka, V, 3, 68 ; VI, 53, 55, 67 5 

VIII, 3, 17, 19, 32, 38, 43, 73,75- 
Kapungalada, IV, 77. 
Kapila, I, 2 ; XII, 21. 
Kapilavastu, 1, 2 (?), 94 ; V, 84 ; VI, 

30,51; VIII, 5; XVII, 20, 30. 
Kamaiu&lu, XV, 96. 
Kamaia, XVII, 13. 
Karalaganaka, IV, 80. 
Kama, III, 24 ; IV, 4 ; XIII, 2, 72. 
KamivsOaraA, the, XIV, 88. 
Karttikeya (shanmukha), I, 93- 
tola, XII, 113. 
Kilama, XII, 2. 
Kail, IV, 76. 
Kkika, XVII, *. 
Kirisuffidart, IV, 16. 
Ka\»!, KJbi, XV, 89, 9«, 101 ; XVII, 


This Index omits some of the obscure names in the last book. 

Digitized by 




Kajyapa, XVII, 12. 

Klryapas, the, XVII, 8. 

Kurus, the, XI, 31. 

Kuvera, I, 94 ; IV, 10 ; V, 45, 85 ; 

XVII, 15. 
Kujika, I, 49. 

Kailasa, I, 3, 21 ; II, 30; X, 41. 
Kolata, XVII, 10. 
Kaurava, IV, 79. 

Gamgi, IX, as ; XV, 98 ; XVII, 7. 
Gamdha, XV, 97. 
Gamdhapura, XV, 97. 
Gaya, XII, 87. 
GayS, XV, 91 ; XVII, 8. 
Garuda, XII, 54 ; XVII, a*. 
Gopiki, XVII, 27, 28, 30. 
Gautama, IV, 18, 73. 
Gautama (Buddha), XV, 104. 
Gautamt, VIII, 24, 51 ; XVII, 33, 
28, 30. 

Ghrftait, IV, 20. 

JTamdramas, IV, 75. 
JTaitraratha, IV, 78. 
iTyavana, I, 48. 

JC&wtda, Xfcuwdaka, V, 68; VI, 4, 14, 
35»45,65; VII, 1 ; VIII, 9, 23, 
32,42,73; XVII, 17, 18. 

Ganaka, I, 50; IX, ao; XII, 67. 
Gayamta, IX, 5, ia. 
Ginakshetra, XV, 114. 
Geta,XVII, n, 13. 
Getakaraxya, XVII, 15. 
Gaigishavya, XII, 67. 

Taxkshya, VI, 5. 

Tushita, Tushitife, the, I, 19 ; XIV, 

89; XVI, in. 
Trayastrbn/ad-devaA, XIV, 89. 
Trikavyawigika, XVII, 4. 

Damdakas, the, XI, 31. 
Dajaratha, VIII, 79, 81. 
Dijarathi, VIII, 8. 
Divodasa, XVII, 7. 
DirghSnakha, XVII, 11. 
Deer-park, the, XV, 87, 103, 114; 

XVII, 5. 
Devi, I, 66. 

Drumasiddha, XVII, 22. 
Drumiksha, IX, 60. 
Druraib^aketu, the Moon 1 V, 3. 

Dharmaiakra (Vinaga), XV, 119. 
Dharmapalin, XVII, 10. 
Dharmaruii, XV, 86. 
Dharma/avi, XVII, 9. 
Dhanyiyana, XVII, 10. 
Dhn'tarashfra, XVII, 22. 
Dbriti, XVII, 3. 

Namdana, III, 64. 

Namdabaia, XII, 106. 

Namdiguha, 1, 19. 

Namdika, XVII, 9. 

Namdin, XV, 93. 

Natnuii, XV, 25, 46. 

Naradatta, XVII, 13. 

Nalakfivara, I, 94. 

Nahusha, II, 11; XI, 14, 16. 

Nalaka, XVII, 3. 

Nigrodha-vana (niyagrodha), XVII, 

18, 27. 
NirmanaraUyaA, the, XIV, 89. 
Nirmita bodhisattvaA, the, XIV, 71. 
Nairam^ana, XII, 88, 105. 

Parana bhikshavai, pa»*a-varg!yai, 
the, XII, 89, 1 1 1 ; XV, 89, 104, 
118 (cf. Bhadravargfyifr). 

Padma, II, 3. 

PadmakhaWa, III, 63. 

Padma (?), IV, 36. 

Paranirmita-vajavartinai, the, XIV, 

Parawra, IV, 76 ; XII, 67. 
PaMava (mountain), X, 14, i7> 
Pamrfavas, the, X, 17. 
PWu, IV, 79. 
Punarvasu, IX, 11. 
Puramdara, IV, 72 ; XIII, 37. 
Pushya, I, 25. 
Puma, XVII, 2, 15. 
Prfthu, I, 29. 
PaunrikS, XVII, 27. 
Pnyapati, XII, 21. 

Bali, IX, 20 ; XI, 16 ; XVII, 22. 

Bilamukhya, IV, 17. 

Bimbisara, XV, 100 (cf. Srewya) ; 

XVII, 9/ 
BuddhSA (atttiA), I, 38; XIV, 75; 

XV, 8. 
Budha, IV, 75. 
Bodhidruma, XII, 112, 116; XIII, 


Bodhisattva, I, 19, 24; II, 56; IX, 

30; X, 18, &c. 

Digitized by 




BrahmakayikaA, the, XIV, 88. 
Brahman, I, 1; XII, 43, 51, 65; 

XV, 18, 84, 118 ; XVI, 9J, m ; 

XVII, 1, a 4 , jo. 

Bhadravargtyifr, the five, XII, 89, 
m; XV,89, 104, 1 1 5 (cf. Paxtia 

Bhadrasanani, XV, 114. 

Bharadvaj-a, IV, 74. 

Bhava, I, 93. 

BhSrgava, VI, 1 ; IX, 3, 3. 

BhTshma, IX, as; XI, 18. 

Bhn'gu, I, 46. 

Magadhas, the, X, 10, 41 ; XI, 1 ; 

XVII, 11. 
Maghavat, see Indra. 
Mathura, XVII, 4. 
Manu (Vaivasvata), II, 16 ; VIII, 78. 
Mamthalagautama, IV, 17. 
Mamdara, VI, 1 3. 
Mamata (?), IV, 74. 
Marakata, XVII, 3. 
Marutvat (Indra), VIII, 13; X, 39. 
Maruts, the, IV, 74 ; V, 17. 
Mahaiautuka, XVII, 37. 
Mahira^Lfr,the,XV,64,74; XVII.aa. 
Mahasudana, VIII, 63. 
Mahendra, see Indra. 
Mahorag&fr, the, I, 38. 
M3drt, IV, 79. 

MimdhatW, I, 99 ; X, 31 ; XI, 13. 
Miy*, I, 15, 33, 37; II, 18. 
Mara, XIII, 1-73 ; XV, 11, 37. 
Mara'ssons, XIII, 3, 14. 
Mara's daughters,XIII,3, 14; XV, 13. 
Meghakalt, XIII, 49. 
Meru,V, 37, 43 ; XIII, 4 i, 57 ; XV, 3a. 
Maitra, XVII, a, 27. 
Maitr3ya»l, XVII, a. 
Maitriya,XV, 118; XVI, 1. 
Maitreya, XVI, 53. 
Maithilas, the, XI, 31. 
Maudgalya, XVII, 10. 

YakshadhipaA, the, I, 36. 
Yamuna, IV, 76 ; XII, 107. 
Yay3ti, II, 11; IV, 78. 
Ya/oda, XVII, 5. 
Yajodnh, XVII, 17. 
Yjuodhara,II,a6,46; VI, 34; VIII, 

31, 60, 71. 
Yama*, the, XIV, 89 ; XVI, no. 

Raghu, VI, 36. 

Ra^agriha, X, 1, 9. 

Rajageha, XVII, 9, la, 16. 

RSma (Dajarathi), VI, 36; VIII, 

81; IX, 9, as, 59, 67. 
Rama (Bhargava), IX, 25. 
Rahu, 11,46; IX, a8. 
Rahula, II, 46; VIII, 67; IX, a8; 

XVII, 37, a8, 30. 
Rudraka, XV, 89; XVII, 14 (cf. 

Raivata, XVII, 14. 
Rohia!, IV, 73. 
Rohltavastuka, XV, 96. 

Lumbint, I, 33 ; XVII, 37. 
Lopamudra, IV, 73. 

Vaerabahu, IX, ao. 

N2J&A, XV, 94. 

VaraA XVII, 5. 

Valabhid (Indra), X, 41. 

VajavartinaA, the, XVI, in. 

Vajish/Aa,I, 47,57; IV, 77; IX, 60. 

Vasus, the, VII, 7. 

Vamadeva, IX, 9. 

Varanast, XV, 87, 101 ; XVII, 6. 

vaimiki, I, 48. 

Videhas, the, IX, ao. 

Vidyakara, XVII, 4. 

Vindhya, XIII, 38 ; XVII, 3. 

Vindhya-kosh/Aa, VII, 54. 

Vi,va«, IV, 78. 

Vifvamitra, IV, ao. 

Vishnu, XVII, ai, 34, 30. 

Vuwda, XV, 95. 

Vumdadvtra, XV, 95. 

Vr»tra,VIII, 13; XI, 14. 

Vrishnis, the, XI, 31. 

VWhatphaia*, the, XII, 58. 

Vrihaspati, I, 46; IV, 74t 75; VII, 

43; IX, 1a. 
Veauvana, XVII, 16. 
Venuvihara, XVII, 17. 
Vaibhraga, IX, ao. 
Vabvamtara hermitage, the, XI, 73. 
Vyasa, I, 47. 

Sakti, XVII, 13. 
£akra, see Indra. 

Sawkhamedhiya (udyana), XV, 10a. 
Satf, II, 37. 

Sakya, sakyas, the, I, 7, 14, 54, 63, 
•93; U,»5.»7; V, 1, 36; VI, 60; 

VII, 13; VIII, 8; IX, 11,34; 

X, 11; XIII, 43; XV, 44, 85, 

88 ; XVII, 1, 34. 

Digitized by 




SZmtmu, XIII, is. 
SaratS, IV, 19. 
Slliputra, XVII, 11. 

an, xvii, 10. 

Saiya, XVII, 10. 

Salvas, the, IX, 60. 

Sibi, XIV, jo. 

■Siva, see trvara. 

Sukra, I, 46 ; IX, 10. 

5uddhadhivasi6, the, I, 39; III, 36, 

S 6; XIII 31. 
Sud(Mvasa\&, the, XIV, 88. 
Suddhodana, I, 9, 20 ; XVII, 17, 33. 
SubhakrrtsnaA, the, XII, 56. 
Sura, I, 50. 

Sauddhodani, II, 46; 111,40; XI, 1. 
Sauri (Krishna), I, 50. 
Sravastl, XVII, 15. 
Sreitya, X, to, 16 (cf. Bimbislra). 
Svetabilarka, XVII, 4. 

Sagara, I, 49. 
Sam^ayin, XVII, 3. 
Sanatkumara, II, 37; V, 37. 
Saptarshitiri, I, 33. 
Sabhya, XVII, 4. 

Sama/ntakusuma, XV, 5. 

Sarvarthasiddha, II, 17; VII, 1. 

Sawkriti, IX. 60. 

Slrathi (pura), XV, 98. 

Sirasvata, I, 47. 

Su^att, XVII, 9. 

Sudamna, XV, 93. 

SunirmitSA, the, XVI, ill. 

Sumda, XI, 3a. 

Sumdar&nanda, XVII, 37. 

Sumitra (Sumantra?), VI, 36. 

SuvaroanishaMvin, VIII, 77. 

SOryaka, XIII, 11. 

Srimgaya. (Samgaya?), VIII, 77. 

Scnagit, IX, 30. 

Soma, IV, 73. 

Sautasomt, XVII, 37. 

Saunu, Saunava(J), XVII, 38, 30. 

Svayambhu, II, 51; X,s, 19; XVII, 

Svastika, XVII, 6. 

Hari (see Vishnu), XV, 103. 
Himavat, I, 30; II, 3; IV, 37; V, 

45; VIII, 36; IX, 68; XVII, 


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Page 1 1, note 2 (1, 63). Professor Jacob i writes, ' Indra's banner is 
intimately connected with the Gaina legend of king Domuha (see 
my Ausgew. ErzahL in Maharash/rt, p. 40) ; the old Gaina legends 
originated in the East ; cf. also Ramay. II, 74, 36 ; IV, 16, 37 ; 
17, 2 (Bombay ed.).' 

P. 21, 1. 30 (II, 31 6). I have read in the translation madaiA for 
the printed mamdaiA. 

P. 33, 1. 30 (III, 50 c). If we read api nama sakto, the translation 
should run, ' would that he might not be able to forsake us, even 
though he remained attached to us only through the restlessness of 
the senses.' 

P. 49, note 2, L 4, read kumudenu 

P. 60, 1. 31 (V, 80 d). This might be rendered 'planting his 
footsteps without alarm,' but I have taken £akita as meaning 
' hurrying ' from the £akitagate& of the next jloka. 

P. 83 (VIII, 31 d), add to note 2, 'there is a similar confusion of 
vigadha and vigarf^a in the MSS. in VIII, 76.' 

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Introduction v 

Translated by F. Max Miiller. 

i. The Larger SukhAvatI-vyuha i 

Index op Words 77 

Index of Subjects 85 

2. The Smaller SukhAvatI-vyuha 87 

Index of Names and Subjects 105 

Index of Sanskrit Words 107 

3. The VacratkwedikA 109 

4. The Larger PracA'A-pAramita-hr/daya-sotra . 145 

5. The Smaller PragA>A-pAramitA-hjwdaya-sutra 151 

Index op Names and Subjects 155 

Index op Sanskrit Words 157 

Translated by J. Takakusu. 

6. The AmitAyur-dhyAna-sutra 159 

Index op Names and Subjects 203 

Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the Translations 

of the Sacred Books of the East 305 

*a 2 

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**_JULL1 .-«- 

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According to the census of 189 1 Japan has about forty 
millions of inhabitants, of whom more than thirty millions 
are Buddhists. Of these Buddhists the Shin-shiu sect 
claims about ten millions of followers, with 19,208 temples, 
and 11,958 preachers, with ten chief priests, and 3,593 
students. The books on which the members of this sect 
chiefly found their faith are the two Sukhavatt-vyuhas, 
the large and the small, and the Amitayur-dhyana-sutra. 
They are sometimes called the Large Sutra, the Small Sutra, 
and the Sutra of Meditation x . 

According to the Buddhists of Japan, Buddha preached 
the Amitayur-dhyana-sutra to queen Vaidehi in the city 
of R&gagriha. This was during the fifth period of his life ; 
ie. when he was between the age of seventy-one and 

The outline given of this Sutra is as follows : ' Vaideht, 
consort of king Bimbisara of Magadha, seeing the wicked 
actions of her son A^lt&ratru, began to feel weary of this 
world Saha (here as elsewhere explained as the patient, 
much-enduring earth). .Sakyamuni then taught her how 
to be born in the Pure Land Sukhavatt, instructing her in 
the method of being born in that world, enumerating three 
kinds of good actions. The first is worldly goodness, which 
includes good actions in general, such as filial piety, respect 

' See Sakhavatt-vyuha, in Anecdote Oxoniensia, p. ix. 

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for elders, loyalty, faithfulness, &c. The second is the 
goodness of Sila or morality, in which there are differences 
between the priesthood and the laity. In short, however, 
all who do not oppose the general rule of reproving wicked- 
ness and exhorting to the practice of virtue are included in 
this goodness. The third is the goodness of practice, 
which includes that of the four Satyas or truths, and the six 
Paramitas or perfections. Besides these, all other pure and 
good actions, such as the reading and recital of the 
Mahayana-sutras, persuading others to hear the Law, and 
thirteen kinds of goodness to be practised by fixed 
thought, are comprised in this. Towards the end of the 
Sutra, Buddha says : " Let not one's voice cease, but ten 
times complete the thought, and repeat the words Namo»mi- 
tabhaya Buddhaya, or adoration to Amitabha Buddha. 
This practice is the most excellent of all." 

' At seventy-eight years of age Buddha is said x to have 
composed the Samanta-bhadra-bodhisattva-£arya-dharma- 
sutra, in the city of Vaual!. At the age of seventy-nine 
he is supposed to have ascended to the Trayastri»wa 
heaven in order to preach to his mother, and after 
descending on earth again, he only published two more 
Sutras, the Nirvawa-sutra and the Sukhavatl-vyuha. Very 
soon after he died.' 

The same three books, that is, the two Sukhavati-vyuhas 
and the Amitayur-dhyana-sutra, form also the chief 
authority of the Gddoshiu sect, the sect of the Pure Land. 
The followers of this sect state 2 that in the year 252 A. D. 
Sanghavarman, an Indian student of the Tripi/aka, came to 
China and translated the great AmitayuA-sutra, i.e. the 
Larger Sukhavatt-vyuha, in two volumes. This is the first 
and largest of their sacred books. 

In the year 400 A. D. another teacher, Kumara^iva, came 
from India to China, and produced a translation of the 

1 These are the statements of the Buddhists in Japan as recorded by Bunyiu 
Nanjio in ' Short History of the Twelve Japanese Buddhist Sects,' Tokyo, 1886, 
p. xviii. 

* Loc. cit. p. 104. 

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small AmitayuA-sutra, or Smaller Sukhavatl-vyuha, in one 
volume. This is the smallest of the three sacred books. 

In 424 A. D. Kalay&ias arrived in China from India, and 
translated the Amitayur-dhyana-sutra in one volume. 

Chinese translations of these texts were known to exist 
not only in China, but also in Japan, and there were in 
several cases more than one translation of the same text. 
But it was not known, nor even suspected, that the Sanskrit 
originals of some of them had been preserved in the temples 
and monasteries of that distant island. 

In the year 1 880 I read a paper before the Royal Asiatic 
Society in London, ' On Sanskrit Texts discovered in Japan ' 
(Selected Essays, vol. ii, pp. 213-371), and in it and in the 
preface to my edition of the Sanskrit texts of the Sukhavati- 
vyuha in the Anecdota Oxoniensia, 1883, 1 explained how 
I discovered the existence and came into the possession of 
Sanskrit MSS. and copies of Sanskrit MSS. from the 
Buddhist monasteries in Japan. 

I had long suspected the existence of old Sanskrit MSS. 
in China, and had asked my friends there to search for 
them, and as it was well known from the works of Siebold 
and others that there were short invocations in Sanskrit of 
Buddha hung up in the Buddhist temples of Japan or 
written on their walls, I entertained a hope that in Japan 
also some real and ancientrMSS. might still be discovered. 
The alphabet in which these short invocations are written 
was known by the name of Shidda, the Sanskrit Siddha 1 . 
It may be seen in Siebold's works and in an article 
published in 1880 in the Annales du Musee Guimet, vol. i, 
pp. 322-336, by MM. Ymaizoumi and Yamata. What was 
not known, however, was that there had been a period in 

1 Siddham, lit. what is successfully achieved, seems to have been used by 
Buddhists likesiddhiA, success, as an auspicious invocation at the beginning 
of literary works. Thus we see that the alphabet on the Hdriuzhi palm-leaves 
begins with siddham, and this siddham may afterwards have become the 
name of the alphabet itself. In Siddhanta, meaning dogma, grammar, siddha 
conveys the sense of settled ; in Siddh&rtha, a name of Buddha, it means fulfilled, 
i. e. he whose desires have all been fulfilled, the perfect man, free from desires 
and passions. 

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the history of Japan when Sanskrit was studied systemati- 
cally by native priests, nay, that some of the MSS. which 
had travelled from India to China, and from China to Japan 
were still in existence there. Of these MSS. I gave an 
account in 1884 in the Anecdota Oxoniensia, ' The Ancient 
Palm-Leaves.' Though hitherto no new discoveries of 
Sanskrit MSS. have been made, it is most desirable that the 
search for them should not be given up in China, in Japan, 
and in Corea also. But even thus a new and important 
chapter has been added to the history of Buddhism, and 
the fact been established once for all that Buddhist litera- 
ture found a home in Japan, and was studied there for 
many generations not only in Chinese translations, but in 
the original Sanskrit also. Let us hope that through the 
efforts of my pupils, such as Bunyiu Nanjio, Kenjiu Kasawara 
(died 1883), and others, a new school of Sanskrit students 
has been planted in Japan which will enable the followers of 
Buddha there to derive their knowledge of his doctrine from 
the original and undented source of the ancient Tripi/aka. 

I thought it best for the sake of completeness, and in 
compliance with the wishes of my friends in Japan, to give 
in this volume the translation both of the Larger and the 
Smaller Sukhavatt-vyuha. They differ from each other 
on several smaller points. The Larger Sukhavati-vyuha is 
represented as having been preached on the Gr*dhraku*a 
hill near Ra^agrtha, the Smaller Sukhavatt-vyuha in the 
(Peta-grove near SravastL In the former the chief inter- 
locutors are the Bhagavat, i. e. the Buddha Sakyamuni, 
Ananda, and A^ita; in the latter the Bhagavat and .Sari- 
putra. There is one point, however, which is of great 
importance in the eyes of the followers of the Shin-shiu 
sect, on which the two treatises differ. 

The Smaller Sukhavati-vyuha lays great stress on the 
fact that people can be saved or can be born in the Land 
of Bliss, if only they remember and repeat the name of 
Buddha Amitibha two, three, four, five, six or more nights 
before their death, and it distinctly denies that people are 
born in the Paradise of Amitabha as a reward or necessary 
result of good works performed in the present life. This 

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would seem to take away one of the fundamental doctrines 
of Buddhism, namely the doctrine of karman, or of the 
continuous working of our deeds whether good or bad. 
Instead of the old doctrine, As a man soweth, so he shall 
reap, a new and easier way of salvation is here preached, 
viz. As a man prayeth, so he shall be saved. It is what is 
known to us as salvation by faith rather than by works. 
The Larger Sukhavati-vyuha lays likewise great stress on 
prayer and faith in Amitabha, but it never neglects 'the 
stock of merit* as essential for salvation. It would 
almost seem as if this popular and easy doctrine had 
secured to itself the name of Mahayana, as meaning the 
Broad Way, in opposition to the Narrow Way, the 

The historical relation between the Hinayana and the 
Mahayana schools of Buddhism is to me as great a puzzle as 
ever. But that the teaching of Sakyamuni as represented in 
the Hinayana comes first in time seems to be shown by the 
Mahayana-sutras themselves. Even in our Sukhavati-vyflha 
the teacher, the Bhagavat, is .Sakyamuni, whom we know as 
the son of the Lord of Kapilavastu.the husband of Yarodhara, 
the father of Rahula. We begin with a dialogue between this 
Buddha and his famous disciple Ananda. Ananda observes 
that Buddha is in a state of spiritual exaltation and asks him 
what he is seeing or thinking. Thereupon Buddha relates 
how there was a line of eighty-one Tathagatas or Buddhas 
beginning with Dipankara and ending with Lokesvarari^a. 
During the period of this Tathagata Lokeyvarara^a, 
a Bhikshu or Buddhist mendicant of the name of Dharma- 
kara formed the intention of becoming a Buddha. He there- 
fore went to the Tathagata Lokejvarara^a, praised him in 
several verses, and then asked him to become his teacher 
and to describe to him what a Buddha and a Buddha country 
ought to be. After having received instruction, Dharma- 
kara comprehended all the best qualities of all the Buddha 
countries, and prayed that they should all be concentrated 
in his own country when he himself had become a Buddha 
After long meditations Dharmakara returns to Buddha 
Lokervarara^a and tells him in a long prayer what he 

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wishes and wills his own Buddha country to be. This 
prayer forms really the nucleus of the Sukhavatt-vyuha ; it 
is in fact, under the form of a prayer, a kind of prophecy of 
what, according to Dharmakara' s ideas, Sukhavati or the 
Land of Bliss ought to be. Dharmakara then became 
a Bodhisattva, a candidate for Buddhahood, and lastly a real 
Buddha (§ 9). All this is related by Buddha .Sakyamuni 
to Ananda, as a kind of vision of what happened ten 
kalpas ago (§ 14, s. f.). When Ananda asks Sakyamuni 
what has become of this Bodhisattva Dharmakara, Buddha 
answers that this original mendicant is now reigning in 
Sukhavati as the Buddha Amitabha. He then proceeds 
to describe Sukhavati where Amitabha dwells, and his 
description of Amitabha's country is very much the fulfilment 
of all that Dharmakara has prayed for. Once (§ 17) Ananda 
is reproved by Buddha for not implicitly believing all he 
says about the marvels of Sukhavati, but afterwards the 
praises of Sukhavati and of its inhabitants are continued 
till nearly the end. In some verses recited by Buddha 
.Sakyamuni, Amitabha himself, when questioned by the 
Buddha-son Avalokitexvara, explains that Sukhavatt is what 
it is in fulfilment of his prayers, when he was as yet living on 
earth (§§ 31, 13; 17). At last Ananda expresses a wish to see 
Amitabha, whereupon that Buddha sends a ray of light from 
the palm of his hand so that the whole world was inundated 
by its light, and not only Ananda, but every living being 
could see Amitabha and his retinue of Bodhisattvas 
in the Land of Bliss, while they in Sukhavati could see 
•Sakyamuni and the whole world Sana. Then begins the 
conversation between .Sakyamuni and A^ita (instead of 
Ananda). Buddha explains to him how some of the 
blessed spirits in Sukhavatt sit cross-legged in lotus-flowers, 
while others dwell shut up in the calyx of these flowers, 
the former being the firm believers in Amitabha, the latter 
those who have entertained some doubt, and who have 
therefore to wait for five hundred years inside the calyx 
before they become full-blown, being debarred during all 
that time from seeing and hearing the Buddha. 

In conclusion Buddha .Sakyamuni exhorts A^ita to teach 

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this treatise, the Sukhavat!~vyuha, to all beings, and 
promises great rewards to all who will learn it, copy it, 
teach and explain it. 

I need not repeat here what I have said in the preface to 
my edition of the Sanskrit text of the Sukhavatl-vyuha 
about the difficulties of translating a text which in many 
places is corrupt and imperfect. But I may point out 
another difficulty, namely how almost impossible it is to 
find in English a sufficient number of nouns and adjectives 
to render the superabundant diction of this Description of 
the Land of Bliss. An exact rendering of all the words of 
its gushing eloquence is out of the question. Often I should 
have liked to shorten some turgid sentence, but I was afraid 
of exposing myself once more to the frivolous charge of re- 
presenting the Sacred Books of the East as more beautiful, 
as more free from blemishes, than they really are. No 
more unfounded charge could have been brought against 
these translations of the Sacred Books of the East. What- 
ever else they may be or not be, they are certainly faithful, 
as faithful as an English translation of an Oriental original 
can possibly be. That they are free from mistakes, I should 
not venture to say, and no Oriental scholar would expect 
it Those who venture to translate Oriental texts that have 
never been translated before are few in number, and they 
have to do the work of pioneers. Those who follow in their 
track find it very easy, no doubt, to do over again what has 
been done before, and even to point out here and there what 
they consider and represent as mistakes ; nay, they evidently 
imagine that because they can discover a mistake, they 
themselves could have done the pioneer's work as well or 
much better. If only they would try for once to find their 
way through the jungle and the brushwood of an unexplored 
forest they would become more just to their predecessors, 
and more humble in judging of their own performances. 
Nay, they might possibly find that often when they differ 
from the translation of others, they themselves may be 
wrong, and their precursors right 

This at all events I may say in my own name and in the 
name of my fellow-workers, that the idea of representing 

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the Sacred Books of the East as better, purer, and more 
beautiful than they are, could never enter into the head of 
a scholar, and has never proved even a temptation to the 
translators of the Sacred Books of the East 


The translation of the Smaller Sukhavatt-vyuha has been 
published by me before in my Selected Essays, vol. ii, 
p. 348, where a fuller account may be found of the dis- 
covery of Sanskrit MSS. in Japan, and of the way by which 
they travelled from India to China, and from China to 
Japan. I have made a few corrections in my translation, 
and have added some notes and omitted others. 


In order to make this collection of Mahayana works more 
complete and useful to students in Japan I have added 
a translation of the Va^raMAedika, which is much studied 
in Japan, and the Sanskrit text of which was published by 
me in an editio princeps — in the Anecdota Oxoniensia, 

The Va^ra&Wedika, or the Diamond-cutter, is one of the 
most widely read and most highly valued metaphysical 
treatises in Buddhist literature. In Japan the Vagrakkhe- 
dika and the Pra^tfaparamita-hrt'daya are read chiefly by the 
followers of the Shin-gon sect, founded by K6-B6, the great 
disciple of the famous Hiouen-thsang, in 816 A. D. The 
temples of this sect in Japan amount to 12,943. Written 
originally in Sanskrit, it has been translated into Chinese, 
Tibetan, Mongol, and Mandshu. Its full title is Vagnkkhe- 
dika Pra£»a-paramita, i.e. the Diamond-cutter, the perfection 
of wisdom, or, as it has sometimes been rendered, ' the 

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Transcendent Wisdom.' Mr. Bunyiu Nanjio in his Cata- 
logue of the Tripi&tka, p. i, has shown that it forms the 
ninth section of the Mahapra^nfa-paramitA-sutra, and that 
it agrees with the Tibetan translation of the text in 
300 dokas. 

An account of the Tibetan translation was given as far 
back as 1836 by Csoma Korosi in his Analysis of the Sher- 
chiu, the second division of the Kanjur, published in the 
Asiatic Researches, vol. xx, p. 393 seq. Our text is there 
described as the Diamond-cutter or the Sutra of wonderful 
effects, in which 6akya in a colloquial manner instructs 
Subhuti, one of his principal disciples, in the true meaning 
of the Pra^ £a-paramita. The Tibetans, we are told, pay 
great respect to this Sutra, and copies of it are found in 
consequence in great abundance 1 . 

The first Chinese translation 2 is ascribed to Kuma- 
ra^iva of the latter Tsin dynasty (a.D. 384-417). An 
English translation of this Chinese translation was published 
by the Rev. S. Beal in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic 
Society, 1864-5. 

There are several more Chinese translations, one by 
Bodhiruft (a. D. 509), one by Paramartha (a. d. 56a), one 
by Hiouen-thsang (a. D. 648), one by I-tsing (a. d. 703), 
one by Dharmagupta of the Sui dynasty (a. d. 589-618). 

The text and German translation of the Tibetan transla- 
tion were published in 1837 by M. Schmidt in the 
Memoires de l'Acaddmie de St. Petersbourg, torn, iv, 
p. 186. 

The Mongolian translation was presented by the Baron 
Schiling de Canstadt to the Library of the Institut de 

The Mandshu translation is in the possession of M. de 
Harlez, who with the help of the Tibetan, Mandshu, and 
Chinese versions has published a valuable French transla- 
tion of the Sanskrit text of the Va/ra&Wedika in the 
Journal Asiatique, 1892. 

1 See also L. Feer in Annates dn Musee Gnimet, vol. ii, p. 201. 

' See preface to my edition of the Va^ra&Medika, Anecd. Oxon., 1881. 

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At first sight it may seem as if this metaphysical treatise 
hardly deserved the world-wide reputation which it has 
attained. Translated literally into English it must often 
strike the Western reader as sheer nonsense, and hollow 
repetition. Nor can anything be said in defence of the form 
or style adopted in this treatise by the Buddhist philosophers 
who wished to convince their hearers of the truth of their 
philosophy. This philosophy, or, at least, its underlying 
doctrine, is not unknown to us in the history of Western 
philosophy. It is simply the denial of the reality of the 
phenomenal world. Considering how firmly a belief in 
phenomenal objects is established in the ordinary mind, it 
might well have seemed that such a belief could not be 
eradicated except by determined repetition. But that the 
theory had been fully reasoned out before it was stated in 
this practical, but by no means attractive form, may be 
gathered from the technical terminology which pervades 
our treatise. There are two words, in particular, which are 
of great importance for a right apprehension of its teach- 
ing, dharma and saw^a. Dharma, in the ordinary Buddhist 
phraseology, may be correctly rendered by law. Thus the 
whole teaching of Buddha is called the Good Law, Sad- 
dharma. But in our treatise dharma is generally used in 
a different sense. It means form (etdos), and likewise what *"* *< 
is possessed of form, what is therefore different from other 
things, what is individual, in fact, what we mean by a thing 
or an object. This meaning has escaped most of the trans- 
lators, both Eastern and Western, but if we were always to 
translate dharma by law, it seems to me that the whole 
drift of our treatise would become unintelligible. What 
our treatise wishes to teach is that all objects, differing one 
from the other by their dharmas, are illusive, or, as we 
should say, phenomenal and subjective, that they are in fact 
of our own making, the products of our own mind. When 
we say that something is large or small, sweet or bitter, these 
dharmas or qualities are subjective, and cannot be further 
defined. What is large to me, may be small to another. 
A mile may seem short or long, according to the state of 
our muscles, and no one can determine the point where 

* '<t. 

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smallness ends and length begins. This applies to all 
things which we are supposed to know, that is, which we 
are able to name. And hence the Buddhist metaphysician 
tells us that all things are but names, s&mgn&s 1 , and that 
being names they are neither what they seem to be nor 
what they do not seem to be. This extreme Pyrrhonism is 
afterwards applied to everything. Dust is not dust, because 
we cannot draw a line between the smallest molecules, the 
smallest granules, the smallest dust, and the smallest 
gravel. There are no signs (no rtK^pia or <njft«?a) by 
which we can know or distinguish these objects. There are 
in fact no objects, independent of us ; hence whoever speaks 
of things, of beings, of living beings, of persons, &c, uses 
names only, and the fact that they are names implies that 
the normal things are not what they seem to be. This, 
I believe, is the meaning of the constantly recurring phrase : 
What is spoken of as 'beings, beings indeed' that was 
preached or called by Buddha as no-beings ; that is, every 
name and every concept is only a makeshift, if it is not 
altogether a failure ; it is certainly not true. We may speak 
of a dog, but there is no such thing as a dog. It is always 
either a greyhound or a spaniel, this or that dog, but 
dog is only an abstraction, a name, a concept of our 
mind. The same applies to quadruped, animal, living 
being, and being; they are all names with nothing 
corresponding to them. This is what is meant by the 
highest perfect knowledge, in which nothing, not even the 
smallest thing, is known, or known to be known (par. 22). 
In that knowledge there is no difference, it is always the 
same and therefore perfect (par. 23). He who has attained 
this knowledge believes neither in the idea, i. e. the name of 
a thing, nor in the idea of a no-thing, and Buddha by using 
the expression, the idea, or name (saw^wa) of a thing, 
implies thereby that it is not the idea of a thing (par. 31). 
This metaphysical Agnosticism is represented as perfectly 
familiar even to children and ignorant persons (par. 30), 

1 S*mg&&, and d harm a correspond in many respects to the VedSntic 

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and if it was meant to be so, the endless repetition of the 
same process of reasoning may find its explanation. 

That this extreme scepticism or Pyrrhonism is really the 
popular view of the present followers of the Mahayana Bud- 
dhism, was clearly stated at the Congress of Religions, held in 
Chicago, in September, 1893. A Deputy sent by the leading 
sects in Japan, submitted to the Congress an outline of the 
doctrines of the Mahayana Buddhists drawn up by Mr. S. 
Kuroda. This outline had been carefully examined and 
approved by scholars belonging to six of the Buddhist sects 
in Japan, and was published with authority at Tokyo in 1 893. 
This is what he writes of the Mahayana metaphysics : 

'The distinction between pure and impure is made by 
the mind ; so are also all the changes in all things around 
us. All things that are produced by causes and conditions, 
are inevitably destined to extinction. There is nothing 
that has any reality ; when conditions come things begin 
to appear, when conditions cease these things likewise cease 
to exist. Like the foam of the water, like the lightning 
flash, and like the floating, swiftly vanishing clouds they 
are only of momentary duration *. As all things have no 
constant nature of their own, so there is no actuality in 
pure and impure, rough and fine, large and small, far and 
near, knowable and unknowable, &c. On this account it is 
sometimes said that all things are nothing. The apparent 
phenomena around us are, however, produced by mental 
operations within us, and thus distinctions are established. 

'These distinctions produced by mental operations are, 
however, caused by fallacious reasoning nurtured by the 
habits of making distinctions between ego and non-ego, 
good and bad, and by ignorance of the fact that things 
have no constant nature of their own and are without 
distinctions (when things thought of have no corresponding 
reality, such thinking is called fallacious. It may be 
compared to the action of the ignorant monkey that tries 
to catch the image of the moon upon water). Owing to 
this fallacious reasoning, a variety of phenomena constantly 

1 C£ Vitfra*iMedika, par. 32. 

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appear and disappear, good and bad actions are done, and 
the wanderings through the six ways or states of life are 
thus caused and maintained. 

' All things are included under subject and object The 
subject is an entity in which mental operations are 
awakened whenever there are objects, while the object 
consists of all things, visible and invisible, knowable and 
unknowable, &c. The subject is not something that 
occupies some space in the body alone, nor does the 
object exist outside of the subject. The innumerable 
phenomena of subject and object, of ego and non-ego, are 
originated by the influence of fallacious thinking, and 
consequently various principles, sciences, and theories are 

'To set forth the principle of "Vidyamatra" (all things 
are nothing but phenomena in mind), phenomena of mind 
are divided into two kinds : — " Gosshiki " (unknowable) and 
" Fumbetsujishiki " (knowable). They are also divided into 
eight kinds: — i. Kakshur-vignkna. (mental operations 
depending on the eye), 2. .Srotra-vi^wana (those depending 
on the ear), 3. Ghra«a-vif«ana (those depending on the 
olfactory organs), 4. ^ihva-vjgtfana (those depending on 
the taste), 5. Kaya-vj£#ana (those depending on the 
organs of touch), 6. Manovfctfana (thinking operations), 

7. Klish&L-mano-vjg'ttana (subtile and ceaseless operations), 

8. Alaya-v^fwina (all things come from and are contained 
in this operation ; hence its name, meaning receptacle). 

•According to the former division, the various pheno- 
mena which appear as subjects and objects are divided into 
two kinds: — the perceptible and knowable, the imper- 
ceptible and unknowable The imperceptible and unknow- 
able phenomena are called " Gosshiki," while the perceptible 
and knowable phenomena are called "Fumbetsujishiki." 
Now what are the imperceptible and unknowable pheno- 
mena ? Through the influence of habitual delusions, bound- 
less worlds, innumerable varieties of things spring up in the 
mind. This boundless universe and these subtile ideas are 
not perceptible and knowable ; only Bodhisattvas believe, 
understand, and become perfectly convinced of these 
[49] *b 

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through the contemplation of " Vidyamatra ; " hence they 
are called imperceptible and unknowable. What are the 
knowable and perceptible phenomena ? Not knowing that 
these imperceptible and unknowable phenomena are the 
productions of their own minds, men from their habitual 
delusions invest them with an existence outside of mind, as 
perceptible mental phenomena, as things visible, audible, 
&c. These phenomena are called perceptible and know- 
able. Though there are thus two kinds, perceptible and 
imperceptible phenomena, they occur upon the same 
things, and are inseparably bound together even in the 
smallest particle. Their difference in appearance is caused 
only by differences both in mental phenomena, and in the 
depth of conviction. Those who know only the perceptible 
things without knowing the imperceptible, are called the 
unenlightened by Buddha. Of the eight mental operations, 
the eighth, Alaya-vi^wana, has reference to the imperceptible, 
while the first six (sic) refer to the perceptible phenomena. 
All these, however, are delusive mental phenomena. 

' In contradistinction to the fallacious phenomena, there > 
is the true essence of mind. Underlying the phenomena of I 
mind, there is an unchanging principle which we call the 
essence of mind ; the fire caused by fagots dies when the 
fagots are gone, but the essence of fire is never destroyed. 
The essence of mind is the entity without ideas and without 
phenomena, and is always the same. It pervades all things, 
and is pure and unchanging. It is not untrue or change- 
able, so it is also called " Bhutatathata " (permanent 

' The essence and the phenomena of mind are inseparable; 
and as the former is all-pervading and ever-existing, so 
the phenomena occur everywhere and continually, wherever 
suitable conditions accompany it Thus the perceptible 
and imperceptible phenomena are manifestations of the 
essence of mind that, according to the number and nature 
of conditions, develop without restraint. All things in the 
universe, therefore, are mind itself. By this we do not mean 
that all things combine into a mental unity called mind, 
nor that all things are emanations from it, but that without 

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changing their places or appearance, they are mind itself 
everywhere. Buddha saw this truth and said that the 
whole universe was his own. Hence it is clear that where 
the essence of mind is found, and the necessary conditions 
accompany it, the phenomena of mind never fail to appear. 
So the essence of mind is compared to water, and its 
phenomena to waves. The water is the essence, the waves 
are the phenomena ; for water produces waves when a wind 
of sufficient strength blows over its surface. The waves, 
then, are the phenomena, the water is the essence ; but 
both are one and the same in reality. Though there is 
a distinction between the essence and the phenomena of 
mind, yet they are nothing but one and the same substance, 
that is, mind. So we say that there exists nothing but mind. 
Though both the world of the pure and impure, and the 
generation of all things, are very wide and deep, yet they 
owe their existence to our mind. Men, however, do not 
know what their own minds are ; they do not clearly see 
the true essence, and, adhering to their prejudices, they 
wander about between birth and death. They are like 
those who, possessing invaluable jewels, are, nevertheless, 
suffering from poverty. Heaven and hell are but waves in 
the great sea of the universe ; Buddhas and demons are not 
different in their essence. Let us, therefore, abide in the 
true view and reach the true comprehension of the causality 
of all things.' 

I hope that this will justify the view I have taken of the 
VsgrakkhcdSkk, and that my translation, though it differs 
considerably from former translations, will be found to 
be nearest to the intentions of the author of this famous 
metaphysical treatise. 

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xx the pragM-pAramitA-hwdaya-sOtra. 

the praga>A-pAramitA-h/?/daya- 


As the short text and translation of these Sutras were pub- 
lished in the Anecdota Oxoniensia, 1884, with Introduction 
and full notes, I did not at first intend to include them in 
this volume. But as I was told that this Sutra is really 
the most widely read Buddhist text in Japan, to be seen 
everywhere on shrines, temples and monasteries, more 
admired, it may be, than understood by the Buddhist laity, 
I yielded to the wishes of my Buddhist friends, and have 
reprinted it so as to make this volume a really complete 
repository of all the important sacred texts on which 
Buddhism takes its stand in Japan. We have heard so 
much of late of a Buddhist propaganda for the conversion 
of the East and the West to the doctrines of Buddha, that 
it may be useful to see what the doctrines of the historical 
Buddha have become in the Mahayana-school, more parti- 
cularly in the monasteries of Japan. 

the amitAyur-dhyAna-sCtra. 

As I did not succeed in getting possession of a MS. of the 
original Sanskrit text of this Sutra, I had given up all hope 
of being able to give in this volume a translation of all 
the classical texts used by the two leading sects of the 
Buddhists in Japan. Fortunately at the last moment a 
young Japanese scholar who is reading Sanskrit with me at 
Oxford, Mr. J. Takakusu, informed me that he possessed 
the Chinese translation of this Sutra, and that he felt quite 
competent to translate it. It so happens that the style of 
this Sutra is very simple, so that there is less fear of the 
Chinese translator, Kalayaras, having misunderstood the 
Sanskrit original. But though I feel no doubt that this 

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translation from the Chinese gives us on the whole a true 
idea of the Sanskrit original, I was so much disappointed 
at the contents of the Sutra, that I hesitated for some time 
whether I ought to publish it in this volume. 

What determined me at last to do so was partly the wish 
of my friends in Japan who expected a complete translation 
of their three sacred books, partly my own wish that nothing 
should be suppressed that might lead us to form a favour- 
able or unfavourable, if only a correct judgment of Buddhism 
in its Mahayana dress, as professed by millions of people 
in China and Japan. 

What gives to these Sutras their highest interest in the 
eyes of Sanskrit scholars is their date, which can be deter- 
mined with considerable certainty. Those who know how 
few certain dates there are in the history of Sanskrit literature 
will welcome these Mahayana Sfitras as a new sheet-anchor 
in the chronology of Sanskrit literature. We have as yet 
only three, the date of ATandragupta (Sandrokyptos) as fixed 
by Greek historians, and serving to determine the dates of 
Aroka and his inscriptions in the third, and indirectly of 
Buddha in the fifth century. The second was supplied by 
Hiouen-thsang's travels in India, 6*9-645 A. D., and the third 
by I-tsing's travels in India in the years 671-690 A. D. 

I was able to show in my lectures on ' India, what can it 
teach us?' delivered at Cambridge in 188a, that Hiouen- 
thsang, while in India, had been the pupil of Gayasena and 
Mitrasena, which supplied scholars with a fixed date for 
the literary activity of Gu«aprabha, Vasubandhu, and their 
contemporaries and immediate predecessors and successors. 
Still more important was the date which I-tsing supplied 
for BhartWhari and the literary period in which he moved. 
Bhartrzhari's death, fixed by I-tsing at 650 A. D., has served 
as a rallying-point for a number of literary men belonging 
to what I called the Renaissance of Sanskrit literature. 

I pointed out at the same time that the period between 
the end of the Vedic literature, represented in its last efforts 
by the numerous Sutra-works, and the beginning of the 
Renaissance in the fourth century A. D., would have to be 
filled to a great extent by Buddhist works. I hardly 

*b 3 

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xxii the amitAyur-dhyAna-sOtra. 

thought then that Mahayana texts like the Sukhavati- 
vyuha, which seemed to be of so secondary a character, 
would claim a foremost place in that period. But there 
can be little doubt that the first Chinese translation of it 
by Lokaraksha was made between the years 147-186 A. D. ; 
the second by K' KAien between 223-453 A. D. ; and 
the third and best by Sanghavarman, an Indian •Sramawa 
of Tibetan origin, in 252 A. D., whereas the first translation 
of a Sanskrit text into Chinese, that of the Sutra in forty- 
two sections by Klsyapa Matanga, is ascribed to the year 
67 A. D. I need hardly say that there are no Sanskrit texts 
the date of which can be fixed with so much certainty as 
those of the Sanskrit originals of the Chinese translations. 

The doctrine of Amitabha and his paradise Sukhavatt 
seems to have acquired great popularity in China and after- 
wards in Japan. We need not wonder when we see how 
easy salvation was made by it, particularly according to the 
teaching of the Smaller Sukhavatl-vyuha and the Amitayur- 

The Buddhists who, as I have pointed out on several 
occasions, are the debtors of the Brahmans in almost all 
their philosophical speculations, seem to me to have 
borrowed also their half-mythological conception of Sukha- 
vatt or the Land of Bliss from the same source. In the 
Vishnu and other Purawas, when the cities of the Lokapala- 
gods are mentioned, in the different quarters of the sky, 
the city of Varuwa is placed in the West, and it is called 
Mukhya, the chief, or Sukha, the happy, or Nimlo£ant, the 
city of sunset. This Sukha is, I think, the prototype of 
Sukhavatt 1 . Though it would be rash to conclude that 
therefore the Purawas, as we now possess them, because 
they mention the Land of Bliss or Sukha, must be older 
than our text of the Sukhavatt, say 100 A. D., we may say 
that Paurawik legends must certainly have existed at that 
early time, and this is a matter of some importance. I have 
not found any Brahmanic antecedents of Avalokit&svara, 

1 See also Anandagiri on .Sankara's commentary on the Aft&ndogya-npanuhad, 
HI, 10, 4, ed. Calc p. 173. 

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but the occurrence of his name in the Sukhavatt-vyuha 
shows that he was known much earlier than is commonly 
supposed, that is about 100 a.d. 

In Japan, where Buddhism was introduced by way of 
Corea in 55a A. D., we hear of the Sukhavatl-vyuha for the 
first time in 640 A.D., when the emperor Jomei held 
a religious service at his palace to hear an exposition of the 
Sutra on Sukhavatt from the lips of Ye-yin, a 5rama«a 
invited from China. Many works were composed in Japan 
as well as in China on Amitabha and his Paradise, as may 
be seen from the Catalogue of the Chinese Tripi/aka, 
published by my friend and former pupil Bunyiu Nanjio 
in 1883 (Clarendon Press). 

I have to thank Dr. Winternitz and Mr. Takakusu for 
their kind help in preparing the indices and reading the 
proof-sheets of this volume. 


Oxford : 
Jan. 26, 1894. 

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The following List of Buddhist Texts, translated in the 
Sacred Books of the East, may be useful to students in 
China and Japan : 

Sanskrit Title. 

I. Bnddhaiarita (-kftvya), 
' Life of Buddha,' a poem, by 
Arvaghosha, of India. See 
Anecdota Oxoniensia, Aryan 
Series, vol. i, part vii, 1893. 
Translated by E. B. Cowell, 
S. B. E., vol. xlix. 

II. Larger Sukhavat! 
(-vyflha), ' The Land of Bliss.' 
See Anecdota Oxoniensia, 
Aryan Series, vol. i, part ii, 
1883. Translation by F. Max 
Muller, S. B. E., vol. xlix. 

