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Full text of "Sacred Books East Various Oriental Scholars with Index. 50 vols Max Muller Oxford 1879.1910."

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& T H E 



SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST 



TRANSLATED 



BY VARIOUS ORIENTAL SCHOLARS 



A N D EDITED BY 



F. MAX MOLLER 



VOL. I.- 



OXFORD 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
i 910 

gifmdz&yMf&bsofi 



HENRY FROWIIE, M.A. 

PUBLISHER TO THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD 

LONDON, EDINBURGH, NEW VOKK 

TORONTO AND MELBOURNE 



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A GENERAL INDEX 

TO THE 

NAMES AND SUBJECT-MATTER 

OF THE 

SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST 

COMPILED BY 
M. WINTERNITZ 

PROFESSOR OF INDIAN PHILOLOGY AND OF ETHNOLOGY IN THE GERMAN UNIVERSITY 
OF PRAGUE 

WITH A PREFACE BY 
A. A. MACDONELL 

BODEN PROFESSOR OF SANSKRIT IN THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD 



OXFORD 
AT THE CLARENDON PRESS , 

1910 v." 

[All ughls reserved] 1^ x* 

4* 



toio 

19)0 



OXFORD 

PRINTED AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 

BY HORACE HART, M.A. 

PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY 



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CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Preface vii 

Introductory Note xi 

List of Religions represented in the S. B.E. . . xv 

List of the Translators xv 

Key to Abbreviations xvi 

List of the Volumes of the S. B. E. . . . . xvi 

THE INDEX 1-683 

Addenda and Corrigenda ; Note on the Editions of 

Vols. 2, 4, 10 . . 684 



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May be used for non-commercial, personal, research, 

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May not be indexed in a commercial service. 



PREFACE 
BY PROFESSOR MACDONELL 

The period covered by the inception, the publication, and 
the completion of the Sacred Books of the East exactly co- 
incides with the thirty-four years that I have spent in Oxford. 
When I matriculated, Professor Max Muller, the editor of the 
series, was about to begin work on the first volume, which 
appeared while I was still an undergraduate. I lost no time 
in making his acquaintance, for it was the influence of one of 
his works that had stimulated me to begin under Professor 
Benfey the study of Sanskrit at the University of Giittingen, 
when I left school nearly two years before. During my under- 
graduate days and later I owed much to Professor Max Miiller's 
advice and encouragement in regard to my studies, which have 
ever since followed, as far as Sanskrit is concerned, much the 
same lines as his. I consequently always took a lively interest 
in the Sacred Books edited by him as they successively ap- 
peared during the course of a quarter of a century, no fewer 
than thirty-six volumes having a more or less direct bearing 
on my own work, and fourteen of the translators being person- 
ally known to me. Professor Max Muller lived to see all but 
one of the forty-nine volumes published under his supervision. 
Now the fiftieth and concluding volume is at last finished when 
I myself have already arrived at advanced middle age. Owing 
to my early relations with the editor and my interest in the 
series ever since, I am glad to have this opportunity of ac- 
companying with a few words by way of preface the volume 
that brings the series to an end. 

The Sacred Books of the East include all the most 
important works of the seven non-Christian religions that 
have exercised a profound influence on the civilization of the 
continent of Asia. Of the Indian religions the Vedic-Brah- 
manic system here claims twenty-one volumes, Buddhism ten, 
and Jainism two. Eight volumes comprise translations of the 

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PREFACE 



sacred books of the Persians. Two volumes represent Islam, 
and six the two main indigenous systems of China, Confucian- 
ism and Taoism. This great undertaking, planned and edited 
by Professor Max Miiller, has been carried out by the colla- 
boration of twenty scholars, all leading authorities in the 
special departments of Oriental learning to which the works 
translated by them belong. By thus rendering these religious 
systems accessible as a whole to theWestern world in authorita- 
tive translations, Professor Max Miiller for the first time placed 
the historical and comparative study of religions on a solid 
foundation. But with that large view of the aims and needs of 
scholarship which distinguished him, he saw that the investi- 
gation of the vast material here collected could not become 
thoroughly effective without the auxiliary aid of a separate 
index volume presenting that material thoroughly digested 
and exhaustively classified. This work he entrusted to 
Dr. Winternitz, who at that time was resident in Oxford 
and had been assisting him in bringing out his second edition 
of the Rigvcda with the commentary of Sayana. The result, 
after various unavoidable delays, is the present volume, in 
which the end in view has been most successfully accom- 
plished by the compiler, now Professor of Indian Philology 
and of l^thnology in the German University of Prague. 

The experience of many years has made me a convinced be- 
liever in the great value of full and comprehensive indexes as 
aids to the scholar, not only because they save his time, but 
because they tend to render his results more comprehensive. 
This is especially true at the present time, when the field of 
research has become so greatly extended in all directions. The 
view which prevailed among Oriental scholars in my student 
days was very different. About thirty years ago an eminent 
Sanskrit scholar began the publication of the cditio princeps 
of an important and intricate work, which when completed 
appeared without an index. The editor declined to yield 
to the suggestion that he should supply one, declaring that 
those who wished to consult the book on any point ought to 
be compelled to read it through. I feel convinced that as a 
consequence of this altitude, research has been retarded in the 

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PREFACE 



branch of learning to which the work in question belongs. 
Even in recent years I have hardly ever seen an index to 
Oriental works that has not seemed to me too meagre and 
consequently inadequate as an instrument of research. Very 
different is the character of the present substantial volume of 
684 pages, which Professor Wintcrnitz has compiled with so 
much thoroughness and industry. I feel no hesitation in 
stating that it is the most comprehensive work of the kind 
that has yet been published. For it is not merely a complete 
index like vol. xxv of the recently published Imperial 
Gazetteer of India. It also furnishes, in articles of any 
length, a scientific classification of the subject under various 
heads. Thus, in the article on Agni, the Indian god of fire, 
the material relating to that deity is arranged under no fewer 
than twenty-four subdivisions. Such fullness of treatment 
saves the book from the inevitable dryness from which it 
would otherwise suffer. Indeed, its perusal will, I believe, 
prove interesting not only to the expert, but even to the 
general reader. The volume, in fact, constitutes a handbook 
for the study of Oriental religions as far as represented by the 
Sacred Books of the East. By saving the student of these 
volumes an immense amount of time, it will greatly lighten his 
labours. The methodical arrangement and the co-ordination 
of the vast and varied material that they contain are also cal- 
culated to stimulate both the historical investigation of each, 
and the comparative study of all, of the religious systems 
dealt with in the series. Hence if I were asked to select any 
one of the fifty volumes of the Sacred Books of the East as 
specially useful, I should certainly choose the last. The 
Delegates are to be congratulated on rounding off with so 
valuable an addition a series that reflects so much lustre on 
the University Press, and has contributed not a little towards 
establishing its now unrivalled position as a centre of Oriental 
publication. 

A. A. MACDONELL. 
Oxford, 
February, 1910. 



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INTRODUCTORY NOTE 
BY THE AUTHOR 

Habent sua fata libclli — not only after they have been pub- 
lished, but sometimes even before they are printed. It was in 
the spring of 1894 that the late Professor Max Miiller first 
suggested to me that I should compile a General Index of 
the names and subject-matter for the complete series of the 
Sacred Books of the East. Such an Index, he thought, would 
be a great help to all students of the Sacred Books of the East, 
and of the greatest value for the study of the history of reli- 
gions. The matter was frequently discussed between us, and 
we both agreed that if the Index was to be of any use it would 
have to be, not a bare list of names and important words, with 
strings of references which no one would have the patience to 
read through, but an analytical Index with extracts and even 
verbal quotations, from which the student, with the least pos- 
sible trouble, might see to which volume and page he had to 
refer for any information he might want. It was many weeks 
before the plan took any definite shape: in June, 1894, I laid 
my proposal of preparing the Index before the Delegates of 
the University Press, who were from the beginning favourably 
inclined to it. But as I had to work out a specimen from 
which the scale and the plan of the Index could be seen more 
definitely, it was not until March, 1895, that the Delegates 
could give their final sanction to the work. 

Though some of the volumes of the series were still un- 
published in 1895 — vol. xliv appeared in 1900, and vol. xlviii 
not until 1904 — it was then thought possible to finish the 
Index volume within two years. When I set to work, and 
began reading through volume after volume, making notes 
and extracts for the Index, I certainly hoped that Pro- 
fessor Max Miiller would live to see it finished. But, alas, 
Fate had destined otherwise. Only too soon I found that I 
had entirely miscalculated the lime and labour involved in 

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Xll INTRODUCTORY NOTE 

the compilation of the Index. By the spring of 1898 I had 
indeed read, and made extracts from, all the volumes that had 
been published ; I had written some 70,000 slips, and these 
had been sorted and arranged alphabetically. But in 1898 
I left Oxford to return to my own country and to a new 
sphere of work, and the preparation of the Index had to be 
interrupted for nearly two years. When I took it up again 
in 1900 I soon found that the huge mass of slips before me 
represented only the raw material from which the building 
had to be constructed. 

From the beginning it had been clear to me — and this was 
also Professor Max Muller's view — that this Index volume 
could not be made like any other Index, but must resemble a 
Manual of the History of Eastern Religions. For it would have 
been of little use to collect, under such headings as Ancestor 
Worship, Animals, Brahman, Buddha, Fire, Funeral Rites, 
Future Life, God, Gods, Prayer, Sacrifice, Soul, &c., all the 
passages bearing on these subjects as they occur in the 
volumes of the Sacred Books of the East. It was necessary 
to make sub-divisions in such articles, and to arrange the 
passages under different sub-headings. It was this work of 
arranging and condensing the raw material that caused so 
much delay. Many slips had to be rewritten, and the 
volumes of the Sacred Books had constantly to be referred to, 
and numerous passages to be verified. 

These sub-divisions and sub-headings required most careful 
consideration. It was not possible to make them according to 
one uniform scheme ; they had to be chosen in each case differ- 
ently as seemed most suitable for practical purposes. Some- 
times it was advisable to make them according to the different 
religions, sometimes according to the subject-matter. Con- 
sistency could not be aimed at — the chief aim was practical 
usefulness. Sometimes it seemed more practical to arrange 
the passages under several sub-headings, sometimes it seemed 
preferable to collect them under one heading, indicating sub- 
division by dashes ( — ). But it is hardly necessary to 
enumerate all the devices by which the compiler has tried 
to make the Index as handy as possible. The reader will 

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INTRODUCTORY NOTE 



easily find them out for himself. There was a time when 
German scholars scouted the idea of writing or using an 
Index to learned books. It was thought unworthy of a 
scholar to look to an Index for reference : he had to read the 
whole book and all the books on any given subject. But 
nowadays even German scholars have found out that life 
is short, and not only art, but in an even greater degree, 
science is getting very long. It has become impossible to 
get on without some time-saving machinery. To make this 
Index supply as far as possible a contrivance of such a kind 
has been the one and constant aim of the compiler. 

Verbal quotations have been given — they are marked as 
such by the use of italics — from passages that seemed 
especially characteristic and important. That the Index 
should also include such verbal quotations, was one of the 
very first suggestions made by Professor Max Miiller. 

The compiler of an Index to forty-nine volumes of trans- 
lations from seven different languages, belonging to as many 
religions, had to grapple with peculiar difficulties. He had 
not only to make himself acquainted with the terminologies 
of the different religions represented in the Sacred Boots oj 
the East, but also to take into account the different translations 
of the same terms by different translators, sometimes also 
different spellings of the same names in different volumes. 
I have tried, as far as was practicable, to collect all things 
belonging together under one heading, but I must apologize 
for any inconsistencies that will be found, especially under 
the letter A. There, e. g. ' Ahura- Mazda ' and ' Auharma.za' ' 
are given as two separate articles, while later on in such cases 
all the passages would have been collected under one heading. 
While apologizing for such and other inconsistencies (which 
could only have been avoided if the whole manuscript of the 
Index had been rewritten and its publication delayed still 
longer), I hope to have given so many cross-references that 
these inconsistencies will not be felt as any serious inconvenience. 

When I venture to claim for this volume the title of a sort 
of Manual of the History of Eastern Religions, I hope I may 
not be misunderstood. Many books on the History and 

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INTRODUCTORY NOTE 



Science of Religion have been written during the last twenty 
years. But most of these books are more concerned with 
theories on the origin and development of religion than with 
what, in my humble opinion, should be the foundation of all 
such theories — a scientific classification of religious phenomena. 
Is it too presumptuous to hope that this Index may prove to 
be of some help for the fulfilment of this desideratum of the 
Science of Religion? The Index may prove useful, not only 
for what it contains, but also for what it does not contain. 
The student of religion will look in vain in this Index for 
such terms as Animism, Fetishism, Tabu, Totemism, and the 
like. May not this be a useful warning that these terms refer 
only to the theories and not to the facts of religion? On the 
other hand, the student will be assured that everything he 
finds in this Index is a religious fact. Moreover, many things 
will be found in the Index that, from our point of view, do 
not refer to religion at all, but to all kinds of matters of 
importance for the Antiquarian — the student of ancient law, 
customs, manners, art, and economic life. For there is hardly 
any phase of human life that is not in some way or other 
touched upon in the Sacred Books of the East — for the 
simple reason that in ancient religion almost anything and 
everything has some religious aspect. This is in itself an 
important lesson to learn. Besides, it shows how useful the 
Index, and of course still more the Sacred Books themselves, 
must be for all students of the ancient civilizations of India, 
Persia, China, and Arabia. And if the Index should do 
nothing else but help to promote the study of the Sacred 
Books of the East, the time and labour devoted to its 
compilation will not be thrown away. 

In conclusion, I have to express my sincere thanks to the 
Delegates of the University Press for the sacrifices incurred 
in the publication of this volume, and for the patience they 
have shown with the many dela}-s that have retarded the 
completion of the work. 

M. WINTERNITZ. 
Prague, 

January, 1910. 

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LIST OF RELIGIONS 
REPRESENTED IN THE SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST 

I. Vedic-Brahmanic Religion. 
(a) Prayers and Hymns, vols. 32, 42, 46. 

(i) Magic, Rites, and Theology, vols. 12, 26, 29, 30, 41, 42, 43, 44. 
{c) Philosophy, vols. 1, 8, 15, 31, 38, 48. 
\d) Laws, vols. 2, 7, 14, 25, 33. 
II. Buddhism, vols. 10, 11, 13, 17, 19, 20, 21, 35, 36, 49. 

III. Gaina Religion, vols. 22, 45. 

IV. Confucianism, vols. 3, 16, 27, 28. 
V. TAoism, vols. 39, 40. 

VI. Parsi Religion, vols. 4, 5, 18, 23, 24, 31, 37, 47. 
VII. IslAm, vols. 6, 9. 



LIST OF TRANSLATORS 
OF THE SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST 

Beal, Samuel, vol. 19. 

Bloomfield, Maurice, vol. 42. 

Biihler, Georg, vols. 2, 14, 25. 

Cowell, E. B., vol. 49 (i). 

Uarmesteter, James, vols. 4, 23. 

Eggeling, Julius, vols. 12, 26, 41, 43, 44. 

Fausboll, V., vol. 10 (ii). 

Jacobi, Hermann, vols. 22, 45. 

Jolly, Julius, vols. 7, 33. 

Kern, H., vol. 21. 

Legge, James, vols. 3, 16, 27, 28, 39, 40. 

Max Miiller, F., vols. 1, 10 (i), 15, 30, 32, 49 (ii). 

Mills, L. H., vol. 31. 

Oldenberg, Hermann, vols. 13, 17, 20, 29, 30, 40. 

Palmer, E. H„ vols. 6, 9. 

Rhys Davids, T. W., vols. 11, 13, 17, 20, 35, 36. 

Takakusu, J., vol. 49 (ii). 

Telang, Kashinath Trimbak, vol. 8. 

Thibaut, George, vols. 34, 38, 48. 

West, E. W., vols. 5, 18, 24, 37, 47. 

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ABBREVIATIONS 

Av. = Avesta. 

&c. (after a reference) = : and frequently in the same volume.' (For 
instance, on page 22, col. 1, line 17 the f &c.' means that Agni the 
Hotn priest occurs frequently in volume 46.) l 
n. = name. 2 
n. d. = name of a deity. 
n. p. = name of a person, 
n. pi. = name of a place. 
Phi. = Pahlavi. 
Pr. = Prakrit. 



q. v. = quod vide. 
Sk. — Sanskrit. 

t, c. = title of chapter or part of a work, 
t.t. = technical term, 
t. w. = title of a work. 
Zd. = Zend. 

References. The large arabic figures denote volumes, the smaller arabic 
pages, and the smaller roman pages of the Introductions. 

1 Where a very large number of references are given, some references have been 
italicized to point out the more important passages. 

a But after a figure, referring to the number of page, = note, and after a 
Sanskrit term = neuter. 



LIST OF THE 49 VOLUMES 
OF THE SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST 



\ 



VOL. 


VOL. 


VOL, 


1 Upanishads. 


16 Texts of Confucian- 


32 Vedic Hymns. 


2 Sacred Laws of 


ism. 


33 Minor Law-Books. 


Aryas. 


17 Vinaya Texts. 


34 Vedan ta- S fitras. 


3 Texts of Confucian- 
ism. 


18 Pahlavi Texts. 

19 Fo-sho-hing-tsan- 


,-,„[ Milinda. 


4 Zend-Avesta. 


king. 


37 Pahlavi Texts. 


5 Pahlavi Texts. 


20 Vinaya Texts. 


38 Vedanta-Sfitras. 


6 Qur'an. 

7 Institutes of Vishnu. 


21 Saddharma- 
pnWarika. 


. - r Texts of Taoism. 


8 Bhagavadgita, &c. 


22 Gaina-Sfitras. 


41 Satapatha- 


9 Qur'an. 


23 Zend-Avesta. 


Bnihmawa. 


10 (i) Dhammapada. 


24 Pahlavi Texts. 


42 Atharva-veila. 


10 (ii) Sutta-Nipata. 


25 Laws of Mann. 


431Satapatha- 

44) Brahmawa. 


11 Buddhist Suttas. 


26 Satapatha- 


12 Satapatha- 


Brahmana. 


45 Gaina-Sfitras. 


Brahmawa. 


271 Texts of Confucian- 
28 1 ism (Li A'i). 


46 Vedic Hymns. 


13 Vinaya Texts. 


47 Pahlavi Texts. 


14 Sacred Laws of 


oflKir/hya-SGtras. 


48 Vedanta-Sfitras. 


Aryas. 


49 (i) BuddhaJarita. 


15 U-^/fej 


31 Zend-Avesta. 


49 (ii) MahaySna Texts. 



INDEX 



AARAF— ABHYUDGATARAGA 

Aaraf, the chapter of al A. (Qur'an) up t^ivaka, the physician, 17, 173 
6j 138-63; see Future Life. sq., 179; the son of king A. con- 

Aaron, brother of Moses, a pro- verted by Buddha, 19, 241 ; a prince 
phet 6, 94, 125 ; 9, 31 ; appointed of the LLM£avis, on Nigan/Aa doc- 
vice-gerent by Moses, 6, 154-6; trines, 45, xv ; son of king Srewika, 
rebuked by Moses on account of patron of the Gainas, 45, xv n. 

the calf, 9, 41 ; given to Moses as Abhayandada, or Giver of Safety, 
a minister, 9, 36 sq., 86, 91, in; epithet of Avalokitcivara, 21, 412. 

and Moses blessed, 9, 172 ; Moses Abhibhayatanani, t.t., eight posi- 
and A. before Pharaoh, 6, 201-3 i 9> tions of mastery over delusion, 11, 
68; they receive a Scripture, 9, 50. 49-5 1, 49 sq. n. 

AbalLf, the Zandik, a heretic, had Abhidhamma, its position by the 
a disputation with Atur-frobag, 24, side of Vinaya and Sutta, 10 (i), 
jtxvii ; 47, 11911. xxxii-xxxiv; taught under the head 

Aban, see Waters. of Dhamma, 10 (i), xxxiii. See also 

'Abbas, converted to Islam, 6, xli; Tipifaka. 

negotiations between Abu Sufiyan, Abhidharmakoshavyakhya,quot- 
'A-, and Mohammed, 6, xli sq. ed, 15, lii n. ; quotes Milindapa^ha, 

Abbhana, Buddhist t.t., when unlaw- 35, xxvi ; 36, xvii. 

ful, 17, 268 sq., 270 sq., 277-80. Abhi^tfa^wanabhibhu = Mahabhi- 

Abd allah, father of Mohammed, £«a^«anabhibhu', q.v. 

6, xviii. Abhi^viaprapta, epithet of Sagara- 

Abdallah ibn Sa'hd ibn Abi Sar'h, buddhidharin, 21, 207. 

amanuensis of Mohammed, pretend- Abhi^was, t.t., magical powers of 
ed to be inspired, 6, Ivii, 126, 126 n. Arhats, 21, 1 sq. n. 

Abdallah ibn Ubai, strong op- Abhigraha and Graha worshipped 
ponent of Mohammed, 6, lxiii ; by the Snataka, 30, 166. 

leader of the Munafiqun or ' Hypo- Abhinandana, n. of a Tirthakara, 

ciites,' 6, xxxv; 9, 284 n. ; spread 22, 280. 

the calumny against Ayesha, 9, 74 n. ; Abhinishkramawa-Sutra, trans- 
compelled his slave girls to prostitu- latcd into Chinese, 19, xxix. 

tion, 9, 77 n. Abhipratarin A'aitraratha, see 

Abdallah ibn TJmm Maktuni, the Afaitraratha. 

poor blind man, at whom Moham- Abhipratarin Kakshaseni,n. p., 1, 

metl frowned, 9, 320 n. ^58 sq.; 48, 342. 

'Abd al Mu//alib, Mohammed's Abliiras, became W/shalas, 8, 295. 

grandfather, C, xvii sq. Abhirati, n. of a world, 21, 177. 

'Abd ed Dar, as chief of the Kaaba, Abhijasta, see Caste (e). 

G, xvii sq. Abhisheka, see Anointment, and 

'Abd el 'Hareth, 11. given to their Kings, 

child by Adam and Eve, 6, 161 n. Abhishe^anlya, see Kings (conse- 

Abd er Rahman ibn Auf, con- cration of), 

verted by Mohammed, 6, xxiii. Abhiyamsa Kula, of the Manava 

'Abd Menaf, chieftain of the Kaabah, Garea, 22, 292. 

6, xvii sq. Abhuti Tvash/ra, 11. of a teacher, 

Abduction, see Adultery. 15, 119, 187. 

Abhaya, a royal prince, who brings Abhyudgatara^a, n. of the epoch 



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abhyudgatarAga— abstinence 



of the Buddha Salendrara^a, 21, 

4 2 9- 
Ablutions, ceremonial, (pa</iyaVih), 
5, 205, 205 n., 259, 25911., 272, 278 
sq., 298 sq M 299 n., 308, 310, 333, 
347-9; 18,73,ii5sq., 153, 161 sq., 
166, 309, 313, 340, 343 n., 360, 363, 
365, 383, 433~54, 461; providing 
a tank for a., 5, 317 ; prayer when 
washing the face, 5, 347; three 
morning and evening a., 19, 260 ; 
ceremonial morning ablution, 24, 
312 sq., 337 sq., 337 n. ; before 
and after meals, 25, 39-41 ; perfec- 
tion not to be reached by a., 45, 
294 sq. ; see Bath, and Purification. 
Abortion, procuring a., causes loss 
of caste, 2, 74, 281; 14, 133; laws 
about destroying embryos, and mis- 
carriage, 4, 177-80; 23, 335; no 
funeral libations for women who 
have caused an a., 25, 184 ; a Bhik- 
khu who intentionally kills a human 
being, down to procuring a., is no 
Sama«a, 13, 235; sin of a., 7, 133 sq.; 
8, 389; 14, 105 sq., 314 sq. ; 23, 
280 sq. ; 26, 1 r ; 40, 243 ; the most 
heinous of crimes, 42, 165, 521, 524, 
527 ; cause of divorce, 33, 183; pro- 
cured by courtesans, 23, 280 sq. 
See also Homicide, and Woman (c). 
Abraham, Arabian traditions of, 6, 
liii ; chapter of A. (Qur'an),6, 238; 
the faith of A. professed by the 
Muslims, 9, 65 ; recognized as a 
prophet by the Qur'an, 6, Ixxi, 57, 
94; 9, 139, 206, 269; sent as an 
apostle, 6, 183 ; was a 'Hanif, not 
of the idolaters, 6, 19, 54, 58, 90, 
i2.|, 137, 263; images of A. and 
lshmael in the Kaabah, 6, xiii ; the 
Kaabah rebuilt by A., 6, xvi sq. ; 
'station of A.' in the Kaabah, 6, 
lxxiv, 17, 58 ; made the Kaabah the 
House of God, 6, 17 sq. ; prays that 
Mecca might be a sanctuary, 6, 242 
sq. ; established the Kaabah and 
proclaimed the pilgrimage, 9, 59 ; 
monotheism, the ancient faith of 
A., 6, 1, liv, 18; and the birds, 6, 
41 ; offers wine to God, 24, 225 sq. ; 
worships the stars, the moon, and 
the sun, until he finds the ti uc God, 
6, 124 sq. ; destroys the idols, is 
miraculously saved from the fire, 9, 
50 sq., 119 sq., 171, 213, 278; 



preaches to his idolatrous father, 9, 
30, 93 sq. ; asked pardon for his 
idolatrous father, 6, 189; 9, 30,278; 
and Nimrod, 6, 40 sq. ; commanded 
to sacrifice lshmael, 6, lxxiv; 9, 
172, 172 n, ; entertains the angels, 
6, 212 sq., 247 sq.; 9, 120, 246; 
prays forand is granted a son (Isaac), 
9, 171 sq. ; God grants him Isaac 
and Jacob, 9, 30, 120; flees with 
Lot, 9, 120 ; the Book and wisdom 
given to A.'s people, 6, 80; the 
revelation given in the books of A. 
and Moses, 9, 329; the pages of 
Moses and A. who fulfilled his word, 
9, 253 ; the sayings of the A. of 
the Christians, 18, 107, 107 n. ; the 
people of A. called him liar, 9, 61 ; 
and Isaac and Jacob were of the 
elect, 9, 179 sq.; God has chosen 
A.'s people, 6, 50. 
Abrahat el A-rram, invades Mecca 
with elephants, his army destroyed 
by birds, 9, 341, 341 n. 
Abstinence, with regard to eating, 
sleeping, sexual intercourse, &c, 
prescribed for special occasions, 2, 
100, 105, 113, 147, 150, 15 2 , 187 sq., 
224 sq., 254, 260; 14, 42, 89 sq,, 
181, 210, 287, 323; 44, 445 sq. ; 
with regard to music, food, sexual 
intercourse, in mid-summer, 27, 
275; on the winter solstice, 27, 
304 sq. ; to be kept on the four- 
teenth, fifteenth, and eighth days 
of the half-month, 10 <ii) f 66 ; the 
vow of a. from carnal pleasures, on 
new and full moon days, 12, 1-6; 
30, 29, 333 sq. ; from certain kinds 
of food, from sexual intercourse, &c, 
as penance, 2, 276 sq., 290, 292 sq., 
296; 14, no, 117, 124, 131 sq., 218, 
22 3, 3°°; °* * ne teacher, before 
teaching secret doctrines, 29, 77, 81, 
141 ; keeping silence, and standing, 
alter the Godana rite, 29, 186 ; be- 
fore performing a magic rite, 30, 
386 sq. ; from eating flesh, and 
from sexual intercourse, enjoined 
for the officiating priest, 29, 197; 
enjoined for the Dikshita, 41, 185 
sq. ; brahma^arya, i.e. a., a means 
of obtaining a knowledge of Brah- 
man,!, 131, 131 sq. n.; 38, 307, 315; 
the world of Brahman found by a. 
(brahma/^arya), 1, 130 sq.; sacrifice, 



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ABSTINENCE— AZ7ZV/AKASI 



the vow of silence, fasting, and a 
hermit's life, are really a. (brahma- 
4arya), I, 131; enjoined for the 
student (brahma^arin), 25, 62 sq. ; 
29, 192, 309; SO, 67; for students 
undergoing certain vows, 30, 70 sq., 
73, 76 sq., 158 sq. ; enjoined for 
three nights after Upanayana, 29, 
402; 30, 274; temporary a. (* three 
nights') of the newly-married couple, 
29, 43, 171, 286, 384; 30, 48, 197, 
267 ; with regard to food at mourn- 
ing rites, 5, 382, 382 n. ; 25, 181 ; 
28, 183-5, 386 sq.; 29, 244, 357; 
from spirits and flesh after paying a 
visit of condolence, 27, 163; the 
eightfold a., proclaimed by Buddha, 
10 (ii), 66; enjoined for theBhikkhu, 
11, 190-5; see Chastity, Fasting, 
Uposatha, and Vows. 

Abstract deities, see Gods. 

Abu Bekr, converted by Moham- 
med, G, xxiii sq., xlvij buys off con- 
verted slaves, 6, xxv ; and Ali ac- 
company Mohammed during the 
flight from Mecca, 6, xxxiii sq. ; 
conducting prayers in the mosque 
of Medinah, 6, xliv ; or Omar, the 
first to think of editing the Qur'an, 
6, IviT ; and Mohammed in the 
cave, 6, 179 ; and Mis/a'h, 9, 75 n. 

Abu Gahl, an enemy of Mohammed, 
9, 300 n., 336 n. 

Abu 'Hamir, a monk who was op- 
posed to Mohammed, 6, 188 n. 

Abu '1 'Abbas, reproached for his 
unbelief, though he gave drink to 
the pilgrims, 6, 175 n. 

Abu Laheb, uncle of Mohammed, 
6, xxix;. Sfirah A.L. one of the 
earliest parts of the Qur'an, 6, Ix ; 
9j 343 ; will broil in hell, his wife 
^carrying faggots, 9, 343 sq., and n. 

Abun, see Waters. 

Abuse, punishments for, a. as a title 
of law, 2, 167, 238-40; 14, 97; 
33, 207, 210 sq., 355-7; 35, 239; 
is of the quality of passion, 8, 323 ; 
penance for abusing a Guru, 7, 
176; injunctions against scandal- 
mongers, informers, defamers, spies 
and backbiters, 9, 74 sq., 239 sq., 
3ji ; sin of evil-speaking to others' 
wives, 37, 130. See Backbiting, 
and Defamation. 

Abu Sufiyan, leader of the Meccan 



army in the war against Mohammed, 
6, xxxv-xxxvii, 16411.; negotiates 
with Mohammed and 'Abbas, G, 
xli sq. 

Abu Talib, uncle and protector o( 
Mohammed, 6, xxiv sq., xxviii sq. 

Accidents, penance performed when 
a. happen to a king's chariot, &c, 
29, 287 sq. 

Action, Actions, see Good actions, 
Karman, and Works. 

Activity, see Qualities. 

Actors, low social position of, 25, 
104, 104 n., 163, 265, 272, 317. 

Acts, religious, see Works. 

'Ad (n. of an ancient Arab iribe), 
Hud sent as an apostle to 'A., 6, 
145 sq. ; and Thamud, 6, xlviii, 
145 n., 183 ; 9, 121 ; the people or 
'A. called their prophet liar, 9, 61, 
95, 176, 242 ; punished for disbe- 
lieving in the mission of Hud, 6, 210 
sq., 239; 9, 86, 95, 193, 200, 227, 
247, 254, 256, 298, 330. 

Adabhya, t.t., a certain cup of Soma 
at the Soma service, 44, 105-8. 

Adam, the first man, 6, 5; adored 
by the angels, 6, 5, 138, 246 sq. ; 
9, 8, i9sq., 43 sq., 181 ; Satan (Iblis) 
refused to adore A., 6, Ixix, 246 sq.; 
God has chosen A,, 6, 50 ; likeness 
of A. with God, 6, 54 ; covenant of 
God with the posterity of A., 6, 159; 
and Eve, birth of their first child 
'Abd el 'Hareth, 6, 161, 161 n. ; 
story of the two sons of A., 6, roi ; 
A. and Eve worship idols, 6, 161 sq. ; 
broke the covenant with God, 9, 
43 sq. ; his temptation and fall, 6, 5, 
139 sq. ; story of A/s fall criticized, 
24, 178-80, 200, 209-12, 217-21; 
recognized as a prophet by the 
Qur'an, 6, Ixxi ; the Kaabah built 
by A., 6, xvi. 

Adar, see Atar. 

Adara, or Putika plants, substitute 
for Soma plants, are fragrant and 
A blaze up in fire, 44, 451 sq., 451 n. 

Adar-ba//, son of Mahraspand, 
champion of Zoroastrian orthodoxy, 
4, xxxviii,xlvi-xlviii ; 24, 256, 25611.; 
31, xli. 

Adbhuta Kalpa, Mahavira's parents 
born as gods in, 22, 194. 

ArtW/*ak&si, n. of a courtesan who 
became a Bhikkhuni, 20, 360. 



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ADHAKARMIKA— ADITI 



Adhakarmika, Gaina t.t., food 

specially prepared for a mendicant, 

'22, Si, 94, in sq. 
Adharma, Bali-offering to, 2, 107; 

idols of Dharma and A., 33, 319; 

Dharma and A., substances, 45, 155, 

207 sq. 
Adhibhtita, t.t., is all perishable 

things, 8, 77, 78 n. 
Adhidaivata, is the primal being, 8, 

77> 78 n. 
Adhiruatrakaruwika, n. of a 

Brahma-angel, 21, 164. 
Adhiya^wa is Krishna, 8, 77, 78 n. 
Adhrigu, t.t., jee Prayers (e). 
Adhvaryu, see Priests (a, b). 
Adhy&tma, the manifestation of the 

Brahman as an individual self, 8, 77, 
,77 n., 3* 6 , 3i6 n-, 338, 342- 
Adi-brahma-/i'ariyaw, elementary 
^righteousness, 11, 16 n, 
kdikka, (Pali for Aditya), Buddha, 

the kinsman of the A., or the A. 

family, x (ii), 8, 69, 93, 174, 210. 
Aditi, n. of a goddess. 

ia] Who she is. Identifications. 

(b) Relations to other deities. 

(cj Her appearance, character, aud 

powers. 
(</) Her cosmic and moral character, 
(i?) Worship of A. 

0) Who she is. Identifications. 
A. is the earth, 12, 25 sq., 73 sq., 
73 n., 85, 307; 26, 47-51, 60, 75, 
207, 207 11., 259 sq., 3S6 sq. ; 32, 
2 55, 2 *>3 ; 41, 18, 60, 90, 125, 
232, 242, 280, 378; 42, 206; 43, 
27, 69; 44, 6, 181, 268, 293; 46, 
121 ; in the lap of A. (the bound- 
less or inviolable earth), 12, 19 ; 
42, 212 ; a name of the cow, 12, 
355 ; 26, 59, 415 sq. ; 29, 276 ; 30, 
174; 44,474; is speech, 41, 237; 
the Infinite, 32, 241-3 ; a name 
for the distant East, 32, 242 sq. ; 
goddess of freedom, 32, 255; 
identified with other deities, 32, 
254 sq., 261 ; as a masculine deity, 
32, 261-3 ; Dyaus Aditi, 32, 348, 
351; Death is called A., 15, 76; 
Agni invoked by the name of A,, 
32, 262; 46, 110, 113, 187, 309; 
the Sun, the quick A., 46, 326, 329. 

(6) Relations to other Deities. 

A. and the Adityas, her sons, 32, 

242-5, 251 sq., 254, 260; 26, 

12 sq., 12 n.; 40, S3; the mother 



of Mitra, Aryaman, and Varuya, 
12, 356; mother of the gods, 41, 
238 ; the mother of noble sons, 20, 
33; 42, 181 ; 46, 237; the birth 
of her sons, 42, 179, 611 ; wore an 
amulet, when she desired a son, 42, 
97, 502 ; the Sun, A.'s offspring, 
2, 298; mother of Agni, 12, 131 n.; 
41, 232; the wife of the gods, 12, 
73 s 1-» 73 n. ; 41, 60 ; the wife of 
.Rita, 32, 261; produced a hymn 
for Indra, 32, 242; and Daksha, 
32, 245-8; and Diti, 32, 255 sq.; 
41, 93, 93 n. ; fashioned the earthen 
womb for Agni, 41, 237 sq. 

(c) Her appearance, character, 

AND POWERS. 

Nature of A., 43, 403 ; is double- 
headed, 26, 57 ; the black antelope 
skin, the skin of A., 12, 38 ; A.'s 
girdle, 41, 236 ; to her belongs the 
upper region, 26, 51 ; the bounty of 
the Maruts extends far, as the sway 
of A., 32, 210, 241; brings Rudra's 
healing, 32, 419 sq. ; the ruler of 
the Fathers, 43, 74. 

(d) Her cosmic and moral 

CHARACTER. 

A. is all this whatever there is, 
1, 256; is one with all deities, 
identified with the self, 15, 16 ; in 
her cosmic character, 32, 248-51 ; 
is made of the deities, is the 
individual soul, 4S, 268 ; in her 
moral character, 32,256-60; Agni 
invoked to grant Diti and keep off 
A., 46, 317, 321 ; Agni invoked to 
release from sin before A., 46, 354. 

(e) Worship of A. 

The goddess invoked, 46, 1 10, 
115, 127, 186, 647; invoked when 
sprinkling water round the fire, 29, 
378 ; 30, 19, 142, 253; worshipped 
at the Vaijvadeva sacrifice, 29, 
84 sq. ; invoked for the protection 
of a child, 29, 54 sq. ; invoked at 
the A'aula rite, 29, 184, 301; in- 
voked at the Upanayana, 30, 148; 
invoked for protection, 32, 258 sq. ; 
invoked with Ruilra and the Maruts, 
32, 423; invoked at expiatory rite 
when the Agnihotra cow should lie 
down whilst being milked, 44, 181 ; 
worshipped at the Ajvamedha, 44, 
291 n., 293, 351 n, ; informed of 



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ADITI -ADITYAS 



the king's consecration, 41, go; 
invoked tor long life, 42, 50 sq. ; 
invoked to protect the wife, 42, 
181; invoked in Apr! hymn, 46, 
237; oblations to A., 12, 304 n., 
307 sq. : 44, xlii sq.; opening and 
concluding (rice-pap) oblations to A., 
26, 47-51, 259, 386 ; 44, 140; rice- 
pap for A. at the new moon sacrifice, 
44, 5 sq. ; pap offering to A. at the 
third seasonal sacrifice, 44, 76, 76 
n. ; pap offerings to A. at the 
Sautramawi, 44, 213 n., 268; her 
share in the Soma feast, 26, 259 
sq. ; offering to A. in the Queen's 
dwelling, 41, 60; offering to A. at 
the Dajapeya, 41, 125; animal 
sacrifice for A., 41, 125 sq. ; the 
sacrificial ladle, the second hand of 
A., 42, 183; divinities born from 
the brahmaudana eaten by A., 42, 
629; a rope addressed as A.'s zone, 
44, 474- 
Aditya, the Sun, a god. 

(n) His mythological character. 

(/') A. and other deities. 
{c) A. in philosophical and esoteric teach- 
ing- 
(rf) Worship of A. 

(a) His mythological character. 
Born from the egg, 1, 55 ; the 

unborn child, 41, 405 ; ruler of the 
sky, 43, 208, 382 ; the deity in the 
eastern quarter, 15, 146 ; why the 
sun is called A. (etymology), 15, 310; 
44, 1 30 ; a being of great merit, 48, 
237 ; the moon is his food, 43, 335 ; 
as bowman in the east, 42, 192 ; 
A. Vivasvat, father of Mann, 25, 
lvii ; one of the Vasus, 15, 140 
sq. ; 44, 116; is the surveyor of 
food offered to the ancestors, 30, 
228 ; mentioned in the Anugita, 8, 
219; the white Ya^ur-veda revealed 
by A. , 15, 2 26 ; line of battle invented 
by A., 29, 234. 

(b) A. AND OTHER DEITIES. 

A form of Agni, 41, 2S4 ; 43, 363; 
A. is one-third of Agni or Fire, 15, 
75; 43, 4 02; Agni, Vayu, A., and 
Jtandramas identified with four 
fires, 44, 127 ; A. is heat and light, to 
him offering is made in Agni at the 
Agnihotra, 44, 1 1 2 sq. ; A. and Indra 
protected by Trishawdhi, 42, 127 
sq. ; Indra is A., yonder sun, 43, 



92; Agni, Vayu, and A., 15, 48 sq.; 
30, 114, 231; 41, 204 ; 43, 90 sq., 
187 ; 44, 508; Agni, Vayu, and A. are 
the hearts of the gods, 43, 162 ; 
Agni, Vayu, and A. are all the 
light, 41, 210, 239; 43, 388 sq.; 
Agni, Vayu, A. are light, might, 
glory, 44, 173 sq. ; Martits, A., and 
Brahmawaspati, 42, 126; Suna and 
S1ra=Yayu and A., 12, 445 n. 

(c) A. IN PHILOSOPHICAL AND 
ESOTERIC TEACHING. 

A. is the highest Brahman, 1, 54 
sq.; 15, 302; 34, 21ft; 38, 342- 5; 
meditations on A., 34, 216 sq. ; 3 ft , 
342-5 ; is one foot of Brahman, 
1, 54; 34, 216; secret union of 
Agni and A., 15, 46; is the eye, 
15, 81 ; 26, 39 ; in the pupil of the 
eye, 15, 106; 48, 417; the blood 
of the woman is a form of Agni, 
the seed of the man a form of A., 
1, 232 ; is the essence squeezed out 
from heaven, 1, 70 ; the Saman 
verses squeezed out from A., 1, 79 ! 
the Upiiwjusavana stone is A. 
Vivasvant, 26, 240, 354 ; the 
Adhvaryu priest identified with A,, 
15, 122 ; 29, 195; the ideas of A., 
&c, are to be superimposed on the 
members of the sacrificial action, 
34, lxxvii; 38, 345-9; worlds of A., 
15, 131; the soul reaches A. as the 
fruit of pious works, 38, 347, 385. 

id) Worship of A. 

Who brings to light, invoked by 
the teacher, 2, 114; invocation of 
A., tbe dweller in heaven, 15, 335 ; 
Dyaus with A. invoked in danger, 
29, 232; the student worships A. 
as lord of the vow, 30, i5 fi ; in- 
voked at the Samavartana, 30, 163 ; 
invoked against the enemies, 42, 
128; deity of Gagati metre, 43, 
330; a new moon offering to A., 
12, 375 ; leads him who performs 
the twilight devotions up to heaven, 
14, 249 ; the A. cup, 26, 408 ; wit- 
nesses watched by A. and other gods, 
33, 245 ; see also Sun, and Surya v 

Aditya, the Soma cow is an A., 
26, 59- 

Adityaa, a class of deities. 

(a) Thtir mythological character. 
(A) The A. and other deities. 
(<) Worship of the A. 



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6 



ADITYAS— ADULTERY 



(a) Their mythological charac- 
ter. 

The seven or eight sons of Aditi, 
32, 242-5, 251-4 ; twelve A., 
the twelve months of the year, 
15, 140 sq. ; 44, 116; twelve A. 
created, 41, 149 sq. ; fashioned the 
sky, 41, 234 ; their names, 32, 245, 
253 sq. ; with Varuwa at their head, 
1, 42; 26, 93; 41, 280; 42, 12; 44, 
365 ; At/isa, Bhaga, and Aryaman are 
three A., 41, 82 sq., 83 n. ; gods of 
light, 42, 116 ; rise in the west, 15, 
339 ; the lords of the western re- 
gion, 43. 101 ; who dwell in heaven, 
who dwell in the world, 1, 37 ; 
help in battle, 42, 1 19 ; called pflta- 
daksha, 42, 444 ; are the manes of 
great-grandfathers, 25, 127 ; prac- 
tised penance, 25, 475; the A. and 
Angiras sacrificing, 26, 113 sq. ; 
where they wish to lay the Garha- 
patya, 43, 118; the honey-lash (of 
the Ajvins), mother of the A., 42, 
230 ; the Kush/Aa plant, thrice be- 
gotten by the A., 42, 6 ; are non- 
eternal beings, because produced, 
34, 202, 216 ; are the All, 41, 126. 

(i) The A. and other deities. 
Aditi, the sister of the A., 29, 
275; 30, 174; Sun and Moon, the 
A., 42, 57; Indra invoked to com- 
bine with the A., Yasus, &c, 12, 
264 ; Maruts A and A., 32, 412 sq. ; 
43, 68 ; the A. make Soma swell, 
30, 179; Gatavedas Aditya, 42, 
127 ; Agni is to bring the A, to the 
sacrifice, 46, 108; the A. have made 
Agni their mouth, or their tongue, 
46, 1 88; Vijvakarman invoked with 
the A., 26, 123 sq. ; and Angiras 
worshipped, 42, 191 ; and Angiras 
contending forgetting first to hea- 
ven, 44, 152; Yasus and Angiras, 
42, 89 ; and Yasus invoked for well- 
being, 42, 55; the A. are united 
with the Yasus, 42, 135; and Yasus, 
qualified for meditation on divini- 
ties, 48, 335-7; Yasus, Rudras, 
and A., three classes of gods, 12, 135, 
239; 26, 350, 41 1 ; 41, 241,246, 264 ; 
42, 161 ; 43, 33, 75 ; 44, 173, 291 n,, 
313, 443, 479 S( l-; 46, 42; seen 
withinKr/sh«a,8,92; alarmed at the 
greatness of Kr/shwa, 8, 94; Kr/sh«a 
is Yish«u among the A., 8, 88, 88 n. 



(c) Worship of the A. 

Saman addressed to them, 1, 37 ; 
invited to the sacrifice, 12, 93 ; 
46, 281 ; invoked at the reception 
of guests, 29, 198; invoked at the 
Ash/aka, 29, 207 ; invoked for pro- 
tection, 29, 344 ; 42, 161 ; invoked 
at the house-building rite, 29, 347 ; 
invoked at the Ya^apeya, 4i, 38 ; 
invoked to expiate imperfections in 
the sacrifice, 42, 164 ; invoked 
against fever, 42, 443 ; invoked in 
an Apr! hymn, 46, 179, 198; in- 
voked to bless the sacrifice, 46, 253 ; 
the Ya^us belong to the A., 26, 
383, 383 n. ; share of the A., at the 
laying of the altar-bricks, 43, 68; 
deities and metres, 43, 53; 'if thou 
belongest to the A., I buy thee for 
the A.,' 30, 53 ; worshipped at the 
Yaijvadeva sacrifice, 29, 85 ; wor- 
shipped at the Tarpawa, 30, 243 ; 
offering to the A., 26, 12 sq. ; 41, 
248 sq. ; Soma libations to the A., 
26, 241, 316 n. ; the evening liba- 
tion belongs to the A., 1, 36 sq., 
51 ; 26, 350-6; arise by the per- 
formance of the third Soma press- 
ing, 44, 1 73, 4S0 n. ; animal sacrifice 
for the A., 41, 126; the sacrificial 
Jiorse to go the way of the A. ,44,288. 

Adityasambhava, n. of a Tatha- 
gata, 49 (ii), 100. 

Adoption, the adopted son, defini- 
tion, 14, 227 ; law about a., 14, 74 
sq., 87 ; 18, 184-94, 196 ; 24, 71, 71 
11.316; 25, 355, 355 n., 359>36i sq. 
and n. ; 37, 1 1 3 ; adopted sons not to 
be looked upon as real sons, 9, 139, 
139 n., 144, 144 n. ; duty of pro- 
viding an adopted son for a child- 
less man, 24, 279-81 ; ceremony 
of a., 14, xlv, 76, 334-6; of ille- 
gitimate children, 4, 273 ; a good 
work, 24, 74 ; sin of declining a., 
37, 147. Sea Children (sale and gilt 
of, subsidiary sons), and Woman [b). 

Adr/sh/a, t.t., see Unseen Principle. 

Adultery. 

[ri) In relij-ion. 
U') In civil law. 

(a) In religion. 

One of the five principal sins, 
10 (i), 61 ; a crime in the fourth 
degree, 7, 136; the sin of a., 
10 (ii), 19, 21, 40; 24, 305 sq., 



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ADULTERY— AESHM 



324-6, 331 sq. ; 25, 150, 442, 
484; 37, 112, 205; heinousness 
of a., and atonement for it, 18, 
227-232; a priest who has illicit 
intercourse with another man's 
wife is a highwayman or a thief, 
4, 309 ; bad reputation, an un- 
comfortable bed, punishment, and 
hell, are the four things gained 
by him who covets his neighbour's 
wife, 10 (i), 74 sq. ; let the wise 
man avoid an unchaste life as a 
our/ling heap of coals ; not being able 
to live a life of chastity, let him not 
transgress with another maris wife, 
10 (ii), 65 ; be an abstainer from 
the wives of others, 24, 12 ; 
penances for a., 2, 286 ; 7, 174 
sq. ; 14, lll-n. 2 3 2 , 2 35 1 25 > 
465, 467, 467 n. ; punishments for 
a. in future life, 44, 332, 497 ; the 
mortal sin of violating a Guru's bed, 
7, 133 sq. ; 8, 389; 14, 5, 235; 25, 
383, 441 sq. ; penances for a. with 
wife of a Guru, 2, 81 sq., 88 sq., 
276 sq., 284 sq., 290 ; 14, 104, 127, 
213, 235; 25, 451 sq. ; punish- 
ments for a. with a Guru's wife in 
future life, 25, 440, 496 ; an adul- 
terous wife's guilt falls on the 
negligent husband, 14, 101 ; 25, 
309 ; imprecations used by a husband 
against an adulterer, 15, 218; 29, 
289; allusion to a. in the prayer 
'Wherein my mother has done 
amiss,' &c, 30, 227 ; the wife has 
to confess any adulterous inter- 
course at the Varurapraghasa sacri- 
fice, 12, 396 sq., 397 n. ; food 
given by the paramour of a married 
woman, or by a husband who allows 
a paramour to his wife, not to be 
eaten, 14, 69 sq. ; 25, 163; 
adulterers, husbands who allow a. 
in their houses, the son of an 
adulteress, and he who eats food 
given by persons born through a., 
excluded from Sraddha, 2, 145, 257 ; 
25, 104 sq., 108 ; first committed by 
Va</ak, mother of Dahak, 18, 217. 
(4) In civil law. 

A. defined, 25, 316; the cause ot 
confusion of castes, 25, 315, 407; 
law about a., 2, 164-7; 25, 253, 
315-21; 33, 177-9: 3*5-7; punish- 
ments for a., 2, 288 sq.; 7, 29; 14, 



233,235; 25,197, 3i5> 3' 8-21; 33, 
179, 183; 35, 223; 45, 274; punish- 
ments for a. with a Guru's wife, 14, 
201, 383; witnesses in cases of a., 
25, 267 ; where a man and the wife 
of another man seize one another 
by the hair, the man is an adulterer, 
without witnesses being required, 
33, 85 ; persons addicted to a., 
inadmissible witnesses, 33, 303 ; 
causes loss of caste, 2, 74 i a cause 
of divorce, 33, 183; the adulterer 
one of the seven kinds of assassins, 
7, 4 1 ; he who abducts another 
man's wife may be slain as an 
assassin, 14, 19; penance for the 
minor offence of killing adulterous 
women, 25, 458 ; women immured 
for a., 6, 74, 74 n.; women not to be 
driven away unless they have com- 
mitted manifest a., 9, 288; son of 
an adulterer excluded from inherit- 
ance, 25, 3 56. See also Incest, Sexual 
intercourse, and Woman (g, h). 

Advaita, t.t., non-duality or monism, 
taught both by Sankara and Rama- 
nuga, 34, xxx, exxv. 

Aekha, the contagion of, destroyed 
by Aryan glory, 23, 284 sq. 

Aeahm, Aeshma, demon of Wrath, 

5> '93, '93 n -, 20 ' s 1-> 20 5> 2 °5 n '> 
215, 217, 220, 223 sq., 227 sq., 366, 
366 n. ; 18, 93, 9 s , I! 3; 21, 17 sq., 
17 n., 61 ; 47, 72, 7 2 "• i the 
impersonation of invasion and ra- 
pine, 31, xix, xxi n. ; of the 
murderous spear, 4, 126, 140 sq., 
224; 23, 33; 31, 280; powers of 
A., 5, 107-9, 107 sq. n.; the seven 
evil-instructed ones of A., 47, 8 ; 
complains to Aharman of the three 
things he could not injure in the 
world, 5, 387-9, 387 n. ; assists the 
Evil Spirit, 23, 297 ; opposes the 
departed soul, 24, 17 sq., 17 n.; 
Sraosha created by Ahura to with- 
stand A., 23, 164; attacked and 
smitten by Srosh (Sraosha), 5, 128, 
128 n. ; 24, 33; 31, 300; spells 
against A., 4, 126, 140 sq., 140 n., 
145-7; 31, 280 (Ahuna-vairya) ; 
Mithra invoked against A., 23, 143 ; 
flees from Mithra, 23, 144, 154; 
smiting of A. by propitiation of 
Spendarmai, 18, 437; Fravashi of 
Fradhakhjti invoked against A., 23, 



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AESHM— AGES OF THE WORLD 



224; shall bow and flee before the 
Saoshya«/s, 23, 308; Aryan glory 
destroys^A., 23, 284 ; coming of A. 
to Kal-IJs, 37, 221; set up King 
Alexander, 47, 83 ; KOkhareV born 
from A. and Manfuak, 47, 143. 

Aeta, son of Mayu, 23, 217. 

Aethrapaiti, the teacher, 31,318,323. 

Aethryas, Aethrapaitis and, 31, 323. 

Aevo-saredha-fyaejta, n. p., 23, 218. 

Aezemno, or Ayazem, ancestor of 
Zoroaster, 37, 26 r, 261 n. 

Afarg, n. of a Zoroastrian teacher 
and Pahlavi writer, 5, 243, 243 n., 
246, 262, 262 n., 264, 264 n., 268, 27 3, 
292; 18, 283, 283 n., 299-304, 299 n., 
309, 312 14, 316, 320, 332 sq., 336 n., 
361 ; quoted, 18, 446, 449, 449 n. 

Afrasiy&b, a wicked king, 24, 267. 

Afrasyab, the Turk, made himself 
an iron palace under the earth, yet 
could not escape death, 4, 380 sq. ; 
killed Aghraeratha, 23, 114 n. See 
Frangrasyan. 

Afrinagan, see Prayers (/), and 
Zend-avesta. 

Afrdbag-vindad, n.p., 5, 14G sq. 

A^a, lost his son Dajaratha, 19, 92 ; 
49 (i), 90. 

A.g&, t.t., that power of the Lord 
from which the world springs, or 
the primary causal matter first pro- 
duced by that power, 34, xxxix, 
252-7; the elements beginning with 
light are meant by A., 34, 254 sq. ; 
denotes the causal matter meta- 
phorically, 34, 256 sq. ; the un- 
created (Night or Maya), 44, 389, 
389 sq. n. See also Unborn. 

A^a Ekapada, the one-footed goat, 
the son, 42, 208, 625,664 ; oblation 
to A. E., 29, 331. 

Agairna.yvak, n.p., 5, 136. 

Agamas, studied by Bhikkhus, 17, 

^285, 288, 345. 

Ajfaniya (' high-bred '), Buddha's 
definition of the term, 10 (ii), 92. 

Agash, demon of the evil eye, 47, 
53. 53 n- 

Agastya, a Rishi, son of Mitra- 
varuwau, author of Vedic hymns, 32, 
2 12, 274, 281, 290, 294; 46,i So, 182 ; 
dialogue between Indra, A., and the 
Maruts, 32, 182, 184, 286-8 ; em- 
ployed charms, 42, 23 sq., 319 ; slew 
the Rakshas, 42, 33 ; born without 



a mother, 14, 180 n. ; son of Urvaji, 
and Vamadeva, seeking Rama, 49 
(')? 93t 93 n - ; seduced by a heavenly 
queen, 19, 43 sq.; wooed Rohiwi, 
the wife of Soma, 49 fi), 44 ; the 
south, the region of A., 49 (i), 96, 
96 n. ; went out to hunt to get meat 
for sacrifices, 14, 71; 25, 175; 
worshipped at the Tarpa«a, 30, 244 ; 
the threefold age of A,, 29, 55 sq. ; 
Mana, a name of the Agastyas, 46, 

^182,184; Khumbyaand A. ,23, 224 n. 

Agastya, n. of a teacher, 1, 248. 

A^ata^atru, king of Kari, dis- 
cussion on Brahman between Gargya 
Balaki and, 1, 300-7 ; 15, 100-5 J 
34, cv, 268-74; 48, 378-80, 383; 
rival of Ganaka, 12,xliii; Bhadrasena, 
a son of A., 41, 141, 141 n. 

A^&tajatru (Pall, A^atasattn), king 
of Magadha, son of Bimbisara and 
Vaidehi, 11, 1 sq. ; 21, 6; 49 fii), 
v ; the defeat of A., by Prasena^it, 
10 (i), 53 n.; prince A. gained 
over by Devadatta, pays great 
honour to the latter, 20, 233-8 ; 
incited by Devadatta, wants to kill 
his father, is found out and treated 
mercifully, 20, 241-3 ; imprisons 
his father Bimbisara, 49 (ii), 161-4; 
hisrelations to Camas and Buddhists, 
22, xiv sq. ; moved by Buddha's 
conquest over the mad elephant, 
19, 248 ; claims relics of Buddha, 
and erects a dagaba over them, 11, 
131,134; the Samanna-phala spoken 
with him, 20, 377. 

A_jfaya, a Brahman, converted by 
Buddha, 49 (i), 190 sq. 

Age, how to inquire about the a. of 
persons from the king downwards, 
27, 115; libations to the a.-grades, 
43, 218. SeeO\d Age. 

Agent, every action requires an a., 
34, 337-40. 

Ages of the World. 

(«) Indian Yugas and Kalpas. 
(f>) Zoroastrian millenniums. 
(l) Chinese world periods. 

(a) Indian Yvgas and Kalpas. 
The four Yugas, theManvantaras 
and Kalpas, 7, 77-9; 25, xii, 
Ixxxiv-lxxxvii, 20-4; 'conjunctions' 
(Sandhis), the periods about the 
close of one and the beginning of 
another Yilga, 8, 330 n. ; an ex- 



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AGES OF THE WORLD — ACITA 



9 



planation of the Hindu belief in 
Kalpas, &e., 45, i6sq,n„; deteriora- 
tion of the world in the successive 
a,, 33, 3, j n.; in the age when 
men were all virtuous and veracious, 
there were no lawsuits, 33, 5, 5 n., 
277; at the expiration of a Kalpa, 
all entities enter Knshsa's nature, 
and at the beginning of a Kalpa he 
brings them forth again, 8, 82 ; 
dissolution of the world at the end 
of the great world periods, 34, 
xxvi, 212; there is no measure 
of the past and the future Kalpas, 
34, 361 ; king resembles the four 
a., 25, 396 ; size of mankind in 
different Kalpas, 36, 133 n. ; among 
all a. the KWta is the first, 8, 353 ; 
the Treta age, the age of sacrifices, 
15, 30 ; twelve hundred years of the 
gods are a Kali Yuga, 7, 77, 77 n. ; 
in the Kali Yuga no K/shis are born, 
2, xviii ; the sinful Kali Yuga, 
2, 175 n.; Niyoga not to be practised 
in the Kali age, 33, 369 ; Kr/ta, 
Treta, Dvapara as names of dice, 
44, 416. See Time, and World (c). 

{J}) ZOROASTRIAN MILLENNIUMS. 

Zoroastrian chronology by mil- 
lenniums, 47, xii sq., xxvii-xxxvhi, 
xli, 15 11,, 21-4, 23 sq. n. ; four 
periods of 3,000 years, 18, 198, 
198 n. ; three millenniums, 24, 345 ; 
37, 254, 254 n. ; six millenniums, 37, 
405, 405 n.; millennium reigns for 
each constellation of the zodiac, 5, 
149-51, 149 n.; the evil millenniums, 
18, 203, 203 n. ; signs at the end of 
millenniums, 37, 33 sq., 279; four 
periods in the millennium of Zara- 
tibt, 37, 181, 451 sq. ; 47, xi sq. ; 
millenniums of Zoroaster, and the 
three future apostles, 24, 1 5, 1 5 n.; 47, 
94-1 18,9411.; millenniumsbetoreand 
after Zoroaster, 47, 1 44 ; advantages 
and disadvantages of the period, 37, 
21 sq. ; evil doings in the ninth and 
tenth centuries, 37, 257-60, 257 n. ; 
triumph of saered beings over the 
demons at four periods, 37, 285; the 
three periods of the universe : past 
eternity, present existence, and fu- 
ture eternity, 37, 317, 31 7m; Zoroas- 
ter's vision of seven successive ages 
(tree with seven branches), 47, xxiii 
sq.; steel age, &c.,47, 87, izfi, 126 11. 



(c) Chinese world periods. 

The period of 'the Grand Course' 
followed by that of the ' Small Tran- 
quillity,' 27, 364-7, 365 n. ; primi- 
tive ages, 27, 369; 'the period of 
great order,'28, 1 18; primaeval state 
of innocence, 3, 25511.; the primaeval 
age of perfect virtue when Tao ruled 
men, 39, 26-8, 139-41, 277-80, 287- 
90, 325; 40, 171, 284; the para- 
disiacal state under the influence 
of the Tao, not yet superseded by 
' the wisdom of the world,' 39, 60- 
2 ; difference between the age of 
perfect virtue, and the present time, 
39, 353 sq.; 'The State of Estab- 
lished Virtue,' where the Taoist 
enjoys himself, 40, 30 sq. ; the para- 
disiacal state when men lived like 
birds, 40, 312 ; the rulers who dis- 
turbed the primaeval paradisiacal 
state, 39, 295 sq. ; how the age of 
perfect virtue came to an end, 39, 
359sq.; 40, 312 sq., 316 sq. See a/so 
Paradise. 

Agga/ava, temple of, 10 (ii), 57. 

Aggikabharadva^a.thc Brahmawa, 
is converted by Buddha, 10 (ii), 20-4. 

Aggregates, the five a. (khandha), 
the conditions of individuality and 
their cause, 11, 148, 148 n. ; the 
dyad of a. assumed by the Bauddhas 
with its two causes cannot be estab- 
lished, 34, 400-9 ; the Gaina doctrine 
that a. are formed from the atoms, 
34, 43osq.; the seventeenfold aggre- 
gate, 38, 65, 65 n. See also Skandhas. 

AghSxa, see Sacrifice (k). 

Aghora, n. d., the initiated boy 
given in charge to, 30, 154. 

Aghraeratha, a semi-man (half bull, 
half man), brother of Afrasyab, 23, 
114 sq. and n., 222, 278, 304. See 
Aghrera*/. 

Aghrera^(Pahlavi for Aghraeratha), 
son of Pashang, 5, 117, 135, 135 n. ; 
legend of A., 5, 135 sq. 

A^igarta Sauyavasi, king Hari- 
j&mdra bought Sunaivepa the son 
of A. S., 14, 87 ; 44, xxxiv sq. ; 
saved himself from starvation by 
gelling his son, 25, 424, 424 n. 

A^igarti, see Sunai&jepa. 

A^ita, a pupil of Bavari, his questions 
answered by Buddha, 10 (ii), 187, 

188-9I3 2TO. 



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10 



AGITA— AGNI 



A^ita, a Bhikkhu who was reciter of 
the Patimokkha at the council of 
Vesali, 20, 408 ; n. of a Tirthakara, 
22, 280 ; n. of a Bodhisattva, 49 (ii), 
90 ; conversation between Buddha 
and the Bodhisattva A., 49 (ii), x, 
61-9; applauds the speech of 
Buddha, 49 (Ii), 72. For Maitreya 
A^ita, see Maitreya. 

A^ita-Kesakambali (i. e. A. of the 
garment of hair), n. of a teacher, 
10 (ii), xii, 86 sq.; 11, 106; an 
Arhat possessed of Iddhi, 20, 79! 
and Milinda, 35, 8 ; his materialistic 
doctrines, 45, xxiii sq. 

A^itamawavapu^/za, t.c, 10 (ii), 
^1 90 sq. 

A^ivikas, sect of naked ascetics, 
10(ii),x, xiii; 20, 198 sq.; 21, 263; 
36, 308 sq. n. ; disputatious A. do 
not overcome Buddha, 10 (ii), 63 ; 
Niga«/<6as and A., their views about 
the soul, 45, xix ; Gosala, leader of 
the A., or A^elakas, their relation 
to the Gaiuas, 45, xxix-xxxii. 

A^Hana, see Nescience. 

A^wanavada, i.e. Agnosticism, q. v. 

A^;7arjavidb.va/«sana, the sixty- 

Jourth Tathagata, 49 (ii), 7. 

A£7?&ta-Kau«rtfttiya, see K,iu«./inya. 

Agni, the God of Fire. 

(rt) His birtlis, his mothers, his parents. 
(d) Forms and abodes of A. 

(c) Myth of the hidden A. 

(d) Names of A. 

(f> Anthropomorphic conception of A. (his 
body, his food and drink, his chariot 
and horses, his wives, children, &c). 

(,/') Therioraorpbic conception of A., and 
bis relations to animals. 

(.?■) His relation to the other god?; in general. 

C<) A. a^ related to individual other gods. 

(/') A. and the solar deities ( \ditya, Siirya, 
Ushas, the Ajvins). 

{j) A. as destroyer of demons and all hos. 
tile powers. 

(£) Excellent qualities and transcendent 
powers of A. 

(I) A. a* a kind and helpful god. 

(in) A. the god of the house and the clan. 

(«) A as connected with women and mar- 
riage. 

(0) A. as the sacrificial fire and the Fire- 
altar. 

(/) Men (or demigods) and families who 
first established A. 

(7) A. as a priest, and his relations to the 
priesthood. 

{r) A. in his relation to the Sacrifice and 
the Sacrificer. 

(s) Sacrifices to A. 

(0 Prayers to A., and A. as related to 
prayers (and menes). 

(it) A. as connected with Veda and Veda- 
study. 



(t>) A. in his moral character. 

(?(/) A. as a supreme God of Heaven and 

Earth. 
(-r) A. in philosophical speculations. 

(a) His births, his mothers, his 

PARENTS, 

Thou, O A., the flaming one, (art 
boni)from out the Heavens, thou {art 
born) from out the Waters and the 
stone {the Hint) ; thou {art born) from 
out the forests and the herbs ; thou art 
born bright, Lord of men, (as belong- 
ing^ to men, 46, 186, 189; he has been 
born in the dwellings as the first, at the 
bottom of the great (air), in the zaomb oj 
this air, footless, headless, hiding both 
his ends, drawing towards himself {his 
limbs?', in the nest of the bull, 46, 
308 ; puzzles or mysteries con- 
cerning the birth, &c. of A., 46, 
114 sq.; A. is water-born, cow-born, 
lnw-born, is born from the sky, from 
the breath, 41, 281, 283 sq.; A. born 
from A., from the pain of the earth, 
or of the sky, 44, 202 ; generation of 
A. (fire-altar), and fashioning the 
embryonic A., 41, 251-6,300-3, 309, 
310 sq., 319 sq., 344, 351 sq., 
354> 358, 362-5, 398 sq. ; when the 
altar is built, A, is born, 41, 332 sq.; 
the gods wondered at his birth, 46, 
219; A. is born at once, 44, 89; 
his secret birth, 46, 366, 368 ; when 
created, sought to burn everything, 
12, 342 ; of double birth, celestial 
and terrestrial, 46, 52, 14T, 176; 
A. who is born and A. who will be 
born, twins, 46, 57, 59 ; grow r s up 
within the plants, within the chil- 
dren, and within the sprouting 
grass, 46, 61 ; his three births, in 
the sea, in heaven, and in the 
waters, 46, 114, 1 16, 308 ; his 
highest and lower birth-places, 46, 
215; has three lives, and three 
births from the Dawn, 46, 275 sq. ; 
produced by the ten young women, 
i.e. the fingers, by attrition, 46, 
75 S( l-i IT 4i TI 6, 147, 150, 160, 256, 
287, 292, 294, 302 sq., 306, 341, 
391 ; son of strength, or offspring 
of vigour, 32, 21 sq. ; 41, 255; 
46, 16, 45 sq., 92, 103, 119 sq., 129, 
147 sq., 157, 209, 2ir, 220, 261, 
268, 273, 277, 289, 291, 297, 300, 
3'<>, 352, 37' sq., 375 sq., 382, 385, 
391, 403; born living from the dry 
wood, 46, 64 ; one blows upon A. 



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AGNI 



II 



when he is born (i. e. when fire 
is kindled), 42, 56 ; born from 
the deceased, 29, 242 n. ; and his 
mothers, 41, 294 sq. ; 46, 114 sq., 
117, 141 sq., 144 sq., 147, 217 sq., 
343; Dyaus his mother, 41, 272; 
conceived by the virgin (the wood), 
46, 344 sq. ; as soon as she had 
enjoyed love, the well-bearing 
mother has borne him, 46, 382 ; 
his mothers are the plants,41, 224 ; 
44, 194 ; is the child of the herbs, 
trees, and waters, 44, 194; is the 
child of the waters, of the trees, of 
that which stands and moves, 46, 
70 ; his births in the waters and in 
the plants, 41, 294; 46, ii4sq., 117, 
188, 219-21 ; nourished by the 
waters, 46, 54 ; is born from the 
waters, and the waters from A., 
46, 117; his seven kind mothers, 
the waters, 46, 147, 150, 256; is 
the child of the waters (Apam 
napat), 26, 381 ; 41, 226; 46, 157, 
158, 240, 256 ; 49 (i), 45 ; creation 
of A. from the earth, 15, 75 ; the 
child of the earth, 15, 221 ; earth 
pregnant with A., 29, 45 ; 30, 199 ; 
licks the upper garment of the 
mother (earth?), 46, 142, 145; no 
harm can be done to A., when he 
dwells in his mother's womb, 46, 
173; in his mother's lap, 46, 303, 
407 ; the son of I/a, 46, 302 ; the 
son of the two mothers, 32, 359 ; 
41, 350; 46, 22, 25, 391 sq. ; borne 
by the two Dawns, 46, 363, 416; 
Heaven and Earth, his parents, 
41, 224; 46, 49, 51, 167, 219 sq., 
225, 228, 233, 248-50, 291, 336; 
made his parents new again and 
again, 46, 241; A., the child of 
Dyu, 32, 21-3; brought forward 
from the highest father (Heaven), 
46, 147, 150; by his nature he h;is 
found his father's udder, 46, 220 ; 
the increaser of his father, 46, 141, 
144; he bore the germ of the father 
who begat him, 46, 220, 225 sq. ; 
born from the Asura's belly, 46, 
303 ; the child of the universe, 43, 
xx, xxiii; created out of Pra^a- 
pati, 12, 323; 43, 206; 44, 15; 
both the father and the son of 
Pra^apati, 43, xx; being the son of 
the gods, has become their father, 



46, 67 ; the gods have procreated A. 
by their thoughts, 46, 228; son of 
Tvash/W, 46, 114, 116, 248, 251. 

(b) . Forms and abodes of A . 

Many forms "of XT^r," 159-6 1 , 
163, 165 sq., 284 ; three Agnis and 
the fourth A., 12,87-9, 108 n., 136; 
26, 11S ; 43, 157; fourfold is A., 
12, 47, 47 n. ; is threefold, 41, 147, 
160, 197 sq., 202, 204 sq., 225 sq., 
232, 282, 284, 294, 323, 330, 335^9, 
358, 371, 392 ; 43, 5, 166, 169, 
189-91, 204 sq., 236, 251, 304, 
364 sq., 402 ; three forms of A., 46, 
147, 149 sq., 329, 231 5 threefold is 
his strength, three his abodes, three 
his tongues, and three his bodies, 
46, 281 ; dwells in three abodes, 46. 
376, 391 sq. ; Lord of the Earth, 
Lord ojF the World, Lord of Beings 
= the three Agnis, 12,89; the three- 
named A., 42, 135, 495; the three 
older brothei*s of A., 42, 257; is 
light and fire, and a god, 34, 217; 
in the Rig-veda, not only the earthly 
sacrificial fire, but also an elemental 
force, 1, xxii ; the dead body pro- 
tected against A. (funeral fire), 29, 
241 ; the flesh-devouring A. (funeral 
fire), 42, 54, 56 ; see also below 
A. VaijvSnara (p. 1 3 sq.) ; A. (funeral 
pyre) the guide to Yama's seat, 
42, 90; the fury of terrible A., 
42, 90 ; as the fire of the lightning, 
42, 401 ; 46, 103, 105, 109, 1 14-16, 
i93 5 i9 6 ; the moon a form of A., 

41, 229 sq.; in the moon, 46, 116; 
by his nightly light, the creatures 
walk, 46, 108 ; Sun, Vayu, and fire, 
three forms of A., 43, xx, 402 ; see 
also A. and Vayu below, p. 18 ; Ijana, 
Mahan Deva£, and Pajupati, forms 
of A., 43, xx ; the two Agnis, 

42, 216, 627 ; consists of pairs 
(males and females), 43, 284 sq. ; 
the Paridhis or ' enclosing-sticks ' 
are Agnis, 12, 87-91 ; A. [fire) is 
in the earth, in the plants, the waters 
hold A., A. is in the stones; A. is 
within men, Agnis {fires) are within 
cattle, within horses ; A. glows from 
the sky, to A., the god, belongs the broad 
air. The mortals kindle A., the bearer 
of oblations, that lovcth ghee. The earth, 
clothed in A., with dark knees, shall 
make me brilliant and alert ! 42, 201 ; 



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AGNI 



A. in heaven, in the air, in the earth, 
plants, waters, flints, &c, 41, 43 n., 
304; 43, 201-3; 46, 285; seated 
in all spaces, law-seated, spherc- 
dwelling,41,28i ; called man-seated, 
water-seated, barhis-seated, heaven- 
winning, 43, 183 sq. ; brought to 
many places for the use of the living, 
46, 22, 70 sq., 74, 77 sq. ; follows 
the world like a shadow, having 
filled heaven, earth, and the air, 
40, 89 ; has approached the three- 
fold light, all spaces of the atmo- 
sphere, in the abode of the waters, 
46, 176; in heaven, in the human 
dwellings, and in the waters, 46, 
266 ; dwells on the earth, 1, 36 ; 
15, 334; 46, 73; is the essence 
squeezed out from the earth, 1,70; 
the lord of terrestrial beings, 30, 
237 ; the regent of the earth, 43, 
xx, 208, 381 ; laid down in the 
best place of the earth, in the place 
of Ma, 46, 287, 302; dwelt once 
between the two horns of a wether, 
26, 125; moves about within the 
young sprouting grass, 46, 115, 1 t8 ; 
has entered all herbs, 46, 127, 412 ; 
in the waters, 12, 22 ; 30, 226 ; 41, 
2 93-5, 3°4 sq.; 42, 14; 44, 193 sq. ; 
46, 6t, 160, 167 sq., 202, 232, 256, 
291, 297; A., the lord of the 
waters, 14, 251; sitting in the 
waters he kisses like a swan, 46, 54 ; 
goes to the floods of heaven, to the 
waters in the ether of the sun, 
and to those below, 46, 285 ; the 
gods made part of A. enter the 
water, 26, 381 ; dwelling in the 
water, worshipped at the consecra- 
tion of ponds, 29, 135,135 n.; seated 
between Heaven and Earth, 46, 244 ; 
world of A., a stage on the soul's 
road to the sun, 1, 275 ; 38, 385 ; 
48, 746, 748 ; world of A., attained 
by a giver of gold, 7, 273 ; where A. 
dwells, 30, 218 ; the Soma asked to 
enter A.'s dear seat, 44, 108 ; the 
highest place of A., 46, 82 ; part of 
the hand sacred to A., 14, 25. 

(/} M.YTH : of TH.E.Hinno_A*. 
A. hid himself in the waters, and 
was discovered by the gods, 12, 47, 
452 ; 42, 3, 270-2 ; the gods search 
for A., 41, 1 96-9, 203, 207-9, 
214 sq. ; the hidden A. sought and 



discovered by the gods, 46, 54 sq., 
61, 64, 66, 82, 84, 127, 173, 175; 
Pra^apati searches for the hidden 
A,, 41, 161 sq., 360; concealed by 
the Pasis, 12, 245 ; hid himself in an 
Ajvattha tree, 32, 329 ; went away 
from the gods,and entered the muw^a 
grass, 42, 249 ; dwelt in secret, 44, 

192 ; 46, 241, 256; brilliant, though 
hidden in secret, easily to be found, 
46, 343,385; putting down his feet in 
secret like a thief, A. has enlightened 
and freed Atri, 46, 399 ; searching 
anddiggingforA.,41,2oo-2 2.24isq.; 
the hidden A. found by the thought- 
ful men, 46, 61 ; the Angiras have 
discovered the hidden A., 46, 391 sq. 

( rf) J£ames_q f, J\. 

Has many names, 46, 281, 372; 
the newborn A. receives a name, 
43, 269, 269 n. ; A. for Agri, mystic 
name, 41, 146 ; etymology of A., 
34,150; 48,292; called Miti,32, 
262; 46, 1 10, 113, 187, 309 sq, ; 
cake offered to A. Aguimat, 44, 189 ; 
called AhgiraS) 41, 225, 279; 46, 
24, 92, 327,34 8 ) 385, 3 8 9, 391,412; 
the first or best of Angiras, 41, 358 ; 
46, 22, 95, 129; sacrifices to A. 
dmkai'at, 12, 408 sq. and 11. ; 41, 
58sq.; 44,76,76n.; expiatory cake 
offering to A. Apsumai (abiding in 
the waters) at the Agnihotra, 44, 

193 sq. ; is an Asura, 46, 399 ; called 
Ayu, the living one, 46, 142, 170; 
called Ayuj, Life, 41, 323 ; oblations 
and prayers to A. Jyiuhmat, who 
rules over vital power, 44, 439; 
called the Bharata, 12, 133; 46, 119, 
123 ; A. Bhdrata or the god of the 
Uharata tribe, 12, 114 sq. ; 46, 2 1 1 ; 
called Bh\'\gai<dna, 46, 74, 7S; A. 
called Bnbaspati, 46, 292, 294 ; a 
cake for A. Datr\ (the giver), 44, 
xlii sq., 8 sq. ; A. Gdrhapatya, the 
protector of house, offspring, and 
cattle, 12, 358 sq. ; A. Garhapatya 
invoked to free from sin, 42, 165, 
167 ; A. the tidta-vedus, 1, 150 ; 12, 
119, 11911., 136; 26, xxxi sq. ; 
46, 37, 42, 49, 100, 102, 103, 
108, 128, 129, 193 sq., 202, 221, 229, 
233, 240, 244, 259, 261, 271, 275, 
281,283, 285, 387, 291, 293 (Agni 
am I, by birth <7atavedas), 300, 
302, 310, 326, 336, 354, 358, 375«I-, 



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AGNI 



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377> 387, 413, 418; why called 
Gatavedas, 43, 274 ; Gatavedas, the 
messenger, 30, no; Gatavedas 
Vauvanara invoked for protection, 
42, 54 ; the immortal, life-possess- 
ing A. Gatavedas grants long life, 
42, 57 ; offering to A. Gatavedas, 
30, 239 ; 42, 88 ; prayer to A. Gata- 
vedas, 15, 210; 30, 142 sq., 162; 
42, 47 sq., 98, 121, 168, 309, 325 sq. ; 
44, 382 ; prayer to A. Gatavedas to 
protect the cows, 30, 1 85 sq. ; prayer 
to A. Gatavedas at offerings to the 
Manes, 29, 103; 32, 35 sq.; offer- 
ings to A. Gnhapati (the house-lord), 
12, 256 n., 259; 26, 215, 320 n.; 29, 
352 ; 41, 69 sq., 71 ; prayer to A., 
the householder, 12, 272 ; A., the 
house-lord, informed of the king's 
consecration, 41, 89; offering to 
A. Grihapati at the unyoking of the 
king's chariot, 41, 101 sq. ; offerings 
to A. Indumat, 12, 319 sq. ; obla- 
tions to A. Kama, 44, xlii sq.; 
offering to A, Kaiyat'dhatia, 12, 
43osq.; 29, 421; 30, 106; prayer 
to A. Kavyavahana at the worship 
of the fathers, 30, 227 sq., 233, 236; 
A. called Matarisvan, 40, 119, 241, 
292, 294; offering to A. Murdhani<at, 
44, 34 n., 350 n.; isNard*amsu,4Q, 10, 
303; see Narajawsa ; offering to A. 
Pathiknt (path-maker), 30, 203 ; 44, 
xliisq., 11, 191 sq., 350 n.; offerings 
to A. Pwvamdna, and A. Pdvaka, 12, 
304-8, 304 n., 307 n., 319 sq.; A. 
Purishya brought from the earth's 
seat, 41, 201 sq., 20111.; A. Puri- 
shya, favourable to cattle, 41 , 205 sq., 
2l4,2l6sq., 225-7, 257, 305,3losq.; 
the Agnis Purishyas, 41, 358 ; A. 
Purishya, the fire of the soil, invoked, 
44, 189 ; 46, 285 sq. ; invoked 
as Rebha, the divine chanter, 42, 
197, 690 sq. ; called iWbhu, 46, 
240, 243, 382 ; called Rudra, 41, 64 ; 
46, 17, 228, 231, 325, 327, 371, 373! 
Rudra identified with A., 12, 200-2, 
201 n., 206 sq. ; 26, 343 n. ; 42, 
618 sq.; 43, 156 sq., 160, 169 sq., 
172, 201 sq.; names of Rudra-Agni, 
41, 159-61 ; called Sabas'vat, 21, 
5 n. ; see SahSmpati ; expiatory 
cake offering to A. Sami>arga (the 
despoiler), 44, 193; offering to A. 
Samvesapati, 12, 260 n. ; called 



Sikbin, 21, 5 n.; expiatory cake offer- 
ing for A. Suki (the bright),12, 304 n., 
305 sq., 307 n., 308 ; 44, 194 ; A. 
SvisM-aivit (maker of good offer- 
ings), established by the gods, 12, 

151 ; offerings and prayers to A. 
Svishtakrit, 2, 202, 299; 12, 152, 

152 n., 158, 199-208, 247, 320 sq., 
334, 364, 372, 372 n., 382, 403, 412, 
414; 14,304; 25, 90; 26, 20511., 
207, 209, 3l6n., 351 sq., 351 n., 383, 
39m., 395; 29, 43 sq., 84, 163 sq., 
175, 192, 204, 208, 222, 272, 279, 
29°i 337, 352, 3 8 7, 39 1 , 420; 30, 
22, 35 sq., 40, 100, 102, 145, 158, 
191, 196, 222, 227, 236, 240, 242, 
254, 264-6, 289 sq., 294; 41,40sq., 
71-3, 105, 112 sq., 184 ; 44, 3 11., II, 
18 sq., 36 sq., 41, 54, 65, 189 n., 
253 sq., 253 n., 336 n., 337-9, 337 
n., 35J m, 356, 358, 483 ; A. 
Svish/ak«'t is Rudra, 44, 338 ; A. 
lantumat worshipped, 29, 136; is 
lanunapdt, 46, 10, 303 ; see Tanu- 
napat ; is the Usig of the gods, the 
good-minded lord of prayers, 46, 52, 
23 3, 261 sq., 297; A. Vahvdnara ; the 
ether Agnis .the other fires') are verily 
thy branches, O A. In thee all the im- 
mortals enjoy themselves. Vahvdnara ! 
'/'/ton art the centre of human settle- 
ments ; like a supporting column thou 
holdest men. The head of heaven, the 
navel of the earth is A. ; he has become 
the steward of both worlds. Thee, a 
%cd, tile gods have engendered, O Vai-,- 
vdnara, to be a light for the Arya, 
46, 49; A. V. blazes sevenfold with- 
in the body, 8, 259; A. V. is the fire 
within man, by which the food is 
digested, 15, 193, 294, 312 sq.; 34, 
143 sq., 146 sq.; 48, 287, 290 sq.; 
the sun rises as A. V., 15, 272 ; 41, 
391 ; A. V. has mounted the firma- 
ment, the back of heaven, 46, 229 ; 
A. V. unites with the sun, 46, 127 ; 
A. V. as the funeral fire, 42, 12, 
43, 58, 242, 580; what comes into 
connexion with A. V. becomes 
cooked, 41, 349, 398 ; the fiery 
spirit of A. V., 41, 404 \ A. V. is the 
elemental fire, 34, 144, 147; A. V. 
is the divinity whose body is fire, 
34, 144, 147 ; A. V. cannot be the 
divinity of fire, or the element of 
fire, 34, 148 sq. ; A. V. is all the fires, 
41, 248 ; A. V., the third of the 



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elements, a sign of the days, 48, 
287 sq. ; the earth supports A. V., 

42, 200; sand is the seed of A. V., 
41, 300, 3iosq., 351; gravel the 
ashes of A. V., 26, 120 ; A. V., the 
king of the kings, a god, 48, 28S ; 
discussion on the nature of A. V., 

43, 393-8 ; offerings to A. V., 12, 
386 n. ; 30, 203; 41, 57 sq., 125, 
170, 25osq.; 43, 207-14; 44, 11, 
277,346; by offerings to A. V., one 
sanctifies ten ancestors, 14, r 1 7 ; the 
Vauvanara graha for A. V., 26, 298- 
305 ; Diksha offering to A. Y. at the 
building of the altar, 41, 247 sq.; 
A. V. together with \d%, 41, 334; 
A. V. is the mouth of the sacrificial 
horse (Pra^apati), 43, 401 ; feeding 
A. V. is the true Agnihotra, 1, 89-91, 
89 n. ; prayers and hymns to A. V., 
26,44; 42, i96sq.,494; 43,274-8; 
44, 382; 46, 49 sq., 127, 228-35, 335— 
7 ; the Ya^waya^wiya, the praise of 
A. V., 43, 253, 330; the initiated boy 
given in charge to A. V., 30, 154; 
prayer to A.V. Parikshit,42, 197 sq., 
691 sq. ; A. V, invoked, 29, 136, 
225; 30, 183 ; 32, 353; 42, 54, 80, 
149; 46, 420 sq.; A.V. celebrated 
by the £/shis, 41, 285 n. ; invoked 
against evil-doers and demons of 
disease, 42, 35, 40; A.V. is the 
year, 12, 135; 41, 57 sq., 248, 250, 
35 1 ; 43, 33; A.V. is all these worlds, 
43, 208 ; A. V. has filled the worlds, 
and heaven and earth, 46, 233 ; A.V. 
is the earth, 26, 214; 44, 346; me- 
ditations on A. V. as the highest self, 
and the embodied self, 1, 84-91, 89 
11. ; 34, 144 ; 38, 187, 191, 233, 249, 
292, 400 ; 48, 287-95, 629-32, 673, 
677-9; A.V. is Purusha {man, per- 
son), 34, 146-8 ; 43, 398 ; 48, 292 ; 
A. V. shaped like a man, abiding 
within man, 48, 291 ; A. V. is Brah- 
man, 34, xxxv, 143-53 ; as A. V. the 
Lord abides in the creatures, 34, 
149 sq. ; 48, 248 ; Mathava of 
Videgha carried A. V. in his mouth, 
12, 104-6, 104 n.; A.V. is to be 
meditated upon as a whole, not in 
his single parts, 34, lxxv ; 38, 
274-7, 2 79 ; the six i^/shis who 
wished to obtain a knowledge of 
A. V., 38,274-6; A. called JW, 46, 
37» 43> 5 2 , i°3j iogsq. (Vasu of the 



Vasus), 129, 157 (Vasu together 
with the Vasus) ,211,215 (the highest 
V.), 236, 271, 277, 279, 283, 337, 
37 2 , 379» 4'5 sq. ; one of the eight 
Vasus, 1, 41 ; 15, i4osq.; 26, 93; 
41, 149 n., 150 ; 42, 1 16 ; 44, 1 16 ; 
expiatory cake offering and prayer 
to A. Fit'tki (the discerning) at the 
Agnihotra, 44, 192 ; by offerings to 
A. Fratapati one sanctifies ten ances- 
tors, 14, 1 17. 

(e) ^NTHRQPQMORPHIC^0 jg£jKj£TI0N 
of A\ (Tils Tiody, Tiis food and drink, 
his chariot and horses, his wives, 
children, &c.). 

The bricks of the fire-altar are 
his limbs, 41, 156 ; has three heads 
and seven rays (or reins), 46, 167, 
168; with many faces (the fires), 
46, 103, 248, 280; whose face is 
turned everywhere, 46, 125; whose 
face shines with ghee, 46, 158, 22r, 
391 ; his face is bright and beautiful, 
46, 157 sq., 302, 340; ghee is his 
eye, 46, 293; is kindled four-eyed, 
46, 23, 29 ; looks round with a 
hundred eyes, 46, 137; thousand- 
eyed, 41, 409 ; 42, 402 ; 46, 104 ; 
with fiery, golden, strong jaws, 46, 
33, 45, 157, 193, 3°3,4 I 3; eats with 
his sharp jaws, he chews, he throws 
down the forests, 46, 157; spreading 
through the forests, shears the hair 
of the earth, 46, 54, 61, 129, 173 ; 
with sharp teeth, 46, 103, 335, 344, 
360; the gold-toothed, 46, 366, 382 ; 
the tongues of A., 12, 74 ; 44, 1S9, 
3 5 1 ; 46, 141,144; has seven tongues, 
43, 205 ; with the sweet or sharp 
tongue, 46, 52, 153, 308, 340, 344, 
416, 418; with agreeable speech, 
46, 352 ; is yellow-haired, 43, 105 ; 
the flames, his golden hair, 46, 42, 
129, 148, 268, 275, 296, 385; 
golden-bearded, 46, 382 ; his 
beard shaven by Piishan, 30, 217 ; 
whose back is covered with ghee, 
46, 375, 397 ; called the dark- 
necked one, 44, 316 sq. ; 46, 248 ; 
with ruddy limbs, 46, 148, 248 ; 
A. is gold-breasted, 32, 416; golden- 
coloured, 46, 232, 234 sq., 325, 366; 
gold his seed, 12, 322 ; 26, 54, 59, 
6 3, 2 38, 390; 44, 187, 275 11., 
462, 467 ; the milk of the cow 
is A.'s seed, 12, 326, 330; 26, 54; 



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15 



feeding A. by kindling sticks, 41, 
254-65; plants the food of A., 42, 
42 ; 43, 335 ; A. is the eater of food, 
1, 159; 12, 501, 323; 15, 314; 
34, u6sq. ; 44,63; food offered 
to A. the eater of food, 12, 303 ; 
food-gainer, 12, 127 ; drinking 
Soma, 46, no, 128, 304 ; adorned 
with ghee, 46, 137 ; whose robe is 
ghee, 46, 275, 296; shoots with 
arrows, 46, 331 ; the red horses or 
flames of A., 32, 16, 19 sq., 24-7, 
39 ; 46, 42, 141, 144, 167 sq., 202, 
244 and 246 (seven-tongued), 308, 
316, 340 sq., 379 sq. ; the stallions 
of A., 32, 140; harnesses his steeds, 
41, 399; the seven reins (or rays) 
of A., 46, 206-8 ; has a red or 
brown horse, 41, 257 ; 42, 422 ; 
when thou hast yoked to thy chariot the 
two ntddy, red horses, whom the wind 
drives forward, and thy roaring is like 
that of a lull, then thou movest the trees 
with thy banner of smoke. A. I May 
we suffer no harm in thy friendship, 
46, 109, 149, 217; comes in a golden 
chariot, 46, 232, 233, 245, 269, 308, 
348; his chariot is light, 46, 141 ; 
whose chariot is lightning, 46, 268 ; 
compared to a charioteer, 46, i6d, 
162, 193, 233, 292 ; is the quick 
chariot, 46, 261 sq. ; wives of A., 
46, 59, 141-5, 220, 225 sq. ; his wife, 
the flame, 21, 372 n. ; the lover of 
the dawn, 46, 67 ; the dawns, his 
divine consorts, 46, 3 36 ; beloved 
by Night and Dawn, 46, 74, 76 ; is 
the mate of the Kr/ttikas, 12, 283 ; 
is the mate of Vedi, 43, xvii, xvii n. ; 
legend of A. courting the waters, 12, 
277 sq., 277 n. ; as a father begat 
the ruddy cows f dawns), 46, 220, 
227 ; the germ of beings, the father 
of Daksha, 46, 296 ; produced Ekata, 
Dvita, and Trita, 42, 521 ; the kins- 
man or brother of the rivers, 46, 54. 

(/)JCheriomorphic conception of 

A.jAND HIS RELATIONS TO ANIMALS. 

A. ^Hre-altarJ is an animal," 41, 
342, 361, 363, 399 sq. ; 43,40, 50, 
78 ; identical with the animal vic- 
tims, 41, 164-6; Pra^apati wishes 
to perform sacrifice with A. as the 
victim, 44, 128 ; rules over all ani- 
mals, 42, 50 ; A. was an animal, and 
was sacrificed, and he gained that 



world wherein A. ruleth, 44, 319; 
the animal living in the water and 
walking in the forest, 46, 164; the 
beast, mows off deserts and habit- 
able land like a mower, 46, 382, 
387; shakes his horns, like a terrible 
beast, 46, 142; the buffalo hidden 
in the depth, 46, 147, 150; the 
strong bull, vWshan, 32, 144, 146; 
46, 137, 142, 147, 167, 244, 2 7i, 
308, 312 sq,, 326, 335, 366 sq., 370, 
393 sq. (red), 423 ; the bull with a 
thousand horns, 42, 105, 208 sq., 
373 I 46, 364; ox sacred to A., 12, 
322; 44, 438; Nights and Dawns 
have been lowing for A., as for 
the calf, 46, 193; the young calf, 
which Night and Dawn suckle, 46, 
114, 116, 119, 124, 167 sq. ; com- 
pared to a horse, 12, 102 n., 109, 
121 ; 46, 16, 57, 67, 91, 158, 176, 
206 sq., 217, 220, 229, 285, 292, 
296 sq., 302, 317, 344, 360, 363 
(white racer) ; shaking his tongue 
among the planls he waves his 
tail like a horse, 46, 202 ; led 
forward by a great rope (like a 
horse), 46, 308, 312; is cleaned or 
groomed like a horse, 46, 360, 364 ; 
the horse is A., 41, 204, 212; the 
white horse, 26, 149; 41, 360; 
led forward by the horse, 41, 356 
sq. ; white horse led in front of 
Agni,41, 359; ahorse (sun) indicates 
A. at the Agni^ayana, 41, 207-12 ; 
the roaring snake, 46, 103, 105 ; the 
serpent with beautiful splendour, 
the winged (son?) of Pmni, lights 
up both gods and men, 46, 193, 
196; as a bird, 41, 157 ; 44, 435 ; 
46, 119, 240, 242, 249 ; the 
embryonic A. fashioned into a 
bird, 41, 273-5; the divine eagle 
or the lightning, 42, 401 ; his 
flames are winged, 46, 331 ; — the ass 
sacred to A., 29, 366 ; rules over 
cattle, 26, 343, 343 11. ; 41, 187; 
see also abwe, p. 1 3, A. Purishya ; 
is the cattle, 41, 196 sq., 198, 392 ; 
the gods collected A. from out of 
the cattle, 41, 230; worshipped at 
sacrifices for the thriving or cattle, 
30, 89, 185 sq. ; invoked to pro- 
tect the footsteps of the cattle, 46, 
61-3 ; implored for nourishment of 
the cow, 46, 222 ; accompanied by 



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16 



AGKI 



three milch cows (oblations or 
dawns?), 46, 206, 208; has per- 
forated, as it were, the pure udder 
of the cows, 46, 309 ; has found the 
cows (the wafers, the sun), 46, 397 sq. 
(g) His relations- to the -other 

GODS IN GENERAL. 

Conveys the sacrifice to the 
gods, 12, 102 sq. n., 113, it6 sq., 
127, 322; 33, 255; 41, 398; 43, 
124, 268; 46, 32, 42, 6r, 83, 100, 
'35, l 79, 232 j 3 5*>, 283, 300, 302, 
348, 397 ; the carrier (vahni) of 
oblations, 32, 37 sq. ; 46, 37 sq., 52, 
138, 228, 241, 259, 261, 296, 303, 
34<>, 375, 379, 39i, 416, 418, 423 ; 
the gods made him the carrier of 
offerings, 46, 261, 275, 385 sq.; the 
approacher of the gods, 43, 194 ; 
conveys the oblations addressed to 
the manes, 7, 84 ; brings the 
gods to the sacrifice, 12, 117 sq., 
134, 203, 426 sq. ; 26, 377; 43, 
197 sq.; 46, I, 6 sq., 8, 24, 37 sq., 
42 sq., 92, 100, 108, 153, 179, 236, 
241, 244, 249, 268, 279, 291, 316, 
34 6 , 3 6 4, 375, 377, 4*8; A. invoked 
to bring A. to the sacrifice, 12, 
426 sq., 427 n.; 46, 38, 41; the 
helpful carrier of the gods, 46, 137, 
2 4°, 3°7 J the messenger of gods 
and men, 12, 103 n., no sq., 121, 
129; 26, 115 ; 30, 10, no, 145; 42, 
64, 113; 46, 6, 31, 37 sq., 52, 74, 
83, 92, 179, 209, 215, 217, 232, 240, 
244j 257, 261, 275, 308, 316, 343 
sq-, 34 6 , 348, 373, 380, 385, 39i, 
412, 418; knows best the ascents 
to heaven, 46, 344, 346; the steward 
of the gods, 46, 203, 307 ; calls the 
gods to the feast, 12, 91 ; the best 
invoker of the gods, the dispenser 
of a thousand bounties, 44, 66; in- 
voked to announce the song to the 
gods, 46, 16, 273 ; promulgates all 
the races of the gods, 42, 50, 308 ; 
knows the gods well, 12, 133 ; pre- 
pares the way that leads to the 
gods, 42, 184; legend of the gods 
who deposited their beasts with A., 
12, 347 ; legend of the gods de- 
positing all forms with A., 12, 314 
sq., 314 n. ; passed over from the 
gods to men, but not with his 
whole body, 12, 306 ; the gods 
have set him to work at the bottom 



of the air, 46, 193; the gods have 
established A. among men, 46, 302 ; 
the gods fashioned the opening 
sacrifice from out of A., 44, 138; 
is a worshipper of the gods, 46, 67, 
232, 318 ; belongs to all the deities, 

41, 375; 46, 173; the gods take 
food with A. as their mouth, 41, 
312 ; 44, 350, 418 ; 46, 45, 95, 108, 
188; together with all Agnis, with 
the gods, 46, 289 ; invoked together 
with other gods, 42, 80 ; through A, 
the gods have won glory and 
strength, 46, 89, 130; the A.-eyed 
gods in the east, 41, 48 sq.; leader 
of the gods in slaying VWtra, 12, 
408 sq., 418, 449 sq. ; has by 
fighting gained wide space for the 
gods, 46, 49 ; the gods did service 
to A., 46, 257 ; reigns among gods 
and among mortals, 46, 416; en- 
compassed all the gods by his great- 
ness, 46, 64 ; gods afraid of A. 
(Rudra), 43, 156 sq., 202 ; A. going 
in front of the gods is anointed 
with the song, 46, 1S0; A. is the 
head, the progenitor of the gods, he is 
the lord of creatures, 26, 218; the 
progenitor of deities, 12, 386 ; 
is the first of all gods, 7, 265 ; 

42, 160 ; is the leader of the 
divine hosts, 26, 184 ; is god of the 
gods, 46, 109; the banner of the 
gods, 46, 17,221 ; A. is all the deities, 
since in A. one offers to all drities, 
41, 44; 12, 162 sq., 168 ; 26, 12, 
90, 428 ; 41, 285 ; A. (fire-altar) is 
all beings, all the gods, 43, 38S; 
is the self, the body of all the gods, 
41, 369; 43, 256; 44, 505; is the 
out-breathing of the gods, 43, 295 ; 
identified, in turn, with all the gods, 
46, 186-92; identified with Varuna, 
Mitra, the Vuvedevas, Indra, and 
Aryaman, 46, 37 t. 

( h) A ._AS__RJLAJET)_Ta_INBI VI DTJA L 
OTHER~GODS.^ 

A. and Aditya, see beloau A. 
Vdyu, Aditya, and see (i) Agni and 
the solar deities; A. and Asi'in, 
see (i) A. and the solar deities ; 
A. compared with Bhaga, 46, 281, 
401 ; A. could not burn a straw 
put before him by Brahman, 1, 150; 
runs away from terror of Brahman, 
15, 59 ; Brahman is A., 43, 85 ; is 



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17 



the mouth of Brahman, 48, 289; 
fastened the amulet on, which 
Bnbaspati tied, 42, 85 ; identified 
with the regions (Disas), 43, 70, 
164 sq., 246,263, 263 n. ; A, incites 
Dyaus to commit incest with his 
daughter, 46, 74, 78; identified 
with Di>ita> 46, 405 sq. ; A. is the 
Gandharva, his Apsaras are the 
herbs, 30, 146 n. ; 43, 231 ; joined 
with Ida, 46, 375 ; A. and Indra, 
mutual relation between them, 
12, xvi sq. n., 419; is speech, I. 
breath, 41, 154 ; I. the nobility, A. 
the priesthood, 43, 342, 344; the 
place of A., I., and the Vijve Devas 
at various sacrifices, 12, xviii sq. 
and n. j 'For me have A. and 1. 
accomplished my divine aim,' 30, 
179; sacrifice to A. and I. every 
month for one year after the child's 
birth, 30, 59 ; offerings to A. and 
I.j as destroyers of demons, 42, 64 ; 
A., I., and Surya worshipped at the 
SlWajin, 26, 404-6; A. and I. 
drink the pressed Soma, 46, 2S5, 
291 ; brought the Soma-drink to 
Indra, 42, 116, 241; finds lndra 
and stays with him, 12, 175 sq. ; 
DhatW shaved the head of A. and I., 
29, 185 ; I., Soma, and A., 26, 22 ; 
42, 117, 122, 222; 44, 441; A., 
I., Sfirya, superior gods, 26, 402- 
4 ; kings appear as A., I., Soma, 
Yama, and the God of Riches, 
33, 217 sq. ; see also under Indra; 
Kama and A. invoked together, 42, 
221 sq., 359, 592; A. is Keta, 29, 
348 ; invoked in company with the 
Maruts, 32, 53, 68 sq., 82, 94, 337, 
339, 352-4, 369, 375, 3»6, 392 sq., 
399 \ 46, 82, 84, 266, 292 sq. ; A. and 
the Maruts invoked at the restora- 
tion of an exiled king, 42, 112, 328; 
produced the host of the seven 
J?/shis or of the Maruts (?), 46, 75, 
80 ; compared with the Maruts, 
46, 130, 138, 341 ; the Maruts the 
guardsmen, and A. the chamberlain 
of king Marutta, 44, 397 ; and 
Ultra (or 'friend'), 32, 82, 94 ; is 
great, and a friend, like Mitra, 46, 
38, 46, 100, 158, 193, 202, 333, 341, 
371, 389, 401 ; identified with 
Mitra, 46, 109, 112, U9, 240 sq. ; 
and Mitra invoked together, 46, 



387 ; A., Mitra, Varu«a, and the 
Maruts sing to A. a pleasant song, 
46, 268 ; Surya, A., and Pra^dpati, 
the deities of the Agnihotra, 29, 
i6r, 161 n."; sacrifice to A. and 
Pra^apati, 33, 376 ; restores Praga- 
pati who had become relaxed, 41, 
1 5 1-4, 168; is the right arm of 
Pragapati, 43, xx ; is the pro- 
genitor of the deities, he is Pragu- 
pati, 12, 386 ; Pragapati identified 
with A., 41, xxvii, 144, 148, 151, 

153 sq., 165, 167-9, 172 sq., 174, 
183, 240 sq., 245, 284, 290, 309, 
313, 33o, 341, 353, 377, 3S6 ; 43, 
xvi]", xix-xxiii, 66 ; 44, xviii, 275 n. ; 
A. (fire-altar) is Pragapati, 43, 49, 
54, 57, 70 sq-, 9 2 , I2 7, 159 s q-» 181, 
189 sq., 229, 234, 270, 300, 300 n., 
309, 313-15, 32i-7,^ 34 1 , 345-7, 
349-52, 362 ; Pr'tfhii'i (Earth) with 
A. invoked in danger, 29, 232; 
oblations to Earth and A., 29, 
321; if Apana is satisfied, the tongue 
is satisfied, if the tongue is satisfied, 
A. and the earth are satisfied, 1,90; 
terrestrial serpents belonging to A., 

29, 328 sq. ; is the lotus of this 
earth, 26, 277 ; A. is this earth, 41, 

154 sq., 169, 183, 347, 364 ; Pushan 
has shaven the beard of A., 30, 217 ; 
offering to A. and Pushan, 41, 54 n., 
55 ;i?Hi/rrtandA.,see(^)NamcsofA.; 
Savitri brought A. above the earth, 
15, 238 ; raises his arms like Savitri, 
46, 1 15 ; like Savitri he has sent his 
light upward, 46, 340; is truthful 
like Savitri, 46, 88; is Savitri, 41, 
191 sq. ; Savitri and A. invoked to- 
gether, 42, 210; Skanda, son of A., 
49 (i) 12 ; A. and Soma, offerings 
to A. and S. conjointly, 2, 299 ; 12, 
43, 159-75, 202, 250, 364; 25, 90; 
26. 106-8, 155-62; 29, 161, 390; 

30, 254, 336 ; 41, 45, 54 "-, 5<>, 69, 
71; 44, 254, 350 n. ; new and full 
moon offerings to A. and S., 12, 
43, 236 sq., 375, 377-80, 377 n. ; 
29, 17 n., 392; 30, 37; 44, 3 n., 
6, 16, 36 sq., 54; animal sacrifices 
for A. and S., 2, 68 ; 26, 82 sq., 
162, 181-222, 225 ; 30, 346; 38, 274, 
274 n. ; 41, 68 sq. ; 44, 141, 372 n., 
404 ; 48, 598 ; A., S., and Vishwu 
are made parts of the thunderbolt, 
26, 108, 108 n. ; oblations to A. 



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and Vishau, at the Dajapeya, 41, 
113 sq., ri6 n., 118; A. and S. in- 
voked against sorcerers, 42, 65 ; 
for A. and S. the Brahmans beg the 
sterile cow, 42, 176; relation be- 
tween A. and S., 26, xviii sq. ; 
offering to A. first, then to S., 26, 
386 ; what is dry relates to A., moist 
to S., 12, 169, 175 ; black related to 
S., white to A., 12, 175; the waters 
support A. and S., 42, 146 sq. ; A. 
the day, S. the night, 26, 108 ; from 
out of A. and S. the gods formed 
the day of fasting, 44, 139; A. 
compared with Soma, 46, 360, 362; 
glory of Indra, A., and S., 26, 22 ; 
42, 117, 122, 222; A. and Surya, 
see (i) A. and the solar deities ; 
Trita blows upon A., 46, 387 ; A. 
and Vsbas, see (i) A. and the solar 
deities; A. and Vdk (speech), 26, 
365 n., 367 n. ; having bestowed 
a share on A., he bestows lordship 
on speech, 43, 67 ; A. worshipped 
in connexion with f'aruna, 26, 383; 
46, 307 ; Varu«a, Soma, A,, 42, 
135; A. alone rules over gods like 
Varuwa, 46, 157; Varuwa, Mitra, A., 
26, 285 sq. ; 46, 236; through A., 
Varuwa, Mitra, and Aryaman are 
glorious, 46, 148; Varuwa identi- 
fied with A., 43, 238 sq. ; 46, 240 ; 
and the Vasus^ see above, p. 14 ; 
A., Fdyu, and Indra are above 
the other gods, 1, 151; A. who 
sees, Vayu who hears, Aditya who 
brings to light, 2, 114 ; A., Vayu, 
and Aditya (or Surya), 1, 203; 15, 
48 sq., 308; 30, 152 sq. ; 43, 187; 
44, 265, 291; A. divided himself 
into A., Vayu, and Aditya, 15, 75; 
41, 284 ; A. and the earth, Vayu 
and the air, Aditya (Surya, sun) 
and the sky or heaven, 12, 325-7 ; 
30, 231; 41, 204; 43, 90 sq. ; 44, 
27 ; A., Vayu, and Aditya are all 
the light, 1, 54; 41, 210, 239; 43, 
388 sq. ; 44, 102, 508; A., Vayu, 
and Aditya are the hearts of the 
gods, 43, 162 ; light is A,, might 
Vayu, glory Aditya, 44, 173 ; A., 
Vayu, Aditya, and ifandramas 
identified with the four fires, 44, 
127; A. is Vayu, 43, 363; A. is 
ftrag, 43, 360 ; is Vinyj-, is the 
regions, is the vital airs, 43, 70, 



164 sq. ; A. and Visbmt are (he two 
halves of the sacrifice, 26, 1 2 ; offer- 
ings to A. and Vishwu, 12, 7 ; 26, 
12 sq.; 29, 18 n.; 41, 44 sq., 54^., 
5411., 247 sq. ; 44, 140; Vishwu and 
A. identified, 41, 276 ; A. is Visva- 
karman, 43, 189 sq., 204, 266-8, 

266 n. ; invoked with VKrvakarman, 
44, 202 sq. ; A. (the funeral pyre) 
the guide to Tama's seat, 42, 90 : 
A. is death, 12, 324 ; 38, 267 ; 43, 
365. 
(*). at and the solar deities 
(Aditya, Sukya, Us'has,, the 
Ajvins), 

The Sun appeared when A. had 
been born, 46, 326, 3^0; the Red 
one, the rising sun, 32, 21-3; A. 
is the sun (Aditya, Surya), 15, 46 ; 
41, 216 sq., 222 sq., 226, 231, 
271, 273, 275, 304 sq., 308 sq., 
309 n., 364, 400, 404 ; 42, 208- 
11, 213, 661, 664; 43, 195, 349, 
36 3 » 46, 49, 116, 167 sq., 193; see 
also above A. Vaijvanara (p. 13); A. 
is the piece of gold shining between 
heaven and earth, 46, 119, 124; is 
placed on the highest skin (the sky?), 
46, 164, 166; is like the sun, 46, 
67, 173, 176, 194, 213, 230, 268, 
350, 4 [8; established in the sun, 
43, 239 sq. ; 46, 70; is sun-rayed, 
43, 105 ; A.'s breath taken by the 
sun, whence fire does not blaze, 
unless fanned, 44, 130; is the light, 
when the sun goes down, 12, 335 ; 
the light of men, 12, 361 ; 43. 117; 
is all the light in this world, 41, 384 
sq.; by kindling A. men make the 
sun rise, 46, 379, 381, 403 sq. ; dis- 
covered the light, 46, 29;; has 
found the sun, 46, 119, 233, 292, 
397 sq.; the sun, the day, and the 
waxing half-moon relate to A., 12, 
169; the sight of A. and the sun, 
i.e. this life, 42, 53; is heat and 
light, to him offering is made in 
Aditya, at the Agnihotra, 44, 112 
sq. ; A. united with A., SavitW, 
Surya, 44, 469 sq. ; by means 
of A. and Aditya the sacrificer 
ascends to heaven, 44, 473; the 
eye of Surya, the eyeball of A., 
26, 77; Surya, the eye of Mitra, 
Varu«a, and A., 26, 343 ; 41, 408; 
A., Surya, the waters, and all 



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the gods, 42, 205 ; the brilliancy 
of A. and Surya transferred upon 
a king, 42, 1 16 ; A. and the man in 
the sun are not equal, 3H, 267 ; one 
half of the year (when the sun moves 
northward) belongs to A., 15, 316; 
A. on this side, and the sun on the 
other side of the world, 44, 405 ; 
hymns addressed to A. in his matu- 
tinal character, together with Ushas, 
the Ajvins, and Surya, 46, 37-9, 
42-4, 281, 356-9; awakens at dawn, 
46, 131, 230, 240, 341; reigns by 
night and at the break of dawn, 46, 
103 ; is the splendour of the dawn, 
he makes the dawns shine, being 
kindled in the morning, 46, 108, 
194, 244, 271, 363, 423; praised 
and kindled in the evening and at 
dawn, 46, 213, 307, 354; deity of 
the eastern region, 26, 50; 41, 206, 
291; 42, 192 ; 43, 3 sq. and n,, 105, 
r 99> 337 > *- ne Knttikas (in the 
east) and the month Kftrttika sacred 
to A., 7, 265 ; 12, 282 sq. 

(jl A. AS DESTROYER OF DEMONS 
AND ALL HOSTILE POWERS. 

A. is the repeller of the Rakshas, 
12,35sq., 4 6,i 5 7sq., 365; 26,99,158, 
187, 380 sq.; 41, 52, 371 sq.n.; 42,64 
sq., 402 ; 44, 464, 497 ; 46, 49, 102, 
346, 367 sq., 397; invoked as Raksho- 
han, for protection against sorcerers, 
demons, and evil, 42, 35 sq,, 40, 64 
sq., 77, J 90, 408, 475; spells and 
wicked men, 46, 32 sq., 96, 103, 
109, 125, 138, 170, 181, 233, 271, 
273, 277, 289, 326 sq., 331-4, 352, 
372, 375, 383 ; has encompassed 
the demons, 30, 212 ; invoked 
against the demons harassing chil- 
dren, 30, 212; with A. the gods 
conquered the demons (Asuras), 
12, 54 sq., 57; 42, 180; 46, 303; 
gainer of battles, helps against 
spells, 42, 78, 180; is removed from 
the demon of hostility, 42, 51, 365 ; 
invoked to drive away fever, 42, 1, 
443; takman (fever) comes, as it 
were, from A., 42, 3 ; drives away 
sickness, 46, 6 ; the destroyer of 
darkness, 46, 141 ; removes the 
poison of snakes, 42, 154 ; the 
destroyer of enemies or of VWtra, 
46, 49, 51, 92, 102, 28 r ; the con- 
queror of deceitful foes, 46, 129, 



360 ; the repeller of shafts, 43, 100; 
devours the hateful enemies, thieves 
and robbers, 41, 259; invoked 
against rivals and enemies, 42, 210 
sq., 221 sq.; removes sins and their 
consequences, 42, 163-5, 167, 525 ; 
46, 181; drives away all evils, 12, 
345 ; 41, 229, 360; 43, 84 sq.; 
burnt up the evil of the gods, 41, 
259 ; is the remedy for cold, 44, 
3*5- 
(£> Exc ellent qualities and 
transcendent powers of a. 

A. is a sage, 12, 91 ; 44, 189, 192, 
194; 46, 22 sq., 75, ioi, &c; is 
skilful, thoughtful, 46, 269, 391 ; the 
omniscient, 46, 303, 375 ; the great 
seer, the best .R/shi, 46, ii4sq., 118, 
283; compared to a J?/shi, 46, 57 ; 
a singer, 46, 271; a good guide, 
46, 317 ; is the guide of Brahmanas, 
42, 170; is the eye of gods and 
men, 43, 199 sq. ; knows the birth 
of gods and men, 46, 70; is im- 
mortal, 12, 261; 42, 57; 43, 296; 
46, 37 sq., 70, 100, 217, 232, 269, 
281, &c. ; alone was immortal, 
when the gods were still mortal, 
12, 310; gods laid immortality 
into A., 43, 156, 177 sq., 256 ; the 
gods made him the navel of immor- 
tality, 46, 275; the mortals have 
generated the immortal A., 46, 303; 
has a knowledge of immortality, 
42, 60; reigns over immortality, 
46, 42 3 ; is busy for the sake of 
immortality, 46, 291; the drink of 
immortality is in his mouth, 46, 
293 ; is imperishable and inex- 
haustible, 30, 231 ; 41, 284; is long- 
lived through the trees, 29, 294 ; 
never grows old, 46, 131, 167; in 
whom all life dwells, 46, 138; en- 
dowed with hundredfold life, 46, 
176; the ancient one, 46, 268 sq., 
281 ; having grown old he has 
suddenly become young again, 46, 
202 ; the youngest god, 12, 102 n., 
108, 108 n., 120, 204; 41, 257 sq., 
284, 296, 413 ; 43, 204; 46, 31, 
33, 37 j M7 sq., 170, 1S1, 211, 256, 
279, 300, 317, 331 sq., 354, 364, 
372, 385, 418, 420; the young child, 
1, 141, 142, 145, 164; is like a 
beautiful youth, 46, 217; is ever- 
young, a youthful sage, 43, 276; 



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44, 189 ; 46, 13, 23, 363 ; is lord of 
all powers, 46, 1 14 sq. ; is self-depen- 
dent, 46, 281, 350, 354, 371 ; pos- 
sesses mysterious power, 46, 389 ; 
is the lord and increaser of strength, 
46, 164, 259, 380; the baby quail, 
by the mystic Act of Truth, drives 
back the great A,, 35, 180 n„, 
185 n. 

(/) A. AS A KIND AND.HELPEHL 

orrnr 

A"guardian and a father, 44, 439 ; 
46, 2 3 sq. ; leads one over the paths, 
44, 438 ; is like a beloved wife, 46, 
88 ; the good abode is A., for 
A. abides with all creatures in 
this world, 44, 457 ; is the friend 
of men, 32, 82, 94 ; 44, 189 ; 
46, 95 ; the safest and nearest 
of the gods, 12, 163; is the lowest 
god, i.e. nearest to men, 46, 307, 
311 ; looks on all creatures, since 
he has been born, 46, 137; gives 
health and wealth, 12, 236; 26, 
241; 32, 194; 46, 379; strength, 
beauty, and wealth dwell in A., 46, 
t88; winner of horses, giver of 
wealth, 46, 209 ; invoked for the 
treasure of Dyaus or Heaven, 46, 308 
sq.; lord of treasures, 44, 192 ;46, 49, 
52, 70, 82, 2 15, 375; addressed as 
food on which everything lives, 46, 
37, 40 ; every nourishment goes 
towards A., 46, 75 ; all-enlivener, 
46, 281; is all-wealthy, 46, 157, 
170; is a bountiful Lord (maghavan), 
46, 131, 167, 187 ; is like the udder 
of the ccws, and the sweetness of 
food, 46, 67 sq. ; called 'the well- 
harnessed wealth,' 46, 89, 91 ; gives 
wealth, long life, offspring, victory, 
and booty in battle to those who 
praise him, 46, 22 sq., 31 sq., 37, 
45 sq., &c. ; a healer, creator of 
medicine, 30, 143, 145; the god 
who gives rain, 46, 292, 302. 

(w) A. THE GOD OF THE HOUSE 
AND THE CLAN, 

The householder or lord of the 
house (gr/hapati), 42, 183; 44,189; 

46,31,52,64,130,176,352,385,413; 
jee also aboi'e A. Gr/hapati (p. 13) ; 
worshipped in the house, 46, 88 ; the 
guest of the clans, or of the house, 
41, 281, 290, 292; 46, 137, 202, 
228, 333, 292, 309 sq., 364, 371, 



375) 385, 405 ; the house-lord of 
this world, 26, 453 n. ; worshipped 
at the house-building, 29, 347; wor- 
shipped on entering a new house, 
29, 95 sq. ; 42, 141; worshipped on 
returning home from a journey, 29, 
97 ; protects the house, 12, 358 
sq. ; invoked to protect the house 
from fire, 42, 147; prayer to A., 
at the removal of a house, 42, 194- 
6, 600 ; a friend of the house 
(damunas), 46, 67, 142, 221, 229 
sq., 333» 2 4o, 332, 352, 3S4, 375, 
385; is in every house, 46, 343; 
the lord of the human clans, 46, 
13, 52, 130, 187, 233, 363, 375, 379, 
387 ; is the shepherd of the clans, 
46, 108, 119; belongs to many 
people, dwells among all the clans, 
46, 31, 54, 67, 102, 104, 173, 229 
sq., 261, 379, 397, 414; the king 
or leader of the human tribes, 46, 
49, 194, 244, 259; protects all 
settlements, 46, 88. 
(n) a._as_connected.with women 
and__marria"ge. 

Women belong to A., 14, 133; 
gave women purity of all limbs, 14, 
233 ; the wife-leader, 26, 367, 367 
n. ; the third husband of the bride, 
29, 278 sq. ; 30, 190 ; 42, 254, 323 ; 
the lover of maidens, the husband 
of wives, 46, 57, 59 ; the girls 
sacrifice to A., 29, 44, 282 ; gives 
the bride to the husband, 29, 283 ; 
at the marriage of Soma and Surya, 
26, xiv ; 29, 283 ; prayers and 
offerings to A. at marriage rites, 
2, 305 ; 29, 27, 32, 168 sq. ; 30, 49, 
187 sq., 190 j unites husband and 
wife, 46, 371 ; invoked for the pro- 
tection of the bride, 29, 41, 44, 
281 sq., 288; invoked by a maiden 
for a husband, 42, 94, 323 ; invoked 
in a love-charm, 42, 104; invoked 
to cause the return of a truant 
woman, 42, 106 ; the blood of the 
woman is a form of A., 1, 232 ; 
dwells in the menstrual discharge of 
a maiden, 33, 171 n. ; is the causer 
of sexual union, the progenitor, 
26, 98; 29, 27; men worship A., 
together with their wives, 46, 82; 
identified with the sacrificer's wife, 
46, 348 ; with the wives of the 
gods, 26, 363 n. ; invoked for off- 



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spring, 14, 84; 29, 43; 46, 222; 
protects the offspring, 12, 358 sq. ; 
is both offspring and lord of off- 
spring, 43, 181; invoked for the 
new-born child, 29, 52, 54, 294; 
30, 59, 213, 215 sq. ; invoked for 
a child born under an unlucky star, 

42, 109 sq. ; 'A man is A.,' Puw- 
savana prayer, 30, 54 ; invoked to 
promote virility, 42, 32. 

(a) _ Ji.. AS THE SACRIFICIAL FIRE 
ASP TJi£ FIRE-ALTAR. 

Is the sacrificial fire, 15, 77 ; 44, 
xxisq.,248; 4(1,13,22,24,31-3,45, 
&c. ; all sacrifices performed in 
A., 20, 389; 41, 312; material for 
sacrifice, A.'s body, 12, 26 ; putting 
firewood on is regaling A. with food, 

43, 189, 191 ; 44, 268 ; the eater of 
oblations, 43, 398 ; taking his seat 
in ghWta, 46, 399 ; swims in gh/7'ta, 
46, 4 r 8 ; ghee is sacred to A., 43, 1 89 ; 
is the vessel in which offerings are 
made to the gods, 12, 117; A. 
seen at the sacrificial place, 41, 207 ; 
sits on the Vedi or the sacrificial 
bed, 46, 141; has always sacrificial 
straw spread for him, 43, r22 ; 
grown strong on the Dhish«ya 
altars, 46, 325, 328; has come to 
sit down on the sacrificial grass, 46, 
348; A. Ukhya (the fire in the 
pan), 43, 24 ; in the fire-pan driven 
about at the Agni&iyana, 41, 289- 
93 ; the Ukhya Agni as an 
embryo, 43, 272 sq. ; installation 
and consecration of A., 43, 207- 
41, 246 sq., 251 sq. ; the Vasor 
dhara the Abhisheka of A., 43, 213- 
15, 213 sq. n., 219 sq., 224 sq. ; 
as the fire-altar, 38, 260-8 ; 41, 
H4, &c. ; 43, xix-xxiv, 1, &c. ; 
leading forward of A. to the fire- 
altar, 43, 188-207; the lump of 
clay representing A., 41, 203-29; 
the AgnWit (builder of fire-altar) 
becomes A., 43, 296 ; prayers for 
prosperity to A. (fire-altar), 43, 
108 sq. ; doctrines of mystic imports 
regarding A. (fire-altar), 43, 363- 
6 ; A. (fire-altar) identified with 
Arka (plant and Might'), 43, 336, 
342, 346-9, 398 sq., 404 ; bricks of 
the fire-altar, different Agnis, 43, 
128, 130, 222, 222 n. ; A. (fire ^altarj 
consists, of three bricks, viz! Rih } 



Ya£Us,Saman,43, 374; A. (fire-altar), 
Arkya, and Mahad uktham (great 
litany), a triad, 44, 172; A. (fire-altar) 
is the year, 41, 167, 169, 183-5, 
198, 206, 220, 232, 244, 250, 254, 
260, 269, 271 sq., 293, 295, 307, 
33°, 333, 335-9, 355, 358, 372, 386; 
43, 29 sq., 49, 163, 166 sq., 177, 
184, 193, 204 sq., 207, 216, 219-22, 
219 n., 240, 253 sq., 271, 281, 294, 
320 sq., 323 sq,, 349-52, 357-60, 
362-4, 386 ; see also A. Vaijvanara 
above, p. 13 sq. ; carried about by 
the sacrifice]- for a whole year, 43, 
xix, xxiii ; names of the months as 
manifestations of A. (the year), 43, 
219, 219 n. ; A. (fire-altar) is all 
objects of desire, 43, 313. See also 
Fire-altar. 
(p) Men (or dehi-gods) and fami- 
lies WHO FIRST ESTABLISHED A. 

Established by different families 
of priests, 46, 52 sq. ; and the Ah- 
giras y 26, 1 1 3 sq. ; 46, 391 ; sacrificed 
for Angiras, 46, 24 ; was praised by 
Angiras, 46, 102; kindled by Apna- 
vdna, 46, 343; the guest in the 
clans of Ayitj 46, 194, 202; the 
praise of Ayu, 46, 341, 371; the 
Ayus have brought him to every 
house, 46, 52, 343 ; among the 
Bharadi'd^as^AQ, $o\ placed among 
men by the Bbv\gus, 46, 45, r57, 
343 ; the Bh/-/gus, worshipping him 
in the abode of the waters, have 
established him among the clans of 
Ayu, 46, 202 ; established by Manus, 
46, 230, 256, 275, 287 sq., 412 ; in- 
flamed by Manus in the abode of 
\d, 46, 217 ; the Purohitaof Manus, 
46, 232 ; was born in Mann's firm 
law, 46, 137 ; kindled by gods, 
Manu, i?/shis, 12, 1 16 ; being horn in 
the highest heaven A. became visible to 
Mdtarhi'an. By the poieer r/his mind, 
by his greatness when kindled, hisjfa/ne 
filled Heaz'en and Earth with light, 
46, 157 ; Matarijvan produced A. by 
attrition, 46, 74, 147, 173; Malarijvan 
brought A. to BhWgu and Manu, 
46, 52, 137; became manifest to 
Matarijvan, 46, 22, 256; the clan- 
lord of the Nahusba, 46, 23 ; in the 
homestead of Puruxutba Satavaneya, 
46, 50 ; whom the Purus worship, 
46, 49 ; the t/s/gj have set him down 



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AGNI 



as HotW, 46, 52 sq., 341, 371 ; 
kindled by mortals and by the Vams, 
46, 372 ; the messenger oiVivasvat, 
46, 22, 45, 47, 391 sq. 

(q) A. AS A PRIEST, AND HIS RELA- 
TIONS TO THE PRIESTHOOD. 

A., the priest, 32, 38; 41, 281 
(seated on the altar) ; 42, 50, 109 sq. ; 
43, 277; 44, xxi sq., 189, 192, 194; 
46, 164, 178, 237 (slaughterer), 240, 
259 (ritvh*), 266, 283, 292, 302, 346 ; ( 
his priestly power, 42, 221 ; the 
Hot;-; priest, 12, 47, io2sq.n., 108, 
in, 129, i3»sq., 203 sq., 250 sq., 
427; 15, 122; 26, 114, 118, 377; 
29, 194 sq.; 41, 219, 255, 399; 4fi, 
1, 6, 8, 22, 31, &c, 206, 215 (on 
the Hotrfs seat), 236, 238 (has sat 
down at heaven's navel), 275 s q-> 
325 (the Hot™ of the two worlds), 
340 sq., 363 sq.; legend of the gods 
choosing A. for their Hotri priest, 
12, 87-9 ; Pravara, choosing A. the 
Divine HotW, 12, 114-20, ii4n., 
132-5; crosses the sacrificial seat 
ot the worshipper like a Hot™, 46, 
8S ; the god of the seven Hotri's, 
46, 303, 343 sq. ; Hotri invokes 
the help of A. for his work, 
12, 135 ; Hotri relates to A., 44, 
136, 314 ; thePurohita of the gods, 
42, 79 ; 40, 1, 38, 41, 45, 137, 
228 sq., 261, 391, 401 sq.; the best 
sacrilicer, 12, 11 1; 46, 100, 119, 
129, 137, 176, 194, 215, 236, 259, 
266, 268, &c. ; A. offers to A., 
34, 215; A. is kindled by A., 44, 
189; a performer of worship, like 
Soma, 46, 54 ; invoked to make the 
offerings ready, 46, 154, 180; in- 
voked to sacrifice for men to the 
gods, 46, 95, 96, 100, 108, 198, 209, 
215, 221, 228, 236 sq., 259, 268, 
275, 279, 291, 303 sq., 395, 412, 
418, 423; mixes the honey drink, 
46, 2i 8; knows the art of sacrific- 
ing and is a separator of sacrificial 
fires that have become mixed, 46, 
385 sq. ; offices of the seven priests 
ascribed to A., 46, 186, 189, 348; 
the Agnidhra is A., 12,229; 26, 368 ; 
knows the duties of every priest, 46, 
108 sq.; dismissed at the end of 
sacrifice, 26, 377 ; received gold 
as Dakshixa, 26, 347 sq. ; flame of 
A., his sacrificial ladle, 46, 96, 99; 



may burn a priest passing between 
the hearths, 26, 153; the priests 
make him grow, 46, 395 ; is the 
Brahman (priesthood), 12, xvi- 
xviii, 90, ii4sq., 134; 26, 37 sq. ; 
41, 89 ; 43, 342, 344; is both priest- 
hood and nobility, 43, 235 ; A. is a 
Brahmana, 2, 13 n.; 12, 114 sq.; 
14, 1 38 ; to A. belongs the Brahmana, 
29, 307 ; 44, 89. 

r) a. in his relation to the 
Sacrifice and The Sacrificf.r. 

Protects the offering, 12, 19 ; 46, 
137; the beacon or banner of sacri- 
fice, 46, 52, 119, 130, 232, 259, 261, 
302, 391 ; the first at the sacrifices, 
46, 100, 410; the king of sacrifice, 
12, 354; 46, 325; the promoter or 
guide of sacrifice, 44, 351 ; 46, 137, 
164,266.287; is achiever and father 
of sacrifices, 46, 206, 232; friend or 
kinsman of sacrifices, 46, 244, 308 ; 
goes thrice round the sacrifice, 46, 
340, 360 ; produces joy at all sacri- 
fices, 46, 343 ; comes eagerly to the 
sacrifice, 46, 92 ; 48, 331 ; is the 
sacrifice, 26, 37 sq. ; 41,4,; what 
is dry in the sacrifice, is of A.'s 
nature, 26, 49 ; the fire-wood puri- 
fied for A. by sprinkling water on 
it, 12, 84 ; the Brahman's portion 
does not injure A., 12, 213; is 
allowed a share in every offering, 
12, 364 ; anointed with sacrificial 
gifts, 46, 115; worshipped with 
hottest kindling-sticks, 46, 129 ; in- 
voked as personified in each log of 
fuel put on the sacrificial fire, 46, 
236, 238 ; is to be magnified at the 
sacrifices, 46, 343 ; they walk around 
A., like obedient servants, 46, 131 ; 
to A. belongs this sacrifice. A. is the 
light, the -burner of 'evil: lie burns away 
the evil of this [sacrificer); and the latter 
becomes a light of prosperity and glory in 
this, anda light of bliss in yonder, -world, 
12, 315; man maintains A. in this 
world, A. will maintain him in yonder 
world, 12, 342 sq. ; the sacrificer 
reaches the world of A., 12, 450 ; 
42, 189; by means of A. (fire-altar), 
the sacrificer ascends the heavenly 
world, 43, 198-200; 44,205,473; A. 
is the sacrificer, 43, xxiii, 146 sq., 
186, 197, 201, 253, 262, 300, 30011., 
309, 313-15, 321-7, 34> i 44, M 2 • 



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46, 348; the woof of the Dik- 
shita's cloth belongs to A., 26, 9; 
the Dikshita gives himself up to A. 
for protection when he lies down 
to sleep, 26, 44 sq. ; solicits from 
the gods the sacrificed desire, 12, 
253 ; the sacrificer makes A. his 
father, brother, son, and friend, 
46, 187, 372-4. 
(j) Sacrifices to A. 

TiurnT^olations (cake and butter 
offerings) to A., 2, 202, 299 ; 12, 
118, 150, 234-6, 386, 401 sq., 
406 sq. n., 411, 413, 418 ; 14, 303, 
307; 15, 211; 26, 364 n., 389 sq., 
389 n. ; 29, 27; 30, 34 sq., 143-5, 
336 sq.; 41, 50-2, 250; 44, 29, 
36 sq., 41 ; 48, 144, 155 ; nour- 
ished by offerings of butter or ghee, 
46, 3, 199, 386, &c; Sthalipaka 
offered to A., 14, 306 ; 30, 264-6; 
evening oblation for A., 29, 19, 172, 
287, 386 ; 30, 20 ; morning and 
evening oblations to A., 30, 196; 
worshipped at the Vaijvadeva sacri- 
fice, 29, 84 ; worshipped at the 
Tarpasa, 29, 121, 149; 80, 243; 
offering to A. at the Sulagava, 29, 
352 ; A.g-ya oblation to A. as' expia- 
tion, 30, 51 ; oblation to A. at the 
Sarpabali, 30, 91 ; the godanakar- 
man sacred to A., 30, 218, 284; 
oblation to A., to avert an evil 
omen, 42, 166; worshipped at the 
new and full moon sacrifices, 12, 375, 
377 sq., 377 n-, 380; 29, 17"., 39 2 ; 
30, 37, 196; 44, 3 n., 54; the Ash - 
takH sacred to A., 29, 206 ; 30, 97 ; 
funeral oblations to A., 7, 84; 14, 
268; 25, 114; 29, 103, 242 ; 30, 
1 13 ; 32, 35 sq. ; see also A. Kavyava- 
hana above, p. 1 3 ; animal sacrifices 
for A., 26, 218, 221 sq., 312, 428 sq. ; 
41, 11 sq.; 44, 377, 383^, 395, 
402 ; the animal slain for the re- 
ception of a teacher as a guest 
is sacred to A., 29, 88 ; he-goat 
sacrificed for A., 41, 162 ; 44, 
xxv, 299 ; worshipped by offer- 
ings of ghrita, cows and bulls, 46, 
211; the first offerings made to A. 
along with the Seasons, 12, is6sq.; 
oblation to A. at the seasonal sacri- 
fices, 44, 74 n., 75 ; Agnyadhana 
sacrifices for A., 12, 317-22 ; Agni- 
hotra libation to A., 12, 327, 334-7; 



44, 81 ; deity of a JfcUi-graha, 26, 
32011.; Partha oblation to A., 41, 
82 ; ottering to A., the lord of rites, 
41, 112 ; offering to A. at the Daja- 
peya, 41, 120-2, 125 ; invoked at a 
Soma sacrifice, 42, 179 sq., 182, 184, 
188 ; 44, 142, 208, 443 ; prayer and 
oblations to A. at the three savanas, 
46, 300 sq. ; offerings to A. at the 
horse sacrifice, 44, 280, 318, 337 n., 
350; Agnishmt AgnishKmia is A., 
44, 418; rite of consecration for 
A., 42, 669 ; one of the gods wor- 
shipped at the Mitravinda sacrifice, 
44, 62-6; worshipped at the Sau- 
trama^T, 44, 233; offerings to A. 
made by ascetics, 49 (ij, 72 ; better 
is homage paid to the righteous 
than worship of A., 10 (i), 32 ; 
compared with the Fire(Atar) wor- 
shipped by the Zoroastrians, 4, 
lii ; 31, 80. 

(t) Prayers to A., and A. as re- 
lated TO PRAYERS (AND METRES). 
Prayers to A., 12, 301, 349-54, 
356-60; 14,216,251,318; 26, 21- 
3, 49, 92, 203, 203 n. ; 29, 23 ; 41, 
168 sq. ; 43, 141 sq. ; prayers and 
hymns to A., VOL. 46 ; consecratory 
formula addressed to A., 12, 231 
sq. ; morning prayer to A., 26, 229 
sq. n., 231 ; 44, 378; praised and 
invoked, 26, 73, no, 158 sq., 161, 
196, 205, 326 sq. n., 343, 376 ; 41, 
211-13, ZI 9 fi( l'> 2 5^"9, 2 7 2 S( 1m 2 79i 
281 sq., 285 n., 349-51, 358, 398 
sq., 404-7; 42, 134; 43, 123 sq., 
172 sq., 176 sq., 190, 199, 203 sq., 
250 sq., 262, 268, 291 ; 44, 230, 
432 ; invoked for protection, 12, 
261 ; 29, 247, 280 ; invoked for long 
life, 42, 49-53, 60, 552; invoked 
for lustre, offspring, and life, 42, 
231 ; 44, 238,267; invoked to release 
from madness, 42, 32; invoked for 
success in trade, 30, 178 ; 42, 148 
sq., 353 ; invoked for the king, 41, 
89, 94, ioisq.; 42, 116; invoked 
for gain fat gambling), 42, 151 ; in- 
voked for food, 44, 63 ; invoked for 
wealth and affluence, 44, 65 ; in- 
voked in the hour of death, 1, 313 
sq., 313 n. ; invoked to unite the 
deceased with his ancestors, 7, 
86 n. ; invoked to lead the dead by 
a good path, 15, 200 ; invoked at 



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24 



AGKI 



expiatory rile, 30, 197; 44, 505; 
invoked at the sprinkling of water, 
12, 22; 30, 226; invoked in the 
Samidheni verses, 12, 102 sq. n., 
103-13, 120 sq. ; prayers to A. at 
the setting up of the sacred fire, 30, 
20^-3 ; prayer to A., when the fire 
goes out, 29, 1 34 ; invoked at 
domestic sacrificial rites, 29, 27, 29, 
174 sq., 201, 207 ; invoked at the 
Va^apeya, 41, 38 ; daily worship of 
A., 42, 149; addressed at the 
ordeal by fire, 33, 108 n., 109 sq., 
2 55 J the priest propitiates A. and 
the gods, 12, 134 sq. ; accomplishes 
all blessings invoked by the priest 
on the sacrificer, 26, 184; identified 
with the front part of the war- 
chariot in a battle-charm, 42, 120 ; 
gazing reverently at A.'s light, 41, 
193; worshipped by King Suddho- 
dana, 49 (i), 22; lord of prayer 
(Brahma»aspati),32, 82, 94; accepts 
the hymn even of the poor sacrificer, 
40, 23 ; carried by prayers as by a 
vehicle, 46, 130; has been pro- 
duced or strengthened by prayer, 
46, 160, 240, 296, 304, 413; him 
the pious seek to win by Iheir 
prayers as the first of the gods, 46, 
352 ; is the voice of praise while 
heaven and earth listen, 12, 249 ; 
deviser of brilliant speech, 46, 215 ; 
invoked to make the prayers 
prosper, 46, 266, 303, 335; wise 
thoughts for prayers come from A., 
46, 352 ; Gayatri, the metre of A., 
12, 96, 96 n., 297, 307, 355; 44, 
106 ; the Gayatri is A., 26, 87 ; 43, 
178 ; is of Gayatra nature, 41, 148, 
161, 167, 196, 232, 324, 358, 374; 
43, 120, 243, 247, 268, 277, 300, 
385 ; metres in relation to A. (fire- 
altar), 43, 328-31. 
(h) A. AS CONNECTED WITH VEDA 

and Veda-study. 

The Rik verses squeezed out from 
A., 1, 70 ; 44, 102 ; Ritos connected 
with A,, 30, 152 sq. ; worshipped 
at the end of the Svadhyaya, 29, 
219; the R:shi of a KaWa, 30, 242 ; 
he who has studied the Veda is 
like A., 41, 146; has discovered the 
Saman for man, 46, 335, 337 ; in- 
voked at the TJpanayana, 29, 189 
sq. j 30, 149, 151, 153, 155-61 ; 



is the teacher of the initiated 
student, 29, r88, 306; 30, 151 ; the 
Brahma^ariii given in charge of A., 
29, 64, 79 ; 30, 154 ; 44, 86 ; prayer 
to A. at the Samavartana, 29, 313 ; 
invoked by the teacher, 2, 114; 
the BrahmaHrin worships A., 29, 
66, 75 sq., 83, 307 sq. ; offering to 
A. by the student who broke his 
vow, 25, 454 sq. ; invoked by the 
student doing penance, 29, 362 ; 
the organs, &c, of an unchaste 
student go to A., 2, 294, 294 n.; 
is the Lord of Vows, 12, 3 ; 26, 
45, 99, 161; 30, 64, 156, 162; 
42, 18; see also above, p, 14, A. 
Vratapati ; the vow belonging to A., 
29,229. 

(i>) A. IN HIS MORA-L.CHARACTER. 

Af and Rita, 46, 103, 160-2, 164, 
228, 240, 372, 382, 385, 393 sq. ; 
the guardian of Rita, 46, 1, 259, 
282, 325 ; kindled on behalf of the 
Rita, and born from the .Rita, 46, 
32 sq., 54, 161, 181, 220, 281 ; 
penetrated by Rita, 46, 70 ; the 
charioteer of Rita., 46, 158, 229, 
350 ; in the abode of Rita, 46, 248, 
412; "is the divine upholder, 43, 
194; is the truth, 41, 226, 281; 
is true and righteous (.R/ta-vat), 46, 
88, 100, 164, 292, 340, 343, 350, 
363 ; the laws (vrata) of A., 46, 
22, 23, 67, 206, 244; administers 
the law of the gods, 46, 22, 31; 
immortal A. honours the gods and 
has never violated the laws, 46, 
232; lord of high laws, 46, 42; 
understands the divine laws and 
the birth of the human race, 46, 70, 
181, 240; has proclaimed his rules 
to the mortals, 46, 164 ; his law is 
not set at naught, 46, 213, 215; 
the purifier, 46, 6, 8, 52, 115, 211, 
228, 24r, 257, 259, 261, 275, 296, 
335) 34i, 343? 375, 382, 414, 418; 
invoked to purify defiled food, and all 
sin, 15, 312; invoked to forgive sin, 
44, 265 ; 46, 249, 354 ; announces the 
sins of men to the gods, 46, 325 sq.; 
sins confessed to A., 46, 372; he 
infringes upon A., who does not 
give the sterile cow to the Brah- 
mans, 42, 177; leads forward the 
man who follows crooked ways, 46, 
22, 26. 



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AGN1— AGNISH7UMA 



(<iv) A. a supreme God of Heaven 
and Earth. 

The begetter of the two worlds, 
46, 119, 244; has procreated the 
Sky and the Waters, 46, 119; has 
adorned the sky with stars, 46, 64 ; 
has caused the sky to roar, 46, 22 ; 
is like the heaven with the stars, 46, 
343; the banner and head of heaven, 
44, 351; 46,230; knows the Heaven, 
46, 326; has filled with his light all 
the lights of Heaven, 46, 167; de- 
termines the seasons, 46, 114, 116, 
281 ; reigns over heaven and earth, 
46, 160 sq., 188, 193 sq., 271 ; has 
filled Heaven and Earth and the 
great Sun, 46, 229, 244; supports 
earth and sky by his efficacious 
spells, 46, 61, 241 ; puts down his 
feet on the surface of the wide 
earth, 46, 167 ; moves in one 
moment round the terrestrial 
space, 46, 137, 229; encompasses 
the earth like heaven, 46, 129; is 
over-lord of this earth, 41, 385 ; 43, 
228; nothing greater than A. (fire- 
altar), 43, 163 ; by his songs 
fashioned the mountains, 42, 213 ; 
through A. everything exists, 43, 4; 
makes the herbs on the earth ripe 
and sweet, 1, 211 ; all food belongs 
to A., 43, 296 ; the maker who 
victoriously stands over all beings, 
46, 273 ; the supporter of every- 
thing, 46, 309 ; has revealed the 
nights and what stands and moves, 
46, 64. 

(-v) A.JN PHILOSOPHICAL SPECULA- 
TIONS^ 

A. as speech, eye, mind, ear, 
breath, 43, 331-3 ; identified with 
speech, 15, 80 ; 25, 512; 26, 39; 
41, 154 ; 43, 208, 363 ; having 
become speech, entered into the 
mouth, 38, 91 sq. ; 48, 417; speech 
enters into A., at the time of 
death, 38, 105 sq. ; is the deity in 
the zenith, and abides in speech, 
15, 148 ; is Prawa, the breath, 15, 
275; 43, 274, 349 ; identified with 
the vital airs, 43, 246 ; unites 
breaths, 42, 51, 366; the Pra«as 
guided by A. and other divine 
beings, 48, 576 ; made up by the 
■Kishis, the vital airs, 43, 122 ; 
guardian of the eye, 12, 244, 260; 



in the dark iris of the eye, 15, 106 ; 
identified with Purusha, 25, 512; 44, 
25911.; HighestPerson,the inner ruler 
of A. ,48, 155; only a manifestation 
of the highest Brahman, 15, 302-3 ; 
A. explains to Satyakama one foot 
of Brahman, 1, 61 sq. ; is one foot 
of Brahman, 1, 54; there is A. (fire , 
the all-seeing, hidden in the two fire- 
sticks, well guarded like a child (in the 
womk) by the mother, day after day to 
be adored by men when they awake 
and bring oblations. This is that 
(the Self), 15, 16; is the highest 
Self, 34, 150; 41, 270; 48, 292; 
the emancipated sage is identical 
with A., 8, 220, 345; is this world, 
12, 259 ; A. (fire-altar) is these 
three worlds, 43, 169, 171 sq., 187, 
235; is sap and substance in this 
world, 41, 278; that (heavenly) 
world is A., 48, 289; see above, 
p. 13 sq., A. Vaijvanara. See also 
Fire. 

Agniblru,ti, n. of a Gaina monk, 22, 
286. 

Agnidatta, 11. p., disciple of Bhadra- 
bahu, 22,^289. See also Kibyapa. 

Agnldh, Agnidhra, see Priests {a, b). 

Agnidhra (n.), fire-shed. See Fire(f). 

Agniliotra, see Fire (f). 

Agni/foyana, t.t, construction of 
the sacred brick-altar, an important 
preliminary to the Soma-sacrifice, 
44, xiii. See Fire-altar. 

AgnU'it, builder of Fire-altar. See 
Fire -altar. 

AgnUitya., t.t., the building of the 
fire-altar. See Fire-altar. 

Agnirahasya, t.t., (a) 'the mystery 
of the fire-altars,' a text of the Vajj-a- 
saneyins,34,lxxiv; 38, 214,216, 260; 
48, 641 ; the S<Wilya-vidya part 
of the A., 38, 214, 216; 48, 641. 
(b) ' The mystery of the fire-altar,' in 
the Satapatha, 43, 281-404 ; 44, xiv. 

Agniaava, a certain sacrifice, 43, 
298, 298 n. 

Agnisliomau, see Agni (b) A. and 
Soma. 

Agniahomiya, t.t, animal sacrifices 
to Agni and Soma. See Animal 
Sacrifices. 

Agnish/oma, t.t., ' praise of Agni,' a 
certain Soma-sacrifice, and the 
chant connected with it. See 
Prayers (r), and Sacrifices (j). 



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2fi 



AGMSH70MA-SAMAN— AGRICULTURE 



Agnish/oma-saman., see Prayers (c). 

Agnishvattas, t.t., the manes of the 

gods, 25, it2. 

Agnivaij-yayana, see Agnivejya- 

j'ana. 
Agnivejya, n. of a teacher, 15, n8, 

„n8 n., i86, i86n. 

Agnive^yayana, n. of a teacher, 1, 

267. 

Agnivej-yayana (or Agnivaijya- 

yana) ; Sudharman of the A. gotra, 

22, 286 sq. ; 45, xxi ; MahavTra 

called an A. by Buddhists, 45, xxi. 
Agnividya, t.t., the same as the 

Upakojala-vidya, 1, 64 n. 
Agnivish//u.. See Agni (b) A. and 

Vish#u. 
Agnosticism, in Buddhism, 11, 293 

sq.; 45, xxvi-xxix ; doctrine of a. 

refuted, 45, 241 sq., 315 sq. ; of 

A'wang-gze, 39, 129 sq., 179 n. r 

194-7 ; condition ot a. exemplified, 

39, 176 sq. and n. 
Agnyadhana, t.t., the laying of the 

sacrificial fires. See Fire (d, e). 
Agnyadheya = Agnyadhana, q.v. 
Agrahaya/fi festival, see Sacrifices 
r (h), and Serpents. 
Agraya^a, agrayawesh/i, t.t., offering 

of first-fruits. See Agriculture. 
Agriculture. 

in) Pursuit of a. recommended or for- 
bidden. 
(/•) Laws relating to a. 

(c) Religious rites relating to a. 

(d) Details of agricultural work. 

(a) Pursuit of a. recommended 
or Forbidden. 

The pursuit of a. as a moral duty 
of the Zoroastrian, 4, lxii, lxvii. 
21-3, 29-31 ; 24, 28, 281 sq.; 31, 
70, 74, 740., 342; 37, 103, 179, 
424, 435, 443 ; let the good deeds for 
the furtherance of husbandry he done 
here, 31, 357 ; war opposed to a., 
I*"'* *73, 173 sq. 11.; the husbandman 
preferred to the thieving nomad, 
31> 38, 45 sq.; the earth pleased by 
tillage, 5, 376 sq. ; 37, 154; wis- 
dom requisite for it, 24, 102; taught 
to the first man and woman, 47, 
6 sq. ; — painful toil of sowing and 
reaping conducts to ease, 3, 201 ; to 
pay attention to a., the duty of the 
people, 3, 471 sq., 472 n. ; hus- 
bandry dear to the Spirits, 27, 279, 
279 n,;— the duty of Vaijyas, 8, 



127; 25, 24, 199, 400, 419 sq. ; 
6'udra labourer in a., 25, 168; 
BrShmawas as landowners, 2, 228, 
228 n. ; forbidden to Brahmawas, 
25, 86, 106 sq., 420 sq., 420 11.; not 
compatible with Veda-study, 14, 
176; allowed to Brahmawas, 14, 13, 
176, 236; 25, 129, 325, 427 ; forbid- 
den to Buddhist monks, 13, 33 ; 19, 
296; Buddha grieved by seeing the 
pain caused by ploughing, 19, 48 ; 
49 (i), 49 sq. 
(6) Laws relating to a. 

Hindu law relating to a., 2, 
168, 240 sq. ; 33, 159 sq., 160 n., 
339 sq. ; boundary disputes, 25, 
253, 279, 298-301, 394 ; damage 
done by cattle, 25, 296 sq. ; negli- 
gent cultivator punished for loss of 
crop, 25, 297 ; seed more important 
than soil, 25, 333-5, 418; owner 
of field and owner of seed share 
the crops, 25, 336 ; offences with 
respect to the seed corn, 25, 394 ; 
law about agricultural labourers, 33, 
T 34> J 59 s Q-» 345 ! a husbandman 
at the time of harvest must not 
be put under restraint, 33, 288 ; 
tithe, see Taxes ; — Persian law of 
a., 37, 403 ; produce of land, law 
about confiscation, 37, 143;— Chinese 
regulations for husbandmen, 27, 2 1 o, 
227 sq., 255, 260, 289, 292 sq., 304 
sq., 308 ; private and public fields, 
3, 322 n., 369 sq. n., 373, 373 "- ; 
regulations about measuring land, 
27, 244-7 ; instructions given to 
the officers of husbandry, 3, 320- 2 ; 
instructions to husbandmen given 
by government, 27, 270 ; hus- 
bandmen present grain to the 
emperor, 27, 285 ; regulations for 
bad years, 28, 2, 4; — the dues of 
the fruit, according to Arabian law, 
to be brought on the day of harvest, 
6, 133. 

(r) Religious Rites relating 
to a. 

Hindu ceremonies and sacrifices 
relating to a., 29, 98 sq., 126 sq. ; 
30, sxviii, 113 sq., 304; 42, 486; 
sacrifice to Kshetrapati, the lord of 
the field, 30, 224, 291; ploughing 
ceremonies, 29, 126 sq., 215, 326 
sq. ; Buddha attends a ploughing 
festival, 19, xx ; sacrifice to Sit a, 



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AGRICULTURE- AHARMAN 



27 



29, 333~6 ; Kariresh/i, a sacrifice 
offered to bring about rain, 38, i 1 8, 
ri8 n. ; the Agrayawa (Agrayaweshri) 
or offering of first-fruits, 7, 191 sq.; 
12, 369-74; 25, 132 sq., 200; 29, 
203 sq., 203 n., 337 sq., 415 sq., 
430; 30, gi sq., 124, 289; 41, 46 ; 
44, 176, 176 n. ; harvest offerings, 

30, 24 sq. ; ploughing, watering, and 
sowing the ground for the fire-altar, 

41, 326-41 ; ploughing and sowing 
of the site of the burial ground, 44, 
431-3; amulet prepared from a 
ploughshare, 42, 84 sq., 608 sq. ; 
charm to remove weeds from a field, 

42, 465; prayers for success in a., 
42, 141 sq., 486, 499, 541 ;~Parsi 
prayers when sowing corn, 5, 392 ; 
rules about sowing, &c, on de- 
filed ground,4, 67 sq. ;— Chinese cere- 
monies relating to a., 27,254 sq.,255 
n.; worship of Hau-^i, the Father of 
Husbandry, 3, 319 sq., 341 sq., 371- 
3, 37i n.> 398; 27, 431-4, 433 n. ; 
presentation of first-fruits, 27, 271, 
274 ; spring festivals relating to a., 
3, 302 ; thanksgiving sacrifices for a 
plentiful year, 3, 323,331-3, 371- 
3, 371 n. ; agricultural sacrifice at 
the end of the year, 28, 167 ; sacri- 
fices to heaven and earth, and 
spirits of land and grain, 28, 265 ; 
ploughing of special fields by rulers, 
27, 36 ; 28, 222, 231, 239 ; the em- 
peror ploughs his field, 28, 338 ; — 
Arabian (heathen) customs with 
regard to tilth, 6, 132 sq. 

(d) Details of agricultural 
work : — 

People earn a living by gleaning, 
17, 117; shape of rice-fields, 17, 
207 sq.; list of farming operations, 
20, 225 sq. ; blight and mildew, 20, 
326 ; simile of the husbandman, 
36, 269 sq. ; food is threefold : 
ploughing, rain, seed, 43, no; 
implements of husbandmen, 4, 174 ; 
buying and selling corn, 18, 174-6, 
180-2; irrigation, 24, 338 sq. ; see 
also Irrigation; providing in sum- 
mer for the winter, reaping, 37, 91 
sq. ; Yao's care for a. by having a 
calendar made, 3, 32-4; Shun 
appoints a Minister of A., 3, 42 sq.; 
poetical pictures of husbandry, 3, 
3 3'~3» 3 6 9-72, 444-6; the or- 



dinary man (who does not follow 

the Tao) compared to a negligent 

farmer, 40, 121 sq. 
Agtina, see Heaven. 
Ahallika, a term of reproach 

(ghost?), 15, 148. 
Ahalya, lndra's love affair with, 

26, 81, 81 n. ; Indra wooed A., 49 

(i), 44- 

Aham, Sk., ' I,' The Atman or 
Self perceived beyond the A. or 
Ego, 1, xxx ; secret name of Brah- 
man, 38, 216 sq., 246. See also I. 

Ahawkara, t.t., the principle ot 
egoity, 34, xxiii, 364 n,, 376 n., 440, 

^441 ; 38, 81. See Egoism, and I. 

A-hang, n, of 1 Yin, 3, 95, 95 n., 
118, 118 n. See t Yin. 

Ahankara, see Ahawkara. 

Ahar, secret name of Brahman, 38, 
216 sq., 246. 

Aharas (food?), pain arises from 
the A., 10 (ii), 139 sq. 

Aharivvartg, Phl. = Zd., Ashij van- 
guhi, 'good rectitude,' the angel of 
perfect rectitude, 37, 227, 229, 244, 
292 ; 47, 85, 85 n. See Avd, Arshi- 
jang, and Ashi Vanguhi. 

Aharman, or Ahriman, the Evil 
Spirit (in Parsi religion). 

(a) His existence, character, and doings. 

(/') His relation to Aiiharmazd. 

(c) His antagonism against righteousness 

and religion, and his love of sin. 
(//) How to defeat A. 
(e) Myths and legends of A. 

(a) His existence, character, 

AND DOINGS. 

An older corruption of Angra- 
mainyu than (janrak-main6k,5, 4 n., 
1 1 2 n. : his existence proved, 24, 
150-68; the separate existence of 
an originator of evil admitted by 
Christians, 24, 238-42 ; his is no 
material existence, 18, 44, 440.; 
different from the evil spirit, 5, 
12811.; 'the co-existent one,' 18, 
282 ; Mamchaean doctrines about 
A. as the creator, 24, 243-51 ; and 
the Christian devil, 5, lxix sq. ; 
the chief of hell, 18, 58, 87 ; 24, 
25, 31 ; fabricated hell, 4, 376 ; in 
darkness, with backward under- 
standing and desire for destruction, 
was in the abyss, and it is he who 
will not be, 5, 4; not omniscient, 
°> 5, 7 ! has more predominance in 



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28 



AMARMAN 



the dark, 5, 342 ; called Drug-, the 
fiend, 5, 14; his body that of a 
lizard, 5, 16, 105; is all vileness, 5, 
158 ; why he advanced towards the 
light, though of a different nature, 
24, 123 sq. ; creatures of A., 5, 
6, 17 sq. ; 37, 423; death of 
A.'s creatures does not defile, 4, 
Ixxviii, 60 ; creates 'falsehood,' 'evil 
thought,' 5, 9; created the diseases, 

4, 228 n. ; three tyrants created by 
A., 4, xlviii ; the producer of the 
demon of wrath, 24, 205, 2050,; 
the evil-doing of A., 5, 105 sq., 

112 sq. ; 24, 101 ; disturbance by 
A. and the demons, 5, 214 ; brought 
mortality into the world, 18, 198, 
19811.; concealed the results of 
good and evil, and created false 
religions, 24, 39 sq. ; all misery due 
to A., 24, 74, 94 sq. ; 47, 92 ; de- 
ceives man, 24, 87 sq., 102 ; wishes 
men not to understand him, 5, 113, 

113 n. ; 24, 80; tries most to injure 
the soul, 24, 88 ; his miscreations : 
fiends, idolaters, wolves,37, 151 ; the 
brood of the fiend and the wound- 
producer of the Evil Spirit, 47, 102. 

(&) His relation to Auharmazd. 
Relation of A. and Auharmazd, 

5, Ixix sq. ; origin of Auharmazd 
and A., and their difference, 37, 
242 sq. ; Ormazd and A. created 
the world, 23, 163, 198; A. as de- 
stroyer, and Auharmazd as creator, 
4, 212 n. ; 24, 14; Auharmazd dis- 
criminates truly, A. does not, 37, 
391 sq. ; Ormazd is all perfume, A. 
all stench, 4, 22011.; the Zoroas- 
trian rejoices Ormazd and afflicts 
A., 4, 375 ; there cannot be any 
peace and affection between Auhar- 
mazd and A., 24. 36 sq.; is a creature 
of Auharmazd, 37, 485 ; not smitten 
by Auharmazd, 24, 66 ; struggle 
between Auharmazd ami A., their 
creation and counter-creation, 4, 
Hv sq., Ixi, Ixiv ; 5, xxiii, 3-10, 
14-20, 25-31, 52, 65 sq., 68 sq., 71- 
4> 99> I0 5 s q-j i: 3 S( l-j IJ 6, 155-66, 
3 6 3j 365; 18, 25 sq., 93-8, 261, 
269 sq., 273-5, 282 n., 374, 376 sq., 
384 sq.; 23, 22, 296 ; 24, 32-5, 38, 
73 sq., 82 sq., ioi, 205-8, 244 ; 31, 
xviii sq., 264 ; 37, 31, 230, 270, 301 
sq., 307, 441 ; vanquished by Ahura 



Mazda (Ormazd), 4, Ixi, Ixiv, 100 n., 
197m ; 23, 33, 250; the dog of 
A. kills creatures of Ormazd, and 
vice versa, 4, 155-7 ; refuses to 
accept the condi tions of peace 
proffered by Auharmazd, 5, 6 sq. ; 
covenant between Afiharmazd and 
A., 24, 104, 104 n. ; Auharmazd was 
aware of A., A. was not aware of 
Auharmazd, 5, 155; Auharmazd 
will not leave his creatures unto the 
Evil Spirit, 5, 308 ; good govern- 
ment produced by Auharmazd, bad 
government by A., 24, 43 ; Ormazd 
created healing plants, A. the dis- 
eases, 4, 228 n. ; the primaeval bull 
created by Ormazd and killed by 
A., 4, 23111.; Ahura Mazda re- 
quests Mathra Spew/aand Airyaman 
to cure the diseases sent by A., 4, 
236-40 ; all good owing to Auhar- 
mazd, all evil to A., 37, 62, 2-1 5 sq. ; 
counteracts divine providence, 24, 
55. See also Dualism. 

!>) HlSANTAGONISMAGAINST RIGHT- 
EOUSNESS AND RELIGION, AND HIS 
LOVE OF SJN. 

A. assists the demon-worshippers 
against the Iranians, 5, li sq., 224- 
30 ; the antagonism of A. and 
the demons brought on by the evil- 
doers, 5, 207 ; a liar is a co-operator 
with A., 24, 322 sq. ; the practice 
of sinners is that of A., 18, 216 sq. ; 
a wrathful man is just like A., 24, 
10 ; a bad ruler equal to A., 24, 45 ; 
a false judge is like A., 24, 79 ; the 
sinner akin to A., 24, 357 ; chooses 
the realm of the wicked, 31, 26, 
30 sq. ; the wicked, the followers 
of A. 'the other one,' 37, 388; 
prevents the worthy from being 
allotted worldly happiness, 24,76; 
the Behram fire struggles with the 
spiritual fiend, 5, 1S5 ; opposed to 
worship of sacred beings, 37, 181, 
192, 276 sq. ; opposed to creation 
and to righteousness, 37, 239 ; 
pleased by transgression of Zoroas- 
trian law, 5, 109 ; the sin of un- 
natural intercourse pleases A. most, 
18, 226 sq. ; 24, 267 sq. ; has ap- 
pointed the demons Tardy and 
Afterwards, 24, 346 sq. ; injustice 
produced by A., 37, 73; apostasy 
produced by A., 37, 328, 346; pre- 



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dominates over him who works in 
the dark, 37, 478 ; will the wicked 
souls be able to see A. ? 18, 44 sq. ; 
and the demons seize the wicked 
soul in hell, 18, 72; 24, 266 sq. ; 
powerless to inflict harm on the 
soul of the blessed one, 4, 374. 

