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Full text of "Scientific Papers - Vi"

1912]
ON  DEPARTURES   FROM  FRESNEI/S  LAWS  OF REFLEXION
99
P.S. Jan. 15.—Some later observations upon a surface of fused quartz are of interest. The plate, prepared by Messrs Hilger, was £ inch square, and the surfaces were inclined at a few degrees so as to separate the reflexions. From these surfaces the reflexion at the polarizing angle sensibly disappears. The image of the paraffin flame could be quenched by the operation of the polarizing nicol alone. When the quarter wave-plate and analysing nicol were introduced, a! and a could not be distinguished, the difference probably not exceeding '05°, i.e. 3 minutes of angle.
In order to examine the reflexion when the quartz was in contact with a liquid of equal index, I had to mix alcohol with the benzole. The behaviour was then much the same as with glass of which the surface had been renewed by hydrofluoric acid. No precise measures could be taken, but the reflexion at 45° incidence seemed less than from the glass, though still easily visible. In spite of repeated trials with intermediate cleanings, it was difficult to feel sure that the residual effect might not be due to foreign matter, the more as differences could sometimes be detected between various parts of the surface*. Even if the surface could be regarded as clean on immersion, there is no certainty that a capillary film of some sort might not be deposited upon it from the liquid. The cause of the small residual reflexion must remain for the present an open question.
* At the top of the plate, where it was attached to a handle, a slight invasion of gelatine (used as a cement) gave rise to a copious reflexion; biit this film was easily visible in the air.
7—2 spite of equal velocity of wave-propagation. All optical dispersion is now supposed to be of the same nature as what used to be called anomalous dispersion, i.e. to be due to resonances lying beyond the visible range. In the simplest form of this theory, as given by Maxwell f and Sellmeier, the resonating bodies take their motion from those parts of the sether with which they are directly connected, but they do not influence one another. In such a case the boundary conditions involve merely the continuity of the displacement and its first derivative, and no complication ensues. When there is no refraction, there is also no reflexion. By introducing a mutual reaction between the resonators, and probably in other ways, it would be possible to modify the situation in such a manner that the boundary conditions would involve higher derivatives, as in the case of the stiff string, and thus to allow reflexion in spite of equality of wave- velocities for a given ray.