III. Smaller Snkhavat! 
(-vyflha). See Appendix to 
the (Larger) Sukh&vati, Anec- 
dota Oxoniensia, also Max 
Miiller's Selected Essays, pp. 
348-362. Translation by F. 
Max Muller, S. B. K, vol. xlix. 

IV. Va^raAMedika, 'The 
Diamond-cotter.' See Anec- 
dota Oxoniensia, Aryan Series, 
vol. i, part i, 1881. Trans- 
lation by F. Max Muller, 
S. B. E., vol. xlix. 

V. Prs£Aa-paramit&-hrt- 
daya (two texts, shorter and 
fuller). See Anecdota Oxoni- 
ensia, Aryan Series, voL i, part 
Hi. Translation by F. Max 
Muller, S. B. E, vol. xlix. 

VI. Amiliyur - dhyftna - 
sfltra, ' Meditation on Buddha 
Amitayus.' For this, see 
Anecdota Oxoniensia, Aryan 
Series, vol. i, part ii, Intro- 
duction, ix. Translated by 
J. Takakusu, S. B. E., vol. xlix. 

Chinese Title. 


Translated into Chinese 
by Dharmaraksha, A. D. 420. 
From Chinese into English 
by S. Beat, Fo-sho-hing-tsan- 
king, S.B.E., vol. xix. 

Translated into Chinese by 
Sanghavarman, A. D. 353. 
The chief of the three Sutras 
of the Pare Land sects in 
China and Japan. 

Translated by Kumara- 
|tva, A. D. 403. Into French, 
by Imaizomi and Yamata, 
Annales M. G., vol. ii, 1 881. 

Translated by Kum&rarf va, 
A.D. 384-41 7. From Chinese 
into English, by S. Beat, J. R. 
A.S., 1864-65, Art. I. Into 
French, by MonaC. de Harlez, 
1 893. Translation by F. Max 
Muller, S. B. E., vol xlix. 

m. & & m 

1. ByKam&ra|iva(No.i9), 
A.J). 400. s.ByHionen-thsang 
(No. 30), A.D. 649. 3. By Sh^ 
hu, a.d. 080-1000 (No. 935). 
4. By PrtjXa, A. D. 785-810. 
The most popular text, bat not 
found in the India Office col- 
lection. Translation by F.Max 
Muller, S. B. E., vol. xlix. 

Number in the Cata- 
logue oftheTripitaka 1 . 

No. 135 1 ; another of the 
same name No. 680. To be 
found in the India Office and 
the Bodleian Library. The 

Nishi-Hongwanji (^fl£ £§? 

MJ Library possesses a very 

good separate copy. 

No. 27; for comparison of 
the five existing texts (ont of 
twelve) see Anecdota Oxoni- 
ensia, vol.i, part ii, Introduc- 
tion, vii seq. 


Translated by Kalay&ras, 
A. D. 424, only translation that 

No. 200; another of the 
same name by fTKhiea, i. e. 
No. 26. 

No. 10; another of the 
same name by BodhinuH, i. e. 
No. 1 1 ; and many others 
under different names. 

No. 198 ; another lost. 

> Published by Bnnyin Nanjio (Clarendon Press, 1883). 

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Other Buddhist Texts translated in the Sacred 
Books of the East: 

Sanskkit Title. 

Dhammapada, by F. Max Miiller, 
vol. x. Sutta-Nipata, by Fansbbll. 

Buddhist Sottas, by Rhys Davids, 
vol xi. 

I. Mahfiparinibb&na Snttanta. 
a. Dhamma-jtakka-ppavattana. 

3. Tevjgja Snttanta. 

4. Akankeya Sntta. 

5. .tfetokhila Sutta. 

6. Mah&sudassana Snttanta. 

7. Sabbasava Sntta. 

Vinaya Texts, by Rhys Davids and 
Oldenberg, vol. xKL 
t. The P&timokkha. 
a. The Mah&vagga. 

Vinaya Texts, by Rhys Davids and 
Oldenberg, vol. xvii. 
1. The Mah&vagga. 
a. The Anllavagga. 

Vinaya Texts (Aullavagga), by Rhys 
Davids and Oldenberg, vol. xx. 

Fo-sho-hing-tsan-king, ' Life of 
Buddha," by S. Beal, vol xix. 

Saddharmapun<tarika, ' Lotus of the 
True Law,' by Kern, vol. xxi. 

Milinda Pnuna, ' Questions of King 
Milinda.' From Pali, by Rhys Davids, 
vols, xxxv and xxxvi. 

Chinese Title. 

Nos.i3»i,i353.'3 6 5. »439- Son* 
parts of Max MUUer's translation were 
retranslated into Japanese by S. Katd, 
Nanjio's pupiL 

Not. 113, 114, 115, iso, 133, 118, 
1 19, 553, though they do not agree. 

Nos. 657, 658. 

=r |gj |g 




See No. 1108. Cf. also mo and 

1 160. 



No. 1 35 1 , also 680. See above. 

Nos. 134, 136, 138, 139. It is this 
book which gave birth to a Japanese 
sect called Nichiien — the number of 
temples being about 5,000. It is also 
read by many other sects. Into French 
by Julien ; the same from Sanskrit by 

No. 1358. Very interesting dia- 
logue between Greek King Menander 
and Bhikshu Nagasena. The Pali 
text is far more interesting and roller 
than the Chinese. 

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Sacred Books of China: 

Sacred Booki of China, Texts of 
Confucianism, by James Legge, vol. Hi. 

Sacred Books of China, Texts of B &g 

Confucianism, by James Legge, vol. Z*l WC 


Sacred Books of China, Texts of 
Confucianism, by James Legge, vols, 
xxvii and xxviii. 

Sacred Books of China, Texts of -4J- -3^ $k $fc jfe? tft 

Taoism, byjames Legge, vols, xxxix '^ ■* *** •*»» TOCJ 7M- 

and xl. The doctrine of TSo, its 3L A -+* L. " ' 

history, its influence, and its relation ^^ •=•' ./*■ -*- 

aretV^t^ th^um^" fit ^ ft ft # ft 2 

« ft ffi ft # I® 

S£ St if ;£ ■? J« **, 

jfj*. Legge's translation practically 
includes all the- evidences of ^ £ 

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Om. Adoration to the Three Treasures! Om. 
Adoration to all the glorious Buddhas and Bodhi- 
sattvas! Adoration to all Buddhas, Bodhisattvas, 
Aryas, .Sravakas, and Pratyekabuddhas, past, pre- 
sent, and to come, who dwell in the unlimited and 
endless Lokadhatus of the ten quarters! Adora- 
tion to Amitabha! Adoration to him whose soul 
is endowed with incomprehensible virtues ! 
Adoration to Amitabha, to the <7ina, to thee, O 

Muni ! 
I go to Sukhavatt through thy compassion also ; 
To Sukhavatt, with its groves, resplendent with gold, 
The delightful, adorned with the sons of Sugata, — 
I go to it, which is full of many jewels and treasures ; 
And the refuge of thee, the famous and wise. 

§ i. Thus it was heard by me. At one time the 
Bhagavat * dwelt in Ra^agWha, on the mountain 
GWdhraku/a, with a large assembly of Bhikshus, 

1 The Blessed, L e. Buddha •S&kyamuni. 
[49] *B 

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with thirty-two thousands of Bhikshus, all holy 
(arhat), free from frailties and cares, who had per- 
formed their religious duties, whose thoughts had 
been thoroughly freed through perfect knowledge, 
with inquiring thoughts, who had broken the fetters 
of existence, who had obtained their desires, who 
had conquered, who had achieved the highest self- 
restraint, whose thoughts and whose knowledge 
were unfettered, Mahanagas (great heroes), possessed 
of the six kinds of knowledge, self-controlled, medi- 
tating on the eight kinds of salvation, possessed of the 
powers, wise in wisdom, elders, great disciples, viz. 
i. Af»atakau«afaiya, 2. A^va^it, 3.Vashpa, 4. Maha- 
naman, 5. Bhadrafit, 6. Yarodeva, 7. Vimala, 8. Suba- 
hu, 9. PuroaMaitrayafltputra 1 , 10. Uruvilva-k&ryapa, 
11. Nadi-kajyapa, 1 2. Gaya-k&jyapa, 13. Kumara-ka- 
jyapa, 14. Maha-klryapa, 15. .Sariputra 2 , 16. Maha- 
maudgalyayana, 17. MahakaushMilya, 18. Mahaka- 
phila, 19. Maha&inda, 20. Aniruddha 3 , 21. Nandika, 
22. Kampila 4 , 23. Subhuti, 24. Revata, 25. Khadira- 
va»ika 8 , 26. Vakula, 27. Svagata, 28. Amoghara^a, 
29. Paraya»ika, 30. Patka, 31. A^illapatka, 32. Nanda, 
33. Rahula, and 34. the blessed Ananda, — with these 
and with other elders, and great disciples, who were 
wise in wisdom, with the exception of one person 
who had still to be advanced on the path of the 
disciples, viz. the blessed Ananda ; — and with many 
noble-minded Bodhisattvas, led by Maitreya. 

1 These two names refer to one and the same person. 
8 Nos. 15 and 16 are taken as one in the MSS. A B. 

* Frequently called Anuruddha. 

* Kimbila is mentioned with Anuruddha and Nandiya in the 
Mahavagga X, 4, 2. 

* See Pa». VIII, 4 , 5. 

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§ 2. Then the blessed Ananda, having risen from 
his seat, having put his cloak on one shoulder, and 
knelt on the earth with his right knee, making obeis- 
ance with folded hands in the direction of the Bha- 
gavat, spoke thus to the Bhagavat : ' Thy organs of 
sense, O Bhagavat, are serene, the colour of thy skin 
is clear, the colour of thy face bright and yellowish. 
As an autumn cloud is pale, clear, bright and yel- 
lowish, thus the organs of sense of the Bhagavat 
are serene, the colour of his face is clear, the colour 
of his skin bright and yellowish. And as, O Bha- 
gavat, a piece of gold coming from the £ambu 
river, having been thrown into a furnace by a clever 
smith or by his apprentice, and well fashioned, 
when thrown on a pale cloth, looks extremely clear, 
bright and yellowish, thus the organs of sense of the 
Bhagavat are serene, the colour of his face is clear, 
and the colour of his skin bright and yellowish. 
Moreover, I do not know, O Bhagavat, that I have 
ever seen the organs of sense of the Tathagata 
so serene, the colour of his face so clear, and the 
colour of his skin so bright and yellowish before 
now. This thought occurs to me, O Bhagavat : 
probably, the Tathagata 1 dwells to-day in the state 
of a Buddha, probably the Tathagata dwells to-day 
in the state of a Gina, in the state of omniscience, 
in the state of a Mahanaga ; and he contemplates 
the holy and fully enlightened Tathagatas of the 
past, future, and present' 

After these words, the Bhagavat thus spoke to 
the blessed Ananda: 'Well said! well said! Ananda. 
Did the gods suggest this matter to you? or the 

1 That is, Buddha Sakyamuni. 

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blessed Buddhas? Or do you know this through 
the philosophical knowledge which you possess ? ' 

After these words the blessed Ananda spoke thus 
to the Bhagavat: 'The gods, O Bhagavat, do not 
suggest this matter to me, nor the blessed Buddhas, 
but this thought occurs to me by my own philosophy 
alone, viz. that probably the Tathagata dwells to-day 
in the state of a Buddha, probably the Tathagata 
dwells to-day in the state of a Gina, in the state of 
omniscience, [in the state of a MaMnaga] l ; or he 
contemplates [the venerable Buddhas] of the past, 
future, and present' 

After these words the Bhagavat spoke thus to the 
blessed Ananda : ' Well said ! well said ! Ananda ; 
excellent indeed is your question 2 , good your philo- 
sophy, and beautiful your understanding! You, 
O Ananda, have arrived for the benefit and happi- 
ness of many people, out of compassion for the 
world, for the sake of the great body of men, for the 
benefit and happiness of gods and men, as you think 
it right to ask the Tathagata this matter 8 : Thus, 
indeed, Ananda might pile up 4 intellectual know- 
ledge under immeasurable and innumerable blessed, 
holy, and fully enlightened Tathagatas, and yet the 
knowledge of the Tathagata would not be exceeded 
thereby. And why ? Because, O Ananda, one who 
possesses the knowledge of a Tathagata possesses 
an intellectual knowledge of causes that cannot be 

1 This is left out here. Mahiniga, technical term for greatness. 

* Unmidj'a, all the Chinese translators translate as 'question.' 
' One expects tathigatam etam artham. 

* I have adopted the reading of B, in order to have a subject for 
upasamharet, but ACP read ananda. 

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exceeded 1 . If* the Tathagata wished, O Ananda, 
he could live for a whole kalpa (age) on one alms-gift, 
or for a hundred kalpas, or for a thousand kalpas, 
or for a hundred thousand kalpas, to a hundred 
thousand niyutas of ko/ts of kalpas", nay, he could 
live beyond, and yet the organs of nature of the 
Tathagata would not perish, the colour of his face 
would not be altered, nor would the colour of his 
skin be injured. And why? Because, O Ananda, 
the Tathagata has so fully obtained the Paramitas * 
which arise from Samadhi 8 . The appearance of 
fully enlightened Buddhas is very difficult to be 
obtained in this world, O Ananda. As the appear- 
ance of Audumbara-flowers is very difficult to be 
obtained in this world; thus, O Ananda, the appear- 
ance of Tathagatas who desire welfare, wish for 
what is beneficial, are compassionate, and have 
arrived at the highest compassion, is very difficult 
to be obtained. But, O Ananda, it is (owing to) 
the grace of the Tathagata himself that you think 
that the Tathagata should be asked this question, 
so that there may arise in this world beings who 
can be teachers of all the world, for the sake of 
noble-minded Bodhisattvas. Therefore, O Ananda, 
listen, and take it well and rightly to heart ! I shall 
tell you.' 

1 I am not satisfied with this translation, but I do not think that 
jtf&na, even in Buddhist Sanskrit, could ever be used as a mascu- 
line, and I therefore take tath&gata^flana^ as a Bahuvrfhi. 

* ReadgH&n&h. Akankshan. 

' Large numbers, constantly recurring in the text Niyuta is 
explained as a million, ko/f as ten millions. 
4 The highest perfection. 

* Deep meditation. 

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' Yes, O Bhagavat,' so did the blessed Ananda 
answer the Bhagavat. 

§ 3. The Bhagavat then spoke to Ananda : 'At 
the time, O Ananda, which was long ago in the past, 
in an innumerable and more than innumerable, enor- 
mous, immeasurable, and incomprehensible kalpa 
before now, — at that time, and at that moment, there 
arose in the world a holy and fully enlightened 
Tathigata called i. Dipankara. Following after 
Dipahkara, O Ananda, there was a Tathigata 
2. Pratapavat, and after him, 3. Prabhakara, 4. Aan- 
danagandha, 5. Sumerukalpa, 6. Aandana, 7. Vima- 
lanana, 8. Anupalipta, 9. Vimalaprabha, 10. Naga- 
bhibhu, 11. Suryodana, 12. Girira^aghosha, 13. 
Meruku&i, 14. Suvar«aprabha, 15. 6yotishprabha, 
16. VaWuryanirbhasa, 17. Brahmaghosha, i8.Afanda- 
bhibhu, 1 9. Turyaghosha, 20. Muktakusumapratima«- 
dfitaprabha, 21. .Sriku/a, 22. Sigaravarabuddhivikrl- 
</itabhif»a, 23. Varaprabha, 24. Mahagandhara^anir- 
bhasa, 25.Vyapagatakhilamalapratighosha, 26. .Sura- 
ku/a, 27., 28. Mahagu»adharabuddhi- 
praptabhif»a, 29. A!andrasurya/ihm!kara»a, 30. Ut- 
taptavai^uryanirbhasa, 31. Alttadharabuddhisahku- 
sumitabhyudgata, 32. Pushpavativanara/asankusu- 
mitabhif#a, 33. Pushpakara, 34. Udaka&mdra, 35. 
Avidyindhakaravidhva*»sanakara, 36. Lokendra, 37. 
Muktai^atrapravatasadf«Va, 38. Tishya, 39. Dhar- 
mamativinanditara^a, 40. Si*»hasagaraku/avinandi- 
tara/a, 41. Sagarameruiandra, 42. Brahmasvara- 
nadabhinandita, 43. Kusumasambhava, 44. Prlpta- 
sena, 45. -ATandrabhanu, 46. Meruku/a, 47. -ATandra- 
prabha, 48. Vimalanetra, 49. Girira^aghosheyvara, 
50. Kusumaprabha, 51. Kusumaw-*sh/yabhipraklr»a, 
52. Ratnaiandra, 53. Padmabimbyupasobhita, 54. 

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JTandanagandha, 55. Ratnabhibhasa, 56. Nimi, 57. 
Mahavyuha, 58. Vyapagatakhiladosha, 59. Brahma- 
ghosha, 60. SaptaratnabhivWsh/a, 61. Maha/iwa- 
dhara, 62. Mahatamalapatra/fcindanakardama, 63. 
Kusumabhifwa, 64. A£"#anavidhva/»sana, 65. Ke- 
Jarin, 66. Muktaii^atra, 67. Suvarnagarbha, 68. 
Vau/uryagarbha, 69. Mahaketu, 70. Dharmaketu, 71. 
Ratnaketu, 72. Ratnarrl, 73. Lokendra, 74. Naren- 
dra, 75. Karu«ika, 76. Lokasundara, 77. Brahmaketu, 
78. Dharmamati, 79. Siwha, 80. Si*»hamati. After 
Siwhamati, a holy and fully enlightened Tathagata 
arose in the world, Lokervarara^a by name, perfect 
in knowledge and conduct, a Sugata, knowing the 
world, without a superior, charioteer of men whose 
passions have to be tamed, teacher of gods and men, 
a Buddha, a Bhagavat. And again during the time 
of the preaching of this holy and fully enlightened 
Tathagata Lokesvarara^a, O Ananda, there was 
a Bhikshu, Dharmakara by name, richly endowed 
with memory, with understanding, prudence, and 
wisdom, — richly endowed with vigour, and of noble 

§ 4. ' Then, O Ananda, that Bhikshu Dharmakara, 
having risen from his seat, having put his cloak 
on one shoulder, and knelt on the earth with his 
right knee, stretching forth his folded hands to 
where the Bhagavat Tathagata Lokervarara^a was, 
and, after worshipping the Bhagavat, he, at that 
very time, praised him in his presence with these 
Gathas 1 : 

" O thou of immeasurable light, whose knowledge 

1 As the text of these Gith&s is far from satisfactory, I have given 
a translation of the Chinese translation by Sanghavarman at the 
end of my edition, Anecdota Ozoniensia, I, part ii, p. 79. 

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is endless and incomparable; not any other light 
can shine here (where thou art) ! The rays of the 
moon of Siva, and of the jewel of the sun, were not 
bright here in the whole world, (i) 

" The form also is infinite in the best of beings 1 ; 
thus also the voice of Buddha is of infinite sound ; 
his virtue likewise, with meditation, knowledge 2 , 
strength; like unto thee there is no one in this 
world. (2) 

" The Law (dharma) is deep, wide, and subtle ; the 
best of Buddhas is incomprehensible, like the ocean ; 
therefore there is no further exaltation of the 
teacher; having left all faults, he is gone to the 
other shore 8 . (3) 

"Then the best of Buddhas*, of endless light, lights 
up all regions, he the king of kings ; and I, having 
become Buddha, and a master of the Law, may I 
deliver mankind from old age and death ! (4) 

"And I, on the strength of generosity, equanimity, 
virtue, forbearance, power, meditation and absorp- 
tion, undertake here the first and best duties, 
and shall become a Buddha, the saviour of all 
beings. (5) 

"And I, seeking for the knowledge of the best 
of the Blessed Ones, shall always worship many 
hundred thousands of ko/ts of Buddhas, endless like 
the sand of the Ganga, the incomparable lords. (6) 

1 It would be better to read sattvasira as a vocative. See 
p. a a, 1. 5. 

1 I have translated as if the reading were pizgHi, which would, 
however, have spoiled the metre. 

* The text has *dhik£lam, and *bdhiparam is suggested as 
a conjecture only. 

* I translate buddhavara. 

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" Whatever worlds there are, similar (in number) 
to the sand of the Ganga, and the endless coun- 
tries which exist besides, there everywhere I shall 
send out light, because I have attained such 
power \ (7) 

"My land is (to be) noble, the first and the best; 
the Bodhi-tree excellent in this world 2 . There is 
incomparable happiness arising from Nirva»a, and 
this also I shall explain as vain. (8) 

"Beings 8 come hither from the ten quarters; 
having arrived there they quickly show my happiness. 
May Buddha there teach me the truth, — I form a 
desire full of true strength and vigour. (9) 

" I, knowing the worlds of the ten quarters, pos- 
sessed of absolute knowledge — they also always 
proclaim my thought 1 May I, gone to Avi^i hell, 
always abide there, but I shall never cease to prac- 
tise the power of prayer ! [i. e. May I remain in 
hell, if I cease to pray.] " (10) 

$ 5. • Then, O Ananda, that Bhikshu Dharmakara, 
having praised the Bhagavat, the Tathagata Loke- 
jvarara^a, in his presence, with those Gathas, spoke 
thus: "O Bhagavat, I wish to know the highest 
perfect knowledge. Again and again I raise and 
incline my thoughts towards the highest perfect 
knowledge. May therefore the Bhagavat, as 
a teacher, thus teach me the Law, that I may 
quickly know the highest perfect knowledge. May 
I become in the world a Tathagata, equal to the 

1 The text is obscure, Sanghavarman translates: 'My light will 
shine over all these countries, thus my strength and power will be 

1 According to the Chinese translation. 

* Should it be sattva? 

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unequalled. And may the Bhagavat proclaim those 
signs by which I may comprehend the perfection 
of all good qualities of a Buddha country." 

' After this, O Ananda, the Bhagavat Loke^vara- 
ra/a, the Tathagata, thus spoke to that Bhikshu : 

" Do you by yourself, O Bhikshu, know the perfec- 
tion of all excellences and good qualities of a Buddha 
country ? " 

' He said : " O Bhagavat, I could not do this, but 
the Bhagavat alone. Explain the perfection of the 
excellences and all the good qualities of Buddha 
countries of the other Tathagatas, after hearing 
which we may fulfil every one of their signs." 

' Then, O Ananda, the Tathagata Lokervarara^ a, 
holy and fully enlightened, knowing the good dis- 
position of that Bhikshu, taught for a full ko/1 of 
years the perfection of all the excellences and 
good qualities of Buddha countries belonging to 
eighty-one hundred thousand niyutas of ko/ls of 
Buddhas, together with the signs, indication, and 
description, desiring welfare, wishing for benefits, 
compassionate, full of compassion, so that there 
might never be an end of Buddha countries, having 
conceived great pity for all beings. The measure 
of life of that Tathagata was full forty kalpas. 

§ 6. ' Then, O Ananda, that Bhikshu Dharmakara, 
taking the perfections of all the excellences and 
good qualities of those Buddha countries, of those 
eighty-one hundred thousand niyutas of ko/is of 
Buddhas, and concentrating them all on one Buddha 
country, worshipped with his head the feet of the 
Bhagavat Lokervarara^a, the Tathagata, turned 
respectfully round him to the right, and walked 
away from the presence of this Bhagavat And 

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afterwards, for the space of five kalpas, he thus 
concentrated the perfection of all the excellences 
and good qualities of the Buddha countries, such as 
had never been known before in the ten quarters of 
the whole world, more excellent, and more perfect 
than any, and composed the most excellent prayer. 

§ 7. ' Thus, O Ananda, that Bhikshu concentrated 
in his mind a perfection of a Buddha country 
eighty-one times more immeasurable, noble, and 
excellent than the perfection of the eighty-one hun- 
dred thousand niyutas of ko/ls of Buddha countries 
that had been told him by the Bhagavat Loke- 
.rvarara^a, the Tathagata. And then, proceeding 
to where the Tathagata was, he worshipped the 
feet of the Bhagavat with his head, and said: 
" O Bhagavat, the perfection of all the excellences 
and good qualities of the Buddha countries has 
been concentrated by me." 

'After this, O Ananda, the Tathagata Loke- 
.rvararif a thus spoke to the Bhikshu : " Preach then, 
O Bhikshu ; — the Tathagata allows it. Now is the 
proper time, O Bhikshu. Delight the assembly, 
produce joy, let the lion's voice be heard, so 
that now and hereafter, noble-minded Bodhisattvas, 
hearing it, may comprehend the different subjects 
(or occasions) of the prayers for the perfection of 
the good qualities of a Buddha country." 

'Then, O Ananda, that Bhikshu Dharmakara 
thus spoke at that time to the Bhagavat : " May 
the Bhagavat thus listen to me, to what my own 
prayers are, and how, after I shall have obtained 
the highest perfect knowledge, my own Buddha 
country will then be endowed with all inconceivable 
excellences and good qualities. 

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§ 8. i. " O Bhagavat, if in that Buddha country 
of mine there should be either hell, brute-creation 1 , 
the realm of departed spirits, or the body of 
Asuras, then may I not obtain the highest perfect 

2. "O Bhagavat, if in that Buddha country of 
mine the beings who are born there should fall away 
(die), and fall into hell, the brute-creation, the realm 
of departed spirits, or into the body of Asuras, then 
may I not obtain the highest perfect knowledge. 

3. "O Bhagavat, if in that Buddha country of 
mine the beings who are born there should not all 
be of one colour, viz. a golden colour, then may 
I not obtain the highest perfect knowledge. 

4. " O Bhagavat, if in that Buddha country of 
mine there should be perceived any difference 
between gods and men, except when people count 
and tell, saying : ' These are gods and men, but 
only in ordinary and imperfect parlance,' then may 
I not obtain the highest perfect knowledge. 

5. "O Bhagavat, if in that Buddha country of 
mine the beings who are born there should not be 
possessed of the highest Paramitas of miraculous 
power and self-control, so that they could at least 
in the shortest moment of one thought step over 
a hundred thousand niyutas of kotfs of Buddha 
countries, then may I not obtain the highest perfect 

6. "O Bhagavat, if in that Buddha country of 
mine the beings who are born there should not all be 
possessed of the recollection of their former births, 
so as at least to remember a hundred thousand 

1 Birth as an animal 

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niyutas of ko/ls of kalpas, then may I not obtain 
the highest perfect knowledge. 

7. " O Bhagavat, if in that Buddha country of 
mine the beings who are born there should not all 
acquire the divine eye, so as at least to be able 
to see a hundred thousand niyutas of ko/ls of 
worlds, then may I not obtain the highest perfect 

8. " O Bhagavat, if in that Buddha country of mine 
the beings who are born there should not all acquire 
the divine ear, so as at least to be able to hear 
at the same time the good Law from a hundred 
thousand niyutas of ko/ls of Buddha countries, then 
may I not obtain the highest perfect knowledge. 

9. " O Bhagavat, if in that Buddha country of mine 
the beings who are born there should not all be 
skilled in the knowledge of the thoughts of other 
people, so as at least to be able to know the deeds 
and thoughts of beings belonging to a hundred 
thousand niyutas of ko/ls of Buddha countries, 
then may I not obtain the highest perfect know- 

10. "O Bhagavat, if in that Buddha country of 
mine the beings who are born there should form 
any idea of property, even with regard to their 
own body, then may I not obtain the highest per- 
fect knowledge. 

11. " O Bhagavat, if in that Buddha country of 
mine the beings who are born there should not all 
be firmly established, viz. in absolute truth, till they 
have reached Mahaparinirvawa, then may I not 
obtain the highest perfect knowledge. 

12. "O Bhagavat, if any being should be able 
to count the pupils belonging to me after I have 

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obtained the highest perfect knowledge in that 
Buddha country of mine, even if all beings who are 
contained in those three millions of spheres of 
worlds 1 , after having become Pratyekabuddhas 2 , 
should be counting for a hundred thousand niyutas of 
ko/ts of kalpas, then may I not obtain the highest 
perfect knowledge. 

13. "O Bhagavat, if, after I have obtained the 
highest perfect knowledge, my light should be liable 
to be measured in this Buddha country of mine, 
even by the measure of a hundred thousand niyutas 
of ko/ts of Buddha countries, then may I not obtain 
the highest perfect knowledge. 

14. " O Bhagavat, if the measure of the life of the 
beings in that Buddha country of mine, after I have 
obtained the highest perfect knowledge, should be 
liable to be measured, excepting always by their 
own power of prayer, then may I not obtain the 
highest perfect knowledge. 

15. " O Bhagavat, if the measure of my life after 
I have obtained Bodhi (Buddha knowledge) should 
be limited, even by numbering a hundred thousand 
niyutas of ko/is of kalpas, then may I not obtain the 
highest perfect knowledge. 

16. " O Bhagavat, if, for the beings in this Buddha 
country of mine, after I have obtained Bodhi, even 
the name of sin should exist, then may I not obtain 
the highest perfect knowledge. 

17. "O Bhagavat, if immeasurable and innumer- 
able blessed Buddhas in immeasurable Buddha 

1 Trisihasra mah&s&hasra. 

' Men ready for Buddhaship. h»jj \{So decline to preach or 
communicate their kjl%iedge. 

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Google 1 


countries do not glorify my name, after I have 
obtained the Bodhi (knowledge); if they do not 
preach my fame and proclaim my praise, and utter 
it together, then may I not obtain the highest 
perfect knowledge. 

18 1 . "O Bhagavat, if those beings who have 
directed their thought towards the highest perfect 
knowledge in other worlds, and who, after having 
heard my name, when I have obtained the Bodhi 
(knowledge), have meditated on me with serene 
thoughts; if at the moment of their death, after 
having approached them, surrounded by an assembly 
of Bhikshus, I should not stand before them, wor- 
shipped by them, that is, so that their thoughts 
should not be troubled, then may I not obtain the 
highest perfect knowledge. 

19. " O Bhagavat, if those beings who in im- 
measurable and innumerable Buddha countries, 
after they have heard my name, when I shall have 
obtained Bodhi, should direct their thought to be 
born in that Buddha country of mine, and should for 
that purpose bring their stock of merit to maturity, 
if these should not be born in that Buddha country, 
even those who have only ten times repeated the 
thought (of that Buddha country), barring always 
those beings who have committed the (five) Anan- 
tarya sins 2 , and who have caused an obstruction and 
abuse of the good Law, then may I not obtain the 
highest perfect knowledge. 

20. " O Bhagavat, if those beings who have been 

1 On Pramdhanas 18 to 21, see note at the end. 

1 The five sins which bring immediate retribution. Cf. Childers, 


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born in that Buddha country of mine, after I have 
obtained Bodhi, should not all be bound to one 
birth only, before reaching the highest perfect know- 
ledge, barring always the special prayers of those 
very noble-minded Bodhisattvas who have put on 
the whole armour (of the Law), who understand the 
welfare of all beings, who are devoted to all beings, 
who work for the attainment of Nirva#a of all 
beings, who wish to perform the duty of a Bodhi- 
sattva in all worlds, who wish to serve all Buddhas, 
and to bring beings, in number like grains of sand 
of the river Gaiiga, to the highest perfect know- 
ledge, and who besides are turned towards the 
higher practice \ and perfect in the practice of the 
Samantabhadra 8 discipline, then may I not obtain 
the highest perfect knowledge. 

21. "O Bhagavat, if the Bodhisattvas who are 
born in that Buddha country of mine, after I have 
obtained Bodhi, should not all be able, after having 
gone to other Buddha countries, after their one 
morning-meal, to worship many hundreds of Bud- 
dhas, many thousands of Buddhas, many hundred 
thousands of Buddhas, many ko/ls of Buddhas, &c, 
till up to many hundred thousand niyutas of ko/ls 
of Buddhas, with objects which give every kind 
of pleasure, and this through the grace of the 
Buddha, then may I not obtain the highest perfect 

22. " O Bhagavat, if those Bodhisattvas in that 
Buddha country of mine, after I have obtained 
Bodhi, should wish their stock of merit to grow 

1 Possibly the same as the uttarimagga, Arhatship. 
' See note at the end. 

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§ 8. THE LAND OF BLISS. 1 7 

in the following shapes, viz. either in gold, in 
silver, in jewels, in pearls, in beryls, in shells, in 
stones, in corals, in crystal, in amber, in red pearls, 
in diamond, &c, or in any one of the other jewels ; 
or in all kinds of perfumes, in flowers, in garlands, 
in ointment, in incense-powder, in cloaks, in um- 
brellas, in flags, in banners, or in lamps ; or in all 
kinds of dancing, singing, and music ; — and if such 
gifts should not appear for them, from being pro- 
duced as soon as thought of, then may I not obtain 
the highest perfect knowledge. 

23. " O Bhagavat, if those beings who are born in 
that Buddha country of mine, after I have obtained 
Bodhi, should not all recite the story of the Law 
which is accompanied by omniscience, then may I 
not obtain the highest perfect knowledge. 

24. " O Bhagavat, if the Bodhisattvas in that 
Buddha country of mine, after I have obtained Bodhi, 
should think thus: May we, remaining in this world, 
honour, revere, esteem, and worship the blessed 
Buddhas in immeasurable and innumerable Buddha 
countries, viz. with cloaks, alms-bowls, beds, stools, 
refreshments, medicines, utensils, with flowers, in- 
cense, lamps, perfumes, garlands, ointment, powder, 
cloaks, umbrellas, flags, banners, with different kinds 
of dancing, singing, and music, and with showers of 
jewels, — and if the blessed Buddhas should not accept 
them, when they are produced as soon as thought 
of, viz. from compassion, then may I not obtain the 
highest perfect knowledge. 

25. " O Bhagavat, if the Bodhisattvas who are born 
in that Buddha country of mine, after I have obtained 
Bodhi, should not all be in possession of strength of 
body as strong as the diamond (or thunderbolt ?) of 

[49] *c 

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Narayawa, then may I not obtain the highest perfect 

26. " O Bhagavat, if any being in that Buddha 
country of mine, after I have obtained Bodhi, should 
learn the limit of the beauty of (its) ornament, even 
if he be possessed of the divine eye, and should 
know (its) various beauty, saying : ' That Buddha 
country possesses so much beauty and so much 
magnificence,' then may I not obtain the highest 
perfect knowledge. 

27. " O Bhagavat, if in that Buddha country of 
mine, after I have obtained Bodhi, a Bodhisattva 
possessed even of a very small stock of merit, 
should not perceive the Bodhi-tree of noble beauty, 
at least a hundred yo^anas in height, then may 
I not obtain the highest perfect knowledge. 

28. "O Bhagavat, if in that Buddha country of 
mine, after I have obtained Bodhi, either teaching 
or learning should have to be made by any being, 
and they should not all be in possession of the per- 
fect knowledge, then may I not obtain the highest 
perfect knowledge. 

29. " O Bhagavat, if that Buddha country of mine, 
after I have obtained Bodhi, should not be so bril- 
liant, that in it could be seen on all sides immeasur- 
able, innumerable, inconceivable, incomparable, im- 
mense Buddha countries, as a round face is seen in 
a highly burnished round mirror, then may I not 
obtain the highest perfect knowledge. 

30. " O Bhagavat, if in that Buddha country of 
mine, after I have obtained Bodhi, there should not 
be a hundred thousand of vases full of different 
sweet perfumes, made of all kinds of jewels, always 
smoking with incense, fit for the worship of Bodhi- 

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sattvas and Tathagatas, rising into the sky beyond 
gods, men, and all things, then may I not obtain the 
highest perfect knowledge. 

31. " O Bhagavat, if in that Buddha country of 
mine, after I have obtained Bodhi, there should not 
be showers of sweet jewel-flowers, always pouring 
down, and if there should not be sweet-sounding 
music-clouds, always playing, then may I rtot obtain 
the highest perfect knowledge. 

32. " O Bhagavat, if the beings belonging to me, 
after I have obtained Bodhi, who are visible by their 
splendour, in immeasurable, innumerable, inconceiv- 
able, incomparable worlds, should not all be filled 
with pleasure, far beyond gods and men, then may 
I not obtain the highest perfect knowledge. 

33. " O Bhagavat, if, after I have obtained Bodhi, 
the noble-minded Bodhisattvas in immeasurable, 
inconceivable, incomparable, immense Buddha coun- 
tries on all sides, after having heard my name, 
should not be delivered from birth, through the 
merit arising from that hearing, and should not 
be strong in the knowledge of Dhara«is, until they 
have obtained the very throne of Bodhi, then may 
I not obtain the highest perfect knowledge. 

34. " O Bhagavat, if, after I have obtained Bodhi, 
women in immeasurable, innumerable, inconceivable, 
incomparable, immense Buddha countries on all 
sides, after having heard my name, should allow 
carelessness to arise, should not turn their thoughts 
towards Bodhi, should, when they are free from 
birth, not despise their female nature ; and if they, 
being born again, should assume a second female 
nature, then may I not obtain the highest perfect 

*c 2 

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35. " O Bhagavat, if, after I have obtained Bodhi, 
the Bodhisattvas who in immeasurable, innumer- 
able, inconceivable, incomparable, immense Buddha 
countries round about in the ten quarters having 
heard my name, and having fallen down, shall 
worship me with prostrate reverence, should not, 
when performing the duty of Bodhisattvas, be 
honoured by the world and by the gods, then may 
I not obtain the highest perfect knowledge. 

36. " O Bhagavat, if, after I have obtained Bodhi, 
the work of dyeing, sewing, drying, washing of his 
cloaks should have to be performed by any Bodhi- 
sattva, and they should not perceive themselves, 
as quick as thought, covered by newly-produced 
excellent cloaks, granted to them by the Tatha- 
gata, then may I not obtain the highest perfect 

37. " O Bhagavat, if the beings who are born at 
the same time in that Buddha country, after I have 
obtained Bodhi, should not obtain such happiness as 
that of the holy Bhikshu who is free from pain and 
has obtained the third meditation, then may I not 
obtain the highest perfect knowledge. 

38. " O Bhagavat, if those Bodhisattvas who are 
born in that Buddha country of mine, after I have 
obtained Bodhi, should not produce from different 
jewel-trees such a mass of excellent ornaments in 
that Buddha country, as they should wish for, then 
may I not obtain the highest perfect knowledge. 

39. "O Bhagavat, if the Bodhisattvas who are born 
in other Buddha countries, when they have heard 
my name, after I shall have obtained Bodhi, should 
suffer any diminution in the strength of their senses, 
then may I not obtain the highest perfect knowledge. 

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40. " O Bhagavat, if, after I have obtained Bodhi, 
the Bodhisattvas, from hearing my name in a place 
of a different Buddha country, should not obtain the 
Samadhi (ecstacy) called Suvibhaktavatt, in which 
Samadhi the Bodhisattvas will see immeasurable, 
innumerable, inconceivable, incomparable, immense, 
blessed Buddhas one moment after another ; and if 
that Samadhi of theirs should come to an end mean- 
while, then may I not obtain the highest perfect 

41. " O Bhagavat, if, after I have obtained Bodhi, 
beings, having heard my name in Buddha countries 
different from this, should not, through the stock of 
merit which follows on that hearing, obtain birth in 
a noble family, till they arrive at Bodhi, then may 
I not obtain the highest perfect knowledge. 

42. " O Bhagavat, if, after I have obtained Bodhi, 
the Bodhisattvas who live in other Buddha countries, 
after hearing my name, till they have reached Bodhi 
by the stock of merit which follows on that hearing, 
should not all obtain a combination of their stock 
of merit with the joy and gladness of their Bodhi- 
sattva life, then may I not obtain the highest per- 
fect knowledge. 

43. " O Bhagavat, if, after I have obtained Bodhi, 
the Bodhisattvas, as soon as they have heard my 
name, in other worlds, should not obtain the 
Samadhi called Samantanugata, in which Bodhi- 
sattvas honour one moment after another im- 
measurable, innumerable, inconceivable, incompar- 
able, immense, blessed Buddhas, and if that 
Samadhi of theirs should come to an end before 
they have reached the throne of Bodhi, then may 
I not obtain the highest perfect knowledge. 

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44. " O Bhagavat, if the beings who are born in 
that Buddha country of mine, after I have obtained 
Bodhi, should not hear, as quick as thought, such 
a teaching of the Law as they wish to hear, then may 
I not obtain the highest perfect knowledge. 

45. " O Bhagavat, if, after I have obtained Bodhi, 
the Bodhisattvas in this and other Buddha coun- 
tries, as soon as they have heard my name, should 
ever turn back from the highest perfect know- 
ledge, then may I not obtain the highest perfect 

46. " O Bhagavat, if, after I have obtained Bodhi, 
and have become a Buddha-teacher, the Bodhi- 
sattvas who hear my name in Buddha countries, and 
obtain the first, the second, and the third degrees of 
endurance, as soon as they have heard my name, 
should turn away again from Buddha, the Law, and 
the Church, then may I not obtain the highest perfect 

$ 9. ' And again, O Ananda, when he had spoken 
such prayers, that Bhikshu Dharmakara, at that 
time, through the grace of Buddha spoke these 
verses * : 

1. "If, when I have obtained Bodhi, there should 
not be for me an excellent Pramdhana of such 
a character, then, O Prince, O Best of beings, may 
I not be endowed with the ten powers, incomparable, 
worthy of offerings 2 . 

2. " If there should not be for me such a country, 
endowed with many and various mighty and divine 

1 The translation of these verses, owing to the imperfect state of 
the text, is in many places tentative only. 
* See verse 10. 

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endowments, I should gladly go to hell, suffering 
pain, and not be a King of treasures 1 . 

3. " If, when I have approached the Bodhi throne, 
my name should not quickly reach the ten quarters, 
the broad and many endless Buddha countries, may 
I not be a lord of the world, endowed with power. 

4. " If indeed I should delight in the enjoyments of 
love, being deprived of zeal, understanding and pru- 
dence, even after having reached the incomparable 
and blessed Bodhi, may I not be a teacher in the 
world, endowed with power. 

5. " The lord of vast light, incomparable and' in- 
finite, has illuminated all Buddha countries in all 
the quarters, he has quieted passions, all sins and 
errors, he has quieted the fire in the walk of hell. 

6. "After making his broad eye lustrous, after 
driving away the darkness from all men, after re- 
moving all untimely misfortunes, he led hither those 
who dwell in Svarga (heaven) and who shine with 
endless light 

7. " The splendour of sun and moon does not 
shine in heaven, nor the fiery splendour of the maze 
of jewels of the gods; the Lord overcomes all 
splendour, he, the bright one, who has performed 
his former discipline. 

8. "He is the best of men, the treasure of all who 
suffer ; there is no one like him in all the quarters. 
Having completed a hundred thousand of good 
works, he, in his assembly, raised the lion-voice of 

9. " After having worshipped former self-existing 
Cinas, after having performed immeasurable ko/ts 

1 A Niga king ? 

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of vows and penances, he became in this, his best of 
spiritual existences, the best of beings, possessed of 
the full power of prayers. 

10. "As the Bhagavat, the Lord, who is pos- 
sessed of unlimited light of knowledge, knows the 
three kinds of knowledge in the world, may I also 
be worthy of equal offerings \ the best of sages, the 
leader of men. 

ii. "If, O Lord, this my prayer succeeds, after 
I have obtained Bodhi, may this sphere of a thousand 
worlds tremble, and may a shower of flowers descend 
on Ihe hosts of gods." 

12. 'Then the earth trembled, flowers were 
showered down, hundreds of instruments resounded 
in the sky, powder of heavenly sweet sandal-wood 
was scattered, and there was a voice saying : " Thou 
wilt be a Buddha in the world." 

§ 10. ' That Bhikshu Dharmikara, the noble- 
minded Bodhisattva, O Ananda, was possessed of 
this perfection of prayers. And a few Bodhi- 
sattvas only, O Ananda, are possessed of such a 
perfection of prayers. There is on this earth an 
appearance of a few only of such prayers. Of a 
few, however, existence cannot be denied. 

'Then again, O Ananda, this Bhikshu Dharma- 
kara having recjted these peculiar prayers before 
the Bhagavat Lokesvarara^a, the Tathigata, and 
before the world including gods, Mara, and Brah- 
man, and before people consisting of .Sramawas and 
Brahma#as with gods, men, and Asuras, was estab- 
lished in the attainment of the true promise. And 
proclaiming this purity of the Buddha country, this 

1 See verse i. 

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greatness and excellency of the Buddha country, 
and performing the duty of a Bodhisattva, he never 
conceived the remotest thoughts of lust, malevolence, 
and cruelty, during a hundred thousand niyutas of 
ko/ls of years, immeasurable, innumerable, incon- 
ceivable, incomparable, measureless, immense, inex- 
pressible ; and he never conceived the idea of lust, 
malevolence, and cruelty, nay, he never conceived 
the idea of form, sound, smell, taste, and touch. 
He was gentle, charming indeed, and compassionate ; 
pleasant to live with, agreeable, amiable, content, of 
few wishes, satisfied, retired, not evil, not foolish, 
not suspicious, not crooked, not wicked, not deceit- 
ful, tender 1 , kindly speaking, always zealous, docile 
in the searching after the pure Law. And for the 
good of all beings, he recited the great prayer, 
showing respect to friends, teachers, masters, the 
Church, the Law, and Buddha, always girded for the 
performance of the duties of the Bodhisattva, right- 
eous, gentle, not deceitful, not flattering, virtuous, 
a leader for the sake of rousing others to perform 
all good laws, producing by his activity the ideas of 
emptiness, causelessness, and purposelessness, and he 
was well guarded in his speech. Then, performing 
the duties of a Bodhisattva, after having given up 
all speaking which, when spoken, serves to injure 
one's self or others or both, he employed only such 
speech as served the pleasure and benefit of himself, 
others, or both. And he was so wise that, when 
entering into capitals, kingdoms, countries, towns, 
cities, and villages, he was always perfectly restrained 
with regard to all objects of sense. Performing 

1 Sukhiloma, for sukhulama or sukhumala (i.e. sukumar a). 

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himself the duties of the Bodhisattva without inter- 
ruption, he walked himself in the highest perfec- 
tion (paramiti) of liberality, and he also roused 
others to walk in the same. And himself walking 
in the highest perfections of knowledge, meditation, 
strength, patience, and virtue, he roused others also 
to walk in the same. And he has collected so large 
a stock of merit that, wherever he is born, there 
arise for him many hundreds of thousands of niyutas 
of ko/ts of treasures from out the earth. 

' By him, while he was thus performing the duties 
of a Bodhisattva, immeasurable and innumerable 
hundreds of thousands of niyutas of kofls of beings 
were established in perfect enlightenment, of whom 
it is not easy to know the limit by means of speech. 
So many immeasurable and innumerable holy Bud- 
dhas were honoured, revered, esteemed, and wor- 
shipped, and enabled to touch whatever causes 
pleasure, such as cloaks, alms-bowls, couches, seats, 
refreshments, medicines, and other furniture. It is 
not easy to know the limit by pointing it out in 
words, as to how many beings were established 
by him in the noble families of Brahma#as, Ksha- 
triyas, ministers, householders, and merchants. In 
the same manner they were established in the 
sovereignty of (7ambudvtpa (India), and they were 
established in the character of Afakravartins, Loka- 
palas, 3akras, Suyamas, Sutushitas, Sunirmitas, Vara- 
vartins, Devara^as, and Mahabrahmans. So many 
immeasurable and innumerable Buddhas were 
honoured, revered, esteemed, and worshipped, and 
requested to turn the wheel of the Law, of whom 
it is not easy to know the limit by means of words. 

'And he collected such virtue, that out of his 

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mouth, while performing the duties of a Bodhi- 
sattva, during immeasurable, innumerable, incon- 
ceivable, incomparable, immense, measureless, in- 
expressible ko/Is of kalpas, there breathed a sweet 
and more than heavenly smell of saridal-wood. 
From all the pores of his hair there arose the smell 
of lotus, and he was pleasing to everybody, gracious 
and beautiful, endowed with the fulness of the best 
bright colour 1 . As his body was adorned with 
all the good signs and marks, there arose from 
the pores (of his hair) and from the palms of his 
hands all sorts of precious ornaments in the shape 
of all kinds of cloaks and vestments, in the shape 
of all kinds of flowers, incense, scents, garlands, 
ointments,, umbrellas, flags, and banners, and in 
the shape of all kinds of instrumental music. And 
there appeared also, streaming forth from the palms 
of his hands, all kinds of viands and drink, food, 
hard and soft, and sweetmeats, and all kinds of 
enjoyments and pleasures. Thus then that Bhikshu 
Dharmakara, O Ananda, had obtained the command 
of all necessaries, after performing the duties of 
a Bodhisattva.' 