(d) HOW TO DEFEAT A. 

He who pleases the seven arch- 
angels, his soul never comes into the 
possession of A., 5, 373 ; righteous 
men fight against the fiend, 18, 12, 
14 ; the smiting of A. effected by 
wisdom, 24, 101 ; destruction of 
A. arises from the union of the good, 
37, 346 ; A. and demons defeated 
by the sacred ceremony, 18, 159 sq., 
167 ; next-of-kin marriage a pro- 
tection from A. and the demons, 
4, 98 ti. ; 18, 417 ; contentment good 
for vanquishing A., 24, 26, 70 ; who 
wears the sacred thread-girdle is out 
of A.'s department, 24, 268 ; de- 
feated by the spirit of truth, 24, 
324; beaten by complete mindful- 
ness, 37, 264; Zoroastrian cere- 
monial a protection from the annoy- 
ing spirit, 37, 363 sq. ; closing the 
way of A. into oneself, 37, 433, 439; 
separation from the destructive 
Evil Spirit one of the seven per- 
fections of religion, 37, 273 ; driven 
back to hell by the Honover, 4, 
100 n. ; shattered by the Airman 
supplication, 37, 302 sq. ; repelled 
by recitation of Vastarem Mask, 
37, 446 ; cries of cock, &c, keep 
him at a distance, 5, 113, 11311,; 
prayer for the destruction of the 
Evil Spirit, 5, 362 ; how A. and the 
demons are confounded, 24, 83 sq.; 
mountains which are smiters of A. 
and the demons, 24, 98 : a scornful 
dole for A., 37, 311 ; the accursed 
devil becomes cursed, 37, 428, 437. 

(e) Myths and legends of A. 
Adam deluded by A., 24, 179, 

179 n. ; Aeshms complaint to A. of 
the three things he could not injure 
in the world, 5, 387-9, 387 n. ; the 
Daeiw his seed and his servants, 
31, 54, 58 sq. ; the six demons from 
the dark world of A., 5, 10 ; Dahdk 
begged a favour from A., 5, 80 ; 
releases Ass-i Dahak, •">, lii, 233 sq.; 
Dahak's descent traced to A., 5, 



132; his conflict with the Earth, 
5, 29 sq. ; his conflict with Gdyo- 
mard, 5, 17-19; Gayomar^ delivers 
his body to A., 24, 58 ; he appeared 
a young man of fifteen years to 
Geh, 5, 16 ; the seven planets chief- 
tains of A., 24, 34, 38 ; his conflict 
with the plants, 5, 30 sq. ; his con- 
flict with the primaeval ox, 4, 2 3 1 11. ; 
5, 31 sq. ; 47, 33 ; his destruction 
at the renovation of the universe, 
5, 128 sq. ; 18, 118; 24, 99; 37, 
431, 446 ; 47, xiii ; the creatures of 
A. will perish at the time when the 
future existence occurs, 5, 5 ; be- 
came confounded and remained in 
confusion for 3,000 years, 5, 15 sq. ; 
became headstrong and was put out 
of heaven, 24, 192; his conflict 
with the sky, 5, 25; 18, 261; attacks 
the sky, the water, the earth, &c, 
5, [61-87 ; sprang like a snake out 
of the sky down to the earth, 5, 17 ; 
made impotent by Sosbyans, 5, 8, 
33; 47, 117 sq. ; stars assist in 
the distribution of evil produced 
by A., 24, 127-38 ; overturned by 
Takhmorup, IS, 200, 200 n. ; kept as 
a charger by Takhmorup, 24, 59, 60, 
60 n. ; converted into a horse by 
Takhmorup, 47, 8 ; his conflict with 
the water and with Ttstar, 5, 25-9; 
A. and the demons defeated in the 
reign of Fistasp and other kings, 5, 
198, 201 ; afflicted through the 
deeds of Vbtasp, 24, 65 ; sends 
demons to destroy Zoroaster before 
and at his birth, but is dismayed, 
37,227; 47,140-2; tempts Zara- 
tfut, but is confounded, 24, 103 sq.; 
A. rushes for the destruction of 
Zoroaster, but is defeated by him, 
37, 164; 47, 58 sq., 123. 

Ahartibo-stdtd, son of MeVyomah, 
47, 166. 

Ahaapati, n.d., * lord of days,' 30, 5S. 

AhavanSya, see Fire (e). 

Ahi( f the Snake'), slain by lndra, 
32, 180, 197. 

Ahi Budhnya, oblation to, 29, 331 ; 
41, 96, 96 n. 

Ahiwsa, Sk., t.t. (the vow or law of) 
not injuring (any living being). 

(/r) In Ca'ma religion. 
i/>) In l'uiJdhism. 
(I In Hrahmanisni. 



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AIIIJ/SA 



(a) In Gaina religion. 

He should not kill, nor cause others to 
hill, nor consent to the killing of others, 
22, 31 ; the Arhais and Bhagavats of 
the past, present, and future, all say 
thus, speak thus, declare thus, explain 
thus: all breathing, existing, living, 
sentient creatures should not be slain, 
nor treated with violence, nor abused, 
nor tormented, nor driven away, 22, 
36, 38 sq. ; all beings hate pains; 
therefore one should not kill them. This 
is the quintessence of wisdom : not to 
kill anything. Know this to be the 
legitimate conclusion from the prin- 
ciple of the reciprocity with regard to 
non-killing, 45, 247 sq., 248 n., 311; 
a wise man should not take the lite 
of living beings, nor cause pain to 
any creatures, looking upon all living 
beings as suffering like himself, 22, 
30-2, 63 sq. ; 45, 25, 33 sq., 251 sq., 
254> 259, 271, 295, 311, 351, 404 
sq. ; the first great vow of the 
Gaina not to kill any living being, 
22, 202-4 ; do not kill living beings 
in the threefold way, 45, 260; giving 
safety is the best of gifts, 45, 290 ; 
a monk should treat all beings as 
he himself would be treated, 45, 
306 sq., 314; towards your fellow 
creatures be not hostile, 45, 329; 
wicked men injure plants and ani- 
mals, 45, 374 ; abstinence from 
destroying life destroys Karman, 
45, 174; all living beings suffer: 
hence those who injure living beings 
will suffer pains in the Sawsara, 
while those who practise A. will 
put an end to all misery, 45, 386 
sq. ; sins caused by actions injuring 
the lives in earth, water, fire, plants, 
animals, wind, 22,3-14; heretics 
kill or consent to killing others, 
22, 62 ; those who entertain cruel 
thoughts against the six classes of 
living beings arc near death, 22, 
42 ; killing living beings causes 
bondage of the soul, 45, 236; those 
who kill living beings go to the 
abode of the Asuras, 45, 259; those 
who injure living beings go to hell, 
45, 21, 279, 286 ; by hurting any of 
the living beings (earth, water, fire, 
and wind bodies, plants, &c.) men 
do harm to their own souls, and 



will be born as one of them, 45, 
292 sq. ; precautions to be taken 
by Gaina monks, in order to avoid 
killing animals, 22, 47, 47 n., 72, 75, 
97, 100, 120, 126, 128, 132, 136 sq., 
J 39> 145,' 161 sq., 169 sq., 178-83, 
304-8; 45, 129, 135 sq., 146 sq. ; 
he should not scare away {insects), 
nor keep them off, nor be in the least 
provoked to passion by them. Tolerate 
living beings, do not kill them, though 
they eat your flesh and blood, 45, 1 1 ; 
mouth-cloth used by Gainas to 
prevent insects entering the mouth, 
45, 145, 145 n. ; a Gaina monk 
should not build a house, nor cook, 
nor light a fire, because many 
living beings are killed thereby, 
45, 204 sq.; a Gaina monk should 
only drink distilled water (with- 
out life), 45, 10, ion,; a monk 
must not use cold water, not to 
injure water-bodies, 45, 255, 235 n.; 
food is only pure when given with 
unwashed hands and dishes, on ac- 
count of the lives contained in 
water, 22, 103 sq., 117 ; sin caused 
by injuring the fire-bodies or lives 
in fire, 22, 7 sq., 67, 67 n. ; 45, 293, 
358 ; certain food forbidden to 
Gaina monks on account of dangers 
to living beings, 22, 88 sq., 104-10; 
Mahavtra's abstinence from killing, 
22, 81; Buddhist misrepresentation 
of the Gaina vow of desisting from 
doing injury, 45, xvii sq. ; living 
beings injured by sacrificial cere- 
monies, 22, 12, 18; 45, 55; a bad 
5rama«a, through carelessness, hurts 
living beings, 45, 78 sq.; Arish/a- 
nemi, on seeing the animals to be 
killed for the wedding feast, re- 
nounces the world, 45, 114; the 
Hastitapasa kill one elephant a year, 
and live on it, to spare the life of 
other animals, 45, 418 sq. ; Gaina 
householders renounce slaughter of 
animals, as they cannot altogether 
abstain from injuring the six classes 
of beings, 45, 421-33, 421 n.; when 
living beings are killed for the sake 
of gifts and other meritorious ac- 
tions, a monk should neither praise 
nor forbid such acts, 45, 312 sq. ; 
various causes why men injure living 
beings, 45, 357-60. 



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(i) In Buddhism. 

Doctrine of A. in Buddhism 
and Gainism, 22, xxi-xxviii ; there 
were formerly three diseases : desire, 
hunger, a/id decay, but from the slay- 
ing of cattle there came ninety-eight, 
1(1 (ii), 51 ; Ye shall slay no living 
thing, 11, 253; As I am so are these, 
as these are so am I, identifying himself 
with others, let him not kill nor cause 
'any one) to kill, 10 (ii), 128 ; 
Doing no injury to any one, dwell 
full of love and kindness in the world, 
35, 254 sq. ; Now wherein, VdseWsia, 
is his conduct good? Herein, 
Vasettba, that putting away the mur- 
der of that which lives, he abstains 
from destroying life. The cudgel and 
the sword he lays aside ; and, full of 
modesty and pity, he is compassionate 
and kind to all creatures that hare 
life! 11, 189; kindness to all tilings 
that live, 10 (i), 36 sq. and n.; 36, 
341 sq. ; the principal sin of de- 
stroying life, 10 (i), 61 ; the true 
Brahma«a, the saint, the Bhikkhu, 
does not kill nor cause slaughter, 10 
(i), 92 ; (ii), 35 sq., 61, 88 sq., 114 ; 
a householder must not kill, nor 
cause to be killed any living being, 
nor approve of others killing, 10 (ii), 
65 sq. ; Bhikkhus are to refrain 
from injuring plants or animals, 11, 
J90, 192; 13, 4, 33, 4 6 ; 17, 22; 
a Bhikkhu must not intentionally 
destroy the life of any being down 
to a worm or ant, 13, 235; a 
Bhikkhu shall not dig the ground, 
13, 33 ; a Bhikkhu must not sprinkle 
water, with living creatures in it, 
on grass or on clay, 13, 35 ; a 
Bhikkhu must not drink water with 
living things in it, 13, 46 ; the 
dangers to vegetable and animal 
life to be prevented by keeping 
vassa, 13, 298 sq., 300 ; wooden 
shoes forbidden, because insects are 
trod upon and killed, 17, 21 ; by 
one case of destruction of life, a 
man may be re-born in hell, 35, 124; 
sin of depriving a living being of 
life unconsciously, 35, 224 ; a wicked 
Bhikkhu, who caused a bull to be 
slain to get its skin, rebuked by 
Buddha, 17, 29 sq. ; already in for- 
mer births Buddha refrained from 
hurting living beings, 36, 16 ; eight 



classes of men who kill living beings, 
36, 17 ; the Buddhists denounced 
as eating meat, 45, 416; sacrifices 
objectionable as connected with 
slaughter, 10 (ii), 49 sq- \ l ! 'i I2 9, 
135 ; 49 (i), I2i ; king .Suddhodana 
only oilers sacrifices involving no 
injury to living beings, 4!) (i), 24. 
See also Love. 
(c) IN BRAHMANIS3I. 

A. or harmlessness comes from 
Krishna, 8, 86 ; is called knowledge, 
8, 103 ; is his who is born to god- 
like endowments, 8, 1 1 4 ; is called 
penance bodily, 8, 119; non-de- 
struction is the highest piety, 8, 
348, 378 ; is an element of the 
quality of goodness, 8, 325, 373; 
leads up to final emancipation, 8, 
364 ; some people (sects) are given 
up to harmlessness, others to de- 
struction, 8, 376 ; abstention from 
injuring living beings the duty of 
all castes, 14, 2 6 sq. ; 25, 4 1 6 ; those 
are Brahmanas who can save from 
evil, who abstain from injuring 
living beings, 14, 38; he who ab- 
stains from injuring living beings 
obtains heaven, 14, 136; 25, 166 
sq. ; he is a true Brahmawa who 
befriends all creatures, 14, 128; 
25, 46, 46 n.; the soul is purified 
by abstention from injuring living 
beings, 14, 165; who hurts living 
beings cannot reach the abode of 
the gods, 14, 176 ; abstention from 
injuring living beings is internal 
purification, 14, 287 ; abstention 
from injuring living beings a pen- 
ance, 14, 312; 25, 476; abstention 
from injuring living beings the best 
sacrifice, 14, 1 39 ; he who delights 
in injuring living creatures excluded 
from Sraddha, 25, 106 ; remem- 
brance of former births a reward of 
doing no injury to created beings, 
25, 152 ; sacrifices and the doctrine 
of A., 19, 129; 38, 130 sq., 310; 
48, 598 sq. ; see also Animal 
Sacrifices (a) ; the Ocean begs 
king Arjiuia to give security to 
creatures of the sea, 8, 294 ; the 
BrahmaAarin must not injure ani- 
mate beings, 2, 188; 25, 63; a 
Snataka shall not hurt any living 
being, 2, 226; 25, 137: - 9 , 3>8; 



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AHLVSA— AHURA-MAZDA 



the ascetic shall avoid the destruc- 
tion of seeds, and be indifferent 
towards all creatures, 2, 194; offer- 
ing safety to all beings, duty of the 
Sannyasin, 8, 362 ; the ascetic pro- 
mises not to injure any living being, 
8, 365 ; 14, 46, 260, 277, 277 n., 
279 ; 2-5, 205 sq., 208-10, 212 ; 
ascetics must always use strained 
water, 14, 260, 279; '25, 207, 207 n.; 
an ascetic who rejects meat at 
sacrifices and funeral meals goes to 
hell, 14, 54; hermits should not 
injure even gadflies or gnats, 14, 
293; see Compassion, an /Slaughter. 

Ahina sacrifices, see Sacrifices (/). 

A'hrned = Mohammed, 9, 281 n. 

AVmas ibn .Suraiq, n.p., a worldly 
man of pleasant appearance, but op- 
posed to Mohammed, 6, 29 sq., 29 n. 

Ahoganga Hill, Sambhuta Sa«a- 
vas! dwelling there, 20, 394. 

A-ho Kan, n.p., disciple of Lao-lung 
A"i, 40, 67 sq. 

Ahriman, see Aharman. 

Ahum-stu/, n.p., 23, 203. 

Ahunavaiti, title of a Gatha of the 
Zend-Avesta, 31, 2-92. 

Ahura-Mazda (Ormazd), the su- 
preme God of Mazdeism. 

(a) The supreme God and Creator. 
(&) A. in mythology, 
(r) A. and Zoroaster, 
(</) A. and morality, 
(c) Worship of A. 

(a) The supremeGodand Creator. 
The belief in a supreme God, 
A., an old element in Zoroastrian- 
ism, 4, xiii, lx sq. ; parallel with 
the Asura Varu«a, 4, xxx, lii ; an 
Aryan god, 4, Ixiv ; one of the 
purest conceptions of God, 31, xvitt 
sq. ; Invoke, O Zarathustra ! my Fra- 
vashi, who am Ahura-Mazda, the great- 
est , the best, the fairest of all beings, the 
most solid, the most intelligent, the best 
sliapat, the highest hi holiness, ami 
whose soul is the holy Word! 4, 2 1 3 ; 
the Creator, 4, 376 ; 23, 25, 27 ; 31, 
108 sq., 113 sq. ; his creations, 4, 
Ixx; 31, 285 sq. ; 37, 423 ; the 
sixteen perfect lands created by 
A., 4, 1 10 ; all good things, made 
by A., the offspring of the holy 
principle, 4, 142 sq., 147 sq. ; 31, 
248, 250; made the aerial way, the 
earth, and everything, 4, 232-4 ; 



made the waters flow and the plants 
grow, 23, 198 sq. ; the maker, the 
most beneficent of all beings, 4, 
204-6 ; 23, 326 ; is all-knowing, 
never asleep, never intoxicated, 4, 
215; 23, 25, 27 ; power and bene- 
volence of A., 31, 93, 95-7, 100-5 ; 
his gifts, immortality, righteous 
order, and kingdom of welfare, 31, 
83; victorious strength given by A., 
23, 128, 133; the glory made by 
Mazda, and the victory made by 
Ahura, 23, 136 ; a guardian and 
a friend, 31, 108, 112 ; the first 
father of righteous order, 31, 108, 
113; bountifuluess of A., 31, 145-51 ; 
the remedies of A., 31, 347. 
(b) A. in Mythology. 

The sun the eye of A., 31, 199 ; 
the stars, his body, 31, 285; the star 
Jupiter called Ormazd, 31, 199; the 
waters his wives, 23, 353, 353 n. ; 
31, 286 sq., 342, 386 ; how A. puri- 
fies the water which he sends down 
to the Dakhmas, 4, 49, 54 sq. ; 
GarG-nmanem (Garo^man), the 
abode of A., 4, 221 ; 23, 338 ; 31, 
184 sq. and n. ; the helpers of A., 
31, 81, 86; higher than all the 
Amesba-Spentas , 4, 283 ; father and 
commander of the Amesha-Spe«tas, 
23, 199 sq., 290 ; has six personified 
attributes, 31, xviii sq. ; court of 
Ormazd and the archangels, 37, 
437; relation of A. (Ormazd) to 
AngraMainyu (Abarman, Ahriman), 
see Aharman (b) ; brought Ardvi Sura 
Andhita down to earth, and sacri- 
ficed to her, 23, 55- 8, 73 sq.; Ardvi 
Sura Anahita, the daughter of A., 
31, 321 ; Ashi Fangubi, daughter of 
A., 23, 270, 274; Atar, son of A., 
23, 5, see Atar ; assisted by the 
Fra*vasbis in maintaining the world, 
23, 180-5, 187, 193 sq.; made Hara 
Berezaiti the dwelling of Mitbra, 
'23, 131 sq. ; established Mithra to 
maintain and look over all the 
world, 23, 145 ; brought the healing 
plants to 'Tbrita, 4, 225 sq. ; assisted 
fistrya in his struggle against 
Drought, 23, 95, 99-101, ro3 ; es- 
tablished Tijtrya above all stars, 
23, 105; offered sacrifice to layu, 
23, 250; Vayu works the good of 
A. and the Amesha-Spcwtas, 23, 



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259; reigns according as Vohu Ma/16 
waxeth, 4, 276 n., 277 ; the creator 
of Asha, and father of the Good 
Mind, 31, 37, 44 ; the father of the 
Good Mind and of Piety, 31, 123, 
126 sq. ; the kingdom gained for A, 
by the Good Mind, 31, 27, 33 I the 
kingdom is for A., 31, 281, 283, 309, 
3 2 3> 347) 372, 381 ; calls a meeting of 
the celestial Tazatas, 4, 15 ; Tima, 



advising the good, is acting in the 
love of A., 31, 68, 72 ; the leading 
sin of disobedience to A., 31, 69, 
73; receives the righteous soul in 
Paradise, 4, 89 ; the souls of the 
righteous pass to the golden seat of 
A., 4, 220; created good renown 
and salvation of the soul, 4, 375 ; 
helps the soul to pass over the 
A'inva/ Bridge, 31, 261. 



the first mortal who converses with (?) Worship of A. 



A., 4, 
(c) A. and Zoroaster. 

Reveals the law to Zarathujtra, 
4, lxx-lxxii, 2, 11, 22, &c, 208, 
212, 240 n.; 23, 24, 24 n.; 31, 354 ; 
invoked by Zarathujtra to declare 
his doctrine, 31, 37, 41 ; Zoroaster 
asks A. for his regulations and the 
path of the Good Mind, 81, 82, 88 
sq, ; prayer to A. for revelation, 
31, 38 sq., 48-50; the twenty-one 
Nasks formed by A. out of the Ahuna 
Vairya, 4, xxxvii ; conversations 
between Zarathujtra and A., 31, 
107-21, 249, 260 sq., 337, 341, 374 
s q-j 39° J taught Zarathujtra the 
sacrifice, 31, 318 sq., 338 sq.; these 
are the best words, those which A. 
spoke to Zarathujtra, 31, 330; di- 
rected how the Avesta should be 
said, 31, 353; established Zarathuj- 
tra as the master of the material 
world, 23, 74, 105; colloquy be- 
tween the soul of the kine, Asha, 
and A. who appoints Zarathujtra, 
31, 3-13; Zarathujtra obtains stones 
from A. with which he repels the 
fiend, 4, 210 sq., 210 n. ; confessed 
the religion of Zoroaster, 23, 142; 
Zarathujtra invokes the holy crea- 
tion of A., 4, 214. 

(d) A. AND MORALITY. 

He who relieves the poor makes 
A. king, 4, 101 ; how close A. is to 
a man's thoughts, words, and deeds, 
4, 289, 288 n. ; A. and the other 
Amesha-Spetttas displeased by the 
bad priest, 23, 1 56 ; chooses right- 
eousness and the pious of all ages, 
31, 26, 30 sq. ; how can the wise 
man become like A.? 31, 39, 49 ; 
the pious are servants of A., 31, 40, 



A. worshipped, 23, 32, 162, 332- 
4, 349-51) 353-7; 31, 195 sq., 
199, &c. ; prayer to A., 4, xlvii, 
100 sq.; 31, 284 sq., 288-90, 320; 
the fire of A., 4, 115, 281 ; 31, 284 
sq. ; offerings and prayers to A. and 
the Amesha-Spe«tas, 4, 215, 217, 
24S ; 23, 3, 6, 9 sq., 13, 15, 17 sq., 
35, 37, 39, 89, 230, 274 ; 31, 172, 
174 sq. ; became sovereign by the 
Airyama Ishyo prayer, 4, 247 ; 
prayer and sacrifice to A. the best of 
all things, 4, 283, 293; sacrifice to 
A., 4, 349 ; Ormazd Yajt : the names 
of A., and their efficacy, 23, 21-31 ; 
the memory, the understanding, and 
the tongue of A. worshipped, 23, 32, 
321 ; who worships the sun benefits 
A., 23, 86 ; and the Amesha-Spewtas 
long for the morning service, 23, 
142,1430,; Mithra and A. invoked 
together, 23, 148 sq., 15S; invoked 
at the ordeal, 23, 169 sq. ; the Fra- 
vashi of A. worshipped, 23, 199 ; 31, 
273, 278 ; Fravashis invoked to- 
gether with A., 23, 227 ; the Glory 
of A. praised, 23, 290; prayer to A. 
and Asha, 31, 14-24, 62 ; how is A. 
to be worshipped? 31, 108, m sq.; 
praise of A,, 31, 123 sq., 126-30, 
263 sq. ; bestows highest good on 
him who offers sacrifice, 31, 180 sq.; 
Ahura and Mithra, and ail the stars 
worshipped, 31, 199, 199 n., 205, 
210, 216,220, 225; worshipped by 
Sraosha, 31, 298; all holy creatures 
which A. created, worshipped, 31, 
328 sq. 
Ahurani, water of Ahura wor- 
shipped, 4, 250. 
Ahurvatf'aspd, ancestor of Zoroas- 
ter, 47, 140. 



53; the friendship of A. is before Ai, n.p.; conversation between Duke 
the Zarathujtrian's mind, 31, 54, Ai of Lu and Confucius, 27, 39, 51 
57; doing evil to the wicked, like sq.; 28, 261-9, 312, 402-10; 3!>, 

S. B, ISD. D 



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22 9~33 j eulogized the deceased 
Confucius, 27, 159, 159 n. ; sends a 
message of condolence to Khwai 
Shang, 27, 187 ; funeral of his son 
Tun, 27, 188 ; wears mourning for 
his concubine, 27, 189; A"au Fang 
sends a message to Duke Ai, 27, 
191 ; paid a visit of condolence 
when ^"l-sun's mother died, 27, 197; 
declines the condolences of Ling, 

27, 323 ; sent Zu Pi to Confucius to 
learn the proper mourning rites, 

28, 166 sq. ; Duke Ai and gze-k&o, 
28, 169; interview of A'wang-^ze 
with Ai, 40, 49 sq., 49 n. ; wishes to 
employ Confucius in the govern- 
ment, 40, 207 sq. 

Aibhavata, see Pratidaiva Ai. 
Aibigaya, see Aiwisruthrima. 
Aighash, demon of the evil eye, 5, 

in, in n. 
Aikahwaka, n. of a noble family, 

45, 321 n., 339 ; Purukutsa, the Ai. 

king, 44, 397. See Bn'hadratha. 
Ailapatya, Mahagiri of the Ai. 

gotra, 22, 287, 2S9. 
Aindar, Zd. I«dra, the arch-demon, 

18, 319, 319 n. 
Ainyu, n.p., 23, 217 sq. 
Aipivanghu, or Aipivohu, or Kai- 

Aprveh, n. of a king of Iran, 5, 

l 3 6_ 9? r 3 6 n-; 23, 222, 222 n., 303. 
Air (Sk.antariksha). 

(a) Air at an element, 
(A) Air as a deity. 

(a) Air as an element. 

The union of earth and heaven is 
air, 1, 247 sq. ; meditation on the 
person in the air as Brahman, 1, 
303 ; only seen by one who attains 
to the Adhyatma, 8, 316 ; the 
second entity, its presiding deity 
lightning, 8, 337, 340 ; touch is the 
characteristic of air, 8, 337, 340, 
34 8 > 35°; sound and touch are 
its qualities, 8, 384; springs from 
ether, 34, lii ; 38, 18 sq. ; is found- 
ed on space (ether), 34, 413; the 
abode of heaven, earth, and so on, 
34, 154, 158; when it manifests 
itself in the form of Parg-anya, 
lightning, thunder, rain, and thun- 
derbolts manifest themselves in it, 
34, 229 ; with its five forms, 34, 
229 ; 38, 87 ; is a product, 38, 3, 18 
sq. ; fiie is produced from air, 38, 



20-2; fire is dissolved into air, 38, 
26 ; air is dissolved into ether, 38, 
26 ; in what sense it may be called 
prana, 38, 87; union of Yriyu with 
the air, 41, 148, 188; heals what- 
ever is injured in the earth, 41, 221 ; 
fashioned by the Rudras, 41, 234; 
is the home of the waters, 41, 416 ; 
the sun is the holder of the air, 43, 
28 ; is of Trish^ubh nature, 43, 57 ; 
is the 'expanse' metre, 43, 88; is 
the lower abode, 43, 203 , three 
oblations of air or wind on the 
chariot, 43, 235; is the resting- 
place in yonder world, as the earth 
is in this world, 44, 17 ; steadied by 
means of the birds and sun-motes, 
44, 126; relates to Sarasvati, 44, 
241 ; is the abode and support of all 
beings, 44, 407, 477 ; and Ether, 
this is the immortal, 48, 535 ; Bud- 
dhist saints walking through the air, 
10 <i», 62 sq., &n. 
(h) Air as a deity. 

Bali-offering to Air, 2, 107 ,sq. ; 
29, 320 ; oblations to Air and Vayu, 
29, 321 ; deity and brick of fire- 
altar, 43, 91 ; is hairless, Vayu the 
man, 43, 208 ; Vaijvanara as Air, 43, 
395 S( h » one °I" the eight Vasns, 15, 
140 sq. ; 44, 116; expiatory obla- 
tion to Air, which is a place of abode 
for all the gods, 44, 505 ; invoked 
as a deity, 29, 232 ; 46, 253. See 
also Vayu. 
Airak, n.p., 5, 134. 
Airammadiya, a lake in the world 

of Brahman, 1, 131, 132 n. 
Airan-ve^-, Airan ve^6, the most un- 
disturbed land, 24, 86 sq., 86 n., 109 
sq.; primaeval home of Mazda-wor- 
ship, the abode of Yim, 37, 190, 
190 n. 
Airava«a=Airavata, q. v. 
Airavata, Indra's elephant, 22, 222, 
231 ; the best of elephants, 45,290. 
Airi£, n.p., son of FreVGn, 3. 133 
sq., 133 n.; 37, 28, 28 n. ; 47, 10 
sq., 34, 140 ; reigned twelve years, 
5, 150 ; slain by his brothers, 24, 
52, 52 n.; revenged by Maniij- 
^ihar, 24, 61,61 sq. n. ; progenitor 
of Manuj, 47, 128. 
Airir-rasp Aftsposinan, n. of a 

high priest, 5, 115, ng n. 
Airs, vital, ste Pranas. 



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AIRYA— AKOMAN 



35 



Airya, Sairima, and Tura, the three 
sons of Thraetaona, 4, lix. 

Airyakj n.p., 47, 34. 

Airyaman, the much-desired, in- 
voked, 23, 4, 13, 35, 37 ; and Asha- 
Vahuta praised together, 23, 41-8 ; 
invoked against diseases, sorcerers, 
and demons, 4, 229, 235,241 ; heals 
diseases, 23, 41, 48 ; 37, 116 n., 165, 
165 n. ; the spell of A. most effica- 
cious against diseases, 4, 236-41 ; 
the A. Ishyo praver, 4, 144, 147, 
247; 23, 41-7; 31, 293. See Air- 
yrma-ishyo. 

Airyt-ma-ishy6, see Prayers (f). 

Airyu, son of Thraetaona, 23, 222, 
222 n. 

Aishavira/7, sons of Eshavira, a 
Brahmanical family held in general 
contempt, 44, 45, 45 n. 

Aitareya, n. of a Rishi, 1, xcvii n. ; 
worshipped at the Tarpawa, 29, 123, 
220 ; honoured as a teacher, 29, 
141. See Mahidasa Ai. 

Aitareya-ara;/yaka, in the begin- 
ning a Brahma«a, 1, lxvi sq. ; intro- 
duction to and translation of Ai., 1, 
xci-xeviii, 155-268 ; the first chapter 
of the Ai. a mere continuation of 
the Aitareya-brahma«a, 1, xcii ; Ai. 
and Kaushitaki-upanishad, 1, xcix; 
Ajvalayana or Saunaka, author of 
the fifth book, 20, 153-8 ; quoted, 8, 
87 n., 90 n., 123 n., 180 n. ; 38, 421 ; 
48, 773- 

Aitareya-brahmawa and Aitareya- 
aranyaka, 1, xcii sq. ; quoted, 8, 20, 
222, 265 n., 2 76 n., 277 n., 280 n.; 38, 
431 ; on the Pravargya ritual, 44, 
xlvii ;. takes no account of the horse 
sacrifice, 44, xvi, xvii n. 

Aitareya-upanishad, quoted, 8, 
120 n., 123 n., 153 n., 179 n., 187 n., 
189 n., 191 n., 251 n., 259 n., 339 n.; 
^48, 240. See also Upanishads. 

Ai-thai Tho, was 'ugly enough to 
scare the whole world,' but a ' Per- 
fect man ' of Tao, 39, 229-33, 

Aiwi/^'arenah, n.p,, 23, 214. 

AiwisrtLthrima and Aibigaya (or, 
Aibigaya ' the life-furtherer, 1 epi- 
thet of Ai.?), worshipped, 31, 197, 
201, 204, 209, 315, 219, 224, 384. 
A^ala, n. of a giantess, 21, 374. 
A/'alabhratr/, n. of a Sthavira, 22, 
286. 



Aka-Manah, see Akem-mano. 

Akampita, n. of a Sthavira, 22, 286. 

Akandgar-i Kilisyakih, or Alex- 
ander the Christian, 5, 200, 200 n. 

Akanisb//;as (Akani//£a), the last 
stage before reaching the formless 
world, 10 (i), 57 n. ; heavenly beings, 
who lull the women of Gautama's 
seraglio to sleep, 49 (i), 56. 

Akankheyya-Sutta, early Bud- 
dhist mysticism in it, 11, x ; trans- 
lated, 11, 205-18. 

Akarmabhtlmi, one of the parts of 
_the world where men live, 45, 225. 

A£arya, Sk., see Teacher. 

Akara, Sk., see Ether. 

Akasagotta, n. of a physician, 17, 
.78 sq. 

Akampratish/^ita, n. of a Tatha- 
gata, 21, 178. 

Akatasha (Zd.), Akatash (Phi.), n. 
of a Daeva,4, 224; spell against the 
daeva A., 4, 140 ; fiend of perver- 
sion, 5, 109 ; fiend of inquisitive- 
ness, 37, 182, 182 n. 

Akayadha of the Pidha house, 
23, 219. 

A£elakas, see A^ivikas. 

Akem-man6, or Aka-Manah, Zd., 
evil thought, 5, ion. ; Zarathujtra 
unabated by A., 4, 210; assists the 
Evil Spirit, 23, 297; smitten by 
Vohu-Mano, 23. 308 ; opposed to 
Ahura-Mazda, 31, xviii sq. ; the 
wicked abiding in the actions of A., 
the Evil Mind, 31, 147, 150. See 
AkGman. 

Akhnangha, n.p., 23, 217. 

Akhrura, son of Husravah, 23, 223. 

Akhrlirag (?), friend of Keresasp, 
J-8, 375, 375 n. 

Akhirti, see Peace. 

Akht, or Akhto, Phi. = Akhtya, Zd., 
n. of a wicked wizard, 18, 411, 
41 1 n. ; Yoiita solves the riddles of 
A. the sorcerer, 23, 72 sq. and n. ; 
enmity of A. the heretic, 37, 297 ; 
the wizard, killed, 47, xxx, 166, 

166 n. 
Akhtya, see Akht. 
Akhyana, see Legends. 
A^iravati, n. of a river, 11, 167, 

167 n., 169, 178-82. 

Akoman, AkomanS, Phi. = Zd. 
Akem-mano, evil thought, one of 
the six demons of Ahannan,5, gsq., 



Digitized by Microsoft ( 



36 



akoman— Aug! 



ion.; 18, 93, 96 ; 37, 2-13, 252 sq., 
25311.; the archHend, his doings, 5, 
106; seized by Vohuman, 5, 128; 
the stench of A. opposed by Vohu- 
man, 5, 179; the stupefying, 37, 
286 ; thoughts of the wicked due to 
A., 37, 388 ; his struggle with Vohii- 
manfl at the birth of Zoroaster, 47, 
141 sq. See Akem-mano. 

Akre-khira^d, or Aghrerac/ (Zd. 
Aghraeratha) killed by his brother, 
47, 126, 126 n. 

Akriyavada, Sk., t.L,see Philosophy. 

Akriyavadin, t.t., see Nihilists. 

Akahamala, a Kfat$}i t became the 
wife of VasishMa, 2, 17511-; 25, 
331, 33»n.; 49 (i), 45. 

Akshapada, n. p., the arguments 
of Buddha, A., and others contra- 
dictory, 48, 425, 426. 

Akshara, Sk., both ' syllable,' and 
'imperishable,' 1, in.; 34, 169; 
'syllable,' 41, 158, 203; the Im- 
perishable, the Indestructible, 8, 
439; 34,169-71,243; 38, 239 sq. ; 
the great Brahman, the one A. (Im- 
perishable One), 43, 343 sq. See 
Imperishable. 

Aksfcavapa, Sk., ' the keeper of the 
dice,' one of the officers of a king, 
41, 63, 107 n. 

Akshayamati, n. of a Bodhisattva 
Mahasattva, 21, 4; Buddha tells A. 
the wonderful powers of Avaloki- 
tejvara, 21, 406-12 ; informs A'itra- 
dhva^a about the saint Avalokite- 
jvara, 21, 41 3, 

Akshobhya, n. of a Tathagata, 21, 

j 77 5 49 (hi, 99. 

Aktakshya, n.p., quoted, 41, 153. 

Akuli and Kilata, priests of the 
Asuras, 12, 29 sq. 

Akuti, invoked in a love-charm, 42, 
,104, 535- 

Alabhika, Mahavira at, 22, 264. 

A/aka, 11. of a place, 10 (ii), 184, 
188. 

Alaka, the two demons A. and Po- 
ku fight against each other, 19, 330. 

Alaka, Kuvera, the monarch of, 49 

M 36. 

A/akamanda, the royal city of the 

„gods, 11, 100, 248 ; 35, 3. 
Alambayaniputra, n.p., 15, 225. 
Alambiputra, n. of a teacher, 15, 

225. 



A/ara Kalama, n. of a rival teacher 
of Buddha, 11, 75-7, 75 n., 79 ; one 
of the teachers to whom Gotama 
attached himself after his pabba^ga, 
13, 89; a teacher of the Bodisat, 
36, 43-6. 

Alarka, legend of A. who wishes to 
conquer his mind and senses, 8, 
296-300. 

Alasanda, Milinda born in the island 
of A, (Alexandria in Bactria), 35, 
xxiii, 127. 

Alava, the demon, converted by 

^Buddha, 19, 244. 

A/avaka, a Yakkha, converted by 

^Buddha, 10 (ii), 29-31, 

A/avakaautta translated, 10 (ii), 

. 2 9-3i- 

A/avi, the realm of the Yakkha 
A/avaka, 10 (ii), 29 ; Buddha dwelt 
at A., 10 (ii), 57; 20, 212. 

A/avi-Gotama was delivered by 
faith, 10 (ii), 213. 

Albirfini, on astrological Sawhitas 
called after Manu, 25, xcvii ; oil 
the Parsi calendar, 47, xlv sq. 

Alborz, Kaus built seven palaces in 
A., 4, 262 sq. n. See Hara Berezaiti. 

Alburz, see Mountains. 

Alexander the Great as an Anti- 
Zoroastrian persecutor, 4, xlviii sq.; 
mentioned in the Horn Ya-rt, 4, liv; 
the Ruman, 5, 151, 15111., 228; a 
Roman and a Christian, 5, 200 n, ; 
created immortal by Aharman, 24, 
35? 35 n> > devastation of Iran owing 
to the villain A., 37, xxxi, 9 sq. ; 
47, 82 sq.; ravages of A. and the 
Arumans, 37, 413, 41 3 n.; calamity 
of A. burning the scriptures, 37, 
423 sq., 430, 435, 437, 44* sq. ; 
carried off a rough draft of the 
Avesta, and repeatedly burnt it, 37, 
437, 441 sq. ; the devastator, 47, 
xi, 126; his conquest of Persia, 
47, xv, xxviii ; date of his death, 47, 
xxvii sq. ; his accession, invasion, 
and death, 47, xxxi sq. ; 'the two- 
horned' orDnu '1 Qarnain, 9, 24 n. 

Ali, Abu Talib's son, converted by 
Mohammed, 6, xxiii ; Abu Bekr 
and A., Mohammed's only com- 
panions during the flight from 

JUecca, G, xxxtii sq. 

Aligi and Viligi snake-deities, 42, 
28 



Digitized by Microsoft® 



ALI KH AT— AMERETAT 



37 



Alikhat, n. of a demon harassing 
infants, 29, 296; 30, 211, 

Allah, chief god of the tribes in 
Arabia, 6, xii ; his supremacy 
merely nominal, G, xiv; the unity 
of A. preached by Mohammed, 6, 
xxiv ; called Ar-Ra'hmftn, 'the 
merciful one,' 0, Ixi ; angels and 
deities, daughters of A., 6, Ixi ; 
Muslim belief in A., G, Ixvi-lxviii; 
the ninety-nine attributes or 'good 
names' of A., G, Ixvii sq. ; had 
j 001 names, 23, 21. See God. 

Allakappa, n.pl., the Bulis of A., 

11, 132 ; Diigaba at A,, 11, 134. 
Allat, chief idol of an Arabian tribe, 

6, xii sq. ; the divinity of A. recog- 
nized and again denied by Mo- 
hammed, G, xxvi sq. ; favourite 
idol of 7a' if, 6, xliii ; feminine 
form of Allah, G, 160 11, ; the idol of 
the Tz/aqif, 9, 9 n. 

Allegory, allegorical sacrifice, sense- 
organs being the 'priests, sense- 
objects the oblations, &c, 8, 261; 
Brahman (or knowledge of Brahman) 
described as a forest, H, 284-8 ; alle- 
gorical explanation of Buddhist 
stanzas, 10 (i), 70 sqq. n. See also 
Parables. 

All-gods, see Vijve Deva/\ 

All-Sacrifice, see Sarvamedha. 

Alms, see Begging, Charity, and Gifts. 

Altar, Sk, Vcdi, the altar-ground, 
or sacrificial ground, its preparation, 

12, 47-94,422-5 ; 26, 1-3 ; measur- 
ing of it, 12, 62 sq. ; 43, 3o-sq., 
306-11 ; enclosing the a., 12, 423 ; 
construction of two altars (vedi and 
uttaravedi), 12, 392 sq. and n., 417 ; 
26, 115 sq.; 44, 225, 225 n. ; 43, 
i2i, 182 sq.; preparation of the 
Soma a. with the high a. (uttaravedi), 
2G, 1 1 r-20 ; Uttaravedi, or northern 
(or upper) a. not required for Valj- 
vadeva, 12, 38S, 3880.; plan of 
sacrificial ground, 2G, 475 ; the 
Vihara or sacrificial ground, 30, 331; 
how to step past it, 44, 57 sq. : 
Barhis spread on it, 46, 198 ; specu- 
lations on it, 43, xvii, xvii n. ; as 
great as the a. is, so great is this 
earth, 12, 60; 26, 175 ; the Vcdi is 
this earth, 41, 345, 349; 43, 17J, 
235; 44,2^8; this a.-ground is the 
farthest end of the earth, 44, 390 ; 



is 'the best place of the earth, the 
place of I/S,' 46, 287 sq. ; is a woman, 
12, 63, 86 ; 26, 120; etymology of 
vedi, 12, 60 ; the altar-ground, is 
the world of the gods, 43, 118; is 
fivefold, sevenfold, 43, 308 sq. ; 
whatever good deed man does that 
is inside the a., whatever evil deed 
he does that is outside the a., 44, 45; 
the Vedi is the Gayatri, 44, 56 ; 
the high a. (uttaravedi) is the nose 
of the sacrifice, 2G, 113; the sky, 
41)349) the air, 44, 248 ; the sacri- 
fice, 44, 498. See also Fire-altar, and 
Holy places. 

Altars, five, see Fires, five; to be 
erected by the king and officers, 2*, 
206 sq. 

Ama, n. of Pra?*a, breath, 1, 76. 

Amagandliabrahiua«a, 11. p., 10 

„(»)> 40. 

Ainagandhasutta, t.c, 10 ( ii), 40-2. 

Amara, the faithful wife ot Maho- 
sadha, 35, 294-6. 

Amaravati, city of the gods on 
Mount Meru, 12, lion. 

Amba, her son Ganta, 10, xxvii. 

Amba-gama, n.pl., Buddha at, 1 1, 66. 

Ambala///nka, n.pl., Buddha at, 
11, 12; the Brahma^ala spoken at 
the royal rest-hou«e at A., 20, 376. 

Ambapali = Sb. Amrapali, n, of a 
famous courtesan, who invites 
Buddha together with his Bhikkhus 
to a meal, and presents her mansion 
to the order of mendicants, 11, 30-3; 
17, 105-8; 10, 266; her grove at 
Vesali, 11, 28-34; Vesali flourishing 
through her fame, 17, 171 sq. ; sees 
Buddha and is converted by him, 19, 
252-6. 

Ambarisha, verses sung of old by 
king A., 8, 301-3; having dwelt in 
the forest, returned to the royal 
office, 19, 107 ; 49 (i), 100 sq. 

Ambas, Ambayavis, and Ambayas, 
in the world of Brahman, 1, 276. 

Ambassadors, see War. 

Ambhi;;i, teacher of VjU, 15, 226. 

Ambhr/;;i, the voice of thunder, 
wife of the Maruts, 32, 275. 

Ambika, sister of Rudra, 12, 440 ; 
is the dispenser of happiness, 12, 
441. 

Ambrosia, see AmWta. 

Ameretat, see Amerodar/. 



Digitized by Microsoft® 



AMERODA/?— AMESHA-SPEiVTAS 



Ameroda-f/ or Amurdad, Phi. = Zd. 
Arnereta/, immortality, 5, 10 n,; 
the archangel, created, 5, 10; pro- 
tector of plants, 5, 3osq., 176, 310, 
;io n,, 359 ; 31, 207, 207 11., 211, 
213 sq., 22r sq., 226-8; has the 
inmba flower, 5, 104 ; attacks Zai- 
nk, 5, 128; propitiated, invoked, 
and worshipped, 5, 372 sq., 377 sq., 
401, 405 ; 23, 5, 14, 36 sq. ; 24, 304 ; 
creatures are immortal through A., 
37, 291 ; prescribes the care of 
plants to Zoroaster,47, 162 ; mingles 
the plants with rain, 24, 1 12 sq. n.; 
see Immortality; IIorvada<\(Haunva- 
tat, Kburdad) and A.,t\\o archangels, 
angels of water and plants, 5, 310, 
3ron.; 24, 11, nn.; their ritual 
and worship, 5, 227; 24, 304; 47, 
76, 7611.; are the reward of the 
holy ones, 23, 31, p.; 37, 388; 
smite hunger and thirst at the resur- 
rection, 23, 308; their gifts, 23, 312 
(food and drink); 37, 286sq. (cattle), 
369 (abundance); 47, 26, 26 11. (water 
and seeds) ; unreasonable chatter 
causes distress to them, 24, 11, 11 n.: 
37, 207, 207 n. ; are injured by 
immoderate drinking, 24, 48 ; are 
propitiated by grace said before and 
after eating, 24, 284 sq.; the com- 
plete worthiness existing in them, 
37, 251 ; their power produced by 
Auharmazd, 37, 264 ; Zoroaster be- 
comes worthy through them, 37, 268; 
expounded to Frashojtar, 37, 374. 

Amestta-Spewtas, or Amesho-spew- 
tas, Zd. = Phi. Aineshospends (Am- 
shaspands), the archangels. 

(u) A. in mythology. 
i/') Worship of A. 

(o A. as guardians of Zoroastrian religion 
and morality, 
(a) A. IN* MYTHOLOGY. 

A. belong to later Mazdeism, 4, 
Ixi ; parallels to the six A. in 
Philo's system, 4. lvi sq. ; the A. 
as archangels and (rod's attributes, 
5, Ixxii ; 31, xviii, xxiv ; the 
seven A., 'immortal benefactors,' or 
' archangels,' 5, ion.; abstracts, and 
personified, 31,7 1,7 7 sq., 1 7<V79sq., 
i8on,; I#dra,Saurva,andN«unghai- 
thya, opposed to the A., 4, lii sq. ; 
Spewta Mainyu and the seven A,, 
4, "39n. ; 31, 145 sq.; rule over 
the seven Karshvares of the earth, 



4, 213 ; 23, 163 ; the Garo-nmanem 
or paradise of the A., 4, 22osq. ; 
presiding over the regions of nature, 
4, 245, 245 n. ; Ahura Mazda and 
the A., 4, 283 ; 23, 24; 24, 117; 
the A. assist Ahura Mazda in smiting 
the demons of Aharman at the resur- 
rection, 5, 128 sq,; opposed by the 
demons, 37, 21, 21 n. ; Auharmazd 
performed the spiritual Yasijn cere- 
mony with them, 5, 1 4 ; Vayu works 
the good of Ahura Mazda and the 
A., 23, 259; rhe makers and gover- 
nors and keepers of Ahura Mazda's 
creations, 23, 291 ; compassion of 
Auharmazd and the A. with their 
own creatures, 24, 101 ; Ahura 
announces Zarathiutra's appoint- 
ment to the A., 31, 4 sq., 10 sq. ; 
called 'the Ahnras of Mazda,' 31, 
34, 34 n., 37, 42 ; Ahura Mazda will 
give Universal Weal and Immor- 
tality, with yohumanah, Asha, 
Khshathra,and Aramaiti, 31, 147 sq.; 
and Saoshyawts, 4, 291, 291 n. ; 
creation of the A., 5, gsq.; 24, 32 sq.; 
the white ermine came into the 
assembly of the A., 5, 89; every 
flower is appropriate to an angel 
(Amesh6spend), 5, 103-5 ; male and 
female, 5, 215; 31, 214, 288, 319, 
348; enumerated, 23, 49, 142 sq.; 
stand up, as soon as the moon 
appears, 23, 90; assist Tijtrya, 23, 
103; the waters flow and plants 
grow at the wish of the A., 23, 
19.3 sq. ; Ahura Vanguhi, sister of 
A., 23, 270, 274 ; AGharmazd sent 
A. to Vijtasp, 23, 339; 37, 24 ; the 
Drug overcome with the help of the 
A., 31, 37, 42 ; how the words Asha, 
Vohu-manah, &c, are used in the 
Gathas, 31, 162 n. ; it would not be 
possible to produce the living exist- 
ence without the A., 24, 356; spiritual 
blessings bestowed by the A., 31, 
178, 186 sq.; the body of the sun 
made for the creation of the A., 31, 
262 ; worshipped by Sraosha, 31, 
298-300, 298 n. ; Sraosha among 
the A., 31, 300, 300 n. ; by Sraosha's 
might the A. descend upon this 
earth, 31, 303 ; dwell together with 
the good mind, 31, 348, 352 ; re- 
union of the A. on the heights of 
Heaven, 31, 382. See also Angels (h). 



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AMESHA-SPEATAS— AMAVTODANA 



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(b) Worship of A. 

Offerings and prayers to Ahura 
Mazda and the A., 4, 213, 215, 217, 
248, 349; 5, »9* ; 23,3,6, 9sq- 5 i3j 
15, 17 sq., 35, 37, 39, 89, 230, 274 ; 
81, 172; Auharmazd and the A. 
praised by all men on the day of 
judgement, 5, 126; Ahura Mazda 
and A. long for the morning service, 
23, 142, 14211.; the Haptan Yajt, 
invocations of the seven A., 23, 2 sq., 
35-40; sacrifice and prayer to the 
A., the Bountiful Immortals, 23, 22, 
31, r66, 350, 352sq., 355: 31, 14, 
17, 17 11., 196, &c, ; worship in order 
to increase the A,, 23, 34 ; who 
worships the sun benefits the A., 
23, 86; the friends of the A. wor- 
shipped, 23, 165 ; Fravashis of the 
A. worshipped, 23, T99sq. ; 31,273, 
278 ; the glory of the seven A. 
praised, 23, 290 sq.; all the A. in- 
voked as personalities and qualities, 
31, 71, 77sq.n.; the Yenhe hatam 
prayer devoted to the A., 31, 269. 

(c) A. AS GUARDIAN'S OF ZORO- 
ASTRIAN RELIGION AND MORALITY. 

A. preside over all good things, 4, 
149-54, i49n,; confess the religion 
of Zoroaster, 23, 142 sq. ; longed 
for Zarathiutra, 23, 202 ; when the 
A. came meeting Zaratujt they wore 
the sacred thread girdle, 24, 270; 
the unholy priest displeases the A,, 

23, 156, 331 ; do not accept cere- 
monial from the false-hearted man, 

24, 53; a wise and innocent poor 
man esteemed by the A. more than 
a foolish king, 24, 105; disturbed 
by untruth, 37, 73 ; give brightness, 
glory, and plenty to the righteous, 
23, 337, 340; Vahman introduces 
the soul to Aurmazd and the A., 4, 
374 ; assist, or come to meet, the 
righteous soul, 23, 336 ; 24, 17, T7n,, 
2osq,, 30, 81, 266, 279; Aramaiti, 
Sovereign Power, Good Mind, and 
Righteous Order bestow a body on 
the soul, 31, 27, 32 sq. See also 
Gods (/). 

Awhasaspati, n. of a god, lord of 

trouble, 20, 322. 
Aminah, mother of Mohammed, 6, 

xviii. 
Amitabha, or Amitayus, n. of a 

former Buddha, his abode in Sukha- 



vati, 21, 178, 389, 417; 4 ( J (ii), 
xxii sq., 32, 91, 97-101, 166 sq., 
169-200; A. and his land Sukhavati 
shown by Buddha Sakyamuni, 49 
(ii), x, 59-61 ; worshipped in 
Sukhavati, 49 (ii), 67; one of the 
Dhyani-buddhas,49 (ii), 103', Dhar- 
makara became A., 49 (ii), x, 28; 
names of A., 49 (ii), 29 sq. ; why he 
is called A. and Amitayus, 49 (ii), 
97 sq. ; those who think of the 
Tathagata and of Bodhi will after 
death see A., 49 (ii), 45 sq.; seen 
by queen Vaidehi, 49 (ii), i75sq. ; 
his supernatural powers, 49 (ii), 187; 
worship of and prayers to A. Buddha, 
49 (ii), vi, 1, 28-33; repeating or 
hearing the name of A. Buddha a 
means of salvation, 49 (ii), viii sq., 
68, 99, 198; glorified by Buddhas, 
49 (ii.', 45 ; praised by Bndhisattvas 
and worshipped by gods and men, 
49 (ii), 46-8; meditation on the 
bodily marks of A., 49 (ii), 179-8T. 

Amitadhva^a, n, of a Tathagata, 
49 (ii), loo. 

Amitaprabha, n. of a Tathagata, 
49 (ii), 66. 

Amitaskandha, n. of a Tathagata, 
49 (ii), 100. 

Amitau^as, the couch in the world 
of Brahman, 1, 276, 277. 

Amitayur-dhyana-siUra, t, w., 
sacred book of the Buddhists in 
Japan, 49 (ii), v-vii, xx-xxii ; trans- 
lated, 49 (ii), 159-201. 

Amitayus, a name of Amitabha, 49 
(ii), 32. See Amitabha. 

Amoghadai\iin, one of the sixteen 
virtuous men, 21, 4. 

Amoghara^a, n. of a Bhikshu, 49 
(ii), 2. 

'Amr, n,p., joins the Muslim ranks, 
6, xli. 

Amram, see Imran. 

Amrapali, see Ambapali. 

'Amr ibn LaTiy, chieftain of Mecca, 
6, xvii. 

Amr/ta, Sk., draught cf immortality 
(cf. 'ambrosia'). See Immortality. 

Amr/tananda, author of the last 

four books of the Buddha-Xarita, 

49 (r), x sq,, xiv-xvii, 147 n., 200 

sq. n. 

Amr/todana, uncle of Buddha, 19, 

XXV. 



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AMRU— ANANDA 



Amru and A'amru, mythical birds, 
23, 210, 2ion. 

Aibo, n.d., Partha oblation to,41,82 ; 
and Vivasvant invoked with other 
gods, 42, 160 ; Agni said to be A., 
desirous of distributing gods, 46, 
186, 190. 

Aotsu, arajugraha, t.t., a certain cup 
of Soma at the Soma sacrifice, 41, 
5sq.; 44, 105 sq. ; identified with 
Pra,japati, 26, 248, 423 sq. See 
Sacrifices (i). 

Amulets, worn for the sake of 
prosperity, SO, 93; 42,54' ; against 
diseases and demons, 42, 37-9, 42, 
67, 234-6, 25811., 28 1, 284, 287,291, 
336 sq., 339 sq., 399 sq., 4°z sq., 4*4, 
505-7, 5", 553- 561, 578; life- 
protecting a., 42, 62 sq., 383 sq., 
573, 668 sq. ; protection against 
sorceries or talismans, 42, 79-8S, 
476, 476 n., 575-8, 605, 608-10; 
to ensure conception, 42, 96 sq., 
501 sq. ; for strengthening royal 
power, 42, 114, 239, 332, 439, 477 ; 
to secure love, 42, 275 sq., 276 n. ; 
against curses, 42, 285 ; a king must 
wear gems which destroy poison, 
25, 251 ; worn by the Snataka, 30, 
276; worn by women, 42, 356, 
460 ; consisting of salve, 42, 381 ; 
of plants, &c, 42, 693 sq. 

Amurda<7, see Amerodarf. 

Amusements, see Games. 

An&bhibhu. = MahabhigBa^aani- 
Jmibhu, q. v. 

Anabhimlata, n. of a teacher, 15, 
118. 

Anadr/ta, n. of a tree deity (r), 45, 
48 n. 

Anagamin, Btiddh. t.t., 'one that 
does not return ' ; the state of the 
A. results from the four noble truths, 
x (ii), 132-44. 

Anagha, n.d., offering to A. at rites 
relating to agriculture, 30, 113 sq. 

Anahe/-/, see Ardvi-sfira-Anahita. 

Anahita, see Ardvi-sura-Anahita. 

Ananda, n.p., the faithful disciple, 
attendant, and companion of Buddha, 
11, 3, &c. ; 13, 202, 206; 17, 36, 
41, 43, 68 sq., 87 sq., 101 sq., 118, 
191 sq., 240 sq. ; 20, 80, 299 ; 21, 
3, 205 ; 49 (ii), 2, 90, 164 sq. ; A. 
and five other Sakyas, with Upali 
the barber, become Bhikkhus to- 



gether, 10, 226; 20, 228-33; 85, 
163; 49 (ij. 193; dialogues between 
Buddha and A., 11, 3, 25-7; 49 
(ii), ix sq., i-6o ; assembles the 
Bhikshus in the Service Hall, to be 
addressed by Buddha, 11, 5 sq. ; 
asks Buddha to leave instructions 
as to the Order, 11, 36 ; being pos- 
sessed by Mara, does not, until 
it is too late, ask Buddha to slay 
longer in this world, 11, 4 1 sq., 54-8; 
20, 379 sq. ; weeping at the thought 
of Buddha's death, 11, 95 sq. ; 19, 
268-70 ; comforted by Buddha, 11, 
96 sq. ; 19, 270-4; his wonderful 
qualities praised by Buddha, 11, 
97-9; and the dying Buddha, 11, 
99, 118, 238 sq., 247 ; 19, 2S6 sq., 
290 sq.; A. and the crow boys who 
wish to be ordained, 13, 204 sq. ; 
his superior Belar/^asisa, 17, 48, 
226; Rqja, the Malla, a friend of 
A., 17, 135 sq., 228 ; A. and the 
rules about the robes of Bhikkhus, 
17, 208 sq., 213 sq., 233 ; questions 
Buddha about schisms, 17, 317 ; 
mentioned as one of the principal 
Thera Bhikkhus, 17, 360 ; Buddha 
followed by Kajyapa, the latter 
by A., 19, xi, xiv ; remained by 
Buddha's side when all the other 
Bhikshus took to flight from the 
drunken elephant, 19, 247 ; 35, 297- 
300. 298 n. ; recites the Sutra 
Pi/aka at the Council of the 500 
Arhats, 19, 335; Devadatta tells 
A. that he will perform Uposatha 
for himself, 20, 255 ; persuades 
Buddha to admit women into the 
Order, and intercedes in favour of 
Bhikkhunis, 20, 321-8,380; though 
rot an Arhat, chosen as one of the 
members of the Council of R:uja- 
gaha, 20, 372 ; obtains Arhatship, 
20, 373 sq. ; questioned by Maha- 
Kassapa about the Vinaya, 20, 
376 sq. ; charged with various 
offences at the council of Ra^agaha, 
confesses them, 20, 379 sq. ; im- 
poses the higher penalty on A7»anna 
the Bhikkhu, 20. 381-5; preaches 
to King Udena's ladies, receives 
a gift of five hundred robes, and 
satisfies the king as to how Bhikkhus 
dispose of property given to them, 
20, 382-4; gifts to A., equal to 



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ANANDA— ANCESTOR WORSHIP 



those given to Buddha, 20, 402 ; 
Buddha's prophecy about A. who is 
to be the Buddha Sagaravaradhara- 
buddhivikrVitahhigT/a, 21, 206-8 ; 
remembers the Buddhas of the past, 
21, 208 sq. ; could remember his 
previous births, 35, 122; Buddha's 
prophecy to A. concerning the 
duration of the law, 35, 185-7 ; 
applauds the speech of Buddha, 
40 (ii), 72; Buddha instructs A. 
about Sukhavati and Amitayus, 
49 (ii), 168, 171 sq., 186, 188, 199- 
.201. 

Ananda, n.p., story of A. the rich 
.man, 36, 249. 
Ananda, Sk., t.t., see Bliss. 
Anandagiri, n.p., mentions Dravi- 
.r/a^arya, 34, xxii, 

Ananda A'etiya, at Bhoga-nagara, 
.11,66. 

Anandamaya, t.t., see Bliss. 
Anangharf, son of Hfishang, 47, 35. 
Ananghas, n. of a family, 47. 140. 
Ananta, chief among Nagas, 8, 89. 
Ananta, n. of a Tirthakara, 22, 280. 
Ananta&Lritra, n. of a chief Bo- 
dhisattva, 21, 284. 
Anantakaya, attendant on Milinda, 

35, 47-9 ; = Antiochos? 35, xix. 
Anantamati,son of a former Buddha 
„A'andrasuryapradjpa, 21, 19. 
Anantarya sins, see Sins. 
Anantavikramin, a Bodhisattva 

Mahasattva, 21, 4. 
Anantavirya, n. of a Tathagata, 
49 (ii), 100. 

Anasava, t.t., free from the four 

Asavas, 11, 97 n. 

Anamat Sangamana, a deity 

identified with the hall fire, 12, 338. 

Anasrava, Gaina t.t., explained, 22, 

37n. 
Anastokh, son of AirU, 5, 133. 
Anathapi«izada, or pi»</aka, see 
AnathapWika. 
Anathapi«rfika, or "pWaka, or °pi- 
Wada, n.p., meets with Buddha, 
receives his teaching, and presents 
the Vihara of Cetavana to the 
Bhikshus, 19, 201-18, 231; 20, 179- 
8 9> 197 sq. ; Buddha in A.'s Grove 
at Savatthi, 10 (ii), 17, 20, &c. ; 11, 
210,223,296; 13, 210, 302, 325 sq.; 
"1 2 4> 3 6 7 41, 76, 143, M6sq., 216, 
314 sq., 329, 351, 363, 377, 397 ; 



20, I, 



2 72, 335, 



41 

49 (ii), 



89, mj questions Buddha how 
lay devotees are ' to behave towards 
the litigious Bhikkhus,' 17, 318 ; 
Buddha addresses him as Sudatta, 

20, 182; his daughter A'ulla Sub- 
hadda, 36, 308 n. 

Anattaw, t.t., absence o{ soul, non- 
individuality, one of the three parts 
of Buddhist wisdom, 11, 9 n., 162, 
294. 

Anavanamita-vay^ayanta, n. of 
the sphere of Ananda as Buddha. 

21, 206 sq. 
Anavanata Vau;ayanti = Anavana- 

mita-vah/ayanta, q. v. 

Anavatapta, n . of a Naga king, 21,5. 

Ancestors, warriors rewarded and 
punished before the spirits of the a., 
3, 77 ; the king's a. are the spiritual 
sovereigns, 3, 109; protect and 
punish their descendants, 3, 109 sq. ; 
the worshipped a, grant a long line of 
descendants, 3, 402 ; calling back the 
spirit of a deceased, 27, 108, 10S n., 
112, 129; thedead treated asspiritual 
intelligences, 27, 148, 148 n.; discon- 
tented ghosts of rulers and princes, 
28, 206 sq. ; deceased ministers be- 
come assessors to Heaven, 3, 207, 
207 n. : the date of marriage to be 
announced to the a., 27, 78 ; the 
spirit of the departed should not be 
a single day without a resting-place, 

27, 172; by vigil and purification 
one seems to see the deceased 
friends, 28, 211; inscriptions with 
panegyrics of the a., 28, 251-3. 
See Ancestor Worship, Fathers, 
Fravashis, Souls, and Spirits. 

Ancestor Worship. 

(a) Chinese a. w., general views and rules. 

{?') Sacrifices to ancestors in China. 

(<■) Representatives of the dead in Chinese 

(</) Chinese ancestral temples, 
if) A. iv. in Farsi religion. 
N.H.- On a. w. in India, see Fathers, Funeral 
rites, and .Sraddhas. 

(a) Chinese a. w., general views 

AND RVLES. 

Music and dance at a. w., 3, 61 ; 

28, 32 sq. ; in worshipping your an- 
cestors prove your filial piety, 3, 
98 sq. ; 28, 291, 310 sq. ; former 
kings help the men of later times, 3, 
120; Tan rears altars to the kings 
Thai, A'!,and Wan, and prays for the 



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ANCESTOR WORSHIP 



life of his brother Wu, 3, 152-4, 
152 n. ; the a. w. of tlie common 
people, according to Confucius, 3, 
299 sq. ; royal a. w. 3, 300-2 ; 27, 
108 ; a. w. procures long life, 3, 326 ; 
a festival in honour of the ancestors, 
3, 374 sq. ; Wan conformed to the 
example of his ancestors, and their 
spirits had no occasion for dissatis- 
faction, 3, 3S8; when passing by 
a grave, one should bow forward to 
the cross-bar, 27, 185; visits to the 
graves of one's fathers on taking 
and returning from a journey, 27, 
185; nourishment of the living, 
burial of the dead, and service of the 
spirits, 27, 388 sq., 391 ; branches 
of family and a. w., 28, 43sq., 4311.; 
from a. w. arose the worship of 
nature gods, 28, 67 ; worthies to 
whom a. w. is due, 28, 207-9 > cere- 
monies connected with it, 28, 292 sq.; 
a. w, under different dynasties, 28, 
341 sq. ; to reverence the spirits of 
the departed a duty of rulers, 40, 29; 
the wicked slight the spirits ot an- 
cestors, 40, 243. 

(b) Sacrifices to Ancestors in 
China. 

Sacri ficial observances paid to 
the five Tfa, 3, xxviii sq. ; Shun 
sacrificed a bull to the Cultivated 
Ancestor, 3, 40, -ion.; in the twelfth 
month of the first year ! Yin sacri- 
ficed to the former king, and pre- 
sented the heir-king before the 
shrine of his grandfather, 3, 92 ; 
sacrifices offered by the king to his 
ancestors, 3, 107, 241 sq. and n., 244, 
348 ; 27, 30 sq.; 28, 42-4, 60 sq. ; 
A7>ang honours Tan by sending him 
an offering, as if he were a departed 
spirit, 3, 194, 194 n. ; animal sacri- 
fices (red bulls) to the ancestors, 3, 
195, 366, 370, 37011., 387 ; services 
for spirits and manes regulated by 
the Minister of Religion, 3, 228, 
228 n. ; animal sacrifices at a. w., 
3, 300 ; sacrifices and odes to royal 
ancestors, 3, 304-36 ; the ancestors 
enjoy the sacrifice, and bless the 
worshipper, 3, 306, 339, 339 n., 

343-5. 348, 3 66 "8, 370, 375. 4°' 
sq. ; spirits and food offered to 
the ancestors, 3, 369 sq. ; libations 
poured out to the spirits of the 



departed, 3, 386 sq. and n.; offer- 
ings made to the ancestors during 
a drought, 3, 420 sq., 420 11., 421 n.; 
extinction of sacrifices to the an- 
cestors equal to extinction of dy- 
nasty, 3, 42 r ; the son's duty to 
mourn for andsacrifice to his parents, 
3, 480, 487 sq. ; offerings to the 
spirits of the ancestors, brought by 
husband and wife, 16, 182, i84sq. n.; 
ancestors associated with God at 
the sacrifices of ancient kings, 10, 
287 sq., 289 n.; sacrifices to the 
departed, 27, 35 sq., Ti6sq., 444- 
8 ; 28, 201-6, 221 sq., 231, 233 sq., 
238, 240-53; food used at offerings 
to the deceased, 27, 82 ; names to 
be given to relatives when they are 
sacrificed to, 27, 117 sq.; sacrifices 
at funeral rites, 27, 133, 137, 139, 
r4i sq., 151, 153, 156 sq., 157 n., 161, 
i6t 11., 168- 7 t, t 75, 177 sq., 189 sq.; 
28, 46-8, 4811., 50, 53-5, 58; sacri- 
fice of Repose, 27, 189 sq. ; sacri- 
fices to princes, high ministers, and 
officers who benefited the people, 
27, 274; spoils of the chase sacri- 
ficed to all ancestors, 27, 300 ; 
sacrifices to deified sovereigns and 
ministers, 27, 307 ; united sacrifice 
in the shrine of the high ancestor, 
27, 325; sacrifices by a son of 
a secondary wife instead of the 
eldest son, 27, 335-7,335 n., 336 n. ; 
sacrifices to former masters and 
sages and to the former aged in 
the college, 27, 359 sq. ; origin 
and development of offerings to the 
dead, 27, 369-74, 370 n., 444 ; sacri- 
fice to an old wife, 27, 404 ; sacri- 
fice to all ancestors, 28, 167 ; ' they 
did not sacrifice to their ancestor,' 
i.e. they had no religion, 40, 166, 
170, 170m 
(c) Representatives of the 
dead in Chinese a. \v. ; 

Personators or representatives of 
the dead, 3, 7811., 82, 409, 40911.; 
27, 87, 8711., 183, 337 sq., 3-11, 
405 sq., 444, 446 ; 28, 12, 24 sq., 
53, 75, 79 sq., 88, 152, 212, 240-2, 
245-9, 29^—3 ; the departed an- 
cestors represented by living re- 
latives, 3, 300 sq. ; feast given to 
the personators of the dead after 
the sacrifice, 3, 333 sq., 402 sq. ; 



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43 



representatives of the dead at the 
sacrifice to the ancestors, 3, 365, 
365 n., 366 n., 367, 367 n., 369; 
the persouators of the departed 
spirits respond, blessing the sacri- 
ficer, 3, 401 sq. ; the impersonators 
of the deceased should sit with 
gravity, 27, 62, 62 n. ; a son must 
not act as personator of the dead 
at a. w., 27, 69, 69 n.; the repre- 
sentative of the dead and the officer 
of prayer, 39, 170, 352; Kang-sang 
K/ju worshipped as the representa- 
tive of the departed, 40, 75. 
(d) Chinese ancestral temples. 
Yao hands the government over 
to Shun 'in the temple of the 
Accomplished Ancestor,' 3, 38, 38 n.; 
on the first day of the first month 
of the year after Yao's death, Shun 
went to the temple of the Accom- 
plished Ancestor,3,4i; appointment 
of an arranger in the Ancestral 
Temple, 3, 44 ; new kings appointed 
in a temple dedicated to the spirits 
of the ancestors, 3, 51, 51 n. ; if the 
king be not virtuous it will bring 
the ruin of his ancestral temple, 3, 
95 ; spirits of the a. t. worshipped 
by the pious, 3, 96 ; to retain a 
place in the seven-shrined a. t. is 
a sufficient witness of virtue, 3, 102, 
102 n.; Shau discontinued the offer- 
ings in the a. t., 3, 126, 1 30 ; after 
his successful war Wu" sacrifices at 
the a. t. 3, 133 n., 134 ; ( guests' of 
sovereigns assist in the services in 
the a. t., 3, 162, 162 n. ; shrines of 
sovereigns in the a. t. 3, 303, 311, 
313 sq., 322, 32611., 328 sq. ; fish- 
offering in the a. t. 3, 324 sq. ; sacri- 
ficial service in the a. t., 3, 365-8, 
474 sq. and 11. ; 27, 113, 115, 218, 
220, 223-7, 261, 261 n., 264, 278, 
285, 289, 294 sq., 307 sq., 385 sq., 
411 sq., 422 sq., 435, 459 ; 2*, 32, 
50. sq., 265, 271, 308-1 r ; theofficers 
of Yin assist at the libations in the 
a. t. of the ATau, 3, 379, 379 n. ; an- 
cestral temples raised by rulers and 
officers, 3, 384, 3R4 n., 424 ; 16, 34 r, 
342 n. ; 28, 204-6; reverence ex- 
hibited in the a. t, 3, 3S8, 485 sq. ; 
27, 191 ; feast and archery contest 
at the close of the sacrifice in the 
a, t., 3, 399-401 ; a gift of a libation 



cup and spirits, to be used for sacri- 
ficing in the a. t.,3, 427,427 n. ; 'the 
ancestral chamber,' 3, 432, 4 32n.; 
to preserve their a. t. the duty of 
high ministers, 3, 470, 470 n. ; King 
Wan sacrificed to in the Brilliant 
Hall as the correlate of God, 3, 477 ; 
there will be progress and success 
if a king repairs to the a. t., using 
great victims, 16, 156 sq., 158 sq. n.; 
the king goes to his a. t., 16, 194, 
19611., 26r ; filial piety displayed 
in the king's worshipping in the a. t., 
16, 250 sq. ; a sincere worshipper 
maintains his a. t,, 16, 256; cere- 
mony of the banquet following the 
sacrifice in the a. t. 27, 57 sq. ; 28, 
446, 454-7 ; a ruler shall dismount 
in passing the a. t., 27, 97 ; the a. t. 
must be first attended to in the 
erection of buildings, 27, 103 sq. ; 
ancestral temples of great officers, 
graves of minor officers, 27, 107; 
the grand minister of the a. t., one 
of the six grandees, 27, 109 ; pulling 
down part of the wall of the a. t. at 
the funeral, 27, 144; wailing of 
the ruler when the shrine of his 
father burned, 27, 190 ; duty of the 
ruler to attend to the observances 
of the a. t., 27, 217 ; plan of an 
a. t., 27, 224 n. ; vessels of an a. t. 
not to be sold, 27, 238; first-fruit 
offering in the a. t., 27, 271, 274 ; 
autumnal sacrifice in the a. t., 27, 
293; provisions for worship in the 
a. t., 27, 308 sq. ; offerings in the 
a t.,on a prince's taking a journey, 
27, 314 sq., 326; the new wife 
presented in the a. t., 27, 322; grand 
a. t. taking fire, causes interruption 
of ceremonies, 27, 328-30 ; pro- 
ceedings in the a. t., rules of pre- 
cedence, 27, 354, 357 ; marriage, 
capping, deaths, and sacrifices an- 
nounced in the a. t., 27, 355 sq., 
358 ; emperor lodges in the a. t,, 
when visiting a feudal prince, 27, 
375 ; to die for the a. t., the prero- 
gative of the ruler, 27, 379 ; number 
of shrines in a. t., 27, 397 ; services 
in the a. t., a natural duty, 27, 397 ; 
presentation of a cup at sacrifices 
in the a. t., 27, 399 ; in the sacrifices 
of the a. t. there is the utmost ex- 
pression of humanity, 27, 413 ; no 



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ANCESTOR WORSHIP-ANGELS 



avoiding of names in the a. t., 28, 
18 ; demeanour in the a, t.,28, 25; 
use of music in the a. t., 28, roi, 
127 sq.; prayer-officers of the a. t., 
28, 116; placing the spirit-tablets 
in the a. t., 3, 488; 27, 168, 16811., 
171 sq., 192,313, 313 n. ; 28, 48, 
50-2, 56 sq., 65-7, 136 sq., 156, 
159 sq., 163; two spirit-tablets in 
one temple shrine, 27, 323 sq. ; re- 
moval of spirit-tablets from their 
shrines, 27, 324 sq. ; guarding the 
spirit-tablets in the ruler's absence, 
27, 355, 358 ; from dignity of a. t. 
arose importance of altarsof the land 
and grain, 28, 67 ; consecration of an 
a. t., 28, 169 sq.; emoluments, rank, 
rewards conferred in the a. t., 28, 
2 33, 247; site for the a. t., 28, 
235; ceremonies in the a. t., 28, 
258 sq., 262 ; rulers always lodge in 
the a. t.,28, 351; capping ceremony 
performed in the a.t., 28, 427 ; to 
secure services in the a. t. one of 
the ends of marriage, 28, 428 ; 
marriage ceremonies in the a. t., 28, 
428 sq., 432. 
(f) A. W. in Parsi religion. 

Sacrifice for the departed soul 
offered up toSraosha,4, 136, 136 n.; 
18, 59-63; funeral oblations for 
the soul of a killed dog, 4, 169; 
appointed feasts of the ancestors, 
5, 208 ; funeral cakes offered to 
Rashnu, AstaJ, and Vae, 5, 383 ; 
tenth-day, monthly, and annual 
ceremonies for the departed, 5, 383; 
ceremony of the guardian spirits 
of the righteous in honour of the 
departed, 18, 173,173",; daily and 
annual ceremonies for the departed 
to be performed by the heir, 18, 
184, 184 n. ; annual worship of the 
Fravashis as the souls of the dead, 
23, 192 sq., 192 n. ; offerings to the 
Fravashis, 23, 197; attending the 
souls of parents and relatives an 
indispensable good work, 24, 264 ; 
consecration of sacred cakes, 24, 
272-4; sacred feast (myazd) in 
honour of the souls, 24, 273 sq., 
283 ; why ceremonies in honour 
of the departed souls must be cele- 
brated, 24, 273-5; sacred cakes 
and ceremonial, sacred feast and 
benedictions for the departed souls 



on the ten days of the Fravashis, 
24, 298-300 ; Fravashis and souls 
of departed worshipped, 31, 273, 
2 75> 2 79; sacrifice to the souls ot 
the dead, 31, 331; Afrinagan, 
prayers recited at meals in honour 
of the deceased, 31, 367-75 ; adop- 
tion for the benefit of departed 
souls, 37, 147; the departed claim 
ceremonial, not lamentation, 37, 
T 93 ; reverencing the spirit of a 
kinsman, 37, 231. See also Fra- 
vashis, and Funeral rites. 

Ancestral Temples, see Ancestor 
Worship (d). 

Ancient One, the, see God. 

Andar, or Andra, Zd. I«dra, one of 
the six demons of Aharman, 5, 10, 
10 n. ; his business, 5, 106 sq. ; 
smitten by Ash;ivahijt,o, 128, 128 n.; 
opposed to the wearing of a sacred 
girdle, 37, 182, 182 n.; see n/iolndar, 
and Iwdra. 

Andhaka, n. of a demon slain by 
Siva, 42, 620. 

Andhakas, n. of a people, suffered 
destruction, 49 (i), 116. 

Andhakavinda, n.pl., Maha Kassapa 
going from A. to Ra^agaha, 13, 254 ; 
Buddha at A., 17, 87. 

Andhakavrzsh;/i, Rathanemi is an 
A., 45, 118. 

Andhras,in the code of Manu, 7, xxiv. 

Andra, see Andar. 

Aneran, Zd. anaghra, boundless 
(space), see Space. 

Anga, n.p., converted by Buddha, 
19, 24 i. 

Angas, n. of a people, Takman 
(fever) delivered over to them, 42, 
2, 446, 449. 

Angas, see Vedahgas, and Gaina. 

Angels. 

(a) In Mohammedanism. 

(b) In Parsi religion. 
{t) In Buddhism. 

(a) In Mohammedanism. 

Arabian belief in a., G, xi, 
xiit ; Muslim belief in a., 6, lwiii 
sq. ; guard the gates of heaven, fi, 
cvi ; 9, 168; God addresses the 
a. at the creation, 6, 4sq.; bear 
witness to what God revealed, 6, 
95; adore Adam, 6, 138, 246; 9, 
8, 19 sq., 43 sq., 181 ; Mohammed 
asked to bring down a., 6, 245 ; visit 



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ANGELS— ANGIRAS 



45 



Abraham, 6, 247 sq. ; 9, 120; called 
1 daughters of God' by the Arabs, 
6, 256 n. ; are not the daughters of 
God, 9, 5, 212 ; are not females, 9, 
250, 252 ; if a. were walking on the 
earth, God would have sent an angel 
as His apostle, 9, ir ; the a. only 
descend at the bidding of the Lord, 
9, 3 1 sq. and n. ; are servants of 
God, 9, 48, 174; God makes the 
a. His messengers, endued with 
wings, 9, 157 ; oaths by the a. who 
execute God's behests, 9, 168, 314, 
314 n., 318, 318 n. ; circling round 
His throne celebrate the praises of 
God, 9, 190 sq., 202, 205 ; obey 
God in what He bids them, 9, 291 ; 
ascend unto God, 9, 300 sq. ; the 
nineteen a. of hell, 9, 309; descend 
in the 'night of power,' 9, 337; 
assist the believers in battle, 6, 61 
sq., 164, 169, 169 n. ; God sends 
guardian a. to watch over men, 6, 
122, 233 ; sent down to warn men 
that there is no other God, 6, 251 ; 
receive the good in Paradise, the 
unbelievers in hell, 6, 235, 253; the 
two numberers or recording a., 9, 
72, 243, 243 n. ; recording a. note 
down the secret plots of the infidels, 
9, 217; pray for the believers, 9, 
191 ; the lower heaven adorned 
with guardian a., 9, 200 ; descend 
upon the believers, to encourage 
them, 9, 201 sq. ; ask forgiveness 
for men, 9, 205 ; the a. (Munkir 
and Nakir) take the souls to ac- 
count, 9, 232 ; the a. back up him 
who repents, 9, 291 ; the spirit and 
the a. stand in ranks on the last day, 
®> 3 17 ; guardian a. set over men, 
writing down what they do, 9, 323; 
every sonlhasaguardian angel, 9, 328. 
{b) In Parsi Religion. 

The a. were contending in the 
world ninety days and nights with 
the demons of the evil spirit, 5, 19 ; 
fire produced under the guidance of 
the a., 5, 55 sq. ; a good king equal 
to the a., 24, 44 ; a. and archangels 
in heaven, 24, 83 sq. ; Auharmazd 
formed an assembly of a. and arch- 
angels, 24, 104; prepared out of 
fire, 24, 178; four a. round the 
throne of God, 24, 224 ; for each 
man an angel is stationed on the 



right-hand side, and two a. for the 
priests, 24, 283; every man of fif- 
teen years must take an angel as his 
patron spirit, 24, 288 sq.; days named 
after the a., 37, 3^ sq., 35 n. ; a. and 
archangels, see Amesha-Spe«tas. 

(c) In Buddhism. 

The angel hosts of the guardian 
a., 11, 48 ; how many a can stand 
on the point of a gimlet (needle), 
11, 88 n., 315; are the constant 
attendants of the preachers of the 
Lotus, 21, 278 ; see also Gods, 

Anger, let a man overcome a. by 
love, 10 (i), 58 sq.; Buddha preaches 
against lust and a., 19, 263-5 ; the 
Bhikshu must be free from a. and 
hate, 19, 299 sq. See also Passion, 
and Wrath. 

Anghari, n. of a Gandharva, 
guardian of Soim, 26, 72. 

Anghuyu, n.p., the Fravashi of A. 
worshipped, 23, 215; 31, 351. 

Angir, Atharvan told the knowledge 
of Brahman to him, 15, 27. 

Ahgiras. 

(a) A. in the singular, n. of a Rishi, and a 

mythical being. 
(£) A. in the plural, a family of priests or 

sorcerers. 
(<.) A. in the plural, a class of divine 

beings. 

(a) A. IN THE SINGULAR, N. OF A 
i?/SHI, AND A MYTHICAL BEING. 

A. meditated on the udgitha, 1, 
6 ; Bharadva^a told the knowledge 
of Brahman to A,, 15, 27 ; A. told 
the science of Brahman to Saunaka, 
15, 42 ; 48, 284 ; surpassed by his 
son Sukra, 19, 10 ; 49 (1), 8 ; Sukra 
and A. honour Indra in heaven, 19, 
95; 49 (i), 93; remodelled the 
ManusmWti, 25, xevi ; 33, xii, 
274; a sage and a Pr.ng-apati, 25, 
14; Kavi, son of A., 25, 58; the 
sacred texts revealed by Atharvan 
and A., 25, 436, 436 n.; ceremonies 
performed A.-like, 41, 154, 201 sq., 
205 sq., 214, 227, 233-5, 2 4 r --b 24 6 » 
307 ; Atharvan, A., and BhWgu as 
fire-priests, 42, xxiii, xxvii, xxx, 
xxxii, xxxiv, lvii sq. ; oblations to 
Bhngu and A., 42, lvii; Br/'hatsa- 
man, the descendant of A., 42, 171 ; 
and Atharvan rule over the heavens, 
42, 225; Agni worshipped by A., 
46, 42, 102; a name or epithet of 



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ANGIRAS— ANGRA-MAINYU 



Agni, 12, 102 n., ioS ; 26, nS; 41, 
225, 279; 46, 1, 92, 95, 327, 348, 
385, 389, 391, 412 ; Havishmats 
(manes), children of A., 25, 112; 
is the breath, 41, 233-5 ; the plants 
descended from A., 42, 43 ; invoked 
in an imprecation, 42, 89 sq., 161 ; 
the tree ^angida called A., 42, 38, 
280, 673. 

(A) A. IX THE PLURAL, A FAMILY OF 
PRIRSTS, OR SORCERERS. 

The A. kindled (discovered) Agni, 
12, 108; 46, 391; Agni, the tutelary 
god of the A., 49 (i), 22 ; Agni, the 
first of the A., 41, 358; 46, 22, 
129; the A. as sacrificers, 26, 2 8 sq. ; 
the Maruts are like the A. with 
their songs, 32, 416 ; 'our fathers, 
the A., have broken even the 
strong fortresses by their hymns, 
the rock by their shouting. They 
have opened to us the path of the 
great heaven; they have obtained 
day and sun and the shine of the 
dawn. They founded the R/ta ; 
they set into motion the thought of 
it,' 46, 74, 77; Bn'haspati, descend- 
ant of the A., 42, 127 sq.; A^garta, 
an Ahgiras, 44, xxxvi sq., xxxvii 
n. ; sorceries come from the A., 
42, 73, 80, 219, 576, 603, 624 ; 
designation of hostile sorcery prac- 
tices, 42, xviii-xxiv ; Sarama 
threatens the Pawis with the terrible 
A., 42, xxiii. 

(c) A. IN THE PLURAL, A CLASS OF 
DIVINE BEINGS. 

The A. rise above (zenith), 15, 
340; sprung from coals (angara), 
26, 388; the court of justice belongs 
to the A., 29, 362 ; the A., the chil- 
dren and grandchildren of Brahman, 
30, 195 ; worshipped at the Tar- 
pa«a, 30, 243; the A. slay the 
Dasyus, and destroy their castles, 
42, xxxiii, 86; help in battle, 42, 
119; the seven i&'shis or A., sons of 
heaven and dawn, break t'ie rock 
of the cows, 46, 239, 318, 322, 326, 
329 sq. ; -the Adityas and the A., 
both sprung from Pra^apati, were 
contending together for heaven, and 
sacrificed, 26, 113 sq. ; 44, 152; 
course of Adityas, and course of A., 
26, 383 sq. ; Adityas, Vasus, and 
A., 42, 89 ; Adityas and A, wor- 



shipped, 42, 191; the light of the 
Bhr\gus and A. is the brightest, 12, 
37 so ,-, 38 n. ; Bhngus, or A., at- 
tained the heavenly world, 26, 272 ; 
Tama, accompanied bv the A, and 
fathers, 12, 364 n. ; 30, 226; 44, 
481, See also Yama Ahgiras. 

Ahgirasa, Pali for Sk. Aiigiras, n. 

pi a 76'shi, 11, 172. 

Ahgirasa, t.t., AtharvaKa = ' holy,' 
ahgirasa=' pertaining to sorcery,' 
42, 219, 624. 

Ahgirasa, 'a descendant of Ahgiras'; 
Rishis led by the old sage A., 
S, 314; an epithet of Buddha, 13, 
122 ; numerous A., 42, xxxv ; 
Ghora A., 42, xxi, xxxv; Pra^etas 
A., 42, 163,484 sq. iV^Ayasya A., 
DadhyaW A., Dharuwa A., Hira^ya- 
stupa A., Kutsa A. 

Angfraaa, n. of an author on medi- 
cine, 36, 109, 109 n. 

Angra-mainyu, Zd., the evil spirit, 
Aharman and Ganrak-mainGk in 
Phi., 5, 3 n., 4 n. ; the Daeva of the 
Daevas, 4, 224 sq. ; A. and the six 
chief demons, 4, 139 n. ; the fiend 
who is all death, 23, 29 ; the coun- 
ter creations of A., 4, 1 sq., 4-10 ; 
sends diseases and deformities, 4, 
17, 19; noxious animals'the crea- 
tures of A., 4, 25, 29 ; creates 
99,999 diseases, 4, 236- 9 ; the ac- 
cursed Khrafstras of A., 23, 310, 
310 n. ; attacks Zarathu^tra and 
propounds riddles to him, 4, liii, 
20S, 210, 210 n. ; sends the demon 
Buiti to kill Zarathujtra, 4, 208-10; 
Ahura Mazda opposed by A., 31, 
xviii sq. ; not mentioned in 
Darius's inscriptions, 31, xxx; not 
mentioned in the first statement of 
the doctrine of dualism, 31, 25 n. ; 
compare Ahimanyu, 32, 119; flings 
the Pairikas against the stars that 
have in them the seed of waters, 
23, 104; Takhma Urupa rides A. 
turned into a horse, 23, 252, 252 11 ,, 
292 sq. ; drags the souls of the 
wicked into hell, 23, 340; created 
Azi Dahaka, 31, 233 ; spells against 
A., 4, 126, 138, 141, 146 sq. ; 31, 
312 sq., 390 ; conquered by the 
Airyama Ishyo prayer, 4, 247; 23, 
43-7; glorifies the powers of Asha- 
Yahi.fta, 23, 41, 45; religion the 



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ANGRA-MAIXYU— ANIMALS 



47 



destroyer of A., 4, 370; may A. 
be destroyed, 23, 22; smitten by 
Ahura Mazda, 23, 33; 31, 264; 
flees from Mithra, 23, 144, 151; 
defeated by prayer to Mithra, 23, 
150; gives way to the blows of 
Spe«ta-Mainyu, 23, 183; the Fra- 
vashis help against A., 23, 197 ; 
Ahura Mazda smites the creation 
of A., 23, 250 ; does no harm to the 
worshipper of Vayu, 23, 262; de- 
feated by Zarathuitra, 23, 274 sq. ; 
Aryan glory destroys A., 23, 2S4 ; 
powerless at the resurrection, 23, 
30S ; sacrifice to smite the wicked 
A., 31, 280; Sraosha hews down 
A., 31, 305. See Ganr<tk-main6k<, and 
Aharman. 

Angulimala, a robber, converted by 
Buddha, 13, 196 ; 19, 243 ; 36, 355. 

Anguli-mala-paritta, title of a pro- 
tecting charm, 35, 213. 

Ahguttara-Nikaya, t.w,, and Maha- 
parinibbana-Sutta, 11, xxxiv sq. ; 
Dhamma&ikkappavattana-Sutta be- 
longs to it, 11, 139. 

Anguttarapa, n. of a country, 10 
(ii), 96 sq. ; Buddha at A., 17, 127. 

Anidana, Gaina t.t., free from sin- 
ful acts, 22, 40. 

Anikshiptadhura, n. of a Bodhi- 
sattva Mahasattva, 21, 4; 49 (ii), 90, 

Anila.Vatayarja, author of a Vedic 
hymn, 32, 450, 

Animals. 

{a 1 Origin of a. 

(I 1 ) Classification of a. 

W Zoology. , 

(rf) A. as compared with men. 

(e) Use of flesh, milk, skin, &c, of a. 

{/) Treatment of a. 

(jf) Laws and regulations about a. 

(7i) Noxious a. 

O") A. in mythology. 

{/) Worship of a. 

(k) On some special a, 

(a) Origin of a. 

Creation of a., 5, 10, 31 sq., 46, 
179 ; 15, 86 ; 25, 15 ; 37, 150; 41, 
402 ; 43, 74 sq., 403 ; useful a. 
created in opposition to noxious 
creatures, 5, 71-4 ; creation of 
noxious creatures, 5, 162 sq. ; all a. 
created by God, 9, 79; Pragapati 
fashioned a. from his vital airs, hence 
a. are vital airs, 41, 402 ; symbolical 
creation of a., 43, 36-41 ; certain a. 
arise from parts of the body of the 
bewitched Indra, 44, 214-16; ori- 



gin of the ape and the bear, 5, 87 ; 
18, 419 ; origin of the ass and the 
barren cow, 26, 388; worms, 
beetles, ants, &c, are the remains 
of dead Yakkhas, 36, 108 sq, ; origin 
of lion, wolf, and other wild beasts, 
41, 131; though being eaten and 
cooked, a. do not diminish, being 
established in the womb, 41, 401 ; 
rebirthof men in a. as a punishment, 
1, 82 ; 7, 144-7 ; 8, 105 n., 109 n., 
321, 356 n.; 21, 92 sq. ; 25, 485, 
.493,496-8 ; 45, r5. 
(6) Classification of a. 

The five classes of a., 5, 45-52 ; 
23, 182, 182 11., 190 sq. ; 47, 160 sq. ; 
five kinds of noxious a. which must 
be killed, 24, 306 sq. ; elephant 
first of vehicles, lion of forest a., 
sheep of sacrificial a., snake of dwel- 
lersin holes, bullamong cattle, 8, 345, 
353; behind the men are the beasts, 
behind the gods are birds, plants, 
and trees, 12, 140; creatures with 
teeth on one side only, and with 
teeth on both sides, 12, 171, 171 n. ; 
small living beings of five kinds, 22, 
304 ; seven domestic and seven 
wild a., 26, 213; 41, 40 n. ; 43, 211, 
277 ; tame a. separate from wild a., 

42, 51 ; there are four kinds of 
four-footed a., 43, 56 ; division of 
a., 5, 179-82; 22, 11; 25, issq.; 36, 
101 ; division of a. into ekendriyas, 
dvindriyas, &c, 45, xxx, 219-24, 

(r) Zoology. 

Three origins of a., from an egg, 
from a living being, and from a 
germ, 1, 94 ; a. born from eggs, 
from germs, from perspiration, and 
from wombs, 8, 339 ; 22, 1 1 ; 25, 15 
sq. ; 36, 101 ; period of gestation in 
a., 37, nosq.; curious views about 
the impregnation of some a., 39, 
361 sq. ; those with nine apertures 
are born from the womb, those 
with eight from eggs, 40, 63 ; are 
born with bones, though introduced 
into the womb only as seed, 41, 254 ; 
having received the foetus standing, 
give birth after lying down, 41, 363 ; 
of a. the head bom first, the tail last, 

43, 40; the beast is threefold: 
father, mother, son ; and embryo, 
amnion, chorion, 43, no; on the 
generation of the various kinds of a., 



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ANIMALS 



and how they feed, 45, 394-8 ; 
worms and other little a. originate 
from honey and similar substances, 
48, 417 sq. ; worms, scorpions, 
originate from dung, 48, 464 ; the 
left side of the belly of a well-filled 
beast is more raised than the right 
side, 41, 400; are biggest towards 
the middle, 43, 40, 50 ; their right 
side is the stronger, 43, 40 ; rise and 
sit down by their fore and hind 
parts, 43, 41 ; fire in men and a., 5, 
61; delight in being near the fire, 41, 
164, 164 11. ; why a. dwell in the air, 
43, 45 sq., 50 sq. ; draught animals 
pull with all four (.limbs, 44, 78; 
walk on two feet at a time, 44, 78 ; 
are of sixteen parts,' 44, 252 ; dura- 
tion of their life, 45, 220-4. 

(d) A. AS COMPARED WITH MEN. 

Difference between men and a., 
10 (ii), 1 1 1 sq. ; 34, 7 sq. ; pretended 
knowledge of the language of beasts, 
11, 196 ; speech of a. is unintelli- 
gible, 26, 268; possess their know- 
ledge by instinct, 24, 39 ; men act- 
ing like cats or herons, i.e. hypo- 
crites, 25, 159 sq. ; the kt&i (pole- 
cats?) sacrifice larger a. and devour 
the smaller, 27, 292 ; love among a., 
28, 392; envy among a., 37, 92 ; ex- 
cluded from the study of the Veda, 
34, 197 n. ; have reasoning, but no 
wisdom, 35, 51; cannot attain to 
insight into the truth, 36, 176 ; likes 
and dislikes of different a., 40, 8 sq„ 
26; man is the two-footed animal, 
41, 4C9 ; brilliancy of a. (lion, tiger, 
&c), transferred upon kings, 42, 
116 sq., 477; commit sins, 45, 356 ; 
there are individual souls of beasts, 
birds, creeping a., 48, 198; small 
creatures (flies, worms, &c.) go to 
the ' third place ' (not to the world 
of the gods, or of the fathers), 1, 
82 ; reach perfection or heaven by 
penance, 8, 389; 25, 478, 478 n. ; 
chiefs or kings of a., 5, 88 sq., 88 n., 
91 ; 8, 345 ; 24, 108, 108 n. ; 30, 
114; 49 (i), 196 sq. ; are communi- 
ties like men, their fate written 
in the Book, and they shall be 
gathered on the judgement day, 
6, lxxxv, 119; destroyed for sac- 
rifices, are reborn to higher exis- 
tences, 25, 175 ; 48, 599. 



{e) USE OF FLESH, MILK, SKIN, &C, 
OF A. 

Lawful and forbidden flesh of a., 
2, 64 sq., 65 n., 74 sq., 268-70 ; 7, 
162-6; 12, 52; 14, 74 sq., 184 
sq. ; 25, 171 sq. ; selling forbidden 
meat, 7, 30 ; not the eating of flesh 
defiles a man, but a bad mind and 
wicked deeds, 10 (ii), 40 sq. ; boar's 
flesh eaten by Buddha, 11, 71-3; 
animal food allowed for hermits, 14, 
259 ; raw flesh, meat broth, and 
blood allowed as medicaments, 17, 
49, 61 ; flesh of a. which must not 
be eaten by Bhikkhus, 17, 85 sq. ; 
Gainas accuse Buddhists of killing a. 
to eat meat, 17, 116 sq.; Buddha 
forbids the meat of a. killed for the 
purpose, but allows fish, 17, 117; 
flesh of ass and pig used for sacred 
feasts, 18, 311, 311 n. ; rules about 
eating meat and killing a., meritori- 
ousness of abstinence from meat, 25, 
170, 173-7; a. arc food, 43, 46, 
56; a. whose milk is forbidden, 2, 
268 ; 7, 167 ; 25, 170 sq. ; skins of 
a black antelope, a tiger, a he-goat, 
as garments for students of the three 
castes, 7, 115; boar's skin for shoes, 
41, 102 sq.; tiger's skin, 41, 8i, 
91-3, 96, 105, 105 n. ; 42, in sq., 
378-80; antelope's skin, see Ante- 
lope ; bull's hide, see Bull ; the sac- 
rificer at the Vag-apeya steps on the 
skin of a he-goat, 41, 35 ; the first 
layer of the altar appeased on a red 
ox-skin, 41, 355-7 ; the sacrificial 
skin at Soma sacrifices, 42, 180 sq., 
612; strainer of goat's hair and 
sheep's wool a form of goats and 
sheep, a tail-whisk, a form of kine 
and horses, 44, 235 ; dung of a. sac- 
rificed, 30, 125 sq., 128; trade in 
products of a., 37, 139-42. See 
also Animal sacrifice, Cattle, Horse 
sacrifice. 
(J) Treatment of a. 

Penance for killing a., 2, 83 sq., 
285 sq., 285 n. ; 7, 138 sq., 159-61 ; 
14, 113 sq. ; 25, 457-9; lawful and 
unlawful slaughter of a., 5, 319; 
7, 169-72 ; 14, 19, 26 sq. and n. ; 
25, xxxi, 172-6; 27, 227; 28, 
227 sq.; 37, 440, 452; 40, 241; 
chase of brute beasts lawful, 6, 96 
sq. ; punishments for injuring or 



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ANIMALS 



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killing a., 7, 29-31, 35, 40, 173; 1-1, 
202; 25, 304, 306, 444 ; *Me he 
(mam sa) will eat in the next world, 
whose flesh (mawsa) I am tasting 
here,' 7, 1 71 sq. ; five places where 
a. are liable to be destroyed, 7, 193; 
kindness to be shown to draught a., 

7, 200 ; 33, 359 ; medical treatment 
of a., 7, 39; 37, 48, 118; antelope, 
elephant, butterfly, bee, and fish 
destroyed by the five objectsof sense, 

8, 155 n. ; combats between ele- 
phants, horses, buffaloes, bulls, goats, 
rams, cocks, and quails not to be 
witnessed by the Bhikkhus, 11, 192 ; 
injunctions against annoying a., 17, 
24 sq. ; the sufferings of a., 19, 158 ; 
sin of injuring a., 22, n-13; 37,84 
sq. ; when a Gaina mendicant per- 
ceives hungry a. feeding off offerings 
thrown on the ground, he should go 
out of their way, 22, 102 sq. ; to be 
protected, 24, 67 ; 47, i6osq. ; sins 
regarding useful a., 24, 96 ; certain 
a. must not be killed, and certain 
parts of killed a. must be conse- 
crated, 24, 295 ; regard for a., the 
creatures of heaven, in hunting, 27, 
220 sq.; protection of a. in spring, 
27, 256, 259 ; work and food of an 
injured beast, 37, 67 : care of mad 
a., 37, 105 sq.; ill-treatment of a., 
37, 130; the wicked hurt a., 40, 
240 sq. ; are gelded, 42,8, 67; pun- 
ishment for gelding a., 7, 35 ; spells 
put into a. by enemies, 42, 76, 457 ; 
Zoroaster's kindness to a., 47, 153 
sq. See Ahimsfi, Animal sacrifices, 
and Cattle. 

(g) Laws and regulations about 

A. 

False evidence regarding a., 14, 
83; 25, 271; owners responsible 
for offences committed by a., 24, 
286; healing a., 7, 31 sq.; 25, 310 
sq. ; division of property consisting 
in a., 25, 347-9, 349 n., 351, 357; 
net to be sold by Brahmnwas. 25, 
421 ; as articles of sale, 33, 150; 
bestial crimes, 7, 29; 33, 180; se- 
questrator's rights and duties with 
regard to seized a., 37, 131-4, 
136 ; training of a., 25, 106; to be 
removed from a king's council, 25, 
2 39. 2 39 n. ; dogs and horses not 
to be taken to the hall, 27, 96 ; 



wealth of an ordinary man de- 
scribed by telling the number of a. 
he keeps, 27, 116; bulls and stal- 
lions sent forth to the females, 27, 
266 ; rules about presenting a., 28, 
76 ; rites performed when mounting 
an elephant, a horse, &c, 29, 365 
sq. ; 30, 170, 295 ; how a. are to be 
mounted, 41, 361 ; breeding sheep 
and dogs, 37, roi ; trade in products 
of a., 37, 139-42 ; pollution caused 
by dead a., 5, 260 sq. and n. ; pol- 
lution of a.,5,272sq.; 24,337 ; a. not 
to be looked at by a inenstruous 
woman, 5, 283; bones of five- 
toed a. defile, 7, 94, 95 ; impurity 
caused by a., 7, 100-4, 100 n. ; 
25, 119; a goat and a horse are 
pure, as regards their mouths, but 
not a cow, 7, 103 ; a Sraddha is 
auspicious when performed in sight 
of a goat, but the sight of a dog, or 
a tame pig, or a tame cock is to be 
avoided, 7, 250; Snataka not to 
travel with imperfect or disfigured 
beasts, 25, 139; inauspicious a., 25, 
149; see also Omens; which are 
pure, 25, 192 ; foxes of evil omen, 
40, 76; three unclean a., boar, ram, 
and dog, 44, 178 sq. 
(b) Noxious a. 

Killing creatures of Ahriman is 
a pious work, 4, lxxviii, 188; 5, 
394; 24, 28, 306 sq.; 37, 86, 149 
sq. n., 150 sq.; obnoxious a. created 
by Ahriman, 4, 4 sq., 25, 29 ; 5, 17; 
18, 96 ; those a. which are crea- 
tures of Ahriman do not defile by 
their death, 4, 60 ; the Druj* is like 
Khrafstras or noxious a., 4, 77, 7711. ; 
Khrafstras produced by hair and 
nails cut and dropped into holes, 4, 
190 ; red Khrafstras pollute mor- 
tals, 31, 85, 87; destruction of 
noxious creatures by Tijtar, 5, 169 
sq. ; killing noxious a. as atonement 
for sin, 4, 207 ; 5, 281, 300, 300 11., 
307 ; noxious a. may be killed in 
self-defence, 7, 40 ; atonement for 
being bitten by certain a., 25, 471, 
471 11. ; 30, 128; 'Vermin-killer' 
for destroying noxious creatures, 
37, 162, 163 n. ; tigers and snakes, 
shaft and missile, 43, 107 ; noxious 
a. produced by the smiting cf Dahak, 
37, 214; charm against poison of 



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ANIMALS 



scorpions and insscts, 42, 29 sq., 
553 ; charm against wild beasts, 42, 
'47 s q-j 3 66 -9; diseases caused 
by certain a., 42, 500 n., 501. 

(1) A. IN MYTHOLOGY. 

List of mythical a. described, 5, 
67-71, 88 sq., 88 11., 91 ; the four 
intelligent creatures (A7>ilin, phoe- 
nix, tortoise, dragon), 27, 383 sq., 
384 n., 393, 410; monsters and 
dragons in the ocean, 36, 191, 298, 
304 ; men lived in common with the 
a. in the age of perfect virtue, 39, 
140, 278 ; 40, 171 ; magic plants 
discovered by an eagle, or a boar, or 
an ichneumon, 42, 43 sq-, 77, T37, 
306, 5S0 sq. ;— the animalcule Anud- 
dhari (or Kunthu) which is only 
seen by monks who have reached the 
state of perfection, 22, 267, 304 ; 45, 

15, 220, 220 n.; the ox Barmayun, 
37, 218, 220 ; a boar, called Emiisha, 
raised the earth, and be was her 
lord Pra^apati, 44, 451; the wolf 
Kapud and the bird Kamak slain by 
Keresasp, 24, 63, 63 n.; dance to 
Khwei's music, 3, 45, 61 ; the 
khwei, a one-footed animal, 39, 
384, 38411. ; an ox decides boundary 
disputes between Iran and Turan, 
47, 31— 3, 135-8; the primaeval 
Bu}!> 4. 231, 23Tn., 290 sq,, 290 n. ; 
5, 45 sq. ; 47, xxix, xli ; the seed of 
the primaeval bull in the moon, 4, 
333» 233 n. ; 5, 179 ; 23, 8, 8 sq. n., 

16, 88-91, 176, 355; death of the 
primaeval ox, 5, 20 ; origin of 
plants from the primaeval ox, 5, 
99 sq., 177-9; the ox Sarsaok:, 5, 
58, 62, 69 sq. ; origin of a, from the 
primaeval ox, 5, xxiii, 20 n., 179; 
37, 150; men going forth on the 
ox Srfivo (Sarsaok, Sris.iok), h, 1S6, 
186 n. ; the immortal ox Hadhayaj 
or Sarsaok, whose fat yieldstheelixir 
of immortality. 18, m sq. and n., 
118, 171 ; the dark progeny of the 
primaeval ox cause the eclipses, Is, 
212 sq., 2 12 n. ; the ox Hadhayaj, 
who causes the perfection of primi- 
tive man, 18, 257, 257 n. ; primaeval 
ox attacked by evil spirit, 5, 17 sq., 
31 sq., 161 sq., i6r n.; 18,94,9411.; 
47, 33, 33 n. ; see also Gojfirfin ; 
the Saena or Simurgh, 23, 241 n., 
242 ; Salaka, a very tiny animal, 



36, 180, 180 n. ; the four-eyed 
bitch, Saramd, 42, 68, 404 ; the 
mythical three-legged ass in the 
ocean, 5, 67-9, 67 n. ; 24, in, 
in n.;— with horse, ass, and he- 
goat, one searches for Agn't, 41, 
198, 204-6, 224-7; jlbarmarfs 
body is that of a lizard, 5, 105 ; 
contention between the lizard and 
the Kar fish, 5, 65 sq. ; no brute 
creation in a Buddha country, 49 (ii), 
,2 j 33) 9 fi sq. ; Krishna as Lord 
of beasts, 8, 89 sq. ; for Rudra, the 
wild beasts are ih the forest and in 
the waters, 42, 157 ; the brain of a. 
the spittle of Tvashtri, 26, 202 ; the 
four-footed a. protected by Vasus 
and Rudras, 43, 68 ; Verethraghna 
in the shape of a boar, 23, 137, 153, 
235; Verethraghna in the shape of 
a., 23, 231, 233-8; oxen, horses, 
wolves refuse to kill the child Zoro- 
aster, 47, 37-9, 145 sq. See also 
Omens. 

(/) Worship of a. 

Souls of a. worshipped, 23, 197, 
229; 31, 288; food placed on the 
ground as bali-offering for a., 25, 92; 
29, 87 ; offerings to cats and tigers, 
27, 432, 432 n. ; sacrifice to all the 
a., 31, 329; chiefsofa. worshipped, 
SI j 338 ; of the earth, and of heaven, 
invoked as divine beings, 42, 161. 

(A) On some special a. 

Simile of the bat, 36, 346; sin of 
killing a beaver, 24, 71, 71 n., 350 ; 
clouds as bears, 32, 72 ; simile of the 
boar, 36, 334 sq.; why the king puts 
on shoes of boar's skin, 41, 102 sq. ; 
vicious boar unclean, 44, 178 ; earth 
torn up by boar, 44, 451 ; the wild 
buffalo and the sarabha assigned 
to Agni, 41, 411 sq. ; the buffaloes, 
i.e. the priests, quicken the sacri- 
fice, 44, 231 ; simile of the cat, 36, 
326 sq. ; deer sent by the princes as 
tribute to the king, 27, 433 ; simile 
of the deer, 36, 331 sq. ; fever 
allayed by means of a frog, 42, 4, 
565-8 ; frogs used at rites for 
quenching fire, 42, 348-5 1, 514 
sq. ; origin of frogs from water, 
43, T74-6; hare in the moon, 44, 
10; hedgehog to be preserved, for 
he kills ants, 5, 331, 331 n., 347 ; 
24, 318; simile of the jackal, 36, 



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ANIMALS ANIMAL SACRIFICES 



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329 sq. ; jackal produced from the 
intestine of the dead body filled 
with foul matter, 41, 203 ; simile of 
the leech, 36, 347 ; simile of the 
//'off, 06, 338-40; origin of lion, 41, 
131; the lion is vigour, 4;}, 38; 
moles mystically connected with 
earth and Agni, 12, 278 sq. and n. ; 
mole is Rudra's animal, 12, 440; 
at mole-hills, a sacrifice to the king 
of moles, 30, 114; monkeys as human 
monsters, 5, 60 n. ; simile of the 
monkey, 36, 292 sq. ; mules arc 
good, if tamed, 10 (ii, 77 ; she-mule 
cannot conceive, 29, 363 ; 30, 178 ; 

42, 545 ; she-mule dies when she 
foals, 35, 336, 236 n. ; simile of the 
niitugoose, 36, 329; otters sacrifice 
fish in spring, 27, 221, 251, 251 n.; 
similes of the panther, 06, 285-7 ; 
porcupine used in charms against , 
snake-poison, 42, 428; simile ofthc 
rat, 36, 328 ; let him wander alone 
like a rhinoceros, 10 (ii), 6-11; simile 
of the scorpion, 36, 328 sq.; simile of 
the road spider, 36, 351 ; simile of 
the squirrel ', 36, 284; 'treading on 
the tail of a tiger,'' expression for 
what is hazardous, 16, 78 sq., 80 n. ; 
tiger's skin used at the coronation, 
41, f 1, 91-3,96, 105, ro5 n.; 42, 1 1 1 
sq., 378-80; tiger typifies danger 
to life, 42, no, 518 ; tiger is vigour, 

43, 38 ; origin of tiger, 44, 203, 
215 ; man-tiger, similar to were- 
wolf, 44, 414 ; Will 0' the nvisp, 42, 
411 ; wolves, four-legged and two- 
legged, 37, 86 ; ceremony on a place 
attacked by worms, 30, 128 sq. ; 
charms against worms, 42, 2.2-5, 
313-20, 452-5 ; exorcism of vermin 
infesting grain, 42, 142. Other 
animals, see separately, and also 
Parables (c). 

Animal sacrifices. 

(a) History of a. s. ; different views about 

tliem. 
(/') Different kinds of a. s. 
(c) The victim. 
(rf) The YTipa, or sacrificial pohl to which 

the victim is bound. 

(a) History of a. s. ; different 

VIEWS ABOUT THEM, 

* It is for sacrifices that beasts have 
been created by the Self-existent 
(Brahman) himself. Sacrificing 
causes the whole universe to 



prosper ; therefore is the slaughter 
(of beasts) for a sacrifice no slaugh- 
ter. The sin of him who kills deer 
for the sake of gain, is not so great 
(and visited less heavily) in the 
world to come, than the sin of him 
who eats meat which has not been 
offered to the gods. Plants, cattle, 
trees, amphibious animals, and birds, 
which have been destroyed for the 
purposes of sacrifice, obtain exalta- 
tion in another existence (in which 
they are born as Gandharvas, or 
other beings of a high rank),' 7, 169 ; 
flesh of animals slain for sacrifices 
maybe eaten, 2, 270, 270 n.; slaugh- 
ter of animals for a. s. permitted, 
S, 289 sq. ; 14, 26 sq. and n., 54, 71 ; 
25, 172-6 ; occasions on which a. s. 
should be offered, 29, 87-9, 88 11. ; 
30, 256 sq. ; though implying injury 
to living beings, a. s. offered in ac- 
cordance with the Veda, is a sacred 
duty and leads to heaven, 25, 175 
sq. ; 38, 130 sq., 310 ; 4K, 598 sq. ; 
not alluded to in the .R/ksawhita, 
44, xvii ; the Apri hymns destined 
for the Praya^-a offerings of the a. s., 
46, 9 ; a hymn used at the ritual of 
the a. 5., 46, 283 sq. ; he who offers 
living victims will reside high in 
heaven, 46, 24 ; the sacrificial fires 
long for the sacrificer's flesh, he 
offers to them an animal to redeem 
himself, 44, 118 sq.; he who per- 
forms a. s. eats food every six 
months in yonder world, 43, 299 ; 
by a. s. the sacrifice!' confers upon 
himself immortal life, 44, 118 sq.; 
by sacrificing he-goats, ewes, and 
cows, he gains these animals, 44, 
218 ; in pressing Soma, they slay it, 
the animal victim is slain, the ha- 
virya^wa is slain with mortar and 
pestle, and the two mill-stones, 12, 
308 ; 26, 65, 340 ; 44, 2; substitut- 
ing lower for higher animals, and 
vegetable for a. s , 44, xxxvii ; when 
they spread the sacrifice, they kill 
it, 44, 2 sq. ; origin and development 
of a. s., 12, 50-3 ; 26, 178 sq. ; rice 
and barley the sacrificial essence ot 
all animals, 26, 199, 199 n. ; the 
cake a symbol of a. s., 12, 49 52 
and n.; animals constitute a sacri- 
fice, 44, 155; ascetic censuring an 



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ANIMAL SACRIFICES 



Adhvaryu priest for destruction of 
life at a. s., 8, 289-93 > the ancient 
Bralnnawas offered sacrifices with- 
out killing cows, 10 (ii), 49 sq. ; no 
religious merit nor final rescue to 
be gained by a. s., 19, 129, 135 ; the 
sin of shying animals for sacrificial 
purposes, 22, 12, iS; all kinds of 
a. s. offered by king Okkaka, 10 (ii), 
50 sq. ; to gain great riches, the 
HrahmaKas cause the king to offer 
a. s.j 10 (ii), 50 sq. ; king Suddho- 
dana abstains from a. s., 49 (i), 24; 
bloody and bloodless s. in Zoroas- 
trifinism, 4, Ixii ; camels may be 
sacrificed and eaten, 9, 60 ; use and 
naming of animals for sacrificial pur- 
poses, 27, 116 sq.; animals only to 
be killed for rites, 40, 241. 
(6) Different kinds of a. s. 
Agni worshipped by sacrifices of 
ghr/ta, heifers, bulls, and cows with 
calf, 46, 211; the Agnisbomiya or 
a. s. to Agni and Soma, 26, 162-222, 
225 ; 30, 346 ; 43, 245, 260 sq. ; 44, 
119 n. ; 48, 598 ; twenty-one Agni- 
sliomiya a. s. at Aivamedha, 44, 372, 
375; eleven Agnishomiya a. s. at 
Purushamedha, 44, 404 ; meat- 
offering to Ahura, 31, 80, 84 ; meat- 
offerings for various angels and 
guardian spirits, 5, 335-8; a. s. 
at Asktakd and Anvash/akya festi- 
vals, 29, 105, 206 sq., 344, 417-21 ; 
30, 97-102, U2 sq., 294 ; tame and 
wild animals offered at the A>-va- 
medba 44, 296m, 298 sq. and n., 306- 
8, 310 sq., 331, 338, 338 sq. n., 
382-4, 382 sq. n., 388; on the 
Ajvamedha itself see under Morse- 
sacrifice ; a. s. at the building of 
the fire-altar, 41, 155-7, 161-86, 
'97~9j 204> 236, 400-13 ; 43, 2 
n -> 3j 35^» 392 ; at the house-build- 
ing, 29, 429 ; 30, 122 ; at the build- 
ing of a city, 3, 183 ; blood-conse- 
cration of wiw buildings, 28, 169 
sq. ; a, s. offered at the conclusion 
of covenants, 27, 112; 40, 164,164 11. ; 
ritual and general rules for the a. s. 
Sit domestic ceremonies., 29, 30, 176- 
6, 360 sq., 418 sq. ; 30, 98-101, 
234-6, 3^0 sq. ; expiatory a. s. to 
Fire and Waters, 4, 2c6 sq , 207 11. 
slaughter of a dun cow in expiation 
of murder, 0, 9, 9 n. ; sacrifice of a 



cow, a penance, 7, 13S; animal 
sacrifice at the reception of guests, 
26, 85; 29, 200, 275 sq. ; 30, 
131, 256, 278 sq, ; animal sacri- 
fice at the 'Hagg, 6, lxxiv ; a. s. at 
the king's consecration, 41, 6S sq., 
125 sq., 129-35, 136 n.j 137; the 
flesh of animals to be offered to the 
manes, 7, 249 ; 25, 124 sq. ; 29,359; 
30, 231, 256; sacrifice of a cow- 
to the Fathers, 30, 234-6; the 
animal to cover the dead body, 
29, 238, 241 sq. ; at marriage, 30, 
256 ; to the god Ndrdyawa they 
formerly offered animals, 8, 280 ; 
sacrifice to Nirriti of an ass by a 
student who has broken his vow of 
chastity, 2, 85, 289; 14, 117 sq., 
215 sq. ; 25, 454 sq. ; 29, 361 sq. ; 
the Pasuhandba or a. s. as part of 
Soma sacrifice, 7, 191 ; 12, 378 sq., 
378 n. ; 26, xi ; 41, xii-xiv, xvi- 
xviii, xxiv, 11-17, 4 r 8 > 43, 260, 
298 sq. ; 44, xiv, 118-30, 118 n., 
irgn.; a. s. to be offered once in 
each half-year at the solstices, 7, 
191 ; 25, 133; by the victim he puts 
flavour into the Soma feast, 26, 
3T4 ; to be performed at least once 
a year, 44, 119 ; victims for differ- 
ent gods at the different Soma sacri- 
fices, 26, 312 sq., 397 sq. n., 42S sq. ; 
at the end of every Soma sacrifice a 
sterile cow (anubandhyHi) sacrificed 
to JMitra and Varu«a, 26, 215 n., 
217, 387 sq., 391-7; 41, 87; 43, 
263-6; 44, xxii ; the a. s. is a 
great Soma sacrifice, 44, 120; some 
perform the a. s. without Soma, 
others with Soma, 44, 122 sq. ; the 
animal sacrifice uninterrupted by 
the Sattra, 44, 176 ; Pavi-puroddsa, 
or ' animal cake ' offering belonging 
to every a. s., 26, 199 sq. ; 41, 136 
sq. and n., 173, 175; 43, 245, 247 sq., 
247 n., 265 ; 44, 221, 555 ; consists 
of omentum, animal cake, and the 
chief oblation, 41, 180; to Pragdpati, 
26, 429, 429 n., 441, 443 sq.; to 
Vayu and Pragupati, 41, 171-5; 
to Pragapati, Surya, Indra, and Agni, 
44, 127 sq.; the animal victim once 
belonged to Savitri, now to Praga- 
pati, 44, 174 ; at the Purushamedha, 
44, 404, 411; victims at the Pu- 
rushamedha set free, 44,' 411 ; 



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ANIMAL SACRIFICES 



53 



Rudra, lord of a. s., 32, 419 sq. ; at 
the SarTameiiha, 44, 419 sq. ; at the 
Sautramani, 44, 213 sq. n., 216-22, 
221 11., 229, 245, 251, 261, 271- 
3 ; hairs of wild beasts put into 
the Suni cups at the Sautrama«T, 
44, 21S sq., 229 sq., 261 ; at the 
Seasonal sacrifices, 44, 309 n., 3S3, 
402 ; slaughtering of animals and 
other preparations for a. s. at season- 
festivals, 37, 15 sq. ; lawful and un- 
lawful animals for season-festivals, 
37, 429, 434 ; a. s. to the spirits of 
the land, of the path, and of the 
four quarters, 3, 371, 371 n„ 373, 
199, 399 "• ', "7, 295 ; the Sidaga-va 
sacrifice to Rudra, 29, 255-8, 
35 r 73 s 355J 30, 220-4; a bull 
sacrificed at a thanksgiving service, 
3> 333) 333 sq. "• J the animal vic- 
tim tor Tvas&tri set free, 26, 177 
sq.; at the Vdgapeya rite, 41, 11- 
17 ; animals slain by Lomasa Kas- 
sapa at the Va&ipeya sacrifice, 36, 
16-19, *6 sq. n. 
(c) The victim. 

Inspection and selection of 
animals for victims, 3, 343, 343 n. ; 
27, 266, 288 ; 28, 222 sq. ; 39, 
220; at a. s. the blood of the victim 
is the share of the Rakshas, 12, 265 
sq. ; game caught in hunting used 
for a. s., 14, 71; 16, 192 n. ; 27, 
295 ; a pregnant animal not used as 
a victim in sacrificing to God, 27, 
417, 417 n. ; lowest victims offered 
in bad years, 28, 166; gifts of mares 
and camels for a. s., 31, in, 120 ; 
pigs fed for a. s., 40, iS ; the sham- 
man, wild buffalo, and jarabha unfit 
for sacrifice, 41, 410-12; sterile 
cow sacrificed to remove the 
blemish of sterility from the house, 
42, 299 ; white cow sacrificed to 
remove leprosy, 42, 711; only male 
victims used at great a. s., 27, 256, 
256 n. ; by male victims the (male) 
Sacrificer ransomes himself, 44, 
119 ; symbolical victims, a ram and 
a ewe made of barley porridge, 12, 
395 sq., 402 sq. ; images of a. eaten 
instead of meat, 25, 174, 174 sq. n. ; 
images of a. made at the ATaitra fes- 
tival, 29, 132 ; fivefold is the victim, 
26, 24 ; 44, 154 ; five victims at the 
building of the lire-altar, 41, 156, 



164, 166, 171, 400; man, horse, ox, 
sheep, goat, as victims, 12, 50; 41, 
162, 166; 43, 299 sq. ; the Eka- 
dajini or set of eleven victims, 26, 
: 73> J 73 n,, 217-22; the killing of 
the victim, 26, 17S-S4, 1S9; skin- 
ning and cutting open of the victim, 
26, 193 sq. ; cutting up of it, 26, 
200 sq.; offering of the portions, 
26, 204 sq.; touching of the victim's 
remains, 26, 209, 209 n. ; cutting 
out and offering of the omentum 
{■vafdhoma)> 26, 19$ sq., 198, 392 ; 
29, 177, 207, 256, 360, 418 sq. ; 30, 
99 sq., 113, 235, 360 sq. ; 44, 125, 
38S, 392 sq., 420; the anguish of 
the victim, in being slaughtered, be- 
comes concentrated in the heart, 
which must be cooked separately, 
44, 125; collection of fodder for 
the sacrificial victims, 27, 278 ; to 
'quiet * a victim is to kill it, 44, 
321 ; sacredncss of the victims slain 
at sacrifices, 14, 193; the animal 
killed at the a. s. assumes a divine 
body and goes up to heaven, 25, 175; 
48, 599 ; the victim rests in immor- 
tal life, 26, 19S ; honour to be ren- 
dered to a sacrificial victim, 27, 97 ; 
victims must not be sold, 27, 238 ; 
the sacrificial ox, in spite of his 
ornaments and food, would wish to 
be a solitary calf when led into the 
ancestral temple, 40, 212 ; Prajjapati 
is all the sacrificial animals, 43, 299 
sq, ; the victim, as Pra^fipati, repre- 
sents all deities, 43, 404. 
(d) The Yupa or sacrificial 

POST TO WHICH THE VICTIM IS 
BOUND. 

The sacrificial stake is the crest- 
lock of sacrifice personified, 12, 126; 
the stake belongs toVishwu, 12, 162, 
164 ; etymological legend concern- 
ing the Yupa, 12, 160 sq. and n. ; 26, 
2l > 36> 39, 46, 101, 174 ; impurity 
caused by touching a sacrificial post, 
7, 94; 14, 30, 30 sq. n.j 171, 183; 
29, 224 sq. ; 30, 1S1 sq. ; ' a white 
horse at a post ' means Agni at the 
sacrificial stake, 26, 149 ; setting up 
the sacrificial stake, 26, 162-78 ; 
44, 123 sq.; being about to cut the 
stake, he offers the yupahnti or 
' stake-offering,' 26, 162 sq. ; set of 
eleven stakes, 20, 173, 176 sq., 221 ; 



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ANIMAL SACRIFICES -ANTIDEVA 



twenty-one stakes, 44, 373, 383; 
the yupa is a means of ascending 
to the 'Blessed,' 26, 173 sq. ; is a 
thunderbolt, 20, 174-6; material, 
form, and size of yupa, 41, 31 ; 44, 
123 sq. ; is eight-cornered, 26, 174; 
41, 31 ; a wife -stake set up for the 
wives, 26, 177; the mounting of the 
sacrificial post, 41, 31-5 j 44, 254; 
the ' tree,' i. e. the sacrificial post 
invoked in the Apri hymns, 46, 12, 
154, 199, 237, 239, 377 sq.; liturgi- 
cal verses addressed to it, 48, 252- 
5; upright stands the post, like a 
new-born foal, 46, 340. 

Animiaha, n. of a demon harassing 
infants, 29, 296 ; 30, 211. 

Animosity, see Hatred. 

Aniran, n.d., has the Horn, 5, 105 ; 
invoked, 5, 404, 404 n„, 406. 

Aniruddha, n.d., and philosophical 
t.t. ; the sun-god as a unity of Vasu- 
deva, Sankarsha^a, Pradyumna, and 
A., 11, 267 11. ; a manifestation of 
the highest being, 34, xxiii, 441 
sq. ; a form of Yasudeva, denotes 
the principle of egoity, 34, 440 ; 
48, ,524-6 ; cannot spring from 
Pradyumna, 34, 441, 442. 

Aniruddha, n.p., an eminent Arhat, 
2i, 2; 49 (ii), 2, 90; one of the 
five hundred Arhats who are to be- 
come future Buddha?, 21, 198; see 
Anuruddha. 

Aniyata sins, see Sins. 

Awkasa, n.p., 23, 218. 

An-kwo, see Khung A. 

Anna, Sk., food, means earth, and 
all that is heavy, firm, dark in colour, 
I, 94 n. See Food. 

Anna-hoinas, t.t., food-oblations, 41, 
37 n.; 44, 296, 297 n., 314 n., 
377. 

Annapati, n.d. ; prayer to A., the 
lord of food, 29, 338. 

Annaprajana, see Child (b). 

Annatako>/^anna, see Kon^aniia. 

Annihilation, see Samaya. 

Awoo^a, or Priyada/vana, daughter 
of Mahavira, 22, 193 sq., 256. 

Anointment of Dikshita with fresh 
butter, 26, 1 3 sq. ; of the sacrificial 
stake, 26, 170; of the victim, 26, 
183; of sacrificer at Ra^-asuya, 41, 
80 sq. ; of sacrificer at Agni&iyana, 
43, 226 sq., 251 ; of the sacrificing 



king with fat gravy at Sautrama;/!, 
44, 250-2. See also Kings. 

Anoma-dassi, n. of a saint afflicted 
with disea.se, 36, 10. 

Anotatta lake, Buddha at the, 13, 
124 sq. 

An Phing-£ung, was niggardly in 
sacrifices, 27, 402, 402 n.; 28, 165, 
165 n. 

Ansai'3, and Muha?enn who fled 
with Mohammed, 6, 172 n., 187, 
262 ; three of the A. who refused 
to accompany Mohammed were 
forgiven, 6, igo, 190 n. 

Antaka, the Ender, n.d.; the initi- 
ated boy given in charge to A. 
30, rs4 ; expiatory formula to A., 
44,3 37"- 

Antaraw^ika 5aklia, of the \ ejava- 
/ika ga«a, 22, 291. 

Antariksha, see Air, 

Antaryami-brahma^a, t.c. (BW- 
hadarawyaka-upanishad 3, 7), 34, 
xxviii; 48, 214, 319, 356, 422, 457, 
537,544,627. 

Antaryaniin, t.t., 'the ruler within,' 
the internal ruler, is the self, the 
Brahman, or the Lord, 15, 132 sq. ; 
B4, xxviii, xxxv, xlii sq., lxii-lxiv, 
xcviii, c, cxiii, 130-5; 48,226; is not 
the pradhana, 34, 132 sq. ; cannot 
mean the embodied soul, 34, 133-s. 

Antelope, one of five animals, 8, 
155 11. ; the skin of the black a. 
(kWsh«ai*ina) used at sacrifices, 12, 
23-5, 23 n., 38, 265 ; 26, 25-8, 32, 
75, 77 ; 41, 185 sq. ; 44, 132, 249- 
51, 254, 290 n., 447, 461 n., 467 n., 
499 ; soma placed on black a. skin, 
26, 160; two black a. skins repre- 
sent heaven and earth, 20, 25; black 
a. skin represents sacrifice, 41, 215 
17, 215 n„, 219, 222, 266 ; 43, 226 
sq. ; 44, 249, 447 ; is the earth, 44, 
216; its hairs are the metres, 41, 
266 ; 44, 249, 448 ; the dead body 
laid on a bhek a. skin, 44, 200, 203 ; 
gift of a black a., 14, 135; the horn 
of an a. used for magic cures, 42 
15, 336-8; gomr/ga, a bovine a. 
one of the three chief victims at the 
Ajvamedha, 44, 298, 338, 338 sq. 
n., 388. 

Antideva, n. of a king, reverenced 
the priest YasisluAa, 19, 12; 49 (i) 
10, 10 n. ; a king who reached final 



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bliss, 49 (i), 94 sq. ; SaVikn'ti A., 
49(f), ioi. ' 
Antinomies, each suggesting the 
existence of its corresponding op- 
posite, 39, 47 sq. ; the usefulness of 
being of no use, 39, 132, 217-22 ; 
a cluster of a., 39, 188; startling 
antithetic statements, 39, 239, 239 11. 
Antioch, people of, destroyed for 
disbelief in Jesus' disciples, 6, cv; 
9, 163 sq. 
Antrimukha, n. of a demon harass- 
ing children, 30, 2 it. 
Ants, Solomon and the, 9, 10 [ ; 
a.-hills inauspicious, 29, 140 ; simile 
of the white a., 36, 326 ; a. an anti- 
dote against poison, 42, 27, 30, 268, 
511 sq., 552 sq., 553 n., 555; pro- 
duce healing-water, 42, 9, 278 ; 
earth from an a. -mound used in 
medical charms, 42, 234, 287, 511 ; 
a. gnaw the bowstring of Yishwu, 
44, 442 sq., 450. 
Anuddhari, see Animals (/'). 
Anugita, t.w., an episode of the 
Mahabharata, 8, 197-206 ; its rela- 
tion to the Upanishads, 8, 197, 20c, 
207-12, 215, 224, 226 sq. ; relation 
between A. and Bhagavadgita, 8, 
197 sq., 267-10, 215, 218 sq., 222, 
227; Brahmawa Gita, and Guruji- 
shyasamvada, 8, 198-204; work of 
one author, 8, 204-6 ; its date and 
position in Sanskrit literature, 8, 
206-27; i ts relation to the Dhar- 
majastras, 8, 208, 210, 215-19; its 
relation to Buddhism, 8, 212-15; 
its language, 8, 227; its metre, 8, 
227; translation, 8, 227-394; ends 
with the fourth chapter, 8, 256 n. 
Anugop& restored to sight by 
Buddha, 49 (i), 197. 
Anumati, n.d., goddess of concep- 
tion, 42, 98, 46] ; is this earth, 41, 44 ; 
Sinivall and A., phases of the moon, 
42, 461 ; offering to A., 25, 90 ; 29, 
84, 319, 321 ; 41, 42, 44, 54 n. ; 43, 
264, 264 n. ; 44, xlii, xliv ; wor- 
shipped at the Upakarasa, 29, 221 ; 
funeral oblation to A., 29, 242 ; 
sacrifice to A. at the ploughing rite, 
29, 326; invoked when sprinkling 
water round the fire, 29, 378; 30, 
j 9, j 42, 253; sacrifice of the newly 
married couple to Agni, Fragapati, 
Vijve devas, and A., 30, 49; invoked 



in a love charm, 42, 104, 535; in- 
voked to drive out evil bodily 
marks from a woman, 42, 109 ; in- 
voked in a cattle charm, 42, 143, 
304 ; SarasvatT, A., and Bhaga in- 
voked, 42, 173. 

Anumlo^anti, n.ofa nymph, 43, 107, 

Anupadisesa, t.t., ' none of the five 
attributes remaining,' is the principal 
thing, 10 (ii), 167. 

Anupalipta, n. of the eighth Tathfi- 
gala, 49 (ii), 6. 

Anupamamati, one of the sixteen 
virtuous men, 21, 4. 

Anupjya, a town of the Mallar, 
Buddha residing there, 20, 224-33. 

Anuprava^aniya, see Sacrifices (h), 

Anuradhapura, the chronicles pre- 
served in the Mahavihara cf, 10 (i), 
xvi sq., xx, xxii sq. 

Anuruddha, n.p., in Pali, Ani- 
ruddha in Sk., 21, 2 n.; 49 (ii), 2 n.; 
the Sakya, converted, 19, 226; 20, 
224-33; 35, 163; what he said 
when Buddha died, 11, 118, 119, 
121; 19, 305 sq. ; praises the de- 
parted Buddha, 19, 310-20; A., 
Nandiya, and Kimbila, Bhikkhus 
who live in perfect harmony, Buddha 
visiting them, 17, 309-12 ; ques- 
tions Buddha about schisms, 17, 
317; mentioned among the prin- 
cipal Thera Bhikkhus, 17, 360 ; 
sayings of A. the elder, 36, 296, 347, 
351. See aha Aniruddha. 

Amuasana, 'precepts' (the Yedah- 
gas ?), to be studied, 44, 98. 

Anuj-aya, see Karnian. 

Amish/ubh, see Metres. 

Anuvada, Sk., t.t., a statement re- 
ferring to something already known, 
explanatory comment, 34, 221 ; 38, 
55, 66, r 38, 216, 221, 308 sq., 322, 
322 n. ; 48, 14, 45, 678, 694,696^. 

Anuvidita, t.t., Buddha's definition 
of the term, 10 (ii), 91. 

Anvadliyas, Apyas, Sadhyas, and 
Maruts, the divine guardians cf the 
sacrificial horse, 44, 359. 

Anvakhyana, old tale, not true, 
44, 14. 

Anvarambhawiya, see Sacrifices. 

Anvash/akya, see Animal Sacrifices 
(£), and Sacrifices (i). 

Anyata/zplaksha, n. of a lotus-lake 
in Kurukshetra, 44, 70. 



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AN-ZRE— APlvtH 



An-zre, n.p., knew well the rules of 
propriety, 27, 174 sq. 

Aoighimatastira, n.p., 23, 218. 

A6shanar, is full of wisdom, IS, 90, 
90 n. See Aashnar. 

Aoshnar (Aoshnara, AGshnnr), 
grandson of Paurva^irya, IS, 171, 
171 n. ; son of Pouru-^fra, 23, 221, 
221 n. ; chancellor of Kai-0s, 47, 
x, 1 3 sq. 

Apadesa, see Mahapadesa. 

Apa/fara, = ParUara, 35, 287 n. 

Apala, n.p., identified with Surya's 
daughter, 26, xiv 11. ; wasfi'ce from 
widowhood, 29, 3 3. 

Apalala, a Naga, converted by 
Buddha, 19, 246. 

Apam Napa/ (NapaV), the great 
sovereign, 4, 250 ; swift -horsed, 
with many wives, 23, 6 n., 14, 20, 
36, 38, 71 ; 31, 319 ; the son of the 
Waters, Lightning, invoked and 
worshipped, 23, 6, 6 n., 12, 14, 20, 
36, 38, 299; through Ti-ftrya the 
waters coine from the high A.N., 
23, 94, 94 n. ; divides the waters 
amongst the countries, 23, 102, 
249 a.; increases the excellencies 
of countries, 23, 202 ; seizes the 
priestly glory, 23, 299 ; the Ahura 
Napa/-apam worshipped, 31, 197, 
204, 209, 215, 219, 224, 326, 331, 
346, 351, 362, 381, 383 sq., 392. 

ApaniWapat, the lightning, 42,589 ; 
the Child of the Waters, 46, 157, 
158 ; Agni identified with A.N. , the 
a ( quick inciter,' 46, 187, [91. 

Apa«a, a town in Ahguttarapa, 10 
(ii), 96-9; 17,^129-34. 

Apana, see Pranas. 

Apantar at aulas, born on this earth 
as Krishwa Dvaipayana, and en- 
trusted with the office of promul- 
gating the Vedas, 38, 235-8; 48, 
529 ; reborn, though he had reached 
intuition of the highest truth, 48, 
650 sq. 

Apadsh, Phi., Apaosha, Zd., the 
demon of drought, his struggle with 
Tittar (Tijtrya), 5, 27 sq., 112, 
170 sq. ; 18, 266 sq., 267 n. ; 23, 92, 
99-101 ; fiend of death, 23, 284 sq. 

Apapalika, n. of the courtesan 
Ambapali in the Burmese legend, 
11, 35n. 

Apapatra, see Caste (f,/). 



Apara^ita (Apara^ita), n. of the 
city or palace of Brahman in the 
Brahman world, 1, 131, nan., 275, 
277 ; n. of the Vimana from which 
Arish/anemi descended, 22, 276. 

Aparanta(ra)tamas, see Apatitara- 
tamas. 

Aparisrava, Gaina t.t., explained, 
22, 37 n. 

Apas (Water), etymology of the 

,word, 15, 3 io. 

Apastamba, teachers quoted by, 
2, xxvii sq. ; quotes the 5*ata- 
patha Brahmawa as Vagasaneyaka, 
12, xxxix sq., xl n. ; his date, 
12, xl sq.; relation between A, 
and Baudhayana, 14, xxxv-xxxix ; 
satiated at the Tarpana, 14, 253 n,, 
255; a half-divine being in the 
Mahabharata, 25, lxiii ; — history of 
the A. school, 2, xv-xlvi ; the Tait- 
tiriya-Brahmana and Sawhita called 
A.-Brahina«a, and A.-sawhita, 2, 
xvii sq. ; the A. school belongs to 
Southern India, 2, xxxii-xl. 

Apastamba-stitras, something very 
like an Upanishad occurs in them, 
1, Ixvii ; language of the A., 2, 
xliii-xlvi ; the A. Gr/'hya-, Srauta-, 
and Dharma-sfitras, 2, xiii-xyj 
30, xxix, xxxii n., xxxiii ; the A. 
Grihya-sutn\ translated, 30, 24S- 
97 ; the A. Ya^wa-Paribhasha- 
sGtras translated, 30, 309-71 ; the A. 
on the Purushamedha, 44, xxxiii n., 
xxxix 11., xl 11. 

Apaatambha, older name of Apa- 
stamba, 14, xlii n. 

Apastambiya-Dharma-sfttr a, aph- 
orisms on the sacred law, part of 
the Kalpa-sutra, 2, xi sqq.; the A. 
and its commentary, 2, xlvi- xlviii ; 
translated, 2, 1-171 ; doctrines of 
Bhagavadgita compared with A., 
8, 20-4 ; mentions Upanishads as 
part of Vedic literature, 8, 212; 
its relation to the Anugita, 8, 315- 
19, 226 ; on sale and gift of 
children, and Kshetra^a sons, 25, 
xciii sq. ; quoted, 8, 397 ; 38, 421 ; 
48, 187, 410, 773- 

Apasya, meditated on the mlgitha, 

Apaya, 11. of a river, 46, 287 sq. 
Apiveh, Kai-A.or Kavi Aipivanghu, 
37, 224, 22411. 



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APNAVAXA— APSARAS 



57 



Apnavana, and the Bh/vgus kindled 

Agni, 12, 350, 350 n. ; 46, 343. 
Apologues, see Parables, and Tales. 
Apostasy, apostates, see Heresy. 
Apostles, or prophets, 

(a) In IsUtm. 

(<5) In Zoroastrianism, 

(a) In Islam. 

Chief a. recognized by the Qur'an, 
G, Ixxi ; Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, 
Jacob, Moses, and Jesus were a., 
6, 19 ; belief in the a., a dogma of 
Islam, G, 24 ; God sent them with 
good tidings and with warnings, ft, 
30 sq,, 141; 9, 20, 210; no dif- 
ference between God's a., 6, 46, 56 
sq., 57 n. ; were Jesus' helpers, 
6) 53 * God's covenant with them, 
6, 57, 57 n. ; 9, 139 ; called liars, or 
mocked at, 6, 62 sq., 69, 116, 119, 
245; 9, 49, 66-8, 157, 159, 211; 
Mohammed but one of many a. who 
were sent before and have passed 
away, 6, 63, 94,125; 9, 129, 19S; 
sincere believers make no dis- 
tinction between Gud and His 
apostles, 6, 92 sq, ; rejected by 
the Jews, G, 107 ; ask God for a 
miracle, G, 114; people punished 
for not listening to the a. sent by 
God, G, 144-54, l8 3) J 94» 3oi, 
208-18, 236, 239 sq. ; 9, 46 sq., 61, 
86 sq., 163 sq., 175 sq., 185, 190, 
192-5, 242, 286, 294 ; every nation 
has its a., 6, 198, 254 ; no a. sent 
save with the language of his people, 
G 238 ; a., sent before Mohammed, 
had wives and children, 6, 237 ; no 
a. could bring a sign save by God's 
permission, 6, 237 ; God fails not in 
promise to His apostles, 6, 244 ; 
God does not punish without send- 
ing an a. first, 9, 3, 114 ; some of 
the a. preferred to others, 9, 7 ; 
all sent with the message of God's 
unity, 9, 47 ; an a. has only his plain 
message to preach, 9, 119; were 
sent with manifest signs, 9, 269. 

(b) In Zokoastrianism. 

The three future a., IB, 13 n., 1411., 
92 sq., 93 n., 112 1),, 170, 29911.; 
24, 15, 15 n. ; 47, x ; the decree of 
a., 18, 131, 336, 336 n.; Zaratujt 
the true a., 18, 386 ; a. and prophets 
appointed by the creator, 24, 180, 
1 80 n. ; a, would be better than God, 



if God were the cause of evil, 24, 
201 ; prophets and a. slain, 24, 205. 
See also Saoshyas, and Soshans. 

Appamannas, see Meditations. 

Apramada, Sk., t.t., see Earnestness. 

Apri-hymns, see Prayers (c). 

Apsara, the A. who makes the 
winnings in the game of dice, 42, 
149 sq., 414. 

Apsaras (plur. Apsarasas), nymphs; 
five hundred A. go towards the 
knower of Brahman, to adorn him, 
whereupon he moves towards Brah- 
man, 1, 276 ; achieved their great 
beauty by living as Brahma^arins, 
8, 178 ; among women who are 
a source of happiness, the A. are 
chief, 8, 347 ; the Gandharvas their 
husbands or companions, 12, 269 n. ; 
42, 33 sq, ; 44, 69 n. ; fair maidens 
with their chariots and musical 
instruments, in Yama's heaven, 15, 
6 ; the beauty of A. even is unreal. 
19, 254 ; five hundred A. attend on 
the mother of Buddha, 19, 351, 
353 sq. ; created, 25, 15 ; world of 
the A., 25, 157 ; produced by 
activity, 25, 494 ; worshipped at the 
Tarpa?2a, 29, 121, 219; Indra has 
created glory for the A., 29, 316; 
Agni's A. are the herbs, 30, 146 n. ; 
the insight that dwells with the A., 
30, 159; the scent that dwells with 
the A., 30, 166; like bright red 
ornaments, 32, 30S ; invoked in a 
charm against mania, 42, 32, 520 sq.; 
their amusements, 42, 33 ; rivers 
and trees their dwellings, 42, 33, 
409 ; a talisman against the A., 42, 
80 ; invoked as goddesses of love, 
42, 104, 534 sq. ; the dog-like A., 
42, 125 ; as evil demons, 42, 205, 
425 ; the Germanic elfs, 42, 409 ; 
the wives of Kama, the Gandharva, 

42, 536 ; as mates for protection of 
the worlds, 43, 105-8 ; are sun- 
motes, mates of Surya, 43, 231 ; are 
plants, mates of Agni, 43, 231 ; are 
stars, the mates of the Moon, 43, 
232; are the waters, mates of Yata 
(wind), 43, 232; are offering-gifts, 
the mates of sacrifice, 43, 232 sq. ; 
are hymn-verses and hymn-tunes, 

43, 233; serve the divine person 
under the name of ' fragrance,' 43, 
373; story of the A. Urvaji and 



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APSARAS— ARAMS 



King Pururavas, 44, 68-74 I swim 
about in the shape of swans, 44, 70 ; 
are the people of Soma Vaishnava, 
44, 366 ; the A. Sakuntala conceived 
Bharata, 44, 399 ; divine chariots 
thronged with them, 49 (i), 29 : in 
the palace of Kuvera, 49 (i), 36 ; the 
gods charmed by them, 49 (i), 38 ; 
the sun surrounded by A. in his 
ro\al garden, 49 (i), 40; wait upon 
Kuvera, 49 (i), 56 ; in Indra's world, 
49 (i), 88 ; the A. in heaven praise 
Buddha, 49 (i), 180 ; in Sukhavatf, 
49 (ii), 4?, 44 ; A. and Gandharvas, 
see Gandharvas. 

Aptoryama, see Sacrifices. 

Aptyas, legend of the A., i.e. the 
gods Trita, Dvita, and Ekata, 12, 
47-9- 

Aptirva, Sk., t.t., supersensuous 
principle, 34, Ixv; 38, 109, no n., 
181, 182, 183, 347 11. See {Carman, 
and Works. 

Apva, goddess of impurity, invoked 
against the enemies, 42, 122, 325, 

J 2 7- 

Apyas, Sadhyns, Anvadhyas, and 
Maruts, the divine guardians of the 
sacrificial horse, 44, 359. 

Ara, or Ara, a lake in the world of 
Brahman, 1, 131, 132 n., 275 sq. 

Ara, u.p., 23, 211. 

Ara, n. of a Tirthakara, 22, 280 ; a 
king who became a Gaina monk, 45, 
86, 86 n. 

Arabian Nights, story ofthe island- 
whale, 23, 295 n. 

Arabs, rulers of Persia, 5, 151 ; their 
pre- Mohammedan religion, 6, xi- 
xvi ; manners and customs of the 
pagan A., P>, ix-xi, 89, 89 n., 132-4 ; 
A. of the desert denounced as the 
worst hypocrites, 6, 186 sq. ; some 
are good Muslim, 6, 187; clans of 
A, contending as to who is the more 
numerous, 9, 340, 34on.; descended 
from Taz, 37, 27 sq.; destroyed by 
Peshyfitano, 47, xii ; creatures of 
the evil spirit, 47, xviii, 104. 

Ax&dk, n.d., offering to, at rites relat- 
ing to agriculture, 30, 1 1 3 sq., 1 1 3 11. 

Arsu/a Kalama, or Arala, or AraVa, 
n. of a famous teacher, 19, xxi, 80 sq.; 
Buddha's meeting and conversation 
with A., 19, 95, 130-41 ; 49 (i), 92, 
121 ; dead, when Buddha began to 



preach, 19, 167 sq. ; 49 (i), 169; 
has gained insight into absolute bliss, 
49(i),77. 

Arahat, see Arhat. 

Arahat-Buddha, see Buddha. 

Arala, see AraVa, 

Aramaiti, or Piety (personified), in- 
voked with Ahura and other Ame- 
shospends, 31, 14-24, 77 sq., 152, 
155 sq., 156 n., 176, 179; clothed 
the souls with bodies, 31, 27, 32 sq.; 
daughter of Ahura-Mazda, 31, 37 
sq., 44, 123, 126 sq., 126 n. ; good 
and bountiful Piety, 31, 58 ; asso- 
ciated with the earth, 31, 58 11., 
149 n., 152, 156 n., 159 n.; departs 
from the evil-doers, 31, 8r, 87; 
creatrix of righteous beings, 31, 87 ; 
increased Universal Weal and Im- 
mortality, 31, 88 ; the instructor of 
men in Ahura's regulations, 31, 95, 

101 ; prayer with A. (Piety), 31,96, 

102 ; prayer for Pjety, 31, 98, 106 ; 
who fashioned A. together with 
Sovereign Power? 31, 109, 114; 
influence of A. on men's actions, 31, 
109, 116; increases sacred orderli- 
ness, 31, 109, 114; the Yasnas of 
A., 31, 124, 129 ; where Piety joins 
hand in hand with the Righteous 
Order, 31, 143 ; the two hands of 
A., 31, 146, 148; the joyful mea- 
dows of her peace, 31, 146, 149, 
149 n.; appears with holy Khshathra, 
31, 152, 158 sq. ; Vohumanah, A., 
and Khshathra, 31, 167 ; the Boun- 
tiful, worshipped, 31, 196, 256 sq., 
325, 339, 360 sq., 387; chosen by 
the Zoroastrian, 31, 248; Ahura- 
Mazda approached by the kinship of 
A., 31, 252 ; the holy woman who 
is as the bounteous A., 31, 34^2 ; the 
ideal wife, 31, 386. See Armaiti 

JSpenta, and Armat. 
Aramas, see Viharas. 
Arambhas, t.t., exertions, pain 

arises from them, 10 (ii), 139. 
Aran*,'", mother of Isa^/vastar,47, to6, 

iii, 115. 
Aran^-i Eira./an, epithet of Urur- 

\-\ga., 5, 143 sq. 
Arawi, bewitched Bhadrasena Agata- 

jatrava, 41, 140 sq. 
Arabia, t.t., the churning-sticks used 

for producing tire, 12, 275,294 sq.n.; 

44, 74 ; penance and sacred Iearn- 



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ARA/VIS - ARDVl sORA AXAHITA 



59 



ing are the two A. by which the fire 
o{ knowledge is produced, 8, 308. 

Ara^yakaa, or forest-books, the 
Cpanishads occur in them, 1, Ixvi 
sq., xci ; are liturgical, 1, A xci ; 
Sari khy a- yog a, Vedas, and A. are 
members of one another, and to- 
gether are called Pa«£aratra, 48, 
530 : teach that all the subordinate 
principles have their true Self in 
Brahman, 48, 530 sq. See Aitareya- 
aranyaka. 

Ara«ye-nu/ - ya, t.t, ' to be recited 
in the forest,' certain oblations so 
called, 44, 336 sq. and n. 

Araru, n. of a demon, 12, 57, 57 n., 
64 n. ; a name of evil dreams, 42, 
167,485. 

Arajk, ' malice,' a fiend, 5, 107 sq.j 

Arast, demon^of falsehood, 5, 1 1 1 . 

Arastai, or Arasti (Arastih), n.p., 
father of Maidhyommingha, 5, 1 4 r, 
141 n., 145; 23, 203, 20311.; 47, 
163 ; brother of Poriishaspo, 47, 

Arasti, Arastih, see Arastai. 

Arati, daughter of Milra, 10 (ii), 159. 

Arati, the demon of grudge, 42, 15, 
57, 82, 109, 172 sq., 187, 261, 423- 
5; as nightmare, a naked A woman, 
42, 173, 424 sq. ; A. and Aratis in 
doubtful connexion with Agni, 46, 
366, 370. 

Aravao.rtra, son of Erezvaf-danghu, 
23, 218. 

Arawijanasp, n.p., 5, 136. 

Arayas, demons of grudge, 42, 162, 
205. 

Arbuda, a demon-serpent, slain by 
lndra, 42, 633 sq. ; King A. Kadra- 
veya, whose people are the snakes, 
44, 367. 

Arbudi, prayer to A. and Nyarbudi 
for help in battle, 42, 123-7, 631:- 
5, 637. 

Archangels, see Amesha-Spe«tas. 

Archdevils, see Demons. 

Archery, as a discipline of virtue, 3, 
59* 59 "- ; drinking and a. contests 
at festivals in honour of the ances- 
tors, 3, 374 sq. and n., 400 sq. ; the 
game of pitch-pot, 27, 50 sq. ; 28, 
397-4CI ; ceremonies connected 
with a. competitions, 27, 56 sq., 59 ; 
28, 446-53, 462 ; instruction in a., 
27, 233, 478; 30, 253 sq. ; and 



music, 27, 424, 424 n. ; see also 
Music ; practised at the birth cere- 
monies for a boy, 27, 472 ; intro- 
duced by King W\1, 28, 124 ; in a. 
something like the way of the 
superior man, 28, 307 ; similes of a., 
36, 71, 253 sq., 369-72- 

Architecture, how a city is built, 
35, 53; 36, 208 sq. See Houses, 
and Viharas. 

Ar(/, all kinds of wild flowers be- 
long to, 5, 104; Vohuman in the 
thoughts, Srosh in the words, A. in 
the actions, 18, 18 sq., i8n.; i.e. 
the angel Ashi Vanguhi, opposed by 
Vareno, 18, 270, 270 n. See Arshi- 
jang, and Ashi Vanguhi. 

Ari/ai-fravar^, meat-offering to, 5, 
337) 337 n * ! protects Zoroaster, 47, 
145* 

Arr/akhshir, the Kayan king, 5, 193; 
arranger and restorer of the world, 
5, 199, 199 n. 

Ar</ashir, see Artakhshatar. 

Ar^avahijt, Arf/avahi-rto, see Asha- 
vahijt. 

An/a-Viraf, age of the book of, 
18> 397 ; allusions to next-of-kin 
marriage in the A., 18, 397 sq. 

Ardhaka, Rudra the slayer of, 42, 
155, 619 sq. 

Ardibalmt, see Ashavahijt. 

Ardibeheit, see Ashavahijt. 

Ardij-vang, Phi. for Ashi Vanguhi, 

n 23, 270 n. See Ait/, Ashi Vanguhi. 

Ardraka, n. of a prince, his disputes 
with various heretical teachers, 45, 
409-19 ; turned monk, an elephant 
pays reverence to him, 45, 409 n. 

Ardraka kkh a, see Ullaga^^a. 

Ardvi Sura Anahita, Phi. Aredv"- 
sur, Arekdviksur, Arekdvisfir, Ana- 
hi^, angel or goddess of the waters, 
4, 80, 80 n., 230 ; 5, 67 n. ; 37, 227, 
227 n., 229 ; the undefiled water 
of A., 5, 90; 18, 117, 117 n. ; Horn 
grown at the source of A., 5, 100 ; 
the course and benefit of the water 
of A., 18, 262 sq. ; the heavenly 
spring from which all waters flow, 
23, 8, it, 52 54 sq., 57, 84, 181 sq., 
356 sq. her descent from heaven, 
23, 52, 55-8, 73 sq.; runs from 
mount Hukairya into the sea Vouru- 
Kasha, 23, 174, 181 sq. ; — protects 
lying-in women, 4, 230; watches 



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ARDVf SCRA ANAHITA— ARHAT 



over procreation, 23, 54 sq., 74, 
18 r sq. ; 31, 317 ; — the 'Avatris of 
the Greeks, 23, 52 sq. ; described, 
23, 77 sq., 82 sq. ; hates the Daevas, 
is holy and beneficent, 23, 1S1 ; 
the Ahurian One, the daughter of 
Ahura-Mazda, 31, 320 n„ 321 sq. ; 
protects Zoroaster, 47, 145; guards 
the seed of Zaratujt, 5, 144, 144 n.; 
23, 195 n.; — temple of A., 4, xli sq.; 
sacrifices to A., 5, 336, 336 n. ; 23, 
54-84 ; praised and worshipped, 23, 
30; 31, 336, 340; the Aban Yajt 
devoted to her, 23, 52-84 ; prayers 
to A., and the Waters, 31, 316 sq., 
320-4, 320 n. 

Aredvistir, see Ardvi Sura Anahita. 

Aregai/arri, or Areg-adhanrn, n.p., 
ancestor of Zoroaster, 47, 34, 140. 

Are^angha?//, the Turanian, 23, 2 12. 

Are^aona, n.p., 23, 214. 

A rejfa/-aspa, conquered by VJjtaspa, 
23, 79-81, 79 n., 117, 280, 306. See 
Arg-asp. 

Arekdvisftr(Arekdviksur),jf<? Ardvi 
Sura Anahita. 

Aresh, falsehood of the demon A., 
37, 241 sq. ; colloquy of the demon 
A. and Zaratujt, 37, 246 sq. and n, 

Arezahis, the, worshipped, 31, 349. 

Arezd-shamana, slain by Keresasp, 
IS, 370; 23, 296. 

Are-cTas/ah, Arezv'ispo, son of 
S^ansnayoj, 37, 218 sq. andn.; came 
to Frashojtar for religious inquiry, 
37, 413, 413 11.; 47, 81, 81 n. See 
Erezraspa. 

Arezura, ' the neck of A.,* a mount 
at the gate of hell, 4, 24, 24 n., 225 ; 
5, 15 n.; 24, 58 n. See Hell {&). 

Arezva, Aivavak, Av. Erezvau, high- 
priest, 23, 213 ; 47, 83-5, 83 n. 

Argasp, Av. Are^-af-aspa, king of the 
Khyfins, defeated by Vutasp, 5, 40, 
218; 37, 24 sq. and n., 369, 412; 
47, xi, xxx, 68-70, 68 n., 72 sq.. 75, 
126, See Are#a/-aspa. 

Arghya, see Guests. 

Ar^una, conversations between KW- 
shwaand A., 8, 3 sq., 40-131, 197 sq., 
229 sq., 310-12, 393 sq. ; also called 
GiWakeja, a great hero in battle, 
8j 37-9 ; Krrshaa is A. among the 
PiWavas, 8, 91 ; Krishna, shows 
himself in his divine form to A., H, 
92-9 ; a mystic name of Indra, 12, 



285; 41, gg; appointed to guard 
the sacrificial horse, 44, xxvii- 
xxix. 

Ar^una Kartavirya, a king, dia- 
logue between him and the Ocean, 
8, 293 sq. 

Arhaddatta, n.p., disciple of Su- 
slhita and Supratibuddha, 22, 293. 

Arhaddatta, n.p., disciple of Siw- 
hagiri Gatismara, 22, 293. 

Arhat, Pali Arahat, a holy man, a 
saint; Arhats, saints. 

(«) Use of the term A., becoming an A. 
0) Attainments of A. 
(t) Worship of A. 

(a) Use of the term A., becoming 

AN A. 

Few men become A., 10 (i), 24 ; 
are the true Brahmawas, 10 (i), 89- 
95 ; the term explained, 10 (ii), x; 
he who, without being an A., pre- 
tends to be an A., is the lowest 
outcast, 10 (ii), 23 ; called Tevigga, 
11, 162; relation between A. and 
Bodhisattvas in the Saddharma- 
piiffWarika, 21, xxxvi sq. ; epithets 
of A., 21, 1 sq. ; A. and Bhagavats 
of the past, present, and future, 22, 
36; title of Mahavira, the founder 
of Gainism, 22, 201 ; 34, 430, 434 ; 
48, 517, 520; disciples of Buddha 
who became A., 10 (ii), 15, 80, 95, 
105 ; 11, 1 10; when the five 
Bhikkhus were converted, there 
were six A. in the world, 13, 102 ; 
Buddha's prophecy about the five 
hundred A. who are to become 
future Buddhas of the name of 
Samanta-prabhasa, 21, xxx, 198- 
204 ; list of names of A., accom- 
panying Buddha, 21, 2 sq. ; are never 
born in low families, 22, 225 ; the 
mothers of A. wake up after seeing 
the fourteen auspicious dreams, 22, 
246 sq. ; Buddhist nuns become 
Arhats, 49 (i), 200. 
(6) Attainments of A. 

The blessedness of the Arhat, 10 
(i), 27-30; the Arhat cannot com- 
mit a serious sin, 10 (i), 70, 71 n.; 
the Arhat knows his former abodes, 
sees heaven and hell, has reached 
the end of births, and is perfect, 10 
(i), 95 ; mystical knowledge of A., 
11, 209 ; the six things attained by 
A,, 17, 10-13; 'make known their 



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Insight ' by delivering a discourse in 
the presence of Buddha, 17, 10-13 ; 
compared to middle-si zed plants, 2 1 , 
126 sq. ; go to heaven to sec Sakka, 

35, 11 sq,; read the thoughts of 
others, 35, 18, 23 ; suffer no mental 
pain, do not carry favour nor bear 
malice, 35, 69 sq. ; cannot be angry 
or offended, 35, 152 sq. ; pure and 
free from stain, 35, 200 ; are not 
afraid of death, 35, 206-10; are 
without fear, 35, 297-300; the 
Arhat (called Brahmana) described, 

36, 26-8, 28 n. ; suffers bodily pain, 
but not mental, 36, 75*8; cannot 
offend against moral law, but against 
the Rules of the Order, 30, 98-101 ; 
every A. knows about emancipation 
&c.j 30, 100; dwell in Nirvawa, 30, 
191,193; the sevenfold wisdom of A., 
36, 207 sq., 218, 220, 229, 231 sq., 
233 ; morality of Bbikkhus and A., 
36, 221, 221 n. ; Bhikkhus and A. 
of different degrees, officers in the 
'city of Righteousness,' 36, 231-9; 
having conquered all evil, they enter 
Nirvawa, 49 (i), 177, 179. 

(c) Worship of A. 

