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Full text of "Scientific Papers - Vi"

1916]     ON CONVECTION CURRENTS IN A HORIZONTAL LAYER OF FLUID        433
themselves. It is extremely protracted, if the limit is regarded as the complete attainment of regular hexagons. And, indeed, such perfection is barely attainable even with the most careful arrangements. The tendency, however, seems sufficiently established.
The theoretical consideration of the problem here arising is of interest for more than one reason.    In  general, when  a system falls away from unstable equilibrium it may do so  in several principal modes, in each of which the departure at time t is proportional to the small displacement or velocity supposed to be present initially, and to an exponential factor e^, where q is positive.    If the initial disturbances are small enough, that mode (or modes) of falling away will become predominant for which q is a maximum.    The simplest example for which the number of degrees of freedom is infinite  is  presented  by a  cylindrical  rod of elastic material under a longitudinal compression sufficient to overbalance its stiffness.    But perhaps the most interesting hitherto treated is that of a cylinder of fluid disintegrating under the operation of capillary force as in the beautiful experiments of Savart and Plateau upon jets.    In this case the surface remains one of revolution about the original axis, but it becomes varicose, and the question is to compare the effects of different wave-lengths of varicosity, for upon this depends the number of detached masses into which the column is eventually resolved.    It was proved by Plateau that there is no instability if the wavelength be less than the circumference of the column.    For all wave-lengths greater than this there is instability, and the corresponding modes of disintegration may establish themselves if the initial disturbances are suitable. But if the general disturbance is very small, those components only will have opportunity to develop themselves for which the wave-length lies near to that of maximum instability.
It has been shown* that the wave-length of maximum instability is 4'508 times the diameter of the jet, exceeding the wave-length at which instability first enters in the ratio of about 3 : 2. Accordingly this is the sort of disintegration to be expected when the jet is shielded as far as possible from external disturbance.
It will be observed that there is nothing in this theory which could fix the phase of the predominant disturbance, or the particular particles of the fluid which will ultimately form the centres of the detached drops. There remains a certain indeterminateness, and this is connected with the circumstance that absolute regularity is not to be expected. In addition to the wave-length of maximum instability we must include all those which lie sufficiently near to it, and the superposition of the corresponding modes will allow of a slow variation of phase as we pass along the column. The phase
* Proc. Land. Math. Soc. Yol. x. p. 4 (1879); Scientific Papers, Yol. i. p. 361.   Also Theory of Sound, 2nd ed.  357, &c.
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R. VI.of the atmosphere. If the mercury has been well boiled in the tube, it may be made to remain in contact with the closed end, at the height of 70 inches or more " (Young's Lectures, p. 626,1807). If the mercury be wet, boiling may be dispensed with and negative pressures of two atmospheres are easily demonstrated.