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(Simpk gtssmtjs in Irish; 



Late Vice-President, Gaelic League, Dublin. 



Middle Abbey Street. 


50 O'Connell Street, Upper. 

24, 25 Nassau Street. 

24 Upper O'Connell Street. 


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Unfc. Library, UC Strata Out Mt» 

'"Do cum jtoifte T)e ^uf onojiA n<\ h&fie-Arm. 1 


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The exercises in Part V. continue the instructions en the 
use of the Genitive Case commenced in Part IV. The 
use of the genitive is a crucial difficulty for beginners who 
have not already made its acquaintance in languages 
other than English- and the Romance languages. 

Part V. also introduces the Verbal Noun in its two 
most usual constructions, in which it fulfils the functions 
of the present participle and of the simple infinitive of 
other languages. The learner also makes the acquaint- 
ance of nouns in the plural, nouns and adjectives in all 
their cases, the comparison of adjectives, and the remain- 
ing tenses of the verb active. The very free use of 
endings in forming nouns, adjectives, and verbs is a 
distinctive feature of Irish, and some space is devoted to a 
number of the commonest formations of this kind. 

It may be well to repeat the caution given in the Preface 
to Part IV. against using Irish words merely from an 
acquaintance with their usual meanings in English. The 
Irish words given in the vocabularies should be used only 
in the same way as in the examples and exercises, or in 
some strictly analogous way. 

It still remains to deal with further examples of the 
formation of words by endings and prefixes ; with further 
instances of the use ot numerals ; with the relative pro- 
noun ; with the passive voice, which has special features 
in Irish ; with various uses of the verbal noun ; and with 
a number of other points — all of which will form the 
material of the sixth and last part of these Lessons. 

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I have to thank an anonymous correspondent, " Cnoc 
bfi e-A'c," who very kindly pointed out from time to time 
omissions made in the Lessons as they appeared in the 
monthly supplement to the Gaelic Journal. 


Connjuvo na 546*01150, 
U&ile St A CtlAt, 

1A £eit bfuj-oe, 1900. 

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the genitive (continued). 

§ 1072. We have gone very fully in Part IV. into the 
use of the Genitive in Irish, one of the most striking 
distinctions, to an English-speaking learner, between Irish 
and English. We have also learned three ways in which 
the genitive is formed : (I) by attenuation (§ 836) for 
most masculine nouns, and for masculine nouns only ; (2) 
by adding e (§ 913) for most feminine nouns, and lor very 
few masculines ; (3) by adding a (§ 979) for a limiteu 
class of nouns, both masculine and feminine. 

§ 1073. So far we have only dealt with nouns ending 
in u consonant We shall now consider how nouns ending 
in a vowel form the Genitive. The pupil will find that 
in learning this, he will put no great strain on his 
memory. This fourth group of nouns are said to belong 
to the fourth declension, which also includes nouns ending 
in -in. 

§1074. Rule. Nouns ending in a VOWEL 

have the same form in the GENITIVE as in 


A small proportion of nouns are exceptions to this rule. 
The exceptions among the nouns we have already met in 
the lessons will presently be pointed out. About 100 
nouns already given in the vocabularies, including proper 
names, follow the rule. 

§ 1075. Examples of the rule : — 
tTltnncip *6oipe, the people of Deny. 
teoJbap ftlAipe, Mary's book. 
copAn (Kup-aun) bainne, a cup of milk. 
Iati ati TfiAt^, the full of the bag. 
coif riA f Ai^ge, beside the sea. 

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§ 1076. As the vocabularies show, some nouns ending 
in a vowel are masculine, others feminine. The use of 
the article with genitives of nouns ending a vowel is, of 
course, the same as with other nouns, see §§ 857 to 861, 
and § 923. 

§ 1077. RULE. Nouns formed from other 
xouns by adding -in do not change in the 
genitive, as mACAirt *n caiUn, the girl's 

§ 107S. Such nouns are said by grammarians to be ol 
the same gender as the nouns from which they are formed. 
They seem, however, to be often, if not always, masculine, 
even when formed from feminine noans. 

§ 1079. The ending -fa may be added to almost any 
noun. It has usually the same meaning as the English 
word "small" or "little." It must always follow a 
slender consonant. If the noun ends in a broad con- 
sonant, the vowel 1 must be put before the consonant, as 
a\ aL, Af AiUn (a little ass). 

§ 1080. When -in is added, the vowels in the preceding 
syllable undergo the same changes as in forming the 
genitive by attenuation (§§ 883 to 890, 932 to 936), but 
c d»es not change to £. 

§ 1081. Examples : — 

£&A|\, a man tipin (fireen), a little man 

neAC, speckled ofidn (brikeen), a freckle 

eun, a bird tfmin (aeneen), a little biid 

I4f5, a fish Virgin (aeshkeen), a little fish 

cope, a field guipcin, a little field 

beuL, mouth b£ilin, little mouth 

rgeuL, story fgeilfa, little story 

cliab, basket cUibin, little basket \ 

ceApc, hen ci^citi, little hen 

CAilleAC, old woman CAillicin, little old woman 
The pupil will easily understand the following : bAitrin, 
|\6it>{n, Uomiifin, SeAgiinfn, luibin. 

§ 1082. If the word already ends in a slender conso 
nant, fn is simply added, as fmip'n, con6min, fuiUn, 
piipcin, Aicifi, ftvAi'oiv 

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§ 1083. If the word ends in e (short), e is omitted : 
Seoipfe, George Seoirpn, little George 

pAifoe, child pAipofn, little child 

cthftie, spinning-wheel cuinnin, little s.-w. 
cleice, feather cleictn, little feather 

f Ainne, ring f Airman, little ring 

§ 1084. If the word ends in a, a is omitted, and the 

preceding consonant is attenuated. 

116|\a, Nora n6ij\in, little Nora 

cjuifSA (Kroos'Ka), jar cjujira'n, little jar 
mil a, bag niAitin, little bag 

§ 1085. A few proper names not ending in a vowel or 

-in do not change in the genitive, as, pA-opAig, be-ACA 

phADjVAig, Patrick's life ; 5eA|\6i-o (garW), Gerald ; 

Tntn^Mf (mwir'ish), Maurice ; CAfcAoip (Koh'eer), 

Cahir (a man's name), etc. 

§ 1086. An important rule. A noun 
following the VERBAL NOUN (or the present 
participle as it is called sometimes) must be 

N.B. — Inordinary conversation, the 5 of Ag in not 
sounded in phrases of this kind, unless a vowel follows. 

§ 1087. Examples : — 

Ca f*6 Ag ouaIa£ r\& rumne6ige, he is striking the 
window. 45 61 t>i£e, dnnking a draught. &£ f a£aiI 
baif (lau'il waush), dying, lit. getting death. 45 fAgAil 
(fau gau'il), «a ripe, leaving the country. 4X5 cun fit, 
sowing seed. <\g pubAl Ati b6fcAij\, walking ihe road. 
-A5 T>iAnAth a tii'dill, doing his best. 4X5 fo§loim nA 
Viuib]\e (heb'rB), learning the work (ooaij\, gen. 01 one). 
45 lompoo An daio, turning the boat. 

§ 1088. Verbs and their Verbal Nouns, 
bnif, break, bnifeAti (brisb'oo), (act of) breaking, 
bnuig, bruise, bnugAti (broo-oo, broo), bruising. 
0615, burn, -odgA-o (dh5-oo), burning. 
t>un, shut, ■ounA'6 (dhoon-oo), shutting, 
mill, destroy, milleA* (mi/-oo), destroying. 
cAom, lament, CAoineA*6 (Keen-oo), lamenting, 
mol, praise, tooIa^ (mul '00), praising. 
\A\% read, l6»geAO (/ae-yoo), reading. 
buAil (boo 'el), strike, beat, duaIa* (boo 'aloo), beating. 
q\om, bend, cnomAO (Krumoo), bending. 
5CAC, take. cIaca* (gI^k'oo). taking. 

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cai£, spend, throw, use, cAifceA* (Koh'oo, ko iiyoo), or 

CAiteAih (Koh'uv) spending, etc. 
fgpfob, write, fgniobA* (shkree-woo), writing, 
fin, stretch, fineA-6 (sheenoo), stretching. 

Note. — Very many verbal nouns end in a-6 or e&6. In 
Munstcr the ending ao is pronounced a', and eA-6, e\ 
In Connacht and Ulster, a*6 at the end of all words is 
pronounced oo very short, or rather &w\ HugAt) e (he 
was born) sounds like runaway, 

§ 1089. Verbal Nouns continued. 
beannui£, bless, salute, beAnnugA^ (baN ; oo), blessing, 

tA^tng, weaken, LdgugAO (logoo), weakening. 
meuT>ui£, increase, mew>u£A* (maedhoo), increasing. 
mA|\b, wAnbuig, kill, mApbAO (moroo), killing, 
utlmmg, prepare, ultmu^A-o (ul'woo, uloo), preparing. 
ajvoui£, raise, AjxougA* (aurdhoo), raising. 

N.B. — Pronounce -uJa-o like oo t very long. 

§ 1090. Verbal nouns in Irish can be 
used in the same sense as infinitives in 
English. Examples : ni C15 te thaUx poLaifi 
feafAth riA Le cac majtb pub At, an empty 
bag cannot stand, nor can a dead cat walk. 
tii p 6it>ip L£i5e<v6 riA f5fiiob<vo gan ^05- 
Iaiiyi, it is not possible to read or to write 
without learning. Tliop tft<MC tiom beom- 
nugA-o x>6, I did not wish to salute him. 