J 11. After this, the blessed Ananda thus spoke 
to the Bhagavat: 'O Bhagavat, has that Bhikshu 
Dharmakara, the noble-minded Bodhisattva, after 
having obtained the highest perfect knowledge, 
passed away, having entered Nirv£»a, or has he 
not yet been enlightened, or is he now living and 
enlightened, and does he dwell now, remain, support 
himself, and teach the Law ? ' 

The Bhagavat said : ' Not indeed, O Ananda, has 

1 See LaLVist. p. 337. 

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that Tathagata passed away, nor has he not yet 
come, but the Tathagata, the holy, after having 
obtained the highest perfect knowledge, dwells now, 
remains, supports himself, and teaches the Law, in 
the western quarter, in the Buddha country, distant 
from this world by a hundred thousand niyutas 
of ko/ls of Buddha countries, in the world which 
is called Sukhavatl, being called Amitabha, the 
Tathagata, holy and fully enlightened. He is sur- 
rounded by innumerable Bodhisattvas, and wor- 
shipped by endless .Sravakas, and in possession of 
the endless perfection of his Buddha country. 

§ 12. ' And his light is immeasurable, so that it 
is not easy to know the limit of its measure, saying, 
he stands illuminating so many hundreds of Buddha 
countries, so many thousands of Buddha countries, 
so many hundred thousands of Buddha countries, 
so many ko/ls of Buddha countries, so many hun- 
dred ko/ls of Buddha countries, so many thousand 
ko/is of Buddha countries, so many hundred thou- 
sands of ko/ls of Buddha countries, so many hundred 
thousands of nivutas of ko/is of Buddha countries. 
But indeed, O Ananda, to put it briefly, a hundred 
thousand niyutas of ko/is of Buddha countries, 
equal to the sands of the river Ganga, are always 
lighted up in the eastern quarter, by the light of 
that Bhagavat Amitabha. Thus on every side in 
the southern, western, northern quarter, in the 
zenith and nadir, in every one of these quarters, 
there are a hundred thousand niyutas of ko/ls 
of Buddha countries, like the sands of the river 
Ganga, always lighted up by the light of that 
Bhagavat Amitabha, excepting the Buddhas, the 
Bhagavats, who, through the practice of their former 

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prayers, have lighted up the world by their own light, 
which is a fathom in length, or by their light which 
is one, two, three, four, five, ten, twenty, thirty, 
forty, or fifty yo^anas in length, or a hundred or 
thousand or hundred thousand yqfanas in length, 
until their brightness reaches many hundred thou- 
sand niyutas of ko/ls of yq?anas in length. There 
is not, O Ananda, any case of likeness, by which 
the extent of the light of that Tathagata Ami- 
tabha could be understood. Hence, O Ananda, 
for that reason that Tathigata is called Amitabha 
(possessed of infinite light), and he is called Amita- 
prabha (possessed of infinite splendour), Amita- 
prabhasa (possessed of infinite brilliancy), Asama- 
ptaprabha (whose light is never finished), Asangata- 
prabha (whose light is not conditioned), Prabha- 
sikhotsrz'sh/aprabha (whose light proceeds from 
flames of light), Sadivyamaniprabha (whose light 
is that of heavenly jewels), Apratihatarasmiraga- 
prabha (whose light has the colour of unimpeded 
rays), Ri^aniyaprabha (possessed of beautiful light), 
Premanlyaprabha (possessed of lovely light), Pramo- 
danlyaprabha (possessed of delightful light), Sanga- 
manlyaprabha (possessed of attractive light), Upo- 
shawiyaprabha (possessed of pleasant light), Ani- 
bandhaniyaprabha 1 (possessed of light that cannot 
be stopped), Ativtryaprabha (possessed of extremely 
powerful light), Atulyaprabha (possessed of incom- 
parable light), Abhibhuyanarendrabhutrayendra- 
prabha 2 (possessed of light greater than that of 

1 This seems better than nibandhanfyaprabha, as printed in 
the text. 

* This reading is conjectural and the translation doubtful. Perhaps 
the text was anabhibhuyanarendr&bhutrayendra-prabhaA. 

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the lords of men, nay, the lords of the three 
worlds), •SVantasawiayendusuiya^ihmlkaraHaprabha 
(possessed of light which bends the full moon and 
the sun), Abhibhuyalokapalasakrabrahmayuddhava- 
samahefvarasarvadeva/ihrnlkaraftaprabha (possessed 
of light which bends all the conquered gods, Mahe- 
svara, the •Suddhavasas, Brahman, .Sakra, and the 

' This splendour of the Arya (noble) is pure, great, 
producing bodily pleasure, happiness of mind, pro- 
ducing happiness, delight, and joy for men and not- 
men, Kinnaras, Mahoragas, Ganu&s, Gandharvas, 
Yakshas, Nagas, Asuras, and Devas ; and producing 
the pleasure of beings of good disposition K 

' And in this manner, O Ananda, the Tathagata 2 
might speak for a whole kalpa on the work of the 
Tathagata Amitabha, beginning with his light, and 
yet he would not be able to reach the end of the 
virtues of that light of that Tathagata, neither would 
there be any failure of the self-confidence in the 
Tathagata himself. And why ? Because, O Ananda, 
both these things are immeasurable, innumerable, 
inconceivable, and endless, viz. first, the greatness 
of the excellence of the light of that Tathagata 
Amitabha, the Bhagavat, and secondly, the unsur- 
passed light of the knowledge possessed by the 
Tathagata (by myself). 

1 Here the text adds (p. 30, 1. 4), kalyakujalamimiweva- 
dvipramodyakara«t. The whole sentence is unintelligible. 

* This refers to the Bhagavat .Sakyamuni himself, who speaks of 
himself as the Tathagata. What he means to say is that the light of 
Amitabha is infinite and that therefore even the Tathagata could not 
finish the description of it Yet this would not detract from the 
infinite power of the Tathagata or diminish his vau&radya 
because that power too is infinite. 

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§i 3 . THE LAND OF BLISS. 3 1 

J 1 3. ' And, O Ananda, the assembly of the hearers 
of that Tathagata Amitabha is immeasurable, so that 
it is not easy to learn its measure, so as to be able 
to say, there are so many ko/ts of the hearers, 
so many hundreds, thousands, hundred-thousands, 
kankaras, vimbaras, nayutas (niyutas ?), ayutas, aksho- 
bhyas, vivahas (masc), srotas (?), qfas 1 , so many 
periods, called immeasurable, innumerable, countless, 
incomparable, inconceivable. Now, for instance, O 
Ananda, the Bhikshu Maudgalyayana having obtained 
miraculous power, might, if he wished, count 2 in one 
day and night, how many kinds of stars there are in 
the universal world. Then, let there be a hundred 
thousand niyutas of ko/is of such men, endowed 
with miraculous powers, and let them do nothing else 
but count the first company (only) of the hearers of 
the Tathagata Amitabha, during a hundred thousand 
niyutas of ko^ls of years, and yet by them thus 
counting even the hundredth part would not be 
counted, even the thousandth, even the hundred 
thousandth ; nay, not even so far as the minutest 
part, or likeness, or approach 8 towards it would have 
been counted. 

' Thus, for instance, O Ananda, a man might throw 
out from the great ocean, which is not to be measured 
across by less than eighty-four thousand yo^fanas, 
one single drop of water by the sharp end of hair, 
which is divided a hundred times. What do you 
think then, Ananda, — which would be greater, one 
drop of water which has been thrown up by the 

1 All these are names of fanciful measures. 

* Nagarewa, 'with an instrument' or 'by some clever contrivance.' 

* See Kern's translation of the Saddharmapuadarfka, p. 317, 
note 2. 

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sharp pointed hair divided a hundred times, or the 
mass of water left in the great ocean ?' 

Ananda said : ' Even a thousand yog - anas, O Bha- 
gavat, would be a small portion of the great ocean, 
how much more then one drop of water thrown out 
by the sharp pointed hair divided a hundred times ! ' 

Bhagavat said : ' As that one drop of water, exactly 
so large (so small in proportion) was the first company 
of the hearers. And let there be reckoning made 
by those Bhikshus, who are like Maudgalyayana, 
counting for a hundred thousand niyutas of ko/ts 
of years, and yet, as to the mass of water left in the 
great ocean, it would even then have to be con- 
sidered as not counted. How much more with regard 
to the second, third, and the rest of the companies of 
the hearers I Therefore the mass of hearers of the 
Bhagavat is endless and boundless, and receives the 
name of " immeasurable and innumerable." 

§ 14. ' And, O Ananda, the length of the life of 
that Bhagavat Amitibha, the Tathagata, is immeasur- 
able, so that it is not easy to know its length, so as 
to be able to say (that it comprises) so many hundreds 
of kalpas, so many thousands of kalpas, so many 
hundred thousands of kalpas, so many ko/ls of kalpas, 
so many hundreds of ko/ts of kalpas, so many thou- 
sands of ko/ls of kalpas, so many hundred thousands 
of ko/ls of kalpas, so many hundred thousands of 
niyutas of ko/ts of kalpas. Therefore, O Ananda, 
the limit of the measure of the life of that Bhagavat 
is immeasurable indeed Therefore that Tathagata 
is called Amitayus. 

' And as, O Ananda, the rule of making known the 
reckoning of kalpas exists here in this world, ten 
kalpas have passed now since Bhagavat Amitayus, 

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$ i6. THE LAND OF BLISS. 33 

the Tathagata, arose and awoke to the highest perfect 

§ 15. ' And, O Ananda, the world called Sukh&vatt 
belonging to that Bhagavat Amitabha is prosperous, 
rich, good to live in, fertile, lovely, and filled with 
many gods and men. Then, O Ananda, in that 
world there are neither hells, nor the brute creation, 
nor the realm of departed spirits, nor bodies of 
Asuras, nor untimely births 1 . And there do not 
appear in this world such gems as are known in the 
world Sukhavatt. 

§ 16. 'Now, O Ananda, that world Sukhavati is 
fragrant with several sweet-smelling scents, rich in 
manifold flowers and fruits, adorned with gem trees, 
and frequented by tribes of manifold sweet-voiced 
birds, which have been made by the Tathagata (on 
purpose 2 ). And, O Ananda, those gem trees are of 
several colours, of many colours, and of many hun- 
dred thousand colours. There are gem trees there 
of golden-colour, and made of gold. There are 
those of silver-colour, and made of silver. There 
are those of beryl-colour, and made of beryl. There 
are those of crystal-colour, and made of crystal. 
There are those of coral-colour, and made of coral. 
There are those of red pearl-colour, and made of 
red pearls. There are those of diamond-colour, and 
made of diamonds. 

' There are some trees of two gems, viz. gold and 
silver. There are some of three gems, viz. gold, 
silver, and beryl. There are some of four gems, 

1 These untimely births, i. e. being born out of time, when there 
are no Buddhas to listen to, are not mentioned in the first Pram- 
dh&na ; nor the jewels. 

1 Cf. the eighth paragraph in the Smaller Sukh&vatf-vyuha. 

[49] * D 

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viz. gold, silver, beryl, and crystal. There are some 
of five gems, viz. gold, silver, beryl, crystal, and 
coral. There are some of six gems, viz. gold, 
silver, beryl, crystal, coral, and red pearls. There 
are some of seven gems, viz. gold, silver, beryl, 
crystal, coral, red pearls, and diamonds as the 

' And there, O Ananda, of the trees made of gold, 
the flowers, leaves, small branches, branches, trunks, 
and roots are made of gold, and the fruits are made 
of silver. Of trees made of silver, the flowers, 
leaves, small branches, branches, trunks, and roots 
are made of silver only, and the fruits are made of 
beryl. Of trees made of beryl, the flowers, leaves, 
small branches, branches, trunks, and roots are made 
of beryl, and the fruits are made of crystal. Of 
trees made of crystal, the flowers, leaves, small 
branches, branches, trunks, and roots are made of 
crystal only, and the fruits are made of coral. Of 
trees made of coral, the flowers, leaves, small 
branches, branches, trunks, and roots are made of 
coral only, and the fruits are made of red pearls. 
Of trees made of red pearls, the flowers, leaves, 
small branches, branches, trunks, and roots are 
made of red pearls only, and the fruits are made of 
diamonds. Of trees made of diamonds, the flowers, 
leaves, small branches, branches, trunks, and roots 
are made of diamonds only, and the fruits are made 
of gold. 

' Of some trees, O Ananda, the roots are made 
of gold, the trunks of silver, the branches of beryl, 
the small branches of crystal, the leaves of coral, 
the flowers of red pearls, and the fruits of diamonds. 
Of some trees, O Ananda, the roots are made of 

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f 16. THE LAND OF BLISS. 35 

silver, the trunks of beryl, the branches of crystal, 
the small branches of coral, the leaves of red pearls, 
the flowers of diamonds, and the fruits of gold. Of 
some trees, O Ananda, the roots are made of beryl, 
the trunks of crystal, the branches of coral, the 
small branches of red pearls, the leaves of diamonds, 
the flowers of gold, and the fruits of silver. Of 
some trees, O Ananda, the roots are made of crystal, 
the trunks of coral, the branches of red pearls, the 
small branches of diamonds, the leaves of gold, the 
flowers of silver, and the fruits of beryl. Of some 
trees, O Ananda, the roots are made of coral, the 
trunks of red pearls, the branches of diamonds, 
the small branches of gold, the leaves of silver, the 
flowers of beryl, and the fruits of crystal Of some 
trees, O Ananda, the roots are made of red pearls, 
the trunks of diamonds, the branches of gold, the 
small branches of silver, the leaves of beryl, the 
flowers of crystal, and the fruits of coral. Of some 
trees, O Ananda, the roots are made of diamonds, 
the trunks of gold, the branches of silver, the small 
branches of beryl, the leaves of crystal, the flowers 
of coral, and the fruits of red pearls. Of some 
trees, O Ananda, the roots are made of the seven 
gems, the trunks of the seven gems, the branches 
of the seven gems, the small branches of the seven 
gems, the leaves of the seven gems, the flowers 
of the seven gems, and the fruits of the seven 

'And, O Ananda, the roots, trunks, branches, 
small branches, leaves, flowers, and fruits of all 
"those trees are pleasant to touch, and fragrant. And, 
when those (trees) are moved by the wind, a sweet 
and delightful sound proceeds from them, never 


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tiring, and never disagreeable to hear. That Bud- 
dha country, O Ananda, is always on every side 
surrounded by such trees made of the seven gems, 
by masses of Kadalt (banana) trees, and rows of 
palm-trees made of the seven gems, and entirely 
surrounded with golden nets, and wholly covered 
with lotus flowers, made of all kinds of gems. 

' There are lotus flowers there, half a yo/ana in 
circumference. There are others, one yq^ana in 
circumference ; and others, two, three, four, or five 
yq^anas in circumference; nay, there are some, 
as much as ten yqfanas in circumference. And 
from each gem-lotus there proceed thirty-six hun- 
dred thousand kofls of rays of light And from 
each ray of light there proceed thirty-six hundred 
thousand ko/ts of Buddhas, with bodies of golden- 
colour, possessed of the thirty-two marks of great 
men, who go and teach the Law to beings in 
the immeasurable and innumerable worlds in the 
eastern quarter. Thus also in the southern, western, 
and northern quarters, above and below, in the 
cardinal and intermediate points, they go their way 
to the immeasurable and innumerable worlds and 
teach the Law to beings in the whole world. 

§ 1 7. ' And again, O Ananda, there are no black 
mountains anywhere in that Buddha country, nor 
anywhere jewel mountains, nor anywhere Sumerus, 
kings of mountains, nor anywhere Aakrava</as, great 
Aakravaoas, kings of mountains. And that Buddha 
country is level on every side, lovely, like the palm 
of the hand, with districts full of jewels and treasures 
of every kind.' 

After this, the blessed Ananda spoke thus to the 
Bhagavat : ' But in that case, O Bhagavat, where 

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mm 1 1 ■ 1 --■ ■- , , , . ., 1 ■ . 

do the gods consisting of the companies of the four 
Maharajas who dwell on the side of the Sumeru, 
and where do the Trayastri»f sa. gods who dwell on 
the top of the Sumeru, find their place ? ' 

Bhagavat said : ' What do you think, O Ananda, 
where do these other beings find their place, who in 
this world dwell above the king of mountains, 
Sumeru, namely, the Yamadevas, Tushitas, Nir- 
manaratis, Paranirmitavasavartins, Brahmakayikas, 
Brahmapurohitas, Mahabrahmans, as far as the 
Akanish/^as ? ' 

Ananda replied: 'O Bhagavat, the result of 
works and the outcome of works are inconceivable ' 
(i.e. I do not understand it). 

Bhagavat said : ' Here, you see, the result of 
works and the outcome of works are inconceivable. 
But to the blessed Buddhas the position of Buddhas 
is not inconceivable, while to thee the holy and 
miraculous power of virtuous beings, whose stock of 
merit has become ripened, seems inconceivable.' 

Ananda said : ' I had no doubt on this, no difference 
of opinion, or hesitation ; on the contrary, I ask only 
the Tathagata about this matter in order to destroy 
the doubts, the differences of opinion, and the hesita- 
tions of future beings.' 

Bhagavat said : ' All right, Ananda, this is what 
you ought to do. 

§ 18. 'In that world Sukhavatt, O Ananda, there 
flow different kinds of rivers ; there are great rivers 
there, one yq^ana in breadth ; there are rivers up to 
twenty, thirty, forty, fifty yqfanas in breadth, and up 
to twelve yo^anas in depth. All these rivers are 
delightful, carrying water of different sweet odour, 
carrying bunches of flowers adorned with various 

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gems, resounding with sweet voices. 'And, O 
Ananda, there proceeds from an instrument which 
consists of hundred thousand ko/Is of parts, which 
embodies heavenly music and is played by clever 
people, the same delightful sound which proceeds 
from those great rivers, the sound which is deep, 
unknown, incomprehensible, clear, pleasant to the 
ear, touching the heart, beloved, sweet, delightful, 
never tiring, never disagreeable, pleasant to hear, as 
if it always said, " Non-eternal, peaceful, unreal." 
Such a sound comes to be heard by these beings. 

' And again, O Ananda, the borders of those great 
rivers on both sides are filled with jewel trees of 
various scents, from which bunches of flowers, leaves, 
and branches of all kinds hang down. And if the 
beings, who are on the borders of those rivers, wish 
to enjoy sport full of heavenly delights, the water 
rises to the ankle only after they have stepped into 
the rivers, if they wish it to be so ; or if they wish 
it, the water rises to their knees, to their hips, to 
their sides, and to their ears. And heavenly 
pleasures arise. Again, if the beings then wish the 
water to be cold, it is cold ; if they wish it to be hot, 
it is hot ; if they wish it to be hot and cold, it is hot 
and cold, according to their pleasure. 

1 And those great rivers flow along, full of water 
scented with the best perfumes of the Uragasara 
sandal-wood, of Tagaras, Kalanusarin (dark, fragrant 
sandal-wood) trees, Agarus, and heavenly Tamala- 
pattras ; covered with flowers of the white water- 
lilies, and heavenly Utpalas, Padmas, Kumudas, and 
Puju&rtkas; full of delightful sounds of peacocks, 

1 Instead of t&s4m, it is better to read tathl 

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sparrows, kiwalas, cuckoos, .sarikas, parrots, ducks, 
geese, herons, cranes, swans 1 and others ; with small 
islands inhabited by flocks of birds, created by the 
Tathagata ; adorned with fields, full of metals ; with 
fords on which it is easy to drink, free from mud, 
and covered with gold dust And when these 
beings there desire, thinking what kind of wishes 
should be fulfilled for them, then exactly such wishes 
are fulfilled for them according to the Law *. 

' And, O Ananda, the sound which rises from that 
water is delightful, and the whole Buddha country is 
aroused by it And if beings, who stand on the borders 
of the river, wish that the sound should not come 
within their ear-shot, then it does not come within their 
ear-shot, even if they are possessed of the heavenly 
ear. And whatever sound a man wishes to hear, 
exactly that delightful sound he hears, as for instance, 
the sound " Buddha, Dharma (the Law), Sangha (the 
Church), the Paramitas (highest perfections), the 
Bhumis (stages), the Balas (powers), Vawaradya 
(perfections), Avemkabuddhadharma (freedom from 
attachment), Pratisa*»vit (consciousness); .Sunyata 
(emptiness), Animitta (unconditioned), Apra«ihita (free 
from desire), Anabhisamskara (not made), A^ata (not 
born), Anutpada (without origin), Abhava (not being), 
and Nirodha (cessation) ; .Santa, praranta, and upayanta 
(peace); Mahamaitrt (great love), Mahakaru«a (great 
pity), Mahamudita (great rejoicing), and Mahopek- 
sha (great forgiveness) ; Anutpattikadharmakshanti 

1 The Tibetan translation puts these birds as follows: geese, 
swans, cranes, ducks, kiram&vas, parrots, grouse (kokilas), kuwalas, 
kalavinkas, and peacocks. 

* Instead of Dharma^, the Tibetan translator seems to have 
read Dharmavat. 

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(resignation to consequences which have not yet 
arisen), and Abhishekabhumipratilambha (attainment 
of the royal stage)." 

' And having heard these sounds, everybody feels 
the highest delight and pleasure accompanied by 
retirement, passionlessness, quiet, cessation, law, and 
a stock of merit leading to the perfect knowledge. 

' And, O Ananda, there is nowhere in that Sukha- 
vatt world any sound of sin, obstacle, misfortune, 
distress, and destruction; there is nowhere any 
sound of pain, even the sound of perceiving what 
is neither pain nor pleasure is not there, O Ananda, 
how much less the sound of pain. For that reason, 
O Ananda, that world is called Sukhavatl, shortly, 
but not in full. For, O Ananda, the whole kalpa 
would come to an end, while the different causes of 
the pleasure of the world Sukhavatl are being praised, 
and even then the end of those causes of happiness 
could not be reached. 

§ 19. ' And again, O Ananda, the beings, who have 
been and will be born in that world Sukhavatl, will 
be endowed with such colour, strength, vigour, 
height and breadth, dominion, accumulation of 
virtue 1 ; with such enjoyments of dress, ornaments, 
gardens, palaces, and pavilions ; and such enjoyments 
of touch, taste, smell, and sound; in fact with all 
enjoyments and pleasures, exactly like the Paranir- 
mitavasavartin gods. 

' And again, O Ananda, in that world Sukhavatl, 
beings do not take food consisting of gross materials 
of gravy or molasses; but whatever food they 
desire, such food they perceive, as if it were taken, 

1 Here the text seems corrupt. 

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and become delighted in body and mind. Yet they 
need not put it into their mouth. 

' And if, after they are satisfied, they wish different 
kinds of perfumes, then with these very heavenly 
kinds of perfumes the whole Buddha country is 
scented. And whosoever wishes to perceive there 
such perfume, every perfume of every scent of the 
Gandharvara^a does always reach his nose l . 

' And in the same manner, if they desire musical 
instruments, banners, flags, umbrellas, cloaks, pow- 
ders, ointments, garlands, and scents, then the whole 
Buddha country shines with such things. If they 
desire cloaks of different colours and many hundred 
thousand colours, then with these very best cloaks 
the whole Buddha country shines. And the people 
feel themselves covered with them. 

'And if they desire such ornaments, as for in- 
stance, head-ornaments, ear-ornaments, neck-orna- 
ments, hand and foot ornaments, namely, diadems, 
earrings, bracelets, armlets, necklaces, chains, ear- 
jewels, seals, gold strings, girdles, gold nets *, pearl 
nets, jewel nets, nets of bells made of gold and 
jewels, then they see that Buddha country shining 
with such ornaments adorned with many hundred 
thousand jewels, that are fastened to ornament- 
trees. And they perceive themselves to be adorned 
with these ornaments. 

'And if they desire a palace, with colours and 
emblems of such and such height and width, adorned 
with hundred thousand gates made with different 

1 The Tibetan translator seems to have read: tatra yas taw 
gandham Sghr&tuk&mo na bhavati, tasya sarvara gandhasa%#a > 
vSsani £a na samud&tarati. 

* The Tibetan translation suggests the reading svarxa^Sli. 

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jewels, covered with different heavenly flowers x , full 
of couches strewn with beautiful cushions, then 
exactly such a palace appears before them. And 
in these delightful palaces they dwell, play, sport, 
walk about, being honoured, and surrounded by 
seven times seven thousands of Apsarases. 

§ 20. ' And in that world, there is no difference 
between gods and men, except when they are spoken 
of in ordinary and imperfect parlance as gods and 
men. And, O Ananda, as a low man and impo- 
tent man, before the face of the mighty king, is 
neither bright, nor warm, nor brilliant, nor is he 
self-confident and radiant, — thus 6akra, king of the 
Devas, if before the face of the Paranirmitavasa- 
vartin gods, is neither bright, nor warm, nor brilliant, 
namely, with regard to his gardens, palaces, dresses, 
ornaments, his dominion, his perfection, his miracu- 
lous power, or his supremacy, his comprehension of 
the Law, and his full enjoyment of the Law. And, 
O Ananda, as the Paranirmitavasavartin gods are 
there, thus men must be considered in the world 

§ 21. ' And again, O Ananda, in that world Sukha- 
vati, when the time of forenoon has come, the winds 
are greatly agitated and blowing everywhere in the 
four quarters. And they shake and drive many 
beautiful, graceful, and many-coloured stalks of the 
gem trees, which are perfumed with sweet heavenly 
scents, so that many hundred beautiful flowers of 
delightful scent fall down on the great earth, which 
is all full of jewels. And with these flowers that 

1 Instead of pushpa the Tibetan translator seems to have read 
dushya, 'garment' 

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Buddha country is adorned on every side seven 
fathoms deep. As a clever man might spread 
out a flower-bed on the earth and make it even 
with both his hands, beautiful and charming, even 
thus with those flowers of various scents and colours 
that Buddha country is shining on every side seven 
fathoms deep. And these many flowers are soft, 
pleasant to touch, if one may use a comparison, like 
Kaiilindika (some kind of soft substance). If one puts 
one's foot on them, they sink down four inches ; if one 
raises one's foot, they rise again four inches. When the 
time of the forenoon has gone again, those flowers 
vanish without leaving anything behind. Then that 
Buddha country is again clean, pleasant, beautiful, 
and without fading flowers. The winds blow again 
everywhere in the four quarters, and scatter down 
fresh flowers as before. And as it is in the fore- 
noon, so it is at noon, at twilight, in the first, 
middle, and last watch of the night And the 
beings, if touched by those winds which blow per- 
fume with various scents, are as full of happiness as 
a Bhikshu (mendicant) who has obtained Nirvana. 

§ 22. 'And in that Buddha country, O Ananda, 
no mention is ever made of the names of fire, 
sun, moon, planets, Nakshatras (constellations), and 
stars, or of blinding darkness. There is no men- 
tion even of day and night, except in the conver- 
sation of the Tathagata. Nor is there any idea of 
predial property belonging to monasteries. 

§ 23, * And again, O Ananda, in that world Sukha- 
vatl at the proper time clouds full of heavenly per- 
fumed water pour down heavenly flowers of all 
colours; heavenly seven jewels, heavenly sandal- 
wood-powder, and heavenly umbrellas, flags, and 

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banners are poured down. And in the sky, the 
heavenly flowers of all colours, and heavenly cano- 
pies are held, likewise heavenly excellent umbrellas 
and all kinds of ornaments, heavenly musical instru- 
ments are played, and heavenly Apsarases dance. 

§ 24. ' And again, O Ananda, in that Buddha 
country whatever beings have been born, and 
are being born, and will be born, are always 
constant in absolute truth, till they have reached 
Nirva«a. And why is that ? Because there is no 
room or mention there of the other two divisions 
(rim), such as beings not constant or constant in 

'On this wise, O Ananda, that world is briefly 
called Sukhavatt, not at full length. Even a kalpa, 
O Ananda, would come to an end, while the causes 
of happiness which exist in that world Sukhavatt 
are being praised, and yet it would be impossible to 
reach the end of them.' 

§ 25. Then the Bhagavat at that time spoke the 
following verses * : 

' Thus, O Ananda, the world Sukhavatt is endowed 
with immeasurable good qualities and excellences. 

§ 26. ' And again, O Ananda, in the ten quarters, 
and in each of them, in all the Buddha countries 
equal in number to the sand of the Ganga, the 

1 The text of these verses is so corrupt that I thought it best to 
follow the example of the five Chinese translators, all of whom 
leave them out. They only repeat what was said before, that people 
might go on for ever praising the excellences of Sukhavatt, yet they 
would never reach the end of them, and that the merit of hearing even 
the name of SukhSvatt is greater than all other blessings on earth. 
The best thing, however, is to have faith in Gina, and to drive away 
all doubt The Tibetan translator gives a translation of seven 
verses, but his translation also seems as obscure as the original 

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f 28. THE LAND OF BUSS. 45 

blessed Buddhas equal in number to the sand of the 
Ganga, glorify the name of the blessed Amitabha, 
the Tathagata, they preach his fame, they proclaim 
his glory, they extol his virtue. And why ? 
Because all beings who hear the name of the 
blessed Amitabha, and having heard it, raise their 
thought with joyful longing, even for once only, 
will not turn away again from the highest perfect 

$27. 'And before the eyes of those beings, O 
Ananda, who again and again think of the Tathagata 
reverendy, and who make the great and unmeasured 
stock of good works grow, turning their thought 
towards Bodhi (knowledge), and who pray to be 
born in that world, Amitabha, the Tathagata, holy 
and fully enlightened, when the time of their death 
has approached, will appear, surrounded by many 
companies of Bhikshus and honoured by them. And 
then these beings, having seen the Bhagavat, their 
thoughts filled with joy, will, when they have died, be 
born in that world of Sukhavatl. And if, O Ananda, 
any son or daughter of a good family should wish 
— What? — How then may I see that Tath&gata 
Amitabha visibly, then he must raise his thought 
on to the highest perfect knowledge, he must direct 
his thought with perseverance and excessive desire 
towards that Buddha country, and direct the stock 
of his good works towards being born there. 

§ 28. ' But before the eyes of those who do not 
care much about the Tathagata Amitabha, and who 
do not vigorously increase the great and unmeasured 
stock of their good works, the Tathagata Amitabha, 
holy and fully enlightened, will appear, at the time 
of death, with the company of Bhikshus, in breadth 

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and height and form and beauty, very like (the 
former), and very like (the real Tathagata), but 
only created by thought And they, through their 
meditation that dwells on perceiving the sight of 
the Tathagata, and with unfailing memory, will, 
when they have died, be born in the same Buddha 

§ 29. ' And again, O Ananda, those beings who 
meditate on the Tathagata by giving him the ten 
thoughts, and who will direct their desire towards 
that Buddha country, and who will feel satisfaction 
when the profound doctrines are being preached, and 
who will not fall off, nor despair, nor fail, but will 
meditate on that Tathagata, if it were by one 
thought only, and will direct their desire toward 
that Buddha country, they also will see the Tatha- 
gata Amitabha, while they are in a dream, they will 
be born in the world Sukhavatt, and will never turn 
away from the highest perfect knowledge. 

§ 30. 'And, O Ananda, after thus seeing the cause 
and effect, the Tathagatas of the ten quarters, in im- 
measurable and innumerable worlds, glorify the 
name of the Tathagata Amitabha, preach his fame, 
and proclaim his praise. And again, O Ananda, in 
that Buddha country, Bodhisattvas equal in number 
to the sand of the Ganga approach, from the ten 
quarters, and in each quarter towards that Tathagata 
Amitabha, in order to see him, to bow before him, 
to worship him, to consult him, and likewise in order 
to see that company of Bodhisattvas, and the dif- 
ferent kinds of perfection in the multitude of orna- 
ments and excellences belonging to that Buddha 

§ 31. Then at that time, the Bhagavat, in order 

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to illustrate this matter in fuller measure, recited 
these verses 1 : 

1. 'As there are Buddha countries equal to the 
sand of the river Gangi in the eastern quarter, 
whence all the Bodhisattvas come to worship the 
Buddha, the lord Amitayu ; 

2. 'And they having taken many bunches of 
flowers of different colours, sweetly-scented and 
delightful, shower them down on the best leader of 
men, on Amitayu, worshipped by gods and men ; — 

3. ' In the same manner there are as many Bud- 
dha countries in the southern, western, and northern 
quarters, whence they come with the Bodhisattvas 
to worship the Buddha, the lord Amitiyu. 

4. 'And they having taken many handfulls of 
scents of different colours, sweetly-scented and 
delightful, shower them down on the best leader 
of men, on Amit&yu, worshipped by gods and men. 

5. ' These many Bodhisattvas having worshipped 
and revered the feet of Amitaprabha, and having 
walked round him respectfully, speak thus : " Oh, 
the country of Buddha shines wonderfully ! " 

6. 'And they cover him again with handfulls of 
flowers, with thoughts jubilant, with incomparable 
joy, and proclaim their wish before that lord : " May 
our country also be such as this." 

7. 'And what was thrown there as handfulls of 
flowers arose in the form of an umbrella extending 
over a hundred yq^anas, and the beautiful country 
shines and is well adorned, and flowers cover the 
whole body of Buddha. 

1 In these verses there are again many doubtful passages which 
could be rendered tentatively only. 

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8. 'These Bodhisattvas having thus honoured 
him, how do they act ? — Delighted they pronounce 
this speech : " Gains by those people are well gained, 
by whom the name of the best man has been heard. 

9. ' " By us also all the gain has been well gained, 
because we have come to this Buddha country. 
See this dream-like country 1 how beautiful it is, 
which was made by the teacher during a hundred 
thousand kalpas. 

10. '" Look, the Buddha possessed of a mass of 
the best virtues shines, surrounded by Bodhisattvas. 
Endless is his splendour 3 , and endless the light, 
and endless the life, and endless the assembly." 

11. 'And the lord Amitayu makes a smile of 
thirty-six niyutas of ko/is of rays, which rays having 
issued from the circle of his mouth light up the 
thousand ko/ls of Buddha countries. 

12. 'And all these rays having returned there 
again settle on the head of the lord ; gods and men 
produce (perceive) the delight, because they have 
seen there this light of him. 

1 3. ' There rises the Buddha-son, glorious, he in- 
deed the mighty Avalokitesvara, and says : " What 
is the reason there, O Bhagavat, what is the cause, 
that thou smilest, O lord of the world ? 

14. '"Explain this, for thou knowest the sense, 
and art full of kind compassion, the deliverer of 
many living beings. All beings will be filled with 
joyful thoughts, when they have thus heard this 
excellent and delightful speech. 

15. '"And the Bodhisattvas who have come from 

1 Maitra, ' love/ possibly ' kindness,' or was it kshetra? 
1 Araita asyabha? 

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many worlds to Sukhavatt in order to see the 
Buddha, having heard it and having perceived the 
great joy, will quickly inspect this country. 

16. '"And beings, come to this noble country, 
(quickly) obtain miraculous power, divine eye and 
divine ear, they remember their former births, and 
know the highest wisdom." 

17. 'Then Buddha Amitayu preaches: "This 
prayer was mine formerly, so that beings having in 
any way whatever heard my name should for ever 
go to my country. 

18. '"And this my excellent prayer has been 
fulfilled, and beings having quickly come here from 
many worlds into my presence, never return from 
here, not even for one birth." 

19. ' If a Bodhisattva wishes here that his country 
should be such as this, and that he also should 
deliver many beings, through his name, through 
his preaching, and through his sight, 

20. ' Let him quickly and with speed go to the 
world Sukhavatt, and having gone near Amita- 
prabha, let him worship a thousand ko/ls of 

21. 'Having worshipped many ko/ls of Buddhas, 
and having gone to many countries by means of 
their miraculous power, and having performed ador- 
ation in the presence of the Sugatas, they will go 
to Sukhavatt with devotion \ 

§ 32. 'And again, O Ananda, there is a Bodhi- 
tree belonging to Amitayus, the Tathagata, holy 
and fully enlightened. That Bodhi-tree is ten hun- 

1 The Tibetan translation has 'in the morning,' as if the text 
had been pfirvabhakta, 

[49] *E 

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dred yo^anas in height, having petals, leaves, and 
branches spread over eight hundred yqfanas, having 
a circumference near the base of the root of five 
hundred yo^anas, always in leaf, always in flower, 
always in fruit, of different colours, of many hundred 
thousand colours, of different leaves, of different 
flowers, of different fruits, adorned with many beau- 
tiful ornaments, shining with precious jewels, bright 
like the moon, beautified with precious jewels (such 
as are) fastened on 6akra's head, strewn with A"inta- 
ma»i 1 jewels, well adorned with the best jewels 
of the sea, more than heavenly, hung with golden 
strings, adorned with hundreds of gold chains, jewel- 
garlands, necklaces, bracelets, strings of red pearls 
and blue pearls, lion twists (Simhalata), girdles, 
bunches, strings of jewels, and all kinds of jewels, 
covered with nets of bells, nets of all kinds of jewels, 
nets of pearls, and nets of gold, adorned with the 
emblems of the dolphin, the Svastika, the Nandyi- 
varta, and the moon, adorned with nets of jewels 
and of bells, and with ornaments of gold and of 
all kinds of jewels, in fact adorned according to the 
desires of beings whatever their wishes may be. 

'And again, O Ananda, the sound and noise of 
that Bodhi-tree, when it is moved by the wind, 
reaches immeasurable worlds. And, O Ananda, for 
those beings whose hearing that Bodhi-tree reaches, 
no disease of the ear is to be feared until they reach 
Bodhi (highest knowledge). And for those immea- 
surable, innumerable, inconceivable, incomparable, 
measureless, immense, and inexpressible beings, whose 
sight that Bodhi-tree reaches, no disease of the eye 

1 Jewels yielding every wish. 

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§33* THE LAND OF BLISS. 5 1 

is to be feared until they reach Bodhi. And again, 
O Ananda, for those beings who smell the scent of 
that Bodhi-tree, no disease of the nose is to be 
feared until they reach Bodhi. For those beings 
who taste the fruits of that Bodhi-tree, no disease 
of the tongue is to be feared until they reach Bodhi. 
For those beings who are lighted up by the light 
of that Bodhi-tree, no disease of the body is to 
be feared until they reach Bodhi. And again, 
O Ananda, for those beings who meditate on that 
Bodhi-tree according to the Law, henceforward until 
they reach the Bodhi, no perplexity of their thought 
is to be feared. And all those beings, through the 
seeing of that Bodhi-tree, never turn away, namely, 
from the highest perfect knowledge. And they obtain 
three kinds of kshanti or resignation, namely, Ghoshi- 
nuga, Anulomikt (resignation to natural conse- 
quences), and Anutpattika-dharma-kshanti (resigna- 
tion to consequences which have not yet arisen), 
through the power of the former prayers of that 
same Tathagata Amitiyus, through the service 
rendered by them to the former (Tinas, and through 
the performance of the former prayers, to be well 
accomplished, and to be well conceived, without 
failure or without flaw. 

§ 33. ' And again, O Ananda, those Bodhisattvas 
who have been born, are being born, or will be born 
there, are all bound to one birth only 1 , and will 
thence indeed obtain the highest perfect knowledge ; 
barring always the power of prayers, as in the case 
of those Bodhisattvas who are preaching with the 
voice of lions, who are girded with the noble armour 

1 Their present birth. 

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(of the Law), and who are devoted to the work of 
helping all people to attain Parinirvaaa. 

§ 34. ' And again, O Ananda, in that Buddha 
country, those who are •5'ravakas are possessed of 
the light of a fathom, and those who are Bodhisattvas 
are possessed of the light of a hundred thousand 
ko/is of yo^anas ; barring always the two Bodhi- 
sattvas, by whose light that world is everywhere 
shining with eternal splendour.' 

Then the blessed Ananda said this to the Bhagavat : 
'What are the names, O Bhagavat, of those two 
noble-minded Bodhisattvas ? ' 

The Bhagavat said : ' One of them, O Ananda, is 
the noble-minded Bodhisattva Avalokite^vara, and 
the second is Mahasthamaprapta by name. And, 
O Ananda, these two were born there, having left 
this Buddha country here l . 

§ 35. ' And, O Ananda, those Bodhisattvas who 
have been born in that Buddha country are all 
endowed with the thirty-two marks of a great man, 
possessed of perfect members, skilled in meditation 
and wisdom, clever in all kinds of wisdom, having 
sharp organs, having well-restrained organs, having 
organs of sense capable of thorough knowledge, not 
mean, possessed of the five kinds of strength, of 
patience under censure, and of endless and bound- 
less good qualities. 

1 Sahghavarman translates this passage : ' These two Bodhi- 
sattvas practised the discipline of Bodhisattva in this country, and 
after death they were miraculously born in that Buddha country.' 
BodhiruAi translates : ' O Ananda, these two Bodhisattvas went to 
be born in that country from the world SahS, when they had 
exhausted the measure of their life (here).' The world Sah4 belongs 
to the Buddha •S&kyamuni. 

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§ 36. 'And again, O Ananda, all those Bodhi* 
sattvas who have been born in that Buddha country 
are not deprived of the sight of Buddha, nor liable 
to fall down (to the evil states), until they reach the 
Bodhi. Henceforward they all will never be forget- 
ful of their former births * ; barring always those who 
are devoted to their former place, during the dis* 
turbances of the kalpas, and while the five kinds 
of corruption prevail, when there is the appearance 
of blessed Buddhas in the world, as for instance, 
that of me at present. 

§ 37. 'And again, O Ananda, all the Bodhisattvas 
who have been born in that Buddha country, having 
gone during one morning meal to the other world, 
worship many hundred thousand niyutas of ko/ls of 
Buddhas, as many as they like, through the favour 
of Buddha. They consider in many ways that they 
should worship (Buddhas) with such and such flowers, 
incense, lamps, scents, garlands, ointments, powder, 
cloaks, umbrellas, flags, banners, ensigns, music, con- 
certs, and musical instruments; and, as soon as they 
have considered this, there arise also on their hands 
exactly such materials for every kind of worship. 
And while performing worship for those blessed 
Buddhas with those materials, beginning with flowers 
and ending with musical instruments, they lay up for 
themselves much immeasurable and innumerable 
merit Again, if they wish that such handfulls of 
flowers should be produced on their hands, then 
such handfulls of heavenly flowers, of different colours, 
of many colours, of different scents, are produced on 
their hands as soon as thought of. They shower 

1 ' Na' must be left out, or we must read na^atva^atismard. 

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again and again such handfulls of flowers upon those 
blessed Buddhas. And the very smallest handfull 
of flowers, being thrown on high, appears above in 
the sky as an umbrella of flowers ten yo^anas in 
circumference. And when the second has been 
thrown after it, the first does not fall down on the 
earth. There are handfulls of flowers there, which 
having been thrown up, appear in the sky as um- 
brellas of flowers twenty yp^anas in circumference. 
There appear in the sky some flower-umbrellas, 
thirty, forty, or fifty yo^anas in circumference, as 
far as a hundred thousand yo.g'anas in circumference. 
Those (Bodhisattvas) there who perceive the noble 
pleasure and joy, and obtain the noble strength of 
thought, having caused a great and immeasurable 
and innumerable stock of good works to ripen, and 
having worshipped many hundred thousand niyutas 
of ko/ts of Buddhas, turn again to the world Sukha- 
vatl in one morning, through the favour of practising 
the former prayers of the same Tathagata Amitayus, 
owing to the hearing of the Law formerly given, owing 
to the stock of good works produced under former 
(rinas, owing to the perfect completion in the success 
of former prayers, owing to the well-ordered state 
of mind \ 

§ 38. ' And again, O Ananda, all those beings 
who have been born in that Buddha country recite 
the story of the Law, which is accompanied by omni- 
science *. And for the beings in that Buddha 

1 The text of this passage is very imperfect in all the MSS. 
Comparing the sentence with the last sentence of Chapter XXXII, 
it might seem possible to read paripur«anunataya, or paripur- 
yatayanunataya, forparipuryatmabhfitaya. On suvibhakta, 
see Childers, s. v. vibha^ati. 

* See the twenty-third Pramdhana. 

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country there exists no idea of property whatever \ 
And all those going and walking through that 
Buddha country feel neither pleasure nor pain; 
stepping forward they have no desire, and with 
desire they do not step forward. They give no 
thought to any beings. And again, O Ananda, for 
those beings who have been born in that world 
Sukhavatt, there is no idea of others, no idea of 
self, no idea of inequality, no strife, no dispute, no 
opposition. Full of equanimity, of benevolent 
thought, of tender thought, of affectionate thought, 
of useful thought, of serene thought, of firm thought, 
of unbiassed thought, of undisturbed thought, of 
unagitated thought, of thought (fixed on) the 
practice of discipline and transcendent wisdom, 
having entered on knowledge which is a firm sup- 
port to all thoughts, equal to the ocean in wisdom, 
equal to the mountain Meru in knowledge, rich in 
many good qualities, delighting in the music of the 
Bodhyangas*, devoted to the music of Buddha, 
they discard the eye of flesh, and assume the 
heavenly eye. And having approached the eye of 
wisdom, having reached the eye of the Law, pro- 
ducing the eye of Buddha, showing it, lighting it, 
and fully exhibiting it, they attain perfect wisdom. 
And being bent on the equilibrium of the three ele- 
ments ', having subdued and calmed their thoughts, 
endowed with a perception of the causes of all 

1 See the tenth Pramdh&na. 

' ' Requisites for attaining the supreme knowledge of a Buddha.' — 
Childers, Pali Dictionary, p. 93 b. 

* Probably the three dh&tus, Kfimadhfttu, RftpadMtu, and 
Arupadhdtu ; see Childers, s. v. dhitu. 

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things, clever in explanation of causes, endowed with 
the power of explaining the Law (or things such 
as they really are), clever in taking and refusing, 
clever in leading and not leading, clever in resting 1 , 
they, being regardless of worldly stories, derive 
true pleasures from stories transcending the world. 
They are clever in examining all things, familiar 
with the knowledge of the cessation of the working 
of all things, perceiving even what cannot be seen, 
caring for nothing, attached to nothing, without 
cares, without pain, free without clinging to any- 
thing, free from impurity 2 , of blameless behaviour, 
not clinging to anything, intent on the deep or 
profound laws, they do not sink, elevated to the 
entrance into the knowledge of Buddha difficult 
to comprehend, having obtained the path of one 
vehicle 8 , free from doubt, beyond the reach of 
questionings, knowing the thoughts of others, free 
from self-confidence. Being elevated in knowledge, 
they are like the Sumeru ; being imperturbable in 
thought, they are like the ocean ; they surpass the 
light of the sun and moon, by the light of wisdom, 
and by the whiteness, brilliancy, purity, and beauty 
of their knowledge; by their light and splendour, 
they are like the colour of molten gold ; by their 
patiently bearing the good and evil deeds of all 
beings, they are like the earth ; by their cleaning 
and carrying off the taint 4 of all sins, they are 

1 The text may originally have been sth&nasth&nakuxal&A. 

* The next words aparyasthayinaA and abhi^ft&svamula- 
sth&yinaA seem to have a technical meaning, but neither the 
Tibetan nor the Chinese translators give an intelligible rendering. 

* Sanghavarman translates ' one vehicle.' 

* The Tibetan translation presupposes mala instead of mula. 

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like water; by their burning the evil of pride 1 in 
anything, they are like the king of fire ; by not 
clinging to anything, they are like the wind ; by per- 
vading all things and yet not caring for anything, 
they are like the ether ; by not being tainted by the 
whole world, they are like lotuses ; by their shout- 
ing forth the Law, they are like the great cloud at 
the rainy season ; by showering down the whole 
ocean of the Law, they are like the great rain ; by 
overpowering great troops, they are like bulls; by 
the highest restraint of their thoughts, they are like 
great elephants ; by being well trained, they are like 
noble horses ; by their fearlessness, confidence, and 
heroism, they are like the lion, the king of beasts ; 
by affording protection to all beings, they are like 
the Nyagrodha (fig-tree), the king of trees ; by not 
being shaken by any calumniators, they are like the 
(Sumeru), the king of mountains ; by their feeling of 
unlimited love, they are like the sky ; by their pre- 
cedence, owing to their command of the Law, and 
their stock of all merit, they are like the great 
Brahman ; by their not dwelling in what they have 
accumulated, they are like birds ; by their scattering 
all calumniators, they are like Garuaa, king of birds ; 
by their not being averse to our obtaining difficult 
things, they are like the Udumbara flowers ; calm 
like elephants 2 , because their senses are neither 
crooked nor shaken ; clever in decision, full of the 
sweet flavour of patience; without envy, because 
they do not hanker after the happiness of others ; 
wise, because in their search after the Law, never 

1 Mana, ' pride,' is one of the Kleras. 

' The Tibetan translator seems to have read sagaravat, instead 

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tired of discussions on the Law ; like the precious 
beryl, through their value ; (like) jewel-mines *, by 
their sacred knowledge; sweet-sounding by the 
noise of the great drum of the Law, striking the 
great kettledrum of the Law, blowing the great 
trumpet-shell of the Law, raising the great banner 
of the Law, lighting the torch of the Law, looking 
for wisdom, not foolish, faultless, passionless, pure, 
refined, not greedy, fond of distributing, generous, 
open-handed, fond of distributing gifts, not stingy 
in giving instruction and food, not attached, without 
fear, without desires, wise, patient, energetic, bash- 
ful, orderly, fearless*, full of knowledge, happy, 
pleasant to live with, obliging, enlightening the 
world 8 , free from sorrow, free from taint, having 
left off the winking of the eye, possessing lightly 
acquired knowledge, strong in reasoning, strong 
in prayer, not crooked, not perverse; then, hav- 
ing accumulated a hundred thousand niyutas of 
ko/ls of lakshas 4 of virtue, delivered from the 
thorns of pride, free from illusion, hatred, and 
passion; pure, devoted to what is pure, famous 
by the Cina-power, learned in the world, elevated 
by their purified knowledge, sons of the £ina, 
endowed with the vigour of thought, heroes, firm, 
unselfish 6 , free from faults, unequalled, free from 
anger, collected, noble, heroes, bashful, energetic, 
possessed of memory, understanding, and prudence ; 

1 The Tibetan translation seems to have read ratnakarasa- 
1 If the same as nirgahana. 

* The next words are unintelligible in their present form. 
4 The Tibetan translation has Buddha for laksha. 