The foolish man scorns the rule of 
the A., 10 (i), 46, 46 n.; so long as 
the Varans support the A., so 
long they will prosper, 11, 4 ; a true 
hearer of the Tathagata is worthy 
of a dagaba, 11, 94 sq.; the world 
would not be bereft of A,, if brethren 
were to live the perfect life, 11, 
107 sq., 107 n. ; 35, 186-9; an &■• 
not to be addressed by his private 
name, 19, 173; must always be 
saluted, 20, 196; are not to be 
acknowledged as such, if they do 
not firmly believe in the law of 
Buddha, 21, 42 sq. ; obeisance to 
the A., Sec, the principal benedic- 
tion, 22, 217; the Bodisat as an 
elephant honoured the A,, 36, 20-2 ; 
miracles at the graves of A., 36, 
174-6 ; the Bhikshu shall associate 
with A. and other saints, 36, 358; 
the commandments well proclaimed 
by the A. ,45, 251. See also Arhatship, 
Holy persons, Saints, and Saintship. 

Arhatship, or saintship, the noble 
eightfold path which ends in, 11, 
ix ; attained by Sa//>a, £7?anna, 
6'ariputra, 11, 25 ; 20, 3S5 ; 21, 61 ; 



the Binkklius who are lamps unto 
themselves shall reach the very 
topmost height, i.e. A. or Nirvana, 
11, 39, 39 n.; and ere long he attained 
to that supreme goal of the higher life 
for the sake of which noble youths go 
out from all and every household gain 
and comfort to become houseless wan- 
derers— yea , that supreme goal did he, 
by himself, and while yet in this 
visible world, bring himself to the 
knowledge of, and continue to realize, 
and to see face to face ! And he became 
conscious that rebirth was at an end, 
that the higher life had been fulfilled, 
that all that should be done had been 
accomplished, and that after this 
present life there would be no beyond ' 
11, no; 17, 9; 20, 3^4 sq. I is the 
uprooting of theupRdana, 11, 148 n.; 
three qualities required for A., 11, 
210 sq. n. ; how a Bhikkhu may 
obtain A., emancipation of heart 
and of mind, 11, 218; A. and the 
Ten Fetters, 11, 222; more im- 
portant than Nirv3«a, 11, 243 sq. ; 
the Asavas, and the theory of A., 11, 
293 sq. ; the supreme goal, after 
which there is no rebirth, 17, 9 sq. ; 
Sona attained to A., 17, 10; Dabba 
realized A., when seven years old, 

20, 4 sq. ; real A. obtained by 
Buddha-knowledge, 21, 115; it is 
an artifice of Buddha that he 
teaches Nirvawa at the stage of A., 

21, 189; the merit of establishing 
a man in A., 21, 330 sq., 334 ; 
stages leading up to A., 21, 330 sq. ; 
35, 25-9, 25 sq. n., 55 sq. ; the 
seven conditions of A., 35,52, 58; 36, 
1 37 n. ; a layman, who has attained 
to A., must either die, or become 
a Bhikkhu, 35, 233; 36, 96-S ; 
discussions about A., 36, xxiii, 
xsvi sq.; supreme attainment, the 
only condition of A., 36, 56-8 ; what 
is the use of becoming a recluse, if 
laymen can attain to A., 36, 56-8 ; 
the fruits of the various stages of 
A., 36, 215 sq. ; A., 'the jewel of 
emancipation,' 36, 224 sq. ; pre- 
vious keeping of the vows, a con- 
dition of A., 36, 254 sq. ; similes 
showing what qualities a Bhikkhu 
must have to realize A., 36, 275- 
373; four paths of A., 36, 338. 
See also Nirvawa. 



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ARIG— ARTERIES 



Arii, r , ancestor of Zoroaster, 47, 
Ho. 

Arij, see Erekhsha. 

Arish/anemi, chieftain of the sacri- 
fice, is an autumn month, 43, 107. 

Arish/anemi, the Arhat, life of, 
22, 276-9 ; was a Gautama, and 
his skin was black, 45, 112; was 
to marry, but on seeing the 
animals doomed to death for the 
wedding feast, turned monk and 
became a great saint, 45, 112-15. 

Arithmetic, young men get a living 
by learning, 18, 201 ; with and with- 
out the help of fingers, 35, 91 sq., 
and n. ; a means of remembering, 
35, 123. 

Ari///>a, a Bhikkhu, who holds a sin- 
ful doctrine, 17, 377-82. 

Ariyas, 'the elect,' 'the noble,' 
10 (ii), x; their knowledge, 10 (i), 
9, 9 n. ; the law as preached by the 
A., 10 (i), 23; the rule of the A,, 
10 fi), 46, 46 n. ; the sight of the 
A: is good, to live with them is 
happiness, 10 (i), 55 ; the heavenly 
world of the A., 10 (i), 60 ; a man 
is called Ariya, who has pity on all 
living creatures, 10 (i), 66, 66 11. ; 
defined by Buddha as one who is 
not reborn, 10 (ii), 93. See also 
Arya. 

Arka, is the sun, 8, 219 sq., 346, 
346 n. ; 43, 349; a name of the 
Self, 15, 3ri ; mystery of A., the 
flame, the sacred fire, fire-altar, 43, 
334-6, 342, 346-9, 398 sq., 402, 
404 ; 44, xviii, 
Arka, a plant, Calotropis gigantca, 
its mystery, 43, 157 sq., 166, 334-6, 
342, 346-9. . 
Ar,£ananas Atreya, n. of a priest, 

32, 359. 
Arkya, ' what relates to the Arka,' 
is the fire (Agni), 43, 342 sq., 402 ; 
44, 172. 
Armaiti Spe;/ta, invoked against 
the Drug-, 4, 101, 230 ; invoked 
against the demons, 4, 241 ; mother 
of Ash) Vanguhi, 23, 274. 
Armat (Av. Armaiti), opposed by 
Tarokmat (Av. Taromaiti), 37, 
263 sq., 263 n. 
Arroganee, deluded by ignorance 
sacriiicers indulge in, 8, 116 ; aban- 
d med by lovers of K/vshtfa, 8, 



128; is the cause of ruin, 41, 1 ; 
44, 22. See also Pride. 
Arrow, one a.'s range is as much 
as Pra^apati crosswise, 41, 25; 
three a. handed to the king at the 
Ra^asuya, 41, 88; a. means strength, 
41, 236 ; in parables and similes, 
35, 159; 36, 169; 45, 362. 
Arshan, n. of a king of Iran, 23, 
,222, 222 n., 303. 

Arsheya-brahmawa, t.w., quoted, 
38, 421. 
Arshuang, the rich in wealth, \\\ 
ashij vanguhi, 5, 86, 86 n., 403, 
j.05. See An/, and Ashi Vanguhi. 
Arsh/ishe//as, make five Avadana 

cuttings, 12, 193 n. 
Arshya, n.p., 23, 209. 
Arjta/, n.d., Truth, who makes the 
world grow, worshipped, 23, 6, 
9 sq., 1 1, 15, 17, 19, 36, 38, 40, 164, 
166, 168, 178, 184 ; the unholy 
priest displeases A,, 23, 156 ; Ajtad 
Yajt devoted to A. and Hi*aieno, 
23, 283-5 ; who advances the settle- 
ments, worshipped, 31, 198, 205, 
209 sq., 215, 220, 224, 256, 345, 
388. See also Ast^d, 
Ar.vti, the Ascendancy of A. praised, 
31, 306. 
Arsv&ut, n.p., 23, 210. 
Artabhaga, see Garatkarava A. 
Artabhagiputra, n.p., 15, 225, 
Artakhshatar, or Anfoshir Papakau, 
a king of Iran, son of Papak, 
summoned Tosar (Tansar) to ex- 
pound the Avesta, 4, xxxviii sq., xli~ 
xlvi, xlviii, lv; 37, 414; called 
Vohuman, the same as Artaxerxes, 
5, 137 sq., 150 n., 151, 198 sq., 
198 n. ; restored the monarchy of 
Iran, 37, xxxi ; founder of the 
Sasanian dynasty, 47, xii, 85, 85 n. ; 
an organizer of religion, 47, 127, 
127 n. 
Arteries, or veins, Sk. Na^is; con- 
nexion between the a. of the heart 
and the rays of the sun, 1, 132-4; 
15, 328 sq.; 38, 143 sq., 378 sq. ; 
in deep dreamless sleep, the soul 
enters into the a. of the heart, 1, 
133; 15, 167 ; 34, 191 ; 38, 14 1-6 ; 
there are 101 a. of the heart, one 
of them penetrating the crown of 
the head, 1, 134; 15, 23, 277, 
320 sq. ; 38, 378; called Hita, 15, 



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159 sq., 167 ; by means of them the 
soul departs from the body, 34, Ixxix, 
lxxxii ; the junction of the a. and 
rays is the way of the departing 
souI^S^Sz. 

Artlia, ' Wealth ' (personified), 
worshipped at the Tarpa«a, 30, 244. 

Arthamstra, Sk., knowledge of 
i'u.lras and women, 2, xxxii, 171, 

171 n. 

Arthavadas, Sk., 'glorifying pas- 
sages' in Scripture, as means of 
knowledge, 31, lxxv, 198, 217-22, 
225 n., 304, 318) 318 n., 348, 355 ; 
38, 212 n., 213 n., 227, 235, 246, 
246 n., 251, 254 sq., 261, 264,286, 
290, 299 n., 310-12, 41S sq. 

Artisan, an ascetic should not live 
by the occupation of an a., 8, 208, 
365. See Professions, and Society 
(four classes of). 

Arts; dancers, singers, bards dis- 
reputable, 25, 104 sq., 317, 381, 
443; bards may speak to married 
women, 25, 316; sin of dancing 
and singing, 25, 443; music and 
other a. despised, 39, 139 sq., 269, 
278-80, 286, 292 sq., 328 sq., 328 n., 
342; seventy-two a., 45, 108. See 
Actors, and Music. 

Arum, Zoroastrianisni spread to, 
2-4, 171, 171 n. 

Arumans, n. of a people, 24, 52, 
52 n. ; termed untruthful, 24, 172, 

172 11, 

Aru;/a Aupave.fi, grandfather of 

■Svetaketu Aruweya, 12, xli ; his 

teaching, 12, 313, 452; 26, 249 n. ; 

43, 393 sq. ; teacher of Uddalaka, 

15, 226. 
Arundhati, or Akshamala, wife of 

Vasish/i&a, 25, 331 n. ; 30, 244. 
Arundhati, a plant, protects cattle, 

,42, 144, 490 sq. 
Aruweya, see Svetaketu A. 
Aru>/i, see Uddalaka A. 
Aruwis, meditate on the heart as 

Brahman, 1, 206. 
Arunmukhas, Indra delivered the 

A., the devotees, to the wolves, 1, 

293. 
Arupadhatu, see Heaven {b). 
Arusha, n. of a solar deity, the 

morning sun, 32, 20-3. 
Arvavasu, a Hot/7 of the gods, 12, 

137, '37 n. 



Arya, title prefixed to the names of 
Sthaviras, 22, 286-94 » Sfidra and A. 
created, ruled by day and night, 43, 
74 sq.; Suira woman the A.'s mis- 
tress, 44, 326; the gods have en- 
gendered Agni, to be a light for the 
A., 46, 49. See Ariya. 

Aryadatta, see Datta. 

Aryag, n.p., 47, 140. 

Arya; r ayanti i'akha, founded^ by 
Gayanta, 22, 288 ; founded by Arya 
Ratha, 22, 293. 

Aryaghosha, aGa»adhara of Parjva, 
22, 274. 

Arya^etaka Kula, of the £ara«a 
jCjawa, 22, 292. 

Aryakubera .Sakha, founded by 
Arya K libera, 22, 293. 

Aryaman. 

(a) A. in mythology. 
{/>) Worship of A. 

(a) A. IN MYTHOLOGY. 

'A.'s road,' thepath of th 3 deceased, 
2, 158; 41, 59, 122; chief among 
the manes, 8, 89; Purve Phalguni 
(constellation) assigned to A., 12, 
285 n.; gives the bride to the hus- 
band, 20, 282; 30, 189; finds out 
the infamous enemies, 32, 273, 278 ; 
Maruts compared with A., Mitra 
and Varuwa, 32, 326, 330; the 
grandfather of the plant siUXi, 42, 
20; Varuwa, Mitra, A. kindle Agni, 
46, 31 ; A., Mitra, and Yaruwa fill 
the cloud, 46, 103; is glorious 
through Agni, 46, 148 ; Agni is A., 
the lord of brings, 46, 186; Agni 
invoked to bring A. to the sacrifice, 
46,316; Agni announces man's sins 
to A., 46, 325; Agni is A. when 
bearing the secret name of the 
maidens, 46, 371. 

(b) Worship of A. 

Prayer to Mitra, A., and Vani/za, 
sons of Aditi, 12, 356; invoked in 
an Upanishad, 15, 45, 53; wor- 
shipped at marriage, 29, 44, 168 sq., 
282; 30,45; invoked in the prayer 
at the initiation, 29, 64 ; invoked 
with the Maruts, 32, 3S6 ; invited 
to the Soma, 32, 408 ; invoked at 
sacrifices, 41, 38, 83; 46, 13, 38; 
invoked in charms to obtain a hus- 
band, 42, 94sq., 323, 491 ; invoked 
in a charm for easy parturition, 42, 
99, 243; invoked to remove evil 



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ARYAMAN -ASCETICISM 



bodily marks from a woman, 42, 
109; invoked in a cattle charm, 42, 
143 ; invoked with other gods, 42, 
160; 44, 385. 

Aryam/;a, a demon harassing chil- 
dren, 30, 211. 

Aryan, the glory of the A. regions, 
4,223,223 n.; Anaryan, i.e. hostile 
countries, 4, 347 ; Hzxarend, or the 
glory of the A., worshipped, 23, 7, 
7 a, 1 1, 15, 18, 283-5, 35 s j the A. 
clans, longing for the gods, praise 
Agni, 46, 100, 119; Aryans and 
Dasyus, the pious and impious, the 
two kinds of men, 46, 182, 183. See 
also Aryas. 

Aryanagila .Sakha, founded by Xa- 
gila, 22, 288; founded by Va^rasena, 

22, 293. 

Aryans, see Aryas, and Caste {d,f). 
Aryapadnia .Sakha, founded by 

Arya Padma, 22, 293. 
Aryapadmila .Sakha, founded by 

Padmila, 22, 288. 
Aryar/shipalita .Sakha, founded 

by Arya ftjshipalita, 22, 293. 
Aryas, definition of Aryavarta, 'the 

country of the A.,' 14, 2-4, 147 sq.; 

countries which it is sinful to visit 

for A., 14, 148; a righteous man 

shall dwell in a village where A. 

form the majority, 14, 243 sq.; 

Mle^j&as do not understand the 

language, of A., 45, 24 1 ; _some men 

born as A., some as non-A.,45, 339. 

See Ariyas, Arya, Aryan, Caste (//,/*). 
Aryasenika .Sakha, founded by 

,Arya Senika, 22, 293, 
Aryatapasi .Sakha, founded bv Ta- 

pasa, 22, 288, 293. 
Aryava^ra .Sakha, founded by Arya 

Va^ra,22, 293. 
Aryavalokitcwara, instructs Sari- 

putra in the Pra^Saparamita, 49 (ii), 

J 47-9» : 53 sq. 
Aryavarta, n. of India, defined, 14, 

2-4. See Geography (of India). 
Arzur, slain by CJayomar^/, 24, 58. 
Am, 'Region,' offerings to, 30, 113 

sq.; 42, 486. 
Asabana, Kara A., and Vara A., 

Turanians, 23, 71, 71 n. 
Asabani, wife of Pourudhakh-rti, 

23, 225. 

Asainaratha, is a rainy month, 43, 
106. 



Asam-i Yamahui't, chief in the 
River Miivtak, 5, 118, 118 n.; 18, 
256 n. 

Asawvr/ta, see Hell (a). 

Asandivat, Ganame^aya in, 44, 396. 

Asan//t'anva«/, n.p., 23, 203. 

Aj-ani, offering to A. at the S'ula- 
gava, 29, 352 ; at rites relating to 
agriculture, 30, 113 sq. ; =the light- 
ning, 41, 160; n. of Rudra (Agni), 

_41, 160. 

Avapati, ' Lord of the regions,' 
offerings to, 42, 486. 

Asat, Sk., t.t., that which is not, ri w 
vv, non-being, non-entity, non-ex- 
istent; in the beginning there was 
A. only, 1, 54, 93 ; the origin &c. 
of the world cannot proceed from 
it, 34, 17 sq. ; not absolute non- 
existence, 34, 266-8 ; denotes 
' Being' previous to the differentia- 
tion of names and forms, 34, 267 ; 
denotes another quality only, 34, 
332-4; compared with 'the son of 
a barren woman,' 34, 338 sq. ; the 
cause of the world, 34, 34 r ; entity 
does not spring from it, 34, 41^-18 ; 
Brahman cannot spring from it, 38, 
20; arose from the earth, 42, 71,398. 

Asat Pawsava, deity of the place 
where they throw the ashes from 
_the sacred fires, 12, 338 sq. 

Asava (Pali) or Ajrava (Sk.), the 
Asavas, Buddhist t.t., imperfections 
of the mind, bad influences, 10 (i), 
13 sq. n., 25 sq. n. ; 11, 293-5; 20, 
263, 263 n. ; the four streams of 
sensuality, individuality, delusion, 
and ignorance, 11, 9711., 218, 218 n.; 
35, 274, 274 11.; Buddha teaches 
the destruction of A., 11, 296-307 ; 
the^Giiias have reached extinction 
of A,, 13, 91 ; the five Bhikkhus 
were released from the A., 13, 102 ; 
a man becomes a Samawa by the 
destruction of the A., 35, 251 sq. ; 
twenty-five qualities preventing the 
destruction of the A., 36, 141-3. 
See Asravas. 

Asceticism, badly-practised, leads 
to hell, 10 (i), 75 ; Buddha's attitude 
towards a., 10 (ii), xv n,, 67 ; 11, 
146 sq. ; 13, 92- 4 ; 17, 1 1 1, 113 sq. ; 
19, 74-6, 79, U3-5. J74 sq., 235, 
260 sq. ; 36, ^0-2; 49 (i), 72-4, 
132-4, 174; different kinds of a., 



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ASCETICISM ASCETICS 



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19, 72-4, So; 49 (i), 71 sq.; Deva- 
datta causes a schism in the Sawigha 
by demanding stricter rules of a. 
which Buddha rejects, '20, 252 sq. ; 
never extolled in the Saddhanna- 
pufli/arika., 21, xxxvii ; parivrag-ya, 
the state of the wandering mendi- 
cant, enjoined by sacred law, 34, 
lxxv; 38, 295-303 ; enjoined by the 
side of Ican.ing and childlike state, 
34, lxxvi ; 38, 322-7. See clso 
Ascetics, and Austeiity. 
Ascetics (Sannyasins, Bhikshus, Pa,- 
rivrS^akas, Munis, wandering men- 
dicants). 

{a) Rules for a. 

(4) Laws concerning a. 
(c) I 'liferent kinds uf a. 
(if) Life and state of a. 

(a) Rules for a. 

Rules for Sannyasins or a., 2, 
153 sq., 193 sq. ; 7, 279-91 ; 8, 
212, 362-8 ; 14, 46-9, 259 Sq., 
279-84; 25,205-16; he who has no 
aversion and no desire is an ascetic, 
8, 63 ; must not earn anything, S, 
363 ; eight observances of a., 8, 
364; the outward tigns of a. do 
not purify a moital who has not 
overcome desires, 10 (i), 38 sq. ; (ii), 
41 sq. ; the Paribbagakas of differ- 
ent sects had assemblies on the 
1 4th, 1 5th, and 8th day of each half- 
month, 13, 23y sq. ; the a. of differ- 
ent sects retire in the rainy season, 
in order not to destroy life, 13, 298 ; 
an ascetic who rejects meat at 
sacrifices or funeral mea!s goes to 
hell, 14, 54; an ascetic who slides 
back into civ. I life cannot reach 
heaven, 14, 237, 237 n. ; hermits 
may become a., 14, 273 sq. ; cere- 
monies on entering the order of a., 
14, 273-9; befcre becoming an a, 
a man must first perform the duties 
of the other ajramas, 15, 300 ; he 
who does not touch the objects of 
the senses is an a., 15, 315; gar- 
ments of bark, phalaka cloth, hair, 
skins, feathers worn by a., 17, 246 
sq. ; meditations of a., 25, Ixix, 
209-13, 211 n.; receive food at 
Sraddhas, 25, 120; food fit for a., 
25, 177 ; not to follow worldly pur- 
suits, 25, 208, 208 n.; three staves 
worn by a., 25, 395, 485, 485 11.; 



meditation only is prescribed for a,, 
not action, 34, lxxv ; 38, 295-303, 
306 ; a. who have broken thtir vows 
of chastity, 34, lxxvi; 38, 317-20; 
Muniship enjoined for a, as a means 
of knowledge, 38, 322-4; the a. is 
to live not manifesting himself, 38, 

325-7. 
{b) Laws concerning a. 

Food of those who have become 
a. without the rules of the law, for- 
bidden, 2, 69 ; law regarding female 
a., 7, xxiv, 135; 25, 317, 317 n.; 
offence of entertaining a. at sacri- 
fices, 7, 34; exempt from f..re or 
toll, 7, 36 ; 49 (i), 170 ; debts of a. 
to be discharged by sons or grand- 
son?, 7, 45 ; an apostate from asce- 
ticism becomes the king's slave, 7, 
37 ; 33, 1 35 n , 136 sq. ; cannot be 
witnesses, 7, 48 ; alms to be given to 
a., 7, 192- 4 ; 25, 92,92 n.; 29. 320 ; 
must not be offended, 25, 154; 
eldest brother deprived ot his share 
in estate by becoming an a, 25, 
376 n. ; 33, 195 ; sexual intercourse 
with female a., a kind of incest, 33, 
xvii, 17, rSo n, ; ordeals should 
not be administered to a, 33, 101, 
260 ; when the husband has become 
an ascetic, the wife may marry 
another man, 33, 185; punishment 
for a. who violate the duties of 
their order, 33, 265 ; judicial pro- 
ceedings for a., 33, 281. 
(c) Different kinds of a. 

Naked a., 2, 154; 10 (i), 38 s j. n.; 
11, 126 sq. ; 17, 217 sq., 22c, 245 
sq. ; 36, 308 sq. n.; some a. go 
with matted hair and skins, others 
are clean-shaven and without cover- 
ing 8, 375 ; discontented are some 
pabba^itas, 10 (ii), 7; different 
kinds of a., 13, 41 n.; Ga/ilas, Brah- 
manical a. wearing malted hair, 13, 
118-35, 11811., 136, 141, i*,osq.; 
17, 130, 132, 134 i:.; Sramaaas and 
Tapasas, 15, 169; four kinds of a., 
15, 266 sq. n. ; false a. condemned, 
15, 341 ; a. who live on the remains 
of offered food, 17, 71 ; a. who live 
like deer, 19, 72 sq. ; 49 (i), 70,701)., 
72 ; certain a. wear nothing except 
what they can proem e from dust 
heaps or cemeteries, 20, S9; the 
vows of Brahmanic, Buddhist, and 



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Gaina a. compared, 22, xxii-xxxii; 
backsliding and apostate a. , 22, 
58-60 ; some a. subsist by glean- 
ing ears of corn, 25, 93 ; Gaina a. 
die by voluntary starvation, 25, 204 
n. ; orders of a., 25, 210; Ardraka 
and the Hastitapasa (a. who kill 
one elephant a year and live on it 
to spare the life of other animals), 
45, 418 sq. 

(d) Life and state of a. 

A reach the world of Brahman, 
1, 144; 8, 66; 15, 301; Lakshmi 
resides in a., 7, 299; their entire 
freedom from worldlincss, 8, 159, 
159 n.; dialogue between an Adh- 
varyu and an a., 8, 289-93 ? * rue a -> 
10 (i), 39) 50; are the true Brali- 
ma«as, 10 (i), 90 sq. ; Buddha an 
ascetic, 10 (ii), xv; old a., and 
the young Samasa Gotama, 10 (ii), 
87 ; when Brahma«as know the 
Self, and have risen above the 
desire of sons, wealth, and new 
worlds, they wander about as men- 
dicants, 15, 129, i79sq.; the noble 
life of the religious mendicant, 22, 
22 sq. ; parents lament when then- 
sons wish to become a., 22, 54 sq. ; 
a. and Brahmawas, 38, 27; not 
afflicted by pain, 38, 64; the state 
of being grounded in Brahman be- 
longs to a., 38, 300-3; enjoy immor- 
tality, 38, 301 ; childlike state, 
which is enjoined for a., means 
absence of strong sensual passions, 
absence of guile, pride, and the like, 
88,325-7 ; Buddha (Gautama) meets 
with an ascetic, a 49 (i), 51 sq. See 
also Asceticism, Ajramas, Austerity, 
Bhikkhus, Gaina monks, Holy per- 
sons, Meditation, Monks, Muni, 
Nigaw/Aas, Pabba^S, Paribba^akas, 
Parivragakas, Samawas, Sannyasin, 
and S'rama/zas. 

Asha, Zd., Righteous Order (com- 
pare Sk. Z6'ta). 

00 More or less i)ersonified. 

(/') Worshipped as a divine lieiir.*. 

(c) AshaVahiita, one of the AmeshaspeMns. 

(d) Worship of Asha VahLrta. 

{a) More or less personified. 

A. and Vohu-mano, 4, 191 ; waxes 

by pious acts, 4, 285; obtains all 

things, 4, 294 n., 295 ; he who gives 

to the ungodly harms A., 4, 297; 



Righteous Order of Ahura-Mazda, 
31, xxi ; colloquy between A., 
Ahura, and the Soul of the Kine, 
31, 3-1 1 ; Ahura, the Creator of 
A., 31, 37, 44; Grfhma opposed to 
A., 31, 55, 63 sq. ; in order to main- 
tain A., welfare of soul and body is 
sought for, 31, 94, 98 ; the realm of 
Ahura furthered in A., 31, 109, 116; 
where Piety and A. join hand in 
hand, 31, 143; Ahura-Mazda, the 
father of A., 31, 146, 148 ; prayer 
for A., 31, 185; Haoma, the springs 
of A., 31, 240; Ahura-Mazda ap- 
proached by the kinship of A., 31, 
252 ; the glorious works of A., in 
which the souls of the dead find 
delight, 31, 256 ; Ahura approached 
with his Righteousness, 31, 285 ; 
Ashi Vanguhi closely knit with A., 
31, 296 sq. ; may A. conquer the 
Demon of the Lie, 31, 311 ; Ara- 
maiti, whose are the laws of A., 31, 
361. 

{b) Worshipped as a divine bkinu. 
Zarathujtra, the first praiser of 
A. (Asbem Vohu), 23, 201 sq. ; in- 
voked by Zarathujtra, 31, 5, 12 sq. ; 
invoked with Ahura, 31, 14-24, 62, 
7°j 75, 182, 307 ; the Dru^ delivered 
into the hands of A., 31, 27, 33; 
prayers and sacrifice to Ahura- 
Mazda, A., and Vohu-mano, 31, 174 
sq. ; the wicked pollute A.'s path, 
31, 184 ; invoked to appear in the 
village, 31, 310. 

(c) asha vahuta, one of the 
Ameshaspewtas. 

'Perfect Righteousness,' 4, liii, 
213 ; 5, 10 11, ; gives a good passage 
to him who has a spiritual Master, 
4, 291 ; the righteous will see A. V., 
4, 294 n., 295 ; a name of Ahura- 
Mazda, 23, 25, 25 n. ; creature of 
Ahura-Mazda, 23, 31, 33; is Divine 
Order and Fire, 23, 41 ; the crush- 
ing Ascendant of A. V,, 23, 128, 133; 
assists the Good Spirit, 23, 297 ; 
earliest mention of A. V., 31, 15, 22, 
22 n. ; the thirty-three gods, lords 
of A. V., 31, 199, 205, 210, 216. 220, 
225; gods worshipped because of 
A. V.,.31, 212, 21S, 227, 274, 322, 
3 2 9j 339 ; a praiser of Haoma better 
than A. V., 31, 241 ; the soul passes 
over the A'inva/ 1 bridge to Heaven 



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and A. V., 81, 261 ; the Kingdom is 
for Ahura and A. V., 31, 283 ; the 
longing blessing of A. V,, 31, 345; 
Mazdayasnian doctrines have then- 
growth from A. V., 31, 354. 

(J) Worship of Asha Vahuta, 
A. V., Vohu Mono, and Khshathra 
Vairja invoked, 4, 245; A. V. in- 
voked and worshipped, 23, 4 sq., 
5 n., 13 sq., 30, 35-8,285, 351, 353; 
31, 196 sq., &c. ; the Ardibehijt 
Yajt in praise of A. V. and Airya- 
man, 23, 41-S ; a blessing is A, V., 
or Righteousness (called) the Best, 
31, 228 sq., 247, 253, s66, 297, 309, 
359, 37*> 379, 3«i, 383 sq. ; praised 
by the Ashem Vohu prayer, 31, 
266-8. See also Ashavahijt. 

Aaha^/m, a king who reached final 

>liss, 49 (i), 94. 

Ashad^a SavayaBa, his opinions 
quoted, 12, 4. 

Ashkilhi Samromateya, n.p , 41, 
171. 

Ashahura, son of Gist\, 23, 212. 

Asha-nemah, n.p., 23, 219. 

Asha-aairya/f', n.p , 23, 213. 

Ashasaredha, son of Asha-sairyiU, 
23, 213 ; son of Zairya£, 23, 213. 

A&ha-savah, n.p , 23, 214. 

Asbashagaha*/, -e //ra^d^an, a 
high-priest, - r >, 115, 115 n. 

Asbaskyaothna, son of Oa\ adhasti, 
23, 212. 

Ashaatu, son of Maidhyc-ir.rtungha, 
23, 209. 

Aahavahist, or Ashavahijto, or 
Anr/avahijt (Ardibahijt, Ardibehejt), 
Phi., the archangel Asha Vahijta, 
Zd., created, 5, 10 sq. ; has the 
mouse-ear (flower), 5, 104; smites 
Andar, 5, 128; protects Hre, 24, 
271 ; connected with the healing of 
the sick, 37, 116, 116 n. ; world in 
the guardianship of A., 37, 244; 
replies to Gf-r-aurvan, 37, 393 ; the 
Airyaman of A., 37, 405 ; the 
original creature A., 37, 411 sq. ; 
interferes to diminish slaughter of 
cattle, 47, xii, 109: Patakhsrobo, 
king of the Arabs, through A., 47, 
xxv, 12 sq. ; Vohu-mano and A. 
descend with a stem of Horn to 
cause the birth of Zaratujt, 47, 
xxix, 22-8 ; assists Zoroaster in 
converting Vijtasp, 47, 67-9, 164 ; 



gives Vijtasp the Horn to drink, 47, 
70 sq. ; prescribes the care of the 
sacred fire, 47, 161, 161 n. ; — wor- 
shipped, 5, 139, 401, 405; meat- 
offering to A., '*, 336 ; protector of 
fire, how to be propitiated, 5, 359, 
372 sq , 375 ; ceremonial of A., 37, 
184; invoked, 37, 296. See Asha(c,//i. 

Ashavanghu, son of Bivawdangha, 
23, 210, 210 n. 

Ashavazang, son of P6rudakhst6:h, 
one of the seven immortal rulers, 
IS, 256, 256 11., 258 n, 

Ashavazd, or Ashavazdah, son of 
Pourudhakhjt,oneof the immortals, 
5, 118, 118 n. ; 23, 70 sq., 71 n„, 
212, 212 n. ; 37, 203, 203 n. 

Ashavazdah, son of Sayuxdri, 23, 
70 sq., 212. 

Ashemaogha, Zd., t.t., heretics ; 
the ungodly fasting heretic, 4, 48, 
48 n. ; denounced as the type of 
wickedness, 4, 60 sq., 195 sq. ; no 
defilement caused by the death of 
an A., 4, 60 sq., 154 sq. ; the false 
cleanser, an A., 4, 135 sq. ; the 
ungodly A. kills the bull, 4, 231 ; 
the malice of the two-legged A., 
23, 26, 26 n, ; 31, 257 ; smitten by 
Airyaman, 23, 44-6 ; confounded 
by Mathravaka, 23, 208, 208 n.; 
Zarathiutra invoked against the 
unholy A,, 23, 261 ; the Waters 
worshipped to contradict the A., 31, 
32?. See also Heretics. 

Ashem.-yahmai-uj.-ta, n.p., 18, 256 
n. ; 23, 216, 216 n. See Yakhma- 
ywad. 

Aahem-yeNhe-rao^rtu, n.p., 23, 
215. 

Ashem-yeNhe-vereza, n.p., 23, 
215. 

Aahea, the foul part of Agni's food, 
41, 261 ; taking down the a. from 
the lire-pan to the water, and 
bringing back part of it whereby 
Agni is reproduced from the waters, 
41, 293- 5. 

Ashi, see Ashi Vanguhi. 

Aahimng, see Ard, Arsh'uang, Ashi 
Vanguhi. 

Ashi Vanguhi, the good Blessed- 
ness or Sanctity, invoked and wor- 
shipped, 4, 22z ; 23, r 1, 18, 162, 
164, 166, 330, 332; 31, 200, 206, 
211, 217, 226, 296 sq., 298, 324, 



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ASHI VANGUHI— A.S'RAMAS 



343 sq., 345, 34^, 35', 353, 358; 
imparts riches to the righteous, 4, 
222 n. ; follows behind Tijtrya, 23, 
j 04 ; proceeds with Mithra, 23, 
136 ; Mithra's chariot embraced by 
A. V.j 23, 136; bestows all the 
good and riches (' Ashi's remedies'), 
23, 188, 188 n., 270-3, 270 n. ; in 
the shape of a fair maiden, 23, 209; 
the Fravashls bless the house with 
the presence of the kind A. V., 23, 
230 ; is Piety personified, 23, 270 ; 
daughter of Ahura-Mazda, sister of 
Amesha-Spewtas, 23, 270, 274 ; the 
Ashi Yajt devoted to her, 23, 
270-82; praises and loves Zara- 
thujtra, 23, 274 sq. ; rejects offer- 
ings of all sterile people (old men, 
courtesans, and children), 23, 2&0 
sq. ; legend of A. V. hiding herself, 
23, 280 sq., and n. ; her healing 
virtues, 31, 347. See Aharijvang, 
An/, and Arshijang. 

Ashopaoirya, n.p., 23, 214. 

Ashorao-frah, son of Franya, 23, 204. 

Asho-urvatha, n,p., 23, 214. 

Ashovahirt, n.p., 5, 14S. 

Asho-zujt, see Birds (b). 

Ashta^, the victorious, comes to 
meet the departed soul, 4, 373. 

Asbiaka, as a deity, 29, 102, 104 ; 
A. festivals, see Animal Sacrifices 
(£), and Sacrifices (i). 

Ash/apada, jRishabha died on the 

^summit of Mount A., 22, 285. 

As ibn Wail, threatened with child- 
lessness, 9, 343 11, 

Asidaka, demon, converted bv 
Buddha, 19, 244. 

Asiknl river, medicines on the, 32, 

A° 2 ' 

Asila, n. of a great ascetic, 45, 268, 
269 n. 

Asita, the Rish'i, calls Kr*sh»a the 
first god, 8, 87, 87 n. ; the Isi A. 
descends f 1 om heaven to see Buddha, 
who has just been born, and pro- 
phesies about the child, 10 (ii), 
124-8; 19, xix, 12-18, 93, 355-60, 
363 sq. ; 49 (i), 10-14, 20, 91 ; 
curative plant from A.'s dwelling, 42, 
31 ; incantatioii A of A., 42, 107, 255 ; 
A. Devala, for Asila ? 45, 269 n. 

Asita Dhanva, a king, whose 
people are the Asuras, 44, 36s, 
368 11, 



ABita Varshagawa, n. of a teacher, 
15, 226. 

Ajkanian kings, 5, 151, 199 sq. 
^and n. 

Asman, his flower, 5, 104; invoked, 
/>, 403, 405. See also Heaven (g). 

A^marathya, 11. of a teacher, 34, 
xix, xcix, 150 sq., 276 sq., 279 sq. ; 
48, 293, 39i. 

Asmo-/zranva«t, one of the first 
followers of Zarathiutra, 23, 33 n., 
203; Fravashi of A, worshipped, 
23, 321. 

Asruok - khanvato, Zd. Asmo- 
fojanvatd, n.p., 47, xxx, 165. 

Asnya, the day-lords of the ritual 
order, worshipped, 31, 196, 20^, 
209, 215, 219, 223, 368, 379. 

Ajoka, Sk., Asoka, Pali, the king, 
inscriptions of, 8, 223; A. and 
Indian chronology, 10 (i), xxxv- 
xlv; his edict of Bhabra, 13, xxvi sq. ; 
schism settled by A., 19, xii sq. ; 
A. and the Buddhist Church, 19, 
xiv ; raises eighty-four thousand 
Stupas, 19, xxix, 336 sq., 336 n. ; 
Ajvaghosha on A., 19, xxxvii; ob- 
tained the first holy fruit (Srota- 
panna), 19, 337 ; his reference to 
the Buddhist Scriptures, 35, xxxvii 
sq. ; outdone by the courtesan 
Biridmnat), 35, 182 ; Katha Vatthu, 
a controversial work of the period 
of A., 36, xx. See Ka/asoka. 

Aspen^argak, a demon, 5, 28, 28 n.; 
in contest with the rain, 5, 112, 

, T I2 n - 

A3pigans, family name of FreVun, 
47, 34 ; ten A., 47, 140. 

Aspopadho-makhjfti, n.p., 23, 214. 

A vramapada, n. of a park in Benares, 

.22, =73. 

AiTamas, Sk., t.t., the four orders 
or stages of life, viz. student, house- 
holder, hermit, and ascetic, 1, 35 n. ; 
7, 14 ; 8, 216 sq. ; 14, 41, 258-62; 
25, 205 ; he who performs the duties 
of the A., reaches the world of 
Brahman, 1, 144; 8, 315 sq. ; 15, 
300 sq. ; duties common to all the 
four A., 2, j 53 ; some Sinntis allow 
only the A. of the householder, 2, 
153 n. ; the order of the house- 
holder is the best, for the other A. 
derive their existence from that of 
the householder, 2, 15S-61, 193; 



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7, 194; 8, 354, 35S; 14, 44; 25, 
Ixvii sq., 89, 89 n., 214 sq., 214 n. ; 
the order of householder is the best, 
because the others do not beget 
offspring, 14, 260-2 ; householder 
and ascetic, 48, 708-12; 49 (i), 
94 sq. ; after having studied the 
Veda one may make his choice 
between the four A., 2, 192, 192 n. ; 
different purifications and allow- 
ances of food for householders, 
students, hermits, and ascetics, 7, 
196 ; 14, 37 ; the duties of the four 
A. are not for the emancipated, 8, 
307 ; ^breaking through the law of 
the A., the chief complaint of 
Brahmawas against Buddhists, 15, li ; 
the three Vehicles (yanas), imita- 
tions of the A., 21, xxxiv n., xxxvi ; 
the system of the four A. older than 
Buddhism and Gainism, 22, xxix; 
A. and castes, 22, xxxi sq. ; three A. 
obligatory, 25, 71, 71 n. ; 48, 693-6 ; 
when he has paid, according to the 
/aw, his debts to the great sages, to the 
wanes, and to the gods, let him make 
over everything to his son and divell 
{in his house), not caring for any 
tvorldly concerns, 25, 169, 205: legal 
decisions ajbout A., 25, 321 sq. and 
n. ; four A. known by the Veda, 
25, 5°5) 507; 38, 297^-303; three 
men of the first three A. mi:st be in 
a legal assembly, 25, 510,^510 n. ; 
the law protects the four A., 33, 8 ; 
the duties connected with them are 
obligatory on him also who does 
not strive after mukti, 34, Ixxv ; 
38, 312-15 ; persons who do not 
belong to any one of theni have 
also claims to knowledge, 34, Ixxvi ; 
38, 3 1 5- r 7 ; but it is better to belong 
lo one of them, 38, 316 sq, ; A. 
requiring chastity are open to men 
whether they have reached house- 
holdershipor not,JS8, 295; Gaimini's 
opinion on these A., 38, 295-7 ; four, 
net three, 38, 300 sq. ; tho-e belong- 
ing to the three former A. obtain 
the world of the blessed, while the 
nendicant enjoys immortality, 38, 
301 ; all works enjoined on them 
must be had regard to with a view 
to the springing up of knowledge, 
38, 309 ; of him who has entered 
on a higher one there is no descend- 



ing to a lower one, 38, 317 sq. ; 
the duties of the other A. are 
incumbent on the householder, as 
well as those of his own stage, 38, 
324 sq.; as all the four A. are equally 
taught by Scripture, they are to be 
gone through equally, 38, 325 ; the 
stages of studentship and house- 
holdership must precede the hermit's 
stage of life, 45, 62 sq. ; he who 
possesses knowledge, may give up 
the state of a householder, 48, 693 ; 
members of all A. have a claim to 
knowledge of Brahman, 48, 702-4 ; 
even those who stand outside the 
A. are qualified for knowledge of 
Brahman, 48, 704 sq. ; better than 
to be outside the A. is the condition of 
standing within an A . The latter state 
may be due to misfortune ; but he who 
can should he within an A., which 
state is the more holy and beneficial one, 
48, 705. See also Ascetics, Brahma- 
^arin, Hermits, and Householders. 

A.rrava, see Asava. 

Aaravas, Gaina t.t., explained, 22, 
37 n. ; there are as many A. as there 
are parisravas 22, 37 ; influx of A. 
through all bad channels, 45, 99 ; 
stopped by expiation of sins and 
self-denial, 45, 163 sq.; how the 
soul becomes free from A., 45, 1 74 ; 
monks free from A., 45, 313, 377; 
the six A., sources of Karman, 45, 
316 n.; Gainas A should believe in 
the existence of A., 45, 407. 

Ass, offering of an, penance for 
inchastity, 2, 85, 289 ; 14, 118, 215 ; 
putting on the skin of an a., part of 
a penance, 2, 89 sq. ; 7, 120; riding 
naked on an a., punishment for 
unchaste women, 14, 109 sq. ; 25, 
318; shaving with the urine of an 
a. in punishments for unchastity, 
25, 319, 321; parading on an a., 
a punishment for Brahmawas, 33, 
204 ; parading on an a., punishment 
for violating an unwilling woman, 
33, 366 ;— mythical three-legged a. 
in the sea Varkash, 5, 67-9, 67 n. ; 
24, 111, if 1 n. ;— he-a. is a Sudra 
and belongs to Agni, 29, 366 ; with 
twofold sperm, 29, 366; 41, 197; 
simile of the a., 36, 279; how the 
a. was created, 41, 147; the a. 
a substitute for cow and sheep, 41, 



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ASS- ASTRONOMY 



197; the a., searching for Agni, 
addressed, 41, 204 sq., 224 sq. ; 
imbued with sorrow, 41, 225; re- 
presents Vaijya and STidra, 41, 
227. 

Assa.^i, one of the first converts of 
Buddha, II, 155 n.; receives the 
ordination from Buddha, 13, 100; 
Sariputta converted by A., 13, 
14.I-7 ; followers of A. and Punab- 
basu, wicked Bhikkhus, 17, 347-57 ; 
animosity of the followers of A. and 
Punabbasu against Sariputta and 
Moggallana, 20, 211 sq. 

Assagutta, n. of a great Arhat, 
teacher of Nagasena, 3-"), xxv, 
stxvji n.j n-14, 23-6; mentioned 
by ftanakitti and Mahanama, 36, 
xviii sq. 

Asaaka, n.p., 10 (ii), 184. 

Assassins, assassination, see Homi- 
cide. 

Assault, law about, 2, 238 sq. ; 
4, lxxxii, 34, 39-45; 25, 253, 267, 
303-6; 33,86,207-12,355,357-9; 
85, 269 sq. ; 37, 36 55, 68, 72, 403, 
472 sq. ; against a Brahma^a causes 
loss of heaven, &c, 2, 2S2 sq. and n. ; 
25, 155; different kinds of a., 5, 
239-42 n., 379 sq. ; beating an inno- 
cent man, 5, 322; to be punished 
by the king, 14, 97 ; penance for a., 
14, 212; sinful bodily action, 25, 
484 j about use of weapons, 37, 40, 

43) 47, 49- 

Assemblies, nobles, Brahmawas, 
householders, Samaras, angels, gods, 
Mara, and Brahma, are the eight 
kinds of a., 11 , 4S sq. See also Cor- 
porations. 

Assembly (of monks), see Sawgha. 

Associations, transgression of a 
compact settled among all kinds 
of, 33, 153-5. See also Corpora- 
tions. 

A^'ta-aurva^t, conquered by Vw- 

A taspa, 23, 1 17, 279. 

Ast&d, n.d., has the white Horn, 5, 
104; the victorious, 5, 228 ; funeral 
cakes to A,, 5, 383; 24, 351; 
stationed at the Kmvut bridge, 5, 
383 n. ; invoked, 5, 403, 405 ; cake 
offering to A A., IS, 6i sq. ; cere- 
monial of A., 37, 183, 183 n. ; the 
good promoter of the world, 37, 
2 1 o. Sen Arjta/. 



Asterisms, see Nakshatras, andStars. 

Asthikagrama, MahaVsra stayed 
at, 22, 264, 264 n. 

Astivihad, see Asto-vidhotu. 

Asto-vidar/, Phi., see Asto-vidhotu. 

Asto-vidhotu, Zd., or Astivihad, 
or Asto-v'da*/, Phi., the demon of 
dea'.h, 4, 47, 47 n., 52, 5 2 n >, 377, 
379-81 ; 5, 19, 19 n.; IS, 93, 95 
sq., 105 sq., in, 113; 24, 17 sq., 
1711. ,21; 37, 193, 200, 200 n.; drags 
the wicked soul to hell, 4, 89 n. ; 
'the evil flyer,' 5, 111 sq., nr 11. ; 
sent with diseases by Aharman, 5, 
164 sq.; casts a noose around the 
neck of the dead, 18, 52, 52 n, ; Vae 
identified with A., 18, 62 n. 

Astrologers, to be listened to by 
a king, 2, 236; 7, 21 ; unfit to be 
witnesses, S3, 88. 

Astrology, and the interpretation 
of dreams, 3, 35011.; duty of the 
grand recorder to observe the 
motions of the heavenly bodies, 27, 
254 ; the business of the Br3hma«as, 
35, 247 ; that men by a. know the 
future isa proof of the reality of the 
world, 45, 317 ;— ascetics and Bud- 
dhist monks should not practise a., 
10 (ii), 176; 11, 197 sq.; 14,48; 19, 
296 ; 25, 208 ; a sinful or impure 
occupation, 14, 220; 25, 106; 42, 
I. See also Divination, Nakshatras, 
and Stars. 

Astronomy, astronomical data and 
Chinese chronology, 3, 13, 15, 20- 
30 ; Yao's care for the regulation of 
the calendar, to determine the 
seasons of agriculture, 3, 24-8, 32- 
4 ; the Chinese zodiac, 3, 25 ; 
chart representing the principal 
zodiacal stars in China about B.C. 
2300, with note and table, 3, 26-30; 
Shun reduced the system of the 
Seven Directors (Great Bear), 3, 
3S sq., 39 n. ; two ministers of the 
Board of A. punished for negligence, 
esp. in overlooking an eclipse of 
the sun, 3, 81-3; 'the five 
dividers of time' and the calendar, 
3, T42 ; the superior man regulates 
his astronomical calculations, and 
makes clear the seasons and times, 
lfi, 328, 329 n. ; Bhikkhus dwelling 
in the woods must learn the stations 
ot the constellations and the direc- 



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tions of the sky, 20, 292-4 ; de- 
finitions of new and full moon days, 
30, 25-7 ; a king must show 
honour to astronomers before en- 
tering the court, 33, 280; astrono- 
mical tables, 37, xlvi sq. (correction 
to 18, 333 sq.) ; knowledge of a. 
one of the principal accomplish- 
ments of a priest, 45, 137, (37 n. 
See also Nakshatras, Stars, and 
Time. 

AstvaAereta, i.e. Saoshyawt, 23, 
2 1 [, 215, 220, 307 sq. 

Ast-vidad, see Asto-vidhotu. 

Asu, expiatory oblation to A. (breath 
of life) at a Soma-sacrifice, 44, 210. 

Asura, Varuwa the A., 42, 11, 241 ; 
the king or Indra, the manly A., 42, 
in, 380; Rudra the A. of the 
highest heaven, 46, 187, 191 ; Agni 
born from the A.'s belly, 46, 303 ; 
as the A.'s germ, Agni is called 
Tanunapat, 46, 303 ; Agni, the A., 
46, 399 ; a liberal giver called A., 

^46, 420. 

Asura, an unbeliever is called so, 1, 

137. 

Asura-Rakshas, Puru was an A., 
41, 292 ; the Asuras are often 
called A., 44, 95, see Asuras; are 
the niggards and scorners of the 
gods, 44, 430. 

Asuras or Demons. 

(a) Their nature, character, and abodes. 
(*) Stones about the A. 
(c) Gods and A. 
(rf) Worship of A. 

(a) Their nature, character, 

AND ABODES. 

The A. are the cause of evil breath, 
evil speech, &c, 1, 4 sq. ; are 
created, 7, 4; 8, 387; 25, 15; 
Pra^apati the father of gods and A., 
12, 54, 54 n.,59, no, 144, 153,198) 
265, 279, 286 sq., 310, 370; 15, 189 ; 
26, 30, 105, 135, 1.42, 301; 41, 1, 
254, 256, 289, 387 ; 43, xvii, 193, 
257 ; 44, 22, 423, 429 ; created by 
the downward breathing of Pra#a- 
pati, 44, 13 ; — delusive nature of A. 
and Rakshasas, S, 83 ; dwell beneath 
Meru, 12, non.; part of the belly 
relating to the A., 12, 172 ; to then 
Pra^apati gave darkness and illusion, 
12, 362 ; try to tamper with the 
food offered to the fathers, 12, 365 ; 



14,53, 2( >9; 25, 117; carried by a 
runner, 15, 74 ; 43, 401 ; are liable 
to destruction, 15, 289; suffer for 
their deeds and are subject to trans- 
migration, 45, 250,318; mentioned 
alongwith other superhuman beings, 

19, 348 ; 36, 130; 45, 225 sq., 382 ; 
49 (ii), 30, 70 ; dwell in the ocean, 

20, 302, 305 ; 35, 175 ; marriage 
rite of the A., 25, 79-82 ; wealth of 
those who perform no sacrifices is 
called property cf the A., 25, 434 ; 
speak barbarous language, 36, 31 
sq. ; voice of the A. in the cart 
wheels, 26, 132 ; among the pan£a- 
#ana£, 34, 262 ; metres of the A., 
i. e. metres of less than ten syllables, 
38, 228, 228 n. ; sacrifice into their 
own mouths, 41, 1 ; 44, 22; the 
wile of the A., 42, 67, 341 ; sorceries 
coming from the A., 42, 80; know 
wisdom, 42, 268 ; in the Atharva- 
veda, 42, 268 sq. ; magic art the 
Veda of the A., 44, 368 ; relinquish 
truth, 43, 257 sq.; serve the Purusha 
as maya, 43, 373; burial rites of 
people of A. nature (Easterns and 
others), 44, 423, 430; the weapons 
of A. are real, 48, 1 25 ; souls of A., 
48, 198 ; have bodies and sense- 
organs, 48, 330;— those who have 
not arrived at the highest knowledge, 
go after death to the worlds of the 
A. covered with blind darkness, 1, 
311; heretics and sinners are 
reborn in the world of the A., the 
dark place, 19, 304 ; 45, 15, 28, 34, 
231, 246, 259, 363, '67, 430; no A. 
in a Buddha country, 49 (ii), r?, 
33 ; Asuraloka, realm of evil 
spirits, 49 (ii), 97 n. 

(b) Stories about the A. 

The A. worshipped breath as 
Abhuti or not-being, and thus they 
were defeated, 1, 21 3 ; the A. cried 
out against the injustice of killing 
animals for sacrificing, 10 (ii), 51 ; 
Manu's bull with the A.-killing 
voice, 12, 29 sq. ; Aram was an 
Asura and Rakshas, 12, 57 ; Para- 
vasu, Hotri of the A., 12, 137; 
the A. have perished, but there are 
creatures living like them still, 12, 
362 ; the A. pierced speech, breath, 
eye, ear, and mind with evils, but 
were finally conquered by the 



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ASURAS— ASVALX 



breath in the mouth (mukhy;i), 15, 
78 sq. ; Suras and A. carry Maha- 
vira's throne, 22, 198; disputes 
occurring in the assemblies of gods, 
men, and A., 22, 268 ; how the A. 
offered an animal sacrifice, 26, 
207; the Asura Nimu^i, 41, 92, 
135; see Namu^i ; the Asura 
Svarbhanu, 41, 406, 406 n. ; dig 
remedies into the ground, 42, 9, 2 1, 
268, 279, 516; the kahikanga A. 
piled up a fire-altar, to ascend to 
heaven, 42, 13, 500; the ant the 
daughter of the A., 42, 27, 268; 
A'andramas conquered the golden 
cities of the A. and Danavas, 42, 
85 ; B/-iha?pati and the seers de- 
stroy the A., 42, 1 27 sq. ; the people 
of King Asita Dhanva, 44, 368 ; the 
A., appearing in the air with hideous 
shapes, beat the people who insult 
the monk Harikeja 45, 53. 
(c) Gods and A. 

Struggle between Devas (gods) 
and A., 1, 4 sq. ; 12, 54, 59, 64, 
no sq., 113 sq., 125 sq., 144 sq., 
r 5°j '53~8, 171, 198 sq., 265 sq., 
269 sq., 279 sq., 286 sq., 297, 
310 sq., 409 n. ; 15, 78 sq. ; 19, 
262, 307 ; 26, 14, 30-2, 74 sq., 
82 n., 93, 98 sq., 105 sq., 1:5, 
13', '35, '42, 147. 175 sq., 240, 
249, 252, 279, 291, 301, 303, 433; 

41, 1, 254, 256 sq., 289, 387 sq. ; 

42, 82, 85; 43, 193, 195, 198, 200, 
2 57 _ 6i 5 44, 22, 105, 270 sq., 337, 
423, 439 ; Devas and A., trying to 
search out the Self, 1, 134-42 ; 15, 
343; practise the life of Brahrna- 
^arins for freedom from death, 8, 
151 sq., 152 n. ; Devas and A. 
approach Pra^apatl as pupils, 8, 
282 sq. ; 48, 328 ; the A. defeated 
by the gods, 10 (ii), 125; 30, 107; 

42, 71, 199, 268 ; 44, 42 sq. ; A. and 
Rakshas disturb the sacrifice of the 
gods, 12, 8 sq., 12, 34 sq., 69, 113 
sq., 125 sq., 150 sq., 297, 370-3; 

43, 192 sq. ; Kapila, an Asura, 
striving with the gods, 14, 260 sq. ; 
the Devas werethe younger, the A. 
the elder ones, 15, 78; the gods 
cast the remedies up again, which 
the A. dug into the ground, 42, 
21 sq. ; gods succeed with the 
sacrifice, A. come to nought, 43,78 ; 



not true are the legends of the fight 
between gods and Asuras, 44, 14; 
when the gods were passing up- 
wards to heaven, the A. enveloped 
them in darkness, 44, 91 sq., 95 ; — 
conquered by Indra, after he had 
obt.iined the knowledge of the 
Self, 1, 307 ; struggle between 
Indra and the A., 15, 342; 26, 
399; Indra, destroyer of the A,, 
29, 342 ; 42, 79, 83, 137, 215, 
222 sq. ; 43, 193. 

(d) Worship of A. 

Prayer to the A. on touching 
water, 12, 3 n. ; after repeating 
a text sacred to the A., one must 
touch water, 21), 3 1 ; Brahma<6arin 
given in charge to A., 30, 153 sq. ; 
Asura (Ahura) \vorsh ; p in India and 
Iran, 31, xxxii ; expiatory oblation 
to the A., in case of certain mishaps 
at the Soma-sacrifice, 44, 207. See 
also Demons, and Rakshasas, 

Asuravidya or magic, 44, 368 n. 

Asuraya«a, n. of a teacher, 15, 

j 18 n., 119, 186 n., 187, 226. 

Asuri, 11. of a teacher, his opinion 
quoted, 12, 169, 300, 339, 357, 
4 3in., 432, 448; 26, 34911., 417; 
44, 447; in a list of teachers, 15, 
119, 187, 226; Kapila and A, 15, 
^xl ; 34, 291 n. 

Asuri, allured Indra away from the 
gods, 42, 103, 268, 547; found the 
remedy for leprosy, 42, 26S sq. 

Asurik, n.p., 5, 135. 

Asurivasin, Prlmiputra A., n.p., 
15, 226. 

Asurya, or Asurya worlds, in the 
ba-upanishad, 1, ci. 

Axva, son of Samudra, a &shi, saw 
the AprVversesof the horse, 44, 302. 

Ajvaghoslia, 'The Sernnns of A.' 
in Chinese, 19, xxx, xxxv ; author 
of the Buddha-jfarita, 19, xxx- 
xxxiii, xxxvi sq. ; 49 (it, ix sq. ; 
three authors of that name, 19, 
xxxi ; a musician, 19, xxxvi ; quotes 
Manu, 25, xcvii. 

Ai'va^it, one of the first five disciples 
of Buddha, 19, 172 ; A. and Vashpa 
convert Sariputra, 19, 193 ; a dis- 
tinguished Arhat, 21, 2; n. of a 
Bhikshu, 49 (ii), 2. 

Ayvala, a priest of Ganaka Vaideha, 
questions Ya^wavalkya, 15, 121-5. 



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ASVALAYANA— A.SVAYUGA 



73 



Acvalayana, Aitareya-arawyaka and 
Sutras of, 1, xciii, xcv sq.; satiated 
at the Tarpawa, 14, 255 (A. 
Saunaka) ; 29, 123, 220; on birth 
ceremonies treated in Upanishads, 
15, 222 11.; honoured A as teacher, 
29, 14] ; works of A. and his 
teacher Saunaka, 29, 153-8. See 
^Kausalya A. 

Arralayana-Gn'hya-Sutra, notes 
on, 29, 153-8; 30, xiii sq., xxii, 
xxvii, xxxi sq., xxxvii ; translated, 
,29, 159-259. 

Ajvalayana-Sm77ti, based on the 
Grihya-sutra, 25, xxii. 

A.rvamedha, Sk., t.t,, the horse- 
sacrifice ; he who offers a horse- 
sacrifice, conquers all sin, he destroys 
the guilt of the murder of a Brfihmeaxa, 
2, 275 ; bathing with the priest at 
the end of A. frees from sin, 2, 8r, 
284; 14, 122, 127 ; truth is more 
than a thousand A., 7, 51 sq. ; A., 
the king of sacrifices, removes all 
sin, 7, 133, 135, i8r; 25, 445, 
447, 482 ; 44. 298, 396 ; meri- 
toriousness of A., 7, 171, 260; 25, 
177; 33, 285 ; 44, 129 ; King 
Okkaka, instructed by the Brah- 
ma«as, brought about assamedha, 
i.e. A., and other sacrifices, 10 (ii), 
50; speculations on the A., 15,73-7, 
122-5; where those go who have 
performed an A., 15, 127 sq. ; 
Mantras used at the A., 32, 30 ; 42, 
662, 666 ; piriplava, recitation of 
certain stories at stated intervals 
during the year occupied by the A., 
38, 305 sq., 305 n. ; 44, 361 ?q. ; 48, 
697 sq. ; an obsolete or disused 
sacrifice, 41, xxvi ; 44, 334, 334 n. ; 
a supernumerary rite, 41, 246 ; the 
A. is yonder sun, 43, 239, 404; A. 
included in the building of the fire- 
altar, 43, 298^ the sacrificial horse, 
Pragapati, the universe, 43, 401, 
401 n. ; etymology of the word A., 
43,403; Arkaand A. become death, 
43, 404 ; history and significance of 
A., 44, xv-xxxiii ; A. a Kshatriya's 
sacrifice, 44, xvii, 347 ; Varuwa, 
the deity of A., 44, xx ; offering to 
Cumbaka at the purificatory bath 
at the end of the A., 44, xxxix ; 
offered by Pragapati, 44, xlii, 289 ; 
Purushamedha performed like the 



A., 44, xlii sq., xliv ; the new and 
full moon sacrifice represented as 
an A., 44, 33-5 ; performance of 
the A., 44, 274-403 ; is the bull 
among sacrifices, 44, 276 ; all the 
gods are concerned in it, 44, 278 
sq., 336 ; the A. means royal sway, 
44, 288 sq., 303 ; worldly blessings 
(sons, rains, &c), acquired by it, 
44, 294 sq. ; Pragapati reserves the 
A. for himself, assigning the other 
sacrifices to the gods, 44, 295 ; the 
A. is the sacrificer, 44, 327 ; 
verify he who performs the A. makes 
/'ragapati complete, and he {himself) 
becomes complete ; and this, indeed, is 
the atonement for everything, the 
remedy for everything. Thereby the 
gods redeem all sin, yea, even the slay- 
ing of a Brahman they thereby redeem ; 
and he who performs the A. redeems 
all sin, he redeems the slaying of a 
Brahman, 44, 328 ; advantages to 
be gained by the A., 44, 344 sq., 
347 ; right season for it, 44, 347 sq. ; 
is everything, 44, 348-50, 354, 360, 
378, 384, 395 sq. ; the keepers of 
the horse at the A. will all become 
kings, 44, 359 sq. ; sovereign rule 
gained by the A., 44, 370; domestic 
and wild animals sacrificed at the 
A., 44, 382 sq. ; is successful when 
the horse sniffs or turns away, 44, 
384 ; in the A. all objects of desire 
are contained, 44, 387, 391 ; forms 
part of the Sarvamedha, 44, 4 1 9. 

Ajvamedha Bharata, n.p., given 
as author of a Vedic hymn, 46, 
420 sq. 

A.rvapati Kaikeya, king, knows the 
Self, and instructs five Brahmawas, 
1, S5-91 ; 34, 227 n.; 38, 276 ; 43, 
393-S ; 48, 288, 290, 677 sq., 688. 

Asvapna, or the sage Sleepless, 42, 
54,60, 571. 

A.fvasena, king of Benares, father of 
Panva, 22, 271. 

Asvastorniya, t.t., a set of oblations 
at the horse-sacrifice, 44, 33711., 
3)1 sq. 

Ajvatarajvi, see Bui/ila A. 

Ajvattha (tree), see Trees. 

Ajvatthaman, a Kaurava, 8, 38. 

Aj-vayu^-, the two, and the full moon 
of Ajvayiig-a worshipped, 29, 130. 

Arvayu^a, see Sacrifices (h). 



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ASVINS 



A^vins, the two, Ajvinau. 

{a) The A. in mythology. 
(*) Worship of ihe A. 

(a) The A. in mythology. 

The Nasatya or A., and the 
Nmmghaithy.i, 4, liii ; seen within 
Kr/'sh«a, 8, 92 ; alarmed at the 
greatness of Krishna, 8, 94 ; are the 
Adlnaryus of the gods, 12, 16, 53 J 
26, 239, 276; 43, 23-30, 33; 44, 
245; 'with the arms of the A.,' 
12, r6, 42, 53, 213; 20, 136, 141, 
167, 181, 239 ; 29, 63 ; 30, 151, 
232 ; 41, 39, 53, 201, 214 ; 43, 228 ; 
44, 253"., 449) 474? tne sacrifice- 
tortoise did not stand still for the 
A., 12, 161 ; the two A. have 
declared that fame is gained 1»y the 
procreation of sons, 14, 271 ; Dadh- 
ya«4 teaches the A. the doctrine 
called 'honey,' 15, nfisq., 119, 187; 
26,277; 44,471; Buddha mistaken 
for one of the two A., 19, 72 ; 49 
(i), 71 ; world of the A., 25, 165 ; 
the two A. at the marriage of Soma 
and Surya, 26, xiv ; 42, 95, 503 ; 
the heavenly physicians, 26, 274 sq. ; 
42, 48, 52, 85, 310, 310 n., 329, 389 ; 
48, 23; 44, 2t6 sq., 243, 243 n. ; 
legend of the A. restoring Ayavana's 
youth, 26, 274 sq. ; are heaven and 
earth, 26, 276 sq. and n. ; ' lotus- 
crowned,' 26, 277 ; performed cures 
with parched grains, 26, 315 n., 
316 n. ; the chariot of the A., 29, 
365; 30, r7o; produce the embryo 
with their golden kindling-stick=, 
30, 1 99 ; red birds of the A., 32, 26, 
321 ; called mada-^yut, 32, 134-6 ; 
by two syllables gained two-footed 
men, 41, 4on. ; are of the same 
womb, 41, 62 ; cured Indra, 41, 
131 sq. ; 44, 216 sq , 249, 252 ; help 
Indra in slaying Namuii, 41, 135; 
44, 222 sq., 232; connected with 
agriculture, 41, 329 : 42, 512 ; their 
wonderful deeds, 41, 334 ; unite 
lovers, 42, 100 sq., 312 ; bring back 
an exiled king, 42, 112; call the 
king to the throne, 42, 113; have 
measured the earth, 42, 200 ; took 
the part of Prai*apati below waist 
and above feet, 43, 28 ; became 
everything here, 43, 30; 44, 253 ; 
Pra$-apati produces creatures by 
union with the A., 43, 32 sq. ; 



Dadhya#£, fitted by the A. with 
a horse's head, 44, xlviii, 444 sq. ; 
the A. are the eyesight, 44, 217 sq. ; 
the earth relates to the A., 44, 
241, 247; the healing medicine of 
the A., 44, 253 n. ; the two A. are 
the ears, 44, 263; all the gods 
except the two A. performing a 
sacrifice, 44, 441 ; restored the head 
of the sacrifice, 44, 471, 475> 477 f 
482-4, 490; lovers of honey, 44, 
471 ; 46, 358 sq. ; Agni united with 
the two A., 46, 37-9; Agni is like 
the bright one on the path of the A., 
46, 302, 305; drive on chariots and 
horses, 46, 358. See also Nasaiyas. 
(b) Worship of the A. 
Gifts bestowed on Brahmawas in 
the month Ajvina, please the two 
A., and procure beauty, 7, 269 ; 
invoked for offspring, 15, 331 ; 29, 
43, 237; 30, 199: morning prayer 
to the A., 26, 229 sq. n.j 46, 
356-9 ; Soma libations to the two 
A,, 26, 266 n., 272-8, 312, 312 n-, 
32011., 409 sq. ; 32,408; 42,231; 
46, 44 ; worshipped at the Ajya- 
yu#a sacrifice, 29, 130, 332; in- 
voked to give intelligence to the 
new-born child, 29, 182 ; invoked 
at the Upanayana, 29, 188 ; 30, 66 ; 
invoked by the guest when accept- 
ing the Madhu parka, 29, 198; in- 
voked by the student to bestow 
insight, 29, 308; 30, 153, 159; 
prayer to the A. at the Samavartana , 
29, 313 ; sacrifice to the A. at 
ploughing, 29, 326; invoked by the 
Snataka, 30, 169 ; invoked to pro- 
tect the cows, 30, 184 ; invoked to 
protect the bride, 30, 188; asked 
to sprinkle the sacrifice with their 
whip, i.e. rain, 32, 187 sq. ; offering 
to the A. in the charioteer's house, 

41, 6[ sq. ; animal- sacrifice and 
other Sautramawi offerings for the 
A., 41, 129-37, 136 n.; 44, 213 
sq.n., 216-18, 321 n., 222, 224, 233, 
241, 243-7, 253, 261-3, 273 "•; 
invoked to establish harmony, 42, 
136 ; invoked to slay vermin infest- 
ing grain, 42, 142; invoked with 
the rest of the pantheon, 42, 160; 
hymn to the honey-lash of the A., 

42, 229 32, 587-91 ; offering to the 
A., 42, 486, 486 n. ; the milk when 



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ASV1NS— ATHARVAN DAIVA 



being milked or ladled out at the 
Ajjnihotra belongs to the A., 44, 
Si ; two goats sacrificed to them at 
the Ajvamedha, 44, 300 ; worshipped 
at the Pravargya, 44, 468, 475, 477, 
482-4 ; invoked together with Agni, 
46, 281, 316, 356-9 ; invoked to 
grant long life, 46, 360 ; invited to 
sit down on the sacrificial grass, 
46, 418. 

Atali, mother of Upali, 19, 227. 

A/ana/iya-paritta, a protecting 
/harm, 35, 213. 

Atar, or Ataro, or^Firc, Zoroastrian 
god ; worship of A. and Agni, 4, Hi ; 
struggle bctween^A. and Aad, Indra 
and Ahi, 4, lii ; A. and Yohu-mano 
protect against demons, 4, A 101, 
101 n., 230, 241 ; worship of A., the 
son of Ahura-Mazda, 4, 184, ig8 
sq. ; 23, 5, 5 n,, 7 sq., 14-16, 36, 38, 
316, 322 n., 339, 344 ; watches over 
pregnant bitches and women, 4, 184, 
184 n. ; blesses him who brings him 
dry wood, 4, 1 99 ; the day A., 5, 
95 ; has the marigold flower, 5, 104 ; 
invoked, 5, 402, 405 ; Atar, with all 
(sorts of) Atars or Fires, 23, 8, 16, 
358; a source of healing, 23. 8, 16, 
358 ; drives behind Mithra, 23, 153; 
Vohu-mano and A. h3ip Ahura 
against Angra Mainyu, 23, 198 ; A., 
the son of Ahura-Mazda, fights 
against Azi Dahaka, 23, 297 sq. ; 
blesses the man who worships 
him._ 23, 338; Ataj Nyayij, prayer 
to A., 23, 349, 357-61. See oho 

.Fire {b,g). 

Atare-danghu, n.p., 23, 207. 

Ataredata, n.p., 23, 206. 

Atare-fo'arenah., n.p., 23, 207. 

AtareXit hra, n.p., 23, 206. 

Atarepata, n.p., 23, 206. 

Atare-savah, n.p., 23, 207. 

Atarevakhaha, see Priests (e). 

Atarevanu, n.p., 23, 206. 

Atare-za//tu, n.p., 23, 207. 

Ataro, see Atar. 

Ataro-Auharmazd, a Zoroastrian 

jteacher, 5, 243, 243 n. 

Atarobondak, n.p., 5, 145. 

A*ar6-da<Y, n.p., 5, 145. 

Atarp-frobag, n.p., 5, 194, 194 n. 
See Atfir-frobag. 

Ataro-frobag Uo3ai, n. of a Zoro- 
astrian teacher, 5, 243, 243 n. 



Ataro-Mitro, n.p., 5, 194. 

Ataro-pa'/, or Atfir-paV/, son of 
Zavatfut, 5, 159 n., 304, 304 n. ; 
JJ7, 6 n. ; 47, xxxvi sq. 

Ataro pa</, or Atfiro-p[W, or Alur- 
paV, son of Miraspend, 4, 286 sq., 
286 n. ; 5, 145, 147, 148 n., 308, 
333; 24, 256, 256 11. ; 37, xxxiv, xl, 
xlii, 10, 30, 30 n. ; 47, 87, 87 n., 127, 
127 n, ; restorer of the true religion, 
5,199, r 99 n. ; underwent the ordeal 
of melted metal, 5, 376, 376 n. ; 24, 
171, '7' n. ; 47, 74 sq v ; born in 
the steel age, 37, 181 ; A. and the 
Nasks, 37, 415; his son Avarethra- 
btfii, 47, xii ; his date and work, 47, 
xxxv-xxxvii. 

Ataro-pa-r/, or Atur-pa^, son of 
HamW(HemU), 5, 148, 148 n-; 18, 
xxvii, 150 n. ; a compiler of the 
Dmka/v/, 18, 399 n. ; 24, xxvii, 
^139 n. ; 37, xxxii-xxxiv, xxxviii. 

Ataro-pa^/, son of DaV-iarakh, 5, 
.244 n- 

Atar6-pa</, n.p., 5, 194, 194 n. 

Ataro-patakan, n.p., 5, 194. 

Ataro- tar a ah, n.p., 5, 137. 

Athabbawa-veda, Pali for Athar- 
va#a-veda. See Atharva-veda. 

Atharvan, the eldest son of Brahma, 
15, 27 ; 48, 284; the sacred texts, 
revealed by A. and Ahgiras, 25, 
436, 436 n. ; was the first that 
kindled Agni, 41, 217 ; is the breath, 
41, 217; auspicious rites called A. 
rites, 42, xviii-xxiv; Santi, wife of 
A., 42, xxi 11. ; A., Angiras, and 
BhWgu, fire-priests, 42, xxiii, xxvii, 
xxx, xxxii-xxxiv, Ivii sq. ; a charm 
against wild beasts called * A.'s 
crusher of tigers ', 42, 148 ; Angiras 
and A. rule over the heavens, 42, 
225; author of a hymn, 42, 362; 
Dadhyaf/^, A son of A., 44, xlviii, see 
DadhyaW Atharvana; expiatory ob- 
lation to A. at the Soina-saciifice, 
44, 208: a woman who has mis- 
carried sacrificed to A. at the Puru- 
shamedha, 44, 415. 

Atharvawa, see Bhisha^ .A., Da- 
.dhyaw* A., and Kabandha A. 

Atharvawas, see Atharvawikas. 

Atharvawa-TJparuBhadB, sec Upani- 
shads. 

Atharvan Daiva, teacher of Da- 
dbya##, 15, 1 20, 187 ; 42, xxxiv sq. 



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ATHARVANGIRAS -ATMAN 



Atharvarigiras, Prana the true 
work of the, 15, 275 ; as a name of 
the Atharva-veda, 42, xvii-xxv ; 44, 
xv, 97; plantsatharvawa andahgirasa, 
Jioly and magic, 42, 219, 624. 

Atharva?nkas, their rite of carrying 
fire on the head before the study or 
the Veda, 15, 42 ; 38, 186, 189 sq. ; 
48, 629, 631 ; the seven libations 
(from the saurya libation up to the 
jataudana 1.) are limited to the A, 
38, 189, 190. 

Atharvans worshipped at the Tar- 
pa«a, 30, 243 ; slayers of Rakshas 
and Dasyus, 42, xxxiii, 33; the A. 
tied the amulet on, 42, 86; the 
divine A. in heaven invoked, 42, 
161. 

Atharvajiras, an Upanishad, quoted 
by Gautama and Baudhayana, 1, 
lxvii, 52 n. 

Atharva-veda, Upanjshads of the, 
1, lxvii; quoted by Apastamba, 2, 
xxvii, 119, 119 11. ; Arthajastra 
(knowledge which Sfidras and 
women possess) a supplement of 
the A., 2, xxxii, 171, 171 n. ; for its 
study a second initiation is neces- 
sary, 2, 2 11. ; mentioned after the 
other Vedas in the Vishmt-smWti, 7, 
xxxi ; deadly incantations in the A., 
7, 4 1 ; not mentioned in the Bhaga- 
vadgita, 8, 1 8 sq. ; mentioned in 
Sanatsug-atiya, 8, 145, 180; the Bhik- 
khu must not apply himself to prac- 
tising the hymns of the Athabbawa- 
veda, 10 (ii), 176; A, and the 
Aftgiras, 12, 38 n. ; 44, xxxvii 11.; 
charms of the A., the weapon of 
the Brahmawa, 25, 436, 436 n. ; 
charms against disease in the A., 
36, 109 n. ; names of the A., 42, 
xvii-xxviii, xxxi-xxxiii, xxxviii, xlvii, 
liii ; Sakhas of the A., 42, xxii sq., 
xxiii n., Ixi sq. ; the Veda of the 
Kshatriyas, 42, xxv sq., xxxvii ; 
position of the A. in Hindu litera- 
ture, 42, xxviii-lvi ; theosophic 
hymns in the A., 42, xxix, xl, Ixvi ; 
A. and Rig-veda, 42, xxx sq. ; the 
A. in the hymns of the iaunakiya- 
Sawmita, 42, xxxi-xxxiii ; A. in the 
Yagus Sawhitas and Brahma^as, 
42, xxxiii-xl ; its inferiority, 42, 
xlix ; in the view of its ritualistic- 
literature, 42, lvii-lxxi; exaltation 



of the A., 42, lviii sq. ; and Srauta 
ritual, 42, Ixx sq. ; selected hymns 
of the A. translated and explained, 
•vol. 42; Vaitana-sfltra and Gopatha- 
brahmasa of A., 44, xvi sq. ; Athar- 
vans and Ahgiras, two different 
collections of A. texts, 44, xxxii ; 
the Atharvans arc the Veda, 44, 365. 

Atheism, a crime in the fourth 
degree, 7, 137 ; penance for a., 7, 
176; to be avoided, 25, 154; a 
minor offence, 14, 5 ; 25, 444 ; is 
of the quality of Darkness, 25, 491. 

Atheists defile the company at a 
Sraddha, 2, 256; 25, 103, 103 n. ; 
become outcasts, 2, 280 ; the ordeal 
by sacred libation must not be ad- 
ministered to a., 7, 55 ; 33, 116 sq., 
116 n. ; penances for a., and for 
receiving gifts from a., 14, 114 sq. ; 
Digambaras referred to as a., 24, 
146 n. ; assertions of a. denounced, 

24, 146-50; deny revelation (Veda), 

25, 31, 31 n.; a country infested 
by a. soon perishes, 25, 256; a. 
kings, 25, 308 ; cannot be wit- 
nesses, 33, 87 ; gifts not to be 
accepted from a., 33, 220. 

Athrat, n.p., 5, 137, 137 n. 

Athravan, Parsi fire-priests. See 
Priests (e). 

Athwya, Thraetaona, son of A., 4, 

,246; 23,6i: 31,233,233 11. 

Athwyas are rich in cattle, 23, 326, 
326 n., 328. 

Athwyoza, n.p., 23, 211. 

Atidhanvan .Saunaka, n.p., 1, 17. 

Atigrahas, t.t., tight grahas (organs 
of sense) and A. (objects of sense), 
15, 125 sq. 

AtU'-Mandas, see Metres. 

Atiratra, see Sacrifice (_/). 

Atithya, Sk., t.t., ceremony of re- 
ception of guests. See Guests. 

Ativadin, Sk., t.t., one who makes 
a final supreme declaration, l,i 20 n.; 
he who understands that spirit 
(prawa) is all this becomes an a., 
1, 120 sq. ; in reality he is an a. 
who declares the Highest Being to 
be the True, 1, iai; 34, 163-7 ; 48, 

Atmabodha-TTpanishad, see Upani- 

_shads. 
Atman, Sk., t.t., the Self, meanings 

and translations of the word, 1, 



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xxviii-xxxii ; to know the A. was to 
be the A., 1, xxx ; identified with 
the Brahman and with the Sat, 1, 
xxx sq. ; Buddha's doctrine of 
Nirvawa, and the Brahmanic theory 
of the A., 22, xxxiii ; meaning 
' body,' 26, xxix ; means the internal 
organ, 38, 8 1 ; translated by ' vital 
breath/ 46, 88 ; A. or Brahman 
given as author of a Yedic verse, 
_46, 293. See Self, and Soul, 

Atmavidya, i.e. the Upakojala- 
.vidya, 1, 64 n. 

A/nara, see Para A. 

Atoms, refutation of the Vai/eshika 
tenet that the world originates from 
a. set in motion by the adrish/a, 
34, xlviii, 1 sq., 16, 289, 317 sq., 
354; 381-400; 48, 495-500; con- 
junction of a. the material cause of 
the world, 34, 46, 382, 382 n., 
387 n. ; 48, 426 ; possess the quali- 
ties of colour, (fee. j according as 
they are a. of earth, water, fire, or 
air, 34, 382, 382 n., 386, 402 ; are 
of spherical form, 34, 382, 382 n. ; 
subsist during a certain period with- 
out producing any effect, 34, 382 ; 
during the period of each pralaya 
they are isolated and motionless, 
34, 382 n. ; the form of extension 
of an effect depends on the number 
of a., not on their form of extension, 
34, 382 sq., 383 n. ; cannot be 
divided themselves, 34, 386 sq. ; 
Kawada's reasons for the perma- 
nence of a., 34, 392 sq. ; relation of 
the a. and the four elements, 34, 
393 sq. ; atomic theory not accepted 
by any authoritative persons, 34, 
394-400 ; may be decomposed by 
their passing back into the indiffer- 
enced condition of the highest 
cause, 34, 400; external things can 
neither be a. nor aggregates of a., 
34, 419; Bauddha and Gaina theories 
of aggregate of a. as the cause of 
the world refuted, 34, 403, 430 sq. ; 
48, 501, 516-20; Karman consists 
of a., 45, 194 sq. ; one of the four 
kinds of inanimate things possessing 
lurin, 45, 208, 208 n. ; being with- 
out parts they cannot be the cause 
of the world, 48, 475 ; consist of 
parts, 48, 482 ; the smallness of a., 
49 \\\), 142. 



Atonement, see Penances, and Sins. 

Atraya//, the poets of the fifth 
JUaWala of the Rig-veda, 1, 216. 

Atreya, n. of a teacher, quoted by 
Baudhayana, 14, xl n. ; in a list of 
teachers, 15, 1 18 n,, 1 19, 187 ; 
authoron medicine, 19, 1 1 ; Dakshi^a 
given to an A. who is not an offi- 
ciating priest, 26, 346, 346 n. ; 
quoted by Hira^yakfjin, 30, 200; 
worshipped at the Tarpana, 30, 
245; quoted in the Vedanta-sutras, 
JS4, xix ; 38, 320 ; 48, 707. 

Atreyas, family n,, authors of Vedic 
Jiymns, 46, 364-97, 401-24. 

Atreyi, t.t., a woman who has 
bathed after her courses, 7, 133 n. ; 

,14, 107. 

Atreyiputra, n.p., 15, 224 n., 225. 

Atri, and other sages ask Brahman 
about final emancipation, 8, 314; 
the germ miscarried by Speech 
developed into A., 12, 131 ; one of 
the seven Rishis, 15, 106; surpassed 
by Atreya as an author on medicine, 
19, 11 ; 4 ( J (i), 9, 9 n. ; qiioted in 
Manu-smWti, 25, xxvi sq., 78 ; a 
sage and Pragapati, 25, 14 ; Barhi- 
shads, manes born of A., 25, 112; 
dispels the darkness of the Asuras, 
26, 346 ; satiated at the Tarpawa, 
29, 122, 220; 30, 244; thrown into 
the fierv pit and saved by the 
Ajvins, 32, 218; restored light to 
the sun, 41, 66 n. ; the Rishi A. 
employed charms, 42, 23 sq., 319; 
the sun freed by Indra and A., 42, 
294 ; A. and the Atris, connected 
with the Kanvas, 46, 42 sq. ; Agni 
identified with the Rishi A. ? 46, 
214; his spells may loose Agni's 
bonds, 46, 366; Agni worshipped 
by A.,^46, 376, 382, 413; the to'shi 
lsha Atreya called A., 46, 383; 
Agni has freed A., 46, 399 ; author 
of Vedic hymns, 46, 421. 

Atrin, an ogre, devouring demon, 
32, 154, 158 ; 42, 37, 62, 65. 

Attada«(/aautta, t.c.,10 (ii), 177-80. 

Attainments, the three, Buddhist 
t.t. (tisso sampattiyo), viz. life as 
man, life as god, and Arhatship, 35, 
146 u.j 36, 356. 

A/Maka, n. of a Jfishi, 11, 172. 

A///;akavagga, part of the Suttani- 
pata, 10 (ii), 146-83. 



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ATTHASALINl- AOHAA'MA^Z? 



Atthaaalinl, mentions Assagutta, 30 

xviii. 
A/Ma Vimokkha, Pali t.t. Set 
Deliverance (eight stages of). 

A///;isaara, Devadatta will become 

a Pa&£eka-Kuddha under the name 

of A., 3d, 167. 

Atula, n.p., a pupil of Buddha, 10 
(i), 58, 59 11. 

Atula, n. of an author on medicine, 

j$6, 109. 

Atuma, Buddha at, 11, 77 sq. ; 17> 

^140-2. 

Atur-farnbag, son of Farukho-za</, 
first compiler of the Dinkar^, 37, 
xxxi-xxxiv, 411,411 n.; sayings of 
A. as to the Gyemara (Gemara) of 
the Jews, 47, xiii sq., 119 sq. and n. 
See AtGr-fiobag. 

Atur-frobag, son of Farukhiiza*/, 
IS, xxvii, 252, 252 n. ; quoted by 
Man/an : farukh, 24, xxvi ; Roshan, 
son of A., 24, xxvi sq. ; Dinkard of 
A., 24, 120 n., 139, 139 n., 146, 
162, 169 sq. ; = Her-Frovag, 18, 
^289 n. 

Atuid-bu^e</, 11. of a high-prkst, 
,18, 318. 

Aturo-Frobag-vmdad, name of a 
high-priest, 18, 318. 

Atu?d-mahan, n.p., 18, xxii, 3, 3 n. 

At tiro-pad, n.p., 18, 346, 357. See 
also Ataro-piW. 

Atur-pa^, ste Ataro-paV. 

Atiu--pa</iyavand, Pahlavi writer, 
quoted, 24, xxvi, 121, 138, i38sq. 11., 
162, 169. 

Atyagniab/oma, see Sacrifice (J). 

Aurtuk, or the demon Uda, and Yim, 
37, 212 sq. and n.; see aho Uda. 

Audanya, ste MuWibha Au. 

Audavahi, n. of a teacher, 15, 
1 18 n. ; worshipped at the Tarpana, 

29, 123, 220. 
Audbbari, see Khan^ika Au. 
Auddalaki, see Uddalaka Aruwi. 
Audgahamani, quoted by Gobhila, 

30, 97 sq. 

Audgrabha«a, t.t., elevatory obla- 
tions at So ma-sacrifice, 44, 289 sq. 
n., 291, 292 n. 

AWulomi, n. of a teacher, his 
opinions quoted, 34, xix, lxxxiv, 
xcix, 277 sq., 278 n., 279, 280 ; 38, 
321, 409 sq. ; 48, 392, 3^4, 708, 
760 sq. 



Auguries, see Divination, Fate, and 

Omens. 
Auhanna^, or Ormazd, thesupreme 

god of Parsi religion, Phi., the same 

as 7.d. Ahura-Mazda, 

ta) A. as the supreme God and Creator. 
(/•) A. in mythology. 
(t) A. and Zoroaster. 
{(f) A. and morality, 
(f) Worship of A. 

(a) a. as the supreme god and 
Creator. 

The creator, 5, 3-20,33 sq., 57, 
62, 63 sq., 69, 76,^00 sq., J 05 sq., 
I2I-3, 127, 155, /JO sq. r 183 sq., 
195, &C. ; 18, 3, 12, 14-20, 23 sq., 
33, Sic, 80-3, 86-04, 116 sq., 120, 

J 97 j ?-j 20 °, 20 ° u -j 22 5-> 2 ^7, 2 79» 
307 sq., 324, 386, 412; 24, 3-5, 
7 sq., 32 sq., 40, 43, 53, 59 sq., 65, 
70, 73 '?•> A ' 2 > 5 J> 92, 9$ '?■, JI 7 J ?-> 
128, 132, 133-6, 237, 2 7i, 274, 2 7 6 , 
279) 299, 323, 328 sq, 343, 345; 
37, 22, 26, 35, 102, 116, 130, 152 sq., 
165, 168, 172, 190, 217, 229-31, 
239, 248 sq., 270, 282, 289, 296, 
303 sq., 306, 31 r, 322, 334 sq., 344, 
369 sq., 438-40, 443, 445, 453 sq., 
456 sq. ; 47, 3-f, 9, J5, 21, 26, 47, 
49 sq-, 53, 70 sq., 77, 79, 119; 
complete sovereignty ol the creatures 
of A. in the future existence, 5, 
5 sq. ; life of the creatures of A., 
18,42 ; created the bird Varesha, 5, 
52; A. <rtated nothing useless what- 
ever, 5, 74 ; completes his work on 
resurrection day, 5, 126; created 
Iran, 5, 216 sq., 219,224, 229 sq.; 
the verdure which A. has given 
abundantly, 5, 339 j assisted by the 
spirit of wisdom in the creation, 
24, 98 sq.; the conclusion is this, that 
the creator is the healer and perfect 
ruler, the maintainor and noui isher, 
protecting and preserving the creatures ; 
not a producer of the disease, a causer 
of the pain, and an injikter of the 
punishment of his own cwatnres, 24, 
133, I3 8 ; compared to an orchard- 
owner, 24, 134-6; the will of the 
creator is all good, he cannot be 
the causer of evil, 24, 155-60, 166-8, 
173-202, 205-8; his sagacious 
creativeness, 37, 362; origin and 
effect produced for A., 37, 383 ; 
products the renovation, 47, 1 1 8 ; — 
is supreme in omniscience and good- 



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ness and unrivalled in splendour, 
5, 3 sq. ; his place * endless light,' 
5, 4 ; the good spirit, is independent 
of unlimited time, 5, 4; isomniscient, 
5j 5» 7, r 4, 7 6 > 1 9 6 ; 1^, 33) g o sq., 
103, 220, 225 ; 37, 22, 168 ; 47, 15 ; 
his triumph in the end, 5, 8 ; is all 
goodness, 5, 158, 305, 307; is an 
intangible spirit, 5, 372 ; sovereignty 
of the far-seeing spirit A., IS, 12; 
is not visible except through wisdom, 
18, 44 ; is a spirit amongst spirits, 
18, 64 sq., 65 n., 82 ; all-watchful 
and all-knowing, 18, 93 ; A. t the good 
create?; granting forgiveness and j hill 
of goodness, would not abandon any 
creature to the fiend, 18, 223, 223 n. ; 
heaven the seat of A., 18, 275 ; 24, 
30, 83 sq. ; wisdom of A., 24, xvi ; 
37, 240, 317, 356 sq., 363; is most 
forgiving, 24, 66 ; allots happiness 
alike among the good and the bad, 
24, 76 ; compassion of A. and the 
angels with their own creatures, 
24, 101 ; the four elements pertain- 
ing to A., 24, 129, 129 11. ; is 
sagacious and all-knowing, 24, 
157 sq. ; omniscient and omni- 
potent, good and merciful, 24, 
173 sq. ; no one should despair of 
the mercy of A., 24, 260-2 ; the 
highest abjudic.itor, 37, 178; happi- 
ness produced by A., 37, an; 
dominion given to A., 37, 307 ; 
seeing the throne of A., 37, 314; 
eternity of A., 37, 325 ; miraculous- 
ness of A., 37, 329; work of A. 
in the Gathic lore, 37, 342 sq. ; 
guardianship of A., 37, 352 sq, ; 
invoked as 'greatly wise lord,' 37, 
352 ; gratification comes from A., 
37, 359 ; expounding the spirit of 
A., 37, 359; above the archangels, 
47, 22 n. 

(6) A. IN MYTHOLOGY. 

A. sends his angels to assist 
Peshyotanu against the demons, 5, 
li, 224-30; relation between Ahar- 
man and A., 5, lxix sq. ; proposed 
peace to the evil spirit, 5, 6 ; de- 
liberates with the Fravashis as to 
the means for overcoming Aharman, 
5, 14; throws the evil spirit into 
hell, 5, 128 sq. ; was aware of 
Aharman, Aharman was not aware 
of A., 5, 155; is more predominant 



than the evil spirit, 18, 25 sq. ; 
tokens of the final victory of A. 
over Aharman, 18, 99-113; finally 
conquers Aharman, 24, 34 sq. ; why 
he did not use his omnipotence to 
repel Aharman, 24, 124-7 ? recited 
the Ahunavar to confound Aharman, 
37, 11, 11 n. ; colloquy of three 
deceitful demons with A., 37, 252-4 ; 
his opposition to the demons, 37, 
264; discriminates truly, Aharman 
does not, 37, 39 c sq. ; Aharman a 
creature of A., 37, 485 ;— the spirit 
of prosperity (Spenak-main6k) 
represented by A., 5, 3 n. ; in his 
angelic capacity, one of the seven 
Ameshaspends, 5, 10 n. ; performed 
the spiritual Yazisn ceremony with 
the archangels, 5, 14 ; ground up the 
healing fruit, binak, 5, 18; assists 
Tijtar, 5, 27 ; the fire which shoots 
up before A., 5, 61 ; the Albura of 
A., 5, 74 sq., 75 n. ; has myrtle and 
jasmine, 5, 104 ; stars and moon 
and sun and fire of A., 18, 11; 
married with his daughter Spend- 
armad, 18, 392 sq. and n., 396, 401, 
415 sq. ; 37, 273 n., 274, 365 sq. ; 
fire the son of A., 18, 371, 374, 
376 sq. ; the fire of A., 24, 96 ; 
stars assist in the distribution of 
good produced by A., 24, 127-38 ; 
sends archangels to Vijtasp, 37, 24 ; 
spiritual chieftainships through A., 
37, 167 ; resists the wish of fire to 
leave the world, 37, 188-90 ; father 
of Vohuman, 37, 273 n., 274, 333; 
four marvels produced by A. in 
yonder world, 37, 281 ; giving 
Spendarma,-/ to A., 37, 334, 341 ; 
gratified by love of Vohuman, 37, 
341 sq. ; the bodily form of A., 37, 
351 ; the progeny of A., 37, 356; 
teaches Masye how to sow corn, 47, 
xxv, 6 ; speaks to Hadish, 47, xxv, 7. 
(c) A. and Zoroaster. 

A. gives Zaratujt a prophecy 
about the future of the Iranian 
nation and religion, 5, 1 sq. ; exhibits 
the Fravashi of Zaratujt to Gomr- 
van, 5, 20 sq. , 21 n. ; created 
Zaratujt to preach carefulness, 5, 
84; conversations between A. and 
Zoroaster, 5, 121, 192-235, 310, 
3>4, 352, 372-9, 3 8 2> 385 sq. ; 18, 
25 sq-> 44j 307, 381, 4 "5-17, 419-23) 



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AtihlAKMAZI) 



431-53. 455; 24, 261, 288, 322, 
339, 33 1 , 343, 345, 349, 3 6o J 37, 
164, 193 st|., 206, 210 sq., 210 n., 
233-6, 260, 267*72, 367, 375 sq., 
379, 384-9°, 453" 6 4, 4 6 9, 474 sq. ; 
47, 54, 56, 60-2, 86, 99-105; ex- 
hibits to Zoroaster tho torments of 
hell, 5, 350 ; confers omniscience 
oil Zoroaster, 18, 92, 92 n. ; shows 
to Zaratfljt the state of the soul of 
Keresasp, 18, 371-82; 37, 198; 
revealed his religion to Zoroaster, 

24, 40, 104, 170 ; 37, 181, 261 ; 47, 
3, 14 sq. ; chants taught by A. to 
Zoroaster, 37, 23; conferences of 
Zoroaster with A., 37, 29, 31 sq.; 
47, x sq., xv, 14-16, 35, 46-50, 47 n., 
64, 123, 135, 138, 157-60, 163 ; has 
given all prosperity to Zoroaster, 
37, 68 ; produced Zoroaster with 
a goodness like his own, 37, 
iq6; appoints Zoroaster as priest, 
37, 227 ; 47, 142 sq. ; advises 
Zoroaster, 37, 229 sq. ; admonishes 
Zoroaster to maintain his religion, 
37, 230 sq.; praises Zoroaster, 37, 
267-9 J exhibits to Zoroaster the 
future existence, 37, 267; assists 
Zoroaster, 37, 291; conference of 
A. with Yim, 47, 9 ; argues with 
the archangels about the birth of 
Zaratujt, 47, 22 sq. ; sends the 
archangels to assist Zoroaster in 
converting Vijtasp, 47, 67 sq. ; 
informs Neryosang, 47, 129, 129 n.; 
Zoroaster's connexion with A. 
through Yim and Neryosang, 47, 
139; religion manifested through 
SpendarmaJ and A., 47, 134; sends 
Vohu-man6 to defeat Akomano at 
the birth of Zoroaster, 47, 142 ; 
sends archangels to protect the 
infant Zoroaster, 47, 145. 

(d) A. AND MORALITY. 

A. receives the righttous soul in 
heaven, 4, 374; 18, 63-6; 24, 21, 

25, 30 sq., 274, 299; 37, 164 sq. ; 
what is within AJs will, is good : 
what is against his will is sin, 5, 
'57 sq. ; will not leave his own 
creatures unto the evil spirit, 5, 308; 
A. and the righteous man, 5, 359 ; 
protector of the righteous man, how 
to be propitiated, 5, 372-4 ; the 
splendour of A. becomes their own 
in heaven, when men propitiate the 



archangeis, 5, 375-9 ; through next- 
of-kin marriage one will not become 
parted from the possession of A. 
and the archangels, 5, 389 ; created 
the creatures for progress, and we 
are to promote whatever is his 
wish, 18, 15 sq. ; takes account of 
the thoughts, words, and deeds of 
the creatures, 18, 33; will the 
righteous souls be able to see A.? 
18, 44 sq. ; when a righteous man 
dies, A. provides a teacher to take 
his place, 18, 50 sq. ; the good 
creatures are, as it were, defiled 
unto A., 18, 341, 341 11.; a just 
judge is like A., 24, 79 ; thai one 
wish which A., the lord, contemplates 
as regards men is this, that ' ye shall 
fully itndii-rstaml me : for every one who 
fully understands me, comes after //le- 
an J strives for my satisfaction' 24, 80 
(cf. 5, 113 n.) ; leaves no good 
creature captive in the hands of 
enemies, 24, 1 38, 206 ; forgives sins 
for the high-priest, 24, 289; dis- 
tressed, when priests or parents are 
offended, 24, 302; blesses a liberal 
man, 24, 342 ; gives to a person 
who confers a benefit upon any 
one, ten times as much, 24, 357 ; 
his helpfulness in good woiks, 37, 
20 ; lodgement of A. upon a good 
ruler, 37, 70; righteousness is the 
production of true awe of A., 37, 
233 ; is auare of all you do, 37, 
266 ; glorified by virtue, 37, 323 ; 
making A. the ruler over one's own 
person, 37, 334, 336 sq., 339 sq. ; 
all excellence for A., 37, 351 sq. ; 
he whose rule is for A., 37, 372, 
375 sq. ; the guardian of a true 
servant, 37, 374 ; he who is like 
him is he who is his own creature, 
37, 458. 
(e) Worship of A. 

All men praise A. and the arch- 
angels at the resurrection, 5, 126; 
A. and the archangels invoked and 
worshipped, 5, 191, 214 sq., 362, 
364 sq., 367; 18, 159 sq., 159 "■, 
167; 37, 232-4, 298, 303, 309 sq., 
438, 444 sq. ; meat-offering to A., 
'the supreme chief,' 5, 336, 336 n. ; 
invoked and worshipped, 5, 40 r, 
404; 18, 3, 38_4-7 I. 37, 34, 349, 
395~7, 463 ; prated in a peroration, 



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81 



18, 276 ; invoked and praised in noted by Saftkara with the term 

a benediction, 18, 279, 324, 357, asmadiyaA * ours,' 34, xx sq. 

366; 24, 3 sq., 255, 255 n. ; 37, 3; Aupasvatiputra, n. of a teacher, 

priests of A., 18, 296 sq. ; hetero- 15, 225. 

doxy a contest with A. and Zaratu-rt, Aupataavini, see Rama Au. 

18, 330 ; Keresasp prays to A. for Aupave^i, see Arima Au. 

heaven, 18, 371, 374, 376-8; wor- Aupavi Ganajruteya, descended 



ship of A. one of the best four 
things, 18, 417 ; prayer to A., 
18, 442-4 ; to remember A. as 
creator, and Aharman as destroyer, 
is good, 24, 14; gratified by Vijtasp, 
24, 65 : by wearing the sacred 
thread-girdle one is established in 
A.'s department, '24, 268 sq. ; pro- 
pitiated by prayers said before and Aurvadasp, 
after meals, 24, 284; thanksgiving AurvWaep. 



from the upper regions, 41, 2 sq. 
Aupoditeya, i. e. Tumi^a Au. 

Vaiyaghrapadya, quoted, 12, 271, 

271 n. 
Aurwavabha, n. of teachers, 15, 

186 n. 
Aurva, miraculously born from the 

thigh, 19,2; 49 (i), 6. 
n.p., 5, 140. 

Khrutasp, father of 



due to A., 24, 328 sq. ; keeps watch Dahak, 18, 228, 228 11. 

with regard to pollution by dead Aurvaita-dang, the Tilr, ruler of 

matter, 24, 353 ; sin of scorning A., 

37, 2q6 ; the priest a friend of A., 



37, 261 ; benefit of worship of A., 
37, 267; praise, obeisance, and 
ceremonial for the creator A., 37, 
274 sq. ; giving joy to A., 37, 311 ; 
priests the habitation of A., 37, 
328; daughterly reverence to A., 
37, 373 ; gratification of A., 37, 
381 ; ceremonial of A,, 37, 346 sq. ; 
47, 168; one whose spirit is con- 
nected with A., 37, 354 ; priestly 
authority of A., 37, 393 ; about 
knowing the Lord, 37, 435 ; advan- 
tage through possession of A., 37, 



the Kigs and Karaps, 47, x sq., 
xxv sq. ; Zoroaster preaches to 



hi 
but 



47, xxx; protects Zoroaster, 
refuses to be converted, 47, 



Aurvakhsh, n.p., 5, 137, 137 n. 
Aurvasara, worships Vayu and 

escapes from Husravah,23, 256 sq. ; 

killed by Husravah, 23, 304, 304 n. 
Au.rva.reya, i.e. Agastya, q. v. 
Aurvata^-nar, son of Zoroaster, 5, 

142, 142 n. 
Aurvai'-aspa, Kavi V]jtaspa,son of, 

23, 78 ; other sons of Au., 23, 205 n. 
Aushbam, n.p., 5, 139, i39n. 



394 ; comes near the reciter of the Ausb-dastar, see Mountains. 



Vastarem Nask, 37, 446; his boun- 
tiful tiess extolled by Masyd and 
Masyaoi, 47, 6. See also Ahura- 
Mazda, Dualism, and Zoroastri- 
anism. 

Auhanna^, n. of a king, father of 
Shabpur, 24, 171, 171 n. 

Auharma^-da//, n.p., Marrfao- 
farukh, his son, 24, 120. 

Au./£ath.ya, see Dirghatamas Au. 

Aukshagandhi, n. of an Apsaras, 
42, 33. 

Aupa^andbani, see Aupaganghani. 

Aupa^anghani, or Aupagandhani, 
n. of a teacher, quoted by Baudha- 



AusheV/ar, or HusheWar (Ukhshya^- 
ereta in the Avesta),son of Zaratujt, 
the future apostle, his coming, 5, lii, 
lv sq., lviii sq., 144, 355; 18, 13, 
13 n-, 170 ; 37, xxxii, 33, 33 n., 285 ; 
47, xii, 15 sq., 1 5 n., 94, 101, 105-7, 
1 56 ; his millennium, 5,lisq.n., 2 19 n., 
220, 22011., 2 28n., 230-3, 230sq.m ; 
24, [5, 15 n. ; 47,xxxi,xxxiv-xxxviii, 
107-12, 125, 127 ; when he comes, 
the river Nahvtak will flow suitable 
for horses, 5, 85, 85 n. ; his miracu- 
lous birth, 5, 231 n., 233 n. ; is 
liturgical, 18, 91, 91 n. ; a producer 
of the renovation, 37, 437. 



yana as opposed to the practice of Aushet/ar-mab, or HfisheV/ar-mah, 



132 n. ; 14, xl, 229, 
list of teachers, 15, 



Niyoga, 2 

229 n. ; 

1 19, i86n., 187. 
Aupamanyava, see PHUinajala Au. 
Aupanishadas, or Vedantins, de- 



thesameas Zd. UkhshyatZ-nemangh, 
the future apostle, 5, lii, 355 ; 18, 
13, 13 n., 170 ; 37, 34, 34 n., 285 ; 
47, 15-17, 15 n., 107, 111 sq., 
in n., 156; .millennium of the 



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AOSH£z>AR-MAH— AUSTERITY 



apostle AG., who destroys Dahak, 
5, lii, isr, 233-5; 24, 15, 15 n. ; 
47, xii sq,, xxx ; , 112-14, Ilf >, 125, 
127 ; son of Zoroaster, 5, 144, 
144 n.; 37, 285; is legal, 18, 91, 91 n. 

Ausikhshes, opponents of Zoroas- 
ter, descended from the demon of 
Wrath, 47, xiv, 143, 143 n. 

Ausindom, see Us-hindu. 

Auspicious marks, an. objects, see 
Omens. 

Auspicious rites, belong to the 
quality of passion, 8, 324 ; per- 
formed for procuring success or 
prosperity, 14, xxxin, 25, 76, 76 
sq. n., 159, 159 sq. n., 297, 299, 
306 sq., 322 sq., 329-33; 29, 226; 
performed by the interpreters of 
dreams, 22, 245 ; performed at the 
birth ceremonies of Mahavira, 22, 
255 ; teaching an. r., a disreputable 
occupation, 25, 387, 387 n. ; 33. 
223; performed on mounting a 
chariot, an elephant, &c, 29, 209- 
ii, 363-6; for averting disease, 
misfortune, evil omens, and other 
dangers, 29, 224-6, 432 sq. ; 30, 
1 2 4-9 ; for the obtainment of special 
wishes, 29, 425-8, 430-3 ; 30, xxviii 
sq., 24 sq., 114-20, 124-9, 1 75~9» 
267, 2>5 sq., 306 sq. ; performed 
before an ordeal, 33, 104 ; see also 
Ceremonies, Omens, Sacrifices, 
and Witchcraft. 

Auspicious sights, see Omens, 

Auspicious times, see Time. 

Austerity, austerities, a branch of 
the law, 1, 35 ; one of the feet of 
the B rah mi Upanishad, 1, 153 ; for 
the sake of penance, 2, 275, 277, 
283 sq. ; 14, 109, 116, 125, 129, 
311 sq., 323-8; 25, 451, 470, 
476-9 ; a means of purification, 7, 
96,97; 25, 187 sq. ; 48, 700; one 
purified by au. sanctifies a company, 

7, 254 ; practising an. in sacred 
places confers eternal bliss, 7, 256; 
enjoined for hermits and mendicants, 
7,277 sq ; 14, 259, 293 sq. ; 25, 
202-4, 20} n. ; 38, scosq. ; 48, 695 ; 
not required for devotion, 8, 69 ; 
Krishna cannot be seen by au., 8, 
98 sq. ; good and bad forms of au., 

8, 118-21 ; if not practised with 
a view to the fruit, a means of 
sanctifica'ion, 8, 122; preliminary 



to acquisition of true knowledge, 8. 
147, 258, 369 ; 15, 64, 66, 179 ; 48, 
704; immortality, or final release, 
union with Brahman, supreme bliss 
attained by an., 8, i6{-6, 164 n., 
178, 247, 247 n., 300. 339 ; 15, 301 ; 
25, 212, 501, 508 ; 45, 152 ; one of 
the twelve great observances of 
a Brahmasa, 8, 182; leads to heaven 
(not to final emancipation), 8, 184, 
184 n., 367 ; 43, 362 ; forms part of 
the conduct of the good, 8, 242, 
376 ; a preliminary of concentration 
of mind, 8, 248 ; renunciation is the 
best au., 8, 312, 369; au. is the 
truth, 8, 315 ; au. and other pious 
works end in destruction, 8, 355 ; 
the sages attained the godhead by 
au, 8, 388 ; benefits and powers 
resulting from au., 8, 388 sq. ; 25, 
477~9) 477 sq. n. ; does not purify 
a mortal who has not conquered his 
doubt, 10 (ii), 41 sq. ; Prajjapati 
practises au. for the purpose of 
creation, 12, 381 ; 41, 145, 147, 157 ; 
43, 375-80, 375 11., 403 ; prescribed 
for Bhikkhus, 13, 14 ; good conduct 
mora important than au., 14, 34 ; 
19, 260 sq. ; practising au. m ikes 
Brahma?ias worthy receptacles of 
gifts, 14, 38 sq. ; sacred learning 
and au. joined together are power- 
ful, 14, 12; ; staying constantly in 
water, 14, 136 ; practising au. frees 
from sin, 14, 176 ; at rites securing 
success, 14, 323 ; giving food, speak- 
ing the truth, and compassion on 
all living beings, better than au., 
14, 328; the highest an.: pain in 
sickness, carrying a dead person 
into the forest, placing a dead per- 
son on the fire, 15, 194 ; one should 
mortify one's flesh to give up con- 
nexion with the world, 22, 39 sq. ; 
au. the chief virtue in the Kn'ta 
age, 25, 24 ; study of the Veda is 
the highest au., 25, 60 sq. ; pre- 
scribed for Snatakas, 25, 134 ; by 
practising au. one obtains the faculty 
of remembering former births, 25, 
152 ; lost by self-complacency, 25, 
166 ; higher births obtained by au., 
25, 412 ; has the quality of good- 
ness, 25, 491 ; practised by a child- 
less wife, 33, 369 ; the path of the 
gods cannot be attained by faith 



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AUSTERITY—AVARICE 



83 



and au., unaided by knowledge, 38, 
234 ; the stage of life, in which au. 
is the chief thing, 38, 298 ; there is 
no perpetuity in au., 44, 418; a 
means for obtaining the end of 
sacrifice, 44, 441 ; enjoined for 
Gaina monks, 22, 57 sq., 68 ; on 
the religious postures of Gaina 
monks and nuns, 22, 178 sq.; the 
t wenty -two trembles (par'saha) 
which a Gaina monk must cheer- 
fully be.ir, 45, 8-15; kayotsarga 
(particular positions of the body) 
and other kinds of au., 45, 159-61, 
164, 166-8, 171, 229 sq. ; au. are 
twofold, external and internal, and 
each of them is sixfold, 45, 157, 
174-80 ; purity produced by peculi ir 
au., 45, 157, 157 n. ; of no good 
when performed for the sake of 
fame, 45, 300; practised by King 
Suddhodana, 49 (i), 24 sq. See 
Abstinence, Asceticism, Ascetics, 
and Mauna. 

Autathya, husband of Mamata, 49 
(i), 44, 4411. 

Authorities (four great), see Maha- 
padesa. 

Auttami, a Mann, 25, 19. 

Autumn, see Seasons. 

Auzav, n.p., 5, 1 37. 

Auzobo, the Tuhmaspianj son of 
Tfimasp, monarch of Iran, 5, 136, 
1 36 n. ; 37, 28, 28 n. ; 47, xxix, 1 1, 

Avabhasa, 11. of a Buddha field, 21, 
142. 

Avabhasaprabha, n. of a god, 
21, 4. 

Avablm'tha, t.t., bath at the end 
of a Soma sacrifice. See Bath. 

Avadhi, t.t., a ki id of transcendent 
knowledge, 22, 223, 268, 274, 278, 
284 ; 45, 130, i2on. 

Avahya, son of Spew'a, 23, 217. 

Avaka plants (lotuses), used at 
the building of the fire-altar, 41, 
392 sq. ; 43, 48 sq. ; mean water, 
41, 393; 43, 48 sq. ; etymology of 
A., 43, 175; burial-ground covered 
with them, 44, 436. 

Avaka^a, t.t., certain verses so 
called, 44, 469 sq., 469 n., 492. 

Ava&Wedavada, the doctrine that 
the soul is the highest self in so far 
as limited by its adjuncts, 34, kin, 
xcviii. 



Avalokitesvara, worshipped as a 
god, 19, 20711.; as a Saviour, 19, 
292 n. ; a Bodhisaltva Mahasattva, 
21, 4; the Bodhisattva A., if im- 
plored or his name pronounced, 
affords safety in all anxiety and 
protection from all dangers, 21, 
406-16 ; implored by women to 
secure the birth of beautiful off- 
spring, 21, 409 ; is capable of 
assuming any snaps whatever, 21, 
410-12, 415; pious gift to A., 21, 
412 ; hymn of adoration to A., 21, 
415-18 ; will become a Buddha by 
the side of Amitabha, 21, 417 ; the 
Buddha-son, 49 (ii), x, xxii sq., 48, 
52 ; Mahasthama and A. attend the 
Buddha Amitay us, 49 (ii), 176, 178 ; 
meditation 0:1 A., 49 (ii), 181-7, 
2 do; A. and Mahasthama preach 
,to the sinner, 49 (ii), 197. 

At'an, n.d., the water-lily is A.'s 
flower, 5, 104 ; invoked, 5, 402, 405. 

Avantaratamas, see Apantara- 
tamas. 

Avanti, n.pl., Maha Kai^ayana in, 
17, 32 ; there are but Jew Bhikkhus 
in A. and the southern country, 17, 
35 s0 ,-i 38 SQ ,-S special rules for the 
Bhikkhus in A. and the southern 

^country, 17, 33-4°- 

Avara-»/a, 'veils,' Pali t.t., 11, 
182 11. See Hindrances. 

Avaraoj-tri, n.p., 23, 208. 

Avare-gcm, son of Aoighimatast:ra, 
23, 218. 

Avarethrabah, son of RSstare- 
vaghan/, 23, 209. 

Avaretbrabr/u, surname of Zara- 
tQVt, sou of AtG/--p!W, 37, 30, 30 n. ; 
47, xii, 87 sq. and n. 

Avarice, injunction against it, 0, 
27 ; produced from passion, 8, 
108 sq. ; freedom from a., 8, 114, 
284, nz } 344 ; lust, anger, and a., 
the threefold way to hill, 8, 117, 
378 ; the self joined to a. is death, 
8, 155 ; one of twelve qualities to 
be avoided, 8, 166, 181 ; the chief 
vice, 8, 302 sq., 302 n. ; is of the 
quality of darkness, 8, 320; senses 
caused by the production of a., 8, 
335; the wheel of life rendered 
unsteady by a. and desire, 8, 357, 
35711.; the Brahmai.irin must be 
free from a., 8, 361. 



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AVARNAK-AZHI DAHAKA 



Avarnak, n.p., 5, 139. 

Avardjtar, his son Vohinem, 47, 
165. 

Avasanaa and Avasanapatis (i.e. 
Residences and Lords of Resi- 
dences), worshipped as deities, 2, 
107 n. 

Avatarasi incarnations), the highest 
person in his A. does nut consist of 
Prak/vti, 48, 24c. 

Araush, demon of drought, 24, 

1 33> 133"- 

Avdnak, to be corrected to Hinduk, 
37, xlvi sq. 

Avesh/i, t.t., 38, 266. See Sacri- 
fices (j), 

A vesta, ' Zend-A.,' 'A. and /and,' 
5, x, 327 ; Bundahb, a translation 
from an A. original? 5, xxiv; A. in 
the sense of prayers, 5, 312, 318, 
3 2 3> 371 J ' it U revealed by the A.,' 
5, 385; 'A. and Zand' known to 
the priests, 5, 385; 18, 201 sq., 
201 n., 296; whether a priest who 
knows the A., or one who knows 
the commentary, be entitled to a 
higher rank, 18, 155-9; the Zand 
teaching of the A., 18, 357 ; A. and 
Zand revealed to Zoroaster by 
Aflharmazd, 24, 346 ; 37, 258; 
decision of judges to be made from 
A. and Zand, 37, 63 ; preservation 
of A. and Zand by Darai and 
Valkhas, 37, 413, 41311. ; collection 
of A. and Zand after the destruction 
by Alexander, 37, 437, 447 ; 
Zoroaster produces A, and Zand, 
47, xxii. See also Zend-Avesta. 

Avidya, Sk., Avi^a, Pali, t.t, 
Nescience, Ignorance. See Nesci- 
ence. 

Avidyandhakaravidhvawsana - 
kara, the 35th Tathagata, 49 (ii), 6. 

Avi&ra, Pali, the same as Sk. 
Avidya. See Nescience. 

Avi/H, see Hell (a). 

Aviksh.it, Karandham.i A., a Gina 
Icing, 19, 328, 328 n. 

Avikshita, see Marutta A. 

Avrak, constellation, together with 
Tijtar, 5, 25 sq., 168. 

AvyakWta, Sk., t.t., the Unde- 
veloped, 34, cxix. See Avyakta. 

Avyakta, Sk., t.t., the Unde- 
veloped, the Unevolved. See Un- 
developed. 



Ayangha/(Ayanghas), n.p., 47, 35, 
140. 

Ayara, lords of the days in their 

Jength, worshipped, 31, _ 379. 

Ayasthuwa, see Gauaki A. 

Ayaaya Angirasa, a name of 
Breath (rnukhya pra/ia), 15, 80, 82, 
83; n. of a teacher, 15, 119, 187. 

Ayathrima, the advancer, wor- 
shipped, 31, 198, 205, 210, 216, 220, 

22-1. 335, 338, 3 6 «, 37o, 372. 

Ayavas, Yavas and, lords of 
creatures, 43, 69, 69 n., 76. 

Ayazem, son of Ra^an, ancestor of 
Zoroaster, 5, 141 ; 47, 3411., 140. 

Ayehi, sterility, a demon, 4, 234. 

'Ayeshah, wife of Mohammed, 6, 
xxix ; 9, 290 n., 307 n., m n. ; 
vindication of her character and 
denunciation of her accusers, 6, 
xcix; 9, 7-1 sq., 74 n., 78 n. 

Ayoaati, son of Pourii-dhakruti, 
23,2ii. 

Ayogava, Marutta Avikshita, the 

n A. king, 4 a 4, 397. 

Ayu, or Ayus, son of Urvaj] and 
Pururavas, 12, 389 n. ; 26, 91; 46, 
3 18, 323 sq. ; n. of Agni, 26, _ 118; 
41, 323 ; 46, 142 ; prayer to A and 
other gods, 44, 385 ; a mythical 
ancestor of mankind, 46, 1 19, 
122 sq., „3i7i 321; Agni is the 
guest of A., 46, 194; the Bhr/gus 
established Agni among the clans/if 
A., 46, 202 ; Agni, the praise of A., 
46, 34t, A 37' ; Agni the homestead 
for the A., 46, 382. See also Ayus. 

Ayupala, n. of a Buddhist teacher, 
35, xxv ; confuted by Milinda, 35, 

,30-33- 

Ayus, men who brighten and enliven 
everything, 32, 353, 355; name of 
a clan of ancient worshippers of 
Agni, 46, 45> 52> 17*1 343- 

Ayuahya rite, see Child (b). 

Ayuta, n.p., 23, 215. 

Az, or Aao, Phi., the same as Zd. 
AzT, or Azi, demon of Greed, 5, 
nosq. ; 18,95; 24, 33, 33 n., 50; 
37, 253, 253 n. ; 47, 101 ; ex- 
tinguishes the fire, 4, 198, 198 n. ; 
^defeated, 5, 128 -sq. 

Azar, father of Abraham, 6, 124, 

„ I2 4 n - 

Azata, son of Karesna, 23, 209. 
Azhi Daliaka, see Dahak. 



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Azt— BALABHADRA 



Azi, or Azi, see A/. 
A?-i Dahak, see Dahflk. 
AsiSruvar, one of the seven heinous 
pinners, 18, 217, 217 n. 
A;6, see Az. 
Azra'il, the angel of death, fi, Ixix. 



B 

Baal, Flias protested against the 

worship of, 9, 173, 
Babel, overthrow of the tower of, 

6, 253 n. 
Babhrava, s t e Vatsanapat B. 
Babhravya, a teaches*, worshipped 

at the Tarp.i«a, 29, 122, 141, 220. 
Babhru, a teacher, worshipped at 

the Tarpana, 29, 122, 141, 244. 
Babhru, the brown one, a demon of 

disease, 42, 30, 466. 
Babhrukar//a,the brown-eared one, 

a demon of disease, 42, 30, 466, 
Babylon, Azi Dahaka in Bawri or 

B., 23, 60, 60 n. 
Backbiting, freedom from the habit 
of, 8, 114, 326, 364; one of the 
delects of self-restraint, 8, 16S ; one 
of the defects of frenzy, 8, 183 ; is 
of the quality of passion, 8, 323; 
punishments in hell for K, 10 (ii), 
i2i sq. See also Abuse, Defamation, 
and Slander. 
EIW, see Wind. 

Badaraya^a, his VedSnta - sfitras 
posterior to Bliagavadgita, 8, 30-3 ; 
34, exxvi ; quoted by Hira«y;ikejin, 
30, 200 ; the author of the Vedanta- 
sutras, 34, xi ; and the chief dis- 
tinguishing doctrines of S'ankara 
and Ramaniuja, 34, lxxxvii ci ; the 
system of B. had greater affinities 
with that of the Bhagavatas and 
Ramariuja than with that of Snn- 
kara, 34, c ; quoted in the Vedanta- 
sfitras, 34, 198, 218; 38, 1S2 sq., 
285, 290, 297 sq., 318, 360, 402 sq., 
410, 4*12 sq. • 48, 326 sq,, 336, 626, 
694 ; the foremost among tho. e who 
understand the Veda, 48, 529; his 
views opposed to Gaiuiini's, 48, 686, 
689 ; his view on Brahman as the 
soul's aim, 48, 752 ; his view on the 
released soul, 48, 761, 763. Seeaho 
Vtdanta-sutras. 
Badari, quoted by Baudhayana, 14, 



xl n. ; quoted in the Vedinfa-sutras, 
34, xix, lxxxii sq., xe sq., 151 ; 38, 
121 ; 48, 293, 592, 74*, 75°, 763 ; 
thinks that the souls are led to the 
lower Brahman, 38, 389-92, 39:- 
402 ; asserts the absence of a body 
and sense-organs on the part of the 
released, 38, 411 :q. 
Badeyiputra, 11. of a teacher, 15, 
224 n. 

Badhva, n. of a teacher, 1, 259 sq. 
259 n. 

Bae3hata9tira, n.p., 23, 218. 

Ba^abo^a, a demon harassing chil- 
dren, 30, 2ir. 

Bahak, n.p., 5, 145-7, M5 "■ 

Bahak, n.p., 5, 145. 

Bahavi, a teacher, satiated at the 
Tarpana, 29, 220. 

Bahikas, 11. of a people, call Rudra 
Bhava, 12, 201. 

Bahman, see Vohfiman, 

Bahman Piimjyah, his account of 
the Nasks, 37, 418, 418 n. ; his 
Rivayat, 37, 451. 

Bahman Yaj-t, account of its con- 
tents, 5, 1-lii; and Vohuman Yajt, 
5, Hi sq. ; its age, 5, liii-lvi; MSS. 
and Pazand and Persian versions of 
it, 5, lw-lix; 47, xxiv ; B. or Zand-i 
Vohuman Yasno, translated, 5, 189- 
235 ; refers to next-of-kin marriage, 
18, 599- 

Bahrain, or Verethraghna, 4, 221 n. 
See Verethraghna, 

Bahram. fire, see Fire. 

Bahuka, n. of a grtat ascetic, 45, 
268. 

Bahuputta A'etiya at Vesali, 11, 40, 
55 

Bahva, when questioned about 
Brahman by Vashkalin, explained it 
to him by silence, 38, 157. 

Bahv;7'/ T as, i.e. the theologians of 
the Rigveda, 44, 72, 72 n. 

Bahvr/Xa-Upanishad, see Upani- 
shads (a). 

Bakht-afri/, n,p., 5, 194 ; quoted, 
5, 395- 

Bakkula, superior to Buddha in 
bod.ly health, 36, 8-12, 11 n. 

Bala (plur. balani), Sk. and Pali t.t. 
See Power. 

Balaam, alluded to, 6, 159 n. 

Balabhadra, king of Sugriva, father 
of M/vgaputra, 45, 88. 



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BALABHIc/A'A -barmAyOn 



Balabhi^xa, n. of a Tathagata, 49 
(h), 67. 

Baladevas are never born in low 
families, 22, 225 ; the mothers of 
B. wake up after seeing four auspi- 
cious dreams, 22, 246. 

Balakalo«akara-gauia, Buddha at, 
17, 308. 

Balaki, discussion on Brahman be- 
tween Gargya B. and Agatajatru, 1, 
300-7; 15, 100-5; 34, cv, 268-74; 
48, 378 80, 383 ; addressed, 44, 165. 
See also Gargya. 

Balakosh/7/a, chief of a ATaw/fda 
tribe, 45, 50 a, 

Balamukhya,theBhikshn Manthala- 
gautama seduced by her, 49 (i), 38 sq. 

Balance, the light edge of the Vedi 
a b., in which the Sacrificer is 
weighed, 44, 45. See also Ordeals. 

Balairi, or Mrigaputra, q.v. 

Balhika Pratipiya, the Kauravya 
king, 44, 269, 272. 

Balbikas, n. of a people, 42, 2, 446, 
448 sq- 

Bali, a chief of demons, 21, 6 ; 
Namu^i represents B. in the Gaina 
version of the myth of the three 
strides of Vish/m, 45, 86 n. ; a 
younger brother of Dhruva, 49 (i), 
94; Indra, B., and Nahusha, 49 (i), 
113; world of the dead, the domain 
of B., 49 (if, 197. 

Bali, St., t.t., certain offerings. See 
Sacrifices (/). 

Bali&saha, disciple of Mahagiri, 22, 
289. 

Eambhari, guardian of Soma, 26, 72. 

Bamda.Y, Mazdik son of, 5, 194, 
201. 

Ea«a, his date, 8, 28 sq. ; refers to 
the Narada-smr/'ti, 33, xviii. 

Bandhu, a Gaupayana, 46, 415. 

Banishment, see Sawgha. 

Eanners, see War. 

Barashnum, see Purification. 

Earazak, the causer of strife, 3T, 
203, 203 n. 

Barazd — Ibairaz, one of tl e im- 
mortals, 18, 258 sq. n. 

Barbarians (Mle&fr&as), a Sna'aka 
must not speak to, 2, 220; 7, 228 ; 
talking to b. defiles, 7, 95 ; after 
having bathed, one must not con- 
verse with b., 7, 205 ; the term 
'barbarian countries' explained, 7, 



255 ; country of b. to be avoided 
by the wandering Gaina mendicant, 
22, 137 sq. : Asuras speak like b., 
26, 31 sq. ; do net understand the 
language cf Arya*, 45, 241. 

Barber, legend of the old b. who 
became a Bhikkhu, 17, 140-2. 

Baremna, n.p., 23, 216. 

Bareehnivm, see Purification. 

Baresma (Bartsom, Barsom), t.t, 
burdle of sacred twigs, held by the 
Parsi priest when reciting prayers, 
4, 22 sq., 22 n., 50, 61 sq. ; 5, Ixxii, 
212, 227, 229 ; 18, 142, 142 n., 164 
sq. and n. ; 24, 103, 103 n. ; 37, 96, 
162 sq. and n. ; consecration of B. 
for sacrifices, 4, 207 ; 5, 283 sq., 
284 sq. n., 307, 33?) 33 8 ) 37° 5 the 
trees that yield up B. worshipped, 
4, 214 sq. and n. ; 23, 158; the 
sacrificer must keep his eyes on the 
B., 4, 215, 215 11. ; the plucking of 
the B. twigs, 4, 289 n. ; the pre- 
paration of the B., 4, 357 n., 359, 
361, 363, 365 ; 5, 205 ; to be kept 
free from pollution, 5, 251 ; 18, 
432 sq. ; defiled by the look of a 
menstmous woman, 5, 278 sq., 281, 
283 sq., 285 ; 24, 334, 334 "• ; 
spread in three, lixe, seven, and 
nine bundles, 31, 299, 299 n. 

Baresom, see Baresma. 

Earhis, Sk., t.t., the sacrificial grass 
(spread for the gods at Hindu sacri- 
fices), offerings made to it, 12, 147- 
50, i53t '57, 233, 235, 319) 321. 
400 n. ; offered up at the end of 
sacrifice, 12, 264; B. means off- 
spring, 12, .128, 436; sacred kuja 
grass trimmed and spread out for 
the gods, 32, 8 1 , 84 sq. ; the simplest 
form of an altar, 32, 380 ; the forest 
plants its essence, 44, 2 1 ; spread 
out at sacrifices, the gotls invited to 
sit on it, 46, 6, 8, 13, 38, 43, 153, 
19P, 109, 228 sq., 236, 257, 266, 
340, 348, 367, 414, 418; sprinkled 
with butter, 46, 8 ; they have 1 spread 
the eastward-turned saci ificial grass, 
46, 179; the divine B. invoked in 
Apri hymns, 46, 198, 377. 

Barku Varshwa, his opinion as to 
fa^t-day fcod, 12, 5 ; says that sight 
is Brahman, 15, 155. 

Barmajun, n.p., and Katayun were 
with FreVun, 5, 133. 



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barmayOn-bath, bathing 



87 



Barmajun, the ox, see Animals (i). 
Barrenness, five kinds of spiritual 

b. (p;:#ia ^eU khila), and [he means 

to be freed from them, 11, 211-5, 

228 sq., 23?. 
Barsom, see Baresma. 
Bartarush prophesies the future of 

Zoroaster, 47, xxi. 
Barzinkarus, Zoroaster confided to 

his care, 47, xxi. 
Barzu Qijamu-d-din, Dastiir, his 

account of the Nasks, 37, 433, 

433 "• 
Bashkala, teacher, worshipped at 

the Tarpawa, 29, 123. 
Baii, n. of a Daeva, 23, 49 sq., 49 n. 
Bastavafri, n.p., 23, 207, 207 n. 
Bat, see Animals [k). 
Bath, Bathing. 

(rt) Occasions for which it is enjoined. 
(/') Persons for whom it is enjoined. 

(a) Occasions for which it is 

ENJOINED. 

As a penai ce or part of a penance, 
2, 81, 85-7, 89, 277, 279 sq., 284, 
292, 295, 297 ; 7, 88 sq., 91, 93-5, 
12T, r49, 151, 157, .65, 167, 174, 
176, 181 ; 14, 30, no sq., 114, 
121 sq., 124, 127 sq., 183, 212, 218, 
223, 241, 295 sq., 312, 318 sq., 322 ; 
25, 453- 457, i66, 469, 472, 474-6, 
482 ; the student's solemn b. which 
terminates his period of student- 
ship, 2, 92 sq, 192, 216, 216 n. ; 7, 
120, 120 n ; 14, 156, 158; 29, 91 sq., 
227, 230, 312 sq., 315, 379 sq., 407 
sq. ; 30, 82 sq., 161 sq., 165 sq., 
275-7; 44, 49 sq. (like the con- 
cluding offering of a sacrifice) ; be- 
fore sacrificing, 2, 156; after the 
funeral ceremony, 2, 278 ; 14, 90 ; 
29, 243, 246 ; 44, 438; distress and 
misfortune, bad dreams and evil 
thoughts are taken from him even 
who only sprinkles himself with water : 
that is the lata. He who regularly 
takes flie prescribed bath {every morn- 
ing), does uot experience the tortures 
of Varna's hell. By the regular bath 
criminals even obtain their absolution, 
7, 208; after an eclipse of sun or 
moon, 7, 218; before eating, he 
must sprinkle his feet, hands, and 
face, 7, 2.0; merely h, in sacred 
places or Tirthas confers eternal 
bliss, 7, 256; b. in the month 



Karttika removes every sin, 7, 
265; b. in Magha and PhTdguna 
procures the advantages attending 
an eclipse of the sun or m< on, 7, 
270; he who bathes in a river and 
worships King Dharma on the 14th 
day of both halves of every month 
is purified from sin, 7, 270; purity 
of self attained by b., 8, 64 n. ; 
performed with a view of deliver- 
ance from Varuwa's power, 12, 406 
sq. and n. ; b. of a readmitted 
outcast, 14, 78 ; a rite of purifica- 
tion, 14, 17 r, 182 sq ; 25, 178 sq., 
1 8 1, 183, 187, 194; before the 
twilight devotions, 14, 246 ; ex- 
piatory rites connected with b., 14, 
2 49~5 2 ? 29, 247 ; ceremony of b., 
on entering the order of ascetics, 
14, 278; at rites securing success, 
14, 323; at the Diksha, 26, 8 sq.; 
uvabhWtha, or expiatory b. at the 
end of the Soma sacrifice, 20, 378- 
85, 422 sq. ; 41, 87, 185; 44, 96, 
121 sq. and n., 138, 211, 264-9, 
343 sq. (ajvamedha), 438; the 
avabhr/tha identified with death, 1, 
52 ; 3^, 22r ; purificatory b. (.ffiia- 
vabhr/tha) after the animal sacrifice, 
26, 215-17; suspended during 
mourning, 27, 181 ; b. before the 
Tarpawa rite, 29, 120; at the end 
of the Godana rite, 29, 186 ; before 
auspicious or magic rites, 29, 291 ; 
before the Upanayana, 30, 271 ; 
before undergoing an ordeal, 33, 
105, no, 116, 118; of the judge 
before administering an ordeal, 33, 
250. 
(b) Persons for whom it is 
enjoined. 

Rules about b. for Snatakas, 2, 
97 ; 25, 142, 149, 160 ; 29, 124, 
126; enjoined for the Brahmn^atin, 
2, 186 sq. ; 14, 42; 25, 62; a 
Sn&taka shall bathe frequently, 2, 
219; a Snataka must not bathe 
naked, 2, 225; 29,317; the student 
must plunge into the waters 
like a stick, 7, it6, 116 sq. n.; 
rules about b. for householders, 7, 
204-8 ; 14, 238 ; a hermit must 
bathe at morning, noon, and even- 
ing, 7 > 2 77 '» 8. 361 ; 14, 45, 259; 
25, 199, 202 sq. ; enjoined for the 
ascetic, H, 364 ; 14, 2' 1 sq. ; some 



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BATH. BATHING— BEGGING 



sects are for b., others for the 
omission of b., 8, 375 ; rules about 
b. for Buddhist Bhikkhus, 13, 4 4 
fe q-5 17 j 35, 39 1 20, 66-8, no; 
the pupil should attend to his 
upagghaya when he is going to the 
.g-antaghara (hot sitting bath), 13, 
157 sq.; rules about b. for Buddhist 
nuns, 20, 367-9 ; prescribed for the 
ascetic as a penance for uninten- 
tional injury to living beings, 25, 
210 ; definition of Snana or b., 29, 
375; Gaina monks should abstain 
from b., 45, 296 sq. See also Ablu- 
tions, and Purification. 

Bath-houses, a king overthrown by 
the Magi for having built, 4, lxxvii, 
lxxvii n. 

Bathing-places, holy, see Holy 
places. 

Battle, battle charms, battle songs, 
see War. 

Bauddha doctrines, see Buddhism. 

Baudhayana, relation between the 
schools of B. and Apastamba, 2, 
xvi, xix-xxiv, xxiv n. ; 25, xciii; 
wrote a commentary on the Ve- 
danta-sutras, 8, 32 ; deplorable 
state of the MSS. of the Sutras 
of B., 14, xxix-xxxv ; Srautasutra, 
GWhyasutra,and Dharmisfitra, their 
relation to one another, 14, xxx 
sq., 150 sq. n.; the GWhyasfitra of 
B. and its Parijish/as, 14, xxxii sq. ; 
his position among the teachers of 
the Taittiriya-veda, 14, xxxv- 
xxxix ; teachers on Dharma quoted 
by B., 14, xl sq., xl n. ; belongs to 
Southern India, 14, xh-xliii ; his 
date, 14, xliii; mentioned in the 
Baudhayana-Dharmasutra, 14, 160, 
160 n., 163 sq., 297, 297 n., 299, 
336 ; Kanva B. satiated at the 
Tarpana, 14, 255. See also Bodha- 
yana. 

Baudhayana-Dharmasutra, its 
relation to the Gautama-Dharma- 
sutra, 2, liii-lvii, lix sq. ; to the 
Vishnu -smWti, 7, xix sq. ; relation 
between the B. and VasishMa 
Dharmajastra, 14, xvii, xxi; belongs 
to the Black Yae/ur-veda, 14, xxix; 
interpolations in B.,14, xxxiii-xxxv; 
Vedic texts quoted in the B., 14, 
xxxix sq. ; text and translation of 
the B., 14, xliii-xlv, 141-333. 



Baudhiputra, 11. of a teacher, 15, 
224 n. 

Brtungha, son of S«ungha, 23, 218. 

Bavari, n. of a teacher, 10 (ii), xii ; 
disciples of B., 10 (ii), xii sq. ; his 
accomplishments, and the three 
marks on his limbs, 10 (ii), 189; 
the Brahma?ra B. cursed by another 
Brahmawa, is comforted by a deity, 
and shown by Buddha 'the way to 
the other shore,' 10 fii), 184-213. 

Bawri = Babylon, 23, 60, 60 n. 

Bayak, n. of a demon, 5, 132, 13211. 

Beasts, see Animals. 

Beatitude, highest. See Bliss, 
Highest good, Nirvana, ami Re- 
lease. 

Beauty, goddess of, see Lakshmi, 
and Si i. 

Beaver, see Animals (k). 

Bedr, allusions to the battle of, G, 
xxxvi sq., 47 n., 61-6, 66 n., 86n., 
165 n., 171 n. ; 9, 20 n., 62 n., 70 
n., 257 n., 274 n., 276 n. 

Bees, simile of the b. collecting 
honey, 1, 101 ; 8, 188, 309, 309 n. ; 
the b. inspired by the Lord to 
build hives, 6, 257 ; antelope, 
elephant, butterfly, b., and fish, 8, 
155 n. ; omen of b, making honey 
in the house, 29, 139. 

Begging, for him who knows breath 
as Brahman there is the secret 
vow 'Beg not,' 1, 280, 281; rules 
about h, for the Brahmaiarin, his 
duty of b., 2, 1 1-14, 190 sq. ; ",115, 
117, 120; 8, 360 ; 14, 57 sq., 151 
sq., 157; 25, 39, 63 sq. ; 29, 68, 
7 3, 191, 30S sq., 402; 30, 67, 157 ; 
33, 132; 44, 49 sq. ; part of a 
penance, 2, 89 sq., 283, 289; 14, 
124, 211, 300, 309, 327; 25, 445, 
•155) 4^7j 4 Sl j when b. is lawful, 2, 
123 sq., 203 sq. ; 14, 240; 25, 
4 2 4~7j 4 3° S( b an d n. ; rules about 
b. for the ascetic, 2, 154, 194 ; 7, 
279 ; 8,362-4; 14, 47, 260, 279- 
81, 283 ; 25, 208 sq. ; a means of 
livelihood for Brahma«as, 2, 227 ; 
14, 288 sq.; 25, i28sq. ; to subsist 
on alms is better than fasting, 14, 
46 ; rules about b. for the Snataka, 
14, 159; 25, 134; 29, 124; food 
which a student obtains by b. is 
always pure, 14, 170; 25, 192; a 
sin for one who has finished stu- 



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dentship, 14, 220; 29, 317; rules 
about b. fur Buddhist monks, 19, 
298 ; 20, 250 sq., 289-92 ; 36, 33- 
7, 286-8, 319 sq., 326, 339 sq., 
346; the hermit in the forest to 
live by alms, 25, 203 ; enjoined for 
the Dikshita, 26, 45 n. ; rites per- 
formed when going out for b., 30, 
294 sq. ; about b. and beneficence, 
37, 39. 

Behaviour, see Etiquette. 

Being, see Sat. 

Beings, three origins of b., from an 
egg, from living being, from a germ, 
1, 94; 48, 595 sq. ; penance for 
selling living b., 7, 177; the world 
and its b. {gods, Maras, Brahman, 
b. comprising gods, men, Samanas, 
and Brahma«as &c), 10 (ii), 30, 45, 
96, 142 sq. ; 11,72,187,288; 21, 
21, 64 sq., 115, 163, 363; 36, 28, 
221 ; 49 (ii), 24, 72, 102 ; classes 
of b., Sainanas, Brahma»as, devas, 
Mara, Brahman, 13, 97, 136 sq. ; 
sounds of the different b. in this 
world, 21, 338-40; list of b. in the 
world, 36, 101 sq. ; 43, 373; 49 
(ii), 60, 113, 130; the b. and the 
lord of b,, 41, 158 ; 43,73; a]1 »' vi «g 
b. freed from death by means of 
certain hymns, 43, 70 ; Praj^apati, 
the lord (the body) of living b,, 43, 
76, 350, 354 ; the Brahma^arin, at 
the initiation, is committed to all b. 
for security from injury, 44, 87; 
classes of beings (satta, \>m% bhfita, 
£iva), 45, xxvi, xxvi n., xxx, 42 sq. ; 
the six kinds of living b., viz. 
earth- bodies, water-bodies, fire- 
bodies, wind-bodies, plants, and 
animals, 45, 146, 213-18; classi- 
fication and description of all living 
b. and things without life, 45, 206- 
29 ; the six classes of living b. which 
a Gaina monk should be careful not 
to hurt, 45, 292, 302, 311, 350 sq., 
400-5, 421 ; denizens of hell, brute 
animals, gods, men, and suchlike b. 
commit sins, 45, 356; on the 
generation of the various classes of 
animate and inanimate b., through 
the efficacy of Karman, 45, 388 
98 ; six orders of b., 49 (i), 200, 
200 n.; denial of the idea of b., 49 
(ii), 117-44; tl ie k- m the five 
paths of existence, 49 (ii), 182. 



182 n. See also Bhutas, Souls, and 
Superhuman Beings. 

Bekkah = Mecca, q.v. 

Bela///?a Ka££ana, converted by 
Buddha, 17, 93-7. 

Bela/7/msisa, superior of Ananda, 
had a disease of thick scabs, 17, 48, 
226. 

Bela/Y/Hputta, sec Saw^aya BekuV/ji- 
pntta. 

Belief, perception based on b., b. on 
the attention of a tutor, 1, 122 ;' 
necessary for being convinced, 37, 
289 ; b. that the gods exist, 42, 158, 
622; B. and L T nbelief represented 
as two women, 44, 110-12; b. in 
Amitabha Buddha, 49 (ii), ix sq., 
62 sq. See also Dogma, and Faith. 

Bella and organ as musical in- 
struments, 3, 6 1 ; a network of b. 
hung round the Palace of Right- 
eousness, 11, 267 sq. ; b. with 
wooden tongues sounded for making 
announcements, 27, 260; 28, 34; 
peal of b. of Sui, 28, 37 ; a wonder- 
iul b. -stand, 40, 22 sq., 22 n. ; taxes 
collected to be employed in making 
b., 40, 3 1 sq. 

Beluva, n.pl., Buddha at, 11, 34 sq. 

Benares, a great city, 11, 99, 247 ; 
Buddha at B., 11, 146 ; 13, 90-1 16 ; 
16, 80; 17, 21, 214 ; 49 (i), 170-3 ; 
Buddha begins to turn the wheel of 
the law at B., 11, 153 sq. ; 19, 168 
-72; 21, xxix, 56, 70 ; Parjva born 
at B., 22, 271 ; Buddha goes to B. 
(Vara«asi),49 (i), 164-70; converts 
made by Buddha at B., 49 (i), 
190-2. 

Bewdva, a chief, hostile to Zoroas- 
tiianism, 31, 160, 162 sq. 

Benedictions, see Prayers. 

Benevolence in man and in nature, 
16, 356, 357 n. ; b,, righteousness, 
propriety, and understanding : four 
constituents of human nature, 27, 
10; is the heart of man, 27, 
383 n. ; b. is man, 28, 269 n., 312, 
312 n. ; cannot be a substitute for 
the Tao, 39, 346-8 ; when the 
Tao was lost, b. came, 40, 312 ; — 
b. and 'righteousness, 16, 423 sq. ; 27, 
44 ; 28, 332 sq., 344 ; are the 
instruments of a ruler, 28, 257 ; 
government based on them, 28, 
312 sq. ; people would become 



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BENEVOLENCE — BHAGA 



filial and kindly if b. and r. were 
discarded, 39, 61 sq. ; are de- 
trimental to goodness, 39, 8o sq., 
2S1-7, 293, 357 ; are mere ex- 
crescences on human nature, called 
in to distort and vex the world, 39, 
139, 26S-80, 295 sq. ; Confucius 
and Lao-gze discourse on them, 39, 
'45. 399 st l-i the place of b. and r. 
and virtue in Taoism, 39, 305 sq. ; 
40, 43 sq., 70, 95, 285 sq. ; in the 
age of perfect virtue people were 
upright without knowing that to be 
so was righteousness; loved one 
another without knowing that to do 
so was b., &c, 39, 325 ; the perfect 
man of Tao pushes back b. and r., 
39, 342 ; are no good, except for 
a short time, 39, 355 sq. ; are 
opposed to the Tao, 40, 58 sq., 
284 ; what is the greatest b,, 
righteousness, and good faith, 40, 
87; the dangers of b. and r., 40, 
108 sq. ; Confucius manifests b. and 
r., 40, 193; as regarded by the 
Superior Man, 40, 215. 

Beni 67/anm, built a mosque in 
opposition to Mohammed, 6, 1S8 sq., 
188 n. 

Bere^ya, n.d., worshipped, 31, 197, 
205, 209, 215, 220, 224, 387. 

Berezijnu, son of Ara, 23, 21 1. 

Berezva^/, n.p., 23, 218. 

Berezyauti, n.p., 23, 206. 

Betiothal, see Marriage. 

Betting, see Gambling, 

Eevaraap = Dahak, q. v. 

Bh.ad.da, became an inheritor of the 
highest heavens, 11, 26. 

Bhaddasala, officer of the Nanda 
kings, waged war against Jfanda- 
gutta, 36, 147. 

Bhaddavatika, n. of an elephant, 
17, 118. 

Bhaddiya, n. of town, 17, 22, 124-7; 
MeWaka of Bh., 17, 131-7. 

Bhaddiya, converted by Buddha, 
11, 155 n.; 13, 99; 35, 163. 

Bhaddiya, the Sakya Raija, re- 
nounces the world persuaded by 
Anuruddha, and reaches supreme 
happiness, 20, 227-33. 

Bhadra, one of the five first dis- 
ciples of Buddha, 19, 172. 

Bhadra, of the Gautama gotra, a 
Sthavira, 22, 294. 



Bhadra, of the Kajyapa gotra, a 
Sthavira, 22, 294. 

Bhadra, n. of the world in which 
Yajoclhara is to be a Buddha, 21, 
257. 

Bhadia, King Kausalika's daughter, 
insults the monk Harikdja, is com- 
pelled to marry him, but he refuses 
her, 45, 50 n., 53. 

Bhadrafcahm, n. of a Sthavha, 22, 
2S7 sq. ; the he;:d of the Gaina 
church, when the Angas were col- 
lected, 22, xliii. 

Ehadia^it, n, of a Bhifcs.hu, 49 

(il), 2. 

Bhadiaguptika Kula, of the Udu- 
va/ika Ga»a, 22, 291. 

Bhadiakali, n.d., Bali offering to, 
25, 91 ; 29, 86. 

Bhadrapala, one of the sixteen 
virtuous men, 21, 4 ; heading 500 
Bodhisattvas, 21, 360. 

Bhadraaena, ;on of A^atajatru, 
bewitched by Aran', 41, 141, 141 n. 

Bhadravar^iyas, five, the first dis- 
ciples of Buddha, 21, 2 n. 

Bhadravudha, n. of a Brahmawa, 
10 (ii), 187, 205, 210, 213. 

Bhadravudhama//avapu^^a,t.c, 
10 (ii), 205. 

Bhadraj aras, disciple of Suhastin, 
22, 291. 

Bhaclrayaska Kula, of the IVuva- 
/ika Ga»a, 22, 391. 

Bhadrika, a distinguished Arhat, 
21, 2. 

Bhadrika, n.pl., Mahavira at, 22, ^64. 

Bhadrika, a goddess, who was a 
cow in her former birth, 49 (t), 
166 sq. 

Bhadnyika, -Sakha, of the U^/uva- 
/ika Gawa, 22, 291. 

Bhaga, a Vcdic god, the speed of, 
1, 76; why he is blind, 12, 210; 
Uttare Phalguni assigned to Bh., 
12, 285 n. ; oblation to Bh. at the 
wedding, 29, 32, 283; invoked in 
the prayer at the initiation, 29, 64 ; 
gives the bride to the husband, 29, 
282 ; 30, 189; invoked for agiicul- 
tural success, 30, 1 1 3 sq. ; 42, ho ; 
Pa7tha oblation to Bh., 41, 82 ; in- 
voked in a charm against mania, 42, 
33 ; grants life, 42, 53 ; Bh. or 
Koitune, invoked by u.aidens wish- 
ing to obtain a husband, 42, 94 sq., 



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I5HAGA— BHAISHAoTARAl/ASAMUDGATA 



91 



324; connected with marriage, 42, 
95; as a love-god, 42, 101 ; BW- 
haspati and Bh. jtin (husband and 
wife?) together, 42, J 35; Vishnu 
and Bh. in a Kit of gods, 42, 160; 
Sarasvat), Anumati, and Bh. in- 
voked, 42, 173; invoked for help, 
42, 304 ; invoked in the mornii g, 
46, 38; Agni, as Bh., rules over 
wealth, 46, 187; invited to the 
sacrifice together with Agni, 46, 
281 ; Agni compared with Bh., 46, 
281 ; Agni announces man's .sins to 
Bh., 46, 325 ; the bestower or dis- 
penser of riches, 46, 401 sq. 

Bhagadugha, title, carver or tax- 
gatherer of a king, 41, 63, 63 n, 

Bhagavadgita, 1.0 histoiical data 
about it, S, r sq. ; its titles, 8, 2, 
28 ; how quoted by Sankara/fcarya, 
8, 2 ; called an Upanishad, 8, 2, 
200 ; a genuine portion of the Ma- 
habharata? 8, 2-6; is a dialogue 
between Krishna and Arjjuna. 8, 
3sq.,4C-i3i ; its style and language, 
8, 4, 1 r, 13-15; no sectarian or 
Brahn.anizing spirit in it, 8, 6 ; re- 
lation between Bh. and Upanishad?, 
8, 2, 5, 7 sq., 13, 15-]?, 23, 16 sq., 34, 
34m, 36,21c, and notestO45sq.,50- 
4, 57 sq., 61 sq., 64-8, 71, 74, 76, 
78 sq., Sosq,, 84 sq., 88-91, 93, 100, 
102-6, 108, 1 11-14, 1 1 9^ 123 sq., 
129, 146; its author, 8, 6 sq. ; an- 
terior to the systems of Sanskrit 
philo?ophy, 8, 7-13; its date and 
position in Sanskrit literature, 8, 7- 
34 ; inconsistencies in its teaching, 
8, 11-13; its versification, 8, 15 sq. ; 
its attitude towards the Veda c , 8, 
16-20, 25 ; its relation to Buddhism, 
$> 24-7, 36, and notes to 45-52, 
56, 59 sq., 62-6, 68-71, 79, 8-(, 
fe8 sq., lor, 103, 105, 108 sq., 111 
sq., 114, 118, 123; and Sankhya 
and Yoga philosophy, 8, 27 ; re- 
ferred to by Bana, 8, 28; allusions 
to it in Kal.dasa's works, 8, 29 sq. ; 
its priority to the VedSnta-sutra?, 
8> 30-3; its text, 8, 34 sq.; its 
number of stanzas, 8, 35; trans- 
lation, 8, 35-131; teaching and 
study of the Bh., 8, 129 sq.; its re- 
lation to the Sanatsu^atiya, 8, 135, 
i37i 142, 1 44-8, and notes to, igo- 
6, 158-61, 163-5, 167 sq., 170-3, 



'75-7» *79 S( h, 184-6, 188 sq., 193 
sq. ; relation between Bh. and Anu- 
gita, 8, 1 97 sq., 207- 10, 215, 218 sq., 
222, 227, 230 n. ; the teaching of 
the Bh., and the SaddharmapuWa- 
rika, 21, xxvi-xxviii, xxix n., xxxi n., 
xxxiv n., xxxvi ; the doctrine of the 
Bh. a fusion of the Brahman theory 
of the Upanishads with the belief in 
a personal highest being, 34, exxvi ; 
as an authority for Badarayana, 34, 
exxvi; quoted, 38, 421 ; 48, 773-5. 
See also Lrvaraglta. 

Bhaga^at, Svetadipa, 'the white 
island,' the abode of Bh. or Vishnu, 
7, 156 ; title of Buddha, 10 (ii), x. 

Bhagavatas, Vishnuitic sect of, 7, 
xxviii; or Pan^aratras, forerunners 
or Ramanug-as, 34, xxii sq. ; their 
view s refuted according to &inkara, 
approved of according to Ramanu^a, 
34, li sq., 439-43 ; their system 
nearer to Badarayana than tl at of 
Sankara, 34, c; their theory of the 
origin of the woild, 34, cxvii; 48, 
524-31 ; system of Bh., and Bhaga- 
vadgita, 34, exxvi; and Mahabha- 
rata, 34, exxvii ; contradictions in 
their system, 34, 442 sq. ; doctrine 
of Bh. stated, 34, 440. 

Bhagavitti, see Aula Bh. 

Bhagavr/tti, Sk., t.t., one living by 
prostitution of his wife, 33, 88 n. 

Bhagga, Buddha at, 20, 125. 

Bhagu (Pali for Bhr/gu, q.v.), n 
of a i?ishi, 11, 172. 

Bhagu, one of the first converts 
made by Buddha, 20, 228-33; 35, 
163; a Thera, 17, 238; Buddha's 
visit to him, 17, 308 sq. 

Bhaiaha^j ara^a, n. of a Bodhi- 
sattva Mahasattva, 21, 4, 213-23, 
394, 404; the Bodhisattvas Bh., 
and Mahapratibhana, with their 
retinue promise to divulge the 
Saddhai mapuWarika after Buddha's 
Nirvana, 21, 255 ; pronounces talis- 
manic words, for those who keep the 
Lotus of the True Law, 21, 370-2 ; 
is identical with Sarvasattvapriya- 
darjana in a former birth, 21, 376, 
3 S 5» 3 8 9> 39 2 ; was in a former 
birth the prince Vimalagarbha, 21, 
430. 

Bhaisha^jaia^asamudgata, n. of 
a prominent Bodhisattva, 21, 394 ; 



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BIIAKSHA— BHARATi 



was in a former birth the prince 
Vimalanetra, 21, 430. 

Bhaksha (Drink personified), ex- 
piatory oblation to Bh. at a mishap 
in the Soma-sacrificc, 44, 210. 

Bhakti or Faith, in the Bhagavad- 
gita, 8, 441 ; but see Faith; Bh. in 
the Svetajvatara-Upanishad, and 
the SaHt/ilya-sutras, 15, xxxiv. 

Bhala, the sun worshipped with the 
formula 'To Bh. svahay 30, 120. 

Bhallabeya, or Bhallaveya, his 
opinions quoted, 12, 206, 293 ; 44, 

354, 393- 
Bhallavins, the Nidana (a \edic 

work) of the, 14, 3; quoted, 14, 

147 ; a mantra of the Bh., 38, 227 

sq. 
Bhallika, a merchant, one ot the 

two first lay-disciples of Buddha, 

13, 81-4; 49 (i), 166 sq. 
Bhalukiputra, n.p M 15, 225 sq., 

226 n. 

BJiamani, a name of the Lord or 
the highest Self, 34, 125 ; 48, 
272. 

Bhanabhadra, converted by Bud- 
dha, 19, 243. 

Bha;z</a-gama, Buddha at, 11, 64-6. 

Bharadva^a, knew most, lived long- 
est, and performed the greatest 
austerities among the 76'shis, 1, 169 ; 
the Ris\i\ of the sixth Man^ala of 
the Rig-ve*.'a, 1, 216; taught by 
Indra, 1, 220 ; committed adultery, 
2, 175 n.; Bh. and other sages ask 
Brahman about final emancipation, 
8, 314 ; became equal to Brahman, 

14, 329; one of the seven /f/'shis, 

15, 106 ; the family name of former 
Buddhas, 21, 19; accepted cows 
from Bnbu, 25, 424 ; worshipped at 
the Tarpana, 29, 122, 220 ; 30, 244 ; 
author of the Agnish/oma, 41, xiv; 
author of an imprecation, 42, 89, 
295 sq. ; is the mind, 43, 7 ; Agni 
praised by the Bharadva ( ijas, 46, 50; 
son of BWhaspati by Mamata, 49 
(i), 44, 44 n.:— Bh.Dhanvantari wor- 
shipped at the Vaijvadeva sacrifice, 
29, 84 ; Bh. Barhaspatya, author of 
Vedic hymns, 32, 370, 435. 

Bharadva^a, a disciple of Buddha, 

49 (ii), 90'. 
Bharadvai,'a, dispute between Bh. 

and Vase/V/'a as to whether a man 



is a Brahmawa by birth, or by deeds, 
and their conversion by Buddha, 10 
(ii), 108-17 ; Vase/^&a and Bh., two 
young Brahmawas, go to Buddha to 
ask him about the true path to 
union with Brahman ; Buddha in- 
structs them, and they are finally 
converted, 11, 168-203; n. of a 
.fo'shi, 11, 172; n. of teachers, 15, 
118, 1 18 n., ny, 186 n., 187 ; n. of 
an eminent Arhat, 21, 2 ; Sthaviras 
of the Bh. gotra, 22, 286, 291 ; wor- 
shipped at the Tarpana, 29, 123 ; a 
tree talking to Bh., 35, 24 1 ; quoted, 

43, 352. See Aggika Bh., Garda- 
bhivibhita Bh., Kasi Bh., Pi«^ola 
Bh., Satyavaha Bh., Sukejas Bh., 
Sundarika Bh. 

Bharadvag-a, relation between the 
sch ols of Bh. and Apastamba, 2, 
xvi, xxiii sq., xxiv n. 

Bharadva^iputra, n. of a teacher, 
15, 225, 224 n. 

Bharata, Agni called the Bh., 12, 
1 33 ; 41 j 292 ; 46, 119, 123 ; killed, 
19, 83; King Bh. and the .R/'shi 
Vasish/Aa, 19, 95 ; the Maruts give 
to Bh. a strong horse, 32, 327, 3 32 ; 
seized the sacrificial horse of the 
Satvats, 44, xxx, 401 ; Bh. Dau/3- 
shanti, son of Duishanta and 5a- 
kuntalfi, performed a horse-sacrifice, 

44, 399 ; a king who became a 
Gaina monk, 45, 85, 850. 

Bharata, epithet of Agni (the god 
of the Bh. tribe), 12, 114 sq. ; 46, 
2\\ \ the throne-seat of the Bhara- 
tas, 41, 105. See also Ajvamtdha 
Bh. 

Bharata, t.w., the Bh. and the 
Mahabharata satiated at the Tar- 
pa«a, 29, 220. 

Bharatas, wide sway belongs to 
them, 44, 399 ; the grtatness of 
the Bh. not attained by men before 
them nor by those after them, 44, 
399, 401 ; the two Bh,, Devz-rravas 
and Devavata, 46, 287 sq. ; Agni 
shir.es for the Bh., 46, 391. 

Bharata-eawhita, i.e. the Maha- 
bhaiata, 48, s-8. 

Bharati, or Hotrii Bharati, a god- 
dess, 46, 154, 156; Mahi is inde- 
pendent of Bh., 46, n sq. ; invoked 
in Apr! hymns, 46, 179, 199 ; in 
concord with the Bharatis, 46, 237 ; 



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ISHARATf BHIKKHUNiS 



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offerings to Sarasvati, Ida, and Bh., 
12, 400 n. 

Bharavi, in?ntions Mann, 25, cxiii. 

Bhargas, identified with deities, ex- 
planation of Ihe word, 15, 310. 

Bhargava, and other sages ask 
Brahman about final emancipation, 
8, 314; numerous Bh., 42, xxxv; 
= Bhr/gu's son ; see Bhngu. See also 
Vaidarbhi Bh., and Somahuti Bh. 

Bharhut Thupa, the birth of 
Buddha on the bas-reliefs of, 11, 

47 n * 
Bharu^i, quoted by Ranrmug-a, 

34, xxi. 

Bharu«(/a, see Birds (b). 

Bhasa, one of the princes of moun- 
tains, 8, 346. 

Bhashika-sfttra, for the accentua- 
tion of the Satapatha-brahmafla, 34, 
25811. 

Bhashyakara, DramWa referred to 
as, 34,xxii; quoted, 48, 17, 100. See 
DramWa. 

Bhashyas, works, satiated at the 
Tarpana, 29, 220. 

Bhaskara, quoted 48, 459. 

Bhaumeyikas, see Bhavanavasins. 

Bhauvana, see Vijvakarman. 

Bhava, a name of Rudra, 12, 201 ; 
29, 256; 41, 160; a name of the 
Self, 15, 311 ; offering to Bh. at the 
SQlagava, 29, 352; 30, 221 sq. ; in- 
voked for protection of cattle, 30, 
87 ; is Parg-anya, 41, r6o ; as a ruler 
of sky and earth, 42, 157 sq. ; the 
enemies slain by the club of Bh., 
42, 118, 585; reverence to Bh.'s 
weapon, 43, 151; Bh. and Rudra 
worshipped, 43, 152 ; Bhavas(p!ur.) 
in sea and air, 43, 155; Bh., i.e. 
Siva, pleased at the birth of his son 
Karttikeya, 49 (i), 16; Bh. and 
Sarva invoked together, 42, 56, 75, 
Il 9> 1 55~9) J^i, 4°^ S( }-> 618-22; 
their arms are mottled, 42, 119, 
586 ; are lords of cattle, 42, 155-9 ; 
are the thousand-eyed slayers of 
Vntra, 42, 158 ; they punish him 
who denies the sterile cow to the 
Brahmans, 42, 175. 

Bhavanas, Gaina t.t., meditations 
conducive to purity of soul, 45, 69, 
69 n. 

Bhavanavasins, or Bhaumeyikas, 
one of the four kinds of gods, 45, 225. 



Bhavani, n.d., offering to, 29, 352. 

Bhavishya(t)-pura«a, quoted, 2, 
xxix sqq., 160; on penances, 25, 
445 n -> 44^ n -j 447 n -> 449 n -> 460 n. 

Bhaya-bherava Sutta, t,w., 11, 
168 n. 

Bheda, Sk., t.t., individual existences, 
34, xxv. 

Bheda, n.p., perished because he 
did not present the sterile cow, 42, 
179. 

Bhedabheda, t.t., relation of being 
neither absolutely different nor 
absolutely non-different, of the soul 
to Brahman, 34. xix, 277 n.; 48, 
42 sq., 134 sq., 189-93, 195, 5i8. 

Bhesha^a, or ' medicine,' a work 
of the Atharva«ikas, 44, 365 n. 