§ 1 09 1. Vocabulary : 
5^601-6 (glee), call, 51ao£a6 (Glae'aCH), calling, 
ceuo (kaedh), first (aspirates tijun following). 
obijce (dho 78), burnt, from x>6i£, burn. 
fpioj\Ait> (spir'i^, XVW° (spru/;, /, spirit, phantom. 
mAn ]in, like that, so. 

ciA Vie" f <hn ? who is he (that you are talking about) ? 
ciA 'n b*6 f6w ? who was he ? 
1 noiAio a cinn, after his head ) ... „„„„,• 
1 «*iai* a cinn, after her head \ t"?Zi™f 
1 m>iAit> *o cinn, after your head ) head- foremost. 
gAiffofn (Gaun/een), m. garden. 
ingeAn (in'een), daughter ; %en. w£me (in'een-S). 
cailin, 0g., CAitin Aimpne, maidservant. 
pAttAifue (par'-aush-/6) ) „ av .u 
pA^ifce (par-6sh-/8) { *•• P arish ' 

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§ 1092. Translate — 

tMotxxfi (=hi pAt>) A5 cAiceAm tnfje 
<\in, 7 Ag gtACOAC Aifi 5 7 pA •oeineA'o CAim$ 
f6 ctnge f£w, 7 if £ ce<vo jtocaI, cAimg 
-Af a beaX — " 6 ! -An f pjut) ! An fpnit) ! " 

Ua An CAitin ajj duaLa© An Lemb. Ua 
An teAnb Ag mitteAo An coca. Ua f £ Ag 
VpipeAO An tfiAit)e. %&V> y6 Ag mot a 1 © An 
CAilin 50 mdn. T1a hi A5 cun eAgiA An An 
bpAijxe. t)i f£ Ajj cun An pAijxe Y Ari 
feomnA, 7 Ag t)tinAt> An cfeomnA. Ua 
geACA n a pAinccodijce. Cia hi Ag •oogA'o 
An jeACA ? Ua An cti Ag niAjibAt) nA bo. 
Sm £ ttiac An iA|"5Aine 'n-A fuit>e AnbAbbA 
An JAint)in, 7 e A5 CAiceAtfc piopA. t)i f e 
A5 ajvoujja'o An cfuifce of mo cionn. 

§ 1093. Translate : — 

You are breaking my heart. Are you 
reading the letter or writing the answer ? 
You cannot write properly (and you) bend- 
ing your head down like that. The people 
of the house are lamenting the girl (that) 
died. Who was she? The daughter of 
the fisherman over (cAtt) at the end of the 
lane. She was a maid -servant with (Ag) 
the people of the landlord (cigeAjwA) near 
this town. They would not be so grieved 
(there would not be so much of cuttia grief 
on them) on account of the death of any 
other person throughout the parish. She 
was standing on the top of the wall, stretch- 
ing her hand out, closing the door of the 
barn, and she fell head foremost and broke 
her neck. 

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the gbnitits (continued). 

§ 1094. We now come to the fifth and last group ot 
nouns, called the fifth declension. These are compara- 
tively few in number. They are for the most part 
feminine, unless they are names usually applied to males. 
They generally end in a rowel or in -if. 

§ IO95. Nouns of the FIFTH DECLENSION 

form the GENITIVE by adding a BROAD 

CONSONANT. This consonant varies in 

different nouns, but is usually n, nn, t), *6, 

or c. 

If the noun already ends in a consonant, a or ea comes 
between that consonant and the consonant added, as, 
An pheoin, the Nore, na pe6nac, of the Nore ; cacaoip, 
a chair, cacaoinoac, of a chair. 

§ 1096. Genitives in -n : 


^XVoa (ol'aba), Scotland. *\U>An (ol'abun). 

Iaca, a duck. toucan (LoCH'un). 

cu ./., a hound. con (Kun). 

ceAcpAtiiA, a quarter. ceAqiAriiAn (kah'- 


coriitjfif a (Korsa), /., a coriiufif An (ko'- 

neighbour. rsun). 

Some nouns vary between this and other declensions, as, 
calam, earth, gen. caiman (thol'uwun), or calaiin 
(thol'iv) ; bneiceam (breh'uv), a judge, gen. bneicoani4n 
(breh'uwun), or bneicim (breh'iv) ; eonna, barley, gen. 
eopna or eonnan. 

§ 1097. Genitives in -nn. 

6i|\e, Ireland. OipeAnn (ae/uN). 

gAbA, a smith. gAb^nn (Gou'N). 

cuifte, a vein. cuifteAnn (Kish'/uN). 

Ab, AbA (ou), a river. Ab^nn (ou'N). 

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§ 1098. Genitives in -*o. 

oajia, a friend. cajuvo (Kor'udh). 

tkxttia (Nau'wa), an nAriiAT) (Nau'wudh). 

pee, twenty. pce<vo (fih'udh). 

Instead of ca|\a and tiAtfiA, the (dative) forms cajxait), 
«Aiii.<MT) (Kor'u/, Nau'wwf, Munster Hou'd) are often 
used. The genitive ficea-o has an idiomatic use, -oei6 
f i£e<vo = 30, Ik. 10 of 20, T>ei6 mbliAtina pce^o, 3d 

§ 1099. Genitives in -t>. 

ceine, fire. ceineAO (rin'oo). 

ceAtig^, tongue. ceAnjAt) (/aNG'oo). 

be^CA, life. be-oxAO (bah'oo), 

-ptije, a way. ftigeAt) (sh/ee'oo). 

coibl, a wood. coitteA'o (Ke/'oo). 

mdin, turf. rndnA'o (m5n'oo). 

§ 1 100. Note. — These genitives in ti are not preserved 
in Munster, and not universally outside of Munster 
Instead of them, the forms used in the genitive are the 
same as the nominative, except ceAng-d, gen. ce-angan ; 
coilX, gen. coille ; w6m, gen. ™6tia. 

§ 1101. When the ending -a* is used, it is pronounced 
like 00 very short, or rather Hw, See note, § 1088. 

§ 1 102. Genitives in -ac. 

The word caojia and many nouns end- 
ing in ifi form the genitive in ac. 

c^ofiA, a sheep. cao^ac (Kaer'aCH). 

beoip, beer. beopAc. 

An £eoiji, the Nore. "A peopAC. 
cacaoija, a chair. cACAoifieAc. 

CACAip (Koh'irj, city, cacjiac (KoharaCH). 
eiri|i (eshir), oyster. eiffieAC (esh'raCH). 

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§ z 103. The word pi has its genitive spelled p{o£ (ree). 
As p{, pto£, and pi£ (dative) are pronounced exactly 
alike, the spelling is merely a survival from the time 
when the final £ was pronounced. 

§ 1 104. The word tnf, a month, formerly belonged to 
this declension, the genitive being tm'of. But the geni- 
tive now in common use is mfof a (mee'sa), LeAtib mi op*, 
a child of a month (old). 

§ 1 105. Verbal Nouns continued. 
54b, take, go, saoaiI (Go'wau-il), taking, going. 
V*t> g et » ^ n< ^» fA$AiL (fau-il), getting, finding. 
fAg, leave, f A5A1I (fauGau-il), leaving. 
c6g, raise, lift, C65A1L (thoGau-il), raising. 

§1106. Being old compounds of gAbAil, the forms 
pagbAil, fAgbAit, C650A1I, are found in books. As the 
D is silent, there is little purpose in writing it. In some 
places c is added to these verbal nouns in -Ail, as 


§ 1 107. Verbal Nouns continued. 

feu6, behold, look, peu6AiriC, looking. 

jpAti, wait, stay, f AtiAifiAinc, waiting. 

f eic, see, f eicj-mc (fekshiw/, feshkiw/), seeing. 

CU15 (thig), understand, , cuigfinc (thigshi«/), under- 

c|\eit), believe, cpeweAihawu (kraf uwi«/), believing. 

iririi| , tell, irmpr.c (inshint), telling. 

§ 1 108. N.B. — In " classical n writings the final c is 
not found in such verbal nouns as the foregoing ; but 
the c is usually pronounced now. 

§1109. Verbal Nouns continued. 
ouiri§, waken, ■ouifeA6c, wakening (or oufgAO, dhoo- 

imtij, go away, wifceA6c, going away. 
cat\, come, ceA6c, coming. 
CADAin, give, cobAinc (thowir/), giving. 
imij\ (imir), play, imipc, playing. 
cofAin (kussin), defend, cofAinc (Kussiw/), coftiAm 

(Kuss'Nuv), defending. 
ofgAil, f of^Ail, open, ofgAitc, f ofgAilc, opening. 
Iaoaij\, speak, LAbAipc (Lowiftf). speaking. 

§ 11 10. Most verbs whose imperative ends in -it, -in, or 
-in form the verbal aoun by adding c. 