• AsamaA in the Tibetan translation. 

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§39- T HE LAND OF BLISS. 59 

sending forth the weapons of knowledge, possessed 
of purity, shining, free from faults and taints, en- 
dowed with memory, resting on serene knowledge. 
And such, O Ananda, are the beings in that Buddha 
country, stated briefly. But if the Tathigatas 
should describe them fully, even in a length of life 
that should last for a hundred thousand niyutas of 
ko/ls of kalpas, yet the end of the virtues of those 
good people would not be reached, and yet there 
would be no failure of the self-confidence of the 
Tathigata. And why ? Because, O Ananda, both 
are indeed inconceivable and incomparable, viz. first, 
the virtues of those Bodhisattvas, and secondly, the 
unsurpassed light of knowledge of the Tathigata '. 

§ 39. ' And now, O Ananda, stand up, facing 
westward, and having taken a handful of flowers, 
fall down. This is the quarter where that Bhagavat 
Amitibha, the Tathigata, holy and fully enlightened, 
dwells, remains, supports himself, and teaches the 
Law, whose spotless and pure name, famed in 
every quarter of the whole world with its ten 
quarters, the blessed Buddhas, equal to (the grains 
of) the sand of the river Gangi, speaking and 
answering again and again without stopping, extol, 
praise, and eulogize.' 

After this, the blessed Ananda said this to the 
Bhagavat : ' I wish, O Bhagavat, to see that Ami- 
tibha, Amitaprabha, Amitiyus, the Tathigata, 
holy and fully enlightened, and those noble-minded 
Bodhisattvas, who are possessed of a stock of merit 
amassed under many hundred thousand niyutas of 
ko/ls of Buddhas.' 

1 For these passages, see the end of Chapter XII. 

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At that moment this speech was spoken by the 
blessed Ananda, and immediately that Amitabha, the 
Tathagata, holy and fully enlightened, let such a ray of 
light go out of the palm of his own hand, that even 
the most distant Buddha country was shining with the 
great splendour. And again at that time, whatever 
black mountains, or jewel-mountains, or Merus, 
great Merus, Muiilindas, great Mu^ilindas, Aakra- 
va</as, great Aakravaafas, or erections, or pillars, 
trees, woods, gardens, palaces, belonging to the gods 
and men, exist everywhere in hundred thousand 
ko/ts of Buddha countries ; all these were pervaded 
and overcome by the light of that Tathagata. And as 
a man, followed by another at a distance of a fathom 
only, would see the other man, when the sun has 
risen, exactly in the same manner the Bhikshus, 
Bhikshu»is, Upasakas (laymen), Upasikas (lay- 
women), gods; Nigas, Yakshas, Rakshasas, Gan- 
dharvas, Asuras, Garudas, Kinnaras, 
and not-men, in this Buddha country, saw at that 
time that Amitabha, the Tathagata, holy and fully 
enlightened, like the Sumeru, the king of mountains, 
elevated above all countries, surpassing all quarters, 
shining, warming, glittering, blazing ; and they saw 
that great mass of Bodhisattvas, and that company 
of Bhikshus, viz. by the grace of Buddha, from the 
pureness of that light And as this great earth 
might be, when all covered with water, so that no 
trees, no mountains, no islands, no grasses, bushes, 
herbs, large trees, no rivers, chasms, water-falls, 
would be seen, but only the one great earth which 
had all become an ocean, in exactly the same 
.manner there is neither mark nor sign whatever to 
be seen in that Buddha country, except .Sravakas, 

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$40. THE LAND OF BLISS. 6 1 

spreading their light over a fathom, and those 
Bodhisattvas, spreading their light over a hundred 
thousand ko/ls of yo^anas. And that Bhagavat 
Amitabha, the Tathagata, holy and fully en- 
lightened, overshadowing that mass of .Sravakas 
and that mass of Bodhisattvas, is seen, illumina- 
ting all quarters. Again at that time all those 
Bodhisattvas, .Sravakas, gods and men in that world 
Sukhavatl, saw this world Saha and •Sakyamuni, the 
Tathagata, holy and fully enlightened, surrounded 
by a holy company of Bhikshus, teaching the Law. 

§ 40. Then, the Bhagavat addressed the noble- 
minded Bodhisattva A^ita, and said: 'Do you 
see, O A^ita, the perfection of the array of orna- 
ments and good qualities in that Buddha country; 
and above in the sky (places) with charming parks ', 
charming gardens, charming rivers and lotus lakes, 
scattered with many precious Padmas, Utpalas, 
Kumudas, and Pum/arlkas; and below, from the 
earth to the abode of the Akanish/£as, the surface 
of the sky, covered with flowers, ornamented with 
wreaths of flowers, shining on the rows of many 
precious columns, frequented by flocks of all kinds 
of birds created by the Tathagata ? ' 

The Bodhisattva A^ita said : ' I see, O Bhagavat' 

The Bhagavat said : ' Do you see again, O A/ita, 
those flocks of immortal birds, making the whole 
Buddha country resound with the voice of Buddha, 
so that those Bodhisattvas are never without 
meditating on Buddha?' 

Agita. said : ' I see, O Bhagavat' 

1 A substantive seems to be wanting to which all these adjectives 
would refer. 

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The Bhagavat said : ' Do you see again, O A^ita, 
those beings, who have ascended to the palaces 
which extend over a hundred thousand ycganas in 
the sky, walking about respectfully ? ' 

Afita said: * I see, O Bhagavat.' 

The Bhagavat said : 'What do you think, O Afita, 
is there any difference between the gods called 
Paranirmitavasavartins, and men in the world 

A,fita said : ' I do not, O Bhagavat, perceive even 
one difference, so far as the men in that world of 
Sukhavatl are endowed with great supernatural 

The Bhagavat said: 'Do you see again, O A^ita, 
those men dwelling within the calyx of excellent 
lotus-flowers in that world Sukhavatl ? ' 

He said: 'As gods called Trayastriwwas or Yamas, 
having entered into palaces of fifty or hundred or 
five hundred ycganas in extent, are playing, sporting, 
walking about, exactly in the same manner I see, 
O Bhagavat, these men dwelling within the calyx of 
excellent lotus-flowers in the world Sukhavatl. 

J 41. ' Again there are, O Bhagavat, beings who, 
being born miraculously, appear sitting cross-legged 
in the lotus-flowers. What is there, O Bhagavat, 
the cause, what the reason, that some dwell within 
the calyx, while others, being born miraculously, 
appear sitting cross-legged in the lotus-flowers ? ' 

The Bhagavat said : ' Those Bodhisattvas, O 
A/ita, who, living in other Buddha countries, entertain 
doubt about being born in the world Sukhavatl, and 
with that thought amass a stock of merit, for them 
there is the dwelling within the calyx. Those, on 
the contrary, who are filled with faith, and being 

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free from doubt, amass a stock of merit in order to 
be born in the world Sukhavatl, and conceive, believe, 
and trust in the perfect knowledge of the blessed 
Buddhas, they, being born miraculously, appear 
sitting cross-legged in the flowers of the lotus. And 
those noble-minded Bodhisattvas, O Agita, who, 
living in other Buddha countries, raise their thought 
in order to see Amitabha, the Tathagata, holy and 
fully enlightened, who never entertain a doubt, 
believe in the perfect knowledge of Buddha and 
in their own stock of merit, for them, being born 
miraculously, and appearing cross-legged, there is, 
in one minute, such a body as that of other beings 
who have been born there long before. See, O 
Agita, the excellent, immeasurable, unfailing, un- 
limited wisdom, that namely for their own benefit 
they are deprived during five hundred years of 
seeing Buddhas, seeing Bodhisattvas, hearing the 
Law, speaking about the Law (with others), and thus 
collecting a stock of merit ; they are indeed deprived 
of the successful attainment of every stock of merit, 
and that through their forming ideas tainted with 

'And, O A^ita, there might be a dungeon belong- 
ing to an anointed Kshatriya king, inlaid entirely 
with gold and beryl, in which cushions, garlands, 
wreaths and strings are fixed, having canopies of 
different colours and kind, covered with silk cushions, 
scattered over with various flowers and blossoms, 
scented with excellent scents, adorned with arches, 
courts, windows, pinnacles, fire-places, and terraces, 
covered with nets of bells of the seven kinds of 
gems, having four angles, four pillars, four doors, 
four stairs ; and the son of that king having been 

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64 DESCRIPTION OF SUKhAvat!, J 4 i. 

thrown into the dungeon for some misdeed is there, 
bound with a chain made of the (Jambunada gold. 
And suppose there is a couch prepared for him, 
covered with many woollen cloths, spread over with 
cotton and feather cushions, having Kalinga cover- 
ings, and carpets, together with coverlids 1 , red on 
both sides, beautiful and charming. There he might 
be then either sitting or resting. And there might 
be brought to him much food and drink, of various 
kinds, pure and well prepared. What do you think, 
O A^ita, would the enjoyment be great for that 
prince ? ' 

A/ita said: 'Yes 2 , it would be great, O Bhagavat' 

The Bhagavat said : ' What do you think, O 
A^ita, would he even taste it there, and notice it, 
or would he feel any satisfaction from it ? ' 

He said : ' Not indeed, O Bhagavat ; but on the 
contrary, when he had been led away by the king 
and thrown into the dungeon, he would only wish 
for deliverance from there. He would seek for the 
nobles, princes, ministers, women 8 , elders (rich 
merchants), householders, and lords of castles, who 
might deliver him from that dungeon. Moreover, 
O Bhagavat, there is no pleasure for that prince in 
that dungeon, nor is he liberated, until the king 
shows him favour.' 

The Bhagavat said : ' Thus, O Afita, it is with 
those Bodhisattvas who, having fallen into doubt, 
amass a stock of merit, but doubt the knowledge 
of Buddha. They are born in that world Sukha- 

1 The text is corrupt. One might begin a new word with 

* One expects, No. 

* Stryagara, like the German Frauenzimmer. 

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vatl, through the hearing of Buddha's name, and 
through the serenity of thought only; they do 
not, however, appear sitting cross-legged in the 
flowers of the lotus, being born miraculously, 
but dwell only in the calyx of the lotus-flowers. 
Moreover for them there exist ideas of palaces and 
gardens \ There is no discharge, there is no phlegm 
or mucus, there is nothing disagreeable to the mind. 
But they are deprived of seeing Buddhas, hearing 
the Law, seeing Bodhisattvas, speaking about and 
ascertaining the Law, (gathering) any (new) stock of 
merit, and practising the Law, during five hundred 
years. Moreover they do not rejoice there or per- 
ceive satisfaction. But they wish to remove one 
another, and then they step out behind. And it is 
not known whether their exit takes place above, 
below, or across. See, O Afita, there might be 
worshippings of many hundred thousand niyutas 
of ko/Is of Buddhas during those five hundred 
years, and also many, immense, innumerable, im- 
measurable stocks of merit to be amassed. But 
all this they destroy by the fault of doubt See, 
O Afita, to how great an injury the doubt of the 
Bodhisattvas leads. Therefore now, O A.fita, after 
the Bodhisattvas without doubting have quickly 
raised their thoughts towards the Bodhi, in order 
to obtain power of conferring happiness for the 
benefit of all creatures, their stock of merit should 
be turned towards their being born in the world 
Sukhavatl, where the blessed Amitabha, the Tatha- 
gata, holy and fully enlightened, dwells.' 
§ 42. After these words, the Bodhisattva Afita 

1 They imagine they are living in palaces and gardens. 
[49] *F 

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thus spoke to the Bhagavat : ' O Bhagavat, will the 
Bodhisattvas, who have gone away from this Buddha 
country, or from the side of other blessed Buddhas, 
be born in the world Sukhavati ? ' 

The Bhagavat said: 'Indeed, O A/ita, seventy- 
two niyutas of ko/is of Bodhisattvas are gone away 
from this Buddha country, who will be born in the 
world Sukhavati ; Bodhisattvas, who will never 
return, thanks to the stock of merit, which they 
have accumulated under many hundred thousand 
niyutas of ko/is of Buddhas. What then shall 
be said of those with smaller stocks of merit 1 ? 
1. Eighteen hundred niyutas of ko/is of Bodhisattvas 
will be born in the world Sukhavati from the place 
of the Tathagata Dushprasaha. 2. There lives in 
the Eastern quarter the Tathagata named Ratnakara. 
From his place ninety ko/is of Bodhisattvas will be 
born in the world Sukhavati. 3. Twenty-two ko/is 
of Bodhisattvas will be born in the world Sukhavati 
from the place of the Tathagata Gyotishprabha. 
4. Twenty-five ko/is of Bodhisattvas will be born in 
the world Sukhavati from the place of the Tatha- 
gata Amitaprabha. 5. Sixty ko/is of Bodhisattvas 
will be born in the world Sukhavati from the place 
of the Tathagata Lokapradipa. 6. Sixty-four ko/is 
of Bodhisattvas will be born in the world Sukhi- 
vati from the place of the Tathagata Nagabhibhu. 
7. Twenty-five ko/is of Bodhisattvas will be born in 
the world Sukhavati from the place of the Tathagata 
Vira^a^prabha. 8. Sixteen ko/is of Bodhisattvas 
will be born in the world Sukhavati from the place 
of the Tathagata Swwha. 9. Eighteen thousand 

'.What is meant is that their number is much larger. 


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Bodhisattvas will be born in the world Sukha- 
vatl from the place of the Tathagata Simha. (sic). 
10. Eighty-one niyutas of ko/is of Bodhisattvas will 
be born in the world Sukhavatl from the place of 
the Tathagata .Siriku/a. 1 1. Ten niyutas of ko/ls of 
Bodhisattvas will be born in the world Sukha- 
vatl from the place of the Tathagata Narendrara^a. 
12. Twelve thousand Bodhisattvas will be born in 
the world Sukhavatl from the place of the Tathagata 
Balibhi^»a. 13. Twenty-five ko/ls of Bodhisattvas 1 , 
who have obtained strength, having gone to one 
place in one week of eight days, and having turned 
to the West during ninety hundred thousand 
niyutas of ko/ts of kalpas 8 , will be born in the 
world Sukhavatl from the place of the Tathagata 
Pushpadhva/a. 14. Twelve ko/ts of Bodhisattvas 
will be born in the world Sukhavatl from the place 
of the Tathagata GValan&dhipati. 15. From the 
place of the Tathagata Vairaradyaprapta, sixty-nine 
ko/ls of Bodhisattvas will be born in the world 
Sukhavatl, in order to see the Tathagata Amitabha, 
to bow before him, to worship him, to ask questions 
of him, and to consult him. For this reason, O 
A^ita, I might proclaim during a full niyuta of ko/ls 
of kalpas the names of those Tathagatas, from 
whom the Bodhisattvas proceed in order to see 
that Tathagata Amitabha in the world Sukhavatl, to 

1 It should be p&BAsivims atir. 

1 Sanghavarman's translation of this passage is : ' Within seven 
days they can take hold of the firm conditions (dharmas) practised 
by a noble-minded one during hundred thousands of ko/ls of kalpas.' 
BodhiiwH's is : ' Within seven days they can cause beings to 
separate from their state of transmigration during hundred thou- 
sands of niyutas of ko/ts.' 


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bow before him, and to worship him, and yet the 
end could not be reached. 

§ 43. ' See, O Afita, what easy gains are gained 
by those beings who will hear the name of the 
Tathagata Amitabha, holy and fully enlightened. 
Nor will those beings be of little faith l , who will 
obtain at least one joyful thought of that Tathagata 
and of this treatise of the Law. Therefore now, O 
Afita, I invite you, and command you to proclaim 
this treatise of the Law, before the world together 
with the gods. Having plunged into the vast uni- 
verse full of fire, no one ought to turn back, if he 
has but once conceived the thought of going across. 
And why ? Because ko/is of Bodhisattvas indeed, 
O Afita, return from the highest perfect knowledge, 
on account of not hearing such treatises of the Law 
as this. Therefore, from a wish for this treatise of 
the Law, a great effort should be made to hear, 
learn, and remember it, and to study it for the sake 
of fully grasping it and widely making it known. A 
good copy of it should be kept, after it has been 
copied in a book, if only during one night and day, 
or even during the time necessary for milking a cow. 
The name of Master should be given to a teacher 
who desires to conduct quickly innumerable beings 
to the state of never returning from the highest 
perfect knowledge, namely, in order that they may 
see the Buddha country of that blessed Amitabha, 
the Tathagata, and to acquire the excellent per- 
fection of the array of good qualities peculiar to his 
own Buddha country. 

1 Htn&dhimuktika, see Va^ra-t^edikd XV ; or ' following the 
lower Law.' 

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' And, O A^ita, such beings will have easily gained 
their gains who, having amassed a stock of merit, 
having performed service under former Cinas, and 
having been guided by Buddhas, shall hear in future, 
until the destruction of the good Law, such-like 
excellent treatises of the Law, treatises which are 
praised, eulogized, and approved of by all Buddhas, 
and convey quickly the great knowledge of omni- 
science. And those also who, when they have heard 
it, shall obtain excellent delight and pleasure, and 
will learn, retain, recite and grasp, and wisely preach 
it to others, and be delighted by its study, or, having 
copied it at least, will worship it, will certainly pro- 
duce much good work, so that it is difficult to 
count it 

' Thus indeed, O A/ita, I have done what a Tathi- 
gata ought to do. It is now for you to devote 
yourself to it without any doubt. Do not doubt 
the perfect and unfailing knowledge of Buddha. Do 
not enter into the dungeon made of gems built up 
in every way. For indeed, the birth of a Buddha, 
O A/ita, is difficult to be met with, so is the instruc- 
tion in the Law, and also a timely birth \ O Ag-ita, 
the way to gain the perfection (piramitA) of all stocks 
of merit has been proclaimed by me. Do now exert 
yourselves and move forward. O A^fita, I grant 
indeed a great favour to this treatise of the Law. Be 
valiant so that the laws of Buddhas may not perish 
or disappear. Do not break the command of the 

§ 44. Then at that time, the Bhagavat spoke these 
verses : 

1 Of the hearer ; so that the student should be born at a time 
when there is a Buddha on earth. 

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i. 'Such hearings of me will not be for people 
who have not done good ; but those who are heroes 
and perfect, they will hear this speech. 

2. ' And those by whom the Lord of the world, 
the enlightened and the light-giver, has been seen, 
and the law been heard reverentially, will obtain 
the highest joy. 

3. ' Low people of slothful minds cannot find any 
delight in the laws of Buddha; those who have 
worshipped in the Buddha countries learn the service 
of the Lords of the three worlds. 

4. 'Asa blind man in darkness does not know 
the way, and much less can show it, so also he who 
is (only) a .Sravaka 1 in the knowledge of Buddha ; 
how then should beings who are ignorant ! 

5. ' The Buddha only knows the virtues of a 
Buddha ; but not gods, Nagas, Asuras, Yakshas, and 
.Sravakas (disciples) ; even for Anekabuddhas 2 there 
is no such way, as when the knowledge of a Buddha 
is being manifested. 

6. * If all beings had attained bliss, knowing the 
highest meaning in pure wisdom, they would not 
in korts of kalpas or even in a longer time tell all 
the virtues of one Buddha. 

7. ' Thereupon they would attain Nirva»a, preach- 
ing for many ko/ls of kalpas, and yet the measure 
of the knowledge of a Buddha would not be reached, 
for such is the wonderfulness of the knowledge of 
the Cinas. 

8. 'Therefore a learned man of an intelligent 
race 8 who believes my words, after having perceived 

1 Those who are as yet hearers only of the Law. 

* Should it be Pratyekabuddhas ? 

* The text is evidently corrupt, and the translation conjectural. 

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§45* THE LAND OF BLISS. 7 1 

all paths of the knowledge of the £inas, should utter 
speech, saying, " Buddha is wise." 

9. ' Now and then a man is found, now and then 
a Buddha appears, knowledge of the object of faith 
is acquired after a long time, — therefore one should 
strive to acquire (the knowledge of) the object (of 
faith) 1 .' 

§ 45. And while this treatise of the Law was being 
delivered, twelve ko/ts of niyutas of beings obtained 
the pure and spotless eye of the Law with regard 
to Laws. Twenty-four hundred thousand niyutas 
of ko/ts of beings obtained the Anagamin * reward. 
Eight hundred Bhikshus had their thoughts delivered 
from faults so as to cling no more to anything. 
Twenty-five ko/ts of Bodhisattvas obtained resigna- 
tion to things to come. And by forty hundred 
thousand niyutas of ko/ts of the human and divine 
race, thoughts such as had never risen before were 
turned toward the highest perfect knowledge, and 
their stocks of merit were made to grow toward 
their being born in the world Sukhivatl, from a desire 
to see the Tathagata, the blessed Amitibha. And 
all of them having been born there, will in proper 
order be born in other worlds, as Tathagatas, called 
Ma»^usvara (sweet-voiced). And eighty ko/ts of 
niyutas having acquired resignation under the Tatha- 
gata Dlpankara, never turning back again from the 
highest perfect knowledge, rendered perfect by the 

1 The tenth verse is again unintelligible, but may have meant 
something like that ' those who having heard the best Laws, are 
joyful in remembering Sugata, are our friends in time past, and 
they also who wish for enlightenment' 

* One who is not bom again, except in the Brahma world, and 
then may obtain Nirvana. 

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Tathagata Amitayus, practising the duties of former 
Bodhisattvas, will carry out, after they are born in 
the world Sukhavatl, the duties enjoined in the 
former Prawidhanas (prayers). 

§ 46. At that time this universe (the three millions 
of worlds) trembled in six ways. And various miracles 
were seen. On earth everything was perfect, and 
human and divine instruments were played, and the 
shout of joy was heard as far as the world of the 

§ 47. Thus spoke the Bhagavat enraptured, and 

the noble-minded Bodhisattva A/ita, and the blessed 

Ananda, the whole Assembly, and the world, with 

gods, men, spirits, mighty birds, and fairies, applauded 

__ the speech of the Bhagavat 

The praise of the beauty of the excellences of 
Sukhavatl, the country of the blessed Amitabha, the 
Tathagata, the entry of the Bodhisattva on the 
stage of ' never returning,' the story of Amitabha, 
the Mahay&nasutra of the Description of Sukhavatl 
is finished. 

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In the Chinese translations of the Larger Sukhavati- 
vyuha, made by Sanghavarman, A. D. 252, and Bodhiru£i, 
A.D. 693-713, there are altogether 48 Pramdhanas, not 46, 
as in the Sanskrit text. The 18th and the 21st in the 
translations are evidently wanting in the Sanskrit text, 
and the latter part of the 19th Pramdhana in that text 
is the latter part of the lost 18th, according to the trans- 
lations. This 1 8th Prawidhana, however, is so important 
that it is called by Gen-ku, the teacher of Shin-ran, the 
founder of the Shin-shiu sect, ' the king of the Pramdhanas.' 

Sanghavar man's translation of the 18th, 20th, and 21st 
is as follows : — 

18. 'When I have obtained Buddhahood, if those beings 
who are in the ten quarters should believe in me with 
serene thoughts, and should wish to be born in my coun- 
try, and should have say ten times thought of me (or 
repeated my name), — if they should not be born there, 
may I not obtain the perfect knowledge; — barring only 
those beings who have committed the five deadly sins, 
and who have spoken evil of the good Law.' 

The 1 8th Pramdhana in the Sanskrit text agrees with 
the 19th in both Chinese translations ; but the 20th in 
these translations is somewhat shorter than the 19th in the 
Sanskrit text The shorter translation is as follows : — 

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20. ' When I have obtained Buddhahood, if those beings 
who are in the ten quarters, after they have heard my 
name, should direct their thoughts towards my country 
and should plant the roots of merit (or prepare their stock 
of merit), and should bring them to maturity with their 
serene thoughts, and wish to be born in my country, — if 
they should not accomplish (their desire), may I not obtain 
the perfect knowledge. 

21. 'When I have obtained Buddhahood, if gods and 
men in my country should not all be endowed perfectly 
with the thirty-two marks of the great man, may I not 
obtain the perfect knowledge.' 

I have tried to restore the Sanskrit text for the above 
three Prawidhanas, in accordance with the Chinese trans- 

The 1 8th may be formed chiefly out of the 19th in the 
text, something as follows : — 

Note. — The fulfilment of this Prawidhana is given in the 
text (p. 47, 11. 1-4), as the reason of the fulfilment of 
the 17th :— 

• i imm lift: 1 $» %ftwmTORr »nrwtjflniPW iT»nW 

In the Chinese translations, the exception of two kinds 
of beings is repeated at the end of this fulfilment. 

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The 20th (i.e. 19th in the text) may then be shortened 
like this : — 

1*01 q*% <w^fVmHqm«t«iKi«raa 3*^3 S 

The fulfilment of this Pra»idhina may be the 27th 
chapter in the text, with the exception of some portion on 
the appearance of Amitabha before a dying man, which 
belongs to the 19th (i.e. 18th in the text) Pramdhana. 

**Mflft<i gmiflM<qOMf«wft *N$r frit *rfw*r a* 
* iNwmgvn^ HftMHaft • i (im)% (tf **m i*t) 
jnmfqm*gn: wnfa qqrwwt «tav i myw<nfl l i (p-47-) 

The 21st may be like this : — 

1^1 ^% iwUftnrnra m %tfn ^ *tot: swnwnn 

This Pranidhana is found in the Tibetan translation. 

The fulfilment of this Prawidhana is to be found in 
chap. 35 (p. 56) as follows : — 


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Roman numerals refer to the chapters, Arabic figures with p. to the pages 
of the edition of the Sanskrit text in the Anecdota Ozoniensia, 
without p. to the verses in certain chapters. Arabic figures in 
parentheses give the number in the lists of names. 

Akanish/ia, XVII. 
Akanishtba-bhavana, the abode of 

the Akanish/Aas. XL, p. 64 ; 

akurala, sin, XVIII, p. 40. 
akshanopapatti, of untimely birth, 

a^lta, not born, XVIII, p. 40. 
a^atismara, forgetful of former 

births, XXXVI (conjecture). 
Ajita, the Bodhisattva Ajita, 

XL, p. 64. 
A£#Snavidhva»»sana, N. of a Tatbi- 

gata, III (64). 
Ativtryaprabha - AmitEbha, XII, 

p. 29. 
Atulyaprabha - Amitabha, XII, 

p. 29. 
adujfckhasukhavedanS, perceiving 

what is neither pain nor plea- 
sure, XVIII, p. 40. 
Anantarya, crimes (five), VIII, 19. 
auabhisamskira, not made, XVIII, 

P. 40. 

AnagSnii-(phala), the Anagamin's 
(reward), reward of not being 
bora again on earth, XLV, 
p. 76 (conjectural reading). 

Anibandhantyaprabha = AmitSbha, 
XII, p. 39. 

animitta, causelessness, X, p. 36. 


aniyata, not bent on anything (?), 

Aniruddha, N. pr., I (20). 

auutpattikadharmakshlnti, resigna- 
tion to consequences which have 
not yet arisen, XVIII, p. 40; 
XXXHend; XLV, p. 76. 

anutpada, without origin, XVIII, 
p. 40. 

Anupalipta, N. of a Tathlgata, 1 1 1 (8). 

anulomikt kshanti, resignation to 
natural consequences, XXXII 

Anekabuddha, pi. Pratyekabuddhas ? 
XLIV, 5. 

apaya, misery, XVIII, p. 40. 

aprawihita, purposelessness, X, p. 26. 

apraaihita, free from desire, XVIII, 
p. 40. 

Apratihatarajmiragaprabha = Ami- 
tabha, XII, p. 29. 

Apsaras, the Apsarases, XIX, p. 43 ; 

abhlva, not-being, XVIII, p. 40. 

prabha [by conjecture] >= Ami- 
tabha, XII, p. 29. 

mikaranaprabha = Amitabha, 
XII, p. 39. 

abhishekabhumipratilambha, attain- 
ment of the royal stage, XVIII, 
p. 40. 

abhisambudh (samyaksambodhim), 
obtain the highest perfect 
knowledge, XI ; XIV. 

amanushya, not-man, XXXIX, 
p. 6j. 

amatya, minister, X, p. 37. 

Amitaprabha, Amitaprabhasa*= Ami- 
tabha, XII, p. 29 ; XXXI, 5, 
20; XXXIX,p.62;XLII( 4 ). 

Amitabha, I ; XI to XV; XXVI to 
XXXI; XXXIX; XLV, p. 76. 

Amitayu, XXXI, 1-4, 11, 17. 

Digitized by 




Amitiyus •= Amitibha, XIV ; 

XXXII; XXXVII, p. 58; 

XXXIX, p. 6a; XLV, p. 76. 
Amoghara^a, N. pr., I (38). 
arthavjua, cause and effect, XXX. 
Arhat, holy, I; XI; XXVII; 


p. 63. 
Avalokitervara, Buddha's son, 

XXXI, ij ; XXXIV. 
Avtfi, hell, IV, 10. 
Avidy&ndhakiravidhvamsanakara, N. 

of a Tathigata, III (35). 
avaivartika, never returning (for a 

new birth), XXXI, 18. See 

also XXXII, p. 55; XLII, 

p. 69 ; XLV, p. 76. 
avaivartikatva, the state of never 

returning, XLII I, p. 73. 
A/va^it, N. pr., I (a). 
Asangataprabha «= Amitibha, XII, 

p. 39. 
Asamaptaprabha «= Amitibha, XII, 

p. 29. 
Asura, Asuras, VIII, 1,3; X, p. 35 ; 

XII, p. 30; XXXIX, p. 63; 


iiiryopadhyaya, teachers and mas- 
ters, X, p. 36. 

A^gitakauni/inya, N. pr., I (1). 

Ananda, N. pr., I (34) ; II, &c. ; XI, 
&c. &c. 

irimaparigraha, predial property 
with regard to monasteries, 

Arya, XII, p. 30. 

Svesikabuddhadharma, freedom 
from attachment, XVIII, p. 40. 

irrava, fault, XLV, p. 76. 

isura-kiya, the body of Asuras, 
VIII, 1, a ; XV. 

UttaptavaWuryanirbhisa, N. of a 

Tathigata, III (30). 
uttariAiryi, the higher practice, 

VIII, 30. 
Udakaiandra, N of a Tathagata, 

I" (34). 
unmi^a, question, II, p. 4. 
upajanta, peace, XVIII, p. 40. 
upldhyiya, teacher, X, p. 36 ; 

XLIII, p. 7a. 
Upisaka. layman, )___.._. 
Upisiki, laywomanj XXXIX > P- 6 3- 

Uposhantyaprabha— Amitibha, XII, 

p. 39. 
Uruvilvikisyapa, N. pr., I (10). 

Wddhi, miraculous power, VIII, 5. 

r/ddhimat, endowed with mira- 
culous power, XIII, p. 31. 

r/ddhivuiti, miraculous power, 
VIII, 5; XIII, p. 31. 

r»ddhibala, miraculous power, 

XXXI, 16, 31. 

ekaff&tipratibaddha, bound to one 
birth only, VIII, 30; XXXIII. 

eka^itiya, of one birth only, XXXI, 

ekiyanarnirga, the path of one ve- 
hicle, XXXVIII, p. 59. 

aupapiduka, born miraculously, 
XLI, p. 65. 

Kampila, N. pr., I (33). 

kannan (karma*im vipSkai>, kar- 
mibhisamsklrab, the result of 
works, and the outcome of 
works), XVII, p. 37. 

klma, lust, X, p. 35. 

Kirunika, N. of a Tathigata, III 

Kilaparvata, black mountain, XVII 

beg. ; XXXIX, p. 63. 
Kinnara, Kinnaras, XII, p. 30 ; 

XXXIX, p. 63. 
Kumirakiryapa, N. pr., I (13). 
kusalamfila, stock of merit, VIII, 

19, as, 37, 41. 4« 5 XVII; 

XVIII, p. 40; XXVII; 


XXXVIII, p. 60, &c. 
Kusumaprabha, N. of a Tathigata, 

III (50). 
Kusumavrtshryabhiprakima, N. of a 

Tathigata, III (51). 
Kusumasambhava, N. of a Tathi- 
gata, III (43). 
KusumabhWJa, N. of a Tathigata, 

HI (63). 

Kejarin, N. of a Tathigata, III (65). 

kshatriya, Kshatriyas, X, p. 37. 

kshinti, endurance, VIII, 46; pa- 
tience (piramiti), X, p. 36 ; 
three kinds of resignation, 

XXXII, p. 55- 

Khadiravanika, N. pr, I (35). 

Digitized by 




Gandharva, XII, p. 30; XXXIX, 
p. 6j; XLVII. 

gandharvara^a (doubtful, text prob- 
ably corrupt), XIX, p. 41. 

Gayakfcyapa, N. pr., I (12). 

GaiWa and GaiWas, XII, p. 30 ; 
XXXIX, p. 63 ; XLVII. 

gatha, verse, IV; IX: XXV; 

Giririraghosha, N. of a Tathagata, 
III (is). 

Girii%aghoshe/vara, N. of a Tatha- 
gata, III (49). 

Gridhrakfi/a, the mountain G., I. 

grrhapati, householder, X, p. 27. 

ghoshanugi (kshanti, resignation), 
following the sound, XXXII 

jfakravartitva, sovereignty, X, p. 27. 
JTakravaJa (mountains), XVII ; 

XXXIX, p. 63. 
JEandana, N. of a Tathagata, III (6). 
£andanagandha, N. of a Tathagata, 

"I (4, 54). 
JTandabhibbu, N. of a Tathagata, 

III (18). 
JCandraprabha, N. of a Tathagata, 

Jtandrabhanu, N. of a Tathagata, 

I" (45). 

Jtandrasurya^ihmikaraaa, N. of a 
Tathagata, III (29). 

laryLfarana, practice of discipline, 
XXXVIII, p. 59. 

^iturmah3r%akayika (gods), con- 
sisting of the companies of the 
four Maharajas, XVII. 

Jthtadharibuddlusaftkusumitabhyu - 
dgata, N. of a Tathagata, III 

£intama*iratna, jewel which yields 

every wish, XXXII. 
ATullapatka, N. pr., I (31). 

Gambfldvtpejvara, sovereign of 
India, X, p. 27. 

^atismara, possessed of the recollec- 
tion of former births, VIII, 6 ; 

Gambfinadasuvaraa, gold coming 
from the river G., II, p. 3. 

Gina=Buddha, II, p. 3; IX, 9; 
XXV, 5; XLIII,p.7»; XLIV, 

Cinabala, Cina-power, XXXVIII, 
p. 61. 

GinasutiA, sons of the Gina, 
XXXVIII, p. 61. 

jri&nadarjana, intellectual know- 
ledge, II, p. 4. 

Gyotishprabha, N. of a Tathagata, 
III (15) ; XLII (3). 

Gvalanadhipatt, a Tathagata, XLII 


Tathagata, list of eighty-one T.'s, 


p. 62, &c. &c. 
tiryagyoni, brute-creation, VIII, 1, 

2; XV. 
Tishya, N. of a Tathagata, III (38). 
Tushita, XVII. 
TQryaghosha, N. of a Tathagata, 

III (19). 
Trayastriwua (gods), XL, p. 65. 
trisahasra m a h asahasra, the three 

millions of spheres of worlds, 

VIII, xa ; XLIII, p. 71; 

traidhatukasamati, equilibrium of 

the three elements, XXXVIII, 

P. 59. 

d3na, liberality, X, p. 26 (plramita). 
divyam >akshus, the divine eye, 

VIII, 7, «6; XXXI, 16; 

XXXVIII, p. 59 (opp. mlmsa- 

divyam srotram, the divine ear, 

VIII, 8 ; XXXI, 16. 
Dtpahkara, N. of a Tathagata, III 

duAkha, pain, XVIII, p. 40. 
durgati, distress, XVIII, p. 40. 
Dushprasaha, a Tathagata, XLII (1). 
deva, god, XII, p. 30; XXXIX, 

p. 63; XLVII, &c. 


devara^atva, sovereignty of the gods, 
X, p. 27. 

dharma, Law, XVIII, pp. 39, 40 ; 

dharmam derayati, XI. 
dharma, a thing, XXXVIII, p. 59. 
dharma, plur. (gambhfra, profound), 

doctrines, XXIX. 
dharmakathl, the story of the Law, 

Dharmaketu, N. of a Tathagata, 

HI (70). 

Digitized by 




dharmaiakrapravartana, turning the 

wheel of the Law, X, p. 37. 
dharmaiakshus, eye of the Law, 

XXXVIII, p. 59 ; XLV, p. 76. 
Dharmamati, N. of a Tathlgata, 

III (78). 
Dharmamativinanditara^a, N. of a 

Tathagata, III (39). 
Dharmlkara, N. of a Bhikshu, III 

end; IV; V; VI; VII; X, 

p. 35 5 XI. 
dharmolka, torch of the Law, 

XXXVIII, p. 61. 
dhatu, cause, XXXVIII, p. 59. 
Dhinwfc, VIII, 33. 

dhyana (paramita), meditation, X, 
p. a 6. 

NacRkajyapa, N. pr., I (11). 
Nanda, N. pr., I (33). 
Nandika, N. pr., I (3 1). 
Narendra, N. of a Tathagata, III 

Narendrara,ja, a Tathagata, XLII 

N3ga and Nagas, XII, p. 30; 

XXXIX, p. 63; XLIV, 5. 
Nagabhibhfi, N. of a Tathagata, 

III (10) ; XLII (6). 
NarSyanavarra, the diamond (or 

thunderbolt?) of N., VIII, 35. 
Nimi, N. of a Tathagata, III (56). 
niraya, hell, VIII, 1, 3 ; XV. 
nirodha, cessation, XVIII, p. 40. 
nirodha, Nirvana, XXI, p. 44. 
Nirminarati, XVII. 
nirvana, XXIV. 
nirv/vta bhfi, to attain Nirvana, 

XLIV, 7. 
nishparidaha, free from pain, VIII, 

nivarana, obstacle, XVIII, p. 40. 

pafttamant&lanamaskara, prostrate 
reverence, VIII, 35. 

Patka, N. pr., I (30). 

padma, lotus (men born in lotus- 
flowers), XL ; XLI. 

Padmabimbyupasobhita, N. of a 
Tathagata, III (53). 

para4itta£#ana, knowledge of the 
thoughts of other people, VIII, 

Paranirmitavajavartin (gods), XVII ; 

XIX, p. 41 ; XX 5 XL, p. 65. 
paramartha, highest truth, XXV, 1. 

parigrahasampn:!, idea of possession, 
VIII, 10. 

parinam, causat., to bring to matu- 
rity, VIII, 19. 

parinirvana, the Nirvana, VIII, ao ; 

parinirvr/ta, having entered Nir- 
vana, XI. 

parlkshaiitta (kshi ?), having inquir- 
ing thoughts, I. 

parshad, the Assembly, VII ; IX, 8 ; 

paramikovida, knowing the highest 
wisdom, XXXI, 16. 

Paramita, highest perfection, II, 
p. 4 ;VIII,5;X,p.36;XVIII, 
p. 40. 

Parayanika, N. pr., I (39). 

purushadamyasaratht, III, p. 7. 

Pushpadhvaea, a Tathagata, XLII 

Pushpakara, N. of a Tathagata, III 

Pushpavatfvanartg-asankusumitabhi - 
*«a, N. of a Tathagata, III 

Pur»a-Maitrayanfputra,N. pr., I (9). 
pGrva^ina, former Ginas, XXXII 

end; XXXVII end. 
pflrvadattadharmirravana, hearing 

of the Law formerly given, 

XXXVII end. 
pflrvapraaidhana, former prayers, 

XXXII end; XXXVII end; 

XLV end. 
prajnl (paramita), knowledge, X, 

p. 36. 
prag-nlUakshus, eye of wisdom, 

XXXVIII, p. 59. 
prajjflaparamita, transcendental wis- 
dom, XXXVIII, p. 59. 
pranidhi, to pray, XXVII. 
pranidhana, prayer, VI ; VII, p. 1 1 ; 

VIII, 14,30 ; IX; XII, p. 39; 

see pQrvapranidhana. 
pranidhlnavasa, the power of prayer, 

pranidhinasampad, perfection of 

prayer, X, p. 35. 
pranidhi, prayer, IV, to; IX, 9, 11 ; 

X, p. 35 ; XXXI, 17, 18. 
pranidhisthana, subject of prayer, 

VII, p. 11. 
Pratapavat, N. of a Tathagata, III 

pratibhana, understanding, II, p. 4. 

Digitized by 




pratisamrvit, perfect knowledge, VIII, 
28; consciousness, XVIII, 
p. 40. 

Pratyekabuddha, VIII, 12. 

pradakshinikn, to walk round re- 
spectfully, XXXI, 5. 

Prabhakara, N. of a Tathigata, 

HI (3). 
Prabhisikhotsrfch/aprabha — Ami- 

tabha, XII, p. 29. 
Pramodaniyaprabha — Amitibha, 

XII, p. 29. 
pra/inta, peace, XVIII, p. 40. 
pratiharya, miracle, XLVI. 
Priptasena, N. of a Tathigata, III 

pretavishaya, the realm of the de- 
parted spirits, VIII, 1, 2 ; XV. 

Premantyaprabha—Amitabha, XII, 
p. 29. 

bala, the Balas or powers, XVIII, 

p. 40. 
Balabhu^fa, a Tathigata, XLII 

Buddha, II, &c^ sing, and plur. ; 

XII, p. 29 ; XXXI, 1, &c. &c. 
buddhakshetra, a Buddha country, 

V; VI; VII; XI; XII, &c 

buddhaiakshus, eye of Buddha, 

XXXVIII, p. 59. 
buddhac-Xina, knowledge of Buddha, 

XXXVIII, p. 59. 
buddbadharmasanghi£, Buddha, the 

Law, and the Church, VIII, 46 ; 

X, p. 26 ; XVIII, p. 39. 
buddhatSstri, Buddha teacher, VIII, 

buddhasamgfti, music of Buddha, 

XXXVIII, p. 59. 
bodhi, knowledge, VIII, 15 seqq. ; 

XXVII; XXXII, p. 55; 

XXXVI; XLI, p. 69. 
bodhiparinishpatti, perfect know- 
ledge, XVIII, p. 40. 
bodhwAsha, a Bodhi tree, VIII, 27; 

Bodhisattva, I ; X, p. 25, sing, and 

plur.; XXX; XXXI; XXXIX, 

&c. &c. 
bodhyangasamgtti, music of the 

Bodhyangas, XXXVIII, p. 59. 
Brahmakiyika, XVII. 
Brahmaketu, N. of a Tathigata, 

HI (77). 

[49] *< 

Brahmaghosha, N. of a Tathigata, 

HI (i7, 59). 
Brahman, X, p. 25 ; XII, p. 29. 
Brahmapurohita, XVII. 
Brahmasvaranidabhinandita, N. of 

a Tathigata, III (42). 
brihmana, Brihmana, X, pp. 25, 27. 

Bhagavat, I ; II, &c. 

Bhadragit, N. pr., I (5). 

bhikshu, a mendicant (nirodhasa- 

mapanna), XXI, p. 44, &c. ; 

XXXIX, p. 63. 
bhikshust, nun, XXXIX, p. 63. 
bhflmi, the Bhflmis or stages, XVIII, 

p. 40. 

MaA^usvara, ' sweet-voiced ' (Tathi- 

gatas), XLV, p. 76. 
mamtshyimanushyai>, men and not 

men,XII,p.3o; XXXIX, p.63. 
malt? IV, 8. 
maharddhika, endowed with great 

supernatural powers, XL, p. 65. 
Mahikaphila, N. pr., I (18). 
mahikanuii, highest compassion, II, 

p. 4; XVIII, p. 40. 
Mahaklryapa, N. pr., I (14). 
Mahiketu, N. of a Tathigata, III 

Mahikaushffllya, N. pr., I (17). 
MaMgandharaganirbhisa, N. of a * 

Tathigata, III (24). 
Mahigunadhara, N. of a Tathigata, 

III (61). 

N. of a Tathigata, III (28). 
mabibtakrav&a, Great JCakraviLk 

mountains, XVII ; XXXIX, 

MabJuunda, N. pr., I (19). 

N. of a Tathigata, III (62). 

mahidharmadundubhi, the great 
drum of the Law, XXXVIII, 
p. 61. 

mahidharmadhvaffa, the great banner 
of the Law, XXXVIII, p. 61. 

mahidharmabheri, the great kettle- 
drum of the Law, XXXVIII, 
p. 61. 

mahidhannasankha, the great trum- 
pet-shell of the Law.XXXVIH, 
p. 61. 

Mahlniga, I, p. 2 ; II, p. 3. 

Mahiniman, N. pr, I (4). 

Digitized by 




mahaparinirviaa, VIII, u. 

mah&purushalakshana, the (thirty- 
two) marks of a great man, 
XVI, p $6; XXXV. 

mahlpranidhana, the great prayer, 
X, p. 35. 

mahabrahmatva, X, p. 37. 

Mahabrahman, the great Brahman, 
XVII ; XXXVIII, p. 60. 

Mahimuiilinda, XXXIX, p. 63. 

mahamudita, great rejoicing, XVIII, 
p. 40. 

Mahameru,the great Meru,XXXIX, 
p. 63. 

mahtmaitrt, great love, XVIII, 

audgalyiyana, N. pr., I (16). 
MahSra^as (four), XVII, p. 37. 
Mahlvyfiha, N. of a Tathagata, III 

Mahaxravaka, great disciple, I, p. 2 

mahasamnSha, the whole armour (of 

the Law), VIII, 30. 
Mahasthamaprapta, name ofaBodhi- 

sattva, XXXIV. 
Mahejvara, XII, p. 29 end. 
MahopekshS, great forgiveness, 

XVIII, p. 40. 
mahoraga, XII, p. 30; XXXIX, 

p. 63. 
rodnusha, men, XLVII. 
Mira (samaraka), X, p. 35. 
mithyStvaniyata, bent on falsehood, 

mtmamsa, philosophy, II, p. 4. 

mimamsa^Aana, philosophical know- 
ledge, II, p. 3. 

M uktakusumaprati manrftaprabha, 
N. of a Tathagata, III (20). 

Mukta/MAatra, N. of a Tatblgata, 
III (66). 

MuktaMtatraprav&asadrwa, N. of 
a Tatblgata, III (37). 

Muiilinda, XXXIX, p.63. 

Meru, XXXVIII, p. 59 ; XXXIX, 

Meruku/a, N. of a Tatblgata, III 

(13, 46). 
Maitriyantputra, see Purna-Maitra- 

Maitreya, N. of a Bodhisattva, I end. 
Maudgalyayana, XIII, p. 31. 

Yaksha, Yakshas, XII, p. 30; 
XXXIX, p. 63; XLIV, 5 . 

yathabhOtapra%#l, the true pro- 
mise, X, p. 35. 

Yarodeva, N. pr., I (6). 

Yama devaA, the Yamadevas, XVII, 
P- 37 5 XL, p. 65. 

Rana£;aha, N. of a Tatblgata, III 

Ratnaketu, N. of a Tathagata, III 

Ratnaiandra, N. of a Tathigata, III 

ratnaparrata,jewel-mountain, XVII: 

XXXIX, p. 63. 
ratnavnksha, gem-tree, XVI, p. 33. 
Ratna/rt, N. of a Tathagata, III 

Ratnakara, a Tathagata, XLII (2). 
Ratnabhibbisa, N. of a Tatblgata, 

HI (55). 
Rakshasa, XXXIX, p. 63. 
ragadveshamohaA, illusion, hatred, 

and passion, XXXVIII, p. 61. 
Ra^agWha, the city, I. 
Ra^aniyaprabha «= Amitabha, XII, 

p. 39. 
raji, division (two divisions of beings), 

RShula, N. pr., I (33). 

dharm££, all qualified objects 

of senses, X, p. 36. 

sajngf&, the idea of form, sound, 

smell, taste, and touch, X, p. 35. 
Revata, N. pr., I (34). 

lokadbltu, world, VIII, 7, 18, &c. 
lokanatha, protector of the world, . 

IX, 3. 
Lokapila, XII, p. 39. 
lokapalatva, X, p. 37. 
Lokapradfpa, a Tathagata, XLII 

Lokasundara, N. of a Tatblgata. Ill 

Lokendra, N. of a Tathagata, III 

(3*, 73> 
Lokesvararaja, N. of a Tathagata, 
III (81); IV; V; VI; VII. 