Bhikkhunis, or Buddhist nuns, 
obtained salvation, 11, 25 sq. ; a 
Bhikkhu shall not have his robe 
washed, or dyed, or beaten, or given 
him by a Bh. who is not related to 
him, 13, 20 ; nor shall he get his 
goat's wool (for his rug or mat) 
attended to by her, 13, 26 ; offences 
committed by Bhikkhus in their 
relation to the Bh., 13, 35-7, 56; 
20, 335 S Q- J a novice who has 
sexual intercourse with Bh. should 
be expelled, 13, 214 sq.; boundaries 
oftheBhikkhuni-sawghas, 13, 256 n. ; 
must not be present at the Pati- 
mokkha recitation of Bhikkhus, 13, 
295 sq.; Bhikkhus m.iy visit sick Bh. 
even in vassa, 13, 308 ; rules about 
disciplinary proceedings against Bh., 
13, 308 sq. ; 20, 324, 332 4, 358 sq., 
365 sq. ; Pavara«a should not be 
held in an assembly of Bhikkhus 
before Bh., 13, 337 ; rules about the 
robes of Bh., 17, 212 sq. n. ; 20, 
340 sq., 343 ; bathe together with 
courtesans in the river A^ir.ivati, 
17, 222 sq. ; dresses for Bh. to 
bathe in, 17, 222 sq. ; on division of 
robes between the Sawghas of 
Bhikkhus and Bh., 17, 253 sq. ; pre- 
sent at a Sawgha of Bhikkhus, 17, 
269 ; cannot raise a protest in a 
Samgha of Bhikkhus, 17, 27 1 ; their 
dependence on the Bhikkhu-saw- 
gha, 17, 318 ; 20, 322-6 ; the office 
of giving exhortation to the Bh., 17, 
338, 340, 372 ; superintend new 
buildings, 17, 359 n. ; disputes of 



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BHIKKHUNfS— BHIKKHUS 



Bh. and Bhikkhus, 20, 34; are not 
to be saluted by Bhikkhus, 20, 195, 
328 ; cannot create a schism, 20, 
266; 35, 163 ; a Bh. cannot make 
one of the requisite number to 
cause a schism, 20, 266 ; on the 
duties of Bh., 20, 320-69 ; cut off 
their hair and put on orange- 
coloured robes, 20, 321; eight chief 
rules for the conduct of Bh. to- 
wards Bhikkhus, 20, 322-5 ; receive 
exhortation from Bhikkhus, but 
cannot exhort Bhikkhus, 20, 323, 
324; rules about the Patimokkha 
ceremony for Bh., 20, 330 sq. ; 
rules abont confession for Bh., 20, 
331 sq. ; may be taught the Vinaya 
by Bhikkhus, 20, 334 ; misbehaviour 
of Bhikkhus towards Bh. punished 
by their not having to be saluted by 
the Bhikkhuni-sajwgha, 20, 335 sq. ; 
rules about the exhortation for Bh., 
20) 33 6 ~4° ; not allowed back- 
scratchers, ointments, making tattoo 
marks, and similar things, 20, 341- 
3 ; the Bhikkhuni-saw gha inherits 
from Bh., 20, 343 sq.; occupations 
forbidden to Bh., 20, 343 ; rules of 
conduct for Bh. towards Bhikkhus, 
20, 344 s q- I a Bh. carrying away a 
foetus in her bowl, 20, 345 sq. ; 
food stored up allowed to be 
handed over to the Bh. by the 
Bhikkhus, 20, 346 sq. ; rules forBh. 
in their courses, 20, 347 sq. ; rules 
about the upasampad.i ordination 
of Bh., 20, 349-35 ; appointment of 
instructors to Bh. to be ma le by 
a formal act of the Bhikkhum- 
samgha, 20, 352 ; rules for Bh. at 
meals, 20, 355 sq. ; rules tor Bh. 
about holding the Pavarani, 20, 
356-8 ; cannot perform any official 
acts towards a Bhikkhu, but a 
Bhikkhu can do so towards a Bh., 
20, 358 sq. ; vehicles allowed to 
them, 20, 359 sq. ; not allowed to 
adopt the forest life, 20, 362 sq. ; 
dwellings for Bh., 20, 363 sq. ; rules 
for Bh. with child who are uncon- 
scious of the fact of their concep- 
tion, 20, 364 sq. ; companion 
appointed for a Bh. under Minatta 
penance, 20, 365 sq. ; who have 
thrown off the robes, or joined 
a sect of Titthiyas, cannot be 



received into the Order again, 20, 
366 ; rules for Bh. about bathing, 
20, 367-9 ; will become preachers 
of the law, Bodhisattvas, and attain 
perfect enlightenment, 21, xxx, 
256-8 ; a Bodhisattva must shun 
Bh. who are fond of banter and 
chatter, 21, 265 ; Bh. in the classical 
dramas, 33, xvii ; mentioned before 
Bhikkhus, 36, 3 ; he who has out- 
raged a Bh. cannot be converted, 
36, 7811., 177 ; the first Bh., 49 (i), 
192. See also Bhikkhus (r), and 
Woman (e). 
Bhikkhus, or Buddhist mo:iks (Pali 
bhikkhu = Sk. bhikshu, a mendi- 
cant). 

(rr) Advantage* of monastic life, exalted 
position of Bh., duties towards them. 

(0) Mora! precepts for Bh. 

(<r) The Eh. as members of the Order 
(Sawgha). 

Of) Daily life of Bh (costume, food, medi- 
cine, dwelling, uten-.ils, &c.). 

(4 Buddha and the Bh. 

(«) Advantages of monastic life, 
exalted position of bh., duties 

TOW r ARDS THEM. 

The wise man should follow the 
bright state of the Bh., 10 (i), 35sq., 
2 5 n.; the I!hihslm,fiill of delight, 70/10 
is ca/m in the doctrine of Buddha will 
reach the. quiet place iXirvclna), cessa- 
tion of natural desires, ami happiness, 
die luho, even as a young Bhi/ishu, 
applies himself to the doctrine of 
Buddha, brightens tip this -world, like 
the moon when free from clouds, 10 
(i), 88 ; the true Brahmara (Arhat) 
keeps aloof both from laymen and 
from Bh., 10 (i), 92; the life of the 
Bh. praised, as compared with 
family life, 10 (ii), 6-1 1, 33-6, 65 ; 
11, 187 sq. ; gifts of food, drink, 
garments to be made to them, 10 
(ii), 66, 79, 81-4; 35, 41, 49; 
characteristics of Bh., worthy of 
offerings, 10 (ii), 82-4; are inde- 
pendent, 10 (ii), 154-6 ; the Bh. is 
a great man ; he has overcome desire 
in this world, 10 (ii), 191 sq. ; how 
to translate the word Bhikkhu, 11, 
5 n. ; a union between a Bh. and 
Brahma is possible, 11, 202 sq. ; 
Buddhist Bit. and Sannyasins the 
same, 15, Ii sq. ; invited to i'rad- 
dhas, 29, 10611.; their position in the 
classical dramas, 33, xvii ; if laymen 



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BHIKKHUS 



can attain to Nirvana, what is the 
use of becoming a Bh. ? 35, 3 1 ; 36, 
250-6 r ; possessed of the pover of 
Iddhi, 35, 126, 129 sq. ; why Bh. 
must be reverenced even by con- 
verted laymen, 35, 229-35; their 
exalted position, 35, 267 ; evil 
deeds cannot be kept secret from 
Bh., 35, 295 ; Bhikkhus who are 
free d\>m evil Karma can become 
Arhats in a moment, others have 
to trouble themselves about recita- 
tions, buildings, and gifts, 30, 92-6 ; 
worshipped by Nagas, Yakshas, men, 
and Maras, 30, 120 ; ten individuals 
worthy of becoming Bh., 30, 253; 
a worthy Bh. is like a king, 30, 
265-7 ; bow to no one, 30, 338 sq., 
339 n. ; those who feed two thou- 
sand Bh. acquire great merit, and 
become gods, 45, 415 sq. 
{b) Moral precepts for Bh. 
A Bh. who delights in earn stness 
is close upon Nirva«a, 10 (i), 10 sq. ; 
are to strive after separation from 
the world, 10 (i), 22 ; fools wish for 
precedence among the Bh., 10 (i), 
22 ; Buddha's description of a true 
Bh., 10 (ij, 39; (iii, 88; must not 
be envious, 10 (i), 62, 62 n., 85 sq. ; 
not he who only begs, but he who 
adopts the whole law, is a Bh., 10 
(i), 65; not by outward signs can 
the Bh. attain the extinction of 
desires, 10 (i), 66, 74 ; moral pre- 
cepts for the Bh., 10 (i), 85-8 ; 
(ii), 174-7, 180-3, , 9 I ; llj 187-200; 
19, 296-305 ; 30, 59; the Bh. who 
discards all passions compared to a 
snake that casts his skin, 10 (ii), 
1-3; admonished to be pure and 
live together with the pure, 10 (ii), 
46 sq. ; the right path for Bh. ex- 
plained by Buddha, 10 (ii), 60-2, 
64 sq. ; the Bh. undergoes no cen- 
sure, for he is calm and independent, 
having shaken off the dogmas of 
philosophy, 10 (ii), 148-50 ; the 
Muni, though near Nibbana, should 
not think himself the best, 10 (ii), 
157 ; should keep aloof from philo- 
sophical disputes, 10 (iii, 159, 161 
sq., 167 ; how they cross the stream 
of birth and old age, 10 (ii , 191-5 ; 
conditions under which the Bh. will 
prosper, 11, 6-11 ; should be mind- 



ful and thoughtful, 11. 28 sq. ; 
be ye lamps unto yourselves. Be ye a 
refuge to yourselves. Betake yourselves 
to no external refuge. Hold fast to the 
truth as a lamp. Holdfast as a refuge 
to the truth. Look not for 'refuge to 
any one besides yourselves. 11, 38; 
by leading a life of uprightness, by 
quietude of heart, contemplation, 
spiritual insight, and solitude, Bh. 
obtain what they desire, 11, 210-18 ; 
want of concord with the Bh.. 
spiritual barrenness, 11, 224 sq., 
229; Buddha rebukes quarrelsome 
Bh., 17, 291-306 ; an example of 
Bh living in love aid concord, 17, 
309-12; shall not commit suicide, 

35, 2 7 3-5 5 twenty-eight good quali- 
ties in the vows of Bh., 30, 251 sq. ; 
eighteen good qualities of those who 
carry out the vows of Bh., 36, 252 
sq. ; the thirteen extra vows of Bh., 

36, 268, 268 sq. n. ; are unmoved 
cither by ill-will or love, 36, 309. 

(c) The Bh. as members of the 
Order (Sav.jha). 

Rules about the reception into 
the order of Bh., 10 (ii), 94 sq. ; 
11, 109 sq.; how Bh. are to address 
each other, 11, 112 ; rules for Bh. 
in the Sawgha, -vols. 13, 17, 20; 
the!r relations to the Bhikkhnirs, 
13, 20, 26, 35-7, 56, 308, 337 ; 17, 
253 sq., 269, 271 ; 20, 34, 195. 
322-6, 328, 3J4-6, 344-7, 358 
sq. ; 36, 3 ; how they must not 
behave towards one another, 13, 33 
sq., 44, 46, 50-2; must not give 
food to ascetics of other sects, 13, 
40 sq. ; on Bh. going to the army, 
13, 43; a Bh. must not conceal a 
s-rious offence* of another Bh., 13, 
46; procedure against Bh. who 
bring false accusations against 
Buddha, 13, 47-9". instruction in 
good manners for Bh. in their inter- 
course with the laity, 13, 59-67 ; 
different forms of ordination of Bh., 
13, 73 sq. n. ; the four Interdictions 
for Bh., 13, 234-6 ; temporary ex- 
pulsion of Bh. for refusal to see or 
to atone for an offence, 13, 236-8 ; 
how to maintain peace among the 
Bh,, 13, 263-5; regulations about 
reproving a Bh. for an offence, 13, 
264 sq. ; cases of Bh. risking a 



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BHIKKHUS 



schism, 13, 2 89 sq. ; — disciplinary 
proceedings against Bh. guilty of or 
suspected of an offence, 13, 14, 
340-9, 35i sq., 354 sq. ; 17, 276-84, 
329-439, 395 "■ ; 'he Ta^g-amya- 
Kamma or Act of Rebuke, 17, 
329-42 ; the Nissaya-Kamma or 
Act of Subordination, 17, 343-6 ; 
the Pabba^aniya-Kamma or Act of 
Banishment, 17, 347-58 ; the Pari- 
s3ra>/iya-Kamma or Act of Recon- 
ciliation, 17, 359-69 ; Ukkhepaniya- 
Kammas or Acts of Suspension for 
not acknowledging, and for not 
atoning for, an offence, 17, 370-6; 
for not renouncing a sinful doctrine, 
17, 377-83 ; rules for Bh. placed on 
probation, 17, 384-93 ; thrown back 
to the commencement of probation, 
17, 393 sq.,404 sq., 406 sq., 420 sq., 
428 ;— contempt for Bh. who have 
entered the Order in their old age, 
17, 140 n. ; qualifications for Bh. to 
be appointed to an official post, 17, 
200, 201 ; 20, 25, 25 n., 203; dis- 
qualifications of Bh., 17, 248-51 ; 
lawful and unlawful restoration of 
an expelled Bh., 17, 273, 2S3 sq., 
291, 319 sq. ; expulsion of an erudite 
Bh. should be avoided for fear of 
bringing about a schism, 17, 285-9 ; 
superintend the erecting of buildings 
for the Sawgha, 17, 359, 359 n.; 20, 
189-91, 215 sq. ; different classes or 
grades of Bh., 20, 6 sq., 193 ; no 
official act is to be carried out 
against Bh. who have not confessed 
themselves guilty, 20, 22-4; de- 
scription of a Bh. qualified to be 
chosen on a jury, and entitled to 
warn another Bh. , 20, 50 sq. , 3 1 5- 1 7 ; 
proceedings against obstinate Bh., 
20, 57-61, 259 sq. ; salutation and 
apportionment of the best seat, 
water, and food shall be according 
to seniority, 20, 19 1-9, 206 sq. ; 
Bh. who are not to be saluted, 20, 
195 sq. ; the Sattarasa-vaggiya Bh. 
turned out of a Vihara by the 
AVjabbaggiya Bh., 20, 200 sq. ; rules 
ot conduct for incoming Bh., 20, 
272--80; duties of Bh. towards one 
another, 20, 272-98; rules of con- 
duct for resident Bh. towards in- 
coming Bh., 20, 280-2 ; rules of 
conduct for Bh. about to leave the 



Vihara, 20, 282-4 » ru l es of conduct 
for Bh. in their lodging-places, in 
the bath-rooms, in the privies, 20, 
294-8 ; rules about one Bh. warning 
another in respect of any sin he has 
committed, 20, 315-19; how con- 
scientiously they make general use 
of everything given to them, 20, 
383 sq. ; initiation of Bh., 29, 58 
sq. n. ; only a Bh., under no dis- 
ability, can create a schism, 35, 163 ; 
recitation of Scriptures, looking afte r 
buildings, and seeing to gifts, en- 
joined for Bh., 36, 92-6; punish- 
ments of those who, being unworthy, 
take the vows, 36, 261-4. See aha 
Ordination and Sawgha. 
(d) Daily life of Bh. (costume, 

FOOD, MEDICINE, DWELLING, UTEN- 
SILS, &c). 

Have their hair and beard cut off", 
and put on yellow robes, 10 (i), 
5 sq. and n. ; (ii), 10 ; 1 1, 1 87 sq. ; 
13, no, 115, 132 sq., 187, 209, 216; 
17,5sq., 32 ; 35, 18 sq., 30, 231 sq. ; 
36, 20 sq. ; contempt for dress im- 
pressed on Bh., 11, xliv ; costume 
of Bh., 11, 101 n. ; rules regarding 
the robes of the Bh., 13, 18-24, 
28-30, 36, 45, 54 sq., 59 sq., 151-8, 
160,162,164,254-7; 17, 35,39 sq., 
193-240,245-55,386; 20,73,90-8, 
142-6, 253 ; should wear robes 
made of rags taken from a dust- 
heap, 13, 173 ; called MuWaka or 
'shavelings' 15, xxvii ; rules for their 
foot-clothing, 17, 13-24, 31, 34 sq., 
39 ; the distribution of robes of Bh. 
at the Ka/Aina ceremony, 17, 146-70 
and n., 203 sq., 234-40, 248-55 ;— 
rules about food allowed to Bh., 13, 
37-40; 17, 67-97, 117 sq., r28 sq., 
1 30—3, 138 sq., I43~5) 220-5 5 rules 
concerning invitations to meals, 13, 
41-3, 56 sq. ; rules about begging 
and eating meals, 13, 62-5, 73-5; 
20, 135, 153 sq., 250 sq., 253 ; how 
Bh. should behave when going on 
their rounds and in the dining-halls, 
13, 1 5 1—4 ; 20, 2S9-92; are to live 
on morsels of food given in alms, 
13, 173 ; one Bh. alone is not to 
pass through a town begging, 19, 
194 n. ; rules about their alms- 
bowls, 20, 81-90; rules of conduct 
for Bh. at meals, 20, 284-9; laxer 



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rules of the Vaggian Bhikkhus about 
eating, discussed at the council of 
Vesal?, 20, 386, 397 sqq., 409-12 ; — 
decomposing urine is the medicine 
allowed to Bh., 13, 174; sick Bh, may 
be visited by other Bh. even during 
vassa, 13, 305 sq. ; on medicaments 
to be used by Bh., 17, 41-61, 
65-8, 76 sq., 78-80, 89, 97, 144 sq., 
221-5; 20, 154 ; must wait one 
upon the other in sickness, 17, 
240-5 ; proceedings for the case of 
a Bh, being insane, 20, 18-22, 57 sq. ; 
allowed to let blood, 20, 77 ; rules 
concerning sick Bh., 20, 199 sq. ; 
— the itinerant mendicant is beset 
with pain, therefore let no man be 
an itinerant mendicant, 10 (i), 72 ; 
homeless state of Bh., 11, 188; 36, 
313 ; rules about dwellings for Bh., 
13, 35, 57; 20, 157-63, 170-9, 
189-91, 208-16, 253; should dwell 
at the foot of a tree, Viharas, &c, 
being extra allowances, 13, 173 ; 
Viharas and other edifices built by 
laymen for Bh,, 13, 302-5 ; rules of 
conduct for Bh. dwelling in the 
woods, 20, 292-4 ; why should 
houses (Viharas) be built for the 
houseless Bh. ? 36, 1-4; see also 
Viharas; — utensils allowed to Bh., 
13, 24-30, 53 sq. ; 17, 20, 45, 49, 
51-9, 205 sq., 226-30; 20, 68, 
86 sq., 90-102, 117, 130-5, 137-42, 
146-8 (tooth-sticks), 155 sq., 222 ; 
are not allowed to acquire gold or 
silver, or engage in any kind of 
buying or selling, 13, 26 sq. ; 17, 
66 sq., 12S sq. ; 20, 386-92, 399, 
413; 36, 122 n. ; luxuries to be 
avoided by Bh., 13, 44 sq., 52-5; 
20, 68-71 ; the four Resources of 
religious life (begging food, rags as 
robes, dwelling at the foot of a tree, 
urine as medicine), 13, 173 sq., 234 ; 
must abstain from all sexual inter- 
course, 13, 234 sq. ; vehicles allowed 
to Bh., 17, 25-7 ; rules about mats, 
seats, &c, for Bh., 17, 27-31, 35, 
39 ; 20, 197, 386, 399, 413; rules 
for the Bh. about sleeping, 17, 226 ; 
20, 1 15-17, 163 sq., 166-9; on the 
daily life of the Bh., 20, 66-156; 
rules for Bh. about bathing, 20, 
66-8, no ; not allowed to castrate 
themselves, 20, 77 sq. ; rules about 

8.8. IND, H 



nail-cutting, hair-dressing, &c, for 
Bh., 20, 136-41. See also Vows. 
(e) Buddha and the Bh, 

Buddha exhorts the Bh. to spread 
the truths of his religion, 11, 60 sq. ; 
how they behaved at Buddha's 
death, 11, 119; the five Bh. whom 
Buddha chooses as his disciples, 11, 
146; 13, 90-102; a Deva in the 
shape of a Bh. appears before the 
Bodhisattva, 19, 49 sq. ; Bh. and 
Bodhisattvas, 21, xxxv, 12 sq. ; 
Buddha's prophecy about the 2,000 
disciples who are to become the 
future Buddhas Ratnaketurag-as, 
21, 2 ro-i 2 ; Bh. are not to worship 
Buddha, 35, 246-8 ; description of 
Bh. in the train of Buddha, 49 (ii), 
2. See also Holy persons, Novices, 
Preaching, and Sekha. 
BMkahus, see Bhikkhus. 
Bhikshu-sutra, by Parajarya, 8, 

32 sq. 
Bhima, hero of the Mahabharata, 
8, 37 sq. 
Bhima, n. of Rudra, 29, 256 ; 30, 

221 sq. 
Bkimasena, a Parikshita, who 
offered horse -sacrifice, 44, 396. 
Bhisha^ Atharvawa, a i?/'shi, 42, 

xxi, xxxv. 
Bhiahrua, his death, 8, 3 ; the oldest 
of the Kauravas, 8, 38 ; and Dro/za, 8, 
39 sq., 42, 95 sq. ; chooses the time 
of his death, 38, 380; 48, 741 sq. ; 
though outside the dramas, was yet 
well grounded in knowledge of 
Brahman, 48, 704 ; son of Gahga, 49 
(i), 95 ; killed Ugrayudha, 49 (i), 
1 1 3 sq. 
Bhiahmagar^itaavarara^'a, a. of 
numerous Tathagatas, 21, 354 sq,, 
357, 36°- 
Bhiahmasvara = Bhishmagar^ita- 
svararag-a, q.v. 
Bhoga, Rag-lmatt, daughter of the 

Bh. or Bho_g-a king, 45, 118, 118 n. 
Bhoga- nagara, n.pl., Buddha at, 11, 

66-70. 
Bhogas, a class of Kshatriyas, 45, 

71, 71 n., 339. 
Bhra^a, guardian of Soma, 26, 

72. 
Bhr/gu, chief among great sages, 8, 
89 ; Rama, a descendant of Bh., 
8, 294 ; chapter of Bh. Varuwi, 15, 



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BHAVGU— BHOTAVAT 



64-9; 34, 199; his son Br/'haspati 
more accomplished than he, 19, 10 ; 
49 (i), 8 ; the Manu-smWti the Saw- 
hita of Bh., 25, xi-xiii, xvii, xcii, 
xcv sq., cvi, cvi n., ex, 19; 33, 
xii-xiv, 2 sq. 11. , 3, 272, 274, 334; 
quoted in Manu-smriti, 25, xxvi sq., 
78 ; a sage and a Prag-apati, 25, 1 4 ; 
Somapas (manes), sons of Bh., 25, 
112; the offspring of fire, son of 
Manu, 25, 169 sq., 169 n. ; cursed 
the fire, 25, 398 n. ; sprung from 
Manu, proclaims the law, 25, 483; 
Sumati, son of Bh. , 33, xi, xiii sq. , 3 , 
3 n. ; Bh. and other sons of Brahman's 
mind were again born at the sacrifice 
of Varuwa, 38, 235 ; connected with 
the Atharva-veda, 42, xxiii, xxvi sq. 
(Bhn'gvahgirasa£) ; connected with 
the production of fire, 42, xxvii, 
xxx ; Atharvan, Ahgiras, and Bh., 
42, xxxii sq., xxxiv, lvii sq. ; oblations 
to Bh. and Ahgiras, 42, lvii ; when 
they infringed upon Bh., the Sn'n- 
g-aya Vaitahavyas perished, 42, 171, 
433 ; Bh, -Ahgiras, authors of hymns 
of the Atharva-veda, 42, 416, 444 ; 
myth of Bh., son of Varuwa, in- 
structed by his father, 44, xiv, 
108-12; Matarijvan brought Agni 
to Bh., 46, 52 ; Agni called BhW- 
gavawa or Bh.-like, 46, 74, 78 ; 
Rama, son of Bh., 49 (i), 95. 
Bhr/gu, Buddha in the hermitage of 
Bhargava, i.e. Bh.'s son, 19, 59; 
49 (i), 62, 92. 

Bhn'gu, a Purohita, converted by his 
sons, became a monk and reached 
perfection, 45, 61-9. 
Bby/gus, i.e. descendants of Bhr/gu, 
n. of an ancient family ; the light of 
the Bh. and Ahgiras is the brightest, 
12, 37 sq., 38 n. ; kindled or estab- 
lished Agni among men, 12, 350; 
46, 45, 130, 157, 202, 228. 343 ; Bh. 
or Ahgiras, attained the heavenly 
world, 26, 272 ; peculiar sacrificial 
rites of the Bh., 29, 390 sq., 416 ; 
30, 34 sq., 93 ; worshipped at the 
Tarpa«a, 30, 243; Bh., Atharvans, 
and Ahgiras, 42, 433; sacrificing 
together with the Bh., 43, 200 ; 
sacrifice offered up by the Bh., 43, 
262; Matarijvan kindled Agni for 
the Bh.,4G, 241. 
Bhr/gu-valli, i.e. the third AdhySya 



of the Taittinyaka-Upanishad, 15, 
xxviii. 

Bhruwahatya, Sk., the killing of an 
embryo, 44, 34 m. See also Abortion. 

Bhusyu Lahyayani, questions 
Ya£«avalkya, 15, 127 sq. ; 34, cv. 

Bhuman, Sk., t.t., the Infinite, 1, 
123 11. ; where one sees nothing else, 
hears nothing else, understands 
nothing else, that is the Bh., 1, 123 ; 
is bliss, 1, 123 ; 34, 163 ; is immortal, 
or immortality, 1, 123; 34, 163,168 ; 
rests in its own greatness, 1, 123 ; 
explained as the Infinite, 1, 123 sq. ; 
is all this, 1, 123 ; explained as the 
Self, 1, 124 ; 48, 678 sq. ; is Brah- 
man, 34, xxxv, 162-9 ; 48, 299- 
308; in it the ordinary activities of 
seeing, &o, are absent, 34, 168 sq. ; 
knowledge of Bh., 38, 412. 

Bhumma^ka, one of the A'£abbag- 
giya Bhikkhus, 20, 9-17, 118. 

Bhuta, female disciple of Sambhfita- 
vig-aya, 22, 289. 

Bhutadatta, female disciple of Sam- 
bbutavigaya, 22, 289. 

Bhutas, ' Beings/ or goblins, daily 
offerings to them, one of the ' five 
great sacrifices,' 2, 47 sq., 109, 
109 n., 195, 201 ; 7, 214; 14, 256 ; 
25, 87 n., S8-92, 88 n.,95, 132 ; 29, 
199, 217; 44, 95; food eaten at 
a Sraddha by persons related to the 
giver, reaches not the Manes nor 
the gods, but the Bh., 2, 143 sq. ; 
those who worship the Bh. go to the 
Bh., 8, 85 ; worship of Bh., of the 
quality of darkness, 8, 1 iS ; actions 
for gods, Pitr/s, Bh., and guests, 8, 
306 ; the bands of Bh. extol the 
emancipated saint, 8, 345 ; fjvara, 
the lord of gods, Bh., PiiiUas, &c, 
8, 354 ; are liable to destruction, 15, 
289; space the resort of Bh., 36, 
316, 316 n. ; gods, demons, Bh., 
&c, assemble to see Keji and 
Gautama, 45, 121 sq. ; injury done 
to living beings for the sake of Bh., 
45, 357. See also Beings. 

BhutaB, t.t., entities, or elements. 
See Elements. 

Bhutatman,Sk.,the elemental Self in 
the bodies, 15, 295-7, 295 n., 299 sq. 

Bhutavat, i. e. Rudra, punishes 
Pra^apati for his incest, 12, 209 n., 
284 n. 



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Bhutaviras, n. ofa family of priests, 
±\ 345 n. 

Bhuti, the goddess of welfare, wor- 
shipped, 29, 334 ; 41, 324. 
Bible (Old and New Testaments) ; 
Zend-Avesta and B., 4, lxix, Ixxii n.; 
B. and other Sacred Books of the 
East, 15, xx ; references to the 
O.T., 24, 176 n., 179 n., 180 11. ; 
criticism of the O.T., 24, 17S sq., 
200, 208-29 ; references to N.T., 
24, 189 n.; criticism of N.T., 24, 
225, 225 n., 229-43. 
Bilal, an Abyssinian slave, the first 
who called to prayer in Islam, 6, 
xxiii sq., xxxiv, lxxii. 
Bimbisara (also called Srenya or 
Seniya), king of Magadha, tries to 
tempt Buddha with wealth, 10 (ii), 
f>7 sq. ; has a large body of troops, 
10 (ii), 99 ; King Seniya B. and 
myriads of Magadha Brahmawas and 
householders converted by Buddha, 
13, 136-40; his five wishes fulfilled, 
13, 140; Buddha as his guest in 
Ra^agaha, 13, 140-3 ; presents the 
pleasure garden Ve/uvana to Buddha 
and the fraternity of Bhikkhus, 13, 
143 sq. ; his physician Givaka, 13, 
191 sq. ; 17, 179 sq. ; persuades 
Buddha not to admit persons in 
royal service into the order, 13, 
194 sq. ; issues a decree for the 
protection of the Sakyaputtiya 
Samawas, 13, 197; suggests to 
Buddha the institution of Uposatha, 
13, 239 sq. ; asks the Bhikkhus to 
postpone Vassa, 13, 301 ; King B. 
and So«a Ko/ivisa, 17, r sqq. ; 
eighty thousand overseers of town- 
ships of King B. are converted by 
Buddha, 17, 2-5 ; presents Pilinda- 
sakkbi with park-keepers, 17, 6r 
sqq. ; sends his minister to see Me«- 
*/aka, 17, 122-4 > installs Salavati as 
courtesan in Ragagaha, 17, 172; 
King B. and Pagg-ota, 17, 186 sq. n. ; 
Buddha's meeting with B., 19, xxi, 
1 13-31; 49 (i), 105-22; offers to 
divide his empire with Buddha, 19, 
1 1 7-1 9; becomes a disciple of 
Buddha, 19, 187-93 ; 49 (i), 192 sq.; 
invites the Bhikkhus to eat the 
mangoes in his park, 20, 73 sq. ; 
wants to build a residence for the 
Samgha, 20, 178 sq. ; his son A^a- 



tasattu wants to kill him, 20, 
241-3;^ 49 (ii), 161-4; related to 
Mahavira, 22, xiii-xvi ; dialogue 
between King Srewika, i.e. B., and 
a Gaina monk, 45, 100-7, 100 n. ; 
abolished the ferry-fee for ascetics, 
49 (i), 170; his consort Vaidehi, 49 
(ii), v ; B. becomes an Anagamin,49 
("K 167. 

Bindu, n. of a Vedie poet, 32, 410. 

Bindumati,the courtesan, makes the 
Ganges flow backwards, 35, 182-4. 

Birds. 

(a) B. in religious belief and worship. 
(i5) Some special, real, and mythical b. 

(a) B, IN RELIGIOUS BELIEF AND 
WORSHIP. 

B. which take away impurity, 5, 
246, 246 sq. n. ; re-birth of the 
wicked in b., 8, 109 n., 321 ; simile 
of b. abandoning their nests, 8,142 n., 
164 ; the selfs of devotees as b. fly- 
ing away happily, 8, 189, 189 11. ; 
extol the emancipated saint, 8, 345 ; 
the two b. which are unchanging 
and unintelligent (understanding 
and egoism, or the great and the 
individual self), 8, 371, 371 n. ; 
reach perfection by penance, 8, 
389 ; Solomon knows the speech of 
b., 9, 100 sq. ; origin of the hazel- 
eoek, the sparrow, and the par- 
tridge, 12, 164 sq. ; 41, 130; b. 
two-footed like men, 12, 384 ; the 
manes roam about as b., 14, 268 ; 
wise b., 23, 203 n. ; b. deities yield 
enjoyments from fear of punish- 
ment, 25, 219; worshipped at the 
Tarpawa, 29, 121, 219; evil omens 
from b., 29, 136 ; 30, 182 sq. ; 42, 
82, 124, 127, 129, 155, 157, 166 sq., 
186, 205, 474, 555; invited to lick 
the grass anointed with sacrificial 
food, 29, 391 ; 30, 37 ; how created, 
41, 148; jaundice transferred to 
yellow b., 42, 8, 263-6, 566; fire 
made of b.'s nests at magic rite, 42, 
458 ; bird-shape of the fire-altar, 
43, xxi sq., xxvi sq., 1 n., 4 11., 19- 
21, 22 n., 112 n., 114-16, 120 sq., 
1 35-7, 140, 148 sq., 168, 168 n., 177, 
179 sq., 18011., 201, 250 sq. and n., 
272,274,285-9,296,300-6,311,363, 
391, 402; 44, 434 sq.; of b. the 
body is produced first, then the 
right wing, then the tail, then the 



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left wing, 43, 136, 139 ; flesh of b. 
not to be eaten by one who has 
built a fire-altar, 43, 291?; contract 
and expand their wings and tail, 43, 
300, 301 sq. ; are the people of 
King Tarkshya, 44, 369: mythic b, 
on the Horn tree, 47, 24 sq. ; praise 
Buddha, the Law, and the Church, 
49 (ii), 9 6 s q-» J74- 
(A) Some special, real, and 

MYTHICAL B. 

The little bird which bustles with 
the sound ' ahalak ' represents the 
people, 44, 325 ; the b. Amntavdkd 
produces the Kshiprajyena, 43, 370, 
370 n. ; the holy b. Asho-%mt that 
eats nail-parings, 4, 192, 192 n. ; 5, 
71 ; 24, 275 sq., 275 n. ; the Bbd- 
runda b. with two necks and three 
legs, 22, 261 ; 45, 19 ; the holiness 
of the cock, the bird of Sraosha, 4, 
19^—200, 197 n. ; the b. Parodar.s 
or Kahrkatas (Kareto-dasu), i. e. the 
cock, that awakes the worshipper in 
the morning, 4, 197, 197 n., 199 ; 
23, 322, 322 sq. n. ; cocks and fowls 
crow, driving away wizards and 
demons, 5, 330 sq., 331 n. ; 24, 293 
sq. ; similes of the cock, 36, 280- 
283; value of the domestic cock, 
37, 163; how a fighting-cock is 
trained, 40, 20, 20 n. ; the female 
crane conceives without a male, 34, 
348 ; 38, 126; simile of the Indian 
crane, 36, 345, 345 n. ; the crow, 
the A'a/Wala among birds, 2, 266 n. ; 
simile of the crow, 36, 291 sq. ; 
dogs and black b. (crows) classed 
with women and Sudras, 44, 446 ; 
'a crow at a tirtha,' i.e. a person 
in a wrong place, 49 (ii), 94 n. ; the 
eyeball of the divine eagle, 42, 68, 
401 ; the talon-slaying eagle, king 
of birds, created from Indra's 
courage, 44, 215; courage, the 
sway of birds, secured by the two 
feathers of an eagle, 44, 221, 230; 
the falcon (jyena) is first, strongest 
among b., 8, 353 ; 26, 80; a falcon 
formed of the Gayatri, an eagle from 
the Trishfubh, 44, 173 ; the b. 
Garu&a, Garutmat, see separately ; 
the griffon b, on the tree of all seeds, 
5, 7 1, [76 ; 23, 173 n., 2 to n. ; 24, 
112, T12 n. ; the griffon b. and the 
bat different from all other b., 



5, 182; talking Haxnsas (flamingoes), 
1, 56, 62 sq. ; the miraculous power 
of Hajwsas, of going through the 
ether, 10 (i), 47 sq. and n. ; Hawzsa, 
a name of the Self, 15, 3 1 r ; flamingo 
is able to distinguish and separate 
milk and water when mixed, 38, 
149; the ha»;sa b. (the soul? the 
sun ?) does not rest at night, 42, 28, 
462 ; hawks sacrifice b., 27, 283 sq. ; 
simile of the house-pigeon, 36, 34 4 ; 
simile of the Ka&ravdkab., 36, 340 
sq. ; the gigantic b. Kamak slain by 
Keresasp, 18, 378 n., 381 ; 24, 63, 
63 n. ; mythical b. Kamros, 5, 70, 
100, 100 n. ; 23, 173 n., 210 n. ; the 
b. Karshipta brings the religion of 
Mazda into the Vara of Yama, 4, 
20; the b. Kaivipt knew how to 
speak words, 5, 70, 70 sq. n. ; the 
mythic b. Kindmros, 24, 112, ii2n.; 
simile of the owl, 36, 344 sq. ; 
simile of the Pewahikd b., 36, 30 
sq. ; fabulous gigantic b. Phong, 
39, 164 sq., 164 n., 165 n., 167 ; the 
voices of the phoenixes, as a token 
of prosperity, 3, 209, 209 n.; the 
phoenix a b. of good omen, 3, 406, 
406 n. ; the raven of Verethraghna, 
and the raven's feather, 23, 241- 
3 ; Saena or Simurgh on the tree 
of all seeds, 23, 173 n., 210 n. ; the 
swallow instrumental in the birth 
of Hsieh, 3, 307, 307 n. ; there is 
no b. wiser than the swallow, 40, 
38 sq., 39 n.; Apsaras in the shape 
of swans, 44, 70 ; the eyesight of 
the vulture, 23, 240, 267. See also 
Animals, Omens, and Parables (c). 
Birth ; conception is first b. ; when 
the child is born, that is the second 
b. ; when departing from hence he 
is born again, that is his third b., 1, 
243 sq, ; miraculous b., 3, 423 sq. 
and n. ; 19, 2 sq. ; 49 (i), 6 ; the 
rite of initiation a second b., 7, 
119, 127 ; 8, 176 ; to one that dies, 
b. is certain, 8, 45 ; Kr/'shna has 
passed through many b., 8, 58 sq. ; 
all beings are deluded at the time 
of b., 8, 76, 116; men of sinful b., 
8, 85, 255 ; b. and death are from 
God, 8, 86 ; the self the source of 
God's b., 8, 194; Kajyapa knew 
the truth about b. and death, 8, 
232 ; the soul coming to the b., 8, 



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239 ; mode of b. is fourfold, viz. 
from eggs, from germs, from per- 
spiration, and from wombs, 8, 339 ; 
the true b. should be reckoned 
from conception, 13, 229; existence 
by apparitional b. in Sukhavati, 21, 
417; what b. means when applied 
to the sprout, 34, 340; the terms 
'b. ' and * death,' if applied to the 
soul, have a metaphorical meaning, 
38, 28 sq. ; may take place without 
the ' five oblations,' i.e. not in the 
ordinary way, 38, 125 sq. ; a 
woman, a cow, or a mare brings 
forth within the space of a year, 44, 
1 2 ; man is born thrice, first from 
his parents, a second time by sacri- 
fice, a third time when his dead 
body is placed on the fire, 44, 23-5. 
See also Child, Generation, Im- 
purity, Life, I\Ian, and Transmi- 
gration. 
Bishkala, deity (?) of parturition, 
42, 99, 245. 
Bitak, n.p., 5, 134; 47, 34. 140. 
Biva«dangha, n.p., 23, 210, 210 n, 
Blessedness, see Ashi Vanguhi. 
Blessing, see Bliss, and Prayers. 
Blind, the b. ones did not damage 
Agni by looking at him (?), 4fi, 
1 73, 175. See also Parables (/). 
Blindness is the equality of dark- 
ness, 8, 320, 322. 
Bliss (Sk.ananda), when one obtains 
b., then one performs sacred duties, 
1, 122; the Infinite is b., 1, 123; 
the b. of Brahman, 15, 54-63 ; 34, 
67; 38, 201-4; various degrees of 
b. described, 15, 59-62, 171 sq. ; is 
Brahman, 15, 66 ; 34, 65, 75 ; what 
is the nature of b. ? 15, 157 ; Brah- 
man is the cause of b., 34, 67 ; 
absolute b. the result of higher 
knowledge, 34, 138 ; (Brahman as) 
the bhuman is b., 34, 163, 168; 
attaches to the state of deep sleep, 
34, 163, 164, 168; the Self consist- 
ing of b. (anandamaya) is the highest 
Self, 34, xxxiii sq., 64-77 ; 48, 209- 
37 ; constitutes the nature of the 
self, 34, 168 ; highest b,, see Highest 
Good, and Nirvana. 
Blood, how food turns into b., 8, 
252; semen and b. produced by 
Sam an a and Vyana, 8, 275 ; the b. 
of the victim at animal sacrifices is 



the share of the Rakshas, 12, 265 
sq. ; charms against the flow of b., 
42, 22, 45, 174, 234, 257, 385, 483, 
531 ; oblations of b., 44, 394. 

Blood-money, see Homicide. 

Bloodshed, see Homicide. 

Boar, see Animals {k). 

Boat, see Parables (/). 

Bodha and Pratibodha, the alert 
and the watchful divinities, 42, 54, 
60, 571. 

Bodhayana, n. of Baudhayana, given 
in MSS., 14, xliii n.; composed a 
vWtti on the Vedanta-sutras, 34. 
xxi ; 48, 3 ; quoted by Ramanutja, 
34, xxi ; author of the Kalpa-sutra, 
34, xxi. 

Bodhi, a king's son, shows hos- 
pitality to Buddha and the Bhikkhus, 

20, 125-9. 

Bodhi, Sk. and Pali, t.t., enlighten- 
ment, or highest perfect knowledge, 
see Knowledge (c). 

Bodhi tree, see Trees. 

Bodhiru/i'i, translated t he Va^- 
ra£££edika into Chinese, 49 (it), 
xiii. 

Bodhisatta (Pali), or Bodhisattva 
(Sk.), a Bodisat, ' one whose es- 
sence is enlightenment,' i.e. one 
destined to become a Buddha, a 
Buddha Elect, or a future Buddha ; 
the infant Buddha called B., 10 <ii), 

125 ; when a B. is born or dies 
there is an earthquake, 11, 46 sq. ; 
King Sudassana a B., 11, 239, 241, 
285-8; by Buddha's power the 
earth burstsopenand innumerable B. 
arise from within the clefts, who pay 
homage to Buddha, whose disciples 
they all have been, 21, xxx, 281-97, 
442 ; different meanings of the 
term B., 21, xxxiv-xxxvii ; epithets 
of B., 21, 3 ; list of names of B., 

21, 3 sq. ; become visible in the 
Buddha-fields, 21, 7 sq., 66 sq.; 49 
(ii), 17 sq.; grand feats of charita- 
bleness, and a great variety of good 
actions performed by B., 21, 1 1-15 ; 
the six perfections and perfect en- 
lightenment preached to them, 21, 
r8; will in future be Buddhas, 21, 
Co ; the vehicle of the B., 21, 78- 
80, 88 sq. ; compared to trees, 21, 

126 sq.; compared to great X/shis 
with transcendent faculties, 21, 134 ; 



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BODHISATTA-BODY 



moving on aerial cars, 21, 199 ; 
rules of conduct for B. who are 
to preach the law, 21, 262-73 ; 
rewards of the B. who arc wise 
preachers of the law, 21, 274.-80; 
the different grades of B„ 21, 311 
sq., 314 sq. ; hospitality towards 
Pratyekabuddhas and B., 21, 3 iS, 
318 n. ; the term B. used in the 
sense of religious preachers, 21, 
33 8 > 33 s n -i 34°~5 I '1 their body is 
pure and clear, and the world with 
all beings is mirrored in it, 21, 
349 sqq. ; Buddha deposits and en- 
trusts his perfect enlightenment 
into the hands of the B,, 21, 440 
sq, ; the B. Vessantara, 35, 178; 
38, 114-32 ; for each B. everything 
is settled beforehand when and 
where he is to be born and to 
become enlightened, 35, 270-2 ; 
the B. as a god in Tusita heaven, 
35, 271, 292 ; 49 (i), 4; how Deva- 
datta, in former births, could be 
equal or superior to the B., 35, 283 
—9 3, 293 n. ; the B. always meets 
with certain persons, such as Deva- 
datta or Sariputta, in different 
births, 35, 291 sq. ; the conduct 
of the B. Lomasa Kassapa de- 
fended, 36, 16-19; the B. as an 
elephant, and as the Brahman 
Gotipala, SB, 20 2 ; teachers of the 
B., 36, 4 3-6 ; ten qualities of B., 36, 
it6; differences between B., 36, 
132 sq. and 11.; why did the B. 
Gotama undergo penance? 36, 132- 
44; the B. Gotama becomes dis- 
gusted with the world, seeing the 
women in his harem, 36, 135 sq., 
135 n. ; all B. pursue sexual 
pleasures, until a son is born to 
them, 49 (i), 26 ; Buddha addresses 
the Nirmita B., 49 (i), 155 sq., 
155 n. ; pay homage to Buddha, 49 
(i), 156-8; come to worship Ami- 
tayus, 49 (ii), 46-8 ; will be born in 
Sukhavati, 49 (ii), 66 sq. ; instructed 
by the Buddha, 49 (ii), 1 1 1- r 3 ; 
there will always be B. even in the 
periods of corruption, 49 (ii), 115- 
1 7» T ' 5 sc l- n - See also Buddha (c), 
and Holy Persons. 

Bodhiaattvavadana - kalpalata, 
t.w., by Kshemendra, 36, xvii. 

Bodisat, see Bodhisatta. 



Body, anything separated from the 
b. (like cuttings of hair, na'tl-parings) 
considered as dead matter, and 
hence impure, 4, lxxviii sq., 190, 
19011.; 5, 205, 246, 24611., 254; 
nail-paring seized by the demons, 
5, 71 ; precautions in cutting hair 
and nails, 5, 207, 207 n. ; 24, 275 
sq. ; 37, 162 ; nail-paring prayed 
over lest it turn into weapons of 
demons, 5, 342 ; Snatakas and her- 
mits to wear hair and nails un- 
dipped, 25, 139 sq., 140 n., 199; 
Snatakanotto step on bodily refuse, 
25, 141, 150; see also Hair; — lucky 
ayui unlucky marks of the U, 7, 
230 sq. ; 10 (ii), 189 ; 11, 196 sq. ; 
14,35, 35 "., 53? 25, 153, 228 ; 43, 
81, 81 n., 95; 45, 113, 366 sq. ; 
unlucky marks of the b. due to 
crimes committed in former births, 
14, 108 sq. ; 25, 440 sq. ; auspicious 
and inauspicious bodily marks of 
a bride, 25, 75 7 ; 29, ar, 165 ; 30, 
42, 257 ; bodily marks foreshadow- 
ing the greatness of a man, 35, 17; — 
the ivortblessness, impurity, fragility, 
and transitoriness of the human b., 

7, 2S1--3 ; 8, 44 sq., 245, 343; 10 
(i), Hi r 7, 4i sq., 54, 5 4 n.; (ii), 
xvi, 32 sq., 147 ; 15, 288, 298 sq. ; 
22, 24, 44 ; 25, 212 ; 45, 8, 89 sq. ; 
meditations on the b., 7, 281-6 ; 8, 
252 ; the bonds of the b., 8, 107 ; 
thisb., void of enlightenment, seems 
a hell, 8, 155; the transient b. 
abandoned by the devotee, 8, 250, 
253; b. tied down by action, 8, 
307 ; freed from the b.,the devotee 
is released, S, 331; passions and 
sins proceed from the b., 10 (ii), 
46; leave the b. behind, that thou 
may est never come to exist again, 
10 (ii), 209 ; how a Bhikkhu is to 
regard the b., 11, 38 ; passion for 
a b., spiritual bondage, 11, 225 sq., 
230 ; twelve impurities of the 
human b., 25, 193; the product of 
nescience, 34, 244 ; the b. compared 
to a wound, 35, 115; ten qualities 
inherent in the b., 36, 75 sq. ;— b. 
and soul, the b. explained as the 
Kshetra, or ' field,' the soul being 
the ' knowcr of the field ,' 7, 286 sq. ; 

8, 102-6; acquisition of the b. by 
the self, 8, 44 ; purity of self attained 



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with the b., i.e. by bathing, 8, 64, 
64 n., 362; God dwells as fire in the 
b. of creatures, 8, 113, 118; the 
wicked torment the organs in their 
b., 8, 118; actions performed by 
the b., 8, 123, 123 n. ; the wise 
remove even here the self out of thf 1 
b., 8, T76 ; the self tranquillized by 
the exhaustion of the primary 
elements of the b., 8, 246 ; the self 
within the self, i.e. the b. , 8, 248, 
344, 392 ; as the soft fibres are 
extended from the Mus^a grass, so 
does a devotee see his self extracted 
from the b., 8, 249 ; the mind is 
within the b. the upholder of the 
frame, 8, 262; the unconscious b. 
compared to fuel, 8, 290 ; how did 
the b. become intelligent ? 15, 
291 sqq. ; etymology of jarira, or 
* body,' 25, 9, 9 n. ; the Unde- 
veloped, 34, 246 ; is the b. the 
sufferer, or the soul? 34, 379; the 
Sankhya cannot admit a real con- 
nexion of the soul and the b., 34, 
379 ; Brahman's secret names with 
reference to the Devas and to the 
b., 38, 216 sq.; embodied soul and 
b. viewed as non-different, 38, 374 ; 
founded on the mind, food being 
the connecting-link, 41, 270; the 
b., if boneless, is immortal, 43, 
178 sq. ; fire-altar and certain 
hymns are the Sacrificer's divine, 
immortal b., 43, 279 ; definitions of 
the term b., 48, 420-4 ; — the gross 
b. and the subtle h. } 8, 160 n., 187, 
187 n., 190, 333 n. ; 34, 244 sq. ; 
38, 65 n., 372 ; subtle b. due to the 
soul's higher knowledge, not due to 
Karman or works, 34, Ixxi ; subtle 
b. is beyond the soul, 34, 244 ; 
subtle b. meant by the term 
avyakta, 34, 241 sq., 244 ; the 
warmth which we perceive in the 
living b. belongs to the subtle b., 38, 
372 ; — anatomy of the human b., 7, 
281-6 ; consists of the five elements, 
7, 283 ; 8, 342 sq. ; 49 (i), 177; the 
b. a city with nine portals, 8, 65, 
65 n., 108, 317, 343; how the b. 
perishes, and how it is produced, 8, 
235-45 ; how bodies are formed by 
food digested, 8, 252 ; made up of 
the sixteen (eleven organs and five 
great elements), 8, 391, 391 n. ; 



the b. is a town with eleven gates, 
belonging to Brahman, 15, 18 ; 
there is a fiend and a fire in the 
human b., when the fire conquers 
the fiend, there is a sneeze, 24, 
265 'sq. ; parts of the b. identified 
with the elements, 25, 512 ; thirty- 
two kinds of organic matter in the 
human b., 35, 42, 42 n., 44; seventy- 
six members of the b., 37, 42 ; 
consists of three elements, fire, 
water, and earth, 38, 104; water 
(liquid matter) preponderates t'n 
the b., 38, 104 sq. ; is there a 
ruler among the parts of the b. ? 
39, 180 ; six members of the b.,39, 
226; consists of twenty-five parts, 
41, 353, 353 n. ; 43, 168, r68n., 
222; this b. (trunk) is the best, the 
largest, the most vigorous of limbs, 
43, 20, 20 n. ; the b. is warm, being 
kindled by the sun, 43, 1 35 ; the b. 
of birds produced before wings and 
tails, 43, 136; the b. consists of 
thirty limbs, 43, 167, 167 n., 222, 
3S3, 383 n., 387 ; the b. consists of 
pairs, 43, 284 ; consists of five mor- 
tal parts (hair, skin, flesh, bone, 
marrow) and five immortal parts 
(mind, voice, breath, eye, ear), 43, 
290, 292 ; hair, skin, flesh, bone, 
and marrow, the five parts of the 
b. 43, 309 ; hundred and one parts 
of the b., 43, 325 sq. ; there is 
vital air in each limb of the b., 43, 
326; the parts of Pra^apati's b., 

43, 347 ; the fire-altar identified 
with the b. of man, 43, 387 ; parts 
of the b. of the Sacrifice as Man, 44, 
19 sq. ; how Pra^apati fashions for 
himself a b. (arms, fingers, &c„), 44, 
74-8; the Year represented as a 
man, parts of his b. (fingers, &c), 

44, 160-5 ; the parts of the sacri- 
ficer's b. formed by parts of the 
sacrifice, 44, 259-64 ; the b. of 
man consists of three parts, 44, 261 ; 
sacrificial implements at Pravargya 
arranged to form parts of a human 
b., 44 498-500 ; — parts of the b. : 
strength is exerted by the arm, 41, 
200; the arms are fifteenfold, 43, 
79 ; from the armpit (of the bird- 
shaped fire-altar) water springs 
forth, 43, 169, 169 sq. n.; the wings 
are the bird's arms, and by means 



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BODY— BRAHMADHVAGA 



of the arms food is eaten, 43, 306 ; 
the belly gets all food, 43, 115 ; 44, 
37 ; the fingers and toes and their 
joints, 41, 417; 43, 325; 44, 75, 
161 ; what is knee-h\%h is below, 43, 
158 ; knee-high is this world, 44, 
249; the sacrificer lifted up knee- 
high, 44, 254 ; limbs of the b. 
dependent on the vital airs, 41, 151 ; 

43, 19; male organ of three parts, 
and one joint, 44, 19; man sports 
with the male organ, 44, 76; the 
testicles, 44, 500 ; reaching up to 
the mouth, means above, 43, 159 ; 

44, 254; the Samana (intestinal 
breath) is at the navel, 8, 258, 
26611., 27m. ; 43, 17 sq.; cavities 
above the navel pure, below impure, 
25, 192 ; 41, 267 ; the navel goes all 
round, 41, 86 ; navel of the earth, 
41, 258, 267 ; below the navel is 
seed, 41, 267 ; food above the 
navel is immortal, below mortal, 

43, 2S5 ; what is navel-high is 
middle, 43, 158 sq. ; 44, 254 ; the 
ribs are the middle, 43, 20, 31 sq. ; 
lie against the chest, 43, 114; 
thirteen ribs on each side, 44, 164 ; 
why there are two thighs, 41, 306 ; 
the thigh-bone the largest, 43, 137 ; 
rules about cleaning the teeth, 7, 
196-8 ; the mystery of man's teeth, 

44, 52, 54 sq. ; the tongue is 
Sarasvatf, by the tongue one dis- 
tinguishes the taste of food, 44, 
263 ; the great Brahman (nature) 
a ivomb in which God casts his 
seed, 8, 107 ; the Brahma^arin 
enters, as it were, the womb of the 
preceptor, 8, 175 ; how a man 
enters the womb, 8, 241 ; the womb 
lies close to the belly, 43, 115 ; the 
womb does not enlarge along with 
the child that has been born, 43, 
309 ; the womb is the bearer, 
because Pra^apati by it bore 
creatures, 44, 114. See also Bones, 
Ear, Eye, Hand, Head, Heart, and 
Organs. 

BqggAanga (satta), Pali t.t. See 

Wisdom (seven kinds of). 
Bondage, five kinds of spiritual, 

(pa»£a £ctaso vinibandha), and the 

means to be freed from them, 11, 

221 sq., 225-32. 
Bonds, the five, or the five things 



leading to lust, 11, 181 ; salvation 
by destruction of the three B., 11, 
213; how a Bhikkhu may become 
an inheritor of the highest heavens 
by destruction of the five B., 11, 
213 sq. 

Bones, bricks are Agui's b., 43, 20 ; 
the b. in the body run both length- 
wise and crosswise, 43, 135; no 
transverse b. in wings and tail of 
birds, 43, 135 ; man's wellbeing 
(safety, strength) is the b., 43, 
327 ; the b. of a fat and a lean 
person are alike, 44, 20 ; the b. of 
the dead man collected, arranged, 
burnt, buried, 44, 117, "7"-, 200, 
433 s q-j 433 n - ; there are three 
hundred and sixty b. in man, 43, 
387; 44, 169. 

Bonzes, Bodhisattvas = Vandyas = B., 
21, 31 Sn. 

Books, or manuscripts, purified by 
sprinkling water over them, 7, 
xxii sq., 105, 105 n. See Sacred 
Books. 

Boons, see Wishes. 

Bor-tora, ancestor of Fre<mn, 5, 
132 ; the Asplgan, 47, 34. 

Boundary disputes, a title of law, 
33, 155-64, 274, 35i-5. A 

Bow, strung at the Ra^asuya, 41, 
87; is the nobleman's strength, 41, 
89 ; a b. with three arrows given as 
sacrificial fee, 44, 11 ; Vishwu with 
a b. and three arrows, 44, 442. 

Bra-Yar-vakhsh, see Tur-i B. 

Bra/Aresh, see Tur-i BraVar-vakhsh. 

Bra</r6k-resh, see Tur-i BiaVar- 
vakhsh. 

Brav/ro-resli, see TGr-t BraV/ar- 
vakhsh. 

Brafif-rfiyirn, a Karap, 47, 143. 

Bra</-rukhsn, a Karap, enemy of 
Zoroaster, 47, 143, 148. 

Brahma, see Brahman (masc). 

Brahmadatta, king of Benares, 
King DigMti of Kosala, and young 
Dighavu, 17, 293-305; the Brah- 
ma^ala spoken concerning Suppiya 
and B., 20, 376 ; Devadatta as King 
B-, 35, 290; Sambhuta born as B. 
king of the Pa;7£alas, 45, 57-61. 

Brahmadatta A'aikitaneya, n.p., 
15, 83. 

Brahmadhva^'a. n. of a Tathagata, 
21, 178. 



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105 



Brahmadvipika^Sakha, founded 
by Arya Samita, 22, 293. 

Brahma^ala Suttanta, where and 
when spoken, 20, 376 ; on the sixty- 
two heresies, 36, xxiii-xxv. 

Brahmaghosha, n. of a Tathagata, 
49 (ii), 6 sq., 100. 

Brahma-gita, subtitle of part of 
Anugita, 8, 310 n. 

Brahma Gyotishprabha, n. of a 
Brahmakayika god, 21, 5. 

Brahmahatya (Brahrnan-slaying 
personified), expiatory oblation and 
formula to, 44, 337 n., 340 sq. 

Brahma Kalpa, the Laukantika 
Yimanas are eightfold in, 22, 195. 

Brahma£arin, religious student, 
student of the Yeda : to dwell as a 
B. in the house of a tutor, a branch 
of the law, 1, 35; approaches his 
teacher, carrying fuel in his hands, 

1, 85. 135, 137, 139 sq., 273) 3<>6 ; 
duties and restrictions imposed on 
B., 2, xxii sq., 7-29, 182-5, 186-92 ; 
7, 116-21, 123-31 ; 8, 216 sq., 360 
sq. ; 14, 40-2, 149-58; 25, 37-44, 
50-74 ; 29, 66, 68, 73-6, 80, 83 sq., 
191-3, 223, 306, 308-10, 402; 30, 
66 sq., 151, 157, 160 sq., 274; 33, 
132 sq. ; 44, 48-50, 90; 48, 695; 

• the Naish/-6ika or perpetual B. who 
always lives with his teacher, 2, 18, 
18 n., 153, 192 n., 193; 7, 120; 8, 
377 n.; 14, 40 sq., 258; 25, 73 sq.; 
38, 318 sq. ; rules for the B. who 
has returned home from his teacher, 

2, 27-32, 37, 48-54, 66 sq.; 8, 35811.; 
25, 73-5 ; see also Samavartana ; 
penances for a B. who breaks his 
vows, esp. that of chastity, 2, 85 sq., 
288-90, 294 sq.; 14,117-19, 214-16, 
294 sq., 318 sq.; 25, 63 sq., 70, 454 
sq., 462 sq.; 29, 361 sq. ; 30, 317; 
38, 318-20 ; 48, 706 ; eats much, 2, 
123 ; 14, 265 sq., 281 ; sin of the B. 
who breaks the vow of chastity, 2, 
281 sq. ; is exempt from fare or toll, 
7, 36; 25, 325; laws of impurity 
(on death, &c.) for a B., 7, 96 ; 14, 
177; 25, 179 sq., 183-5, 192 sq. ; 
his initiation, 7, 1 1 4 sq. ; 44, 86 sq. ; 
see also Upanayana ; the Yogin 
should adhere to the rules of a B., 
8» 69, 79 ; life as a B. is a good 
penance, 8, 119 ; gods and demons 
practise the life of B., 8, 146, 151 



sq., 152 n. ; practising the life of a 
B. is immortality, 8, 153 ; life as 
a B., part of the conduct of the 
good, 8, 169, 242, 326 ; knowledge 
of Brahman acquired by living the 
life of a B., 8, 175-9; he who ad- 
heres to the Brahman, identifying 
himself with the Brahman, becomes 
a true B., 8, 283 sq, ; a pupil de- 
scribed as a self-restrained ascetic 
and a B., 8^312 ; life of B., the first 
of the four Ajramas, 8, 316, 354 n.; 
88, 298, 300 ; must be engaged in 
sacred study, 8, 360 sq.; the ascetic 
must live as a B., 8, 364 ; the sacri- 
fice taught by the father to his son 
when he is a B., 12, 162 ; rules for 
B. in sickness, 14, 2 1 4 sq. ; costume 
of B., 25, 37 sq. ; 32, 232-4; en- 
tertained at Sraddhas, 25, 64 sq., 
no; duration of studentship, 25, 
74 sq.; 29, 309; must receive food 
at the Vauvadeva, 25, 92 ; 29, 86 ; 
one who has broken his vow of 
studentship excluded from Sraddha 
and from the company of honour- 
able men, 25, 104, 107; 38, 320; 
offence of personating a B., 25, 1 60 ; 
shall not perform obsequies except 
for parents and teacher, 25, 183 
sq. n. ; cannot be made a witness, 
25, 265 ; 33, 88 ; must not eat 
Sraddha food, 25, 462 sq. and n. ; 
ceremony on his setting out on a 
journey, 29, 90, 230 sq.; shall not 
be a charioteer, 29, 364 ; duties of 
B. undergoing special vows, 30, 70- 
7 ; law regarding the property of 
a B., 33, 243 sq. ; B.= 'pure in 
conduct,' said of Buddha, 35, 117 
sq. ; glorification of the sun as a B., 
42, 214-17, 626-8 ; initiates the 
UnnetW for the sacrificial session, 
44, 1 37. See also Holy persons, 
Teacher, \edn(c) } and Women (a'). 

Brahma^arin, n. of a Gawadhara 
of Parjva, 22, 274. 

Brahma/ariyaw (Pali), ' noble life,' 
different meaning from Sk. br.ih- 
ma^arya, II, 285 n. 

Brahma/f-arya, Sk., t.t., religious 
studentship, 44, 86, 86 n. ; life as a 
Brahma^arin, j«- Brahma^arin ; the 
vow of abstinence, esp. chastity, see 
Abstinence and Chastity. 

Brahmakayas, or Brahmakayikas, 



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BRAHMAKAYAS— BRAHMAN 



a class of gods, 7, 293 ; Buddha mis- 
taken for one of the B., 19, 72 ; the 
1 2,000 followers of Brahma Saham- 
pati, 21, 5. 

Brahmaketu, the 77th Tatbagata, 
49 (i), 7- 

Brahmaliptaka Kula, of the Kan- 
aka Ga/;a, 22, 292. 

Brahmaloka, the world of Brahman 
(masc), how can one obtain it ? 
10 (ii), 84 sq. ; what B. means, 34, 
180 sq. ; long life of the gods in B., 
45, 84, 84 n. ; set also Brahma- 
world. 

Brahman (neut., Norn. Brahma, 
masc, Norn, Brahma). 

(a) The B. (neuter) in the sense of holy 

word or priesthood. 
id) Nature and qualities of [be IJ. (neiil.) a~ 

the divine principle. 
(c) Hames, forms, and symbols under which 

the B. (neut.) is meditated upon. 
((f) Oneness of the B. (neut.). 
(c) The B. (neut.) and the world, 
(/) The B. (neut.) and the individual soul. 
(g) Devotion to and absorption in the B. 

(neut.). 
(ft) Knowledge of the B. (neut.). 
(i) The higher and the lower B. 
(/) Passages in which B. may be either 

masc. or neuter, 
(£) The god B. (masc), also called Saham- 

pati, Svayambhii, Hira/iyagarbha. 

(a) THEB. (NEUTER) IN THE SENSE 
OF HOLY WORD OR PRIESTHOOD. 

Vasukra, the author of a hymn, 
identified with the B., 1, 169; the 
Brahman priest is full of B. (Veda), 
1, 259 ; is the self seen in the great 
hymn, 1, 260; identified with the 
Vedas, 1, 279; 'slayers of the B.' 
i. e. of the Veda, are called those 
whose father and grandfather have 
not been initiated, 2, 5 ; Visbsu 
fond of B. (Veda), 7, 293; those 
who arc first in the Vedas are 
forms of the B., 8, 161 ; Agni or 
fire is the B., 12, 90, 114 sq., 134, 
341; 26, 37 sq.; 43, 85; Pallra 
tree is B., 12, 90, 90 n. ; identified 
with speech, truth, and the three 
Vyahr/tis, 12, 296 sq. ; the B. and 
the threefold science, 12, 449 sq. ; 
25, 483 ; delivered the creatures 
„over to Death, except the Brahma- 
£arin, 14, 156; 44, 48; placed its 
majesty in the Brahma«as, 14, 199; 
invoked to purify from sin, 14, 251 ; 
offerings to B. (priesthood) and Ksha- 
tra, 15, 211 ; is Br/haspati, or the 



Lord of prayer, 2(J, 23, 59, 59 n., 
180; 29, 280; 48, 192 ; 44, 258, 
314, 402, 4 T r; B. is sacrifice, 26, 
2 3. 35 j °y the Diksha the sacrifice!- 
is born of the B., 26, 35; means 
worship, Vedic religion or priests, 
26, 78, 219 sq. ; 42, Ixiii ; as the 
sacerdotium or sacred writ, is the 
truth, 26, 272 ; Tutha is the B., 
26, 344; the Brahmodya or dis- 
cussion on the B. at the end of a 
Sattra, 26, 452 sq. and n.; B. which 
is long-lived through the Brahma«as, 
invoked to give long life to the new- 
born child, 29, 294; the teacher 
places the student to be initiated in 
the B., 30, 152 ; is the source of the 
Veda, 34, xxxii, 19-22; king and 
priest address each other as B., 41. 
108-10 ; first created from the egg, 
41, 146; Pra^apati is the whole B., 
41, 353; 44, 409, 40911.; meaning 
charm, spell, 42, Ixvi; 46, 194; 
spiritual exaltation, supports the 
earth, 42, 199, 202 ; begotten by the 
Brahma&arin (the sun), 42, 215; 
begotten from Time, 42, 224 sq., 
686; UAkbkhta. is B., 42, 226-9, 
629 sq. ; B.'s layer (of the fire- 
altar), 43, 81 ; the Rishis are the 
first-born B.,43, 100; theB. (mystic 
science) has nothing before it and 
nothing after it, 43, 338; the B.'s 
fore-portion, 44, 36; kindling-verse 
identified with the B., 44, 39; the 
Brahma^arin makes himself over 
to B., 44, 86 sq, ; daily sacrifice to 
the B., consisting in Veda-study, 
one of the ' five great sacrifices,' 44, 
95-9, see also Veda (c) ; by the B. 
(holy writ, holiness, priesthood) he 
gains the heavenly world, 44, 221 ; 
the seven-syllabled B. (holy writ), 
43, 314 sq.; expiatory formula ad- 
dressed to the B., 44, 337 n. 

(6) Nature and qualities of 
the b, (neut.) as the divine 
principle. 

B. is the True (Sat, to Svras 3i>), 
pure Being, 1, 98 n., 130, 201, 
278 sq. ; 8, 315; 12, 296 sq. ; 15, 
18, 36, 58, 108, 190 sq., 306; 26, 
272 ; 34, lii, 167, 266 sq., 332 ; 38, 
19 sq., 160, 216 sq,, 234; 48, 45, 
7ij I 93j 3o 3 ~5> 43 2 > 616, 652 ; as 



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BRAHMAN 



107 



conceived by the true philosopher, 
and by ordinary people, 1, J25 sq. n.; 
this is the immortal, the fearless, this 
is B., 1, 130, 135, 136, 138, 140; 
48, 313, 320, 352 ; names and forms 
are contained in the B., the Im- 
mortal, the Self, 1 , 1 4 3 ; 44, 2 7 sq. ; 
its relation to the senses, 1, 147 sq. ; 
8, 104, 104 "•> 386; its relation to 
the Devas or' gods, 1, 149-51; 8, 
153; 15, 68, 302, 324; 34, xiv ; 
38, 219; is of the nature of intelli- 
gence, or pure knowledge, 1, 246, 
246 n. ; 15, 150 sq. ; 34, xxiv sq., 
25,68, 264; 38, 156 sq., 160, 168; 
48, 23, 81, 84, 103-5, 11 1- 1 3, H5) 
126, 131 sq., 143, 176, 193, 240, 
561, 618, 660; various meanings of 
B. in Bhagavadgita, 8, 11; free 
from all imperfections, and endowed 
with all auspicious qualities, 8, 65, 
104, jSo, 257; 34, xxviii, 107, 328; 
38, 101, 201-4; 48, 78 sq., 81 sq., 
88, 94, 96, 124, 127, 143, 156, 182, 
200, 208 sq,, 215, 218, 229, 24c, 
259» 27i, 323 sq., 327, 354, 375, 
394, 4° 2 sq-, 406-8, 413 sq., 422, 
429, 444 sq., 460, 469, 476, 584, 
607-21, 689 sq. ; has no beginning 
nor end, is unborn and immortal 
(imperishable, indestructible), 8, 77, 
103, 180, 192, 248 ; 15, 28, 36, 235, 
2 55, 3°2, 335 sq.; 34, 83, 169-71, 
349; 48, 308-11, 535, 652 sq., 660; 
is neither existent nor non-existent, 
8, 103, 103 n. ; devoid of qualities, 8, 
104; 34, xxv, xxviii ; 38,239,394 sq,; 
48, 26-9 ; it is of no colour, 8, 179 ; 
smaller than small, larger than the 
largest, 8, 180, 285; 15, 28, 36, 39, 
338 ; 34, 1 13 sq. ; 48, 264 sq., 367 ; 
B. is glory, 8, 180; 38, 393 5 pro- 
duced and developed from the pure 
principle, 8, 1S6; the highest B. is 
very far off, 8, 369 ; three syllables, 
viz. na mama, ' not mine,' are the 
eternal B., 8, 391 ; there is nothing 
greater than B., 8, 392 ; 48, 621-5; 
is the Great, 15, 18; 48, 4; from 
terror of B., the wind blows, the 
sun rises, Agni, Indra, and Death 
run away, 15, 21, 59; 34, 130, 
230 sq.; is eternal, pure and change- 
less, 15, 28; 34,25,34,327; 38,397; 
4$, 393, 4 00 *, is omnipresent, 15, 18, 
a8 > 335! 34, 89, 91 sq., 120, 125, 172; 



38, 180, 390-4, 396; 48, 624 sq. ; 
spoken of as in heaven and beyond 
heaven, 34, 96 sq. ; is the bridge of 
the Immortal, 15, 36; 34, 154, 156, 
622 sq. ; is the best, 15, 37; is 
"devoid of parts, 15, 39; 34, 135-9, 
349-52 ; 38, 396 ; 48, 192 sq., 473 ; 
the bliss of B., B. is bliss, 15, 56, 
61 sqq.,61 sq. n., 66, isosq. ; 34, 25, 
65-8, 72 sq., 75-7, 169; 48, 84, 
ls h ! 93, 198, 200, 208-37, 2 40. 
254, 276 sq., 307, 376, 389, 4°2r 
413 sq., 442, 550, 618, 653 ; in the 
beginning B. knew its Self only, 15, 
88 ; this is the B., without cause and 
without effect, without anything inside 
or outside ; this Self is £., omnipresent 
and omniscient, 15, 117 ; is Svayam- 
bhu, self- existent, 15, 120, 188, 
227; 43,404; 44, 417 sq.; see also 
under (k) ; is the safe support, 
15, 235 ; in it is the triad {subject, 
object, and the mover or ruler), 
15, 235 sq.; the only universal 
being, of an absolutely homogeneous 
nature, 34, xxiv, xxvii sq., xxx ; 48, 
113; is associated with Nescience 
(Maya, Avidya), 34, xxv, xxx, 362 ; 
48, 212, 215 sq., 494; compared 
with a magician, 34, xxv ; according 
to Sahkara impersonal, with Rama- 
nmja a personal God, 34, xxviii, 
xxx, exxiii, exxiv n. ; cannot have 
originated from anything else, 34, 
lii, 266 sq., 332; 38, 19 sq. ; is 
devoid of form, 34, lxiii, Ixiv, 306 sq. ; 
38, 154-75 ; 48, 610 sq. ; discussions 
on the nature of B., 34, lxiv sq M 
xcv sq. ; 38, 101, 133-83; later 
definitions of B., e.g. as sa-Wid- 
ananda, 34, xcii ; etymology of the 
word, 34, 14 ; 48, 158 ; B., which is 
all-knowing and endowed with all 
powers, whose essential nature is 
eternal purity, intelligence t and pee- 
dom, exists. , . . The existence of B.is 
known on the ground of its being the 
Self of every one. . . . And this Self 
{of whose existence all are conscious') 
is B. } 34, 14; is all-knowing, 34, 
19-22, 25, 47, 49, 362; 48, 156, 
215, 234, 259, 3'6, 354, 375, 394, 
413 sq,, 460; can it be designated 
by a masculine noun? 34, 76; is 
a place of rest, 34, 83 ; is the 
internal ruler over the devas and 
so on, 34, 130-2; is different from 



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BRAHMAN 



name and form, 34, 232 sq.; 38, 97 ; 
there is nothing either beneficial 
to be done by it or n on -beneficial 
to be avoided by it, 34, 344 ; is 
endowed with powers, omnipotent, 
34, 354-6, 362; 48, 156, 215, 259, 
316, 354, 413 sq., 460; is free from 
all difference, and twofold char- 
acteristics cannot belong to him, 
38, 152-4, 156 sq. ; its limiting 
adjuncts are presented by Nescience 
merely, 38, 153; is inside of the 
limiting adjuncts, 38, I58sq.,i78sq. ; 
48, 192 sq. ; is the highest of gods, 

43, 59 ; is the firstborn from afore, 

44, 459 sq. ; not devoid of all 
difference, 48, 78-102; the True, 
Knowledge, the Infinite is B., 48 , 
79 sq., 143, 158, 159 sq., 180,184, 
210, 212, 233, 240, 254, 303, 375, 
402, 404, 445, 453, 550, 611 sq., 
623, 638, 652, 656 ; B. defined. 48, 
80; what constitutes the body of 
the B., 48, 88, 254; Nescience 
contradictory to B., 48, 126; 
appears in manifold modes, 48, 
143; is self-luminous, 48, 208, 
34S sq., 393, 445 I has no con- 
nexion with Prakr/ti, nor with 
Karman, 48, 240, 256, 607; why 
it is not subject to pleasure and 
pain, 48, 265 sq. ; is invisible, un- 
seizablc. higher than the Imperish- 
able, 48, 282-7 ; °f boundless love 
towards his devotees, 48, 316 ; 
numberless fozoers, lying beyond the 
sphere of all ordinary thought, belong 
to B., and qualify it for creation, and 
so on, Just as heat belongs to fire, 
48, 474, 476; differs in nature from 
all other things, 48, 28, 475 sq., 584 ; 
in all meditations on B. the essential 
qualities of B. are to be included, 
48, 637-43. &« also God, Lord, 
and Self (d) ; world of the B., see 
Brahma-world. 

(r) Names, forms, and symbols 

UNDER WHICH THE B. (NEUT.) IS 
MEDITATED UPON. 

Meditation on B. under symbols 
(pratikopasana), 1, 201; 48, 71S- 
20; not comprehended by symbols, 
8, 367 ; only those who have not 
worshipped B. under a symbol are 
led to B., 34, Ixxxii ; 38, 402-4; 
B.'s name a mere outward symbol, 



34, 92 ; two secret names of B., 
ahatn and abar, 38, 2 1 6-1 8; 48, 642; 
the Great B. is the one Akshara 
into which all beings pass, 43, 343 
sq. ; why it is called a bank, 38, 
176 sq. ; Bhuman, that which is 
much, is B., 34, 162-9; 4-8, 302; 
meditation on breath (Pra«a) as B., 
1, 65 sq,, 213, 2S0 sqq. ; 15, 36, 56, 
64 sq., 142, 153 sq., 194 sq. ; 34, 
84-7, 97-106, 229-31, 272 ; 42, 
622 sq. ; 48, 246, 256, 276 sq. ; 
B. as represented by Vayu and 
Pra//a, 1, 59 n. ; hidden in breath, 
1, 233 sq. ; meditation on the 
absorption of the gods into breath 
or B., 1, 288-90; the vital airs are 
the effects of B., 38, 76 ; Indra and 
Pra//a is B., 48, 250-4; Buddha is, 
esoterically, the Highest B., 21, 
xxvii sq. ; the great chariot which 
is pervaded by the B., 8, 386 ; the 
city of U., the body, and in it the 
small lotus of the heart, and in it 
the small ether, 1, 125-7, I2 <> n. ; 
15, 37, 54; 34, 174 sq., 178; 38, 
219; 48, 314-25, 660, 6fi6 sq. ; the 
city of B. called Aparagita, 1, 131, 
132 n. ; meditation on consideration 
or thought as B., 1, 114; 38, 160; 
Earth, a form of B., 1, 65 sq.; 
meditation on B. as ether (Kha), 1, 
xxv sq., xxvi n., 46 sq., 53, 65 sq., 
118, 126 n., 143, 143 n. ; 34, 81-4, 
1 10, 114, 126 sq., 144, 174-92, 232 
sq.; 38,6-8, 12, 17 sq., 248; 48, 
242-6, 256, 273, 276 sq. ; before 
ether was produced, B. existed 
without ether, 38, 17; ether is an 
effect of B., ob, 18; ether is dis- 
solved into B., 38, 26 ; the person 
in the eye is B., 1, 67, 135 ; 15, 64, 
335 ; four feet or sixteen parts of 
B., 1, 53 sq., 60 n., 60-4 ; 15, 345 ; 
34, 90, 95; 38, 219; 48, 622 sq. ; 
meditation on fire as B., 1, 65, 1 18 ; 
15, 335; 34, 92; the Adhvaryus 
consider B. the self in the sacrificial 
fire, 1, 260; the source of fire, 38, 
20-2 ; the highest B. in the form of 
intestinal heat, 48, 248 ; meditation 
on/WasB., 1, 65, 117; 15,55,64, 
194 sq. ; the B. as a forest, 8, 284- 
fi, 288, 288 n., 372, 386 sq, ; medi- 
tated upon as the Gdyatrt verse, 
1,44-6, 158, 162, 194; 34, 93- 6 ; 



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100 



'having joy for its head,' a figura- 
tive representation of B,, 48, 657-9; 
bearing is B., 15, 156 ; as seated in 
the cave of the heart, 1, 47, 47 n.: 
8, 252 n. ; 15, 36, 39, 318; 34, 113 
sq., 350 ; 38, 410; 48, 367, 642 sq.; 
the heart is the highest B., 15, 15S; 
heaven, a form of B., 1, 66 ; the 
sound Him is B., and serves to 
obtain B., 1, 176; meditation on 
hope as B., 1, 119; the abode of 
Lakshmt, 48, 3 ; tight is B., 15, 306, 
335 sq. ; 34, 87-93, 96 sq., 185, 
191, 194, 231 sq. ; 48, 247-9, 256, 
6ir sq., 618 ; is the light of lights, 
15, 37 ; 48, 335 sq., 366, 373 ; as 
shining in the sun, in the moon, in 
the fire, in the lightning, 15, 318, 
323 ; as abiding within the sun, and 
within the eye, 34, lxx, 123-8; 38, 
216-18; 48, 642; is the lightning, 
1, 66, 151 sq., 152 n. ; 15, 192; 
relation between the Lord and the 
Highest B., 15, xxxvi-xxxviii, 245 ; 
34, xxv, xxvii, xxx, cxxiii, cxxiv n. ; 
48, 4; the Mahdvrata day is B., 1, 
162, 169, 260; the Mahavrata cere- 
mony is for attainment of B., 1, 
162 ; man, the abode of B., B. in 
the shape of man, 1, 205 sq. ; 
meditation on memory as B., 1, 
.119; meditation on mind as B., 
1> 53 5 q-j 65, 112, 152, 152 n. ; 15, 
36, 64, 157 ; 34, 107-12 ; 38, 391 j 
meditation on the name as B., 1, 
1 10 sq. ; means ' Nature,' 1 8, 11; is 
an intelligent principle, and cannot 
be identified with the non-intelligent 
pradhana of the Sankhyas, 34, 
xxxii, 47-64, 300; 48, 256; Qm 
identical with B., 7, 183 ; 8, 79, 
282 sq.; 14, 278, 316; 25, 45; 
Qm is the bow, the Self is the 
arrow, B. is the aim, 15, 36; Om, 
Tad, Sat, the threefold designation 
of the B., 8, 1 20 sq. ; Ka {pleasure) 
isB., 1, 65; 34, 126 sq.; 48, 273, 
276 sq. ; meditation on power as B., 
1, 116; Pragdpati is B., 1.5, 190; 
43, xxiv ; the self-existent B., 
teacher of Pra^apati, 43, 404 ; the 
Purmha or Highest Person is B., 15, 
19; 25, 6,6 n., 513 ; 34, 174; 48, 
4, 207 sq. ; the highest oneness 
reached by seeing the lord of the 
world as the Person who has his 



source in B., 15, 38 ; the word B. 
denotes the Highest Person fPu- 
rusha), the highest Self, and the 
Lord, 48, 4, Sec.; meditation on 
reflections, B,, 1, 115; sight is B,, 
!■% r 55I S/W, Hara, Rudra, &c, 
as names of B., 15, xxxiii sq. ; 48, 
667 ; the essence of Rudra, 15, 
324; superior to Siva, 34, xiv; 
meditation on speech as B., 1, in; 
12, 296 sq. ; 15, 36, 64, 152 sq. ; 
' as far as B. reaches, so far reaches 
speech ; * — wherever there is B., there is 
a word ; and wherever there is a word, 
there is B., 1, 186 ; meditation on 
B. as word and non-word, 15, 321 
sq. ; meditation on the sun as 13., 1, 
54 sq., 65 sq.; 15, 306, 317 sq., 
335 sq.; 41,366; 43, 94 ; 44,459 
sq. ; compared to reflected images 
of the sun and the like, 38, 157-9; 
48, 6 1 3-15 ; is the light equal to the 
sun, 44, 388 ; is called Tadvana, 1, 
152, 152 n. ; time and non-time, 
two forms of B., 15, 317 ; compared 
to a fig-tree, whose roots grow up- 
ward and whose branches grow 
downward, 15, 21 ; the great tree 
of B., 8, 370, 370 n., 372 ; medita- 
tion on understanding as B., 1, 
U5sq. ; 8, 338 sq. ; 15, 57, 65; Vdyu 
invoked as the visible B., 15, 45, 
53 ; worship of Vishnu (Narayana, 
Kn'shwa) as the supreme B., 7, 156; 
8, 87, no, non. ; 25, 5, 5 11.; 34, 
xxxi n. ; the lord B. seated on his 
lotus seat within Krishna, 8, 93 ; 
Knsb>?a greater than B., 8, 96 ; the 
great B. is a womb in which Krishna 
casts the seed, 8, 107 ; Vishwu full 
of the B., 8, 347, 354 ; the highest 
place of Vishmi, 15, 324 ; B.Superior 
to Vish«u, 34, xiv ; the highest B., 
i.e. Vishuu, possesses two forms, 48, 
89 ; B. or Vishwu the Self of the 
world, 48, 92 sq. ; called Vasudeva 
by the Bhagavatas, 48, 524 sq. ; 
meditation on water as B., 1, 117; 
water, the quarters, the stars, the 
moon, are forms of B., 1, 66 ; medi- 
tation on will as B., 1, 112 sq., 
1 1 3 n, 
(d) Oneness of the B. (neut.). 

All this is B. Let a man meditate 
on that {visible world) as beginning, 
ending; and breathing in it {the B<) 



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BKAHMAN 



. . . He from whom all works, all 
desires, all sweet odours and tastes pro- 
ceed, who embraces all this, who never 
speaks and who is never surprised, he, 
my self within the heart, is that B,, 
1,48; 48, 1 3 3 ; is the Self seen in 
earth, heaven, air, &c, within all, 
1, 260; 15, 128 sq.; 34, 154 62, 
230; 48, 259, 318 sq., 371-4; all 
worlds are contained in B., 15, 21; 
48, 768; pervades everything, 8, 
104 ; 48, 92 sq.; is all things per- 
ceptible, B. alone is all this, B. is 
the Self of the world, 8, 180, 192 ; 
15, 37, 307 ; 34, xxviii, xxx, 23, 94, 
107,109-11,156,267,357; 38,138, 
165, 208, 341; 48, 20 sq., 85, 88, 
9 1 , 93-5, 133, 257, 260 sq., 290, 
306, 394 sq., 399, 408, 458, 659, 
662, 687 ; both unity and diversity 
or manifoldness are true of B., as 
there are elements of plurality in 
it, 8 V 374 sq., 374 n. ; 34, xxviii, 
321 sqq., 345 sq. ; 48, 89; every- 
thing is centred in it, 15, 36 ; the 
bright, immortal Person in every- 
thing, the Self, the Immortal, B., 
and the All are the same, 15, 1 1 3-17 ; 
being one only, rules over all germs, 
over all forms, over all and every- 
thing, 15, 255 sq. ; one only without 
a second, and undivided, nothing 
apart from B. exists, 34, xxviii sq., 
1, 2 86, 32 r, 349-54, 395 sq. ; 38, 12, 
13, 158, 160, 168-71, 175-80, 202, 
327-9, 410; 48, 28 sq., 39, 73, 80, 
91, 105, 126 sq., 176, 566; some 
metaphorical expressions, seemingly 
implying that there is something 
different from B., explained, 34, Ixv ; 
38, 175-80; all things are effects of 
B., or are B. itself, 34, cxix sq. ; 
is the real giver of the gifts be- 
stowed by princes on poets and 
singers, 34, 80 n. ; lndra declares 
that he is one with B., 34, 101 sq. ; 
the ten objects and the ten sub- 
jects cannot rest on anything but 
Brahman, 34, 104 ; subsists apart 
from its effects, 34, 350 ; the fisher- 
men are B., the slaves are B., B. are 
these gamblers ; man and woman are 
horn from B. ; women are B. and so 
are men, 38, 61 sq.; 48, 191, 559 sq. ; 
although one only, it is, owing to 
the plurality of its powers, medi- 
tated upon in more than one way, 



38, 220; the uniform B. viewed as 
manifold through Nescience, 48, 
127, 180, 344 ; is Heaven and 
Earth, 48, 191 ; all sentient and non- 
sentient beings spring from B., are 
merged in him, breathe through him, 
are ruled by him, constitute his body ; 
so that he is the Self of all of them, 

48, 717. 

(e) The B. (neut.) and the 

WORLD. 

The B. as the cause or creator of 
the world, 1, 64; 15, 231-7 ; 34, xxix 
sq., xl, xlvii sq., 1, lii, 50, 60 sq., 
202, 233, 267-74, 299-317, 344, 
352 sq., 36 r sq,, 381-6; 38, 3-73, 
391 sq. ; 44, 27 sq., 409; 48, 
28, 200, 215 sq., 234, 240, 242, 
254-6, 271, 285, 354-408, 413-79, 
532-40, 584, 608, 643, 767; the 
source of all beings, the womb of 
the world, 15, 28 ; 34, 83, 85, 135-9, 
288 ; 48, 140 ; is the support of the 
universe, 8, 104, 180, 180 n., 192; 
is that from which the origin, sub- 
sistence, and dissolution of this world 
proceed, 8, 180, 192; 34, xxxii, xcii 
sq., 15-19, 107, 109, 117, 283 ; 48, 
3, 94, 156-61, 174, 255, 258-61, 
266; is the seed of the tree of 
worldly life, 8, 313; in the beginning 
B. was all this, 15, xviii, 318; 44, 
27 sq. ; 48, 391 ; that from whence 
these beings are born, that by which, 
when born, they live, that into which 
they enter at their death, try to know 
that. That is B., 15, 64 ; 48, 91, 156; 
covered himself, like a spider, with 
threads drawn from the first cause 
(pradhana), 15, 263; not only the 
operative but also the material 
cause of the world, 34, xl, xciv sq., 

49, 60 sq., 264 sq., 283-8, 317, 
320-30, 346 sq.. 361 sq. ; 48, 142; 
creates the world without instru- 
ments, 34, xlix sq., xcv, 346-9, 
354-6; creation and reabsorption 
of the world a mere sport of B., 
34, 1, 356 sq. ; 48, 405 sq., 476 sq., 
610; as a creator and dispenser, 
acts with a view to the merit and 
demerit of the individual souls, and 
has so acted from all eternity, 34, 
1, 357—61 ; relation of the non- 
sentient matter to B., 34, Ixv ; 48, 
242 ; called Non-being, previously 



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BRAHMAN 



111 



to the origination of the world, 34, 
267 ; is different from the world, 
34, 284; 48, 18S sq., 413 sq., 417; 
the order in which the elements are 
retracted into B. is the reverse of 
that in which they are created, 38, 
25 sq. ; 48, 402-6 ; by offering up 
his own self in the creatures, and 
the creatures in his own self, B. 
compassed lordship over all crea- 
tures, 44, 417 sq. ; the world (Pra- 
dhana, Prakr/ti) constitutes its body, 
48, 93. '35, 4°6, 419-24, 5i8 sq., 
542, 544 ; was the wood, the tree 
from which they shaped heaven and 
earth, 48, 401 ; the maker, the Lord, 
the Person, the womb, 48> 407 ; 
the non-difference of the world 
from B., the highest cause, proved, 
48, 430-67 ; the entire world 
springs from Nescience attached to 
B., which in itself is absolutely 
unlimited, 48, 445 ; where B. abides 
during pralaya and creation, 48, 460 ; 
effects by its mere will and wish the 
creation of the world, 48, 471 sq.; 
divides itself into ether, air, &c, 48, 
473; devoid of parts, yet creates, 
48, 473 sq. ; B. and the world 
related, as the snake and its coils, 
48, 618-21 ; the power of creating 
and ruling the world belongs to B. 
only, not to the released soul, 48, 
766-7 1. See also Cause. 
(/) The B. (neut.) and the indi- 
vidual soul. 

The recognition of the self in 
man as identical with the highest 
Self or B. is the highest object of 
the Upanishads, 1, xxv ; 15, xxvi ; 
34, xxxii, civ sq,, 22-47,^265 sq. ; 
48, 174-200, 255 sq. ; Atman or 
Self is one with the B., 1, xxx ; 15, 
36, 178-81, 237, 290 sq. ; 34, 14, 
30 sq., 36, 45, 79, 105, 241, 264 sq.; 
38, 209, 288; 48, 23 sq., 184, 191, 
205, 258, 560, 564, 658 ; relation of 
the individual soul to B., 1, 84 ; 34, 
xix, xxx sqq., lvii sqq., xcvii-c, 64- 
289 ; 38, 61-73, 39 6 sc l. 5 48, 195 sq., 
2 57-353, 393) 459, 559, 5<>i 5 fk°" 
art that (tat tvam asi), 1,101-9; 34, 
xxvii, xlix, 23, 31, 54-6, 104, 113, 
115 sq., 122, 125, 185, r97, 250 sq., 
266, 279, 321-3, 326, 343, 345 ; 38, 
32, 46, 65 sq., 138, 140, 173, 197, 



209 sq., 238, 243, 291, 333-7, 339. 
370, 397, 408; 48, 126, 129-38, 

184, 191, 203 sq., 209, 214-18, 228 
sq., 344, 453, 467, 54i, 560, 564, 
6 59, 759 r colloquy of the departed 
and B., 1, 278 sq. ; it dwells not on 
earth, nor in the sky, &c., but only 
in the self of the devoted man, 8, 
179 sq. ; man, being abandoned by 
the B. (i.e. the mind), is said to be 
dead, 8, 238 ; individual soul and B. 
are absolutely one, 8, 241 ; 14, 278, 
27S n. ; 34, xx, xxv, xxvii, xxx, 104, 
114-16, 322, 343 sq,; 38, 30, 31, 
33 s q-> 4 2 S( 1Q*, r 38, 146, 149; 48, 21, 
102, 269, 467 ; the B. and the re- 
leased soul, the released soul united 
with the B., 8, 248, 250; 34, xxx, 
157, 178, 180 sq., 191 ; 38, 392-402, 
408 sq. ; 48, 160, 192, 296-8, 354! 
lam /y., 15, 88 ; 34, 31, 44, 104, 1 15, 

185, 326 ; 38, 32, 46, 66, 173, 339, 
355, 4° 8 > > s the principle from 
which a mortal springs again after 
death, 15, 150 sq. ; he only who is 
alone, i.e. knows his self to be one 
with B., is satisfied, 15, 236; 'My 
soul (atman) dwells in the B. that 
it may be immortal,* 30, 228 ; the 
soul is a part of B., 34, xxv ; 48, 
558-67 ; both matter and the indi- 
vidual souls are real constituents of 
B.'s nature, 34, xxviii ; in it the 
individual soul is merged in the 
state of deep sleep, 34, lxi sq., 180, 
273 ; 38, 144-9, I 5 2 -66, 176 ; 48, 
604 sq. ; individual soul different 
from B., 34, 114-16, 344 sq. ; 48, 
209, 242, 256, 427 sq., 468 sq., 658 ; 
soul and B. both different and non- 
different, 34, 277 n., 345 ; 48, 191 ; 
is superior to the individual soul, 
34, 345; is 'that,' the inward Self 
is 'thou,' 38, 335; has individual 
souls for its body, 48, 130, 132, 141 
s q-, 254, 392, 394, 406, 435-7, 4 6 9 
sq. ; is the internal ruler of the 
individual souls, 48, 132-4, 607-n ; 
the soul has its Self in B., 48, 133 sq., 
14 r ; B., soul, and matter, in their 
relation, 48, 138-45, 227; imparts 
to the released souls infinite bliss, 
48, 198 sq.; the Person of the size 
of a thumb is B., 48, 325-7, 347-9; 
all beings are effects of B., and hence 
have B. for their inner Self, 48, 



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BRAHMAN 



353; soul saved by meditation on 
B., 48, 394 ; cannot be fully under- 
stood by the individual soul, 48, 396 ; 
the imperfections of the soul are 
not B.'s, 48, 563 sq., 607-11; the 
term B. applied to the individual 
soul, 48, 655 sq.; to be meditated 
upon as the Self of the devotee, 48, 
716-18. 

l#) Devotion to and absorption 
in the B. (neut.). 

The path of the gods leading to 
B., 1, 68, 80, 276-8; 15, 327 sq. ; 
34, xxix sq. ; 38, 383 sq. ; 48, 648-51, 
747 sq. ; union with the B. reached 
by good conduct, by performing 
religious rites, and the like, 2, 218 ; 

7, 183; 8, 106, 162, 235, 313, 336, 
339 sq., 342, 370; 14, 249, 266, 
309; 15, 176 sq., 336 ; 25, 25, 34, 
34 n., 45,45 11., 212 sq., 212 n.,419, 
419 n. ; sacrifice of B. with B., in 
B. by B. for B., 8, 61, 61 n. ; the 
sage possessed of devotion attains 
to unity with B., 8, 64, 64 n., 70, 
234 n., 245, 245 n., 398, 413 ; 
happiness in union with B. that is 
free from defects and equable, 8, 
65 sq., 66 n. ; 48, 327 ; the devotee 
of Krishna fit for union with B., 

8, no; the true Brahma»a he who 
is attached to the B., 8, 147 ; the 
devotee attains to that B. after per- 
ceiving which he understands the 
Pradhana, 8, 253; final release is 
assimilation with B., 8, 253, 253 n., 
255 ; 34, 28 sq., 34 ; 38, 329; 45, 
413 ; 49 (i), 130 ; the seat of the B. 
(brahmayoni) in the self, 8, 257, 
326, 326 n.; Mind and Speech go 
to B., the self of all beings, to ask 
which of them is superior, 8, 263 sq. 
and n. ; speaking of the B., Speech 
always produces eternal emanci- 
pation, 8, 265; tranquillity is the 
eternal B., 8, 277 ; he who adheres 
to the B., identifies himself with the 
B., becomes a BrahmaHrin, 8, 283 
sq. ; there is nothing else more delight- 
ful than that, what there is no dis- 
tinction from' it , . . Entering- it, the 
twicebom do not grieve, and do not 
exult. They are not afraid of anybody, 
and nobody is afraid of them, 8, 285 ; 
those whose wishes are fixed on 
good vows, and whose sins are burnt 



up by penance, devote themselves 
to B., 8, 288 ; assimilation with the 
B. obtained by going the path of 
the four A/ramas, 8, 316; 14, 275; 
the mode of conduct which is full 
of the B., 8, 341 ; various Brahmans 
teach various paths leading to union 
with B., 11, 168, 168 n., 170 sq.; 
the Brahmanic teaching as to union 
with B. criticized by Buddha, 11, 
171-85 ; meditating on the syllable 
Om, the ascetic becomes one with 
B., 14, 283 sq.; 'the vessel of B./ 
the body of the ascetic, 14, 284, 
284 n.; 25,214; by worshipping B. 
he becomes B., 15, 67 sq. ; let us 
love the old B., 15, 241 ; by know- 
ledge, penance, and meditation one 
goes beyond B. (m.) to union with 
B. (n.), 15, 301 ; having broken 
through the four spheres of the 
Sun, the Moon, the Fire, and Good- 
ness, the worshipper beholds B., 
15, 338; Veda-knowledge and Veda- 
study procure union with B., 25, 
l6 5j 5°7 ; 44, 99; he who knows 
the Self enters B., the highest state, 
25, 513; union with B, is the reason 
for the absence of all contact with 
evil, 38, 144; on the attainment of 
B. there take place the non-clinging 
and the destruction of sins, 38, 
353-6 ; having destroyed by fruition 
all good and evil works, he becomes 
one with B., 38, 362 sq.; 48, 726 sq. ; 
there is absolute non-division from 
B. of the parts merged in it, 38, 
376 sq. ; six doors to the B., viz. 
fire, wind, waters, moon, lightning, 
sun, 44, 66 sq. ; inquiry into the 
mode of the going to B. of him who 
knows, 48,728-43. .SVf a/jo Brahma- 
nirvana. 

(h) Knowledge of theB. (neut.). 
B. is the flower, the secret doc- 
trines are the bees, 1, 40; a father 
may . . . tell that doctrine of B. to 
his eldest son, or to a worthy pupil. 
But no one should tell it to anybody 
else, even if he gave him the whole sea- 
girt earth, full of treasure, for this 
doctrine is worth more than that, 1, 
44 ; is perceived by the warmth of 
the body, is seen and heard, 1, 47 ; 
meditation on B. with reference to 
the body and with reference to the 



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US 



cods, I, 53 sq., 58, 151 sq., 152 n. ; 
15, 67 sq. ; shining of the face of 
one who knows B., 1, 64, 67 ; medi- 
tations on B. and their results, 1, 
66 sq. ; 34, lxv-lxxv, 25, 31, 94, 
105-11, 174; 38, 19 n., 177 sq., 
184-284, 333-7, 342-5, 402; 43, 
xxiv, 400; 48, 26, 83 sq., 99 sq., 
155 sq., 185-9, 255, 294, 651 sq., 
715 sq. ; we know B., and yet do 
not know it, 1, 148 sq., 149 n. ; by 
knowledge of B. we obtain immor- 
tality or final release, 1, 149; 8, 77, 
103; 15, 245, 258 sq., 322; 34, 
41-3, 283 ; 38, 285, 290-306, 355 ; 
48, 83, 198, 274 sq., 624; he who 
knows thai highest B. becomes even B., 
1, 276 sq.; 8, Si ; 15,41,54, 256 sq. ; 
M, 25, 29, 31, 186 ; 38, 375-7 ; 48, 
16, 18, 23, 100, 183, 188, 192, 209sq., 
214, 233 sq., 392, 681, 686; dis- 
cussion on B. between Balaki and 
A^atajatru, 1, 300-7 ; texts giving 
instruction about the B., 8, 102 ; 
is the sole, the highest object of 
meditation or knowledge, 8, 104, 127 
sq„ 310, 369; 48, 87, 311-14, 395, 
s 37-85, 689 sq. ; meditation leads 
to union with B., 8, 128, 128 n.; 
15, 301 ; understanding of the B. 
by means of the Vedas, 8, 147, 
'71-4,369; 34, 10, 23 sqq. ; know- 
ledge of the B. the highest achieve- 
ment of a Brahmawi, 8, 160, 182; 
25, 25, 25 n. ; the gods inferior to 
those who know the B., 8, 161, 
161 n.; 15, 49; Brahma-vidya, the 
eternal mystery, 8, 166, 166 n. ; 
knowledge of B. acquired by living 
the life of a Brahmalarin, 8, 175-9 ; 
not to be seen in the four Vedas, 
8, 179 sq. ; attained by means of 
knowledge, not by works, 8, 180, 
lS 5 ; 15, 39 ; knowledge of the B. 
will not lead to littleness, 8, 191 ; 
Krishna declared to Ar^-una the 
Supreme B., the seat of the B., 
8, 2 30 sq. ; is not to be apprehended 
by the senses, but only by the mind, 
8,257sq. ; 15,22,39; Canakaturns 
the wheel, the nave of which is the 
B., 8, 306 ; knowledge of B. ob- 
tained by penance and sacred learn- 
ln 8, "1 308 ; as in a mirror, so B. 
may be seen clearly) here in this body ; 
as in a dream, in the world of the 



Fathers; as in the water, he is seen 
about in the world of the Gandharvas ; 
as in light and shade, in the world 
of Brahmd, 15, 22 ; can only be 
apprehended by the words ' He is,' 
15, 23 ; knowledge of B. the founda- 
tion of all knowledge, told by 
Brahma, 15, 27 sq.; only pious 
Brahma#as worthy of receiving the 
science of B., 15, 41 sq. ; he who 
knows the B. as non-existing becomes 
himself non-existing ; he who knows 
the B. as existing, him we know him- 
self as existing, 15, 57 ; he who 
knows that he is B. becomes all 
this, 15, 88 ; teaching of B. by No, 
no, 15, 108, 185; 34, Ixiv; 38, 
166-75; 48, 611 sq., 615-18, 661 ; 
is a deity about which we are not 
to ask too much, 15, 131 ; in B. 
knowledge and ignorance are hid- 
den, 15,255; no sins ever approach 
him who knows B., 15, 319 ; means 
of the worship and knowledge of 
B., 15, 343 sq. ; teaching the B., 25, 
51 ; knowledge of B. purifies, 25, 
187 scj. ; knowledge of B. increased 
by Brahmanic rites and Veda-study, 
25, 204; 48, 147; ascetics recite 
texts and meditate on B., 25, 205 sq. ; 
knowledge of B. the subject of the 
G;>anakaWa, 34, x, Ixx, Ixxviii sq., 

9-15, 19, 3', 73, 138, 157, 159, 324 ; 
38, 8, 162 sqq., 378, 393; on the 
qualification of gods for brahma-vidya 
or know ledge of B., 34, xxxvii, 2 16- 
23 ; 48, 326-35 ; Sudras not qualified 
for brahma-vidya, 34, xxxvii, 2 2 3-9 ; 
48, 337-47 ; Scripture does not con- 
tradict itself on the all-important 
point of B., 34, xl, 263-8 ; is to 
be known only from Scripture 
(Vedanta texts, Upanishads), 34, 
lxiv sq., 22-47, 307, 350-2, 355 ; 
48, 3, 74 sq., 155, 161-74, 255, 
617 sq. ; different modes or forms 
of meditation on B., 34, Ixvii sq., 
lxxiv, Ixxvi, 107-9 ; 38, 201-4, 337- 
40 ; 48, 629-43 j knowledge of B. 
is not subordinate to action, but 
independent, 34, Ixxv, 10-12, 29; 
38, 2S5-95 ; fruit or result of know- 
ledge of B., 34, 11, 14, 18, 24 sq., 
26-9, 231, 266, 300, 327; 38, 117 
n., 229 sq., 236, 353-63, 372-5, 
419; 48,5,7; conditions for engag- 



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BRAHMAN 



ing in the inquiry into B., 34, 12; 
48, 10 sq., 305 ; the body is an 
abode for the perception of B., 34, 
178 ; texts exhorting us to strive to 
see B., 34, 349; Bahva explained B. 
by silence, 38, 157; is not appre- 
hended because it is unevolved, 38, 
171; in the state of perfect concilia- 
tion the Yogins apprehend it, 38, 
171 sq. ; not the subject of injunc- 
tions, 38, 185, 162-6, 359; some 
persons, although knowing B., yet 
obtained new bodies, 38, 235; the 
state of being grounded in B. be- 
longs to the wandering mendicant, 
38, 300-3 ; Atharva-veda correlated 
with knowledge of B., 42, lix ; in- 
quiry into B., 48, 3-156; to be 
known after the knowledge of works 
has taken place, 48, 5 ; knowledge 
of B. puts an end to Nescience, 48, 
9, 11 ; meditation on B. and know- 
ledge of B. the same, 48, 82 sq. ; 
release not due to knowledge of 
non-qualified B., 48, 729-38; Ne- 
science not terminated by cognizing 
B. as the Universal Self, 48, 1 45-7 ; 
meditation on non-dual B. enjoined 
by all VedSnta texts, 48, 193, 197-9, 
252, 260, 316, 715 sq. ; even men 
knowing B. must avoid what is for- 
bidden and do what is prescribed, 
48, 288; meditation on B. is the 
means of attaining intuition, 48, 
305, 681, 732; knowledge of B. to 
be understood as knowledge of the 
Veda in general, 48, 631 ; Biahma«as 
discourse on the supreme B., 49 (i), 
127. See also Knowledge, and Medi- 
tation. 

(/') The higher and the lower B. 
B. (m.) who is full of the B. (n.) 
is lord of all entities, and identical 
with Vishnu, 8, 347 ; higher and 
lower B. , 'the two entered into the 
cave (of the heart),' 15, 12 n. ; two 
forms of B., the material and the 
immaterial, the mortal and the 
immortal, 15, 107 sq., 306; B. (m.) 
a personal god, only a manifestation 
of the Brahman (n.), 15, 302 sq. ; 
the syllable Om is the high and the 
low B., 15, 308 ; highest and lower 
B. distinguished, 34, xix sq., xxxii 
sq., xxxvi (masc. and neut.), 61-4, 
171-4; 38, 7, 166, 202 sq., 401 sq. ; 



48, 313 sq. ; lower B. associated 
with Maya, 34, xxv; lower B. 
called Lvara, the Lord, 34, xxv, 
xxvii ; in its causal and its effected 
state. 34, xxix ; 48, 336, 422, 459, 
542 ; higher and lower B. not dis- 
tinguished by Upanishads, nor by 
Badarayawa, nor by Ramanu^-a, 34, 
xxxi, c, cxiii, cxv sq. ; the B. to 
which the departed soul is led by 
the path of the gods is not the 
highest B., but the lower B., 34, 
lxxxii, xc sq. ; 38, 389-402; 48, 
748-52; Sahkara's distinction be- 
tween a lower and a higher B. not 
valid, 34, xci-xciv ; the lower B. is 
the vital principle in all creatures, 
34, 172 n. ; the world of the lower 
B. is called Satyaloka, 34, 181 ; 
lower B. is for the purpose of 
worship or meditation, 34, 330; 38, 
155 sq., 161 sq., 391 ; the qualified 
B. is the object of the discussion on 
the difference or non-difference of 
the cognitions of B-, 38, 185; re- 
sults of meditations on the qualified 
B., 38, 161 sq., 185, 402-4; the 
qualified B. is fundamentally one 
with the unqualified B., 38, 248 ; 
worlds of B. can only refer to the 
lower B., 38, 390; on account of 
its proximity to the higher B., the 
lower B. can be designated by the 
word 'B.,' 38, 391; immortality 
is possible only in the highest B., 
not in the effected one, 38, 392; 
the qualified B. also may be spoken 
of as being the Self of all, 38, 394 ; 
B. having for its body ail beings 
in their gross state, is the effect of 
B. having for its body all beings in 
their subtle state, 48, 132-4; Pra- 
kr/ti denotes B. in its causal phase 
when names and forms are not yet 
distinguished, 48, 399; used in a 
double sense, 48, 533 sq. ; differ- 
entiation of names and forms is the 
work of B., not of Hira.';yagarbha, 
48, 578-83; the effected or the 
highest B, is the soul's aim, accord- 
ing as the meditation is, 48, 752-4. 
(j) Passages in* which B. may be 

EITHER MASC. OR NEUTER. 

B. at the head of the Sadhyas, 1, 
43 ; obtained the victory for the 
Devas, 1, 149 sq.; worshipped by 



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115 



prayers and offerings, 2, 108, 203, 
399; 11, 180; 25, 91 ; 29, 85, i2i, 
141, 150, 161, 189, 207, 210, 219, 
221 sq., 232, 290, 294, 319-21, 323, 
344> 347j 3 68 5 30, 124, 148 sq., 
169, 175, 183, 194 sq., 243; 36, 41; 
42, 94, 323 ; 43, 25, 291 ; a part of 
the house called 'seat of B.,' 2, 
108; marriage rite of B., 7, 108; 25, 
79; 29, 166 ; VishtfU is B. personi- 
fied, 7, 293 ; 8, 347 ; appealed to as 
umpire, by the quarrelling Pra?;as, 
8, 271, 273 sq. ; 15, 202 ; teaching 
and studying the Veda a sacrifice 
to B., 14, 256 sq. ; 25, 49, 87 sq. ; 
29, 217 sq. ; 44, 95-9 ; funeral 
oblations offered in the mouth of 
B., 14, 268 ; the night of B., the 
muhurta sacred to B., 14, 276, 309; 
25, 143, 143 11. ; worshipped by 
ascetics, 14, 2S0; the teacher is the 
image of B., 25, 71 ; punishment, 
farmed of B.'s glory, 25, 218. 
(k) The god B. (masc), also 

CALLED SAHAMPATI, SVAYAMBHU, 
OR HlRA^VYAGARBHA. 

Branches of knowledge traced 
back to B., 1. 44, 144 ; 8, 312, 314 
-93; 14, 163 sq. ; 15, xxxix, 27, 
227,256; 43, xviii ; 48,284; the 
Self is B., 1, 245 ; is the essence of 
the Veda, Veda belongs to him, 1, 
259; 29, 368; men who perform 
sacrifices dwell after death with the 
gods and B. in heaven, 2, 1 40 ; the 
age of one B., a day and a night 
of B., 7, 1, 1 n., 78; 8, 79 sq., 
8011. ; 25, 20 sq. ; acquired his 
present exalted position in conse- 
quence of good deeds (Karman) in 
former existences, 7, 153 ; 11, 163 
sq. ; 48, 359 ; part of the hand 
sacred to B., 7, 198; 14, 21, 166; 
25, 40; four-faced (ATaturmukha), 
8, 83, 90, 93, 103, 345; 25, 254; 
48, 90, 312 sq. ; in the list of gods 
of the AnugHa, 8, 219 ; B. Svayam- 
bhu, the first of the Devas, the 
maker (creator) and preserver of 
the world, 8, 244; 15, 27-9, 315; 
25, 3-18, 21 sq., 24 sq. ; 35, 37 ; 
45, 244 sq. ; 48, 236, 238; is the 
first among all the patriarchs (Pra^a- 
patis), 8, 354; the Plaksha, the ever 
holy field of B., 8, 354 ; the virtuous 
praised by B. even, 10 (i), 59 ; no 



one in the world of Brahmans equal 
to Buddha, 10 (ii), 14, 30, 45 ; <B. 
is my witness,' 10 (ii), 78; Buddha 
compared with B., 10 (ii), 84 ; 19, 
220; 49 (i), 10^; the divine, and 
the human, and B.'s region, B.'s 
treasure, 10 (ii), 90; he who is 
endowed with the threefold know- 
ledge, is calm, and has destroyed 
regeneration, he is B. and Sakka, 
10 (ii), 117; ' who, be he a god, or 
B., or Inda,' 10 (ii), 189; union 
with B., only to be attained by 
Right Conduct, 11, x, 159 64, 183 
5, 201-3 i assemblies of B. one of 
theeight kinds of assemblies, 11, 48; 
the wheel of the empire of Truth 
set rolling by Buddha, cannot be 
turned back by B., 11, 154; the 
idea of B. in Buddhism, 11, 162-5 > 
of modern Hindu theism, 11, 163; 
in each of the infinite world sys- 
tems there is a B., 11, 164; a friend 
and follower of Buddha, 10 (ii), 1 19 
sq. ; 11, 116 sq., 11711,, 164; 13, 
124; 19, 347 sq.. 350, 352; 21, 
69 sq., 349; 35, 118, 118 n., 301 
sq. ; 36, 24, 343, 373; 49 (i), 
198,200; (ii), 91, 165; beseeches 
Buddha to proclaim the truth, 11, 
164; IB, 84-8 ; 19, 165-7; 21, 55; 
36,4isq.; 49 (i), 168, 173 ; Buddha 
knows B., the world of B., and the 
path which leads to it, 11, 185 sq. ; 
worship of B. denounced, 11, 199; 
36, 2 1 ; a king surrounded by trusty 
servants is superior even to B., 14, 
82 ; sacrificers are equal to B., 14, 
102 ; 25, 185 ; through penances 
Bharadva^a and others became 
equal to B., 14, 339; that part of 
the Self which belongs to rajj-as is 
B., 15, 304 ; Sanatkumara, the son 
of B., 19, 24; unmoved in the 
midst of the kalpa-fire, 19, 184 ; 
Indra humbly approaches B., 19, 
188; 49 (i), 107; established by 
Buddha, 19, 193; the swan his 
vehicle, 19, 309 n. ; B. Sahampati 
and his 12,000 followers, 21, 5; men 
may be reborn as Brahmans, 21, 
125 ; seats of B. gained by hearing 
the Dharmaparyaya preached, 21, 
332,335; isthe king of all Brahma- 
kayika gods and father of the 
Brahma-world, 21, 387 ; saints 



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BRAHMAN— BRAHMAiVA 



preach under the shape of B., 21, 
401, 411; Mami the son of self- 
existent B ; , 25, xii, Ivii, lxi, lxiv, 19, 
19 n., 26 ; laws (of Mann) revealed 
by B., 25, xv, xvii, xcviii, 19, 354 ; 
33, 35, 35 n. ; born in the mundane 
egg, 25, 5, 5 n -5 48, 312, 580; 
creates and destroys the world over 
and over again, 25, 17 sq., 21 sq. ; 
created animals for sacrifices, 25, 
175; 'the court of (four-faced) 
B.,' 25, 254; true testimony is 
revered by B. himself, 25, 268; 
created the castes, 25, 326, 413; 
in the highest order of beings pro- 
duced by Goodness, 25, 495, 495 n. : 
messenger of B. invoked against the 
demons, 30, 212 ; ordeals ordained 
and watched by B., 33, 115, 119, 
253, 315; Maha-B. is mighty, and 
he is only one, 36, 50 ; Brahmans 
(pi.), the highest gods, also long for 
the righteous man, 36, 221 ; sons of 
B.'s mind, 38, 235 ; compact of Bn- 
haspati with Indra and B., 42, 127 ; 
the spotless B. is the moon, 44, 

317 ; with Soma for his leader, 44, 

318 ; B. A'aturmukha, Sanaka, and 
similar mighty beings dwelling in 
this world, 48, 90 ; beings from B. 
down to a blade ol grass, 48, 156, 
2 59j 445, 473; Narayawa alone 
existed, not B., nor Siva, 48, 240, 
461, 522 ; represents the souls in 
their collective aspect, 48, 312 sq. ; 
the Devas from B. downward pos- 
sess a body and sense-organs, 48, 
328-30; is created and the Vedas 
delivered to him, 48, 334 sq.; B. 
and the other gods originated from 
the Self, 48, 367 ; eight hundred 
millions of Brahmans (inhabitants 
of the B. worlds) purified by the 
eye of wisdom, 49 (i), 1S0; a 
preacher of the Law attains the su- 
preme throne of B., 49 (i), 185; B., 
Vish«u, and Siva, 49 (i), 196-8, 200; 
precedence of the great B., 49 (ii), 
57 ; the palace of Lord B., 49 (ii), 
172. See a I jo H\r any agdivbhn, Saham- 
pati, and Svayambhu ; B.'s heaven, 
world of B. , see Brahma-world. 

Brahman, m., t.t,, a certain priest. 

See under Priests (a, b). 
Brahmawa (masc), Brahma>/as, 

members of the priestly caste. 



{a} B. as priests at religious rites. 

(b) B. reverenced as holy and divine beings. 

(c) Duties of B. and restrictions for them. 
(rf) Exceptional laws regarding B. 

(e) B. and kings or nobles (Kshatriyas). 
00 B. in Buddhist and Gaina texts. 

(a) B. AS PRIESTS AT RELIGIOUS 

RITES. 

Speaking to B. is auspicious and 
purifying, 2, 34, 22 r ; 30, 184, 199, 
208 ; to be fed at all rites for gods 
or manes, 2, 1 38, 151 ; 7, 156, 262 ; 

14, 256 sq. ; 25, 93, 98; 29, 320; 
30, 119; take the place of sacred 
fire at Sraddhas, 2, 140; 25, 114 ; 
to be fed at SrSddhas, 2, 143, 148, 
150 sq., 255 ; 7, 76 sq., 83-7, 
253-5; 14,267,270; 25,98-in, 
113 sq., 116-24; 30, 225, 234-6, 
292 sq. ; B. who are unfit to be 
invited to a Sraddha, 2, 145; 7, 
252 sq. ; 14, 51 sq. ; 25, 103, 107, 
109, 1 1 r ; B. who sanctify a com- 
pany at the Sraddha, 2, 146, 259; 
7j 253-5 ! 14, 52 sq. ; 25, 1 10 sq., 
no n.; represent the deceased 
ancestors at the Sraddha, 7, 85 n., 
232-8, 232 n,, 250 sq. ; 29, 105-8, 
111, 250-5 ; offerings to the manes 
offered in the mouth of B., 14, 268; 
30, 228 ; are the ancient deities of 
the funeral sacrifice, 25, 114 ; an 
enemy of B. excluded from Sraddha 
feasts, 25, 104; the hand of a B. 
is the mouth of the Fathers, 29, 
254 ;— distribution of food to B. at 
the end of religious rites, 2, 299 ; 
12, 309 n. ; 29, 15 sq., 32, 101, 130, 
135, 17*, 176, 192, 205, 208, 215, 
250, 273, 288, 293, 300, 327, 33i~3, 
336, 33 8 » 349 sq-j 354, 374 ; 30, 14, 
38, 84, 93, 158, 160, 175, i»4» 203, 
241, 246, 265, 286, 288 ; offence 
of neglecting to invite and feed 
a B. or of insulting him by offering 
him uneatable food, 7, 33 ; gifts 
bestowed on B., 7, 159-61, 1S1, 
263-70, 274-6 ; 14, 135-9 ; 30, 
218, 284; 42, 141, 145, 360; 49 (i), 

15, 22 ; pronounce auspicious words, 
benedictions, 7, 215, 237 ; 29, 172, 
205, 215, 250; 30, 95, 137, 158, 
160, 162, 184, 203, 204, 241, 269, 
271, 279, 283 ; sacrifices without 
gifts of food to B. condemned, 8, 
119; 25, 93; B. only can be 
priests, 12, 25, 25 n. ; 30, 321: 



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worship of Agni and the eastward 
migration of the B. from the Saras- 
vati to the SadSnira, 12, 104 n., 
105 sq. ; ' The B. {priests) are the 
guardians of this sacrifice ;' for 
guardians of the sacrifice, indeed, are 
those B. who are versed in the sacred 
writ, because they spread it, they 
originate it, 12, 134, 225; what is 
agreeable to the B. is auspicious, 12, 
135 ; fulfilment of wishes obtained 
by B. slaying in one's house, 12, 
292 ; no one but a B. is allowed 
to drink of the residue of the 
Agnihotra, 12, 338, 338 n, ; the 
word of a B. purifies, 14, 72, 171 - } 
25, 191; offerings made into the 
mouths of B. arc the best, 14, 13S 
sq. ; the hand of a B. is his 
mouth, 14, 209 ; 29, 118; legends 
repeated in the assembly of B„, 15, 
14; food given to B. reaches the 
gods, 29, 16 ; the place of the B. at 
a sacrifice, 29, 24 ; pnuita, a sacri- 
fice deposited in a B., 29, 3 1 ; gifts 
made to B. at a wedding, 29, 38 
sq. ; BO, 196; a name pleasing to 
the B. to be given to a child, 29, 
50 ; Veda-study to be interrupted 
in the presence of B. who have not 
had their meal, 29, 118; the bride's 
shift to be given to a B., 29, 171 ; 
30, 270 ; shave the child's hair, 29, 
185 ; 30, 217 ; fees to be given to 
B. at the end of studentship, 29, 
227 ; but see also Teacher ; five B. 
breathe upon the new-born child, 
29, 295 ; fed at the beginning of 
ceremonies, 29, 301, 304, 428 ; 30, 
137, 162, 204, 269, 271, 279, 283 ; 
of all food a due portion must be 
given to B., 29, 388 ; 30, 24 ; only 
a B. may make the Bali-offerings 
for the householder, 30, 23; B. 
women pronounce blessings at the 
Simantonnayana, 30, 55; do not 
eat an uncompleted sacrifice, 42, 
142 ; sterile cows must be given to 
the B., 42, 174-9, 656-61; a cow 
presented to an offended B., 44, 
195 ; the metal vessels of a deceased 
sacrificer to be given to a B., 44, 
205, 205 n, ; the Sautramawi is 
a B.'s sacrifice, 44, 260; a B. lute- 
player sings of the king's sacrifices 
and gifts, 44, 356 sq., 359 ; arc the 



fields 011 which gifts sown grow up 
as merit, 45, 52 ; congratulate King 
Suddhodana on Buddha's birth, and 
receive gilts, 49 (i), 8-10. 

(b) B. REVERENCED AS HOLY AND 
DIVINE BEINGS. 

Do not speak evil of the />'., 1, 32 ; 
*, 320 ; 14, 298 ; 25, 166 ; one 
should not curse a B., and not say 
to him anything except what is 
auspicious, 1, 251 ; 7, 155 ; 25, 436; 
purification prescribed on touching 
a B., 2, 59 ; classed as sacred with 
gods, idols, cows, and the like, 2, 94 
sq., 220 ; 7, 228; 14, 36, 245, 323 ; 
25,135-8; 33,222; to be honoured 
and revered, 2, 128; 7, xxix, 13, 
194; 8, 119; 25, 86, 399, 588; 
a B. who has studied the Vedas and a 
he-goat evince the strongest sexual de- 
sires, 2, 1 36 ; witnesses to be sworn 
in the presence of the gods, the 
king, and B., 2, 247; 25,269; death 
in a fight for the sake of B. purifies, 
procures heaven, &c, 2, 250 ; 7, 18, 
67 ; 14, 106; 25, 185, 416, 447; 
remains always pure, 2, 254; 14, 
132 sq. ; 25,424; gods and B. must 
be present at ordeals, 7, 55 ; 33, 260, 
262 ; the gods are invisible deities, the 
B. are visible deities. The B. sustain 
the world. It is l>y the favour of the 
B. that the gods reside in heaven; a 
speech uttered by B. [whether a curse 
or a benediction') never fails to come 
true. . . . When the visible gods arc 
pleased, the invisible gods are surely 
plcascdas well, 7, 77 ; have the power 
to purify from sin and defilement, 
7, 103 ; 25, 447 sq.; when a B. has 
met with an accident, Vedic study 
must be interrupted, 7, 125 ; he 
must not step on the shade of a B., 

7, 203 ; superhuman power of a 
pious B., 7, 243, 245 ; 25, 398 ; the 
B., the Veda, and the sacrifices cre- 
ated by the Brahman, 8, 120; de- 
nounced as impostors by unbelievers, 

8, 214; the Anuglta told to KWsh«a 
by a B. who came from the heavenly 
world and the world of Brahman, 
8, 231 ; BWhaspati is the lord of B., 
8, 346 ; these B., the creators of the 
world, 8, 387; 25, 436; the B. is 
the repeller of the Rakshas, 12, 36 ; 
the B. are the human gods, 12, 309 
sq., 374 : 25, 398 sq., 447 ; 26, 341 ; 



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42, 164, 329, 529; a learned B. re- 
sembles a sacred lire, 14, 18, iS n., 
51 ; 25, 93 ; a Snataka should not 
pass between a fire and a B., nor 
between two B., 14, 61 ; learned B. 
incur no guilt, tor a learned B. re- 
sembles a five and the sun, 14, 130 
sq. ; a B. is a fire, for Agni is a B., 14, 
1 38 sq. ; what />'. riding in the chariot 
of the law {and) wielding the sword of 
the Veda, profound even in jest, that is 
declared to be the highest law, 14, 145 ; 
have two names, two mouths, two 
kinds of virile energy, and two 
births, 14, 209 sq. ; way must be 
made for a B., 14, 243; a place 
where B. sit, sacred, 14, 2495 the 
eternal greatness of the B. is neither 
increased nor diminished by works, 
14, 261 , 274 ; duties towards B., 15, 
52; 25, 588; 44, 100; power of 
their curse, charms and incantations 
their weapons, 15, 218; 25, 436, 
436 n. ; 42, 170 sq., 430-2 ; enco- 
mium of the B., 25, xii, 24-6 ; So- 
mapas, &c, the manes of B., 25, 
112 ; not to be touched by one who 
is impure, 25, 151 ; a fort must be 
supplied with B., 25, 228; to be 
honoured after a victory, 25, 248, 
248 n.; to protect B. arms may be 
taken up, 25, 315; a learned Brah- 
mawa is lord of the whole world, 
25, 385 ; is superior to all castes, 25, 
402 ; doing good to and worshipping 
B,, a penance, 25, 446, 476 ; pro- 
duced by Goodness, 25, 494 ; Bali 
offerings to Brahman and the B. at 
the Yaijvadeva sacrifice, 29, 85 ; 
worshipped at the Tarpawa, 29, 122; 
to Agni belongs the B., 29, 307 ; 44, 
89; food and the B. protect the 
house, 29, 348 ; before reaching B., 
one should dismount from a carriage, 
29, 36 i ; Rava«a or another demon, 
the B, with ten heads, the first to 
be born, 42, 25, 374 sq. ; charms 
found by B., Rishis, gods, 42, 29 ; 
have found medicinal plants, 42, 34, 
292 ; imprecations against the op- 
pressors of B.j 42, 169-72, 1S4, 430- 
6 ; he that injureth a />'., whose kin 
are the gods, does not reach Heaven by 
the road of the Fathers, 42, 170 ; de- 
scendants of the ft'shis, 42, 183 sq. ; 
as weather-prophets, 42, 532 sq. ; 



all beings, indeed, pass into the />'., and 
from the 19. they are again produced, 
44, 85 ; suffering and evil fastened 
on a B. (as scapegoat), 44, 181, 
181 n., 183 ; a B. descended from a 
Rishi represents all the deities, 44, 
195 sq.; born with spiritual lustre, 
44, 294 ; whosoever sacrifices, sacri- 
fices after becoming a B., 44, 348; 
the B. is everything, 44, 412. 
(c) Duties of B. and restric- 
tions FOR THEM. 

In the solitude of the forest a 
B. should be searched for, 1, 57 ; 
a B. by birth only, i. e. a B. who has 
not studied the Veda, 1, 92 ; 14, 
144; 25, 59; qualities of a B. deeply 
versed in the Vedas, i.e. a Sish/a, 2, 
215-18; 14, 38-40; 25, 509; Lakshmi 
resides in a B. who studies the Veda, 
7, 299; only a Brahmasa learned 
in the Veda has a right to the pre- 
rogatives of his caste, 14, 16-18; 
see also Veda (c ; knowledge of) ;— 
unworthy B. whose food must not 
be eaten, 2, 69 ; 14, 71 ; lawful and 
unlawful occupations for B., 2, 72 sq., 
212 sq., 215, 227 sq. ; 7, 1 79 ; 8, 217 
sq. ; 14, 146, 146 n., 221 ; 25, lxviii, 
86, 100, 109, 128-31, 272, 399, 5S7 
sq. ; 33, 221, 347 ; shall never take 
up aims, 2, 90 ; 42, 262 ; to protect 
himself or other B., a B. may take 
up arms, 2, 214; 14, 236; sixfold 
mode of life of B.,2, 215; 8, 359 sq., 
359 "• ; 25, 419; their merit in 
carrying out the corpse of a deceased 
B. who has no relatives, 7, 75; are 
purified by abandoning the world, 
7, 97 ; 25, 188 ; one who is benevo- 
lent towards all creatures is justly 
called a B., 7, 184; 14, 128; 25,46, 
46 n. ; worthy and unworthy B., 7, 
274-6 ; 25, 51 ; duties of B., 8, 21 
sq., 217 sq.; 14, 224; 25, 587 sq. ; 
33, 221; the true B. he who is 
attached to the Brahman, 8, 147, 
183 ; pious B. who know the Brah- 
man, 8, 158-61, 165, 165 n. ; he is 
the true B. who swerves not from 
the truth, 8, 171 ; twelve great ob- 
servances of a B., 8, 182 ; all com- 
panies of B. extol him who has be- 
come emancipated, 8, 345 ; shall not 
speak barbarous language, 14, 40; 
26, 32; B. who do not perform 



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the twilight devotions are equal to 
■Siidras, 14, 248; the three debts of 
a B., 14, 261 sq., 271 ; let a B. he- 
come a Muni, and then he is a B., 
15, 129 sq. ; humility required of 
them, 25, lxvii, 59 sq. ; unworthy B. 
who are like cats and herons (hypo- 
crites), 25, 159, 159 n.; 45, 417; 
B. who renounce the world, but 
continue to live as householders, 25, 
214-16, 214 n.; must not recover 
property by sacrificing or teaching, 
25, 3 1 3 ; a B. fined for not inviting 
his neighbour to festivals, 25, 322, 
322 n. ; in distress may live by alms, 
25, 424 ; may teach and sacrifice for 
despicable men in times of distress, 
25, 424 sq. ; penances for B. who 
acquire property by reprehensible 
methods, 25, 470, 470 n. ; should be 
taught the Savitri at once, 44, 89 ; 
four duties of B.: Brahmanical de- 
scent, befitting deportment, fame, 
and the perfecting of the people, 44, 
100; must not consume spirituous 
liquors, 44, 233, 260; those B. who 
know nought of the Ajvamedha, 
may be despoiled by the keepers of 
the sacrificial horse, 44, 31^0; dis- 
course on the supreme Brahman, 
49 (i), 127. 

(d) Exceptional laws regard- 
ing B. 

The most heinous crime of slay- 
ing a B., 1, 84 ; 2, 71, 90, 266, 278, 
280, 283 sq., 292 sq.; 7, 132, 134 ; 
14, 101, 122, 175 ; 25, 161, 270, 309, 
3S2 sq.; 42, 522 ; 41, 328, 340 sq., 
396; no greater crime is known on 
earth than slaying a B.; a king, there- 

fore, must not even eomeivc in his mind 
the thought of killing a B., 25, 320, 
451 n. ; a murder other than the 
slaying of a B. is no murder, 44, 
340 ; 45, 363 n.; see also Brahma- 
hatya;— are exempt from oppro- 
brious, capital, and corporal punish- 
ments and servitude, 2, 125, 125 n., 
216, 245; 14, 201, 233; 25, 320; 
33, 203 sq., 229, 362 ; foes declaring 
themselves to be cows or B. must 
not be slain, 2, 229, 229 n. ; the sin 
of accusing a B. of a crime, 2, 282 ; 
their privileges, 7, 19; 33, 219-22 ; 
how to be punished, 7, 25; 33, 58, 
388; crime of committing B. to 



slavery, 7, 37 ; a learned B. cannot 
be a witness, 7, 48; not subject to 
certain ordeals, 7, 54 sq. ; 33, 248 ; 
forms of marriage legitimate for a 
B., 7, 108; 14, 206; 25, 79, 82; 
crime of stealing the gold or cattle 
of B., 2, 280 ; 7, 133 sq.; 14, 5, 108, 
132,201, 213, 218, 293, 296, 299; 
25, 311, 3S3 ; 33, 22S, 363; pen- 
ances and punishments for offending 
or hurting B., 7, 138, 177, 180; 25, 
154, 444, 472 sq., 588; 33, 348; 
the three lower castes shall live ac- 
cording to the teaching of the B., 
14, 7 sq. ; perjury, and speaking un- 
truth, permitted for the sake of a 
B., 14, 83 ; 25, 273 ; 33, 303 ; fight- 
ing with B. forbidden, 14, 200 ; a 
B. shall have two names, 14, 209 sq. ; 
30, 215 ; non-Brahmanical teachers 
in times of distress, 25, 73 ; threat- 
ening a B., a crime, 25, 155 ; receive 
part or whole of a found treasure, 
25, 259 ; property of a learned B. 
not lost by limitation or adverse 
possession, 25, 279 ; 33, 61, 311 sq.; 
enrich themselves through others, 
25, 284 ; may appropriate property 
for sacrificial purposes, 25, 313, 432 
sq. ; property taken from mortal 
sinners to be given to B., 25, 385 ; 
doubtful points of law settled by B. 
who are Sishtes, 25, 509 sq. ; debts 
due to deceased B. must be paid to 
relatives or B., 33, 69 ; household 
property and alms of B. are free of 
duty, 33, 127 ; property found by 
B, does not go to the king, 33, 146 ; 
superior value of property belonging 
to B., 33, 205 ; what has been given 
to B. can never be taken back, 33, 
221 ; a B. is the root of the tree ot 
justice, 33, 282 ; as witnesses, 33, 
301 ; oaths by B., 33, 315; a B. 
cannot be forced to do work for 
debts, 33, 330; inherit in default of 
relatives, 33, 379 ; property of B. 
not to be given as sacrificial gift, 44, 
402, 41a, 420. 

(e) B.AND KINGS OR NOBLES (KSHA- 
TRtYAS). 

A king who is slain in attempting 
to recover the property of B. per- 
forms the most meritorious sacrifice, 
2, 163 ; a king gains endless worlds 
by giving land and money to B., 



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2, 163 ; a king must not levy any 
tax upon B., 2, 164 ; 7, 16 ; 14, 8, 
98 sq. and n. ; kings and B. versed 
in the Vedas uphold the moral order 
in the world, 2, 214 sq. and n. ; 
the king is master of all, with the 
exception of B-, 2, 234 sq. ; assist the 
king as judges, 2. 237 sq.; 20,253-6, 
255 sq. n., 264, 322; 33, 250, 288, 
388, 390 ; kings or B. examine 
witnesses, 2, 248; property of B. 
who die without heirs goes to other 
B., not to the king, 2, 309, 309 n. ; 

7, 68; 14, 93 sq. ; 25, 368; 33, 
202 ; as officers and advisers of 
a king, 7, 20, 41; 25, 225; king's 
duty towards learned B., 7, 21-3 ; 
25, 22i, 229 sq., 237, 239, 323, 
397-9) 43'j 434 sq. ; 33, 218 sq., 
346 sq. ; owing to the disappear- 
ance of B. the Kshatriyas became 
Vr/shalas, 8, 295 ; Kshatriyas pro- 
created by B. on Kshatriya women, 

8, 295, 295 n, ; are the bridges of 
piety, whence they must be pro- 
tected by the kings, 8, 348 ; follow 
in the train of a king, 12, 47 ; the 
king must never take property of 
B., 14, 179 sq., 201; 25, 369; 33, 
338 ; King Ganaka Vaideha testing 
the knowledge of the B., 15, 121-49; 
B. and Kshatriyas are nothing but 
the Self, 15, 182 ; 34, 275 sq. ; to 
be worshipped by the king, 25, 221; 
33, 280; king must be lenient 
towards B., 25, 221 ; Kshatriyas 
degraded by not consulting B., 25, 
412, 412 n. ; power of B. greater 
than that of the king, 25, 436 ; 41, 
no; two persons , a B. and a king, 
are declared to be exempt from censure 
and corporal punishment in this world ; 
for these two sustain the visible world, 

33, 210, 216 ; there is no difference 
between kings and B., 33, 220; he 
to whom the B. and the Kshatriyas 
are but food is the highest Self, 34, 
xxxv, 1 1 6-1 8; arenotqualifiedforthe 
ra^asuya-sacrifice, 34, 218; are not 
the food of kings, their king being 
Soma, 41, 72, 95 ; 43, 249 ; the B. is 
an object of respect after the king, 
41, 96 ; do not engage in disputation 
with Rag-anyas, 44, 114; king can 
oppress B., but fares the worse for 
it, 44, 286. See also Caste (b). 



(/) B. IN Bl'DDHIST AND GAINA 
TEXTS. 

Buddhaghosa a learned B., 10 (i), 
xxi ; etymology of Bahmawo, Pali 
for B., 10 (i), liv, liv n., 89, B9 sq. n. ; 
the Buddhist saint, the Arhat, as 
the true Br&htna»a, 10 (i), 39, 
8 9~95! (n), 89, 113-17, 151 sq., 
17 1-4, 179, 195, 207 sq. ; 13, 78-80; 
3b', 26-8, 28 n., 314; a true B. goes 
scatheless, though he have killed 
father and mother, 10 (i), 70, 70 
sqq. n. ; pleasant is the state of 
a B., 10 (i), 79 ; no one should attack 
a B., but no B. should let himself 
fly at his aggressor, 10 (i), 90 ; 
a man does not become a B. by his 
platted hair, by his family, or by birth ; 
in whom there is truth and righteous- 
ness, he is blessed, he is a B,, 10 (i), 
90 sq. ; three kinds of B., Titthiyas, 
A^ivikas, and Niganfifos, 10 (ii) r xiii; 
as described in the Sutta-Nipata, 
10 (ii), xiii sq. ; there are B., born 
in the family of preceptors, friends 
of the hymns, who commit sins ; 
their birth does not save them from 
hell nor from blame, 10 (ii), 23; 
converted by Buddha, 10 (ii), 40-2, 
52, 79 sq., 103-6,186-213; Buddha's 
description of the pious customs 
of the B. of old, and their gradual 
degeneration, 10 (ii), 48-52 ; a 
Thera called a B., 10 (ii), 57; 
Buddha the best of the five B., 
10 (i')» 59 ; disputatious B., con- 
trasted with Buddha, 10 (ii), 63 ; 
B. together with B. ask truly, 
Art thou a B.? 10 (ii), 75; to 
whom a B. should offer, 10 (ii), 
82-4 ; Buddha warns Ke«iya not 
to invite him, because Kewiya is 
intimate with the B., 10 (ii), 97 ; 
is a man a B. by birth or by deeds ? 
10 (ii)" 108-17; a B. may, by 
intense meditation, cause an earth- 
quake, 11, 45 sq. ; will honour the 
remains of the Tathagata, 11, 91, 
99, 247 ; Sama«a-brahma«a, B. by 
saintlinessoflifc, 11. 105 sq., 105 n.; 
compared to the Scribes and Phari- 
sees of the New Testament, 11, 
160; their phraseology assumed a 
different meaning when used by 
Buddha, 11, 161-5 ; Buddha's criti- 
cism of the teaching of the B. as to 



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BRAHMA7VA- BRAHMA-WORLD 121 

union with Brahman, 11, 171-85; Brahma^aspati, invoked to purify 

various B. teach various paths, such from sin, 14, 251; the lord of 

as the Addhariya B., the Tittiriya B., Brahman or speech, 15, 82; the 

the A7>andoka B., the A'&mdava B., Lord of prayer, a name of the 

the Brahma&iriya B., 11, 171, 171 Creator, 43, xiv; lord of the priest- 

11. ; how they recite the Vedas, 11, hood, 43, 73 ; is the sun, 44, 453 ; 

172 sq. ; B. and laymen (hrahmana- invoked at the Pravargya, 44, 453, 

gahapatika), 11, 258 n., 261 ; behave 476 n., 478; Agni identified with 

badly at dinners given to them, 13, B., the Brahman priest among the 

152 ; the Lokayata system of the gods, 46, 1S6, 190 ; the same as 

B. not allowed to the Bhikkhus, Brihaspati, q. v. 

20, 151 sq. ; an honorific title used Brahman -egg, created, 48, 127, 

by Buddhists and Gainas, 22, xxx ; 334,731. 

among those who are not attached Brahma-nirva//a,t.t.,Brahmic bliss, 

to the world, there is real Brahman- 8, 27 n., 52, 52 n., 176, 176 n. 

hood, 22, 45; B. a title of Mahavira, BrahmaniBm, germs of Buddhism 

22, 63, 66, 82 sqq., &c, ; 45, 301, and Gain ism in it, 22, xxxii. 

301 n., 310; Buddha calls himself Brahman-slaying, see Brahma- 

a B., i. e. an Arahat, 30, 8, 8 n., 10 ; hatyS, and Brahmasa (d). 

think themselves the highest among Brahmapura, city of Brahman, 34. 

men and revile the Bhikkhus, 36, 178. See Brahman (c). 

21 sq. ; E. only worthy of gifts, Brahmar/shi, worshipped, 29, 1 41. 

36, 120 sq. n. ; B. and Buddhists, Brahmasaz-'/stha, i.e. he who is 

both reformers, 36, 127 sq. 11. ; the firmly grounded in Brahman, obtains 

superiority of monks to B., 45, 50- 6 ; immortality, 1, 35. 

a true monk who is exempt from Brahmasattra, see Veda (c). 

all Karman is a true B., 45, 138-41 ; Brahma Sikhin, n. of a Brahma- 

caned*hoIycats'byArdraka,45,4i7; kfiyika god, 21, 5. 

B. and Samawas, see Holy persons, Brahmasukta, in the Sawhitopam- 

Castes, Priests, and Srotriyas. shad of the Atharvanas, 38, 62 ; 

Brahma/za (neuter), title of texts, 48, 191. 

'sayings of Brahmans,' applicable Brahma-sutras, 'texts about the 

to all old prose traditions, 1, lxvi; Brahman,' not the Vedanta-sutras, 

several Upanishads occur in B., 1, 8, 31, 102; another name for 

lxvi sq, ; B. and Ara«yakas, both Vedanta-sutras, 34, xiv n. ; see 

liturgical, 1, xci sq. ; in the sense of Vedanta-siitras. 

Upanishad or secret doctrine, 1, Brahma svaranadabhinandit a, 11. 

264, 264 n. ; the B. literature, 12, ix, of the 42nd Tathagata, 49 (ii), 6. 

xxii-xxv, xlvii ; B. means a dictum Brahma-upanishad, or the secret 

on ceremonial, 12, xxii sq. ; B. and doctrine of the Veda, its teaching, 

Mantrasawhita to be studied, 25, and its result, 1, 44; 34, 94; 48, 

144; Gr/hya ceremonies mentioned 336,525. 

in B., 30, xiv-xxii ; interpretation of Brahmavar/tasa, Sk., t.t., 1, 29 n. 

Mantras in the B., 32, 29, 56, 359 Brahma-veda = Atharva-veda, 42, 

sq. ; mystic sense,dogmaticexplana- xxvii sq., xxviii n,, xxx, xliii, lix, 

tion of an oblation, 43, 240; B., lxii-lxvii. 

Mantras, and arthavadas, 48, 330; Brahmavidya, knowledge of the 

see also Aitareya-B., Kaushitaki-B., Brahman, see Brahman (/>). 

PaiUaviwja-B., mid Satapatha-B. Brahmavidyabhara«a,on Bauddha 

Brahmawadhammikasutta, t.c, sects, 34, 401 11., 404 sq. n. 

10 (ii), 47-52. Brahma-viharas, see Meditations. 

Brahmawagita, title of a chapter of Brahma-world (world of the Brah- 

the Anugita, 8, 256 n., 310 n. man, neut., or of Brahman, masc), 

Brahmananda-valli, the second all creatures day after day go into 

Adhyayaof the Taittiriyaka-Upani- the B., and yet do not discover it, 

shad, 15, xxvii sq. 1, 129 ; 48, 317 sq. ; deep sleep is 



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BRAHMA-WORLD— BKAHMOPANISHAD 



absorption in the B., 1, 129; 15, 
171 ', 48, 317 sq.; is free from all 
evil, and lighted up once for all, 1, 
130; belongs to those who find it 
by abstinence (brahma-farya), 1, 
130 sq.; 38, 384; details about it, 
its lakes, &c., 1, 131, 132 n., 275 sq. ; 
the sun is the door of it, 1, 134; 
the Devas are in the B., and medi- 
tate on the Self as taught by Pra- 
£-apati, 1, 142 ; having shaken off the 
body, I obtain self made and satisfied 
the uncreated world of Brahman, 1, 
143; obtained by him who performs 
the duties of studentship, Tiousc- 
holdership, and of the mendicant, 

I, 144; is water, 1, 279; by life- 
long service to a teacher the pro- 
fessed student gains the B., 2, 193 ; 
7, 120, 129; 25, 72 sq., 157; a 
well-conducted Snataka will never 
fall from it, 2, 226; obtained through 
the Brahma marriage rite, 7, 108 ; 
attained by a giver of a hundred 
milch cows, 7, 272 ; even the B. 
only temporary, 8, 79 sq., 80 n. ; 
a wise Brahmawa came from B., 8, 
231 ; the imperceptible seat of the 
Brahman, the highest world, 8, 234 ; 
Satyal'oka or B., 8, 234 n.; the 
highest goal of BrShmawas and 
Kshatriyas, 8, 255 ; Matanga, the 
Kandahi, went to the B., 10 (ii), 23 ; 
he who pretends to be an Arhat, 
without being one, is a thief even 
in the B.,10 (ii), 3 3 ; Buddha teaches 
the beings in B., 10 (ii), 96, 142 sq. ; 
is void like other worlds, 10 (ii), 
208 ; no one in it can digest what 
Buddha digested, 11, 72 ; the turn- 
ing of the wheel of the empire 
of Truth heard in B., 11, 155; 
Buddha understands the B. as all 
other worlds, 11, 185-7 ; the Iddhi 
of reaching in the body up to the 
B., 11, 214 ; Sudassana entered it, 

II, 285; Buddha will not lay aside 
his body in any place of B., 11, 288 ; 
he who fulfils the duties of a house- 
holder never falls from it, 14, 44 sq., 
49 ; gained by self-immolation, 14, 
136; the reward of a Brahmawa 
who follows the rules of the law, 
14, 224; by teaching the rule of 
Pra^apati one becomes exalted in 
it, 14, 332; Brahman (neut.) seen 



in it, as in light and shade, 15, 22 ; 
worlds of Pra^apati woven into the 
worlds of Brahman, 15, 131; bliss 
in the B., 15, 172 sq., 176 ; 25, 169, 
204, 204 n. ; he who knows the Self 
obtains the B., 15, 180; from the 
worlds of Brahman there is no re- 
turn, 15, 208; blissful state in the B. 
obtained by meditation on CJod, 15, 
236 ; this B. in the moon belongs to 
those who beget children, but that 
pure B. belongs to those who prac- 
tise penance, abstinence, and truth, 
15, 273 sq. ; as a reward for medi- 
tation on Om, 15, 282 ; 34, 174; 
he is led up to the B. by the Saman, 
15, 282; 34, 173; 48, 311 sq. ; 
Hirawyagarbha dwells in the B., 15, 
282; 34, 173; rebirth in the B., 
19, 1 38 ; the Akanish?/jas and Abha- 
svaras in the B., 21, 340, 346; a 
pious Brahmana goes to the highest 
dwelling-place, 25, 92, 92 n. ; is the 
small ether, 34, 1 80 ; not ' the world 
of Brahman,' but ' the world which 
is Brahman,' 34, iSosq.; 48,751 sq.; 
how far is the B. ? 35, 126 sq. ; one 
of the four great continents, 35, 
130; Arahatship or birth in the B. 
the two highest rewards of universal 
love, 35, 279 ; the Bodisat reborn 
in the B., 36, 19, 22 ; one of the 
fourteen worlds, 48, 328, 429; on 
the passing away of the effected 
B,, at the pralaya the souls go to 
the highest Brahman, 48, 749 sq. ; 
reached by mendicants, 49 (i), 128. 
See also Worlds. 

Brahm.aya.g77a, see Veda (c). 

Brahmisundari, n.p., at the head 
of the nuns in .K/shabha's time, 22, 
284. 

Bratum-upanishad, not a title of 
thcKena-upanishad,l,lxxxiii,lxxxix; 
penance, restraint, sacrifice are its 
feet, the Vedas its limbs, the Trne 
its abode, 1, 152 sq. 

Brahmodya, t.t., riddles from the 
Veda, given at Sraddha feasts, 25, 
118, 118 n. ; theological discussions 
between the priests as part of cere- 
mony, 44, 79,79 n,, 314-16, 388-91 ; 
is the complete attainment of speech, 
44, 391. 

Brahmopanishad, see Brahma- 
upanishad. 



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Brahmopasana, t.t., meditation on 
Brahman, and pratikopasana, 1, 201. 
St>e Brahman fr, b). 

Brahmo Samaj, 1, Ixiv. 

Breath (Sk. prawa). 

(n) Regulation of bieathing, 

(fi) The b. of life, the vital principle, the 

soul. 
(t) The chief vital air and the organs of the 

soul, 
(rf) 11. as a divine principle or being. 

(a) Regulation of breathing. 
Stopping the b., as part of a pen- 
ance or of a ceremony, 2, 86, 129, 
183, 185, 290, 293, 293 n. ; 12, 367 ; 

14, 46 (highest form of austerity), 
[20 sq., 125-7, 162, 162 n,, 247, 251, 
251 sq. n., 378, 295, 30S, 313- 18; 
25, 44 sq., 459, 461, 471 sq., 479; 
29, 118 ; 30, 1 15, 243 ; stopping of 
the b. removes all sin, 7, 18 1-3; stop- 
ping of the b. enjoined for ascetics, 
7, 281; 8, 372 sq. ; 25, 210 sq. ; 
35, 1 30 sq. ; the sacrificer, by draw- 
ing in his b., establishes the fire in 
his soul, 12, 311 ; the observance of 
breathingup and down (pr&na-vrata), 

15, 98 ; management of b. to bring 
about Taoistic perfection, 39, 24, 
51, 53 sq. ; manipulating the b. to 
secure longevity, 39, 95 sq., 146, 
364 ; 40, 139 n. ; — the going b. is 
unclean, defiles the fire, 4, lxxvi, 
Ixxvi n., lxxviii, 172 sq. n. ; 25, 
137; the Paitidana or mouth-veil 
to prevent defilement by b., 4, 172, 
172 sq. n., 273 ; 5, 333 sq. and n. 

(b) The b. oe life, the vital 

PRINCIPLE, THE SOUL. 

Prawa, meaning b., spirit, and life, 
is the conscious self (pra^atnian), 
1, xxv, 120 n., 236, 290 sq., 294- 
300, 307 ; 34, 105 ; Om a name of 
it, 1, xxv, called ana, the breather, 
1, 74, 74 n. ; everything is food for 
b., 1, 74 ; 15, 203 sq. ; 38, 2ii, 213, 
309 sq. ; 43, 398 sq. ; water is the 
dress of b., 1, 74 ; 15, 203 sq. ; 38, 
211-14; 48, 640 sq. ; called Ama, 
1, 76 ; 15, 82 ; the subtlest portion 
of water becomes b., 1, 96-8; 38, 
366; comes from water, and will 
not be cut off, if you drink water, 
1, 97 ; mind in deep sleep and at 
death is merged in b., and b. in fire, 
1, 99, 101, 108, 307; 38, 366-8; 
48, 729 sq. ; prasa springs from the 



Self, 1, 124; 34, 167; is attached 
to the body, as a horse is attached 
to a cart, 1, 142, 142 n. ; is life and 
death and immortality, 1, 213 sq., 
2 94J 15, 56; 34, 164; 48, 250-4; 
simile of the chariot mounted by 
PriUa or b., mind being the driver, 
1, 234 ; is the beam on which the 
house of the body rests, 1, 252, 
257 ; marrow is b. and seed, 1, 
258; the dying person says, ' B. 
to air and to the immortal,' 1, 313 ; 
15, 200; soul dwells in the seat of the 
b,, the heart, 8, 242 ; isfood, 12, 223, 
304; 26, 212,348; 41, 379, 394 sq. ; 
44, 269 ; is fire, 12, 311-13 ; 43, 327 ; 
by its departure man departs, by its 
staying he lives, 15, 283 sq. ; 48, 
572 ; the Sun as the outer Self, and 
B. as the inner Self, 15, 305-12 ; 
the heart is b., and the animal is b., 
20, 204, 211 ; the Ukthya graha is 
his undefined b., and as such the self 
of his, 26, 292 sq. ; there is no soul 
in the b., 35, 48 sq. ; is most bene- 
ficial for man, 34, 98 ; strength is 
b., 34, ^g ; denotes either the indi- 
vidual soul or the chief vital air, or 
both, 34, 102 sq. ; is the abode of 
the power of action, 34, 105 ; re- 
mains awake in the state of deep 
sleep, 34, 162-S; may be called 
' higher ' with reference to the body, 
34, 172; spoken of as a 'person,' 
34, 261 ; the causal substance of 
mind, 38, 366 ; is merged in the 
individual soul, on the departure of 
the soul, 38, 367 sq. ; the soul, with 
the b., goes to the elements, 38, 
368 ; knowledge depends on b., 40, 
1 39, 139 n. ; it is by its b. that we 
control whatever creature we grasp, 
40, 262 ; the body is the house of 
the b., 40, 270; the spirit is the 
child of the b., 40, 272; fashioned 
from fire, 43, 4 ; is the wind, 43, 33, 
*>'>, 333; why b. is warm, 43, 135; 
the immortal element of man, 43, 
327; identified with the Ya^us, 43, 
3 37, 340 ; the man in the eye is b., 
43, 371 ; rite of breathing over a 
new-born child, 44, 129 sq. ; ety- 
mology of prana, b., 44, 263 ; food 
eaten by means of b., 44, 263 sq. ; 
is the transformer of seeds, 44, 345; 
is the individual soul, 48, 300-4, 379, 



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383 ; is different from air, it is an 

instrument of the soul, 48, 573, 575. 

(c) The chief vital air and the 

ORGANS OF THE SOUL. 

The mukbyaprana, b, in the mouth, 
or chief vital air, is free from evil, 
1, 5 ; its importance for the other 
vital breaths or senses, 1, 5 sq. ; 
38, 89, 95 ; by it the Devas con- 
quered the Asuras, 1, 5 ; 15, 79 sq. ; 
there is one unmoving life-wind, 8, 
274 ; a hymn addressed to the chief 
Pra«a, who is identified with all 
the gods, 15, 275 sq. ; is produced 
from Brahman, is distinct from air 
in general and from the other vital 
airs, and is minute, 34, lix; 38, 84- 
9 T » 93-6 ; 48, 575 ; according to 
the Sai')khyas,the combined function 
of all organs, 38, 86 ; various powers 
ascribed to it, 38, 87 ; is independent 
in the body, like the individual soul, 
38, 87 ; is subordinate to the soul, 
38, 88 ; has five functions like mind, 
38, 89 sq. ; acts under the guidance 
of Vayu, 38, 91 sq. ; is not a sense- 
organ, 38, 93 sq. ; accompanies the 
soul when leaving its body, 38, 102 ; 
glorified in the Udgitha-vidya, 38, 
192-5 ; esoteric knowledge about it, 
44, 83 sq. ; created, 48, 572 sq. ; — 
Vayu among the Devas, b. (pra^a) 
among the Pranas, the end of all, 
1, 58 ; 34, Ixxiv; 38, 256-9 ; swal- 
lows during sleep and at death all 
senses, but produces them again at 
the time of waking, 1, 59, 59 n., 
295 sq. ; 43, 332; is the best among 
the senses or organs, 1, 73 sq., 207, 
290 sq., 294 sq. ; 15, 97 sq., 201-4, 
274 sq. ; 38, 256 ; when b. departs, 
the other senses depart with it, 1, 
223 ; the union of speech and mind, 
1, 248 ; b. and speech swallow each 
other ; speech is the mother, b. is 
the son, 1, 256; the inner Agni- 
hotra, or the offering of b. in speech, 
and of speech in b., 1,266, 283; 48, 
294 sq. ; see also Prawagnihotra; is 
the beginning of all words, 8, 353 ; 
the triad of mind, speech, b., 15, 
93-7 ; is one of the pa«&i£ana/>, or 
'five-people,' 34, 260-2; speech, 
b., and mind presuppose fire, water, 
and earth, 38, 78 sq. ; b. and speech, 
male and female, 43, 285 ; speech 



created 13., B. the Eye, 43, 377 sq. 
See also Prawas. 
id) B. as a divine principle or 

BEING. 

Identified with the sun, 1, 7, 214 ; 
all these beings merge into b., and 
from b. they arise, 1, 20 ; 34, 85 sq. ; 
48, 569 ; prawa, spirit or b., is all 
whatever exists here, 1, 49, 120; 
34, 64; 44, 15; pra«a or b. is the 
highest Brahman, 1, 55-8, 55 n., 
58 sq. n., 65, 65 n., 233 sq., 280 
sqq. ; 15, 65, 142, 154, 194; 34, 
xxxiv, 84-7, 97-106, 272 ; 38, 143 ; 
48, 246, 250-4, 256, 276 sq. ; is the 
oldest and the best, 1, 72, 76 ; 38, 
84 sq., 186 sq. ; 48, 636 sq. ; is 
sattya, the true, 1, 209 ; all things 
are supported by b., 1, 210 ; 15, 
2 75) 43, 47 sq. ; Indra said: 'lam 
Prdna (L), O R\shi, thou art I'rdna, 
all things are PrSna. For it is PraTia 
lifho shines as the sun, and £ here per- 
vade all regions under that form, 1, 
21 y, 236,294; 48,250-4 ; is Hira;;ya- 
garbha, 1, 236 ; 15, 16; is the couch 
of Brahman, 1, 277 ; meditation on 
the absorption of the gods into b. or 
Brahman, 1, 288-90 ; is blessed, im- 
perishable, immortaljindependent of 
good and bad actions, the guardian 
of the world, the king of the world, 
the lord of the universe, and Indra's 
self, 1, 299 sq.; Aditi arises with 
Pra«a, 15, 16; b. in which everything 
trembles is Brahman, 15, 21, 21 n. ; 
34, xxxvii, 229-31; the Person 
(purusha) is the b., 15,38; 25, 513 ; 
is the one god, 15, 142; 34, 200, 
269; 44, 117 ; is the Self, 15, 287, 
290, 311-13; 34, 231; 48, 569; 
Time (Kala) is b.,and only a mani- 
festation of Brahman, 15, 302 ; in- 
voked for protection, 29, 232, 348 ; 
is the bhiiman b. or the highest Self? 
34, 162-8; through knowledge of 
the b.as Brahman immortality arises, 
34, 229-31 ; is the maker of all the 
persons, the person in the sun, the 
person in the moon, &c, 34, 269 ; 
by means of b. the gods aroused 
the sun, 42, 51 ; Prawa, life or b., 
exalted as the supreme spirit, 42, 
218-20,622-6; PnWaasa rain-god, 
42, 218 sq., 623 sq. ; is the Vijva- 
jryotis, 43, 131 ; ' he who wakcth in 



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the worlds and sustaineth all beings,' 
the b., identified with the Agni- 
hotra,44, 47 sq. ; food and b. are the 
two gods, 44, 117 ; a term referring 
to the Highest Reality, 48, 522 ; 
meditation on prana, 48, 679. 

Breathings, see Prasas. 

Brzbu, Bharadava^a accepted cows 
from the carpenter B., 25, 424, 
424 n. 

Brick Hall, the, at Nadika, 11. 24, 
25 n., 27. 

B/7"hadara;/yaka - upanishad 
quoted, 8, 401; 38, 421-3; 48, 
773-5; King (Janata in the B., 12, 
xliii ; portion of the Satapatha- 
brahmawa, 15, xxx ; 44, xiii, xlix sq. ; 
editions of it, 15, xxx ; in the Kama 
and Madhyandma texts, 15, xxx ; 
34, lxxxix, 134, 260 n., 263 sq. ; 38, 
2 14,308; 48, 403, 422 sq., 544, 7p; 
translated,15,7i -227; germs of Maya 
doctrine in the B., 34, cxvii, cxxsq. 

Br/hadratha, n.p., 46, 33, 36. 

Br/hadratha Aikshvaka, n. of a 
king, taught by Sakayanya, 15, xlvii, 
287-90, 326-9. 

Br/haduktha Vamadcvya, worship- 
ped at the Tarpana, 30, 244; ai4/'shi, 
saw the Apri verses of the horse, 44, 
302 ; had a golden ornament at his 
neck, 46, 407. 

Bn'haspati, or Brahma>;aspati, the 
Lord of Prayer. 

(a) K. in mythology. 
(6) Worship of B. 

(a) B. IN MYTHOLOGY. 

B., the lordofBrihati or speech, 1, 
6 ; 15, 82 ; meditated on the udgitha, 
1,6; chief among domestic priests, 8, 
89; is the lord of Brahmawas, 8, 346; 
a form of Agni, 12, xvi sq. n.; 14, 
216 ; 32, 82, 94 ; 42, 52, no, 541, 
552 ; 46, 292, 294 ; is the Brahman 
priest of the gods, 12, 6 sq., 215 ; 
26, A 435; 41, 122 sq. ; 46, 190; 
B. Angirasa ordains the sacrifice to 
men, 12, 66 sq. ; the portion of 
the sacrifice taken out of Pra^apati 
was appeased by B., 12, 211, 211 n., 
213 ; the world of B., 14, 309 ; the 
bliss of B., 15, 60, 61 sq. n. ; having 
become Sukra, he brought forth the 
false knowledge, to protect Indra 
against the Asuras, 15, li, 342 ; the 
gods pay worship to B., 19, 78 ; is 



the Brahman (priesthood), 26, 23, 
59) 59 n -j 180, 2i9sq. ; 41, 3, 23-6, 
67, 70, 82; 43, 192; 44, 64, 258, 
314, 402, 411 ; accompanied by the 
All-gods, 26, 93 ; 44, 480 sq. ; op- 
pressed by Soma, 26, 258 sq. ; the 
wise, 26, 286 ; Soma begotten by 
B., 26, 366 ; Dhatri shaved the head 
of B., 29, 56, 185 ; put the garment 
of immortality on Indra, 29, 304 ; 
Pushan has shaven B.'s head or 
beard, 30, 61, 217; knows the de- 
mons, 30, 212; where B. dwells, 
30, 218 ; the Purohita of the gods, 
30, 240 ; 41, 59 ; 42, 79 ; 44, 258 ; 
drawn by red horses, 32, 17 ; blew 
the gods together, 32, 246 sq. ; re- 
presents Agni and Indra, 32, 246 sq. 
n. ; 43, 134 ; offered the Vag-apeya, 
41, 2 sq., 5 ; the upper region be- 
longs to B., 41, 2, 59, 122 ; 42, 193 ; 
the highest heaven of B., 41, 23 ; 
afraid of the Earth, and the Earth 
afraid of B., 41, 34 ; plants urged 
forward by B., 41, 341 n. ; 42, 44 ; 
is Angirasa, representative of witch- 
craft performances, 42, xxiii sq., 
127 sq. ; frees from death, 42, 50, 
5 2 ) 55 3 J knows the life-bestowing 
gold, 42, 63; the amulet which B. 
tied, 42, 85-7, 610; the hostile 
army repulsed by B., 42, 119; 
Maruts, Aditya, and B., 42, 126; 
compact of B. with Indra and Brah- 
man, 42, 127 ; with the Vasus, 42, 
135 ; Indra, B., and Surya in a list 
of gods, 42, 160 ; Indra LSrahmaKas- 
pati, 42, 163, 213 ; B. punishes him 
who withholds the sterile cow from 
the Brahma«as, 42, 178, 660 ; undid 
Vala, 42, 193, 596; deity ofBrihatt 
metre, 43, 53, 330 ; share of Savitn 
and lordship of B., 43, 69 ; lord of 
animals, 43, 74 ; the repeller of 
shafts, 43, 103; Indra's ally against 
the Asuras, 43, 192 ; B. and Indra, 
priesthood and nobility, 43, 228 sq.; 
the lord of the Brahman, bestows 
holy lustre, 44, 64 ; made over-lord 
for warding off of the fiends, 44, 
465 ; the wind worshipped as iden- 
tical with B., 44, 480 sq. 
(b) "Worship of B. 