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§iiii. When a genitive follows a femi- 
nine noun in nominative or objective case, 
the first consonant of the genitive is aspi- 
rated, as if it were an adjective (see § 471) : 
as, ut> cijAce, a hen's egg ; min coipce, oat- 
meal. This rule is sometimes applied to 
verbal nouns, as, c<\ f 6 45 f^Ait K&f, he 
is dying, ca f 6 45 bamc f &p, he is cutting 

§ 1 1 12. Vocabulary: 

daw (bwa-in, Connacht ; bwin, Ulster and Munster), 
cut, pluck, take from. Verbal noun, baitic (bwaw/, 
bwi*/), cutting, etc. This verb is applied to cutting 
crops, plants, branches, etc., plucking fruit, flowers, 
etc., and taking a thing which is not given. 

glAC or 54b is used for " take " when the thing is given 
or offered. 

ap 615111, hardly, with difficulty. 

ttia]\ a c«hle, like each other, alike. 

Amain (a-wau'in), only. 

Aon, one, aspirates. When Aon, meaning one, is fol- 
lowed by a noun, AmAin is nearly always added. 
4011 Ia AmAin, one day, Aon uaij\ Aiiiim, one time, 
once, Aon cac am aw, one cat. Sometimes aoh is 
omitted : Ia Amim, one day, cac Am aim, one cat. 
When AtfiAin is absent, aoh usually means any ; aoti 
Ia, any day, Aon mime, any person. 

a tin, its full, idiom for many, with genitive, 

t>AOine (dhcen'6), persons, people, genitive same. 

50b, beak, genitive, guib. 

ceAjvo6A (kaardh'cHa, shortened to kaar'tha),/, a forge, 
a smithy ; genitive, ceAj\oCAn (kaar'thun). 

comAij\le (Ko'irlfi), /., advice, genitive same. 

ceAlg (kai'uG), /., deceit, genitive* ceilge. 

fli£e beA^A*, a way of life, a livelihood. 

uaip eigin eile, some other time. 

An fit (fauh), the reason. 

Le c Am Ail, for some time (past). 

fitclA, genitive singular of fiACAiL 

te (preposition), is used before words denoting 
time, to express "during," the time being past. le 

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btiA-6Ain 7 ie Ua = for the past year and day. When 
"during" is applied lo future time, an fed* or 50 
ceann is used, I olio wed by the genitive. 50 ceann l*e 
7 btiA*6nA=for a year and a day (t© come). In either 
case, "past" and *' future" are to be understood not 
with regard to present time, but to the .time of the 
action, etc., described, e.g., bi y6 Ann le oIia-oaw, he 
had been there a year ; trf-an fe Ann 50 ceann bli<v6nA, 
he stayed there for a year. 

§ 1 1 13. Ua 5 Aet ^5 A 5 cu1t> waic ve 
niuincin nA hAtbAn, acc ni mA]\ a 66ite i 7 
5Ae*6it5 nA he-ipeAnn. V)i <dtbAnAC Ag 
•tAbAinc 5 Aei ^ 1 ^5 e bom Aon uaij\ AtiiAin, 7 
if An eigm -oo C1115 rr\6 6. CAi*oe An p ac 
nAj\ ctngif e ? .'An n-ooij, bi ye Ag tAbAinc 
a CAnAttinA j:6in. Ua a Uxn t)Aome a^ 
fogtAim ceAngAd nA hGineAnn te cAuiAtt, 
TiAC^piit? Ua 50 t)eirhin, 7 ca monAn 
•OAOine Ay; t^igeAt) 7 A5 fgniobATj g^e-tii l/ge 
Anoir*, cA]i niAn bi x>eic mbtiAtmA pceAt) 6 

CAltteAC nA pACtA fAT)A. £lACAlt nA 

con. 5°^ tiA^ACAn. CeAjrocA An JAbAnn. 
thj-ge nA hAbAnn. Coiy nA ceweAt). Coifi 
•oub te 511 At nA ceAjvocAn. CoriiAij\te An 
cajiat). CeAtg An ncvrhAT). Ua ftije itiaic 
beACA*6 Aige. \)ionn ye a 5 motA*6 a 
ftijeAt* beACAt> f6m. SeAbAc n a coitteA*6. 
Ueine bneAg nidnAO. Ua tDoitinAtt A5 
bAinc coince mf An ngopc. Cia bAin An 
c-ionbAtt t)e'n iriA i o|\At> ? 

§ 1 1 14. Translate: My father is building 
a house. Where is he building the house ? 
Near the forge. When I was at the door 
of the forge yesterday, I heard the smith 
telling a story. Tell (to) us the smith's 

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story, if you please. Some other time, I 
am in a hurry now. I shall be sending a 
cow and a sheep to (cum) the fair to- 
morrow. I have a duck's egg, a hen's egg, 
and a % goose's egg. I am giving the advice 
of a friend and (of a) neighbour to you, and 
you are taking the advice of an enemy. 

the genitive (continued). 

§ 1 1 1 5. The words <xc<xip, father, mAcaip, 
mother, t)e<x|\bpAC<xip, brother, form the 
genitive by dropping 1, making the final \\ 
broad, — <xc<xp (a'hur), ™ac<xp, T)e<xpbpAC<xj\. 
The genitive of t>ei popup is -oeipbfeac&fi 

CAtAOin tn'A&Ap, my father's chair. 

cui|\ne mo tfiAt*n, my mother's spinning -wheel. 

in ac wo ^eAnbjtifcAji, my brother's son. 

§1116. The old names for brother and sister were 
bnAtAin (brau'hir) and pun (shoor). In latter times 
these words came to mean kinsman and kinswoman, 
OnACAin also means a friar. The present names of 
brother and sister are formed by putting oe*|\b (c/.ir'uv), 
true % real, before these words. In oeAnbnAtain, the b is 
silent, and in oei;\bpun, the b joins with f and sounds 
like f. The genitives of bfv&Ain and pun are bnafcAn 
(brau'hur) and feACAn (sha'hur). 

§ 1 1 17. Verbal noun like English in- 

ah oonAf 00 -ounAO, to shut the door. 
An cAilin 00 iholAtf; to praise the girl. 
An LeAbAn 00 leigeao, to read the book, 
mo 6eAnn 00 6nomAO, to stoop my head* 
coihAij\le 00 gtacAO, to take advice. 

Digitized by VjOOQI€ 


bcin t)o fg|\iobA*, to write a letter. 

T)ia too beAtimi£A*, to bless God. 

ouwe t>o iiiAj\bAtf, to kill a persoa. 

Ati b6fcA]\ oo §AbAiU to take the road. 

bAf •o'f'AgAil, to get death, to die. 

flan o'^AgAil a^aiti, to leave farewell with me, to bid 

me •• goodbye." 
CAifieAti 00 C65A1L, to build a castle. 
An f oluf ■o , £eicpnc, to see the light. 
An CAinu 00 fcuigpnc, to understand the conversation, 
fgeut -o' itvnpnc, to toll a story. 
ah LeAtib t>o ^uif eA6c, to waken the child. 
biAO do fcAbaipc 06, to give him food. 
•00 beul T>'op;Ailc, to open your mouth. 
focAl 00 Laoai|\c, to speak a word. 

§ 1 118. The foregoing examples will suffice to shew how 
the order of the words ia such phrases differs from the 
order in English. 

§ 1 1 19. The preposition t>o coming 
between the first noun and the verbal noun 
is very often shortened to o. in the spoken 
language, as <xn CAitin o. rhoto.t>, to praise 
the girl. This o. is not heard before or 
after a vowel, as corn 0.1 pie ', to take 
advice, bar* 'jraJAit, to die, fgeut 'mnpnc, 
to tell a tale. 

§ 1 120. Verbal Nouns continued. 

cui|\, put, send, cup (Kttr), putting, sending. 

■oioL, sell, "oiot, selling. 

6t, drink, 6t, drinking. 

r ir, grow, f Af, growing. 

pit, run, pit, running. 

pubAiL (shoo'il), walk, pubAt, walking. 

tneAf, judge, meAf, judging, opining. 

fCAt), stop, fCAO, stopping. 

§ 1 121. Verbal Nouns continued. 

coiriMg, bless, coifpeA^An, coir peat; a* (Kesh'raGun* 

Kesh'raGoo), blessing, consecrating. 
ceAnnuig. buy, ceAnnA6 (kaNaCH), buying. 

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optrro, shut, t>|\uit)im (dhrirf m), shutting. 

cuiu (thi/), fall, cuicim (thi/im), falling. 

femn (shin), play, feinnm (shinim), playing (on an 

t>euti, do, make, t)eunAih, doing, making, 
fe^f, feAptnh (shassiv), stand, feAfAth (shassuv), 


§1122. Vocabulary, 
meifge (mesh 'k 6, mish'kfi), intoxication, a\k meifse, 

intoxicated, drunk, 
teiteix) (/e'mV), leifcero (/eliae**), the like of. 
4 leiteio, his (her, its, their) like, the like of him, Ac. 
4 leitei-o fo x>e |\ux>, such a thing as this. 
* Leitero pn (or fHto) De juro, such a thing as that. 
pAttiail (sou'il), ma? be used instead of teiceio. 

§ 1 123. Translate: 

*Out)Aif\c m'o.CAiri tiom an cApAll t>o 
fMot *jt ah aoti^c, 7 CApAtt eite "00 ceAti- 
tiac. ' T)oTnnAUl At\ meifge, 7 a bean A5 
61 uifge." 1f coip t)ume *oo rriot<y6 riUAiri 
aca f 6 Ag Tjeun&fh a 'oicitt. Ua f 6 corn 
mAic ajac (for you) *oo •ofceAtt t>o tieunAih 
7 ah f eup t)o bAinc, cothpjo A*f c4 fotuf 
a 5 ac. 