Vakula, N. pr., I (36). 

Varaprabha, N. of a Tathagata, III 

va/avartitva, X, p. 37. 
vajiUi, self-control, VIII, 5. 

Digitized by 




vas, to perform one's religious duties, 

I, p. 1. 
Vishpa, N. pn, I (3). 
viniplta, destruction, XVIII, p. 40. 
vibhQti (punyl), (holy) miraculous 

power (of Buddhas), XVII. 
Vimala, N. pr., I (7). 
Vimalanetra, N. of a Tathagata, III 

Vimalaprabha, III (9). 
Vimalinana, N. of a Tathagata, III 

Vira^tfrprabha, a Tathagata, XLII 


viraga, passionlessness, XVIII, p. 40. 

viveka. retirement, XVIII, p. 40. 

vihimsa, cruelty, X, p. 25. 

vtrya, strength, X, p. 26 (piramita). 

VaWGryagarbha, N. of a Tathagata, 
III (68). 

VaWuryanirbhlsa, N. of a Tatha- 
gata, III (16). 

vauaradya, experience, fearlessness, 

Valraradyaprapta, a Tathagata, XLI I 


Vyapagatakhiladosha, N. of a Tatha- 
gata, III (58). 

Vyapagatakhilamalapratighosha, N. 
of a Tathagata, III (25). 

vyipada, malevolence, X, p. 35. 

A'akra, king of Devas, XII, p. 29 ; 

XX; XXXII, p. 54. 
Sakratva, X, p. 27. 
Slkyamuni, XXXIX, p. 64. 
jJnta(praj3ntopajintam), peace, 

XVIII, p. 40; jintasahagatam, 

Siriputra, N. pr., I (15). 
Sistri (sajngxi, the name of) Master, 

XLIII, p. 7a. 
jfla (plramiti), virtue, X, p. 26. 
jukladharma, the pure Law, X, p. 2 5. 
5uddhMsa, XII, p. 29. 
jflnyati, emptiness, X,p.a6; XVIII, 

p. 40. 
Sflrakutt, N. of a Tathagata, III 

jraddhS, faith, XXV, 5. 
Sramana, X, p. 25. 

prabha=AmitJbha, XII, p. 29. 
jravaka, pupil, VIII, 12 ; XI ; 

XXXIV; XXXIX, p.6 3 seq.; 

XLIV, 4, 5. 


Srtku/a, N.of a Tatbigata, III (ai) ; 

XLII (10). 
/ruta, sacred knowledge, XXXVIII, 

p. 61. 
jresh/£in, merchant, X, p. 27. 

Sangamanfyaprabha «= Amitibha, 

XII, p. 29. 
sangha, the Church, XVIII, p. 39. 
Sadivyamaniprabba — Amitibha, 

XII, p. 29. 
sadevaka, together with the gods, 

X, p. 25. 
saddharma, the good Law, VIII, 

Saptaratnlbhivrtshta, N. of a Tatbi- 
gata, III (60). 
sabrahmaka, together with Brahman, 

X, p. 25. 

discipline, VIII, ao. 
Samantanugata, N. of a Sama'dhi, 

VIII, 43. 
Samadhi, ecstacy, II, p. 4 ; VIII, 

40, 43; XXVI II. 
samSraka, together with Mara, X, 


samyaktva, absolute truth, VIII, 11. 
samyaksambuddha,fully enlightened, 

II, p. 4 ;V; XXVII; XXVIII; 

samyaksaoibodhi (anuttarS), highest 

perfect knowledge, V; VII; 

VIII; X, p. 26; XI; XIV; 


XXXII, p. 55; XXXIII; 

XLIII, p. 72; XLV, p. 76. 
samyagijjtfa, perfect knowledge, I. 
sarvakuialamulaplramita, perfection 

of all stocks of merit, XLIII, 

sarva^Sa^ffana, the knowledge of 

omniscience, XLIII, p. 72. 
sarvap-tfat.3, omniscience, II, p. 3 ; 

VIII, 23; XXXVIII beg. 
sajramanabrlhmanika, together with 

framanas and Brahmans, X, 

p. 25. 
Sahaiokadhitu, the world Saba, 

XXXIX, p. 64. 
Sagarameruitandra, N. of a Tatbi- 
gata, III (41). 
SigaravarabuddhivikruitibhijjEa, N. 

of a Tathagata, 111(22). 
Simha, N. of a Tathagata, III (79) ; 

XLII (8, 9). 

G 2 

Digitized by 


8 4 


simhanlda, the lion's voice, VII ; 

IX, 8. 
Simhamati, N. of a Tathlgata, III 

SiOThasagarakfl/avioanditai%a, N. of 

a Tathagata, III (40). 
Sukhavatf, I ; XI ; XV ; XVIII ; 

XXXIX; XL,&c. 
Sugata, the sons of S., I, p. 1 ; III, 

p. 7; XXXI, 3i (the Sugatas) ; 

XLIV, 10. 
sutushitva, X, p. 27. 
Sunirmitatva, X, p. 27. 
Subihu, N. pr., I (8). 
Subhtiti, N. pr., 1(23). 
Sumeru, XVII, p. 37; XXXVIII, 

p. 59, plur. ; XXXIX, p. 63. 
Sumerukalpa, N. of a Tathlgata, 

III (5). 

suylmatva, X, p. 27. 

sulikhita, a good copy, XLIII, p. 72. 

Suvarnagarbha, N. of a Tathlgata, 

HI («7). 
Suvanraprabha, N. of a Tathlgata, 

III (14). 
Suvibhaktavatf , name of a Samldhi, 

VIII, 40. 
Sfiryodana, N. of a Tathlgata, III 

stryaglra, room for women (Frauen- 

zimmer), XLI, p. 67. 
Sthavira, elder, I, p. 2 (bis). 
Svlgata, N. pr n I (27). 
svadhylya, learning, VIII, 38. 

hetubalika, strong in 
XXXVIII, p. 61. 


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Bodhisattvas, II ; VII ; VIII, 20. 
Bodhi-tree, IV, 8; VIII, 27. 
Brahmanas, X, p. 25. 
Buddha country, V ; VI ; VII, &c. ; 

X,p.2 5 ; XI; XII. 
Buddha, the Law and the Church, 

VIII, 46. 
Buddhas, X, p. 26 end. 

— possessed of thirty-two marks, 

XVI, p. j6. 

— proceeding from the rays of light 

that proceed from gem-lotuses, 
XVI, p. 36. 

— XVII. 

— praise Amitabha, XXVI. 
Buddha's death, XXVII; XXVIII. 

— son, XXXI, 1 j. 

Knowledge, six kinds of (sha</a- 
bhfc*a), I. 

— highest perfect (samyaksambo- 

dhi), V &c. 

— perfect (pratisawrvit), VIII, 28. 

— three kinds of, IX, 10. 

Lion voice (siwibanlda), IX, 8. 
Lotus, men living in lotus-flowers, 
XL, p. 65. 

Meditation, the third, VIII, 37. 
Music-clouds, VIII, 31. 

Nirvana, IV, 8; VIII, 20; XI; 
XXI ; XXlVj XLIV, 7. 

Endurance, degrees of, VIII, 46. Offerings, IX, 1, 10. 

Gods, X, p. 25 ; XL, p. 65. 

— (thirty-three), XVII. 

— Buddhas, II. 

— and men, VIII, 4, 30, 32, 35. 
no difference between them, 


Jewel-flowers, VIII, 31. 
Jewel-trees, VIII, 38. 

Powers (ten), IX, 1. 

Prayer, IV, 10; VI ; VIII, 14, 20. 

Salvation, eight kinds of (ash/avi- 

moksha), I. 
Shower of flowers, IX, 11. 

Women, VIII, 34. 

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S U K H AVAT f-V Y H A. 

Adoration to the Omniscient! 

§ i. Thus it was heard by me : At one time the 
Blessed (Bhagavat, i.e. Buddha) dwelt at .Sravastt. 1 , 
in the Geta-grove, in the garden of Anathapim&ka, 
together with a large company of Bhikshus (mendi- 
cant friars), viz. with twelve hundred and fifty 
Bhikshus, all of them acquainted with the five kinds 
of knowledge 2 , elders, great disciples 3 , and Arhats *, 

1 -Sravastt, capital of the Northern K&ralas, residence of king 
Prasenagit. It was in ruins when visited by Fa-hian (init. V. Saec) ; 
not far from the modern Fizabad. Cf. Burnouf, Introduction, p. 22. 

* Abhi^aanibhi^flataiA. The Japanese text reads abhi- 
gH&ttLbh&gti&uiA, i.e. abhi##itabhi£*&taiA. If this were 
known to be the correct reading, we should translate it by ' known 
by known people,' notus a viris notis, i.e. well known, famous. 
Abhij r #£ta in the sense of known, famous, occurs in Lalita- 
vistara, p. 25, and the Chinese translators adopted the same meaning 
here. Again, if we preferred the reading abhi^flan&bhi^atai^, 
this, too, would admit of an intelligible rendering, viz. known or 
distinguished by the marks or characteristics, i e. the good quali- 
ties which belong to a Bhikshu. But the technical meaning is 
'possessed of a knowledge of the five abhi#«&s.' It would be 
better in that case to write abhi^Mtibhi^MnaiA, but no MSS. 
seem to support that reading. The five abhi^Ms or abhi^f fl&nas 
which an Arhat ought .to possess are the divine sight, the divine 
hearing, the knowledge of the thoughts of others, the remembrance 
of former existences, and magic power. See Burnouf, Lotus, 
Appendice, No. xiv. The larger text of the Sukh&vatt-vyuha has 

' * See next page. 

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such as »Sariputra, the elder, Mahamaudgalyayana, 
Mahaklryapa, Mahakapphiwa, Mahakatyayana, Ma- 
hakaush/£ila, Revata, .Suddhipanthaka, Nanda, 
Ananda, Rahula, Gavampati, Bharadva^a, Kalo- 
dayin, Vakkula, and Aniruddha. He dwelt together 
with these and many other great disciples, and to- 
gether with many noble-minded Bodhisattvas, such 
as Ma»fusrt, the prince, the Bodhisattva A.fita, the 
Bodhisattva Gandhahastin, the Bodhisattva Nityo- 
dyukta, the Bodhisattva Anikshiptadhura. He dwelt 
together with them and many other noble-minded 
Bodhisattvas, and with £akra, the Indra or King 5 

t\bhigH&nibhigfta.\Ji, and afterwards abh ign&tibhigitziA. The 
position of the participle as the uttara-pada in such compounds as 
abhi^ganabhi^ftataiA is common in Buddhist Sanskrit. Mr. 
Bendall has called my attention to the Pali abhi##ata-abhi##&ta 
(Vinaya-pi/aka, ed. Oldenberg, vol. i, p. 43), which favours the 
Chinese acceptation of the term. 

* Mahl;r£vaka, the great disciples; sometimes the eighty 
principal disciples. 

* ArhadbhiA. I have left the correct Sanskrit form, because 
the Japanese text gives the termination adbhiA. HdgS's text has 
the more usual form arhantaiA. The change of the old classical 
arhat into the Pali arahan, and then back into Sanskrit arhanta, 
arahanta, and at last arihanta, with the meaning of 'destroyer 
of the enemies,' i e. the passions, shows very clearly the different 
stages through which Sanskrit words passed in the different phases 
of Buddhist literature. In Tibet, in Mongolia, and in China, Arhat 
is translated by 'destroyer of the enemy,' i.e. ari-hanta. See 
Burnouf, Lotus, p. 287, Introduction, p. 295. Arhat is really the 
title of the Bhikshu on reaching the fourth degree of perfection. Cf. 
Sutra of the 42 Sections, cap. 2. Clemens of Alexandria (d. 220) 
speaks of the Zfuyot who worshipped a pyramid erected over the 
relics of a god. This may be a translation of Arhat, as Lassen 
('De nom. Ind. philosoph.' in Rhein. Museum, vol. i, p. 187) and 
Burnouf (Introduction, p. 295) supposed, or a transliteration of 
Samana. Clemens also speaks of Squat (Stromat. p. 539, Potter). 

* Indra, the old Vedic god, has come to mean simply lord, and 

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of the Devas, and with Brahman Sahampati. With 
these and many other hundred thousand nayutas * of 
sons of the gods, Bhagavat dwelt at .SravastL 

§ 2. Then Bhagavat addressed the honoured »Sari- 
putra and said, ' O Sariputra, after you have passed 
from here over a hundred thousand ko/ls of Buddha 
countries there is in the Western part a Buddha 
country, a world called Sukhavatt (the happy coun- 
try). And there a Tathagata, called Amitiyus, an 
Arhat, fully enlightened, dwells now, and remains, 
and supports himself, and teaches the Law *. 

' Now what do you think, Sariputra, for what 
reason is that world called Sukhavatt (the happy) ? 
In that world Sukhavatt, O .Sariputra, there is neither 
bodily nor mental pain for living beings. The 
sources of happiness are innumerable there. For 
that reason is that world called Sukhavatt (the 

$3. 'And again, O .Sariputra, that world Sukhavatt 
is adorned with seven terraces, with seven rows of 

in the Amanda Paritta (Journal Asiatique, 1871, p. aao) we actually 
find Asurinda, the Indra or Lord of the Asuras. 

1 The numbers in Buddhist literature, if they once exceed 
a ko/i or ko/i, i. e. ten millions, become very vague, nor is their 
value always the same. Ayuta, i. e. a hundred ko/is ; niyuta, i. e. 
a hundred ayutas; and nayuta, i.e. 1 with a a zeros, are often con- 
founded ; nor does it matter much so far as any definite idea is 
concerned which such numerals convey to our mind. See Prof. 
H. Schubert, 'On large numbers,' in Open Court, Dec. 14, 1893. 

* Tish/yfcati dhriyate yapayati dharmaxn £a dejayati. This is 
an idiomatic phrase, which occurs again and again in the Nepalese 
text of the Sukbivatf-vyuha (MS. 36 b, 11. 1, a ; 55 a, 1. a, &c). It 
seems to mean, he stands there, holds himself, supports himself, 
and teaches the law. Burnouf translates the same phrase by, ' ils 
se trouvent, vivent, existent' (Lotus, p. 354). On yapeti in Pali, 
see FausbOll, Dasaratha-^ataka, pp. a6, a 8 ; and yapana in Sanskrit 

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palm-trees, and with strings of bells *. It is enclosed 
on every side", beautiful, brilliant with the four 
gems, viz. gold, silver, beryl, and crystal 3 . With 

1 Kinkint^lla. The texts read kankawa^alau £a and 
kankawf^alais £a, and again later kankawf^alunam (also 16) 
and kanka/if^alanam. Mr. Beal translates from Chinese ' seven 
rows of exquisite curtains,' and again ' gemmous curtains.' First 
of all, it seems clear that we must read £ala, net, web, instead of 
^ala. Secondly, kankana, bracelet, gives no sense, for what 
could be the meaning of nets or strings of bracelets? I prefer 
to read kinkinf^ala, nets or strings or rows of bells. Such rows 
of bells served for ornamenting a garden, and it may be said of 
them that, if moved by the wind, they give forth certain sounds. 
In the commentary on Dhammapada 30, p. 191, we meet with 
kihkinika^ala, from which likewise the music proceeds; see 
Childers, s.v. ^ala. In the MSS. of the Nepalese Sukhavatf-vyuha 
(R.A.S.), p. 39 a, 1. 4, 1 likewise find svar«aratnakinki»i#alani, 
which settles the matter, and shows how little confidence we can 
place in the Japanese texts. 

* Anuparikshipta, enclosed; see parikkhepo in Childers' 
Dictionary, and compare pairida&za, paradise. 

* The four and seven precious things in Pali are (according to 
Childers) : — 

1. suvaw»a»», gold. 

2. ra^atam, silver. 

3. mutta, pearls. 

4. mam, gems (as sapphire, ruby). 

5. veAiriyaw, cat's eye. 

6. va<§ira/w, diamond. 

7. pava/am, coral. 

Here Childers translates cat's eye; but s.v. ve/uriyam, he says, 
a precious stone, perhaps lapis lazuli. 
In Sanskrit (Burnouf, Lotus, p. 320): — 

1. suvarwa, gold. 

2. rupya, silver. 

3. vau/urya, lapis lazuli 

4. spha/ika, crystal. 

5. lohitamukti, red pearls. 

6. ajmagarbha, diamond. 

7. musaragalva, coral. 

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such arrays of excellences peculiar to a Buddha 
country is that Buddha country adorned. 

$4. 'And again, O iSariputra, in that world Sukha- 
vatl there are lotus lakes, adorned with the seven 
gems, viz. gold, silver, beryl, crystal, red pearls, dia- 
monds, and corals as the seventh. They are full of 
water which possesses the eight good qualities 1 , their 
waters rise as high as the fords and bathing-places, 
so that even crows* may drink there; they are 

Julien (Pterins Buddhistes, vol. ii, p. 482) gives the following 
list: — 

1. spha/ika, rock crystal 

a. vaidurya, lapis lazuli. 

3. armagarbha, cornaline. 

4. musaragalva, amber. 

5. padmar&ga, ruby. 

Vairfurya (or Vaidurya) is mentioned in the Tath£gatagu«a- 
£^na£intyavishayavat£ranirde.ra (Wassilief, p. 161) as a precious 
stone which, if placed on green cloth, looks green, if placed on red 
cloth, red. The fact that vaidurya is often compared with the 
colour of the eyes of a cat would seem to point to the cat's eye (see 
Borooah's Engl.-Sanskrit Dictionary, vol. ii, preface, p. ix), certainly 
not to lapis lazuli. Cat's eye is a kind of chalcedony. I see, how- 
ever, that vaidurya has been recognised as the original of the 
Greek ftjpvXXor, a very ingenious conjecture, either of Weber's or 
of Pott's, considering that lingual 4 has a sound akin to r, and ry 
may be changed to ly and 11 (Weber, Omina, p. 326). The Persian 
billaur or balltir, which Skeat gives as the etymon of /%wXAor, 
is of Arabic origin, means crystal, and could hardly have found 
its way into Greek at so early a time. See ' India, what can it 
teach us?' p. 267. 

1 The eight good qualities of water are limpidity and purity, 
refreshing coolness, sweetness, softness, fertilising qualities, calm- 
ness, power of preventing famine, productiveness. See Beal, 
Catena, p. 379. 

* Kik&peya. One text reads kikapeya, the other kiki- 
peya. It is difficult to choose. The more usual word is 
kakapeya, which is explained by Pacini, II, 1, 33. It is uncer- 
tain, however, whether kakapeya is meant as a laudatory or as 

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strewn with golden sand. And in these lotus-lakes 
there are all around on the four sides four stairs, 
beautiful and brilliant with the four gems, viz. gold, 
silver, beryl, crystal. And on every side of these 
lotus-lakes gem- trees are growing, beautiful and 
brilliant with the seven gems, viz. gold, silver, beryl, 
crystal, red pearls, diamonds, and corals as the 
seventh. And in those lotus-lakes lotus-flowers are 
growing, blue, blue-coloured, of blue splendour, blue 
to behold ; yellow, yellow-coloured, of yellow splen- 
dour, yellow to behold ; red, red-coloured, of red 
splendour, red to behold ; white, white-coloured, of 
white splendour, white to behold ; beautiful, beau- 
tifully-coloured, of beautiful splendour, beautiful to 
behold, and in circumference as large as the wheel 
of a chariot 

a depreciatory term. Bdhtlingk takes it in the latter sense, and 
translates nadf kakapeya, by a shallow river that could be drank 
up by a crow. Taranatha takes it in the former sense, and trans- 
lates nadf kakapeya, as a river so full of water that a crow can 
drink it without bending its neck (kakair anatakandharaiA piyate ; 
pflrwodakatvena prarasye klkaiA peye nadyadau). In our passage 
kakapeya must be a term of praise, and we therefore could only 
render it by ' ponds so full of water that crows could drink from 
them.' But why should so well known a word as kakapeya have 
been spelt kakapeya, unless it was done intentionally? And 
if intentionally, what was it intended for? We must remember 
that Pawini, II, 1, 42 schol., teaches us how to form the word 
tl rthakaka, a crow at a tirtha, which means a person in a wrong 
place. It would seem therefore that crows were considered 
out of place at a ttrtha or bathing-place, either because they 
were birds of ill omen, or because they defiled the water. From 
that point of view, kakapeya would mean a pond not visited 
by crows, free from crows. Professor Pischel has called my atten- 
tion to Mahaparinibbana Sutta (J. R.A. S. 1875, p. 67, p. ai), 
where kakapeya clearly refers to a full river. SamatiZ/Aika, if 
this is the right reading, occurs in the same place as an epithet of 

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$5. 'And again, O £ariputra, in that Buddha country 
there are heavenly musical instruments always played 
on, and the earth is lovely and of golden colour. 
And in that Buddha country a flower-rain of heavenly 
Mandarava blossoms pours down three times every 
day, and three times every night And the beings 
who are born there worship before their morning 
meal 1 a hundred thousand ko/ls of Buddhas by 
going to other worlds ; and having showered a hun- 
dred thousand ko/ls of flowers upon each Tatha- 
gata, they return to their own world in time for the 
afternoon rest 1 . With such arrays of excellences 
peculiar to a Buddha country is that Buddha country 

§ 6. 'And again, O .Sariputra, there are in that Bud- 
dha country swans, curlews 8 , and peacocks. Three 
times every night, and three times every day, they 

a river, by the side of kakape ya, and I think it most likely that it 
means rising to a level with the tfrthas, the fords or bathing-places. 
Mr. Rhys Davids informs me that the commentary explains the two 
words by samatittika ti samahariti, kakapeyyi ti yatthatatthaii tire 
Mitena kakena sakka patum ti. 

1 Purobhaktena. The text is difficult to read, but it can 
hardly be doubtful that purobhaktena corresponds to Pali 
purebhattam (i.e. before the morning meal), opposed to pa£- 
Mabhattaw, after the noonday meal (i. e. in the afternoon). See 
Childers, s.v. Purvabhaktika would be the first repast, as Prof. 
Cowell informs me. 

* Divivihdraya, for the noonday rest, the siesta. See Childers, 
s.v. vihara. 

' Krau#££A. Snipe, curlew. Is it meant for Kuravfka, or 
Karavtka, a fine-voiced bird (according to Kern, the Sk. kara- 
yika), or for Kalavinka, Pali Kalavtka? See Childers, s.v. 
opapatiko; Burnouf, Lotus, p. 566. I see, however, the same 
birds mentioned together elsewhere, as hamsakrau^amayuraraka- 
jralikakokila, &c. On mayura see Mahav., Introd. p. xxxix ; Rv. I, 
191, 14. 

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come together and perform a concert, each uttering his 
own note. And from them thus uttering proceeds 
a sound proclaiming the five virtues, the five powers, 
and the seven steps leading towards the highest 
knowledge \ When the men there hear that sound, 
remembrance of Buddha, remembrance of the Law, 
remembrance of the Church, rises in their mind. 

' Now, do you think, O Sariputra, that there are 
beings who have entered into the nature of animals 
(birds, &c.) ? This is not to be thought of. The 

1 Indriyabalabodhyangafabda. These are technical terms, but 
their meaning is not quite clear. Spence Hardy, in his Manual, 
p. 498, enumerates the five indrayas, viz. (1) sardhawa, purity 
(probably jraddhi, faith); (2) wiraya, persevering exertion 
(vfrya); (3) sati or smirti, the ascertainment of truth (smri'ti); 
(4) samldhi, tranquillity; (5) pragnawa, wisdom (pra.gHi). 

The five balayas (bala), he adds, are the same as the five 

The seven bowdyanga (bodhyanga) are according to him : 
(1) sihi or smirti, the ascertainment of the truth by mental 
application; (2) dharmmawicha, the investigation of causes; 
(3) wiraya, persevering exertion; (4) prtti, joy; (5) passadhi, 
or prasrabdhi, tranquillity; (6) sam&dhi, tranquillity in a higher 
degree, including freedom from all that disturbs either body or 
mind; (7) upeksha, equanimity. 

It will be seen from this that some of these qualities or excel- 
lences occur both as indriyas and bodhyangas, while balas are 
throughout identical with indriyas. 

Burnouf, however, in his Lotus, gives a list of five balas (from 
the Vocabulaire Pentaglotte) which correspond with the five indriyas 
of Spence Hardy; viz. xraddha-bala, power of faith; virya- 
bala, power of vigour; smrtti-bala, power of memory; samadhi- 
bala, power of meditation ; pra^fta-bala, power of knowledge. 
They precede the seven bodhyangas both in the Lotus, the 
Vocabulaire Pentaglotte, and the Lalita-vistara. 

To these seven bodhyangas Burnouf has assigned a special 
treatise (Appendice xii, p. 796). They occur both in Sanskrit 
and Pali. See also Dharmasangraha s.v. in the Anecdota 

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very name of hells is unknown in that Buddha 
country, and likewise that of (descent into) animal 
bodies and of the realm ofYama (the four apayas) 1 . 
No, these tribes of birds have been made on purpose 
by the Tathagata Amitayus, and they utter the sound 
of the Law. With such arrays of excellences, &c. 

§ 7. 'And again, O Sariputra, when those rows of 
palm-trees and strings of bells in that Buddha country 
are moved by the wind, a sweet and enrapturing sound 
proceeds from them. Yes, O Sariputra, as from a 
heavenly musical instrument consisting of a hundred 
thousand ko/ts of sounds, when played by Aryas, 
a sweet and enrapturing sound proceeds, a sweet 
and enrapturing sound proceeds from those rows of 
palm-trees and strings of bells moved by the wind. 
And when the men hear that sound, reflection on 
Buddha arises in them, reflection on the Law, 
reflection on the Church. With such arrays of 
excellences, &c. 

§ 8. ' Now what do you think, O Sariputra, for what 
reason is that Tathagata called Amitayus ? The 
length of life (ayus), O Sariputra, of that Tathagata 
and of those men there is immeasurable (amita). 
Therefore is that Tathagata called Amitayus. And 
ten kalpas have passed, O Sariputra, since that 
Tathagata awoke to perfect knowledge. 

$ 9. 'And what do you think, O Sariputra, for what 
reason is that Tathagata called Amitabha ? The 

1 Niraya, the hells, also called Naraka. Yamaloka, the realm of 
Yama, the judge of the dead, is explained as the four apayas, i. e. 
Naraka, hell ; Tiryagyoni, birth as animals ; Pretaloka, realm of the 
departed ; Asuraloka, realm of evil spirits. The three terms which 
are here used together occur likewise in a passage translated by 
Burnouf, Introduction, p. 544. 

[49] * H 

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splendour (abha), O .Sariputra, of that Tathagata is 
unimpeded over all Buddha countries. Therefore is 
that Tathagata called Amitabha. 

'And there is, O .Sariputra, an innumerable as- 
sembly of disciples with that Tathagata, purified and 
venerable persons, whose number it is not easy to 
count. With such arrays of excellences, &c. 

§ 10. 'And again, O .Sariputra, of those beings also 
who are born in the Buddha country of the Tathagata 
Amitayus as purified Bodhisattvas, never to return 
again and bound by one birth only, of those Bodhisat- 
tvas also, O .Sariputra, the number is not easy to count, 
except they are reckoned as infinite in number \ 

' Then again all beings, O Sariputra, ought to 
make fervent prayer for that Buddha country. And 
why ? Because they come together there with such 
excellent men. Beings are not born in that Buddha 
country of the Tathagata Amitayus as a reward and 
result of good works performed in this present life 2 . 

1 Iti sankhyaw ga££Aanti, they are called; cf. Childers, s.v. 
sankhya. Asankhyeya, even more than aprameya, is the 
recognised term for infinity. Burnouf, Lotus, p. 852. 

1 Avaramatraka. This is the Pali oramattako, 'belonging 
merely to the present life,' and the intention of the writer seems to 
be to inculcate the doctrine, that salvation can be obtained by mere 
repetitions of the name of Amitabha, in direct opposition to the 
original doctrine of Buddha, that as a man soweth, so he reapeth. 
Buddha would have taught that the kujalamula, the root or the 
stock of good works performed in this world (avaramatraka), 
will bear fruit in the next, while here ' vain repetitions ' seem all 
that is enjoyed. The Chinese translators take a different view of 
this passage. But from the end of this section, where we read 
kulaputrena va kuladuhitra va tatra buddhakshetre jHttapramdhanam 
kartavyam, it seems clear that the locative (buddhakshetre) 
forms the object of the pramdhana, the fervent prayer or longing. 
The Satpurushas already in the Buddhakshetra would be the innu- 
merable men (manushyas) and Bodhisattvas mentioned before. 

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No, whatever son or daughter of a family shall hear 
the name of the blessed Amitiyus, the Tathigata, 
and having heard it, shall keep it in mind, and with 
thoughts undisturbed shall keep it in mind for 
one, two, three, four, five, six or seven nights, — when 
that son or daughter of a family comes to die, then 
that Amitayus, the Tathigata, surrounded by an 
assembly of disciples and followed by a host of Bodhi- 
sattvas, will stand before them at their hour of death, 
and they will depart this life with tranquil minds. 
After their death they will be born in the world 
Sukhivatt, in the Buddha country of the same 
Amitayus, the Tathigata. Therefore, then, O .Sari- 
putra, having perceived this cause and effect 1 , 1 with 
reverence say thus, Every son and every daughter of 
a family ought with their whole mind to make fervent 
prayer for that Buddha country. 

§ ii. 'And now, O .Sariputra, as I here at present 
glorify that world, thus in the East, O .Sariputra, other 
blessed Buddhas, led by the Tathigata Akshobhya, 
the Tathigata Merudhva^a, the Tathigata Mahi- 
meru, the Tathigata Meruprabhisa, and the Tathi- 
gata Maaj^iidhva^a, equal in number to the sand 
of the river Gangi, comprehend their own Buddha 
countries in their speech, and then reveal them 8 . 

1 Arthavaja, lit die power of the thing; cf. Dhammapada, 
p. 388, v. 289. 

* I am not quite certain as to the meaning of this passage, but if 
we enter into die bold metaphor of the text, viz. that the Buddhas 
cover the Buddha countries with the organ of their tongue and then 
unrol it, what is intended can hardly be anything but that they first 
try to find words for the excellences of those countries, and then 
reveal or proclaim them. Burnouf, however (Lotus, p. 41 7), takes the 
expression in a literal sense, though he is shocked by itsgrotesqueness. 
On these Buddhas and their countries, see Burnouf, Lotus, p. 1 13. 

* H 2 

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Accept this repetition of the Law, called the " Favour 
of all Buddhas," which magnifies their inconceivable 

$12.' Thus also in the South do other blessed Bud- 
dhas, led by the Tathagata Aandrasuryapradlpa, the 
Tathagata Yafcufcprabha, the Tathagata Mahanfci- 
skandha, the Tathagata Merupradlpa, the Tathagata 
Anantavirya, equal in number to the sand of the river 
Ganga, comprehend their own Buddha countries in 
their speech, and then reveal them. Accept, &c. 

§ 13. ' Thus also in the West do other blessed Bud- 
dhas, led by the Tathagata Amitayus, the Tathagata 
Amitaskandha, the Tathagata Amitadhvaf a, the Ta- 
thagata Mahaprabha, the Tathagata Maharatnaketu, 
the Tathagata .Suddharajmiprabha, equal in number 
to the sand of the river Ganga, comprehend, &c. 

§ 14. ' Thus also in the North do other blessed Bud- 
dhas, led by the Tathagata Mahar&skandha, the 
Tathagata VaLrvanaranirghosha, the Tathagata Dun- 
dubhisvaranirghosha, the Tathagata Dushpradharsha, 
the Tathagata Adityasambhava,the Tathagata 6aleni- 
prabha(6Valanaprabha ?),the Tathagata Prabhakara, 
equal in number to the sand, &c. 

$15.' Thus also in the Nadir do other blessed 
Buddhas, led by the Tathagata Siwma, the Tathagata 
Yareis, the Tathagata Yara^prabhava, the Tathagata 
Dharma, theTathagata Dharmadhara, the Tathagata 
Dharmadhvafa, equal in number to the sand, &c. 

$16. 'Thus also in the Zenith do other blessed 
Buddhas, led by the Tathagata Brahmaghosha, the 
Tathagata Nakshatrara^a, the Tathagata Indraketu- 
dhva/ara^a, the Tathagata Gandhottama, the Tatha- 
gata Gandhaprabhasa, the Tathagata Mahariiskan- 
dha, the Tathagata Ratnakusumasampushpitagatra, 

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the Tathagata Salendrara^a, the Tathagata Ratnot- 
palarrl, the Tathigata Sarvarthadarsa, the Tathagata 
Sumerukalpa, equal in number to the sand, &c. l 

$ 17. * Now what do you think, O .Sariputra, for what 
reason is that repetition (treatise) of the Law called 
the Favour of all Buddhas ? Every son or daughter 
of a family who shall hear the name of that repetition 
of the Law and retain in their memory the names of 
those blessed Buddhas, will be favoured by the 
Buddhas, and will never return again, being once 
in possession of the transcendent true knowledge. 
Therefore, then, O .Sariputra, believe *, accept, and 
do not doubt of me and those blessed Buddhas ! 

'Whatever sons or daughters of a family shall 
make mental prayer for the Buddha country of that 
blessed Amitayus, the Tathagata, or are making it 
now or have made it formerly, all these will never 
return again, being once in possession of the tran- 
scendent true knowledge. They will be born in that 
Buddha country, have been born, or are being born 

1 It should be remarked that the Tath&gatas here assigned to the 
ten quarters differ entirely from those assigned to them in the 
Lalita-vistara, Book XX. Not even Amit&bha is mentioned there. 

1 Prattyatha. The texts give again and again pattfyatha, 
evidently the Pili form, instead of pratfyata. I have left tha, the 
Pili termination of the 2 p. pi. in the imperative, instead of ta, 
because that form was clearly intended, while pa for pra may be 
an accident. Yet I have little doubt that patfyatha was in the 
original text. That it is meant for the imperative, we see from 
jrraddadhidhvam, &c, further on. Other traces of the influence 
of Pili or Prikrit on the Sanskrit of our Sutra appear in arhan- 
tai£, the various reading for arhadbhiA, which I preferred; 
sambahula for bahula; dhriyate yipayati; purobhaktena; 
anyatra; sankhyim guiiAaati; avaramitraka; veMana 
instead of vesh/ana, in nirveManaj dharmaparyiya (Corp. 
Inscript. plate xv), &c. 

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now. Therefore, then, O 5ariputra, mental prayer 
is to be made for that Buddha country by faithful 
sons and daughters of a family. 

§ 1 8. 'And as I at present magnify here the incon- 
ceivable excellences of those blessed Buddhas, thus, 
O .Sariputra, do those blessed Buddhas magnify my 
own inconceivable excellences. 

'A very difficult work has been done by .Sakya- 
muni, the sovereign of the .Sakyas. Having ob- 
tained the transcendent true knowledge in this world 
Sahl, he taught the Law which all the world is 
reluctant to accept, during this corruption of the 
present kalpa, during this corruption of mankind, 
during this corruption of belief, during this corrup- 
tion of life, during this corruption of passions. 

§ 19. 'This is even for me, O extremely 
difficult work that, having obtained the transcendent 
true knowledge in this world Saha, I taught the Law 
which all the world is reluctant to accept, during 
this corruption of mankind, of belief, of passion, of 
life, and of this present kalpa.' 

§ 20. Thus spoke Bhagavat joyful in his mind. 
And the honourable .Sariputra, and the Bhikshus and 
Bodhisattvas, and the whole world with the gods, 
men, evil spirits and genii, applauded the speech of 

This is the Mahayanasutra 1 
called Sukhavati-vyuha. 

1 The Sukhivatt-vyuha, even in its shortest text, is called a 
MaMy&na-sutra, nor is there any reason why a Mahiyana-sutra 
should not be short. The meaning of Mahiyina-sQtra is simply 
a Sutra belonging to the Mah&y&na school, the school of the Great 
Boat. It was Burnouf who, in his Introduction to the History of 
Buddhism, tried very hard to establish a distinction between the 

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§ao. THE SMALLER SUKhAvat!-VyOhA. IO3 

Vaipulya or developed Sutras, and what he calls the simple Sutras. 
Now, the Vaipulya Sutras may all belong to the Mahayana school, 
but that would not prove that all the Sutras of the Mahayana school 
are Vaipulya or developed Sutras. The name of simple Sutra, in op- 
position to the Vaipulya or developed Sutras, is not recognised by the 
Buddhists themselves ; at least, I know no name for simple Sutras. 
No doubt there is a great difference between a Vaipulya Sutra, such 
as the Lotus of the Good Law, translated by Bumouf, and the Sutras 
which Burnouf translated, for instance, from the Divyavadana. But 
what Burnouf considers as the distinguishing mark of a Vaipulya 
Sutra, viz. the occurrence of Bodhisattvas, as followers of the Buddha 
•Sakyamuni, would no longer seem to be tenable *, unless we classed 
our short Sukhavatf-vyuha as a Vaipulya or developed Sutra. For 
this there is no authority. Our Sutra is a Mahayana Sutra, but never 
called a Vaipulya Sutra, and yet in this Sutra the Bodhisattvas con- 
stitute a very considerable portion among the followers of Buddha. 
But more than that, Amitabha, the Buddha of Sukhivatt, another 
personage whom Burnouf looks upon as peculiar to the Vaipulya 
Sutras, who is, in fact, one of the Dhyani-buddhas, though not 
called by that name in our Sutra, forms the chief object of its 
teaching, and is represented as known to Buddha .Sakyamuni, nay, 
as having become a Buddha long before the Buddha Sakyamuni t. 
The larger text of the Sukhavatf-vyuha would certainly, according 
to Burnouf s definition, seem to fall into the category of the 
Vaipulya Sutras. But it is not so called in the MSS. which I have 
seen, and Burnouf himself gives an analysis of that Sutra (Intro- 
duction, p. 99) as a specimen of a Mahayana, but not of a 
Vaipulya Sutra. 

* ' La presence des Bodhisattvas ou leur absence inte'resse done le fonds mime 
des livres ou on la remarque, et il est bien evident qne ce seul point trace one 
ligne de demarcation profonde entre les Sutras ordinaire et les Sutras d<- 
velopp£s.' — Burnouf, Introduction, p. 11 a. 

t 'L'idee d'un ou de plusieurs Buddhas surhumains, celle de Bodhisattvas 
crees par enx, sont des conceptions aussi taangeres a ces livres (les Stitras 
simples) que celle d'un Adibuddha ou d'un Dieu.' — Burnouf, Introduction, 
p. 130. 

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Adityasambhava, the Tathigata, 

page 100. 
Aeita, the Bodhisattva, 90. 
Akshobhya, the Tathigata, 99. 
Amitibba, the Tathigata, 97 seq. ; 

Amitadhvaga, the Tathigata, 100. 
Amitaskandha, the Tathigata, 100. 
Amitiyus, the Tathigata, 91 ; 97 

seqq. ; 100 seq. ; repetition of 

the name of A., 98 seq. 
Ananda, 90. 

AnantavSrya, the Tathigata, 100. 
AnlthapWaka, 89. 
Anikshiptadhura, the Bodhisattva, 

Animal bodies, descent into, 96 seq. 
Aniruddha, 90. 
Arhat, 89, see note 4 ; 91. 

Bharadva^ga, 90. 

Bhikshus, 89 ; 10a. 

Bodhisattvas, 90 ; 98 ; 99 ; 10a ; 

Brahmaghosha, the Tathigata, 100. 
Brahman Sahimpati, 9i.< 
Buddha countries, 91 seqq. 
Buddhas, 95 ; 99 seqq. ; Buddha, 

the Law, the Church. 96 ; 97 ; 

' Favour of all Buddhas,' 100 ; 


Burnouf, on the Mahiylna-sutras, 
103 seq. 

Cause and effect (arthavaja), 99. 

Devas, king of the, 91. 
Dharma, the Tathigata, 100. 
Dharmadhara, the Tathigata, 100. 
Dharmadhvara, the Tathigata, 100. 
Dhyini-budahas, 103. 

Dundubhisvaranirghosha, the Tathi- 
gata, 100. 
Dushpradharsha.the Tathigata, 100. 

Galeniprabha, the Tathigata, 100. 
Gandhahastin, the Bodhisattva, 90. 
Gandhaprabhlsa, the Tathigata, 100. 
Gandhottama, the Tathigata, 100. 
Gavimpati, 90. 
Gems, four and seven, 9 a seq., see 

note 3 ; 94. 
Gem-trees, 94. 
Genii, 10a. 
Gods, 103. 
Great disciples (mahirrivaka), 89, 

see note 3. 
Cvalanaprabha, see Galeniprabha. 

Hells, 97. 

Indra or King, 90, see note 5. 
Indraketudhvagara^a, the Tathi- 
gata, 100. 

Kalodayin, 90. 
JTandrasuryapradtpa, the Tathigata, 

Knowledge, five kinds of, 89, see 

note a ; steps leading towards 

the highest k., 96; transcendent 

true k., 101 ; 102. 

Mahikapphina, 90. 
Mahikljyapa, 90. 
Mahikitylyana, 90. 
Mahikaush/£ila. 90. 
Mahlmaudgalyiyana, 90. 
Mahimeru, the Tathigata, 99. 
Mahiprabha, the Tathigata, 100. 
Mahiratnaketu, the Tathigata, 100. 

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Mahiriiskandba, the Tathagata, 

100 (tris). 
Mahay ana-sGtra, 102 seq. 
Matf^tidhvaea, the Tathagata, 99. 
Ma#£Urrf, the prince, 90. 
Men and gods, 10a. 
Merudhva^a, the Tathagata, 99. 
Meraprabhasa, the Tathagata, 99. 
Merupradfpa, the Tathagata, 100. 

Nakshatrarifa, the Tathigata, 100. 
Nanda, 90. 

Nityodyukta, the Bodhisattva, 90. 
Numbers in Buddhist literature, 91, 
note 1. 

Pali, its influence on Sanskrit, 101, 

note a. 
Powers, five, 96. 
Prabhikara, the Tathigata, 100. 
Prayer, 98 ; 101 seq. 

Rihula, 90. 
Ratnakusumasampushpitagitra, the 

Tathagata, 100. 
Ratnotpalajri, the Tathigata, toi. 
Revata, 90. 

Saha, the world S., 103. 

Sakra, the king of the Devas, 90. 

Sakyamuni, the sovereign of the 

Sikyas, 102. 
Silendrara^a, the Tathigata, 101. 
Siriputra, the elder, 90 seqq. 
Sarvirthadana, the Tathigata, 101. 
tffimi, 90, note 4. 
Siwha, the Tathagata, 100. 
Spirits, evil, 102. 
Jrivastt, 89; 91. 
Steps (seven) leading to the highest 

knowledge (bodhyanga), 96. 
Suddharajmiprabha, the Tathigata, 

Suddhipanthaka, 90. 
Sukhivatf, 91 seqq. ; 99. 
Sumerukalpa, the Tathigata, 101. 

Tathagata, 91; 95; 97 seqq. 

Vaipulya Sutras, 103. 
VaLrvinaranirghosha, the Tathigata, 

Vakkula, 90. 
Virtues, five, 96. 

Water, eight good qualities of, 93. 

Yama, realm of, 97. 
YajaAprabha, the Tathigata, 100. 
YataAprabhava, the Tathigata, 100. 
Yajas, the Tathigata, 100. 

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anuparikshipta, enclosed, page 92, 

note 2. 
apiya, the four aplyas, i.e. hell, 97, 

see note, 
aprameya, infinite, 98, n. 1. 
abhigffo and abhi^fena, the five 

kinds of knowledge, 89, n. 2. 
abhi,g-flanSbh\jfl3ta, 89, n. 2. 
ayuta, a hundred ko/is, 91, n. 1. 
arahanta and arihanta = arhat, 90, 

n. 4. 
arthav&ra, cause and effect, 99, n. 1. 
arhat, 90, n. 4. 

arhanta=arhat, 90, n. 4 ; 101, n. 2. 
avaramltraka, belonging merely to 

the present life, 98, n. 2 ; 101, 

n. 2. 
asankhyeya, infinite, 98, n. 1. 
asuraloka, realm of evil spirits, 

97 note. 
Asurinda, lord of the Asuras, 90, n. 5. 

indra, lord, 90, n. 5. 
indriya, five virtues, 96 note. 

kankaaa^ala, see kinkisfetlla. 
kakapeya (k&kapeya), to be drunk 

even by crows, 93, n. 2. 
kinkinfcila, string of bells, 92, n. 1. 
kori, ten millions, 91, n. 1. 
krau/Ma, snipe, curlew, 95, n. 3. 

tiryagyoni, birth as animals. 97 note. 
tistuAati dhriyate ySpayati, 'he stands 

there, holds himself, supports 

himself,' 91, n. a. 
tirthakaka, 'a crow at a tfrtha,' 

94 note. 

divavMra, noonday rest, siesta, 95, 
n. 2. 

dharmam desayati, he teaches the 

law, 91, n. 2. 
dharmaparyaya, 101, n. 2. 

nayuta, 1 with 22 zeros, 91, n. 1. 
naraka, hell, 97 note, 
niyuta, a hundred ayutas, 91, n. 1. 
niraya, hell, 97 note. 
nirve/£ana, 101, n. 2. 

purobhaktena, before the morning 
meal, 95, n. 1 ; 101, n. 2. 

pratt, prattyatha, 101, n. 2. 

pretaloka, realm of the departed, 
97 note. 

bala, five powers, 96 note, 
bodhyanga, seven steps leading 

towards the highest knowledge, 

96 note. 

mahlrrivaka, great disciple, 90, n. 3. 

yamaloka, realm of Yama, 97 note. 
ySpayati, 'he supports himself,' 91, 
n. 2 ; ioi, n. 2. 

vaWQrya, lapis lazuli, or cat's eye, 
92 seq., n. 3. 

sankhyi, iti sahkhyS»» gaAAbanti, 
they are called, 98, n. 1; 101, 

sambahula^bahula, 101, n. 2. 

sthft, see tishf&iti. 

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Adoration to the blessed Arya-pra^a-paramita 
(perfection of wisdom). 


Thus it was heard by me : At one time Bhagavat 
(the blessed Buddha) dwelt in .Sravastt, in the grove 
of Geta. \ in the garden of Anathapi#a!ada s , together 
with a large company of Bhikshus (mendicants), viz. 
with 1 250 Bhikshus 8 , with many noble-minded Bodhi- 
sattvas *. 

1 Geta, son of king Prasena^it, to whom the park belonged 
before it was sold to Anathapuu&da. 

* Another name of Sudatta, meaning, literally, he who gives 
food to the poor. 

8 The number of 1250 is explained by a Chinese priest Luh-hih, 
in his commentary on the Amitayur-dhyana-sutra. According to 
the Dharmagupta-vinaya, which he quotes, the number consisted 
of 500 disciples of Uruvilva-kifyapa, 300 of GayS-kaxyapa, 200 of 
Nadt-k&tyapa, 150 of .Sariputra, and 100 of Maudgalyayana. The 
Chinese translators often mistook the Sanskrit expression 'half- 
thirteen hundred,' i.e. 1250. See Bunyiu Nanjio, Catalogue of 
Tripi/aka, p. 6. 

* Higher beings on the road to Bodhi or perfect knowledge. 
They are destined hereafter to become Buddhas themselves. 

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Then Bhagavat having in the forenoon put on his 
undergarment *, and having taken his bowl and cloak, 
entered the great city of .Sr&vastt to collect alms. 
Then Bhagavat, after he had gone to the great city 
of .Sravastt to collect alms, performed the act of 
eating 2 , and having returned from his round in the 
afternoon 3 , he put away his bowl and cloak, washed 
his feet, and sat down on the seat intended * for him, 
crossing his legs 6 , holding his body upright, and 
turning his reflection upon himself. Then many 
Bhikshus approached to where Bhagavat was, 
saluted his feet with their heads, turned three 
times round him to the right, and sat down on one 
side, (i) 


At that time again the venerable Subhuti came 
to that assembly and sat down. Then rising from 
his seat and putting his robe over one shoulder, 
kneeling on the earth with his right knee, he 
stretched out his folded hands towards Bhagavat 
and said to him : ' It is wonderful, O Bhagavat, it 
is exceedingly wonderful, O Sugata, how much the 
noble-minded Bodhisattvas have been favoured with 
the highest favour by the Tathigata, the holy and 

1 In Pali pubbamhasamayam nivdsetva, the technical expres- 
sion for putting on the robes early in the morning ; see Childers, 
s.v. nivaseti. 

1 In Pali katabhattaki££o, see Childers, s.v. 

' In Pali pa£Mabhatta« pi«</apatapa/ikkanta, see 
Childers, s.v. pi»(fapita. Vig. observes that pa££Aabhattam 
pi«r</apatapa/ikkanto is a vvrtpov vp&rtpov, as it means, having 
returned from his rounds, and then made his meal on the food 
obtained on his rounds. 