Offerings to B., 2, 108; 26,23 sq.; 
348; 29, 85, 85 n. ; 41, 82, 113, 
m6, 120-3, I2 5J worshipped at the 



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Btf/HASPATI— BUDDHA 



Upanayana and else in connexion 
with studentship, 2, 294, 294 n. ; 25, 
454 $q. ; 29, 65, 65 n., 190, 315 sq., 
362 ; 30, 1 47, 151 sq. ; Mantras in 
praise of B., 7, 266 ; the HotW in- 
vokes the help of B. for his work, 
12, 135; prayers and invocations to 
B., 12, 355; 14, 216, 318; 15,45, 
53; 26, 23 sq., 59, 59 "•; 41, 383; 
43, 291 ; invoked to cleanse from 
sin, 14, 250 ; animal victim (barren 
cow) for B., 26, 219 sq., 388 sq., 
389 n. ; 44, 411, 411 n. ; worshipped 
at the wedding, 29, 32, 286; 30, 
188 ; the animal slain for the hospi- 
table reception of a priest is sacred 
to B., 29, 88 ; (lord) of the Brah- 
man, invoked for protection, 29, 
280; invoked at the house-building 
rite, 29, 347 ; 42, 140 ; invoked for 
success in trade, 30, 17S; invoked 
to protect cattle, 30, 184 ; 42, 143 ; 
worshipped at the Tarpawa, 30, 243 ; 
the BWhaspatisava, or B. Soma feast, 

41, xxiv sq., 34 sq., 34 n. ; offering 
to B. at the Va^apeya, 41, 21 sq., 
28, 36, 38 sq. ; offering to B. at the 
house of the Purohita, 41, 59 ; 
sacrifice to Mitra and B., 41, 66-8: 
offering to B. Va£, 41, 70 sq.; in- 
voked in medical charms, 42, 29, 
554 ; invoked to promote virility, 

42, 32; invoked for long life, 42, 47, 
49 ; invoked against sorcerers, 42, 
65 ; Brahma^aspati Gatavedas in- 
voked to render the inauspicious au- 
spicious, 42, 1 10, 541 ; B. and Bhaga 
join (husband and wife ?) togetiier, 
42, 135; invoked against rivals, 42, 
211; one of the gods worshipped at 
the Mitravinda sacrifice, 44, 62-6 ; 
his share of the Agnihotra, 44, 81 ; 
worshipped at the Ajvamedha, 44, 
281, 402 ; invited to the sacrifice 
together with Agni, 46, 281. 

Br/haspati, a. of a sage ; B. and 
other sages ask Brahman about final 
emancipation, 8, 314 ; Sukra and B., 
sons of Bhn'gu and Aiigiras, 19, 10; 
49 (i), 8 ; the great ascetic B., de- 
luded by a woman, begot Bharad- 
vaga, 19, 44 ; 49 (i), 44, 44 n. ; ad- 
dressed Indra's son Gayanta, 19, 96 ; 
49 (i), 93 ; the Moon begat Budha 
on the spouse of B., 49 (i), 45 ; a 
holy sage, 49 (i), 76. 



Bf-zhaspati, n. of an author of 
heretical doctrines, 15, li ; disre- 
gards the Kanna-KiWa, 48, 409 ; 
the author of a materialistic and 
atheistic SmWti, 48, 412. 

BWhaspati, n. of the author of a 
law-book ; conversation between 
Manu and B., 25, Ixxix ; on Manu's 
attitude towards Niyoga, 25, xciv, 
339 n. ; remodelled the Manu-smr/ti, 
25, xevi, cix; 33, xii, 274; men- 
tioned in the B.-smn'ti, 33, 284. 

Br/haspati-smrzti, on the Manu- 
smriti, 25, xiv, xvi sq. ; a Varttika 
on the Manu-smWti, 25, cviii-cx ; 
its date, 25, cix sq. ; 33, xvi, 275 sq.; 
its relation to the code of Manu, 
33, 271-5; relation between Na- 
rada-smritiand B., 33, 274 sq. 

Br/hati, see Metres. 

B;vhatsaman, the descendant of 
Angiras, 42, 171. 

B^'hat-Sankha-Dharmamatra, in 
prose and verse, 25, xxi sq. 

Brothers, see Family. 

Bu<7, n. of a demon, 47, 58. 

Buddha. 

(n) Names and lilies of a B. 

tf>) Appearance of a B. in the ivorld. 

(t) Life of Gotama B. Sakyamuni. 

00 Bodily and mental characteristics of 
a B. 

(e) Transcendent knowledge and miracu- 
lous powers of a B. 
if) Gotama B. as a preacher and leather. 

(g) The Dhamma or Doctrine of B. 

(h) B. and his Order. 

(i) Deification and worship of B. 

(/) Plurality of Buddhas. 

(a) Xahes and titles of a B. 
Names or religious titles of B., 
10 <i), 49-52 ; ("), x, xv n., 89 ; 19, 
170 sq.; 49 (i), 155 sq., 181--4; 
called Naga or Mahanaga, ' the great 
elephant,' 10 (i), 77 11. ; Sugata, 
title of B., 10 (i), 69, 94, 94 n. ; (ii), 
x ; 48, 514, 520, 531, 544 ; his title 
Tathagata, 10 (i), 94 sq. n.; (ii), 
M» 37, 39, 76-8; 11, 147 n.; 13, 
82 sq. n. ; 19, 167, 167 11.; 49 (ii), 
133 ; Gina, name of a B., 10 (ii), x, 
127, 186 ; 13, 91 ; 19, 275; 21, 
8, &c. ; 49 (i), 173; Sakyamuni, the 
Sakya sage, 10 (ii), x, 186; is a 
Sama«a, 10 (ii), xiv ; is an ascetic 
or Muni, 10 (ii), xiv sq., 42; ad- 
dressed as Sakka, 10 (ii), 58, 196, 
202, 207 sq. ; is the King of the 
Law (dharmar%an), 10 (ii), 102 ; 



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21, 58, 91, 122, 166, 244 sq., 275-7, 
388; 35, 253 sq., 253 n. ; called 
Tevi^g-a, 'wise in the Vedas,' 11, 
159; the good physician, 19, 170, 
266, 276, 305, 315, 353; 21, 158, 
277 sq., 310 ; 36, 8, 8 n., 10, 40 ; 
49 (i), 145, 182; a saviour of man- 
kind, 19, 29r, 292 n., 350 ; the god 
over all gods (devatideva), 19, 348 ; 
21, xxv-xxviii, 301 n. ; 35, 167, 300 ; 
36, 12, 56, 83, 125, 215, 219, 274, 
279, 281, 283, 285, 290 sq., 295, 
298, 300-2, 305 sq., 303 «., 310, 
312-5, 317, 3i9> 323-5, 327, 33i, 
337, 340 sq., 344-6, 35 3 ~4> 358, 363 
365, 368 ; the term B. as used by 
Gainas and Buddhists, 22, xx, 264 ; 
45, 45, 45 n.; calls himself a Brah- 
man, and a king, 36, 8, 8 11,, 10, 25- 

3°- 

(b) Appearance of a B. is the 
world. 

Enjoyed the pleasures of heaven 
before he was born the last time, 
10 (i), 35 n.; difficult is the birth of 
a B., 10 (i), 49, 52; 19, 369 sq. ; 
49 (ii), 69; his seven re-births be- 
fore his last, 11, 288 ; is not subject 
to Nirva«a, but only produces a 
semblance of it, and he repeatedly 
appears in this world, 21, xxv sq.; 
has existed since time immemorial, 
is the Adibuddlia, 21, xxvsq., 154 
sq., 154 n., 224 sq. ; is unlimited in 
the duration of his life, he is ever- 
lasting, 21, xxx, 298-310, 300 n. ; 
appears in the world for the one 
object only, to open the eyes of 
creatures for the Tat hagata- know- 
ledge, 21, 40; the self-born One, 
21, 45-7, 114, 217 sq., 309 sq., 362, 
440; the son of B. who has com- 
pleted his course shall once be a 
Gina, 21, 48 ; he who knows the 
law of the Buddhas becomes a B., 
21, 53 ; when one becomes B., then 
one will be completely extinct, 
21, 63 ; has preached the law in 
thousands of worlds, 21, 242 ; beau- 
tiful visions of the preacher of the 
Lotus of the True Law, he sees 
himself as a future B., 21, 278-80; 
B. and the Bodhisattvas, 21, 294sq., 
297; his complete extinction a mere 
device, 21, 303-8; ( He will spread 
the bundle of grass on the terrace 



of enlightenment,' i.e. he will be- 
come a B., 21, 391 sq., 392 n. ; how 
do you know that B. existed? 35, 
109; 86,206-43; why must there 
be only one B. at a time? 36, 47- 
51; there is one being, brethren, 
who is horn into the world for the good 
and for the weal of the great multitudes, 
out of mercy to the -world, for the advan- 
tage and the good and the weal of gods 
and men. And what is that being! 
A Tatha'gata, an Arahat B. supreme, 
36, 56 ; a preacher of the Law be- 
comes a B., 49 (i), 185, 187. Seealso 
below (i). 

(c) Life of Gotama B. Sakyamuni. 
Legends of B. and Zoroaster, 4, 
1 ii i ; the oldest version of the history 
of his life, 13, 73 sq, n. ; lives of B. 
in Chinese translations, 19, xvi-xxx; 
B,andMah3viracontemporaries,22, 
xvi; life of B. and life of Mahavira 
compared, 22, xviisq. ; B. gives Bim- 
bisara an account of his family, 10 
(ii), 68 sq.; the Samana Gotama of 
the Sakya clan, 11, 169 ; see also 
Sakya; Sakyamuni, one of the six- 
teen sons of theB. Mahabhi#«a§-«ana- 
bhibhfi, 21, 179 ; his connexion with 
the feudal aristocracy, a cause of 
his success, 22, xiii; — story of his 
conception and birth, 19, xix, 1-20 ; 
49 (i), r-16 ; thirty-two miraculous 
signs on the eve of B.'s birth, 19, 
344-64 ; Asita's prophecv about the 
child, 10 (ii), 125-7; 19,V'3; re- 
joicing of the gods at the birth of 
B., 10 (ii), 125; state of happiness 
in the country, after the birth of B., 
19, 20-3 J _ the child B. consecrated 
king by water coming down from 
heaven, 19, 4 ; childhood of B., 19, 
23; 49 (i), 17-20; thebabyGotama 
meditates in his cradle, 36, 143, 143 
sq. n.; not hurt by falling from the 
roof of a pavilion, 49 (1), 22 ; — living 
as prince Gautama in the palace, 
19, xx, 24-9 ; 49 (i), 20-6; palaces 
built and dancing women procured 
for the youth Bodhisattva, 19, 360 
sq. ; the prince not deluded by 



women, 19, 



('), 3^-48 ; 



seeing the women of his seraglio 
asleep, 36, 135 sq. ; 49 (i), 56-9 ; — 
his excursion, and visions of old age, 
sickness, and death, 19, xx, 29-37; 



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BUDDHA 



49 (i), 27-35, 43 I h' s vision of an 
ascetic, 19, xx, 49 sq. ; 49 (i), 51 sq.; 
on seeing a piece of ploughed land 
he meditates on birth and death, 
49 (i), 49-51 ; asks his father's per- 
mission to become a hermit, 19, 
51-3 ; 49 (i), 53-5 ; his flight from 
home, 19, xx sq., 56-8 ; 49 (i), 59- 
62; after dismissing Kandaka with 
a message to his father, becomes a 
wandering mendicant, 19, 59-70 ; 
36, 135 sq., 139; 49 (i), 62-9; cuts 
off his knot of hair, 19, 68 ; 49 fi), 
68; obtains the hermit's dress, 19, 
68 sq. ; 49 (i), 68 sq.; takes rags 
from a dustheap, to make himself a 
dress, and god Sakka helps him to 
wash them, 13, 125 ; his meeting 
and discussions with the hermits in 
the Bhargava hermitage, 19, 70-81 ; 
49 (i), 70-8 ; lamentations in the 
palace on the news of his having 
become an ascetic, 19, 82-92 ; 49 
(i), 79-91; Purohita and prime 
minister try to bring the prince back 
to his father, 19, 93-1x0; 49 (i), 
91-103 ; — the people of Ra^agWha 
pay homage to B. going about as a 
mendicant, 19, 111-14; his meeting 
and conversations with King Bim- 
bisara at Ra^-agnha, 10 (ii), 67-9 ; 
13, 136-44; 19, 113-31; 49 (i), 
104-22 ; his meeting and conver- 
sations with Aram a or AraVa, and 
Udraka, 19, 131-42 ; 49 (i), 123-32; 
practises austerities for six years at 
the Naira%ana, 19, xxi sq., 143-5 ' 
49 (i), 132-4 ;- -his words on the 
attainment of Buddhahood, 10 (i), 
43 sq. n. ; account of the events 
after his attaining Buddhahood, 13, 
73-151 : under the Bodhi-tree, 13, 
73-8; 19, 146-65; 36, 27; 49 (i), 
1 35—47, 159 sq.; under the A^apala- 
tree, 13, 79 sq. ; his conquest of 
Mara, the tempter, 10 (i), 44 n. ; (ii), 
69-72; 13, 11 3 sq., 116 ; 19, xxiisq., 
I 47~56; 35, 222 sq. ; 36, 27, 211 
sq. ; 49 (i), 137-47; infinitely more 
powerful than Mara, 35, 219-23; 
the food-offering of the shepherd 
girls to B. before reaching Bodhi, 
19, 366 sq.; 35, 243, 245; reached 
full enlightenment, 21, 293 sq., 296, 
298 sq., 301; 49 (i), 155 sq.; the 
attainment of Buddhahood was his 



ordination, 35, 118; though he had 
reached Buddhahood, B. devoted 
himself to meditation for three 
months, 35, 196-8 ; under the Mu- 
^alinda-tree, protected by the Nagu 
king, 13, 80 sq.; 49 (i), 164 sq. ; 
under the Rajj-ayatana-tree, 13, 
8 [-4 ; at the request of Brahma, 
the gods and former Buddhas, he 
resolves to preach the law (' turn 
the wheel of the law'), 13, 84-8; 
19, 165-7; 21, 54-6; 49 (i), 168- 
73 ; why B., after attaining to 
omniscience, hesitated whether he 
should preach the Truth or not, 
36, 38-42 ; — converts made by B., 
10 (ii), 5, 14 sq., 23 sq., 29, 31, 42, 
52, 79 sq., 85, 94 sq., 103-6, 1 17 ; 
11, 79 sq., 108-10, 153, 155, 155 n., 
203 ; 13, 84, 102-12, 116-34, 
139 sq. ; 17, 2-5, 96 sq., 108-17, 
124-8, 135-9; 19, 168-201, 218, 
226 sq., 240-6, 248; 35, 282 n. ; 
36, 247-50; 49 (i), 190-200: his 
disciples Sariputta and Moggallana, 
10 (ii), 119 sq. ; 13, 144-51; 35, 
257 sq. and n., 301 sq. ; dialogue 
between B. and Magandiya whose 
daughter he refuses, 10 (ii), 159-62 ; 
36, 183 ; shed a golden light, when 
seeing the maturity of the minds of 
Pingiya and Bayari, 10 (ii), 2 r 2 sq. n. ; 
his love for Ananda, 11, 96 sq. ; 
meets Upaka of the A,g-ivika sect 
and declares himself to be the Gina, 
13, 90 sq. ; the five Bhikshus, who 
became his first disciples, 13, 90- 
102; 19, 142, 145, 168, 172-8, 180; 
21,56; 49 (i), 132 sq., 169, 171-3. 
180; sends his disciples out to 
preach the Truth, 13, 112 sq. ; 19, 
183 ; thepeopleof Magadha annoyed 
at B. on account of his making 
converts, reviled the Bhikkhus, 13, 
1 50 sq. ; visited by So«a Ku^ikawsa, 
17, 33-40 ; at Ko/igama, 17, 104-8 ; 
cured by Givaka Komarabha£6a, 
17, 191 sqq. ; waits upon a sick 
Bhikkhu,17, 240 sq.; wearied by the 
quarrelsome Bhikkhus of Kosambi, 
retires into solitude, 17, 312 sqq. ; 
turns the * Wheel of the Law,' 19, 
168-79; B. and Anathapi?;iika, 19, 
201-18; 20, 183 sq. ; and the 
courtesan Amrapali, 19, 252-6, 266 ; 
his prophecies about his chief 



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BUDDHA 



m 



disciples who are to become future 
Buddha?, 21,xxix, 1^42-52 ; dialogue 
between B. and Ananda, 49 (ii), 
ix sq., 3-60; B. Sakyamuni shows 
to Ananda the Buddha Amitabha 
and Sukhavatl, 49 (ii), x, 59-61 ; 
conversation between B. and A^ita, 
49 (ii), x, 61-9; at Ra^-agWha, 49 
(ii), 1 sq. ; conversation between B. 
and Sariputra, 49 (ii), 91-102; — 
admonishes his son Rahula, 10 (ii), 
55 sq. ; ordination of his son Rahula, 
13, 208-10; bis meeting with his 
father and kinsmen, 19, 218-30; 
visits his home and parents, 49 (i), 
195-200; ascends to heaven, to 
preach to his mother, 19, 240 sq. 
and n. ; 49 (i), 200; (ii), vi; how 
he escapes the attacks of his wicked 
cousin Devadatta, 19, 246-9; 20, 
238-50, 260 sq. ; 35, 290; the 
splinter of rock hurting his foot, 
'Jo, 248-51 ; attacked by an elephant 
at Ra^agaha, 35, 297-300, 29811.; 
Queen Vaidehi's virion of B.,49 (ii), 
165 ; — at Pafaligama or Pa/aliputra, 
17,97-104; 19,249-52 ; hisprophecy 
about Pa/aliputta, 17, 101 sq.; — the 
date of his death, 10 (i), xxxv-xlv; 
11, xlv-xlviii; a dire sickness fell 
upon him during the rainy season, 
at Beluva, but by a strong will he 
keeps his hold on life so as not to 
depart, without taking leave from 
his disciples, 11, 35 sq. ; eighty 
years of age, 11, 37; will not die, 
until the order of the brethren and 
sisters is established, and his religion 
fully proclaimed among men, 11, 
43j 53; announces the time of his 
death, 11, 44, 54, 59, 61, 81 sq. ; 
19, 267-9, 2 74 sq. ; 35, 199; his 
last illness caused by the meal of 
boar's flesh offered by ATunda, the 
smith, 11, 72 sq. ; 35, 242-6, 244 n. ; 
his death, 11, 85-116, 238 sq. ; 19, 
307 sq. ; before his death, addresses 
the brethren to utter any doubt 
they may have, but they are all 
silent, 11, 113 sq. ; his last days, 
19, 277-307, 365-71 ; comforts the 
Mallas who are grieved about his 
departure, 19, 288-90 ; his last 
words, 11, n^ ; 19, 306 sq. ; — has 
completely left birth and death 
behind him and dispelled sin, 10 (ii), 



58 ; how the remains of the Tatha- 
gata are to be treated, 11, 91-3, 
125 sq. ; how the news of his death 
was received by gods and men, 11, 
1 1 6-2 a; by the knowledge of the 
four noble truths, B. became free 
from rebirth, 11, 152 sq. ; how the 
news of B.'s death was received by 
the Bhikkhus, 20, 370 sq. ; his dead 
body saluted by women first, 20, 
379; has passed away, but exists in 
his doctrine and discipline, 35, 
1 1 3 sq., 1 49 sq. See aha Bodhisattva. 
id) Bodily and mental char- 
acteristics OF A B. 

B. is bright with splendour day 
and night, 10 (i), 89 ; thirty-two 
signs of a great man possessed by 
B., 10 (ii), 67, 99-102, 187 sq. ; 11, 
64 11.; 19, 8 sq., 14, 95, 112 sq. 
and n., 229, 355-7, 359 sq. ; 21, 47, 
50, 189 sq., 194, 246 sq., 252 sq., 
282, 364, 427, 436 ; 35, 116, 237; 
36, 44; 49 (i), 11, 67, 77 sq., 87, 
106, 191; (ii), 27, 36, 52, 74, 
125, 140, 174, 174 n., 178, 180, 
183; the colour of his skin becomes 
bright on the night of his attaining 
to perfect enlightenment, and on 
the night in which he passes away, 
11, 8 r sq., 82 n. ; darts a flash of 
light from the circle of hair between 
his eyebrows, 21, 7, 393; 49 (ii), 
166; is short of stature, 21, 395; 
bodily appearance of a B., 49 (ii), 
3 sq. ; not to be seen by the shape 
of his visible body, nor by signs, 49 
(ii), 115, 137, 140; rays issue forth 
from his mouth, 49 (ii), 166 sq. ; six- 
teen cubitshigh, 49 (ii),i 86 sq., 187 n.; 
— the excellent qualities of B., 10 (ii), 
2 5~7) 76 8 ; 11, 27 ; 17, 34 ; Catania 
. . . is said (0 be ' a fully enlightened 
one, blessed and worthy, abounding in 
wisdom and goodness, happy, with 
knowledge of ike ivorld, unsurpassed 
as a guide to erring mortals % a teacher 
of gods and men, a blessed B.,' 11, 169, 
187 ; leader and guide of gods and 
men, 19, 350, 362; 35, 167; 36, 
55 sq., 83, 120; B. a wise father, 
his disciples are like sons to him, 
21, xxix, 72-90, 108; is impartial, 
just as sun and moon shine over all 
beings alike, 21, 128, 136; hisabodc 
is kindness to all beings, his robe is 



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sublime forbearance, his pulpit is 
complete abstraction, 21, 222, 224 ; 
as a king, bestowing immense alms, 
21 3 243sq.; compared to a physician, 
21, 304-6, 309 ; 35, ] 16, 165, 168 sq., 
240sq.; is incomparable, 35, 109 sq.; 
how can B. be kind and pitiful and 
omniscient, and yet have admitted 
Devadatta to the Order, who created 
a schism, and had to suffer torments 
in hell for it? 35, 162-70; how B. 
could be free from all sins, and yet 
suffer bodily pain, 35, 190-5 ; the 
best of all the best in the world of 
gods and men, 35, 221 ; 36, 10-12, 
12 n., 50; is free of all self-regard, 
he does not seek after a following, 
but the followers seek after him: 
in this sense he is a leader, 35, 
225 sq. ; the Bhikkhus who vomited 
blood on hearing B.'s discourse 
suffered harm by their own deeds, 
not by B., 35, 234-7 ; is perfect in 
courtesy of speech, 35, 237-41; 
did B. boast ? 35, 253 sq. ; cannot be 
angry, 35, 257-60 ; unmoved by 
temporary inconvenience, 36, 24; 
the eighteen characteristics of a 
B., 36, 135, 135 n.; loved his 
enemies as his only son, 36, 355; 
the B. only knows the virtues of 
a B., 49 (ii), 70; the sun-like B., 
49 (ii), 166. 
(e) Transcendent knowledge 

AND MIRACULOUS POWERS OF A B. 

B.-knowledge, B.-eye, 10 (ii), 63, 
207sq.; 11, 187 ; 13, 87 sq.; 49 (ii), 
i29sq., 135 ; his power of prophecy, 
11, 18 n,; 35,5sq„; knows Brahma, 
the world of Brahma, and the path 
which leads to it, 11, 185 sq. ; 
possessed of ten Noble States, ten 
Powers (Balas), and ten attributes 
of Arhatship, and understands the 
ten Paths of Kamma, 13, 141 sq. ; 
36, 134 sq. and n.; 49 (i), 157, 
1 57 n., 159 sq., 172 ; (ii), 22 ; knows 
the thoughts of others, 13, 248 ; 17, 
7, 192; has no master, and his 
wisdom is self-taught, 19, 169 sq. 
and n. ; 36, 43-6 ; his wonderful 
power of remembering the past, 
21, xxix, 153 sqq, ; his omniscience, 
21, 118 sq., i2osq. ; 35, 116, 154-62, 
27°-\J» 301 sq. ; 36, 100, 109-11; 
49 (i), 183 ; the sixfold and fourteen- 



fold knowledge of a B., 36, 134 sq., 
135 n.; the four bases of confidence 
of a B., 36, 1 34, 134 n. ; remembers 
his former births, 49 (i), 148 ; — food 
which can only be digested by B. 
or a disciple of B., 10 (ii), 14; no 
harm can be done to a B., 10 (ii), 
30, 45 sq. ; 35, 222; crosses the 
river Ganges miraculously, 11, 21 ; 
17, 104; 19, 251 sq. ; by his great 
and clear vision, sees fairies, 11, 18 ; 
17, 101 sq. ; might remain in this 
world throughout the Kalpa, 11, 
41 sq., 54-8; 35, 198-201 ; an 
earthquake caused by the great 
events in the life of the B., 11, 
47 sq. ; his 'transfiguration,' 11, 

82 n. ; works miracles, 13, 119-34; 
21, xxxi, 364-8; his miraculous 
power of transferring himself from 
one place to another, 13, 248 sq.; 
17,7,9; heals the wound ofSuppiya, 
who has cut her own flesh, 17, 

83 sq. ; Belatt&i's sugar, thrown into 
the water at B.'s order, hisses and 
bubbles and sends forth smoke, 17, 
95 ; during the rainy season, B. 
with his Bhikkhus vanishes from 
Getavana and appears at the house 
of Visakha, not a single Bhikkhu 
being wet from rain, 17, 219; his 
transcendental powers, 19, 318 sq. ; 
21, 30-7; his mystic trance, 21, 
6 sq. ; miracles allowed by B., 21, 
421; the earth became smooth, 
when B. walked along it, 35, 248 sq. ; 
why B. prefers not to work miracles, 
36, 24 sq. ; flies through the sky, 
49 (1), 170. 

(/) GOTAMA B. AS A PREACHER 
AND TEACHER. 

His manner of teaching, 10 (ii), 
xiv-xvi; 13, 104 sq. ; 17, 4, 96, 137, 
330 sq.; 20, 183; 21, 18, 71 sq., 
181-3, 187-9, 303 sq. ; 35, 234-7 ; 
reproached by Bharadva^a with 
idleness, explains his work as a kind 
of ploughing, 10 (ii), 12 sq. ; rejects 
what is acquired by reciting stanzas, 
10 (ii), 13, 78; preached to the 
eight kinds of assemblies and then 
vanished away, 11, 48 sq. ; his 
teaching open to all, 11, 187 ; sends 
his earliest disciples out to preach 
his doctrine to all the world, 13, 
1 1 2 sq. ; his relations to other sects, 



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esp. the Gainas, 17, 108-17, 125; 
his tolerance, IT, 114-17; sermons 
of Buddha, ID, 186 sq., 190-2, 
202-5, 222 -4, 2 33~4°, 2 53 - 6, 258- 
65, 270-4, 283-5, 296-305 ; allows 
the Bhikkhus to learn the word of 
the Buddhas each in his own dialect, 
20, 150 sq.; the difference between 
B. and other teachers, 20, 235 sq. ; 
his preaching is for the benefit of 
all creatures, as the rain pours down 
on all plants, 21, xxix, 119-27; 
creatures like blind-born men led 
to Nirvana by B., 21, xxix, 129-41 ; 
preaches only after being asked 
thrice by .Sariputra, 21, 36-8 ; means 
of his teaching : Sutras, stanzas, 
Gatakas, parables, &c., 21, 44 sq.; 
whatever B. has spoken is true, 21, 

301 sq., 309; deposits and entrusts 
his perfect enlightenment into the 
hands of the Bodhisattvas, 21, 
440 sq.; his words many-sided, and 
apparently contradictory, 35, 137; 
why he did not answer certain 
questions, 35, 204-6; was in constant 
receipt of alms, 35, 219 ; sets rolling 
his royal chariot-wheel of righteous- 
ness, 35, 253, 253 n. ; is lord of the 
Scriptures, 35, 302 ; pleased by 
parables, preached by himself, 35, 

302 ; rules as to restraint with regard 
to food do not apply to a B. who 
has attained to perfection, 36, 6 sq., 
7 n. ; ' discovered a way that was 
unknown,' for the teaching of former 
Buddhas had been lost, 36, 13-16 ; 
begins his discourses by preaching 
the virtue of almsgiving, 36, 31-3. 

(g) TheDhammaorDoctrineofB. 
Nirvana has been shown by B., 
10 (i), 69; (ii), 39; against philo- 
sophy (d'utbi, darjana), 10 (ii), xii ; 
see also Philosophy ; dialogue be- 
tween the rich herdsman Dhaniya 
and B., the one rejoicing in worldly 
security, the other in his religious 
belief, 10 (ii), 3-5 ; a dialogue 
between a deity and B. on the 
things by which a man loses and 
those by which he gains in this 
world, 10 (ii), 17-19 ; his description 
of the Brahmanas of old, 10 (ii), 
48-52 ; explains the fate of Nigro- 
dhakappa who had attained Nirvana, 
10 (ii)j 57-60; explains the duties 



of Bhikkhus and householders, 10 
(ii), 62-6 ; authorities for the true 
teaching of B., 11, 67-70 ; he alone 
discovered the four noble truths, 
11,150-2 ; states the characteristics 
of a true Brahmana, 13, 79 sq. ; 
his sermon on 'The Burning,' 13, 
134 sq.; 35, 234 ; gives an exposi- 
tion of his moral teaching to the 
Gaiua Siha, 17, 110-16; refuses to 
discuss questions of being and not- 
being, l'J, 108 sq. ; on the vanity of 
worldly life and pleasures, 19, 121- 
30; B. will perish, but the law is 
one and constant, 19, 274; his 
doctrine has only one flavour, the 
flavour of emancipation, 20, 304 ; 
21, 120 sq., 124; 35, 131 sq.; his 
law is not to be found by reasoning, 
but must be learnt from the Tatha- 
gata, 21, 39 sq. ; announces final 
extinction for the education of 
creatures, though himself he docs 
not become finally extinct, 21, 
30 3 sq, ; variety of Bauddha doc- 
trines due cither to the difference 
of the views maintained by B., or 
else to the difference of capacity 
on the part of the disciples of B., 
34, 401 ; though he propounded 
the doctrine of the reality of the 
external world, was himself an 
Idealist, 34, 418; teaches three 
mutually contradictory systems, 34, 
428 ; sayings of B. quoted, 35, 8o, 
102 sq., 115, 150, 170, 185-90, 
194 sq., 198-201, 202, 204, 206, 
224 sq., 229, 246, 251, 253 sq., 
257 sq., 261, 264, 268 sq., 270 sq., 
273 sq., 279, 294; 36, xxvi, 1-3, 4, 
8, 10, 13, 16, 23, 35, 31, 43, 51, 54, 
56, 60, 83 sq., 92, 125, 274, 279, 
281, 283, 285, 290 sq., 295, 298, 
300-2, 305 sq., 310, 312-15, 317, 
319, 323-5, 327, 33*, 337, 340 sq., 
344-6, 352-4, 358, 363-5, 368; 
looks upon future life as dung, 35, 
200 sq. ; how could B. teach kind- 
ness towards all beings, and yet 
enjoin punishment for him who 
deserves it? 35, 254-7; did not 
teach for the sake of gifts, yet he re- 
commends first of all almsgiving, 3G, 
31-8; his attitude towards asceti- 
cism, 36, 60-2 ; fools cannot realize 
the religion of B., 36, 71 sq. ; sub- 



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jects for meditation taught by B., 
36, 212 sq. ; the ninefold word of 
the B., 36, 230, 236, 238, 246, 
274, 290 sq., 306; taught the Akri- 
yavada, Mahavira the Kriyavada, 
45, xvi ; the arguments of B. and 
others contradictory, 48, 425 sq. ; 
four classes of followers of B., viz. 
Yaibhashikas, &c, 48, 500, 5 1 o, 
514 ; theory of nothingness his real 
view, 48, 515; on the soul, 48, 
544; B.'s desire is, that there may 
be no fresh birth, 49 (i), 73, 76 sq. ; 
Klejas, Maras, ignorance, and 
Asravas conquered by B., 49 (i), 
160; describes the wheel of the law, 
49 (i), 1 80 sq. ; B. instructs Subhuti 
on the path of Bodhjsattvas, 49 
(ii), 112-44 ; no-origin the highest 
goal of B., 49 (ii), 133. See also 
Buddhism, Dhamma, and Morality. 
[b) B. and his Order. 

Explains his relation to the order 
of mendicants, after his death each 
Bhikkhu should be a leader to 
himself, 11, 36-9, 112 ; gives up 
holding the Uposatha and reciting 
the Patimokkha himself, 20, 306 ; 
his strong reluctance to admit 
women into the order, 20, 320-6; 
the Sutra must not be taught to 
fools, 21, 91 sq., 95-7 ; ii may be, 
Ananda, thai in some of you the thought 
may arise: ' The word of the Master is 
ended. We have no teacher more! 11 
But it is not thus, Ananda, that you 
should regard it. The Truth which 
I have preached to you, the Rules which 
I have laid down for the Order, let 
them, when I am gone, he the Teacher 
to you, 35, 150; B. and the Order, 
as parents and children, or as a 
king and his servants, 36, 52-4. 
See also Sa/«gha. 

(i) Deification and worship of B. 
The law of the well-awakened 
B. to be worshipped, 10 (i), 90 ; 
whosoever reviles B. or his disciple 
is an outcast, 10 (ii), 22 ; worship of 
B., 10 (ii), 28 sq.; 11, xviii; 19, 
337 sq.; 35, 151; 49 (i), 166 sq.; 
worship of B. and Dhamma, 10 (ii), 
29, 31; 19, xxvii; worship of B., 
Dhamma, and Sawgha, see Jewels 
(the three) ; the eight persons praised 
by the righteous, they are worthy 



of offerings, being Sugata's disciples, 
10 (ii), 38 ; deserves the oblation, 
10 (ii), 76-8 ; B. praised, 10 (ii), 
93 sq., 96, 99, roi sq., 106, 110, 
180, 186, 195, 204 sq., 207, 209-11 ; 
13, 136; 17, 124 sq., 129 sq. ; 21, 
116 sq. ; 36, 239-42; 49 (ii), 3-5; 
the reference to wor.ship of relics 
in the Maha-parinibbana-sutta, as 
a possible basis for chronological 
argument, 11, xv, xvii sq. ; the 
places of his birth, &c, are places 
of pilgrimage, 11, 90 sq. ; a Tatha- 
gata or Arahat-Buddha is worthy 
of a dagaba, 11, 93 sq. ; relics of B. 
claimed by kings and peoples, 11, 
1 3 1-6 ; 19, 325-35 ; praised as the 
Saviour of mankind by gods and 
Nagas, 19, 153-5; to meditate on 
B., a moral precept, 19, 235; to 
one who follows the teaching of B., 
B. is ever near, 19, 289 sq.; hymns 
of praise in honour of the departed 
B., 19, 310-22; the bones of B.'s 
body preserved as relics, 19, 324 sq. ; 
relics of B. placed on the head as 
a token of reverence, 19, 334 ; when 
in the world, B. brought deliverance 
to all, and so do his relics after his 
Nirvana, 19, 337 ; worship of relics 
of B., 19, 337 ; 21, 50-2, 96, 403 ; 
35, 1 4 4—5 4 , 246-8 ; see also Stupas ; 
his counterpart, Naraya«a, as the 
Highest Brahman, 21, xxvii sq. ; 
is an ideal, a personification, and 
not a person, 21, xxviii; heavenly 
flowers fall, and the Buddha-fields 
tremble when he meditates, 21, 
6 sq. ; as a father of the world, 21, 
76 sq., 76 n., 88-90, 309 ; punish- 
ments in hell and transmigration of 
those who scorn his doctrine, 21, 
92-5; as a creator, 21, 238 sq., 
238 n., 300 n.; the master of the 
world, worshipped by men and 
gods, 21, 258 ; is the one and ever- 
lasting Brahma, 21, 301 n., 310 n. ; 
if B. has passed away entirely, how 
can he accept gifts and worship of 
his relics? 35, 144-54 ; the footprint 
of B., 19, 244; 36, 241, 241 n.; 
immense merit acquired by those 
who believe in, and read, preach, 
copy, keep, and worship the Sutra 
setting forth the duration of life of 
B., 21, xxx, 31 1-37 ; making images 



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of B., a great merit, 21, 50 sq. ; 
Buddhists live as under the eye of 
the B., 35, no; a wicked man who 
thinks of B. in the hour of death 
will be reborn among the gods, 35, 
123 sq. ; he who gives to B. a 
handful of lotuses, will not enter 
purgatory for 91 Kalpas, 35, 129; 
does not accept gilts, yet gifts made 
to him bear fruit, 35, 146 sq., 
150 sq. ; worship paid to the bowl 
of Buddha, 35, 248 n. ; the gods 
infused the Sap of Life into his 
dish, 36, 37 sq., 37 n. ; he who has 
wounded a B. cannot be converted, 
36, 78 n.; how gifts to B. were 
rewarded, 36, 147; the Arhat B. 
surpasses the Creator, and sun and 
moon, 49 (i), 1 ; praised by all 
kinds of superhuman beings, 49 (i), 
145 sq., 157-9; relics of B., and 
A'aityas, 49 (i), 166 sq. ; Sakyamuni 
seen by the beings in Sukhavati, 
49 (ii), 61 ; beings born in Sukha- 
vati through hearing B.'s name, 
49 (ii), 65 ; A'akyamuni glorified by 
other Buddhas, 49 (ii), 102 ; prayers 
addressed to B., 49 (ii), 162, 164; 
how to perceive B. with one's mind, 
49 (ii), 178. 
(/) Plurality of Buddhas. 

The moral teaching of all the 
B., 10 (i), 50; B. are worshipped, 
10(i),52; 21, 409 sq.; 49 (i), 188 
sq. ; (ii), 16 sq., 53 sq. ; are free 
from vanity and are never shaken, 10 
(')» 63; you yourself must make an 
effort,, the Tathagatas are only 
preachers, 10 (i), 67 ; B. reject what 
is acquired by stanzas, 10 (ii), 13, 
78 ; the Tathagatas act with a pur- 
pose, 10 (ii), 58 ; appear seldom in 
the world, 10 (ii), 103 ; 11, 104, 
t86 sq. ; 21, 423 sq. ; speak nothing 
untrue, 11, 2 ; Buddha termed the 
successor of the B. of old, 21, 
86 sq. ; B. of the past, present, and 
future, 11, 13 sq., 97 ; 35, 138 ; 49 
(ii), 148, 154, 168; their word en- 
during for ever, 11, 233; they 
sometimes ask questions about what 
they know, in order to preach or 
institute a rule, 13, 176, 327; 17, 
69,141 sq. ; the Bodhisattva remem- 
bers former B., 19, 50; 49 (i), 162 ; 
miracles at the birth of former B., 



19, 146 ; 49 (i), 7 ; all B. or Ginas 
of past ages have 'gone out as a 
lamp,' 19, 275 ; A'aityas in honour 
of former B., 19, 323 ; the seven 
supreme B. worshipped in a snake- 
charm, 20, 77, 77 11, ; cannot be 
deprived of life by violence, their 
death is natural, 20, 247 ; Bodhi- 
sattvas who had propitiated hun- 
dred thousands of B., 21, 3 ; B. who 
had reached final Nirva«a, became 
visible in the Buddha-fields, 21, 8, 
10 ; how they preach in numerous 
Buddha-fields, 21, 10 sq. ; miracles 
always appear when B. are about to 
preach, 21, 16-29 \ appearing like 
golden columns, &c, 21, 24 sq. ; 
disciples of Buddha shall become B. 
in the future, 21, 45 sq., 59, 89, 
1 12-15, I2 8, 189 sq, ; all former B., 
many thousands in number, taught 
only one vehicle, 21, 49, 53; the 
former B. encourage Buddha to 
preach the law, 21, 55 sq. ; the B. 
have spoken in many mysteries, 21, 
59 ; Bodhisattvas will in future be 
B., 21, 60 ; their thirty-two charac- 
teristics, 21, 62 sq. ; men who think 
of becoming B. themselves, com- 
pared to the highest plan ts, 21 , 
126 ; a thousand less four B. have 
to appear in the Bhadrakalpa, 21, 
193 ; the seven Tathagatas, the 
seventh being Buddha himself, 21, 
193 ; by the power of Buddha there 
appear the Tathagata -frames in 
thousands of Buddha-fields, .all 
preaching the law, 21, 231 sqq. ; 
all the Buddha-frames are Buddha's 
own proper bodies, 21, 238, 300 n. ; 
the wise preacher must always think 
' How can I and these beings be- 
come B. ?* 21, 270; the preacher 
must always feel towards B. as if 
they were his fathers, 21, 271, 273 ; 
the apparition of the B. tends to 
the welfare of men, 21, 303 sq. ; 
future and past B. will be seen by 
him who promulgates the Lotus of 
the True Law, 21, 369 ; Buddhist 
theory of former B., and Gaina 
theory of Tirthakaras, 22, xxxiv 
sq. ; B. or Tathagatas used in the 
sense of Tirthakaras, 22, 32 ; 45, 
314 sq., 314 n., 320, 320 n., 332 ; 
the relics of B. are worshipped not 



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for the benefit of the B„, but of the 
worshippers, 85, 144-54; the think- 
ing powers of B. and Pa££eka- 
Buddhas, 35, 158-60 ; it was their 
custom to keep the Patimokkha 
secret, 35, 265 sq.; they are above 
the law, 36, 7, 7 n. ; Buddha su- 
preme, compared \\ ith the Pa£- 
/(■eka-Buddhas, 36, 13 n.; the teach- 
ing of the former B. was entirely 
lost when Buddha rediscovered it, 
36, 13-16 ; always proclaim the 
Truth at the request of Brahma, 
36, 41 sq. ; Buddha?, PaWeka- 
Buddhas, and disciples of Buddha, 
36, 101 ; there are B. and PaMeka- 
Buddbas in the world, 36, xor ; all 
B. are alike in all the Buddha- 
qualities, 36, 133-5 ; preaching en- 
joined for them, 36, 357 ; throwing 
open the door for the immortals 
and B., 40, 283; Tathagatas cannot 
be born again, 45, 332 ; list of 
Tathagatas, 49 (ii), 66 sq., 99-101 ; 
three former B., 49 (i), 172; multi- 
tudes of sons of the Ginas and 
Suras, 49 (i), 173; eighty-one 
Tathagatas beginning with Dipah- 
kara and eliding with Lokejvara- 
rag-a, 49 (ii), ix, 6 sq. ; requested to 
turn the wheel of the law, 49 (ii), 
26 ; proceed from rays sent out by 
lot us- flowers, 49 (ii), 36 ; glorify 
Amitabha, 49 (ii), 45; of the ten 
quarters, 49 (ii), 181, 184, 189 ; the 
former Buddha Dipankara prophe- 
sies that iSakyamuni will become 
a B., 49 (ii), 133, 133 n. ; the 
Buddha Kassapa, see under Kassapa. 
See also Holy persons, Pa&£eka- 
Buddhas, and Pratyeka-Buddhas. 

Buddhabhadra, translator of the 
K\vo-hu-yin-ko-king, 19, xxv. 

Buddha-countries, see Buddha- 
fields. 

Buddhadasa, the Buddhist Suttas 
translated from Pali into Singha- 
lese, in his reign, 10 (i), xiv. 

Buddha-fields, or Buddha-countries 
(Sk., Buddhakshetra), tremble when 
Buddha enters on his meditation, 
21, 6 sq., 9, 20, 24; become illu- 
minated by the light proceeding 
from Buddha's eyebrow, 21, 7-9, 
20 sq., 24 ; description of B., 21, 
66-9, 142-51, r94 sq., 197, 306 



sq., 232-5, 238 sq., 308, 321, 429; 
Buddhas appearing in myriads of 
B., 21, 232 ; Lokejvararaga teaches 
the excellences of B., 49 (ii), ix sq., 
10 ; Dharmakara describes his B., 
49 (ii), ix sq., 10-22 ; in the six or 
ten quarters, 49 (ii), 99-101, 173; 
Buddha shows them to Queen 
Vaidehi, 49 (ii), 166. See also Saha- 
world, and Sukhavati. 

Buddhaghosa, commentator of the 
Tipiraka, 10 (i), xii ; consulted old 
Pali MSS., 10 (i), xiii sq. ; his age, 
10 (i), xiv-xxvi, xxxix ; account 
of B, given in the Mahava?«sa, 10 
(i), xxi sqq. ; his Sumahgala-Vila- 
sini, commentary on the Mahapari- 
nibbana-Sutta, 11, xxxi sq. ; his 
references to the Milindapa«ha, 35, 
xiv-xvi. 

Buddha^iva translated the Vinaya 
into Chinese, 19, xxvi. 

Buddha-^arita, Chinese translation 
by Dharmaraksha, 19, ix; titles of 
chapters in the Sanskrit B., and in 
the Chinese translation, 19, 340-3 ; 
translated, vol. 49 (i); Ajvaghosha, 
the author of it, 49 (i), ix sq.; 
Sanskrit text of it, 49 (i), ix, xii ; 
Chinese and Tibetan translation of 
the B., 49 (i), x sq. ; its influence 
on the classical Sanskrit poetry, 49 
(i), xi sq. 

Buddhakshetra, see Buddha-fields. 

Buddhavawsa, t.w., the preaching 
of it at Kapila-vatthu, 36, 249. 

Buddhi, Sk., t.t., intellect, intelli- 
gence, various meanings of the 
term, 8, 11, 440 sq. ; 34, lv sqq. ; 
38, 436; 48, 786; difference be- 
tween manas and b., 15, xiv, xivn. 
See Intelligence. 

Buddhism. 

(a) Its doctrines. 
(/>) Its history. 

(a) Its doctrines. 

Buddhist technical terms, 10 (i), 
liii-lv; 49 (ii), 39 sq., 96, 96 n., 
171, 174; the four noble truths and 
the eightfold path, 10 (ii), 44 ; 19, 
175-7, 200, 224, 305; 2_l,_i8, 90 
sq., 172 sq., 185, 354 sq. ; 36, 6^ 
245 n. ; 49 (i), 175 sq. ; (ii), 148, 
• 54, '93 ; tne original doctrine of 
B., as contained in Pali Suttas, 11, 
xx-xxii ; summary of B., its chict 



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doctrines, 11, 60-3, 65, 116 sq., 
117 n. ; 13, 146; 19, 202-5, 292-5; 
20, 305, 329 sq. ; 35, 66 sq. ; 36, 6, 
47, ' 37» 20 7 s q., 2I ^» 3 3 2 s Q-» 2 ^4 
sq., 267, 303 sq., 30411., 321 sq., 
365; 49 (i), 13 sq. ; (ii), 171, 174, 
193 ; a system of earnest self-culture 
and self-control, 11, 62 11. ; central 
doctrine of B., 11, 143 sq. ; B. not 
monotheistic, 11, 164 sq. ; declared 
in one stanza, 13, 146; 19, 194, 
194 n. ; to escape old age, disease, 
and death, the chief aim of B., 19, 
16-18, 32-7, 41 sq., 44-9, 51 sq., 58, 
94, 99, 103, 121, 128 sq., 133 sq., 
136 sq., 143, 160-2, 176 sq., 203-5, 
224, 236, 265, 280 sq., 337 sq., 371 ; 
3-J, 2 73, 2 75> 2 78; 49 fi), 27-35, 
43, 4 6 sq., 51, 54. 9 6 s q., I2 °j I2 45 
the principal tenets of B. as con- 
ceived by Buddha under the Bodhi- 
tree, 19, 160-3; the light of a lamp 
in a dark room lights up equally 
objects of all colours , so it is with those 
who devote themselves to religion — 
there is no distinction bettveen the pro- 
fessed disciple and the unlearned, 19, 
239 ; three principal doctrines of 
B., 34, 401 ; teaches the eternal 
flux of everything that exists, 34, 
403 n. ; denies authoritativeness of 
Scripture, 34, 412; summary of 
B. as learnt by Nagasena, 35, 2 1 
sq, ; psychology of B., 35, 86-99, 
r 3 2 ~4 j worshippers of Buddha like 
trees with the trunk of contempla- 
tion, &c, 35, 151 ; a Buddhist con- 
fession of faith, 36, 55, 55 sq. n. ; 
the religion of the Conquerors is 
not put to shame by backsliding, 
36, 63-75 ; a tank full of the waters 
of emancipation, 30, 63 sq., 66 sq. ; 
five good qualities of the religion of 
the Conquerors, 36, 69-72 ; its 
doctrines illustrated by the parable 
of the city of Righteousness, 3G, 
208-43 ; sorrow, and the path that 
leads to cessation of sorrow, 36, 
345 ; the stages of the Excellent 
Way and the six modes of Insight, 
36, 360 ; philosophical doctrines of 
B., 36, 361 sq., 362 sq. n. ; on the 
Self and new sense-organs in a 
new body, 38, 103 sq. ; denies the 
existence of a separate Atman, 45, 
399 n, ; doctrine of B. that sins arc 



only committed by conscious acts, 
refuted, 45, 414-17 ; the theory of 
a universal Nothing is the real pur- 
port of B., 48, 514; the chain of 
causation, 49 (i), 177-9; the re- 
wards of teaching and spreading 
the Law, 49 fi), 184-9; the ideal 
of B. as represented by the beings 
in SukhavatT, 49 (ii), 55-9. See also 
Buddha (g), Dhamma, Jewels (the 
three), and Philosophy. 
(b) Its history. 

Introduction of B. into China, 

3, xiii, xiii n.; influence of B. on 
Taoism, 3, xxii ; 39, xi sq., 1- 3, 23, 
33, 4 2 -4, 129, >3', 155, 197 n., 
313 n. ; 40, 139 n., 2380., 266; 
legends of B. applied to Liio-jze, 
39, 35 n. ; the ' three jewels ' of B. 
and of Taoism, 39, 1 1 1 ; transrota- 
tion of births in Taoism and B., 
39, 150; 40, ion.; the 'Ex- 
tinction' of the Buddhists and the 
Doing Nothing of the TSoists, 40, 
288; by mastering the mysteries of 
the Tao, the Mahayana will be un- 
derstood, 40, 293 ; — Zoroastrianism 
and B., 4, liii sq., 209 n. ; B. in Iran, 

4, liv ;— date of B. and Yogasutras, 
8, 90.; relation between Bhagavad- 
gi'ta and B., 8, 23-7, 36, and notes 
to pp. 45-52, 56, 59 sq., 62-6, 68- 
71, 79, 84, 88 sq., 101, 103, 105, 
ro8 sq., in sq., 114, 118, 123 ; 
Sanatsu^attya prior to B., 8, 147 ; 
relation of Anugita to B., 8, 212-15, 
225 sq., 306 n., 376 n. ; Buddhist 
sects, 8, 2 1 3 ; 19, xi-xvi ; 34, 1 5 n. ; 
see also Yoga£iras ; Buddhist coun- 
cils, 10 (i), xii-xlv ; 13, xxi-xxiii; 
19, 3 35 ; 35, 204, 204 n. ; the First 
Council not mentioned in the 
Mahaparinibbana-Sutta, 11, xi-xv; 
the date of the Council of Vesali, 11, 
xix 11. ; Council of Pa7aliputra, 19, 
xii sq., xvi, xxxvii ; the first Council 
under the presidency of Ananda, 
19, 335 sq., 335 n. ; 'The Recita- 
tion,' i.e. the Council of Ra^agaha, 
35, 242, 24211.; the Council of 
Kanishka did not establish a new 
canon, 36, xvi sq. ; — Southern and 
Northern Church, their difference 
with regard to mystical powers, 11, 
207-9 5 the germs of B. in the 
Upanishads, 15, xxvii, Ii sq.; Maha- 



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BUDDHISM— BUDDHIST SACRED BOOKS 



yana, Hinayana, Vaipulya, 19, x 
sq. ; 49 (ii), ix ; periods of develop- 
ment of Northern B., 19, x-xvi ; 
how far the Saddharmapum/ar'ka 
represents orthodox B., 21, xxviii 
sq.; political reasons for its suc- 
cess, 22, xiii sq. ; relation between 
B. and Gainism, 22, xviii-xxxv; 
its doctrines refuted, 34, xxvi, li, 
340, 400-28 ; prophecies as to the 
duration of B., 35, 185-90 ; 49 (i), 
13 sq. ; there is no esoteric B., 35, 
264-8, 264 sq. n., 267 sq. n. ; the 
Patimokkha kept secret, in order 
that the Dhamma may not be 
treated shamefully, 35, 266 sq. ; 
corrupt B. of Nepal and Tibet, 36, 
7 n. ; ceremonies in Mahayana 
B., 49 (i), 199; doctrines of B. 
(Bauddhas and Ca»ayas) refuted, 
45, ix, 238, 242 sq. ; Buddhist 
views on the origination of the 
world refuted, 48, 500-16 ; to be 
rejected by the Vedantin, 48, 520, 
531. See also Buddhists. 

Buddhist canon, see Tipi/aka. 

Buddhist Church, see Sawgha. 

Buddhist Laymen dedicate Viharas 
and other edifices to the Bhikkhus, 
13, 302-5 ; proceedings against a 
Bhikkhu who gives offence to a lay- 
man, 17, 359-69 ; proceedings of the 
Samgha against them, ' turning the 
bowl down,' 20, 119-25 ; are given 
to lucky phrases (mangalika), 20, 
153; judges between Bhikkhus, 
20, 588-93 ; a Pa/aliputta merchant 
studies the Abhidhamma, 35, 27sq.; 
B. 1. attain to comprehension of the 
truth without having renounced the 
world, 35, 31 sq.; different classes of 
B. 1., 35, 229; superiority of Bhik- 
khus to laymen, 35, 229-33; become 
Arahats, 36, 56-8, 96-8; a layman 
who has committed a Para^ika 
offence cannot comprehend the 
truth nor aspire to Arahatship, 36, 
78-81, 78 n.; attain to Nirvana, 36, 
244-50, 253-5. 

Buddhist mendicants or monks, 
see Bhikkhus, and Samaras. 

Buddhist nuns, set Bhikkhunts. 

Buddhist Order, see Sa»;gha. 

Buddhists mentioned in the Ya- 
jjwavalkya-smr/ti, 7, xxi ; perhaps 
mentioned in the Vish«u-smr/'ti, 7, 



xxix sq., 202, 202 n. ; in China and 
Japan, 11, 245 sq. ; 49 (ii), v; perse- 
cuted by Pushyamitra, 19, xv ; 
different classes of B., 21, 125 sq. ; 
controversies with Gaotema, the 
heretic, i.e. with B.,23, 184, 184 n.; 
are atheists, 25, 31 n. ; B. and Brah- 
mawas, both reformers, 36, 127 sq. 
n. ; their accounts of Gainas and 
Afelakas, 45, xvii-xxxii ; doctrines 
which they owe to the ' heretics,' 
45, xxvii-xxix ; perhaps meant by 
Pawiakiuila, 45, 80 11. ; say ' pleasant 
things (moksha) are produced from 
pleasant things (comfortable life),' 
45, 269, 269 n. ; as Akriyavadins, 
refuted, 45, 316, 316 n.; Crypto-B. 
who take shelter under a pretended 
Vedic theory, 48, 513. 
Buddhist Sacred Books, Chinese 
translations of, 3, xiii, xiii n. ; 49 (ii), 
vi sq., xiii, xxi sq., xxiv sq., 73 sq. ; 
Buddha not the author of the Pali 
Suttas, 11, xx ; in the Vinaya also, 
as in the Sutta Pi/aka, Buddha him- 
self is the actor and speaker, 13, 
xvii sqq. ; the council of Vesali, and 
the date of the Vinaya Pi/aka, 13, 
xxi-xxiii ; Sutra Piraka settled in 
the first Council by Ananda, 19, 
335; example of the style of the 
expanded Sutras, as translated into 
Chinese, 19, 344-64 ; the same title 
given to different works in Chinese 
translations, 19, 364 ; which was the 
oldest language of the B. S. B.? 21, 
xiv-xviii ; their vocabulary and that 
of the 6"atapatha-Brahma»a, 21, xvi 
sq. ; the nine divisions in them, 21, 
44 sq., 45 n. ; their relation to 
Mahabharata and Manu-smWti, 25, 
xci n. ; at the council held for the 
fixing of the Scriptures, ciders were 
in doubt about the minor and leaser 
regulations, 35, 204, 204 n. ; the 
Atharva-veda in the B. S. B., 42, 
Ivi ; information about Gainas in 
B. S. B., 45, xv-xxiii ; works 
ascribed to Buddha by Buddhisls in 
Japan, 49 (ii), vi ; date of Mahayana- 
sutras, 49 (ii), xxi-xxiii ; list of 
B. S. B., 49 (ii), xxiv-xxvi; Maha- 
yana-sutras, and Vaipulya-sutras, 
49 (ii), 102 sq., 188, 190, i95;meri- 
toriousness of studying, hearing, and 
teaching Mahayana-sutras, 49 (ii), 



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126-32, 168, 188, 150, 195 ; twelve 
divisions of Mahayana books, 49 (ii), 
186, 195 sq. See also Tipi/aka. 

Budha, Pururavas, son of, 44, 69 n. ; 
begotten^by the Moon, 49 (i), 45. 

Budha Atreya, author of Vedic 
hymns, 46, 364. 

Biu/ila Aivatarajvi, n. of a 
teacher, 1, 84, 87; 15, 199; 26, 
425 ;43, 393, 395. 

Bu^i, n. of a Daeva, 23, 49 sq., 49 n. 

Bu^isravah, n.p., 23, 205, 205 n. 

Bu^ra, son of Dazgaraspa, 23, 209. 

Buidhi, n. of a demon, 4, 145 sq. 

Buildings, see Architecture, House, 
and Vjharas. 

Buiti, the Daeva, sent to kill Zara- 
thujtra, 4, liii, 208-10 ; a personifi- 
cation of Buddhism, 4, 209 n. ; in a 
list of Dacvas, 4, 224. See also But. 

Bukht-Narsih, i.e. Nebuchadnez- 
zar, q.v. 

Bulis of Allakappa claim relies of 
Buddha, and erect a dagaba, 11, 132. 

Bull declares the Brahman to Satya- 
kama, 1, 61 ; the storm-floods of 
the heavenly b. as urine, 4, lxsv ; 
glorification of the b. (primaeval b., 
or species of the b.), 4, 231, 231 n., 
249; 23, 93, 350; the primaeval b., 
see under Animals (i) ; the ceremony 
of setting a b. at liberty (vrishot- 
sarga), 7, 260-3 > 29, ioosq., 353-5 ; 
33, 162, 162 n. ; priests of Asuras 
kill Mantt's b., 12, 29 ; represents 
Indra, 12, 416 ; Fravashi of the b. 
worshipped, 23, 200 ; leading round 
a b., 29, 249 ; consecrated hairs of 
the tail of a white b. used at sacri- 
fices, 31, 349 ; b. among the cows 
(storm among the clouds), 32, 63, 
73 ; simile of the b., 36, 333 sq. ; 
a b. set at liberty as sacrificial fee, 
41, 45 sq., 56, 61 ; a b. is the Praga- 
pati among the cows, 41, 58; is 
Indra's own animal, 41, 60; one of 
the five sacrificial animals, 41, 162, 
165 sq. ; is eight-hoofed, 41, 177; 
the b. is vigour, 43, 38 sq. ; origin 
of the b., 44, 215; has an ex- 
crescence or hump, 44, 276; see 
also Ok; — ' a bull's hide' as a 
measure, 7, 272, 272 n. ; b.'s hide 
used for auspicious rites, esp. at 
weddings, 29, 41, 171, 181, 247 sq., 
285, 383 ; 30, 47, 50, 193 sq., 263 ; 



42, 185, 645 ;— bulls urine (goniez) 
as a means of purification, 4, lxxiii, 
lxxv, Ixxv n., Ixxix, 63 sq., 63 n., 
79, 81 n., 91 sq., 93, 98 sq., 106, 
107 n., 120 sq., 124 n., 125 n., 126- 
31, 188, 216 sq. and n., 278 n., 279 ; 
5, lxxiii, 262, 269 sq., 270 n., 272 
sq., 279, 281 sq., 333, 348 sq., 348 
n. ; 18, 162 n., 171, 171 n., 2S4 n., 
305, 3°7-i3, 309 n-j 3io n., 317, 
331, 339 sq., 358, 360, 365, 433-7, 
4 3 3 n., 445, 447, 449> 451-5,457 J 23, 
336 ; 24, 60 n., 297 n., 337 n., 340 n.; 
37, 126, 480 sq. See also Nirang. 

Bundahij', its Title and contents, 5, 
xxii-xxiv, xxxv -xxxvii, xliv sq. ; 
called Zand-akas, 5, xxiii, 3, 3 n. ; 
a translation or epitome of the 
DamdiW Nask, 5, xxiv, 177 sq. n., 
181 n. ; 37, 14 n., 465, 465 n. ; MSS. 
and recensions of the B., 5, xxiv- 
xliii, 2; translations of the B., 5, xxv- 
xxvti, xliii-xlv; its date, 5, xli-xliii, 
xlvii ; 18, xxvii ; translated, 5, 1- 
151 ; paraphrased by ZaV-sparam, 5, 
153 ; written after Alexander, 37, 
437, 447 1 chronology of the B., 47, 
xxvii-xxxv, xxxviii. 

Bur^, the angel, co-operator with 
Tijtar, 5, 26, 169 ; rouses the bird 
A'amroj, 5, 70. 

Burial-ground, see Cemetery. 

Burial-mounds, see Stupas. 

Burma, the Dhammathats or law- 
books of, 33, 275 sq. 

Bushasp, demon of slothfulness, 5, 
no, 366, 366 n. • 18, 93, 95. 

Bushyasta, spell against the long- 
handed gaunt B.,4, 145 sq.; demon 
of sleep and laziness, 4, 197, 197 n., 
199 ; 23, 323 ; 31, 346 n. ; flees troni 
Mithra, 23, 144, 155 ; the yellow B. 
destroyed by Aryan Glory, 23, 284. 

But, Zd. Buiti, the demon (Bhiita) 
' whom they worship among the 
Hindus,' 5, in, rii n. See Buiti. 

Butasp, the Bodhisattvn, 4, liii. 

Byarshan, king of Iran, 23, 222, 
222 n., 303. 



Calamities (such as drought, &c.) 
brought about by the defilement of 
water or fire, 4, 82, 82 n. 



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CALENDAR— CASTES 



Calendar, see Time. 

Calf, first-born, as priest's fee, 12, 
373) 39°; c. of eighteen months, 43, 
39 ; white c. of black cow, 43, 200. 

Calumny, and false accusation 
against a Guru, are mortal sin% 2, 
281 ; the sin of accusing a Brahmawa, 
2, 282 ; 14, 122 ; guilt incurred by 
false accusation, 17, 135 ; 14, 107 ; 
penance for falsely accusing a Guru, 
14, 114; punishments for calum- 
niating a bride or a suitor, 33, 172. 

Capital punishment, see Punish- 
ments. 

Carpenter, simile of the, 35, 96; 
the house of a c. the resting-place 
of the sacrificial horse, 44, 360. 

Carriage, see Chariot. 

Cart, see Chariot. 

Caste, castes. 

(a) Mutual relation of the c, their duties 

and occupation 1. 
{?>) BrShmawas and Kshatriyas. 
(t) Kshatriyas and Vauyas. 
(/0 The twice-born c. or Aryans. 
(e) Low c. and outcasts. 
(/) Mixture of c., mixed, c 
(g) Religious view of c. 
(/i) Religious rites different according to c. 
(1) Thee, and the law. 
(_/') C, disregarded. 

(a) Mutual relation of the c, 

THEIR DUTIES AND OCCUPATIONS. 

The Brahma«a is one of Soma's 
mouths, with which he eats the 
Kshatriyas; the Kshatriya is one 
of Soma's mouths, with which he 
eats the Vaijyas, 1, 287 ; initiation, 
study of the Veda, and kindling the 
sacred fire ordained for the three 
higher c, to serve the other c. the 
duty of the Sfidra, 2, 1 sq. ; occupa- 
tions of c. in times of distress, 2, 
Ivisq., 2 1 1-14 ; 14,20, 235 sq. ; 25, 
420-30; respect due to members 
of different c, 2, 48; 25, 53, 53 n -i 
55j 58 ; difference of c. with regard 
to the rules about saluting, 2, 5 



209 sq., 209 11, ; 25, 52 sq. ; 



lawful 



and unlawful occupations for mem- 
bers of the four c, 2, 123 sq., 211- 
14, 227-34, 234 n.; 7, 13, 136 sq., 
189; 10 (ii), 112, n6sq. ; 14, 1 1- 
18, 20, 175 sq. ; 25, Ixxii, 325-7, 419, 
499 ; 29, 124 ; 33, 54-8, 68 n.; 35, 
247 sq. ; precedence among the 
various c, 2, 125 sq., 1250.; a king 
shall choose his officers from the 



three higher c, 2, 163; all men must 
serve those who belong to higher c, 2, 
234; thee, of Kayasthas or scribes, 
7, xxiv, xxx, 46 ; duties of the four 
c, and law regarding the relation 
between them, 7, 12 sq., 27-9; 8, 
i26sq.; 14,199; 25, xii, r, 24 sq., 
27, 32 sq., 400-2,416, 478; 25, cvn.; 
a Br&hmawa, though only ten years old, 
and a member of the kingly e., though a 
hundred years old, must he considered as 
father and sou ; a?id of these two, the 
BrtVimana is the father. The seniority 
of Brdhmanas is founded upon sacred 
knowledge; of Kshatriyas, upon valour 
in arms ; of Vahyas, upon grain and 
(other) wealth ; of S/idras, upon 
[priority of) birth, 7, 131 ; a rich 
mm surrounded and waited upon 
by a crowd of Brahmans, Kshatriyas, 
Vauyas, and Sudras, 21, 101 ; king 
the protector of the system of c, 
7, 14 ; 25, 22i ; the peculiar laws 
of c. to be observed in the absence 
of special rules of revealed texts, 14, 
4, 4 n. ; a Kshatriya shall pass 
through misfortunes which have befallen 
him by the strength of his arms, a i'ai+ya 
and a S/idra by their wealth, the. chief of 
the twice-born by muttered prayers and 
hurnt-oblations, 14, 129; 25, 436; 
Sudras created to serve the Brah- 
mawas, 25, 326; Brahmawas may 
appropriate property from Vaijyas 
and Sudras for sacred purposes, 25, 
432sq. ; the law protects the four a, 
33, 8; usury allowed for Vauyas, 
but not for Brahma«as, 33, 68 ; a 
Kulika, head of a caste, 33, 89 n.; 
Sagala crowded with Brahmans, 
nobles, artificers, and servants, 35, 3 ; 
Vaijya and Sudra surrounded by 
Kshatriya and Brahmawa, 41, 227 ; 
Sfidra, Ra^a, Brahman, 42, 72 ; 
people, as compared with nobles 
and Brahmiwas, are like iron, as 
compared with gold and silver, 44, 
339> 339 n - i minstrels, harlots, 
gamblers, eunuchs are to be neither 
Sudras nor Brahmawas, 44, 417; 
Brahmawas, Kshat riyas, Vaijyas, 
A'ant/alas, Vukkasas, hunters, mer- 
chants, Sudras, 45, 301. 
(b) Brahma.vas and Kshatriyas. 
A^atajatru, the Kshatriya, teaches 
the Brahma»a GargvaBalaki, 1, 306; 
15, 100 n., 103 ; a Brahmawa often 



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139 



years to be considered as the father 
of a Kshatriya of a hundred years, 2, 
53; Kshatriyas, when assisted by 
Brahmawas, do not fall into dis- 
tress, 2, 2 36 ; BrdJimanas, united 
with Kshatriyas, uphold gods, manes, 
and men, 2, 238; Brahmawas are 
lords over all other e„, 7, 215 ; 
Gayatn = Brahma«as,Trishmbh = 
Kshatriyas, 12, 96 ; Kshatriyas and 
Brahma«as represented by Indra 
and Agni, 12, 419; 26, 362; 44, 
xxii ; etiquette between Brahma«a 
and king, 15, 162 sq. ; a Kshatriya 
sage teaches a Brahma«a, 15, 204 
sqq.; Kshatriyas and Brahmans are 
fixed in Prana, 15, 275 ; the monas- 
tical order of G'ainas and Buddhists 
chiefly intended for Kshatriyas, not 
for Brahma«as, 22, xxx sq. ; the 
embryo of Mahavira removed from 
thesouthern Brahmanical part tothe 
northern Kshatriya part of KiWa- 
pura, 22, iijosq., 219, 223, 226-8 ; a 
Kshatriya and a learned Brahma«a 
must never be despised, 25, 150; 
mutual relation of Kshatriyas and 
Brahmawas, rivalry between them, 
25, 399, 399 n. ; 43, 345 "• ; 44, 
131-4 ; from out of the priesthood 
(Brahman) the nobility (Kshatra) 
is produced, 25, 399, 399 n, ; 44, 
226 sq. ; Brahma/ia the root, Ksha- 
triya the top of the sacred law, 25, 
447 ; by the Piksha the sacrificer, 
of whatever c. he be, becomes a 
Brahmawa, 26, 35 ; Brahman and 
Kshatra, two vital forces, 20, 124 ; 
prayer for the priesthood and 
nobility, 26, 144; 43, 231-5; 44, 
294, 485 sq. ; a Brahmawi can be 
without a Kshatriya, but a Kshatriya 
not without a Brahma«a,26, 2?osq.; 
Kshatriyas learn their duties from 
Brahma«as,35, 233 ; the Bodhisattva 
reflects whether he should take 
birth as a Kshatriya or a Brahmana, 
35, 272 ; BrShmawas superior to 
Kshatriyas, 35, 290; was Buddha a 
Brahmana or a Kshatriya? 36, 25- 
30 ; Buddhist phrase ' Khattiyas 
and Brahmans,' 36, 127 n. ; Bnddhas 
always born as Brahma«as or Ksha- 
triyas, 36, 132 n.; Va^apeya for 
Brahmanas and Kshatriyas, Ra^a- 
suya for Kshatriyas, 41, xxiv sq., 3 



sq., 



kindling-sticks for 



Kshatriyas and priests, both are 
Agni, 41, 259 sq. ; the Kshatriya 
must give a sterile cow to the Brah- 
mans, 42, 177 ; Brahma«asand Ra- 
^anyas contend with one another 
in the theological disputations, 44, 
112-15; why a Brahmawa and a 
Ra^anya must perform the lute-play- 
ing at the horse-sacrifice, 44, 286 sq. 
SeeafsoBr<ihm<ina5(e),and Kshatriyas. 

(c) Kshatriyas and Valvyas. 
The Vaijyas serve, store up for 

the Kshatriyas, 12, 82, 94 ; Kshatra 
and Vis, represented by Prastaraand 
Barhis, 12, 92 sq. ; the Fravara in 
the case of Kshatriyas and Vaijyas, 
12, 115 n, ; Kshatriyas represented 
by Indra (and Agni), Vaijyas by the 
Vi'jve Dev3£, 12, 371; 26, 220 sq.; 
Indra (or Yarnsa) the nobility, 
Maruts the people, and the nobility 
are the controllers of the people, 
12, 387, 393, 399, 4 or sq.; 26, 334 
s q-> 33 s , 395 sq. n., 396 sq. ; the 
people are the nobleman's food, 26. 
65 sq. ; 41, 13, 153; 43, 125, 129, 
132 sq., 132 n. ; the nobility sur- 
rounded by the people, 26, 146; 
44, 466 ; peasantry obedient to the 
nobility, 26, 227 sq. ; 44, 227, 303 ; 
Vaijya or Ra?anya at the V§#apeya 
chariot race, 41, 29 ; king sprinkled 
with consecration water by a Ra- 
#anyaand Vaijya,41, 83sq. ; milk is 
the nobility, Sura-liquor the peas- 
antry, the nobility is produced from 
out of" the peasantry, 44, 225, 228. 

(d) The twice-born c. or Aryans. 
Three c. mentioned by the names 

ofBrahmawa, Ra#an,and Vij, 1, 143, 
143 n. ; what wise men of the three 
twice-born c. approve, is virtue, 2, 
72 ; pure men of the first three c. 
shall be cooks, or Sudras under cer- 
tain restrictions, 2, 104 sq. ; a 
Snataka shall live in a place chiefly 
inhabited by Aryans, 2, 225; a 
Snataka shall always behave as be- 
comes an Aryan, 2, 226 ; the three 
first c. called twice-born, 7, 12, 
119; those eoujitrics are called bar- 
barous (mlekkha) where the system of 
the four c.does not exist ; the others are 
denoted Aryavarta (the abode of the 
Aryans^ ; 7, 255 ; the twice-born 



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are the first among men, 8, 353; 
Samskaras and Veda-study for the 
three higher c., 8, 358 ; the twice- 
born c. and the Sfidras, 14, 9 sq. ; 
25, 402 ; twice-born men shall re- 
side in pure countries, Sfidras any- 
where, 25, 33; Aryan has three 
births, 25, 61 ; Siidras personating 
twice-born men to be punished, 25, 
381, 380 sq. n., 388; non-Aryan 
origin cannot be concealed, 25, 415; 
different duties of Aryans and non- 
Aryans, 25, 4 iJS ; how far Sfidras 
may imitate Aryans, 25, 428-30; 
falsely attributing to oneself high 
birth, a mortal sin, 25, 441; the 
gods (and hence also the sacrificer 
who is consecrated) only commune 
with the three higher c. who alone 
are able to sacrifice, 26, 4 ; nobility 
and priesthood and the people are 
this all, 26, 291 sq. ; cruel punish- 
ments of Siidras proffering a false 
accusation against twice-born men, 

83, 33; men only of the three higher 
c. entitled to the study of the Veda, 

84, 197 ; 'the Sfldra and the Arya' 
^ all men, 42, 68, 402 ; Brahman 
(priesthood), Kshatra (nobility), and 
peasantry, 43, 67 sq. ; Kshatra 
(nobility), Sudras and Aryas created, 
43, 74 sq. ; prayer to be delivered 
from sins committed against Sudra 
or Arya, 44, 265 ;, it is a rare chance 
to be born as an Arya, for many are 
the Dasyus and MleMta, 45, 43. 
See also Society, Vaijya, and Sfldra. 

(<•) LOW C. AND OUTCASTS. 

Gifts which may be accepted even 
from an Ugra, or a Sfldra, 2, 27, 27 
n., 65 sq., 65 n. ; near a Sudra, a 
A'aWala and an outcast, as near a 
burial-ground, the study of the Veda 
must be interrupted, 2, 34, 261 ; 7, 
124 ; 14, 121 sq., 210 ; 29, 81, 324; 
he shall not study the Veda in a 
village where A'Walas live, 2, 34 ; 
14, 64; 29, 324; food brought or 
looked at by an Apapatra, Sfldra, 
Ugra, outcast, or Nishada is impure, 
2, 60, 60 sq. n. ; 7, 163 ; 14, 69 ; 25, 
162-4 ; intercourse with outcasts 
and with Apapatras forbidden, 2, 74; 
7, 133, 187 sq. ; 14, 5, 109, 230; 
25, 497 ; penance for a Brahmana 
who has served a man of ' the black 



race,' 2, 87, 87 sq. n. ; how one 
should behave towards teachers and 
relations who have lost their c., 2, 
88; it is sinful and defiling to 
touch or speak to, or look at a 
ATi«i/ala, outcast, or MleK/ja, 2, 103; 
7, 94 sq. ; 14, 121, 171, 183 ; 25, 
119, 183; dogs, outcasts, and Khi- 
i/alas receive a share at meals, 2, 
122; 14, 50; 25, 92; outcasts do 
not inherit, 2, 133; 14, 89; 25, 
372 sq. and n. ; 33, 194; a funeral 
meal looked at by dogs, Apapatras, 
Sfidras, K&nSfos, or outcasts, is 
defiled, 2, 145, 259; 7, 250; alms 
may be accepted from all c. except 
Abhijastas and outcasts, 2, 190; 
garments of the mourners to be 
given to men of the lowest c, 2, 254; 
the cro\v,the A'Wala among birds,2, 
266 n.; those who associate with out- 
casts, become outcasts, 2, 278, 280; 
14, 222; 25,467sq. and note; defini- 
tion of the term outcast, 2, 280; 
women become outcasts by inter- 
course with men of lower c.,2, 281; 
the seven lowest c, 7, 29 n. ; 
funeral ceremonies for outcasts, 7, 

9 3 ; mire and water defiled by being 
touched by low-caste people, 7, 102 ; 
during penance one must not speak 
to Sfidras and outcasts, 7, 151 ; 25, 
476 ; sin of living as a Vratya or 
outcast, 7, 176 sq. ; 25, 442, 442 n. ; 
after having bathed, he must not 
converse with low-caste persons, or 
outcasts, 7, 205; a Snataka must 
not speak to low-caste persons, 7, 
228; Svapaka, the lowest of c, 8, 
65; 10 (ii), 23; 45, 50, 55, 59; 
Kshatriyas became Vn'shalas, 8, 295; 
Buddha's definition of an outcast, 

10 (ii), 21-3; law about outcasts, 
14, 67 sq. ; penance for intercourse 
with low-caste and outcast females, 
14, 104 ; cohabitation with Apapatra 
women and female outcasts, an 
Upapataka sin, 14, 219; outcasts 
shall live together, sacrificing for 
each other, teaching each other, 
marrying amongst each other, 14, 
220; no Vr/shala or Vr/shali should 
touch a woman in her courses, 15, 
219; is intercourse with the sons 
of outcasts permitted? 14, 220 sq. ; 
associating with outcast teachers or 



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HI 



pupils is sinful, 14, 239 ; a Snataka 
shall not travel with outcasts, Xri- 
shalas, or Sudras, 14, 243 ; 30, 87 ; 
Vratyas or outcasts, excluded from 
initiation, 25, 37, 405-7, 406 n. ; he 
who neglects the twilight devotions 
becomes an outcast, 25, 49 ; out- 
casts excluded from Sraddha feasts, 
25, 103 ; alliance with outcasts 
through Veda or marriage, 25, 105 ; 
a Snataka shall not dwell in a coun- 
try swarming with men of low c, 
25, 138, 141 ; flesh of animals slain 
by AaWalas is pure, 25, 192; Kfai- 
da\as and Svapa/as, their mode of life 
and occupation, 25, 414 sq. and n. ; 
penance for sacrificing for Vratyas, 
25, 471 ; outcasts unfit to be wit- 
nesses, 33, 89 ; KandSlas used for 
searching after a thief, 33, 206 ; gifts 
not to be accepted from outcasts,33, 
220; occult sciences described as 
the arts of KmdkUs, Sabaras, Dravi- 
das, &c, 45, 366. See also Initiation 
(Vratyas), Sins (Abhirastas), and 
SGdras. 
(/) Mixture of c, mixed c. 
Low mixed c. of AlWalas, from 
union of Sudra with a Brahma^a 
woman, 1, 82, 91 ; 2, 103, 103 n. ; 
15, 169; 25, 343, 404 sq., 411; 
definition of, and law regarding 
mixed c, 2, Ix sq. ; 7, 66 sq. ; 14, 
xxv, 94, 94 n., 196-8 ; 25, Ixxi sq., 
lxxxi, 402-18; 33, 186-8; union 
of a twice-born man with a 5fldra 
wife is sinful and degrading, 2, 69 ; 
7, 112 ; 10 (ii), 49; 14, 70, 228, 
22811., 244; 25, 466 sq. and n.; 
cohabitation of Aryan women with 
Sudras, and Aryan men with Apa- 
patra women causes impurity, 2, 
74 sq. ; low mixed c, Paulkasas, 
Vainas, 2, 103, 103 n. ; 15, 169; 
mixed c. of Nishadas, 2, 103 n. ; 
7, 163; 14, 228 ; 25, 163; 30, 317; 
intermarriage between different c. 
sinful, 2, 130 sq. ; 25, 184, 184 n. ; 
the son of a Brahmana who follows 
the profession of a Kshatriya, and 
the son of a Sudra born from a Brah- 
ma«a woman defile the company at 
a Sriiddha, 2, 145 ; those who have 
been killed in trying to prevent 
mixture of c. go to heaven, 7, iS ; 
crimes degrading to a mixed c, 7, 



138; 25, 444, 455; intermingling 
of c. results from neglect of rites, 
8> 41, 55 ; in order to prevent aeon- 
fusion of c, Brahma»as and Vaijyas 
may take up arms, 14, 20, 236; 
a Brahmawa who has intercourse 
with a A'aWala female becomes an 
outcast, or a ATaWala, 14, 235 ; a 
teacher's wives of equal or of dif- 
ferent c«, 25, 68 sq., 68 n. ; learning 
and an excellent wife may be ac- 
quired even from men of low c, 25, 
72 sq., 72 n. ; intermarriage be- 
tween different c, 25, 75, 77-9, 83, 
86 ; great offence of a Brahmawa, 
who, being invited to a Sraddha, 
dallies with a Siidra woman, 25, 
in ; intercourse with a Sudra 
female after having partaken of 
a Sraddha dinner injures the manes, 
25, 121 ; by intercourse with in- 
ferior people a BrahmaNa becomes 
a Sudra, 25, 167 ; if there were no 
punishments, a confusion of c. would 
arise, 25, 219; 33, 216 ; king's 
consort must be of equal c, 25, 
228 ; intermixture of c. to be pre- 
vented by the king, 25, 285 ; arms 
may be taken up when the twice- 
born c. are threatened with de- 
struction, 25, 314, 314 n. ; mixture 
of c. caused by adultery, 25, 315, 
315 n. ; seduction of maidens by 
men of lower c, 25, 317 sq. ; 
females of low birth attained the 
qualities of high-born husbands, 25, 
331 sq. ; confusion of c, caused by 
Vena, 25, 339; standing of wives of 
different c., 25, 342 sq. ; offspring 
of Aryan father and non-Aryan 
mother preferable to offspring of 
non-Aryan father and Aryan 
mother, 25, 417 sq. ; those who 
have intercourse with women of 
the lowest c. are reborn as Pretas, 
25, 497 ; mixed assemblages (of 
members of different c.) are illegal, 
33, 154 ; intercourse with unchaste 
women, but not of higher c, per- 
mitted, 33, 180 sq. ; pa/Ha^anaA = 
the four c. and the Nishadas, 34, 
262 ; a man of a mixed c. shall kill 
the dog at the horse- sacrifice, 44, 
279 n. ; the Sudra woman is the 
Arya's mistress, 44, 326; the son of a 
Vaijya woman not initiated, 44, 326. 



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(g) Religious view of c. 

Men arc reborn in higher or 
lower c.j according to their actions, 
1, 82 ; 2, 102 sq., 103 n., 126 ; 7, 
144 ; 8, 322 ; 25, 485, 496 sq. ; 45, 
15; a Brahmana should be chosen 
as a teacher, Kshatriyas or Valryas 
only in times of distress, 2, 111 ; 
14, 154 ; origin or creation of c, 
8j 59 ; 12, 296 ; 14, 25 ; 15, 89 sq.; 
25, 14, 14 n., 24 sq., 2611., 326, 
413 ; 43, 74 sq. ; c. and Ajramas, 8, 
315 sq. ; 22, xxxi sq. ; the three 
qualities in the three c, darkness 
in the Sudra, goodness in the Brah- 
ma«a, 8, 329; a Bhikkhu's power 
of remembering to what c. he be- 
longed in a previous birth, 11, 216 ; 
the c. system, and the Brahmawas, 
12, xiisq. ; Indra, Agni,Vjjve-devas 
represent nobility, priesthood, and 
peasantry, 12, xvi-xviii ; 43, 342, 
344 ; ceremonies of excommunica- 
tion and readmission of a sinner, 
14, 77 sq., 216; 25, 468-70; a 
Snataka shall beg from Brahmawas, 
Kshatriyas, Vaijyas, and Carpen- 
ters, 14, 159, 159 n, ; manes of the 
lour c, 25, 112 ; four c. known by 
the Veda, 25, 505 ; three metres 
corresponding to the three c, 29, 
59 n. ; Snataka prays to become 
beloved among Brahman (i.e. Brah- 
ma?ias), Vaijyas, Sudras, and kings, 
30, 167 ; the sacrifice is for the 
three c, 30, 315-17 ; all the four c. 
are fit for the knowledge of the 
Itihasas and Purawas, 34, 229 ; there 
arc four c, but none of them 
vomits Soma, 41, 131 ; sacrificial 
offerings mystically identified with 
Brahman (priesthood), Kshatra 
(nobility), and Vij (people), 44, 41 ; 
men ot all the four c. seized at the 
Purushamedha, 44, 409 sq., 413, 
417; protection invoked for Ksha- 
tra, Brahman, and Vij, 44, 496; 
if there were only one Soul, there 
could not be Brahinanas, K*hatri- 
yas, Vaijyas, and .Sudras, 45, 418; 
difference of c. results from the 
soul's connexion with a body, 
though all souls are parts of Brah- 
man and equal, 48, 564 sq. 

(h) RfcXIGIOUS RITES DIFFERENT 
ACCORDING TO C, 



Difference of c. with regard to 
initiation, 2, 3 sq., 175—7; 7, 114 
sq. ; 14, 56-8, 150-2; 25, 36-9; 
29, 58-60, 66, 70 n., 187 sq., 303 
sq., 307, 309-11, 399 sq.; 30, 63 
sq., 64 11., 137, 139, 148 sq., 27osq., 
274 ; difference of c. with regard to 
the rules for Brahma&irins, 2, 9 sq., 
12, 21; 8,217; 29,3o8; 32,232- 
4 ; a Brahma-fcarin should not beg 
from low-caste people, 2, 11, n n. ; 
difference of c. with regard to sip- 
ping water, 2, 580.; 7, 199; a 
Brahma^arin shall not eat in the 
house of Kshatriyas, Vaijyas, or 
.Sudras, 2, 66 sq. ; penances for 
murder of members of the four c, 
2, 78-80, 83, 284 sq. ; 14, 107 sq., 
212; penances different for dif- 
ferent c, 2, 84; 7, 168 sq., 175; 
14, 162, 301 ; difference of c, and 
reception of guests, 2, 110, no n., 
207; 7, 216 ; 14, 239; 29, 198, 
274; 30, 172, 277; gifts produce 
different merit according to the c. 
of the receiver, 2, 203; rules re- 
garding impurity for the different 
c, 2, 249, 252 sq. ; 7, 87, 89, 93-6 ; 
14, 21, 29, 167; gifts which a 
Brahmana may accept from mem- 
bers of all c, 2, 265 ; difference of 
c. with regard to forbidden food, 7, 
39 ; difference of c. and funeral 
ceremonies, 7, 75 ; certain intoxi- 
cating drinks unclean for a Brah- 
mana, but not for a Kshatriya and 
a Vakrya, 7, 95 sq. ; 44, 233 ; wives 
of different c, their participation in 
religious duties performed by the 
husband, 7, 1 1 1 sq.; different names 
to be given to children of the four 
c, 7, 113, 113 sq. n.; 25,35; 29, 
297 sq.; different forms of calls for 
the four c, 12, 28, 28 n., 452; 
Havishkrit formulas for members 
of the four c, 12, 28, 28 n.; differ- 
ence of c. with regard to construct- 
ing the sacred fires, 12, 207 m; 
different seasons suitable for the 
Agnyadheya for the three c, 12, 
290 sq. ; different marriage rites for 
different c, 14, 206 sq.; 25, 79-82; 
bathing before <*andhya prescribed 
for all c, 14, 246 ; an ascetic may 
beg alms lrom men of all c, 14, 
281 ; difference in ceremonies 



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according to c, 25, 41 sq. , 65, 95, 
182, 184 sq. and n., 186; Audras 
from whom a Brahmana may accept 
food, 25, 168 ; a dead Brahma«a 
shall not be carried out by a A'udra, 
25, 187; a Brahma«a shall never 
beg from a A'udra property for a 
sacrifice, 25, 435 ; different gifts at 
marriage to be given by the four c, 

29, 39, 285 ; different rules for the 
AaWakarman for the three c, 29, 
55 ; different site for building a 
house for the different c, 29, 212, 
428 ; 30, 120 ; difference of c. with 
regard to salving after bath, 29, 
228 ; sacrificial fees for the Godana 
different for the three c, 29, 403 ; 

30, 70 ; the sacred fire to be taken 
from members of the three a, 30, 
15 ; the Rathakara c. admitted to 
the Agnyadhana, 30, 316 ; Nishada 
chieftains admitted to the Gave- 
dhuka sacrifice, 30, 317 ; difference 
of c. in sacrificial details, 30, 337; 
Mahavrata ceremonies for BrSh- 
ma»as, Agni^ayana rites also for 
other c, 43, xxv sq. and n.; differ- 
ent size of sepulchral mound for 
the four c, 44, 435. 

(i) The c. and the law. 

Offences causing loss of c, 2, 7, 
74 sq., 89, 92, 280-2 ; 7, 138; 14, 
5, 217-19, 235 ; 25, 444,482; differ- 
ence of c, and law of adultery, 2, 
166 sq.; 14, 112 sq., 232 sq. ; 25, 
316, 316 n., 319-21; 33, 179, 366 
sq. ; different punishments for 
different c, 2, 167, 238-40, 245; 
7, 33 sq.; 25, 275 sq., 302-4, 382, 
384, 386; 33, 203 sq., 228-31; 
marriage laws (number of wives, 
wives of different c.) and c, 2, 196; 
7, 106 ; 11, 175 ; 14, 5 sq., 92 sq., 
196; 29, 277; 33, i65sq. and n., 
185; rights of children according 
to c. of the mothers, 2, 198-200 
and n. ; 25, 350 sq. and n., 356-8, 
365 n., 371, 371 n.; difference of 
c, and law about giving evidence, 
2, 246 sq.; 7, 50-2; 14,82; 25, 
264-6, 266 n., 269 sq., 272, 274 ; 
33, 81, 81 ti. r 8ri, 91, 100, 245; 
difference of c. (sons of wives of 
different c.) and law of inheritance, 
2, 308 sq.; 7, 64 sq., 70-3 ; 14,89, 
225 sq., 225 11.; 25, 357-9, 364, 



367 11.; 33, 192, 201, 371 sq., 
374-6; difference ofc. with,iegard 
to a treasure found, 7, 19 ; offences 
and punishments, with regard to 
the relation ofc, 7, 33 sq. ; law of 
debt (interests) different for dif- 
ferent c., 7, 42 ; 14, 15, 1 5 n. ; 25, 
278, 285 sq.; 33, 66, 6611.; dif- 
ference of c. and the law of ordeals, 

7, 53 sq. ; 33, 115, 117; the crime 
of homicide, and the four c, 2, 78- 
80, 83, 284 sq. ; 7, 132, 133 sq., 
1 3^, '57 S Q- » 14, 107 sq., 212; 25, 
448, 455 sq. and n. ; difference of 
c, and illicit sexual intercourse, 7, 
174 sq.; 14, i09sq. ; 33, 179; legal 
procedure to be in accordance with 
the sum of the science of the first 
two c, 14, 79, 79 n.; women be- 
come outcasts only by murder of 
a husband, or of a learned Brahmana, 
or of a foetus, 14, 133 ; difference 
of c. in criminal law, 14, 201 sq. ; 
even a despicable Brafnna«a may 
be a judge, but never a A'udra, 25, 
255 sq. and n.; suitors at a trial 
examined in the order of the c, 25, 
256; 33, 290, 290 n. ; peculiar laws 
and customs of c, 14, 96 ; 25, 260, 
260 n., 262, 294 ; stolen property 
must be restored to men of all c, 
25, 260; difference of law of theft 
according to c, 25, 313; law of 
abuse and defamation between 
different c, 25, 301-3 ; 33, 355 sq.; 
taxes to be levied from the four c, 
25, 427 sq. and n, ; difference of c. 
and law about slavery, 33, 137 sq. 
and n. ; the wife of one expelled 
from caste may marry another man, 
33, 185; law about assault, and 
difference of c, 33, 209-11, 357, 
359 ; Karalajj-anaka lost his caste by 
carrying off a Brahman's daughter, 
49 (i), 45. 

(j) C. DISREGARDED. 

View of c. in the Bhagavadglta, 

8, 21-5, 208-10; view of c. in 
Buddhism, 8, 25 ; Brahmawa and 
A'vapaka alike (manifestations of 
Brahman), 8, 65, 65 n. ; even 
Vaijyas and Audras attain the su- 
preme goal, how much more 
Biiilimanas and royal saints, 8, 85 
sq., 85 n., 255; Buddha's definition 
of an outcast, illustrated by the 



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story of a Kandafo who was reborn in 
the Brahma world, 10 (ii), 20-3 ; not 
by birth does om become an outcast, not 
by birth does one become a Brcthmana ; 
by deeds one becomes an outcast, by 
deeds one becomes a Br&hmana, 10 (ii), 
23; 45, 140; disagreement of c. 
on the Dhamma being lost, 10 (ii), 
52 ; Buddha is neither a Brahmawa, 
nor a king's son, nor a Vessa 
(Vaijya), but a wandering mendi- 
cant, 10 (ii), 74 sq. ; do not ask 
about descent, but ask about conduct; 
from wood, it is true, fire is born ; 
{likewise) a firm Muni, although be- 
longing to a low family, may become 
noble, when restrained (from sinning) 
by humility, 10 (ii), 76 ; who has 
seen Buddha, is appeased, even if 
he be of black origin, 10 (ii), 103 ; 
the truth proclaimed by Buddha is 
open to all, 11, 187 ; Bhikkhus 
belonging to different c. before 
entering the Order, 20, 192 sq., 
193 n. ; the four c. renounce their 
names and lineage when they be- 
come Buddhist monks, 20, 304 ; the 
monk Harikeja-Bala, born in a 
family of Svapakas, converts a Brah- 
mana, 45, 50, 54 sq. ; a BrShma/ia 
or Kshatriya, an Ugra or a LU- 
Mavi, when entering the order, is 
not stuck up on account of his 
Gotra, 45, 321 sq. ; men of different 
c. may become Brahmanas, accord- 
ing to Saivas, 48, 521. 
Castration not allowed to Bhik- 
khus, 20, 77 sq. 
Categories, twenty-five, of the Sail- 
khya system, 34, 257-60; difficulties 
with regard to the six c. of the 
Vaijeshikas, 34, 394 sqq. ; seven, 
two, five c. of the Gainas, 34, 428 
sq., 430; five c. of the Saivas, 34, 
435 ; nine c. or developments, 45, 
153, 154. 
Caterpillar, soul compared to a, 
38, 103, 352. 

Cattle, law relating to, 2, 168 sq., 
241; 7, 36 sq. ; 25, 253, 295-8, 
336 sq. ; 33, 67, 14 1-3, 160-4, 
160 n., 346; 37, 119 sq., 403; the 
Earth feels most happy where flocks 
and herds thrive, 4, 23 sq. ; creation 
of c, 5, 18; 20, 406-9; 37, 237; 
Aharman's contest with the c, 5, 



177-82; duties towards c, 5, 374; 
31, 69, 73; 37, 237-40; prayers 
for c, 5, 393; 12, 185; 26, 449; 
Arabian customs with regard to c., 
6, 89, 89 n., 112, 112 n., 115 n., 
1 32—4, 134 n. ; punishment for de- 
priving c. of their virility, 7, 35 ; 
tending c. duty of Yauyas, 8, 127 ; 
25, 325, 400, 419 ; created for men, 
9, 167, 19S; 37, 283; rites and 
prayers auspicious rcsp. inauspicious 
for c, 12, 64, 64 n., 71 n., 104, 
172, 206 sq., 212, 342, 347, 353-5, 
358; are fivefold, 12, 219, 228; 
c. means home, 12, 234; the as- 
terism Rohitfi connected with c, 
12, 283 sq. : about selling c. to 
foreigners, 18, 182 sq. ; Drvaspa 
keeps the flocks in health, 23, n 1 ; 
three times a day take care of the 
beneficent c, 23, 339; rearing of 
c. meiitorious, 24, 28 ; BrahmaMs 
must not tend c, 25, 272 ; c. rear- 
ing one of the ten modes of sub- 
sistence, 25, 427; wealth means c, 
2C, 180; 44, 126; foul smell of c. 
not to be shunned, 26, 266 sq. ; at 
first did not submit to being given 
away, 26, 344; are related to the 
Adilyas, 26, 353, 353 n., 356; Vaytl 
leader of c, 26, 362 ; c. are food, 
26, 446 sq.; 41, 33 ; 43, 52, 56 sq., 
87, no, 115, 218 sq., 335; cere- 
monies and sacrifices relating to c, 

29, 99-101, 130, 215 sq., 255-9> 
353-5. 4'°sq-; 30, xxviii, 37, 87-9, 
1 16-18, 127-9, 184-6, 304; 44, 10, 
12,^119, 123, r27 sq. ; rV/shataka 
or Ajvayug-a festival for the sake 
of c, 29, 130, 203, 332 sq., 415; 

30, 92 sq. ; Sulagava sacrifice for 
averting plague in c, 29, 255-8; 
30, 220-4, 291 ; Rudra invoked to 
protect the c, 30, 37 ; Rudra dwells 
among c, 30, 181 ; brandmarks on 
c, 35, 122; duties of shepherds, 
37, 81-4 ; religious duty of tending 
and care of c.,37, 126 sq., 179, 248, 
286 sq., 312, 318 sq., 370; 47, 168; 
on c. breeding, 37, 129, 139 ; reme- 
dies for c, 37, 129 ; mutual service 
of man, c, and sacred beings, 37, 
265 ; wisdom produced by care of 
c, 37, 334; benefit for a husband- 
man through c, 37, 344 ; repletion 
unnecessary for c, 37, 38 1 ; salt 



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means c, 41, 33 ; Agni is c, 41, 
1 96-8; both gods and men subsist 
on c, 41, 229; Dhurva-brick, repre- 
senting c, put on the fire-altar, 41, 
379-81 ; charm against worms in c, 
42, 23, 317-20; charms for the 
prosperity of c, 42, 143-5, 150, 
303 sq., 35i sq., 359-6i, 4I--Uj 
49°) 493 j a shepherd's charm against 
wild beasts and robbers, 42, 147 sq., 
366-9 ; Bhava and Sarva, the lords 
of c., 42, 155; marked, 42, 174, 
658 ; charm against sterility in c, 
42, 299 ; charm to bring stray c. 
home, 42, 496; Rudra invoked not 
to hurt c, 48, 154, 162 ; two-footed 
man established among four-footed 
c, 44, 26 ; in winter c. waste away, 
44, 45; gratified at the Agnihotra, 
44, 82 ; the sacrifice is c„ 44, 116; 
even whilst seeing clearly they do 
not know anything, 44, 130; off- 
spring, c, and heaven as reward of 
the pious, 44, 165, 170, 309 sq. ; 
milk, the light of c, 44, 215; the 
cups of milk fat the Sautramam) are 
c, 44, 229 ; recurring death of c, 
44, 271 ; won by the sacrifice! - , by 
means of the Gagafi metre, 44, 284 ; 
consist of sixteen parts, 44, 342 ; 
secured by the Br/hati metre, 44, 
371 ; metres are c, 44, 376 n.; 
are neither domestic nor wild, 44, 
376 n. ; when the c. overflow with 
milk, all the gods subsist thereon, 
44, 508 ; Ashavahi^to interferes to 
diminish slaughter of c, 47, xii ; 
pleased by the conversion of Vijtasp, 
47, 74 ; kindness towards c. en- 
joined, 47, 107 sq. See also Bull, 
Calf, Cow, Goat, Ox, and Sheep. 

Causation, chain of, see Nidanas. 

Cause, causes : KWshwa greater than 
Brahman and first c, 8, 96 ; pra- 
dhana, nature or material c.,8, 1 06 n,, 
191, 191 n., 244; the end of the 
great c. can never be reached, 8, 
192 ; the self having no c, 8, 247, 
309 ; where there are c. there is 
inconstancy and delusion, 8, 335 ; 
all beings have been created by 
nature, not by a c, 8, 387, 387 n. ; 
discussions on the c. of the world, 
15, 231-7; 19, 206-12; whatever 
is originated, the Sankhyas say, is 
originated from inherent c, non- 



inherent c., and operative c, 34, 
5 sq. ; causal matter is metaphori- 
cally represented as a she-goat, 34, 
256 sq. ; only the one highest c. is 
true, 34, 322 ; four kinds of c, ad- 
mitted by the Bauddha, 34, 409, 
409 n. ; things exist either through 
Karma, or a c, or the seasons, 36, 
103, 107 sq. ; a Bodhisattva should 
not believe in the idea of a c, 49 (ii), 
1 14 sq.;— seed and product, c. and 
effect, 8, 383 n. ; relation of c. and 
effect, 34, xxix, xlix, 300-6, 309, 
311, 320-43, 350, 367, 39 fi sq., 
396 n., 399, 436, 44a; 38, 9, 20, 
451; 48, 415-19) 430-4) 445 sq., 
453-5, 459, 463-6, 471, 482^., 
541. See also Nidanas, Pradhana, 
Upadana, and World (6). 

Cave (of the heart), see Heart. 

Cave dwellings, in which Buddha 
stayed, 11, 56 sq. 

Celibacy, see Monks. 

Cemetery (burial-ground), Veda 
study must be interrupted in a, 
2, 33 ; 14, 64; 25, 147 ; 29, ir6, 
324; rags for pawisukula robes got 
from a c, 17, 197 sqq. ; impurity- 
caused by touching a pyre or c, 14, 
30 ; ascetics making a vow r to wear 
nothing except what they can pro- 
cure from dusthcaps or c, 20, 89 ; 
a Snataka shall not go to a c, 29, 
j 26; selection and preparation of 
the place fora c, 29, 236 sq., 237 u. ; 
Rudra invoked on a c, 29, 366 ; 
bridal procession passing a c, 30, 
262; preparing of burial-place and 
tomb, 44,421-40. Seealso Dakhmas. 

Ceremonies. 

(a) In Indian religions. 
(/>) In Parsi religion, 
(c) In Chinese religions. 

(a) In Indian religions. 

The Pu«yahava£ana ceremony, 
2, 49 n. ; the ceremony of sipping 
water,2, 54-9, 57sq.andn.; seealso 
Purification ; costume of the Brah- 
mawa when performing c, 2, 54; 
one should not invite a sinner to 
dinners given at religious c, 2, 75 ; 
even with a fallen mother there 
shall be no communion in religious 
c, 2, 88 ; to prevent the interruption 
of c. begging is permitted, 2, 123; 
rules about the fire for domestic c, 



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2, 201, 201 n. ; money may be taken 
from rich men who neglect their 
religiousdutiesto defray the expenses 
of c, 2, 2 7 3 ; to be performed by the 
husband together with the eldest 
wife, 7, nisq.; penance for omitting 
the daily rites, 7, 179 ; 25, 472, 
472 ii. ; the eternal rites of families 
destroyed by destruction of a family, 
8, 41 sq. ; Vedic c. not a true means 
of emancipation, 8, 146; gifts made 
at c, 8, 169 ; through ignorance of 
the truth c. become amplified, 8, 
171 ; rites and c. condemned, 11, 
jo, 10 n., 199, 300 n., 301 ; the 
ascetic shall discontinue the per- 
formance of c, 14, 46; families 
perish by neglect of sacred rites, 
25, 86 ; daily c. of a householder, 
25, 87-97 ; the rites prescribed in 
the Veda, a means of obtaining 
union with Brahman, 25, 212,2 12 n.; 
rites without knowledge of the 
soul not sufficient, 25, 213, 213 n.; 
Kshatriyas degraded by omission of 
c, 25, 4J2 ; domestic rites and c, 
vols. 20 and 30; c. at the emanci- 
pation of a slave, 33, 138 sq. ; 
religious c. performed by several 
persons jointly, 33, 338; c. in Mali a- 
yana Buddhism, 49 (i), 199. See also 
Auspicious rites, Hair, Marriage, 
Sacraments, Sacrifices, and Works. 

(A) In Parsi religion. 

C. restored by Peshyotanu, 5, 
li sq., 227, 229 ; AuhannaKf/ per- 
forms the Yazijn ceremony with 
the archangels, 5, 14 ; the Geto- 
kharid rite and other c., 5, 127, 
127 n., 292, 292 11., 351; 18, 234, 
2 34 n., 237; 24, 262 sq. and n. ; 
Mazdajasnian c.,5, 205 sq., 211 sq. ; 
five c. which when performed are 
good works, and when neglected 
sins, 5, 351 sq., 351 n.; ceremonial 
worship and sacred feast, 5, 362 ; 
the merits of different c, 5, 380 sq., 
381 n.; about the cost of religious 

■ c, 18, 201-9, 242 sq., 250-5; to 
order religious rites, an atonement 
for sin, 18, 232; celebrating c. a 
good work, 24, 27 sq., 27 n. ; how 
the c, of the sacred beings ought to 
be considered, 24, 94 sq. ; annual 
Rapithwin ceremony, 24, 264 ; duty 
of performing Gada/jgoi, 24, 285 sq., 



285 n. ; NavazuV ceremony, 24, 
262 sq. and ft., 316 sq. ; explanation 
of c. and ritual, 37, 23 ; assault 
against one about to celebrate a 
sacred c, 37, 49, 49 n. ; a thief 
liberated to celebrate a religious 
c.f 37, 59 sq. ; on the day of 
battle, 37, 89 ; at the five periods 
of the day and night, 37, 167 ; three 
grades of a, 37, 192 ; great ordinance 
of the ceremonial of Auharmazi, 
37, 346 sq. ; religion of Auharmaaa/ 
made progressive by c, 37, 363 ; 
why c. are performed, 37, 381 sq. ; 
worship of the sacred beings, 37, 395 
sq. ; the c. which go to the bridge of 
sin, 37, 477 ; the wizard Mahrkus de- 
stroyed by the Dahman Afr'n ritual, 
47, xii, 108. See also Sacrifices (0). 
(r) In Chinese religions. 

A minister appointed to direct 
' the three c.,' 3, 44, 44 n. ; in c. 
it is better to be sparing than ex- 
travagant, 16, 105 n. ; 'the orna- 
mental observances of society,' 1$, 
231, 232 n. ; arise when things are 
subjected to restraint, 16, 434, 
440 n. ; their supposed prevalence 
in Chinese religion, 27, 12 sq. ; 
valueless without truth and rever- 
ence, 27, 25 sq., 394 sq., 403, 403 n., 
408 sq., 411-14, 415 n., 416 sq., 
439, 445 sq. ; their importance for 
government and morality, 27, 39, 
3 6 7, 375-9» 386, 388-93 ; 28, 261-6 ; 
discourse of Confucius on c, 27, 
40 ; 28, 270-7 ; rules of c. pre- 
sented under the figure of dykes, 
27, 41 sq. ; 28, 284-99; are sug- 
gested by the course of nature, and 
conformed to the feelings of man, 
27, 59; 28, 465 sq. ; how to prac- 
tise c. in a foreign country, 27, 
101 sq. ; the six ceremonial observ- 
ances, 27, 230, 248 ; their origin 
and development, 27, 364-72, 3S5- 
90 ; enumerated, 27, 367, 388 ; 28, 
430 ; on the things to be used for 
e., and details about time, number, 
&c, 27, 395-448, 448 n. ; regu- 
lation of expenditure for c, 27, 
396 ; number of rules of c, 27, 
404, 404 n. ; are not the expression 
of feelings, 27, 406 sq. ; promote 
righteousness and humility, 27, 
413 sq. ; 28, 219 sq.; different c. 



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under different dynasties, 27, 438, 
466-8; 28, 35-9, 324, 34 r sq.; c. and 
music as moral forces, 28, 95-116, 
125-9; music employed at c, 28, 
101 ; how they were framed, 28, 
101 sq. ; the object of c. and music, 
28, 224-6 ; five kinds of c, 28, 236, 
23611.; their instructive and moral- 
izing power, 28, 257-60 ; a ruler 
must know the principles of c. and 
music, 28, 276 ; c. that have no em- 
bodiment, 28, 279 sq.; 300 usages 
of c. and 3,000 modes of demeanour, 
28, 323 ; only to be discussed by 
the emperor, 28, 324 ; are neces- 
sary, 28, 331 sq. ; the demonstration 
of humanity, 28, 409 ; how the 
Taoist looks upon c., 39, 140, 271, 
278-80, 293, 305 sq., 342, 369; by 
c, men impose on one another, they 
are but the flowers of the Tao, and 
the commencement of disorder, 40, 
58 sq. ; cultivated by Confucius, 

40, 193 ; attacked by Mo-3ze, 40, 
218 ; unguent of the Chrismal rite 
sprinkled on the head (of children, 
idols, &c), 40, 270 sq. ; began to 
be practised when the Tao was laid 
aside, 40, 284 sq. ; c. and music in 
the age of perfect virtue, 40, 312. 

Cessation, two kinds of it assumed 
by the Bauddhas, 34, 410 sq., 413. 

Chain, see Bonds, the five. 

Chamberlain, see Kshattr/. 

Changer (Vikartri), n.d., invoked at 
the house-building rite, 29, 347. 

Chaos: the gods of the southern and 
northern seas brought Ch. to an end 
by boring holes in him, 30, 138, 
266 sq., 267 n. 

Chariot (cart, carriage), ceremonies 
connected with cart containing rice 
for sacrifice, 12, 12-19 ; P°le of ch. 
bound with thongs, 12, 452 ; Soma- 
carts and cart-shed, 2G, 127-34; 
cart-wheels described, 26, 132 n.; 
ceremonies on mounting a ch., 29, 
209-11, 363-5; 30, 295 ; gods drive 
on ch., 32, 14, 29, 63, 82, 97, 107, 
126, 159, 169, 210, 272, 296, 313, 
319 sq., 326, 333 sq., 337 sq., 340, 
343, 352, 357, 3^3, 3<56, 368, 370, 
39t sq., 400 sq., 408, 413,444, 449 ; 

41, 289 sq. ; 42,120; 46,245; gods 
invoked for wealth of horses, ch., 
ch.-horscs, &c, 32, 296, 341 ; racing 



ch., 32, 352; 46, 173, 193, 213; 
bounteous like lords of ch., Jfci, 416; 
spokes of ch.- wheels, 32, 416 ; ch.- 
race at the vagapeya, 41, xxiv, 17- 
29 ; ch., is a thunderbolt, is a winner 
of wealth, 41, 18, 98; carriage and 
pair, the priest's fee, 4 1,50; oblations 
relating to the ch. at the rag-asuya, 
41, 101 sq. ; yoke-pin's throw, and 
yoke as measures of distance, 41, 
1 2 3» 349 * driving the sacrificial fire 
on a ch., 41, 289-91 ; first the right, 
then the left ox yoked, 41, 291, 327 ; 
consecration of war-ch., 42, T20, 
587 ; offering made on head of ch., 
43, 233 sq. ; ch. is yonder sun, 43, 
234 sq. ; by oblations of air the gods 
yoked the ch. for the obtainment of 
wishes, 43, 236 ; if two smashed ch. 
were to unite, there would be one 
fit for driving, 44, 19S; is completed, 
i.e. held together with cords, 44, 
318, 318 n. ; a victorious ch., 46, 
271. See a/so Parables (_/"). 

Charioteer, night like a, 32, 357; 
Marutscallcdch.,32,364,375; three 
horses, the warrior and the ch., 41, 
50, 102 ; not to get down from 
chariot along with the king,41, 104 ; 
king and ch. stepping on the war- 
chariot, 42, 587 ; Agni compared to 
a ch., 46, 37, 100, 22 r, 229, 233, 
2 9 2 , 35°, 3 6 °- See a/so Parables (/). 

Charity, sacrifice, and Veda study, 
the three kinds of good works, 
1, 35 ; 8, 98 sq., 340; 15, 179; 25, 
307 ; 48, 695, 699 ; rewards of ch. 
in next life, 1, 80 ; 4, 200, 383 ; 19, 
213-16; 24, 184 sq., 342 sq. ; 37, 
204, 313 ; 38, 124 ; portions of the 
harvest to be left for the benefit of 
the widow, 3, 373, 373 n. ; 28, 296 ; 
the Earth is pleased by him who 
makes gifts to the faithful, 4, 31 ; 
contract of ch. to co-religionists, 4, 
34, 45 sq. ; he -who relieves the poor 
7?iakes Ahitra king, 4, 101, 210, 251 ; 
he who refuses gifts to the faithful, 
makes the Dru? pregnant with 
fiends, 4, 201 ; Zoroastrian virtue 
and duty of ch., 4, 2t8, 266, 285- 
7, 286 n. ; 5, 209; 18, 174 sq. ; 
23, 316, 320 n., 336-8, 344; 24, 
19, 24, 282, 329; 37, 180, 307, 
319-21; see also Rata (Genius of 
Ch.) ; mutual ch. between brethren 



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in the Faith, 4, 292 n., 293 ; ch. one 
of the three best things, 4, 293 ; 
gifts to the righteous, the best 
sacrifice, 4, 357 ; the soul clothed 
with garments given in ch., 5, 127, 
341, 34 f n,, 383 n. ; mutual assist- 
ance of the creatures is the will 
of Auharmaz*/, 5, 15S ; game to be 
preserved for the poor, 5, 301, 
301 n. ; advantage of excessive alms- 
giving, 5, 325, 345; meat-offering 
to (personified) Compassion and 
sustenance of the poor, 5, 337 ; 
forsaking a righteous man in afflic- 
tion, a discomfort to the earth, 5, 
361 ; almsgiving a duty of the 
Moslim, 6, Ixxi, jxxiii, 2, 6, ri, 15, 
24, j8, 60, 62, 77, 105, 149, 15 6 ) 
163, 173-5, 183 sq., 186 sq., 235, 
242 ; 9, 4, 31, 60 sq., 65, 78, 80, 99, 
113, 131, 143, 160, i6j t 199, 209, 
266-8, 272, 2$jf, 287, 301, $o8 3 
332, 334 W* 338, 342; feeding a 
poor man, a substitute for a fast, 6, 
26 ; expend in alms in God's way 
and be not cast by your own hands into 
perdition ; hut do good, for God loves 
those who do good ',6, 28; to whom alms 
should be given, 6, 31, 181 ; 9, 128 ; 
duty towards orphans, 6, 32, 71 sq., 
77j9°)'35; 27,259: 'the surplus' 
to be expended in alms, 6, 32 ; Oye 
who believe! expend in alms of what 
we have bestowtd upon you. before the 
day comes in which is no barter \ and no 
friendship, and no intercession ; and 
the misbelievers, they are the unjust, 
6, 39 sq. ; of almsgiving in God's 
way, 6, 4 r-4 ; alms not to be given 
for appearance sake, 6, 78 ; part of 
blood-money remitted as alms, 6, 
85 ; share of the spoils to be given 
to the poor, 6, 168 ; alms not to 
be accepted from misbelievers, 6, 
180 sq. ; God rewards those who 
give alms, 6, 191 ; 9, 155 ; leads to 
final emancipation, 8, 114; duty of 
Kshatriyas, 8, 127; one of the 
twelve great observances, 8, 167, 

182 ; giving away of sons and 
wealth to deserving men, 8, 169; 
how ch. should be exercised, 8, 

183 sq. ; want of ch. a mark of 
the quality of darkness, 8, 320; the 
various acts of public ch., belong to 
the quality of passion, 8, 324; the 



duty of the good, 8, 326 ; 25, 
1 64 sq. ; the hermit should always 
give alms of whatever he has -for 
food, 8, 361:; be not niggardly in 
God's cause, 9, 232 sq.; food given 
to the poor and the orphan and the 
captive ' for God's sake,' 9, 312 sq. ; 
the wealthy denounced who do not 
care for the poor and the orphan, 
9, 331 ; the duty of all castes, 14, 26; 
25, 24, 401, 420; cannot save him 
whose conduct is vile, 14, 34 ; the 
Paramita of ch., 19, 366-8 ; grand 
feats of charitableness of Bodhi- 
sattvas, 21, 11 sq., 14, 243; accu- 
mulation of merits acquired by acts 
of ch. compared with that acquired 
by occupation with sacred books, 
21, 320-7 ; keeping the Lotus of 
the True Law is a greater merit 
than bestowing the whole world 
full of jewels on Buddhas, &c, 21, 
386 ; prayers, sacrifices, and ch. 
offered to Mithra, 23, 121 ; provision 
of lodgings for the sick and poor, 
a good work, 24, 75 ; liberality of 
thought, of word, and of deed, 24, 
121 sq. ; gifts to the poor for the 
benefit of one's soul, 24, 184 sq. ; 
nothing is to be given to a sinner, 
24, 354; the chief virtue in the 
Kali age, 25, 24; duty of giving alms 
to ascetics and students^ 25, 92 sq., 
92 n. ; the hermit to give alms of 
water, roots, and fruit, 25, 199 sq. ; 
given up by the ascetic, 25, 205 ; 
property destined for ch., is indi- 
visible, 25, 379, 379 n. ; provision 
made for orphans, widowers, widows, 
and cripples, 27, 243 sq. ; acts of ch. 
enjoined on the Emperor for the 
third month of spring, 27, 264 ; 
compassion to be shown to orphans 
and widows, 27, 298 ; to relieve 
suffering, and shelter the poor, the 
first care of Zoroastrianism, 31, 
xxii, 80 sq., 85, 8511.; houses for 
the poor built, 31, 300; render ye 
the needy rich, 31, 357 ; charitable 
associations, 33, 348, 349 sq. ; alms 
less meritorious than sacrifices, 34, 
27; duty of almsgiving, especially 
in the days of the Fravashis, 37, 18 ; 
about begging and beneficence, 37, 
39 ; squandering alms, 37, 70 ; praise 
of liberality, 37, 91 ; reducing liber- 



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alityv limit ot :i v/ife"S liberality! 37, 
99 ; illiberal opulence, 37, 176 sq. ; 
what you give to a disciple of 
Zoroaster is as it" given to Zoroaster, 
37, 196, 196 n.; reward of liberality 
towards the worthy, 37, 249 sq. ; 
liberality for the Mazda- worshipper 
is for the archangels, 37, 280; he 
who gives to the needy gives himself 
up to Zaratmt, 37, "24 ; practising 
ch. benefits the sun, 37, 326 ; liberal 
giving is repaying a debt, 37, 336 ; 
giving to the wise is a foundation of 
learning. 37, 371 ; development of 
the world through liberality to the 
poor, 37, 372 ; ministration of the 
poor through Auharmaa^, 37, 458 ; 
the sage does not accumulate {for him- 
self). The ?nore that he expends for 
others , the moie does he possess of his 
own ; the more that he gives to others, 
the more does he have himself, 39, 
123 sq. ; 40, 55 ; better is he who 
controls himself, than he who gives, 
every month, thousands of cows, 
45, 39 ; Zoroaster's charitableness, 
47, 152-4; ch. is helpful to know- 
ledge, 48, 704. See also Begging, 
Gifts, Priests (f,^),«^/Teacher (tee). 
Charms : a Brahma-fcarin learns 
poison eh. and such things from his 
teacher, 2, 19 n, ; eh. cannot save a 
man who is in the bonds of death, 
7, 81 sq. ; battle-eh., 23, 243 ; 42, 
98, H7-33, 233-5, 262 sq., 325-7, 
404 sq., 43 6 "40, 510 &q., 545, 582- 
7, 63 1-9 ; love-ch., 30, 269 sq. ; 42, 
99-105,274-7, 311-13, 356-9,459 
sq., 512 sq., 534" 6 , 539 sq., 5^6 
sq. ; by means ol ch. Siddhas make 
rain, extinguish fire, and ward off 
poison, 35, 181, 181 n. ; snakes com- 
pelled by ch. (Pirit) to suck the 
poison back again or prevented 
from biting, 35, 212, 213 n. t 215 
sq. ; Kshatriyas have secret formulas 
handed down in families, 35, 265 ; 
protecting ch. against death, 42, 55- 
60; against curses, 42, 91, 285; a 
sleeping-eh. at an assignation, 42, 
105 sq., 372 sq. ; to allay discord 
and appease anger, 42, 134-7, 36 1 — 
4» 479~ 81 , 492, 494 s <l-3 550 sq. ; to 
gain victory in debate, or influence 
in the assembly, 42, 1 37-9, 275, 304- 
6, 508 sq., 543 sq. ; to avert sin, evil 



omens, and the like, 42, 163 8,473-5, 
483-5, 521-9, 555 sq., 564 s<t- J for 
easy delivery in child-bed, 42, 247 ; 
to cure diseases, see under Diseases ; 
pertaining to women, see Women (b). 
See aha Prayers, and Witchcraft. 
Chase, see Animals (f), and Hunting. 
Chastity enjoined for the Brahma- 
^arin or Vedic student, 2, 8, 186, 
188; 7, 120 sq. ; 25, 62 sq. ; 29, 
309; 30, 70 sq., 76, 160; 33, 132; 
48, 695 ; Brahmajfcarin who breaks 
the vow of eh., 2, 85, 257, 281 sq., 
289, 294 sq.; 14, 117 sq., 215 sq., 
294 sq.; 29, 361 sq. ; 38, 318-20; 
48, 706 sq. ; enjoined for the ascetic, 
2, 153, 193 ; enjoined for the 
hermit, 2, 155 ; 7, 277 ; 14, 45 ; 25, 
203 ; those who keep the vow of 
ch, reach immortality, 2, 158; en- 
joined for mourners during the 
period of impurity, 2, 254 ; to be 
observed on the day of a Sraddha, 
2, 258 ; as a penance, 2, 2S3, 286 ; 
25, 447, 476 ; enjoined for believers, 
9, 65, 76 sq. ; the Bhikkhu should 
live a life of eh., 10 (ii), 18 sq.; 11, 
189; 13, 7 sq., 32, 42; of the 
ancient Brahmanas, 10 (ii), 49; let 
the wise man avoid an unchaste life as 
a burning heap of 'coals ,10 (ii), 65 sq.; 
ye shall not act wrongly touching the 
bodily desires, 11, 253; offences 
against ch., 13, 16 sq. ; restrictions 
as to a Bhikkhu's preaching to 
women, 13,32 sq. ; Buddhist monk 
threatened by dangers of offending 
against ch., 13, 261, 315, 340; 20, 
312 ; certain Bhikkhus followed evil 
practices offending against eh., 17, 
347-54; enjoined for Snatakas at 
certain periods, 25, 149, 149 n. ; 
chaste Brahma^as reach heaven, 25, 
i96sq. ; to be observed by the youth 
after the first shaving, 29, 303, 403 ; 
to be observed during a ceremony 
for procuring wealth, 29,428; 30, 
120; to be observed before per- 
forming a magic rite, 30, 269 sq. ; 
knowledge belongs to those who 
are bound to eh., 38, 295 sq.; the 
stages of life for which ch. is obli- 
gatory, 38, 297-303, 317 sqq. ; the 
ten conditions of perfect ch., for 
Cain a monks, 45, 73-7 ; enjoined 
for Gaina monks, 45, 74, 91 sq., 162, 



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185 sq., 291% 302 sq., 307, 308, 
324, 33o, 333, 350, 3S0, 411; he 
who does not carnally love divine, 
human, or animal beings, is a true 
BrahmaHa, 45, 139 ; heretics do not 
lead a life of eh., 45, 245; is the 
highest of austerities, 45, 291 ; ob- 
served by those who abandon works 
and possess knowledge of Brahman, 
48, 693 ; not recommended by 
Gaimini, 48, 694. See also Absti- 
nence, and Sexual intercourse. 

Chatter, sin of unseasonable, 5, Ixi, 
287 sq., 28811., 290-3 ; 24, 11, 11 n. ; 
37, 152. 

Cheat, the imperishable, which has 
the sky for its circumference and the 
earth for its bottom, &c, 1, 49 sq. 

Child, Children. 

(<j) Ke'ig^ous LeIIefs about ch. 

(b) Religious ceremonies connected with 

ch. _ 
(f) Ch. in physiology, law. and custom. 

(a) Religious beliefs about ch. 
The quality of the ch. depends 
on the marriage rite of the parents, 
2, 128; 14, 207 sq, and n. ; 25, 
82 sq. ; 29, 166 ; in thy offspring 
thou art bom again, that, mortal, is 
thy immortality, 2, 159 ; the heavenly 
bliss of the ancestors depends on 
the procreation of ch., 2, 159 sq.; 
the sins of their eh. do not hurt the 
ancestors, 2, j6o; no religious rites 
or restrictions enjoined for ch. 
before their initiation, 2, 185 sq. 
and n. ; 14, 10, 150; dreams of 
bears forbode sons, dreams of 
snakes daughters, 3, 350 ; the duty 
and religious merit of begetting eh. 
(sons), 4, Ixii, 46 sq., 47 n. ; 5, 325, 
345 ; 14, 26, 44, 56, 260-2, 271-3 ; 
18, £25 sq., 429, 429 n. ; 25, 205; 
37, 109 ; used as assistant priests, 4, 
308 n., 309-11, 365 ; 37, 95 ; Mashya 
and Mashyoi eat their eh., 5, 57, 
57 n. ; there is no begetting of ch. 
after the resurrection, 5, 127 ; un- 
seasonable chatter no sin for ch., 5, 
290 sq. ; father responsible for sins 
of ch., 5, 291, 291 n., 305 n. ; 37, 
129 sq. ; when his wife becomes 
pregnant by him, a man is freed 
from mortal sin, 5, 307 ; new-born 
ch. not to be shown to a sinful 
person, 5, 322; good works of ch. 



shared by parents, 5, 325, 345 ; 24, 
313 ; 37, 470 ; he who has no kins- 
meiij no ch., is released, 8, 246 ; 
Mohammed's enemies shall be 
childless, 9, 343 ; begetting ch. a 
debt to the ancestors, 12, 1 90 sq., 
190 n. ; 49 (i), 100; offspring pro- 
duced by sacrifice, 12, 257 ; men's 
offspring their death, 12, 361 ; birth 
of eh. causes interruption of Veda- 
study, 14, 211; 29, 115, 142; a 
wife, childless for three years, 
becomes at last a mother ; a good 
omen, 16, 179, 181 n.; awifewhois 
pregnant, and will not nourish her 
ch.— inauspicious, 16, 179, 181 n. ; 
the wife's duty to nourish her ch., 
16, 333 ; succession of life through 
ch. commendable, 18, 92, 92 sq. n. ; 
results of good deeds manifested in 
ch., 18, 1 4 1 ;' to remove the burden 
of offspring' by assisting in their 
support, an atonement for sins, 18, 
232, 236; sterility hateful to Ashi 
Vanguhi, 23, 280 sq. ; a virtuous ch. 
is a good supporter of fame, 24, 41 ; 
the worst child, 24, 69 ; the tie of 
eh. is the most pleasant, 24, 82 ; for 
the welfare of the soul after death 
it is necessary to leave a ch., 24, 
278-81 ; the fiend Seg threatens 
infants, 24, 294 ; Veda-study, sacri- 
fices, and procreation of sons fit the 
body for union with Brahman, 25, 
34 ; sins of the father fall on eh. 
and grandchildren, 25, 156 ; im- 
portance of preserving the purity of 
offspring, 25, 328 sq. and n. ; are 
the cause of happiness in this world 
and after death, 25, 332 ; conception 
without sexual intercourse, 35, 185, 
306 ; ch. under seven years cannot 
attain to Nirvana, 36, 177-81 ; con- 
demned for wizard's spells, 37, 65 ; 
sins of ch., 37, 77 ; sin of giving 
weapons to ch., 37, 78 ; fit for judge- 
ship, if acquainted with the law, 37, 
80 ; spiritual perception of ch., 37, 
in ; the excellence of virtuous off- 
spring, 37, 179 ; childlessness a 
punishment in hell, 37, 211 ; tokens 
at the time of childbirth, 37, 427 ; 
the guilt which remains unpunished 
at the death of a man falls upon his 
posterity, 39, 39 ; 40, 244 sq., 244 n.; 
the Taoist sage like a little ch., 40, 



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80-2 ; progeny is all the light, 41, 
239 ; 43, 129 ; symbolism of genera- 
tion of ch., 41, 239 sq.; 43, 128, 
1 30 ; by giving sterile cows to 
Brahmans, one obtains ch., 42, 174 ; 
continue the life of the parents, 42, 
185, 646; he alone is ruler who 
propagates ch., 43, 230. See also 
Birth, and Embryo. 
{b) Religious ceremonies con- 
nected with CH. 

Secret name given to ch. at 
birth, 1, 178 sq , 178 n. ; 29, 395 ; 
30, 55, 215, 381 ; 41, 159 ; sacrifices 
and rites connected with concep- 
tion, pregnancy, and birth of 
ch., 1, 244 n.; 5, 322 ; 7, 1 [2-14 ; 
11, in. ; 12,85; 15,215-21 (con- 
ception), 221-4, 222 "•! l^j 7, 
19 sq. ; 22, 254 sq. ; 23, 341; 
24, 277, 286 sq., 319 ; 25, 33-6, 
34 n. ; 27, 27, 471-6; 29, 4*5-57) 
179, 182 sq., 293-8, 393-9 ; 30, xxi, 
55) 5 8 sq., 62, 208-18, 253, 280, 
282, 301 sq. ; 37, 100 sq. ; 42, 97 _ 9» 
109 sq., 242-5, 247, 284, 356 sq., 
460 sq., 467, 517 sq., 540sq., 545sq., 
574 sq. ; 47, 30; 49 (i), 15, 22; 
prayers and rites of a father setting 
out on a journey or returning from 
it tor the welfare of his ch., 1, 
288; 12, 357-9; 29, 183, 298, 397J 
30, 59, 215 sq., 283 ; impurity 
caused by the birth of ch., 2, 59, 
250 sq. ; 4, lxxix sq. and n. ; 5, 
272, 280-2, 28011.; 7, 87-91 ; 14, 
177 sq., 180, 298 ; 24, 339 sq. ; 25, 
146, 162, 177-81 ; 29, 355; see also 
Impurity ; impurity of women after 
miscarriage, 4, 62-5, 91 sq. ; 5, 
280-2, 280 n. ; 24, 340 sq. ; 25, 179, 
179 sq. n. ; 37, 159 ; fire to be kept 
for the protection of the unborn 
and new-born ch. from demons, 4, 
184 n. ; 5, 342-4 ; 18, 59, 59 n. ; 
24, 277 ; 37, 480 ; prayers for the 
protection of the lying-in woman, 
4, 230, 232-4, 232 n. ; ceremony of 
tying the sacred thread-girdle, 5, 
320 sq. ; IS, xxviii ; 24, 309 sq., 
347- 349 J 37, 471, 474~ 6 ; «** "ha 
Costume ; pregnancy becomes 
scarcer, and fewer male ch. are 
born, where the fire is not main- 
tained properly, 5, 339; 24, 271; 
37, 191 sq. ; rite of circumcision not 



mentioned in the Qur'an, 6, lii ; 
funeral rites for ch., 7, 90 ; 14, 177 ; 
24, 310 ; 25, 120, 180 ; 27, 340 sq. ; 
29, 245, 355 ; Nishekakarman, cere- 
mony of impregnation, 7, 112 sq., 
113 n. ; Puwsavana, or ceremony 
to cause the birth of a male, 7, 113, 
113 m; 29, 42 sq., 45 sq., 179 sq-> 

291 sq., 393 sq. ; 30, 5 3 -4, 20 9 s q., 
280 sq. ; 37, no; 42, 97, 357 sq., 
460 sq.; Simantonnayana, or cere- 
mony of parting the hair of the 
pregnant woman, 7, 113, 113 n. ; 
29, 47-9, 137 sq., 180, 181 sq., 276, 

292 sq,, 394 sq. ; 30, 54 sq., 208 sq., 
253, 279 sq. ; 42, 545; Gatakannan, 
or birth-ceremony, 7, T13 ; 25, 34 ; 

29, 49-5I) 137 sq.', 182 sq., 395; 30, 
55 sq., 210-14, 281-3 ; 37, 100 ; 38, 
28 sq. ; 42, 293; the Namadhcya 
(namakarana) or name-giving rite, 
7, 1 13 ; 11, 1 n. ; 15, 223 ; 22, 192, 
255; 25, 35, 35 n., 180; 27, 78 sq., 
144, 473-55 29, 50, 182 sq.,297 sq., 
395-7 ; 30, 57 sq.,215, 282 sq. ; 37, 
101 ; 42, 573; Adityadarjana, or 
ceremony of taking the child out to 
see the sun, 7, 114 ; Annaprajana, 
or ceremony of first feeding, 7, 114 ; 

11, 1 n. ; 29, 54 sq., 183 sq., 299 sq.-; 

30, 216, 283; the A'iVakarami 
(Aaui/a, or A'aula-karman) or tonsure 
rite, 2, 253, 253 n. ; 7, 114; 25, 
34, 36, 177, 180; 29, 55-7, 184-6, 
276, 301-3, 380, 397-9; 30, 41, 60-3, 
216-18, 253, 283 sq. ; 37, 124; 42, 
309; prayer for the son, that he 
may continue the sacrifice, 12, 273, 
273 n., 357 ; prayers for offspring, 

12, 369 n. ; 23, 360 sq. ; 25, 123-; 

26, 124; 42, 18; ceremonies to 
secure the birth of ch. with certain 
qualities wished for, 15, 219 sq. ; 
29, 171 ; 30, xxi; portion of de- 
ceased ch. at funeral meals, 25, 1 20 ; 
by eating a cake sacrtd to the 
manes, a wife will bring forth an 
excellent son, 25, 124 ; 29, 424 ; 
special rites for the sake of off- 
spring, 26, 98, 173, t77, 213-15, 
382 ; on the ceremonies of capping, 

27, 26, 54 sq., 79, 144, 316 sq., 
317 n., 355, 358, 437 sq., 437 "•, 
451, 478; 28, 9, 52 sq., 162, 425-7; 
shaving ceremony of a ch., 27, 473 ; 
37, 124 ; girls take the hairpin on 



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reaching maturity, 27, 451, 479; 

28, 52 sq., 172 ; archery perform- 
ances at the birth of a son, 28, 452 ; 
the Garbharakshawa, 29, 47 ; the 
mother's getting up from childbed, 

29, 51 sq. ; how to procure male 
or female offspring, 29, 167 sq, ; 
prayers and rites of a wife who 
desires to conceive, 29, 287, 291 ; 
Balis offered by a wife for the pro- 
tection of offspring, 29, 290 sq. ; 
Medhag-anana and Ayushya rites for 
the new-born ch., 29, 293 sq. ; 
charms against diseases of ch., 
caused by demons, 29, 296 sq. ; 

30, 213 sq., 219 sq., 286 sq. ; 42, 
283, 341-3 ; placing a boy on the 
bride's lap, 30, 50, 263 ; Soshyanti- 
homa, sacrifice for the woman in 
labour, 30, 55 ; monthly sacrifice in 
commemoration of the ch.'s birth, 
30, 58 sq. ; Kshipraprasavana, or 
ceremony for accelerating the con- 
finement, 30, 210, 281 ; ceremony 
at a miscarriage, 30, 210; fumigation 
of new-born ch. to keep evil demons 
away, 30, 211 sq. ; charms to pre- 
vent miscarriage, 42, xxxviii,298 sq., 
302 ; charm against worms in ch., 
42, 23-5, 452-5; prayer for long 
life pronounced over a boy, 42, 
50 sq., 306 sq. ; five Brahma«as 
breathe over the new-born son, 44, 
129 sq., 129 n. See also Woman (b). 

(c) CH. IX PHYSIOLOGY, LAW, AND 
CUSTOM. 

Gift and sale of ch., 2, 132, 132 n. ; 
8, 169 ; 14, 75, 228, 335 ; 25, xciii, 
442 ; games of ch., 3, 350, 350 n. ; 
illegitimate ch., 4, 178-80 ; 24, 325 ; 
must be supported for seven years, 
4, 183, 183 n. ; on the nature of 
conception and generation, procrea- 
tion of male or female ch., 5, 60 sq. ; 
25, 84; 37, 109-11; discrimination 
in accepting the child of a hand- 
maid, 5, 323 sq., 323 n., 344 sq. ; 
about suckling ch., 6, 35 ; 9, 132 ; 
birth and weaning of ch , 9, 226 ; 
when the ch. is born, there is 
breath, as long as it is not born, it 
breathes in accord with the mother's 
breath, 12, 305 ; whether generation 
of ch. depends more on father or on 
mother, 14, 180; 25, 417 sq. ; family 
in which no malech. are born to be 



avoided in choosing a bride, 25, 76 ; 
whether ch. belong to the begetter 
or to the owner of the soil, 25, 
333-7; 33) 176 sq. ; crime of killing 
ch.,25, 382 ; 40, 243 ; how punished, 
25, 382 ; how ch. style themselves 
in speaking to their parents, 27, 
113; law about ch., 27, 66 ; name of 
a posthumous heir announced to the 
spirits and in the ancestral temple, 
27, 311-14 ; nurses chosen for the 
ch., 27, 472 sq., 476 ; dependence of 
ch., 33, 51 ; law about minority, 33, 
51, 51 n. ; the property of ch. not 
lost by adverse possession, 33, 6r ; 
are incompetent witnesses, 33, 89 
sq. ; 37, 38 ; not to be subjected to 
the ordeal by water, 33, 113; crimes 
committed by ch., 37, 41, 46 sq , 
76 ; guardianship of a child, 37, 101, 
162 ; born with head first, 41, 233 ; 
why they try to speak and stand 
up at the end of a year, 41, 388; 
44, 12 sq. ; are born after being 
fashioned for a year, 43, 274 ; 44, 
87 sq. ; 'child,' favourite name of 
the horse, 44, 288. See also Abortion, 
Adoption, Family, Parables (/), 
Parents, Son, and Woman {g). 

China : Sovereigns of Ch. and their 
titles, 3, xxvi-xxix ; early historical 
documents in Ch.,3, 4-6; chronology 
of Ch., and principal eras, 3, 13, 15, 
20-30 ; the three religions of Ch., 3, 
xiii-xxii ; 39, 1 sq. ; 40, 31 r n., 315, 
320 n. ; sacred books of Ch., 3, xiii- 
xxii ; 49 (ii), xxvi ; see also Con- 
fucianism ; geography of Ch., 3, 64- 
76 ; how the King of Ch. charms 
the great ocean, 35, 182. 

Chiromancy, treatises on, 42, 260. 

Christianity, and Zoroastrianism, 
5, lxix sq. ; established in Arabia, 
G, xiv ; its relation to Islam, G, 
xlvii lii ; Trinity and sonship of 
Jesus denounced, 6, 95, 108 ; 
Buddhism and Ch., 11, 165 sq., 
208, 222 ; alleged Christian in- 
fluences in the Upanishads, 15, 
xxxi; falsehood about the Messiah, 
18, 107 sq. ; criticisms of Christian 
doctrines, 24, xxv, xxvii sq., 225, 
225 n., 229-43. 

Christians, fiends with red banners 
(Ch. ?) in Iran, 5, li, 215 sq. ; 
referred to as infidels, 5, Ixi, 297, 



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297 n. ; treated as infidels by 
Mohammed, 6, xlvii ; Jews, Ch., 
or Sabaeans, whosoever believe in 
God, will have their reward, 6, 8 ; 
disputes between Jews and Ch., 6, 
15 ; Paradise not exclusively for 
Jews and Ch., C, 15 ; Jews and Ch. 
opposed to Islam, 6, 16; Mohammed 
warned against the Ch., 6, 99 ; Jews 
and Ch. not the 'Sons of God,' G, 
100 ; to be judged by what God 
has revealed, C, 104 ; Jews and Ch. 
not to be taken for patrons, 6, 
105 sq. ; Jews and Ch. appealed to 
and reproved, G, 106 sq. ; nearest 
in love to the Muslims, G, 109 ; say 
that the Messiah is the Son of God, 
6, 177 ; God will decide between 
Jews, Sabaeans, Ch., and other 
faiths, 9, 58 ; rebuked for intro- 
ducing monkery, 9, 269 ; rebuked 
for not believing in Mohammed's 
mission, 9, 337 sq. 

Church, Buddhist. See Sa»:gha. 

Circumambulation, honouring a 
person by going round him towards 
the right (generally three times), 2, 
25 ; 7, 236 sq. ; 10 (ii), 1 19 sq., 188 ; 
11, 15, 17, 30, 33, 42, 7i, 80; 13, 
108, 140, 193, 240; 17, 6, 36, 62, 
83, 92, 98, 101, 192, 194, 228, 259, 
360 sq. ; 19, 81 ; 20, 103, 184, 235, 
253, 257, 320, 327, 382; 21, 158, 
162, 283, 397,425; 22, 196 ; 30, 292; 
35, 28; 45,4i, 101, 107, 434 ; 49 (i), 
157, 166 ; (ii), 10, 112; seven times, 
21, 381, 398, 431;— c. of temples, 
2, 276 sq. n. ; 29, 125 ; of the holy- 
shrines at the 'Hagg ceremonies, 6, 
xi ; Kaabah seven times circumam- 
bulated, 6, xlii, lxxiv, 17; 9, 59; 
Pradakshiwa, the sun-wise c, 12, 
37 n, (comp. Gaelic deasil), 272, 
272 n.; 44, 323, 323 n., 468; the 
Adhvaryu walks round the Hotri 
from left to right, 12, 132 n. ; of the 
altar, 12, 264-6, 425, 432, 432 n., 
435, 44i sq. ; 26, 283; 43, 170; 
of the fire, 12, 339, 344, 34511.; 
25, 38 sq. ; 29, 37 sq., 68, 177, 360, 
384 ; 30, 20, 29, 222 ; 44, xxvi ; at 
the wedding, 29, 168 sq., 279, 283, 
382; 30, 46, 191, 198, 260 sq.; at 
the Upanayana, 29, 306; 30, 150; 
— of the funeral pile three times, 17, 
299 sq. ; 19, 323; the Dcvas turn 



round the Buddha babe to the right, 
19, 364 ; worship of a Stupa*by c., 
21, 247 ; of the animal victim, 20, 
186 sq., 187 n. ; of the grave, 27, 
1 93 ; of water at a wedding, 29, 36 ; 
of the ground where a house is 
buiit, 29, 213, 214 ; of the burial 
place, 29, 238, 245 sq. ; of the 
unlucky fire turning the left side 
towards it, 29, 247; of the house, to 
protect it from serpents, 29,330; 30, 
23S, 288 ; c. and ' circummingere ' 
of a run-away servant, 29, 350; 
30, 176, 296 ; of the house at the 
Agrahayawi ceremony, 30, 95; c. 
and sprinkling water round the new 
house, 30, 286; sacred objects to be 
worshipped by turning the right side 
towards them, 33, 222 ; at holy rites, 
42, 323 ; priest walks about the 
patient to be cured from snake- 
poison, towards the left, 42, 425 sq. ; 
of a sacrifice, 42, 475 ; 46, 360 ; the 
king's wives walk round the dead 
horse, in sun-wise fashion, 44, 322 
sq., 323 n. ; carrying fire round 
(paryagnikarana), see Fire (d). 

Circumcision, see Child (£). 

Civil law, see Law. 

Civilization, sketch of the progress 
of, lb", 382-5, 386 sq. n. 

Clothes, clothing, see Costume, and 
Garments. 

Cloud, Sudassana's Horse Treasure 
called ' Thunder-c.,' 11, 255, 255 n.; 
springs from smoke, 41, 85 ; is the 
udder whence the shower of wealth 
flows, 43, 221 ; called the black 
bull, and the leather bag, 4G, 103, 
105; musical c, 49 (ii), 19. See 
also Par^anya. 

Cloud -spirits, see Gods (j). 

Cock, see Birds (£). 

Cognition (vidya), unity of the, 34, 
152; 38, 214-16; the self whose 
nature is unchangeable, eternal c., 
34, 185 sq. ; internal c. cannot 
be the abode of mental impres- 
sions, 34, 426 sq. ; discussion on the 
separateness or non-separateness of 
the cs. (vidyas) of Brahman, which 
form the subject of the different 
Vedanta-texts, 38, ioi, 184-279; 
cs. connected with members of 
sacrificial acts, 38, 252-6, 274; 
compared with sacrifices, 38, 280 ; 



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should there be cumulation of the 
different cs. or option between them? 
38, 280-4 ; the fruit of all cs. is the 
intuition of the object meditated 
upon, 3*, 281 ; cs. which have the 
qualified Brahman for their object, 
38, 330. See also Knowledge, and 
Meditation. 
Cohabitation, see Sexual inter- 
course. 
Coins, dirham (fy'i^F'}), silver c, 
18, 180, 180 sq. n. ; Dinaras men- 
tioned, 25, xvii, evil, ex; 33, 232, 
275, 317; explanation of value of 
different c., 33, 231 sq., 316 sq., 391 ; 
gold c , 44, 51, 53. See also Money. 
Cold, effect of it on the body, 8, 238. 
Colours, the three, red, white, black, 
the only thing that is true in the 
elements, 1, 95 sq. ; five c, 3, 59 ; 
27, 382; 28, in ; 39,55, 269, 274, 
279, 286, 328 ; white the sacred 
colour of the Shang, red that of the 
Kfai dynasty, 3, 327, 333 n. ; of 
victims at sacrifices, 3, 333 sq. n., 
343, 343 n., 3733 373"-) 3«7 ; twelve 
forms of c., 8, 384 ; c. of the veins, 
and c. on the path to heaven, 15, 
l6 7i 177; yellow one of the five 
'correct ' c, 16, 103 n., 121, 122 n., 
128, 129 n., 145, 146 n., 167, 171, 
173 n., 304, 305 n., 421 ; 28, u, 
11 11. ; white the colour of mourn- 
ing, 27, 69 ; c. used for war and for 
mourning, 27, 125 sq. ; correct and 
illegitimate c, 27, 238, 238 n. ; 
regulations about dyeing, 27, 278 ; 
c. of the different quarters, 27, 328, 
328 n. ; choice of c. in ceremonies, 
27j 405 ; yellow the c. of the earth, 
27, 436; names of c, 32, 17-19, 
24 ; all c. contained in the ruddy, 
41, 355 ; Wne and red are magic c, 
42,69, 12 °> 395) 564, 564 n., 566 sq., 
583, 587 ; c. or outward appearance 
is everything, 44, 354; the word' c.' 
used iii a general sense for every- 
thing that is perceived by the eye, 
45, 187 n. 
Comet, see Omens. 
Commotions, see Iwjjitas. 
Compassion, to all beings, part of 
the conduct of the good, 8, 114, 
243, 326; the ascetic should walk 
with circumspection over the earth 
out of c. to all beings, 8, 364 ; 



thoughts of pity, the second of the 
' infinite feelings,' 9, 201 sq., 273. 
See also Ahiwsa, and Chanty. 
Concentration (of mind on the 

Brahman), see Yoga. 
Conception, see Child. 
Concubines, see Marriage, and 

Woman (/), 
Conduct, see Morality, and Silas. 
Confections, see Sawkharas. 
Confession of sins accepted, 6, 
1 87 sq. ; when confessed the sin becomes 
less, since it becomes truth, 12, 397 ; 
the ceremony of c. on the Uposatha, 
13, 1 sq., 56 sqq., 242 sq., 245, 
282-6; 20, 23 sq. ; c. of sin accepted 
by Buddha, 17, 259-61 ; 20, 122 sq.; 
for this, Bhikkhits, is called progress 
in the discipline of the nobh one, if one 
sees his sin in its sinfulness, and duly 
makes amends for it, and refrains from 
it in future, 17, 261 ; the regular 
form of c. and acceptance of it, 17, 
261; 20, 122, 244; c. and atone- 
ment of sins, 17, 274 sq. ; proceed- 
ing against a Bhikkhu on c. of guilt, 
20, 61-4; rules about c. for Bhik- 
khunis, 20, 331 sq. ; c. of sin in 
an assembly of Brahmanas and 
Kshatriyas, 25, 447; in religion of 
the Parsis, 31, 285, 288 ; 37, 46, 
145 ; purifies from sin, 33, 230 ; in 
Gaina religion, 45, 158 sq., 162-4, 
'79j 384. See also Sins. 
Confucianism, the religion of China, 
par excellence, 3, xiv ; sacred 
books of C, 3, xiv-xx ; destruction 
of literature of C. by the tyrant of 
K/An, 3, xvii sq., 6-8 ; the ritual 
books of C, 3, xv iii sq. ; relation 
between C. and Taoism, 3, xxii ; 
39, xii, xv sq., 1-3, 132, 139, 141, 
144 sq., 147, 152, 242 n. ; 40, 192- 
201, 288; ceremonies and theology 
in C, 27, 12-14; the- different 
teaching of the different .Kings, 
27, 38 ; 28, 255 60 ; its philo- 
sophy and morals exhibited in 
the A'ung Yung, 27, 43 sq. ; 28, 
300-29, 301 n. ; Confucian teach- 
ing presented in the book Ta Hsio, 
27, 53sq.; 28,411-24; triumphed 
over Taoism, 39, 33 ; the Confucian 
classics recommended as teaching 
the Tao, 40, 216, 216 n. 
Confucianists, the Literati and the 



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Mohists or followers of Mo Ti, 

39, 182, 182 11., 296, 360; 40, 73, 
99 sq., 105, 27(1, 312 ; some Literati, 
students of the Odes and ceremonies, 
open a grave, to take a pearl from 
the mouth of the dead, 40, 134 sq., 
134 n. ; the Literati make hypo- 
critical speeches, 40, 178; Hwan 
the Confucian scholar makes his 
brother study the principles of Rio, 

40, 204 sq. ; Literati and Mohists 
think how to remedy the world, 40, 
286. See also Monism, and Mohists. 

Confucius. -• 

(n) His life and personality. 
(/) His works and teachings. 

{a) His life axd personality. 
Interviews between Lao-3/e and 
C, 3, xxi ; 39, 2 sq., 34 sq., 317 sq.; 
40, 46-9, 47 n. ; C. and Lao-3ze assist 
together at a burial, 27, 339 ; C.and 
Lao-3/e discourse on benevolence 
and righteousness, 39, 145, 339 sq. ; 
instructed by Lao-3ze about the 
Tao, 39, 152, 354-7, 354 n., 360-2 ; 
40, 6 3 -6, 292; 'The Old Fisher- 
man ' gives C. a lesson in Taoism, 

39, 159 ; 40, 192-201 ; being under 
a condemning sentence of Heaven, 
C. has not got the Tao, 39, 252 sq., 
252 n. ; defeated by Lfio-gze, 39, 
357 sq. ; converted to Taoism, 40, 
32-6, 32 n. ; Lao Lai-3/e lectures 
C, 40, 135 sq., 135 n., 294 ; how he 
attained to enjoyment in the Tao, 

40, 289; Hsiian Ni, i.e. C, sighed 
over 'the Dragon' Lao-gze, 40, 
314 ; — the Duke of Aau appears to 
C. in dreams, 3, 152 ; his marriage- 
name A'ung-m, 3, 465 n. ; 27, 40 ; 
39, 203 n. ; historical or legendary 
accounts of C. in the book Than 
Kung, 27, 17 sq, ; presided at ;in 
archery competition, 27, 57 ; 28, 
449 sq. ; did he divorce his wife? 
27, 122 11., 131 sq. n. ; mourns for 
3ze-lu, 27, 123 sq., 124 n. ; buried 
his mother in the same grave with 
his father, 27, 123 5; C. and the 
mourning rites for Po-kao, 27, 
134 sq. ; his death, and mourning 
for him, 27, 138 sq., 141,156,159, 
1 59 11. ; as minister of Crime in Lu, 
27, 150, 15011.; has his dog buried, 
27, 196 sq., 197 n. ; on the spies in 
Sung, 27, 1 98 ; his friendship for 



Yuan Zang, 27, 198 sq., 199 n. ; the 
guest of Shao-sMh, 28, 171 ; name 
of his mother, 27, 190 ; his visits to 
KbX and Sung, 27, 368, 368 n. ; wore 
pendant balls of ivory, 28, 19; at 
meals, 28, 21 ; called 'the Master,' 
28, 227, 229 ; 39, 309 n., 317 ; called 
A7'iu, 28, 305, 305 n.; eulogized as 
the ideal sage, 28, 326 sq., 327 n. ; 
his favourite disciple Yen Hui, 39, 
132, 203-10; 40, 158 sq.; and 
A7>ieh-yu, the madman of Khu, 39, 
132, 221 sq. and n.; though reduced 
to extreme distress, plays and sings 
and is happy, 39, 148, 3S5-7; 40, 
160 sq. ; his sorrow at Ilui's going 
toA'Ai,39, 149; 40,7sq.; when in his 
sixtieth year, C. changed his views, 
39, 156 ; 40, 144 sq., 14411. ; inter- 
view between C. and the robber 
K\h t 39, 157 sq. ; 40, 166-76; on 
terms of friendship with Liu-hsia 
Hui, 39, i57sq. ; 40, i66sq., 166 n., 
1 75 s q. ! C. and Shu-shan the Toeless, 

39, 228 sq. ; conversation between 
the Duke Ai of Lu and C. about 
Ai-thai Tho, 39, 229-33 > wishes 
to deposit his books in the library 
of Aau, 39, 338 sq. and n. ; his mis- 
fortunes, 40, 32, 34, 34 n., 37, 160, 
172,197; C.and \Van-p0Hsuch-3ze, 

40, 44; described by Yen Yuan as 
a mental thaumaturgist, 40, 44-6, 
45 n. ; reproaches Yen Yuan for 
criticizing King Wan, 40, 53; Ait 
Po-yh",his friend, 40, i24n.; C. about 
Duke Ling of Wei, 40, 124-26 ; C. 
and 32ng- 3ze, 40, 145; his costume, 
40, 168, 172 ; a truly noble scholar, 
40, 177 ; received presents from 
Thien A'Aang, 40, 177, 177 n.; did 
not see his mother, 40, 180, 180 n. ; 
how he devotes himself to benefit- 
ing the kingdom, 40, 193 ; treated 
with reverence by great rulers, 40, 
200; Yen Ho describes C. to Ai of 
Lu as unfit to be entrusted with 
the government, 40, 207-9 > the 
scholar of Lu, favourable judgement 
passed on him, 40, 216, 2 16 n.; C.and 
3ze-sang Hu, 40, 289 sq. ; and Yen- 
3/.e, 40, 293 ; and Zan K/Au, 40, 293 ; 
Awang-3ze's relation to C, 40,32 isq. 

(b) HIS WORKS AND TEACHINGS. 

He was a transmitter and not a 
maker, 3, xiv, 3 ; author of A7»un 



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CONFUCIUS—CONNUBIAL 



ATfiu or ' Spring and Autumn,' 3, 
xix sq. ; the Hsiao King, conver- 
sations between C. and his disciple 
3ang-3ze, 3, xx, 449-5', 461 sq., 
465-88 ; quotes the Shu King, he 
did not compile it, 3, 2-4 ; on the 
old historical documents, 3, 5 ; Pre- 
face to the Shih ascribed to him, 3, 
276, 296 ; what he did for the Shih 
King, 3, 280-4, 337 > reformed 
the music, 3, 284; on ancestor 
worship, 3, 299 sq., 302; Appen- 
dixes of the Yi King ascribed to 
him, 16, xiii sq., xvii-xix, 1-3, 
7 sq., 26, 28-31, 46 sq., 53 sq., 
360 n», 364 sq. n., 371 n.; on the 
study of the Yi King, 16, 1 ; the 
best teacher of the Chinese nation, 
16, 31 ; how he spoke of the Li A'i, 

27, 1 ; replies to the questions of 
3ang-jze,27, 21 sq., 311-42; C.and 
3ai Wo, on the constitution of 
man, 27, 36; 28, 220-2; on the 
teaching of the Aings, 27, 38 ; 28, 
255 sq., 258 ; conversation between 
Duke Ai and C, 27, 39 ; 28, 261- 
9; discourses to his three disciples 
on ceremonies and government, 27, 
40; 28, 270-7; discourse of C. 
with 3 / -c-hsia on the sovereign as 
1 the parent of the people,' 27, 
41 ; 28, 278-83 ; ' Words of the 
Master,' not really those of C, 27, 
44-6 ; 28, 330-64 ; on the con- 
duct of the scholar, 27, 51 sq. ; 28, 
402-10; on the jade symbol, 27, 
59; 28, 463 sq. ; on the law of 
inheritance, 27, 120; on funeral 
rites and mourning, 27, 122-5, 
127, 129-31, 134, 136-8, 146, 
148-50, 153, 155 sq., 160, 170, 
172 sq., 175 sq., 175 n.j 182, 184 sq., 
192 sq., 202 ; 28, 152 sq,, 160, 163, 
164, 168, 394 ; on revenge for 
bloodshed, 27, 140; on oppressive 
government, 27, 190 sq. ; on educa- 
tion of princes, 27, 351 ; on cere- 
monies, 27, 364-72, 401, 403, 414 
sq., 423 sq., 437; on music, 27, 
419; 28, 121-4; on court-robes, 

28, 11 ; on sacrifices, 28, 166 sq., 
213 ; on filial piety, 28, 217 ; on the 
state of equilibrium and harmony, 
28, 301-29; does not search for 
what is mysterious, 28, 303 sq. ; 
handed down the views of Yao and 



Shun, Wan, and \YG, 28, 326; on 
festivities in the country districts, 
28, 440-2, 442 n. ; on archery, 
28, 452 sq. ; his Tao or Path of 
duty different from L&o-gze's Tiio, 
39, 29 ; did not accept the doctrine 
of returning good for evil, 39, 31 ; 
advises 3ze-kao, the duke of Sheh, 

39, 132, 210-14 i expounds and 
extols Taoism, 39, 136, 250-7, 
2 53 n -j 2 55 n -i 2 57 "■ 1 C. and the 
swimmer in the cataract, 39, 150; 

40, 20 sq., 20 n. ; a description of 
Taoism ascribed tojimv? 39, 192 
sq. n.; difference between Taoists 
and C. as to pursuit of knowledge, 

39, 198 n. ; on the virtues of a 
Taoist sage, 39, 223-6, 322 ; 40, 
72 sq.; conversations and parables 
intended to ridicule his views, 39, 
351-4; said to have studied six 
books, 39, 360 ; the knowledge of 
C. made little of, 39, 375 sq. ; tells 
the story of the hunchback who, by 
his concentration of mind, is clever 
in catching cicadas, 40, i4sq.andn.; 
about the ferryman who handled 
the boat like a spirit, 40, 15 sq. ; 
warns men against injuring the life 
by indulging in sensual desires, 40, 
17 sq. ; instructs Yen Hui about 
the Human and the Heavenly, 40, 
37-9 ; describes the True men of 
old, 40, 55; instructs his disciple 
Zan A7>iG, 40, 71 sq. ; makes 'a 
speech without words,' 40, 104 sq., 
104 n. ; on the duties of a master, 

40, 117 sq. ; on the difficulty of 
knowing the mind of man, and nine 
methods of testing it, 40, 209; 
about putting aside subjects con- 
cerning which doubts are enter- 
tained, 40, 296, 296 n. 

Congregation Day, prayers to be 
said on, 9, 283, 283 11. 

Conjugal intercourse, see Sexual 
intercourse. 

Conjunction(sawyoga) : the distinc- 
tion of the A'aijeshikas between c. 
and inherence, 34, 390, 396 sq. ; the 
connexion between the Lord and 
the souls and pradhana cannot be c. , 
34, 4 3 6 - 

Conjurers, see Sorcerers. 

Connubial intercourse, see Sexual 
intercourse. 



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Consanguinity, see Family. 
Conscience, the righteous souls met 
by their own c. in the shape of a 
beautiful maiden, the wicked souls 
by their own c. in the shape of an 
old woman, 28, 315-17* 3'9sq. n., 
343 sq. See also Works (c). 
Consciousness, pain arises from, 
10 (ii), 135 sq. ; the cessation of c. 
stops name and form, 10 (ii), 191 ; 
the non-existence of external things 
cannot be maintained, on account of 
oitrc. of them, 34, 418-24; being and 
c. are one, 48, 33; is pelf-proved, 
48, 33-5, 47-50; is eternal and in- 
capable of change, 48, 35 sq. ; there 
is no real difference between c. and 
conscious subject, 48, 36-8 ; being 
and c. are not one, 48, 47 ; is not 
eternal, 48, 50-2 ; there is no c. 
without object, 48, 52-4; is capa- 
ble of change, 48, 54 sq. ; the attri- 
bute of a permanent conscious self, 
48, 56 sqq.; the view that the con- 
scious subject is unreal, owing to 
the ahawkara, refuted, 48, 61-7 ; the 
conscious subject persists in deep 
sleep, 48, 67-9; c. of the ' 1 ' per- 
sists in the state of release, 48, 69-7 2. 
Consecration of ponds, wells, tanks, 
gardens, 29, 1 34-6 ; c. of the sacri- 
ficer for a sacrifice, see Diksha. 
Consideration (^itta), meditation on 

it as Brahman, 1, 114. 
Constellation, see Stars. 
Contamination, see Impurity, and 

Nasu. 
Contemplation, see Meditation. 
Contentment, the devotee is always 
contented, 8, 60, 101 ; c. is from 
Krishna, 8, 86; virtue of c, 8, 325 sq.; 
better than fame or wealth or life, 39, 
87sq.; ambition the greatestguilt, dis- 
content the greatest calamity, 39, 89. 
Contracts, law about, 4, Ixxxii, 34- 
9, 45 sq., 255; breaking c, a sin 
against Mithra, 23, 120, 120 n., 149 
sq. ; c. breakers amongst the crea- 
tures of Angra Mainyu, 31, 313; 
breach of c. of service, a title of 
law, 33, 131-44; inscribed on slips 
of wood or bamboo, 39, 121, 133 ; 
the Taoist regards the conditions 
of a c, 39, 121 sq. ; bloody sacri- 
fices offered at the conclusion of c, 
40, 164, 164 n. 