Hi f6it>ip 6 *bAinc itvoiu, c4 f 6 |to-f tiuc. 
1f cumA *6uic fin. CAicp«6 ci3 6 *oAim;. 
1f mdri An obAijt beic A5 bAinc f&p a- 
teiteit) f o *oe cjtAtndno.. t>'f eAftp tiom 6 
'p Ag&t mA|t ca f 6 50 ceAnn feoxcrhAine. 
Dao beAg An fgeut (matter) 6 f AgAit 50 
ceAnn miof a. 

§ 1 1 24. Translate; Can you read and 
write Irish ? I can read it, but I cannot 
write it well. Can you speak it ? I can 
speak a little of it (t>i). It is (if i . . . i) 
the language of my father and of my 


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mother. I heard a man once speaking* 
Irish to his (te n-&) son, and the son giving- 
an answer to him (&i|t) in English. Was 
not that a great wonder ? He understood 
his own father's language well, and even so 
(map pn f6m) he was speaking another 
language to his father. I am afraid that 
he was following his father's advice (that it 
was at doing the advice of his father he 
was), speaking English. Would it not be 
better for him to learn correct (cea^c) 
English at (&jt) the school, and to speak his 
own language at home? He would be 
learning bad (T>r\oc-) English at home, and 
he would have it always after that. 1 
would rather have good Irish and good 
English than have bad English and be 
without Irish. 


§ 1 125. Verbal Nouns continued. 

ei|M J, rise, einje, (aerce, ciree), rising. 
1fc, eat, ite (ih'8), eating. 
5U1-6, pray, gui^e (Gee), praying {Conn. Giv'6). 
Suiti, sit, ruiioe (see), sitting. 
lui£, lie, tuije (Lee), lying. 
pAfpui g,* ask, fiAf|\ui§e (fee'af-ree), asking. 
^ Copjung, move, copptiige (curree), moving. 
Cotfmmg, reside, coifrnwoe, residing. 
U&'O, c&nig, go, Dut, going, 
leig, let, leigeAn, teiginc (/igun, Rgint), letting. 
•AbAip, say, jvao, saying. 
1M, be, beir), being. 
t)ei|\, bear, bneifc (breh), bearing. 
t)eij\ *|\, catch, bneit 4|\, catching, 
lomptng (umpwee) turn, iomp66, turning. 

* See Preface to Simple Lessens, Part IV., fourth 

Digitized by VjOOQl€ 


§ 1 1 26. Many words of more than one 
syllable, the last syllable being short, drop 
the vowel of the last syllable, when a vowel 
is added in the genitive. 

§ 1 127. Examples of vowel dropped : 
Nominative. Genitive, 


{pin 51 tin© 
1114101 tie 

a£ai*, face 


m*iT>in, morning 

obaift, works 

b|MA6A|% word 

ca{\i\*1£, rock 

blACA6 (blau'haCH) blACAi£e 

/. buttermilk 
Ia£a6 (Loh'aCH) latai£e 

/ mud, mire 
OAb-a6 (dhou'aCH) eabAi£e 

/. a vat 
CAOAip, help, relief cab&nA 
SatfiAin, Hailowtide SaihanA 

An ^m, soul, life 
piacAil, tooth 
oLaiw, wool 
bin* am, year 
Leabao, bed 
UAtatfi, earth 
cafcan\, city 
eipjx, oyster 

An Am a *" 





At gee (ei'h8) 
pingtie (pingw*) 
pigne (pee»e*) 
maiono (mwa'ttfi) 
oibpe (ebV6) 
bn^itne (braeh'rtJ) 
caimxge (Kar'rlgft) 
bUtece (blau'h'yfi) 

Ui66e (La'h'y*) 

oaibde (dhav'h'y*) 

cabjva (Kou'ra) 
Satfina (Sou'na) 
Atimd (»n'unu) 
pacta (fee'aKla) 
olna (uL'a) 
bliaona (blecana) 
leabfca* (/apa) 
caiman (and calaim) 

§ 1 128. The same change takes place in many words 
when any ending beginning with a wwtl is added. 






m. fortress 

not but 

b6cAinfn bdicnfn (bohTeen), a little- 

t)onAf6in t>oinfe6in (dhurshor), 1 

leab anan leabnan (/ou'raun), a booklet 

caifealan caiflean, a castle 

Often written phonetically leapa or leapt* 

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timid, sus- 

eioe*n, ivy 


tnutlionn \ 





ei"6nein (ein'aun), ivy 
fAotpAC (saeh'raCH), 


§ i "9. 





u Haiti 

muile4nn6ij\ tnuitne6i|\ (mwi/or), miller 

^ocAt6it% jrocV6i|\ (fuKldV), tn. 9 a 

cpefoearfiAfc c|\eii>meA6 (krej/'vaCH), 

having faith 

Words formed from adjectives : 

not but 

Almnne iilne (au/QJ), /. beauty 

AOibmneAf Aoibtiear 1 (eev'ff&s), delight 

u AfAiie UAifte foo'esh-/8), nobility 

f AH&oipeAf fAi-bb^eAf (sev'ris), wealth 

utUihui £ ullihuifc prepare 

§ 1 130. Endings added to verbs : 

Verbs. not but 

pubAil (shoo'il), pubAilim fiublaim (shool'im),I walk 


cox)Ail (Kudh'il), cooAilmi cot)LAim (KUL'im), I sleep 

sleep # 

CAb-aip, give cAbAinim *CAb|VAim (thou'nm), I give 

orKAil ) (orsAilim orgtAini (usKlim)\ TjM ^ 

ror5*a; open irire^vim f or5Ui«i(fusKUm)i l •»- 

AbAip, say Ab4i|\im *Ab|\Aim (ob'rim), I say 

lAbAip, speak bAbAipim lAbpAWi (Lou'rim), I speak 


§1131. Most nouns of the first declension 
(§911) have the same form in the //am*/ 
(nominative) as in the genitive singular, i.e., 
they form the plural by attenuation (§§ 836, 

* tjbeiixim, I give, •oeitum, I say, are the ordinary 
forms, but CAbpAim and A0|\Aim are used after «f , tiAfc, 
ah, 50, etc. (See § 896.) 

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837)' Example: Af^t (oss'&l), an ass, 
<xf Ait (oss'il), asses. 

§ 1 132. The following nouns form the plural like AfAl, 
AfAil : uguAp, bAfVO, fgiob6l, gAOAp, t>aoI, bit), cAj\b, 
cajmi, lAog, CAiflein, copAti, cA|\b<vo, fAon, nAOtu, bal- 

b^tl, CAU, 10L(\|\, UpLap, gAll, CAnnT>Al, gAbAp, A*Af CAU, 

rAt, ip-oiii, AbjUn, C4f>Ali, oilein, UAn, CAfAn, 
diojvah, punc, fAgApc, fpAjvAn, bnAOAn, f AoiteAn, 
mAop, focal, feAbAC, lopbAlL Write out and pro- 
nounce the plurals of the foregoing, and refer to ihe 
Indexes, if necessary, for the meanings. 

§1133. When the vowel changes in the genitive 
singular (§§ 883 to 890), it changes in the same way in 
the plural, as f a&p, a man, p|\ (fir), men, Give the 
plurals and meanings of tnuilionn, cearm, D|\oice<vo, 
ctm, lAfg, beul, cnoc, fonn, cotm, t>o|\«, coj\n, jopc, 
poll, f5*lb f clog, lop 5, 50b, qvann, bpeAC, bonn, 

§ 1 134. As in the genitive (§ 891), masculine nouns of 
more than one syllable ending in -a6 have their plurals 
ending in -i£, as bACAig, beggars, coilii, cocks. Give 
the meaning of: uaIaiJ, aohaiJ, ceAglAig, eiveAti- 
iiai£, 4lbAiiAi&, 8A£fAnAi£, btteAthnAiJ, piginAig, 
TtomtiAig, ponnAtJ. 

§ 1135. The plural of the article is t\& 
(Na), as t\* f AgAipc, the priests. Pronounce 
the a in na very lightly. If the noun begins 
with a vowel, h is prefixed after n*, as na 
hoite^in (Na hel'aa-in), the islands. 

Translate: the authors, the floors, the halters, the 
heights, the lambs, the tails, the birds, the fishes, the 
pins, the heads, the horses. 

§1136. Vocabulary: 

ah cuplA (Koop'la), the couple. 

t>^i|\c (<feerk),/. alms, charity ; gen. t>^i|\ce. 

6ili£ (ael'ee, Munster aelig), claim, demand {verb). 

eileAth (ael'uv) or e*iliu Ja^ (ael '00), verbal noun of 

t>o tAbjiAO (South, hou'ruCH; North, hQ'roo), used to 
give ; likcoo bitfeA* (bfoo), used to be. (caoaij\, give.) 

cA|\bAt>, a chariot. 

lion, (/een) m. linen, flax, genitive Un. 

Stdf (dor), voice ; gen slniju 

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§ 1 1 37. Translate: — 

1f tmciT) t>uirm bnvo (x>) ice 7 , oeoc (t)') 
6t. UAim Ag ice bfo 7 45 6t t>ij;e. 1f 
micro t>uic ^iftge. Suit) ffof. Hi mAic 
tiom ftii'be. CAicfro m& beic A5 -out a- 
bAite. Ha comuiij; ! 11* 'tim A5 cojwuige. 
beip aji An jcApAtt 65. HI cig tiom 
b]\eic aij\. 