* Pali paMata. 

8 Burnouf, Lotus, p. 334. 

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fully enlightened! It is wonderful how much the 
noble-minded Bodhisattvas have been instructed 1 
with the highest instruction by the Tathagata, the 
holy and fully enlightened ! How then, O Bha- 
gavat, should the son or the daughter of a good 
family, after having entered on the path of the 
Bodhisattvas, behave, how should he advance, and 
how should he restrain his thoughts?' 

After the venerable Subhuti had thus spoken, 
Bhagavat said to him : ' Well said, well said, Su- 
bhuti ! So it is, Subhuti, so it is, as you say. The 
noble-minded Bodhisattvas have been favoured with 
the highest favour by the Tathagata, the noble- 
minded Bodhisattvas have been instructed with the 
highest instruction by the Tathagata. Therefore, 
O Subhuti, listen and take it to heart, well and 
rightly. I shall tell you, how any one who has 
entered on the path of Bodhisattvas should behave, 
how he should advance, and how he should restrain 
his thoughts.' Then the venerable Subhuti an- 
swered the Bhagavat and said : ' So be it, O Bha- 
gavat.' (2) 


Then the Bhagavat thus spoke to him : ' Any one, 
O Subhuti, who has entered here on the path of the 
Bodhisattvas must thus frame his thought : As many 
beings as there are in this world of beings, compre- 
hended under the'term of beings (either born of eggs, 
or from the womb, or from moisture, or miraculously), 
with form or without form, with name or without 
name, or neither with nor without name, as far as 

1 1 have followed the Chinese translator, who translates partndita 
by instructed, entrusted, not by protected. 

[49] *I 

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ii4 THE vagrajMtsedikA 

any known world of beings is known, all these must 
be delivered by me in the perfect world of Nirv4«a. 
And yet, after I have thus delivered immeasurable 
beings, not one single being has been delivered. 
And why ? If, O Subhuti, a Bodhisattva had any 
idea of (belief in) a being, he could not be called 
a Bodhisattva (one who is fit to become a Buddha). 
And why ? Because, O Subhuti, no one is to be 
called a Bodhisattva, for whom there should exist 
the idea of a being, the idea of a living being, or 
the idea of a person.' (3) 

'And again, O Subhuti, a gift should not be given 
by a Bodhisattva, while he believes * in objects ; 
a gift should not be given by him, while he believes 
in anything; a gift should not be given by him, 
while he believes in form ; a gift should not be given 
by him, while he believes in the special qualities of 
sound, smell, taste, and touch. For thus, O Subhuti, 
should a gift be given by a noble-minded Bodhi- 
sattva, that he should not believe even in the idea 
of cause. And why ? Because that Bodhisattva, 
O Subhuti, who gives a gift, without believing in 
anything, the measure of his stock of merit is not 
easy to learn.' — ' What do you think, O Subhuti, is 
it easy to learn the measure of space in the eastern 
quarter ? ' Subhuti said : 'Not indeed, O Bhagavat.' 
— Bhagavat said : * In like manner, is it easy to 
learn the measure of space in the southern, western, 
northern quarters, below and above (nadir and 
zenith), in quarters and subquarters, in the ten 
quarters all round ? ' Subhuti said : ' Not indeed, 

1 To believe here means to depend on or to accept as real. 

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O Bhagavat.' Bhagavat said : ' In the same manner, 
O Subhuti, the measure of the stock of merit of 
a Bodhisattva, who gives a gift without believing 
in anything, is not easy to learn. And thus indeed, 
O Subhuti, should one who has entered on the path 
of Bodhisattvas give a gift, that he should not be- 
lieve even in the idea of cause.' (4) 

' Now, what do you think, O Subhuti, should 
a Tathagata be seen (known) by the possession of 
signs * ? ' Subhuti said : ' Not indeed, O Bhagavat, 
a Tathagata is not to be seen (known) by the pos- 
session of signs. And why ? Because what has 
been preached by the Tathagata as the possession 
of signs, that is indeed the possession of no-signs.' 

After this, Bhagavat spoke thus to the venerable 
Subhuti : ' Wherever there is, O Subhuti, the pos- 
session of signs, there is falsehood ; wherever there 
is no possession of signs, there is no falsehood. 
Hence the Tathagata is to be seen (known) from 
no-signs as signs*.' (5) 


After this, the venerable Subhflti spoke thus to 
the Bhagavat : ' Forsooth, O Bhagavat, will there 
be any beings in the future, in the last time, in the 
last moment, in the last 500 years 8 , during the time 

1 Qualities by which he could be known. 

* It would be easier to read laksha«aiaksha»atvataA, from 
the signs having the character of no-signs. M. de Harlez translates 
rightly, ' c'est par le non-marque de marquer que la Tathagata doit 
itre vu et reconnu.' 

8 I have changed Padiixatt into Pa**a*att, because what is 

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of the decay of the good Law, who, when these very 
words of the Sutras are being preached, will frame 
a true idea ' ?' The Bhagavat said : ' Do not speak 
thus, Subhuti. Yes, there will be some beings in 
the future, in the last time, in the last moment, in 
the last 500 years, during the decay of the good Law, 
who will frame a true idea when these very words 
are being preached. 

'And again, O Subhuti, there will be noble-minded 
Bodhisattvas, in the future, in the last time, in the 
last moment, in the last 500 years, during the decay 
of the good Law, there will be strong and good and 
wise beings, who, when these very words of the 
Sutras are being preached, will frame a true idea. 
But those noble-minded Bodhisattvas, O Subhuti, 
will not have served one Buddha only, and the stock 

intended here is evidently the last of the periods of 500 years each, 
which, according to the MaMyina-Buddhists, elapsed after the 
death of Buddha. The following extract from the Mahisannipita- 
sutra (Ta-tsi-king, N0.61 inTripi/aka), given to me by Mr.B. Nanjio, 
fully explains the subject. ' It is stated in the fifty-first section 
of die MaMsannipata-sutra, that Buddha said : " After my NirvSwa, 
in the first 500 years, all the Bhikshus and others will be strong in 
deliberation in my correct Law. (Those who first obtain the ' holy 
fruit,' i. e. the Srota-dpannas, are called those who have obtained 
deliberation.) In the next or second 500 years, they will be 
strong in meditation. In the next or third 500 years, they will be 
strong in 'much learning,' i.e. bahuxruta, religious knowledge. 
In the next or fourth 500 years, they will be strong in founding 
monasteries, See. In the last or fifth 500 years, they will be strong 
in fighting and reproving. The pure (lit. white) Law will then 
become invisible.'" 

The question therefore amounts to this, whether in that corrupt 
age the law of Buddha will still be understood ? and the answer is, 
that there will be always some excellent Boddhisattvas who, even 
in the age of corruption, can understand the preaching of the Law. 

1 Will understand them properly. 

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of their merit will not have been accumulated under 
one Buddha only ; on the contrary, O Subhuti, those 
noble-minded Bodhisattvas will have served many 
hundred thousands of Buddhas, and the stock of 
their merit will have been accumulated under many 
hundred thousands of Buddhas; and they, when 
these very words of the Sutras are being preached, 
will obtain one and the same faith \ They are 
known, O Subhuti, by the Tathagata through his 
Buddha-knowledge; they are seen, O Subhuti, by 
the Tathagata through his Buddha-eye; they are 
understood, O Subhuti, by the Tathagata. All 
these, O Subhuti, will produce and will hold fast 
an immeasurable and innumerable stock of merit. 
And why? Because, O Subhuti, there does not 
exist in those noble-minded Bodhisattvas the idea 
of self, there does not exist the idea of a being, the 
idea of a living being, the idea of a person. Nor 
does there exist, O Subhuti, for these noble-minded 
Bodhisattvas the idea of quality (dharma), nor of 
no-quality. Neither does there exist, O Subhuti, 
any idea (sawa^fwa) or no-idea. And why ? Because, 
O Subhuti, if there existed for these noble-minded 
Bodhisattvas the idea of quality, then they would 
believe in a self, they would believe in a being, they 
would believe in a living being, they would believe 
in a person. And if there existed for them the idea 
of no-quality, even then they would believe in a self, 

1 I am doubtful about the exact meaning of ekaiittaprasada. 
Childers gives ekafttta, as an adjective, with the meaning of ' having 
the same thought,' and iittaprasada, as faith in Buddha. But 
ekaiittaprasada may also be 'faith produced by one thought,' 
' immediate faith,' and this too is a recognised form of faith in 
Buddhism. See Sukhlvatf, pp. 71, 108. 

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they would believe in a being, they would believe in 
a living being, they would believe in a person. And 
why ? Because, O Subhuti, neither quality nor no- 
quality is to be accepted by a noble-minded Bodhi- 
sattva. Therefore this hidden saying has been 
preached by the Tathagata : " By those who know 
the teaching of the Law, as like unto a raft, all 
qualities indeed must be abandoned; much more 
no-qualities '." ' (6) 


And again Bhagavat spoke thus to the venerable 
Subhuti : ' What do you think, O Subhuti, is there 
anything (dharma) that was known by the Tathagata 
under the name of the highest perfect knowledge, or 
anything that was taught by the Tathagata ? ' 

After these words, the venerable Subhuti spoke 
thus to Bhagavat: 'As I, O Bhagavat, understand 
the meaning of the preaching of the Bhagavat, there 
is nothing that was known by the Tathagata under 
the name of the highest perfect knowledge, nor is 
there anything that is taught by the Tathagata. 
And why ? Because that thing which was known 
or taught by the Tathagata is incomprehensible and 
inexpressible. It is neither a thing nor no-thing. 
And why ? Because the holy persons 2 are of im- 
perfect power 8 .' (7) 

1 The same line is quoted in the Abhidharmakosha-vyakhyit. 

* Aryapudgala need not be Bodhisattvas, but all who have entered 
on the path leading to Nirvana. 

* Harlez : ' Parceque les entite's supeneures sont produites 
telles sans 6tre replies et parfaites pour cela.' If samskrtta can be 
used in Buddhisj literature in the sense of perfect, and prabha vita 
as power, my translation might pass, but even then the ' because ' 
remains difficult. 

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Bhagavat said : ' What do you think, O Subhuti, 
if a son or daughter of a good family filled this sphere 
of a million millions of worlds 1 with the seven gems 
or treasures, and gave it as a gift to the holy and 
enlightened Tath&gatas, would that son or daughter 
of a good family on the strength of this produce 
a large stock of merit ? ' Subhuti said : ' Yes, O 
Bhagavat, yes, O Sugata, that son or daughter of 
a good family would on the strength of this produce 
a large stock of merit. And why? Because, O 
Bhagavat, what was preached by the TathSgata as 
the stock of merit, that was preached by the Tathl- 
gata as no-stock of merit Therefore the Tathd- 
gata preaches : " A stock of merit, a stock of merit * 
indeed !" ' Bhagavat said : ' And if, O Subhuti, the 
son or daughter of a good family should fill this 
sphere of a million millions of worlds with the seven 
treasures and should give it as a gift to the holy 
and enlightened Tathagatas, and if another after 
taking from this treatise of the Law one Gatha of 
four lines only should fully teach others and explain 
it, he indeed would on the strength of this produce 
a larger stock of merit immeasurable and innumer- 
able. And why ? Because, O Subhuti, the highest 
perfect knowledge of the holy and enlightened 
TathSgatas is produced from it ; the blessed 
Buddhas are produced from it And why? Be- 
cause, O Subhuti, when the Tathagata preached: 

1 See Childers, s. v. Lokadhatu. 

1 Or should it be, bhashate*pu«ryaskandha£ pvwyaskandha iti, 
i. e. he preaches no-stock of merit is the stock of merit ? It would 
not be applicable to later passages, but the style of the Sutras varies. 

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" The qualities of Buddha, the qualities of Buddha 
indeed ! " they were preached by him as no-qualities 
of Buddha. Therefore they are called the qualities 
of Buddha.' (8) 


Bhagavat said ' : ' Now, what do you think, O 
Subhuti, does a Srota-apanna 2 think in this wise : 
The fruit of Srota-apatti has been obtained by me ? ' 
Subhuti said : ' Not indeed, O Bhagavat, a Srota- 
apanna does not think in this wise: The fruit of 
Srota-apatti has been obtained by me. And why ? 
Because, O Bhagavat, he has not obtained any 
particular state (dharma). Therefore he is called 
a Srota-apanna. He has not obtained any form, 
nor sounds, nor smells, nor tastes, nor things that 
can be touched. Therefore he is called a Srota- 
apanna. If, O Bhagavat, a Srota-apanna were to 
think in this wise: The fruit of Srota-apatti has 
been obtained by me, he would believe in a self, 
he would believe in a being, he would believe in 
a living being, he would believe in a person.' 

Bhagavat said : ' What do you think, O Subhuti, 
does a SakWdagamin think in this wise : The fruit 
of a Sakr/dag&min has been obtained by me ? ' 
Subhuti said : ' Not indeed, O Bhagavat, a Sakre- 

1 This phrase is wanting in the Sanskrit MSS., but it is found 
in the Chinese translation of Dharmagupta, of the Sui dynasty 
(a.d. 589-618). 

* Srota-apanna, a man who has obtained the first grade of sancti- 
fication, literally, who has entered the stream. The second grade 
is that of the Sakr/dagimin, who returns once. The third grade is 
that of the Anag&min, who does not return at all, but is born in the 
Brahman world from whence he becomes an Arhat and may obtain 

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dagimin does not think in this wise: The fruit 
of a Sakr/dagamin has been obtained by me. 
And why ? Because he is not an individual 
being (dharma), who has obtained the state of 
a Sakrzdagamin. Therefore he is called a Sakrt- 

Bhagavat said : ' What do you think, O Subhuti, 
does an Anagamin think in this wise : The fruit of 
an Anagamin has been obtained by me ? ' Subhuti 
said : ' Not indeed, O Bhagavat, an Anagamin does 
not think in this wise : The fruit of an Anagamin 
has been obtained by me. And why ? Because he 
is not an individual being, who has obtained the 
state of an Anagamin. Therefore he is called an 

Bhagavat said : ' What do you think, O Subhuti, 
does an Arhat think in this wise : The fruit of an 
Arhat has been obtained by me ? ' Subhuti said : 
' Not indeed, O Bhagavat, an Arhat does not think 
in this wise : The fruit of an Arhat has been obtained 
by me. And why ? Because he is not an indi- 
vidual being, who is called an Arhat Therefore 
he is called an Arhat. And if, O Bhagavat, an 
Arhat were to think in this wise : The state of 
an Arhat has been obtained by me, he would 
believe in a self, he would believe in a being, he 
would believe in a living being, he would believe in 
a person. 

'And why? I have been pointed out, O Bha- 
gavat, by the holy and fully enlightened Tathagata, 
as the foremost of those who dwell in virtue 1 . 

1 Arawaviharin. Rawa is strife, then sin, therefore a raw a might 
be peace and virtue, only the a would be short. Probably arawa- 
viharin was formed with reference to arawya-viharin, living in 

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I, O Bhagavat, am an Arhat, freed from passion. 
And yet, O Bhagavat, I do not think in this wise : 
I am an Arhat, I am freed from passion. If, 
O Bhagavat, I should think in this wise, that the 
state of an Arhat has been obtained by me, then 
the Tathagata would not have truly prophesied of 
me, saying : " Subhuti, the son of a good family, 
the foremost of those dwelling in virtue, does not 
dwell anywhere, and therefore he is called a dweller 
in virtue, a dweller in virtue indeed ! " ' (9) 


Bhagavat said : ' What do you think, O Subhuti, 
is there anything (dharma) which the Tathagata has 
adopted from the Tathagata Dtpankara 1 , the holy 
and fully enlightened ? ' Subhuti said : ' Not indeed, 
O Bhagavat ; there is not anything which the Tatha- 
gata has adopted from the Tathagata Dipankara, the 
holy and fully enlightened.' 

Bhagavat said : 'If, O Subhuti, a Bodhisattva 
should say : " I shall create numbers of worlds," he 
would say what is untrue. And why ? Because, 
O Subhuti, when the Tathagata preached : " Num- 
bers of worlds, numbers of worlds indeed ! " they 
were preached by him as no-numbers. Therefore 
they are called numbers of worlds. 

'Therefore, O Subhuti, a noble-minded Bodhi- 
sattva should in this wise frame an independent 

the forest, retired from the world, and in peace, just as arhan, 
worthy, was changed into arahan, the destroyer of sin. Beal 
translates, ' one who delights in the mortification of an Arawyaka 
(forest devotee).' De Harlez: ' chef de ceux qui ne sont plus attache's 
a la jouissance.' 
1 A former Buddha. 

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mind, which is to be framed as a mind not believing 
in anything, not believing in form, not believing in 
sound, smell, taste, and anything that can be touched. 
Now, for instance, O Subhuti, a man might have 
a body and a large body, so that his size should be 
as large as the king of mountains, Sumeru. Do 
you think then, O Subhuti, that his selfhood (he 
himself) would be large ? ' Subhuti said : ' Yes, O 
Bhagavat, yes, O Sugata, his selfhood would be large. 
And why? Because, O Bhagavat, when the Tatha- 
gata preached : " Selfhood, selfhood indeed ! " it was 
preached by him as no-selfhood. Therefore it is 
called selfhood.' (10) 

Bhagavat said : ' What do you think, O Subhuti, 
if there were as many Gang4 rivers as there are 
grains of sand in the large river Ganga, would the 
grains of sand be many ? ' Subhuti said : ' Those 
Ganga rivers would indeed be many, much more the 
grains of sand in those Ganga rivers.' Bhagavat 
said : ' I tell you, O Subhuti, I announce to you, 
If a woman or man were to fill with the seven 
treasures as many worlds as there would be grains 
of sand in those Ganga rivers and present them as 
a gift to the holy and fully enlightened Tathagatas 
— What do you think, O Subhuti, would that woman 
or man on the strength of this produce a large stock 
of merit ? ' Subhuti said : ' Yes, O Bhagavat, yes, 
O Sugata, that woman or man would on the strength 
of this produce a large stock of merit, immeasur- 
able and innumerable.' Bhagavat said: 'And if, 
O Subhuti, a woman or man having filled so many 
worlds with the seven treasures should give them 
as a gift to the holy and enlightened Tathagatas, 

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and if another son or daughter of a good family, 
after taking from this treatise of the Law one Gatha 
of four lines only, should fully teach others and 
explain it, he, indeed, would on the strength of this 
produce a larger stock of merit, immeasurable and 
innumerable.' (u) 


' Then again, O Subhuti, that part of the world 
in which, after taking from this treatise of the Law 
one Gatha of four lines only, it should be preached 
or explained, would be like a Aaitya (holy shrine) 
for the whole world of gods, men, and spirits ; what 
should we say then of those who learn the whole 
of this treatise of the Law to the end, who repeat 
it, understand it, and fully explain it to others? 
They, O Subhuti, will be endowed with the highest 
wonder 1 . And in that place, O Subhuti, there 
dwells the teacher 2 , or one after another holding 
the place of the wise preceptor 8 .' (12) 


After these words, the venerable Subhuti spoke 
thus to Bhagavat : ' O Bhagavat, how is this treatise 
of the Law called, and how can I learn it ? ' After 
this, Bhagavat spoke thus to the venerable Subhuti : 
4 This treatise of the Law, O Subhuti, is called the 
Pra£"«a-paramita (Transcendent wisdom), and you 
should learn it by that name. And why ? Because, 
O Subhuti, what was preached by the Tathagata 
as the Pra^tfa-paramita, that was preached by the 

1 With what excites the highest wonder. 

* .Sasta, often the name of Buddha, Pali sattha. 

* This may refer to a succession of teachers handing down the 
tradition one to the other. 

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Tathagata as no-Paramita. Therefore it is called 
the Praf»a-paramita. 

' Then, what do you think, O Subhuti, is there 
anything (dharma) that was preached by the Tatha- 
gata ? ' Subhuti said : ' Not indeed, O Bhagavat, 
there is not anything that was preached by the 

Bhagavat said : ' What do you think then, O Su- 
bhuti, — the dust of the earth which is found in this 
sphere of a million millions of worlds, is that much?' 
Subhuti said : ' Yes, O Bhagavat, yes, O Sugata, 
that dust of the earth would be much. And why ? 
Because, O Bhagavat, what was preached by the 
Tathagata as the dust of the earth, that was preached 
by the Tathagata as no-dust. Therefore it is called 
the dust of the earth. And what was preached by 
the Tathagata as the sphere of worlds, that was 
preached by the Tathagata as no-sphere. There- 
fore it is called the sphere of worlds.' 

Bhagavat said : ' What do you think, O Subhuti, 
is a holy and fully enlightened Tathagata to be seen 
(known) by the thirty-two signs of a hero? ' Subhuti 
said : ' No indeed, O Bhagavat ; a holy and fully 
enlightened Tathagata is not to be seen (known) by 
the thirty-two signs of a hero. And why ? Because 
what was preached by the Tathagata as the thirty- 
two signs of a hero, that was preached by the 
Tathagata as no-signs. Therefore they are called 
the thirty-two signs of a hero.' 

Bhagavat said : ' If, O Subhuti, a woman or man 
should day by day sacrifice his life (selfhood 1 ) as 

1 Atmabblva seems to refer here to the living body, not to the 
spiritual Atman, which, according to Buddha, can be got rid of by 

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many times as there are grains of sand in the river 
Ganga, and if he should thus sacrifice his life for as 
many kalpas as there are grains of sand in the river 
Ganga, and if another man, after taking from this 
treatise of the Law one Gatha of four lines only, 
should fully teach others and explain it, he indeed 
would on the strength of this produce a larger stock 
of merit, immeasurable and innumerable.' (13) 


At that time, the venerable Subhuti was moved 
by the power of the Law, shed tears, and having 
wiped his tears, he thus spoke to Bhagavat : ' It is 
wonderful, O Bhagavat, it is exceedingly wonderful, 
O Sugata, how fully this teaching of the Law has 
been preached by the Tathagata for the benefit of 
those beings who entered on the foremost path (the 
path that leads to Nirvana), and who entered on the 
best path, from whence, O Bhagavat, knowledge has 
been produced in me. Never indeed, O Bhagavat, 
has such a teaching of the Law been heard by me 
before. Those Bodhisattvas, O Bhagavat, will be 
endowed with the highest wonder 1 , who when this 
Sutra is being preached hear it and will frame to 
themselves a true idea. And why ? Because what 
is a true idea is not a true idea. Therefore the 
Tathagata preaches : " A true idea, a true idea 

' It is no wonder to me, O Bhagavat, that I accept 
and believe this treatise of the Law, which has been 
preached. And those beings also, O Bhagavat, 

knowledge only. Buddha himself sacrificed his life again and again, 
and a willingness to die would probably be accepted for the deed. 
1 Will possess miraculous powers, and will be admired. 

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who will exist in the future, in the last time, in the 
last moment, in the last 500 years, during the time 
of the decay of the good Law, who will learn this 
treatise of the Law, O Bhagavat, remember it, recite 
it, understand it, and fully explain it to others, they 
will indeed be endowed with the highest wonder. 

' But, O Bhagavat, there will not arise in them 
any idea of a self, any idea of a being, of a living 
being, or a person, nor does there exist for them any 
idea or no-idea. And why ? Because, O Bhagavat, 
the idea of a self is no-idea, and the idea of a being, 
or a living being, or a person is no-idea. And why ? 
Because the blessed Buddhas are freed from all 

After these words, Bhagavat thus spoke to the 
venerable Subhuti : ' So it is, O Subhuti, so it is. 
Those beings, O Subhuti, who when this Sutra was 
being recited here will not be disturbed or fright- 
ened or become alarmed, will be endowed with the 
highest wonder. And why ? Because, O Subhuti, 
this was preached by the Tathagata, as the Parama- 
paramita, which is no-Paramita. And, O Subhuti, 
what the Tathagata preaches as the Paramaparamita, 
that was preached also by immeasurable blessed 
Buddhas. Therefore it is called the Parama- 

'And, O Subhuti, the Paramita or the highest 
perfection of endurance (kshanti) belonging to a 
Tathagata, that also is no-Paramita. And why? 
Because, O Subhuti, at the time when the king of 
Kalinga 1 cut my flesh from every limb, I had no 
idea of a self, of a being, of a living being, or of 

1 The Chinese text points to Kaluga. On this Kalii%a or 
Kalinr/pa see Lalita-vistara, p. 191. 

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a person ; I had neither an idea nor no-idea. And 
why ? Because, O Subhuti, if I at that time had 
had an idea of a self, I should also have had an 
idea of malevolence. If I had had an idea of a 
being, or of a living being, or of a person, I should 
also have had an idea of malevolence. And why ? 
Because, O Subhuti, I remember the past 500 births, 
when I was the /frshi Kshantivadin (preacher of 
endurance). At that time also, I had no idea of 
a self, of a being, of a living being, of a person. 
Therefore then, O Subhuti, a noble-minded Bodhi- 
sattva, after putting aside all ideas, should raise his 
mind to the highest perfect knowledge. He should 
frame his mind so as not to believe (depend) in 
form, sound, smell, taste, or anything that can be 
touched, in something (dharma), in nothing or any- 
thing. And why ? Because what is believed is not 
believed (not to be depended on). Therefore the 
Tathagata preaches: "A gift should not be given by 
a Bodhisattva • who believes in anything, it should 
not be given by one who believes in form, sound, 
smell, taste, or anything that can be touched." 

'And again, O Subhuti, a Bodhisattva should 
in such wise give his gift for the benefit of all 
beings. And why ? Because, O Subhuti, the idea 
of a being is no-idea. And those who are thus 
spoken of by the Tathagata as all beings are indeed 
no-beings. And why ? Because, O Subhuti, a 
Tathagata says what is real, says what is true, says 
the things as they are ; a Tathagata does not speak 

' But again, O Subhuti, whatever doctrine has been 

1 See before, chap. iv. 

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perceived, taught, and meditated on by a Tathagata, 
in it there is neither truth nor falsehood. And as 
a man who has entered the darkness would not see 
anything, thus a Bodhisattva is to be considered 
who is immersed in objects, and who being immersed 
in objects gives a gift. But as a man who has eyes 
would, when the night becomes light, and the sun 
has risen, see many things, thus a Bodhisattva is to 
be considered who is not immersed in objects, and 
who not being immersed in objects gives a gift. 

'And again, O Subhuti, if any sons or daughters 
of good families will learn this treatise of the Law, 
will remember, recite, and understand it, and fully 
explain it to others, they, O Subhuti, are known by 
the Tathagata through his Buddha-knowledge, they 
are seen, O Subhuti, by the Tathagata through his 
Buddha-eye. All these beings, O Subhuti, will 
produce and hold fast an immeasurable and in- 
numerable stock of merit/ (14) 


'And if, O Subhuti, a woman or man sacrificed 
in the morning as many lives as there are grains 
of sand in the river Ganga and did the same at 
noon and the same in the evening, and if in this way 
they sacrificed their lives for a hundred thousands 
of niyutas of ko/Is of ages, and if another, after 
hearing this treatise of the Law, should not oppose it, 
then the latter would on the strength of this produce 
a larger stock of merit, immeasurable and innumer- 
able. What should we say then of him who after 
having written it, learns it, remembers it, under- 
stands it, and fully explains it to others ? 

' And again, O Subhuti, this treatise of the Law is 

[49] *k 

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incomprehensible and incomparable. And this trea- 
tise of the Law has been preached by the Tathagata 
for the benefit of those beings who entered on the 
foremost path (the path that leads to Nirva»a), and 
who entered on the best path. And those who will 
learn this treatise of the Law, who will remember it, 
recite it, understand it, and fully explain it to others, 
they are known, O Subhuti, by the Tathagata 
through his Buddha-knowledge, they are seen, O 
Subhuti, by the Tathagata through his Buddha- 
eye. All these beings, O Subhuti, will be endowed 
with an immeasurable stock of merit, they will be 
endowed with an incomprehensible, incomparable, 
immeasurable and unmeasured stock of merit All 
these beings, O Subhuti, will equally remember the 
Bodhi (the highest Buddha-knowledge), will recite it, 
and understand it And why? Because it is not 
possible, O Subhuti, that this treatise of the Law 
should be heard by beings of little faith, by those 
who believe in self, in beings, in living beings, and 
in persons. It is impossible that this treatise of 
the Law should be heard by beings who have not 
acquired the knowledge of Bodhisattvas, or that it 
should be learned, remembered, recited, and under- 
stood by them. The thing is impossible. 

' And again, O Subhuti, that part of the world in 
which this Sutra will be propounded, will have to be 
honoured by the whole world of gods, men, and evil 
spirits, will have to be worshipped, and will become 
like a A'aitya (a holy sepulchre).' (15) 


' And, O Subhuti, sons or daughters of a good 
family who will learn these very Sutras, who will 

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remember them, recite them, understand them, 
thoroughly take them to heart, and fully explain 
them to others, they will be overcome 1 , they will be 
greatly overcome. And why ? Because, O Subhuti, 
whatever evil deeds these beings have done in 
a former birth, deeds that must lead to suffering, 
those deeds these beings, owing to their being over- 
come, after they have seen the Law, will destroy, and 
they will obtain the knowledge of Buddha. 

4 1 remember, O Subhuti, in the past, before in- 
numerable and more than innumerable kalpas, 
there were eighty-four hundred thousands of niyutas 
of ko/is of Buddhas following after the venerable and 
fully enlightened Tathagata Dtpankara, who were 
pleased by me, and after being pleased were not dis- 
pleased. And if, O Subhuti, these blessed Buddhas 
were pleased by me, and after being pleased were 
not displeased, and if on the other hand people at 
the last time, at the last moment, in the last 500 
years, during the time of the decay of the good Law, 
will learn these very Sutras, remember them, recite 
them, understand them, and fully explain them to 
others, then, O Subhuti, in comparison with their 
stock of merit that former stock of merit will not 
come to one hundredth part, nay, not to one thou- 
sandth part, not to a hundred thousandth part, not 
to a ten millionth part, not to a hundred millionth 
part, not to a hundred thousand ten millionth part, 
not to a hundred thousands of niyutas ten millionth 
part. It will not bear number, nor fraction, nor count- 
ing, nor comparison, nor approach, nor analogy. 

• And if, O Subhuti, I were to tell you the stock of 

1 Paribhutais explained by despised, but the sense, or even the 
non-sense, is difficult to understand. 

*K 2 

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merit of those sons or daughters of good families, 
and how large a stock of merit those sons or 
daughters of good families will produce, and hold 
fast at that time, people would become distracted 
and their thoughts would become bewildered. 
And again, O Subhuti, as this treatise of the Law 
preached by the TathAgata is incomprehensible and 
incomparable, its rewards also must be expected 
(to be) incomprehensible.' (16) 


At that time the venerable Subhuti thus spoke to 
the Bhagavat : 'How should a person, after having 
entered on the path of the Bodhisattvas, behave, 
how should he advance, and how should he restrain 
his thoughts ? ' Bhagavat said : * He who has 
entered on the path of the Bodhisattvas should thus 
frame his thought : All beings must be delivered by 
me in the perfect world of Nirva»a ; and yet after I 
have thus delivered these beings, no being has been 
delivered. And why? Because, O Subhuti, if a 
Bodhisattva had any idea of beings, he could not be 
called a Bodhisattva, and so on 1 from the idea of 
a living being to the idea of a person ; if he had any 
such idea, he could not be called a Bodhisattva. And 
why ? Because, O Subhuti, there is no such thing 
(dharma) as one who has entered on the path of the 

' What do you think, O Subhuti, is there anything 
which the Tathagata has adopted from the Tatha- 
gata Dtpankara with regard to the highest perfect 
knowledge?' After this, the venerable Subhuti 

1 See chap, iii, p. 114. 

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spoke thus to the Bhagavat: 'As far as I, O Bha- 
gavat, understand the meaning of the preaching of 
the Bhagavat, there is nothing which has been 
adopted by the Tathagata from the holy and fully 
enlightened Tathagata Dlpankara with regard to 
the highest perfect knowledge.' After this, Bha- 
gavat thus spoke to the venerable Subhuti : ' So it 
is, Subhuti, so it is. There is not, O Subhuti, any- 
thing which has been adopted by the Tathagata 
from the holy and fully enlightened Tathagata Dl- 
pankara with regard to the highest perfect know- 
ledge. And if, O Subhuti, anything had been 
adopted by the Tathagata, the Tathagata Dlpankara 
would not have prophesied of me, saying x : " Thou, 
O boy, wilt be in the future the holy and fully 
enlightened Tathagata called .Sakyamuni." Because 
then, O Subhuti, there is nothing that has been 
adopted by the holy and fully enlightened Tathagata 
with regard to the highest perfect knowledge, there- 
fore I was prophesied by the Tathagata Dlpankara, 
saying : " Thou, boy, wilt be in the future the holy 
and fully enlightened Tathagata called .Sakyamuni." 

' And why, O Subhuti, the name of Tathagata ? 
It expresses true suchness. And why Tathagata, O 
Subhuti ? It expresses that he had no origin. And 
why Tathagata, O Subhuti? It expresses the 
destruction of all qualities. And why Tathagata, 
O Subhuti ? It expresses one who had no origin 
whatever. And why this ? Because, O Subhuti, 
no-origin is the highest goal. 

'And whosoever, O Subhuti, should say that, by 
the holy and fully enlightened Tathagata, the highest 

1 This prophecy is supposed to have been addressed by Dlpan- 
kara to .Sakyamuni, before he had become a Buddha. 

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perfect knowledge has been known, he would speak 
an untruth, and would slander me, O Subhuti, with 
some untruth that he has learned. And why? 
Because there is no such thing, O Subhuti, as has 
been known by the Tathigata with regard to the 
highest perfect knowledge. And in that, O Subhuti, 
which has been known and taught by the Tathigata, 
there is neither truth nor falsehood. Therefore the 
Tathigata preaches: "All things are Buddha- 
things." And why? Because what was preached 
by the Tathagata, O Subhuti, as all things, that 
was preached as no-things ; and therefore all things 
are called Buddha-things. 

' Now, O Subhuti, a man might have a body and 
a large body.' The venerable Subhuti said : ' That 
man who was spoken of by the Tathagata as a man 
with a body, with a large body, he, O Bhagavat, 
was spoken of by the Tathigata as without a body, 
and therefore he is called a man with a body and 
with a large body.' 

Bhagavat said : ' So it is, O Subhuti ; and if a 
Bodhisattva were to say: " I shall deliver all beings," 
he ought not to be called a Bodhisattva. And 
why ? Is there anything, O Subhuti, that is called 
a Bodhisattva ? ' Subhuti said : ' Not indeed, Bha- 
gavat, there is nothing which is called a Bodhisattva/ 
Bhagavat said : ' Those who were spoken of as 
beings, beings indeed, O Subhuti, they were spoken 
of as no-beings by the Tathigata, and therefore they 
are called beings. Therefore the Tathigata says : 
"All beings are without self, all beings are without 
life, without manhood \ without a personality." 

1 Sans croissance, Harlez; see Childers, s. v. poriso. 

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' If, O Subhuti, a Bodhisattva were to say: " I shall 
create numbers of worlds," he would say what is 
untrue. And why ? Because, what were spoken of 
as numbers of worlds, numbers of worlds indeed, 
O Subhuti, these were spoken of as no-numbers 
by the Tathagata, and therefore they are called 
numbers of worlds. 

'A Bodhisattva, O Subhuti, who believes that all 
things are without self, that all things are without 
self, he has faith, he is called a noble-minded Bodhi- 
sattva by the holy and fully enlightened Tatha- 
gata.' (17) 


Bhagavat said: 'What do you think, O Subhuti, has 
the Tathagata the bodily eye ? ' Subhuti said : ' So it 
is, O Bhagavat, the Tathagata has the bodily eye.' 

Bhagavat said : ' What do you think, O Subhuti, has 
the Tathagata the heavenly eye ? ' Subhuti said : * So 
it is, O Bhagavat, the Tathagata has the heavenly eye.' 

Bhagavat said : ' What do you think, O Subhuti, 
has the Tathagata the eye of knowledge ? ' Subhuti 
said : ' So it is, O Bhagavat, the Tathagata has the 
eye of knowledge.' 

Bhagavat said : ' What do you think, O Subhuti, 
has the Tathagata the eye of the Law ? ' Subhdti 
said : ' So it is, O Bhagavat, the Tathagata has the 
eye of the Law.' 

Bhagavat said : ' What do you think, O Subhuti, 
has the Tathagata the eye of Buddha ? ' Subhuti 
said : ' So it is, O Bhagavat, the Tathagata has the 
eye of Buddha.' 

Bhagavat said : ' What do you think, O Subhuti, 
as many grains of sand as there are in the great 
river Ganga — were they preached by the Tathagata 

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as grains of sand ? ' Subhuti said : 'So it is, O 
Bhagavat, so it is, O Sugata, they were preached as 
grains of sand by the Tathagata.' Bhagavat said : 
' What do you think, O Subhuti, if there were as 
many Ganga rivers as there are grains of sand in 
the great river Ganga ; and, if there were as many 
worlds as there are grains of sand in these, would 
these worlds be many?' Subhuti said: 'So it is, 
O Bhagavat, so it is, O Sugata, these worlds would 
be many.' Bhagavat said : ' As many beings as 
there are in all those worlds, I know the manifold 
trains of thought of them all. And why ? Because 
what was preached as the train of thoughts, the 
train of thoughts indeed, O Subhuti, that was 
preached by the Tathagata as no-train of thoughts, 
and therefore it is called the train of thoughts. 
And why ? Because, O Subhuti, a past thought is 
not perceived, a future thought is not perceived, 
and the present thought is not perceived.' (18) 


' What do you think, O Subhuti, if a son or a 
daughter of a good family should fill this sphere of 
a million millions of worlds with the seven treasures, 
and give it as a gift to holy and fully enlightened 
Buddhas, would that son or daughter of a good 
family produce on the strength of this a large 
stock of merit?' Subhuti said: 'Yes, a large one.' 
Bhagavat said : ' So it is, Subhuti, so it is ; that son 
or daughter of a good family would produce on the 
strength of this a large stock of merit, immeasurable 
and innumerable. And why? Because what was 
preached as a stock of merit, a stock of merit 
indeed, O Subhuti, that was preached as no-stock 

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of merit by the Tathagata, and therefore it is called 
a stock of merit. If, O Subhuti, there existed a 
stock of merit, the Tathigata would not have 
preached: "A stock of merit, a stock of merit in- 
deed!"' (19) 


' What do you think then, O Subhuti, is a Tathi- 
gata to be seen (known) by the shape of his visible 
body ? ' Subhuti said : ' Not indeed, O Bhagavat, 
a Tathigata is not to be seen (known) by the shape 
of his visible body. And why ? Because, what was 
preached, O Bhagavat, as the shape of the visible 
body, the shape of the visible body indeed, that 
was preached by the Tathigata as no-shape of the 
visible body, and therefore it is called the shape of 
the visible body.' 

Bhagavat said : ' What do you think, O Subhuti, 
should a Tathigata be seen (known) by the pos- 
session of signs ? ' Subhfiti said : ' Not indeed, O 
Bhagavat, a Tathigata is not to be seen (known) by 
the possession of signs. And why ? Because, what 
was preached by the Tathigata as the possession of 
signs, that was preached as no-possession of signs 
by the Tathigata, and therefore it is called the 
possession of signs.' (20) 


Bhagavat said : ' What do you think, O Subhuti, 
does the Tathigata think in this wise : The Law has 
been taught by me ? ' Subhuti said : ' Not indeed, 
O Bhagavat, does the Tathigata think in this wise : 
The Law has been taught by me.' Bhagavat said : 
' If a man should say that the Law has been taught 
by the Tathigata, he would say what is not true ; he 

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would slander me with untruth which he has learned. 
And why ? Because, O Subhuti, it is said the 
teaching of the Law, the teaching of the Law indeed. 
O Subhuti, there is nothing that can be perceived 
by the name of the teaching of the Law.' 

After this, the venerable Subhuti spoke thus to 
the Bhagavat : ' Forsooth, O Bhagavat, will there 
be any beings in the future, in the last time, in the 
last moment, in the last 500 years, during the time 
of the decay of the good Law, who, when they have 
heard these very Laws, will believe?' Bhagavat 
said : ' These, O Subhuti, are neither beings nor no- 
beings. And why ? Because, O Subhuti, those 
who were preached as beings, beings indeed, they 
were preached as no-beings by the Tathagata, and 
therefore they are called beings.' (21) 


' What do you think then, O Subhuti, is there any- 
thing which has been known by the Tathagata in 
the form of the highest perfect knowledge ? ' The 
venerable Subhuti said : ' Not indeed, O Bhagavat, 
there is nothing, O Bhagavat, that has been known 
by the Tathagata in the form of the highest perfect 
knowledge.' Bhagavat said : ' So it is, Subhuti, so 
it is. Even the smallest thing is not known or 
perceived there, therefore it is called the highest 
perfect knowledge.' (22) 


'Also, Subhuti, all is the same there, there is 
no difference there, and therefore it is called the 
highest perfect knowledge. Free from self, free 
from being, free from life, free from personality, that 

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highest perfect knowledge is always the same, and 
thus known with all good things. And why ? Be- 
cause, what were preached as good things, good 
things indeed, O Subhuti, they were preached as 
no-things by the Tathagata, and therefore they are 
called good things.' (23) 


'And if, O Subhfiti, a woman or man, putting 
together as many heaps of the seven treasures as 
there are Sumerus, kings of mountains, in the sphere 
of a million millions of worlds, should give them as 
a gift to holy and fully enlightened Tathagatas; 
and, if a son or a daughter of a good family, after 
taking from this treatise of the Law, this Pra/wap&ra- 
mita, one Gatha of four lines only, should teach it to 
others, then, O Subhuti, compared with his stock 
of merit, the former stock of merit would not 
come to the one hundredth part,' &c.\ till 'it will 
not bear an approach.' (24) 


'What do you think then, O Subhuti, does a 
Tathagata think in this wise : Beings have been de- 
livered by me ? You should not think so, O Subhuti. 
And why ? Because there is no being, O Subhuti, 
that has been delivered by the Tathagata. And, 
if there were a being, O Subhuti, that has been 
delivered by the Tathagata, then the Tathagata 
would believe in self, believe in a being, believe in 
a living being, and believe in a person. And what 
is called a belief in self, O Subhuti, that is preached 

1 As before, in chap. xvi. 

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140 the vagrajtsthedika 

as no-belief by the Tathagata. And this is learned 
by children and ignorant persons ; and they who 
were preached as children and ignorant persons, 
O Subhuti, were preached as no-persons by the 
Tathagata, and therefore they are called children 
and ignorant persons.' (25) 


'What do you think then, O Subhuti, is the 
Tathagata to be seen (known) by the possession of 
signs ? ' Subhuti said : ' Not indeed, O Bhagavat 
So far as I know the meaning of the preaching of 
the Bhagavat, the Tathagata is not to be seen 
(known) by the possession of signs.' Bhagavat said : 
* Good, good, Subhuti, so it is, Subhuti ; so it is, 
as you say ; a Tathagata is not to be seen (known) 
by the possession of signs. And why ? Because, 
O Subhuti, if the Tathagata were to be seen (known) 
by the possession of signs, a wheel-turning king also 
would be a Tathagata 1 ; .therefore a Tathagata is 
not to be seen (known) by the possession of signs.' 
The venerable Subhtiti spoke thus to the Bha- 
gavat: 'As I understand the meaning of the 
preaching of the Bhagavat, a Tathagata is not to 
be seen (known) by the possession of signs.' Then 
the Bhagavat at that moment preached these two 
Gathas : 

They who saw me by form, and they who heard 

me by sound, 
They engaged in false endeavours, will not see me. 

1 This probably refers to the auspicious signs discovered in 
•S&kyamuni at his birth, which left it open whether he should become 
a king or a Buddha. 

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A Buddha is to be seen (known) from the Law ; for 

the Lords (Buddhas) have the Law-body ; 
And the nature of the Law cannot be understood, 
. nor can it be made to be understood. (26) 


'What do you think then, O Subhuti, has the 
highest perfect knowledge been known by the 
Tathagata through the possession of signs ? You 
should not think so, O Subhuti. And why? Be- 
cause, O Subhuti, the highest perfect knowledge 
would not be known by the Tathagata through the 
possession of signs. Nor should anybody, O Su- 
bhuti, say to you that the destruction or annihila- 
tion of any thing is proclaimed by those who have 
entered on the path of the Bodhisattvas.' (27) 


' And if, O Subhuti, a son or a daughter of a good 
family were to fill worlds equal to the number of 
grains of sand of the river Ganga with the seven 
treasures, and give them as a gift to holy and 
fully enlightened Tathagatas ; and if a Bodhisattva 
acquired endurance in selfless and uncreated things, 
then the latter will on the strength of this produce 
a larger stock of merit, immeasurable and innume- 

' But, O Subhuti, a stock of merit should not be 
appropriated by a noble-minded Bodhisattva.' The 
venerable Subhuti said : ' Should a stock of merit, 
O Bhagavat, not be appropriated by a Bodhisattva ?' 
Bhagavat said : ' It should be appropriated, O Su- 
bhuti ; it should not be appropriated ; and therefore 
it is said : It should be appropriated.' (28) 

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' And again, O Subhuti, if anybody were to say 
that the Tathagata goes, or comes, or stands, or sits, 
or lies down, he, O Subhuti, does not understand 
the meaning of my preaching. And why ? Because 
the word Tathagata means one who does not go 
to anywhere, and does not come from anywhere; 
and therefore he is called the Tathagata (truly 
come), holy and fully enlightened.' (29) 


' And again, O Subhuti, if a son or a daughter of 
a good family were to take as many worlds as there 
are grains of earth-dust in this sphere of a million 
millions of worlds, and reduce them to such fine dust 
as can be made with immeasurable strength, like 
what is called a mass of the smallest atoms, do you 
think, O Subhuti, would that be a mass of many 
atoms ? ' Subhuti said : ' Yes, Bhagavat, yes, Sugata, 
that would be a mass of many atoms. And why ? 
Because, O Bhagavat, if it were a mass of many 
atoms, Bhagavat would not call it a mass of many 
atoms. And why ? Because, what was preached as 
a mass of many atoms by the Tathagata, that was 
preached as no-mass of atoms by the Tathagata; 
and therefore it is called a mass of many atoms. 
And what was preached by the Tathagata as the 
sphere of a million millions of worlds, that was 
preached by the Tathagata as no-sphere of worlds ; 
and therefore it is called the sphere of a million 
millions of worlds. And why ? Because, O Bha- 
gavat, if there were a sphere of worlds, there would 
exist a belief in matter; and what was preached 
as a belief in matter by the Tathagata, that was 

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preached as no-belief by the Tathagata ; and there- 
fore it is called a belief in matter.' Bhagavat said : 
'And a belief in matter itself, O Subhuti, is un- 
mentionable and inexpressible ; it is neither a thing 
nor no-thing, and this is known by children and 
ignorant persons.' (30) 


' And why ? Because, O Subhuti, if a man were 
to say that belief in self, belief in a being, belief in 
life, belief in personality had been preached by the 
Tathagata, would he be speaking truly ? ' Subhuti 
said : ' Not indeed, Bhagavat, not indeed, Sugata ; 
he would not be speaking truly. And why ? Because, 
O Bhagavat, what was preached by the Tathagata 
as a belief in self, that was preached by the Tatha- 
gata as no-belief; therefore it is called belief in 

Bhagavat said: 'Thus then, O Subhuti, are all 
things to be perceived, to be looked upon, and to 
be believed by one who has entered on the path of 
the Bodhisattvas. And in this wise are they to be 
perceived, to be looked upon, and to be believed, 
that a man should believe neither in the idea of 
a thing nor in the idea of a no-thing. And why ? 
Because, by saying : The idea of a thing, the idea 
of a thing indeed, it has been preached by the 
Tathagata as no-idea of a thing.' (31) 


' And, O Subhuti, if a noble-minded Bodhisattva 
were to fill immeasurable and innumerable spheres 
of worlds with the seven treasures, and give them 
as a gift to holy and fully enlightened Tathagatas ; 

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144 THE vagrajtotedikA. 

and if a son or a daughter of a good family, after 
taking from this treatise of the Law, this Pra/rca- 
paramiti, one Gatha of four lines only, should learn 
it, repeat it, understand it, and fully explain it to 
others, then the latter would on the strength of 
this produce a larger stock of merit, immeasurable 
and innumerable. And how should he explain it ? 
As in the sky: 

Stars, darkness, a lamp, a phantom, dew, a bubble. 
A dream, a flash of lightning, and a cloud — thus 

we should look upon the world (all that was 


Thus he should explain; therefore it is said: He 
should explain.' 

Thus spoke the Bhagavat enraptured. The 
elder Subhuti, and the friars, nuns, the faithful lay- 
men and women, and the Bodhisattvas also, and the 
whole world of gods, men, evil spirits and fairies, 
praised the preaching of the Bhagavat. (32) 

Thus is finished the Diamond-cutter, the 
• blessed Pra£-»aparamita. 