Convents, see Monasteries, and 
Viharas. 
Converts, see Buddha (c). " 
Corporations, violation of agree- 
ments between members of, 25, 253, 
293 sq., 293 n. ; 33, 346-50; legal 
assemblies of cultivators, artisans, 
&c, forming c, 33, -281 sq. ; docu- 
ments to be read before assemblies 
of c, 33, 308. See also Assemblies. 
Corpse(s): the earth grieved by c. 
buried in it or lying on Dakhmas,4, 
24 sq. and n. ; he who digs out most 
c. of dogs and men, and pulls down 
most Dakhmas, pleases the earth, 4, 
26 ; eating of a c. an abomination, 
4, 81, 81 n.; in towns where a c. 
lies, Veda-study must be interrupted, 
14, 64 ; water, fire, earth contami- 
nated by a c, 18, 229, 229 sq. n. ; 
the ocean will not brook association 
with c, but throws them out, 20, 
301,303; headless c. dance over the 
battlefield, 3fi, 1 47 ; pollution through 
ac, 37, 153 sq., 256 sq.; hideousness 
of the c, and misery of its conscious- 
ness, 37, 200 sq. ; fire distressed by 
carrying a c, 47, lor. See also Death 
ff), Drug-, and Impurity. 
Cosmogony, see Creation, and 

World (b). 
Cosmology, see World (d). 
Costume of a Brahmanahouseholder, 
esp. during religious ceremonies, the 
sacrificial cord (ya£«opavita, pra^i- 
navita), 1, 285, 285 n.; 2, 54, to8, 
110, 180 sq., 278 ; 7, 114 sq., 117, 
H9; 8, 359; 12, 228 n., 361, 361 
n., 364 n., 365 n., 421, 424, 424 n., 
426, 428, 433 sq., 436 ; 14, 44, 49, 
49 n., 165 sq., 181, 186-8, 224, 255, 
269, 269 sq. n.; 18, 132 11. ; 25, 38, 
41; 127; 29, 86, 122, 162, 217, 220, 
252, 252 n., 255, 356, 3745 30, 13, 
16-18, 16 n., 44 n., 107, 146, 219, 
226, 244. 251, 299, 331 sq. ; 38,298; 
of the Brahmaiarin, 2, 9 sq., 23, 
176 sq. ; 8, 360; 14, 56 sq., 150, 
152 ; 25, 37 sq., 41 ; 29, 59-62, 67 
sq., 82-4, 187 sq., 191, 304 sq., 309 
sq., 401 sq., 404; 30, 63 sq., 67, 70 
sq.. 73, I38sq., 147 sq., 157, 160, 
272, 274 sq. ; 32, 232-4; of a Sna- 
taka, 2, 29, 93, 219, 223; 7, 225, 
227 ; 14, 60, 62, 159, 242 ; 25, 134, 
139; 29, 9r sq., 124, 315 sq., 318, 



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COSTUME— COW 



40S sq. ; 30, 84, 86, 163, [66-9, 
276 sq. ; during the performance of 
magic rites, 2, 150, 150 n. ; of the 
ascetic, 2, 154, 194; 14, 47, 260, 
274, 277-9, 2 9 l i 49 (i), 68 sq., 75, 
77 ; of the hermit, 2, 155, 195, 195 
n. ; 8, 361; 14, 45, 259, 293 sq.; 
25, 199, 199 n.; of Sudras, 2, 233 ; 
some sects wear skins, others go 
without covering, 8, 375; upper 
garment to be worn on certain 
occasions, 14, 245; worn at a fast, 
14, 307 ; of Buddhist monks, 19, 
181 sq., j 97; 35, i8sq., 30; 36, 57 5 
Mauwfibandhana, tying the sacred 
girdle, 25, 34, 37 sq. and n., 6r; 
of the Dikshita, 26, 28 sq., 32-4; 
of teacher and pupil, 29, 226-8; 
of the king in battle, 29, 233 sq. ; 
of the bride, 30, 44 ; of umpire fix- 
ing boundary, 33, 352 ; insignia of 
religious orders, 33, 361 ; local c.and 
c. of castes to be preserved, 33, 390; 
- sacred thread-girdle and sacred 
shirt to be worn by Zoroastrians, 4, 
193-5, 193 n., 195 n., 198, 204, 204 
n., 279, 325, 357, 359 ; &* •*', ">6 
sq,, 128 sq., 129 n., 205, 208, 212, 
285-9, 286 n., 314 sq., 320 sq.; 18, 
xxviii, 122 n., 130, 133 sq„ 1 33 n.; 23, 
29, 349 ; 24, 11, 11 n. ; 37, 96, 125, 
163, 182, 182 n., 289; 47, 50, 134, 
151 ; reasons for wearing the sacred 
thread-girdle, 18, 122-34, I22 n -» 
24, 268-70; see also Child (b) ; the 
sacred shirt, the garment of Vohu- 
man, 18, 129, 129 n., 133, 133 n., 
162; the Nirang-i Kusti, or girdle 
formula, 18, 383-8; sin of being 
improperly dressed or shod, 5, Ixi, 
287-9, 287 n,, 288 sq. 11., 320, 
320 n. ; 18, 123, 123 n., 133 sq. ; 
24, 11, 11 n., 307; 37, 182, 18211. ; 
— at state ceremonies in Chinese 
courts, 3, 240 sq. ; of the wild tribes 
in China, 3, 249, 24911.; at sacri- 
fices, 3, 334, 334 n. ; 27, 104, 115, 
227, 242 sq., 278, 467 ; 28, 141, 
186-8; different according to rank, 
3, 469, 469 n. ; 28, 9-20, 14 n. ; 
kings wear red, nobles scarlet knee- 
covers, 16, 162, 164 n., ; at various 
ceremonies, 27, 27 sq., 242 sq., 432 
sq., 437 sq. ; 28, 1-3, 9-20, 14 n., 
2 3 ; men wear the cap, women the 
hairpin, 27, 40 ; see also Child (b) ; 



Shan f, the long dress in one piece, 
27, 50; 28, 395 sq. ; of mourning, 
27, 69, 69 n. ; fashion of clothes 
regulated by the emperor, 27, 217 ; 
crime of using strange garments, 27, 
237 sq. ; regulations for dresses, 27, 
288; of rulers and others at ancestor- 
worship, 27, 374, 374 n.; c.and orna- 
ments as marks of distinction, 27, 
400 ; of the king at border sacri- 
fices, 27, 429 sq.; dark-coloured 
robes worn during vigil and purifi- 
cation, 27, 448; of boys and girls, 
27, 449-51 ; of the learned, 40, 49 
sq., 49 n.; of Confucius, 40, 168, 
172; of Mohists, 40, 220, 222, 222 
n. See also Garments. 

Councils : Zoroastrianism settled by 
a disputation under Shahpuhr II, 4, 
xxxviii, xlvii; council convoked by 
Emperor Hsiian to discuss the text 
of the Chinese classics, 27, 6 ; Bud- 
dhist cjw Buddhism (b). 

Countries, see Geography. 

Courage, the virtue of, 8, 90, n_), 
124, 167 sq., 182, 325, 373 ; one of 
the changes of the Kshetra, 8, 102 
n., 10;; three kinds of c, 8, 125 
sq. ; duty of Kshatriyas, 8, 136; a 
term signifying the great Self, 8, 
332 ; Manly C, a genius, 23, 10, 18, 
136 sq., 295; prayer as powerful 
as Manly C, 23, 160. 

Courtesan, see Prostitution. 

Courts of Justice, see Judicial pro- 
cedure. 

Covetousness : whosoever is saved 

from his own e. these are the prosperous, 
9, 275, 287. See also Avarice. 

Cow, cows. 

(a) Sacrednes,s of the c. and its products. 
(6) C. in mythology and mysticism, 
(c) Miscellaneous. 

(a) Sacredxess OF THE C. AND ITS 
PRODUCTS. 

The father makes a lowing sound 
over his son's head, saying: t l low 
over thee with the lowing sound of 
c.,' 1, 288; tending c, a penance, 
2, 8o, 81 n. ; 7, 162; 25, 459, 481; 
taking the c. of Brahmawas from 
robbers, end of a penance, 2, 81 ; 
are sacred, 2, 94 sq., 220; 7, xxix; 
14, 36 ; 25, 135-7, 151 J 31, 249 ; 
33, 222 ; duties towards c, 2, 221 ; 
7, 228; 14, 242 sq. ; foes declaring 



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themselves to be c. or Brahmawas 
must not be slain, 2, 229, 229 n. ; 
men slain for the sake of c, 2, 250 ; 
7, 67 ; 25, 185 ; food smelt at by a 
c. forbidden, 2, 266; the sin or 
crime of killing c, penances and 
punishments for it, 2, 281; 7, 136, 
158 sq. ; 14, 202; 25, 442, 453 ; 
the cleanser delights the c, 4, 133 ; 
dying for c. secures beatitude, 7, 18 ; 
25, 416; feeding of c. an expiatory 
rite for Sudra, 7, 50 ; c . are auspicious 
purifiers, upon c. depend the worlds, c. 
alone make sacrificial oblations possible 
{by producing sacrificial butter), c. take 
away every sin, . . . Sera Idling the back of 
a e, destroys all guilt, and giving her to 
eat procures exaltation in heaven. In 
the urine of c. dwells the Ganges, pros- 
perity {dwells} in the dust (rising from 
their couch), good fortune in cow-ditng, 
and virtue in saluting them. Therefore 
should they be constantly saluted,!, 105 
sq. ; when c. have met with an 
accident, or have not eaten, Veda- 
study must be interrupted, 7, 125 ; 
29, 118; food given to a c, equal to 
alms given to ascetics, 7, 193 ; when 
a c. or a Brahma«a has met with a 
calamity, one must not eat on that 
day, 7, 218 ; the first among quad- 
rupeds, 8, 353 ; like unto a mother, a 
father, a brother, and other relatives, the 
c. are our best friends, in which medi- 
cines are produced. They give food, and 
they give strength, they likewise give (a 
good) complexion and happiness ; know- 
ing the real state of this, they did not 
kill c., 10 (h), 50 sq. ; land is purified 
by being trodden on by c, 14, 24, 
188 ; 25, 190 ; a Brahmawa who 
protects c. is worthy to receive gifts, 
14, 39; bestowing gifts for the use 
of c. meritorious, 14, 136 ; to pro- 
tect c.j a Brahmawa or Vaijya may 
take up arms, 14, 236; way must be 
made fora c, 14, 243 ; he shall raise 
his arm in the midst of a herd of c, 
14, 245 ; a performer of rites secur- 
ing success should worship c, Brah- 
mawas, manes, and gods, 14, 323; 
suckling c. not to be interrupted, 25, 
138 ; must not be offended, 25, 154; 
touching a c. purifies, 25, 183, 472 ; 
for the sake of fodder for a c. one 
may swear falsely, 25, 273 ; damage 
done by c. and cattle sacred to the 



gods, 25, 297, 297 n. ; taking grass 
for feeding c. is no theft, 25, 313; 
doing good to or dying for c, a pen- 
ance, 25, 446 sq. ; worshipping and 
serving c. in atonement for slaying a 
c.j 25, 453 sq. ; scattering grass to a 
c, a kind of oracle, 25, 470; the 
sacrificer must not be naked in the 
presence of a c, 26, 9 ; the gods 
spake, ' Verily, the c. and the ox support 
everything here : come, let us bestow 
on the c. and the ox whatever vigour 
belongs to other species ! ' 2G, 9, 1 1 ; 
the Djkshita shall not eat the flesh 
of a c. or an ox, 26, 1 1 ; called ' the 
great ones,' 26, 14; thee. for which 
the Soma is bought, 26, 54 63, 69- 

71, 74, 156; different-coloured c. 
sacred to Soma, Indra, and the 
Fathers, 26, 62 sq. ; worshipped at 
the Tarpa«a, 20, 122, 219; the 
hiwkara of the c, 29, 298 ; a Sna- 
taka should not point out a^c. suck- 
ling her calf, 29, 3 r 8; at the Ajvayu^a 
sacrifice they let the calves join 
their mothers, 29, 332 sq. ; when 
driving towards c. in a chariot, one 
should dismount in the middle of 
them, 29, 364; he who expels the 
evil world-destroyer benefits the c, 
31, 131 sq., 136, 136 sq. n. ; men 
toil for the c, and Ahura created 
the plants for her, 31, 152, 155 sq. ; 
he who spreads Zoroastrianism fur- 
thers the kine, 31, 169 sq., 171 sq. ; 
curse of the c. and horse, when they 
are stinted, 31, 244 sq. ; the Zoroas- 
triau deprecates all violence against 
the c, who is Ahura-Mazda's, 31, 
248; the Fravashi of the kine wor- 
shipped, 31, 252 ; the herd-owner 
is the father of the kine and the 
typical saint, 31, 30611., 307 sq.; the 
farm-house with its pastures which 
give pasture to the kine and the holy 
cattle-breeding man worshipped,31, 
337 sq., 341; harm not the inexhaustible 
wide-ruling c., 41, 406, 40611.; the 
c. of a Brahma«a inviolable, 42, 169- 

72, 430 sq. ; he who kicks a c. will 
be bereft of his shadow, 42, 214; 
tainted is the milk of a c. suckling 
an adopted calf, 44, 198;— drinking 
the Pan^agavya (the five productions 
of a c, viz. milk, sour milk, butter, 
urine, and dung) as a purification, 2, 



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cow 



276 11. ; 7, 89, 89 n., 95-7, 103, 150 
sq., 168, 175 ; 14, 131, 168-72, 17,), 
183, 187 n., 188, 190 sq., 324-8; 
25, 449, 453? 4 6 4, 474 5 cow-dung a 
means of purifying, 7, 97, 105, 260; 
14, 24, 64 ; 25, 187, 190; hair of c. 
a means of purifying, 7, 100; drops 
of water falling from the horns of a 
c. produce religious merit and ex- 
piate sins, 7, 105 ; sis products of 
the c. (urine, dung, &c, and Goro- 
^ana), propitious, 7, 105 sq., 105 n.; 
swallowing barley-corns dissolved in 
the excrements of a c, an expia- 
tory rite, 7, 154; altar smeared 
with cow-dung, 14, 262, 307; 29, 
22, 162, 269, 276, 334, 376 sq. ; 30, 
14, 27, 43, 64, 89; 44, 191 ; great 
merit of drinking gruel made of bar- 
ley-grains which have passed through 
a cow, 14, 299 ; c.'s urine used for 
purification, 25, 190; a witness 
shall hold gold, cow-dung, or blades 
of sacred grass in his hand, 33, 
303 ; horn of a c. used for medical 
charms, 42, 48 [ sq. ; dried cow-dung 
used for burning dead body, 44, 
202 ; — cow-pens, sacred places, 2, 
276; 14, 117, 249, jrr ; 25, 136, 
138; Veda not to be studied in a 
cow-pen, 25, 147; penance of living 
in a cow-pen, 25, 446, 453, 470; 
Samavartana ceremony performed 
in a cow-shed, 30, 165, 275. 

(b) C. IN MYTHOLOGY AND MYS- 
TICISM. 

The wish-granting c, 8, 89 ; 42, 
183 ; 49 (i), 157 ; the rays of the 
sun as heavenly c, 12, 271, 271 n. ; 
the earth is a c, 12, 308; 44, 268; 
the c. is food and sacrifice, 12, 
525 sq. ; the milk of the c. is Agni's 
seed, 12, 326, 330; see also Milk; 
Ida., Aditi, SarasvatT, divine names 
ofc, 12, 355; 26, 4i5sq.; 41, 406 n.; 
44, 474; the c. are children of 
the Sun, 14, 134 sq. ; speech medi- 
tated on as a c, 15, 193 ; the body 
and soul of the c. (Drvaspa, Goju- 
rfin, Goj), 23, 9, 17, no; Mithra 
delivers the c. (like Indra), 23, 141, 
141 n. ; man's skin was put on the 
cow, 26, 9, 13 sq.; 41, 3111.; the 
c. is food and hence breath, 26, 348; 
the c. with the five names, the five 
seasons, 29, 342 ; Ushas, the c, 29, 



343; the kine's so nl, the emblem 
of the pious, 31, xix-xxi j the Soul 
of the Kine (Gtuj Urvan) complains 
to Ahura and Asha, 31, j-ii; 
Ahura, the Creator of the Kine, 
31, 38, 44 sq., 146, 148, 181 ; eating 
kine's flesh introduced by Yima, 
31, 55, 61 ; the sacred kine blas- 
phemed by Daeva-worshippers, 31, 
55, 62, 62 n. ; evil are those who 
have slain the kine's life by a bless- 
ing, 31, 55, 63 ; they who work in 
the toil of the mother-kine further 
the highest wisdom, 31, 82, 90 ; for 
whom has Ahura made the mother- 
kine, 31, 109, 114; the Karpan and 
the Usi^ gave the kine to rapine, 
31, 121 ; striving to gain the sacred 
kine, 31, 177, 180; the Karpans 
grant no pastures to the kine, 31, 
184; the kine, the body of the 
kine, and the kine's soul worshipped, 
31, 196, 244, 256, 278, 287 sq., 
324sq., 348, 362, 385, 391; the 
moon, which contains the seed of 
the kine, 31, 199, 210. 216, 225, 
256; the c. (days, clouds) released 
by Indra, 32, 14, 37, 44; clouds as 
c., 32, 295 sq., 299; is of Varu«a T s, 
of Rudra's nature, 41, 51 sq. ; a c. 
means these worlds, 41, 156; the 
fire-pan is a c, 41, 237; created 
from Pra^apati's breath, 41, 402 ; 
the c. is wide-ruling and is food, 
41, 406 ; the milch-c. is vigour, 43, 
39; the bricks of the fire-altar as 
milch-c, 43, 171-4; a black c. 
with a white calf symbolical of 
night and sun, 43, 200; the thou- 
sand-streamed c. milked by Kawva, 
43, 203 ; man's form (wealth) is 
kine, 44, 261; the c. lowed at the 
sight of the sun. 46, 57 ; Dyaus ap- 
proached the speckled c, 46, 74, 
79 ; Mitra and Varuwa watch over 
the beloved ambrosia in the c, 46, 
7 5 ; Saramd found the strong stable of 
the e.from which human clans receive 
their nourishment ', 46, 83 ; the lowing 
milch-c. of Rita, 46, 88; Agni, the 
father of the ruddy c. (dawns), 46, 
220, 227 ; waters or dawns repre- 
sented as c, 46, 248, 250, 313; Agni 
has perforated, as it were, the pure 
udder of the c, 46, 309 ; the c. 
(dawns) imprisoned in the rock 



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delivered by the seven j?/shis or 
Afigiras, 46, 309, 313, 318, 322, 326, 
329 sq. ; the secrtt name of the c., 
46, 371 ; Agni has found the c, 46, 
397- See also Bull, Cattle, G6j, 
Gojurvan, and ld&. 
(c) Miscellaneous. 

C. slain or let loose at the recep- 
tion of guests, 2, 120, 12011.; 29, 
i99sq., 275sq., 433sq.J 30, 129, 
131, 174; the ottering of the barren 
(anubandhya) c, 26, 215 n., 217, 387- 
9>39*~7; 41,87; 43,263-5; 14,402, 
411 ; two Madhuparka c, sacrificed 
at a wedding, 20, 34; sacrificed at 
the Ashtaka, 29, 344 ; killed in 
honour of a deceased person, 29, 
359 ; a sterile c. offered with the 
dead body, 44, 205 n.; a c. wont 
to cast her calf, victim at horse 
sacrifice, 44, 300; bovine victims, 
as the highest kind of animals repre- 
sent all animals, 44, 332, 33211.; — 
purification of c. from contamina- 
tion, 4, 93 sq., 144 ; sacrifice to 
Pushan in a fire kindled among the 
c (> at the ceremony of setting a bull 
at liberty, 7, 261 ; milking the c. 
at sacrifices, 12, 183-9, 4°9 s q-j 4 12 j 
415; the Agnihotra c., 12, 353, 
353 i- ; 44, 46, 48, 181-3 ; Ajvayu#a 
sacrifice, besprinkling the c, 29, 
415 ; ceremonies when the c. are 
sick, 29, 432 sq. ; prayer for the c, 
31, 283, 332, 363; sham fight for 
c. at the Rajjasuya, 41, 98-101, 
10011,; the samra*£-c. which sup- 
plies the milk for the pravargya, 44, 
131-4, 474, 503; tail of barren c. 
tied to the left arm of a dead man, 
44, 438 n. ;— religious merit of giving 
c., c. as fees for priesls and teachers, 
7, 264 sq., 272 ; 14,135,137; 15,i; 
41, 46, 51 sq., 60 ; 44, 46, 113, 115, 
503 ; offered as a prize for him who 
best knows Brahman, 15, 121 sq., 
132, 152-8 ; sterile c. must be' given 
tothe Brahmans,42, 174-9,656-61; 
a e. longing for the bull presented 
to an offended Brahmasa, 44, 195 ; — 
bestial crimes with c, 2, 287 sq.; 
14, 118; the c. that are like goats, 
10 (ii), 51 ; punishment for stealing 
c., 33, 228, 362; readily take to 
a boar, 41, 103 ; most fit to yield 
livelihood, 41, 237 ; have four 



nipples, 41, 237 ; a milked-out c. 
worn out, 41, 257; the redness of 
the c, 42, 7, 265 ; milked by sitting 
person, 43, 172 ; woman, mare, and 
c. bring forth within a year, 44, 12 ; 
born as one yielding milk 44, 294 ; 
have proper names, 44, 474, 474 n. 

Cow-dung, see Cow [a). 

Cow-pen, see Cow (a). 

Craftsmen, see Labourers. 

Crane, see Birds (£). 

Craving, see Desire, and Tawha. 

Creation. 

{a) In Indian religions and philosophies. 

(/>) In Zoroastnani->m. 

fc) In Islam. 

(d) In Confucianism and Taoism. 



(a) In Indian religions and 

PHILOSOPHIES. 

All c. springs from the Sat, 1, 
xxxi, 93 ; 48, 399. 453, 45^ sq., 
472 sq., 478 ; from the egg, 1, 
54 sq. ; 15, 337 ; 44, xiv, xviii sq., 
12-18 ; 48, 578-83; from the non- 
existent what exists was born, 1, 
93 ; 15, 58; 41, 143; 48, 465; 
according to the A'Aandogya- 
upanishad, 1, 93-7, 100, roo n. ; 38, 
4 ; the Person, by his speech, breath, 
&c, created earth (with fire), sky 
(with air), &c, 1, 210-12; from the 
Atman, 1, 237-41 ; 2, 77 ; 34, 69 ; 
48, 391 ; use of the word tap for 
' to create,' ' to brood over,' 1, 
238 n. ; of the senses, &c, and their 
presiding deities, 1, 238-40 ; is the 
work of Pra^apati and of the sages, 
2, r6o; 25, lxv ; by Vish«u, 7, 1, 
3-5 ; 8, 354 ; KWsh«a created the 
four castes, 8, 59 ; from Brahman, 
8, 104 ; 1-5, 28 sq., 58 ; 34, 117 ; 
38, 1S3 ; 44, 27 sq.; 48, 473, 475, 
532-40, 561 ; by Krishna, (the 
father) and Brahman (the womb), 
8, 107 ; from the Brahman the 
waters are produced, from the 
waters the gross body, 8, 187 ; 
transmigration begins with the c. of 
beings, 8, 234; of the Pradhana, 
and the three worlds, by Brahman, 
8, 244 ; from what were the movable 
and immovable entities born? 8, 
311; the eternal c., consisting of 
the great self, of egoism, of the 
ten senses, and the mind, and 
the elements, 8, 317; the c. of 



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the qualities is eternal, 8, 331 ; 
the great self the first c. from the 
unperceived (Prakriti), 8, 332 sq. ; 
the Maliat or Egoism the second c, 
8, 333 sq. ; from egoism the five 
great elements were born, 8, 335 ; 
of gods, men, &c, by nature, not 
by actions, 8, 387 ; by Pra^apati, 8, 
388; 12, 296, 322-7; 38/206; 44, 
xix, 12—18, 62; of the earth, 12, 
280 n. ; 41, 232 ; Prag-apati created 
three generations which passed 
away, the fourth remained, 12, 
384—91 ; c. and creator have a 
phenomenal character only, 15, 
xxxvi ; 34, 357; the world arises 
from Brahman, as the spider sends 
forth and draws in its thread, as 
plants grow on the earth, as hairs 
spring forth on the head, 15, 28 ; 
everything comes from the heavenly 
Person, 15, 34 sq. ; order of c, 15, 
54 sq. ; 38, 3-24, 26-8 ; everything 
produced from Death or Hunger, 
15, 74 sqq. ; 43, 402 sq. ; of men 
and beasts, by the Self, 15, 85 sq. ; 
of the gods, Brahman's highest c., 
15, 86-90 ; in the beginning this 
world was water, 15, 191; 32, 2, 
10; 44, xix, 12-18; Pra^apati pro- 
duced matter and spirit, that they 
might produce creatures, 15, 272 ; 
of lifeless creatures, afterwards ani- 
mated, by Prajjapali, 15, 292 sq, ; 
the world uttered by Pra^apati, 15, 
308 ; Manu's and Bhr/gu's accounts 
of the c, 25, xii, lxvi, lxxxi-lxxxiii, 
lxxxvii-xc, xcv, 2-18, 21 sq., 24 sq., 
27 ; 48, 410 ; Pnujapati created the 
eaters and those who are eaten, 25, 
173 sq. ; the Creators of the uni- 
verse, 25, 495, 495 n. ; 42, 226 ; this 
all results from the sacrifice, 26, 
155; 43, xiv ; the gods caused the 
seed to spring, from it coals sprung, 
from them the Angiras, then the 
animals, 20, 387 sq. and n. ; cattle 
created from Pra^apati, the sacri- 
fice, 20, 406-9 ; Hirawyagarbfia 
established heaven and earth, 32, 
1 sq. ; owing to an act of volition on 
the Lord's part, 34, xxix ; 48, 
471 sq. ; according to RamSnug-a, 
34, 1, liii sq. ; 48, 790 ; according to 
the Upanishads, 34, cv sq., cxviii, 
140-z, 263-6; 38, 3j 22, 374-7; 



preceded by intention on the part 
of the Creator, 34, 47 sq. ; 38, 206 ; 
48, 1 19, 2oi ; Brahman and ether 
before and after c., 34, 50, 286; 
38, 8 ; is preceded by the word, 34, 
203 sq. ; each new c. is the result 
of the religious merit and demerit 
of the animated beings of the pre- 
ceding c, 34, 214; the relation of 
senses and sense-objects is the same 
in different creations, 34, 214 sq. ; 
the world was evolved at the begin- 
ning of the c. in the same way as it 
is at present seen to develop itself 
by names and forms, viz. under the 
rulership of an intelligent creator, 
34, 268 ; no separate c. of the 
individual soul, 34, 279; 38, 31; 
a multiform c. exists in the indi- 
vidual Self, and in gods, &c., 34, 
352 sq. ; the c. of this world is 
mere play to the Lord, 34, 357 ; 48, 
405 sq., 476 sq. ; in consequence of 
the Lord's conjunction with Maya, 
the c. is unavoidable, 34, 357 11. ; 
neither c. nor pralaya could take 
place, if the atomic theory were 
adopted, 34,386-9,391 ; c. according 
to the Vaijeshika system, 34, 387 ; 
is the c. taking place in dreams 
a real one, or does it consist of 
illusion? 38, 133-41 ; the so-called 
real c. is not absolutely real, 38, 
138 ; accomplished by some inferior 
Lord different from and superin- 
tended by the highest Self, 38, 206 ; 
of the elements, different from the 
c. of the worlds, 38, 206-8 ; of the 
universe, 41, 143-61; 48, 242-6, 
460 sq., 465 sq. ; of animals, 41, 199, 
402 ; heaven and earth were together 
at first, 41, 318; the four Vedas in 
accounts of the c., 42, Hi ; the earth 
was formerly water upon the ocean 
of space, 42, 200; everythingcreated 
by Rohita (the sun), 42, 213 sq. ; 
the sun as the primaeval principle of 
the universe represented as a Brah- 
man disciple, 42, 214-17, 626 sq. ; 
everything created by Time, 42, 
224 sq. ; creative principles, 42, 
629 ; the sacrifice a microcosmic 
representation of the destruction 
and c. of the universe, 43, xv, xvii, 
xix ; symbolized in the building of 
the fire-altar, 43, 30-6, 47, 147 sq. ; 



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163 



Praxrapati and the vital airs produce 
the universe by praises and sacri- 
fices, 43, 7 1-6 ; mind as the ultimate 
cause of the universe, 43, 374-80 ; 
Prag-apati created the three worlds, 
the three lights, and the three 
Vedas, 44, 102 sq. ; observance of 
Pravargya is the same as c, 44, 
.158, 458 n., 468,472, 478, 493, 504, 
510; refutation of the different 
views of c, 45, 244 sq.; all texts 
referring to c. teach that the 
Supreme Lord is the cause of c, 
48, 206; c. by Brahman entering into 
all non-intelligent beings with the 
living soul, 48, 217 sq., 226 ; effected 
by Brahma and other divine beings 
in each Kalpa, 48, 238 ; four classes 
of creatures evolved according to 
their Karman, 48, 328; Pra^apati 
evolved names and forms by means 
of the Veda, 48, 332 ; c. and pralaya, 
48, 333 sq., 368, 603 ; the Lord of 
Maya creates all this, 48, 368 ; what 
was the wood, what was the tree 
from which they shaped heaven and 
earth? 48, 401, 475; Brahman in 
ail Kalpas again and again creates 
the same world, 48, 405 ; by Nara- 
yawa, 48, 472, 522 ; God is the 
operative cause in c, Karman the 
material cause, 48, 478 sq. ; the flow 
of c. goes on from all eternity, 48, 
479 ; results from connexion of 
PrakWti and soul, 48, 490, 492 ; the 
Prawas created, 48, 568-70 ; oneness 
of all previous to c, 48, 572; the 
differentiation of names and forms 
belongs, not to Hiranyagarbha (i.e. 
Brahma), but to Brahman, 48, 578- 
83 ; creative fervour, see Tapas. 
(b) In Zoroastrianism. 

Accounts of c. in Avesta and 
Pentateuch, 4, lviii ; of Auharmas;^ 
and counter-c. and attacks of the 
Evil Spirit, 4, Ixx, 1-10 ; 5, 5 sq., 
9-14, 17-20, 33, 52, 54 sq., 65 sq., 
71-4, 105 sq., 113 sq., 159 sq.; 18, 
93-8 ; 24, 32 sq. ; 31, xix, 25 sq., 30, 
292 sq. ; the Good Spirit, and the 
Amcsha-Spewtas made the c, 4, 
2i3 ; by Ahura-Mazda, 4, 221 ; 5, 3, 
1 21-3, 360 ; 18, 307 sq,; 24, 117 sq.; 
31, 385 sq. ; 37, 229-31, 248 sq., 
2 7°j 439 S( l-» 45 6 J account of it in 
the Bundahij, 5, xxiii, 5-114; of 



prototypes, 5, xxiii, 5, 5 n., 156 ; of 
demons, 5, 6, 9 sq. ; Pahlavi and 
Avesta words meaning 'to create,' 
5, 9 n. ; of the archangels, 5, 9 sq. ; 
order of c, 5, 10; of seas and 
rivers, 5, 28 sq. ; of mountains, 5, 
39 sq. ; of plants, 5, 30 sq. ; of 
animals, 5, 3 1 sq. ; 37, 150 ; of man, 
5, 52-4; 18 > 2 5 sq., 88, 197-9* 
224 sq. ; 24, 117 sq. ; completed in 
365 days, 5, 91 ; of Time, 5, 160 ; 
each of the archangels has [reduced 
his own c, 5, 373 ; the purpose of 
c, 18, 15 rg, 25 sq. ; 24, 181 sq.; 
37, 443 ; c. and resurrection, 18, 82, 
82 n. ; 37, 431 ; the sky and the 
creatures provided in it by 
Auharmaaw', 18, 86-93; Ahura- 
Mazda assisted by the Fravashis in 
the work of c, 23, 187 ; Gahambars 
celebrated in commemoration of the 
c, 24, 27 11. ; due to the innate 
wisdom of Auharmaa*/, 24, 98 sq., 
99 n.; proofs of the existence of 
a creator derived frcm the evident 
design in the c„, 24, 139-51, 164-7 ; 
criticism of the Old Testament 
account of c, 24, 208 sq., 212-17 J 
Manichaean account of c. criticized, 
24, 243 sq. ; that which exists, that 
which is in the course of emerging 
into existence, and that which shall 
be, 31, 262 ; Ahura and one of the 
Ameshospewtas created all things, 
31, 298, 298 n. ; the ancient institu- 
tions created before the sky, the 
water, &c, 31, 346 ; account of it 
in the Damdai/ Xask, 37, 13 sq., 
14 n. ; of corn, 37, 102 sq. ; of man 
and cattle, 37, 338 sq. ; for the 
benefit of the creatures, 37, 296; 
Ahunavair prayer the first of c, 37, 
303 sq., 303 n. ; goodness of the c. 
by AQharmaarf, 37, 420 sq. ; the 
best c, see under Highest Good. 
(c) Ik Islam. 

God created men and the world, 
G, 3, 127 sq., 232, 245 sq., 251 sq. ; 
of man from clay, Adam and Eve, 
6, 4 sq., 138 sq., 161, 246 sq., 251 ; 
9, 56, 65 sq., 126, 136, 158 sq., 
167 sq., 181 sq., 196 sq., 242 sq., 
248, 253 sq, 25S, 264, 312, 320, 
323, 328, 332, 336; God created 
heavens and earth, 6, 69, 115, 144, 
242 ; 9, 122 sq., 125 sq., 132, 134, 



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CREATION-CURSE 



157) l( M sq., 177, 182, 1S6, 188, 
196 sq., 205 sq., 208, 211, 222, 224, 
242,247,286,^05, 316, 319; God 
created the world in six days, G, 
144, 192, 205 ; 9, 88, 135 sq., 
199 sq., 244, 244 n., 266 ; is a sign 
of God's power, 6, 193; 9, 47 
sq. ; of the ginns, 6, 245 sq. ; 
9, 348, 258; God produces the 
c. and turns it back again, 9, 119; 
is a proof of resurrection, 9, 167; 
no flaw to be seen in God's c, 
9, 292 sq. ; the marvels of c, 9, 
33o. 

(d) In Confucianism and TAoism. 
Origin of ail things from heaven 
and earth, 27, 380-4 ; heaven and 
earth separated from the Grand 
Unity, 27, 386 sq. and n. ; music 
appeared at the Grand Beginning of 
all things, 28, 104; rites promote 
the return to the beginning, 28, 
219; no c. in Taoism, 39, 19-21, 
129, 185, 187 ; evolution not c. of 
material forms, 39, 5 r sq. 

See also World (a). 

Creator, created men together with 
the sacrifice, 8, 53 ; Kmhna (Vishnu) 
is the father and c. of the world, 8, 
53> 59, 8 3, 90, 97, 347; Krishna is 
the C. whose faces are in all direc- 
tions, 8, 90 ; truth prescribed by the 
C, 8, 170; Brahman (m.), the C, 
8, 231 n., 354 11,; the Mahat is the 
C. of the three worlds, 8, 334 ; the 
emancipated sage is the supporter 
and the C, 8, 345 ; God as the c, 
15, 260 sqq. ; the letters invented 
by the C, 33, 304 ; Vedanta-texts 
differ with regard to the order of 
creation, but not with regard to the 
C., 34, 264 ; described as all-know- 
ing, the Lord of all, the Self of all, 
without a second, 34, 264 sq. ; is 
non-different from the created 
effects, 34, 265 ; belief in the 
existence of a c, 37, 289 ; lordship 
bestowed on the C, 43, 68 ; the 
lord of the seven iiishis, 43, 73; 
there must be a c, as the world is 
an effected thing, 48, 162-6, 169; 
God the C. not liable to the charge 
of mercilessness, 48, 486 sq. ; 
Buddha surpasses the C, 49 (i), 1. 
See aha Ahura-Mazda (a), Brahman 
{b, k), Creation, Dhatn, God, 



Hira^yagarbha, Ka, Narayawa, 
Pra^apati, and Tao. 

Crimes, classification and lists of c, 
7, xxx ; 13, xxiv sqq. ; 25, lxxii ; 
37, 44 sq. ; capital c. and their 
punishments, 7, 26 sq. ; different 
c. and their punishments, 7, 26-41, 
132-40; unnatural c, 7, 29; c. in 
the case of which ordeals are per- 
mitted, 7, 53 ; in the fourth degree, 
7)135-8; list of c. and their punish- 
ments in hell and transmigration, 7, 
141 sq., M4~9 5 the Bhikkhu 
refrains from all kinds of c, 11, 
191 ; those who attack preachers 
shall go the way of parricides, 
matricides, oil-millers, sesamum- 
pounders, and of those who use 
false weights and measures, 21, 374 
sq. ; c. for which witnesses are un- 
necessary, 33, 85 sq. ; heinous c. 
a title of' law, 33, 202-6 ; list often 
principal c, 33, 234 sq. See also 
Sins. 

Criminal Law, see Law. 

Cripples, see Deformities. 

Cross-roads, to be passed with ones 
right turned towards them, 2, 226 ; 
7, 200; 25, 135; offering an ass to 
Nirrxti on a c., 2, 289 ; 29, 361 ; one 
must not stop at a c., 7, 200 ; 25, 
150 ; Dagabas erected at c., 11, 93, 
125 sq.; Rudra worshipped on c, 
12, 408 n., 439; 29, 366; certain 
(Kamya) sacrifices on c, 14, 117 sq.: 
29, 431; 30, 119 sq., 124 sq., 127; 
looking on a c. at a pot filled with 
water and reciting a prayer, a pen- 
ance, 14, 330; a monk or nun should 
not ease nature on c, 22, 182 ; the 
unlucky fire thrown down on a c, 

29, 247; the bridal procession on 
c, 30, 49 ; Rudra dwells on c, 

30, 180 sq. ; as omens, 30, 262; 
worshipped, 31, 291 ; balance for 
an ordeal erected in a c, 33, 104 ; 
obstructions of c, forbidden, 33, 158; 
magic rites performed on a c, 42, 
292, 292 n., 473, 47311., 519, 519"* 

Crow, see Birds (b). 

Cruelty", of kings in warfare, 17, 
298 sq., 304. 

Curds, see Milk. 

Curse, causes impurity, or even loss 
of caste, 2, 92 ; pronouncing a c. a 
kind of murder, 7, 4 1 ; Bavari cursed 



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CURSE— DAEVAS 



by another Brahmaaa, because he 
cannot give him 500 pieces of money, 
10 (ii), 185; consequences of cursing 
a priest, 12, 1 2 2-4 ; how the sacrificer 
should avert a c, 12, 298 sq.; 26, 28; 
the gods cannot be cursed, 26, 96 ; 
fear of c, 26, 396 ; men deprived of 
virility by the c. of a spiritual guide, 
33, 167; horse treads down c, 41, 
205 ; calamity consequent on c, 
42, 44, 509 ; disease consequent on 
deceiving or cursing, 42, 59 ; charm 
against c, 42, 72, 9r, 93, 285 ; shall 
recoil on him who sends them, 42, 
77 sq. See also Imprecations. 
Cushions, wrought of gold threads, 
for the priests to sit on, 44, 360 sq. 
Customs, peculiar to the south, and 
to the north of India, 2, liii sq., 145, 
146 n. ; 14, 146 sq. and n. ; to be 
learnt from women, 2, 171; 30, 
255 ; a Brahmasa should know the 
c. of the world, 2, 215, 215 n. ; as 
sources of the law, 2, 237 ; 14, 2, 4, 
146 sq., 181, 230; 25, liv, 30-3, 30 n., 
2 53> 2 53 "-, 260 sq. and n. ; 33, 7 n. ; 
not only c. ordained in revealed and 
traditional texts, but established c. 
also must be observed by a Snataka, 
7, 230, 330 n.; family and local c. 
to be observed, 25, 36, 36 n., 38; 
29, 132, 167, 184, 186, 186 n, 283, 
301, 303 sq., 336, 399, 408; 30, 62, 
218, 224, 284, 291 ; 33, 67, 76, 242, 
2S2 > 339, 357; auspicious c. to be 
followed, 25, 151 sq. ; in discharging 
a mission to another state, its c. are 
to be observed, 27, 63 ; when enter- 
ing a country one should ask about 
its c, 27, 93 ; to study the c. of the 
people, the poems are collected by 
the "grand music-master for the 
emperor, 27, 216; c. in different 
countries differ according to the 
soil, 27, 228-30 ; superior to written 
law, 83, 15, 15 n. ; customary modes 
of recovering debts, 33, 72, 72 n. ; 
the king must maintain the c. 
settled among corporations, 33, r53- 
55 ! judgement based on c, 33, 285 
sqq. ; some local c. quoted, 33, 287 ; 
the time-honoured institutions of each 
country, caste, and family should be 
preserved intact 1 otherwise the people 
would rise in rebellion ; the subjects 
would become disaffected towards their 



165 

tillers; and the army and treasure 
would be destroyed,^, 287; forbidden 
local c, 33, 389 sq. ; the law of the 
rulers is custom, 37, 412. 



D 

Dabba, the Mallian, an Arhat, 20, 

4-18 ; 118-25. 
Xikdoxdk, n.p., 5, 145. 
Dart'-Auharma.sv/, n. of a priest, 5, 

194, 221, 22r n. 
Dadbi, Sk., see Milk. 
Dadhikra or Dadhikravan, a my- 
thical horse, 41, 27 ; praises of D. 
sung, 44, 326 ; worshipped at the 
horse-sacrifice, 44, 3S7 ; invoked 
together with Agni, 46, 281 sq. 
Dadhya£ Atharvawa, teaches the 
Ajvins, 15, 116 sq., 120, 187; 26, 
277; 44, 471 ; the Ajvins fixed a 
horse's head on him, 15, 1 1 S ; 44, 
xlviii, 444 sq. ; kindles Agni, 32, 
153 ; 41, 2i8;^is speech, 41, 218; 
Atharvaaa or Ahgirasa, 42, xxvii n. ; 
chaplain of the gods, 42, xxxv. 
Datfirart', n.p., 5, 145. 
Darfistan-i-Dinik, t.w., its author, 
5, xlii, xlvi-xlix ; 18, xiii sq., xxii, 
3, 3 n. ; its date, 18, xxii ; subjects 
treated in it, 18, xxiii sq. ; trans- 
lated, 18, 1-276 ; quoted in the 
Dinkar^, 18, 269 n. 
Da^-sparam, read and see Zad- 
sparam (5, 434). 
Daena, Zd., Din, Dino, Phi., Faith, 
religion, revelation, religious rites, 
5, xxiii sq., lxxiii, 4 n. ; the hundred - 
petalled rose is D.'s, 5, 104 ; D. or 
Zoroastrian Religion personified as 
an angel, 5, 403, 405 ; 18, 270 sq. 
and n.; 23, 10, 18, 264 ; Din Yajt 
dedicated to D. and Alsta, 23, 264- 
9 ; he who defends the holy 13. 
is as meat and drink to the people, 
31, 161, 164; Zarathujtra prays for 
right discernment how to propagate 
the Faith, 31, 161, 164 sq. See also 
Dm-pavan-Ataro, Din-pavan-Dmo, 
Din-pavan-Mitr6, Revelation, and 
Zoroastrianism. 
Daeno-vazah, n.p., 23, 214. 
Daevas, Daevayasna, a worshipper 
of the D., or false gods, 4, li, 85 sq., 



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daevas— dahAka 



85 n. ; D. of Zoroastrians, and Vedic 
Devas, 4, li-liii ; 31, xix ; winter, 
a work of the D., 4, 4, 10 ; grieved 
by the growing of corn, 4, 30 sq. ; 
Dakhmas haunted by them, 4, 89 sq. ; 
wicked men are D. and worshippers 
of D., 4, 104 ; the fire kills D., the 
brood of darkness, 4, 115; spells 
against the D., 4, 139-41, 197 ; 23, 
44 sq. ; 31, 390 sq. ; abnormal issues 
of women, the work of D., 4, 187 ; 
an offence to religion is an offering 
to the D., 4, 190, 190 n. ; 31, 58 ; 
unclcanness of hair and nails pro- 
duce D., 4, 190-2; Azi, made by 
the IX, 4, 198; take hold of the 
Zoroastrian who goes without the 
jacred girdle, 4, 204 ; Angra Mainyu, 
the Dacva of the D., 4, 209 ; dis- 
mayed by the birth of Zarathujtra, 
D. rush back into hell, 4, 209, 224 
sq.; Zarathiutra, the foe of the D., 
4, 211; 23, 201 sq., 305 ; 31, 235 ; 
Vohu-mano defiled by the D„, 4, 
216 ; when the man is dead, the D. 
cut off his eyesight, 4, 218 ; tremble 
at the perfume of the soul of the 
righteous, 4, 220, 374sq. ; 23, 335 ; 
37, 165 ; sacrifices not properly 
offered or offered after sunset go 
to the D., 4, 347 ; 23, 76 ; annihila- 
tion of the D., 23, 22; smitten by 
the name of Ahura-M.izda, 23, 24, 
26, 33 ; Yatus (sorcerers) are either 
men or D., 23, 38, 3811.; smitten 
by invoking Haurvataf, 23, 49 sq. ; 
D., Yatus, and Pairikas, 23, 57-9, 
65 sq., 128, 134, 161-3, 252; of 
Mazana, 23, 59, 59 n., in, 276; 
should not the sun rise up, the D. 
would destroy everything, 23, 86 ; 
defeated by Haoshyangha, 23, in, 
275 sq.; struck by Mithra, 23, 126, 
136, 144, 153-5; Fravashis kill 
thousands of D., 23, 191 ; the 
heavenly lights oppressed by the 
D., and he'ped by the Fravashis, 
23, 194 ; Mazainya and Varenya 
D., 23, 224, 251, 292 sq. ; 31, 280 ; 
Verethraghna destroys IX, 23, 232, 
247 : the sacrifices of the IX, 23, 
245 ; Vayu works against the D., 
23, 261 sq. ; overcome by Yima, 23, 
29; ; the IX and their worshippers 
chose the Worst Mind, 31, id, sosq.; 
are a seed from the Evil Mind. 81, 



54, 58 ; men seduced by the D., led 
astray from Ahura, 31, 54, 58 sq.; D. 
and Khrafstra-polluted mortals, 31, 
8r > 8 5> 8 5 n -t 2 6o; Daeva- worship- 
pers have never been good kings, 
31, 121 ; despised by Ahura-Mazda, 
31, 129; imprecations against the 
D. and their worshippers, 31, 160 
sq., 163 sq. ; the revelation given 
against the IX, 31, 199, 206, 211, 
217, 221, 225, 259, 272, 277, 328; 
Haoma invoked against D., 31, 236; 
pressing, tasting, praising Haoma 
avails to the smiting of the D., 31, 
241 ; abjured by the Zorcistrian, 
31, 247-9; Sraosha battles with 
the D., 31, 301 sq., 305 ; protection 
from D. by worship, 31, 306 ; 
Ardvi Sura AnShita efficacious 
against the D., 31, 317 ; the sacri- 
ficial words hold the D. subject, 
31, 361. See also Demons (a), and 
Heretics. 

Daeva-worahippers, see Heretics. 

Daevo/bi?, son of Takhma, 23, 
204. 

Dagabas, see Stupas. 

Dabaka, or Dahak, or Azi Dahaka, or 
Ak-i Dahak, or Zohak, or Bevarasp : 
Babylon his residence, 4, xlix sq. ; 
the serpent D. fettered, smitten, by 
Thraetaona, or FrcWun, 4, 9, 9 n., 
226,245 sq. ; 5, 234, 397 ; 18, 1 10 sq. 
and n., 201 ; 23, 61 sq., 61 n., 113, 
242, 254 sq., 277, 294, 307 ; 31, 233 ; 
37, 28, 177, 214-18 ; 47, 10, 10 n., 
1 16 ; Vadhaghna or D., a great 
ruler of nations, 4, 2 1 1 , 2 1 1 sq. n . ; 
however powerful he was, D. could 
not escape death, 4, 381, 385; releas- 
ed by Aharman, but killed by S.im 
or Keresasp, 5, lii, 233-5; 18, 78, 
nosq. andn., 372, 378; 23,195 n.; 
24, no n.;'37, 198 sq., 198 n. ; 47, 
xiii, 114, 114 n.; bound on the 
Dimavand mountain, 5, 40 ; 23, 
59 n., 61 sq., 61 n. ; the fire Frobak 
saved from the hand of D., 5, 63 ; 
begged a favour from Aharman, 5, 
80 ; origin of the negro-race in his 
reign, 5, 8 7 ; legends of D., 5, 1 1 9 ; 
punished in hell, 5, 125; Spitur, 
with P., cut up Yim, 5, 131 ; his 
genealogy, h, 131 sq., 131 n. ; his 
evil reign, 5, 133, 21 3 ; 37, 27, 27 n., 
212-18; ruled a thousand years, 5, 



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150; dark forms with the face and 
curls of IX, 5, 163 ; witchcraft and 
idolatry of D., 5, 228; 37,185; 47, 
xxvi, 66 sq. ; there is no D. after 
the renovation, 18, 118; one of the 
seven heinous sinner?, 18, 217, 228; 
demons and witches of the assembly 
of D., 18, 418 ; the three-mouthed, 
sacrificed to Anahita, 23, 60 sq., 
60 n. ; ravished the two daughters of 
Yima, 23, 62, 62 n.; wished to empty 
the earth of men, and sacrificed to 
Vayu, 23,^253 sq. and n. ; struggle 
between Atar and D., 23, 297 sq, ; 
with a thousand senses, 23, 326 ; 
created immortal by Aharman, 24, 
35, 35 n.; advantage from Ass-i D., 
the Bevarasp, 24, 60 sq. ; received 
a thousand years' dominion from 
Aharman, 24, 103 ; his wickedness, 

24, 267; 37, in ; revolt of Gavah 
of Ispahan against D., 24, 323 sq., 
323 n. ; Dahakas and Miirakas, 31, 
245 ; five defects of D., 37, 177 ; 
Bevarasp, a title of D., 37, 214, 
214 n.; his accession, 47, xxix; a 
devastator, 47, 126; impenitence of 
D. destroyed, 47, 163, 163 n. See 
also Serpents. 

Dahara-vidya, knowledge of Brah- 
man within the heart, 1, 133 n. ; 34, 
lxxv ; 38, 219, 233, 393 n., 410. 

Da/^'yuma, worshipped, 31, 197, 
204, 209, 215, 219, 224, 251, 259, 
278, 337, 383 sq. 

Dait, see Rivers. 

Daityas : hundred thousands of 
princes of the D. have been de- 
stroyed by Kala, 7, 79 ; their manes, 

25, 112; caused by goodness, 25, 

494- 

Daityo-gatu, see Fire (g). 

Daiva, or the science of portents, 
1, 109, no, 1 n, 115. 

Daivapa, see Indrota D. 

Daiva Parimara, a meditation on 
the absorption of the gods into 
prami or Brahman, 1, 288-90. 

Daiva Smara, a ceremony per- 
formed by one who desires to 
become dear to any man or woman, 
1, 282 sq. 

Daivodasi, see Paru<M,6epa D. 

Daiwi, Lying, a Daeva, 4, 224. 

Daiyampati, n.p., 43, 273. 

Dakhma(s) : the dead taken to a D., 



4, 54, 95, 95 n., 96 n., g8 ; 5, 205 n., 
247, 247 sq. n., 249 n. ; pulling down 
D. a pious act, and an atonement 
for sin, 4, 88-90, 269; haunted by 
Daevas and murderers, 4, 89 sq., 
90 n. ; Phi. dakhmak, 'depository 
for the dead,' 5, lxxiii, 265, 265 n., 
361 ; description of D., 5, 247 sq. n. 
See also Funeral rites (c). 

Dakklrtoagiri, town in Magadha, 
10 (ii), ri ; Buddha at D., 13, 206 ; 
17, 207 sq. 

Dakkhiwapatha, the South (of 
India), 10 (ii), 184. ^ 

Daksha, recites for Aruwi, 12, 335 11.; 
Pragapati was D., hence the Dak- 
shayami sacrifice, 12, 375 sq. ; father 
of the gods (senses), 14, 299 ; how 
he married his daughters, 25, 352, 
352 n. ; cursed the moon, 25, 398 n.; 
Aditi and D., 32, 245-8 ; assumed 
a new body, 38, 235; one of the 
Adityas, 42, 444 ; Agni, his father, 
46, 296 ; Agni has been laid down 
with the nourishment of D., 46, 
297; is the personified intelligence, 
46, 298 ; Agni in the arms of D., 46, 
401. 

Daksha-smr/ti, quoted, 48, 411. 

Dakshaya/zas, the Dakshaya«a sacri- 
fice performed in the royal family of 
the, 12, 374 sq-, 377- 

Dakshi«a(s), sacrificial gift(s), 
priests' fee(s), Sk., t.t.: penance, 
liberality, righteousness, kindness, 
truthfulness are D., 1, 51 ; given to 
the officiating priests, 1, 85 ; 7, 262, 
266, 275, 279; 12, 7, 266, 275, 292, 
303 sq. and n., 308-10, 322, 373 sq., 
390; 15,1,146; 25,205; 26, 56 sq., 
1 14-16, 148, 333 sq., 340-9, 388-90, 
422, 425 sq.; 29, 49, 68, 74, 131, 
135-7, 176, 182, 186, 196 sq,, 220, 
250, 288, 303, 353, 361, 384, 392, 
399, 403, 405, 420; 30, 38 sq., 49, 
58, 63, 68, 70, 75, 265; 41, 44-6, 
50-2, 55-66, 99, 101, 112, 119, 121 
sq., 124 sq., 137 sq., 141 sq., 186, 
252, 331 J 42, 87, 89, 174-98, 380, 
494? 595 - 6°°> 610, 645, 656, 688- 
92; 43, 14S, 237, 337 11., 271; 44, 
217, 218 n., 222, 268, 412 sq., 420 
sq. ; 46, 2^, 363, 365 ; sacrifices 
without D. condemned, 8, 119, 
1 19 n. ; 44, 7 ; highest knowledge is 
the D. at allegorical sacrifice of the 



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sense-organs, 8, 261, 261 n. ; final 
emancipation is the D. at the alle- 
gorical sacrifice of concentration of 
mind, 8, 280; law about D., 25, 
291 sq. and n. ; 33, 125 sq.; arms 
may be taken up in defence of D., 
25, 315; importance of giving proper 
D., 25, 438, 438 n. ; the far-seeing 
D., 26, 61 ; Dakshina-Homas or 
oblations at the giving of the D., 26, 
340-9; of a thousand cows, 26, 
414-18, 414 n., 426; 41, 140; are 
Apsaras, 43, 232 sq.; sacrifice praised 
for the D., 43, 233 ; let there be no 
bargaining as to D„ 43, 280 ; the D. 
wins food, 43, 285 ; giving away all 
his property as D., 43, 321, 32111.; 
cows of D. stand south of altar, 41, 
17; imperishable world gained by 
giving away as 1). this earth, re- 
plete with wealth, 44, 96 ; Ganaka 
of Videha performs sacrifices with 
numerous D., 44, 115; the right 
time for bringing up the D., 44, 
120 sq.; are healing medicine, 44, 
217; the D. at the horse sacrifice, 
44, 274 sq., 306, 343 sq-) 34^, 350, 
353* 357, 357 n-, 397 sq., 400, 402; 
gold (of a hundred grains) as D.,44, 
275, 275 m, 352, 35 6 , 358; Brah- 
mawas sing about the D. of the 
sacrificer at the Ajvamedha, 44, 
286 sq.; given at the burial rite, 44, 
439; at the Pravargya, 44, 446, 490 
sq., 490 n., 503 sq.; are glory, 44, 
446 ; must not be given away by the 
priest, 44, 446; Agni protects him 
who gives D., 46, 24. See also Gifts 
and Priests (<r). 

Damnak, n.p., 5, 139 sq. 

Damsels, see Woman. 

Danavas : Lvara, the lord of gods, 
D., Bbfitas, &c„ 8, 354; VWtra 
called a D., 12, 166; sprang from 
the manes, 25, 112; their manes, 
25, 112; give enjoyments due from 
them through fear of punishment, 
25, 219; story of a certain D, who 
swallowed his wife, to guard her, 
35, 2 16 sq., 217 n. ; A'andramas con- 
quered the golden cities of the 
Asuras and D., 42, 85 ; the Asuras 
so called, 44, 95; gods, D t , Gan- 
dharvas, &c, 45, 121 sq. See also 
Danus. 

Danayu, mother of VWtra, 12, 166. 



Dancing, at the rites of ancestor 
worship, 3, 305, 305 n., 328, 343, 
375; in honour of King Wu, 3, 3 34— 
6 ; devotion to d., belongs to the 
quality of passion, 8, 325; at cere- 
monies, 27, 435; 28,274; instruction 
in d., 27, 478, 478 n. ; at the worship 
of the duke of A'au, 28, 33 ; with 
shield and axes, 28, 103, 102 n. ; 
music and d., 28, ii2sq.; at sacrifices, 
28, 241, 253 sq.; names of metres 
derived from choregic movements, 
32, xcv-xcvii, cxii. 

Da>y</akas, suffered destruction, 49 
(i), 116. 

Dangers: ten cases of d., when the 
Patimokkha must be interrupted, 
13, 261, 294 sq.; 20, 312. 

Danghu-fradhah, n.p., 23, 214. 

Danghu-sruta, n.p., 23, 214, 

Dantavakra, the best of Kshatriyas, 
45, 290, 290 n. 

Danu, father of VWtra, 12, 166. 

Danus, a Turanian tribe, conquered 
by Ashavazdah, 23, 71; the Tura- 
nian D. destroyed by the Fravashis, 
23, 189. 

Danus and Danavas, demons, 32, 
114 sq.; Kusani lurking with the 
D., 43, 275. 

Darai, Ka^/ his great preceptor, 5, 
145, 145 n. ; son of Kihar-axa^, and 
D. son of D., 5, 150 sq. n., 157 ; D. 
son of D., ordered the preserva- 
tion of Avesta and Zand, 37, 413, 
41 3 n. ; reign of D., 47, xxviii, xxxi. 

Dara Shukoh, the Upanishads trans- 
lated into Persian by or for him, 1, 
Ivii sq., lx sq., lxvi, lxviii, Ixxxviii, 
xci, xcvii. 

Daraya/-ratha, n.p., 23, 210. 

Darfoha-grass, seven bunches of, 
made at the beginning of the sacri- 
fice, 12, 84; bunch of D. placed on 
the altar, 41, 332 ; 43, 1S2 ; is both 
water and plants, 41, 332; grew 
from waters loathing VWtra, 41, 
332 ; as an 'appeaser of wrath,' 42, 
137, 480; D. and lotus-leaf in the 
centre of the fire-altar, 43, xx, 1 n., 
44 sq. and n., 118 sq. and n., 358, 
365 sq., 365 n., 368, 368 n., 374, 
388, 393 ; a means of purification, 
44, 195, 274; covered over the 
burial-ground, 44, 436. 

Darbhya, see Rathaviti. 



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Darius, proclaims Ahura-Mazda, 
4, lxi; a Mazda-worshipper, but 
not a Zarathtutrian, 31, xxx- 
xxxii. 

Darkness, see Qualities. 

Dar.rapur«amasa, see Sacrifices 

'/). 

Darnnika, defeated by Yijtaspa, 23, 
117, 280. 

Darun, see Sacrifices (l>). 

Darvihomas, see Sacrifices (i). 

Dambalakajyapa, one of the five 
first disciples of Buddha, 19, 172; 
Va"shpa so called, 19, 193 n. 

Da^agvas, carried on the sacrifice 
first, 32, 296, 306 sq. 

Dampeya, t.t., see Sacrifices (j), 

Damratha, laments the loss of his 
son Rama, 19, 92; 49(i), 90; Rama, 
the Rishi, fought against D., 19, 
330 ; horse sacrifice of D., 44, xxix ; 
the chariot of D.'s son coming back, 
49 (i), 80. 

Da^arhas, a clan descended from 
Yadu, 4-">, 113, 113 n., 115. 

Da.rar;/a, n. of a country and people, 
45, 57, 87. 

Da mrwabhadra, the king of Dajanza, 
turned Gaina monk, 45, 87, 87 n. 

Dasas, strongholds of which they 
were the lords, 46, 263. 

Dasikharba/ika, .Sakha, of the 
Godasa Ga«a, 22, 289. 

Daj'taghni, n.p., 23, 218. 

Dastan, n.p., 5, 139 sq., 139 n. 

DEtJ-tanik, Vejko progeny, descend- 
ants of Nivifc and, 37, 198, 198 n. 

Dajtayana, or DaVtayam", his brood 
killed by Keresaspa, 18, 370, 372; 
23, 296. 

Dasyu, Dasyus : VWtra called a D,, 
12, 166 ; race or caste, 25, 192, 265, 
410, 410 n., 413, 434, 499; cannot 
be witnesses, 25, 265, 266 n.; demons 
originated from them, 42, 67; de- 
feated by Indra, 42, 83, 118, 222 sq ; 
the earth destroys the blasphemous 
D., 42, 203 ; there are many D. and 
Mle-W/jas, 45, 43; Agni invoked 
against the D. (sing, or plur.), 4G, 
33> 49, 102, 375, 383, 397; Aryans 
and D., the pious and impious, 46, 
182, 183; the gods have over- 
poweredSthem, 46, 303. 

Datta: Arya D, (Diima), n. of a 
Sthavira, 22, 274, 288; Arya D. of 



the Gautama gotra bad two disciples, 
22,293- 

Dattaka, author of a Kamajastra, 45, 
274 n. 

Daughters, offered as presents, 1, 
57 sq.; inherit, 2, 134 ; 25,348,352, 
370 sq. ; Yao, to test Shun, gives 
him his two d. in marriage, to see 
his behaviour towards them, 3, 14, 
36 ; do neither wrong nor good, only 
about the spirits and the food they 
will have to think, and to cause no 
sorrow to their parents, 3, 350 sq., 
350 n.; preference of sons to d., 5, 
3 = 3 sq., 344 sq. ; the appointed d. in 
place of a son, 7, 62, 65 ; 14, 85 sq. 
and n., 226 ; 25, cix, 77, 352-5 ; 33, 
375 sq.; sale of d., 14, 221; 25, 
84 sq., 291, 345; how to secure 
the birth of a learned d., 15, 219; 
daughter's son to be entertained at 
a iSraddha, 25, 102, u8sq. ; not to 
quarrel with d., 25, 157 ; the highest 
object of tenderness, 25, 158; 
guardianship over d., 37, i46sq. ; 
reverence and duties of a d., 37, 382. 
See also Family, and Marriage. 

Dau/^ahanti, see Bharata D. 

Daungha, son of Zairita, 23, 204. 

Daurgaha, n. of a horse, 44, 397 ; 
patronymic of Purukutsa, 44, 397 n. 

Davans, who did only one good 
work in his life, 5, 350 sq., 350 n. ; 
37, 469. 

David, and Goliath, 6, 39; Psalms 
given to D., 6, 94; 9, 7 ; dis- 
believing Jews cursed by D,, 6, 10S ; 
a prophet, 6, 135; makes coats of 
mail, 9, 52, 151; mountains and 
birds made subject to D.,9,52,52 n.; 
D. and Solomon gave judgement 
about a field, 9, 52, 52 n. ; endowed 
with knowledge, 9, 100; mountains 
and birds sing praises with D., of IX, 
9, 151, 177; was endowed with 
might, 9, 176; the parable of the 
ewe lambs proposed to D., 9, 177; 
warned not to follow lust, 9, 177. 

Dawn, the Woman Treasure of the 
King of Glory, 11, 257, 310 ; 
Pra^apati's daughter, 12, 209 ; 
wedded to Indra, 12, 337; sacri- 
fice to the p., 31, 387 ; 44, 297 n., 
298; Arushi, the red D., 32, 23 sq. , 
red cows of the D., 32, 23, 26; 
Aditi beyond the D., ' the face of 



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DAWN— DEATH 



Aditi,' 32, 243 ; brings horses, 32, Dazgaraspa, n.p., 23, 309. 

329 ; Dyu, the bull of the D., 32, Dead, the, see Ancestor worship : 



dead matter, see Death (r). 
Death. 



343, 34*! tne dew-lighted Ds. come 
striving together, 32, 348, 351 ; 
Savitn flasheth forth after the D., 
41, 273 ; Agni and the Ds., 41, 280 ; 
46, 108, 145, 194, 240, 275, 336, 

363; has ruddy cows, 41, 334 ; is (a) D. personified, a deity. 
night, heaven, day, 44, 298 ; Agni, 
and the D., 46, 



(«) I), personified, a deity. 

(/) D. in religious belief and philosophy. 

(c) D. in religious ceremonies. 



the two Ajvins, 

37-9 ; the sun, the lover of the D., 
46, 67 sq. ; ' the reddish white one,' 
46,142, 145; the red Ds. invoked for 
food, 46, 143 ; the two Ds. invoked 
in Apri hymns, 46, 179 sq., 236 sq., 
239 ; the shine of the goddess D. 
rose up, 46, 309 ; the mother of the 
cows, 46, 309, 314 ; the mother of 
the seven Uishis, 46, 314, 318, 322 ; 
red cows or Ds., 46, 326, 329 sq.; 
approaches like a milch-cow, 46, 
363 ; Night and D., see Night. See 
also Sacred times, Sfirya, and 
Ushas. 
Dawramaeshi, n.p., 23, 217. 
Day : seven days of the week, 7, 
xxix, 242 ; D. (personified) wedded 
to Indra, 42, 337 ; invoked for pro- 
tection, 29, 348 ; a sacrifice to D. 
after having seen an evil dream, 30, 
184 ; the d. after the d. is the whole 
year, 44, 155; — a d. and night of 
Brahman, 8, 79 sq. ; d. and night 
are a pair, 8, 277; d. is threefold, 
and night is threefold, 8, 330; d. 
was first, and then night, 8, 352 ; 
ends with the setting of the sun, 
night with the sun's rising, 8, 354 ; 
Day(s) and Night(s), goddesses, 41, 
243; 42, 161; 44, 141, 296, 298; 
the sun is encompassed by d. and 
night, 41, 271 ; d. and night nourish 
Agni, 41, 271, 273; universe encom- 
passed by d. and night, 41, 287 ; 
days and nights are endless, 41, 
352 ; d. and night the rulers of 
Arya and Sudra, 43, 75 ; the 
separating metre is the d., 43, 89 ; 
days and nights are Pra^apati's 
joints, 43, 281 ; how d. and night 
were created, 44, 14 ; d. a form of 
priestly dignity, night a form of 
nobility, 44, 286 ; d. and night are 
the two tawny ones, 44, 316. See 
also Sacred times, and Time. 
Dazgara-guu, n.p., 23, 219. 



D. asked to settle a difficult law- 
question, 2, 98, 98 sq. n. ; expiatory 
formula addressed to D., 2, 293 ; 
44, 337 n. ; the power of D. brought 
in by heresy, 4, 194; the deceiving, 
unseen D.,4, 224; exorcism against 
D. and sickness, 4, 228 sq. ; Ast(6)- 
v'dar/, demon of D., 5, 19 n. ; 
37, 193; Ki-ishna is D. who seizes 
all, 8, 90, 95 sq. ; his form cannot 
be perceived, 8, 153 ; different from 
Yama, 8, 153, 153 n. ; the king of 
D., 10 (i), 17; (ii), 208; Age and 
D. drive the life of men, 10 (i), 
37 ; does not see him who despises 
the world, 10 (i), 47 ; the messengers 
of D. have come near to thee, 10 (i), 
60; the means of deliverance from 
thesnares of D., 10 (ii), 27; befools 
the indolent, 10 (ii), 55 ; the strong 
net of deceitful D., 10 (ii), 59 1 
Agni as D., 12, 324 ; 38, 267 ; 43, 
365 ; the Sun (the man in the sun) 
is D., 12, 343 sq.; 38, 267; 43, 
366 sq., 371 sq., 374; 44, 26; 48, 
672 ; self-sacrifice offered to D. as 
a penance, 14, 106; Brahman made 
the created beings over to D., all 
except the BrahmaS™, 14, 156; 
one quarter of the Vedic student 
belongs to D., 14, 157 ; Rudra and 
D, invoked, 14, 264; Naiiketas in 
the house of D. (Mrityu, Yama), 
15, xxii, 2-24 ; 48, 361 ; runs away 
from terror of Brahman, 15, 21,59; 
everything produced from D. or 
Hunger, 15, 75 ; 43, 402-4 ; is the 
devata of the person in the shadow, 
15, r 44; a robber with drawn sword, 
follows us all, 19, 128 sq. ; why D. 
has power over Brahmawas, 25, 169 
sq. ; man is born as a debt owing 
to D., 26, 152 ; homage to D., 42, 
53, 56, 57°; the lord of cattle, 42, 
58 ; the powerful king, 42, 1 1 1 , 3S0 ; 
D. and Sleep, 42, 167 ; as a teacher, 
42, 216; Prar/apati identified with 
D.,43, xxiii, 356-8 ; confounded by 



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Pra^apati, 43, 77 ; searched for 
Pra^apati, 43, 290 ; created by 
Pia^apati, 43, 290; Pra^apati over- 
powered by D,, 43, 361 ; does not 
die, but is within the immortal, 43, 
366 ; man in the right eye is D., 
43, 371 sq., 374; is both near and 
far away, 43, 372; one or many, 
43, 372 ; the Brahman delivered 
the creatures over to D., 44, 48 ; 
oblations to the Deaths at the 
horse-sacrifice, 44, 339-41 ; there is 
only one D. in yonder world, even 
Hunger, 44, 340; invoked at funeral 
rite to go another way, 44, 4 34 ; 
D. leads off a man in his last hour, 
only Karman following him, 45, 
59 sq. ; mankind is harassed by D., 
45, 64 sq. ; the Imperishable who 
moves within D., of whom D. is 
the body, whom D. does not know, 
48, 242, 469. See also Kala, Mara, 
MWtyu, and Yama. 

(b) D. IN RELIGIOUS BELIEF AND 
PHILOSOPHY. 

D. and the breath in the mouth, 
1, 5 sq. ; fate of the soul after d., 
how it departs from here, and where 
it goes, 1, 76, 82 n., 107 sq. n. ; 15, 
18 sq., 23, 126 sq., 173-7, 204, 208 ; 
34, lx, lxxviii sq. ; 38, 121-6, 364- 
419; 45, 372, 377; 48, 728-43; 
when a 711cm departs from heme, his 
speech is merged in his mind, his mind 
in his breath, his breath in heat [fire), 
heat in the Highest Being, 1, 100 sq., 
100 n., 107 sq. ; 48, 728-31 ; when 
a man departs, he goes upwards by 
the rays of the sun, 1, 133 sq. ; 12, 
269, 26911.; absorption of the other 
senses into prawa or breath, at the 
time of d., 1, 295 sq. ; when a 
man dies, gods and fiends struggle 
for the possession of his soul, 4, 
88 sq., 89 n. ; the Aogemaide, a 
treatise on d,, and life after d., 4, 
372-86; is inevitable, 4, 377-85; 
8, 355 5 10 (i), 69; (ii), 106-8; 11, 
58 sq., 89 sq., 96, Ii6sq., 119, 121, 
127 sq., 240, 289; 19, 270-6 ; 20, 
371 ; 35, 213 sq.; 36, 102; 37, 176 ; 
45, 18, 249 sq., 256, 259; 49 (i), 
66 sq.; there is a remedy for every- 
thing but d., 5, 396 ; wheresoeer ye 
be d. will overtake yon, though yc were 
in lofty toweis, 6, 83 ; an ascetic 



must neither wish ford., nor for life, 
7, 280; 8,246; 35, 70; no occasion 
to grieve about d., 8, 45 sq, and n. ; 
10 (ii), 106-8 ; 11, 59, 89 sq., 96 ; d. 
in performing duty is preferable, 8, 
56 ; release from old age and d., 8, 
77,249;isfromKr/sh«a,S,86; exists 
not, 8, 149, 151 sq., 191,191 n ; free- 
dom from d. by ceremonies, 8, 152 ; 
delusion and heedlessness called d., 
<"N 152-5? I 5 2 1-; sensuality, desire, 
wrath lead children to d., 8, 154, 

154 n. ; destroyed by knowledge, 8, 

155 ; 43, 404 ; vanquished, i.e. final 
emancipation attained, 8, 178 sq., 
178 n.; Kajyapa knew about birth 
and d., 8, 232 ; devoid of warmth, 
breath, beauty, and consciousness, 
man is said to be dead, 8, 338; all 
life ends in d.,8, 355 ; 10 (f), 41 sq. ; 
11) *53i 153 "•*> two syllables, viz. 
mama ' mine,' are d.,8, 391, 391 n.: 
every soul shall taste of d., 9, 48, 
123 ; a return to God, led by the 
angel of d., 9, 136, 186 sq. ; dying 
agony of an infidel, 9, 311 sq. ; 
d. carries off a man who is gathering 

flowers and whose mind is distracted, 
as a flood carries off a sleeping village 
. . .before he is satiated in his pleasures, 
10 (i), 1 7, 1 6 sq. n. ; existence is the 
stream of d., 10 (ii), xv ; sad is the 
d. of him who longs, umcorthy is the 
d. of him who longs. . . . Cast away 
desire for these {cities, &V.) '. long not 
after life ! 11, 280-4; "Ye after 
d. only for him who offers the 
Agnihotra, 12, 324 ; after d. man is 
reproduced from out of the fire, 12, 
343; a mortal ripens like corn, like 
com he springs up again, 15, 2 sq. ; 
Na^iketas asks Yama about the 
mystery of d., 15, 5-7 ; is but a 
condiment, swallowed up by the 
Self, 15, 11 ; 34, 116 sq. ; is unreal, 
immortality is real, 15, 84 ; every- 
thing is the food of d., 15, 126; 
fire is d., and that is the food of" 
water, d. is conquered again, 15, 
126; the sage knows from the Yi 
what can be said about d. and life, 
16) 353 ; ar e the spirits distressed 
at the d. of a righteous man? 18. 
50 sq.; how the life departs from the 
body, 18, 51-53; introduced by 
the evil spirit, 18, 95, 105 sq. and 



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n. ; 'Buddha-knowledge,' ' seeing 
Nirvawa,' euphemistic terms for d., 
21, 52 sq. n., tt8 n.; there is nothing 
inaccessible for d., 22, 19; the sage 
desires d. as the dissolution of the 
body, 22, 61 ; why people disregard 
d., 24, 50 ; not a complete dissolu- 
tion of existence, 24, 136, 20S ; the 
cause of d., 24, 1 6 r ; old age, disease, 
and d., 25, 209, 212; falsehood 
allowed to prevent the d. of a 
person, 25, 272; premature d., 28, 
52 sq. ; 36, 162-74 ; spoken of as 
dissolution, 28, 203; the round of 
birth, action, d., 34, xxvii ; not 
necessary for the condition of being 
free from the body, 34, 41, 43; the 
highest Self different from the indi- 
vidual soul in the state of d., 34, 
233-6 ; release from the jaws of 
d. by knowledge of the highest Self, 
34, 247 ; what it means when applied 
to the sprout, 34, 340; all men are 
afraid of d., 35, 206-13; the terms 
' birth ' and ' d.' if applied to the 
soul, have a metaphorical meaning, 
38, 28 sq. ; has the power of mani- 
festing those works whose fruit has 
not yet begun, 38, 113, 117-19 ; 
the state of swoon is the door of d., 

38, 152; 48, 606 sq.; identification 
of the Avabhn'tha-ceremony with 
d., 38, 221 ; the d. of the body is 
the term of the attainment of final 
release, 38, 357 sq., 363; certain 
times favourable for dying, 38, 379- 
81; 48, 740 sq. ; ideas about d. 
and life in Taoism, 39, 21-3; 40, 
55, 146, 281 sq. ; the Tao as an 
antidote against d., 39, 92 sq. ; 40, 
32 ; firmness and strength the con- 
comitants of d., 39, 1 18 ; birth and 
d. merely changes of the same kind 
in the process of evolution, 39, 149; 
40, 4-6, 4 n., 10, 47 sq., 47 n., 65 ; 
story of Mr. Deformed and Mr. 
One-foot who are not afraid of d., 

39, 149 ; 40, 5 sq. ; how do 1 know 
that the love of life is not a delusion ? 
and (hat the dislike of d. is not like a 
young person'' s losing his way, and not 
knowing that he is (really) going home ? 
39, 194 ; loosing the cord by which 
the life is suspended, 39, 201 sq., 
24 8 ; unity of life and d., 39, 229 ; 
d. and life are ordained from Heaven, 



39, 241 ; a mere change for the sage, 
39, 332, 365 ; d. and life are not far 
apart, but why they have taken 
place cannot be seen, 40, 130 ; one 
hundred and one kinds of d., 42, 
49 sq., 58, 162, 307, 565 ; he that 
will live is warm, he that will die is 
cold, 43, 135 sq. ; ceases through 
immortality, 43, 327 ; why people 
say 'he has been cut off,' 43, 371 ; 
retribution after d., 44, xiv; 45, 
37 2 ) 377; the fool's 'd. against one's 
will,' and the sage's ( d. with one's 
will,' 45, 20-4 ; a monk should 
learn the method of dying a religious 
d., 45, 299 ; antagonistic to the 
origination of knowledge, 48, 18; 
the term 'd.' denotes Nescience, 
48, 23; the word 'd.' denotes dark- 
ness, i.e. non -intelligent matter in 
its subtle state, 48, 140; the depart- 
ing soul is held embraced by the 
highest Self, 48, 352 ; when he has 
departed, there is no more know- 
ledge, 48, 395 ; he who moves within 
d., of whom d. is the body, whom 
d. does not know, he is the inner 
Self of all, the one god Narayawa, 
4S, 403 sq. ; soul in deep sleep and 
in d. unconscious, 48, 765 sq. ; when 
men die, they pass into dissolution 
as far as regards this world, 49 
(i), 108. See also Future Life, 
Immortality, Life, Nirva«a, and 
Suicide. 

V) D. IN RELIGIOUS CEREMONIES. 

Hymns and prayers recited when 
d. approaches, 1, 261, 313 sq., 
313 n.; 23, 312 sq. ; 24, 344 ; signs 
and premonitory symptoms of ap- 
proaching d., 1, 261 sq. ; causes 
interruption of Veda-study, 2, 36 
sq, ; 14, 208 sq., 209 n., 211; 29, 
115 sq., 524,414; 30, 80; impurity 
caused by d. or dead matter, 2, 59, 
249-54; 4, lxxi-lxxxi, 49-51, 5S- 
85, 87 sq., 92-102, 105-15, 119- 
55, 190 ; 5, lx, 245-76, 310, 319 sq., 
332 ; 7, 87-94 ; 14, 177 sq., 1S0-2, 
39«; 18, 35, 39-43, 52 n., 161, 
161 n., 283, 292 sq, and n., 431, 
455-8; 24, iit, 335-7,339-41,353- 
5 ; 25, r46, 1 63, 1 77-87 ; 29, 355, 357- 
9; 37, 153-60; fur three days after 
the d. of a man there is danger lest 
somebody else should die in that 



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house, 4, lxxiii ; useful animals 
which destroy dead matter, 5, 72 
sq. ; seven (eight) kinds of d. which 
delay the arrival of the Nasuj, 5, 
331 sq., 331 n. ; the folly of bewail- 
ing the dead, 10 (ii), 107 sq. ; by 
what means can the sacrificer over- 
come d.? 15, 122; renunciation of 
sins at the time of d., 24, 309 ; sin 
of eating dead matter, 24, 336, 353, 
356 ; terms to be used in speaking 
of the d. of men and animals, 27, 
112, 117 sq. ; three kinds of d. on 
which no condolence should be 
offered, 27, 131; how to speak of 
d. of diiferent persons, 27, 132 sq. ; 
28, 133 sq. ; ceremony to be per- 
formed after the d. of a Guru, to 
prevent the d, of other members 
of the family, 29, 246-50; prayers 
to ward off d., 29, 248 sq. ; prayer 
to a\ert involuntary d., 29, 427 ; 
30, 118; ceremonies to avert occur- 
rence of d. in family, 30, 296 sq. ; 
striking a dead person, 37, 48 ; 
lamenting over the dead prohibited, 
37, 193; rites by which the conse- 
crated king is freed from violent d., 
41, 90 sq., 94 ; prayers for exemp- 
tion from the dangers of d., 42, 53- 
60, 569 sq. ; he conquers recurring 
d. (i. e. the round of birth and d.) 
by the Mitravinda sacrifice, 44, 66 ; 
he is freed from recurring d. who 
studies his daily Veda-lesson, 44, 
99 ; a possessor of esoteric know- 
ledge conquers recurrent d., and 
attains the full measure of life, 44, 
174 ; expiatory rite in case of d. of 
sacrificer when the Agnihotra-milk 
has been put on the fire, 44, 184 sq. ; 
recurring d. warded off from cattle 
of sacrificer, 44, 271 ; recurring d. 
of the fathers warded off, 44, 272 ; 
fear (at funeral rites) of other 
members of the family following 
the deceased in d., 44, 424, 426, 
440. See also Impurity. 
Debts : law about d. and interests, 2, 
69, 69 n., 244 ; 4, 35 n. ; 6, 44 sq. ; 
7, 39 sq., 42-6, 74 ; 14, 82 ; 18, 
184; 25, xxix sq., 253, 262-4,272 
sq., 277-86; 33, 41-120, 263 sq., 
2 73, 299, 308 sq., 319-32, 320-4, 
328, 331 sq., 339, 388-90; 37, 65, 
138 sq., 141-3; imprisonment of 



debtors, 13, 199 ; to be paid before 
partition of property, or by the 
heir, 25, 379, 379 n. ; 33, 197; 
sacrifice for one who cannot pay d., 
30, 113; sureties and pledges, 33, 
61, 70-5, 77 ; one enslaved for d., 
33, 13511., i36sq.; contract of d., 
bond, 33, 305 ; law about pledge, 
33, 322-6; a cause why some peo- 
ple become monks, 35, 50 ; a father 
may deposit his son as a pledge, 36, 
122 ; discharge of d. on the death 
of creditor, 42, 528 ;^the three d. to 
the gods, ftshis, and Manes, 7, 137 ; 
12, 190 sq., 19011.; 14, 56, 271 sq.; 
25, 169, 205, 215, 346, 443, 443 n. ; 
38, 295 ; 49 (i), 100. 

Decay, see Death (£). 

Deeds, see Good Works, Karman, 
Thought, and Works. 

Deer, see Animals, and Hunting. 

Defamation, a title of the law, 2, 
84 sq., 281 sq., 290 sq., 295; 14, 
122, 222 ; 25, 253, 267, 301-3, 484 ; 
fine for d. of a maiden, 25, 294. 
See also Abuse, and Backbiting. 

Defilement, Defiling, see Impurity. 

Deformities : deformed persons ex- 
cluded from i'raddha feasts, 2, 258 ; 
14, 52 ; 25, 103 sq., 107 sq., ii9sq. ; 
d. considered as sins, 14, 4, 103 ; 42, 
52 t ; due to crimes committed in 
former births, 14, 109 ; 25, 440 sq. ; 
deformed people excluded from 
sacrifices, 23, 76 ; food not to be ac- 
cepted from hermaphrodites, 25, 
162 ; crippled and deformed people 
to be removed from councils of a 
king, 25, 239; deformed and crip- 
pled people cannot be witnesses, 25, 
266; 33, 88 sq. ; cripples not to 
pay taxes, 25, 322 ; cripples, idiots, 
madmen, &c, cannot inherit, but 
must be supported, 25, 372 sq. ; 
cripples, idiots, &c, may marry, 25, 
373, 373 n. 

Deities, see Gods. 

Deliverance : what sort of d. is 
there for the Muni who is free 
from desire? 10 (ii), 202 sq. ; eight 
stages of d. (vimokkha), 11, 49 n., 
51 sq., 2 12 sq. See also Emancipa- 
tion. 

Deluge, when the waters of it 
spread abroad, Ytt arranged and 
divided the regions of the land, 3, 



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DELUGE— DEMONS 



309 ; legend of the d. in Avesta 
and Pentateuch, 4, Iviiisq. ; Zoroas- 
trian legend of Yima and the d., 4, 
10 sq., 15-21, 251 n. ; Tahmuras 
and the d., 4, 384 n. ; caused by 
Tijtar, 5, 26, 2611. ; Noah and the 
d., 6, 209 sq. ; 9, 66 sq,, 1 19, 255 sq. ; 
at the end of the world, 8, 97 n , 
106 n., 260; the punishment of the 
d., 9, 298 sq. ; legend of Manu and 
the d., 12, 2i6-T9 and notes; 25, 
Iviii ; 26, xxx sq.; 42, 679 sq. ; the 
deluging rain of Mallcds, 18, 109, 
109 n. ; 24, 59, 5911. 

Delusion, attachment to objects 
of desire is the great, 8, 322 ; the 
contact of objects of sense with 
senses is the source of d., 8, 335 ; 
human body characterized by d., 8, 
343 ; the wheel of life is enveloped 
in the waters of d., 8, 356 sq, ; the 
whole world under a d., 39, 326 
sq. See also Illusion, Maya, and 
Papaya. 

Demons. 

(a) In Iran. 
(/>) In India, 
(c) In China. 

(a) In Iran. 

Impurity is being possessed of d., 
4, lxxii-lxxxi ; 18, 342, 342 n. ; 
threaten the new-born child, 4, 
lxxix sq. and n., 184 n.; 24, 319 ; 
concourse of the d, at the gate of 
hell, 4, 24, 2411. ; 5, 15 sq., 36; 24, 
28 sq. and n. ; improper ceremonies 
appropriated by them, 4, 26 n.; 5, 
369, 369 sq. n. ; 37, 23, 194 ; the 
six chief d. and Angra Mainyu, 4, 
139 n.; repelled and destroyed by 
tire, 4, 18411., 272 ; 5, 317, '342-4; 
24, 277, 355 sq, ; 37, 122; cock 
and dog drive away the d., 4, 197, 
19711.; 5,73, 331 11.; 24, 293 sq.; 
Aharman formed many d., 5, 6 ; 
discomfited, and destroyed, 5, 8, 25, 
198 sq., 230, 364, 367 ; 18, 85 ; 24, 
8 3 sq. , 1 o 1 ; 37, 227 sq. ; 47, 125; 
names and accounts of d., 5, 9 sq., 
18 sq., 27 sq., 105-14, 128 sq., 215 
sq. ; the assistants or confederates 
of Aharman, 5, 15-17; 18, 93-113; 
their incursion upon the world, 5, 
17-19,28; 37, 254 sq.; the Mazt- 
nikaii d. (Mazainya daevaj, 5, 18; 
18, 105, 105 n, ; 37, 2zi, 221 n. ; 



abide in hell, 5, 19; 18, 58, 75; 24, 
9 ; struggle between angels and d., 
5, 19 ; 18, 270 sq., 319, 319 n. ; 37, 
21, 2in,, 263 sq.; introduce disaster, 
5, 24 ; 18, 24 ; 24, 101 ; 37, 23, 
sin of worship of d., 5, 54, 57, 224, 
302, 369, 369 sq. n. ; 24, 15, 23, 72 ; 
37, 23, 148, 151 sq., 181 sq., 206, 
207 n., 254, 326; 47, 6, 69, 86, 93, 
95, 98, 102, 120; men led astray 
by the d., 5, 55 7; 18,271; become 
powerful by men's misdeeds, 5, 56 
sq. ; use nail-paring as weapons, 5, 
71, 342; apes, bears, and negroes 
originated from intercourse with d., 
5, 87 ; seized on by the angels at 
the resurrection, 5, 128 sq. ; drag 
the sinner to hell, 5, 16 [ ; 24, 12, 
81 ; figures of d. demolished, 5, 193, 
198; the d, with dishevelled hair 
(i.e. hostile races) rush into Iran, 
5, 201-3, 202 n., 215, 217, 220, 223 
sq., 227sq. ; antagonism of Aharman 
and the d. to man, 5, 207, 214 ; 18, 
402 ; 37, 255 sq., 263 sq. ; the 
leathern-belted d., 5, 223 ; idol 
temples their abodes, 5, 227, 229; 
attack him who eats in the dark, 5, 
310 ; all worship reaches either 
angels or d., 5, 310; attack Zara- 
tvijt, oppose his birth, 5, 317, 343 ; 
37, 469; 47, xiv, xxi, i9sq., 27-31, 
140 sq. ; are in the north, 5, 318, 
318 n,, 346, 370 n. ; fifteen fiends, 
5j 358; soul threatened by d., 5, 
373; 24, 17, 17 n., 21 ; soul saved 
by Sr6sh from d., 5, 382 ; he whose 
begetting is owing to the d. has no 
part in the resurrection, 5, 384 sq. ; 
resurrection a fear and vexation to 
the d., 18, 38 ; assault of the d. on 
the corpse, 18, 38, 42; no d. after 
the renovation of the universe, 18, 
74, 118; five kinds of d. of life 
(evil passions), 18, 87 sq., 88 n.; of 
Mazendaran, 18, 93, 93 11. ; 24, 244 
sq., 244 n.; unable to injure their 
enemies, the d. destroy their friends, 
18, 113, 113 sq. n. ; sacred girdle a 
means of contesting the d., 18, 129- 
32 ; torment the apostate in hell, 
18, 138; defeated by the sacred 
ceremony, 18, 159 sq., 163, 16311., 
168-70, 172 ; seize upon the heinous 
sinners, 18, 219, 219 n. ; cause 
heinous sin, 18, 220 sq. ; exorcism 



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against evil d., 18, 384, 38411., 437, 
444; 31, 240; hostile to next-of- 
kin marriage, 18, 402, 410-13, 4 1 7— 
20, 422, 424; sins and evil passions 
personified as fiends, 24, 9, 50, 82, 
126, 12611.; mock the wicked soul 
in hell, 24, 25, 31, 52; slain by 
Htishang, 24, 58; 47, xxv, 8; 
smitten by FreVun, 24, 61 ; 
destroyed by Vijtasp, 24, 65 ; 
wicked man called ' demi-demon,' 
24, 82 sq. ; kept back from disturb- 
ing the passage of the stars, 24, 91 
sq. ; mountains which are smkersof 
the d., 24, 98 ; deceive men, 24, 
1 03 ; confounded by religious cere- 
monies, 24, 103 sq.; Fravashis pro- 
tect the body of Kercsasp against 
the d., 24, no; opposed to the 
sacred beings, 24, 164; a fiend in 
every human body, 24, 265 sq. ; 
make use of water poured away at 
night, 24, 292 n. ; Zarathujtra urges 
the overthrow of tiie demon of 
Rapine, 31, 152, 156 ; impreca- 
tions against the demon of Rapine, 
and her devotees, 31, 161, 163 sq.; 
Dahakas and Murakas are born in 
the house where Haoma is not 
worshipped, 31, 245; Sraosha 
invoked against Wrath and other d., 
31, 303 sq. ; vexed by just judge- 
ment, 37, 103 ; destruction of d. 
through the growth of corn, 37, 154; 
Vendidarf or * law opposed to the 
d,,' 37, 156, 402, 446; frightened 
by the birth of Zaratfirt, 37, 165 ; 
prayers powerful against the d., 37, 
165 sq. and n. ; inward talk of the 
d., 37, 167 ; Ahunavair recited for 
smiting the d., 37, 173 sq. ; 47, 7, 
58-60, 62 sq. ; the rich who gives 
nothing is produced by the d., 37, 
176 sq.; serpents produced by the 
d., 37, 196; repelled by the spirit 
of the consecrated cake, 37, 197 ; 
the seven arch-d., 37, 213, 213 n. ; 
repulsed by Zoroaster, 37, 227 sq. ; 
47, xi, 33, 58-60, 62 sq., 123 sq. ; 
11011 -possess ion of rulers and high- 
priests, their law, 37, 232; the 
patron spirits of mankind sickened 
by d., 37, 243, 243 n, ; three deceit- 
ful d. and their colloquy with 
Auhannaz^, 37, 252-4, 253 n. ; 
Horn-water not for demon- wor- 



f shippers, 47, 57 ; Maay/a- worship 
opposed to the d., IS, 126 ; 37, 168, 
271, 410; 47, 51, 58; the d. de- 
nounced, 37, 272, 275; the d. and 
the wicked deny the renovation, 37, 
284 ; four triumphs of the sacred 
beings over the d., 37, 285 ; gratified 
by the wicked, 37, 301 ; demon- 
worship antecedent to Zoroastrian- 
isinj47, xxvi, 43sq.and n.; Zoroaster 
opposed the worship of the d., 47, 
xxvi sq., 47, 51, 154; smiting the 
fiend, the duty of man, 47, 5 ; how 
the d. tempt men, 47, 60-2; 
shattered by revelation from the 
Avesta, 47, 64; d, in hell disabled 
by the conversion of Vijtasp, 47, 
72 ; wizards, demon-worshippers, 
demon-consultcrs, 47, 124; duty of 
the priest to struggle with his own 
fiend, 47, 169; duty of severing the 
fiend from one's reason, 47, 170. 
See also Akem-mano, Daevas, and 
Drug. 

{b) Ix India. 

One should use for SYaddhas such 
materials, by which the d. are kept 
aloof, 7, 247 ; demoniac state of 
mind of evil-doers, 8, 75; neither 
gods nor d. understand the mani- 
festation of Krishna, 8, 87 ; Pra- 
lhada, chief among ck, 8, 89, 89 n. ; 
alarmed at the greatness of Krish«a, 
8, 94, 96; beings divided into god- 
like and demoniac, 8, ii4Sq., 118 ; 
gods and d. practise the life of 
Brahma^arins for freedom from 
death, 8, 151 sq,, 153 n.; were 
vanquished through heedlessness, 
S, J 52, i52n.; the paths of action 
are destroyed by d., 8, 257 ; their 
natural inclination towards ostenta- 
tiotisncss, 8, 282 ; evil-doers reborn 
as d.,8, 321 ; all d. extol the emanci- 
pated sage, 8, 345; Vish«u is the 
ruler of gods, d., Xagas, &c, 8, 347 ; 
the demon causing madness, 12, 123; 
danger from d., 13, 26r, 313, 340; 
20, 312 ; KSka, a slave begotten by 
a d., able to travel sixty yoganas in 
one day, 17, 188 sq.; feasts at festi- 
vals of d., 22, 92 ; the winds invoked 
to protect the cattle from slaugh- 
tering hosts, 29, 99 ; imprecations 
against d. harassing children, 20, 
296 sq.; 30, 211 sq., 214, 2i9sq., 



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286 sq. ; the Cleaver, a d, causing 
headache, 29, 350; Rakshas and 
PjjSias driven away by the staff of 
the Snataka, 30, 169 ; the Tongue- 
less One invoked at a rite to gain 
victory in disputes, 30, 178; Vayu 
protects from powerful d., 32, 445 ; 
one possessed by a demon cannot 
be a witness, 33, 88; Agni invoked 
against the hating d., 41, 229 ; d. of 
disease, 42, 1-48, 67, 273, 280-3, 
290 sq., 302 sq., 407, 442, 445, 449, 
466, 475, 519, 562; Kush/j&a in- 
voked against female spooks, 42, 
5 sq. ; d. that seek to devour, 42, 
58 ; imprecations against d., 42, 
64-71, 237 sq., 285, 298, 393-404) 
458 ; charm against female d. hostile 
to men, cattle and home, 42, 66 sq., 
298-302; eat raw meat, 42, 69,-395 ; 
Indra drives away the d. of grudge, 
42, j 48; invoked with gods, 42, 
162 ; exorcised, 42, 187 ; Earth 
invoked to drive away d., 42, 205 ; 
goblins and d., shaft and missile, 43, 
106; prayer to be preserved from 
the fiercely-howling d. , 44, 266; 
human sacrifices to d. at the Puru- 
shamedha, 44, 413 sq. ; Agni invoked 
against ghouls and sorcerers, 46, 
32sq., 109; YatUj a bad demon, 
46, 393 ; evil d. possessing men's 
bodies, driven out, 48, 168 ; descrip- 
tion of d., the hosts of Mara, 49 
(>)j I 39~44« See also Asuras, Atrin, 
Bhutas, Danavas, Dasyus, Goblins, 
Kinnaras, PijjUas, Rakshasas, and 
Superhuman beings. 
(c) In China. 

'The demon regions,' 3, 412, 
412 n. ; the demon of drought, 3, 
421, 421 n. 
Departed, the, see Ancestors, An- 
cestor-worship, Death, Fathers, 
Pretas, Souls, and Spirits. 
Deposits, see Property. 
Desh/77, n.d., invoked at the mar- 
riage, 29, 278. 
Desh/ri, n.d., Pra«a is, 42, 219. 
Desiganin, see KshamajramaHa D. 
Desire(s) : giving up all d.the highest 
happiness, 8, 49, &c, 405 ; 10 (i), 43, 
43sq.n,, 51, 66, 73 ; 14, 1 39 sc^. ; see 
a/so Nirvawa, and Tranquillity ; pro- 
duced from attachment, and anger 
produced from d., 8, 50 ; the foe in 



this world, 8, 57 sq. ; sin is d., 10 (if), 
xv sq. ; the Tao requires being 
without d., 39, 47, 49, 79 ; 40, 
251 sq. See also Pleasures, and 
Tanha. 

Destiny or fate, and actions, 4, 
267 sq.; is predominant over every- 
thing, 5, 396 sq. ; 24, 57, 89 ; d. and 
divine providence, 5, 397; 24, 55; 
everybody's augury fastened on his 
neck, 9, 2 sq. ; the infidels predes- 
tined not to believe, 9, 162 sq. ; 
what things happen through d., and 
what through exertion, 18, 214 -16 ; 
why worldly goods are not allotted 
so truly as spiritual, 24, 37 sq. ; 
impossibility to contend with d., 24, 
54 sq. ; it is by d. that a bad man 
succeeds, and a good one fails, 24, 
93 sq. ; stars preside over d. of man, 
24, 227 sq.; 37, 445; all under- 
takings depend on fate and human 
exertion, 25, 249, 249 n. ; controlled 
by self, 37, 342 ; its influence on 
men, 40, 268. 

Determination is fifteenfold, 11, 

233, 233 n. 

Deva, in the sense of God, in the 
Upanishads, 15, xxiv, xxxvi. 

Devabhaga Srautarsha, Purohita of 
the Kurus and Srz'/^ayas, 12, 377. 

Devadatla, recited the Patimokkha 
before laymen, 13, 266 ; Buddha 
restores to life an elephant killed by 
D., 19, xx ; hurls a rock against 
Buddha, 19, 246, 246 n.; lets 
loose a drunken elephant, to kill 
Buddha, 19, 246 9 ; 35, 2S2 n. ; 
Bhaddiya, Anuruddha, Ananda, 
Bhagu, Kimbila, D., and Upali the 
barber, become Bhikkhus, 20, 228- 
33; not honoured with the epithet 
'venerable/ 20, 231 n. ; possessed 
of the powers of Iddhi, 20, 233 sq. ; 
35, 290; gains over prince A^ata- 
sattu and is greatly honoured by 
him, 20, 233-8; his ambition to 
become leader of the Sawgha, 20, 

234, 23S-41 ; incites A^atasattu to 
murder his father, 20, 241 sq. ; 49 
(ii), 161 ; his futile attempts to kill 
Buddha, 20, 243-50; 35, 193, 249, 
251; 36, 355; causes a schism in 
the Saw/gha, 20, 251-65 ; 35, 227, 
292; Buddha learnt the Lotus of 
the True Law from D., who is to 



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be the future Buddha Devarag-a, 21, 
xxx, 244-8; D. the seer who 
taught Buddha, identical with 
Prabhutaratna (?), 21, 24611., 247; 
swallowed up by the earth, 35, 153, 
292 ; why was D. admitted to the 
Order, if Buddha knew that a 
schism would be created by D., 
and that D. would suffer torments 
of hell for it? 35, 162-70; at the 
moment of his death D. took refuge 
in Buddha, 35, 167; will become a 
Pa^eka-Buddha, 35, 167 sq. ; why 
D. in former births was equal or 
superior to the Bodhisattva, 35, 283- 
93> 293 n.; D. and Buddha, in the 
Sakya clan, 35, 290; as a god, was 
the Unrighteous, and was then 
burnt in purgatory, 35, 292; in 
the Gatakas, 35, 303 sq. ; being 
immoderate in food, heaped up evil 
Karman for a Kalpa, 36, 5 ; whence 
his affinity with Buddha? 49 (ii), 
165. 

Deva^Tanavidya, or 'demonology,' 
is the Veda, 44, 368, 368 n. 

Devaki, mother of KWshwa, 1, 52 ; 
8, 229 ; wife of King Vasudeva, 45, 
112, 113 n. 

Devala calls Krishna the first god, 
8, 87, 87 n. ; author of a Dharma- 
sutra, 34, 289 ; n. of a great ascetic, 
45, 268, 2690. 

Devamantiya, Demetrios ? 35, xix ; 
an attendant of King Milinda, 35, 
36-9, 47 sq. 

Devamata,diaIogue between Narada 
and, 8, 274 sq. 

Devananda., Brahmawi mother of 
Mahavh-a, 22, igosq., 218-21, 223, 
226-30. 

Devapatha, t.t., or path of the gods, 
I, 72 n. See alio Path. 

Devara^a : Devadatta shall become 
the Buddha D., 21, 247. 

Devarata, the name given toSuna£- 
jepa by Vijvamitra, 44, xxxv. 

DevarddM, president of the Gaina 
council of Valabhi, 22, xxxvii-xl ; 
Kshamajramana D., 22, 295. 

Devas (gods), how they become 
immortal, 1, 11, 33 ; are dependent 
on the sun, 1, 27; 15, 16; the sun 
is their honey, 1, 38 ; true, the D. do 
wot eat or drink, but they enjoy by 
seeing the nectar, 1, 4 1-3; medita- 

S.B. IND. jf 



tions on Brahman with reference to 
the D., 1, 53 sq., 58; 38, 216 sq. ; 
the god Vayu is the Self of the D., 
1, 59; offer on the five altars, viz. 
the other world, Parg-anya, this 
world, man, woman, 1, 78 sq. ; 15, 
207 sq. ; the departed in the moon 
are loved (or eaten) by the D., and 
rejoice with them, 1, 80, 80 sq. n. ; 
are in the world of Brahman, and 
meditate on the Self, 1, 142 ; Brah- 
man's relation to the D., 1, 149- 
51; 38,219; the seed of Pra^apati 
are the D., the seed of the D. is 
rain, 1, 20s ; all the D. worship 
Brahman, 15, 18 ; sacrifices lead to 
where the one Lord of the D. 
dwells, 15, 31; begotten from the 
highest Person, 15, 35; when the 
sage dies, his D. (senses) enter into 
their corresponding D., 15, 41 ; all 
D. bring offerings to him who knows 
Brahman, 15, 49; like menand cattle, 
D. breathe after breath, 15,56; the 
bliss of the D. born in the Agtina. 
heaven of the sacrificial D„, and of 
the thirty-three D., 15, 60,61 sq.n. ; 
absorption of the D. in Brahman, 
15, 68 ; carried by a racer, 15, 74 ; 
do not like that men should know 
Brahman, 15, 88; Indra, Varuwa, 
&c, the Kshatras among the D., 15, 
89 ; world of the D. obtained by 
sacrifices, 15, 90; D., fathers, and 
men, are speech, mind, and breath, 
15, 94 ; evil does not approach the 
D., 15, 97^; classes of D. : Vasus, 
Rudras, Adityas, Vuve Devas, 
Maruts, 15, 89 ; worlds of the D., 
15, 131 ; D. by birth and D. by 
merit, 15, 172; 48, 238; bliss in 
the world of D., 15, 172, 176 ; pro- 
duced by Pra^apati, arc the true t 
15, 191 ; the eternal ruler over the 
U. is Brahman, 34, 130-2 ; the 
powers of the D. constitute the Self 
of the organs of the body, 38, 257 ; 
the pranas so called, 48, ^85; 'he 
is like a beast for the D.,' 48, 589; — 
D. and Asuras, trying to search out 
the Self, 1, 134-42; 15, 343; 48, 
328 ; performing sacrifice, disturbed 
by Asuras, 12, 34 sq., 69, 113 sq., 
i25sq., isosq., 297, 370-3; struggle 
between D. and Asuras, 15, 78-98 ; 
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DEVAS— DHAMMA 



Indra, 29, 342 ; BrahmaHrin given 
in charge to D. and Asuras, 30, 153 
sq. ; metres of the D. and of the 
Asuras, 38, 228, 228 n. ; succeed 
with the sacrifice, Asuras come to 
nought, 43, 78 ; path of the D., see 
Path. See also Asura.s,*md Gods (a-&). 

Devasopana, the world of the 
Tathagata Dcvara^a, 21, 247. 

Devajravas Bharata, produced Agni 
by attrition, 46, 287 sq. 

Devasu, divine quickeners, offerings 
to, 41, 69, 72 ; 43, 246. 

Devata, St., ' deity,' t.t. used for the 
elements, 1, xxxiii n., 95 sq., 100 ; 
the Sat is para d., ' the highest 
being,' 1, xxxiv, 94, 94 n., lor, 108; 
in Pali, fairy, god, genius, or angel, 
11, 45 n. See also Gods (a-k). 

Devavata Bharata, produced Agni 
by attrition, 46, 287 sq. ; Sn%aya_, 
the son of D., 46, 361. 

Devayana, Sk., t.t., path of the gods. 
See Path. 

Devayani, altercation between i'ar- 
mishfAa and, 14, xli. 

Devi, the son of Agni seated on her 
side, 49 (i), 12. 

Devil, is to you a foe, so take him as 
a foe, 9, 157 ; privy talk is only from 
the d., 9, 272 ; god invoked against 
the d., 9, 345; charmed by an 
exorcist, 35, 38. 

Devils, pelted with shooting-stars, 
6, 245; 9, 168, 293, 322; sent to 
tempt misbelievers, 9, 33 sq. ; could 
not have brought the Qur'an, 9, 98 ; 
descend upon the poets, 9, gg; mates 
of the unbelievers, 9, 201, 201 n., 
213 sq. ; when d. incite you, seek 
refuge with God, 9, 202. See also 
Demons. 

Devil-worshippers, live in the 
hollows of trees, 13, 318 ; use skulls 
for bowls, 20, 89 ; wear the hair in 
their nostrils long, 20, 139. 

Devotee, see Yogin. 

Devotion or Tapas, everything sup- 
ported by it, 7, 278; d. or Yoga, 
see Yoga. 

Dewy Season, see Seasons. 

Dha^a, one of the eight Brahmans 
who took note of the marks on 
Buddha's body, 36, 44. 

Dha^agga-paritta, a protecting 
charm, 35, 213. 



Dhamma (Pa»)i Dharma (Sk.), 
Buddhist t.t., Truth, the True Law, 
teaching of Buddha, 10 (i), xxxiii; 
(ii), 47, 63-6, 76-S0, 175, 177, 186, 
201 sq., 209; 11, 62, 64, 117 sq.; 
49 (i), 52; different meanings of 
Dh., 10 (i), xlv, 3 sq. n., 68 n. ; (ii), 
x; 13, xxviii-xxx, 3 n.; difficult is 
the hearing of the Dh., 10 (i), 49 ; 
happy is the teaching of the Dh., 
10 (i), 5a; the gift of the Dh. 
(dhammadana) exceeds all gifts, 10 
(i), 83, 83 n.; worship the law (Dh.) 
of Buddha, as theBrahmana worships 
the sacrificial fire, 10 (i), 90 ; he who 
expounds and explains the Dh., is a 
Maggadcrin Samawa, 10 (ii), 16 ; he 
who loves Dh. is the winner, he who 
hates Dh. is the loser in this world, 
10 (ii), 17; he who approves of the 
Dh. of the wicked is a loser in this 
world, 10 (ii), 17; worship of Buddha 
and Dh., 10 (ii), 29, 31 ; Dh., well 
observed, conveys happiness, 10 (ii), 
30 ; four dhammas or virtues, truth, 
justice, firmness, and liberality, 10 
(ii), 3 1 ; the Dh. as to the acquisition 
of Nibbana, 10 (ii), 31, 39; standing 
firm in the Dh.,10(ii), 42; the sweet- 
ness of the Dh., 10 (ii), 43 ; the bless- 
ing of the hearing of the Dh. at due 
seasons, 10 (ii), 44; Buddha on the 
Dh. of the old and new Brahmanas, 
10 (ii), 48-52 ; one should choose a 
good teacher of the Dh.,and worship 
him, 10 (ii), 52 sq.; those who delight 
in Dh. obtain the highest good, 10 
(ii), 54 sq. ; understanding the Dh. 
thoroughly is the chief duty of the 
Bhikkhu, 10 (ii), 60-2 ; he to whom 
all Dhammas are destroyed, Tatha- 
gata, 10 (ii), 78; a supernatural in- 
sight in all Dhammas, 10 (ii), 78 ; 
Buddha teaches the Dh., that is good 
in the beginning, in the middle, and 
in the end, 10 (ii), 96 ; turning the 
wheel of Dh. (Dhamma&ikkappavat- 
tana), i.e. the setting in motion on- 
wards of the royal chariot-wheel of 
the supreme dominion of the Dh., 
or the Foundation of the Kingdom 
of Righteousness, 10 (ii), 102 sq., 
125,127; 11, i4osq. ; 13, 91, 97 sq,; 
the Dhs., or the four noble truths, 
10(ii), 132 ; for those that are enveloped 
there is gloom, for those that do not see 



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there is darkness, and for the good it is 
tn an if est , for those that sec there is light; 
[even being) near, those that are ignorant 
of the way and the Dh., do not discern 
{ anything), 10 (ii), 144 sq.; Dhammas 
or doctrines, 10 (ii), i49sq., 151. ' 53 
sq., 164 sq., 172 sq., 183, 191 ; let the 
Bhikkhu learn every Dh. inwardly 
or outwardly, 10 (ii), 175 i Bavari is 
perfect in his own Dh., 10 (ii), 189; 
having learnt the best Dh. one 
crosses the stream, 10 (ii), 196 sq. ; 
the Dhs. lead to the other shore, 
10 (ii), 209 sq. ; Buddha's Dh., the 
instantaneous, the immediate, the 
destruction of desire, freedom from 
distress, whose likeness is nowhere, 
10(ii), 211 sq.; leads to salvation, 11, 
27 ; he who has doubts in the Dh. 
is not free from spiritual barrenness, 
11, 224, 228; eighteen things by 
which one may conclude that a 
Bhikkhu is wrong according to the 
Dh., 17, 315 sqq. ; by knowing Dh. 
we know Buddha, 35, 1 10 ; he who 
weeps for the death of his mother, 
and he who weeps out of love for the 
Dh., 35, 1 19 ; no wisdom of any use 
without investigation of the Dh., 35, 
128; is the most minute thing, 35, 
132; a lay disciple must always stand 
by Dh., 35, 143 sq. ; is the best in 
the world, 35, 229, 229 n. ; kindness 
towards all beings, the characteristic 
of Dh., 35, 255 ; cannot be perceived 
without practising the vows of a 
recluse, 36, 255 ; one has to find out 
Dh. by oneself, 49 (i), 101 sq. ; the 
eye of Dh. (dhammaiakkhu), 11, 82, 
96, 119, 127, 153, r;3 n. ; 49 (i), 
180; Dh. and Samgnz, in Mahayana 
metaphysics, 49 (ii), xiv sq., 117. 
See also Buddha (g), Buddhism, 
Dharma, Jewels (the three), and 
Preaching. 
Dhamma - /rakka - ppavattana - 
Sutta, t.c, 'the Foundation of the 
Kingdom of Righteousness,' 11, ix, 
137-55; belongs to the Ahguttara 
Nikaya, and occurs in the Lalita 
Vistara, and Vinaya Pi/aka, 11, 139 
sq. ; its historical value, 11, 140-5. 
Dhamma/fakkhu, Pali, t.t., the eye 

of Truth. See Dhamma. 
Dhamma-iariyasutta, t.c, 10 (ii), 
46 sq. 



Dhammantari, n. of an author on 
medicine, 36, 109, 109 n. 

Dhammapada, t.w., quoted, 8, 36, 
50 n., 51 n., 52 n., 69 n., 71 n., 84 n., 
101 n., 102 n., 108 n., 123 n., 241 n.; 
35, 284 n. ; 36, 4 n., 353; translated, 
10 (i ); a canonical book of Buddhism, 
10 (i), ix sq. ; a commentary to it, 
by Buddhaghosa, 10 (i), x ; its date, 
10 (i), x-xxvi ; the title of Dh., its 
meaning, 10 (i), xlv-xlix; translations 
of the Dh., 10 (i), xlix-lii ; he who 
lives in the way that has so well been 
taught in the Dh., is called a Magga- 
£lvin Samarca, 10 (ii), 16. 

Dhamma-pala : the Bodisat as prince 
Dh., 35, 290. 

Dhammarakkhita, n. of teacher of 
Nagasena, 35, xxv, 26-9. 

Dhammasenapati or Upatissa, 11, 
1 n. 

Dhamma-vinaye, how to be ex- 
plained, 11, 223 n. 

Dhammika, Buddha explains to 
him the duties of Bhikkhus and 
householders, 10 (ii), 62-6. 

Dhammikasutta, t.c, 10 (ii), 62-6. 

Dhanagiri, disciple of Siwhagiri 
Gatismara, 22, 293 ; of the Vasish/Aa 
gotra, a Sthavira, 22, 294. 

Dhana%aya, n. of Arg-una, 8, 38, 
48 sq., 63, 74, 93, 100, 125, 130, 
23°, 3'°> 3941 worshipped at the 
Tarpa^a, 30, 244. 

Dhanapala(ka , n. of the elephant 
who rushed upon Buddha at Raga- 
gaha, 35, 297, 298 n., 300; 36, 248. 

Dhanapati, Bali offering to him at 
the Vaijvadeva, 29, 86. 

Dhanarddhi, disciple of Mahagiri, 
22, 290. 

Dhaniya, the rich herdsman, his 
dialogue with Buddha, 10 (ii), 3-5 ; 
he and his wife take refuge in 
Buddha, 10 (ii), 5. 

Dhaniya, the potter's son, subject of 
the second Para.gika, 20, 375. 

Dhaniyasutta, t.c, Sutta of the cow- 
herd Dhaniya, 10 (ii), 3-5 ; 36, 285. 

Dhanyayana,a Brahman, converted 
by Buddha, 49 (i), 193. 

Dhanva, see Asita Dh. 

Dhanvana, Asita Dh., king of 
Asuras, 44, 368 n. 
Dhanvantari, offerings to, 2, 202 ; 
25, 90; 29, 161, 163, 179; the 



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dhanvantari-dharma-sOtras 



physician of the gods, 36, 109 n. 
See Bharadv%a Dh. 

Dharawendra, the best of NSgas, 
45, 290. 

Dharawidhara, n. of a Bodhisattva 
Mahasattva, 21, 4; one of the six- 
teen virtuous men, 21, 4. 

Dharawindhara, n. of Bodhisattva, 
21, 4 i8 ; 

Dharawis, Sk., i.e. talismanic words, 
spells. See Spells. 

Dharma, Sk., t.t., religious duty, 
merit, 34, 26, 299 sq., 429 ; qualify- 
ing particulars, 38, 186; Dh. and 
Adharma, as substances, 45, 153, 
207 sq. See Dhamma, and Piety. 

Dharma, Justice, n. of a god : 
Bali-offering to Dh. and Adharma, 
2, 107 ; worship of King Dh. (dhar- 
mar%a) on the fourteenth of both 
halves of every month, 7, 270; in the 
Anugita, 8, 219 ; appears before 
Ganaka disguised as a Brahma«a, 8, 
224, 306 ; Duty, Law, or Justice 
personified, 25, 22, 255, 352, 495; 
daughters of Daksha married to 
Dh., 25, 352 ; worshipped at the 
Tarpa^a, 30, 244 ; the favourite 
abodes of Dh., 33, 104 n. ; the 
balance a symbol of Dh., 33, 253 ; 
the ordeal by Dh., 33, 315 sq., 316 
n., 319. 

Dharma, n. of a Tirthakara, 22, 
280 ; n. of different Sthaviras, 22, 
294 sq., 29411. 

Dharma, n. of a Tathagata, 49 (ii), 
100. 

Dharmadhara, n. of a Kinnara 
king, 21, 5. 

Dharmadhara, n. of a Tathagata, 
49 (ii), 100. 

Dharma-dhatu, mystic world of the 
Northern Buddhists, 19, 324, 324 n. 

Dharmadhva^a, 11. of a Tathagata, 
49 (ii), 100. 

Dharmagahanabhyudgatara^a,n. 
of a former Buddha, 21, 208. 

Dharmagupta, Chinese translation 
of the Saddharma-pUMrt'arika, by 
G&anagupta and Dh., 21, xix-xxi, 
xxiii ; translated the Va^ra^^edika, 
49 (ii), xiii. 

Dharma Indra, the king whose 
people are the gods, 44, 370. 

Dharma^akra, chief of the sons of 
the Cinas, 49 (i), 173. 



Dharmakara, a pupil of the Tatha- 
gata Lokejvarara^a, 49 (ii), ix .sq., 
7-10; describes his own Buddha- 
country, 49 (ii), 11-22; becomes 
Buddha Amitabha, 49 (ii), 28; his 
prayers. 49 (ii), 177, 194. 

Dharmaketu, the 70th Tathagata T 
49 (ii), 7. 

Dharmamati, son of a former 
Buddha A'andrasuryapradipa, 21. 
19 ; the 78th Tathagata, 49 (ii), 7. 

Dharmamativinanditara^a, the 
39th Tathagata, 49 (ii), 6. 

Dharmapalin. father of Sariputra, 
49 (i), 193- 

Darmaphala, a life of Buddha 
brought to China by, 19, xviii ; 
translated the Aling-pen-k'i-king, 
19, xxiv. 

Dharmaprabhasa, a future Buddha, 
21, 194-8. 

Dharmaprahrada : story of Dh., 
Kumalana, and Death, 2, 98, 98 
sq. n. 

Dharmara^a, see Dharma. 

Dharmaraksha, translator of the 
Phfi-yau-king, 19, xxv; translated 
the Buddha&irita into Chinese, 49 
(i), x. 

Dharmaraksha, translated the 
Buddha^arita into Chinese, 19, ix, 
xxx, xxxii, xxxiv sq. ; translated the 
Mahaparinirvana-sutra into Chinese, 
19, 365 ; Chinese translation of the 
SaddharmapuWarika, by Dh., 21, 
xx, xxiii. 

DharmaruX'i, divinity of a tree, 49 
(i), 169. 

Dharmajastras, or (Hindu) Law- 
books, as authorities on law, 2, 237, 
237 n. ; Anugita and Dh., 8, 208, 
210, 215-19; only to be taught to 
son or pupil, 14. 124, 322; teach 
penances, 14, 312, 317; mentioned 
in the Manava-smWti, 25, xxv sq., 
31, 118, 510; free from sectarian 
influence, 25, liv sq. ; their character 
as school-books, 25, liv— Ivi; metrical 
Smr/'tis and floating mass of Stokas, 
30, xxxvii ; the king should listen to 
the exposition of the Puranas and 
law-books, 33, 280; the Atharva- 
veda in the Dh., 42, xlv-li ; founded 
on Brahmawas, Mantras, and Artha- 
vSdas, 48, 330. See also Smr/ti. 

Dharma-sutras. the basis of the 



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metrical SmWtis (Dharmajastras), 
2, ix-xi and n, ; 25, xviii-xxiii, liii 
sq. ; their sources, 25, xi ; the 
works of ordinary mortals, 25, xi ; 
their purpose, 25, xi sq. ; their 
antiquity, 25, xix ; Manava-smr/ti 
later than Dh., 25, xxvi ; referred 
to by Patan^al?, 25, li sq. ; quoted 
by Medhatithi, 25, cxix, cxix n. ; 
relation between Srauta-sutras, 
Gr/hya-sutras, and Dh., 30, xxix- 

XXXV. 

Dharmavyadha, see Religious 
hunter. 

Dhartr/, worshipped at the Tarpana, 
30, 244. 

Dharuv/a Arigirasa, author of 
Vedic hymns, 46, 400. 

Dhatr/, the Creator, 15, xxiv ; Manu 
and Dh. perform the punaradheya, 
12, 314 n. ; a name of the Self, 15, 
311 ; invoked and worshipped, 26, 
376; 29, 86, 207, 320, 344, 347; 
30, 151, 244 ; 41, 54 n. ; 42, 20, 54, 
126, 160, 389; has ordained pro- 
creation, 29, 45 ; invoked and wor- 
shipped at the Simantonnayana, 29, 
47 sq,, 181; 30,2o8; hasshaventhe 
head of B/vhaspati and Indra, 29, 
56, 56 n., 185 ; invoked at the mar- 
riage, 29, 278 ; invoked for concep- 
tion, 30, 199; oblations to Dh. for 
the new-born child, 30, 214; pro- 
tects from all evils, 42, 81 ; shaped 
the being, 42, 86 ; invoked in 
charms to obtain a husband, 42, 94 
sq., 324 ; supports earth, heavens, 
and sun, 42, 95 ; made overlord for 
warding-oft" of the fiends, 44, 464 
sq. See Creator, and Pra^apati. 

Dhatusena, nephew of Mahanama, 
10 (i), xv-xviii. 

Dhira or Viriyavat (firm), definition 
of the term, 10 (ii), 91. 

Dhira .Satapaiv/eya, n. of a teacher, 

43,33i. 

Dhisha/m, n. of a goddess, 46, 1 2, 
119-22, 228 ; a goddess of the 
earth, and of wealth, 46, 1 20 sq. ; — 
Dhishawas, goddesses, 41, 242 sq., 
243 n. ; are speech, 41, 243. 

Dhishz/ya hearths, see Fire (e). 

Dhotaka, n. of a Brahma/za, 10 (ii), 
187, 196 sq., 2 io. 

DhotakamiU/avapu£Ma, t.c, 10 
(ii), 196 sq. 



DiVz'sh/adyumna, n. of a hero, 8, 
39; not born in the ordinary way, 
38, 125, 126; 48, 595. 

Dhr/sh/aketu, n. of a warrior, 8, 37. 

Dhr/tarash/ra, n. of a king, in- 
formed about the battle of Kuru- 
kshetra, 8, 3, 37-43 ; his sons, the 
Kauravas, 8, 41-3, 95; Sanatsu^a- 
tiya, a dialogue between Sanatsu^ata 
and Dh., 8, 135 sq., 149-94; n ' s 
character, 8, 141 ; Dh. Vaijtitravirya, 
mentioned in the Kanaka, 12, xliii 
11. ; his sacrificial horse seized by 
Satanlka, 44, xxx, 401 ; head of the 
four Maharajas, 49 (i), 196 sq. ; — 
n. of a god, 21, 4. 

DlWti, an ascetic, converted by 
Buddha, 49 (i), 191. 

Dh?7"tiparipur«a, the Bodhisattva, 
will be the Buddha Padmavnsha- 
bhavikramin, 21, 67. 

Dhn'tis, t.t., oblations for the safe 
keeping of the horse at the Ajva- 
medha, 44, 285, 285 n., 364, 364 n. 

Dhruva, his brothers Bali and 
Va^rabahu, 49 (i), 94. 

Dhruvasena, king of Anandapura, 
22, 270 n. 

DHu'l Kifl., was patient and entered 
into the mercy of God, 9, 53, 53 n. ; 
was of the righteous, 9, 180. 

DHu'l Qarnain, travels to the ocean 
of the setting sun, and builds a 
rampart to keep in Gog and Magog, 
9, 24 sq. and n. 

DHu'nnun, see Jonah. 

Dhutangas, see Vows. 

Dhvasan Dvaitavana, king of the 
Matsyas, offered a horse-sacrifice, 
44, 398. 

Dhvasra, n.p,, 32, 360 sq. 

Dhyanas, Sk., t.t., see Guanas, and 
Meditation. 

Dialectics, see Philosophy. 

Dialogues, see Parables. 

Dibba-^akkhu, t.t., ' the heavenly 
eye/ superhuman knowledge of 
present Births, 11, 209, 218. See also 
Eye. 

Dice, Knta among, 44, 330. 

Difference, docs not admit of logical 
definition, 48, 31-3; of substance 
can be proved, 48, 39-46. 

Digestion, explained, 8, 113, 252, 
273 n., 275 n. ; juicy food causes 
indigestion, 8, 236 n. 



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dIgha nikAya— dIrghabhadra 



Digha Nikaya, t.w., Tevigg-a Sutta 
from, 11, 159; Maha-sudassana 
Sutta, 11, 237; Mahaparinibbana 
Sutta from the D., quoted, 36, 352. 
See also Tipitfaka. 

Digha-pihgalo : A/ara was D., 11, 
75 n. 

Dighavu : the story of D., the son 
of King Dighiti of Kosala, 17, 296- 

305- „ r 

Dighiti, king of Kosala, 17, 293- 
305- 

Diksha, Sk., t.t., consecration or 
initiation as the preparatory rite for 
the upasana of those who live in the 
forest, 1, 75 sq., 75 n. ; rite of 
initiation for a Soma sacrifice, 12, 
24, 25 n., 447 n. ; 26, xxxii, 1-47, 
161 sq. ; 29, 319; personified, 14, 
196; 26, 150; the Avantaradiksha 
or intermediary consecration, 26, 
97-104; the sacrificer consecrates 
himself for the sake of this All, 26, 
155; the D. offering, 26, 12 sq., 
161; 41, 44; 43, 258; repeated, 
when substitutes of the Soma-plant 
had to be used, 26, 422 sq. ; for the 
Sattra or sacrificial session, 26, 
440-6 ; 44, r 35-8 ; repeated for each 
Soma-sacrifice, 41, 4 n. ; at the 
Va^apeya, 41, 17; as part of the 
king's Abhishe^aniya ceremony, 
41, 68 sq., 68 n. ; Pra,g-apati and 
the beings consecrated themselves 
for a year, 41, 158 ; for the building 
of the fire-altar, 41, 180 sq. and n., 
185 sq., 246-97, 247 n.; supports 
the earth, 42, 199; is Speech, 43, 
67; at the animal sacrifice, 44, 121 
sq. ; from out of faith the gods 
fashioned the D., 41, 138; is the 
body of the sacrifice, 44, 240; no 
D. at the Sautramani, 44, 240, 
240 n. ; for the horse-sacrifice, 44, 
289-95, 37 1 s< \'} there are twelve 
days, 44, 371; for the Purushamedha 
there are twenty-three Dikshas, 44, 
403. See also Anointment. 

Dikshita, the Consecrated, rules for, 
26, 4-n, 19 sq., 33 sq., 38-47 ; 
draws nigh to the gods, 26, 4, 20, 
38, 42, 44 ; becomes an embryo, 26, 
19 sq., 29, 33 sq., 73 ; begging en- 
joined for him, 26, 45a.; abstinence 
enjoined for him, 41, 185 sq. 

Din, see Daena. 



Dina-i Mainog-i Khirart', or 
' Opinions of the Spirit of Wisdom,' 
title and contents, 24, xv sq., 3 n. ; 
its date and author, 24, xvi sq. ; MSS. 
and versions of it, 24, xviii-xxv; 
translated, 24, 1-113. 

Dinaras, mentioned in the Kalpa- 
sutra, 22, 233, 233 n.; in the 
Narada-smriti, 33, xvii sq., 32. 

Dinkaiv/, t.w., compilers and editors 
of the, 5, 148 n. ; 24, xxvii, 139 n. ; 
its date, 18, xxvii; 24, 139 n.; 37, 
xxxiii, 488 ; quoted, 18, xxix, 370-2, 
370 sq. n. ; 24, xxvi, 120 n., 139, 
T46, 162, 162 n., 169 sq., 202 sq. 
and n. ; quotes the Da^istan-i Dinik, 
18, 269 n. ; allusions to next-of-kin 
marriage in the D., 18, 394-7, 399- 
415 ; its importance, 24, 139 n.; its 
account of the Nasks, 37, xxix sq., 
xxxviii-xlvi ; its early history, 37, 
xxx-xxxiii ; transmission of the text 
down to the present MSS., 37, 
xxxiii-xxxviii ; translation of books 
viii and ix, Contents of the Nasks, 
37, 1-397 ; from Books iii and iv 
of the D., 37, 406-18 ; quotes from 
an older ' Exposition of the Good 
Religion,' 47, ix, 3 sq., 3 n.; 
legendary history of Zoroaster in 
the D., 47, ix~xvi, 3-130. 

Dinna = Sabbadinna, q.v. 

Dino, see Daena. 

Din-pa(van)-Atar6, or Dino, has 
the orange -scented mint, 5, 104 ; 
invoked, 5, 402, 405. 

Din-pa(van)-Dino, Trigonella the 
flower of, 5, 104 ; invoked, 5, 403, 
405. 

Din.-pa(van)-Mitro, or Din6, the 
flower of, 5, 104 ; invoked,5,402,405. 

Din-vi^-irgard, account of the 
Nasks from the, 37, 438, 438 n. 

Dipankara, nomination of Buddha 
by, 19, xviii; n. of a Tathagata, 21, 
22, 28, 300; 49 (ii), ix, 6, 71 ; a 
former Buddha, 49 (ii), 122, 131-3. 

Dipava7//sa, founded on the Sin- 
halese A/Makathas, 10 (i), xiii, xvi 
sq. ; its date, 10 (i), xiii ; 11, xxii; 
the dates of Buddhist Patriarchs, 
according to the D., 10 (i), xlii-xlv ; 
lists of Kings and Theras in the D., 
11, xlvi sq. 

Dirghabhadra, disciple of Sam- 
bhuta-vig'aya, 22, 289. 



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Dirghagama, a canonical work of 
Buddhism, 19, xxiv. 

Dirghanakha, uncle of Sariputra, 
converted by Buddha, 49 (i), 193. 

Dirghatamas Auiathya, author of 
Vedic hymns, 46, 143, 1 49, 154, 
158, 161, 164, 167, 170, 174, 176, 
178 ; the blind son of Mamata, 46, 
170, 171 ; 49 (i), 44 n. 

Discussions, of scholars and kings 
respectively, 35, 46. 

Diseases, treated as cases of im- 
purity^, lxxx ; and deformities, the 
work of Angra Mainyu, 4, 17, 19, 
227-9; Wsts of d., 4, 227-9, 235, 
241 ; spells against Death and Sick- 
ness, 4, 229; rain invoked to cure 
d., 4, 231; caused by demons, 5, 
112; 24, 265; causes of d. and 
death, 8, 236 sq. ; caused by 
offences committed in a former life, 
8, 321 ; 14, 109; 22, 53 sq. ; 25, 
lxxii, 92, 105, 108, 341, 440 sq. ; 35, 
152 ; caused by sorcery, 17, 60 ; four 
classes of d., 21, 130 ; sixteen d., 22, 
53 sq. ; charms and magic rites to 
cure d, and possession by demons of 
d., 22, 187 sq. ; 42, 1-48, 57-60, 67, 
233-7, 241 sq., 246-52, 257-60, 
263-74, 277-S4, 286-94, 302 sq., 
308-11, 313-22, 336-9, 341-3, 
369-71, 373-8, 3 8 4-9, 406-11, 
414-23, 425-8, 441-56, 463-6, 
468-73, 475, 481-3, 488-90, 500 
sq., 503-7, 509-M, 516-21, 530-2, 
536 sq., 552-5, 557-69, 578-82, 
600-2, 669-81, 697 ; the god that 
caused a d. shall cure it, 42, 34 ; 
driven away by the Airyaman prayer, 
23, 41, 44 ; to avert d. the Fravashi 
of Thraetaona is worshipped, 23, 
221; old age, death, d., 25, 209, 212; 
how to cure d. at a sacrifice, 26, 40 
sq. and n.; Rudra invoked against 
d., 29, 137; ceremony for averting 
d., 29, 224, 236, 432 sq. ; the ini- 
tiated boy given in charge to D., 
30, 154; Karman and other causes 
of d., 35, 19 1—5 ; cured by Pirit 
(charms) and medicines, 35, 2 1 3-19, 
213 n. ; caused by evil eye, 37, 101 
sq. ; healed by sacrificial rites, 41, 
50 ; healed by Vedic verses, 41 , 141 ; 
transmission of d., 42, 47 sq., 309 
sq. ; salve (ang-ana) protecting from 
cL, 42, 6i sq. ; amulet warding off 



d., 42, 82 ; — persons afflicted with 
leprosy and similar d. excluded 
from SrSddhas, 2, 258 ; 14, 52 ; 25, 
103, 105 sq., 108 ; lepers, &c, ex- 
eluded from sacrifices, 23, 75 ; 
insane and suffering persons cannot 
be witnesses, 25, 265, 265 n. ; 33, 
303 ; dropsy, the punishment of 
Vanwa, 25, 269 n. ; sufferers from 
pestilence slain, 27, 178 ; ceremonies 
against pestilence, 27, 266, 288, 307, 
423 ; a cure for headache, 29, 350 ; 
dog-demon or epilepsy, 30, 219 sq. ; 
sons afflicted with chronic d. disin- 
herited, 33, 194 ; regulations about 
contagious d.,37, 98; — prayeragainst 
Yakshman (consumption), 41, 34 1 n.; 
charm against takman (fever) and 
related d., 42, 1-7, 246-52, 270—4, 
414-19, 441-52, 468-70, 565-9, 
676-81 ; charms against dropsy and 
similar d., 42, n-13, 241 sq., 471, 
562-4 ; charms against kshetriya, 
hereditary d., 42, 13-16, 286-90, 
292-4, 336-9; charms against 
leprosy, 42, 16, 266-70; charms 
against poison, 42, 25-30, 373-8, 
425-8, 461-3, 511 sq., 552-5 ; 
charm against mania, 42, 32 sq., 
518-21 ; fever and cough, the 
missiles of Rudra, 42, 157 ; fever 
connected with lightning, 42, 271 
sq. ; leprosy cured by the sacrifice 
of a white cow, 42, 71 r ; children's 
d., see Children {b). 

Disputations, on spiritual matters, 
44, 50 6. 

Diti, n.d., andAditi, 32, 243, 255 sq. ; 
41, 93, 91 n. ; Agni invoked to 
grant and keep off Aditi, 46, 317, 
321 ; sons of D., 49 (i), 196. 

Di/Migatika, Pali t.t., a philosopher, 
10 (ii), 158. 

Divakara, translated the Lalita- 
vistara into Chinese, 19, xxviii. 

Divination. 

(*) In China. 
(/'} In India. 

(a) In China. 

Yj King, a book of d,, d. by it, 3, 
xvii; 16, xv, 2, 4 sq., 10 sq., 22, 31, 
40-3, 54, 170, *7 2 n -, &c, ; with the 
tortoise-shell and divining stalks, 3, 
50 sq., 104, 112, 120, 14011,, 145-7, 
14511., 152-4, 15411., 156-61, 207, 
349, 358, 381 n., 383, 437 sq., 438 n.; 



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16, 20 sq., 40 sq., 150, 318 n., 
364 n., 365-74, 368 sq. n,, 371 n., 
374 sqq. n., 380 sq., 381 sq, n., 404 
sq.; 27,92,94, 103, 128, 181, 384 
sq. ; 28, 4. 74, 77, 2S9, 295, 320, 
32011.; 40, 52, 80, 136 sq., 137 n. ; d. 
and dreams, 3, 1 28 ; by the tortoise- 
shell, about the founding of a city, 
3, 183, 188-90, 395, 395 a, 437, 
437 n. ; with a handful of grain, 3, 
359, 359 n - » about (the time for) 
sacrifices, 3, 399, 399 n. ; 27, 428 
sq. ; 28, 53 sq., 349-51 ; about the 
site for burying and funeral, 3, 487 ; 
28, 5', 135 sq., 156, 180; 40, 125 ; 
object of d., 16, 40-2 ; doubts in 
the use of d., 16, 41, 41 n. ; forma- 
tion of the lineal figures by the 
divining stalks, 16, 42 sq. ; about 
marriage, 16, 65; 28, 298, 428; 
sincerity in having recourse to d., 
16, 65, 217 ; diviners and exorcists 
employed, 16, 190, 192 n. ; alluded 
to, 16, 221 ; hexagrams of the Yi 
derived from the manipulating with 
divining stalks, 16, 241 n. ; good 
fortune and bad indicated by the 
emblems of the Yi King, 16, 350 
sq,, 35m. ; is a 'help extended to 
man from Heiven,' 16, 351; with 
hexagrams and stalks, 16, 356 sq., 
358 n.; the Yi King arose from the 
manipulation of the divining stalks, 
16, 422, 422 sq. n. ; by tortoise- 
shell, in buying a concubine, 27, 78 ; 
about the proper time for under- 
takings, 27,94; the Grand-diviner, 
one of the six grandees, 27, 109 ; 
when it should not be resorted to, 
27, 119; false reports about con- 
suitings of tortoise-shell and stalks 
punished with death, 27, 238; 
smearing tortoise-shells and divining 
stalks with blood, 27, 298 ; one of 
the minor arts, 27, 348; by tortoise- 
shell at birth ceremonies, 27, 472 ; 
rules about d., 28, yi ; about cere- 
monies, 28, 223 ; is making Heaven 
the Decider, 28, 233, 233 n. ; a man 
without constancy cannot be a 
diviner, 28, 363 ; at the capping 
ceremony. 28, 426 ; by physiognomy, 
40, 106. See alio Y\ King. 
(b) In India. 

Low arts, and lying practices, as 
d. from marks on the body, auguries, 



dreams, &c., forbidden to Buddhist 
and Gaina monks, 11, 194, 196 sq., 
199 ; 19, 295 ; 36, 287 ; 45, 34, 70 
sq., 70 n,, 105, 366 sq. ; fortune- 
telling a disreputable occupation, 1 1, 
194; 25, 387; 42, 1; 45, 80; an 
ascetic shall not subsist by d., 
astrology, palmistry, 14, 48 ; 25, 
208 ; from the direction taken by 
the SShasri cow, when let loose, 26, 
416; relating to future marriage, 
29, 165 ; 42, 323, 491 ; prognostica- 
tions from dreams, comets, meteors, 
&c, the business of Brahmans, 35, 
247 sq. ; from marks of the body, 
36, is8sq. ; regarding the new-born 
child, 42, 242 sq. ; the fact that 
men by arts of d. know the future 
proves the reality of the world, 45, 
317. See also Omens, and Oracles. 

Divine Doors, invoked in Apn 
hymns, 46, 8, 153, 179, 198,236, 377. 

Divinities : in meditations connected 
with constitutives of sacrificial 
works the idea of the d. is to be 
transferred to the sacrificial items, 
not i'ice versa, 34, Ixxvii ; 38, 345- 
9 ; intelligent presiding d. are con- 
nected with everything, 34, 304 ; 
the vital airs act under the guidance 
of d., 38, 91 sq. ; d. who act as the 

. guides of the vital airs and co- 
operate with them stop their co- 
operation at the time of death, 38, 
106 ; even priests who do not know 
the d. of sacrifices, perform them, 
38, 254; the organs of the body 
and the d. are non-different, 38, 257. 
See also Gods. 

Divinity, the highest, is endowed 
with all powers, 34, 354 sq. See 
also Brahman. 

Divodasa, king of Benares, 49 (i), 
192, 

Divorce, see Marriage. 

Documents : proof by written d. in 
legal procedure, 7, xxiv; 14, xxvi, 
80 sq. ; 25, xcix-ci ; 33, xiii, 5, 7 
sq.. 7 n., 2i, 23, 30, 35, 198; 
boundaries recorded in writing, 25, 
299, 299 n. ; various kinds of d., as 
a means of proof, 33, 58-60, 64 sq., 
7°, 75-9, 24 2 sq-, 248, 294, 297, 302, 
304-9, 311-14, 325, 33i, 334, 339, 
348 ; recording the victory of a 
litigant party, 33, 235, 295, 297 sq. ; 



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written plaint and answer, 33, 236 
sq., 292-4, 296; written grants, 33, 

347- 
Dog, dogs, in the Avesta, 4, Ixxi, 
155-69 ; 37, 161, 161 n. ; the 
Corpse-Drug- expelled by ' the look 
of the d.' (Sag-did), 4, Ixxii, lxxiv 
sq., lxxiv n., Ixxxi, 77, 77 n., 83, 
83 n., 99, 99 n., 106, 106 n., 120; 
5, 245 sq. and n., 259 sq., 259 n., 
261 n., 262 sq., 267, 319 sq., 332; 
18,42,42n.; 24,335sq.; 37,153; 
see also Sag-did; punishments for 
killing d., 4, lxxxivsq., 155-9, ^S, 
272 ; happy the house where the d. 
thrives, 4, 23; d. and men, men- 
tioned together, 4, 24, 26, 32, 67, 
6 9> 73? 78 sq., 81, 93 sq., 95, 106; 
impurity caused by the death of 
the different kinds of d.,4, 59, 78; 
hatefulness of the tortoise, or the 
d. of Ahriman, 4, 155, 157; holi- 
ness of the hedgehog, the d. of 
Ormazd, 4, 155-7, 1560.; useful- 
ness of the d., 4, 159 sq., 164 sq., 
168; the food due to the d., 4, 
160-2; 37, 114; treatment of mad 
d., 4, 163 sq. ; d. and wolves, 4, 
i65sq. ; virtues and vices of d., 4, 
166 sq.; 5,72-4; the holy water-d., 
4, 168 ; penalties for killing a water- 
dog, 4, 168-76; cleansing d., one 
of the good works, 4, 1 75 ; sins 
committed by ill-treatment of d., 

4, 176 sq. ; duties towards bitch 
and whelps, 4, 180-4 ; on breeding 
d., 4, 184 sq.; keep the Alnva^ 
bridge, 4, 219, 219 n. ; classes of d., 

5, 48 sq. ; reward of the d. for 
protecting the sheep, 5, 51 sq. ; use 
of the d. at the Bareshnum cere- 
mony (to destroy Nasuj), 18, 450-2, 
450 n.; d. punished for wilful 
murder, 23, 340; must be fed and 
well treated, 24, 292 sq. ; assist the 
soul at the JCinvdJ bridge, 24, 293 ; 
demons frightened away by the 
bark of d., 24, 293; burial of d. 
and horses, 27, 196 sq. ; shepherd-d., 
their rights and duties, 37, 81-4; 
protection of d., 37, 162 ; — boiled at 
drinking festivals, 28, 443, 443 n., 
457 n. ; how Hsu Wu-kwei judges 
of d., 40, 92 sq. ; — penance of a 
Brahmana who is bitten by a d., 
14, 121 ; used at the cure of palsy, 



42, 501 ; moon the heavenly d., 44, 
10-12 ; an unclean animal, 44, 178 ; 
a ' four-eyed ' d. killed at the horse- 
sacrifice, 44, 279, 279 n.; d., crows, 
women and Sudras are untruth, 44, 
446. 

Dogmas, of Islam, viz. belief in God, 
the last day, the angels, the Book, 
and the prophets, 6, 24, 46, 91 ; 
belief in Zoroastrian d., a good 
work, 24, 73-5 ; disbelief of the 
wicked, 37, 193. 

Dogundaga (Sk. dvikundaka), n. of 
a god or class of gods, 45, 88, 88 n., 
108. 

Do«a, the Brahman, divides the 
relics of Buddha, 11, 133 sq.; 
erected a dagaba over the vessel in 
which Buddha's body had been 
burnt, 11, 135. 

Donkey, see Ass. 

Doors, see Divine Doors. 

Dowry, see Woman (a). 

Dragon, see Animals (i), Dahaka, and 
Snake. 

Drahyayasa, Srauta-sutra of, 29, 
37i. 

Drama, origin of the, 32, 287. 

Dramii/a, quoted by Ramanuga, 34, 
xxi sq., xlix ; 48, 487 ; preceded 
Sankara, 34, xxii ; D. or Dravwfa, 
34, xxii n. 

DramL/a-bkashya, of Drains/a, 
quoted 34, xxii, xlix; 48, 99, 428 sq. 

Dramirt'aX'arya, see Drami^a. 

Draona, Dron, t.t., see Sacrifices (6). 

Dratha, n.p., 23, 210. 

Draupadi, the sons of, 8, 38 sq. ; 
not born in the ordinary way, 38, 
125; 48, 595- 

Dravi^a, DravWiUarya, jwDramWa. 

DravWas, a mixed caste, 7, xxiv ; 

25, 406, 407 n., 412; became VW- 
shalas, 8, 295; the art of D., an 
occult science, 45, 366. 

Dravi«odas, deities of i?/tu-grahas, 

26, 320 n. 

Dreams : seeing a woman in d. is a 
sign that one's sacrifice has suc- 
ceeded, 1, 76; d. are false and unreal, 
relatively only, 1, 132 sq. n. ; 34, 
325 ; the Self in the state of d., 1, 
138 sq. ; 38, 56; d. foreboding 
death, and propitiatory ceremony 
to ward off their evil consequences, 
1, 262 sq.; prognostication by and 



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DREAMS-DRUt; 



interpretation of d., 3, 128, 350 sq., 
350 n. ; 27, 344; 36, 157-61 ; 48, 
604 ; diviners of d. derided, 3, 354 ; 
belief in d., 6, xxi ; in the story of 
Joseph, 6, 219, 223 sq., 230; im- 
purity caused by bad d., 7, 94 ; in- 
dulging in d., 8, 269; gods, &c., 
seen in d., 8, 387 n. ; the nature of 
tranquillity is as when one sees a d., 
8, 392, 392 n. ; in d. the person of 
the sleeper (purusha) moves about 
freely, 15, 104 ; the soul in d., 15, 
163-73; 34, lx; 38, 133-41; 48, 
764 ; explanation of d., 15, 280 ; in 
the early history of Buddha's life, 
19, xix, xxi sq. ; fourteen auspicious 
d. seen by the mother of Mahavira, 
22, 219 sqq., 231-40, 244-7; of 
Marudevi, the mother of the Arhat 
icfehabha, 22, 281 sq.; Fravashis 
invoked against evil d., 23, 208 ; the 
sun worshipped by one who sees 
bad d., 29, 224; expiatory rites 
and rscrinces on seeing bad d., 30, 
81, 183 sq. ; are the work, not of 
the individual soul, but of the 
highest Lord, 34, lx sq. ; some d. 
are auspicious omens, others the 
reverse, 34, 325 ; 38, 1 36 sq. ; variety 
of d. while the dreaming person 
remains one, 34, 346 ; the idealist's 
example of the ideas in d., 34, 420 ; 
the ideas of the waking state are 
not like those of a d., 34, 424 sq. ; 
d. and the idea of a soul, 36, xxii ; 
a discussion on d., 36, 157-62, 
162 n. ; place of d., the intermediate 
place, 38, 133 ; the Self is the shaper 
of lovely things in d., 38, 133 sq., 
137 sq. ; the world of d. is mere 
illusion, 38, 134-6, 140 sq. ; moving 
about in d., 38, 1 35 ; are outside the 
body, 38, 1 35 ; experts in the science 
of d., 38, 136; their purpose and 
cause, 38, 137 n.; in d. we have 
perceptions while the body lies 
motionless, 38, 272 ; salve, a pro- 
tection from evil d., 42, 6 1 ; charms 
and rites against evil d., 42, 69, 167, 
22j, 483 sq., 592; amulet against 
evil d., 42, 82, 605 ; evil d. and mis- 
fortunes wiped off on him who 
passes between the sun and a person, 
42, 214; birth of Zoroaster an- 
nounced by d., 47, xxi ; are unreal, 
and yet the cause of the knowledge 



of real things (good or ill fortune),48, 
75 ; things seen in d. are Maya, 48, 
86; things created in d., 48, 120 sq.; 
the veins (hita) the abode of d., 48, 
379- 3 8 4> cognitions of the waking 
state are different from d., 48, 
513 sq. ; the things appearing in d. 
are the creation of the Lord, not of 
the soul, 48, 601-4 ; are the reward 
or punishment for deeds of minor 
importance, 48, 603. See also Divina- 
tion, Maya, and Omens. 

Drinking, see Spirituous Liquors. 

Dz-z'shadvati, n. of a river, 46, 
287 sq. 

Driwi, Malice, a Daeva, 4, 224. 

Dron, see Draona. 

Drowa, Bhishma and, 8, 39 sq., 42, 
95 sq. ; the Brahman D. restores 
peace among the kings fighting for 
the relics of Buddha, 19, 327-33 ; 
not born in the ordinary way, 38, 
125, 126. 

Drotfasa, n. of a demon harassing 
infants, 29, 296. 

Drought, produces a lawless condi- 
tion, 44, 18. 

'Drag, Phi. Di%, ' fiend,' 5, lxxiii, 1 4 ; 
—the D. Nasu, or Corpse-D., fiend 
of corruption, 4, lxxii sq., lxxv, lxxxi, 
26 sq. and n., 50 sq., 58 sq., 71-4, 
76-9, 81-4, 93 sq., 99-101, 99 n., 
106-13, 107 n., 120, 213; 37, 157, 
1 60 ; D. Nasu takes the shape of a 
fly, 4, 77 sq., 99 sq., 112, 128 sq.; the 
D. Nasu rushes upon those who 
refuse to reward the cleanser, 4, 1 32 
sq. ; the D. Nasu, a creature of the 
Daeva, 4, 211 ; — hell, the mansion 
of the D., 4, 24, 24 n., 122, 122 n., 
176, 223; 31, 141; is with the 
wicked man while he is alive, with 
the righteous man when he is dead, 
4, 60 sq. ; comes from Hell in the 
north, 4, 67 n., 76, 76 n. ; expelled 
by spells and purification, 4, 125 n., 
126-30, 133. sq., 136-48, 230, 235, 
241 ; 23, 47, 50 sq. ; 31, 392 sq. ; 
the wicked, embodiments of the D., 
4, 189, 192 ; sins that make the D. 
pregnant with a brood of fiends, 4, 
200-4 > 37, 164, 207 ; weakened by 
pious deeds, 4, 28; ; tremble at the 
perfume of the blessed soul, 4, 375 ; 
becomes pregnant by food thrown 
towards the north at night, 5, 318, 



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318 n.j 346; the names of Ahura- 
Mazda protect from the D., 23, 29 ; 
destroyed by invocations of the 
Amesha-Spentas, 23, 38 ; Sraosha, 
the best smiter of the D., 23, 1 60, 1 62 
sq. ; Fravashis assist Ahura-Mazda 
against the D., 23, 183; Fravashis 
protect from the D., 23, 197 ; crea- 
tion will grow deathless, and the D. 
shall perish, 23, 290-2, 307 ; driven 
away by Vijtaspa, 23, 306, 308 ; 
prayer against the D., 23, 334; 
personified deceit, the Lie-demon, 
31, xix, 55, 64, 141 ; conquered by 
Asha, 81,27, 33 sq., 311 ; Zarathuitra 
prays for the defeat of the D., 31, 
42 ; banished to hell, 31, no, 117 ; 
delivered to Asha, put to death by 
Mathras, 31, no, 118; smitten by 
the saint, 31, 153 ; the power of the 
D, (Lie-demon) as opposed to Asha, 
31, 160, 163; the wicked a son of 
the Lie's creation, 31, 177, 182 ; 
warning against the D., 31, 192 ; 
the Dragon Dahaka, the worst D„, 
31, 233 ; the most loathsome of 
beings, 31, 249 ; how shall we drive 
the D. from hence, 31, 313. See also 
Demons. 

Dru^askan, n. of a demon, son of 
the evil spirit, 5, 1 32. 

Drugs, see Medicine. 

Druh, the snares of, 32, 386 ; demon 
of guile, 42, 14 sq. 

Druma, n. of a Kinnara king, 21, 5. 

Drumaksha, the king, and his son 
returned from the forest to the 
kingdom, 19, 108; kingoftheSalvas, 
49 (i), 101. 

Drumasiddha, king of Yogins, 49, 
(i>, 197- 

Druma, see Music. 

DrunkennesB,j«SpirituousLiquors. 

Drupada, n. of a warrior, 8, 37, 
39- 

Drvaspa. meat-offering to, 5, 336; 
epithet of Gos, the Cow genius, 23, 
9, 17, no. 

Drve Zenigak, Av. Dnvni Zainigauj, 
smitten by Frangrasiyak, 47, 116, 
116 sq. n. 

Dualism : in what sense Zoroas- 
trianism is d., 4, xiii, lxvii ; 5, Ixviii- 
ixx ; 31, xviii sq. ; principle of d. in 
Zoroastrianism is pre-Alexandrian, 
4. Ixi ; purely Iranian, 4, lxiv ; 



covenant of the two spirits, 5, 5 ; 
Mohammedan monotheism a protest 
against Persian d., 6, Iii, 115, 1 1 5 n. ; 
Maa^a- worship not more dualistic 
than Christianity, 18, xxiv; the 
beneficent spirit and the evil spirit, 
the authors of all the good and evil, 
18, 14, 14 n. ; contest of the good 
and evil spirits from the creation to 
the resurrection, 18, 81-117, 82 n, ; 
good and evil not from the same 
source, 24, xxv ; accounts for the 
origin of evil, 24, 124-38, 152-68, 
173-202; the two chief doctrines 
about the origin of good and evil, 
24, 168 ; two evolutions said to be 
in Christianity, 24, 238-42; the 
doctrine of d., struggle between 
good and evil, 31, 25-36, 40 sq.; 37, 
250 sq., 384-6; the pious mind 
questions both the good and the 
evil Spirits, 31, 38, 46 sq. ; is the first 
and best Mathra, 31, 122 sq., 125 sq.; 
the dualistic moral law, 31, 132, 
138 ; the world made by the two 
Spirits, 31, 302 ; good and evil, 
angels and demons, 37, 21, 21 n.; 
predominance of good over evil in 
the end, 37, 243; Auharmaa*/ 
demonstrates the duality of original 
evolutions to Zoroaster, 47, 157 sq. 
See also Evil, Morality, Yin and 
Yang, and Zoroastrianism. 

Duality, see Unity. 

Dughda, see Duk^aub. 

Dughd^T-6, see Duk^aub. 

Dughdhava, see DihWaub. 

Dukrt'ak, see Dukfl'afib. 

Duk^/aub, or Dughda, or Dughdrti'o, 
or Dughdhava, or Duk</ak, or 
Dukdav, mother of Zoroaster, 4, 
371 ; 5, 144, 317, 317 n., 343; 37, 
444, 469 ; 47, 26-8, 35, 122, 138 sq. ; 
glory descends from heaven at her 
birth, 47, xxix. 

Dukdav, see Diik^aub. 

Dukkata, see Sins. 

Dula, mother of the dog-demons 
harassing children, 30, 220. 

Dundubhisvaranirghosha, n. of a 
Tathagata, 49 (ii), 100. 

Dundubhisvarara^a, n. of numer- 
ous Tathagatas, 21, 358. 

Dur, n. of Breath (mukhya prawa) as 
a deity, 15, 80. 

Duraekaeta, a Turanian, 23, 71. 



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DOrANSARCN— EAR 



Duransarun, magician, tries to kill 
the infant Zaratujt, 47, xxi. 

Durasrob(o), or Duresrfibo, son of 
Manfij^ihar, 5, 134,13411., 138, 141, 
146; 47, 34, 147; a Karap, re- 
nowned for witchcraft, 47, xxvi, 
20 n,, 35-40, 43-6 ; ancestor of 
Zoroaster, 47, 140 ; the Karap, 
destroyed by Zoroaster, 47, 150 sq. 

Durga, her epithets or names as 
spells, 21, 371 n., 372 n., 373 n., 
435 "■ 

Dur^aya Kr/sh/m, n. of a Sthavira, 
22, 2yi n. 

Durnamik, n.p,, 5, 146. 

Duroshasp, n.p., 5, 135, 137. 

Durva grass, see Plants. 

Duryodhana, hero of the Maha- 
bharata, 8, 37 sq. 

Dushpractharsha, n. of a TathS- 
gata, 49 (ii), 100. 

DushVprasaha, n. of a Yathagata, 
49 (ii), 66. 

Dush/aritu Pauwsayan?, expelled 
from his kingdom, 44, 263,-72. 

Du///ia#//akasutta, te., 10 (ii), 
148-50. 

Duty, duties, should not be fulfilled 
merely to gain worldly advantages, 
2, 71 sq. ; five cardinal d., 3, 38, 
49 ; the courses of d. are from 
Heaven, 3, 129; every one who 
performs a great d. has much value, 
5, 90 sq. ; one's natural d., though 
defective, is better than another's 
d. well performed, 8, 56, 127 ; d. of 
the householder, 8, 3 58-60 ; common 
to all castes, 14, 26; the tl. of 
creatures is to understand and per- 
form the will of the Creator, 24, 
166 sq. ; two classes of d., 25, 
[60 sq. ; the different d. in the ten 
or five relationships of man, 27, 37 ; 
28, 245-9, 3' 3 y the divisions of the 
day, monitors and guides of d., 31, 
109, 114. See also Good Works, 
Morality, and Taxes. 

Duwar, a favourite idol with young 
(Arabian) women, 6, xiii. 

Ditcyairya, the Pairika or demon, 
' Bad year,' 23, 107 sq., 107 n. 

Dvaipayana, see Vyasa. 

Dvaitavana, sec Dhvasan D. 

Dvaitavana, 11. of a lake, 44, 398. 

Dvapara age, see Ages of the world 
(a). 



Dvaraka (or Dvaravati), town of 

Kr/sh«a, 8, 230; 45, 113; Arish- 

ftingmi in D., 22, 277 ; 45, 115. 
Dvaravati, see Dvaraka. 
Dvayatanupassanasutta, t.c., 10 

(ii), 131-45; 
Dvazdah-homast, ceremony of, 24, 

330 sq., 330 n. 
Dvimukha, king of Pa/1-tala, became 

a Gain a monk, 45, 87, 87 n. 
Dvipadas, t.t., certain offerings at 

the Ajvamedha, 44, 342 sq. See also 

Metres. 
Dvipayana, n. of a great ascetic, 45. 

268, 269 n. 
Dvipi/aka,an impossible term, 10 ft), 

xxxii, xxxij n. 
Dvita, an Aptya deity, 12, 47, 48 11., 

49; Ekata, 1)., and Trita,42, 521 sq.; 

Atreya, author of a Vedic hymn, 40, 

405 sq. 
Dvivedaganga, his commentary on 

the Brihadarawyaka-upanishad, 15, 

XXX. 

Dwelling, see House. 

Dyaus, see Dyu. 

Dyu (Heaven), Nom. Dyaus, one of 
the Vasus, 15, 140 sq. ; Indra, the 
child of D., 15, 221 ; with Aditya 
invoked in danger, 29, 232 ; Agni, 
the child of D., 32, 21-3; 41, 272; 
Maruts, the tall bulls of D., boys, 
sons, servants, men of D., 32, 106, 
110 sq., 154 sq., 326, 347, 401, 
405 sq., 412 ; called aditi, 'the un- 
bounded sky,' 32, 261, 348, 351; 
the bull of the Dawn, 32, 343, 346 ; 
Maruts roar like D., 32, 392; 
mother of the Maruts, 32, 444, 448; 
Ushas, or D., 42, 661 ; let D., the 
sky, roar down, 46, 2 5 ; the treasure 
created by D., the father, the be- 
getter, 46, 308, 309 ; Agni an- 
nounces man's sin to D., 46, 325. 
See also Heaven (e), and Sky. 

Dyumna Vijvaiarshawi Atreya, au- 
thor of a Vedic hymn, 46, 414. 

Dyutana, the son of the Maruts, is 
the wind, 26, 144. 



Eagle, see Birds (b). 
Ear, one of the organs of the head, 
41, 402; 43, 190; is the quarters, 



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EAR— EARTH 



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43, to, 333; introduced from the 
left side, made one only, 43, n, 15; 
the eye created the e., the e. 
created work, 43, 378 sq. ; the two 
ears connected by a channel, 44, 
36 ; the two Ajvius are the ears, 

44, 263 ; what he speaks, that one 
hears with the e., 44, 263. 

Earnestness (apramada), the virtue 
of, 10 (i), 9-1 1 ; frees from the 
arrow of pain, 10 (ii), 55. 

Earth. 

(a) Cosmological Ideas about it, 

(/') E. as an clement, itssaciedness, &c. 

{c) E. as a deity. 

(«) Cosmological ideas about it. 
E. produced from water, 1, 94, 
100; 34, lii ; 38, 23 sq. ; 48, 536; 
the seven Kar/varas or regions of 
the e., 4,222, 222 n., 377 ; 5, 32 sq., 
67, 69, 175, 232 ; 18, 79, 79 n., 263 ; 
23, 86, 96, 102, 104, 123, 123 n., 
135, 141 sq., 163, 171 sq., 181 n., 
182, 202, 254, 292 sq. ; 24, 35 sq. n., 
36, 100, 369, 269 n., 271, 301 ; 31, 
58, 58 n., 303, 313, 3i7 5 37, 26 sq., 
1S9, 212, 214 sq., 220, 271 ; 47, 15, 
34 sq., 4r, 80, 108, 1 1 r, 148 ; crea- 
tion of thee., 5, 10; 12, 2 Son.; the 
regions of the e., and their chief- 
tains, 5, 115-20; seven heavens 
and seven earths, 9, 290; repre- 
sented as a great cube, 10, 61 n. : 
divided in three parts, 23, 18 r, 181 n.; 
one of the worlds, 25, 157; three 
earths, 26, n8; 41, 27; 42, 30,68, 
400 sq., 471 ; the womb from which 
everything has sprung, 26, 260 ; 
seven spaces of the e., 29, 341 ; 48, 
477; rests on air and water, 35, 
175 sq., 176 n. ; there is only one e., 
36, 50 ; is dissolved into water, 38, 
26; is four-cornered, 41, 155; is 
threefold, 41, 239; the truth is this 
e., for this e. is the most certain of 
these worlds, 41, 364 ; nine earths, 
oceans, heavens, 42, 228, 631 ; was 
of the size of a span in the beginning, 
44, 451; was raised by the boar 
Emusha,44, 451 ; is higher than the 
water, 44, 502 ; a place of abode 
for all the gods, 44, 505. See also 
World (d). 

{b) E. AS AN ELEMENT, ITS SACRED- 
NESS, ETC. 