"*Oo 54b cugAm cupta 1 t>cuf nA hor66e, 
-Ajtif iat> 50 cuijtf eAC 6 fiub<xt nA ci^e, 
^5 ^jijtAi^o *o^ipce, Y 45 6iteAih ca^a, 
*S aj gtn'oe cum X>6 aji f on 54c aoYi t>o 


£eAc nA b<xcAig -6,5 ceAcc; bi mime aca 
(one 0/" them) A5 lAmiArd pingne opm-fA 
A|t mAit>in. t)i 5^^P An-gAfib aca. *Oa 
mbeiceA Ag &fceACC teo, b\ix> •6615 teAC 
gup ja'oaija iat> bevbeAd A5 dt btAicce. 
6ifc teo Atioif, nA biceAihnAig. UAim at; 
6if ceAcc teo, acc nf't An stop corn 5&HD 
aca Aguf A*oeip cu, Ajt *on cum*. IpAn 50 

■OCAgAlX) f1A*0 t ngAjA *0U1C. 1f gt^f 1At) nA 

cntuci bfAt) tiAinn. Hac bpeAg tAitnjt nA 
pji iAt) ! Hac cmjAj; pp mAjt 1A"0 pit) A5 
lAmuj'd t)6i|Ace, An uaij* buo cdijfodib beic 
^5 -oeunAih oibpe ! 

§ 1 138. Translate: — 

There is (fin 6) the man that was asking 
me for money (at asking of money ojim). 
is it (An n-£) the little man [who] is 
stooping his head ? No (ni h6) ; it is (if 6) 
the tall man who is turning his face from 
us. Are they Irishmen ? I don't know. 

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Did you see the bridges in Dublin ? I 
did. There are islands in the sea round 
Ireland. Ireland is an island. There are 
men in Ireland yet. I saw the castles and 
the bridges, the hills and the heights, the 
paths and the hedges and the cornfields, 
the hawks and the pigeons and the other 
birds, the salmon (plural) and the other 
fishes. There were priests and bards 
and authors, bridges and mills, barns and 
castles, horses and chariots and fairs in 
Ireland when the foreigners came to Ire- 
land. Yes (bi), and there was plenty of 
food and drink, and plenty of wool and 
linen for (te ti&^dri) clothing (eutxvc), and 
a good deal of gold and silver (<m jige^t)). 



§ 1 1 39. The usual form of plurals of the 
first declension is the same as the genitive 
singular, as already shown. But there is a 
tendency to use plurals which are more 
easily distinguished from the singular. 
This class of plurals usually adds -^ or -e 
to the singular, and sometimes -c& or -ce. 
They may be called strong or irregular 

§ 1 140. Examples of Strong Plurals (adding -a). 
Singular. Plural. 

At) c-tiOAll tiA hublA (hoo'La*), the apples 

At) CAop da caojxa (Kae'ra), the berries 

Att pnetip da rnteupA (shmae'ra), the blackberries 

Att leAOAp tiA ie*bpA (/ou'r&) 

Att focal ttA f octi (fuk'la) 

At) pAC da pACA (fee'aCHa), the debts. 

Digitized by VjOOQI€ 


1 1 141. The words leAOAn and focal may also have 
the regular plurals, leaOAin, focAiU The plural 
pi Ad a, debts, is sometimes used idiomatically to mean 
" price," as fiACA An leAOAin fo, the price of this book. 
pAC "a raren," has the plural jre'ig. 

§ 1 142. Strong Plurals, adding -ua : 

Singular. Plural. 

An cu*n nA cuAncA (Koo'an-tM), the harbours 

An t>un nA -ounuA (dhoon'tha), the forts* 

cewo, 100 nA ceuocA (kae'thi), the hundreds 

An ceot, nA ceoluA (k'ydl'tha), the airs, songs 

T>An nA OAncA (dhaun'tha), the poems 

An feot nA f eolcA (shol'tha), the sails 

Hon, a net nA LioncA (/een'tha), the nets 

§1143. Sgeul has two plurals, f^eut a and fgeulcA 
SgeulA usually means " news, tidings." SgeulcA means 

§ 1 144. Other Strong Plurals : 

Singular. Plural 

An fluAg tiA ftuAi gee (sLoo'e/S), the mul- 


vonAf nA ooinfe (dhur'she" or dhSr'shfi), 

the doors + 

An b6tAn «a b6iCne (bSh're, bor'hS), the 


An m<voAtf, tttAT>t\<v6 ha uiA'onAi^e (modh'eree), the 

An fldbpAO «a rtAbnAfbe (sLou'ree), the 


An mAc tia mic (mik), the sons 


§ 1 145. We have seen how the numerals 
from 1 to 20 are used without nouns 
(§§ 1006, 1007, 1008). We shall now see 
how they are used along with nouns, taking 
the nouns ubatt, cotm, and feabAc, as 

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§ 1 146. Read the following : 

I. AOn Ub-All AtflAltl 


2. *A ttb^ll 


3. C|\{ htiblA 


4. ceitpe httblA 


5. Cthg tiblA 

6. fe* midIa 



7. feACc ti-ubtd 


8. ocu n-ublA 


9. 11A01 r»-ublA 


10. t>ei6 n-ubUx 


§ 1 147. Read the following : 

1. Aon cotm amaih 


2. *4 6otm 


3. cm* ctntm 


4. ceifcpe ctntm 


5. ctaig cmtm 


6. f^ctntm 


7. f e*6c gctiitm 


8. 06c gctutm 


9. 11A01 5cm tm 


10. t>ei6 gctiitm 


§ 1 148. Read the following : 

1. Aon cfe^bAC AtfUm 


2. *6AfeAbAC 


3. cm* feAbAic 


4. ceifcpe feAbAic 


5. Cttlg fOAbAIC 


6. f£ fCAbAIC 


7 f eACc f eAbAic 


8.. occ feAbAic 


9. 11A01 feAbAIC 


10. Dei6 feAbAic 


Aon ubAll oeAg 

*A llbAU, O^Ag 

upi hubtA t)eAg 
ceifcpe hublA x>6&% 
cijic tiblA X>6&£ 
feACc n-ublA o£a£ 
06c n-«blA -0645 
riAoi n-ublA U6A5 
fi6e ubAtt 

Aon cotm -06*5 
t>a cotm ^Ag 
cm* cuitm t>^Ag 
cei£|\e cuilm T)^Ag 
ctiig ctnlm 06A5 
fe* cuitm *>6a£ 
feA6c gctiitm x>£a5 
06c gctiitm t)6A£ 
tlAOl gcuitm 96A5 
f ice cotm 

Aon uf eAbAc k>4a$ 
•6a f eAbAC *66a^ 
c|\i feAbAic "o^A5 
ceifcpe feAbAic f^Ag 
ctn^ feAbAic t)eA5 
fe feAbAic t>eA5 
f eACC feAbAic "o^aj 
occ feAbAic t)£A5 
HA01 feAbAic Q^Ag 
fice feAbAc 


§ 1 149. When <xor» is used, meaning ll one," 
the word ariiAin (a-wau'in), " only," is nearly 
always added. -Aon ub^l! would ordinarily 
mean " any apple." But very often " one 
apple" is simply translated by the noun 
" ultalL." Ckx ttieut) ubatt aca agar ? 

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How many apples have you ? TH't 454m 
acc ubalt. I have only one. 

§ 1 1 50. In regard to aspiration, Aon has 
exactly the same effect as the feminine 
article An (or the article An before a 
feminine noun), see §§ 438, 441, 503. 
Examples : Aon ubatt, Aon jrocAt, Aon 
•otune, Aon CAob, Aon cftiit, one (or any) 
apple, word, person, side, eye. 

§ 1151. Observe that "0645 is placed 
always after, not before, the noun. Also 
that we say Aon tibaU, X)6^ t not Aon tibia 
©645. The form (whether singular, plural, 
*tc.) is always decided, not by the meaning, 
but by the numeral which immediately 
goes before it As Aon means " one," the 
singular noun follows when we say Aon 
tibatt x>6a^ eleven apples. 

§ 1 1 52. When no noun follows, the Irish 
(or " two " is t)6. When a noun follows, it 
is " t>a " (dhau). The t> is aspirated, *6a 
(?au), unless immediately preceded by one 
of the consonants, t>, n, c, t, f (DeNTaLS). 

§ 1153. Observe that the plural of the 
noun never follows "6a : *6a ut>Att, not x>& 
ubUiu *6a cac x>6&§, twelve cats. We shall 
see later on that a special form is used in 
feminine nouns. Before t>a the article is 
An (not n<x), an t)a cApAUl, the two horses. 

§ 1 154. The noun following t>i is said to be in the dual 
number (Latin duo % two), being neither singular nor 
plural. After a dual noun, "0645 is often aspirated : 6i 
£eA<|\ <>6a^ (Tau ar yaeG), twelve men. But r>6&S is not 
aspirated if the foregoing noun ends in 0, n, c, t, f 

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§ 1 155. Zyi, ceiqte, CU15, and f£, are 
usually laid down as not aspirating. The 
usage of the spoken language varies on this 
point. Ufii, ceicjte, and f6, prefix h to 
vowels. Uj\i cApAill, ceicpe CApAitt, ct3ig 
CApAitt, ye CApAitt. "C\\i hAfAit, ceicj\e 

hAfAlt, CUIg AfAlt, f£ tlAfAlt. 