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[49] * L 

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Adoration to the Omniscient ! 

This I heard: At one time the Bhagavat dwelt 
at Ra^agriha, on the hill GWdhraku/a, together 
with a large number of Bhikshus and a large 
number of Bodhisattvas. 

At that time the Bhagavat was absorbed in a 
meditation, called Gambhtravasambodha. And at 
the same time the great Bodhisattva Aryavalokite- 
jvara, performing his study in the deep Praf#a- 
paramita, thought thus : ' There are the five Skan- 
dhas, and those he (the Buddha ?) considered as 
something by nature empty.' 

Then the venerable .Sariputra, through Buddha's 
power, thus spoke to the Bodhisattva Aryavalokite- 
jvara : ' If the son or daughter of a family wishes 
to perform the study in the deep Praj'waparamita, 
how is he to be taught ? ' 

On this the great Bodhisattva Aryavalokitervara 
thus spoke to the venerable .Sariputra : ' If the son 
or daughter of a family wishes to perform the study 
in the deep Praf»aparamita, he must think thus : 

' There are five Skandhas, and these he considered 
as by their nature empty. Form is emptiness, and 

*L 2 

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emptiness indeed is form. Emptiness is not different 
from form, form is not different from emptiness. 
What is form that is emptiness, what is emptiness 
that is form. Thus perception, name, conception, 
and knowledge also are emptiness. Thus, O S&ri- 
putra, all things have the character of emptiness, 
they have no beginning, no end, they are faultless 
and not faultless, they are not imperfect and not 
perfect Therefore, O .Sariputra, here in this empti- 
ness there is no form, no perception, no name, no 
concept, no knowledge. No eye, ear, nose, tongue, 
body, and mind. No form, sound, smell, taste, 
touch, and objects. There is no eye,' &c, till we 
come to ' there is no mind, no objects, no mind- 
knowledge. There is no knowledge, no ignorance, 
no destruction (of ignorance),' till we come to * there 
is no decay and death, no destruction of decay and 
death ; there are not (the Four Truths, viz.) that 
there is pain, origin of pain, stoppage of pain, and 
the path to it There is no knowledge, no obtain- 
ing, no not-obtaining of Nirvawa. Therefore, O 
.Sariputra, as there is no obtaining (of Nirva«a), 
a man who has approached the Pra^wiparamita of 
the Bodhisattvas, dwells (for a time) enveloped in 
consciousness. But when the envelopment of con- 
sciousness has been annihilated, then he becomes 
free of all fear, beyond the reach of change, enjoy- 
ing final Nirvana. 

'AH Buddhas of the past, present, and future, after 
approaching the Pra^HJaparamita, have awoke to 
the highest perfect knowledge. 

' Therefore we ought to know the great verse of 
the Pra^waparamita, the verse of the great wisdom, 
the unsurpassed verse, the verse which appeases 

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all pain — it is truth, because it is not false 1 — the 
verse proclaimed in the Pra/iwaparamita * : " O 
wisdom, gone, gone, gone to the other shore, landed 
at the other shore, Svaha t " 

' Thus, O .Sariputra, should a Bodhisattva teach 
in the study of the deep Pra,f»aparamita.' 

Then when the Bhagavat had risen from that 
meditation, he gave his approval to the venerable 
Bodhisattva Avalokitervara, saying: 'Well done, 
well done, noble son ! So it is, noble son. So in- 
deed must this study of the deep Praf»aparamita 
be performed. As it has been described by thee, 
it is applauded by Arhat Tathagatas.' Thus spoke 
Bhagavat with joyful mind. And the venerable 
.Sariputra, and the honourable Bodhisattva Avalo- 
kitervara, and the whole assembly, and the world 
of gods, men, demons, and fairies praised the speech 
of the Bhagavat 

Here ends the Pra/-»aparamitahr/dayasutra. 

1 It is truth, not falsehood, W text. 

1 Fit for obtaining Pra^aaparamita, W text. 

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Adoration to the Omniscient ! 

The venerable Bodhisattva Avalokitervara, per- 
forming his study in the deep Praf»aparamita 
(perfection of wisdom), thought thus : ' There are 
the five Skandhas, and these he considered as by 
their nature empty (phenomenal).' 

' O .Sariputra,' he said, ' form here is emptiness, 
and emptiness indeed is form. Emptiness is not 
different from form, form is not different from 
emptiness. What is form that is emptiness, what 
is emptiness that is form.' 

'The same applies to perception, name, concep- 
tion, and knowledge.' 

' Here, O .Sariputra, all things have the character 
of emptiness, they have no beginning, no end, they 
are faultless and not faultless, they are not imperfect 
and not perfect. Therefore, O .Sariputra, in this 
emptiness there is no form, no perception, no name, 
no concepts, no knowledge. No eye, ear, nose, 
tongue, body, mind. No form, sound, smell, taste, 
touch, objects.' 

' There is no eye,' &c, till we come to ' there is 
no mind.' 

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(What is left out here are the eighteen Dhatus 
or aggregates, viz. eye, form, vision; ear, sound, 
hearing; nose, odour, smelling; tongue, flavour, 
tasting ; body, touch, feeling ; mind, objects, thought.) 

' There is no knowledge, no ignorance, no destruc- 
tion of knowledge, no destruction of ignorance,' &c, 
till we come to ' there is no decay and death, no 
destruction of decay and death ; there are not (the 
four truths, viz. that there) is pain, origin of pain, 
stoppage of pain, and the path to it. There is no 
knowledge, no obtaining (of Nirvana).' 

' A man who has approached the Pra£-#aparamita 
of the Bodhisattva dwells enveloped in conscious- 
ness '. But when the envelopment of consciousness 
has been annihilated, then he becomes free of all 
fear, beyond the reach of change, enjoying final 

'AH Buddhas of the past, present, and future, 
after approaching the Pra^aparamita, have awoke 
to the highest perfect knowledge.' 

'Therefore one ought to know the great verse 
of the Pra^waparamita, the verse of the great 
wisdom, the unsurpassed verse, the peerless verse, 
which appeases all pain — it is truth, because it is 
not false — the verse proclaimed in the Praf»apara- 
mita: "O wisdom, gone, gone, gone to the other 
shore, landed at the other shore, Svaha ! " ' 

Thus ends the heart of the Pra£%aparamita. 
1 See Childers, s.v. Aittam. 

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AnagHmin, one who does not return 

at all, page iao, note 2 ; 121. 
Anathapimfada, m. 
Arhat, 1 30, n. a ; 1 a 1 seq. ; A. Tathl- 

gatas, 149. 
Arya-pra^a-plramjta, perfection of 

wisdom, in. 
Aryavalokitejvara, N. of a Bodhi- 

sattva, 147; 149; 153. 
Atoms, 14a. 
Avalokitesvara, see Ary&valokites- 


Being, term of, 113 seq. ; belief in, 
idea of a b., 117, &c. &c. ; see 
Self, 134. 

Bhagavat (Buddha), in, &c. &c. ; 

147; 149. 
Bhikshus, 1 1 1 seq. ; 144; 147. 
Bodbi, highest knowledge, 1 1 1, n. 4 ; 

130; 131. 
Bodhisattvas, tu,&c. ; 126; 138; 

134 seq.; 147 seqq. ; 154; 

knowledge of B., 1 30 ; path of 

theB., 13a; 141; 143. 
Brahman world, lao, n. a. 
Buddha, 116 seq.; 135, n. 1 ; 147; 

qualities of B., lao ; eve of B., 

135; B. to be seen from the 

Law, 141 ; many Buddhas, 117 ; 

119; "75 131; 136; 148; 

154; knowledge of B., 131. 
Buddha-eye, 117; 139; 130. 
Buddha-knowledge, 117 ; 139; 130; 

Buddha-things, 134. 

Cause, idea of, 1 14 seq. 

Demons, see Spirits. 

Dhatus, eighteen aggregates, 154. 

Dtpankara, the Tathagata, iaa; 
131 ; 13a seq. 

Emptiness, 147 seq. ; 153. 

Eye (bodily, heavenly, &c), 135. 

Fairies, 144 ; 149. 

Faith, 117; 135. 

Four Truths, 148; 154. 

Gambhtravasambodha, a kind of 

meditation, 147. 
Gatht of four lines, 119; 134; 126 ; 

139; 144; two Gathas, 140 

Gaya-ka/yapa, in, n. 3. 
Geta, the grove of, in. 
Gods, 130; 144; 149. 
Gridhraku7a, N. of a hill, 147. 

Hero, signs of a, 135. 

Holy persons (aryapudgala), 118. 

Idea (sztngfii), 117; ia6seq.; 138; 
idea of a thing, and no-idea, 

ATaitya, holy shrine, 1 34 ; 1 30. 
Kalinga, king of, 137. 
Kalir%an or °nr/pa, 137, n. 1. 
Knowledge, highest perfect, 118; 

119 ; ia8 ; 133 seqq. ; 138 seq.; 

141; 148; 154; eye of k., 135; 

there is no k., 148. 
Kshantivadin, JUshi, 138. 

Law, decay of the good L., 116; 
137; 131; 138; teaching of the 
L., 118; 138; treatise of the L., 
119; 134; 136; 139 seq.; eye 
of the L., 135 ; Law taught by 

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156 vagrajcjchedikA and prag^A-pAramitAs. 

the Tathagata, 137; Buddha 

seen from the L., 141. 
Law-body, 141. 
Laymen and women, 144. 

Matter, belief in, 143 seq. 
Maudgalyayana, in, n. 3. 
Men, gods, and evil spirits, 

144; 149. 
Merit, stock of, 114, &c. &c. 


Nadi-kfbyapa, in, n. 3. 

Nirvana, 116 note ; 148 ; 154 ; world 

of N., 114; 133; 120, n. 3; 

path leading to N., 126 ; 130. 
No-origin the highest goal, 133. 
Nuns, 144. 

Parama-paramita, 137. 

Piramita, 127. 

Person, personality, 117, &c. &c. ; 
see Self. 

Pra£&a-paramita (transcendent wis- 
dom), 124 seq.; 139; 144; 
147 seqq.; 153 seq. 

Prasena^it, m,n. 1. 

Preceptor, the wise, 1 24. 

Quality (dharma) , idea of, 1 1 7 ; quali- 
ties of Buddha, 120. 

Ra^agrfta, 147. 

Sakr/dagamin, a man who returns 

once, 120 seq. 
Sakyamuni, 133; 140, n. 1. 
Sariputra, m,n. 3; 147 seqq. ; 153. 

Self, idea of and belief in a, 1 17 ; 1 20 
seq.; i27seq.; 130; 133; 138; 
'39 ! >43 i a " things are with- 
out self, 134. 

Selfhood, 133 ; 125. 

Signs, possession of, 115 ; 137; 140; 
141; thirty-two signs of a hero, 

Skandhas, five, 147 ; 153. 

Spirits, evil, 1 30 ; 144; 149. 

Sravastf, in seq. 

Srota-ipanna, a man who has ob- 
tained the first grade of sancti- 
fication, 116 note; 120. 

Srota-apatti, 120. 

Subhuti, 112, &c. &c. 

Sudatta, in, n. 2. 

Sugata (Buddha), 112; 119; 
125; 126; 143. 

Sumeru, king of mountains, 
plur., 139. 



Tathagata, 112, &c. &c. ; the name 
of T., 133; 142; ArhatTathS- 
gatas, 149. 

Teacher, i. e. Buddha, 124. 

Thoughts, train of, 136. 

Treasures, seven, 119; 123; 136; 
»395 141; »43- 

Uruvilva-klryapa, in, n. 3. 

Wheel-turning king, 140. 
Worlds, sphere of a million millions 

of, 119; 125; 136; 139; 142; 

numbers of worlds, 122 ; 134 

seq.; 143. 

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araaavihlrin, dwelling in virtue, page 
i a i, note i. 

atmabhava, selfhood, life, 135, n. 1. 
Sranya-vMrin, living in the forest, 

121, n. 1. 
Aryapudgala, one who has entered 

on the path leading to Nirvana, 

118, n. 2. 

ekaiittapraslda, 117, n. 1. 

Kritabhaktakritya, 112, n. 2. 
kshanti, endurance, 127. 

iittaprasada, faith in Buddha, 117, 
n. 1. 

dharma, quality, 117; thing, 118; 
122; 125; 128; 132; particular 

state, 120; an individual being, 

nivas, 112, n. 1. 

paribhfita, overcome, despised (?), 

131, n. 1. 
parindita, instructed, 1 1 3, n. 1. 
p&utadbhakta, 112, n. 3. 
pim&p&ta, 112, n. 3. 
punyaskandha, 119, n. 2. 
pfirvibxakilasamaye nivasya, 112, 

n. 1. 
praf-lapta, 112, n. 4. 
prabhavita, power, 18, n. 3. 

raaa, strife, sin, 121, n. 1. 

/ibtri, teacher = Buddha, 124, n. 2. 

samskrfta, perfect (?), 118, n. 3. 
samgUi,, idea, 117. 

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Part I. 

§ i. Thus it was heard by me : At one time 
the Buddha dwelt in Ra^agWha, on the mountain 
Grzdhraku/a, with a large assembly of Bhikshus 
and with thirty-two thousands of Bodhisattvas ; 
with Mangusrt, Prince of the Law 2 , at the head of 
the assembly. 

§ 2. At that time, in the great city of Ra^agr?ha 
there was a prince, the heir-apparent, named A^a- 
tasatru. He listened to the wicked counsel of 
Devadatta and other friends and forcibly arrested 
Bimbisara his father, the king, and shut him up by 
himself in a room with seven walls, proclaiming to 
all the courtiers that no one should approach (the 
king). The chief consort of the king, Vaideh! by 

1 Nanjio's Catalogue of Tripi/aka, No. 198; translated into 
Chinese a. d. 424, by Kalay&ras, a «Srama»a from India. 

* Sanskrit Kumarabhuta, 'prince' or 'princely/ but Chinese 
has ' prince of the law ; ' according to the commentator, IT-tt6, 
he was called so because he was (skilled in) converting men by 
(teaching) the Law. JT-i& seems to have understood that Ma#- 
^urri* was not a royal prince, but the name Kumarabhuta was given 
him as an honorific title. Max Muller, 'the prince' (p. 350, 
vol. ii, Selected Essays) ; Kern, 'the prince royal,' but he gives an 
alternative ' still a youth ' (p. 4, Sadcharmapu»<forika). 

[49] *M 

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162 amitAyur-dhyAna-sOtra, § 3. 

name, was true and faithful to her lord, the king. 
She supported him in this wise : having purified 
herself by bathing and washing, she anointed her 
body with honey and ghee mixed with corn-flour, 
and she concealed the juice of grapes in the 
various garlands she wore (in order to give him 
food without being noticed by the warder). As 
she stole in and made an offering to him, he was 
able to eat the flour and to drink the juice (of 
grapes). Then he called for water and rinsed his 
mouth; That done, the king stretched forth his 
folded hands towards the Mount GWdhraku/a and 
worshipped duly and respectfully the World- 
Honoured One, who at that time ' abode there. 
And he uttered the following prayer : ' Mahamaud- 
galyayana is my friend and relative ; let him, I pray, 
feel compassion towards me, and come and commu- 
nicate to me the eight prohibitive precepts 1 (of 
Buddha).' On this, Mahamaudgalyayana at once 
appeared before the king, coming with a speed equal 
to the flight of a falcon or an eagle, and communi- 
cated to him the eight precepts. 

Day after day did he come. The World- 
Honoured One sent also his worthy disciple Pur»a 
to preach the Law to the king. Thus a period of 
three weeks passed by. The king showed by his 
countenance that he was happy and contented when 
he had an opportunity of hearing the Law as well as 
of enjoying the honey and flour. 

§ 3. At that time, A^atayatru asked the warder 

1 According to the commentator, Shan-tao, 'killing, stealing, 
adultery, lying, drinking, applying ointment, &c, music, and using 
ornamented chairs, &c.' 

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of the gate whether his father was yet alive. On 
this, the warder answered him : ' O Exalted king, the 
chief consort (of thy father) brought (food) and pre- 
sented it to him by anointing her body with honey 
and flour and filling her garlands with the juice (of 
grapes), and the .Srama»as, Mahamaudgalyayana 
and Puma, approached the king through the sky in 
order to preach the Law to him. It is, O king, 
impossible to prevent them coming.' When the 
prince heard this answer his indignation arose 
against his mother: 'My mother,' he cried, 'is 1 , 
indeed, a rebel, for she was found in company 
with that rebel. Wicked people are those .Sramawas, 
and it is their art of spells causing illusion and 
delusion that delayed the death of that wicked king 
for so many days.' Instantly he brandished his 
sharp sword, intending to slay his mother. At that 
moment, there intervened a minister named A'an- 
draprabha, who was possessed of great wisdom and 
intelligence, and Glva. (a famous physician). They 
saluted the prince and remonstrated with him, 
saying: 'We, ministers, O Great king, heard that 
since the beginning of the kalpas there had been 
several wicked kings, even to the number of eighteen 
thousand, who killed their own fathers, covet- 
ing the throne of (their respective) kingdoms, as 
mentioned in the Sutra of the discourse of the 
Veda l . Yet never have we heard of a man killing 
his mother, though he be void of virtue. Now, if 
thou, O king, shouldst dare to commit such a deadly 
sin, thou wouldst bring a stain upon the blood of 
the Kshatriyas (the kingly race). We cannot even 

1 This is non-Buddhistic, according to Shan-t&o. 

*M 2 

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164 amitAyur-dhyAna-sOtra, §4. 

bear to hear of it Thou art indeed a Aaiu&la 
(the lowest race) ; we shall not stay here with 
thee.' After this speech, the two great ministers 
retired stepping backward, each with his hand placed 
on his sword. A^ataratru was then frightened, 
and greatly afraid of them, and asked ^tva, 
saying : • Wilt thou not be friendly to me ? ' In 
reply Glva. said to him: 'Do not then, O Great 
king, by any means think of injuring thy mother.' 
On hearing this, the prince repented and sought 
for mercy, and at once laid down his sword and did 
his mother no hurt. He finally ordered the officers 
of the inner chambers to put the queen in a hidden 
palace and not to allow her to come out again. 

$ 4. When Vaideh! was thus shut up in retire- 
ment she became afflicted by sorrow and distress. 
She began to do homage to Buddha from afar, look- 
ing towards the Mount Gradhraku/a. She uttered 
the following words : ' O Tathagata ! World- 
Honoured One! In former times thou hast con- 
stantly sent Ananda to me for enquiry and conso- 
lation. I am now in sorrow and grief. Thou, 

World-Honoured One, art majestic and exalted ; 
in no way shall I be able to see thee. Wilt thou, 

1 pray thee, command Mahamaudgalyayana and 
thy honoured disciple, Ananda, to come and have 
an interview with me ? ' After this speech, she 
grieved and wept, shedding tears like a shower 
of rain. Before she raised her head from doing 
homage to the distant Buddha, the World-Honoured 
One knew what Vaideh! was wishing in her mind, 
though he was on the Mount Gn'dhraku/a. There- 
fore, he instantly ordered Mahamaudgalyayana and 
Ananda to go to her through the sky. Buddha 

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himself disappeared from that mountain and appeared 
in the royal palace. 

When the queen raised her head as she finished 
homage to Buddha, she saw before her the World- 
Honoured Buddha .Sakyamuni, whose body was 
purple gold in colour, sitting on a lotus-flower which 
consists of a hundred jewels, with Mahamaudgalya- 
yana attending on his left, and with Ananda on his 
right. 6akra (Indra), Brahman, and other gods that 
protect the world were seen in the midst of the sky, 
everywhere showering heavenly flowers with which 
they made offerings to Buddha in their worship. 
Vaidehl, at the sight of Buddha the World-Honoured 
One, took off her garlands and prostrated herself on 
the ground, crying, sobbing, and speaking to Buddha : 
'O World- Honoured One! what former sin of 
mine has produced such a wicked son ? And 
again, O Exalted One, from what cause and cir- 
cumstances hast thou such an affinity (by blood and 
religion) with Devadatta (Buddha's wicked cousin 
and once his disciple)?' 

§ 5. ' My only prayer,' she continued, ' is this : 
O World-Honoured One, mayst thou preach to 
me in detail of all the places where there is no 
sorrow or trouble, and where I ought to go to be 
born anew. I am not satisfied with this world of 
depravities 1 , with 6ambudvtpa (India) 2 , which is 
full of hells, full of hungry spirits (pretas), and of the 
brute creation. In this world of depravities, there 
is many an assemblage of the wicked. May I not 

1 For five depravities vide Smaller Sukhlvatt, § 18 ; Saddhar- 
mapum&rika by Kern, p. 58, § 140 note. 
* But Japanese Buddhists take this in a wider sense. 

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1 66 amitAyur-dhyAna-sGtra, §6. 

hear, I pray, the voice of the wicked in the future ; 
and may I not see any wicked person. 

' Now I throw my five limbs down to the ground 
before thee, and seek for thy mercy by confessing 
my sins. I pray for this only that the Sun-like 
Buddha may instruct me how to meditate on a 
world wherein all actions are pure.' At that 
moment, the World-Honoured One flashed forth 
a golden ray from between his eyebrows. It 
extended to all the innumerable worlds of the ten 
quarters. On its return the ray rested on the top 
of Buddha's head and transformed itself into a 
golden pillar just like the Mount Sumeru, wherein 
the pure and admirable countries of the Buddhas in 
the ten quarters appeared all at once illuminated. 

One was a country consisting of seven jewels, 
another was a country all full of lotus-flowers ; one 
was like the palace of Mahervara Deva (god *Siva), 
another was like a mirror of crystal, with the coun- 
tries in the ten quarters reflected therein. There 
were innumerable countries like these, resplendent, 
gorgeous, and delightful to look upon. All were 
meant for Vaideht to see (and choose from). 

Thereupon Vaidehl again spoke to Buddha : ' O 
World-Honoured One, although all other Buddha 
countries are pure and radiant with light, I should, 
nevertheless, wish myself to be born in the realm 
of Buddha Amitayus (or Amitibha), in the world of 
Highest Happiness (Sukhavatt). Now I simply 
pray thee, O World- Honoured One, to teach me 
how to concentrate my thought so as to obtain 
a right vision (of that country).' 

§ 6. Thereupon the World-Honoured One gently 
smiled upon her, and rays of five colours issued 

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forth out of his mouth, each ray shining as far as 
the head of king Bimbisara. 

At that moment, the mental vision of that exalted 
king was perfectly clear though he was shut up in 
lonely retirement, and he could see the World- 
Honoured One from afar. As he paid homage 
with his head and face, he naturally increased and 
advanced (in wisdom), whereby he attained to the 
fruition of an Anagamin (the third of the four 
grades to Nirva»a). 

§ 7. Then the World-Honoured One said : ' Now 
dost thou not know, O Vaideht, that Buddha Ami- 
tayus is not very far from here ? Thou shouldst 
apply thy mind entirely to close meditation upon 
those who have already perfected the pure actions 
necessary for that Buddha country. 

' I now proceed to fully expound them for thee in 
many parables, and thereby afford all ordinary per- 
sons of the future who wish to cultivate these pure 
actions an opportunity of being born in the Land 
of Highest Happiness (Sukhivatl) in the western 
quarter. Those who wish to be born in that 
country of Buddha have to cultivate a threefold 
goodness. Firstly, they should act filially towards 
their parents and support them ; serve and respect 
their teachers and elders ; be of compassionate 
mind, abstain from doing any injury, and cultivate 
the ten virtuous actions 1 . Secondly, they should 
take and observe the vow of seeking refuge with 
the Three Jewels, fulfil all moral precepts, and not 
lower their dignity or neglect any ceremonial observ- 
ance. Thirdly, they should give their whole mind 

1 1, e. observe the ten prohibitive precepts of Buddha. 

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1 68 amitAyur-dhyAna-sutra, §8. 

to the attainment of the Bodhi (perfect wisdom), 
deeply believe in (the principle of) cause and effect, 
study and recite (the Sutras of) the Mahayana 
doctrine, and persuade and encourage others who 
pursue the same course as themselves. 

* These three groups as enumerated are- called 
the pure actions (leading to the Buddha country).' 
' O Vaidehi ! ' Buddha continued, ' dost thou not 
understand now ? These three classes of actions 
are the efficient cause of the pure actions taught by 
all the Buddhas of the past, present, and future.' 

§ 8. Buddha then addressed Ananda as well as 
Vaidehi : ' Listen carefully, listen carefully ! Ponder 
carefully on what you hear! I, Tathagata, now 
declare the pure actions needful (for that Buddha 
country) for the sake of all beings hereafter, that 
are subject to the misery (inflicted) by the enemy, 
i. e. passion. Well done, O Vaidehi ! Appropriate 
questions are those which thou hast asked l ! O 
Ananda, do thou remember these words of me, of 
Buddha, and repeat them openly to many assem- 
blies. I, Tathagata, now teach Vaidehi and also all 
beings hereafter in order that they may meditate 
on the World of Highest Happiness (Sukhivati) in 
the western quarter. 

' It is by the power of Buddha only that one can 
see that pure land (of Buddha) as clear as one sees 
the image of one's face reflected in the transparent 
mirror held up before one. 

' When one sees the state of happiness of that 
country in its highest excellence, one greatly re- 

1 Vide supra, § 4 ; but those two questions, though appropriate, 
have not after all been answered by Buddha in this Sutra. 

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joices in one's heart and immediately attains a spirit 
of resignation prepared to endure whatever conse- 
quences may yet arise V Buddha, turning again to 
Vaidehl, said : ' Thou art but an ordinary person ; 
the quality of thy mind is feeble and inferior. 

' Thou hast not as yet obtained the divine eye and 
canst not perceive what is at a distance. All the 
Buddhas, Tathagatas have various means at their 
disposal and can therefore afford thee an opportu- 
nity of seeing (that Buddha country).' Then 
Vaidehl rejoined : ' O World-Honoured One, people 
such as I, can now see that land by the power of 
Buddha, but how shall all those beings who are to 
come after Buddha's Nirva»a, and who, as being 
depraved and devoid of good qualities, will be 
harassed by the five worldly sufferings 2 — how shall 
they see the .World of Highest Happiness of the 
Buddha Amitayus ? ' 

Part II. 

§ 9. Buddha then replied : ' Thou and all other 
beings besides ought to make it their only aim, with 
concentrated thought, to get a perception of the 
western quarter. You will ask how that perception 
is to be formed. I will explain it now. All beings, 
if not blind from birth, are uniformly possessed of 
sight, and they all see the setting sun. Thou 
shouldst sit down properly, looking in the western 
direction, and prepare thy thought for a close medi- 

1 Anutpatikadharmakshanti, cf. Larger Sukhavatt, § 19, p. 39, 
and § 32, p. 5. Kern, ' the acquiescence in the eternal law,' Sad- 
dharmapwu/arfka XI, p. 254. 

* 1. Birth, 2. Old age, 3. Sickness, 4. Death, 5. Parting. 

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1 70 amitAyur-dhyAna-sAtra, § 10. 

tation on the sun ; cause thy mind to be firmly 
fixed (on it) so as to have an unwavering percep- 
tion by the exclusive application (of thy thought), 
and gaze upon it (more particularly) when it is 
about to set and looks like a suspended drum. 

'After thou hast thus seen the sun, let (that 
image) remain clear and fixed, whether thine eyes 
be shut or open ; — such is the perception of the sun, 
which is the First Meditation. 

§ 10. ' Next thou shouldst form the perception of 
water; gaze on the water clear and pure, and let 
(this image) also remain clear and fixed (afterwards) ; 
never allow thy thought to be scattered and lost. 

' When thou hast thus seen the water thou shouldst 
form the perception of ice. As thou seest the ice 
shining and transparent, thou shouldst imagine the 
appearance of lapis lazuli. 

'After that has been done, thou wilt see the ground 
consisting of lapis lazuli, transparent and shining 
both within and without. Beneath this ground of 
lapis lazuli there will be seen a golden banner with 
the seven jewels, diamonds and the rest, supporting 
the ground *. It extends to the eight points of the 
compass, and thus the eight corners (of the ground) 
are perfectly filled up. Every side of the eight 
quarters consists of a hundred jewels, every jewel 
has a thousand rays, and every ray has eighty-four 
thousand colours which, when reflected in the ground 
of lapis lazuli, look like a thousand millions of suns, 
and it is difficult to see them all one by one. Over 
the surface of that ground of lapis lazuli there are 

1 'A banner supporting or lifting up the ground' is rather 
strange, but there is no other way of translating it. 

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stretched golden ropes intertwined crosswise ; divi- 
sions are made by means of (strings of) seven 
jewels with every part clear and distinct. 

4 Each jewel has rays of five hundred colours which 
look like flowers or like the moon and stars. Lodged 
high up in the open sky these rays form a tower of 
rays, whose storeys and galleries are ten millions 
in number and built of a hundred jewels. Both 
sides of the tower have each a hundred millions of 
flowery banners furnished and decked with number- 
less musical instruments. Eight kinds of cool 
breezes proceed from the brilliant rays. When 
those musical instruments are played, they emit 
the sounds " suffering," " non-existence," " imperma- 
nence," and " non-self ; " — such is the perception of 
the water, which is the Second Meditation. 

J 11. 'When this perception has been formed, 
thou shouldst meditate on its (constituents) one 
by one and make (the images) as clear as possible, 
so that they may never be scattered and lost, 
whether thine eyes be shut or open. Except only 
during the time of thy sleep, thou shouldst always 
keep this in thy mind. One who has reached this 
(stage of) perception is said to have dimly seen 
the Land of Highest Happiness (Sukhavatt). 

' One who has obtained the Samidhi (the state 
of supernatural calm) is able Jo see the land (of 
that Buddha country) clearly and distinctly: (this 
state) is too much to be explained fully; — such 
is the perception of the land, and it is the Third 

' Thou shouldst remember, O Ananda, the Buddha 
words of mine, and repeat this law for attaining to 
the perception of the land (of the Buddha country) 

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172 amitAyur-dhyana-sOtra, §12. 

for the sake of the great mass of the people here- 
after who may wish to be delivered from their 
sufferings. If any one meditates on the land (of 
that Buddha country), his sins (which bind him to) 
births and deaths during eighty millions of kalpas 
shall be expiated ; after the abandonment of his 
(present) body, he will assuredly be born in the 
pure land in the following life. The practice of 
this kind of meditation is called the " right medita- 
tion." If it be of another kind it is called " heretical 
meditation." ' 

$12. Buddha then spoke to Ananda and Vaideht : 
' When the perception of the land (of that Buddha 
country) has been gained, you should next meditate 
on the jewel-trees (of that country). In meditating 
on the jewel-trees, you should take each by itself 
and form a perception of the seven rows of trees ; 
every tree is eight hundred yo^anas high, and all 
the jewel-trees have flowers and leaves consisting 
of seven jewels all perfect. All flowers and leaves 
have colours like the colours of various jewels : — 
from the colour of lapis lazuli there issues a golden 
ray ; from the colour of crystal, a saffron ray ; from 
the colour of agate, a diamond ray ; from the colour 
of diamond, a ray of blue pearls. Corals, amber, 
and all other gems are used as ornaments for illu- 
mination ; nets of excellent pearls are spread over 
the trees, each tree is covered by seven sets of nets, 
and between one set and another there are five 
hundred millions of palaces built of excellent flowers, 
resembling the palace of the Lord Brahman ; all 
heavenly children live there quite naturally ; every 
child has a garland consisting of five hundred mil- 
lions of precious gems like those that are fastened 

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on .Sakra's (Indra's) head \ the rays of which shine 
over a hundred yo/anas, just as if a hundred 
millions of suns and moons were united together ; 
it is difficult to explain them in detail. That (gar- 
land) is the most excellent among all, as it is the 
commixture of all sorts of jewels. Rows of these 
jewel-trees touch one another; the leaves of the 
trees also join one another. 

'Among the dense foliage there blossom various 
beautiful flowers, upon which are miraculously found 
fruits of seven jewels. The leaves of the trees 
are all exactly equal in length and in breadth, 
measuring twenty-five yo^anas each way ; every 
leaf has a thousand colours and a hundred different 
pictures on it, just like a heavenly garland. There 
are many excellent flowers which have the colour of 
<74mbunada gold and an appearance of fire-wheels 
in motion, turning between the leaves in a graceful 
fashion. All the fruits are produced just (as easily) 
as if they flowed out from the pitcher of the God 
5akra. There is a magnificent ray which trans- 
forms itself into numberless jewelled canopies with 
banners and flags. Within these jewelled canopies 
the works of all the Buddhas of the Great Chiliocosm 
appear illuminated ; the Buddha countries of the 
ten quarters also are manifested therein. When 
you have seen these trees you should also meditate 
on them one by one in order. In meditating on 
the trees, trunks, branches, leaves, flowers, and 
fruits, let them all be distinct and clear; — such is 
the perception of the trees (of that Buddha country), 
and it is the Fourth Meditation. 

1 The text has .Sakrabhilagnamawiratna, vide infra, §§ 16, 19. 

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1 74 amitAyur-dhyAna-sOtra, § ij 

§ 13. 'Next, you should perceive the water (of 
that country). The perception of the water is as 
follows : — 

' In the Land of Highest Happiness there are 
waters in eight lakes; the water in every lake 
consists of seven jewels which are soft and yielding. 
Deriving its source from the king of jewels that 
fulfils every wish ', the water is divided into fourteen 
streams; every stream has the colour of seven 
jewels ; its channel is built of gold, the bed of which 
consists of the sand of variegated diamonds. 

' In the midst of each lake there are sixty millions 
of lotus-flowers, made of seven jewels; all the 
flowers are perfectly round and exactly equal (in 
circumference), being twelve yo^anas. The water 
of jewels flows amidst the flowers and rises and 
falls by the stalks (of the lotus) ; the sound of the 
streaming water is melodious and pleasing, and 
propounds all the perfect virtues (Paramitas), " suffer- 
ing," " non-existence," " impermanence," and " non- 
self ;" it proclaims also the praise of the signs of 
perfection 2 , and minor marks of excellence 8 of all 
Buddhas. From the king of jewels that fulfils 
every wish, stream forth the golden-coloured rays 
excessively beautiful, the radiance of which trans- 
forms itself into birds possessing the colours of 
a hundred jewels, which sing out harmonious notes, 
sweet and delicious, ever praising the remembrance 
of Buddha, the remembrance of the Law, and the 
remembrance of the Church ; — such is the perception 

1 Sanskrit A1ntama«i, i. e. ' wishing-pearl." 

9 For thirty-two signs and eighty minor marks vide Dharma- 
sangraha by Kasawara, p. 53 seq. (vol. i, part v, Anecdota 
Oxoniensia, Aryan Series, 1885). 

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of the water of eight good qualities, and it is the 
Fifth Meditation. 

§ 14. ' Each division of that (Buddha) country, 
which consists of several jewels, has also jewelled 
storeys and galleries to the number of five hundred 
millions ; within each storey and gallery there are 
innumerable Devas engaged in playing heavenly 
music. There are some musical instruments that 
are hung up in the open sky, like the jewelled 
banners of heaven ; they emit musical sounds with- 
out being struck, which, while resounding variously, 
all propound the remembrance of Buddha, of the 
Law and of the Church, Bhikshus, &c. When 
this perception is duly accomplished, one is said to 
have dimly seen the jewel-trees, jewel-ground, and 
jewel-lakes of that World of Highest Happiness 
(Sukhavatt); — such is the perception formed by 
meditating on the general (features of that Land), 
and it is the Sixth Meditation. 

' If one has experienced this, one has expiated the 
greatest sinful deeds which would (otherwise lead 
one) to transmigration for numberless millions of 
kalpas; after his death he will assuredly be born 
in that land. 

§ 15 1 . 'Listen carefully! listen carefully! Think 
over what you have heard ! I, Buddha, am about 
to explain in detail the law of delivering one's self 
from trouble and torment. Commit this to your 
memory in order to explain it in detail before a great 
assembly.' While Buddha was uttering these words, 
Buddha Amitiyus stood in the midst of the sky 

1 § 15. Hereafter, for brevity's sake, I take the liberty of omitting 
several passages which seem to be unnecessary repetitions. 

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176 amitAyur-dhyAna-sOtra, §id. 

with Bodhisattvas Mahasthama and Avalokitervara, 
attending on his right and left respectively. There 
was such a bright and dazzling radiance that no one 
could see clearly; the brilliance was a hundred 
thousand times greater than that of gold (6&mbu- 
nada). Thereupon Vaidehl saw Buddha Amitayus 
and approached the World-Honoured One, and 
worshipped him, touching his feet; and spoke to 
him as follows : ' O Exalted One ! I am now able, 
by the power of Buddha, to see Buddha Amitayus 
together with the two Bodhisattvas. But how shall 
all the beings of the future meditate on Buddha 
Amitayus and the two Bodhisattvas?' 

§ 16. Buddha answered: 'Those who wish to 
meditate on that Buddha ought first to direct their 
thought as follows : form the perception of a lotus- 
flower on a ground of seven jewels, each leaf of 
that lotus exhibits the colours of a hundred jewels, 
and has eighty-four thousand veins, just like heavenly 
pictures ; each vein possesses eighty-four thousand 
rays, of which each can be clearly seen. Every 
small leaf and flower is two hundred and fifty 
yqganas in length and the same measurement in 
breadth. Each lotus-flower possesses eighty-four 
thousand leaves, each leaf has the kingly pearls to 
the number of a hundred millions, as ornaments for 
illumination ; each pearl shoots out a thousand rays 
like bright canopies. The surface of the ground is 
entirely covered by a mixture of seven jewels. 
There is a tower built of the gems which are like 
those that are fastened on 6akra's head. It is 
inlaid and decked with eighty thousand diamonds, 
Kimsuka. jewels, Brahma-mam and excellent pearl 

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' On that tower there are miraculously found four 
posts with jewelled banners ; each banner looks like 
a hundred thousand millions of Sumeru mountains. 

' The jewelled veil over these banners is like that 
of the celestial palace of Yama, illuminated with 
five hundred millions of excellent jewels, each jewel 
has eighty-four thousand rays, each ray has various 
golden colours to the number of eighty-four thousand, 
each golden colour covers the whole jewelled soil, it 
changes and is transformed at various places, every 
now and then exhibiting various appearances ; now 
it becomes a diamond tower, now a pearl net, again 
clouds of mixed flowers, freely changing its mani- 
festation in the ten directions it exhibits the state 
of Buddha ; — such is the perception of the flowery 
throne, and it is the Seventh Meditation.' 

Buddha, turning to Ananda, said : ' These excel- 
lent flowers were created originally by the power 
of the prayer of Bhikshu, Dharmakara *. All who 
wish to exercise the remembrance of that Buddha 
ought first to form the perception of that flowery 
throne. When engaged in it one ought not to 
perceive vaguely, but fix the mind upon each detail 
separately. Leaf, jewel, ray, tower, and banner 
should be clear and distinct, just as one sees the 
image of one's own face in a mirror. When one 
has achieved this perception, the sins which would 
produce births and deaths during fifty, thousand 
kalpas are expiated, and he is one who will most 
assuredly be born in the World of Highest Happi- 

§ 17. ' When you have perceived this, you should 

1 Vide Larger SukMvatl, p. 7, § 3. 
[49] *N 

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178 amitAyur-dhyAna-sOtra, §17. 

next perceive Buddha himself. Do you ask how ? 
Every Buddha Tathagata is one whose (spiritual) 
body is the principle of nature (Darmadhatu-kaya), 
so that he may enter into the mind of any beings. 
Consequently, when you have perceived Buddha, 
it is indeed that mind of yours that possesses those 
thirty-two signs of perfection and eighty minor 
marks of excellence (which you see in Buddha). 
In fine, it is your mind that becomes Buddha, nay, 
it is your mind that is indeed Buddha. The ocean 
of true and universal knowledge of all the Buddhas 
derives its source from one's own mind and thought. 
Therefore you should apply your thought with an 
undivided attention to a careful meditation on that 
Buddha Tathagata, Arhat, the Holy and Fully 
Enlightened One. In forming the perception of 
that Buddha, you should first perceive the image 
of that Buddha ; whether your eyes be open or shut, 
look at an image like Cambunada gold in colour, 
sitting on that flower (throne mentioned before). 

' When you have seen the seated figure your mental 
vision will become clear, and you will be able to 
see clearly and distinctly the adornment of that 
Buddha country, the jewelled ground, &c. In seeing 
these things, let them be clear and fixed just as 
you see the palms of your hands. When you have 
passed through this experience, you should further 
form (a perception of) another great lotus-flower 
which is on the left side of Buddha, and is exactly 
equal in every way to the above-mentioned lotus- 
flower of Buddha. Still further, you should form 
(a perception of) another lotus-flower which is on 
the right side of Buddha. Perceive that an image 
of Bodhisattva Avalokitervara is sitting on the left- 

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hand flowery throne, shooting forth golden rays 
exactly like those of Buddha. Perceive then that 
an image of Bodhisattva Mahasthama is sitting on 
the right-hand flowery throne. 

' When these perceptions are gained the images of 
Buddha and the Bodhisattvas will all send forth 
brilliant rays, clearly lighting up all the jewel-trees 
with golden colour. Under every tree there are 
also three lotus-flowers. On every lotus-flower there 
is an image, either of Buddha or of a Bodhi- 
sattva ; thus (the images of the Bodhisattvas and 
of Buddha) are found everywhere in that country. 
When this perception has been gained, the devotee 
should hear the excellent Law preached by means 
of a stream of water, a brilliant ray of light, several 
jewel-trees, ducks, geese, and swans. Whether he 
be wrapped in meditation or whether he has ceased 
from it, he should ever hear the excellent Law. 
What the devotee hears must be kept in memory 
and not be lost, when he ceases from that medita- 
tion ; and it should agree with the Sutras, for if it 
does not agree with the Sutras, it is called an illusory 
perception, whereas if it does agree, it is called the 
rough perception of the World of Highest Happi- 
ness ; — such is the perception of the images, and it 
is the Eighth Meditation. 

' He who has practised this meditation is freed 
from the sins (which otherwise involve him in) births 
and deaths for innumerable millions of kalpas, and 
during this present life he obtains the Samadhi due 
to the remembrance of Buddha. 

§ 18. 'Further, when this perception is gained, 
you should next proceed to meditate on the bodily 
marks and the light of Buddha Amitayus. 

*N 2 

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180 amitAyur-dhyana-sAtra, § 18. 

' Thou shouldst know, O Ananda, that the body 
of Buddha Amitayus is a hundred thousand million 
times as bright as the colour of the £ambunada 
gold of the heavenly abode of Yama ; the height 
of that Buddha is six hundred thousand niyutas of 
ko/ls of yo^anas innumerable as are the sands of 
the river Ganga. 

' The white twist of hair between the eyebrows 
all turning to the right, is just like the five Sumeru 

1 The eyes of Buddha are like the water of the 
four great oceans ; the blue and the white are quite 

'All the roots of hair of his body issue forth 
brilliant rays which are also like the Sumeru 

'The halo of that Buddha is like a hundred 
millions of the Great Chiliocosms; in that halo 
there are Buddhas miraculously created, to the 
number of a million of niyutas of kotfs innumer- 
able as the sands of the Ganga ; each of these 
Buddhas has for attendants a great assembly of 
numberless Bodhisattvas who are also miraculously 

' Buddha Amitayus has eighty-four thousand signs 
of perfection, each sign is possessed of eighty-four 
minor marks of excellence, each mark has eighty- 
four thousand rays, each ray extends so far as to 
shine over the worlds of the ten quarters, whereby 
Buddha embraces and protects all the beings who 
think upon him and does not exclude (any one of 
them). His rays, signs, &c, are difficult to be 
explained in detail. But in simple meditation let 
the mind's eye dwell upon them. 

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' If you pass through this experience, you will at 
the same time see all the Buddhas of the ten 
quarters. Since you see all the Buddhas it is called 
the Samadhi of the remembrance of the Buddhas. 

'Those who have practised this meditation are 
said to have contemplated the bodies of all the 
Buddhas. Since they have meditated on Buddha's 
body, they will also see Buddha's mind. It is great 
compassion that is called Buddha's mind. It is by 
his absolute compassion that he receives all beings. 

' Those who have practised this meditation will, 
when they die, be born in the presence of the Buddhas 
in another life, and obtain a spirit of resignation 
wherewith to face all the consequences which shall 
hereafter arise. 

' Therefore those who have wisdom should direct 
their thought to the careful meditation upon that 
Buddha Amitayus. Let those who meditate on 
Buddha Amitayus begin with one single sign or 
mark — let them first meditate on the white twist 
of hair between the eyebrows as clearly as possible ; 
when they have done this, the eighty-four thousand 
signs and marks will, naturally appear before their 
eyes. Those who see Amitayus will also see all 
the innumerable Buddhas of the ten quarters. Since 
they have seen all the innumerable Buddhas, they 
will receive the prophecy of their future destiny 
(to become Buddha), in the presence of all the 
Buddhas ; — such is the perception gained by a com- 
plete meditation on all forms and bodies (of Buddha), 
and it is the Ninth Meditation. 

$ 19. 'When you have seen Buddha Amitayus 
distinctly, you should then further meditate upon 
Bodhisattva Avalokiteivara, whose height is eight 

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1 82 amitAyur-dhyAna-sOtra, $19. 

hundred thousands of niyutas of yqganas ; the 
colour of his body is purple gold, his head has 
a turban (ush»tshariraskata), at the back of which 
there is a halo; (the circumference of) his face is 
a hundred thousand yq^anas. In that halo, there 
are five hundred Buddhas miraculously transformed 
just like those of •Sakyamuni Buddha, each trans- 
formed Buddha is attended by five hundred trans- 
formed Bodhisattvas who are also attended by 
numberless gods. 

'Within the circle of light emanating from his 
whole body, appear illuminated the various forms 
and marks of all beings that live in the five paths x 
of existence. 

' On the top of his head is a heavenly crown 
of gems like those that are fastened (on Indra's 
head), in which crown there is a transformed Buddha 
standing, twenty-five yo/anas high. 

' The face of Bodhisattva Avalokitervara is like 
Gambflnada gold in colour. 

' The soft hair between the eyebrows has all the 
colours of the seven jewels, from which eighty-four 
kinds of rays flow out, each ray has innumerable 
transformed Buddhas, each of whom is attended by 
numberless transformed Bodhisattvas ; freely chang- 
ing their manifestations they fill up the worlds of 
the ten quarters ; (the appearance) can be compared 
with the colour of the red lotus-flower. 

' (He wears) a garland consisting of eight thousand 
rays, in which is seen fully reflected a state of perfect 
beauty. The palm of his hand has a mixed colour 
of five hundred lotus-flowers. His hands have ten 

1 Men, gods, hell, the departed spirits, the brute creation. 


(tips of) fingers, each tip has eighty-four thousand 
pictures, which are like signet-marks, each picture 
has eighty-four thousand colours, each colour has 
eighty-four thousand rays which are soft and mild 
and shine over all things that exist. With these 
jewel hands he draws and embraces all beings. 
When he lifts up his feet, the soles of his feet are 
seen to be marked with a wheel of a thousand 
spokes (one of the thirty-two signs) which miracu- 
lously transform themselves into five hundred million 
pillars of rays. When he puts his feet down to 
the ground, the flowers of diamonds and jewels are 
scattered about, and all things are simply covered 
by them. All the other signs of his body and the 
minor marks of excellence are perfect, and not at 
all different from those of Buddha, except the signs 
of having the turban on his head and the top of 
his head invisible, which two signs of him are 
inferior to those of the World-Honoured One; — 
such is the perception of the real form and body 
of Bodhisattva Avalokitervara, and it is the Tenth 

Buddha, especially addressing Ananda, said : ' Who- 
soever wishes to meditate on Bodhisattva Avalo- 
kitervara must do so in the way I have explained. 
Those who practise this meditation will not suffer 
any calamity ; they will utterly remove the obstacle 
that is raised by Karma, and will expiate the sins 
which would involve them in births and deaths 
for numberless kalpas. Even the hearing of the 
name of this Bodhisattva will enable one to obtain 
immeasurable happiness. How much more, then, 
will the diligent contemplation of him ! 

* Whosoever will meditate on Bodhisattva Avalo- 

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184 amitAyur-dhyAna-sOtra, §19. 

kitervara should first meditate on the turban of his 
head, and then on his heavenly crown. 

' All the other signs should also be meditated on 
according to their order, and they should be clear 
and distinct just as one sees the palms of one's 

' Next you should meditate on Bodhisattva Mahi- 
sthama, whose bodily signs, height, and size are 
equal to those of Avalokitervara ; the circumference 
(lit. surface) of his halo is one hundred and twenty- 
five yq^anas, and it shines as far as two hundred 
and fifty yq^anas. The rays of his whole body 
shine over the countries of the ten quarters, they 
are purple gold in colour, and can be seen by all 
beings that are in favourable circumstances. 

' If one but sees the ray that issues from a single 
root of the hair of this Bodhisattva, he will at the 
same time see the pure and excellent rays of all 
the innumerable Buddhas of the ten quarters. 