Black the colour of e., 1, 93, 96 ; 



38, 23 sq. ; e. or food, 1, 96-8, 100 ; 
38, 23 sq. ; its subtilest portion be- 
comes mind, 1,96-8; sacredness of 
the e., how to keep it from defile- 
ment by dead matter, 4, lxii, Ixiv, 
lxxv-Ixxvii, 67-70, 87 sq., 133, 142- 
4, 185 sq.; 5, 248 n. ; 18, 229; 26, 
43 ; a means of purifying, 4, 79, 93, 
130; 7,96, 97,98, 102; a Snataka 
must not scratch the ground, nor 
crush clods of e., 7, 227 ; a cow in 
the act of bringing forth a young 
one, compared to the e., 7, 264 ; 
one of the ten fires at the allegori- 
cal sacrifice of the sense-organs, 8, 
261 ; is the source of smells, 8, 337, 
340, 348 sq., 352; sound, touch, 
colour, taste, and smell are the five 
qualities of e., 8, 383 sq. ; the dis- 
ciple of Buddha Will overcome this 
e., 10 (i), 16 ; sins caused by actions 
injuring the souls of e., 22, 3-5 ; 
yellow the colour of the e., which 
occupies the central place, 27, 436, 
436 n. ; as everything depends on 
the e., so all good qualities depend 
on virtue, 35, 52 sq. ; seeds are 
planted without the consent of the 
e., 35, 150; called 'night,' 38, 23 sq.; 
is the Rik, 38, 345-9; is the rest- 
ing-place in this world, 44, 17; is 
the source of prosperity, 44, 1 8 ; 
touching the e., in an expiatory 
rite, 44, 30 ; ' from the e. I take 
thy body,' 44, 133 sq. ; is a womb, 
and milk is seed, 44, 180; is foul 
matter, 44, 203 ; is a good abode, 
44, 457 ! white is this e., 44, 463 ; 
the Mahavira pot made of clay (e.) 
and water (sky), 44, 492; origin 
and feeding of the e.-bodies, 45, 
397 sq., 39711.; e.-bodies commit 
sins, 45, 403 sq. 

(c) E. AS A DEITY. 

E., the deity, invoked in a curse, 
1, 251; sacrifices to E., 2, 108; 

3, 302; 27, 218, 220, 222, 385 sq., 
425 ; 28, 203 ; 29, 320 sq., 388 ; 30, 
22 ; 44, 505 ; invoked and wor- 
shipped, prayers to E., 3, 126 sq.; 

4, 221; 23, 11, 19, 229; 28, 60; 
29, 207, 219, 340; 30, 96, 241 ; 31, 
251, 286 sq.; 32, 423 ; 41, 34, 253, 
346 sq. ; 42, 161 ; 46, 1 [o, 115, 127, 
253 ; filial piety is the righteousness 
of E,, 3, 473 ; spoken of as Spcwta 



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Armaiti, 4, Ixvii ; 18, 393 n., 401 ; 
what comforts and discomforts most 
the E., 4, lxxi, 21-31; 5, 360 sq. ; 
37, 153 ; the cleanser delights E., 4, 
133; made by Ahura, 4, 321; at- 
tacked by the evil spirit, 5, 29 sq., 
173-5; pleased by agriculture, cat- 
tle rearing, and virtuous conduct, 5, 
376 sq., 377 n. ; 37, 154; colloquy 
of Vishwii and the E., 7, 5-12, 41, 
77, 291-7 ; sustained by those who 
follow the law, 7, 8 ; colloquy of 
E. and Lakshmi, 7, 297-301 ; sup- 
ports all things, 8, 113; Mother E. 
and Father Heaven, 12, 229; 42, 166; 
44, 238, 287, 325 ; is a spotted cow, 
12, 242 sq., 308 ; the queen of 
serpents, 12, 301 n., 302; 26, 451 ; 
Sky and E. as husband and wife 
(' Heaven 1, E, thou '), 15, 205, 220; 
29, 168, 282; bears Agni in her 
womb, 15, 221 ; a manifestation of 
Brahman, 15, 303 ; the unlimited 
capacity of the E., emblematic of 
the course of the superior man, 16, 
214 sq., 215 n, ; overthrows the full 
and replenishes the humble, 16, 226, 
226 sq. n. ; the symbol of the E. and 
the sun entering into its midst, 16, 
241, 242 n. ; all things receive their 
nourishment from the E., 16, 426, 
427 n.; Mother E., 21,371 n.; 41, 
34, 60 ; purified by the Sun, 23, 86 ; 
Fravashi of the E. worshipped, 23, 
200 ; Zamyad Ya/t inscribed to the 
Genius of the E., 23, 286-309 ; the 
mother the image of the e., 25, 71 ; 
as the E. supports everything, so 
does a king, 25, 396 sq. ; produces 
the sources of wealth, 27, 378 ; the 
firm one, the son of the E.,29, 328 ; 
' Heaven am I, and I am E.,' 29, 
363 ; the initiated boy given in 
charge to the E., 30, 154 ; 'I know 
thy heart, O E., that dwells in hea- 
ven, in the moon,* 30, 212 ; stagger- 
ing, yet rejoicing under the on- 
slaught of the Maruts, 32, 337, 339, 
347; rules the world, 35, 9 ; if there 
were two Bnddhas, the E. would 
tremble, not being able to bear the 
goodness, 36, 49 ; Bhikkhus should 
be like the E., 36, 307-9 ; the 
' notes * of the E., i.e. sounds heard 
in nature, 39, 177 sq. and n. ; all 
things are produced from the E. and 



return to the E., 39, 300 ; friendly 
relation between Br/haspati and the 
E., 41, 34 ; is a milch-cow, yielding 
all desires, 41, 60 ; prayer of the 
king to Mother E., 41, 103 ; Varuwa 
and the E,, 41, 103; injured by 
digging in her, 41, 220 sq. ; mother 
of Agni Purishya, 41, 311 ; bears 
what is desirable, 41, 387 sq. ; bears 
healing plants, the remedy against 
poison, 42, 27, 31 ; hymn to Mother 
E., 42, 199-207, 639-44; identified 
with a brick of the fire-altar, 43, 91 ; 
plants the hair of its beard, Agni 
the man, 43, 208 ; Vaiivanara as E., 
43, 394 ; no mortal must give her 
away, else she will sink into the 
midst of the water, 44. 421; in- 
voked at the burial, 44, 433; the 
first-born of this world, 44, 450, 

450 n. ; 'on the E.'s place of divine 
worship,' 44, 450-2, 456 ; is 
afraid of the Pravargya, blessings 
invoked on her, 44, 462-4 ; having 
become a mare, the E. carried Manu, 
and he is her lord Pra^-apati, 44, 

451 n., 466 ; Agni, when spreading 
through the forests, shears the hair 
of the E., 46, 54 ; has spread her- 
self far and wide, 46, 83; Dhisha- 
«a as the E., 46, 120 sq. ; Agni licks 
the face of Mother E., 46, 145 ; 
Agni announces man's sins to E., 
46, 325 ; care and propitiation of 
the E., 47, 162. See also Heaven 
(c, f}> PWthivi, and Zamyarf. 

Earth-demon, the firm one, obla- 
tion to, 29, 201, 213, 345. 

Earthquake, caused by the chief 
events in Buddha's life, 11, 44, 116, 
155; 19, 146, 163, 268 sq., 307, 
345, 350; 49 (i), 7, 141; causes of 
an e., 11, 45-8 ; 35, 171 sq. ; caused 
by Vessantara's generosity, 35, 170- 
8 ; the earth shook six. times in 
honour of Nagasena, 36, 373 ; ex- 
piatory rite on the occasion of an 
e., 42, 640. 

Easing nature, rules about, 2, 
93 sq., 220, 222 sq.; 4, 201 sq.. 
202 n. ; 5, 317 sq.; 7, 194-6; 14, 
36 sq., 60, 164, 173 sq., 245 ; 24, 12, 
12 n,, 317; 25, 136 sq., 143, 146, 
)52sq., 192 sq., 472; 29, 318 sq.; 
37, 207 sq. ; singing oi Glthas must 
be interrupted when e. n., 4, 325; 



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prayer for making water, 5, 318; 
24,317; rules of purification, 6, 78, 
98 ; rules about it for the Dikshita, 
26, 43 sq. ; micturition towards the 
sun sinful, 42, 214, 668. See also 
Impurity. 

East, see Quarters. 

Eater, the, is the highest Self, 34, 
xxxv, xlii, 116-18. 

Eating, rules relating to it, 2, 59- 
71, 96, 99 sq., 122 sq., 204, 265-70 ; 
5, 310; 7, 216-21 ; 10 (ii), 66; 
14, 25, 36-9, 146; 15, 312 sqq. ; 
25, 39 sq., 96; 27, 2-4, 7, 20 sq,, 
79-83, 83 n. ; 29, 86 sq., 191, 320 sq.; 
37, 180, 182 sq. ; rules of e., for the 
hermit, 2, 195; 7, 277 sq. ; 8, 
361 sq. ; 14, 45, 259, 292-4; 25, 
199-204; for Snatakas, 2, 223-5; 

14, 60-2 ; 25, 138-41 ; 29, 123 sq., 
409 sq.; 30, 85; for ascetics, 7, 
279, 362-4; 14, 46-8, 280-3; 25, 
199-201 ; for Buddhist Bhikkhus, 
11, 190 sq., 253, 253 n. ; 13, 37-40, 
62-5; 17, 67-97, ii7sq., i28sq., 
l 3 Q ~$i i38sq., 143-5, 220-5; 19, 
296, 298; 20, 73-5, 135) 153 sq., 
253, 284-9; 35, 272; 36, 9 sq., 
98-100, 98 n,, 99 n., 281 sq., 330 sq., 
339 sq., 349 sq.; for Gaina monks, 
22, 71, 88 sq., 103-10, 114 sq., 
117 sq. ; 45, 5 sq. ;— rinsing the 
mouth before and after e., is dressing 
the breath with water, 1, 74, 7411.; 

15, 204, 312; 38, 211-14; about e. 
at night, 5, 346 sq.; the Tathagatas 
do not accept food with their hands, 
13, 82 ; e. represented as a sacrifice 
offered by the Self to the Self, 15, 
312 sqq.; prayers before and after 
e., and cleansing the mouth, 18, 
135-6; 23,312; 24,282-5; mode- 
rate e. good for the body, 24, 14; 
ablution before e., 25, 193; e. to- 
gether of the newly-married couple, 
30, 48 sq.; sin of e. on the road, 
37, 129. See also Food, and Meals. 

Echo : meditation on the person in 
the e. as Brahman, 1, 304. 

Eclipses of the sun and moon, evil 
omens, ceremonies to avert them, 
3, 82,82 n., 355; 28,434; 42,533 1 
the time of an e. auspicious for a 
Sraddha,7, 241 ; advantages attend- 
ing an e. of the sun or moon, 7, 
270; ceremonies interrupted on 



account of an e. of the sun, 27, 
328-30, 338 sq. 

Economy : Ahura-Mazda does not 
allow us to waste anything of value, 
4, 66, 80 sq. ; waste not wasteful!}', 
for the wasteful were ez<er the devifs 
brothers, 9, 4; Muslims should be 
neither extravagant nor miserly, 9, 
89; in his expenditure the superior 
man exceeds in e., 16, 344. 

Ecstasy, see Meditation. 

Eden, the Garden of, 6, 183, 235, 
253 ; 9, 180, 191. 

Education, see Instruction, and 
Teacher. 

Eggidatta, see Kajyapa. 

Ego, see I. 

Egoism, egoity (ahamkara) : the 
ascetic free from e., emancipated, 
8, 52, 313, 326, 332 sq., 366, 368, 
370 sq., 389 sq. ; deluded by e. a 
man thinks himself the doer of 
actions, 8, 55 ; one of the eight 
divisions of man, 8, 73 sq.; as part 
of the creation, 8, 317; a develop- 
ment of the Mahat is e., 8, 333 sq., 
382 ; is of three descriptions, 8, 
334 n. ; from e. the five great 
elements were born, 8, 335; eleven 
organs produced from e., 8, 336; 
the cause of the whole course of 
worldly life, and self-consciousness, 
with Rudra as the presiding deity, 
8, 338; the wheel of life is lit up 
by the great e., 8, 356, 356 n.; the 
great e., the boughs of the tree of 
worldly life, 8, 371 ; understanding 
and c, the two birds, 8, 371 n. ; is 
of the nature of seed and a product, 
8, 383 ; is above space, the highest 
element, 8, 385; those who per- 
form actions, full of e., go near 
Prajjapati, 8, 389 ; Aniruddha identi- 
cal with the principle of e., 34, xxiii, 
440 ; accomplishes all actions and 
enjoys their results, 34, 34. See also 
Aham, Ahawkara, and I. 

Eka, a teacher quoted by Apastamba, 
2, xxvii, 70. 

Ekadajini, t.t., set of eleven stakes, 
26, 173, 176 sq., 218 sq., 221; 44, 
301 n., 309 sq. and n., 335, 335 n., 
404 sq. See also Animal sacrifice 
id), 

Ekadhana, see Water (b). 

Ekagrata, t.t., ' one-pointedncss,' 



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EKAGRATA -ELEPHANTS 



i.e. concentration of thought, 1, 
xxiii sq. 

Ekana/a, n. of a Brahma/za village, 
10 (ii), ii. 

Ekapada, see Metres, 

Ekarshi, n. of a teacher, 15, 120, 187. 

Ekajawgi, daughter of Mahakau- 
tuka, converted by Buddha, 49 (i), 
198 sq. 

Eka-sa/aka, a Brahman and a devout 
Buddhist, 35, 172 ; 36, 147. 

Ekash/aka, personified as a goddess, 
and mother of Indra, 29, 338 n., 
343 ; sacrifice and prayer to E., 29, 
424; 30, 114. 11411. ; the consort 
of the year, 30, 233, 236, See also 
Ashfaka, and Festivals. 

Ekata, an Aptya deity, 12, 47, 48 n., 
49 ; E., Dvita, and Trita, 42, 
51 1 sq. 

Ekavratya, n. of a dog-demon 
harassing children, 30, 219. 

Ekoddij/a, see Sraddha. 

Ekuttara Wikaya, see Tipi/aka. 

Elapatra, a N'aga, worships Buddha, 
49 (i), 191. 

Elders, see Old Age, and Theras. 

Elements (entities, Bhutas): crea- 
tion of the three e., viz. fire, water, 
earth, 1, xxxiii sq., 94 ; 38, 4, 26-8 ; 
t repartition of the three e., 1, 95-7, 
100; 38,98-100, 104; 48, ii9sq., 
369 sq., 578-83, 586; e. and sense- 
organs, 1, 96-8 ; 8, 337) 340-3» 348, 
352, 383-5 ; 34, 281 ; 38, 26-8; 
the five e., viz. earth, air, ether, 
water, and fire, 1, 221 ; the five e. 
in the body of man, 1, 223 ; 8, 238 ; 
38, 242 ; five hsing or e. (?), 3, 
!39-4 r j Mosq. n.; Purusha sepa- 
rate from the twenty- four e., 7, 
287, 287 sq. n. ; twenty-four or 
twenty-five e., 7, 290; 8, 317, 373, 
3730.; the five e. supported by 
Vishmi, 7, 291 ; included in the 
Kshetra, 8, 102 ; the enjoyer of the 
qualities devoid of the qualities of 
the five e., 8, 247 ; subtle e., 8, 
247 n., 318 n.; five great e. (Maha- 
bhutas), 8, 258 n., 317; 15, 296; 
38, 4, 4 n. ; the great e. are the 
branches of the tree of worldly life, 
S, 313, 313 n., 371 ; dissolution of 
the world into the five great e., 8, 
335t 387 sq. ; from egoism the five 
great e. were born, 8, 335, 382; 



three seats for all e., viz. land, 
water, space, 8, 339; he who has 
vanquished the five e. obtains the 
highest seat in heaven, 8, 344 ; fire 
is the lord of the e., 8, 346; the 
five great e. the outer rim of the 
wheel of life, 8, 355 ; life made up 
of the entities beginning with the 
Mahat and ending with the gross e., 
8, 357; the truth about the five 
great e. must be known by the 
Sannyasin, 8, 368; the five great e. 
are of the nature of seed and pro- 
ducts, 8, 383 ; mind the ruler of the 
five e., 8, 385 sq. ; no reference to 
the five e. in the Yi King, 16, 33 ; 
the four e. pertaining to Auharmaz^, 
24, 129, 12911.; all existence derived 
from the four e., 24, 136, 143 ; the 
minute perishable particles of the 
five e., 25, 13, 13 n. ; identified with 
the parts of the body, 25, 512 ; the 
five e. in man and nature, 27, 380- 
4 ; the origin, the subsistence, and 
the retraction of the e. all depend on 
Brahman, 34, Hi ; 38, 24-6 ; the re- 
absorption of the e. into Brahman 
takes place in the inverse order of 
their emission, 34, lii; 38, 25 sq.; 
the subtle e. completely merged in 
Brahman when final emancipation 
is reached, 34, lxxix sq. ; 38, 3 7 1 sq. ; 
the three e. denoted by the three 
colours, red, white, black, 34, 
254 sq. ; the product of Nescience, 
34, 281 ; the atoms and their 
respective e., 34, 393 sq., 402; 
endowed with intelligence, 38, 
24 sq. ; in obtaining a different body 
the soul goes enveloped by subtle 
parts of the e., 38, 101-4, 371 sq. ; 
breath and soul unite themselves 
with all e., 38, 368 sq. ; 48, 730 sq. ; 
the aggregate of the e. continues to 
exist up to the final union with 
Brahman, 38, 371, 376 sq. ; 
materialists explain everything by 
the five e., 45, 342 sq. See Earth, 
Fire, Skandhas, Tanmatras, Upa- 
dhis, Vijeshas, and Water. 
Elephants, Airavata, chief among, 
8, 89, 89 n. ; use of c. as vehicles, 8, 
208 ; the e. as the emblem of 
endurance and self-restraint, 10 (ih 
77 sq., 77 n. ; Buddha descends 
from heaven as a white e., and 



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enters his mother's side, 11, 47 n. ; 
19, xix; curious belief as to e. look, 
11, 64, 64 n. ; the E. Treasure of 
King Sudassana, 11, 254 sq., 274, 
279, 281, 286 sq.; the lord of e. 
a good rebirth, 14, 136; the 
hermit's life and the life of the e., 
17, 308, 312 sqq. ; Devadatta's 
maddened e. tamed by Buddha 
through the power of love, 19, 
247 sq. ; 20, 247-50; young e. imi- 
tate the old ones, 20, 260 sq.; 
Samantabhadra mounts a white e. 
for the protection of preachers, 21, 
433 sq. ; thee, fashioned from the 
flesh of M&rtiWa, 26, 13; one 
should not accept an e. as a gift, 
26, 13 ; Maruts compared with wild 
e., 32, 107, 117; the wonderful e. 
Uposatha of A'akkavatti, 36, 128 sq. ; 
simile of the e., 36, 335-7 ; Padma, 
the e. supporting the world, 49 (i), 
17, 17 n. See Er3va»a, and Airavata. 

El'Huzza, see Huzza*. 

Elias, made to die for a hundred 
years, 6, 41 n„; a prophet, 6, 125 ; 
= DHu '1 Kifl, 9, 53 n. ; protested 
against the worship of Baal, 9, 173, 
173 "• 

Elisha, a prophet, 6, 125; was of 
the righteous, 9, 180. 

Elixir, see Life. 

Emancipation, or final release, or 
liberation (moksha, mukti, Sk.). 

(«) How to reach it. 

(0) Its nature and character. 
(a) HOW TO REACH IT. 

Highest knowledge leads to it, 1, 
235 ; 7, 287 ; 8, 179 ; 15, 236, 243, 
264-6 ; 34, xxvii, xxix, lxxvii sq.. 
2 9j 63, 71, 92, 282, 291, 300, 316, 
327 sq., 380 n., 423 ; 38, 55, 101, 
101 n., 165 sq., 235-8, 357, 370 sq., 
397-400, 414 sq. ; 48, 83, 274, 387, 
482 ; asceticism and similar means 
of obtaining it, 2,78 ; 7, 184; 8, 69, 
114 sq., 117, 127, 127 n., 231, 235, 
2 45-53j 362-8; 14, 137 sq. ; 22, 
51 sq. ; 23, 205-16 ; 34, lxxiii ; 45, 
152-7, 184-92, 308, 313 ; 48, 145 ; 
reached through meditation on 
the self, 8, 17, 78-83; 25, 169; 
38, 52 n., 53; 48, 98, 100, 556; 
devotion (Yoga) alone leads to e., 
8, 72 sq., 242 ; 15, 320 ; 48, 413, 
625-8 ; sacrifice and penance per- 



formed for final e., 8, 120 ; Veda- 
study and Vedic rites not the true 
means of e., 8, 146, 309 ; 34, 27 sqq. ; 
48, 58, 181 ; attained by living as 
a Brahmajfcarin, 8, 178, 178 n. ; ob- 
tained by him who knows Rudra as 
the creator, 15, 252 sq. ; reached by 
cutting off the consequences of 
Karman, 19, 293 ; 38, 355 sq. ; ' the 

'reward conferred by the Vedanta,' 
25, 59, 59 n. ; through hermit's life 
and voluntary death, 25, 204 n. ; by 
degrees, 34, Ixxxix sq., 174, 223; 
38, 162, 185, 391 ; taught of him 
who takes his stand on the Sat, 34, 
55-7 ; 48, 203 sq. ; results from the 
highest Lord, 38, 58 sq., 139; the 
existence of a remainder of works 
does not stand in its way, 38, 119 ; 
cannot be dependent on. locality, 
time, and special causes, as the fruit 
of works is, 38, 356 ; results from 

[ knowledge with works added, 38, 
359 ! 48,9 ; to be reached by cutting 
off love and hatred, 45, 45 sq. ; 
depends on faith, 45, 156, 156 n.; 
seventy-three articles necessary in 
order to reach it,' 45, 158-73 ; noble 
birth is no use for him who desires 
e., 45, 322 sq. ; those whom women 
do not seduce value e. most, 45, 
330; not due to knowledge of a 
non-qualified Brahman, 48, 129-38 ; 
destruction of body not necessary 
for e.,48, 184 ; e. in this life (g-ivan- 
mukti) impossible, 48, 186 sq.; for 
the souls of men who arc intent on 
their duties, 48, 411 ; the time of 
final e., as resulting from good 
works, not fixed, 48, 713 sq. ; we 
know from Scripture that this Supreme 
Lord, when pleased by the faithful 
worship of his Devotees . . .frees them 
from the influence of Nescience ; . . . 
allotvs them to attain to that supreme 
bliss which consists in the direct intui- 
tion off/is oivn true nature : and after 
that does not turn them back into the 
miseries of Samsdra, 48, 770. 

(b) Its nature and character. 
Having become united with 
Purusha, a man obtains e., 7, 290 ; 
is assimilation with the Lord, 8, 69 ; 
is the highest goal, 8, 50, 54 n., 67, 
125 n., 255; 48, 255; a means of 
escaping death and rebirth, 8, 1 52-5 ; 



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22, 21 1-13 ; the devotee who is re- 
leased is esteemed higher than he 
whose conduct is good, 8, 243 ; one 
of the four Hotr/s, by whom this 
universe is enveloped, 8, 278; the 
seven organs, causes of e., 8, 278 ; is 
the Dakshina at the allegorical sacri- 
fice of concentration of mind, 8,280; 
the fruitof the treeintelligencein the 
forest Brahman, 8, 286 ; the nature 
of e., 8, 292 sq.; 48, 270 sq., 755-71 ; 
he who has achieved e., being beyond 
all actions and Ajramas, is one with 
God and the Universe, 8, 306-8, 
306 sq. n. ; dialogue between a pre- 
ceptor and a pupil on the subject of 
final e,, 8, 310-17, 332 sq., 336, 
339-45, 349, 351 sq., 355, 358, 
362-74, 385, 388-94 ; some people 
extol c., others all kinds of enjoy- 
ment, 8, 376 ; freedom from desires 
and worldly bonds ise., 15, 332 sqq. ; 
Ara^a's theory of e., 19, 137-41 ; 
as the great ocean has only one 
flavour, so Buddha's doctrine has 
only one flavour, the flavour of e., 

20, 304 ; eight degrees of e., 21, 
79 ; 49 (ii), 2, 193 ; the only scope 
of Buddha's teaching is e. and rest, 

21, i2osq., 124 ; is an eternally and 
essentially disembodied state, 34, 
28 sq., 283, 328 ; 48, 181 sq., 210, 
238 ; is Brahman, or oneness with 
Brahman, 34, 28 sq., 33 sq., 283 n., 
323 ; 38, 329 ; 48, 180, 192, 203 sq., 
270 sq., 392; 49 (i), 130; is of the 
nature of the eternally free Self, 
34, 32 sq. ; is something to be cere- 
monially purified, 34, 33 ; cause of 
desire of e., 34, 1 98 ; 48, 4 ; a being 
desirous of it becomes a deva, 34, 
223 n. ; depends on the true nature 
of the cause of the world, 34, 316 ; 
impossible on the Sahkhya view of 
the soul and Prakn'ti, 34, 372-4, 
380 sq. ; 48, 491, 494 ; is impossible, 
if the world and the souls constitute 
one Self, 34, 378 ; the Sahkhya 
doctrine of e..34, 380 n. ; 38, 69 sq. ; 
no being desirous of e. could be 
assumed, on the Bauddha doctrine, 
34, 406 sq. ; nor on the Gaina doc- 
trine, 34, 430, 432 ; one of the Gaina 
categories, 34, 428; 45, 154; 48, 
517 ; Buddha's teaching a tank full 
of the waters of e., 36, 64 ; Buddha's 



'jewel of e.,' 36, 224 sq. ; consists, 
according to the Vaijeshikas, in the 
absolute non-origination of the nine 
qualities of the Selfs, 38, 69 ; the 
Self freed of the aggregate of eight 
in e., 38, 83, 83 n. ; state of e. and 
of sleep, 38, 14S sq., 414 sq.; disso- 
lution of the world means e., 38, 
162; 48, 178 sq. ; is cessation of 
162 ; Nescience, 38, 174 ; 48, 9, 1 1, 
270 sq., 438 ; springs up in this life 
or in the next, 38, 329 sq., 357 sq. ; 
is something not to be effected at 
all, 3S, 359 ; is a fruit like other 
fruits, 38, 405 sq. ; the state of e. is 
analogous either to the waking state 
or to that of a dream, 38, 413 ; 
Gainas should maintain the doctrine 
of the soul's bondage and e., 45, 
408 ; one of the four chief ends of 
human action, 48, 6 ; consciousness 
of the I persists in the state of 
e., 48, 69-73 ; false doctrine that e. 
is the annihilation of the Self, 48, 
70 ; individual Self cannot become 
the highest Self by means of final 
e., 48, 98 ; obstacles in the way of 
c. removed by Scripture, 48, 183 ; 
is the pure existence of the highest 
Self consequent on the passing away 
of the limiting adjuncts, 48, 271 ; 
called 'heaven-world,' 48, 361 ; in 
state of e. the soul has no specific 
cognitions, 48, 395,545,551; means 
passing over into Non-being (with 
Buddhist), 48, 514; consists in 
attaining to the Highest Person, 
from that Highest Person only, 48, 
625-8 ; different views about e., 49 
(i), 99 sq. See also Deliverance, Im- 
mortality, Perfection, and Salvation. 
Embryo, hate of the, 8, 240-2 ; 26, 
19 sq., 27-9 ; Ahura-Mazda, with 
the help of the Fravashis, watches 
over the e., 23, 182 sq., 185, 1S7; 
treatment of the e. found in the 
animal victim, 26, 391-7 ; conse- 
crated king represented as an e., 
41, 78, 135 sq. ; garments represent- 
ing vestures of the e., 41, 86 sq., 
86 n. ; how the c. is born, Agni as 
e., 41, 251 sq., 256 ; 43, 272 ; freed 
from death through a Stoma, 43, 
69 ; e.-killing (bhrunahatya) and 
slaying of a Brahmawa, 43, 372 ; 44, 
341 n. ; offering to the fire for the 



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welfare of the e., 47, 30. See also 
Child. 

Emperor, see Ruler. 

Emptiness, see Nihilism. 

Emusha, n. of the boar who raised 
the earth, 44, 451. 

E«a, see Sena. 

Enlightenment (Bodhi), see Know- 
ledge. 

Enoch, and Seth, the prophets of 
Sabaeanism, 6, xi ; Idris identified 
with E., 9, 31. 

Entanglements, see Hindrances. 

Entity, does not spring from non- 
entity, 34, 415-18 ; entities, see 
Elements. 

Ephesus, story of the Seven Sleepers 
of, 9, 14-16, 14 n. 

Equanimity, one of the four { in- 
finite' feelings, 11, 201 sq., 273. 
See also Tranquillity. 

Equinox, see Sacred Times. 

./iran-shah, son of Yazad-yar, son 
of Tijtar-yar, 24, 255 sq. and n. 

Eras, see Time. 

Erava/za, the king of elephants, 
came to listen to Buddha, 10 (ii), 63. 

Eravati, n. of a river near Kuwait, 

22, 297. 

EredaAfedhri, the maiden, becomes 
the mother of the Saviour Saoshyaw/, 

23, 195 n., 226, 226 n. 
Eredhwa, n.p., 23, 215. 
Erekhsha (Phi. Arij), the swift 

archer, 23, 95, 95 n., 103. 

Erenava^, and Savanghava£ deli- 
vered by Thraetaona, 23, 62, 62 n., 
in, 255j 277. 

Erethi?, thought, genius, 23, n, 282 ; 
worshipped, 31, 200, 211, 217, 226. 

Erezraspa, son of Uspasnu, a high- 
priest, 23, 216, 216 n, ; 37, 219 n. 
See also ArearSs/tah. 

ErezvaAdanghu, n.p., 23, 218. 

Eri/6, son of Duresr6bo, 47, 34 n., 
147. 

Er-raqim, story of the Fellows of 
the Cave and, 9, 14-16, 14 n. 

Esdras, made to die for a hundred 
years, 6, 4 1 n. 

Eshavira, a Brahmanical family held 
in contempt, 44, 45 n. 

Esoteric doctrine, see Secret doc- 
trines. 

Essence, the subtile, is the rcot of 
everything, 1, 101-9. 



Eternal, the, Eternal happiness, 
Eternity, see Immortality, and Nir- 
vana, 

Ether (akaja) : Om means e., and e. 
is the origin of all things, 1, xxv } 
17; as a name of Brahman, l,xxvsq., 
xxvi n., 46, 53, 118, 126 n., 143, 
143 n., 303; 21, xxvii ; 34, xxxiv, 
xxxviii, 8r-4, 114, 182, 232 sq., 273, 
287 ; 38, 6-8, 12, 248 ; 48, 242-6, 
256, 276 sq., 349-53, 66r ; e. within 
the heart, and the e. around us, are 
the same, 1, 46, 126 ; 48, 643, 66r ; 
the e. in the heart is Brahman, 1, 
65» 65 n., 126 11. ; 34, xxxvi, 174-92 ; 
38, 144 ; 48, 314-25 ; the departed 
sacrifices, &c., go from the world 
of the fathers to the e., from there, 
to the moon, 1, 80 ; e. [or space) is 
better than Jire. For in the e. exist 
both situ ami moon, the lightning, stars, 
and Jire {agni). Through the e. we 
call, through the e. we hear, through 
the e. we answer. In the e. or space 
we rejoice [when we are together) , and 
rejoice not {when we are separated''-. In 
the e* everything is born, and towards 
the e. everything tends when it is born. 
Meditate on e., 1, 118 ; the small e. 
in the lotus of the heart, 1, 125 sq., 
129; 48, 384,631 sq. ; the small e. 
within the heart is not affected by 
old age, nor by the death of the 
body, 1, 126 sq. ; is the revealer of 
all forms and names, 1, 143; the 
union of earth and heaven, 1, 247 sq.; 
Bali-offering to the E., 2, 203 ; 29, 
290, 388 ; 30, 22 ; is the body, which 
Brahman created for himself, 8, 
244 n. ; has no support, 15, lii n. ; 
in the e. within the heart it is the 
Person, consisting- of mind, im- 
mortal, golden, 15, 49 ; everything 
is woven in the e., 15, 137 ; the e. 
is woven in the Akshara (the Im- 
perishable), 15, 137-9 J 34, 243 ; the 
Self, thee, within the heart, 15, 179 ; 
the Lotus of the heart is the same 
as e., 15, 306 ; the supreme light of 
the e. within the heart, 15, 343 ; the 
two elementary principles are really 
one e., 16, 35711.; offering and 
prayer to the E., 20, 23 ; is not co- 
eternal with Brahman, but springs 
from it as its first effect, 34, lii ; 38, 
3-18; is the Udgitha, 34, 83; 
although all-pervading, is spoken of 



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as limited and minute, 34, 114 ; dis- 
tinction between the outer and the 
inner e., 34, 175, 176 sq. ; the 
highest Lord is greater than e., 34, 
177 ; the small e. cannot mean the 
individual soul, 34, 177; origination 
of e., 38, 3-18 ; is divided, therefore 
must be an effect, 38, 14, 15; is 
non-eterna), because it is the sub- 
stratum of a non-eternal quality, 
viz. sound, 38, 17 ; is the abode of 
air, 38, 18; is dissolved into Brah- 
man, 38, 26 ; air is dissolved into e., 
38, 26 ; the body, consisting of 
water, which the soul assumes in 
the moon, becomes subtle like e., 
but not identical with e., 38, 127 ; 
the e. within the heart spoken of as 
the place of sleep, 38, 144 ; the one 
e. is made manifold, as it were, by 
its connexion with different places, 
38, 179 ; origin of the world from the 
Thai K\ or Primal Ether, 39, 243 sq. 
and n. ; 40, 311 sq. ; influence of e. 
and of destiny on men, 40, 268 ; 
Vauvanara as E., 43, 395 ; e. and the 
five senses, 48, 371-4 ; a term 
referring to the Highest Reality, 48, 
522 ; a mere irrational non-entity 
(Buddhist view), 48, 506 sq. ; created 
by Brahman, 48, 532-5. See also 
Brahman (c), Space, and Yin and 
Yang. 

Ethics, see Morality. 

Etiquette : rules about saluting and 
honouring teachers, Gums, &c.,2,2o 
sq., 24 sq., 28, 30 sq., 38, 50-4, 207- 
11 ; 8, 62, 140 ; 14, 67-9, 152-5 ; 25, 
51-6,67-9; 29, 125; persons with 
whom one should not sit at dinner, 2, 
61,61 n., 67-71 ; how a householder 
should behave towards guests accor- 
ding to their caste, 2, 1 to ; how the 
householder should receive teachers, 
2, 112 sq. ; precedence among the 
various castes, 2, 125 sq.; how the 
Brahma^arin should behave in the 
presence of Gurus, 2, 187 sqq. ; 
iUaryaA = ' my teacher,' e. for- 
bidding to mention the name of 
one's teacher, 2, 196, 196 n., 199, 
199 n. ; to whom way must be 
made, 2, 211; 14, 67-9, 243; 33, 
219, 219 n. ; rules of e. to be 
observed by Snatakas, 2, 220 sq., 
223 sq. ; 14, 61 sq. ; rules about 



e., salutation, &c, 6, 84 ; 9, 81 sq. ; 
the ascetic is free from the cere- 
mony of salutation, 8, 324, 351, 366, 
370 ; smaller rules of demeanour, 
27, 3 1 sq., 1 1 5 sq. ; 28, 68-81; rules 
of e. when visiting, 27, 70 sq., 76 sq. ; 
mention of certain names to be 
avoided, 27, 93, 100 sq. ; e. in 
relations to superiors, 27, 99 sq. 
See also Titles. 

Etymologies, fanciful, and puns, 1, 
6, 8, 11, 13 sq., 21 n., 24 n., 26-8, 
27 n., 44 sq., 49 n., 50 sq., 68, 99 , 
99 n., 129-31, 132 n., 157, 162, 
170, 172, 205-9, 213 n -j 2I 5 s q-> 
242, 278 sq. ; 12, 144, 147, 153, 
160 sq. and n., 162, 166, 176 sq., 
191, 234, 277,288, 308,323-5, 440; 
15, 55, 75-7, 80, 82, 85, 89, 99, 106 
sq-, 140 sq., 191 sq., 194-7,310, 323; 
2G, 21-3, 36, 39, 46 sq., 71 sq., 101, 
142, 168, 174, 202 sq., 246, 258, 260, 
266, 281, 327 sq., 340, 379, 388, 399, 
432 sq.; 41,13,21, 28, 33, 143, 146- 
9, 152 sq., 156, 158 sq., 162, 250, 
268-70, 318, 326, 332, 332 n., 365, 
367, 369 sq., 374, 378, 380, 390 sq., 
395, 414 sq.; 42, 703; 43, 5, 7, 
9 sq., 54 sq., 65, 69, 69 n., 92, 92 n., 
156 sq., 156 n., 175, J79, 230, 230 n., 
261, 265, 265 n., 336 sq., 341-4, 
341 ii t , 34^-8, 352, 371-3, 39o, 399, 
402 sq. ; 44, 27, 152, 162 sq. and n., 
421, 423 ; e. of puttra, 'son,' 7, 65 ; 
15,96 ; 25, 354; ofmawsa, 'flesh,' 7, 
171 sq. ; 25, 177 ; of atithi, 7, 215 ; 
of Purusha, 7, 290; of Bahma^a, 
Sama«a, Muni, &c, 10 (i), 65 sq., 
89 sq. and n. ; 36, 26, 26 n. ; of 
BrahmaHrin, 35, 117 sq., 117 n.; 
of Samudda, 35, 131 sq., 131 n. ; 
etymological stories (Bak-kula), 36, 
11 11. j of words for ( river,' 42, 
146, 348 sq. 

Eunuchs, food of, not to be eaten, 
2, 68, 71 ; 14, 69, 71 ; cannot in- 
herit, 2, 133, 309 ; 14, 89 ; 25, 
372 sq. and n., 376 n. ; excluded 
from Sraddha feasts, 2, 256; 25, 
103, 106 ; penance for killing e., 2, 
286; 25, 457; should not receive 
ordination, 13, 215; to be main- 
tained by the king who takes their 

property, 14, 100 ; women of the 

seraglio punished by e., 19, 55 ; 
look of e. contaminating, 25, 119 ; 



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are unfit to sacrifice, 25, r6i ; not 
to be struck in battle, 25, 231 ; may- 
marry, 25, 341, 373, 373 n.; 33, 
166 n. ; shall not be witnesses, SS, 
87 ; the ordeal by sacred libation 
unfit for e., 33, 117; cannot keep 
a secret, 35, 141 : cannot be con- 
verted, 36, 177; a long-haired 
man, i.e. a e., 41, 9, 90 sq. ; cos- 
tume of e., 42, 108, 538 sq. ; the 
e. is neither woman nor man, 44, 
219 sq. ; sacrificed at the Purusha- 
inedha, 44, 413, 417. See also Cas- 
tration. 

Evayamarut, ( the quick Marat,' 
11. of Vishwu (?), 32, 363-5 ; E, 
Atreya, author of a Vedic hymn, 
32, 365. 

Eve, see Adam. 

Evidence, see Witnesses. 

Evil, caused by the Asuras or 
demons, 1, 4 sq. ; ten e. ways, 3, 
94, 94 n. ; whether e. may be done 
for the sake of good, 5, 385 sq. ; 
Muslim to ward off e, with good, 6, 
235 ; e, of birth, death, &c, 8, 103 ; 
action as being full of e. to be 
abandoned, 8, 121 ; the cause of e., 
8, 156 n. ; good and e. are a pair, 8, 
277 ; let a man overcome e. by 
good, 10 (i), 58 ; Buddha on the 
origin of all kinds of e., 10 (ii), 
164-7; how the temporal e. is to 
be regarded, 18, 22 sq. ; the e. in 
the world is definite and terminable, 
18, 91 ; if there were a God, there 
could be no e., 19, 206-8 ; origin 
of e., 24, sxv ; 31, 3 sq., 26 ; see 
also Dualism ; those who do e. to 
the wicked act in love of Ahura- 
Mazda, 31, 68, 72 ; eight defects of 
man, and lour e. in the conduct of 
affairs, 40, 196 sq. 

Evil Eye, cast by the Daevas, 4, 225 ; 
medicine against it, 4, 227-9 j D y '* 
Ahriman corrupts the good crea- 
tures of Ormazd, 4, 236 n. ; Agash, 
demon of the e. e., 5, 1 1 1 sq., inn.; 
47, 53 n. ; mischief caused by the 
e. e., 10 (i), 29 n. ; 37, 101 sq. ; 
47, 45 ; good eye, and e. e,, 23, 
4 sq. n.; created by Ahriman, smit- 
ten by the Airyaman prayer, 23, 44- 
6 ; spells against it, 23, 161 ; of the 
bride, 29, 278; 30, 189: charm 
against e.c., 42, 39, 91, 285sq.; salve 



protecting from it, 42, 6 1 ; Zoroaster 
killed by the e. e., 47, 77. 

Evil mind, see Akem-Mano. 

Evil spirit, see Aharman, and Mara. 

Evil spirits, spells against, 21, 372, 
374, 407, 414, 433; exorcism of, 
29, 147 sq. ; slain by the full moon 
sacrifice, 44, 6. See also Demons, 
and Rakshasas. 

Evil thought, see Akem-Mano. 

Evil works, see Karman. 

Evolution, versus Illusion, 15, 
xxxvii. 

Ewe, see Sheep. 

Excommunication, see Caste (e, i). 

Excrements, voiding of, see Easing 
nature. 

Existence, six states of it, viz. hell, 
brute creation, world of ghosts, de- 
mons, men, gods, 21,7, 'o» 329, 352 ; 
49, (ii), 182, 182 n., 184 ; worldly and 
spiritual e., 24, 153 sq., 185 sq. ; 

37, 14, 18, 31, 231, 233, 249, 274, 
288, 317, 408, 416 sq., 439; 47, 
3 sq., 43 ; what is, and what is not 
in the world, 36, 101-3. 

Exorcisms, against enemies, during 
sacrifices, 43, 171 ; 44, 271, 279 sq., 
337. See also Witchcraft. 

Expiatory rites, on seeing bad 
dreams, 1, 262 sq. ; for a false wit- 
ness, 7, 50; addressed to Vishnu, 7, 
155 sq., 156 n.; connected with 
bathing, 7, 204 ; 14, 249-52 ; are of 
the quality of passion, 8, 324; to 
be performed after the death of 
a Guru, and when afflicted by other 
misfortune, 29, 246-50; e. r. and 
the results of works, 38, 117 n., 353, 
354 ; not possible in the case of one 
who has lapsed from the condition 
of a Naislu/jika, 38, 318 sq.; 48, 
706 sq. See also Omens, Penances. 
Pratikramana, Sacrifices (h), and 
Sin (c). 

Eye : the person who is seen in the 
e. is Brahman, 1, 14 sq., 67, 135; 
34, xxxiv sq., 77-81, 123-30; 48, 
272-6; person in the right e. and 
person in the sun, 1, 15 ; 15, 191 ; 

38, 217 sq., 244-7 ; person in the e. 
called Sawyadvama, Vamanr, and 
Bhamani, 1, 68 ; person in the e. 
is not affected by anything, 1, 68 n. ; 
person within the e. is the real 
agent of seeing', 1, 135 11 , ; person 



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of the e. is there where the sight 
has entered into the void, 1, 142 ; 
persons in the right e. and in the 
left e., 1, 305 sq. ; 43, xxii, 368-74 ; 
the e. material, the person in the 
right e. the immaterial, 15, 107; 
Indra is in the right e., his wife in 
the left e., 15, 159, 344 sq. ; secret 
name of person in the right e., 
A ham, 15, 192 ; the e. is truth, for 
the person in the e. proceeds to all 
things, 15, 309 ; person within the 
e. is not a deity of the sun, 34, 124, 
1 30 ; how different beings serve the 
divine person in the e,,43, 373 ; the 
person within the e. different from 
the soul, viz. the highest Self, 48, 
237-42 ;— Arfca, deity presiding over 
the e,, 8, 219; enters the sun at 
death, 8, 290; e. of knowledge, 8, 
239 ; Buddha ' the e. in the world,' 
11, 89 n. ; the divine e. and the e. 
of flesh, 35, 179-85; 36, xxv ; 
fashioned from the sun, 43, 8 ; is 
yonder sun, 43, 332 ; is motion, in 
accordance with the e. the body 
moves, 43, 337 sq. ; Breath created 
the E., the E. the Ear, 43, 377 sq. ; 
twinkling of the e., 44, 169 ; the e. 
is threefold, the white, the black, 
and the pupil, 44, 246 ; two men in 
the eyes, 44, 263 ; optical delusions, 
48, i2i sq., 123 ; the e. of truth, see 
D ham ma. 
Ezekiel, his vision of the dry bones, 

6, 37 »• 
Ezra, is the son of God, 6, 177, 177 n. 
Ez Zaqqum, tree of hell, see 
Zaqqum. 



Fa, n. of King Wfi, q. v. 

Fables : the hen and the crow, and 
the chicken, 17, 362 ; of the par- 
tridge,the monkey, and the elephant, 
who want to find out who is the 
eldest of the three, 20, 193 sq.; 
how it was found out that the ewe 
excelled other animals in maternal 
love, 45, 270 n. 

Fa-Men, translated the Vinaya into 
Chinese, 19, xi, xiii, xxvi sq. 

Faii*ies, haunting the sites of build- 
ings, 11, 18, 19 n.; 17, 101 sq. 



Faith, required without signs, 6, 
136; those who are full of f. are 
released from actions, 8, 56 ; he 
who has f. obtains knowledge, 8, 
63; who is devoid of f. is ruined, 
8, 63 ; he who is full of f. is the 
most devoted of all devotees, 8, 
72 sq., 99, 102 ; worship with f., 8, 
76, 358; those who have no f., 
return to this life, 8, 82 ; those who 
worship other divinities with f., 
worship God, 8, 84 ; f. is of three 
kinds, 8, 1 17 sq. ; penance practised 
with f. is good, 8, 119, 121 ; belief 

"in a future world the duty of Brah- 
mawas, 8, 126; he who studies the 
Bhagavadgita with f., will be freed 
from sin, 8, 130 ; those who, full of 
f., cast aside worldliness, reach the 
highest goal, 8, 255; piety has f. 
for its characteristic, 8, 316 ; f. is 
of the nature of goodness, want of 
f. belongs to the quality of darkness 
or of passion, 8, 319-21, 324 sq. ; 
full of f. the householder shall per- 
form the five sacrifices, 8, 358 ; one 
should eat what is consecrated by 
f., 8, 365 ; perform actions with f., 

8, 378; man alone of all creation 
undertook the responsibility of f., 

9, 149; is the best property for 
a man, 10 (n), 30 ; f., reason, and 
works, 11, 11 11. ; meditation in 
Buddhism corresponds to f. in 
Christianity, 11, 145; want off is 
the greatest sin; for f. is the highest 
austerity. Therefore 'the gods do not eat 
offerings given without f, 14, 173; 
f,, the right, the true, absorption 
(yoga), and the great (intellect?) 
constitute the body of the inner 
self, 15, 56 sq. ; Sraddha, f., abides 
in the heart, 15, 146; Samadhi or 
right f., 19, 303, 303 n. ; unwavering 
f. in the religion of Zaratfijt, the 
first good work, 24, 257 sq. ; the 
characteristic marks of f., tran- 
quillization and aspiration, 35, 54-6 ; 
the man full of f. is worthy to be- 
come a Bhikkhu, 36, 253 ; the path 
of the gods cannot be attained by 
f. and austerities, unaided by know- 
ledge, 38, 234; Sraddha or f. is 
' religious zeal ' that makes the sacri- 
ficer liberal to the priest, 42, 424; 
the lWa is f., 44, 41 sq. ; fire is f., 



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truth sacrificed in f., 44, 46 ; out of 
f. the gods fashioned the initiation 
(diksha), 44, 139, 240 ; the daughter 
of Surya, 44, 226 ; a means of ob- 
taining the end of sacrifice, 44, 441 ; 
a monk must not give way to 
scepticism about future life, the 
Ginas, &c, 45, 1 4 ; one of the four 
requisites to reach beatitude, 45, 
16, 152 ; the characteristics of f. 
and how it is produced, 45, 154-7 ; 
necessary to reach perfection, 45, 
160 sq., 170 sq. ; nine kinds of 
obstruction to right f., 45, 172, 
172 n., 193; in Brahman, and its 
preliminary means, 48, 305; what- 
ever he does with knowledge, with /., 
with the Upnnishads , that is more 
vigorous, 48, 682-4, 688 ; difference, 
in Sukhavati, between beings who 
doubt, and those who believe in 
Buddha, 49 (ii), 62-5. See also 
Bhakti, Daena, and Islam. 

Fa-kheu-king, t.w. , 10 (i), 1 sq. 

Fa Kheu Pi Hu, tw., 10 (i) Hi; 
quoted, 11, 117 n. 

Fa-khin, translated a life of Buddha 
into Chinese, 19, xxx. 

Falcon, see Birds (b). 

Family. 

(a) F. law and f. life. 

(*} Parents and children, brothers. 

(«) F. LAW AND F. LIFE. 

Ceremony of casting off a mem- 
ber of the f. who has committed 
a mortal sin, 2, 277-9; f- reunions 
on the occasion of ancestor wor- 
ship, 3, 300 ; the f. and the next of 
kin answerable for fulfilment of 
contract, 4, Ixxxii, 34, 36-8, 36 n. ; 
evils flowing from extinction of a f., 
8, 41 sq. ; f. life and intercourse 
with others should be avoided, 10 
(ii), 6-1 1 ; to save the life of wife 
and f., presents may be accepted 
from anybody, 14, 70 ; retribution 
of good and evil takes place in the 
f., 16, 47 sq., 419 sq.; regulation of 
the f., importance of f. ties, 16, 136- 
8, 138 n., 312 sq., 313 n. ; 28, 62- 
7, 62 n., 258 sq., 411, 416-19; the 
normal state of a f., 16, 242, 243 n. ; 
law about guardianship of a f., 18, 
188-94, I9 6 ) 37, 113, 478; Bud- 
dhist monks must give up all f. ties, 
19, 302 ; how families perish, 25, 



86 ; division of f. estate, divided and 
undivided, 25, 105 n., 283 sq. and 
">•» 347, 373-9 ! 33, 370 sq., 383 sq. ; 
charity must not be exercised while 
one's f. lives in distress, 25, 432 ; 
a priest should be a Brahmawa of 
a renowned f., 26, 345 ; duty of 
avenging the death of father, bro- 
ther, and friend, 27, 92 ; duties 
between members ofaf., 27, 379 sq.; 
when a f. is in good condition, 27, 
390 sq. ; there are no two masters in 
a f., 28, 285 ; wife and children and 
brothers — the charm of life, 28, 
307 ; the householder only is in- 
dependent, 33, 50 sq. ; a house- 
holder neglecting his f., 37, 45 ; 
benefit of wife and children, 37, 71 ; 
precedence of father to son, senior 
to junior, male to female, 39, 335 ; 
the whole f. responsible for a man's 
evil deeds, 40, 245. 
(b) Parents and children, bro- 
thers. 

Precedence of elder brothers in 
marriage, and religious ceremonies, 

2, 130 ; 14, 329 ; 25, 103 sq., 107 sq., 
442; 42, 164 sq., 521, 523-8; sons 
who have enforced a division of the 
f. estate against the father's will, 
not to be invited to a Sraddha, 2, 
258; filial piety and fraternal duty, 

3, 169; 28, 440; filial piety, chief 
moral duty, 3, 175, 212,212 n., 394, 
480 sq.; 19, 96 sq.; 27, 14, 467; 
28, 226-9, 268 s 1v 26 9 n '> 290 sq.; 
39, 212, 347; cousins called 'bro- 
thers,' 3, 211; filial piety, and 
ancestor worship, 3, 300 sq. ; 28, 
211 sq., 294 sq., 310 sq.; love ren- 
dered to the mother, reverence to 
the ruler, both to the father, 3,470; 
rules for a son in remonstrating with 
his parents, 3, 483 sq. ; 27, 114; 
there is awe for the father, and also 
for the elder brother. Wife and chil- 
dren, servants and concubines are like 
the common people, serfs, and underlings, 
3, 488; kindness towards parents 
and kindred, 6, 11,77, ! 35; 9, 3 sq., 
118, 132, 225 sq. ; child to obey 
father and mother, 8, 243 ; 24, 78 ; 
a son dealing with the troubles 
caused by his father or mother, 16, 
95 s( l*i 97 n *> 2 9° st l' : P ai 'ents must 
not be distressed, 24, 301 sq. ; 



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FAMILY— FASTING 



parents or teacher, who is more 
venerable, 25, xxiv, 56 sq. and n., 
157; reverence due to father, mo- 
ther, elder brother, and teacher, 
25, lxvii, 71 sq., 154 ; a girl without 
a brother not to be married, 25, 77, 
77 n. ; forsaking mother or father, 
25, 104 ; position of the eldest bro- 
ther in f., 25, 157 sq., 346-8, 376 sq. 
and n. ; impurity of parents on 
death and birth of children, 25, 
1 78 sq. ; fine for defaming mother, 
father, wife, brother, son, teacher, 
25, 302 ; a son or a younger bro- 
ther may be beaten as punishment, 
25, 306 ; mother, father, wife, son 
not to be cast off, 25, 321, 442; 
son's duty to protect the mother, 
25, 3 2 8 ; begging for parents allowed, 
25, 430 ; rules^or children in serving 
their parents and parents-in-law, 27, 

27, 449-58; filial piety, and respect 
to be paid by juniors to elders, 27, 
37; 28, 217, 226-32; mourning a 
manifestation of filial piety, 27, 48 ; 

28, 377, 379; 392! duty to parents, 
27, 67-g, 75, 83, 114; 28, 24, 267, 
269; the filial piety of Shan-shang, 
'the Reverential Heir-son,' 27, 
126 sq.; a son must not give away 
f. property, 27, 160; how the poor 
discharge duties of filial piety, 27, 
182 ; mourning for a foster-mother, 
27, 326 sq. and n. ; rights of the 
eldest son by the proper wife, 27, 
33S—7> 335 n., 336 n. ; parents and 
children, 27, 456 sq., 476; a son on 
the death of parents, 28, 24; filial 
piety in sacrifice, 28, 236-8, 244 sq. ; 
affection shown by the mother, hon- 
our by the father, 28, 340 sq. ; 
father higher than mother, but love 
the same for both, 28, 467 ; rever- 
ence to parents connected with 
reverence to the Greator,37, 34 3 sq. ; 
father, mother, or priest not to be 
distressed, 37, 4S3 ; ' when a younger 
brother comes, the elder weeps,' 
39, 362, 362 n. ; fathers should in- 
struct their sons, and elder their 
younger brothers, 40, 166 sq. ; op- 
posing a father or elder brother, 
a crime, 40, 241 sq. See also Daugh- 
ters, Father, Inheritance, Marriage, 
Mother, Sons, and Wife. 

Pan, minister of instruction of Yfi, 3, 



355 sq. ; maternal nncle of A7>ung-r, 

27, 166 ; ' Uncle F.,' his virtue not 

commended by Wan-jze, 27, 199; 

uncle of Duke Wan of^in, 28, 421. 
Fan, conversation between the king 

of Ktti and the ruler of, 40, 55 sq., 

55 n. 
Fang, or Khang ShO, appointed to 

be marquis of Wei, 3, 164-71 ; 

announcement about drunkenness 

made to F., 3, 17 1-9; instructed 

about government, 3, 179. 
Fang-hsiin, a name of Yao, 3, 32, 

32 n. 
Fang-hwang, sprites haunting wilds, 

40, 19. 
Fang-}, got the Tao, and became 

lord of the Great River, 39, 244, 

244 n. 
Fang-Mi, minister of Yao, 3, 34. 
Fang - kwang - tai - A wang - yan - 

king, Chinese translation of the 

Lalita-vistara, 19, xxviii. 
Fang Ming, charioteer to Hwang- 

Ti, 40, 96. 
Fares, see Taxes. 
Farhank, mother of Kai-Apiveh, 5, 

138 sq.; daughter of Vidhirisa, 18, 

171, 171 n. 
Faridun, = Thraetaona, 4, 245. 
Farukhiizan', n.p., 18, 289. 
Faating. 

(a) In India. 

(/') In China. 

(0 In Zoroastrianisin. 

{d) In Islam. 

(a) In India. 

Svetaketu, after f. for fifteen days, 
cannot remember the Vedas, 1, 
97 sq. ; f. is really abstinence, 1, 
131 ; as a penance, or part of 
penance, 2, 80, 82-4, 86 sq., 121, 
129, 184 sq., 275, 277, 290 sq., 296, 
299, 301 sq. ; 7, 88,95,130,149-81 ; 
14, 30,58, 109, 113, 1 16 sq., 119-23, 
131 sq., 185, 211, 217, 222 sq., 248, 
266, 306, 308 sq., 311, 318 sq., 
323-8, 330; 25, 164, 172, 465, 
472-5, 478, 482 ; 29, 120, 140, 172 ; 
30, 181 ; 43, 255 sq. ; on new and 
full moon days, 2, 100 ; 10 (ii), 25 ; 
12, 1 sq., 4 sq., 172 sq., 180, 340; 
29, 16, 172, 389, 393 ; 30, 25, 27-9, 
? 6 5, 333 ! 44, 1 sq., 7-10, 20-2, 31 ; 
in connexion with special vows, 2, 
105, 152 ; 29, 80 ; 30, 74 ; after the 



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funeral, 2, 1 37 ; 14, 28 ; no f. allowed 
to women apart from their husbands, 
7, in ; 25, 196; taking a single 
meal consisting of food fit for obla- 
tions, each day of the month 
Karttika, purifies from sin, 7, 265 ; 
at a worship of Vish«u, 7, 268 sq. ; 
enjoined for hermits, 7, 278 ; 14, 
293; recommended by some sects, 
forbidden by others, 8, 375 ; the 
fool who fasts is not worth the six- 
teenth particle of those who have 
well weighed the law, 10 (i), 21 ; 
does not purify a man, 10 (ii), 41 ; 
a Muni should take little food, 10 
(ii), 129 sq. ; Upavasatha or f.-day 
before the AgnySdhcya, 12, 291 ; 
to subsist on alms is better than f., 
14, 46 ; 25, 64 • forbidden (except 
as penance) for householders and 
students, 14, 266 ; on entering the 
order of ascetics, 14, 274, 276 ; 
Brahmawas seek to know the Self by 
f., 15, 179 ; various modes of f., 22, 
298-300; 45, 175 sq., 175 n., 230; 
mental derangement in consequence 
of f., 22, 300 n. ; at the debtor's door, 
a mode of recovering debts, 25, 262 
n. ; 33, 72 n., 330, 330 n. ; milk as 
fast-food (or the sacrificer during his 
Diksha, 26, 6, 28, 37-43, 37 n., no 
sq., 156 ; 41, 262 ; 43, 255 sq., 342 
n. ; 44, 1 1 9, 1 1 9 n. ; the Brahma^arin 
shall fast at the end of the daily 
Veda recitation, 29, 73 ; when on 
a journey one should not fast, 29, 90 ; 
to avert evil omens, 29, 1 39 ; previous 
to an auspicious rite, 29, 180, 291 ; 
at ceremonies for the obtainment of 
special wishes, 29, 425, 428, 43osq. ; 
30, 115-17, "9> 125, 127; general 
rules about f., 29, 425 ; during the 
time of an omitted sacrifice, 30, 40 ; 
husband and wife fast, when the 
nuptial fire goes out, 30, 193, 261 ; 
before ordeals, 33, 105, 116, 118, 
250, 260 ; when a single man has to 
determine a boundary, he must first 
fast, 33, 352 ; of a wife, 33, 369 ; 
disuse of food does not conduce to 
attainment of insight, 3G, 61 sq. ; 
when the sacrificer enters on the 
fast, he gives himself up to the gods, 
44, 22 ; at the Sautramarei, 44, 240, 
240 n. ; the fast is the head of the 
sacrifice, and the initiation its body, 



44, 240 ; kept by Gaina laymen, 45, 
384 ; see also Pdsaha ; the vow of f. 
called ahoratra, 49 (i), 199; observed 
by Mahayana Buddhists, 49 (ii), 
192 sq. See also Abstinence, and 
Uposatha. 

(b) In China. 

F. in preparation to ancestor 
worship, 3, 300, 304 n.; 39, 352 ; as 
a preliminary to marriage cere- 
monies, 27, 78, 441 ; in preparation 
to a sacrifice, 27, 87, 87 n. ; 28, 331 ; 
in midsummer, 27, 275; on the 
winter solstice, 27, 304 ; of the 
father at the birth of a child, 27, 
471 ; before going to the ruler, 28, 
6 ; rules about it, 28, 19 ; seven days 
of f.j 28, 292 ; ' the f. of the mind,' 
39, 208 sq. ; a mechanic fasts in 
order to become of concentrated 
mind, 40, 22. Sec also Abstinence. 

(c) In Zoroastrianism. 

He who fasts commits a sin, 4, 
47 sq,, 47 n. ; for three nights, when 
one passes away, 5, 341, 341 n. ; 
proper f. consists in not committing 
sin, 24, 348. 

(d) In Islam. 

The fast of Ramadan, 6, xxxv, 
lxxi-Ixxiii, 25 sq. ; f, as a penance, 
G, 28, 85, no sq.; 9, 271; glad 
tidings to the believers who fast, 
6, 189. 

Fatalism, see Predestination. 

Fatalists, their views refuted, 45, 
239) 345-7- 

Fate, see Destiny. 

Father, may teach his eldest son, 1, 
44 ; ' the f.'s tradition to the son,' a 
ceremony performed by the f., when 
going to depart, 1, 291 sq. ; 15, 96 ; 
dispute between f. and son, 7, 34 sq. ; 
25, 105, 105 n. ; f. not to pay the 
debt of his son, 7, 45 ; pleasant in 
the world is the state of a f., 10 (i), 
79 ; (., mother, and child, 15, 94 ; 
duties of a son to his f., 27, 121, 

343~5> 343 "•) 349? 352~4, 361-3 J 
courses for f. and son, 27, 397 ; who 
has made the son revering the f. ? 
31, 109, 1 14 ; responsibility off. for 
crimes of children, 37, 41, 187 ; dis- 
puting the debts of a f., 37, 65 ; 
gentle and kind to his son, 43, 25, 
60, 206 ; in early life the sons subsist 
on the resources of their f., in later 



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life the f. subsists on the sons' 
resources, 44, 157; the f. is the 
same as the son, and the son is the 
same as the f., 44, 187 ; sons lovingly 
touch their f. when he comes home, 
44, 204 ; f. and son part company, 
44, 308. See also Family, Inheri- 
tance, Marriage, and Sons. 

Father-in-law, see Relatives. 

Father of Husbandry, see Gods («. ). 

Father of "War, see Gods (».). 

Fathers (Pitr/'s, Manes). 

(a) The F. in Mythology. 
(6) The F. and Morality. 
(c) Worship of F. 

(a) The F. in Mythology. 

Theyare dependent on the setting 
sun, 1, 27 ; — world of 'the/., why does 
it never^become full? 1, 77, 82; 
obtained by sacrifices, offspring, &c, 
bliss in it, 1, 80, 127; 15, 90, 172, 
176 ; 42, 166 ; 44, 236sq. ; Brahman 
seen in it as in a dream, 15, 2 2 ; in the 
south-east is the door to it, 44, 424 ; 
the mourners return from it to the 
world of the living, 44, 438 sq. ; it is 
destitute of all light, 49 (i), 151 ;— 
the f. go to the moon, 1, 81 sq., 81 n., 
273; moon the light of the f., 12, 361 ; 
the moon regulates time for the f., 
25, 20, 20 n.; Soma (the moon) and 
the f., 26, xiii, 50, 363, 363 n.; 42, 
89 sq. ;— they appear sitting on the 
altar, 2, 148 ; live in heaven until 
the destruction of the world, 2, 160 ; 
night and day of the f., 7, 78 ; 
innumerable f. have passed away, 7, 
78 sq. ; part of the hand sacred to 
thef., 7, 198 ; 14, 25, 166 ; 25, 40 sq.; 
Lakshmi praised as the food of the 
f., 7, 298 ; Aryaman, chief among f., 
8, 89, 89 n.; Yama, king in the 
world of the f., 8, 153, 346 ; 41, 299 ; 
42, 161 ; 44, 236 sq., 365, 481 sq. ; 
Rama is requested by his f. to desist 
from killing the Kshatriyas, 8, 295 
sq., 300 ; the south is the region of 
the f., 12, 63; 14, 28 ; 26, 1-4, 165 ; 
29, 122; 41, 330 n,; 43, 226; 44, 
82, 82 n., 198-200, 199 n., 225, 236 
sq., 424, 485 ; 45, 372, 377 ; offered 
food to Vn'tra in the afternoon, 
12, 166 ; the intermediate quarters 
represent the f., 12, 228, 228 n. ; the 
gods are immortal, the f. arc mortal, 
12, 290, 295 ; gods, f., and men, 12, 



367 n.; 25, 504; 26, 155; 42, 87, 
126, 223, 229 ; are the guardians of 
houses, 12, 368, 368 sq. n., 436 ; are 
the seasons, 12, 421 ; 43, 243 sq., 
244 n. ; classification of the f., 12, 
421, 421 n., 427, 429 sq., 429 n.; 
25, Ixvii, 15, in sq., 112 n., 127 ; 
41, 136 ; abide in the third world 
from here, 12, 425 n. ; roam about 
as birds, 14, 268 ; the bliss of the f., 
15, 60, 61 sq. n. ; created, 25, 15 ; 
43, 74; are primaeval deities, 25, 
in; sprang from the sages, from 
the f. the gods and Danavas, 25, 
112; penances adopted by gods, 
sages, and f., 25, 473 ; in the second 
order of existences caused by good- 
ness, 25, 495 ; all-gods include the 
f., 26, 359 n., 360 ; dwell on the 
earth, in the air, in heaven, 30, 108, 
229; dwell on the hearth, 32, 218 ; 
f. and mortals read the abridged 
code of Manu, 33, 3 ; among the 
pa«£ag-ana£, 34, 262 ; create many 
things by their mere intention, 34, 
347 sq. ; rise owing to their mere 
will, 38, 410 sq. ; stars are the lights 
of righteous men gone to heaven, 
41, 244 ; a remedy, arisen from the 
foundation of the f,, 42, 10 ; conduct 
men afar, 42, 54 ; dying = following 
the f., 42, 59; Rakshas, serpents, 
pious men, f., 42, 162 ; road that 
leads to the f. in the heavens, 42, 
183 sq. ; follow the Brahma^arin 
(the sun), 42, 214; serve the Person 
in the eye under the name of 
' svadha,' 43, 373 ; recurring death 
of the f.j 44, 272 ; the uneven years 
and single Xakshatras belong to the 
f.. 44, 423; in that respect the f. 
share in the world of men that they 
have offspring, 44, 424, 427 ; are the 
world of the plants, 44, 429 ; are in 
secret, 44, 433, 435; are three in 
number, 44, 465,465^, 467, 481 sq., 
487 ; once for all the JK have passed 
away, 44, 482, 4S8 ; path of the f., 
see Future Life {b). 
(b) The F. and Morality. 

The departed in the moon, after 
their good works are consumed, 
return again to new births, 1, 81 sq., 
81 n.; the f. of a man who spurns 
food given by a sinner, do not eat 
his oblations for fifteen years, 2, 71 ; 



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do not teach what is virtue and 
what is sin, 2, 72 ; he who decides 
wrongly, destroys his f., 2, 98 ; 
procreation of sons, a debt to the 
f., 2, 159 sq. ; 14, 261 sq.. 271 sq. ; 
25, 82 ; 49 (i), 100; see also Debts 
(the three) ; a Snataka, by his good 
conduct, will liberate his parents, 
ancestors, and descendants from 
evil, 2, 226; gods, f., and men 
upheld by Brahmawas, united with 
Kshatriyas, 2, 238 ; by lying to a 
Guru one destroys seven ancestors 
and seven descendants, 2, 291 ; he 
who plants trees, gladdens the f., 7, 
271; extol the emancipated saint, 
8, 545' reach perfection by penance, 
8, 389 ; cried out against the injus- 
tice of killing cows for sacrifices, 
10 (ii), 51; by what means the 
Bhikkhu can procure blessings for 
departed friends, 11, 211, 211 n.; 
the fate of the f. depends on the 
true or false evidence of witnesses, 
14, 82 sq., 203 ; 25, 271; 33, 92-4, 
92 n. ; sins whereby the f. suffer, 
14, 46, 46 n., 315 ; 42, 171 ; sins of 
thef., 14, 321 ; 42, 73, 604 ; heavenly 
bliss of oneself and of f. depends on 
wife and children, 25, 332 ; the 
Snataka shall be careful about his 
duties towards f. and gods, 29, 124 ; 
saved by a lawful marriage, 29, 166 ; 
on their way to Brahman, shake off 
their good and evil deeds, 38, 2 2 9-3 1 ; 
rivers of ghee and honey flow for 
the f. of him who studies his daily 
Veda lesson, 44, 97 sq. ; prayer to 
be delivered from sins against men 
and f., 44, 265. 
(c) Worship of F, 

Oblations and libations for the f., 
1, 33, 66 n. ; 25, 203 ; 26, 154, 154 n., 
357 n. ; 29, 243 sq., 253 sq., 3*5, 
325; BO, xxviii, 146; 42, 60; 44, 
76 n., 211 ; daily offerings to the f., 
one of the ' five great sacrifices,' 2, 
48, 108, 108 n., 195, 201 ; 7, 193 sq. ; 
8, 306; 14, 50, 256; 25,62, 132; 29, 
217, 32r ; 30, 23 ; 44, 95 sq., 96 n., 
176, 176 n. ; are the deities at a 
Sraddha, 2, 140; any gifts may be 
accepted when required for the 
worship of the f., 2, 265; 7, 188; 
ancestors and descendants sanctified 
by certain rites, 2, 302 ; 14, 117, 



3°9> 33* j satisfied by reciting the 
Vedas and other sacred texts, 7, 
126 ; 29, 219 ; animal sacrifices for 
the f., 7, 170 sq. ; 14, 26 sq. and n. ; 

25, 174-6 ; 26, 62, 190 ; 29, 89 ; 30, 
ri2 sq., 256; depend on house- 
holders for support, 7, 194 ; oblation 
of water to the f. before crossing a 
river, 7, 203 ; offerings to gods and 
f. after having bathed, 7, 206 sq. ; to 
be worshipped at the Vauvadeva 
sacrifice, 7, 214; 29, 86, 162, 320, 
388 ; the f. drink from a pool, from 
which the bull set at liberty has 
drunk, and the earth dug up by 
such a bull, is delicious food for the 
f., 7, 262 sq. ; fall down to hell, when 
the offerings of food and water arc 
neglected, 8, 41 sq. ; those who 
worship the f. go to the f., 8, 85 ; 
satiated at the Tarpawa rite, 8, 325 ; 
14, 253, 255 sq. ; 25, 87-91, 93 ; 29, 
1 r5, 123, 149 sq.. 220, 223 ; 30, 246 ; 
prayer to the f., 12, 3 n. ; 26, 24 n. ; 
he who does not eat becomes a 
sacrificer for the f., 12, 5 ; the 
Adhvaryu propitiates gods and f. at 
the beginning of sacrifice, 12, 127SO,.; 
the adorable the f., the worshipful 
the gods, 12, 139; the Pinrfapitn- 
yag#a or oblation of obsequial cakes 
to the f., 12, 184 11"., 361-9 : 26, xxx ; 

29, 424; 30, in sq., 338; times 
suitable for the worship of the f., 12, 
289 sq. ; gratified at the Agnihotra, 
l-> 333 ; 44, 82, 82 n. ; rites for the 
f. different (with regard to sacred 
cord, &.c.) from those for the gods, 
12, 362-6, 421 3, 425-36 ; 14,165; 

26, 29 ; 29, 22, 24 sq., 31, m, 162, 
209, 252, 390; 30, 17, 27, 31, 99, 
in, 146, 251, 253, 331 sq.; 44, 
198-200, 429-34, 467 sq. ; present- 
ing the f.with food, water, collyrium, 
oil, garments, 12, 368, 368 sq. n. ; 

30, 107-12, 229 sq.; the Maha- 
pitr/ya^wa, or great sacrifice to the 
f,, 12, 408 n,, 415, 417 n., 420-37, 
420 n, ; meals in honour of the f., 
14, 25 ; food refused by the f., 14, 
7 1 ; the water-pot not to be used 
for worship of the f., 14, 164; the 
sacred fires at offerings to the f., 14, 
192; ablution after offerings to the 
f., 14, 193 ; 30, 330 ; libation to the 
1. offered after the gods have been 



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satisfied, 14, 238 ; food given to the 
f. before eating, 14, 265 ; the offering 
to the manes secures long life and heaven, 
is worthy of praise and a rite ensuring 
prosperity, 14, 266 ; libations to the 
f. offered by the ascetic, 14, 278 ; a 
performer of rites securing success 
shall worship cows, Brahmawas, f., 
and gods, 14, 323 ? Prana is the first 
offering to the f., 15, 275 ; consume 
the offerings through the mouths of 
Brahma«as, who represent the f., 
25, 25, 90, in, 114, 119; wife 
assists at offerings to the f., 25, 
78 sq. ; rite in honour of the f. more 
important than that in honour of 
the gods, 25, 113; offerings to the 
f. accompanied by the Svadha call, 

25, 117, 122 ; 42, 177 ; 44, 234, 423 ; 
sacrificial food pleasing to the f., 25, 
124 sq. ; worshipped at theAsh/aka 
festivals, 25, 152 ; 29, 103 sq., 206-9, 
344, 417, 420-4; 30, 97, 104-11, 
232-6, 293 sq., 341, 341 n. ; do not 
accept the food of one who disdains 
a freely-offered gift, 25, 167 ; fish 
used for offerings to the f., 25, 172 ; 
the thrum of the Dikshita's cloth 
belongs to the f., 26, 9 ; Yama in- 
voked with the f.,26, 132 sq., 123 n, ; 
a pit that is dug is sacred to the f., 

26, 143, 168 sq. ; ceremonies for f. 
not to be changed by one going to 
a foreign country, 29, 102 ; the 
Nandimukha f. worshipped, 29, in ; 
monthly offerings to the f., 29, 
209; the vow belonging to Agni 
together with the f., 29, 229; 
* sprinkled butter ' used for the f., 
29, 237 ; invoked for protection, 29, 
280 sq. ; invoked to give long life to 
the new-born child, 29, 294 ; when 
driving towards f. (?) he should dis- 
mount, when he has reached them, 
29, 364 ; invoked for offspring, HO, 
1 10 ; offering to the f. at the house- 
building ceremony, 30, 123 ; prayer 
to Agni at offerings to the f., 32, 
35 sq. ; worship of the f., gods, and 
Brahmawas to be performed sepa- 
rately after a partition, 33, 370 
sq. : who profits by offerings to 
the dead? 36, 151 sq. ; the hollow- 
in the sacrificial post sacred to the 
f., 41, 3 1 ; worshipped at the Santra- 
ma«i, 41, 136; 44, 233 sq., 236-8, 



272 ; strangers do harm by offering 
to one's f., 42, 73, 603 ; invoked to 
help in battle, 42, 119, 585 ; invoked 
for success in an assembly, 42, 138, 
544 ; shares of gods, f., and men 
(priests), of the sacrifice, 42, 180, 
612; offerings to father, grandfather, 
and great-grandfather, 43, 15 n.; if 
he does not eat (on a fast), he be- 
comes consecrated to the f., 44, 2 1 ; 
by bathing the student drives off 
hunger from his kinsmen and his f., 
44, 50 ; the f. gratified b> the sacri- 
fice, the world of the f. gained by 
the sacrificer, 44, 272 ; the eaters 
(jmaja\6) amongst the f. destroy in 
yonder world the good deeds of him 
who has no sepulchre prepared for 
him, 44, 422 ; what is good for the 
living is also good for the f., 44, 
425; the clod deposited between 
the grave and the village, as a 
boundary between f. and the living, 
44, 440 ; worshipped at the Pra- 
vargya, 44, 481 sq., 485, 487 sq., 
487 11, ; seated upon the Barhis, 44, 
487, 487 n. See also Ancestor wor- 
ship, Ancestors, and Sraddhas. 

Fear, the sageor devotee is devoid of, 
8, 50, 67, 69, 86, 101, 114, 126, 151, 
246, 250, 287, 292, 344 ; death pro- 
duced by delusion and f., 8, 155, 
357 ; the hermit fears nobody, and 
nobody is afraid of him, 8, 285 ; is 
of the quality of darkness, 8, 320 ; 
absence of f. has the quality of 
goodness, 8, 325 ; f. and falsehood 
worse than death, 24, 50, 67. 

Female, female ascetics, females, see 
Women. 

Feridun = Thraetaona, q. v. 

Festivals : Ashtaka (Anvashfaka, 
Ekash/aka) f., 2, 36; 13, 130; 14, 
270; 17, 211 ; 25, 148, 148 n., 152 ; 
29, ro2-5, 205-9. 223, 341-5, 
4 1 4, 417-24 * 30, 80, 97-1 1 3, 
232-6, 293 sq., 304 sq. ; 36", 331; 
during certain f. recitation of the 
Veda is forbidden, 2, 36, 42, 42 n., 
263 sq. ; 14, 65, 65 n. ; 29, 115, 
142, 414; 30, 80; to be kept by 
a king, 2, 236, 236 n. ; observance 
of the seasons, 10 (ii), 41 sq. ; see 
also Seasons ; f. of the Ganga and 
the Mahi, 17, 25; 20, 359? a f. 
celebrated by children, with their 



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ornaments on, and decked with 
garlands, 17, 63; f. on the mountain- 
top at Ra^agaha, 20, 71, 168 ; white 
cloth spread out for ceremonial 
purposes, 20, 127-9; ' n honour of 
gods or sacred places, 22, 92 ; 
Gaina monks or nuns should not 
accept food at f., 22, 92-7 ; duty of 
Brahmanas to invite neighbours to 
f., 25, 322; the Agrayawa, or par- 
taking of the first-fruits, 29, 98 sq. ; 
a f. in the autumn month of A,rva- 
yug-a, 29, 130, 203, 332 sq., 415; 30, 
92 sq. ; the ATaitra f., 29, 132; 42, 
666 ; a f, on the Magna day, after the 
PraustwMpada full moon, 29, 209, 
331 sq. ; ceremonies at different 
times of the year, 30, 304 sq. ; the 
Indramaha-f., 42, 353, 510; the 
spring-f. during the Agrahayawa full 
moon, 42, 365, 551; f. of Indra's 
banner, 49 (i), n n., 89; Mar- 
gajirsha and 5rava»a f. , see Serpents ; 
monthly f., see Sacred times ;— cele- 
bration of the season f., Gahanbars, 
a good work. 4, 301 sq., 315, 315 n., 
327-43; 5, 91-7, so8, 351, 351 n., 
363, 387-9, 388 sq. n., 391 ; 18, 
157, 157 sq. n., i6i, 161 n.; 24, 27, 
27 n t) 100, 264; 31,367; 37, 15-17, 
15 n., 84, 95, 167, 173, 422, 429, 
434, 440 sq., 477, 483 ; 47, 154 sq., 
154 n. ; celebration of the Rapitvin, 
5, 95 sq., 352 ; 37, 477 ; in honour 
of the Fravashis, 5, 315, 315 n. ; 
the Hamaspathmaedha (All Souls) 
f., 23, 192 sq., 192 n,; sacred cake 
to be consecrated every year on 
the day Khnrdac/ of the month 
Fravardin, 24, 314 sq., 314 n. ; 
monthly (mahya) and yearly (yairya) 
f., 31, 198, 205, 210 sq., 216, 220, 
335» 338; see also Mahya; the five 
Gatha-days, and the Ardibahut, 31, 
367 ;— drinking f. in the districts, 27, 
56; 28, 435-46; public banquets, 
27, 57 sq.; 28, 446,454-7- 

Fetters, the ten, or Sanyo§-anas, to 
be broken before entering on the 
Noble Path, 11, 222; removed by 
thorough penetration, 11, 307. 

Fiend, see Mara. 

Fiends, see Demons. 

Filial piety, see Family (b). 

Final beatitude, liberation, release. 
See Emancipation. 



Fines, see Punishment. 
Firdausi, see Shah Namah. 
Fire. 

la) The element f. 

(£) The god F. 

(c) Purity, re-,p. defilement, off. 
(d) F. worship in India; the sacred f. 
(*,-) F. worship in India: the three or more 
sacred fires. 
(/) F. worship In India: the Agnihotra or 

f. -offerings. 
(g) F. worship in Iran. 

(a) The element f. 

F. produced from the Sat, or the 
Brahman, 1, 93, 100; 38, 20-2 ; 48, 
532-4; produces water, 1, 94, 100, 
117 sq.; 38, 22 sq. ; red the colour 
off., 1, 95, 96; its subtlest portion 
becomes speech, 1, 96-8; breath is 
merged in f., at death, 1, ior, 108 ; 
is merged in the Highest Being, at 
the death of the body, 1, 101, 108 ; 
united with air, warms the ether, 
1,117; meditation on f. as Brahman, 
1, 118, 304; worldly uses of the f., 
4, 1 15-19; first production of f., 5, 
55 sq.; 42, xxvii, xxx ; diffused 
through the six substances, 5, 159; 
Aharman mixed darkness and smoke 
with the f., 5, 163 ; ' the Good 
Diffuser* in men and animals, 5, 
184 sq. ; in plants, waters, and 
heaven, 5, 185; 42, 54, 191 sq,, 
571 ; 43, 184; the nature of wisdom 
is just like f., 5, 394 ; ordeal by f., 
7, 59; 31, 39, 5i; 37, 59; the 
internal f. of digestion (Vabvanara), 
7, 59; 8, 113; 11, 260, 260 n. ; 34,89 
sq., 92, 143 sq., 146 sq. ; 35, 244, 
244 n. ; 36,97; 48,287,290-4; the 
f. of knowledge, 8, 279, 279 n., 308 ; 
is the first of the elements, 8, 353, 
353 n. ; God speaks to Moses from 
the f., 9, 35, 35 n., 100, 11 1 ; resides 
in the right ear of a goat, in the 
right hand of a Brahmana, in water, 
and in Kuja grass, 14, 160; takes up 
water, 14, 162, 162 n. ; the seven 
tongues or flames of the f., 15, 31 ; 
33, 14, 14 n. ; 49 (i), 197; the 
simile of the sparks and the f. 
(individual souls and Brahman), 15, 
34 ; 34, 277 n., 279 ; 38, 29, 30, 61, 
62, 139 ; the Self compared to the 
f. produced by the two aranis, 15, 
236 sq. ; God is like the f. that has 
set in the ocean, 15, 265; the 



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symbol of f., tending upwards, 16, 
243 ; the vital f. in the life of 
creatures, 18, 42, 42 n., 172, 172 n. ; 
24, 265 sq. ; churning the f., 19, 
161, 174, 302; 26, 90-2; 42, 460 
sq.; 44, 188; 46, 302-6; the f. of 
lust, malice, and delusion, 19, 186; 
36, 197, 257, 257 n,, 260, 366; 
means of producing f., 20, 292, 
292 n. ; 27, 449 sq. ; 35, 85, 85 n, ; 
the f.-bodies live only three days, 
22, 7 n. ; sins caused by actions 
injuring the souls in f., 22, 7 sq., 67, 
67 n. ; 45, 293, 358; nature of f. 
and water, 24, 123 sq. ; sprang from 
water, 25, 399, 399 n. ; 33, 114; 
false oath permitted for the sake of 
fuel, 27, 273 ; springs from air, 34, 
Hi, 20 2 ; 48, 535 sq.; the Lord 
constitutes the Self of the intestinal 
f., 34, 92, 147, 149; 48, 248; f.- 
extinguishing apparatus, 35, 67 sq. ; 
all on f. is this endless becoming, 
36, 200 ; water is dissolved into f., 
and f. into air, 38, 26 ; is Saman, 
38, 345-9 ; is sun, wind, earth, 41, 
317; as vital air, 41, 317; is im- 
mortality, 41, 366; the different 
kinds of f, 42, 54 ; fever and f., 42, 
565 ; breath fashioned from f., 43, 
4 ; is kindled by the breath, 43, 399 ; 
one of the six doors to the Brahman, 
44, 66 sq. ; gold made a type of f., 
44, 125 ; why it does not blaze 
unless fanned or kindled, 44, 130; 
ordinary f. is a promiscuous eater, 
an eater of raw flesh, 44, 201 ; origin 
and feeding of f.-bodics, 45, 397, 
397 n. ; the infant Zoroaster rescued 
from f., 47, 36 sq. ; f. of torment, 
see Hell («, c). See also Parables (f), 
and Vai-rvanara. 
{b) The god F. 

F. carries the offerings to the gods, 
2, 71 ; 12, 23osq. ; 25, 167; worship 
of Agni and Atar, 4, Hi ; F. (the son) 
of Ahura-Mazda, 4, 101 ; 23, 120; 
31, 37, 41, 80, 84, 96, 102, 260, 
284 sq., 313-16, 319 ; 37, 453 sq. ; 
47, 67 ; * f.-creature' and other 
names wherein is the word f., 4, 203, 
203 n.; sacrifices to the F.,4, 206 sq., 
217, 223; 5, 337; Aharman's con- 
flict with the F., 5, 17, 19, 184-6 ; 
Burain F., 5, 38, 41, 173, 229; the 
F. Vazi jt opposes the demon Apaosh, 



5, 171; the F. Froba, 5, 229; Knshwa 
is F. among the Vasus, 8, 88, 97 ; the 
moon together with the f, uphold- 
ing all beings, 8, 257; is all the 
deities, 8, 276; the presiding deity 
of speech, 8, 338 ; is the lord of the 
elements, 8, 346 ; f. is male, water 
is female, 12, 9 sq. ; 18, 410 ; gold 
is the firstborn of F., 14, 134 ; the 
protector of vows, 14,305; Fravashi 
of F. worshipped, 23, 200 ; morning 
service of the F., 23, 322 n. ; prayer 
to the F., son of Ahura-Mazda, 23, 
334; 31, 307 sq.; BhWgu, offspring 
ofF.,25, 169, 169 n.; a guardian of 
the world, 25, 185, 216 sq. ; the spy 
of the world, 25, 274 ; the King in 
the character of F., 25, 396 sq., 
397 n. ; made to consume all things 
by Bhrigu, 25, 398, 398 n. ; is the 
mouth of the gods, 29, 254 ; 33, 
109; Ahura and his F. and mind 
protect Zarathujtra, 31, 132, 138; 
Ahura-Mazda will give his gifts in 
connexion with the F., 31, 147, 150 ; 
Ahura invoked for a sign from the 
holy F.,31, 177, 182, 18211.; Abura- 
Mazda's son, worshipped, 31, 196 
sq., 196 n., 199, 204, 205 sq,, 208-10, 
212, 214-16, 218 sq., 220, 222-5, 
227, 251, 256, 258, 270-2, 274-7, 
320, 323, 325, 331, 346, 348, 351, 
353, 358, 374, 381-4; 37, 184; the 
herds which have the f. and its 
blessings, 31, 360; enmity of F. to 
Keresasp, 37, 198 sq., 199 n. ; 
assisted by truth, 37, 355 ; deity 
and metre, 43, 53 ; created, 43, 380, 
402 ; the glory of Zoroaster descends 
from endless light to f., and from f. 
to the mother of Zoroaster, 47, 
18 sq., 139 ; assists Zoroaster in 
converting Vijtasp, A 47, 67-9, 164. 
See also Agni, and Atar. 
(c) Purity, respectively defile- 
ment, OF F. 

Do not rinse the mouth or spit before 
the f., 1, 29 ; rules about the treat- 
ment of f., 2, 56, 56 n., 128 sq. ; 
a means of purifying, 2, 66 sq. ; 7, 
96, 98, 101,103; 14, 60, i2i, 160 
sq., 188, 190, 241; 25, 187; 33, 
109 ; sin of defiling, extinguishing f., 
precautions that it may not be con- 
taminated, 4, Ixxvi, Ixxvi n., Ixxviii, 
50, 50 n., 82, 121 sq., 186, 285; 5, 



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Ixi, 2.48 n., 255 sq. and n., 258, 
281-3,285, 300, 307, 334"., 39 6 ; 
7, 227; 14, 36; 18, 229, 310 sq., 
371-4, 376-80, 432 sq.; 24, 67, 71, 
31 1, 336 sq. ; 25, 137, 151 ; 31, 284 ; 
37, 90 sq., 103, 108, 122 sq., 149, 
155, 162, 162 n., 186-90; 47, 101 ; 
48, 565 ; does not kill, 4, 49, 52, 

52 ii. ; purification of the f., defiled 
by the dead, 4, 11 3-1 5, 142 sq. ; 37, 
160; the cleanser delights the f., 4, 
133; trembles in front of boiling 
water, 4, 283, 283 n.; 24, 311 ; is 
always pure, 14, 132 ; 25, 398; 33, 
216 ; purified by Ka, 14, 331 ; the 
purity of the sacred f., 18, 258 ; 
must be cold before the ashes are 
removed, 24, 311 sq. ; contaminated 
by a mcnstruous woman, 24, 332 ; 
if the sun shines on f., it is a sin, 24, 
334 sq.; a symbol of divine power 
and purity, 31, xix ; water and f. 
disturbed by untruth, 37, 73 ; 
wounded by being poked, 41 , 
49 sq. 

{d) F.-worship in India : the 

SACRED F. 

The pupil comes to the teacher 
with f.-wood in his hand, 1, 60, 8^, 
J 35, 139 sq., 306; 15, 33, 271; 44, 

53 sq. ; the departed is carried to 
the f. (of the funeral pile) from 
whence he sprang, 1, 79 ; rules 
about the sacred f., 2, 1 sq., 201, 
201 sq. n. ; 25, F04, 108 ; 29, 385 sq. ; 
30, xxvi, 138; 38, 306; daily worship 
of the f., 2, 16 sq. ; 25, 151 sq., 
239 ;29, 286 sq. ; at night one should 
not study in a wood where there is 
no f. nor gold, 2, 44 ; before placing 
fuel on the f. it must be sprinkled 
with water, 2, 55 ; the sin of aban- 
doning one's sacred f„ 2, 69, 256 sq. 
and n. ; 7, 135, 176; 25, 103; is 
a sacred object, 2, 94 ; 14, 36 ; 33, 
222 ; a Brahma£arin, when on a 
journey, shall throw part of the 
alms into the f. (instead of offer- 
ing it to the teacher), 2, 135 sq. ; 
the ascetic lives without a f., 2, 
154; 14, 283; kindling of one f. 
enjoined for the hermit, 2, 155, 
155 "-, 157, 195; 14, 45, 259; 25, 
199; money may be taken, to 
defray the expenses of religious 
rites, from a rich man who does not 



kindle the sacred f., 2, 273; obla- 
tions in the f. part of penances, 7, 
151; the sacred f. kindled at the 
wedding, 7, 191; 14, 42, 236; 25, 
87 ; 29, 170 sq. ; 30, 193, 26] ; on 
entering the place where sacred f. 
is kept, let him raise his arm, 7, 
228; 14,245 ; 25, 138 ; the student's 
daily worship of the sacred f., by 
bringing a log to it, 8, 360 ; 14, 156 
sq. ; 25, 42, 50, 62, 64; 29, 75 sq., 
191, 307-9, 313 ; 30, 66 sq., 155 sq., 
159 sq., 271 sq., 274; 44, 48 sq. ; 
the ascetic keeps a f., 8, 362 ; wor- 
shipped by Erahmawas, 10 (i), 90 ; 
(ii), 74 ; worshipping of the f. does 
not purify, 10 (ii), 41 ; feeding the 
sacrificial f., recommended by Mara, 
10 (ii), 69 ; the principal thing in 
sacrifice is the sacred f., 10 (ii), 
105; origin of the f.-ritual of the 
Va^asaneyins, 12, xxxi sq., xxxv ; 
the raw flesh-eating, corpse-eating, 
and the sacrificial f., 12, 33 sq. ; 
Paryagnikarawa, carrying the f. 
round a sacred object, 12, 45 sq., 
45 n. ; 26, 187 n. ; 44, xli, 307 ; is 
the womb of the sacrifice, 12, 141 
sq. ; 26, 19 sq. ; 44, 3 ; the f. in the 
sacrificer's innermost soul, 12, 311 
sq.; he whospeaks the truth worships 
the f., 12, 312 sq. ; Brahmanas who 
keep no sacred f. are like Sudras, 14, 
3 3 sq. and n. ; teacher compared with 
the sacred f., 14, 40 sq. ; a Snataka 
should not pass between a f. and 
a Bnihrnawa or between two fires, 
14, 6r ; sin of extinguishing the 
sacred f., 14, 104, 114 ; the Snataka 
must keep a sacred f., 14, 159 ; 
touching i, after dinner, 14, 263 ; 
younger brother must not kindle 
the sacred f. before the elder, 
14, 329 ; the rite of the Atharvawas 
of carrying f. on the head, 15, 42 ; 
38, 186, 189 sq. ; 48, 629, 631 ; 
Kajyapa gave up f.-worship, 19, 188 
sq. ; iSraddha offerings made in the 
sacred f. or in the hand of a Brah- 
ma«a, 25, 114 ; stealing a sacred f., 
25, 312; taking fuel for the sacred 
f. no theft, 25, 313 ; sacrificial food 
offered only in f.,26, 59 sq., i78sq, ; 
44, 283 ; what he offers in the f., 
thereby the gods exist, 26, 154 ; the 
sacrifice is f., 26, 171 ; carrying the 



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f. round the animal victim, 26, 177 
sq., 186 sq. ; 29, 176 sq.; 30, 234 
sq. ; 44, xxvi, 307, 307 n., 410 sq. ; 
Agnyadheya or the setting up of the 
sacred domestic f., 29, 12-14,12 n., 
20,270-2, 276 sq. ;30, 14 sq., 201-3 ; 
Agnipra«ayana,thc carrying forward 
of the f., 29, 23, 162 ; a man setting 
out on a journey makes the f. enter 
himself or the two kindling-sticks, 
29, 133 sq. ; 30, 203; expiatory 
rite, if the sacred f. goes out, 29, 
134 ; 41, 263-5 j preparing the place 
for the sacrificial f., 29, 162; the 
domestic f. to be kept and wor- 
shipped, 29, 172, 269 ; 30, 261, 267; 
a f.-brand thrown into the direction 
whence danger is expected, 29, 231 
sq. ; renewal of the sacred f. after 
adeath or other calamity, 29, 246-8, 
246 sq. n. ; the two kindling-sticks 
handed over to the sacrificer, 29, 
265-8 ; sprinkling water round the 
sacrificial f., 29, 378; 30, 141 sq.; 
the Sutikagni or f. used at the con- 
finement, 30, 211, 214; placing the 
f. in the new-built house, 30, 285 sq. ; 
one who has forsaken his f. cannot 
be a witness, 33, 87 ; the king must 
worship those who keep a sacred f., 
33, 346 ; a wife deceased before her 
husband takes away his sacred f., 
33, 377 ; charm to ward off danger 
from f., 42, 147, 514-16; is the 
immortal element of sacrifice, 43, 
326 sq. ; the sacrificial horse coupled 
with the sacred f. (Arka), as the 
representative of Agni-Pra^apati, 
44, xviii ; the f. is faith, the ghee is 
truth, 44, 46 ; by sacrificing with f. 
produced by two Ara»is of Ajvattha 
tree, Pururavas becomes a Gan- 
dharva, 44, 73 sq.; churned out at 
the seasonal sacrifices, 44, 77 ; these 
worlds have light on both sides, 
through f. on this side, and through 
the sun on yonder side, 44, 149 ; by 
means of the circumambient f. 
enemies are shut out from sacrifice, 
44, 271 ; tending the f., cannot be 
a means of reaching perfection, 45, 
294 sq. ; the rubbing of f. by two 
firesticks represented as an act of 
generation, 46, 302, 304 sq. ; cir- 
cumambulated, see Circumambula- 
tion. See also Agni (0). 



(c) F.-worship in India : the 

THREE OR MORE SACRED FIRES. 

Pupils attend the teacher's s. f., 
1, 64 ; the s. f. teach Upakojala, 1, 
64-7 ; libations in the Garhapatya, 
Dakshina, and Ahavaniya f. as 
penances, 1, 70 ; the doctrine of the 
five f., heaven, rain (Parjanya), 
earth, man, woman, and our being 
born in them, 1, 78-80, 80 n., 84 ; 
15, 207 sq. ; 34, lxxxiii, cviii ; 38, 
101-32, 1S6-9, 233-5, 29 s , 3 S 3, 400, 
403 ; 48, 273-7, 585, 595, 652, 753 ; 
as members of the Vaijvanara Self, 

1, 89 ; the teacher holds, with regard 
to alms, the place which the 
Ahavaniya f. holds with regard to 
a sacrifice, 2, 14; the three f. at 
a sacrifice, 2, 117, 117 n. ; 14, 56, 
192-5; 25, 71 sq. ; 30, 321-3, 353, 
363 sq. ; 48, 291 ; the hermit with 
wife and children and his sacred f., 

2, 156; 7, 276; to be kept by a king, 
2, 161 ; sin of extinguishing or neg- 
lecting the s. f., 2, 287 ; 14, 4 sq. ; 
25, 438, 442 sq. ; 44, 82-5, 1S7-96 ; 
he must not eat in a house where 
the s. f. are preserved, 7, 221 ; one 
who keeps five f. sanctifies a com- 
pany, 7, 254; 14, 19 ; 25, no, uon.; 
the ascetic repositing the s. f. in 
himself, 7, 279; 14, 275 sq., 280, 
291 ; 25, 203, 205 ; to be regardless 
of fruits of action, not discarding 
the s. f., is renunciation, 8, 67 ; one 
of the ten f. at the allegorical sacri- 
fice of the sense-organs, 8, 261 ; 
Ahavaniya and Garhapatya f., 8, 
262; 12, 207 sq.; 44, 516, 535; 46, 
236, 238; the sacrificer sleeps in 
one of the chief f. -houses, 12, 1, 6 ; 
preparation of the sacrificial f., 12, 
I sq., 87-92, 95-IJ4, 230-2; only 
oblations offered in blazing f. are 
successful, 12, [46, 174 ; they strew 
grass round the f., for the sacrifice 
dreads nakedness, 12, 208 ; the 
Garhapatya f. is a house, 12, 272 ; 
the Agnyadhana (Agnyadheya) or 
establishment of the s. f., 12, 274- 
322 ; 25, 438 ; 43, 296, 296 n. ; 44, 
in., 2 ; producing (churning) the 
s. f., 12, 275, 292-5, 293 n., 294 sq. 
n., 311 sq., 389, 389 n. ; the 
Punaradheya or re-establishment of 
the s. f., 12, 285, 285 n., 313-22, 313 



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11. ; 46, 368 ; so long as he has not 
set up the s. f., the sacrificer is 
a mere man, 12, 292, 294 ; Sabhya 
or hall f. kept up by Kshatriyas, 12, 
302 n. ; Agnyupasthana, or worship 
of the s. f., 12, 338-60 ; the house- 
holder worships the s. f, when 
setting out on a journey, and 
returning home, 12, 357-60 ; 
Samidhs (kindling-sticks), 12, 400 
n. ; 44, 567 ; the Prasas, Apana, &c, 
identified with the s, f., 15, 279 sq. ; 
44, 190 ; the three s. f. form the 
mouth-endowed body of the Self, 
15, 308 ; meditation on the s. f., 15, 
33* sq., 334; the s. f. injure him 
who neglects sacrifices, 25, 133; 
made to blaze when portents inter- 
rupttheVeda-study,25, 145; kindled 
again after cremation of the wife, 

25, 198; the dhishwyas or hearths, 

26, 147-55, 148 »-, 441-6 ; 41, 317 
sq., 317 n. ; 43,241-5, 358, 360; 
if weakness comes upon the sacri- 
ficer, he is led to the Ahavaniya 
£",, 26, 148, 148 n. ; kindling the 
sacrificer, 26, 385 sq., 386 n. ; the 
sacrificial f. at Sattras, 26,441-6; 
where the wife and the f. are, 
this is the home, 29, 89; restore 
a sick person to health, 29, 236 ; are 
fond of the village, 29, 236 ; the s. f. 
at the funeral, 29, 238 sq., 242 sq., 
356; 44, 175; the fiction concern- 
ing the three s. f., 34, 146; as the 
Garhapatya the highest Self may be 
represented because it is the Self of 
all, 34, 1 50 ; a sixth f.mentioned by the 
Va^asaneyins, 38, 187-9; the making 
of the fire-pan (ukha), 41, 229-46 ; 
44, 579 sq. ; building of the Garha- 
patya hearth, 41, 298-319 ; 43, 
1 1 7-2 1 ; spells put into the s. f., 42, 
76 ; Ukhya f. carried in a pan for 
a year, 43, 191 n., 198, 198 n., 272 
sq., 272 n., 308, 324 ; Agnisava, 43, 
298, 298 n. ; the f.-pan a womb, 43, 
341 ; f.-pan represents the universe, 
43, 353 so t-j 354 n. ; thirty-six thou- 
sand Arka-f. produced by Mind, 
Speech, &c.,43, 375-80, 375 n. ; the 
sacrificial f. to be laid down at new 
moon, not under an asterism, 44, 
1 sq. ; the offerer of the Agnihotra 
kept up by his f., 44, 47 ; AnvS- 
harya-pa^ana f., 44, 83, 178, 183; 



whilst he is offering the Agnihotra, 
the Sacrificer's f, become worn out, 
and he renews them again by the 
animal sacrifice: with the f. the 
Sacrificer and his house and cattle 
are worn out and renewed, 44, 118 
sq. ; the s. f. long for flesh, 44, 1 19 ; 
worshipped to avoid being driven 
from one'shome, 44,126; symbolism 
of the four sacrificial f. at the animal 
sacrifice, 44, 127; animal sacrifice 
in the s. f. thrown together, 44, 174 ; 
the three f. are the three worlds, 
44, 178 ; he who lays down his two 
f. spreads himself all over these 
worlds, 44, 178 ; how the sacred f. 
are to be treated when the Agni- 
hotrindies, 44, 197-200; by burning 
the Sacrificer they unite him with 
his f., 44, 200-2 ; the f. by which 
the dead Sacrificer is burnt, lovingly 
touch him even as sons their father, 
44, 204 ; sacrificial f. not kept up by 
the Kajis, 44, 401 ; the sacrificer of 
a Purushamedha takes up the two 
f. within his own self, 44, 412 ; 
Agnidhra (11.) or f.-shed, 44, 515 ; 
the three sacrificial f. the heads of 
Agni, 46, 168 ; establishment of s. f. 
not obligatory for those whose con- 
dition of life involves chastity, 48, 
698. 

(f) f. worship in indta : the 
Agnihotra or f.-offerings. 

Five A. oblations offered to the 
P rasas, 1, 89-91 ; 15, 279 sq. ; 38, 
249-52; 48, 294 sq. ; as hungry 
children sit round their mother, so 
do all beings sit round the A., 1, 91 ; 
he who offers the A. with a full 
knowledge of its purport, offers it 
in all worlds, in all beings, in all 
Selfs, all his sins are burnt, 1, 91 ; 
the inner A. is better than the 
ordinary A., 1, 283 ; 8, 191 ; 38, 
263 ; reception of a guest during an 
A., 2, 118 sq. ; meal time regulated 
by A., 7, 218; the A. as the first 
among sacrifices, 8, 353 ; 15, 30 sq., 
51 sq. ; 17, 134; 25, 130, 130 m, 
132; 44, 502; 45, 138; the A. or 
Morning and Evening Libations, 
and the worship of the fires, 12, 173, 
186, 322-60, 374 sq., 374 n., 407, 
415, 443 sq. ; 26, 37, 37 n., 390; 43, 
274, 297, 297 n., 299, 356; 44, xiv, 



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1 18 sq. ; if the A. were not offered, 
the sun would not rise, 12, 328 ; the 
A. as a domestic sacrifice, obligatory 
for every householder, morning and 
evening offerings in the domestic 
fire, 2, 51; 7, 191; 12, 333 sq. ; 14, 
265; 29, 14, 18 sq., 89, 136, 172, 
286 sq., 386, 392 ; 30, 15 sq., 19-21, 
39, 196 sq., 265 sq. ; 42, 84, 145; 
the A. is the ship that sails heaven- 
wards, 12, 345 sq. ; 44, 185, 190; 
the Gafilas, who were converted by 
Buddha, flung their hair, their 
braids, and their things for the A. 
into the river, IB, 132 sq.; good 
conduct more important than the 
A., 14, 34 ; the hermit offers the A., 
14,45, 292, 294 ;49(i), 74 ;an Agni- 
hotrin may perform secret penances, 
14, 125 ; gifts to BrShmanas better 
than A., 14, 138 sq. ; 25, 229; the 
Na&keta rite a kind of f.-sacrifice, 
which leads to heaven, 15, xxi sqq., 
4 sq., 9, 12; 34, 247-52; 48, 269; 
the merit of offering sacrifices, 
especially the A., 15, 51 sqq., 334, 
336-8 ; times for the A., 25, 32, 32 
n., 122 ; 48, 527 ; A. not interrupted 
by impurity after death, 25, 182, 
183 n. ; wife burnt with the A. fires, 
25, 198 ; the A. with three sacred 
fires, 25, 200; persons unfit to offer 
the A., 25, 437, 437 n. ; the per- 
manent obligation of the A., 34, 
lxxviii; 38, 191, 296 sq., 296 n., 313, 
358-G1 ; 48, 177, 693 sq., 702 sq., 
725 sq.; offered during a whole 
month at the ayana of the Ku«*/a- 
payins, 38, 250 n., 251, 314; trans- 
ference of the fire from the Gar- 
hapatya fire to the two other fires, 
at the A,, 38, 251 ; a text relating to 
the A. which forms part of the 
mahapitnya^a, 38, 299 sq. ; A. 
offered on the eve of battle, 42, 122, 
510; to be offered by the sacrificer 
himself in new and full moon nights, 
44, 2 1 sq., 34 sq. ; esoteric doctrines 
about the A., 44, 46-8 ; Uddalaka 
Aru»i's teaching on the A., 44, 79- 
85 ; worlds conquered by the A., 
44, in sq. ; Ganaka of Yideha on 
the A., 44, 1 1 2-15 ; after performing 
the A., one approaches the fires 
saying ' Wealth,' and becomes 
firmly established by offspring and 



cattle, 44, 126 ; the A. of one who 
performs a sattra, 44, 175; expiatory 
ceremonies in connexion with the 
A., 44, 178-96; the A. is a sacri- 
ficial session ensuring death in old 
age, 44, 178; sacred to Pra^-apati, 
44, 183 ; is a long sacrificial session, 
44, 197, 200 ; how it is performed 
when the Agnihotrin dies, 44, 
197-200 ; tainted is the A. of one 
who is dead, 44, 198; prayers for 
the morning and evening service, 
46, 37 sq., 39, 42 sq., 317 ; speaking 
of truth incumbent on the Agni- 
hotrin, 48, 303. 
(g) F. worship in Iran. 

Sacredness and worship of f. in 
Zoroastrianism, 1, xxii ; 4, xiii, lxii, 
lxiv, Ixxv-lxxvii, Ixxix sq. ; 5, lxi, 
298-300, 298 n. , 299 n., 375, 375 n., 
393-6 ; 18, 163 sq., 164 n., 171 sq., 
290 sq. ; 31, 258; 37, 231, 266 sq., 
350 sq., 358, 368, 470 ; 47, 91, 154. 
161, 161 n.; Ardashir blamed for 
destroying the sacred f. of the 
Muleik ut-tavaif, 4, xliv sq. ; keeps 
away or kills the fiends, 4, lxxvi, 
lxxix sq M 115, 184 n. ; 5, 229, 317, 
342-4 ; 37, 122 ; 47, 141 ; the sacred 
Bahrain (Vahram) f,, 4, lxxvi, 1150., 
272 ; 5, 185, 202, 206 ; 24, 96 ; 47, 
161, 161 n. ; meritoriousness of 
bringing f.-brands to the Daityo- 
gatu, or Bahnim f., 4, 115-19, 115 
sq. n. ; kept to watch over a preg- 
nant woman and a new-born child, 
4, 184 n. ; 5, 316 sq., 322 ; 18, 59, 
59n.; 24,277; 37, 480; 47, 30; how 
often the f. of Ahura- Mazda must 
be fed, 4, 256, 256 n. ; they who 
treat not friendly his f., offend 
Ahura-Mazda, 4, 281 ; worship of 
the f. one of the three (four) best 
things in the world, 4, 293 ; 18, 417 ; 
offerings not to be made, without 
looking at the f., 4, 347; worship 
of the f. re-established by Peshyo- 
tanfi, 5, li, 227, 230; on the nature 
of the five kinds of f., 5, 61-4, 6 r n. ; 
the sacred f. Gujasp {Gu/n-asp), 5, 
173, 229 ; 24, 271, 271 n. ; 37, 190 ; 
opposed to witchcraft, 5, 185 ; the 
f. Vijnasp, 5, 218; consecration of 
f. and water, 5, 224-7; prayer on 
presenting anything to the f., 5,333, 
333 n, ; advantage of keeping a f. in 



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the house, 5, 539 sq.; holy-water 
presented to the f., 5, 341 sq., 375, 
375 n. ; 18, 232, 251 ; holy f., 5, 
362 ; 47, 76, 82 ; prayer for the f, 
when seeing the f., 5, 371; kept 
burning at the three nights* cere- 
mony, 18, 59 ; formula addressed to 
the f. (tava athroj, 18, 141, 143, 143 
n. ; priests protectors of the sacred 
f-j 18, 353 ; duty of maintaining the 
s. f., 24, 270-2, 301, 355 sq. ; 37, 96, 
163 sq., 188, 190-2; salutation of 
the f., 24, 358 ; the altar f. an aid of 
grace, 31, 95, 100; about f.-wood, 
37, 48, 126 ; atonement for injuring 
the f. of Varahran, 37, 86 ; about 
the f. in the house, 37, 122 ; care of 
the f. when travelling, 37, 125; 
neglect of f. causes want of offspring, 
37, 191 sq.; the f. pleased by the 
conversion of Vijtlsp, 47, 74 ; abode 
of the s. f., see Fire-temple. 
Fire-altar : the altar is female, the f. 
is male, 12, 63 ; after having built 
the f., one must not approach a 
6'udra wife, 14, 96 ; leading forward 
of the fire to the f., 26, 121-6 ; 43, 
188-207 ; penance for pushing 
against a f., 29, 224; f. made of 
mind, &c, do not constitute part of 
the sacrificial action, 34, lxxiv ; 38, 
259-68; the AgnLfayana (AgnWitya), 
or building of the f., 38, 261 n., 
264 ; 41, xxvi sq,, 143-419 ; 43, xiii, 
xxi, 1-280 ; layers and bricks of the 
f., 41, 186-90, 355 sq., 362 ; 44, 542 
(ish/akS.), 544 (£iti), 546 (lokam- 
prina), 552 (nakasad), 554 (pania- 
&u&) } 560 (puna^iti), 564 (ritavyS), 
566 (sadana), 573 (sprit), 574 
(srishfi), 576 (svayainatr/»Ba), 582 
(valakhilya), 586 (vuva^yotis) ; the 
ashes from the fire-pan at the Agni- 
4ayana thrown into the water, 41, 
293—7 ; preparation of the site of 
the great Ahavaniya f.,41, 325-417 ; 
the fire-pan on the f., 41, 396-401 ; 
plan of f., 41, 419; ceremony of 
building the householder's f., 42, 
354; the mystery of the f., 43, xiii— 
xxvi, 281-404 ; ritual of the f. later 
than the rest of the sacrificial 
system, 43, xiii, xviii ; takes a full 
year to complete, 43, xix, xxiii; 
represented as the Universe, 43, 
xix sq., 381-90; lotus-leaf in its 

P 



centre, 43, xx, 1 n., 44 sq, and n. ; 
has the shape of a large bird, 43, 
xxi sq., 1 n., 4 n., 19-21, 22 n., 
112 n., 114-16, i2o sq., 135-40, 
148 sq., 168, 168 n., 177, 179 sq., 
180 n,, 201, 250 sq. and n., 272, 274, 
285-9, 296, 300-6, 311, 363, 391, 
402 ; 44, 588 (wing of altar) ; bricks 
of the f. representing parts of the 
universe, 43, 2 n., 23-9, 41-57, 47 
n., 80, 82, 90-103, 109, 121-4, 127- 
34, 138, 140-8, 271, 364; diagram 
showing the central parts of the 
layers, 48, 17,24,48, 71, 98 ; repre- 
sents Purusha-Pra^apati and the 
divine body of the sacrificer, 43, 30, 
226 sq., 252, 256; 44, xiv, 428 ; the 
Agni^ayana higher than an ordinary 
sacrifice, 43, 1 2 r, 214 n, ; sprinkling 
the f., 43, 169 sq. ; is speech, 43, 
173 ; drawing of frog, lotus-flower, 
and bamboo-shoot across it, 43, 
174-7; is an island, 43, 187; 
mounting the f., 43, 198-200; its 
different bricks are so many Agnie, 
43, 222, 222 n. ; Agniyo^ana, or 
Yoking of the f., 43, 249-55; the 
Agni^ayana includes all sacrificial 
rites, 43, 266, 296-9 ; rules for 
repeated Agni£ayana, 43, 271-4; 
propitiatory hymn to make good 
deficiencies in the building of the f., 
43, 274-8 ; the building of the f. 
must not be performed for another 
person, 43, 278-80; the triad F., 
Mahad uktham, and Mahavrata, 43, 
281-9; how to measure its dimen- 
sions, 43, 305-12 ; sevenfold, 
hundredfold, and hundred and one- 
fold, 43, 312-15 ; time for building 
the f., 43, 3 1 6-2 o ; number of bricks, 

43, 357-61 ; identified with the 
metres, 43, 384-6 ; built so as to 
look in all directions, 43, 390-3 ; the 
Agniiayana a preliminary to the 
Soma-sacrifice, 44, xiii ; human 
sacrifice at the building of the f„, 

44, xxxvii-xxxix ; is twenty-one- 
fold, 44, 334 sq., 334 n. ; the greatest 
possible f. built at the Sarvamedha, 
44, 418; the tomb of a builder of 
a f. to be made in the shape of the 
f., 44, 428 ; the bones of the 
deceased arranged like the bird- 
shaped f., 44, 434 sq. ; buriat rite for 
one who has built, and one who has 



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not built, a i'., 44, 439 sq. ; AgnUit 
or builder of a f„ 44, 516 ; Mantras 
for the construction of the f., 46, 
285 sq. Seeulio Agni (o),and Altar, 

Fire-bodies, see Fire (a). 

Fire-places, in India and Ceylon, 
36, 86 sq. ii. 

Fire-priest, lee Priests (a, e). 

Fire-temple (abode of the sacred 
fires), ceremonial worship in it, 5, 
310, 310 n. ; 18, 162, 162 n., 173, 
242, 242 n. ; 24, 28; 87, 119; three 
times every day the archangels form 
an assembly in the f., 5, 393 ; cere- 
mony for the living soul celebrated 
in it, 18, 242. 

Fire-worshippers, hold the doc- 
trine of deeds having their reward, 
13, 190 sq. 

Firmament, see Sky. 

Fish : the Kara f., chief of the crea- 
tures living in water, 4, 223, 224 n. ; 
sexual intercourse of f., 5, 61 ; the 
Kar f. protects the HSm, 5, 65 sq. ; 
24, in, in n. ; the f. V3s of 
Pan^asaaVaran, 5, 66 ; the ox-f. 
exists in all seas, 5, 71 ; Makara, 
chief among f., 8, 90, 90 n. ; eating 
the flesh of f., a kind of penance, 
10 (ii), 41 ; Buddha allows the 
Bhikkhus to eat f., 20, 252 sq.; 
mighty f. hundreds of leagues long, 
20, 302 ; 35, 130, 186; 36, 90; the 
eyesight of the Kara f., 23, 239, 
266 ; stories of the island-whale, 23, 
295, 295 n. ; f. offerings, 28, 78, 
78 11.; the f. of fifty fins, and the 
sacred beast that stands in Vourn- 
kasha, worshipped, 31, 291 ; the 
fabulous f. Khwiin, 39, 164 sq., 167. 
Fishing, regulations for, 27, 260, 

263 sq., 264 n., 277, l°1- 
Five-people (pa/;£a £ana£), rest in 
the Self, 15, 178, 17811.; what is 
meant by them, 34, xl, 257-63 ; 
beyond the f., i.e. far away, 42, 92 ; 
the fivefold dwellings of the f., 46, 
194. 
Flamingoes (Ha/Hsas), see Birds (0). 
Flesh, see Animals (<■). 
Flood : expiatory oblation to the F., 
if the Soma meets with any mishap 
at the purifying bath concluding the 
Soma-sacrifice, 44, 2 1 1 ; Wind wor- 
shipped under the name of F., 44, 
479. See also Deluge. 



Flowers, as offerings, 8, 85 ; celes- 
tial f. worn by Kr/shaa, 8, 93 ; 
similes of f., 8, 285 sq., 313, 371 ; 
10 (i), 16-19; ra ' n °f heavenly 
(Maw</arava, Mangushaka) f. in 
honour of Buddha, 11, 86 sq. ; 20, 
370, 370 n. ; 21, 6, 9, 20, 24, 69, 
156 sq., 162-71, 183 sq., 232, 234, 
308, 313, 315, 378; the Bodhisattva 
smells heavenly f., 21, 345; vision 
of Mandara f., 22, 233 sq. ; rain of 
f. in Sukhavati, 49 (ii), 95. See also 
Lotus. 

Foetus, see Embryo. 

Folklore, see Fables, and Tales. 

Food. 

(a) F. in mythology and philosophy. 
(6) F. in law and ntnal. 
(c) Lawful and forbidden f. 

(a) F. IN MVTHOLO&Y AND PHILO- 
SOPHY. 

F., the deity of the pratihara 
hymns, for all beings live when 
they partake of f., 1, 20 sq. ; pro- 
duced from water, 1, 94 ; 43, 232 ; 
the word 'f.' (anna) denotes 'earth,' 
1, 94 n. ; 38, 23 sq. ; 48, 536; see 
also Earth ; is the root of the body, 1, 
99, 99sq.11.; depends on rain,l, 117; 
8, 54 ; meditation on f. as Brahman 
1, 117 ; 15, 64-9, 194, 302 sq., 
312-16; by means of f. he obtains 
everything, 1, 203 sq.; the creation 
of f., 1, 240 sq. ; 41, 402 ; no one 
who does not eat, has strength to 
do holy works, 4, 31 ; all creatures 
produced by f., 8, 54 ; 15, 55, 64-9 ; 
three kinds of f. (according to the 
three Gn»as), 8, 118; how f. is di- 
gested and bodies are formed in the 
womb, 8, 252 ; is the highest of all 
things to be swallowed, 8, 353 ; f. 
and breath identified, 12, 304 ; 15, 
194 ; 38, 211, 213 ; milk the first f., 
and f. means progeny, 12, 385 sq., 
388, 394 ; goddess of f., 14, 240 ; 
creatures depend on f., f. is life, 
hence gifts of f. must be made, 14, 
245; everything rests on f., 15, 
66 sq. ; seven kinds of f. pro- 
duced, 15, 91-3 ; f. and breath are 
the two gods, 15, 142; from f. are 
born all ereatures that live on earth ; 
afterwards they live on /., and in the 
end {when they die) they return to it, 
15, 315 ; f. of the souls in heaven 



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and in hell, 18, 66 sq. and n., 72 ; 
24, 21 sq., 2i n., 25 ; is threefold, 
26, 28 ; 43, 93, no ; 46, 141, 143 ; 
means cattle, 26, 172 ; prayer to the 
Lord of F., 20, 54, 348 ; the support 
of all beings, 36, 369 ; satisfies if 
proportionate to the body, 41, 260, 
330 ; the body linked to f. by means 
of vital aii-s, 41, 270; 43, 139; 
mortar and pestle represent f., 41, 
393-7 ! is taken from the front (of 
the mouth) towards the back, 41, 
402 ; is the resort of the waters, 41, 
416 ; all f. is water, for one eats by 
moistening the f., 43, 35 ; 44, 443 ; 
is seventeen fold, 43, 79 ; evil driven 
away by means of f., 43, 87 ; a sick 
man, when he gets better, asks for 
f., 43, 87 ; the essence of f. is 
invisible, 43, 95 ; how f. benefits the 
body, 43, 135, 139; the arrows of 
the terrestrial Rudras, 43, 165 ; 
represented by sour curds, honey, 
and ghee, 43, 184 sq. ; is variegated, 
43, 196 ; immortal and mortal parts 
of f., 43, 285 ; by means of the arms 
f, is eaten, 43, 306 ; when enclosed 
in the body, f. becomes the body 
itself, 43, 341 ; f. consumed by man 
in this world, consumes him in the 
other, 4t, 260 ; f. of mankind in the 
future ages, 47, 112-14, I1[ 7* 

(b) F. IN LAW AND RITUAL. 

Robbery permitted to sustain 
life, after having not eaten at the 
time of six meals, 2, 273 ; the cere- 
mony of ' honouring one's f.' before 
a meal, 7, 220, 220 n. ; f, given for 
reciting stanzas, rejected by Buddha, 
10 (ii), 13 ; fast-day f., 12, 2, 5 sq. ; 
42, 534 ; f. of king must be hallowed 
by Mantras and mixed with anti- 
dotes against poison, 25, 25 1 ; special 
f. for penances, 25, 449, 452 sq., 
455. 459-61,463-5, 470 sq., 474 sq., 
478 ; first f. of the child (annapra- 
jana), 29, 50, 182, 183 sq., 299 sq. ; 
30, 316, 283; 37, 122; see also 
Child (6) ; used for ancestor-wor- 
ship, 29, 251 sq, ; a wife who always 
eats before her husband may be 
divorced, 33, 184 ; moderation in f., 
a condition of moral conduct and a 
holy life, 35, 4-7 ; three right views 
regarding f., 36, 252, 252 n.; giving 
no f., a mode of engaging in con- 



flict, 37, 40, 44, 67 ; proportion of 
f. for mankind and cattle, 37, 91 sq. ; 
daily f. of men, women, children, 
and dogs, 37, 1 1 4 ; sin of deprival of 
f., 37, iissq., 123, 130, 141 ; all f. 
must be consecrated, 37, 192 ; 
prayer for f., 37, 332 ; 41, 262 sq. ; 
merit of providing f. for the good, 
37, 333 sq.; kinds of f, given to 
sacrilicer, 41, 36 f. ; put on the 
bricks used for building the fire- 
altar, 41, 155; 43, 91 ; is served 
from the right side, 43, 226 ; accepted 
from a Brahma^a, not from a low 
person, 48,563. See also Abstinence, 
Eating, and Meals. 
(e) Lawful and forbidden f. 
Remains of f. impure, 1, 18 ; 44, 
446 ; restrictions as to f., for the 
Brahma^arin, 2, 8, 13 n., 12-16, 
191 ; 8, 360 ; 14, 1 18 sq., 1 19 n. ; 
rules about lawful and forbidden f., 
2, 59-7', 74 s q., 265-70, 274; 6, 
23 sq., 58, 94, 97, 106, xog-n, 
i34sq., 263 sq.; 7, 33, 39, 136, 187; 
S t 279; 10 (ii), 40 sq. ; 14, 33 sq. 
and n , 44, 69-75, 104 sq., 115, 121, 
130 sq., 154, 17 1—3, 184 sq., 222, 
224, 237, 239, 250 sq., 263, 287, 
298, 310, 3T3, 317, 319, 329; 25, 
lxviii sq., xciv, 161-4, 168, 170-7, 
44i, 441 n., 443, 443 n., 497 ; 27, 
462 sq. ; 33, 287; 38, 311 sq. ; 
penances for eating impure or for- 
bidden f., 2, 85-7, 287 sq., 290, 295 ; 
7, 153 sq., 162-9; 14, 13 r; 25, 
460-3, 481 sq, ; 29, 224; fit for 
sacrifices, 2, 138 sq., 296, 300 sq. 
and n; ; 14, 70 ; 25, 123-5 ; 30, 267 ; 
but see also Sacrifices (&) * f. to be 
avoided for a special vow, 2, 147 ; 
forbidden f. must be avoided even 
hi times of distress, 2, 213 ; of 
Sudras, 2, 233; 14, 49; fit for 
Sraddhas, 2, 256; 14, 54 sq. ; for- 
bidden f. becomes pure by scatter- 
ing earth on it, 2, 292, 292 n. ; 
polluted by a menstruous woman, 
5, 279, 283, 340 sq. n. ; not to be 
thrown away to the north at night, 

5, 318 ; f. over which God's name 
has been pronounced, not to be 
rejected, 6, 130; fruit and cattle 
created by God, therefore lawful f., 

6, 133 sq. ; reproval of those who 
prohibit lawful f., 6, 199; honey 



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lawful f., 6, 257 ; great religious 
merit of him who does not eat 
meat, 7, 171 ; when illicit f* may be 
eaten, 7, 187-9; ^ lxxv 5 38 » 
309-12 ; 48, 701 sq. ; cattle are 
lawful f., 9, 59; persons in whose 
house it is lawful to eat f., 9, 81 sq,, 
82 n. ; of a Brahmana slayer for- 
bidden, 14, ro 1 ; 25, 309; K&rmirians 
eat meat, 14, 147 n. ; f. defiled by 
various causes, 15, 312 ; Brahma/zas 
are abstainers from f. at night and 
at the wrong time, 17, 130 ; milk of 
goats, the best f., 24, 45 ; defiled 
and purified, 25, 190 sq.; 48, 17; 
common people cat raw flesh, 2G, 
395 n -j 396 i).; list of dishes, rules 
about f., 27, 459-64; honey for- 
bidden to the Brabmaiarin, 44, 90 ; 
flesh is the best kind off., 44, 119 ; 
abstinence from acids and salt does 
not lead to perfection (as some 
think), 45, 294 ; purity in matters of 
f. enjoined for those who know 
Brahman, 48, 702. See also Absti- 
nence, and Animals {e). 

Fools, who do not know the true 
law, 10 (i), 20-2; company of f. 
and wise men, 10 (i), 55. 

Foot-clothing, of Buddhist Bhik- 
khus, 17, 13-24, 31, 34 sq., 39- 

Fo Pan - ni - pan - king, Chinese 
translation ofaBuddha-Parinibbana- 
Sutta, 11, xxxvi ; 19, 365, 

Fo-pen-hing-king, a life of 
Buddha, 19, xvi sq., xxviii, 

Fo-pen-hing-tsih-king, a life of 
Buddha, 19, xxix. 

Forefathers, see Fathers. 

Foreigners, law regarding, 37, 
46 sq., 51, 57 sq., 113; sin of 
delivering an Iranian to f., 37, 72 ; 
worthiness of destroying f., 37, 89 : 
family alliance with f., 37, 99 ; about 
f. seeking wives, 37, 100 ; as 
physicians, 37, 118. 

Forest, meditation in the, 8, 251. 
See Hermits. 

Foresters, see Hermits. 

Forgiveness, see Morality. 

Form, the reality or non-reality of 
the idea of, 11, 49-51 ; deliverance 
from the hindrance to thought 
arising from the sensations and 
ideas due to external f., 11, 51 sq. ; 
passion for a f. ; spiritual bondage, 

Digitized by 



11, 226, 230 sq. See also Colours, 
and Names (and forms). 

Fornication, see Sexual intercourse. 

Fortune, see Bhaga. 

Fortune -telling, see Divination. 

Fo-sho-hing-tsan-king, t.w., Chi- 
nese translation of Ajvaghosha's 
Buddha-^arita, 19, ix sq. ; translated, 
-vol. 19. 

Fo-shwo-^'ung-hu-mo -ho -ti-king, 
t.w., a life of Buddha, 19, xxx. 

Four Noble Truths, see Truths. 

Frabaretar, see Priests (d). 

Frada</-gadman, Phi., Av. Frada/- 
/jvareno, n.p., one of the producers 
of the renovation, 18, 78 sq. and n. ; 
23, 219, 220 n. 

Fradadhafshu, see Frada/fshu. 

Frarfakhshtfi, see Fradhakhjto. 

Frada/fahu, worshipped, 31, 197, 
204, 209, 215, 219, 223, 349, 373, 
381 sq. 

Frada/- //T'arenah, see Fradarf- 
gadman. 

FradaAnara, son of Gravaratu, 23, 
217. 

Frada/-vanghu, son of Stiva?tf, 23, 
216. 

Frada/-vira, worshipped, 31, 197, 
204, 209, 215, 219, 224, 383. 

Frada/ 1 - vispam - hu^aiti, wor- 
shipped, 31, 204, 209, 215, 219, 224, 
38+ sq. 

Fradhakhi'to, son of the Khumbiks, 
one of the seven immortals, 18, 
256, 256 n,, 258 n. ; 23, 224, 224 n. ; 
37, 203, 203 n. 

Fradhidaya, n,p., 23, 203. 

Fraguzag", n.p., 5, 134; 47, 34, 140. 

Frahimrava, or Frahtniravana-zoij-, 
n.p., Zoroaster's maternal grand- 
father, 5, 144; 47, 18, 18 n. 

Frah-vakhsh-vindtW, n.p., 5, 145. 

FraHh, a demon-worshipper, 47, 1 3. 

Fra^ithra, son of Berezvawr, 23, 
218. 

FrjUya, son of Taurvati, 23, 213. 

Franghadh, the holy maid, 23, 225. 

Franghrasyan, see Frangrasyan. 

Frangrasiyak, see Frangrasyan. 

Frangrasyan (or FrSsiya-u, or Fran- 
grSs'iyak), of Tur, the Turanian, 4, 
1 sq. ; 5, 38, 134 sq. and n., 150; 
37, 28, 28 n., 225 ; 47, 1 1 6, 116 sq. 
n. ; his irrigation works, 5, 79, 82, 
84 ; 18, 214, 214 n. ; 47, xxix, 134 ; 

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punished in hell, 5, r 2 5 ; his struggle 
with Manflj^ihar, 5, 1 35 sq. ; 24, 62, 
62 n. ; his evil reign, 5, 213, 228 ; 
offered to Anahita in his cave under 
the earth, 23, 64 sq., 64 n.; killed 
byHusravah or Khfisroi, 23, ii4sq., 
278) 304, 307, 307 "• 5 24, 64, 64 n. ; 
47, 14, 116 j tries in vain to seize 
the priestly glory of the Aryans, 23, 
300-2, 305 ; created immortal by 
Aharman, 24, 35, 35 n. ; his exploits, 
24, 61 ; bound by Haoma, 31, 246 ; 
defeated by Auzobo, 47, n, 11 sq. 
n. ; sought the glory of Zaratujt, 47, 
33 S( l-> 33 n « Sft also Afr3sy3b. 

Franya, n.p., 23, 204. 

Fraora-ostra, n.p., 23, 217. 

Frarazi, son of Tura, 23, 217. 

Frashaitar, n.p., 5, 145 sq., 146 n. 

Fras-ham vareta, n.p., 23, 206, 
206 n. 

Frash.ao.rtra (Frashojtar), son of 
Hvova, father-in-law of Zarathujtra, 
23, 207 sq., 207 n. ; 37, 397 ; Zara- 
thujtra preached to him, 23, 331 ; 
31, 133, 142 sq. j Zarathujtra prays 
for him, 31, 15, 22; Gamaspa and 
F., the two leaders, 31, 76, 76 n. ; 
37, 130, 130 n. ; a protector of the 
Zarathujtrian Faith, 31, 161, 165 
sq., 250 ; presented a blest form, 31, 
185; offers propitiation to Ahura- 
Mazda, 31, 190 sq. ; questions Zara- 
thujtra as to the rites, 31, 327 j 
priests come to F. for religious 
inquiry, 37, 219, 219 n., 413, 413 n,; 
47, 80 sq. and n., 165 n. ; disciple of 
Zoroaster, 37, 230 ; praise of F., 37, 
236, 290, 297, 299; joyfulness in 
righteousness taught to F., 37, 374 ; 
utterance of F., 37, 406 ; his death, 

; 47, xxx, 165, 165 n. ; converted, 47, 

125. 

Fraahavakhsha, n.p., 23, 210. 
Frashokareta, n.p., 23, 206. 
Frashojtar, see Frashaojtra. 
Frasiya?', see Frangrasyan. 
Frasp-i Aur, n.p., 5, 135. 
Frasrutara, n.p., 23, 216, 
Frajt, n.p., 5, 146. 
Frata, n.p., 23, 203. 
Fratira, n.p., 23, 218. 
Fraud, see Theft. 
Frava, n,p., 23, 214. 
Fravahar, Phi., ' guardian spirit 5, 
Ixxiii, 14. 



Fravak, and Fravakain, one of the 
first seven pairs of men, 5, 58 sq. ; 
lloshyang, son of F., 5, 131 ; 47, 
35; son of Siya(k)mak, 5, 132 ; 47, 
128, 128 n., 140 ; great-grandson of 
Gayoman/, 18, 89, 89 n. 

Fravakain, one of the first women, 
5, 58. 

Fravarane, see Zoroastrianism. 

Fravar</in, the cockscomb, the 
flower of, 5, 104; invoked, 5, 403, 
405. See also Fravashis. 

Fravaahis (prototypes, guardian 
angels) : F. of Ahura-Mazda and 
other gods, 4, 213; 23, 199 sq. ; 
31, 273, 278 ; the mighty F. of the 
righteous invoked and worshipped, 
4, 221, 245; 5, 313, 3*3 "., 392; 
18, 167, 173, 240 sq., 357; 23, 6, 
10, 13 sq., 17, 20, 33 n., 36, 38, 
I79-230* 321, 350-3; 31, 278 sq. ; 
the Fravashi of Thraetaona wor- 
shipped, 4, 246; 31, 389 sq.; the 
Fravashi of the holy Yima, 4, 262 ; 
of the holy men of Turanian nations, 
4, 266 ; sacrifice to the souls and 
F., 4, 349; 31, 309, 331; come to 
meet and bring aliments, &c, to the 
departed soul, 4, 373 sq. ; their 
creation, 5, 5 n. ; 18, 89 ; 47, xxviii, 
xli ; engaged in the defeat of fiends, 
18, 104; not rendered wicked by 
the sin of the soul, IS, 104, 104 n. ; 
angels, souls, and F. attend to the 
wishes of the creator, 18, 120; 
pleased by ceremonial, 18, 159 sq. ; 
37, 174, 184; are free from dis- 
turbance through the glory of the 
creator, 18, 261, 261 sq. n. ; heaven 
their seat, 18, 275; Keresaspa's 
body watched over by 99,999 F,, 
18, 369; the soul and Fravashi of 
the bull, 23, 16; come for help 
and joy, 23, 26; the Fravashi of 
Zarathujtra worshipped, 23, 93 ; 
31, 208, 212, 218, 222 sq., 227, 244, 
252 sq., 255, 273, 275, 278, 324, 
327, 35i> 358, 380; 47, 4 sq., 16, 
73, 139; give virtuous offspring to 
the truthful, 23, 120; in the train 
of Mithra, 23, 136, 145 J the Fra- 
vardin Yajt dedicated to them, 23, 
179-230; what they are, 23, 179; 
of next-of-kin, 23, 180, 228, 
230; different classes of F. wor- 
shipped, 23, 180, 184 sq., 230; 31, 



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FRAVASHIS— FREDftX 



201, 212, 218, 227, 2 7 2 s Q-j 2 75> 

2 79» 331, 351, 358, 373 ; assist Ahura- 
Mazda in maintaining the world, 23, 
180-5, 187, 193 sq. ; watch over 
procreation, 23, 183, 185, 187; 31, 
273; help in battle, 23, 184, 186- 
91, 196 sq., 222 sq. ; invoked in 
danger, 23, 185 ; their numbers, 23, 
194-6 ; send water to their kindred, 
23, 196; souls and F. different, 23, 
197, 228, 230; 31, 279, 27911., 294; 
of the first man, of Zarathujtra, of 
his pupils, and his followers, wor- 
shipped, 23, 200-1 1 ; of holy men 
and heroes worshipped, 23, 211-24, 
226-8; assist Auharmas^ against 
Aharman, 5, 14, 14 11. ; 23, 198 sq. ; 
of warriors and the righteous assist 
the Sky against the Evil Spirit, 5, 
25 ; co-operators with Tijtar, 5, 26, 
169; 23, 92, 102, 102 n. ; a myriad 
F. of the righteous protect Sam, 5, 
119; 24, no; guard the seed of 
Zaratfut against the demons, 5, 144 ; 
arrayed as warriors by Aviha.rma.zti, 
5, 167; diligence of F., 5, 170; use 
of cakes at ceremonies for the F., 5, 
315, 315 n. ; meat-offerings to F., 5, 
336 sq., 337 n. ; duty of celebrating 
the days of the F., 5, 352 ; 24, 100, 
100 n., 264, 298-300; 37, 17-T9, 
17 n., 422, 429, 441, 477; funeral 
offerings to the F., 5, 383 sq. ; 24, 
351; justice, wisdom, and the de- 
sire of the Creator are in the spirit 
which is the pure guardian angel, 
18, 12, 12 n.; soul, animating life, 
preserving guardian spirit, acquiring 
intellect, &c, 18, 17; ceremony of 
the F.on the fourth day after death, 
18, 60; invoked against fiends, 23, 
223 sq.; of holy women worshipped, 
23, 224-88; how they manifest 
themselves, 23, 322 ; angels and F. 
are with the righteous soul, 24, 81, 
81 n. ; Hapt6k-ring, with 99,999 
guardian spirits of the righteous 
keeps back the demons, 24, 91 sq. ; 
the stars are the F., created by 
Auharmaa^, 24, 92 ; protect the 
Horn, 24, in; the Fravashi one of 
the appliances of the soul, 24, 145 ; 
every object has a Fravashi as co- 
operator, 24, 156, 156 n.; the de- 
parted souls bring with them 9,999 
F. of the righteous, 24, 274; donot 



appear in the Gathas, 31,27, 32 n. ; 
of the saints, and of women having 
many sons worshipped, 31, 197, 204, 
209, 215, 219, 224; of the saints 
invoked and worshipped, 31, 199, 
205, 207, 210, 214-16, 220, 222, 
225, 256, 259, 273, 275, 278 sq., 286, 
296, 311, 319, 327 sq., 345, 351 sq., 
358, 362, 374, 380, 382, 385 sq., 
389; the F. of the Kine,and of the 
holy Gaya Maretan, worshipped, 
31, 252 ; have power over nature, 
31, 272 sq. ; prayers for the ap- 
proach of the F., 31, 272 sq. ; in- 
voked in connexion with the waters, 
31, 317 sq.; the Fravashi and soul 
of ZaratuVt, 37, 31 ; ceremony for 
the F. for the sake of male off- 
spring, 37, no; claim ceremonial, 
not lamentation, 37, 193; the Fra- 
vashi of Khusroi, 37, 222 sq a , 222 n. ; 
the Fravashi of Zarathujtra placed 
into his body by the archangels, 47, 
21-9 ; Zarathujtra's Fravashi in the 
Horn, 47, 136 sq., 139. See aha 
Ancestor worship (<?), and Soul (c). 

Frayaodha, son of Karesna, 23, 
209. 

FrayaZ-ratha, n.p., 23, 210. 

Frayazawta, n.p., 23, 212, 225. 

FrazotS, demon, opposes the de- 
parted soul, 24, 17. 

Frazuj^ak, n.p., 5, 134; 47, 34, 140. 

Fredun, A v. Thraetaona, intro- 
duced talismans, 4, 385; fettered 
and smote Azi Dahaka, 4, 385; 5, 
119,234,397; 18, 1 ro, no n., 201 ; 
37, 177, 214-18 ; 47, 10, 116, 163 11. ; 
drove the negroes from Jran, 5, 
87; genealogy of F. the Aspiyan, 
descendant of Yim, 5, 132 sq., 
132 n. ; 37, 27-9, 27 n. ; 47, 140; 
exacted vengeance for Yim, 5, 133 ; 
his descendants, 5, 133-5, r 37, '45 J 
24, 52 n. ; 47, 10 sq. ; the glory ot 
F. settled on the root of a reed, 5, 
138; reigned five hundred years, 
5, 150; primaeval sovereign. 18, 13, 
13 n. ; 47, 121, 128; is full of 
healing, 18, 90; the Fravashi of F. 
kept away fiends, 18, 104, 104 n. ; 
created immortal, misled by Ahar- 
man, 24, 35, 35 n. ; his exploits, 24, 
61, 61 n. ; neglected religion, 24, 
102 ; his war with the Mazendaran, 
37, 216-18; Zoroaster descended 



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from' F., 47, xxi ; his accession, 47, 

xxix; report about Zaratujt explained 

by Yim and F., 47, 31 ; monarch of 

Khvaniras, 47, 34. See also Thrae- 

taona. 
Free Will> see Will. 
Freh-khur</, n.p., 5, 135. 
Freh-mah, n.p., 5, 146, 146 n. 
Freh-Srosh, n.p., 5, 148. 
Fren (Fmii, Freno), daughter of 

Zoroaster, 5, 142 ; 23, 204 n., 224; 

47, 166. 
Fr^nah, son of Frayazawta, 23, 212. 
Frmi, n. of the wives of several 

heroes, 23, 225. See also Fren. 
Frend, mother of Zaratfijt's mother, 

47, 138, 138 sq, n. See also Fren. 
Friars, see Bhikkhus, 
Friend, sin of treachery to, 8, 41 ; 

25, 270; a man's own self is his 

f,, 8, 68 ; the devotee is alike to f. 

and foe, 8, 101, no; he who is a f. 

of all is released, 8, 246; who is 

a f., 10 (ii), 42 sq. ; etiquette a- 

mong f., 25, 54 sq. ; betrayer of f. 

excluded from Sraddha, 25, 105; 

impurity on the death of f., 25, 182. 
Friendship, ode on the value of, 3, 

347; six characteristics of f., 8, 

183 ; the highest of all associations, 

37, 115, 115 n. 
Friftar, demon of deceit, 5, in. 
Frinaspa, son of Kaeva, 23, 217. 
Frif, n.p., ancestor of Zoroaster, 5, 

134; 47, 140. 
Frog, see Animals (k). 
Frohakafra, son of Merezishmya, 

23, 219. 
Fruits, three varieties of badara or 

jujube, 44, 214 sq., 219. See also 

Parables (£, e^f). 
Frya, n.p., 23, 211, 215. 
Fryan, n.p., 5, 146; sons of F., 18, 

256. 
Fryana, n. of a family, 23, 216; 

a tribe, converted to Zoroastrian- 
- ism, 31, 133, 141, 141 n. 
Fryanaks, praise of the Turanian 

family of the, 37, 280, 2S0 n. 
Fryano, n.p., 5, 145. 
Fshusho-mathra, worshipped, 31, 

337, 34i. 
Fu, preserved tablets of the Shu 

from destruction, 3, 7 sq., n. 
Fu-hsi, or Pao-hst, devised the eight 

trigrams, 3, xvi sq. ; 16, 11-14, 22, 



27, 32, 48 sq., 382 sq., 385 sq. n., 
422 sq. n. ; his diagrams, 16, 376 n. ; 
invented nets for hunting and fish- 
ing, 16, 383, 386 n. ; deified as Thai 
Hao, 27, 250 n. ; got the Tao, and 
by it wrought wonders, 39, 135, 
2 1 0, 2 1 o n., 2 44 ; a primaeval sover- 
eign, 39, 287 ; broke up the Primal 
Unity, 39, 370, 370 n. ; F. and 
Hwang-Ti, 40, 55. 

Fu-hsia, mourning rites for him, 
27, i 4 r. 

Fu A7/ai, king of Wu, his incursion 
into A'Mn, 27, 178, 178 n. 

Fumigation, of sacrificial vessels, 
41, 240 ; 44, 455 sq. 

Fu-mo, his son taught the Tao, 39, 
246 sq. and n. 

Funeral rites (mourning, funeral 
sacrifice?, funeral meals). 

(a) In China, 

(b) In India. 
\c) In Iran. 

(a) In-China. 

Mourning and f. r. for kings, 3, 41, 
113, 113 n., 237-42; 27, 108; 
periods of mourning, 3, 97, 113, 
113 n., 202; 16, 385, 387 n. ; 27, 
49 sq., 121, 124, 127, 129-34, 132 n., 
133 n., 146, 151, 157 sq., 160, 172, 
179, 200, 205 sq., 243, 316-21, 330 
sq., 341 sq.; 28, 45 sq., 50, 53, 58 
sq., 137-40, 150, 154 sq., 157 sq., 
160-4, 184, 192, 295, 372 sq., 377, 
380-3, 385 sq., 389-94> 467-9; 
sacrifices by a king for a deceased 
father, 3, 1 18 sq. ; a king must give 
attention to the mourning rites, 3, 
137; mourning costume, 3, 243, 
245 J 27, 30, 47 sq., 59 sq., 103, 120, 
125 sq., 133, 136, 139, 141-4, 146 
sa «', T 53i 156-60, 158 n., 164 sq., 
169, 169 n., 174, 189, 198, 202-8 
and Tables, 1-6; 28, 9sq., 13, 19 sq., 
40-59, 64, 75, 262, 272, 378-91, 
379 n., 465-70; 39, 335; burying 
living persons with the dead, 3, 443 
sq. ; 27, 1 8 1-4 ; rules about mourn- 
ing and f. r., 3, 487 sq. ; 27, 30, 34 
sq., 47 sq., 84, 87-9, 93, 102 sq., 
223 ; 28, 26, 40-59, 63 sq., 66, 68- 
71, 75, 77, 81,97, n6, 132-68, 173- 
200, 293-5, 375-94; 40, 30, 219; 
the superior man in mourning 
exceeds in sorrow, 16, 344; the 
introduction of proper burial rites, 



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FUNERAL RITES 



16> 385, 38711.; prominence of 
mourning rites in the Li 'JSTi, 27, 14 ; 
sending presents for the use of the 
dead, 27,34; 28, 140 sq., 144-7, 
156 sq., 164, 194 sq. ; mourning 
rites in case of absence from home, 
27, 46 sq. ; 28, 365-74 ; dressing 
and coffining the corpse, 27, 47, 
138-43, 144 sq., 149 sq., 152-9, 
167 sq., 172 sq,, 176 sq., 186 sq., 
222 sq. ; 28, 375, 377 sq. ; {the proper 
method of mourning) does not come 
down from heaven, it does not corns 
forth from the earth ; it is simply the 
expression of the human peelings, 27, 
48 ; 28, 379 ; white the colour of 
mourning, 27, 69 n. ; mourning and 
visits of condolence, 27, 87-9, 93, 
105, 122-7, 129-208, and Tables 
1-6, 331-5, 332 n., 341 ; interment 
and accompanying the funeral, 27, 
89, 222 sq., 369 ; the carriage of 
a deceased ruler following at his 
interment, 27, 96, 96 sq. n. ; rules 
about burying and raising graves, 
27, 121-3, 125 sq., 131 sq., 141, 
144 sq., 154-7, 163, 170, 175,177, 
184, 188, 189 n., 192 sq., 202, 369; 
mourning for a divorced mother, 27, 
122 ; things placed in the grave with 
the coffin, 27, 124, 124 n., 154; 
anniversary of death of a parent, 
27, 124 ; 28, 2 1 1 sq. ; sacrifice at the 
end of the period of mourning, 27, 
129 sq., 160, 160 n.; washing 'the 
corpse, 27, 132, 144; sacrifices at 
f.r., 27, 133, 137, 139, 141 sq., 151, 
J 53, I5 6 sq., 157 n., 161, 161 n., 
168-71, 175, 177 sq., 189 sq., 312 
sq., 315-20, 332 sq., 333 n.; 28, 
138 sq., 141 sq., 150-3, 150 n., 155 
S( l-, 158-61, 163 sq., 178, 184, 192, 
'94, 271, 293, 373, 376 sq., 381 sq., 
387-9, 467, 469 ; expense of mourn- 
ing rites, 27, 145, 222; 28, 348; 
utensils used for f.r., 27, 148 ; calling 
the dead back, 27, 153 n., 157, 167, 
340, 369 ; 28, 49, 132, 136, 143, J 74 
sq.; 39, 251, 251 n. ; filling the 
mouth of the corpse, 27, 157, 168, 
193, 369; 28, 145, 156, 164, 293; 
origin of f. r., 27, 176-8, 368 sq., 
369 n. ; dogs and horses buried, 27, 
r 96 sq. ; ground set apart for graves, 
27, 238; the aged exempt from 
them, 27, 241 sq., 466 ; preparations 

Digitized by 



for f.r. made during old age, 27, 24r, 

465 ; exemption from military and 
official duties on account of mourn- 
ing, 27, 243, 341 sq., 374; 28, 466, 

466 n. ; mourning and f. r. regulated 
in winter, 27, 299, 302 ; mourning 
for a ruler to whom an heir is born 
immediately after his death, 27, 
311-14; funerals of both parents 
taking place together, 27, 315 sq. ; 
wife presiding at f. r., 27, 316; 
mourning in case of death occurring 
during arrangements for the capping 
of a son or for marriage, 27, 316 sq., 
320-3 ; two playing the part of an 
orphan son at f. r., 27, 323 sq. ; 
mourning for a foster-mother, 27, 
326 sq. and n. ; f. r. for king and 
queen cause interruption of rites of 
audience and of sacrifices, 27, 328- 
31 ; pronouncing the eulogy, 27, 
333 sq., 334 n-; for a ruler dying 
abroad, 27, 334; sacrifices to one 
who has died prematurely, 27, 337 
sq. ; burials stopped by an eclipse of 
the sun, 27, 338 sq. ; for children, 
27, 340 sq.; of rulers, 27, 354-9; 
nourishment of the living, burial of 
the dead, and service of the spirits, 

27, 388 sq., 391; use off. r. and 
sacrifices, 27, 397 ; burials different 
for different persons, 27, 398 ; filial 
piety shown in mourning, 27, 413 ; 

28, 237 sq.; mourning interrupted 
at border sacrifices, 27, 429 ; 28, 
217; ornaments and wrapping used 
at f.r., 28, 39; terminal sacrifices 
and sacrifice of repose, 28, 46-8, 
48 n., 50, 53-5, 58 ; inscription on 
the coffin, 28, 49 ; reverence the 
most important thing in f. r., 28, 
153; importance off. r., 28, 258 sq.; 
offerings of pork and dried meats, 
28, 262; mourning without garb, 
28, 279-81 ; for great officers, and 
officers, 28, 310; who is to act as 
presiding mourner, 28, 373, 383; 
mourning worn for king and queen, 
28, 434 ; when a man dies in battle, 
they do not employ the usual 
appendages of plumes, 39, 230 sq.; 
how a Taoist performed f. r. for his 
mother, 39, 253 sq. ; statues of men 
on graves, 40, 101, 101 n.; absti- 
nences and privations in mourning, 
40, 140 sq., 141 n. ; JiTwang-3ze on 

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his burial, 40, 212 ; Mo~3ze would 
have no wearing of mourning and 
only the simplest burial, 40, 218 sq. 
{b) In India. 

He who knows goes the path of 
the gods, whether people perform 
f. r. for him or no, 1, 68 ; carrying 
outand burning the dead person, 1,79; 
7 - 75; 12, 343; 29, 237-43, 355sq.J 
42, 90, 185, 297 ; 45, 60 ; unbelievers 
deck out the body of the dead with 
perfumes, flowers, &c, 1, 137, 137 
n. ; mourners shave their hair and 
beard, 2, 36; bathing for twelve 
days after the death of a Guru, 2, 
36 sq., 36 n. ; performed for a sinner 
who has done penance, 2, 81, 279; 
details about f. r., 2, 1 37 sq. ; 7, 75- 
83 ; 14, 177 sq., 180-2 ; 29, 236-46, 
355-9; 30, xxviii, 305; 38, 109 n. ; 
42, 253 sq.; 44, xiv sq., 197-205; 
performed for those who have per- 
formed sacrifices, 2, 159; may be 
performed by children before initia- 
tion, 2, 186 n. ; 14, 10 ; water liba- 
tions to the dead offered by the 
relatives, 2, 253 sq. ; 7, 75 sq.; 11, 
xliisq.; 14, 27-30, 177 sq., 180-2; 
25, I79sq., 183 sq.; 29,324,355-7; 
33, 373 ; 49 (i), 90; performed for 
a (living) relative who is cast off, 2, 
278 ; funeral oblations offered by 
the heir, 7, 65 ; 14, 177 sq., 180-2, 
226 sq. ; 25, 352-5, 364) 364 n., 365 
n., 366, 368 n. ; 33, 193-5 > £ obla- 
tion must be offered by a son, even 
though he inherit no property, 7, 
65; plunging into water, after the 
funeral, and return of the mourners, 
7, 75 sq. ; 29, 243 sq., 246, 357; 
walking round the pile from left to 
right, 7,75; 11, 129; 17, 299 sq. ; 
rules about impurity, abstinence 
from certain kinds of food, &c., 7, 
76; 14, 27-30, 177 sq., 180-2; 25, 
179, 181, 186 sq. ; 33, 373 ; collect- 
ing the bones, 7, 76 ; 25, 178 ; 29, 
245 sq. ; 44, 117 n. ; consolatory 
speeches addressed to the mourners, 
?> 77-9; the relatives should not 
weep, but perform the obsequies to 
the best of their power, 7, 79 sq.; 
give rice and a jar with water to the 
man who has passed into the abode of 
disembodied spirits, 7, 80 ; how out- 
casts receive offerings of water, 7, 



93 ; suicides do not receive offerings 
of water, 7, 93 ; 14, 119 ; a student 
breaks his vow by performing f. r. 
except for parents or teachers, 7, 
96 ; 14, 118, 214 ; penance for per- 
forming f. r. for a stranger, 7, 178 
sq. ; their effect on the departed, 7, 
189; cremation and burial cere- 
monies among Buddhists, 11, xxxix- 
xlv, 122-33; 19, 322-4; mourning 
women, 11, xli ; 42, 55, 124 sq., 127, 
156, 620, 634 sq., 638; the coffin 
carried round the grave three times, 
11, xlii ; treatment of the body of 
a universal king, and of a Buddha, 
11, 92 sq., 125 sq. ; funeral feasts, 
11, 131-5; enumerated among the 
public spectacles which the Bhikkhu 
avoids, 11, 192 ; to be performed by 
a widow, 14, 89 sq. ; on touching 
a funeral pile, a Brahmawa must 
bathe, 14, 171 ; the dead are taken 
to the fire, in that fire the Devas 
offer man, and from that oblation 
man rises, briiliant in colour, 15, 
208 ; dance and music at Buddha's 
funeral, and at the erection of 
A^aityas over relics, 19, 322 sq., 322 
n -» 335J ^ r edic texts required for f.r. 
may be recited by an uninitiated and 
a Sudra, 25, 61 ; children buried, 
25, 120, 180 ; 29, 355 ; smoke from 
a burning corpse to be avoided by 
a Snataka, 25, 139 ; for those fallen 
in battle, 25, 1S6, 186 n. ; cremation 
called a burnt -offering, 25, 187, 187 
n. ; for a faithful wife, 25, 198; 
sacrificial utensils burnt with the 
dead body, 29, 241 sq.; 30, 323; 
first offerings to the deceased, 29, 
357-9 ! f- !*• as sorcery practices, 42, 
77, 253 sq., 297, 435 sq. ; spells put 
into the funeral fire by enemies, 42, 
77 ; the Kudi-plant fastened to the 
dead, 42, 172, 436; the dead body 
washed, 42, 172, 436; preparation 
of the burial-ground and tomb, 
depositing of the charred bones in 
the sepulchral mound, purification 
and bath, 44, xlvi, xlix, 421-40; 
burning a sacrificer in his sacrificial 
fires, 44, 175; peculiar f. r. of the 
Eastern and other ungodly people,44, 
4 2 3, 430; in non-sunwise direction, 
44, 429, 431 n. See also Ancestor 
worship, Fathers (c), and Sraddhas, 



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(r) In Iran. 

Disposal of the dead, carrying 
the corpse to the Dakhma, its 
exposure to dogs and birds, 4, Ixiv, 
lxxvii sq., Ixxvii n., 74 sq., 75 n., 
97-9; 5, 247-50, 247 sq. n. ; 18, 
34-44, 34 n., 35 n., 44 n., 161, 161 
n. ; 24, 16, 16 n., 329, 335 sq. ; 37, 
108, 157, 1 59 ; mortal sin of burning 
(cooking) or burying the corpse, 4, 
Ixxv-lxxvii, lxxvii n., Ixxxvi sq., 7, 
9, 9 n., 103, 1 13, 113 n., 189, 189 11,, 
265,271; 5, 204; 23, 80; 24,29; 
31, 318 ; 37, 154, i59sq., 256 ; tears 
and wailing for the dead sinful, 4, 
6; 24, 29, 29 n., 358 sq. ; the 
Haroyu leave the house where a 
man died for nine days or a month, 
4, 6, 6 n.; tears shed for the dead 
make the river which prevents the 
crossing of the Kinvat bridge, 4, 
6 n.; let no man by himself carry 
a corpse, 4, 26 sq., 268 ; to carry 
a corpse, before the Sag-did has 
been performed, is a mortal sin, 4, 
27, 27 n. ; 37, 153 sq. ; punishments 
for burying the corpse of a dog or 
of a man, 4, 32 sq. ; disposal of the 
dead during winter when it is not 
possible to take them to the 
Dakhma, 4, 49, 53 sq., 96 sq,, 96 n. ; 
he who has not, within a year, laid 
the dead on the Dakhma, incurs the 
same penalty as for murder, 4, 54 ; 
no clothing must be wasted on the 
dead, 4, 66, 66 n., 81, 102 sq., 102 
n. ; 5, 340 sq., 341 n. ; 24, 272 sq. ; 
37, 108, 157 ; the three nights' cele- 
bration for the departed, offerings 
of cakes and clothing, and cere- 
monial of Srosh, 4, 89 n. ; 5, 315, 
315 n., 352, 382-4, 383-5 n.; 18, 
58-63, 173, 173 n-j 237-42, 237 n., 
238 n. ; 24, 351 sq. ; 37, 183, 183 n., 
205, 471, 477 ; purification of the 
house, where a man has died, 4, 95 
sq. and n. ; purification, by the 
Sag-did, of the ways along which 
the corpse has been carried, 4, 99 
102 ; how long the Upaman (im- 
purity after death) lasts for different 
relatives, 4, 148-54; sacrifice to the 
fire, and libations to the good waters 
for the dead, 4, 149-54, *49 n * i 
dog made to gaze at the corpse, 
Sag-did, 4, 160 11., 161 n. ; 5, 245 



sq., 259 sq., 259 n., 261 n., 262 sq. ; 
267, 319, 33 2 l 18, 42, 42 n.; 24, 
335 sq.; washing and clothing the 
dead forbidden, 5, 204 ; consecrating 
the sacred cakes in the corpse 
chamber, 5, 205, 205 n. ; ceremonies 
necessary for the welfare of the 
departed soul, 5, 294 sq., 295 n. ; 18, 
237, 237 n., 421, 421 n. ; due cere- 
monies to be performed for the 
sinner who has been executed, 5, 
307 sq., 308 n. ; presentation of 
holy-water to the nearest fire after 
death, 5, 341 sq. ; burying the dead 
a discomfort to the earth, 5, 361, 
361 n.; whose duty it is to order 
the ceremonies after a death, 18, 
184, 1840., 187; not to be per- 
formed for heinous sinners, 18, 219 ; 
the Sirozah recited in honour of the 
dead, 23, 2 ; sacred cake consecrated 
for the benefit of the soul, 24, 272 
sq. ; walking after the bier a good 
work, 24, 273; search must be 
made where a corpse is supposed to 
be buried, 24, 294 sq. ; to be per- 
formed for a child of seven, 24, 310; 
why meat should not be eaten for 
three days after a death in the 
house, 24, 341 sq. ; the Avesta must 
be recited and ceremonial per- 
formed for the dead, 24, 358 sq. ; 
burial and cremation of the dead 
not forbidden in the Mazdaism of 
Darius, 31, xxxi sq., xxxi n., xxxiii 
sq. ; sheep slaughtered after the 
'three nights,' 37, 99, 99 n. ; an- 
nouncing the name of the deceased, 
37, 487. See also Death (c), and 
Impurity. 
Future Life. 

(a) In Zoroastrianism. 
{&) In Brahmanism, 

(c) In Buddhism. 

(d) In Islam, 

(*■) In Chinese religions. 

{a) In Zoroastrianism. 