§1156 Not that ceicjte (keh'rS,ker'he) is 
the Irish for " four " when a noun follows. 
When no noun follows, the word for " four" 
is ceACAiji, see § 1006. 

§ 1157. The numerals, feACC, occ, 11A01, 
and t)eic eclipse consonants and prefix n- 
to vowels. They do not affect i, m, n, ]\ 
and f. (See § 390, where m should be 
added to the letters given). 

§ 1 158. The plural is used after all the 
numerals, cj\i, ceicpe, CU15, ye, feACc, occ, 
nAoi, t>eic. By a curious idiom, the sin- 
gular is used after pee, 20, ceut>, 100, and 
mite, IOOO. Pee cap<xU,, 20 horses ; 
ceut> CApAtt, 100 horses; mile CApAtt, 
1,000 horses. 

§ 1 1 59. The word ce<vnn and its plural, 
ami, are often used with numerals, when 
the noun is not expressed in English. As, 
Cia meut) teAbAfi aca ajjac ? Ua *6a ceAnn 
T>eAj;. How many books have you? I 
have twelve. Ca bptnl ha cpi cmn eite? 
Where are the other three? Ua ceAnn aca 
\ OC15 tiA y goite. There is one of them in 
the schoolhouse. 

§ 1 160. Ua t>tSn mop Aft An genoe, 7 ca 

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AA 'dOflAf t)^Ag A|1 ATI K>&t\. U4 CAIfteATT 

m<3j\ 1 n-Aice An t>uin. X)i me \*& m Aj\bAjtfi 
ATI CAifleAin fin Aon Ia aitiaiti, 7 cotitiaic 
m6 tia cuatica 1 bfAt> UAim, 7 tia fedtcA. 
t/A eite *oo bfop Ag pubAt coif tia f ATjijtge, 
7 bi tAf gAipe Ag caitiu tiom. *Ouoai|ic f 6 
tiom 50 ftAib p6 Atntiig A|\ ah bf Aijtjuje ah 
oi*6ce jtoime fin, 7 50 jiAib jaoc mdji Ann, 
7 gun ITTIC15 tia UoncA uato. t)i txincA 7 
ceoLcA gAe-oitge Aige, acc nioji cuireAf tia 
focAit 50 I6ij\. V>i a cui*o jjAeTHlge ati- 
CptlAm A|t JNVO. &t\ ftAlb f getitcA Aige ? 

¥>i 50 t)eimin cetmcA aca (of them). 

Ca]1 fAg CU TIA tlubtA ? *0'f AJJAf (I left) 

A|t ATI mbojvo iat>, acc ceictte cwn aca im' 
(= in mo) p6cA Ajj&m. Uaoaiji •oatti ceAnn 
aca, ttiaY £ t)0 coil 6. So t>A CeAtlTl *0U1C. 
Hf't ajjaui ATioif acc ubAtt t>o tflAipe, 7 
tibAtt t>om fem. Ha c&bAij\ acc ceATin 
AtfiAin t>om, TnAfi fin (in that case), 7 bfod 

ATI *OA ceAnn AgAC f 6in. 

§ 1 161. Translate: 

We have a nice little garden at home. 
Are there trees in it? There are, and 
apples growing on them in the summer. 
Have you blackberries in the garden ? No, 
but we have other berries in it. There are 
blackberries growing in the hedge outside. 

Have you all the books there? Yes. 
Do you understand (an T>cui5eAnn ci3) all 
the words in them (lonncA iN'tha) ? I do 

I saw thirteen pigeons on the top of the 
fort. I killed three of them. How many 

Digitized by VjOOQl€ 

2 9 

were there (Ann) after that? Sure, there 
were ten. No. There were only three. 
The other ten went away (o'lmcig rfim'ee). 

plurals (continued). 

§ 1 162. Nouns of the 2nd declension 
(§ 912) and of the 3rd declension (§ 979) 
form the plural by adding -a, as h\\6$, a 
shoe, bftogA, shoes. Sometimes, when the 
last consonant is slender (i.e., when 1 pre- 
cedes it), nouns of the 2nd declension add 
e, as re4cuh<vin, a week, feAccTftawe 
(shaCH 'thine), weeks. 

§ 1 163. Examples of 2nd declension: bj\6£, a shte, 
fcj^FA shoes ; cof, a foot, cofA, feet ; fttititif eog, an ash 
tree, f uititifeo^A, ash trees 5 f uititieog, a window, ftnnn- 
eogA, windows ; puif eoj, a lark, f ttifeocA, larks ; 
X)|\ifeog, a bramble, upireog*, brambles (and all other 
nouns ending in -65) ; fit, a heel, fAlA, heels ; AOAjxe, 
a hom, a-oajxca, horns ; gluti, a knee, ttuiiA, knees ; 
tub, a loop ; lubA, loops ; xX<6y\, a nose, n\6tiA, noses ; 
touc, a pig, mucA, pigs ; iith, a hand, UiiiiA, hands. 

§ 1 164. Further examples of 2nd declension : £ao£, a 
wind, £ao£a, winds ; ctuAf , an ear, cltiAf a, ears ; cloc, 
a stone, cLoca, stones ; f peat, a scythe, fpeALA, scythes ; 
t>eAl£, a thorn, "oeAlgA, thorns ; ceApc, a hen, ceApcA, 
hens; lour, a ship, LongA, ships; cAitleAd, an eld 
woman, cAitteAdA, old women ; t>eo6, a drink, ueodA, 
drinks ; bjMAfcAp, a word, b|\iAt|VA, words ; pfogAdc, a 
kingdom, ptogACCA, kingdoms. 

$ 1 165. Final a or e in plurals, as well as in many other 
words, are commonly pronounced ee in Connacht, and 
final a of strong plurals is commonly pronounced ee in 
Connacht and Ulster. 

§ 1 166. Examples of 3rd declension : cleAr, a trick, a 
ieat, cleAf a, tricks, feats ; cnim, a bone, en awa, bones ; 

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loft, a lake, Ioca, lakes. If there is a vowel-change in 
the genitive singular, there is a like change in the plural 
as C|\iof, a girdle, qxeAf a, girdles ; ftaifc, a prince 
p Ia£a, princes. 

5 1 167. Strong Plurals (see $ 1139). 

cfp, a country cfop&d (/eertia), countries 

titin, a pool tititice (/i*/&), pools 

rpetip, sky fpeupta (shpaer'ha), skies 

ce*6, a house ci££e (/i'hfc), houses 

fliAO, a mountain f leibce (sh/aev'/fc), mountains 

A few are more irregular still : 

b6, a cow bd ^boV), cows 

bean, a woman mtiA (m'nau),* women 
raAti, a knife rgeAttA (shgan'a), knives 

li, a day Uete (Lae'he'), or laeteAncA 

(Lae'huN-tha), days 

§ 1 168. After t>A or -6a, two, feminine 
nouns ending in a broad consonant make 
the consonant slender, as *6a coif (^ati 
CHush) two feet, An t>A fcpoig (wro-ig) the 
two shoes. This attenuation is sometimes 
accompanied by vowel changes, just as in 
forming the genitive (§§ 931 to 936). 
Refer to §§ 11 53, 11 54. 

§ 1 169. Vocabulary. 

Cia|\|vai je (kee'ar-ee), Kerry, genitive same. 

tAif\pri5 (fwar'shing), wide, roomy, ample, plentiful 
u6c (LuCHth), people, genitive same. 
Iu6c ceoit, people of music, i.e., musicians. 
|\innce (ring'kS), m. dancing, genitive same. 

§ 1 1 70. Ua ceiqie cofA Ajt cApatt, 7 
ca *6a coif A]A *6tmie. Caja f A5 cii *oo 
b^idgA? 'O'fAg m6 fA* (=wf An) feomjtA 

1At). C0fA, fAtA, jUSttA, tAtf)A, fitdnA, 
A-OA^CA. 1f £A*OA 1AT> AttApCA nA mb6 

* Pronounced m'rau in Connacht and Ulster. 

Digitized by VjOOQl€ 


(Na mo, of the cows) i sCiAnpAijje, 7 if 
S^A-p iat> tiA crmic 1 frpAT) uAinn. 1f citom 
ceAfic 1 bjNVo (i.e., when carried far). 1f 
caojva itj6]i An c-UAn 1 bpyo. bfonn cluAfA 
A5 bAttA. Ua tia fteioce f Aijipng 7 nA 
cijce jAnn f a* nfjt ux>. Ua loca 7 tinnce 
50 teojt Ann. t)f pp 7 mni, bACAij; 7 
cAttteACA, CApAiLL 7 bA, mucA 7 tnAt)|tAi < 6e, 
Luce ceoit 7 tucc jimnce, tucc £A&6it5e 7 
Luce toeuptA, aj\ An AonAc T)iA'j\t)Aoin f o 
gAb cojtAmn. 

§ 1 171. The larks are making music for 
us to-day. It is only (nf t acc) three weeks 
since (6) I was here before (ceAtiA). The 
dogs killed the sheep and they only left 
(nfojt f at; pAt> a6c) its bones behind them. 
The women threw (caic) stones at them 
(Leo), but they were not afraid of them 
(HdtnpA). Where are the knives? Here 
they are for you(fo t3uic iat>). 