' For this reason this Bodhisattva is named the 
Unlimited Light; it is with this light of wisdom 
that he shines over all beings and causes them 
to be removed from the three paths of existence 
(Hells, Pretas, and the brute creation), and to obtain 
the highest power. For the same reason this Bodhi- 
sattva is called the Bodhisattva of Great Strength 
(Mahasthama). His heavenly crown has five hun- 
dred jewel-flowers; each jewel-flower has five 
hundred jewel-towers ; in each tower are seen mani- 
fested all the pure and excellent features of the 
far-stretching Buddha countries in the ten quarters. 
The turban on his head is like a padma- (lotus) 
flower; on the top of the turban there is a jewel- 
pitcher, which is filled with various brilliant rays 

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fully manifesting the state of Buddha. All his 
other bodily signs are quite equal to those of 
Avalokitervara. When this Bodhisattva walks 
about, all the regions of the ten quarters tremble 
and quake. Wherever the earth quakes there 
appear five hundred millions of jewel-flowers ; each 
jewel-flower with its splendid dazzling beauty looks 
like the World of Highest Happiness (Sukhavatl). 

' When this Bodhisattva sits down, all the coun- 
tries of seven jewels at once tremble and quake: 
all the incarnate (lit divided) Amitayus's, innumer- 
able as the dust of the earth, and all the incarnate 
Bodhisattvas (Aval, and Mahas.) who dwell in the 
middlemost Buddha countries (situated) between 
the Buddha country of the lower region (presided 
over) by a Buddha called the " Golden Light," and 
the country of the upper region (presided over) by 
a Buddha called the " King of Light," — all these 
assemble in the World of Highest Happiness 
(Sukhavatl), like gathering clouds, sit on their 
thrones of lotus-flowers, which fill the whole sky, 
and preach the excellent Law in order to deliver 
all the beings that are plunged in suffering ; — such 
is the perception of the form and body of Bodhi- 
sattva Mahasthama, and it is the Eleventh Medi- 

'Those who practise this meditation are freed 
from the sins (which would otherwise involve them) 
in births and deaths for innumerable asankhya 

' Those who have practised this meditation do not 
live in an embryo state but obtain free access to 
the excellent and admirable countries of Buddhas. 
Those who have experienced this are said to have 

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1 86 amitAyur-dhyana-sutra, §ao. 

perfectly meditated upon the two Bodhisattvas 
Avalokitervara and Mahasthama. 

§ 20. ' After thou hast had this perception, thou 
shouldst imagine thyself to be born in the World 
of Highest Happiness in the western quarter, and 
to be seated, cross-legged, on a lotus-flower there. 
Then imagine that the flower has shut thee in and 
has afterwards unfolded ; when the flower has thus 
unfolded, five hundred coloured rays will shine over 
thy body, thine eyes will be opened so as to see 
the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas who fill the whole 
sky ; thou wilt hear the sounds of waters and trees, 
the notes of birds, and the voices of many Buddhas 
preaching the excellent Law, in accordance with the 
twelve divisions x of the scriptures. When thou 
hast ceased from that meditation, thou must re- 
member the experience ever after. 

' If thou hast passed through this experience thou 
art said to have seen the World of Highest Happi- 
ness in the realm of the Buddha Amitayus ; — this 
is the perception obtained by a complete meditation 
on that Buddha country, and is called the Twelfth 

' The innumerable incarnate bodies of Amitayus, 
together with those of Aval, and Mahas., constantly 
come and appear before such devotees (as above 

$21. Buddha then spoke to Ananda and Vaidehl: 
' Those who wish, by means of their serene thoughts, 
to be born in the western land, should first meditate 
on an image of the Buddha, who is sixteen cubits 

1 Vide Max Milller, Dhammapada, Introduction, p. xxxiii, and 
Kasawara, Dharmasangraha, LXII, p. 48. 

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high 1 , seated on (a lotus-flower in) the water of 
the lake. As it was stated before, the (real) body 
and its measurement are unlimited, incomprehen- 
sible to the ordinary mind. 

' But by the efficacy of the ancient prayer of that 
Tathagata, those who think of and remember him 
shall certainly be able to accomplish their aim. 

' Even the mere perceiving of the image of that 
Buddha brings to one immeasurable blessings. How 
much more, then, will the meditating upon all the 
complete bodily signs of that Buddha! Buddha 
Amitiyus has supernatural power; since every- 
thing is at his disposal, he freely transforms himself 
in the regions of the ten quarters. At one time 
he shows himself as possessing a magnificent body, 
which fills the whole sky, at another he makes his 
body appear small, the height being only sixteen 
or eighteen cubits. The body he manifests is 
always pure gold in colour ; his halo — (bright with) 
transformed Buddhas — and his jewel lotus-flowers 
are as mentioned above. The bodies of the two 
Bodhisattvas are the same always. 

' All beings can recognise either of the two Bodhi- 
sattvas by simply glancing at the marks of their 
heads. These two Bodhisattvas assist Amitiyus 
in his work of universal salvation; — such is the 
meditation that forms a joint perception of the 
Buddha and Bodhisattvas, and it is the Thirteenth 

1 This is said to have been the height of .S&kyamuni ; the cubit 
is Chinese, but as it varied from time to time, it is difficult to 
determine his real height. Spence Hardy, in his Manual of 
Buddhism, p. 364, says, ' Buddha is sometimes said to be twelve 
cubits in height, and sometimes eighteen cubits.' 

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1 88 amitAyur-dhyAna-sOtra, §m. 

Part III. 

§ 22. Buddha then spoke to Ananda and Vaidehi: 
' The beings who will be born in the highest form 
of the highest grade (i. e. to Buddhahood) are those, 
whoever they may be, who wish to be born in that 
country and cherish the threefold thought whereby 
they are at once destined to be born there. What 
is the threefold thought, you may ask. First, the 
True Thought; second, the Deep Believing Thought; 
third, the Desire to be born in that Pure Land by 
bringing one's own stock of merit to maturity. Those 
who have this threefold thought in perfection shall 
most assuredly be born into that country. 

' There are also three classes of beings who are 
able to be born in that country. What, you may 
ask, are the three classes of beings ? First, those 
who are possessed of a compassionate mind, who 
do no injury to any beings, and accomplish all vir- 
tuous actions according to Buddha's precepts; 
second, those who study and recite the Sutras of 
the Mahayana doctrine, for instance, the Vaipulya 
Sutras 1 ; third, those who practise the sixfold 
remembrance 2 . These three classes of beings 
who wish to be born in that country by bringing 
(their respective stocks of merit) to maturity, will 
become destined to be born there if they have 
accomplished any of those meritorious deeds for one 
day or even for seven days. 

1 Nanjio's Catalogue of Tripi/aka, Nos. 23, 24-28, and many 

* Sixfold remembrance, i. e. of the Three Jewels, the precepts, 
the charity of Buddha, and Bodhisattvas and the world of Devas. 

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'When one who has practised (these merits) is 
about to be born in that country, Buddha Amitayus, 
together with the two Bodhisattvas Aval, and 
Mahas., also numberless created Buddhas, and 
a hundred thousand Bhikshus and .Sravakas, with 
their whole retinue, and innumerable gods, together 
with the palaces of seven jewels, will appear before 
him out of regard for his diligence and courage ; 
Aval., together with Mahas., will offer a diamond 
seat to him ; thereupon Amitayus himself will send 
forth magnificent rays of light to shine over the 
dying person's body. He and many Bodhisattvas 
will offer their hands and welcome him, when Aval., 
Mahas., and all the other Bodhisattvas will praise 
the glory of the man who practised the meritorious 
deeds, and convey an exhortation to his mind. 
When the new-comer, having seen these, rejoicing 
and leaping for joy, looks at himself, he will find 
his own body seated on that diamond throne ; and 
as he follows behind Buddha he will be born into 
that country, in a moment When he has been 
born there, he will see Buddha's form and body 
with every sign of perfection complete, and also 
the perfect forms and signs of all the Bodhi- 
sattvas; he will also see brilliant rays and jewel- 
forests and hear them propounding the excellent 
Law, and instantly be conscious of a spirit of 
resignation to whatever consequences may here- 
after arise. Before long he will serve every one 
of the Buddhas who live in the regions of the 
ten quarters. In the presence of each of those 
Buddhas he will obtain successively a prophecy 
of his future destiny. On his return to his own 
land (Sukhavatt, in which he has just been born) 

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190 amitAyur-dhyAna-sOtra, §93. 

he will obtain countless hundreds of thousands of 
Dhara«i formulas (mystic form of prayer); — such 
are those who are to be born in the highest form 
of the highest grade (to Buddhahood). 

§ 23. ' Next, the beings who will be born in the 
middle form of the highest grade are those who 
do not necessarily learn, remember, study, or recite 
those Vaipulya Sutras, but fully understand the mean- 
ing of the truth (contained in them), and having 
a firm grasp of the highest truth do not speak evil 
of the Mahayana doctrine, but deeply believe in 
(the principle of) cause and effect ; who by bringing 
these good qualities to maturity seek to be born in 
that Country of Highest Happiness. When one who 
has acquired these qualities is about to die, Amit&yus, 
surrounded by the two Bodhisattvas Aval, and 
Mahas., and an innumerable retinue of dependents, 
will bring a seat of purple gold and approach him 
with words of praise, saying : " O my son in the 
Law ! thou hast practised the Mahayana doctrine ; 
thou hast understood and believed the highest truth ; 
therefore I now come to meet and welcome thee." 
He and the thousand created Buddhas offer hands 
all at once. 

' When that man looks at his own body, he will 
find himself seated on that purple gold seat; he 
will, then, stretching forth his folded hands, praise 
and eulogise all the Buddhas. As quick as thought 
he will be born in the lake of seven jewels, of that 
country. That purple gold seat on which he sits is 
like a magnificent jewel-flower, and will open after 
a night ; the new-comer's body becomes purple gold 
in colour, and he will also find under his feet a lotus- 
flower consisting of seven jewels. Buddha and the 

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Bodhisattvas at the same time will send forth brilliant 
rays to shine over the body of that person whose 
eyes will instantaneously be opened and become 
clear. According to his former usage (in the human 
world) he will hear all the voices that are there, 
preaching primary truths of the deepest significance. 

' Then he will descend from that golden seat and 
worship Buddha with folded hands, praising and 
eulogising the World-Honoured One. After seven 
days, he will immediately attain to the state of 
the highest perfect knowledge (anuttarasazwyaksaw- 
bodhi) from which he will never fall away (avaivartya); 
next he will fly to all the ten regions and successively 
serve all the Buddhas therein ; he will practise many 
a Samadhi in the presence of those Buddhas. After 
the lapse of a lesser kalpa he will attain a spirit of 
resignation to whatever consequences may hereafter 
arise, and he will also obtain a prophecy of his future 
destiny in the presence of Buddhas. 

§ 24. ' Next are those who are to be born in the 
lowest form of the highest grade : this class of beings 
also believes in (the principle of) cause and effect, 
and without slandering theMahiyana doctrine, simply 
cherishes the thought of obtaining the highest Bodhi 
and by bringing this good quality to maturity seeks 
to be born in that Country of Highest Happiness. 
When a devotee of this class dies, Amitayus, with 
Aval., Mahas., and all the dependents, will offer him 
a golden lotus-flower ; he will also miraculously create 
five hundred Buddhas in order to send and meet him. 
These five hundred created Buddhas will, all at once, 
offer hands and praise him, saying : "O my son in the 
Law! thou art pure now ; as thou hast cherished the 
thought of obtaining the highest Bodhi, we come to 

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192 amitAyur-dhyAna-sOtra, § 25. 

meet thee." When he has seen them, he will find 
himself seated on that golden lotus-flower. Soon 
the flower will close upon him ; following behind the 
World- Honoured One he will go to be born in the 
lake of seven jewels. After one day and one night 
the lotus-flower will unfold itself. Within seven 
days he may see Buddha's body, though his mind 
is not as yet clear enough to perceive all the signs 
and marks of the Buddha, which he will be able to 
see clearly after three weeks ; then he will hear many 
sounds and voices preaching the excellent Law, and 
he himself, travelling through all the ten quarters, 
will worship all the Buddhas, from whom he will 
learn the deepest significance of the Law. After 
three lesser kalpas he will gain entrance to the know- 
ledge of a hundred (divisions of) nature (^atadharma- 
vidyadvara) and become settled in the (first) joyful 
stage 1 (of Bodhisattva). The perception of these 
three classes of beings is called the meditation upon 
the superior class of beings, and is the Fourteenth 

§ 25. ' The beings who will be born in the highest 
form of the middle grade are those who observe the 
five prohibitive precepts, the eight prohibitive pre- 
cepts and the fasting, and practise all the moral 
precepts ; who do not commit the five deadly sins 2 , 
and who bring no blame or trouble upon any being ; 
and who by bringing these good qualities to maturity 
seek to be born in the World of Highest Happiness 
in the western quarter. On the eve of such a person's 
departure from this life, Amitayus, surrounded by 

1 There are ten stages which a Bodhisattva goes through. 
1 Childers' Pali Dictionary, s.v. abhi/Aanam. 

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Bhikshus and dependents, will appear before him, 
flashing forth rays of golden colour, and will preach 
the Law of suffering, non-existence, impermanence, 
and non-self. He will also praise the virtue of home- 
lessness that can liberate one from all sufferings. 
At the sight of Buddha, that believer will excessively 
rejoice in his heart ; he will soon find himself seated 
on a lotus-flower. Kneeling down on the ground 
and stretching forth his folded hands he will pay 
homage to Buddha. Before he raises his head he 
will reach that Country of Highest Happiness and 
be born there. Soon the lotus-flower will unfold, 
when he will hear sounds and voices praising and 
glorifying the Four Noble Truths (of suffering). He 
will immediately attain to the fruition of Arhat- 
ship, gain the threefold knowledge and the six 
supernatural faculties, and complete the eightfold 

$ 26. ' The beings who will be born in the middle 
form of the middle grade are those who either 
observe the eight prohibitive precepts, and the fasting 
for one day and one night, or observe the prohibitive 
precept for 6Yama#era (a novice) for the same period, 
or observe the perfect moral precepts, not lowering 
their dignity nor neglecting any ceremonial observ- 
ance for one day and one night, and by bringing 
their respective merits to maturity seek to be born 
in the Country of Highest Happiness. On the eve 
of departure from this life, such a believer who is 
possessed of this moral virtue, which he has made 
fragrant by cultivation during his life, will see 
Amitiyus, followed by all his retinue ; flashing forth 
rays of golden colour, this Buddha will come before 
him and offer a lotus-flower of seven jewels. 

[49] *o 

Digitized by 


194 amitAyur-dhyAna-sGtra, §a;. 

' He will hear a voice in the sky, praising him 
and saying: " O son of a noble family, thou art indeed 
an excellent man. Out of regard for thy obedience 
to the teachings of all the Buddhas of the three 
worlds I, now, come and meet thee." Then the new- 
comer will see himself seated on that lotus-flower. 
Soon the lotus-flower will fold around him, and 
being in this he will be born in the jewel-lake of 
the World of Highest Happiness in the western 

' After seven days that flower will unfold again, 
when the believer will open his eyes, and praise the 
World-Honoured One, stretching forth his folded 
hands. Having heard the Law, he will rejoice and 
obtain the fruition of a Srota-apanna 1 (the first grade 
to Nirva#a). 

' In the lapse of half a kalpa he will become an 

§ 27. ' Next are the beings who will be born in 
the lowest form of the middle grade (to Buddhahood). 
If there be sons or daughters of a noble family who 
are filial to their parents and support them, besides 
exercising benevolence and compassion in the world, 
at their departure from this life, such persons will 
meet a good and learned teacher who will fully 
describe to them the state of happiness in that 
Buddha country of Amitayus, and will also explain 
the forty-eight prayers of the Bhikshu Dharmakara 2 . 
As soon as any such person has heard these details, 
his life will come to an end. In a brief moment 8 he 

1 Vide Vagnt&lbedM, § 9. 
* Vide Larger Sukhivatf, §§ 7, 8. 

' Lit ' In the time in which a strong man can bend his arm or 
stretch his bended arm.' 

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will be born in the World of Highest Happiness in 
the western quarter. 

' After seven days he will meet Aval, and Mahas., 
from whom he will learn the Law and rejoice. After 
the lapse of a lesser kalpa he will attain to the 
fruition of an Arhat The perception of these three 
sorts of beings is called the meditation of the middle 
class of beings, and is the Fifteenth Meditation. 

§ 28. ' Next are the beings who will be born in 
the highest form of the lowest grade. If there be 
any one who commits many evil deeds, provided 
that he does not speak evil of the Mahavaipulya 
Sutras, he, though himself a very stupid man, and 
neither ashamed nor sorry for all the evil actions 
that he has done, yet, while dying, may meet a good 
and learned teacher who will recite and laud the 
headings and titles of the twelve divisions of the 
Mahiyana scriptures. Having thus heard the names 
of all the Sutras, he will be freed from the greatest 
sins which would involve him in births and deaths 
during a thousand kalpas. 

'A wise man also will teach him to stretch forth his 
folded hands and to say, "Adoration to Buddha Ami- 
tayus" (Namo*mitabhaya Buddhaya, or, Namo.mi- 
tayushe Buddhaya). Having uttered the name of 
the Buddha, he will be freed from the sins which 
would otherwise involve him in births and deaths 
for fifty millions of kalpas. Thereupon the Buddha 
will send a created Buddha, and the created Bodhi- 
sattvas Aval, and Mahas., to approach that person 
with words of praise, saying : "O son of a noble family, 
as thou hast uttered the name of that Buddha, all 
thy sins have been destroyed and expiated, and 
therefore we now come to meet thee." After this 

*o 2 

Digitized by 


196 amitAyur-dhyAna-sOtra, § »9. 

speech the devotee will observe the rays of that 
created Buddha flooding his chamber with light, and 
while rejoicing at the sight he will depart this life. 
Seated on a lotus-flower he will follow that created 
Buddha and go to be born in the jewel-lake. 

' After the lapse of seven weeks, the lotus-flower 
will unfold, when the great compassionate Bodhi- 
sattvas Aval, and Mahas. will stand before him, 
flashing forth magnificent rays, and will preach to 
him the deepest meaning of the twelve divisions 
of the scriptures. Having heard this, he will under- 
stand and believe it, and cherish the thought of 
attaining the highest Bodhi. In a period of ten 
lesser kalpas he will gain entrance to the know- 
ledge of the hundred (divisions of) nature, and 
be able to enter upon the first (joyful) stage (of 
Bodhisattva). Those who have had an oppor- 
tunity of hearing the name of Buddha, the name 
of the Law, and the name of the Church — the 
names of the Three Jewels — can also be born (in 
that country).' 

§ 29. Buddha continued : ' Next are the beings 
who will be born in the middle form of the lowest 
grade. If there be any one who transgresses the five 
and the eight prohibitive precepts, and also all the 
perfect moral precepts ; he, being himself so stupid 
as to steal things that belong to the whole com- 
munity 1 , or things that belong to a particular Bhikshu, 
and not be ashamed nor sorry for his impure preach- 
ing of the Law (in case of preacher), but magnify and 
glorify himself with many wicked deeds : — such a 

1 The text has 'sanghika things,' which is probably sanghika 
labha, i.e. 'gains of the whole community' opposed to gains of 
a single monk, Childers' Pali Dictionary, s.v. sanghiko, p. 449. 

Digitized by 



sinful person deserves to fall into hell in consequence 
of those sins. At the time of his death, when the 
fires of hell approach him from all sides, he will meet 
a good and learned teacher who will, out of great 
compassion, preach the power and virtue of the ten 
faculties of Amitayus and fully explain the super- 
natural powers and brilliant rays of that Buddha ; 
and will further praise moral virtue, meditation, 
wisdom, emancipation, and the thorough knowledge 
that follows emancipation. After having heard this, 
he will be freed from his sins, which would involve 
him in births and deaths during eighty millions of 
kalpas; thereupon those violent fires of hell will 
transform themselves into a pure and cool wind 
blowing about heavenly flowers. On each of these 
flowers will stand a created Buddha or Bodhisattva 
to meet and receive that person. In a moment he 
will be born in a lotus-flower growing in the lake of 
seven jewels. After six kalpas the lotus-flower will 
open, when Avalokitervara and Mahasthama will 
soothe and encourage him with their Brahma-voices, 
and preach to him the Mahayana Sutras of the 
deepest significance. 

'Having heard this Law, he will instantaneously 
direct his thought toward the attainment of the 
highest Bodhi. 

§ 30. ' Lastly, the beings who will be born in the 
lowest form of the lowest grade. If there be any one 
who commits evil deeds, and even completes the ten 
wicked actions, the five deadly sins 1 and the like ; that 

1 The five deadly sins, according to MahSvyutpatti, § 118, are 
Mitr/gh&ta, Pitr/ghata, Arhatghata, Sanghabheda, Tatbigatasy&n- 
tike dush/a£ittarudhirotp$dana, which are unpardonable in the 
Larger Sukh&vatf; vide Nanjio's note and Pranidblna 19 (§8), the 

Digitized by 


198 amitAyur-dhyAna-sOtra, § 30. 

man, being himself stupid and guilty of many crimes, 
deserves to fall into a miserable path of existence 
and suffer endless pains during many kalpas. On the 
eve of death he will meet a good and learned teacher 
who will, soothing and encouraging him in various 
ways, preach to him the excellent Law and teach him 
the remembrance of Buddha, but, being harassed by 
pains, he will have no time to think of Buddha. 
Some good friend will then say to him : "Even if thou 
canst not exercise the remembrance of Buddha, thou 
mayst, at least, utter the name, ' Buddha Amitayus 1 .' " 
Let him do so serenely with his voice uninterrupted ; 
let him be (continually) thinking of Buddha until he has 
completed ten times the thought, repeating (the for- 
mula), "Adoration to Buddha Amitayus" (Namo.mi- 
tayushe Buddhaya). On the strength of (his merit 
of) uttering Buddha's name he will, during every 
repetition, expiate the sins which involve him in 
births and deaths during eighty millions of kalpas. 
He will, while dying, see a golden lotus-flower like 
the disk of the sun appearing before his eyes; in 
a moment he will be born in the World of Highest 
Happiness. After twelve greater kalpas the lotus- 
flower will unfold ; thereupon the Bodhisattvas Aval, 
and Mahas., raising their voices in great compassion, 
will preach to him in detail the real state of all the 
elements of nature and the law of the expiation 
of sins. 

Anantaiya sins. Cf. the six crimes enumerated in Childers' Pili 
Dictionary, p. 7 b, Abhi/Mnam ; vide supra, p. 192, § 35. 

1 The Corean text and the two other editions of the Tang 
and Sung dynasties have ' Namo>mitiyushe Buddh&ya ' instead of 
'Buddha Amitayus,' which is the reading of the Japanese text 
and the edition of the Ming dynasty. 

Digitized by 



' On hearing them he will rejoice and will immedi- 
ately direct his thought toward the attainment of 
the Bodhi; — such are the beings who are to be 
born in the lowest form of the lowest grade (to 
Buddhahood). The perception of the above three 
is called the meditation of the inferior class of 
beings, and is the Sixteenth Meditation.' 

Part IV. 

§ 31. When Buddha had finished this speech, 
Vaidehi, together with her five hundred female atten- 
dants, could see, as guided by the Buddha's words, 
the scene of the far-stretching World of the Highest 
Happiness, and could also see the body of Buddha 
and the bodies of the two Bodhisattvas. With her 
mind filled with joy she praised them, saying: ' Never 
have I seen such a wonder ! ' Instantaneously she 
became wholly and fully enlightened, and attained 
a spirit of resignation, prepared to endure whatever 
consequences might yet arise *. Her five hundred 
female attendants too cherished the thought of 
obtaining the highest perfect knowledge, and sought 
to be born in that Buddha country. 

§ 32. The World-Honoured One predicted that 
they would all be born in that Buddha country, and 
be able to obtain the Samadhi (the supernatural 
calm) of the presence of many Buddhas. All the 
innumerable Devas (gods) also directed their thought 
toward the attainment of the highest Bodhi. 

Thereupon Ananda rose from his seat, approached 

1 Vide supra, §§ 8, aa, 23. 

Digitized by 


200 amitAyur-dhyAna-sOtra, § 3a. 

Buddha, and spoke thus : ' O World-Honoured One, 
what should we call this Sutra ? And how should we 
receive and remember it (in the future) ? ' 

Buddha said in his reply to Ananda : ' O Ananda, 
this Sutra should be called the meditation on the 
Land of Sukhavati, on Buddha Amitayus, Bodhi- 
sattva Avalokitervara, Bodhisattva Mah&sthama, or 
otherwise be called " (the Sutra on) the entire removal 
of the obstacle of Karma \ (the means of) being born 
in the realm of the Buddhas." Thou shouldst take 
and hold it, not forgetting nor losing it. Those who 
practise the Samadhi (the supernatural calm) in 
accordance with this Sutra will be able to see, in 
the present life, Buddha Amitayus and the two great 

' In case of a son or a daughter of a noble family, 
the mere hearing of the names of the Buddha and 
the two Bodhisattvas will expiate the sins which 
would involve them in births and deaths during 
innumerable kalpas. How much more will the re- 
membrance (of Buddha and the Bodhisattvas) ! 

' Know that he who remembers that Buddha is the 
white lotus (pundarika) among men, it is he whom 
the Bodhisattvas Avalokiteyvara and Mah&sthama 
consider an excellent friend. He will, sitting in the 
Bodhi-ma#dfala *, be born in the abode of Buddhas.' 

1 Sanskrit karmavarawa-vixuddhi. 

* Bodhi-ma«<faIa=Bodhi-ma»da, i. e. the Circle of Bodhi ; ' the 
round terrace of enlightenment,' see Kern, Saddharmapum/arfka, 
p. 155 note. This circle is the ground on which stood the Axvattha 
tree near which <Sakyamuni defeated the assaults of Mara, and finally 
obtained Bodhi or enlightenment. The tree is called Bodhidruma, 
the ground round its stem the bodhimaWala., In the Sad- 
dharmapum/arfka VII, 7, it is called Bodhimaiu&vara, which 

Digitized by 



Buddha further spoke to Ananda : ' Thou shouldst 
carefully remember these words. To remember these 
words is to remember the name of Buddha Amitayus.' 

When Buddha concluded these words, the worthy 
disciples Mahamaudgalyayana, and Ananda, Vaidehl, 
and the others were all enraptured with excessive 

§ 33. Thereupon the World-Honoured One came 
back, walking through the open sky, to the Mount 
Gmlhraku/a. Ananda soon after spoke before a 
great assembly of all the occurrences as stated 
above. On hearing this, all the innumerable Devas 
(gods),N4gas (snakes), and Yakshas (demi-gods)were 
inspired with great joy; and having worshipped the 
Buddha they went their way. 

Here ends the Sutra of the Meditation on Buddha 
Amitayus, spoken by Buddha (.Sakyamuni). 

Dr. Kern translates by the terrace of enlightenment, vara meaning 
circuit. A different idea is expressed by bodhimawfapa in the 
Buddha-£arita XIV, 90, which would mean a hall or pavilion, 
unless we ought to read here also bodhimawfela. 

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AbhiA&inam, page 19a note; 198 

Ag-Stajatru. 161 ; 16a; 164. 
Amitabha (or AmitSyus), 166 ; 195. 
Amitayus (or Amitabha), 166 ; 167 ; 

169; 176; 180; 189; 195; 

198 ; aoo ; aor. 
Anagamin, 167. 
Ananda, 164; 165; 168; 179, et 

Anantarya sins, p. 198 note. 
Anutpatikadharmakshanti, 169 note. 
Anuttarasamyaksambodhi, 191. 
Arhat, 178 ; 195. 
Arhatghlta, 197 note. 
Asankhya kalpas, 185. 
Avaivartya, 191, 
Avalokit&rvara, 176, et passim. 

Bhagavat, see World-Honoured 

Bhikshus, 161 ; 175 ; 177 ; 189. 
Bimbisara, 161 ; 167. 
Bodhi, 168; 191; 196; 197; 199; 

the circle of, aoo note. 
Bodhi-maWala, 200. 
Bodhisattvas, 161, et passim. 
Brahma-mani, 176. 
Brahman (god), 165 ; 17a. 
Brute creation, 165 ; 183 note; 184. 
Buddha, spiritual body of, 178 ; the 

height of Buddha Sakyamuni, 

187 ; the charity of, 188. 

Chiliocosm, 173 ; 180. 

Depravities (five), 165 note. 
Devadatta, 161 ; 165. 
Dharan), 190. 

Dharmadhitu-kSya, 178. 
Dharmikara, 177 ; 194. 

Enlightenment, the roundterrace of, 

Existence, the five paths of, 182 ; 

non-, 171 ; 174 5 »93- 

Five deadly sins, 193 ; 197 note. 

Gambudvtpa, 165. 

Gambflnada (gold), 173 ; 176 ; 178 ; 

180; 182. 
Ganga, 180. 

Garlands, 162 ; 163, et passim. 
Gtva, famous physician, 163 ; 164. 
Gr/'dhrakfl/a, 161 ; 16a ; 164 ; aoi. 

Hardy (Spence), 187 note. 
Hells, 165 ; 18a note; 184. 
Hungry spirits (Pretas), 165 ; 18a 

Impermanence, 171 ; 174; 193. 
Indra, 165 ; 173. 

Kalayaras, a Sramana from India, 

JTamfila, 164. 
£andraprabha, minister of king 

Bimbislra, 163. 
Karma, 183 ; aoo. 
Karmivarana-vijuddhi, aoo note. 
IP-Mi (Chisha-daishi of Ten-dai), 

161 note. 
Kimjuka, 176. 
JHntamani, 174 note. 
Ksh3nti (Anutpatikadharma-), 169. 

Digitized by 




Kshatriyas (the kingly race), 163. 
Kurairabhflta, 161 note. 

Lapis lazuli, 169, et passim. 

Law, prince of the, 161 ; remem- 
brance of the, 174 ; eternal 
Law, 169 note. 

Mahamaudgalyayana (mokuren), 

l6a; 163; 164; I65; 301. 

Mabasthima, 176 ; named Unlimited 

Light, 184, et passim. 
MahSvyutpatti, 197 note. 
Mah&yana, 168 ; 188 ; 190 ; 191 ; 

»95; 197. 

Mahejvara Deva, 166. 
Ma&g\uri, 161. 
Marks (minor), 174. 
MStWghata, 197 note. 
Meditation, 167, et passim. 

N&ga, 301. 

Nirvana, 167 ; 169 ; 194. 
Noble Truths (the four), 193. 
Non-existence, 171 ; 174 ; 193. 
Non-self, 171 ; 174 ; 193. 

Padma (lotus), 184. 
ParimitS, 174. 
Pitrc'ghita, 197 note. 
Prayer, of Dharmakara, 177 ; mystic 
form of, 190; the forty-eight, 


Precepts, the eight prohibitive, 163 ; 
193 ; the ten prohibitive, 167 
note ; the five prohibitive, 193. 

Pretas, 165 ; 184. 

Pum&rika, 300. 

Pflrna (Furuna), 163. 

Rij-agriha, 161. 

Remembrance (sixfold), 188 ; of the 

Buddha, 174, et passim. 
Resignation (spirit of), 169 ; 181 ; 

189; 191; 199. 

Saddharmapuni/arika, 161; 300 note. 
6'akra (Indra), 165; 173; 176. 
Sakrabhilagnamaniratna, 173 note. 
Sakyamuni, 165 ; 183 ; the height of, 

187 note; 301. 
Samadhi, 171 ; 181 ; 191 ; 199. 
Sanghabheda, 197 note. 
Sanghika labha, 196. 
SatadharmavidySdvara, 193 ; 196 

(where the Sanskrit is omitted). 
Scriptures, the twelve divisions of, 

186; 195. 
Sbin-tao (Jen-do Daishi), 163 ; 163 

Signs of perfection, 174 ; 178. 
Siva, 166. 
Spells, 163. 
Sramanas, 163. 
Sramanera (a novice), 193. 
Sravakas, 189. 
Srota-apanna, 194. 
Sufferings, the five worldly, 169 ; 

171; 174; 193- 
SukhavatT, 166; 167; 168; 171; 

175; 185; 300. 
Sumeru, 166; 177; 180. 

Tathagata (Nyo-rai), 164; 178; 187. 
Tathagatasyantike dush/aiittaru- 

dhirotpadana, 197 note. 
Three Jewels (Ratna-traya), 167 ; 

188 note; 196. 

Ushmshajiraskata, 183. 

Vaidehi, consort of Bimbisira, 161; 

164, et passim. 
Vaipulya Sutra, 188; 190; 195. 
Veda, 163. 

World-Honoured One, 163; 164, 
et passim, being a translation of 
Bhagavat, the Blessed One. 

Yaksha, 301. 
Yama, 177 ; 180. 

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Sacred Books of the East 





*0* This Series is published with the sanction and co-operation of the Secretary of 
Slate for India in Council. 

BBVOBT pxoaontod to tho AOABBMIB BBS xBBCBXFTXOVS, Kay 11, 
1883, toy M. BBBSBT BBBAB. 

' M. Renan presente trois nonveaax une seconde, dont VinterSt historique et 
volumes de la grande collection des religieux ne sera pas moindre. M. Max 
"Livres sacres de l'Orient" (Sacred Muller in k procurer la collaboration 
Books of the East), que dirige a Oxford, des savans les plus eminent d'Europe et 
avec one si vaste erudition et une critique d'Asie. L'Universite d'Oxford, que cette 
si sure, le savant associi de l'Academie grande publication honore an plus haut 
des Inscriptions, M. Max Muller. . . . La degr^, doit tenir a continuer dans les plus 
premiere serie de ce beau recueil, com- larges proportions une ceuvre aussi philo- 
posee de 34 volumes, est presque achevee. sophiquement concue que savamment 
M. Max Muller se propose d'en publier executee.' 


' We rejoice to notice that a second great edition of the Rig- Veda, can com- 

series of these translations has been an- pare in importance or in usefulness with 

nounced and has actually begun to appear, this English translation of the Sacred 

The stones, at least, out of which a stately Books of the East, which has been devised 

edifice may hereafter arise, are here being by his foresight, successfully brought so 

brought together. Prof. Max Muller has far by his persuasive and organising 

deserved well of scientific history. Not power, and will, we trust, by the assist- 

a few minds owe to his enticing words ance of the distinguished scholars he has 

their first attraction to this branch of gathered round him, be carried in due 

study. But no work of his, not even the time to a happy completion.' 

PxoftMOx B. HA.RDT, Inaugural tooturo In tno TJniTaraitT of TxnOrnxg, 1889. 

'Die allgemeine vergleichende Reli- internationalen Orientalistencongress in 
gionswissenschaft datirt von jenem gross- London der Grundstein gelegt worden 
artigen, in seiner Art einzig dastehenden war, die ttbersetzung der heiligen Biicher 
Unteraehmen, zu welchem auf Anregung des Ostens' {the Sacred Books of the 
Max M tillers im Jahre 1874 auf dem East). 

Tno Ron. 1XBI1T m. O. OABBTBO, ' Words on Brlatlng Boligiona.' 

' The recent publication of the " Sacred a great event in the annals of theological 
Works of the East" in English is surely literature.' 



Digitized by 




Vol. I. The Upanishads. 

Translated by F. Max MOllbr. Part I. The -*"3dndogya- 
upanishad, The TalavakSra-upanishad, The Aitareya-£ra«yaka, 
The Kaushitaki-br&hmana-upanishad, and The VS^asaneyi- 
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The Upanishads contain the philosophy of the Veda. They have 
become the foundation of the later Veddnta doctrines, and indirectly 
of Buddhism. Schopenhauer, speaking of the Upanishads, says : 
' In the whole world there is no study so beneficial and so elevating 
as that of the Upanishads. It has been the solace of my life, it will 
be the solace of my death' 

[See also Vol. XV.] 

Vol. n. The Sacred Laws of the Aryas, 

As taught in the Schools of Apastamba, Gautama, V&sishMa, 
and Baudhiyana. Translated by Georg BOhlkr. Part I. 
Apastamba and Gautama. 8vo, cloth, ior. 6d. 

The Sacred Laws of the Aryas contain the original treatises on 
which the Laws ofManu and other lawgivers were founded. 

[See also Vol. XIV.] 

Vol. hi. The Sacred Books of China. 

The Texts of Confucianism. Translated by Jambs Legge. 
Part I. The Shu King, The Religious Portions of the Shih 
King, and The Hsiao King. 8vo, cloth, i is. 6d. 

Confucius was a collector of ancient traditions, not the founder of 
a new religion. As he lived in the sixth and fifth centuries B.C. 
his works are of unique interest for the study of Ethology. 
[See also Vols. XVI, XXVII, XXVIII, XXXIX, and XL.] 

vol. IV. The Zend-Avesta. 

Translated by James Darmestbter. Part I. The VendtdSd. 
8vo, cloth, i ox. 6d. 

The Zend-Avesta contains the relics of what was the religion of 
Cyrus, Darius, and Xerxes, and, but for the battle of Marathon, 

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might have become the religion of Europe. It forms to the present 
day the sacred book of the Parsis, the so-called f re-worshippers. 
Two more volumes will complete the translation of all that is left us 
of Zoroaster's religion. 

[See also Vols. XXIII and XXXI.] 

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Translated by E. W. West. Part I. The Bundahu, Bahman 
Yart, and Shiyast la-shiyast 8vo, cloth, I2J. 6d. 

The Pahlavi Texts comprise the theological literature of the revival 
of Zoroaster 's religion, beginning with the Sassanian dynasty. They 
are important for a study of Gnosticism. 

Vols. Vi awd IX. The Qur'in. 

Farts I and II. Translated by £. H. Palmer. 8vo, cloth, ais. 

This translation, carried out according to his own peculiar views 
of the origin of the Qur'dn, was the last great work ofE. H. Palmer, 
before he was murdered in Egypt. 

Vol. vn. The Institutes of Vish#u. 

Translated by Julius Jollt. 8vo, cloth, iof. 6d. 

A collection of legal aphorisms, closely connected with one of the 
oldest Vedic schools, the KaMas, but considerably added to in later 
time. Of importance for a critical study of the Laws ofManu. 

Vol. vm. The Bhagavadgtta,with The Sanatsu^Ltlya, 
and The Anugiti. 

Translated by KAsionath Trihbak Telang. 8vo, cloth, 
1 ox. 6d. 

The earliest philosophical and religious poem of India. It has been 
paraphrased in Arnold's 'Song Celestial.' 

Vol. x. The Dhammapada, 

Translated from Pali by F. Max Muller ; and 

The Sutta-NipAta, 
Translated from Pali by V. FausbSll ; being Canonical Books 
of the Buddhists. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

The Dhammapada contains the quintessence of Buddhist morality. 
The Sutta-Nipdta gives the authentic teaching of Buddha on some 
of the fundamental principles of religion. 

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Vol. XI. Buddhist Suttas. 

Translated from Pili by T. W. Rhys Davids, i. The Maha- 
parinibbana Suttanta; 2. The Dhamma-/bkka-ppavattana 
Sutta. 3. The Tevi^^a Suttanta; 4. The Akankheyya Sutta ; 
5. The Aetokhila Sutta; 6. The Maha-sudassana Suttanta; 
7. The Sabbasava Sutta. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

A collection oftht most important religious, moral, and philosophical 
discourses taken from the sacred canon of the Buddhists. 

Vol. xil. The .Satapatha-Brahma«a, according to the 
Text of the Madhyandina School. 

Translated by Julius Eggeling. Part I. Books I and II. 
8vo, cloth, 1 2s. 6d. 

A minute account of the sacrificial ceremonies of the Vedic age. 
It contains the earliest account of the Deluge in India, 
[See also Vols. XXVI, XLI.] 

Vol. xiii. Vinaya Texts. 

Translated from the Pali by T. W. Rhys Davids and Hermann 
Oldenberg. Part I. The P&timokkha. The Mahavagga, I-1V. 
8vo, cloth, 1 Of. 6d. 

The Vinaya Texts give for the first lime a translation of the moral 
code of the Buddhist religion as settled in the third century B. C. 
[See also Vols. XVII and XX.] 

Vol. XIV. The Sacred Laws of the Aryas, 

As taught in the Schools of Apastamba, Gautama, Vasish/fta, 
and Baudhayana. Translated by Georg Buhler. Part II. 
Vasish/yfa and Baudhayana. 8vo, cloth, iox. 6d. 

vol. xv. The Upanishads. 

Translated by F. Max MCller. Part II. The Ka/4a-upanishad, 
The MuWaka-upanishad, The Taittirtyaka-upanishad, The 
Bnbadaranyaka-upanishad, The jvetlrvatara-upanishad, The 
Prafda-upanishad, and The Maitrayawa-brahmawa-upanishad. 
8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

Vol. XVI. The Sacred Books of China. 

The Texts of Confucianism. Translated by James Leggk. 
Part II. The Yi King. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 
[See also Vols. XXVII, XXVIII.] 

Vol. XVII. Vinaya Texts. 

Translated from the Pali by T. W. Rhys Davids and Hermann 
Oldenberg. Part II. The Mahavagga, V-X. The ATullavagga, 
I— III. 8 vo, cloth, . 1 oj. 6d. 

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Vol. XVIII. Pahlavi Texts. 

Translated by E. W. West. Part II. The V&dist&n-t Dfntk 
and The Epistles of M&nfcithar. 8vo, cloth, us. 6d. 

vol. xix. The Fo-sho-hing-tsan-king. 

A Life of Buddha by Ajvaghosha Bodhisattva, translated from 
Sanskrit into Chinese by Dharmaraksha, a.d. 420, and from 
Chinese into English by Samuel Beal. 8vo, cloth, tos. 6d. 

This life of Buddha was translated from Sanskrit into Chinese, 
A.D. 420. // contains many legends, some of which show a certain 
similarity to the Evangelium infant iae, Sfc. 

Vol. XX. Vinaya Texts. 

Translated from the Pali by T. W. Rhys Davids and Hermann 
Oldenberg. Part III. The .ATullavagga, IV-XII. 8vo, cloth, 
1 oj. 6d. 

Vol. XXI. The Saddharma-pu#d5ar!ka ; or, The Lotus 
of the True Law. 

Translated by H. Kern. 8vo, cloth, 12.?. 6d. 
• The Lotus of the true Law,' a canonical book of the Northern 
Buddhists, translated from Sanskrit. There is a Chinese transla- 
tion of this book which was finished as early as the year 286 A.D. 

Vol. xxn. <7aina-Sutras. 

Translated from Prakrit by Hermann Jacobi. Part I. The 
Ai&ringa-Sutra and The Kalpa-Sutra. 8vo, cloth, ior. 6d. 

The religion of the Gainas was founded by a contemporary of Buddha. 
It still counts numerous adherents in India, while there are no 
Buddhists left in India proper. 
Part II, in preparation. 

Vol. xxm. The Zend-Avesta. 

Translated by James Darmesteter. Part II. The Str6zahs, 
Yarts, and Nyayir. 8vo, cloth, ioj. 6d. 

Vol. xxiv. Pahlavi Texts. 

Translated by E. W. West. Part III. Dtn&4 Mafn6g- 
Khirarf, Sikand-gumantk Vi^Sr, and Sad Dar. 8vo, cloth, 
1 ox. 6d. 

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Vol. XXV. Manu. 

Translated by Georo Buhler. 8vo, cloth, a if. 
This translation is founded on that of Sir William Jones, which has been 
carefully revised and corrected with the help of seven native Commentaries. 
An Appendix contains all the quotations from Manu which are found in the 
Hindu Law-books, translated for the use of the Law Courts in India. 
Another Appendix gives a synopsis of parallel passages from the six 
Dharma-sfttras, the other Smritis, the Upanishads, the MahSbharata, &c 

Vol. XXVI. The .Satapatha-Brahma#a. 

Translated by Julius Eggeling. Part II. Books III and IV. 
8vo, cloth, lax. 6d. 

Vols, xxvii and xxvin. The Sacred Books of China. 
The Texts of Confucianism. Translated by James Legge. Parts 
III and IV. The Lt K% or Collection of Treatises on the Rules 
of Propriety, or Ceremonial Usages. 8vo, cloth, i as. 6d. each. 

Vol. XXIX The GWhya-Sutras, Rules of Vedic 
Domestic Ceremonies. 

Part I. Sankhiyana, Ajvalayana, P&raskara, Kbldira. Trans- 
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These rules of Domestic Ceremonies describe the home life of the ancient 
Aryas with a completeness and accuracy unmatched in any other literature. 
Some of these rules have been incorporated in the ancient Law-books. 

vol. XXX . The Grs'hya-Sutras, Rules of Vedic 
Domestic Ceremonies. 

Part II. Gobhila, Hirawyakerin, Apastamba. Translated by 
Hermann Oldenberg. Apastamba, Yag'fla-parilMshl-sutras. 
Translated by F. Max Muller. 8vo, cloth, 12s. 6d, 

Vol. XXXI. The Zend-Avesta. 

Part III. The Yasna, Visparad, AfrfnagSn, GShs, and 
Miscellaneous Fragments. Translated by L. H. Mills. 8vo, 
cloth, 1 a j. 6d. 

Vol. XXXII. Vedic Hymns. 

Translated by F. Max Muller. Part I. 8vo, cloth, iSs. 6d. 

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Vol. xxxni. The Minor Law-books. 

Translated by Julius Jolly. Part I. Narada, Br/haspati. 
8vo, cloth, iw. 6d. 

Vol. xxxiv. The Vedanta-Sutras, with the Com- 
mentary by .Sankara^arya. Part I. 

Translated by G. Thibaut. 8vo, cloth, 1 2s. 6d. 

Vol. XXXV. The Questions of King Milinda. Part I. 
Translated from the Pali by T. W. Rhys Davids. 
8vo, cloth, ioj. 6d. 

Vol. xxxvi. The Questions of King Milinda. Part II. 
[In the Press.] 

Vol. XXXVII. The Contents of the Nasks, as stated 
in the Eighth and Ninth Books of the Dlnkard. 
Part I. Translated by E. W. West. 8vo, cloth, t&s. 

vol. xxxvni. The Vedanta-Sutras. Part II. [In 
the Press.] 

Volb. xxxix abtd XL. The Sacred Books of China. 
The Texts of Taoism. Translated by James Legge. 8vo, 
cloth, a I J. 

vol. xli. The .Satapatha - Brahmawa. Part III. 
Translated by Julius Eggeling. 8vo, cloth, 12s. 6d. 

Vol. XI.II. Hymns of the Atharva-veda. 
Translated by M. Bloohfield. [In preparation.] 

vols, axtd xiiiv. The .Satapatha-Brahmawa. 
Parts IV and V. [In preparation.] 

Vol. XLV. The 6aina-Sutras. Part II. [In the Press!] 

vol. xlvi. The Vedanta-Sutras. Part III. [In 


vol. xlvii. The Contents of the Nasks. Part II. 

[In preparation^ 

Vol. Xli VIII. Vedic Hymns. Part II. [In preparation!] 

Vol. XLIX. Buddhist Mahayana Texts. Buddha- 
farita, translated by E B. Cowell. Sukh£vatt-vyflha,VaiTa£Me- 
dika, &c, translated by F. Max Muller. Amitayur-Dhyana- 
SfiLra, translated by J. Takakusu. [Now ready.] 

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Buddhist Texts from Japan. I. Va^rai^edika ; The 
Diamond- Cutter. 

Edited by F. Max Muller, M.A. Small 4to, %s. 6d. 
One of the most famous metaphysical treatises of the Mahayana Buddhists. 

Buddhist Texts from Japan. II. SukMvatl-Vyflha : 
Description of Sukhdvati, the Land of Bliss; 

Edited by F. Max Muller, M.A., and Bunytu Nanjio. With 

two Appendices : (i) Text and Translation of Sahghavarman's 

Chinese Version of the Poetical Portions of the Sukhdvatt- 

Vyftha j (2) Sanskrit Text of the Smaller Sukh&vatf-Vyuha. 

Small 4to, 7*. 6d. 

The (ditto princeps of the Sacred Book of one of the largest and most 

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in Japan alone. 

Buddhist Texts from Japan. III. The A ncient Palm- 
Leaves containing the Pra^»a-Paramitct-H?7daya- 
Sfltra and the Ush«tsha-Vi^aya-Dhara»!. 

Edited by F. Max Muller, M.A., and Bunyiw Nanjio, M.A. 
With an Appendix by G. Buhler, CLE. With many Plates. 
Small 4 to, 1 Of. 
Contains facsimiles of the oldest Sanskrit MS. at present known. 

Dharma-Sawgraha, an Ancient Collection of Buddhist 
Technical Terms. 

Prepared for publication by Kenjiu Kas<wara, a Buddhist 
Priest from Japan, and, after his death, edited by F. Max 
Muller and H. Wekzel. Small 4to, 7*. 6d. 

Katyayana's Sarvanukramawt of the Rigveda. 

With Extracts from Sha^gurarishya's Commentary entitled 
VedarthadipikS. Edited by A. A. Macdonell, M.A., Ph.D. 16s. 




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