CUTTING AND CHIPPING OF GLASS.
[Engineering, Feb. 2, 1917, p. 111.]
WITH all its advantages, the division of labour, so much accentuated in modern times, tends to carry with it a regrettable division of information. Much that is familiar to theorists and experimenters in laboratories percolates slowly into the workshop, and, what is more to my present purpose, much practical knowledge gained in the workshop fails to find its way into print. At the moment I am desirous of further information on two matters relating to the working of glass in which I happen to be interested, and I am writing in the hope that some of your readers may be able to assist.
Almost the only discussion that I have seen of the cutting of glass by the diamond is a century old, by the celebrated W. H. Wollaston (Phil. Trans. 1816, p. 265). Wollaston's description is brief and so much to the point that it may be of service to reproduce it from the " Abstracts," p. 43 :—
"The author, having never met with a satisfactory explanation of the property which the diamond possesses of cutting glass, has endeavoured, by experiment, to determine the conditions necessary for this effect, and the mode in which it is produced. The diamonds chosen for this purpose are naturally crystallised, with curved surfaces, so that the edges are also curvilinear. In order to cut glass, a diamond of this form requires to be so placed that the surface of the glass is a tangent t'o a curvilinear edge, and equally inclined laterally to the two adjacent surfaces of the diamond. Under these circumstances the parts of the glass to which the diamond is applied are forced asunder, as by an obtuse wedge, to a "most minute distance, without being removed; so that a superficial and continuous crack is made from one end of the intended cut to the other. After this, any small force applied to one extremity is sufficient to extend this crack through the whole substance, and successively across the whole breadth of the glass. For since the strain at each instant in the progress of the crack is confined nearly to a mathematical point at the bottom of the fissure, the effort necessary for carrying it through is proportionately small.
" The author found by trial that the cut caused by the mere passage of the diamond need not penetrate so much as ^fo of an inch. vertical edge of the field of view is very conspicuous when the light is partly cut off by the advancing screen. A question may arise as to how much of it may be due to light ordinarily reflected at the edges of the first aperture. With the aperture cut in cardboard, I think this part was appreciable, but the substitution of a razor-edge at the first aperture made no important difference. The strongly illuminated border must often have been seen in repetitions of Foucault's experiment, but I am not aware that it has been explained.xn. p. 409 (1916).