Zoroastrian belief in resurrec- 
tion, f. I., and future rewards and 
punishments, 4, lxi, lxiv, Ixvii; 31, 
xx ; 37, 1 93 ; the soul of the wicked 
driven away from paradise, 4, 51, 
51 n. ; retribution of sins and good 
works in hell and heaven, 4, 61 n., 
115-19, 133, 209, 218-20, 270 sq.; 
18, 23-5, 2311., 30-8, 44-9, 53-8, 
63-74, 7<5> J2I, 137-41, 150 sq., 



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274 sq., 421 sq., 426; 24, 29-32, 
i 4 6, 149, 258-62, 265-7, 327 sq. 
and n. ; 31, 27 sq., 34 sq., 39, 52, 
95, 100, 161, 167; 37, 85 sq., i3i, 
204 sq., 287 sq., 290-2, 294, 296, 
300 sq., 308 sq., 3i6sq., 349, 391-3, 
424, 430, 435, 440, 443, 452, 473 sq. : 
how the soul of the faithful is 
received in Paradise, 4, 89, 285, 287, 
291, 293, 297; no soul comes to 
meet the departingsoul of the wicked, 
4, 158; world of the holy ones, and 
world of the wicked, 4, 208 ; 23, 177, 
327, 329, 360; spiritual world to be 
preferred to this world, 4, 294 11., 
295; 24, 77, 329; 37, 8 sq. ; future 
existence, or tanu-i pasino, 5, 3 ; is 
unlimited and for ever lasting, 5, 5 ; 
creatures of AGharmaarf and Ahar- 
man in f. 1., 5, 5 ; in it men will be 
unpersecuted by Aharman, perfect, 
and immortal, 5, 14; the soul hovers 
about the body for three days and 
nights after death, 5, 108 sq., 109 n„ 
302 sq. and n., 306, 382 n. ; 18, 37, 
46, 46 n., 232 n. ; 24, 16 sq. and n., 
22 ; the rich man in hell, and the 
poor man in paradise, 5, 197 sq. ; 
hope of f. 1., 5, 211; sins and good 
works of the soul weighed in the 
scales of Rashnu, 5, 241 sq. n. ; 18, 
232 n. ; 23, 168; 24, 54, 34 n. ; 
recompense of good and bad works 
in heaven, hell, and among the ever- 
stationary, 5, 293-5, 294 n. ; 24, 38 ; 
37, 22, 32 sq. ; retribution of good 
works in f. 1., 5, 310 ; 24, 313 sq. ; 
31, 133 sq,, 144, 227; 37, 164 sq.; 
passage of the soul to fire, stars, 
moon, sun, 5, 341 sq., 342 n. ; 24, 
352 ; 37, 465 sq. ; how far good 
works done by others benefit the 
soul of the departed, 18, 26-9 ; 
judgement on the soul after the 
third night, 18, 27, 27 n., 30 sq., 
30 n., 33 sq., 33 n., 54, 61 sq. and 
n., 66, 71 ; 47, 56 sq. and n. ; angels 
take account of sin and good works, 
18, 32 sq., 33 n. ; fate of the soul of 
the wicked after death, 18, 33 sq., 
34 n., 70-4, 76; 23, 318-21, 34°^5; 
24, 22-5, 51-3, 289; the places to 
which the righteous and the wicked 
go, 18, 46 sq., 47 n. ; the soul 
received by its good works in the 
shape of a maiden, 18, 47 n., 49, 



49 n., 54, 117 "•> 15O) 150 n-; 24, 
19 sq., 19 n.; fate of the righteous 
and wicked souls for the first three 
nights, 18, 53-6; 37, 251; fate of 
the soul of the righteous after deal h , 
18, 63-70, 76 ; 23, 314-18 ; 24, 16- 
22 ; account to be rendered by the 
soul of good and bad works, 18, 66 ; 
% 137, i37 n., 258; 24, 279 sq., 
297)299,319, 326, 352,3 6 »; 37, 33 ; 
purification and end of punishment 
of the wicked souls, 18, 73 sq., 73 n.; 
Auharmasirf promotes the prosperity 
of the two existences, 24, 4 ; angels 
assisting the departed soul, 24, 17, 
17 n., 81; 37, 292; angels and 
archangels come to meet the 
righteous soul, 24, 20 sq., 30, 266, 
279; the wicked soul received by 
his wicked deeds in shape of a 
hideous maiden, 24, 33 sq.; who 
does not provide for the spiritual 
existence is the most unforeseeing 
man, 24, 67; the way to heaven, 
and the danger of hell, 24, 68 ; 
belief in heaven and hell a good 
work, 24, 75, 83 ; what is the 
end of worldly and the end of 
spiritual existence, 24, 79-81 ; story 
of the poor man who is offered one 
foot of the throne appointed for 
him in heaven, 24, 226-8 ; the man 
who did only one good work, suffer- 
ing torments in all limbs, but one 
foot being outside, 24, 26 1 ; 37, 469 ; 
fate of the souls of children, 24, 
310; treasury of good works kept 
by the angels in the other world, 
24, 327, 327 n. ; grades of heaven 
and hell, 24, 344 ; prayer to Ahura 
for spiritual rewards, 31, 152, 157 
sq., 289 sq. ; that better path that 
leads to the Best World, 31, 345 ; 
reward of warriors in f. I., 37, 88 ; 
the ever-stationary existence, 37, 
199, 199 n. ; those who accept 
Zoroastrianism worthy of supreme 
heaven, 37, 232, 234; three nights' 
punishment in hell, 37, 272; four 
marvels produced by Auharmaa^ in 
yonder world, 37, 281 ; evidence as 
to f. 1., 37, 284 ; man prepared for 
f. 1. by fire, 37, 296; a throne in 
yonder world procured by support- 
ing the good, 37, 321 ; priests indi- 
cate the way to yonder world, 37, 



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FUTURE LIFE 



335; arrival of the wicked in the 
fiend's abode, 37, 375 ; what every 
one shall do in the f. 1., 37, 393-7 ; 
acting for the sake of the other 
existence, 37 } 394 ; souls go up to 
the best existence, 47, 147 sq. See 
also Garo-ntnanem, Heaven (g), Aln- 
va; bridge, Paradise, Resurrection, 
and World (&). 
(b) In Brahmanism. 

The path of the Devas or gods 
that leads to Brahman, and its 
stations, 1, 68, 72 n., 77, 80, 82 n., 
27211., 274 n., 275; 15, 39, 208 ; 34, 
xxix, lxxxii, cvii, 128; 38, 297, 381- 
9. 233-5, 3 6 4-404; 44, 319 sq.; 4% 
745 sq. ; this is the path of the Devas, 
the path that leads to Brahman. Those 
who proceed on that path, do not return 
to the life of man, 1, 68, 80 ; the two 
paths, of the gods and of the fathers, 
to Brahman and to the moon, 1, 77, 
8 2 n. ; 8, 80 sq. and n., 3 1 4, 314 n. ; 
12, 267, 267 n., 268 n.; 15, 205, 
208 sq. ; 44, 237 sq. and n., 434, 
434 n- ; 48, 742-4, 74<* sq., 749, 751, 
753j 756; path of the fathers that 
leads to the moon and rebirth, and 
its stations, 1, Sosqq., 272 n., 274 n.; 
38, 108, 124, 234, 381, 384; 42, 
170; 48, 589, 594; who is ad- 
mitted to the path of the gods, I, 
So, 82 n.; 34, lxxi sq., cvii, cix; 38, 
124, 231-5, 391, 418 sq.; 48, 594, 
650-2; a third path or place for 
small creatures, worms, &c, 1, 82, 
272 n.; 15, 209 ; 38, 123-5 ; plants 
and animals destroyed for the pur- 
poses of sacrifice, obtain exaltation 
in f. 1., 7, 169, 170; meritorious 
acts, even without devotion, lead to 
happy future births, but devotion 
leads to final emancipation, 8, 72 sq,; 
as wives attain the worlds of their 
husbands, a Brahmasa is asked by 
his wife what goal she will reach, 8, 
256, 306-8 ; what paths are happy ? 
8, 311; kings who protect good 
men attain the infinite seat after 
death, 8, 348; the dutiful Brahma- 
^arin conquers heaven, and reach- 
ing the highest seat, does not re- 
turn to birth, 8, 361 ; the released 
Sannyasin attains to the highest 
seat, 8, 368; body inf. 1., 12, 268 n.; 
Agni maintains the man who main- 



tained him in this world, in yonder 
world, 12, 342 sq.; men die again 
and again in yonder world, 12, 34; 
sq.; four paths lead to the world of 
the gods, 14, 258, 261 ; those who 
know Brahman, go on the path 
where there is white, blue, yellow, 
green, red, 15, 177; results after 
death of good and bad actions, 25, 
2 9, 3i> 33, 40, 57, 72-4, 100-2, 107 
sq-, Mi, 155, J59SQ.., 165-7, i74"7, 
i96sq., 209 sq., 224, 230, 268, 270- 
3, 276, 285, 307-9, 327, 332, 386 
sq., 416, 429, 431 sq„ 435 sq., 437, 
477 sq., 487-9; the deathless state 
or final liberation, 25, 29 sq., 29 n.; 
bliss in heaven, 25, 79, 89 ; gross 
body created for the torments in 
hell, 25, 487 sq. and n. ; Aditi, the 
life to come, 32, 255 sq.; man is 
horn into the world made by him, 41, 
181, 181 n. ; the AgnLtit born in 
yonder world as one made of gold, 

43, 295; how the organs of the 
departed sage pass into the elements, 
whence he becomes a deity, 43, 
333; the highest state attained by 
knowledge, not by sacrifices, 43, 
389 sq.; fate in yonder world ac- 
cording to knowledge, 43, 400 ; 
when he dies, and they place him on 
the fire, and when he thereupon comes 
into existence again, he is horn a third 
time, 44, 23 sq.; by the sacrifice the 
sacrificer after death receives a new 
body, 44, 23-7, 24 n., 33, 259, 428, 
458 n.; they place him on the 
balance in yonder world; and which- 
ever of the two will rise that he 
will follow, 44, 45, 45 n.; punish- 
ments awaiting the guilty in f. ].(?), 

44, 108-12, 108 n.; the other world 
gained by imparting sacred know- 
ledge, 44, 132 sq.; whatever food a 
man consumes in this world, that 
consumes hiin in yonder world, 44, 
260; there is only one death in 
yonder world, even hunger, 44, 
340; the 'eaters' among the 
fathers in yonder world destroy the 
good deeds of him who has no 
sepulchre prepared for him, 44, 
422 ; undefined is yonder world, 
44, 430, 432; the righteous one is 
yonder world, 44, 457; when yon- 
der world overflows, all the gods 



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and all the beings subsist thereon, 
44, 508. See also Emancipation, and 
Heaven {d), 

(e) In Buddhism. 

The evil-doer suffers, the vir- 
tuous man delights, in f. 1, 10 (i), 
6 sq., 47 sq.; Upasiva's question 
and Buddha's answer as to f. I,, 10 
(ii), 197-9; what sort of deliverance 
is there for him who is free from 
desires? 10 (ii), 202 sq.; longing 
for f. 1. blamed, 11, 10, 10 n., 27, 
142; 35, 17,4; 36, 66; Buddha de- 
scribes to Ananda the fate after 
death of several of his followers, 
11, 25-7 ; different views of a f. 1., 
19, 105 ; f. 1. looked upon as dung 
by Buddha, 35, 200 sq.; question 
as to a Tathagata's life after death 
not answered by Buddha, 35, 206 ; 
Nirvana allays the craving after f. 1., 
36, 190; the Bhikkhu shall resolve 
never to enter upon any f. 1., 36, 
285 ; seek not rebirths afar in future 
states. Fray, what could heaven itself 
advantage you ! A'ow t in this present 
■world, and in the state in which you 
find yourselves, be conquerors ! 36, 
328 ; uncertainty regarding f. 1., 49 
(i), 99; reception of the Buddhist 
devotee after death in the land of 
bliss, 49 (ii), 189-99. 

(d) In IslAm. 

Bridge over hell, Es Sira7, and 
partition wall, El Aaraf, 4, 219 n. ; 
6, lxix, 143; 9, 32 n. ; Arabian be- 
lief in f. 1., 6, xiv ; happiness in 
paradise for the believers and right- 
eous, everlasting torments in hell 
fire for the unbelievers and wicked, 
6, xxv, lxi, 4, ii, 33, 47 sq., 50, 62, 
69-7I) 74, 89, 109, 115, 141-4, 
196; 9, 17 sq., 26, 31 sq., 39 sq., 
37 sq., 62 sq., 84 sq., 94, 118 sq., 
123, 126, 132, 136 sq,, 157 sq., 160 
sq., 166, J 69 sq., 180, 183-5, l 9 ! i 
194, 201 sq,, 205, 207, 216 sq., 220, 
228, 229 sq., 233 sq., 249, 260-9, 
273, 276 sq., 287, 297, 309 sq., 
312-17, 119,324 sq., 327, 334, 338 ; 
paradise promised to those fallen 
in war, 6, xxxvi, xlii, 82 sq,; 9, 
282; eschatology, 6,lxix-lxxi; fear 
the day wherein ye shall return to 
God; then shall each soul be paid what 
it has earned, ami they shall not be 
wronged,^, 44 ; those who are killed 



in God's way, are assembled to 
God, 6, 65, 70 ; paradise and pure 
wives for believers, 6, 80 ; tortures 
of hell described, 6, 80 ; lasting woe 
in the fire for disbelievers, 6, 102 ; 
the next world preferable to this 
world, 6, 118 sq., 178, 235, 253 ; 9, 
3, 124, 207, 209, 213, 329; return 
to God, 6, 1 37 ; promise of paradise 
for the believer, 6, 183, 185, 187, 
192 sq., 196, 207, 217, 235, 237, 
241,2^7,2^,261; 9, 290 sq.; mis- 
believers love this world's life better 
than the next, 6, 238, 262; dis- 
belief in f. 1, rebuked, punishment 
for it, 6, 252, 256 ; 9, 2, 99 sq., 126, 
1 50 sq., 252 sq. ; all souls pass 
through hell, but the good will not 
be harmed, 9, 32, 32 n.; verily, the 
life of this world is but a provision, 
but, verity, the hereafter, that is the 
abode of stability, 9, 194, See also 
Paradise, and Resurrection. 

(e) In Chinese religions. 

King 'went on high and died,' 3, 
45> 45 n -J 27, 108, 108 n.; 'his 
recently ascended majesty ' = the 
deceased king, 3, 244; ancestor 
worship and belief in f. 1., 3, 301 ; 
King Wan is on high and ascends 
and descends on the left and the 
right of God, 3, 377 sq., 378 n.; the 
three sovereigns Thai, K\, Wan 
w ere in heaven, when Wu became 
their successor, 3, 393 ; a lady com- 
forts her lover that when dead they 
will share the same grave, 3, 440 ; 
no reference to f. 1. in a widow's 
expression of grief at the death of 
her husband, 3, 441 ; man when 
dead is in the ghostly state, 28, 203 
sq.; descriptions of purgatory in 
modern manifestoes of Taoism, 
39, xii, 43 sq.; retribution in this 
life, not in f. 1., 39, 39 ; 40, 235 sq., 
244, 244 n.; the happiness of the 
state after death, 39, 149; 40, 6sq. 
See also Death (b), Hell, Immort- 
ality, Moon (d), Nirvana, and 
Soul (e). 

Fu Yiieh, see Yueh. 



Cabala, see Satyakama G. } and Ma- 
hajrala G. 



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Cabala, mother of Satyakama, 1, 
60. 

Cabalas, how they speak of the 
highest Lord, 34, 152 sq.; 38, 338; 
their text on the fourth stage of 
life, 38, 295, 297, 302 sq. 

Cabala-upanishad, quoted, 38, 
423 ; 48, 696 ; see Cabalas. 

Cabalayana, n. of a teacher, 15, 
186. 

Gabriel, the archangel, G, Ixix ; 
people of Antioch destroyed by a 
shout from G., 6, cv ; 9, 164, 164 n.; 
'the Holy Spirit,' the instrument 
of the revelation, 6, cxiv n., 261 ; 
9, 10 n., 32 n., 98, 210, 308 n.; Mo- 
hammed's vision of G. on Mount 
Hira, 6, cxv; 9, 322; revealed the 
Qur'an, 6, 13, 13 n.; causes Pharaoh 
to be a sign to the Israelites, 6, 
203 n,; warns Joseph, 6, 221 n.; 
taught Mohammed, 9, 251 n.; backs 
him up who repents, 9, 291 ; an- 
nounces the birth of Jesus from the 
Holy Spirit, 24, 229 sq. 

Gada, and Nadi, brothers of Kajyapa, 
converted by Buddha, 19, 185-7. 

Gadgadaavara : visit of the remark- 
able Bodhisattva G. to the Saha- 
world, 21, xxxi, 393-405 ; pays 
homage to a Buddha by making 
music, 21, 399 sq.; can assume any 
shape whatever in order to preach 
the Lotus of the True Law just as 
wanted, 21, 400-3. 

Gadhi, Virvamitra, son of, 25, 222, 
222 n. 

Gadhwithw, n. of a demon, 5, 1 32. 

Gadug, a term used for evil beings, 
24, 128, 128 n. 

Gaevani, son of Vohu-nemah, 23, 

Ga^asa, i. e. Hastinapura, the capital 

of the PaWavas, 8, 394, 394 n. 
Cagati, see Metres. 
Gagga, a mad Bhikkhu, 13, 279 ; 20, 

1 8 sqq. 
Caghrudh, the holy maid, 23, 225. 
Cagn'vi, the sage Vigilant, a deity or 

a i&shi, 42, 54, 60, 571. 
Gahanbars, tee Festivals. 
Gahapati, see Gn'hapati. 
Gaha/Ma, Pali, 1. t., Sk. Gnhastha, 

a householder, 10 (ii), x. 
Cahi : the courtesan an incarnation 

of the demon G., 4, 205, 205 n.; 



kills the holy bull, 4, 231, 231 n.; 
the evil done by G., the demon, 4, 
234; 23,226; makes one pine, 23, 
44-7. See also Gain!. 

Gahs, the five periods of the day, 
5, 13 sq, and n,, 94, 94 n., 127 
n., 297 sq. n., 371, 371 n.; ex- 
planation of the G., as places in 
heaven, 24, 263, 263 n.; prayers 
recited at the G., translated, 31, 
377-88. 

(jaigishavya, a W/shi, obtained de- 
liverance, 19, 139; 49 (i), 130. 

Caimini maintains that work is in- 
dispensable to knowledge, 1, 315; 
worshipped at the Tarpa«a, 29, 
122, 149, 220; quoted by Narada, 
33, 265 ; the author of the Piirva- 
Mimawsa-sutras, quoted in the Ve- 
danta-sutras, 34, xi, xix, Ixv, lxxxii- 
Ixxxiv, xcsq., 1 49-5 2, 2 16 sq., 272-4; 
38, 180-2, 285-8, 295-7, 317 sq., 
360, 392-402, 408 sq., 412 ; 48, 292, 
2 94> 335> 382 sq., 626, 705 sq., 750, 
75 2 > 759 sq-> 763; the Sariraka- 
doctrine connected with G.'s doc- 
trine, 48, 5 ; his views opposed to 
BadarSyawa's, 48, 686 sq., 694. 

Caimini-Gr/hyasutra quoted, 2, 
190 n. 

Caimini - purvamimaw/sa - autra, 
its subject is dharma, 34, 26 ; quoted, 
38, 423 sq. ; 48, 778. See also Purva- 
Mimawsa-sutra. 

Cains church, its extent at the 
time of Mahavira's death, 22, 267 
sq.; dates relating to its history, 
22, 270; councils and their dates, 
22, 270 n. ; its extent under the 
Gina Parjva, 22, 274; its extent 
under Arish/anemi, 22, 278 ; its 
extent in the period of the Arhat 
7^/shabha, 22, 284 ; called the' Gotra 
where the Vow of Silence is prac- 
tised,' 45, 32 r. 

Caina monks (Nirgrantha Srama- 
was, Nigaw/Aa Samawas), must walk 
carefully so as not to kill living 
beings, 8, 364 n.; their conduct 
contrasted with that of Buddha, 17, 
108-17, f 25 ; G. 111. or Nirgranthas, 
21, 263 ; follow the precepts of the 
Arhat (Gina), 21, 265, 265 n.; the 
ideal of the good monk who has 
given up all attachments, 22, 44, 
55-8, 60 sq., 66 sq., 211-13; 45, 



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(3AINA MONKS 



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318 sq., 377-81; rules of conduct 
for them, 22, 47-9; 45, 31-5, 69- 
73? 109-n, 123, 129-36, 203-6, 
246-8, 296 sq., 306-15, 333 sq., 
351-5. 3 S + sq., 404 sq., 411; how 
they should behave towards women, 
22, 48 ; 45, 271-8 ; their nakedness, 
22, 56, 57 n., 68, 69, 73, 79, 259 
sq.; 45, xxii, 9, n, 13, 22, 106, 
296, 304, 380; how they should 
behave towards heretics and faith- 
less householders, 22, 62-5 ; their 
dwelling-places, 22, 64, 82 ; 45, 12 ; 
rules with regard to their clothing 
and outfit, 22, 67 sq., 67 n., 69, 71, 
73? 79! it is better for a monk to 
commit suicide than breaking the 
vow, 22, 68 sq., 70, 70 n.; rules for 
G. m. in sickness, 22, 69 sq., 71 sq.; 
45, 266-8; rules about eating for 
G. m., 22, 71, 204 ; 45, 5 sq., 75 sq., 
79 sq., 91, 185 sq., 204 sq., 243 sq., 
246 sq., 255, 258, 296, 303 sq., 
306 sqq., 312, 353 sq., 379, 416; 
suicide by starvation recommended 
to them, 22,72 sq.; rules for G. m. 
following the model life of Maha- 
vira, 22, 79-87 ; grades of G. m.: 
teacher, sub-teacher, &c, 22, 113; 
abstain from bathing, 22, 124; 45, 
295 sq. ; the vow of a monk : / shall 
become a Sramana who otmis no house, 
no property, no sons, no cattle, who eats 
what^ others give him ; I shall commit 
no sinful action ; Master, I renounce 
to accept anything that has not been 
given, 22, 171 ; the five great vows 
of G, m., 22, 202-10 ; 45, 89 ; regu- 
lation of their possessions, 22, 205-7; 
are spiritual descendants of Sudhar- 
man, 22, 287 ; disciplinary rules for 
G. m., especially pupils, 45, 1-8 ; 
rules about begging food, for G, m., 
45, 5 sq., 13, 25 sqq., 34, 71 sq., 
131-4 and n., i46sq., 205; twenty- 
two troubles (parisaha) which they 
must know and vanquish, 45, 8- [5 ; 
outward tokens will not save a sin- 
ful monk, 45, 22 sq., 25 sq., 104-6, 
123; should not live by fortune- 
telling, &c, 45, 34, 70 sq., 70 11., 
80; Nami contrasts the happiness 
of m. who have retired from the 
world, with the anxieties of house- 
hold life, 45, 37-40 ; on the virtues 
and superiority of a very learned 



monk, 45, 46-9 ; the superiority 
of G. m. to Brahmaaas demon- 
strated, 45, 50-6 ; you may as well 
dig rocks with your nails, or eat iron 
■with your teeth, or kick fire with your 
feet, as treat contemptuously a monk . . . 
for in his wrath he might reduce the 
world to ashes, 45, 5 3 sq. ; the ' sac- 
rifice ' of a monk described, 45, 55 
sq.; should abstain from practising 
medical art, 45, 71 ; ten conditions 
for the realization of celibacy, 45, 
73-7; what they should avoid, 45, 
77-80, 301-6; G. m. might by the 
power of his wrath reduce millions 
of men to ashes, 45, 81; their duties 
and vows, 45, 91 sq., 106; pluck 
out their hair, 45, 92, 115, 262; 
imitate the life of wild animals, get- 
ting food anywhere and not caring 
about medicine in sickness, 45, 97 
sq. ; by becoming a true monk, one 
becomes a protector of one's self 
and of others, 45, 100-7 ; their use 
of clothes according to Parjva and 
Mahavira, 45, xxx, 121, 123; rules 
for easing nature, 45, 134 sq.; regu- 
lations for the every day life of 
monks during every part of the 
day and night, 45, 142-9; by six 
kinds of abstinence they destroy 
Karman, 45, 174 ; different kinds of 
collecting alms, 45, 177 sq. and n.; 
duties of upasakas and bhikshus, 45, 
182 ; should not mix with heretics, 
45, 246 ; the holy life of a monk 
the only road to destruction of Kar- 
man, 45, 249-61 ; relations try to 
tempt the monk back to household 
life, 45, 252, 263 sq. ; troubles, 
temptations, and difficulties with 
which a monk has to battle, 45, 
261-71 ; some are unable to pre- 
serve chastity, 45, 262 ; how they 
should exert themselves for the 
annihilation of Karman and for 
liberation, 45, 298-301 ; the con- 
ceited monk will not obtain libera- 
tion, but only the monk who is 
free from all pride, 45, 3:0-3; 
duties of teachers and pupils, 45, 
324-8; Sraraasaswho are material- 
ists, 45, 341 sq.; meditations on 
life and the true law which lead 
men to turn monks, 45, 347-51 ; 
story of a monk who, by magic arts, 



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6AINA MONKS— GAINAS 



carries off all women, and is killed 
by the king, 45, 3S3 n.; a true monk 
is always alone, even when preaching 
in a crowd of thousands, 45, 410; 
called Kumaraputras, 45, 421; 
should not eat with householders, 
45, 428. See also Preaching, and 
Women (d). 

Gaina monks and nuns, rules for 
them about the begging of food, 
clothes, &c, 22, 88-119, i57~7°» 
297-303 ; how they should rub 
themselves clean, 22, 100; rules 
about lodging-places, 22, 120-35, 
] 7 i-7j 309 sq. ; rules for them about 
wandering from village to village, 
22, 1 36-4 S ; how they should behave 
on board of a boat, 22, 139-42; 
modes of speech enjoined for them, 
22, 149-56 ; regulations as to their 
taking possession of anything, 22, 
171-7; rules for them when going 
to perform religious postures or 
choosing a place for study, 22, 178— 
80; rules for them about easing 
nature, 22, 180-3, 308 ; they should 
not go to hear music or to witness 
any entertainment, 22, 183-6 ; 
should neither be pleased with nor 
prohibit householders who rub or 
wipe the mendicant's feet or do 
anything for the sake of thair 
health, 22, 186-8 ; rules for them to 
be followed during the Pa^usan, 
22, 296-311 ; rules for them in sick- 
ness, 22, 297 sq., 306 sq. ; rules 
about eating. 22, 297-303 ; rules 
about clothes, 22, 302 ; how the 
monks and nuns should wear their 
hair, 22, 308. 

C^aina nuns, thirty-six thousand, 
with JSfandanS at their head, 22, 
267 ; Queen Kamalavatl determines 
to become a nun, 45, 67 ; cut off 
their hair, 45, 116, 116 n.; women 
pretend to become nuns or lay- 
disciples in order to tempt monks, 
45, 274. 

Gaina religion (Gaina doctrines, 
Gainism), relation of Anugita 1 to it, 
8, 224 sq. ; doctrines taken from 
Brahmanism, 8, 225 ; political 
reasons for its success, 22, xiii sq. ; 
information about it collected from 
Buddhist writings, 22, xvi sq. ; 45, 
xv-xxiii; its origin independent of 



Buddhism, 22, xviii-xxxv; refuta- 
tion of its doctrines, 84, li, 428-34 ; 
recent literature on it, 45, xiii sq,; 
the Saptabhanginaya as a weapon 
against Agnosticism, 45, xxvii sq.; 
the six Le-jyas (subtile bodies), and 
Gosala's division of mankind into 
six classes, 45, xxx, 56 n. ; marks of 
its antiquity, 45, xxxiiisq., xxxvisq. ; 
its relation to Vedanta, Sahkhya, 
and Vabeshika, 45, xxxiii-xxxviii ; 
the Samitis, and Guptis, and Saw- 
varas, 45, 50, 52, 55, 55 n., 73 sq,, 
73 n., 98, 104 sq., 105 n., 107, 129- 
36, 174, 200, 248, 325, 355 n., 377; 
doctrines expounded and illustrated 
by parables, 45, 123-9; the vows 
called yamas, 45, 136, 136 n. ; its 
fun da mental principles expounded, 
45, 152-7 ; Samitis, Guptis, and 
religious exercise generally produce 
faith, 45, 156 ; list of articles of G. 
faith following the number of their 
subdivisions, 45, 180-4; its true 
Kriyavada doctrine, 45, 318 sq., 
319 n.; the syadvada argumentation, 
45, 327, 327 n., 405 sq. n.; lay 
devotees well grounded in the 
knowledge of the Asravas, Sawnara, 
realization and annihilation of 
Karman, bondage and final libera- 
tion, 45, 382 ; what a Gaina should 
maintain and what he should not 
maintain, if he is to avoid error in 
points of doctrine, 45, 405-9 ; doc- 
trines which a monk should teach, 
45, 410. See also Morality (b), and 
Philosophy. 
(Jamas, their chronology, and the 
death of Buddha, 10 (i), xli sq. ; the 
two sects of the G., SVetambaras 
and Digambaras, 10 (i), 39 n. ; 45, 
xxi sq., xxxii n., 119 n. ; their rela- 
tion to the A.g-ivikas (A^elakas), 13, 
90 sq. ; 45, xxix-xxxii ; trustworthi- 
ness of their traditions, 22, xxxv- 
xlvii ; seven sects of the Svetambaras, 
22, xxxvi ; Digambaras stigmatized 
as heretics by the SVetambaras, 22, 
xxxvi ; their crude system of 
astronomy, 22, xl ; the Angas 
collected by the Sahgha of Pa/ali- 
putra formed the canon of the 
6'vctambaras only, 22, xliii ; the 
three vows of the G., 22, 6^ n. ; 
believe in the co-existence of con- 



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227 



trary qualities in one and the same 
thing, 22,6311.; their five great vows, 
22, 202-10; 45, 98, 109, 355 n. ; 
Digambaras referred to as atheists, 
24, 146 n. ; acknowledge seven, two, 
or five categories, 34, 428 sq., 430 ; 
their belief in souls in water, 36, 85, 
85 11.; their views about the soul, 
08, 104 ; 45, xix; Buddhist doctrines 
misrepresented by C, 45, xviii ; 
existed before Mahavtra, and were 
an important sect at the time when 
Buddhism rose, 45, xxii sq. ; doc- 
trines which they owe to the 
' heretics,' 45, xxvii-xxix ; their 
strange hagiology, 45, xxxii ; the 
Trairajitas, or Gaina followers of 
the Vaijeshikas, their views refuted, 
45, 245, 245 n.; 'mixed state,' i.e. 
the life of laymen who are followers 
of the G. without abstaining from 
all sins, 45, 381-4; vows and fasts 
kept by G. laymen, 45, 383 sq. ; by 
undertaking particular vows G. 
householders gradually conform to 
the rules of monastic state, 45, 
423-32 ; some householders do not 
strictly observe the Posaha fast, but 
keep other monastic vows, 45, 429, 
431 ; their theory about the origin 
of the world, and refutation of it, 
48, 516-20. 

Cr'aina Sutra3, age of the extant 
literature, redaction of the 
Siddhanta, 22, xxxv, xxxvii-xlvii; 
45, xl; their language, 22, xlsq.; 
45, in., 311., 6 n., 22 n., ii4n., 
249 n. ; first book of the A^aranga 
Sutra and that of the Sutrakr/tanga 
Sutra, among the most ancient 
parts of the canon, 22, xli ; metres 
employed in them, 22, xli sq. ; the 
Purvas incorporated in the 1 2th 
Ahga, the Dnsh/ivada, 22, xliv sqq. ; 
tradition about the fourteen Purvas 
existing besides the Ahgas, 22, xliv 
sqq. ; the Aiaranga Sutra, its two 
books different in style and manner, 
and of different date, 22, xlvii sq. ; 
the A^aranga Sutra, its translation, 
22, xlviij-li, 1-213 I commentaries 
on the A^aranga Sutra, 22, li ; the 
Kalpa Sutra, its different parts, its 
translation, 22, li-liii, 215-311 ; the 
four Vedas and esp. Atharva-veda 
in G. S., 42, lvi ; the SQtrakn'tanga 



Sutra, 45, xxxviii-xli, 233-435 ; the 
Uttaradh) ayana Sutra, 45, xxxviii- 
xli, 1-233 ; Sudharman knew the 
twelve Ahgas, 45, 120; the G. 
creed set forth in the twelve Aiigas, 
45, 130; faith created by study of 
Sutras, the eleven Angas, Prakinzas, 
and D/vshfivada, 45, 155; sixteen 
Gathas to be studied, 45, 182, 182 
11. ; a monk is to study the twenty- 
three lectures of the Sutrakr/tanga, 
45, 183; twenty-six chapters of the 
Dajfurutaskandha, Br/hat Kalpa, 
and Vyavahlra Sutras, and twenty- 
eight lectures of the A^aranga Sutra, 
45, 183, 1S3 n. ; Uttaradhyayana 
Sutra, its title, 45, 232 11. ; the 
Gawadharas of Mahavtra knew the 
twelve Angas, the fourteen Purvas, 
and the whole Siddhanta of the 
Gaains, 22, 287 ; heretics declare 
the twelve Angas, &c., to be wrong, 
45, 345. See also Sacred Books. 

G&ini (Gainis), the same as the 
female demon Gahi, 4, 90 n. ; 31, 
19211. ; make diseases grow stronger, 
4, 90, 90 n. ; spell against them, 4, 
229, 229 n., 235, 241 ; 31, 242 sq. ; 
defeated by Zarathujtra, 23, 305. See 
also Gahi. 

6-"ainism, see Gaina religion. 

C7aivali, see Pravaha;*a G. 

c^aivantayana, n. of a teacher, 15, 
186 n. 

Gak, n.p., 5, 146. 

Ga^a, Gaina t.t. — Ga«a, 22, 
288 n. 

^aladharagar^itaghoshasusvara- 
nakshatrara^aBaakusumitablii - 
gtia,, n. of a Tathagata, 21, 419-28. 

c7alandharaya«a T the gotra of 
Devananda, 22, 190 sq., 218 sq., 
223,226. 

Galava, n. of a teacher, 1, 267 ; 15, 
119, 187. 

t^aleniprablia, n. of a Tathagata, 
49 (ii), 100. 

(Jali, son of Vessantara, 35, 174; 
36, 115, 131, 

(^amadagni, father of Rama, 8, 
2 94 sq., 300; special rites of the 
descendants of G., 12, 192 n. ; 29, 
168, 175 11., 390; one of the seven 
.K/shis, 15, 106 ; his threefold age. 
20, 55 ; 30, 62, 162; worshipped at 
the Tarpaaa, 29, 122; 30, 244; 



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C7AMADAGNI— GAAMHARA 



flowers brought by G. for Faith, 29, 
316; 30, t68 ; employed charms, 
42, 23 sq., 319; dug up a plant, to 
promote the growth of his daughter's 
hair, 42, 31, 537 ; the J?/shi G. is the 
eye, 43, 9 ; Rishi of apri-verses, 44, 
302 ; is Pra^apati, 44, 302. 

Gamadagnyas, descendants of 
Gamadagni, see Gamadagni. 

Gamaspa, Gamasp, one of the first 
converts of Zoroaster, 4, 359 ; 23, 
331; 31, 250; 37, 230; 47, 125; 
meat-offering to the Fravashi of G., 
5, 336, 336 n. ; of the Hv6vas, the 
high-priest, 18, 149, 149 n.; 23, 207 
sq,, 208 n. ; his care for the sacred 
fire, IS, 380; sacrifices to Anahita, 
23, 70, 70 n. ; the younger, 23, 219 ; 
prime minister of Ylrtaspa, 23, 
324-6, 329; champion of Zoroas- 
trianism, 31, 76, 76 n., 166, 166 n. ; 
the Hvogva, gained the kingdom of 
Ahura, 31, 185 sq. ; habits of 
Frashojtar and G., 37, 130, 130 n. ; 
praise of G., 37, 290, 297 ; Pfiru^ast 
his wife, 37, 299 sq., 299 n. ; the 
learned, 37, 397 ; words of G. in the 
Mathra, 37, 406 ; made omniscient, 
47, xxiii ; had the Avesta written on 
ox-hides, 47, xxx, 127; passesaway, 
47, xxx ; priest of priests after 
Zoroaster, 47, 165. 

Cambha, n, of an Asura, 42, 572. 

Gambling, and betting, law about, 
2, 162 ; 25, lxx sq., lxxx, cix, 254, 
282, 380 sq.; 33, 45, 212-14,271, 
329, 385 sq. ; forbidden for Brah- 
ma^arins and Snatakas, 2, 188; 7, 
227 ; 25, 140 ; house to be built so 
that it should be free from g., 2, 
212; gambler and keeper of g.- 
house excluded from Sraddhas, 2, 
258 ; 25, 103, 105, 105 n. ; for- 
bidden, 6, 32, 32 n., no; success in 
g., acquired by a 6'raddha, 7, 245; 
of cheats Krishwa is the game of 
dice, 8, 91 ; belongs to the quality 
of passion, 8, 324 ; a cause of loss, 
10 (ii), 18; a game of dice played 
by the priests at the laying down of 
the Sabhya fire, 12, 302 n. ; a sin, 
14, 220; a vice of kings, 25, 223; 
gamblers are ' open rogues,' 
' thorns ' to be removed by the 
king, 25, 387, 494 ; 33, 223, 360 sq.; 
ceremony against the dog-demon 



performed in the g.-hall, 30, 219, 
287 ; allowed by Narada, 33, xv ; 
property acquired by g, is 'black 
wealth,' 33, 54 ; gamblers not to be 
witnesses, 33, 83, 87, 303 ; game of 
dice and ceremonies on the gaming- 
ground at the king's consecration, 

41, 63 sq., 106 8, 106 sq. n., 109 n., 
in sq. ; the gaming-board is fire, 
and the dice its coals, 41, 64, 112 ; 
prayers and rites for success in g., 

42, 69, 149-51, 412 sq., 548 sq.; 
the brilliancy of the dice, 42, 116; 
meat, liquor,and dice, 42, 144, 493 ; 
dice used for magic cures, 42, 470 ; 
a gambler sacrificed to dice at the 
Purushamedha, 44, 414, 416. See 
also Parables {/), 

Gambu, disciple of Sambhuta- 
vij-aya, 22, 289 ; of the Gautama 
gotra, a Sthavira, 22, 295, 295 n. 

t^ambudipa, or India, so called 
after the Gambu tree, 13, 127. 

C7ambu-gama, Buddha at, 11, 66. 

C7ambuka, the naked ascetic, 3C, 
249. 

C^ambunada-prabhasa: Maha-Ka- 
tyayana is to be the future Buddha 
G., 21, i48sq. 

Gambunaman, n. of a Sthavira, 22, 
287. 

L?ambusvamin, disciple of Sudhar- 
man, 22, 1. 

Games ; list of g. and amusements 
forbidden to Bhikkhus, 11, 193; 
17, 348 sq.; the game of pitch-pot, 
27, 50 sq. ; 28, 397-401; monks 
should not play ash/apada (chess?), 
45, 303, 303 n. See also Hunting. 

CPami, the goddess of maternity, 42, 

323, 323 "• 

G&mshed, i.e. Yima, 4, 10. 

Ga«a : meaning of the terms G., 
Kula, and 6'akha, 22, 2S8 n.; the 
head or founder of a G., one of the 
superiors of Gaina monks, 22, 306. 

Liana, see Wi/a G.' 

C7anadatta, disciple of Bhadrabahu, 
22, 389. 

Ga«adhara, Gaina t.t. = chief dis- 
ciple, 22, 1 n., 306 ; Ga«as and G. 
of Parjva, 22, 273 sq.; Arish/anemi 
had eighteen G,, 22, 278 ; £*shabha 
had eighty-four G,, 22, 284; Maha- 
vira had nine Gawas and eleven G., 
22, 286 sq.; the G. and their dis- 



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229 



ciples do as Mahavira did, 22, 296 ; 
Garga was a Sthavira and G., 45, 
149, 149 n- 
kanaka, king of Videha, and Ya^wa- 
valkya, 1, Ixxiv sq., 300 ; 8, 304 n.; 
12, xxxi, xlii sq. ; 15, [52-77, i6r 11.; 
44, 46, 112-15; by action alone did 
G. work perfection, 8, 54; 'turned 
the wheel,' 8, 215; Dharma ap- 
pears before G. disguised as a Brah- 
ma«a, 8, 224 ; wants to banish a 
Brahmana from 'his dominions,' 
but finds that he must call all or 
nothing his own, 8, 303-6, 304 sq. 
n.; father of Sita, wife of Rama, 12, 
xliii ; G. and Aupa^andhani, 14, 
229, 229 n.; a wise and liberal king, 
15, 100, 100 n. ; patron of learned 
Brahmanas, 15, 131 ; on the know- 
ledge of the Gayatri, 15, 199 ; with- 
out a teacher acquired power of 
abstraction, 19, 11; reached final 
bliss, 19, 139; 49 (i), 95, 130; Su- 
labha entered into his body to carry 
on discussion with him, 38, 237; 
the Mitravinda sacrifice went away 
to G., 44, 66; became a Brahman, 
44, 115 ; performed many sacrifices 
with numerous gifts to the priests, 
44, 115; 48, 688; instructed the 
twice-born in the rules of Yoga, 49 

(i), 9- . 

(^anaki Ayasthu?/a, pupil of ATGla 
Bhagavitti, 15, 214 ; teaches the 
priest Saulvayana, 44, 6r. 

Gana Mainyo = Zana MainyS = 
Ahriman, 4, 373. 

Ganame^aya, son of Parikshit, Ma- 
habharata related to him, 8, 229; 
Tura K&vasheya, his high priest, 12, 
xxxii ; they pour out cups full of 
fiery liquor in the palace of G., 44, 
95 ; Indrota performed the horse- 
sacrifice for him, 44, 396. 

Gananti, satiated at the Tarpa«a, 
29, 220. 

Ganardana, n. of Krishna or Vishwu, 
7, 5 ; 8, 41 sq., 52, 88, 99, 233, 393. 
See Vishnu. 

Ga«as (truops of gods), the Maruts 
the princes among, 8, 346 ; are 
liable to destruction, 15, 289. 

Gawas and Gawadharas of Camas, 
22, 273 sq., 278, 284, 286 sq. 

C7ana »Sarkaraksb.ya, n.p.,1, 84, 87 ; 
43, 393, 396. 



Gana.rruti Pautrayana, the pious 
giver, called a Sudra by Raikva, 1, 
55-8; 34, 223-7; 38, 305 sq.; 43, 
338-42. 

Ga//</amba tree, 36, 247. 

Gandarep(o), see Gawdarewa. 

Ga;/darewa (Gandarep), the golden- 
heeled, slain by Keresasp, 18, 370 
sq., 374 6, 381 ; 23, 63, 63 n., 295 ; 
24, 63; 37, 198, 198 n.; 47, 12; 
born from Yim with a witch, 18, 
419; Parshawta, son of G. , 23, 217; 
lives beneath the waters, is the son 
of Ahura, 23, 255 sq,, 256 n.; 24,63. 

Gandha, a Yaksha, who worships 
Buddha, 49 (i), 170. 

Gandhabbas, see Gandharvas. 

Gandhahaatin, n. of a Bodhisattva, 
49(H), 90, 

Gandhaprabhasa, n. of a Tatha- 
gata, 49 (ii), 100. 

Gandhara(s), n. of a country and 
people, 1, 105 sq., 105 n.; 11, 135; 
a king of G., converted by Buddha, 

19, 2 4 2. 

Gandharas, the art of, an occult 
science, 45, 366. 

Gandharis.takman (fever) delivered 
over to the G., 42, 2, 446. 

Gandharva (sing,): the G. Vijva- 
vasu, 12, 90, 90 n.; 26, 52; 43, 
xiv ; women belong to him, 14, 
133; 33, 171 n.; ga\e women their 
melodious voice, 14, 233; the G. 
Vijvavasu presides over procrea- 
tion, 15, 220; 29, 45; Avalokite- 
jvara assumes the shape of a G., 21, 
411; Vena, a G. representing the 
rainbow, 26, 281 n, ; worshipped 
and invoked at the wedding, 29, 32, 
289; 30, 84; Soma gave the bride 
to G., 29, 278 sq.; 30, 44, 190; 
42, 254, 323; Agni is the G., his 
Apsaras are the herbs, 30, 146 n. ; 
the concord of which the G. is pos- 
sessed, 30, 199; colloquy of the G. 
possessing a woman, and Ya^a- 
valkya, 15, 127, 132; 34, cv, 219; 
the heavenly, thought-cleansing G„, 

41, 5 ; the heavenly G. is yonder 
sun, 41, 195 ; a plant for promoting 
virility dug up by the G. for Varuwa, 

42, 31, 370. 

Gandharvas (plur.) : gods, G., or 
Manes do not teach what is virtue 
and what is sin, 2, 72 ; created. 



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7, 4; 8, 387; 25, T5; world or 
worlds of G., 7, 109, 271; 15, 130 
sq., 172, 176; marriage rites of the 
G., 7, 109; 25, 79-82; 29, ififi; 
A'itraratha, chief among G., 8, 89 ; 
alarmed at the greatness of Krishna, 

8, 9-j ; achieved their beauty by 
living as Brahma^arins, 8, 178: Vi- 
shnu is the lord of G., snakes, Rak- 
shas, See, 8, 347 ; do not know the 
path of the gods, 10 (i), 95 ; gods 
and Gandhabbas (Pali for G.), 10 (ii), 
115; the husbands of theApsaras, 12, 
269 n.; 42, 33 sq.; Brahman seen in 
the world of G., as in the water, 15, 
22 ; the bliss of the human and the 
divine G., 15, 59 sq., 61 sq. n.; 
carried by a stallion, 15, 74; wor- 
shipped at the Tarpawa, 29, 121, 
219: are fond of women, females 
possessed by them, 15, 127, 132; 
26, 53, 233 sq.; 34, cv; 42, 34; 
heavenly musicians, 19, 25,54; 22, 
237; Gandhabbas dwell in the ocean, 
20, 302, 305 ; four Gandharvaka- 
yikas with many hundred thousand 
G. in their suite, 21, 5 ; names of G,, 

25, 112; compelled by fear to yield 
enjoyments, 25, 219; produced by 
activity, 25, 494 ; seized the bull 
(Soma?), 26. xiv; stole the Soma, 

26, 52-4, 58; are Soma- war dens, 
26, 71 n., 72, 72 n., 150-2, 233 sq., 
364 sq.; water oblation to the G., 



a flash of lightning, 44, 70 ; make 
Pmf.ravas one of themselves, 44, 
73 sq.; arc the people of King 
Varu«a, 44, 365; the pious monk 
will be honoured by gods, G., and 
men, 45, 8; souls of G., 48, 198; 
beings born as G. on account of 
religious merit, 48, 238 ; Fata Mor- 
gana, a town of the G., 48, 449; 
gods and G., 49 (i), 197 ; the per- 
fumes of the Gandharvara^a, 49 (ii), 
41 ;— G. and Apsaras, 29, 229 ; 42, 
160, 370, 534 ; charms to drive 
out Apsaras and G., 42, 33, 408 sq.; 
G, and Apsaras invoked against 
enemies in battle, 42, 119; G. and 
Apsaras, serpents, and other evil 
spirits, 42, 125 sq.; G. and Apsaras 
have partaken of the fragrance of 
the earth, 42, 202 ; G. and Apsaras, 
as evil demons, 42, 205 ; G. and 
Apsaras, founded upon time, 42, 
225 ; gods, fathers, men, G. and A., 
42,229; G. and Apsaras cause mad- 
ness, 42, 520 sq.; Apsaras, the wives 
of Kama, the Gandharva, 42, 536; 
offerings to G.and Apsaras, 43, 229- 
233; G. and Apsaras gratified at 
the Agnihotra, 44, 82 ; to G. and 
Apsaras, an outcast sacrificed at 
Purushamcdha, 44, 414. See also 
Superhuman beings. 
Gandharvi, the woman of the 
waters, 42, 520 sq. 



29, 325; the mind, the splendour Gandhottama, n. of a Tathagata, 

that dwells with the G., 30, 159, 49 (ii), too. 

166; gods and G. read the original G&??esa, worshipped, 7, xxi ; 25, 

code of Manu, 33, 3; among the 106 n.; 29, 140 n. 

pa£&ujana£, 34, 262 ; seven and Gahga, see Ganges. 

twenty G., 41, 19 sq. and note; Ganges, the bones of the cremated 

snatch away oblations, 42, 33 sq,, corpse, to be thrown into it, 7, xxx, 



4iosq.; know healing plants, 42, 43; 
a talisman against the G., 42, 80 ; 
the G. and Kajyapas lead forth, 42, 
210; live on the shores of waters, 
42, 410 ; Agni, Surya, Moon, Wind, 
Sacrifice, Mind, as G., 43, 231—^ ; 
serve the Person in the eye under 
the name of 'form,' 43, 373; the 
racer (Vagin) carries the G., 43, 
40J ; find fault with the sacrifice of 
the i?ishis, 44, 29 sq.; Yavaman, the 
winnowing-basket, Uddalavan, hus- 
bandry, and Antarvan, grain, being 



76; its water the purest of all, 
205 ; the first or the best of rivers, 
8j 90, 354 ; 45, 290 ; Buddha crosses 
the overflowing river G., 11, 21 ; 17, 
104; 19, 251 sq.; feast of the G. 
and the Main, 17, 25; 20, 359; 
bathing in the G. as a religious rite, 
19, 26; descent of the G., 23, 52; 
the Brahmawa tribes on the banks 
of the G„ 30, 208 ; Bharata offered 
horse-sacrifice near the G., 44, 399 ; 
the heavenly G., 45, 92 ; mother of 
Bhishma, 49 (i), 95. 



names of G., 44, 30; carry off the (7a?7^abha, worshipped by the Sna- 
lambs of UrvajT, 44, 69; produce taka, 30, 166. 

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Gaff ilea Knla, of the Vejavarika 
Ga«a, 22, 291. 

Ganrak-niainok, Phi., the evil 
spirit, 5, 3 n., 4 n. See Aharmaii, 
Angra-mainyu, and Evil spirit. 

(Vanta, son of Amba, 10, xxvii. 

Ganussowi, n. of a Brilhmawa, 10 
(ii), 109; 11, 167, 168 n. 

Gaokerena, see Haoma. 

Gaoma?//, son of Zavan, 23, 218. 

Gaopivanghvu, n.p., 23, 211. 

Gaotema, i.e. Gotama Buddha, 
Zoroastrian controversies against 
him, 4, liii; 23, 184, 184 n. 

Carabodha, n.p., 46, 17, 19. 

Garahadlnna, story of, 36, 249. 

Garaautta, t.c.^10 (ii), 154-6. 

Garatkarava Arlabhaga questions 
Ya,?#avalkya, 15, 125-7; B4, Ixxxi, 
cxii; 38, 373 sq.; 48, 734. 

Garbhadhana, see Sexual inter- 
course. 

Garbharakshawa, t.t., see Child (b). 

Garbha-upanishad, quoted, 48, 
364. 

Gardabhali, a monk, converted 
King Saw^aya, 45, 82 sq. 

Gardabhivibhita Bharadva^a, 

quoted, 15, 155 sq. 

Garga, the learned sage, compares 
bad pupils to bad bullocks, 45, 149- 
52. 

Gargi Va&iknavi (daughter of Va- 
&tknu), questions Ya^wavalkya, 15, 
130 sq., 136-9; 48, 308-10; wor- 
shipped at the Tarpa»a, 29, 122 sq., 
220; possessed the knowledge of 
Brahman, 38, 315, 

Gargiputra, n. of teachers, 15, 
224 n. 

Gargya in list of teachers, 15, 186 ; 
worshipped at the Tarpana, 29, 
122 sq., 220. See also Balaki, and 
Sauryayanin. 

Gargyayawa, n. of a teacher, 15, 
186. 

Garments : sin of clothing the dead, 
5, 340 sq., 341 n.; offered to the 
departed spirit, 5, 383, 383 n.; 
legend explaining why men wear g., 
12, 9 sq. ; gifts of g. to the priests 
and the poor, for the departed soul, 
18, 150, 150 n.; 24, 351 sq.; dress 
of silk is good for the body, of cotton 
for the soul, 24, 49, 49 n.; g. of 
hair or bark or hide when doing 



penance, 25, 449, 451-3, 455; sin 
of burning leathern and woollen g,, 
37, 85 ; mode of wearing g., 37, 91 ; 
made to float away at the final bath 
after sacrifice, 44, 267; a hundred 
g. the priests' fee, 44, 353; are 
man's outward appearance, 44, 353, 
See also Costumes. 

oarodanghu, son of Pairijtira, 23, 
210, 2 10 n. 

Garo-nmanem (Garothman, Garei- 
man), 'the abode of song,' the 
Paradise of the Parsis, 4, 220 sq., 
220 n., 221 n., 232-4, 375, 386 ; 5, 
294 sq., 294 n. ; 23, 200, 291, 335; 
G., the place of eternal weal, and the 
Kiiwat bridge, 23, 12, 20; Mithra 
invoked to gather the libations and 
lay them in the G., 23, 127, 133; 
Mithra drives forth from G., 23, 
152 ; abode of the Good Spirit, 23, 
296 ; G. of Ahura-Mazda, 23, 357 ; 
praised, 31, 170, 172 ; the pious soul 
received by Ahura-Mazda into his 
G., 31, 1S4 sq. and note. See also 
Heaven (g), and Paradise. 

Garovanghu. son of Frayazawta, 
23, 212. 

Garshasp, see Keresaspa. 

Gar.fta, son of Kavi, 23, 2 1 8. 

Garuda, son of Vinata, chief among 
birds, 8, 90, 90 n.; 49 (i), 144 ; (ii), 
57 ; G. and Naga chiefs carry Maha- 
vira's throne, 22, 198 ; the enemies 
of serpents, 35, 38 ; Venudeva, the 
best of birds, 45, 290, 290 n. See 
also Superhuman beings. 

Garu.tm.at, the winged one, whose 
head is the Triv/v't, &c, 29, 49 ; 
not hurt by poison, 42, 25, 375. 

6'asabhad.da, see Yajobhadra. 

(^asa/z/sa, n. of Siddhartha, Maha- 
vira's father, 22, 193, 256. 

Gasanbar, Phi. 'season-festival,' 5, 
lxxiii. 

6"atakarman, t.t., birth ceremony, 
see Child (b). 

(7atakas (tales of former births of 
the Buddha): life of Buddha pre- 
fixed to the G., 11, 208 sq.; Buddha 
teaches by means of Sutras, stanzas, 
G., and parables, 21, 44 sq.; quoted 
in the Milindapawha, 35, xli sq., 
180 n., 183 n., 185 n., 216, 280 sq., 
283 n., 294-6, 294 n.; 36, 6, 6 n., 
16-19, 16 n -t '8 n., 20-2, 20 n,, 



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GATAKA5- -GAUTAMIPUTRA 



Si 11., 146 11., acjr, 306, 310, 341, 
342 11., 344, 344 n., 349 5 Vessan- 
tara C, S3, 170 8 ; 86, 1 14-32 ; the 
Sivi G., 35, 179-85; talking trees 
in the G., 35, 241 ; in which Deva- 
datta occurs as the Bodisat's enemy, 
35, 283-93 an d notes, 303 sq. 
See also Talcs. 

6atavedas, see Agni (d). 

Gathas of the Zend-Avesta are post- 
Alexandrian, 4, Ixvsq.; Philo, and 
the writers of the G., 4, lvi sq.; 
i n voked and worsh ipped, 4, 222, 
222 n.; 31, 293-5, 3 S 9 S< 1; 33^ S( h> 
339 sq., 35<> sq., 356 11., 373, 382; 
quoted, 5, 167 sq. and note, 350; 
not to be recited over the dead, 5, 
318 ; mystic signification of the G., 
5, 352-69 ; difficulties and methods 
of interpretation, 31, x-xv, xvii sq., 
xxxvii-xlvi ; their antiquity, 31, xxv 
sq.; relative age of the G., 31, 
xxvi sq., 91 sq. ; their importance, 
31, 1 sq.; translated, 31, 3-194; 
mentioned in the Haoma and Sr6sh 
Ya.rts, 31, 243 sq., 243 n., 299, 
299 n,; duty of knowing the G., 
37, 73 sq.; purport of the G., 37, 
169 sq.; unforgetfulness and power 
of the spirit of the G., 37, 178 sq.; 
work of Auharmas^ in the Gathic 
lore, 37, 342 sq. 

Gathas (songs, strophes), good and 
bad, 10 (i), 31 ; singing G. at the 
Simantonnayana rite, 29, 48 sq.; 
quoted, 44, 98, 101, 326 sq., 396- 
401. 

Gathin: Indra becomes Kiuika's son 
G., 26, 82 n. ; G. Kaujika, author of 
Vedic hymns, 46, 279, 281, 283, 
285. See also Kaujika, and Kiuika. 

Gathina, see Vuvamitra G. 

G&til&s, see Ascetics (c). 

Gatismara, see Siwhagiri G. 

Gatukafimn, n. of a Brahmawa, 10 
(ii), 187, 204, 210. 

Gatuka^wima^avapu/'/'M, t.c, 10 
(ii), 204 sq. 

Oatukar^fya, n.of a teacher, 1, 267 ; 
15, ir8 n., 119, 186 n., 187. 

G'atukarwya, worshipped at the Tar- 
pa«a, 29, 123; 30, 244. 

GaWapada-Karika, quoted, 34, 
xcix, exxvii ; 38, 424 ; 48, 775. 

Gauc/as, the art of, an occult science, 
45, 366. 



Gaupavana, n. of a teacher, 15, 
1 18, 185 sq. 

Gaupayanaa or Laupayanas, authors 
of Vedic hymns, 46, 415. 

Gauri, n.p., 23, 215. 

Gauzi, wife of Balakosh^a, 45, 50 n. 

GauriViti Saktya quoted, 44, 250. 

Gautama, father of Svctakctu, 1, 
77-9 ; 15, 205-8 ; Auddalaka (Ud- 
dalaka) Aru«i, addressed as G., 1, 
88, 271, 273 ; 44, 52 sq., 79 ; asked 
Brahman about final emancipation, 
8, 314; one of the seven ifr'shis, 
15, 106; n. of teachers, 15, ji8, 
ir8 n., 119, 186, 186 n., 187 ; Rfchi 
G. seduced by an Apsaras, 19, 39 ; 
49 (i), 39; Indra in love with the 
wife of the JWshi G., 19, 43; 26, 

81 n.; 49 (i), 44; an appellation of 
disrespect in addressing Buddha, 
19, 172 sq., 173 n.; Tirthakaras of 
the G. gotra, 22, 218; Sthaviras of 
the G, gotra, 22, 286 sqq., 289, 293 
sqq.; Indra calls himself G., 26, 82, 

82 n. ; satiated at the Tarpawa, 29, 
220 ; 30, 244 ; Kesi and G., leaders 
of the two branches of the Gaina 
church, 45, xxii. See also Gotama, 
Haridrumata, Indrabhuti, Nodhas, 
Sudharman, and Uddalaka. 

Gautama, son of Utathya, quoted 
in Manu-smWti, 25, xxvi sq., 78. 

Gautama-Dharma-sutra is the 
manual of a G.-Aarana of the Sama- 
veda, 2, xlix-liii; 14, xiii; 25, 613 ; 
its priority to the other Dharma- 
sutras, 2, liii-lx; its language, 2, 
lix ; its date, 2, lx sq. ; its text and 
commentary 2, lxii ; translated, 2, 
174-310; G. and Vish»u-smr/ti, 7, 
xx ; quoted, 8, 208, 213 n., 218 n., 
225 n., 236 n., 353 n., 354 n., 359"., 
362 n., 363 n., 365 n. ; 14, xvii, xxi, 
xxxiv, xl, 30, 147, 236; 25, xxvii, 
xxx ; 30, 97 ; 33, 376 ; 48, 590 ; 
quotes Manu, 25, xxxiv sq. 

Gautami, worshipped at the Tar- 
pawa, 29, 123. 

Gautami, a name of Gotama Bud- 
dha's wife, 49 (i), 82, 86. 

Gautami, Pra^apati, aunt of the 
Buddha, 19, 23, 64, 84-6 ; 21, xxx, 
256 sq. ; restored to sight by Bud- 
dha, 49 (i), 197; becomes a Buddhist 
nun, 49 (i), 199 sq, 

Gautauoiputra, n.p., 15, 224 n., 225. 



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GAUTAMlYA sakhA— gems 



2m 



Gautainiya .Sakha of the Manava 

Ga»a, 22, 292. 
Gavah of Ispahan stood by truth, 

against Dahak, 24, 323 sq., 323 n. 
Gavampati, disciple of Buddha, an 

eminent Arhat, 13, no sq. ; 21, 2; 

49 (ii), 90. 
Gavayan, n.p., 23, 203. 
Gavedhmka. Sakha of the A'arawa 

Ga«a, 22, 291. 
Gavish//rira Atreya, author of Vedic 

hymns, 46, 364. 
Gaya, incantation of, 42, 107, 255; 

G. Atreya, author of Vedic hymns, 

40, 387, 390 ; Buddha visits the 
royal sage G,, 49 (i), 132. 

Gaya, Buddha at, 10 (ii), 45; 21, 
293 sq., 298 sq. ; 49 (i), 192; A'rad- 
dhas offered at G., 14, 55. 

Gaya, a king who became a Gaina 
monk, 45, 86 sq., 86 n. 

Gayadhasti,son of Pouru-dhakhjti, 
23, 212, 225. 

Gayadratha, a warrior, 8, ^6. 

Gayaghosna, a Gaina monk, for- 
merly a Brahmawa, 45, 136-41. 

Gaya-Kaiyapa, see Kajyapa. 

Gaya Maretan, see Gayoman/. 

Gayanta, a Brahman, met death for 
his son's sake, 19, 92, 92 n. 

Gayanta, disciple of Va^rasena, 22, 
288. 

G'ayanta, son of Indra, 19, 94 ; 30, 
290 n. ; 49 (i), 93; spoken to by 
Br/'haspati, 19, 96 ; Buddha, the 
prince, compared with G., 49 (i), 
92. 

Gayantiputra, n.p., 15, 225. 

Gayasisa, Buddha at, 13, 134 sq. ; 
Devadatta with his followers at the 
hill G., 20, 256-9. 

Gayatri (metre and verse), called 
pra«a or breath, 1, 29 n.; 12, 100 ; 
meditated upon as Brahman, 1, 44-6, 
158, 162, 194; 34, 93-6; 44, 409; 
48, 248 sq. ; is the first of all metres, 
1, 187 ; 8, 90, 90 n., 353 ; identified 
with the earth, 12, 110 sq., 195 n. ; 

41, 148; as a falcon carried off the 
Soma, 12, i83sq,, 183 n.,233; 26,52, 
78, 88, 150, 241 ; 42, 401 ; 44, 122 ; 
speculations on the G., 15, 196-9; 
41, 158, 160 sq.; is everything what- 
soever exists, 34, 90, 93-5 ; consists 
of three feet, these worlds being 
three in number, 44, 26; the golden, 



brilliant-winged G. who bears the 
sacrificer to the heavenly world, 44, 
53, 56 ; a Gayatra hymn, 46, 7. See 
also Metres. 

Gayo-Maratan, see Gayfimar//. 

Gayomaiv/ (Gaya Maretan, Gayo- 
Maratan), the first man, 4, 254; 5, 
19, 20 11., 52 sq., 59, 88; 18, 60, 
60 n., 401 sq., 411; 23, 227; 24, 
58 ; 31, 260 n. ; 37, 26, 26 n. ; 47, 
x, xxix, xli, 4-6, i2i ; promises not 
to resort to suicide, 4, 372 n. ; king 
of the mountain, overcome by 
death, 4, 383 sq. ; representing 
mankind, 5, xxiii ; the righteous 
man, 5, 15 n. ; 37, 454, 456, 460; 
Aharman's conflict with G. , 5, 1 7 sqq., 
161 sq., 161 n., 164-6, 168, 182-4; 
when he passed away he fell to the 
left hand, 5, 20; Gojiirvan and G., 
5, 20, 163; his bones first roused 
up, 5, 123 ; Mashya, son of G., 5, 
130; first ancestor of Zoroaster, 5, 
141 n. ; 47, 35, 140; his reign for 
three thousand years, 5, 149; 24, 
345; first ruler of the world, 18, 
13 sq., 13 n. ; 23, 33 n. ; his great- 
ness, 18, 21 ; among the preparers 
of the renovation of the universe, 
18, 77 ; made mortal by the evil 
spirit, 18, 94 ; destroyed by the 
demon of death, from his seed 
sprang Marhaya and MarhiySih, 18, 
105, 105 n. ; origin of G. and of 
mankind, 18, 197-9, 198 n. ; son of 
Auharmazrf, 18, 393 n., 401 ; called 
Vohfiman, 18, 393 n. ; his Fravashi 
worshipped, 23, 200 sq. ; 31, 252, 
273, 278 sq. ; invoked and wor- 
shipped, 23, 350; 31, 324, 362; 
advantage of his actions, 24, 57 sq., 
57 n. ; shared heaven through wis- 
dom, 24, 102 ; afflicted by the 
demons, 37, 254 ; predominance of 
those of the nature of G., 37, 332. 

Gefar-tora, ancestor of FreVun, 5, 
132; 47,34. 

Geh, the fiend of menstruation, 5, 15 
sq., 15 11., 283 n. See Woman (<?). 

Gehila, of the Yasish^a gotra, a 
Sthavira, 22, 294. 

Gemara, of the Jews, 47, xiii sq., 
119 sq. and n., 129. 

Gema : wish-conferring gem, 8, 179 ; 
'SG, 58 sq., 74, 1 19, 193, 256, 256 n., 
258, 264, 267; 49 (i), 157; (ii) 50, 



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GEMS- GIFTS 



174 ; g. to be found in the ocean, 20, 
303 ; 36, 303, 303 n.; a wonderful 
gem presented to Buddha by a 
Naga, 21, 252 sq.; magic gem which 
clears muddy water, 35, 55, 55 n. ; 
list of g., 35, 177 ; the mystic g. of 
sovranty, 36, 14, 14 n., 128. See also 
Amulets, Jewels, and Parables (/). 

(Pemshid, see Yima Khshadta, 

Gem-Treaaure, see Jewels. 

Gem-trees, see Jewels. 

Generation : semen and blood pro- 
duced by the Prawas, 8, 275 ; genera- 
tive power is immortal, 41, 354 ; is 
only on this side of sky and sun, 
43, 128,130. Seeaho Birth, Child (r), 
and Sexual intercourse. 

Genii, see Sadhyas. 

Genital organ, one of the (ten, 
eleven) organs of the body, 8, 261, 
336; connected with the self, 8, 
338 ; by means of it he sheds the 
essence of food as seed, 44, 264, 

Geography : the sixteen perfect 
lands created by Ahura-Mazda, 4, 
1-10; mythical g., 24, 85-7. See 
also India, Iran, Khvaniras, Moun- 
tains, and Rivers. 

Geta, a prince from whom Anatha- 
pi«</ada obtained the Gctavana, 19, 
216 sq. and n.; 20, 187 sqq.; 49 (i), 
193 sq. 

cTetavana, garden and monastery, 
founded at Savatthi by Anatha- 
piWada, 10 (ii), 17, 2c, &c. ; 11, 
167 n., 238, 238 n., 296 ; 19,213-18, 
230 sq. 

Geurva, Haoijt, son of, 37, 224, 
224 n. 

Gnmirva, Av. } = Phi. Gojurvan 
(q. v.), 5, 20 n. 

GVmna, Pali t.t., four kinds of 
meditation, 11, 115 n., 212, 271 sq., 
272 n. See Meditation. 

Gharma, see Pravargya. 

Gha/ikara, a potter, invited Goti- 
pala to visit the Buddha, 36, 2 1 ; no 
rain fell upon his hut, 36, 23 sq. 

Ghaura, see Kawva G. 

Ghee (ghWta), or clarified butter, is 
the sap of heaven and earth, of the 
universe, 12, 372 sq.; 41, 333, 390; 
is a purifier, 26, 8; belongs to the 
gods, 26, 14; is a thunderbolt, 26, 
106, 169 sq.; is consecration water, 
41,79; is seed, 41, 21 1 sq.; offered 



on the fire-altar, 43, 182 sq. ; is 

sacred to Agni, 43, 189; is fiery 

mettle, 44, 274, 296, 312, 410 sq. ; 

is the resource of the gods, 44, 296, 

410. 
Ghora, a work of the Atharvans, 44, 

366 n. 
Ghora, see Kawva. 
Ghora Ahgiraaa, communicates his 

view of the sacrifice to Krishna, the 

son of Devaki, 1, 52. 
Ghosel, see Purification. 
Ghoshamati,son of a former Buddha, 

21, 19. 

Ghosta, ( a carriage full of ghosts/ 
an impossible thing, 16, 140, 142 n. 
See also Pretas, Spirits, and Super- 
human beings. 

Ghouls, see Demons. 

Ghr/takaiuika, n. of a teacher, 15, 
119, 186. 

Ghn'taH, a nymph, 43, 107 ; 49 (i), 

39- 

Gianteasea, see Superhuman beings. 

(7ibt, idols of ancient Arabs, 6, 79. 

Gideon and Saul confused, 6, 38 sq., 
38 n. 

Gifts, rules about making and 
accepting g., 2, 65 sq., 203 sq., 
265 sq. ; 7, 87 ; 14, 68, 70 sq. ; 25, 
Ixviii, 133 sq., 158 sq., 167 sq., 592 ; 
27, 78, 84-6, 89, 423; 28, 76 sq.; 
33, 220 sq. ; making of g. purifies 
a sinner, 2, 70 ; 25, 188, 477 ; 
making of g. accompanied by a 
water-libation, 2, 122, 203; 13,143; 
14, 277 n. ; 17, 250 sq., 251 n. ; 19, 
231; meritoriousness of g. to learned 
Brahma?*as, 2, 163; 7, 21 sq.; 10 
(ii), 50 sq. ; 14, 134-9, 2 4°j '^>, 
93, 99-102, 133, 229 sq., 430 sq., 
434 sq. ; giving g., a penance, 2, 
275, 277, 279, 285 sq.; 4, 172-5; 
6, 28, no sq., 188; 9, 271 ; 14, 109, 
113 sq., ri 6, ir 8, 125, 134 sq., 137, 
222, 295, 302, 305 sq., 311 sq., 32S, 
330 sq.; 25, 445 sq., 454, 456-9, 
477 ; 29, 120 ; g. of honour, made 
by a king to his chief minister, 3, 
194, 267, 267 n. ; g. to a woman 
from her male relatives, 7, 69 ; 25, 
374; illicit g., 2, 292, 292 n. ; 7, 
136, 136 n., 187-9; 14, 115, 13°) 
239, 310, 317 ; 25, 109, 142 sq., 
167 sq., 424-6, 435, 438, 444, 4 8 ' ? 
g. for purposes of sacrifices must 



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not be employed for any other 
purposes. 7, 192; the householder's 
duty of making g., 7, 192-4, 215-17, 
8, 35S sq. ; 14, 237, 262; 25, 92, 

164 sq.; the merit of different kinds 
of pious g., and their corresponding 
rewards, 7, 263-76; 25, 165-7, 

165 n., 229 sq. ; certain times 
auspicious for certain kinds of g., 

7, 263, 265-70 ; the skin of a black 
antelope, adorned and covered with 
all sorts of jewels, given to a Brah- 
ma«a, 7, 263 sq. ; fit and unfit 
persons to receive g., 7, 274-6; 10 
(ii), 80-4; 14, 38 sq. ; 24, 53, 82, 
291 sq. ; 25, 59, 107, 158 sq., 
430 sq. and n., 444, 444 n. ; pro- 
tection is more meritorious than 
any g., 7, 271 ; fruit of g. obtained 
by devotion, 8, 8r ; good and bad 
kinds of g., 8, 120 sq., 242, 324 sq., 
330; g. made without respect to 
fruit, a means of sanctification, 8, 
121 sq. ; g. made at ceremonies, 

8, 1 6g ; sacrifice, g., and other pious 
works end in destruction, 8, 355; 
giving and accepting of g. the duty 
of Brahmawas, 8, 359; 25, 24, 
158 sq., 419, 426; some BrShmawas 
are for meditation, others for sacri- 
fice, others for g., 8, 376; the gift 
of the law exceeds all g., 10 (i), 83, 

83 n. ; meritoriousness of g., 10 (i), 

84 ; 11, 20, 20 sq. n,; 17, 223 sqq.; 
36, 31-8, 145-8, 150, 155 ; made to 
Bhikkhus and to the church of the 
Buddha, 11,-27,33; 35, 134 sq.; the 
meritoriousness of g. to Buddha, 11, 
80,84; 35, 242-6; 36,24,31-8; 49 
(ii), 119, 123, 136, 139, i 4 r, 143; 
perpetual grant made by Sudassana, 
11, 263 sq.; at sacrifices and funeral 
oblations g. must be given to learned 
Brahmanas only, 14, 17 sq. ; rules 
about g. of robes to Bhikkhus or the 
Sawgha, 17, 194 sq., 219-25, 251-5 ; 
to the priests and the poor, 18, 150 
sq., 150 n., 1 54 sq.; made at the birth 
of a prince, 19, 19 sq. ; wishing g., 
for which the donor expects a par- 
ticular result in a future birth, 20, 

9, 9 n. ; the great merit of giving 
Viharas to the Sawgba, 20, r6o ; 36, 
3 ; resumption of g., a title of the 
law, 25. ciii, 253, 282-4, 292, 292 n.; 
33, xiii, 128-30, 341-3; of a thou- 



sand cows, 25, no; a hermit not 
to receive g., 25, 200; once only- 
does a man say, ' I will give/ 25, 
335; 33, 171 ; offered to the Dik- 
shita, 26, 45; for the dead, 27, 
34; 28, 140 sq., 144-7, 156 sq., T64, 
194 sq. ; about g. of introduction, 
27, 119; g, of condolence, mourn- 
ing g-» 27, 134, 136 sq., 154 sq., 
155 n., 183, 356 ; 28, 69 sq. ; inter- 
change of g. between ruler and 
ministers, 28, 21-3, 69 sq. ; given 
to Brahmawas at a wedding, 29, 
38 sq. ; made at the end of cere- 
monies, 29, 57 ; distribution of g. 
to be avoided for some days after 
the funeral, 29, 244 sq.; what is 
given away at a Sraddha brings 
prosperity, 29, 254 ; prayers recited 
when receiving g., 29, 367 sq. ; one 
about to give alms must not be 
arrested, 33, 1 9 ; deeds of g., 33. 
305 sq.; great meritoriousness of 
g. of land, 33, 306 ; inalienable g., 
33, 314 ; duty of king to bestow g. 
on Brahmawas, 33, 347 ; invalid 
g., 33, 354 ; Buddhas do neither 
accept nor refuse g., 35, 1 45 ; to be 
given to the Order rather than to 
the Buddha, 36, 51-5; a Sama«a 
purifies g. made to him, 36, 82-4 ; 
why do Bhikkhus trouble about g. ? 
36, 92-6; the meritoriousness of g. 
illustrated by the story of Vcssan- 
tara, 36, 114-32; ten g. that are 
disapproved. 36, 1 20 sq. ; a Bhikkhu 
should always share g. he has re- 
ceived with others, 36, 292; law 
about righteous g., 37, 68, ro6 sq., 
441 ; g. of the righteous, 37, 72 ; g. 
to righteous teachers, 37, 95 sq. ; 
damaged g., 37, 137; the soul de- 
sires giving of g., 37, 193; righteous g. 
at the season-festivals, 37, 483 ; sacri- 
fices, g. and austerities are purify- 
ing, 48, 700. See also Charity, 
Priests (fees), Teacher (fees). 

Gi^/zaku/a, ' Vulture's Peak,' n. of 
a mountain, 10 (ii), 80. 

Gibin, Pali t.t. = Gahaf/Aa, house- 
holder, 10 (ii), x. 

6"ihvavat Vadhyoga, n. of a teacher, 
15, 226. 

Gixa, see Yima. 

(7ina, title used by Buddhists and 
Gainas, 22, xix sq. ; title of Ma- 



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havira, 22, 201 ; or Tirthakara, 34, 
429 ; ' there is now no G., but there 
is a highly esteemed guide to show 
the way,' 45, 45 ; the arguments of 
Buddha,G., and others contradictory, 
48, 425, 426; teaching of G. to be 
rejected by the Vedantin, 48, 531. 
See also Buddha {a), and Ginas. 

Cinakalpika, a, who wears no 
clothes, 22, 57 n. 

6"inas, whatever they have declared, 
is truth, 22, 49 sq. ; are born as 
gods in their former existence, 22, 
189, 217 sq., 271, 276, 281; lives 
of the G., 22, 217-85 ; adoration of 
twenty-four G., 45, 159, 163. See also 
Buddha (_/), Saints, and Tirthakaras. 

L^inn a, created out of smokeless fire, 
G, xiii, 246; 9, 258; subject to 
birth and death, 6, xiii ; the daugh- 
ters of Allah, 6, xiii; Mohammed 
an apostle both for men and g., 
6, xiv, 131; 9, 304 sq., 304 n. ; 
hysterical symptoms explained as 
possession by g, } 6, xxi ; Mo- 
hammed's vision of ff. crowding 
around him, G, xxx; Muslim belief 
in the g., 6, lxix sq. ; those who 
made the g. partners with God 
rebuked, 6, 127 sq. and n. ; 9, 174 ; 
hell filled with g. and men, 6, 160, 
218; 9, 136; mankind and g. to- 
gether could not produce the like 
of the Qur'an, 9, 10; Iblis was of 
the g.j 9, 20 ; Mohammed said to 
be possessed by a g., 9, 69 ; work 
for Solomon, 9, 101 sq., 151,151 sq. 
and n. ; misbelievers believe in g, t 
9, 155; misbelievers among g. and 
men, 9, 226; listened to the Qur'an, 
9, 228 ; g. and mankind worship 
God, 9, 248, 259 sq. ; lonely places 
haunted by^., 9, 305 n. 

Giribba^a, m Magadha, 10 (ii), 67. 

Girira^agboaba, the 12th Tatha- 
gata, 49 (ii), 6. 

Girira^agboahe^vara, the 4 9th 
Tathagata, 49 (ii), 6. 

Girls, see Woman. 

Girnar, mount, on its summit Arish- 
tfanemi reached Kevala, and died, 
22, 277, 279; Mount G. or Raiva- 
taka, sacred to Gainas and Hindus, 
45, 1 1 5 n. 

c7ish;m, a god, a name of the great 
self, 8, 219, 332. 



Cisti, n.p., 23, 212. 

Gita, i.e. Bhagavadgita, q.v. 

Citvan Sailini, said that speech is 
Brahman, 15, 152. 

Giva, Sk. t.t., individual or personal 
soul, 34, xxv. See Self, and Soul. 

G'iva, n.p., see Givaka. 

Givaka Komarabha&£a, physician of 
King Bimbisara and one of the chief 
partisans of Buddha, 13, 191-3; 17, 
180 sq., 193-6; 19, 241, 241 n. ; 49 
(ii), 163 sq. ; son of the courtesan 
Salavat), performs wonderful cures, 
17, 172-94; recommends to Buddha 
the construction of cloisters and 
bath-rooms, 20, 102 sq. 

t/ivala ATailaki, quoted, 12, 336. 

Givanmukti, t.t,, release of one 
while still living. See Emancipation, 
and Nirvlwa, 

Giw, son of Gud&rz, 5, 1 18. 

Gladness, goddess, worshipped at 
the Pravargya, 44, 453. 

Glava Maitreya, other name of Vaka 
Dalbhya, 1, 21. 

Glory, kingly G. and unconsumed G. 
worshipped, 31, 200, 206, 211, 217, 
221, 226. 

Glow-worm, seen disappear here 
and there in darkness, 8, 239. 

<7«ana, Sk., knowledge, pure intelli- 
gence or thought, 34, xxv. 

GVTanagupta, or Gwanakuta, trans- 
lated the Fo-pen-hing-tsih-king, 19, 
xxix ; Chinese translation of the 
Saddharma-puw^arika, by G. and 
Dharmagupta, 21, xix-^xxi, xxiii. 

6"«ana-ka/^/a, Sk. t.t., the portion 
(of the Veda) which relates to know- 
ledge, and Karma-kaWa, 1, lxiii, 
lxxx ; systematized by the Uttara 
Mimamsa, 34, x, xii; includes Ara»- 
yakas and Upanishads, 34, x ; its 
subject is the knowledge of Brah- 
man, 34, x; not limited to the 
higher castes only, 34, xi ; in need 
of systematic defence, 34, xi; two 
different parts of it, 34, xxvii; final 
escape from the sawsara to be 
obtained by the G. only, 34, xxix. 
See also Knowledge, Philosophy, and 
Veda(/). 

c^anakara, n. of a son of a Buddha, 
21, 157. 

crHatr/putra, see MaMvira. 

Giistiris, MaMvira of the clan of the, 



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22, 191, 194, 248, 254-6; a noble 
family, followers of a king, 45, 339. 

Gfiatri Sha/Zi/a, n. of a park, Maha- 
vira proceeds to it, 22, 199, 259. 

Goat, a red, offered to the Manes, 
2, 148, 148 n. ; cleaned grain held 
up before a g., 7, 101 ; is the first 
among sacrificial animals, S, 353 ; 
symbolical sacrifice of a he-g., 12, 
275, 292, 292 n. ; milk of g. the 
best food, 24, 45 ; belongs to Piajj-a- 
pati, 26, 71 sq., 74; 41, 35, 171; 
g.'s skin, 41, 35; easier to cook 
than other victims, 41, 130; how 
created, 41, 147, 173, 245, 401 ; 43, 
38; 44, 214, 452; he-g. sacrificial 
animal, 41, 162, 165 sq., 204 sq. ; 
44,298; is sacred to Agni, 41, 225 ; 
corresponds to the Brahmana, 41, 
227; g.'s hair, 41, 229 sq.; contains 
all forms of cattle, 41, 230 ; eats all 
kinds of herbs, 41, 245; g.'s milk, 
41,245; 44,452,457,477; supports 
the earth, 46, 61 sq.; Aga, g. and 
'unborn' principle, 48, 367, 370. 
See also A#a, and Animals («?, g). 

Gobak-abu, maiden mother of the 
apostle Soshans, 47, 115, 115 n. 

Gobhara/za, or A'u-fa-lan, translator 
of Fo-pen-hing-king, 19, xvi sq. 

Gobhila-Gr/hya-sutra, and Kha- 
dira GWhya-siitra, 29, 371-3; and 
the Mantra-Brahmawa, 30, 3-11; 
translated, 30, 13-132. 

Goblina (pLra^illikas) reside in hollow 
trees, 13, 318; g. or Bhiitas, see 
Bhutas, Demons, PijiUas, Rakshasas, 
and Superhuman beings. 

God. 

(rt) G. Or Allah in the Quran, 

(/>) G. (Heaven, Thien, Ti) in Chinese 

Sar:red liooks. 
(c) G. (Ya«!3n) in Zoroastrian Sacred Books. 
(rf) G. (tjvara, the Lord) in Sacred Eooks 

of India. 

(a) God or Allah in the Qur'an. 
Unity of G., 6, lii, liv, Ixi, lxxi, 

22 sq., 95, r27 sq., 137, 177. 205, 
235-7,244,251 sq., 255; 9,26,i6S; 
wherever you turn there is G.'s face, 
6, 16; did not beget a son, 6, 16, 
95> 128; 9, 13 sq., 29, 34, 47, 7*j 
83, 182, 217; unity, self-subsistence 
and omnipotence of G., 6, 40, 40 n." 
46-50,54,84, 117, 127 sq. ; Arabs 
call angels 'daughters of G.,' 6, 256, 
256 n. ; there is no G. but He, 9, 35, 



42, 47 sq., 55, 59 sq., 66 sq., 7T-3, 
80, 89, 101, 104 sq., 115, 117, 119, 
157, 168 sq., 176, 181 sq., 188, 190-2, 
196 sq., 199, 218, 224, 231, 247, 
28 7> 3°5 s q- j unity of G. preached 
by Abraham, 9, 50 sq. ; has no 
daughters, and is not akin to the 
#inns, 9, 174, 212, 250, 252; (he 
doctrine of the unity of G. terrifies 
the idolators, 9, 1S7; say, l /fe is G. 
alone I G. the Eternal ! He begets not 
and is not begotten ! A r or is there like 
unto Him any one '. ' 9, 344 ; — ruler 
of the day of judgement, 6, 1 ; His 
is the kingdom of the heavens and 
the earth, 6, 15 sq., 59, 62, 68 sq., 
9°> 95, 100, 102 sq., 115 sq., 123, 
f 57j I 9°> l 9&> 199 sq., 218, 234, 238, 
258; 9, 32, 34 sq., 47, 63, 82 sq., 
91, 134 sq., 150, 161, 181, 187, 205, 
210, 217 sq., 223 sq., 235, 253, 266, 
286, 292, 327; is mighty and wise, 
6, 30, 32, 37, 41, 45 sq. ; is omni- 
scient, 6, 35, 45, 47, 50, 111, 121 sq., 
184, 205, 233 ; 9, 55, 64 sq., 71, 82, 
101, 105 sq., 1 15, 123, 133, 135, 145, 
150, 158, 161, 167, 183, 192, 203, 
206, 237, 241, 266, 27/, 286-8, 293, 
328; is Lord of grace over the 
worlds, (J, 39; is mighty and aveng- 
ing, 6,46 ; alone is powerful, 6, 144, 
204, 241 sq. ; not the weight of an 
atom can escape G., 6, 200; light- 
ning and thunder celebrate His 
praise, 6, 233 ; the signs of G., night 
and day, &c, 6, 257-9, 261 sq. ; 9, 
2, 126-30, 134, 164 sq., 182, 184, 
186-8, 198, 202, 208 sq., 220 sq. ; 
the birds in the vault of the sky, 
none holds them in but G., 6, 259 ; 
if the sea were ink and the trees 
pens they would not suffice to write 
the words of G., 9, 26, 134; His 
are the best of names, 9, 13, 13 11. ; 
a day with G. is a thousand years 
(and more) with men, 9, 6r, 135, 
301; His omnipotence, 9, 70 sq.; 
is the light of the heavens and the 
earth, 9, 78 ; His power over nature 
9, 79» 87-9, 104 sq., 158, 164 sq., 
2 93 s q- ; quickens the earth with 
rain, sends winds, &c, 9, 123 sq., 
129 sq., 158 ; makes the angels His 
messengers, 9, 157; respites men 
for a time, 9, 162; attributes and 
names of G., 9, 277 ; — belief in G. 



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GOD 



inculcated, 6, 2-4, 8, &c. ; 9, 3, &c.; 
serve ye none but G., 6, 1 1 ; 9, 3, 5; 
the curse of G. is on the misbeliever, 
6, 22, 165, 170, 261 sq.; he who 
disbelieves in idols and believes in 
G. has got bold of religion, 6, 40 ; 
obey G. and the Apostle, 6, 50, 68, 
74, 80-3, 163, 165, 183; 9, 79 s< b, 
143 sq., 148 sq., 232, 241, 287 ; it 
is not G. who wrongs the mis- 
believers, but it is themselves they 
wrong, 6, 61, 198, 216 ; 9, 121, 125 ; 
misbelievers do not hurt G., but 
themselves, G, 67 ; pardons anything 
short of idolatry, 6, 79, 88 sq. : belief 
in G. and fear of G. inculcated, 6, 
go sq. ; could send a sign, if He 
pleased, 6, 119; trust in G. alone, 
6, 129; the Meccans would not have 
believed, even if G. had sent signs, 
G, 129; belief depends on G.'s grace, 
6, 130 sq., 203 sq. ; 9, 314, 322; 
who disbelieve on G., their works 
are as ashes blown by the wind, (i, 
240 ; all creation adores G., G, 255 ; 
9, 5 sq., 47, 58, 79, 266, 273, 280, 
282, 286 ; will defend believers, but 
loves not the misbelieving traitor, 
9, 60 ; cares not for the rejection of 
His message by the infidels, 9, 90 ; 
honour belongs to G. alone, 9, 158 ; 
rebuke to those who say they serve 
false gods as a means to approach 
G., 9, 182 ; — the Creator, 6, 3-5, 
52, 54, 7', ioo, US, ii7, 123, 127 
sq., 144, 193 sq., 305, 232, 334, 239 
sq., 242, 245 sq., 249, 251 ; 9, 11 sq., 
34, 37 sq., 83, 88, 104 sq., 122 sq., 
&c. ; the Originator of the heavens 
and (he earth, tvhen He decrees a matter 
He doth but say unto it, i BE? and it is, 
G, 16; manifested in His creation, 
G, 69 ; has not created heaven and 
earth in sport, 9, 47 sq., 219; the 
best of creators, 9, 66 ; created 
every beast, 9, 79 ; produces the 
creation and then turns it back, 9, 
119, 126 sq. ; created ,g-inn and 
mankind to worship Him, 9, 248; — 
He is forgiving and merciful, 6, 1, 
24 sq., 27, 29, 32 sq., 36, 50, 62, 65, 
75 sq., 86-8, 90, 93, 102, 108, in, 
134, 137, 144, 166, 171, 173, 176, 

186-s, 204, 209, 229 sq., 252, 262 

sq.; 9, 6, 21, 55, 63, 73,75, 77, S2 
sq., 100, 109, 139, 142, 146, 149 sq., 



161, 190, 205, 208, 235, 239-41, 
270, 272, 2S0, 287, 290, 308; sends 
down of His grace on whomsoever of 
His servants He will, 6, 12, 14; the 
G. of Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, and 
Jacob, 6, 18 sq. ; is with the patient 
in all calamities, 6, 21 sq. ; He 
created men, and to Him do they 
return, G, 22, 192, 197, 205, 257; 
9, 70, 119, 123, 132 sq., 183, 244, 
272, 294, 336; whatsoever good ye do, 
verily, of it G. knows, 6, 3 1 ; guides 
whom He will unto the right path, 
G, 31 ; will redouble a good loan 
many a double, 6, 37 ; dispute be- 
tween Abraham and Nimrod about 
G., 6, 40 sq.; revives the dead, 6, 
41 ; 9, 56 sq., 205 ; fashions you in 
the womb as He pleases, 6, 46 sq.; 
victory is but from G., 6, 62 ; it is 
not for any soul to die, but for G.'s 
permission, 6, 63 ; 9, 285 ; He 
quickens and He kills, 6, 65, 157, 
190,199,246; 9, 63 sq., 70, 128 sq., 
197, 218, 244, 253, 266, 312, 320; 
only can help, in dangers of land 
and sea, 6, 65 sq., 122 ; 9, 8 sq., 17, 
124, 164 sq. ; made a covenant 
with the Muslim, as with the child- 
ren of Israel, 6, 98 sq. ; G. and the 
Apostle to be taken as patrons, 6, 
105 ; takes men to Himself in sleep, 
G, 122; obliges no soul more than 
it can bear, 6, 135, 142; 9, 289; 
bids only justice, G, 140; whoso fears 
G. and does tohat is right, there is no 
fear for them, nor shall they grieve, 
6, 141 ; the earth is His, He gives 
it for an inheritance to whom He 
pleases, 6, 152; appears to Moses 
on the mountain, 6, 154; the good 
names of G. not to be perverted, G, 
160; mentioning of G.'s name pro- 
tects from the devil, G, 162 ; nought 
shall befall us save ivhat G. has written 
down for us, G, 180; good-will from 
G. is the mighty happiness, 6, 183 ; 
docs not forgive the hypocrites, 6, 
184 ; when in distress men turn to 
G., but forget Him after deliver- 
ance, 6, 193-5, 255; guides unto 
truth, G, 197 ; He it is zvho made for 
you the night, that ye might rest there- 
in, and the day to see therein; verily, 
in that are signs unto a people ivho ean 
hear, 6, 200; is the best of judges, 
6, 204 ; there is no beast that walks, 



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but lie laketh it by its forelock, 6, 2 I 1 ; 
knows what each female bears, 6, 
333; ordered all things for the 
benefit of mankind, 6, 242,251 sq. ; 
9, 63, 66, 164 sq., 206, 211, 293-5, 
319, 321 ; His decree will come to 
pass, 6, 250; thankfulness for G.'s 
favours enjoined, 6, 258 sq. ; is with 
those who fear Him, and with those 
who do well, 6, 264 ; never say, 
' I am going to do that to -morrow,' 
except 'if G. please,' 9, 16 : is best 
at rewarding, and best at bringing 
to an issue, 9, 19; men dispute 
about G. and follow devils, 9, 56 sq.; 
the name of G. to be mentioned 
over cattle when slaughtered, 0, 60; 
judges between the religions of the 
different nations, 9, 64 ; Abraham 
praises and prays to G., 9, 93 sq. ; 
appears to Moses in the fire, 9, ioo, 
111; has subjected nature to man, 
9,133,211,221; the ship rides on 
the sea by the favour of G., U, 134, 
208, 221 ; sends water to the sterile 
land and brings forth corn for men, 
9, 138, 159 sq., 184, 242, 246, 264 
sq. ; man's ingratitude to G.,9, 183, 
187, 204; when the devil incites 
you, seek refuge with G., 9, 202 ; 
speaks to man only by inspiration, 
9, 210; nigher to man than his 
jugular vein, 9, 243; hymn in praise 
of G.'s bounties, 9, 258-62 ; the 
Lord of ascents, His judgement 
cannot be repelled, 9, 300 sq. See 
oho Allah. 

(&) G. (Heaven, Thien, Ti) in 
Chinese Sacred Books. 

Chinese words for G., 3, xxiii- 
xxix ; 16, xix sq., 51 sq. ; * G.' and 
' Heaven ' used without distinction, 
8, 196-8, 477 sq. n. ; 27, 386-S n. ; 
39, 16-18; lamentation and appeal 
to Heaven, the great G., 3, 354; 
the 'seat of Ti' or 'the G. given 
position,' 16, 223, 223 n. ; — dyna- 
sties founded, kings appointed and 
favoured by G., are the correlates 
of G., 3, 58, 114, 144, 153, 159-61, 
163, 184, 196 S, 245, 266, 309 sq., 
319, 378 sq., 379 n., 389-92, 477; 
16, 287 sq., 289 n. ; employs Thang 
to punish the wicked Aleh, 3, 87; 
King Thang will examine good and 
bad in himself and his people with 



the mind of G., 3, 91 ; a virtuous 
king called the fellow of G., 3, 99, 
99 n. ; secures the good order of 
the kingdom, 3, 1 11 ; Heaven made 
instructors (kings) for the inferior 
people that they might be able to 
be aiding to G., 3, 126; curses the 
wicked King Shau, 3, 130, 222; 
Wan's fame ascended up to the 
high G., and G. approved, 3, 166, 
208 ; the king the great son and 
vice-gerent of G., 3, 185; Thang 
brightly administered the bright 
ordinances of G., 3, 221; appointed 
Thang to regulate the boundaries 
of the kingdom, 3, 307 ; King Wan 
in heaven ascends and descends on 
the left and the right of G., 3, 578, 
378 n.; when G. gave the command, 
Shang became subject to ifau, 3, 
379; King Wan served G., and so 
secured the great blessing, 3, 381, 
392 ; speaks to King Wan, 3, 391 
sq., 391 n. ; worshipped by King 
Wu after his victory, 28, 60 ; — 
sacrifices (offered by kings) to G., 
3, 39, 126, 163, 302, 321, 543, 343 n., 
392, 392 n., 397, 423, 423 n.; 16, 
150, 255, 255 n., 287 sq., 28911., 341, 
342 n. ; 27, 25, 218, 220, 293, 385, 
407, 410,413 sq.,417, 430 sq.,43on.; 
28, 32, 167,212, 212 n., 311,338 sti-, 
349; requires the punishment of 
the enemy, 3, 85, 135; has con- 
ferred a moral sense even on inferior 
people, 3, 89 sq. ; 'the Spiritual 
Sovereign in the high heavens,' 3, 
90, 90 n.; sends down blessings on 
the good, miseries on the evil-doer, 
3, 95, 208, 214 sq., 259 sq.; Shau 
serves neither G. nor the spirits 
of heaven and earth, 3, 126; roused 
to anger by Khwan's disturbing the 
five elements, did not give him the 
Great Plan, 3, 139; leads men to 
tranquil security, 3, 197 ; man cannot 
dare to rest in the favour of G., 3, 
306; Thai-wu's virtue was made to 
affect G., 3, 207 ; able ministers 
honour G. in the discharge of their 
duties, 3, 221 sq. ; displeased with 
cruel punishments, 3, 2 56 ; appointed 
wheat and barley for the nourish- 
ment of all, 3, 320 ; encouragement 
by saying, 'G. is with you, 1 3, 342, 
382 ; foreseeing providence of G., 3, 



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106; 48, 352: rules the Pradhana, 
15, 235 sq.; 34, 434 sq., 437 sq.; 
48 396 sq., 522 sq.; is the creator 
of the illusory world, 15, 251 sq. ; 
the cause of the bondage, existence, 
and liberation of the world, 15, 
2 <>5 ; 38, 58 sq.; creates Brahman 
and delivers the Vedas to him, 
15, 265 sq. ; is not the cause of the 
world, 19, 161, 306-8, 294; 49 (i), 
176 : created the king, 25, 216; 
created Punishment, His own son, 
25, 218 sq.; not a mere operative 
cause, 34, li, 284, 434-40; 48, 413, 
522 sq. ; has a shape consisting of 
the threefold world, 34, 145 sq. ; 
the supporting of all things up to 
ether can be the work of G. only, 
34, 170; Lords, such as Hira»ya- 
garbha, &c, are able to continue 
their previous forms of existence 
in each new creation, 34, 213, 215 ; 
dependency of the world on Him, 
34, 242-5, 290, 370; 38, 415 sq.; 
is the evolver of names and forms, 
34, 328 sq.; 38,96-8; 48,350; the 
creation of this world is mere play to 
Him, 34, 357; may, although Him- 
self unmoving, move the universe, 
34, 369 ; creates things in dreams, 
48, 120 sq., 764; is not an agent, 
because He has no body, 48, 172 ; 
is not touched by the evils of 
creation, 48, 429, 477 sq.; He only 
possesses the power of ruling the 
world, 48, 769 sq.;— meditation on 
G.,8,78; 15, 232-4 ; 34, 441 ; abides 
alike in all entities, and is not de- 
stroyed if they are destroyed, 8, 
106; "worshipping Him with the pro- 
per works man attains to perfection, 
8, 127 ; 48, 700; dwells in the heart 
of all creatures, whirling, by His 
mysterious power, all creatures as if 
mounted on a machine, 8, 1 29 ; 48, 
557 5 is eternal, 8, 157, 186-94 ; 38, 
4 1 6 ; the relat ion between G. and the 
individual soul, 8, 187, 187 n., 192- 
4, 192 n.; 15, 325; 34, xxix, xxxix, 
xlix, 279, 329, 343-6, 434 sq.; 38, 
59-61, 65 sq., 138-40, 244 sq., 291, 
338-40, 416-18; 48, 128, 209, 396; 
is unborn, moving about day and 
night, without sloth, 8, 192, 194; 
should one fly, even after furnishing 
oneself with thousands upon thousands 
s.b. 1SD . R 



of wings, and even though one should 
have the velocity of thought, one would 
never reach the end of the (great) cause, 
8, 192; He is without symbols, and 
also without qualities, nothing exists 
that is a cause of Him, 8, 309 ; not 
affected by pleasure and pain, 8, 
352 ; 38, 63-5 ; 48, 427 ; Buddhism 
antagonist 'c to the belief in G., 11, 
142 ; 19, 161, 206-8, 294 ; 34, 403 ; 
mythological deities, the Lord (Pra- 
j-Spati), and the Highest Self, 15, 
xxxiii sq.; the personality of G. in 
the Svetajvatara-Up., 1.5, xxxvi ; 
relation between G. and the Highest 
Brahman, 15, xxxvi-xxxviii, 38; 34, 
xxv, xxvii, xxx, lxii-lxiv, xcviii, 70, 
81, 159 sq., 187, 234; 38, 290 sq., 
418 ; by knowing G., final emanci- 
pation is obtained, by meditating 
on Him, the blissful state in the 
Brahma-world is reached, 15, 236 ; 
He sees without eyes, He hears without 
ears, -without hands and feet He hastens 
and grasps, 15, 248 ; 48, 476; spreads 
out one net (sawsara) after another 
and draws it together again, 15, 
255 ; full description of G., 15, 
260-7; by His light all this is 
lightened, 15, 265; the highest 
bridge to immortality, 15, 266; a 
hymn in praise of the Lord of the 
Universe in whom all gods are, 15, 
303 ; the Undiscernible One, 25, 
495, 495 n.; hymn to the Unknown 
G., 32, xxvii, 1-13 ; manifests itself 
in a fourfold form, 34, xxiii ; as a 
retributor and dispenser, 34, xxvi ; 
G. or the lower Brahman, 34, xxvii, 
xci, xcii ; is all-powerful, all-know- 
ing, all merciful, His nature is fun- 
damentally antagonistic to all evil, 
34, xxviii, 15, 79, 125, 136 sq., 329, 
357; matter and souls constitute 
the body of G., 34, xxviii ; Sahkara's 
personal G., is something unreal, 
34, xxx; Ramanmj-a's Brahman is 
a personal G., 34, xxx, exxiii sq., 
exxiv n. ; cannot be reproached with 
crui lty, on account of His regarding 
merit and demerit, 34, xlix, 343-6, 
357-So; 3*, 180-3; 48, 48S; the 
intelligent Self is G., 34, 15, 234, 
290 ; 38, 337-40 ; is without a body, 
34, 50 sq., 438 ; 48, 421 ; the one 
within the sun and the eye is G., 



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34, 77-81, 124 sqq.; 38, 416 sq.; 
has no special abode, but abides in 
His own glory, 84, 78 ; the sole topic 
of all worldly songs and of Scrip- 
ture, 34, 80, 160; His nature is 
Maya, He is the rulerof Maya, 34, 80, 
357 n -j 37° sq*! 48, 367 ; although 
present everywhere, He is pleased 
when meditated upon as dwelling in 
the heart, 34, 1 1 1, 196 ; immortality 
and fearlessness ascribed to Him, 34, 
125 ; the lordly power of the gods 
is based on Him, 34, 130; 'measured 
by a span,' 34, 144, 150-3, 192, 
1 9 5 sq, ; the perception of G. in the 
gastric fire, 34, 147, 149; has the 
heaven for His head, Sec,, and is based 
on the earth, 34, 148; forms the 
head, &c, and is based on the chin 
of the devout worshipper, 34, 148 ; 
worshipped as Vaijvanara, 34, 149 
sq. ; is greater than ether, 34, 177 ; 
is a limitary support, 34, 181 sq.; 
there is only one highest Lord ever un- 
changing^ whose substance is cognition, 
ami who, by means of Nescience, mani- 
fests Himself in various ways, fust as 
a thawnaturg appears in different 
shapes by means of his magical power, 
34, 190; is the absolute ruler of the 
past and the future, 34, 196; His 
position analogous to that of Par- 
^anya, 34, 358 ; His essential good- 
ness affirmed by Sruti and Smr/ti, 34, 
358; the Lord Pajupati, Siva, 34, 
435; Scripture the production of 
the omniscient G. and the omnis- 
cience of G. based on Scripture, 34, 
437; soul, gods, and ( J,, 36, xxii sq. ; 
meant by the term 'he who renders 
tripartite,' 38, 97 ; is everlastingly 
free from Nescience, 38, 149 ; is free 
from all qualities, 38, 340; there is 
also a form of G. not abiding in 
effected things, 38, 417 sq.; is all- 
knowing, 42, 88, 389 ; 48, 444, 523 ; 
Breath is the one G., 44, 117; there 
must be no questioning beyond the 
deity, 44, 117, 117 n.; understood 
by Person (Purusha), or Highest Self, 
or Brahman, 48, 4, &c, 352; intelli- 
gence pure, free from stain, free from 
grief, free from all contact with desire 
and other affections, everlastingly one is 
the highest Lord — Vasudeva apart from 
whom nothing exists, 48, 23 ; specific 
power of the knowledge of G., 48, 



116 ; His essential nature is know- 
ledge, 48, 128; Naraya»a, and other 
names of the one G., 48, 133, 667 ; 
existence of G,, how to be proved 
apart from Scripture, 48, 162-9, 
497 ; dwells in the hearts of all 
creatures, 48, 356 sq. ; the Ancient 
who is difficult to be seen, 48, 361 ; 
Hara, the one G., 48, 364 ; is the 
enjoyer of all sacrifices, 48, 411 sq., 
627 ; good and evil works please or 
displease G., 48, 487 ; Gainas hold 
that there is no G., 48, 516 ; offerings 
and pious works, all this He bears who 
is the nave of the Universe, He is Agni 
and Vayu, He is Sun and Moon, 48, 
627; called 'That which is,' 48, 
65S sq.; purity of mind and heart, 
due to the grace of G., leads to know- 
ledge, 48, 710; knowledge of G. 
propitiates G., and thus destroys the 
displeasure of G. due to previous 
sins, 48, 723; the continuance of 
the body's life due to G.'s pleasure 
or displeasure caused by good or 
evil deeds, 48, 725; the released 
soul experiences different worlds 
created by G. engaged in playful 
sport, 48, 764 ; we know from Scrip- 
ture that there is a Supreme Person 
whose nature is absolute bliss and good- 
ness ; who is fundamentally antagon- 
istic to all evil; who is the cause of 
the origination, snstentation, and disso- 
lution of the world; who differs in 
nature from all other beings, who is alt- 
knowing, who by His mere thought and 
will accomplishes all His purposes ; who 
is an ocean of kindness as it were for all 
who depend on Him ; who is all-merci- 
ful; who is immeasurably raised above 
all possibility of any one being equal or 
superior to Him ; whose name is the 
highest Brahman, 48, 770. See also 
Brahman, Creator, Great One, Is, 
Lvara, Ka, Krishna, Narayawa, Per- 
son (Purusha), Pra^-apati, and Self 
(highest). 

God ana, Godanakarman, see Hair. 

Godasa, founder of the G. Gana, 22, 
288. 

Goddesses : the powers of the gods 
represented by theirwives, 1, 15m.; 
Hsiian A'iang appears like a goddess, 
3,436, 436n.; fame, fortune, speech, 
&c, 8, 90 ; offerings to the wives of 
the gods, 12, 75 sq., 75 n., 256 n., 



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258; 29, 352; 44, 174 *q-; S- of 

learning, 14,299; the pious received 
in paradise by nymphs, 21, 345, 
436; the three g. SiirasvatT, Ida, 
and Bharati, 26, 186 n.; 42, 512; 
Tvash/W, and the wives of the gods, 
26, 320 n. ; spin the bride's and the 
Brahmaiarin's garment, 29, 277 sq. ; 
30, 147; forenoon, afternoon, noon, 
evening, midnight and dawn invoked 
as g., 29, 347 ; oblations to the g., 
30, 143; 43, 263-5; the golden- 
armed goddess, seated in the midst 
of the gods, 30, 179 ; divine women 
(wives of the gods, Dhisha»as, days 
and nights, metres, stars), 41, 242-4; 
the goddess of the field, 42, 89 ; 
wives of the gods and other g. in- 
voted, 42, 162 ; 46, 245 ; evil quali- 
ties as female divinities, 42, 423. 

Godhavari, n. of a river, 10 (if), 
184. 

Gods. 

(a) Names, classes, and numbers of Hindu g. 
(,/>) Origin of g. (India), 
(f) Characteristics, food of the g. (India), 
(r/) Abodes of g. (India). 
(e) (i. and men in India. 
(/) All the g. and individual g. (India), 
(g-) Myths and legends of Hindu g. 
(A) Worship of g. in India. 
(/) Hindu g. in philosophy. 
O) G. in Buddhism, 
(£) G. in Gaina religion. 
£/) Angels and archangels in Zoroastrian- 

ism. 
(w) G. or sacred beings (Vazatas, Yazdan) 

in Zoroastrianism. 
(«) Chinese spirits or spiritual beings (Kwei- 

shaii). 
(0) False g. in Islam. 

(a) Names, classes, and numbers 
of Hindu g. 

Lists of g,, 1, 238-40, 245, 288- 
90 ; 7, 21 2-14 ; 8, 2 1 9-2 1 ; 14, 
252-5 ; 29, 120-2, 280 ; 30, 243 ; 41, 
40 n.; 42,8o; 44,28i ; 46,186-92; 
sacrifices to g., like Kumara, who for- 
merly were men, 2, 40, 4011., 26311.; 
the eight Lokapalas or guardians 
of the world, Indra, &c, 7, 4, 411,; 
25, 185 sq., 186 n., 216 sq., 256 ; 
33, 104, 107, 109; father, mother, 
and teacher, compared to the three 
g., 7, 128; are threefold (of the three 
(Junas), b 1 , 331 ; men are more 
numerous than g., 12, 342 ; as many 
g. as there were of old, so many g. 
there are now, 12, 351 ; the Ga«as, 
the lord of the g., the goddess of 

R 



learning, and the lord of learning, 
14, 299 ; faith, right knowledge, 
wisdom, and other abstract ideas 
deified, 14, 308; 26, 21 sq.; 29, 
121 sq., 221, 321 ; 30, 145 ; 41, 
250 ; number and classes of g., 
their spheres and abodes, 15, 139- 
49 ; the 3, 306 g. are only the various 
powers of them, 15, 140; the g. of 
the different quarters, all enter into 
the sun, 15, 338-40; Agnishvattas, 
the manes of the g., 25, 1 1 1 sq. ; 
Vaimanika g. produced by good- 
ness, 25, 494, 495 n.; g. and demi- 
gods in the scale of creatures, 25, 
494sq.; eleven g.in heaven, eleven on 
earth, eleven in the waters, 26, 290 ; 
three, kinds of g., Vasus, Rudras, 
and Adityas, 26, 350; 46, 42 sq. ; 
thirty-three g. (8 Vasus, n Rudras, 
12 Adityas, 2 Heaven and Earth), 
and Pra^apati, 26, 411 ; 30, 240; 

41, 9, 79; 42, 187; 44, 115, 151, 
206-11, 252, 257 sq. ; 46, 42, 245 ; 
list of the Nakshatras with their 
presiding deities, 29, 53 sq.; do- 
mestic g., 29, 319 sq. ; earth, air, 
heavens, quarters, waters, rays, 
ocean, invoked for protection, 29, 
343 sq.; all kinds of g. invoked at 
the house-building, 29, 347 sq.; the 
thirty-three g., the Brahman's chil- 
dren, 30, 194 sq.; their number, 34, 
200; all g ; comprised in the Vasus, 
Rudras, Adityas, Vuvedevas, and 
Maruts,34, 202 n.; among the pa«- 
kaganafo, 34, 262; the devasu or 
Divine Quickeners, 41, 69-72 ; 43, 
246-9, 246 n.; six deities who be- 
came the universe, 41, 187-9; ar e 
threefold (of sky, air, earth), 41, 
239, 239 n.; are sevenfold, 41, 241 ; 
alt kinds of divine beings invoked 
in a battle-charm, 42, 119 sq. ; 
prayer for deliverance from calamity, 
addressed to the entire pantheon, 

42, 160-2, 628sq.; deities of metres, 

43, 53, 330 sq.; the divine host, 43, 
373; 46, 4 2 sq. ; nu mber of g, 
stationary, 43, 128 ; Food and Breath 
are the two g., 44, 117 ; the three 
g. are the three worlds, for therein 
all the g. are contained, 44, 117; 
are of three orders, 44, 291, 291 n. ; 
as many as there are g. of the 
Seasonal offerings, so many are all 



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the g., 44, 383, 393 ; in the air, and 
in the heavenly light, 46, 245 ; three 
hundred and three thousand g. and 
thirty and nine did service to Agni, 
46, 257 ; the secret names of the g., 
46, 378; Kshattras among the g., 
48, 461 ; wives of the g,, see God- 
desses. See also Devas, Super- 
human beings, Suras, and also behw 
(J, k). 

(b) Origin of g. (India). 

The Oevas worshipped breath as 
Bliuti or being, and thus became 
great beings, 1, 213; anywhere at 
the birthplace of a deity, Sraddhas 
should be performed, 7, 260; ob- 
tained their divinity by living as 
Brabma^arins, 8, 178 ; the devotee 
creates for himself even the divinity 
of the g., 8, 250 ; created, 8, 387 ; 

25, 12, 12 n.; 43, 289; 48, 461 ; 
the sons of Heaven and Earth, 12, 
225; the highest creation of Brah- 
man, when he created the g., 15, 
86-90 ; sprang from the manes, 25, 
112; the state of g. reached by the 
quality of goodness, 25, 493 ; ob- 
tained their authority by means of 
the sacrifice, 26, 21, 36, 39, 46, 10 1, 
174,445; born of the mind, 26, 42 ; 
a kind of theogony, 32, 246 sq. ; 
belief in the existence of the g., 42, 
158, 622; were born of the vk- 
i-^ish/a, 42, 229 ; the birth of the g. 
is the year, 43, 144; the Brahman 
(neut.) created the g., 44, 27 ; after 
the procreaiion of the g. offspring is 
produced, 44, 44 ; are the offspring 
of Mauu, 46, 42 sq. ; originated 
from the Self, 48, 367. 

(c) Characteristics, food of the 
g. (India). 

Their exalted character denied. 
8, 16 sq., 76, 7611.; worship the 
pure great light, 8, 186 ; become 
deluded, wishing for pleasure, 8, 
322; enlightenment is the character- 
istic of g., 8, 348; the path-finding 
g., 12, 263 sq. ; are immortal, im- 
perishable, 12, 290, 295, 444 ; 38, 
388; 43, 148; 44, 174; how they 
became immortal, 12, 310 sq., 343 ; 

26, 147 sq., 346 ; 41, 157 ; 43, 220, 
2 5 6 , 356 sq.; 44. 5, 28; are the 
rays of (he sun, 12, 328 ; 26, 254; 
are trebly true, 14, 277, 319; 



are mortal, 15, 289 ; age of the g., 
25, 20-2 ; are invisible, 26, 19 : 34, 
201 ; do not sleep, 26, 44 ; 32, 8 ; 
are hidden to men, 26, 76 ; always 
speak the truth, 26, 95 sq. ; 43, 
2=;7sq. ; 44,447; the threefold age 
of the g., 29, 56 ; 30, 162 ; are Ions- 
lived through ambrosia (amr/ta),29, 
294 ; the so-called deathlessness of the 
g. only means their comparatively long 
existence. And their lordly power also 
is based on the highest Lord and does 
not naturally belong to them, 34, 130; 
38, 17 ; having several bodies at the 
same time, they come to many 
sacrifices, 34, 198-201, 217; 48, 
330 sq. ; naturally possess all super- 
natural powers, 34, 200, 219; have 
certain characteristic shapes without 
which the sacrificer could not repre- 
sent them to his mind, 34, 221 sq. ; 
possess a body and sense-organs, 
34, 355; 48, 328-30; exist in the 
state of highest power and glory 
and cannot enter, in this wretched 
body, into the condition of enjoyers, 
38, 93; may be called light and so 
on, because they represent light and 
so on, 38, 388 ; are free from de- 
crepitude, 42, 51, 365 ; immortality 
and truth in the g., 42, 84 ; the g, 
love the mystic, 43, 156, 158, 175, 
I 79>37 2 )39 8 ; 44,44;; made them- 
selves boneless and immortal, 43, 
178 ; are of joyful soul, 43, 339sq. ; 
have no loathing for anything, 44, 
184, r 86 ; 'the patient g. who give 
no reply,' 48, 68; souls of g., 48, 
198 ; are liable to suffering, 48, 327 ; 
are qualified for meditation on 
divinities, 48, 335-7; — Vayu, the 
eater, and his food, viz. Agni, Aditya, 
£an dramas, Ap, 1, 59, 5911.; sub- 
sist on sacrifices, 7, 194; 12, 66 sq., 
176 ; 26, 154 ; 41, 1 ; 44,22, 508 sq.; 
sacrificial food for the g. is amrita 
(ambrosia), 12, 40 sq. ; 26,191; the 
moon is Soma, the food of the g., 
12, 176, 181, 362, 380; 26, xiii; 
44, 6, gsq., 34; the sacrifice their 
food, immortality their sap, the sun 
their light, 12, 361 ; living food of 
the immortal g., 26, 201 ; the souls 
are the food of the g., 38, 1 10-13 ; 
the circle of the never-ending food 
of the g., 43, 221 ; how the g. eat 



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food, 43, 295 ; the hymn of praise 
is food for the g., 44, 232 ; ghee is 
their favourite resource, 44, 296, 
342, 410 ; all the g. subsist on rain, 
44, 507 ; subsist on the milk of 
cattle, 44, 508 ; when Soma over- 
flows, all the g. avail themselves 
thereof, 44, 510; sun made into 
honey (nectar) for the enjoyment 
of the g., 48, 368 sq., 370 ; the g. in 
truth do not eat nor do they drink ; by 
the mere sight of that anmta they are 
satisfied, 38, in; 48, 589. 
(d) Abodes of g. (India). 

East, the quarter of the g., 1, 
176 ; 12, 63, 422 ; 26, i~ 4 ; 44, 448 ; 
formerly men and g. lived together, 
then the g. went to heaven in 
reward of their sacrifices, 2, 140; 
12, 160, i99sq., 207 sq. ; 26, 307; 
44, 43 ; the sacrificer ascends to the 
g., 2, 140 ; 12, 294 ; 14, 302, 331 sq. ; 
26, r, 4 ; 43, 267 sq.; 44, 372; 
world of the g., obtained by good 
and pious actions, 7, 109, 129; 8, 
8-b 233, 254 sq., 316, 322, 327, 389; 
14, 258, 261 ; what deity one wor- 
ships to that he goes after death, 
&j 76, 7S; abide in the house ot 
the sacrifice!*, 12, 4 sq. ; dwell in 
heaven, 12, 109; 26, 260; 43, 97, 
103, 109, 113, 116 sq., 148; dwell 
on the top of Mount Meru, 12, 
no n. ; 'the ladder of the g.' 
whereby the g. and i&shis reached 
their high station, 14, 309 ; priests 
rule over the world of the g., 25, 
157; the place of worship a high 
spot as being nearer to the g., 26, 
1 sq., in.; by the metres the g. 
attained heaven, 26, 230, 328; 44, 
156, 172; paths between heaven 
and earth, trodden by the g., 29, 
337; 42, 51, 365; the soul goes 
from the world of the g. to Vayu, 
38, 386 ; who vie with the sun, who 
are in rivers, or mountains, 42, 35, 
408 ; a tree as the seat of the g., 
42, 416; established themselves in 
this world by means of animals, 43, 
56 sq. ; seven worlds of the g., 43, 
277, 314; all the g. abide here on 
the new moon day, 44, 2 ; worlds of 
the g. (in the north) and the fathers, 
44, 225; did not know the Pava- 
mana to be the heavenly world, 



44, 304 ; the g. who are in this 
world and who are in the heavenly 
world, 44, 328 ; North-east the 
region of both g. and men, 44, 359 ; 
the earth, the air, and the sky, 
regions, Nakshatras and waters, 
places of abode for all the g., 44, 
505 sq. ; may the divine doors open 
themselves, that the g, may come 
forth, 46, 153; to the g. go the 
worshippers of the g., those devoted 
to Vish-m go to Vish«u, 48, 627; 
path of the g., see Future Life (b). 
See also Heaven. 

(e) G. AND MEN IN INDIA. 

* / know myself reaching as far as 
the g., and I knoio the g. reaching as 
far as me. For these g. receive /heir 
gifts from hence, and are supported 
from hence,' 1, 212 sq. ; do not 
teach what is virtue and what is 
sin, 2, 72 ; Bnihmawas are the 
human g„ 7, 77 ; 12, 309 sq„ 374 ; 
26, 341 ; 42, 164, 529 ; beings 
divided into godlike and demoniac, 
8, 114 sq. ; are inferior to the men 
of true knowledge, 8, 146, 161, 
161 n. ; are engaged in gilts, 8, 
2S2 ; reach perfection by penance, 
8, 389 ; g. are the truth, man is the 
untruth, 12, 4, 16 ; 26, 63, 238, 
344; 33, 93; in the beginning g. 
and men were together, 12, 347 sq. ; 
give the enjoyments through fear 
of punishment, 25, 219, 2 1 9 n. ; 
desert a country ruled by a wicked 
king, 25, 220; the ivicked, indeed, 
say in their hearts, l Nobody sees its ' ; 
but the g. distinctly see them. 25, 
269 ; ' speech of the g.,' false evi- 
dence with a pious intention, 25, 
272 ; the king shall emulate the g., 
25, 396 sq. ; Brahma«as have power 
over the g., 25, 398, 398 n., 447 ; 
penances adopted by g., sages, and 
manes, 25, 473, 475 ; the Veda the 
eternal eye of the manes, g., and 
men, 25, 504 ; know the mind of 
man, 26, 94 ; blamed for not being 
liberal enough, 32, 81, 87; the 
laws (vrata) of the g., 32, 237-9; 
46, 367, 370; read the original 
code of Mann, 33, 3 ; men deprived 
of virility by the wrath of a deity, 
33, 167 ; a king is a deity, 33, 221 ; 
cannot perform sacrifices, hence not 



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entitled to the study of the Veda, 
34, 197 11. ; Vyasa and others con- 
versed with the g. face to face, 134, 
222 sq. ; the vital airs, at the time 
of death, enter into them, 38, 105 
sq. ; the souls of sacrificers enjoy 
themselves with the g., 38, 112 ; g. 
were first, then men, 41, 262 ; 43, 
228, 252, 257; longer is the life of 
the g., shorter the life of men, 41, 
344 ; have given the remedy against 
poison, 42, 27 ; charms found by 
Brahmans, -Rishls, and g., 42, 29 ; 
sins committed by the g. cause mad- 
ness, 42, 32, 520; disease sent by 
the g., 42, 41 ; rescue men from 
death, 42, 53-5 ; this world is most 
dear to the g,, 42, 60 ; the g. who 
have brought on trouble, again 
remove it, 42, 67; spells prepared 
by g., 42, 78 ; slain enemies join the 
g., pious men, and departed Fathers, 

42, 126 ; all the g. follow the Brah- 
maiirin (the sun), 42, 2 14 sq. ; men 
do (at sacrifices) what the g. did, 43, 
83 sq. ; a Brahmana descended from 
a J?/shi represents all g., 44, 195 sq. ; 
followed the laws of RHa, 46, 54, 64. 

(/) All the g. and individual g. 
(India). 

Pragapati brooded over the three 
g., Agni, Vayu, Aditya, and squeezed 
out the three Vedas, 1, 70; in- 
structed by Pragapati, 8, 282 sq. ; 
25, 164; 43, 175; 44, 103; g., 
men, and Asuras, the threefold 
descendants of Prag-apati, 15, 189: 
41, 194 sq. ; 43, 220; created by 
Prajjapati, 25, 14, 14 n. ; 41, 157; 

43, 350 ; 44, 13, 15 ; heal Pra^Spati 
by oblations, offered in Agni, 41, 
152-4 ; in union with the life- 
sustaining g. Pnig-apati creates, 43, 
32 ; Pnig-apati and the g. converse 
like father and sons, 43, 59 sq. ; 
Pra^apati bestows shares and lord- 
ship on the g., 43, 67 70 ; offer 
Pra^apati up in sacrifice, 43, 304 
sq. ; afraid of Prajapati, the Death, 

43, 356 ; the sacrificial horse 
fettered for the g., for Pra^apati, 

44, 277 sq. ; Frajjapati assigned the 
sacrifices to the g., 44, 295 sq. ; 
Pra^-apati desired to gain the world 
of the g. and that of men, 44, 306 ; 
by the Ajvamcdha the g. restored 



the eye of Pra^apati, 44, 328 ; the 
horse of the Ajvamedha belongs to 
all g., not only to Pra^lpati, 44, 
336; behind Pra^apati are all the 
g., 44. 393; the g. perish and are 
created again by Prajapati, by 
means of the Veda, 48, 331 sq. ;— 
Indra is above the other g., 1, 151, 
307 ; 8, 83 ; Agni, Vayu, and Indra 
are above the other g., 1, 151 ; Agni, 
Soma, and Indra represent all the 
g., 12, 168 sq.; from terror of 
Brahman fire and sun burn, Indra, 
and Vayu, and Death run away, 
15, 2i ; Agni, Indra, and Surya, 
superior to the other g., 26, 402-4 ; 
to Indra belongs the first chariot, 
to the g, the second, 42, 152 ; draw 
together round Indra, 43, 127; 
Indra and Agni are all the g., 43, 
278 ; are the people of King 
Dharma Indra, 44, 370 ; — Agni 
brings the offerings to the g. or the 
g. to the sacrifice, 2, 71 ; 12, ii7sq. ; 
14, 71 ; 43, 197 sq., 268 ; 46, 1, 6-8, 
24, 92, 100, 108, 1 35, 153, 198, 
261; chose Agni for their Hot/-/', 
]2, 87-9; kindled Agni, 12, 116; 
46, 31, 49; the vow belonging to 
Agni together with g. and men, 29, 
229 ; bestowed immortality on 
Agni, 43, 156, 177; possessed of 
a good Agni, 46, 13 ; Agni and the 
other g., 46, 16 sq., 22, 31, 37, 49 
sq., 64, 67, 70, 83, 89, 119, 173, 
2 75> 3°3t 4 f S ; he is called a friend 
of the g., to whose sacrifice Agni 
comes, 46,92 ; Agni invoked against 
hostile powers of g. and mortals, 
46, 211 ; see also Agni (c,g) ; — the 
three g., Brahman, Vishwu, and 
Siva, 7, xxii, 128; 15, 304, 308; 
have been destroyed by Kala, 7, 
79; Lakshmt in g., 7, 299; even 
those who worship other g. with 
faith, worship only K;ish«a, 8, 84 ; 
48, 411 ; KWshwa the source of g. 
and sages, 8, 86 ; do not understand 
K/7sh«a, 8, 86 sq, ; all g. seen within 
Krishwa, 8, 92-4 ; are desiring lo 
see the divine form of Kr/shwa, 8, 
99 ; Vishwu is the ruler of g., 
demons, and Nagas, &c., 8, 347 ; of 
all g., Danavas, Bhutas, &c, fjvara 
is the lord, 8, 354; Daksha, the 
father of the g, who are born from 



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113 sq., 113 n., 121 ; the house- 
holder's duty of worshipping the g., 
7, 194; 8, 118, 243, 306; part of 
the hand called ' Tirtha sacred to 
the g.,' 7, 198; 14, 25, 166; 25, 
40 sq. ; he who sacrifices pleases 
the g., and the g. reward the sacri- 
ficer,8, 53,61 ; 12,248; 48, 626sq., 
720; those who worship the g. go 
to the world of g., 8, 84 ; 12, 450 sq., 
451 n. ; 44, 259, 272 ; paying rever- 
ence to g., a good penance, 8, 119; 
contempt of the g. is a sin, 8, 320; 
25, 154; the good householder eats 
what remains after offerings to g. 
and guests, 8, 358 ; the hermit 
should eat after the g. and guests 
are satisfied, he should eat little, 
depending on the g,, 8, 361 sq. ; 
invoked by Brahmans, 11, 180; he 
who enters the vow before sacrifice, 
approaches the g., 12, 6 ; the offer- 
ings announced or pointed out to 
the g., 12, 17, 32 ; 30, 343 sq. ; the 
oblation shall gladden the g., 12, 27 ; 
the sacrifice is performed for the 
g., the seasons, and the metres, 12, 
79-81 ; sit round the altar, 12, 86 ; 
the Barhis, or the Prastara, the seat 
of the g., 12, 87, 93; the priests 
propitiate g., 12, 127 sq., 134 sq. ; 
man owes the debt of sacrifice to 
the g., 12, 190 sq., 190 n. ; 14, 46, 
56, 271; 25, 169; 49 (i), roo; the 
power of the g. is the sacrifice, 12, 
251; are dismissed at the end of 
the sacrifice, 12, 263 sq. ; 26, 377 sq.; 
41, 185; times suitable for the 
worship of the g., 12, 289 sq. ; go 
to the house of him who sets up the 
sacred fire, and performs the Agni- 
hotra, 12, 291, 328 sq. ; new-moon 
libation to the horses of the g., 12, 
375, 382 sq. and n. ; are desirous of 
purity and themselves pure, and 
love a pure sacrifice, 14, 186 ; wor- 
shipped during penances, 14, 303-6 ; 
20,476; a performerof rites securing 
success, must worship cows, Brah- 
ma«as, and g., 14, 323 ; Ka purifies 
by a certain rite Sahasraksha, Fire, 
Wind, Sun, Soma, Varna, and other 
lords of the g., 14, 3 3 r ; feasts in 
honour of the g., 25, 64 sq. ; mar- 
riage ritcof the g. (daiva), 25, 79-82; 
2!*, 166; ordain the consumption of 



meat for sacrifices, 25, 174; to be 
worshipped after a victory, 25, 248, 
248 n. ; husband receives his wife 
from the g., 25, 344, 344 n. ; wealth 
of those who offer sacrifices is 
called property of the g., 25, 434 sq. ; 
cooked offerings for the g., 26, 201 ; 
all g. draw nigh to the victim, think- 
ing that it is immolated for them, 
26, 203 ; food given to Brahmawas, 
reaches the g., 29, 16; Yama and 
all g. contained in the Ashraka, 29, 
102 ; adoration to g., itishis, Manes, 
and men, 29, 150; Agni, Jndra, 
Pra^-SpatijVuve Devas, Brahman are 
regularly worshipped where there 
is no special rule with regard to 
the deity of a sacrifice, 29, 163; 
satisfied by reciting the Vedas and 
other sacred texts, 29, 218; 44, 
*)6 sq., 101 ; satiated at the Tar- 
pana, 29, 219 ; invoked to give long 
life to the new-born child, 29, 294 ; 
water oblations to the g. at the 
Utsarga, 29, 325; Bali offering to 
the protecting deities of.the furrow, 

29, 335 sq. ; the pupil at the Upana- 
yana given in charge of the g., 29, 
401; 30, 272; there can be no 
substitute for the deity of a sacrifice, 

30, 353 ; delight in prayers, 32, 86 ; 
sacrifices enjoined by them, 32 3 
238 sq. ; ordeal to be performed in 
the presence of the guardians of 
the world, 33, 104; high value of 
property belonging to g., 33, 205 ; 
look on with divine eyes when a 
witness gives evidence, 33, 245; 
the judge worships the g. before 
performing an ordeal, 33, 250 sq. ; 
oaths by g., 33, $t$ ; fine for steal- 
ing property of a deity or Brahma«a, 
33, 363; invoked for long life, 42, 
50 sq, ; an amulet for g., fathers, 
and men, 42, 87 ; all the g. call the 
king to the throne, 42, 113; Brah- 
mawas strike those who revile the 
g., 42, 169-71 ; the sterile cow 
belongs to the g., therefore must 
be given to the Brahmans, 42, 175-9, 
656 ; bricks of the fire-altar identi- 
fied with g., 43, 90 sq. ; the sacrifice 
is the self of the g., 43, 103 ; 44, 
504 ; from left to right is the way 
with the g., 43, 136, 139, 147 ; only 
that is a deity to whom oblations 



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are offered, 43, 240, 245 sq. ; if he 
eats on new and full moon nights, 
he eats whilst passing over the g., 
44, 21 ; the sacrificer gives himself 
up to the g. (by the fasts) and 
redeems himself by the (new and 
full moon) sacrifice, 44, 22 sq. ; 
theory regarding the full and new 
moon in respect of the g. (sun and 
moon, earth and sky, night and 
day), 44, 31 ; he who offers to the 
g. is inferior to the self-offerer, 44, 
38 ; offerings to the g. compared to 
tribute brought to a king, 44, 38 ; 
fill gold cLip^ for him who having 
offered ghee, offers sacrificial por- 
tions, 44, 61 ; Sri dismembered by 
the g., and restored by a sacrifice, 
44, 62-5; Pr;sh//jya and Abhiplava 
are the two wheels of the g. crush- 
ing the Sacrificer's evil, 44, 149; 
how the Mahavrata yielded itself 
to the g., 44, 159; rites for the g. 
and rites for the Fathers, how 
distinguished, 44, 198-200, 430-4; 
may the g. protect me through the g. , 
44, 258; prayer to be delivered 
from sins against the g., 44, 265 sq. ; 
all the g. are concerned in the 
horse-sacrifice, 44, 278 sq., 311, 
352; went in quest of the Ajva- 
medha, 44, 2S4 ; depart from those 
who speak impure speech at the 
sacrifice, 44, 387 ; the Udgatri 
called 'friend of the g.,' 44, 388; 
all the g. made guardians of the 
Pravargya sacrifice, 44, 453; what 
is baked, belongs to the g., 44, 456 ; 
sacrifice a feast of the g., 4G, 6, 
283 ; spirits or deified objects con- 
nected with the sacrifice, 46, 8-12 ; 
the Aryan clans long for the g., 40, 
100. See also Debts (the three), 
Idols, and Sacrifices (e). 
(i) Hindu g. in philosophy. 

Teaching of Brahman with regard 
to the g., 1, 151 sq., 152 n, ; the 
elements and the five senses or 
Pra??as represented as g., 1, 185 ; 8, 
123, 123 n. ? 337-4°, 3^9 sq.; 15, 
98, 274 ; 34, 303-5 ; 41, 273, 395 ; 
43, 32, 185 sq., 304; 48, 417, 576, 
586 sq.; union ol the g., as entered 
into the body, 1, 208, 233, 238-40; 
all the g.arc produced by knowledge 
of the Self, 1, 245 ; the human body 



represented as a lute made by the 
g., 1, 264 ; the absorption of the 
two classes of g. (viz. fire, sun, 
moon, lightning, and the senses, &c.) 
into Brahman or breath, 1, 288-90 ; 
never reached the Self, 1, 311 ; 8, 
367, 391 ; through freedom from 
heedlessness the g. attained to the 
Brahman, 8, rsz n., 153; are not 
pleased with a cessation of mortal 
form, 8, 254 sq.; the science of 
final emancipation is a great mystery 
even among the g., 8, 254 ; speech 
relates to all the g., 8, 338 ; the 
sage who is assimilated with the 
Brahman, is identical with the g., 
and extolled by g. and demons, 8, 
345 ; Hara, Rudra, Siva, &c, as 
names of the Highest Self, 15, 
xxxiii sq., 16 ; have doubted as to 
death, 15, 5 sq.; Brahman is all g., 
the g. being but his manifestation, 
15, 86 ; Pra«a identified with the 
g., 15, 274-6; 34. 200, 269; the g. 
identified with the Atman, 25, 512 ; 
whether g. are capable of the know- 
ledge of Brahman, 34, xxxvii, 198 
sq., 216-23; 48, 326-35; create 
many things by their mere intention, 
34, xciv, 347 sq. ; possess unob- 
structed knowledge, 34, 99 ; are 
qualified for the study and practice 
of the Veda, 34, 198 sq.; may have 
the desire of final release, 34, 198; 
to them the Veda is manifest of 
itself (without study), 34, 199; 
undergo discipleship, 34, 199; multi- 
form creations exist in them, 34, 
353; the performers of sacrifices 
arc objects of enjoyment for the g., 
38, 111; 48, 588 sq.; g. worship 
Prana, 42, 219; serve the Person 
in the eye under the name of 
'strengthening food,' 43, 373; by 
naming the g. everything here is 
named, 43, 390; as the Year the 
Sacrificer goes to the g., 44, 140, 155 ; 
Highest Person, the inner ruler of 
Agni and other g., 48, 155; the g. 
create each in his own world what 
they require, God creates the entire 
world, by mere volition, 48,. 472, 
(J) G. inBuddiiism. 

Dialogue between a deity and 
Buddha, g. taught by Buddha, 10 
(ii), 17-19, 43 sq.; 11, 142; 13, 



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122 sq. ; the g. rejoice at the birth 
of Buddha, 10 (ii), 94, 125 sq.; 19, 
4-6) 13, 344 sq,, 347-5 6 ; how they 
felt about Buddha's death, 11, 88- 
90, 119-21, 127; 19, 308, 318; 
pay homage to the remains of 
Buddha, 11, 124, 128 sq.; rejoice 
and pay homage to Buddha when 
he reaches Bodhi and founds the 
Kingdom of Truth, 11, 153-5; 13, 
97 sq.; 19, 58, 163 sq., 17S sq.; 21, 
160-71, 184; 35, 243 ; 49(i),68sq., 
t 3 6 j 155 sq., 165-7; instrumental 
in making Buddha (Yasa) resign the 
world, 13, 83, 89, 103; 19, 32-4, 
36, 49, 54, 56-8, 68 sq., 88, 144, 
152-5; 21,55; 35, 220 sq,; 36,45, 
45 sq. n.; 49 (i), 30, 32, 34, 52, 
68, 168, 173; scatter scents and 
flowers and raise heavenly music at 
Buddha's funeral, 19, 323; pay 
homage to the newborn Buddha, 
19,361-4; 49 (i), 7; Indra, Brahma 
Sahampati with all the other g. 
strew garments and heavenly flowers 
on Buddha, 21, 69 sq., 313, 315, 
366 ; the four classes of the audience 
of a Buddha, monks, &c, g. and 
other superhuman beings, 21, 69, 
162, 213, 222 sq., 225, 253, 376, 
383, 412, 431, 442 ; pay homage to 
Buddhas, 21, 156 sq., 162-71, 183 
sq., 308; Indras, Brahmas, and 
Brahmakayikas show honour to the 
preacher, 21, 347, 349; worship 
relics of Buddhas, 35, 148 sq., 151, 
247 ; when Buddha was eating the 
g. infused the sap of life into his 
dish, 36, 37 sq., 37 n. ; g. and men 
adopted the Dhamma, after Brahma 
had adopted it, 36, 41 sq.; — the dis- 
ciple of Buddha will overcome the 
world of the g., 10 (i), 16; envv the 
Arhat, 10 (i), 28, 49; 20, 233; not 
even g. could change into defeat the 
victory of a man who has vanquished 
himself, 10 (i), 31 sq.; the Buddhist 
view of the g., 10 (i), 31 sq. n. ; 11, 
162-5; the uncharitable do not 
attain the world of the g., 10 (i), 
48; we shall be like the bright g., 
feeding on happiness, 10 (i), 53, 
53 n.; the virtuous praised by the 
g., 10 (i), 59, 86 ; the true Brahmawa 
is he who has risen above all bond- 
age both to men and to g., 10 (i). 



93 sq.; do not know the path of the 
Arhat, 10 (i), 95; (ii), 115; world 
of g., Mara?, and Brahmans, 10 (ii), 
14, 30, 45, 96, 142 sq., 208; 11, 
187, 288; vehicles of the g., 10 (ii), 
23 ; 21, 345, 350 ; 36, 117; cried out 
against the injustice of killing cows 
for sacrifices, 10 (ii), 51 ; the g. wor- 
ship Indra, 10 (ii), 52 ; g. and men 
depend on desire, 10 (ii), 55 ; the g. 
hear the well-spoken words of Vasa- 
va, 10 (ii), 64; the pious householder 
goes to the g. by name Sayampabhas, 
10 (ii), 66 ; g. as adepts of Buddha 
and friends of Buddhists, 10 (ii), 
85 sq., 185 sq.; 13, Si sq.; 20, 401 ; 
are subject to time, 10 (ii), 90; a 
Muni is to be worshipped by g. and 
men, 10 (ii), 91 ; Buddha, the en- 
lightened of g. and men, 10 (ii), 96 ; 
the thirty-three (Tidasa, Tavatiwsa) 
g., 10 (ii), 125; 11, 18, 32, 32 n., 
48; 17, 101, 107; 35, 11, 13; a 
god, or Brahman, or Inda, the hus- 
band of Su#a, 10 (ii), 189 ; Buddha 
has penetrated all things concerning 
the g., 10 (ii), 213 ; good men called 
g., 11, 20 sq. and n.; Buddha, the 
teacher of g. and men, 11, 27, 41, 
54, &c.; 19, 331; 21, 119 sq.; 35 
167, 237; can, by intense medita- 
tion, cause an earthquake, 11,45 S Q-'- 
their royal city A/akamanda, 11, 
100, 248; 35, 3; their existence 
depends on Karma, 11, 119 sq. n.; 
world of Brahma7*as and Samareas, 
g. and men, 11, 152 sq., 187, &c. ; 
the wheel of the empire of Truth 
set rolling by Buddha, cannot be 
turned back by any god, 11, 153 
sq.; seven kinds of g., 11, 154, 
154 n.; an immeasurable bright 
light beyond even the power of the 
g., appeared in the universe, when 
Buddha founded his kingdom of 
righteousness, 11, 155 ; converted 
by Buddha, 11, 155 n.; 19, 240 sq.; 
36, 248-50; 49 (i), 180; the higher 
g. are opapatika, there being no sex 
or birth in the heavens, 11, 214 a,; 
aspiration to belong to one or other 
of the angel hosts (deva-nikaya), is 
a spiritual bondage, 11, 227, 231 sq.; 
cloud-spirits of cold, heat, air, wind, 
and rain, 11, 255 n.; deities residing 
in trees, 13, 126; 35, 242; they 



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who honour the g. by offerings, will 
be honoured by the g. in return, 
17, 103 ; are liable to old age, 
decay, and death, 19, 18, iS n., 
159 sq., 275, 275 11., 371 ; pay wor- 
ship to Br/haspati, 19, 78; subject 
to transmigration, 19, 160, 224 ; 35, 
12 sq., 38; established by Buddh.i, 
19, 193 ; if fjvara be the maker of 
the world, people ought not to adore 
more g. than one, 19, 207 ; the site 
of Pa/aliputra protected by g., 19, 
250; Buddha god over all g., 19, 
262 n., 348; 35, 167; 36, 12, 56, 
S3, 125, 215, 219, 274, 279, 281, 
283, 285, 290 sq., 295, 298, 300-2, 
305 sq., 305 »., 310, 312-15, 317, 
319. 323-5) 327, 33 1 * 337* 34° sq., 
344-6, 352-4, 358, 363-5, 368; 
immortal, but not self-existent, 19, 
271 n.; are filled with fear, 19, 287, 
337; general grief in heaven when 
a Deva's day of merit comes to an 
end, 19, 287, 287 n.; names, different 
classes, and numbers of g., 19, 308 ; 
21, 4 sq.; 49 (i), 129, 141, 157 sq., 
180, 196 sq.; (ii), 26, 30; praise 
Nirvana, 19, 309 sq.; worship Bud- 
dha, 19, 337; 49 (ii), 165, 201; 
Buddha as a god, 21, xxiv-xxviii; 
after hearing Buddha's law, beings 
may come to be g. or men, Indras, 
Brahmas, or rulers of the universe, 
21, 125; g. and men will behold 
each other in Buddha-fields, 21, 
194; protect the Bodhisattva, 21, 
274 ; voices of g. and Nagas, heard 
by the preacher, 21, 339 ; the Aka- 
nisbi'&isand Abhasvaras in the Brah- 
ma-world, 21, 340; girls, wives, 
youths and maidens amongst the g., 
21, 342; Devanikayas, Brahmaka- 
yikas, and Mahabrahmas, 21, 342, 
345; odours exhaled by the g., 21, 
34 2 » 345 i the preacher discerns g. 
and demons by his smell, 21, 344 
st].; rebirth among the g., 21, 436; 
35,124; shout their approval, when 
Nagasena preaches and attains to 
insight, 35, 22, 26, 29; considered 
as Buddhist laymen, 35, 31 sq., 31 n.; 
36, 248-50; NSgasena is capable of 
discussing things with the g., 35, 
37 ; men who, even in their human 
body, mounted up to the abode of 
the Thirty-Three, 35, 172 ; mystic 



cults of certain g., 35, 266 ; different 
from the spirits called ' not men ' 
(amanussa), 35, 279, 279 n.; evil 
deeds cannot be concealed from the 
g. who can read the hearts of men, 

35, 295 ; Buddha is above the god 
of g., 35, 300 ; soul and g., 36, xxii 
sq. ; the parrot who caused the 
heaven of the Thirty-Three to 
shake, 36, 6 ; Buddha, chief of g. 
and men, 36, 55 sq., 1 20 ; exalt Ves- 
santara on account of his gift, 36, 
1 i6;changeofprecedenceamongthe 
g., 36, 1 27 n, ; Akanitt&a, the highest 
of all g., 36, 1 30 ; men who in this 
life already attained to glory in 
Tidasapura (city of the g.), 36, 145 
sq.; dreams caused by a god, 36, 
157, 160 sq.; miracles caused by g. 
out of pity for men, 36, 175; miracles 
worked out of pity for g. and men, 

36, 175; certain g. called 'The 
Formless Ones,' 36, 187 sq, ; Bud- 
dha's religion for g. and men, 36, 
214, 217-21, 221 n., 229, 240, 242, 
321, 327; preachers of the Law 
become g., 49 (i), 185, 187 ; where 
Buddhism is preached, there shall 
be no fear of g., Nagas, Yakshas, 
&c, 49 (i), 188; no difference be- 
tween g. and men in a Buddha 
country, 49 (ii), 12, 42, 62; where 
the Trayastriwja and other g. live 
in Sukhavati, 49 (ii), 37 ; the plea- 
sures of Paranirmitavajavartin g., 
49 (ii), 40 ; in the train of Buddha, 
49 (ii), 70, 90 sq.; Buddhas, Bo- 
dhisattvas, Bhikshus, and g., 49 (ii), 
189 ; obtain Bodhi, 49 (ii), 199, 
Sec also Angels (c), and Fairies. 

(k) G. in Gaina religion. 

On g. in Gaina religion, 10 (i), 
32 n. ; worship of prophets as g. by 
Gainas and Buddhists, 22, xxi; a 
Gaina should not trust in the delu- 
sive power of the g., 22, 77 ; a 
Gaina should not say 'the god rains' 
but ' the air rains,' nor speak of the 
god of thunder, god of lightning, 22, 
152 ; Mahavira's existence among 
the g., 22, 190, 218 sq.; the four 
orders of g., Bhavanapatis, Vyan- 
taras, Gyotrshkas, and Vimanavasins, 
22, 191, 195, 202, 252 ; bustle 
among the g. and goddesses at the 
birth and death of Mahavira, 22, 



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191 sq., 251 sq., 256, 265 ; the name 
Venerable Ascetic Mahavira was 
given by the g., 22, 193, 256; 
Mahavira's parents, after living as 
ascetics, were born as g., 22, 194, 
256; the KuWalaJharas, the Lau- 
kantikaand Maharddhikag.,22, 195; 
miracles performed by the g. when 
Mahavira retired from the world, 
and reached the highest knowledge, 
22, 195-202 ; orders and numbers 
of g.,22, 222sq.; 45, 183, i83n.; 
disputes occurring in the assemblies 
of g., men, and Asuras, 22, 268 ; 
sages who though no g. have obtained 
the powers of g., 22, 268 ; state of 
the g., one of the happy existences, 
22, 26Sn. ; saints born among the 
g. in their former existence, 22, 
271, 281; 45, 35; the body of 
monks who fast longer than four 
days is inhabited by a deity, 22, 
300 n. ; Mahavira surrounded by g. 
and goddesses, 22, 311; the pious 
monk will be honoured by g., 
Gandharvas, and men, 45, 8 ; pious 
monks reborn as g. of great power 
and small imperfections, 45, 8 ; men 
born as g. according to their actions, 
45, 15, 30 sq., 57, 61, 84, 259, 384, 
415, 417; to the highest regions, in 
- due order, to those where there is no 
delusion, and to those which are full of 
light, where the glorious (g. dwell) — 
who have long life, great power, great 
lustre, who can change their shape at 
will, who are beautiful as on their first 
day, and have the 'brilliancy of many 
suns — to such places go those who are 
trained in self control and penance, 
monks or householders, who have ob- 
tained liberation by absence of passion, 
45, 23 ; the life and pleasures of the 
g. surpass human pleasures a thou- 
sand times and more, 45, 29 sq. ; 
the state of the Kevalin higher than 
that of the g., 45, 30 n. ; shower 
down a rain of perfumed flowers 
and water, and heavenly treasure, 
at the conversion of a Brahmaxa, 
45, 54; a monk should not be 
frightened by voices of g., 45, 72 ; 
pay homage to a chaste monk, 45, 
77; long life of the g.,45, 84, 84 n. ; 
calamities produced by g., animals, 
and men, 45, 1 1 o, 1 8 1 , 2 5 5 ; descend 
from heaven to celebrate the re- 



nunciation of a saint, 45, 114 sq. ; 
attend the meeting of Kesi and 
Gautama, 45, 121 ; conjuring a god, 
a means of extorting alms, employed 
by bad monks, 45, 133 n. ; carnal 
love towards divine beings, 45, 139; 
from desire of pleasure arises the 
misery of the world, the g. included, 
45, 187; duration of Lejyas of g., 
45, 202 ; classification and descrip- 
tion of g., and duration of their life, 
45, 225-9, 3 Si ; wl, y peopje are 
born as Abhiyogidevas, Kflvishade- 
vas and Asuras, 45, 23m.; the 
world created by the g., 45, 244 ; 
even g. must suffer for their deeds, 
45, 250; the Supar/sa g. reside in 
the Salmali tree, 45, 290 ; the Lava- 
saptamas, the highest of those g. 
who live very long, 45, 291 ; do not 
reach final beatitude, 45, 331 ; some 
pious men become liberated saints, 
others g., 45, 331 sq., 352; commit 
sins, 45, 356 ; Gainas should believe 
that g. and goddesses exist, 45, 
408. See also Vimanas. 
(/) Angels and archangels in 
zokoasteianism. 

A. assist the Mazdayasniaus 
against demons and demon-wor- 
shippers, 5, li sq., 224-30; how 
each of the archa. can best be pro- 
pitiated, 5, lxii, 372-9 ; thirty a. 
and archa., 5, 103-5, '°3 sq. n -i no 
a. come to the body of him who 
does not perform ablution, 5, 299 ; 
all worship reaches either the a. or 
the demons, 5, 310; a. and archa. 
invoked, praised, worshipped, 5, 
312-14; 18, 324, 357 i 3?> 34 sq., 
168, 232-4, 2 77, 2 93 5 <l-> 2 9 8 i 3°3. 
315 sq., 438, 444 sq., 463 ; 47, 51, 
95 ; the activity of the seven archa., 
5, 357, 357 n. ; archa. are intangible 
spirits, but must be worshipped, 5, 
372 sq. n. ; the thirty a. and archa. 
presiding over the days of the 
month, 5, 401-6, 406 n.; 23, 3 ; 
heavenly and earthly a. invoked, 18, 
3 ; spiritual life and glory for the 
soul owing to the a., 18, 22 sq.; 
they dwell in heaven, 18, 57, 275! 
Srosh to be reverenced separately 
from all the other a., 18, 61, 6t n. ; 
archa. assemble in the middle of the 
sky, 18, 87 ; a. vanquish wizards 



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anil witches, 18, 88 sq. ; a. attend 
to the wishes of the Creator, 18, 
120 ; seven archa. in the propitia- 
tory dedication of the sacred cake, 
18, 143 sq. ; archa. pleased by the 
ceremonial, 18, 159 sq., 159 n. ; 37, 
173 sq. ; a, not attacked by the 
stench of unnatural sin, 18, 220 sq. ; 
archa. are immortal, undistressed, 
and omniscient, 18, 221; archa. 
assist Ttitar against Apaosh, 18, 
267; a. opposed by the fiends, 18, 
270 sq., 319, 319 n. ; a. are dis- 
tressed by an imperfect purification 
rite, 18, 294; a. intercede for the 
soul of Keresasp, 18, 378-80 ; archa. 
sit around Auharmaa^, 18, 415 sq. ; 
archa. and a, of the spiritual and 
worldly creations propitiated, 24, 
3 sq., 4 n., 8 ; a., archa., and spirits 
gratified by Vutasp, 24, 65 ; good- 
ness of the archa. the cause of 
prosperity of the world, 37, 1 96 ; 
Kai-Os attempts to reach the 
heavenly region of the archa., 37, 
221 ; he who provides for the 
Mazda-worshipper provides for the 
archa., 37, 280; assistance by the 
archa., 37, 291 sq. ; wisdom of 
archa., 37, 305 ; increasing the 
strength of the archa., 37, 341 ; 
obeisance to the archa., 37, 360 sq,, 
378 ; exploits of the archa., 37, 
364 ; contentment of the archa., 
37, 370; archa. lodge in him who 
loves Vohiiman, 37, 382; Zoroaster's 
conference with the archa., 47, xv, 
xxi, xxiv, xxvii, xxx, 156-62 ; 
Zoroaster's spiritual body with the 
archa., 47, xxviii sq. ; archa. protect 
agriculture, 47, 7 ; Zoroaster's 
guardian spirit and body united by 
the archa., 47, 2 1-9 ; archa. opposed 
to harm, 47, 55 ; archa. assist 
Zoroaster in converting Vijtasp,47, 
67-70, 8t, 124, 164 ; archa. send 
forth the soul of Srito from heaven, 
47, 79; archa. report the birth of 
Zoroaster, 47, 87 ; apostles confer 
with the archa., 47, 106, 112 ; archa. 
sent by Afiharmascrf to protect the 
infant Zoroaster, 47, 145 ; glory of 
the seven archa., 47, 148 ; reverence 
ot the emanations of the six archa., 
47, 168. See also Ameshaspentas, 
and Angels (b). 



(m) G. OR SACRED BEINGS (Y.AZAT AS, 
VAZDAn) IN ZOROASTRIANISM. 

Abstract deities worshipped by the 
adherents of Zoroastrianism, 4, Ixi, 
Ixv; 23,3o; natural deities in early 
Zoroastrianism, 4, lxi, lxv; prayers 
and sacrifices to all the g. offered 
by Zoroastrians, 4, 221-4, 2 45» 
248; the holy g. and thegreat Ratu, 

4, 250; Auhannaa^ and the angels 
who are the whole of the heavenly 
and earthly sacred beings (yazdan), 

5, 155; spirits of the sky, water, 
earth, plants, animals, mankind, and 
fire, 5, 156; g. or sacred beings 
invoked and worshipped by the 
devout, 5, 312; 18, 123-5, 134-6, 
166-73, 279-81, 325 sq. ; 24, re, 
12 sq., 26, 43 sq., 78 ; 37, 34 sq., 
344 sq-. 377, 428 sq., 431, 436, 466 
sq. ; meat-offerings apportioned to 
g-j 5, 335-8; resurrection the happi- 
ness and hope of the good spirit?, 
18, 38 ; are the spirits distressed 
when a righteous man dies ? 18, 
50 sq. ; man, a servant of the g., 18, 
i22sq., r25; good spirits co-operate 
in the preparation of the sky, 18,261; 
one Yajt for every Amshaspand and 
every Ized, 23, 1-3; thirty g, and 
numerous abstract deities invoked, 
23, 2-20 ; glory of the gods in the 
heavens ami in the material world, 
23, 291 sq., 352; the sacred being 
is the best protection, 24, 41 ; 
divine providence overrules des- 
tiny, 24, 55 ; belief in the s. b. a 
good work, 24, 75 ; fear of s. b., 24, 
78 ; ceremonies are a thanksgiving 
to the s. b., 24, 94 sq. ; demons the 
opponents of the s. b., 24, 164 ; the 
pantheon of Zoroastrianism, 31, 
195-203; thirty-three lords of the 
ritual order, 31, 198 sq., 198 n., 
205, 2io, 216, 220, 225; all the 
Ya/ads, heavenly and earthly, wor- 
shipped, 31, 202, 207, 212, 2 1 8, 
222 sq., 227, 254 sq., 257, 259, 272, 
274, 277, 3'9, 328, 374, 3S2, 389, 
391 ; Fravashis of the Yazads wor- 
shipped, 31, 273; sacrifices to the 
lords of spiritual and of earthly 
creatures, of aquatic animals, beasts, 
and birds, 31, 335 ; triumphs of the 
s. b. over the demons, 37, 23, 285 ; 
47, 123 ; bringing of the word from 



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the s. b., 37, 31 ; gratified by justice, 
37, 102 ; spirits of fire, water, and 
plants hurt by the destruction of 
a righteous man, 37, 149 ; cere- 
monials of the various s, b., 37, 183 
sq. and n. ; 47, 168 sq.; assembly 
of the s. b., 37, 1 89 5 mutual service 
of man, cattle, and s. b., 37, 265; 
worship of s. b. not to be neg- 
lected under any circumstances, 37, 
276 sq. ; who is liberal to the s. b. 
is free from destruction, 37, 283 ; 
reverence for s. b. a good work, 
37, 311-13 ; s. b. gratified by proper 
care of cattle, 37, 318 sq.; s. b. 
gratified by virtuousness, 37, 323-7 ; 
power of s. b. increased by love of 
their affairs, 37, 335 ; body and life 
given to the s. b., 37, 352 sq. ; dis- 
crimination in the affairs of the 
s. b., 37, 373 sq. ; the s. b. instruct 
Masye" and MasyaAi in arts and 
manufacture, 47, xxv, 7 sq. ; friend- 
ship of Zaratujt for the s. b., 47, 47 ; 
s. b. are beneficent and righteous, 
47, 69. 

(») Chinese spirits or spiritual 
beings (kwei-shan). 

Shun sacrificed to the Six 
Honoured Ones, to hills and rivers, 
and to the host of sp., 3, 39, 39 n. ; 
thanksgiving sacrifices to the sp. of 
the land and of the four quarters, 
3, 371, 371 n., 373, 373 n. ; people 
suffering injury protest to the sp. of 
heaven and earth, 3, 90 ; Thang 
fears to offend 'the Powers above 
and below,' 3, 91 ; sp. of hills and 
rivers were all in tranquillity, as 
long as kings were virtuous, 3, 93 ; 
sp. of heaven and earth worshipped, 
3, 96, 126 ; 27, 307 ; worship of the 
sp. of the land and grain, 3, 96, 126 ; 
16, 256 ; 27, 107, 115, 183, 191, 218, 
222, 225 sq., 278, 300, 309, 313-15) 
329 sq., 373, 397, 416; 28, 33, 67, 
101, 222, 235, 253, 265 ; accept only 
the sacrifices of those who are 
sincere, 3, 99 ; victims devoted to 
the sp. of heaven and earth, 3, 123; 
invoked for help in war, 3, 135; 
pious rulers behave gravely and 
respectfully to sp. and men, 3, 163 ; 
the spirit of the land sacrificed to 
in a new city, 3, 183 ; the king 
should sacrifice to the sp. above and 



beneath, 3, 186 ; services to sp. and 
to Heaven, 3, 2r7 ; the Minister of 
Religion regulates the services for 
sp. and manes, 3, 228, 228 n. ; 
perfect government and bright 
virtue have a piercing fragrance for 
the spiritual intelligences, 3, 232; 
the descents of sp. ceased when 
A7<ung and Li made an end of the 
communications between earth and 
heaven, 3, 257, 257 sq. n. ; ancestors 
become tutelary sp., 3, 301 ; ' all 
spiritual beings' or 'the hundred 
sp.' presiding overall nature, 3. 318, 
318 n. ; hearken to him who seeks 
a friend, 3, 347, 347 n. ; hearken to 
the officers who quietly fulfil their 
duties, 3, 365 ; great altar to the sp. 
of the land raised by Than-fu, 3, 
384, 385 n. ; unseen by men, one is 
still under the observation of sp., 3, 
388, 388 n., 415; sacrifice to the 
spirit of the path, 3, 399, 399 n., 
425 sq., 425 n. : 27, 314 sq. ; ' host 
of all the sp.,' one of the titles of 
the sovereigns of China, 3, 405 , 
405 n. ; King Hsiian expostulates 
with God and all the sp. whom he 
expects to allay a terrible drought, 
3, 419-25; sacrifices to the sp. of 
the four quarters and of the land, 
3, 422; Kwei-shan or sp., what 
they are, 16, 32, 34, 45, 355 sq. n. ; 
inflict calamity on the full and bless 
the humble, 16, 226, 226 sq. n. ; 
men of worth employed to do ser- 
vice to sp., 16, 324, 325 n. ; sacri- 
fices tosp. or phenomena of nature, 
27, 36; 28, 203, 209, 218, 21811.; 
39, 300 n. ; sacrifices to sp. of hills 
and rivers, and of the quarters, 27, 
116, 2i6sq., 273, 27S, 307, 313-15, 
376, 385 sq., 397 ; 28, 101 ; sacrifice 
to the Father of War, 27, 220; 
those who gave false reports about 
appearances of sp. put to death, 27, 
238; sacrifices to the sp. of the 
ground, 27, 259, 259 n.; sacrifice to 
the 'first match-maker,' 27, 259; 
husbandry dear to the sp., 27, 279, 
279 n. ; prayer to 'the Honoured 
ones of Heaven,' 27, 300, 30a n. ; the 
ruler's intercourse with sp.,27, 375, 
377 ; the sp. of nature as associates 
for men, 27, 383 sq. ; enjoy the 
virtue of the superior man, 27, 394 ; 



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things used for rites shall be in 
accordance with the requirements 
of the sp., 27, 395, 395 n. ; distinc- 
tion between g. and manes, 27, 430, 
430 n. ; the Father of Husbandry, 

27, 431 ; communion with the sp. 
by sacrifices, 27, 434-6; marriage 
a service of the sp., 27, 441 sq. ; do 
not take liberties with or weary sp., 

28, 73 ; music and ceremonies bring 
down the sp. from above, 28, 114; 
the honouring of sp., 28, 219, 
341 sq. ; the Spiritual Intelligences 
served with reverence, 28, 239; 
communion with the Spiritual 
Intelligences attained by purifica- 
tion, 28, 240, 245 ; sacrifices give 
expression to the loving feeling 
towards the sp., 28, 271 ; the powers 
of sp., 28, 307 sq. and n. ; the 
superior man presents himself 
before them, 28, 325 ; the Spiritual 
Intelligences of heaven and earth, 
28, 349; eight sp. worshipped by 
the founder of the K/An dynasty, 
39, 41, 41 n. ; the power of the sp. 
or manes, 39, 82, 104; sp. of the 
land worshipped under an oak-tree, 
39, 217-19; from the Tao came the 
mysterious existences of the sp., 
39, 243, 243 n. ; the Taoist sage 
suffers not from ghosts and is not 
scared by the sp, of the dead, 39, 
333 ; the Taoist sage suffers no 
reproof from the sp. of the dead, 
39, 365 ; tutelary sp. of the land do 
not bestow their blessings selfishly, 
39, 382; altars raised to the spirit 
of the grain, 40, 75 ; man's relation 
to men and sp., 40, 83, 83 n. ; sp. 
in heaven and earth take account 
of men's actions and curtail their 
lives according to the gravity of 
their transgressions, 40, 235 sq., 
244; bad men revile the sp., 40, 
242 ; the Divine Ruler of the 
eastern Hwa, the Divine Ruler of 
the Golden Gate, and the Royal- 
mother of the West, 40, 248 sq. See 
also Ancestor Worship (a, b). 

(0) False g. in Islam. 

Nature-g. (Ginns) worshipped by 
the Arabs, 6, xi sq. ; patron deities 
of Arabian tribes, 6, xii ; false g. 
can neither harm nor profit people, 
6, 19,); 204 ; are lifeless, cannot 



create anything, 6, 252 ; 9, 64, 83, 
161 ; if there were other g., they 
would rebel against God, 9, 5 ; 
themselves have recourse to God, 
9, 7, 7 11, ; deny their worshippers 
on judgement day, 9, 32; cannot 
defend the idolators against God, 
9, 49 ; are helpless and cannot help, 
9, 153, 167; are punished in hell, 
as well as the idolators, 9, 169; 
worship of false g., in order to be 
brought nearer to God, 9, 182 ; 
desert their worshippers on the last 
day, 9, 204. See also Ginns. 

Gogand Magog, 9, 25, 25 n., 54. 

Gogojasp, or Gorasp, n. of a 
Zoroastrian teacher, 5, 243, 243 n., 
265 sq., 275. 

G6kar</(orG6kerano,or Gokereno), 
see Haorm, and Trees. 

Go/ihar, ' the great one of the 
middle of the sky,' 5, 2 1 sq. and n. ; 
leader of planets, o, 1 1 3 sq., 1 1 3 n. ; 
falls from a moonbeam on to the 
earth, 5, 125; burns the serpent in 
the melted metal, 5, 129, 129 n. 

Gok-patd, see GSpatshah. 

Gold, man consists of, 1, 205 ; at 
night one should not study in a wood 
where there is no fire nor g., 2, 44 ; 
is, like fire, a means of purification, 
2, 66 sq. ; 7, 101 ; 44, 235 n., 236, 
239, 239 n. ; eating g., a penance, 2, 
276, 276 n. ; 14, 117, 31 r ; its origin, 
5, 183; 18, 199; Ajvattha tree of 
golden leaves, 8, 189; the first 
among precious things, 8,209, 353 ; 
one should not wish for g., 8, 365 ; 
used at auspicious rites, 12, 276 
sq. n., 277 sq.; 26, 63, 74, 100 n., 
224, 238; 29, 22, 36, 50 sq.,