§ 1 172. strong plurals (continued). 

piipc, a field piipce, paipcearmA (paurTcaNa), fields 

aic, a place Aice, 41 re-anna (au/'aNa), AiceAt* 

(au/'icHa), places 

n^it), a street - n\iioe, ff ii-oeAtitiA, r jvaioeac-A, streets 

lu6, a mouse lu6a, UtdAnn*, mice 

OAi-m, a sound ruAmAwiA, sounds 

im, a leap L&meAnriA, leaps 

itiib, a herb tuibe, UnbeAtitiA, herbs 

uai|v, an hour ttAipe, UAipeAnriA, ttAipeAnnrA, tours 

licip, a letter ticpe, bepeada, letters 

fpemh, a root fpeutfiA, fpetitfiAdA, roots 

ctn-o, a part cooca [Kudh'(a)cH&], parts 

leAbA-6, a bed leAbtA, LeApA (/ap'a), VeAbtACA, leA- 
pACA(/ap'acHa, Mun.,/a-poCH'-i),beds 

«b, an egg tube (iv% Munster, ce), tnbeACA, eggs 

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§ 1 173. When two forms of the plural, a 
short and a long form, belong to a noun, 
the short form is preferred after numerals, 
as riAoi ti-u<Mj\e, nine times, not naoi 
n-UAifteanncA. In the earlier literature of 
modern Irish, also, the short forms are 
preferred, but popular usage prefers the 
long forms. 


§ 1 174. When the numeral goes beyond 
ten, the rule in Irish is to put the smallest 
number first, the next smallest second, and 
so on, the largest number coming last. 
This is just the reverse of the order in 
English, — one thousand four hundred and 
twenty-eight=4 hocc Aguf fice Ajjuf 
ceicpe ceuo Aguf mile. But the thousands 
and hundreds may also precede the smaller 

§ 1 175. The following are the numerals from 21 to 40. 

[When a noun does not immediately follow the first 
numeral, the a is usually prefixed to the numerals Aon to 
t>eic (see § 1008), as in the example given in the fore- 
going parngraph.] 

21. Aon if pee 31. aon oeug if pee 

22. 06 if pee 32. 06 *6eu5 if p6e 

23. cf f if pee 33. cf f t>eti5 if pee 

24. ceAtAi|\ if pee 34. ceatAip ■oeu^ if fide 

25. CU15 if p6e 35. CU15 t>eus if fice 
26; f£ if pee 36. f6 t>eu5 if pee 

27. fe-Adc if pee 37. feACC t>eug if p6e 

28. 06c if p6e 38. o6u t>euj; if p6e 
29. 11401 if pee 39. 11401 t>eu5 if p6e 
30. T>ei6 if pee 40. t)i ficro 

§ 1176. The particle if is used instead 

of Aguf, not only in numerals but, for 

brevity's sake, in ordinary speaking. 

leum&f if pe4t><\f if topiari, James and 

*eter and Brian. Some suppose it to be a 

Digitized by VjOOQL(l 


contracted form of aguf, and so write it 
A'f or 'up, but the simple form if has been 
used for centuries. It is pronounced iss, 
just like the verb ip 

§ 1 177. Instead of aon if pee, t>6 ir* 
pee, etc., we may also say <xon *\\ pcix) 
(er ih'yu/)=one on twenty, etc. There is 
also another very idiomatic way of ex- 
pressing the numbers above 20. namely, 
by putting the word pce<vo alone after the 
first numeral — *oeic pce<vo, 30. x ficeAt) is 
the genitive of pee (see § IC98), so that 
•oeic pceAt) means literally 10 of 20, 10 
belonging to 20. pci*o is the dative of 
pee (or the form used after a preposition), 
The plural of pee is also pevo, as we shall 
presently see. The form pceat) is nevei 
used after <von. 

§ 1 178. T)i £1610 = two twenties. Here ficro is 
neither singular nor plural, but dual, see §§ 1153, 11 54. 
T>a" £icro is usually pronounced in two syllables, as if 
0A1610 (dhau'h'yu/). In Munster the first syllable is 
short (dha'hidh). 

§ X179. Numerals from 41 to 60. 
41. aoxx if oa £1610, 51. Aon oeug if t>A £1610, 

etc., etc. etc., etc. 

5a t>ei6 if x>& fici© 60. ct\i p6ix> 

Ujtf ficro means three twenties, fi6io being the plural 
of fice. 

§ 1 180. Numerals from 61 to 80. 
61. 4011 if C|\f ficio, 71. Aon oeug if cpffidro, 

etc., etc. etc., etc 

70. t>eic if C|\i ficro 80. ceifcpe fi6io 

§ 1 181. Numerals from 81 to 100. 
81. Aon if ceitpe ficro, 91. Aon oeugif ceicpe pcix>, 

etc., etc. * etc., etc. 

90. t>ei6 if ceitpe fidi-o 100. ceuo 

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§ n82. Instead of t>ei6 if p6e, etc., the following arc 
found in literature, cpioc* (^reeCHa), 30, ce&t\\&6* 
(kah'racH&), 40, 0*054 (KaeGa), 50, rears* (shasKa), 
60, feACctrio§A (shaCHth'wo'), 70, occthoga (ucnth'wo'X 
80, n66& (NoCHa), 90. These forms are not now in ordi- 
nary use. When used, they are employed in exactly the 
same way as pee. The genitive of each ends in -At), the 
dative, dual and plural in -Ait). 

Instead of t>ei6 ir t>a fi6it>, the word leAfc-cetro 
(/ah'h'yaedh), a half-hundred is occasionally used. 

§ 1 183. The noun follows pee, 20, txL 
£161*0, 40, cpf pew, 60, ceicjie pcit>, 80, 
ceut), 100, and mite, 1,000, when no smaller 
numeral precedes these ; and after these 
numbers the noun is used not in the plural 
but in the sing, lar form, as ceit]ie pcit) 
f eAjt, 80 men. 

§ 1 1 84. After ca iiieuo or cia rheut), 
how many, the nominative singular is used, 
as ca (cia) irieut) te<xt)A]\ 454c? how many 
books have you ? But " how much " 
followed by a singular noun in English is 
rendered by ca riieut), cia tfieut), followed 
by the genitive singular in Irish, as ca (ci 4) 
riieut) (or cia An mew) mine ajau? how 
much (of) meal have you ? 

§ 1185. Vocabulary. 

T)un-5ApbAm (dhoon-Goruv-au-in) Dun- 

Cill-Coirmij; (ki/-CHe«i) Kilkenny. 

CeAnn-SAite (kaN [or k'youN] sau'le) 

turnine-Ac (Lim'in-aCH) Limerick, gen 

PopctAijige (purth-Laur-ge) Waterford. 

TTIite, a mile, does not change aftej 

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§ 1 1 86. Ca riieut) ceAfc AjjAib? Ua c|tf 
cinti t>eu5 if *oa fici*o. Ca riieut) uX> oi 
AgAit) inx>iu ? t)i a cuig *oeii5 a\\ f 161*0 
AjjAinn. Ca ffieuT) caojaa tug cu LeAc 
cum -ah AonAij r Cao|\a Ajjiif u|\i pcit) if 
ceu-o. -A|\ triot cu An oi]\eAt> pn ? *Oo 
•oiolAf (I sold, ix. yes), 7 if qvuaj; tiom 
gAii t)A cent) eite at; Am. £uai]i me 
cuitteAt> Agup cfi ceut) ptmc oj\|\a. 

§ 1 187. It is (Ua) 159 miles from 
Dublin to (50) Cork, and 125 miles to 
Dungarvan, and 73 miles to Kilkenny, and 
\jj miles to Kinsale, and 119^ miles to 
Limerick, and 144 miles to Derry, and 130 
miles to Galway, and 101 miles (mite 7 
ceu*o) to Belfast, and 97 miles to 



§ 1 1 88. The Imperfect Tense is the form 
of the verb used in Irish, when the words 
" used to " are used in English, as shown 
in § 706. All verbs, regular and irregular, 
form the imperfect by substituting certain 
endings for the endings of the present tense 
(§ 690.) 

§ 1 1 89. Example: 
cferoinn (h're^'iw), I used to believe. 
c]ieit>ceA (h'rc^'/au) you \sing\ used to 

belie vr. 
C|\ei*oeAo (hVe^/'uCH, hVe^'uw'), [he, she, it], 

used to believe. 
cj\eit>imip (hVc^'imeesh), we used to believe, 

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6ftei*oe<v6 fib, yc used to believe 
cpeit>it>if (hVe^iafeesh) they used to 

§ 1 190. Example: 
rhot-Airm (wul'iw), I used to praise. 
itioL-ca (wul'thau), you used to praise, 
mot At) (wul'UCH, wul'uw'), [he, she, it], 

used, etc. 
iTiotamAoif (wula-mweesh), we used to 

iriol<v6 pb, ye used to praise. 
tiiobvoAoif (wul'a-dheesh), they used to 


§ 1 191. It does not appear that cnei*oe<vo 
me\ mot<v6 m6, are ever used for cpevomn, 
riioLainn, or that cpei*oe4'6 cti, riioUvo cu, 
are ever used instead of c]\ei*oceA, ttioIca, 
notwithstanding what some grammarians, 
lay down. 

§ 1 192. Instead of we may say 

c|\eit)imff cjiemeao pnn 

tiioWriAoif riioL<vd pnn 

cjieTOToif cpemeA'o p<vo 

tfloUvOAOIf TTloUvO p<VO. 

