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Full text of "Scientific Papers - Vi"

1911]                                          BREATH  FIGURES                                                27
" If we now pass over this clean surface the point of a blow-pipe flame, using a very small jet, and passing it over the glass with sufficient quickness to prevent the sudden heating breaking it; and if we now breathe on the glass after it is cold, we shall find the track of the flame clearly marked. While most of the surface looks white by the light reflected from the deposited moisture, the track of the flame is quite black; not a ray of light is scattered by it. It looks as if there were no moisture condensed on that part of the plate, as it seems unchanged; but if it be closely examined by a lens, it will be seen to be quite wet. But the water is so evenly distributed, that it forms a thin film, in which, with proper lighting and the aid of a lens, a display of interference colours may be seen as the film dries and thins away."
"Another way of studying the change produced on the surface of the glass by the action of the flame is to take the [plate], as above described, after a line has been drawn over it with the blow-pipe jet, and when cold let a drop of water fall on any part of it where it showed white when breathed on. Now tilt the plate to make the drop flow, and note the resistance to its flow, and how it draws itself up in the rear, leaving the plate dry. When, however, the moving drop comes to the part acted on by the flame, all resistance to flow ceases, and the drop rapidly spreads itself over the whole track, and shows a decided disinclination to leave it."
The impression thus produced lasts for some days or weeks, with diminishing distinctness. A permanent record may be obtained by the deposit of a very thin coat of silver by the usual chemical method. The silver attaches itself by preference to the track of the flame, and especially to the edges of the track, where presumably the combustion is most intense. It may be protected with celluloid, or other, varnish.
The view, expressed by Mr Aitken, which would attribute the effect to very fine dust deposited on the glass from the flame, does not commend itself to me. And yet mere heat is not very effective. I was unable to obtain a good result by strongly heating the back of a thin glass in a Bunsen flame. For this purpose a long flame on Ramsay's plan is suitable, especially if it be long enough to include the entire width of the plate.
It seems to me that we must appeal to varying degrees of cleanliness for the explanation, cleanliness meaning mainly freedom, from grease. And one of the first things is to disabuse our minds of the idea that anything wiped with an. ordinary cloth can possibly be clean. This subject was ably treated many years ago by Quincke (Wied. Ann. n. p. 145, 1877), who, however, seems to have remained in doubt whether a film of air might not give rise to the same effects as a film of grease. Quincke investigated the maximum edge-angle possible when a drop of liquid stands upon the surface of a solid. In general, the cleaner the surface, the smaller the