§1193. Instead of 6|\eiT>imif, 6|\ei*oe-dnitiif (hVe^-a- 
mwisb, often hVedP-a-mwish£) is heard in the Northern 
half of Ireland, and the corrupt form 6j\ei , oeA'6 wuit> 
(mtn-0 = pnn) is also heard. The 3rd plural ending in 
-A'OAoif is commonly pronounced -Ait>if (-aVeesh) with 
slender -o, as moLAi'oif. 

§ 1 194. In the Northern half of Ireland, the "6 of the 
3rd singular (6]\eit>eA , 6, ifiobvo) is changed in pronuncia- 
tion into c (unaspirated) when followed by f 6, ff, pnn, 
fib, pa"©, i.e., by any personal pronoun commencing with 
f. In Miinster, on the other hand, the f of the pronoun 
is often given its broad sound after the ending -4ti. 

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§ 1 195. In the 2nd person singular 
ending, -ceA, -ca, become ceA, t& (hau), 
except after *o, n, c, I, f (DeNTaLS), also 
•6, c, c, and in monosyllables after 5. See 
§§ 1002, 1003, 1004. gtdcuA (yloK'hau), 
you used to take; 'o'^ajca (dhauG'hau), 
you used to leave ; •OA-ocuigteA (dhig'hau), 
if you [had] understood. 

§ 1 196. When the verb " would " is used 
in English to describe what used to take 
place, the imperfect is used in Irish. " He 
would often say to me "=ir* mime <voeij\e<vd 
f £ bom, it is often he used to say to me. 

§ 1 197. In the case of such English 
phrases as " if he believed/' " if he had 
believed " (implying that he did not believe), 
use *o<\ with the imperfect in Irish, x>a 
5C]\ei*oe<vo fe. T)a motAmn £, if I praise 
him, or, if I had praised him. 

§ 1 198. When no other particle, such as 
nf, t><\, nac, 50, An, comes before the 
imperfect, t>o is used before it, as x>o 
iiiol,Ainn 6, I used to praise him. But x>o 
is often omitted except when a vowel or f 
follows, as rfiolAinn, but x>'6t<Mnn, I used to 
drink, *o'f atia*6 y 6, he used to stay. 

§ 1 199. Plurals (continued). 

Nouns of more than one syllable, ending 

in e, usually form the plural by changing e 

into i (ee), as lafgAijie, a fisherman, 

i<\f 5<njif (ee'-assoiree) fishermen. 

§ 1200. Instead of iAf^Ai|\i, we find 1^541^1*60 often 
written, and in older writings, lAfSAipeA-OA. Whether 
the ending is •{, -i*6e or -eA-64, the pronunciation is e* 

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Sometimes -n5 is written, but this is incorrect, as the 
sound of -i 6 is not **,but like.? in happy \ and in Munster, 
-iti is usually pronounced -15. 

§ 1201. The following nouns change e into i (or i^e) 
in the plural : builbe, a blow ; pAipoe, a child ; c6ifoe, 
a coach; ciiinne, a corner; fuifce, a flail; CAitfbf-e, a 
ghost; ce46cAi|\e, a messenger; lomaine, a ridge; 
mumciLle, a sleeve ; uuinne, a spinning-wheel ; mAioe, 
a stick ; uij-ge, water ; cieine, a feather ; f Ainne, a ring ; 
nAi£e, a quarter year. 

§ 1202. The plural of baite, a town, is bAilce (bwal'/£ ), 
towns ; mile, a thousand, milce (meeiVe), thousands ; 
mnne, a person, a man ; T>AOine, persons, people. 

§ 1203. Nouns ending in -*6e or -je form 
the plural in -ce, as fgeuluvoe, a story- 
teller, f5euUn*6ce (shgael'i-h§), story- 
tellers ; coifi*6e, a person who goes on foot 
(cof), coip-oce (Kush'i-he); cjioioe, a heart, 
cjioi-oce (Kree'he) ; CftfofCAi'de, a Christian, 
Cjifofcai'oce (kreesth'i-he). 

§ 1204. Vocabulary : 
cnofgAn (thrus'Gaun), furniture, genitive, cnopgAin. 
An- (on), prefix, means "very" with adjectives, " great " 

with nouns. 
An-eAglA, great fear ; An-AOibneAf, great pleasure. 
bij\A6 only in the phrases — 
1 mbA|\A6 (a maur'aCH), to-morrow (adverb). 
An La t mbinAfc, to-morrow (noun). 
An ifiAit>m 1 mbArtAC, to-morrow morning. 
An C|\Atn6nA 1 moinAd, to-morrow evening. 
Ia An n-A binA6 (Lau'r-na-waur'aCH), the following day. 
A|\ 615m (er ae'gin), hardly, with difficulty. 
feu-OAWi (fae'dhim), I can, I am able. 
unth6n (urra-wor), the greater part, genitive, unth6in. 
fonmon (furra-wor), same as ujuhon, %en. t fonin6it\. 
longni'O (ee'nuw*, Conn. Ulst., oo'na, Munst.)* wonder, 
surprise. Ua longnA^ onm, I am surprised. 

§ 1205. t1u4i|i biot) T)oriinAlt aj\ meifge, 
x>o bftifeAo f e cj\of gAn ati cige, 7 arm fin 
(then) x>o min<v6 fe An *oof Af 7 ni leigeAti 
v6 twine aj\ bit ijxeAC. *Oo oio-o ^n-eAgLA 

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<1|A A TTltntlCip ftOITTie, 7 X)'f AnAXJAOIf Amtnj 

A5 ^eiteArii 50 •oc^i'oeAt) *Oorhn<\tt 'n-a 
cot>L<v6. -Annpn *oo cigitrif ifceAc 50 
rocAijt. T)a bpeicceA T)otfmAUl aji tnAToin 
La ^a n-A bA|tAC, b<x*6 cjuiaj; teAC 6. Hi 
LeigeA'o An riAi]\e t>6 feucAinc a|\ *6uine. 
1f mime *oo CAicitin y6m cattiaU, at; CAinc 
teif , acc if A|i &51TI t)'f eut)Ainn jrocAt t>o 
t>Ainc aj\ T)o bico ha pAip>f 7 nA -OAoine 
eite ajj ttiajja'6 f A01, 7 x>o cuij\iT)iY nAij\e 
Ai|t, Acc*ni ofgtA'O f 6 pem a beut A]i peA-d 
U|Atii6ip ah t,Ae. 

§ 1206. The boats used to come into 
(itifAn) this harbour in the beginning of 
the summer, and the fishermen used to stay 
(coifcntng) here throughout the summer. 
They used to tell (to) us stories, and indeed 
they were good storytellers (bA riiAic nA f 5. 
1 a*o). We often used to sit listening to (le) 
them, and we used to write the stories they 
would tell us, and they would be surprised 
when we would read the stories for them. 
They used to go away in the autumn, and 
we used to feel very lonely after them. 



§ 1207. Read §§ 939, 941, 942. The 
forms given in these paragraphs are all 3rd 
person singular. Read also §§ 670 and 
671, in which the endings of the different 
persons of the past tense of .hi are given. 
The same endings are used in all regular 
verbs, i.e., in all but four or five verbs. 

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4 6 

§ 1208. Example: 

c|\ei*o-eAf (hVerf'uss), I believed* 
c|\eit)if (h'redish) you believed. 
c]tei*o (h'rtd), [he, she, it] believed. 
cpeit>e<xniA|\ (h'ra/'umur), we believed 
C|teit>e4b4|\ (h're^'uwur), ye believed. 
6|ieiT>ea l OA|i (hVedfudhur), they believed* 

§ 1209. Example: 
tfiotaf (wuluss) I praised. 
iiiot<Mf (wul'ish). yoji praised, 
riiot (wul), [he, she, it], praised. 
rfiotAtTiAp (wul'umur), we praised. 
ifiotAbAjt (wul'uwur), ye praised. 
riiolA-oA]! (wul'udhur), they praised. 

§ 1 2 10. The third person singular of the past tense 
cpeit), ihot) can be used with any personal pronoun. 

Instead of we can say 

cpei-oeaf, ihotar 6|\eit> me\ mol m6 

fcpei-oir, tholAif dpett) cu, mot cu 

cpeioeamap, tfioL&niAp 6pei"o rinn, iholpnin 

6|\eit)eAbA|i, motdbap cpeio pb, ihol j 1b 

cpei-oeAOAjx, tfcobvoAjv cfei-o fiAo, mot fiat> 

§ 121 1. The forms in the left hand column of the fore- 
going paragraph are more used in Southern than in the 
Northern half of Ireland. In the Northern half, dpei-oeaf, 
wolAf, cpei-oif, molaif are common in answer to ques- 
tions ; the 3rd plural in -aoaj\ is in fairly general use, the 
1st plural less general, and the 2nd plural very rarely used. 

§ 1212. In Munster, instead of C|\ei"oeAniA|\, iholAmAp, 
the slender ending dpeioeAtiiAip, moLAmAip (-mwir) is 
usual ; also criei-oeAOAip, molAOAip (-wir) instead of 
•b*|\, in the second plural. 

§ 12 1 3. Plurals (continued). 

Nouns ending in -in add -i (or i*6e, pron. 
ee) in the plural, as caitfn, a girl, caitinf or 
cAiUni'de (Kal'eenee) girls. 

Digitized by VjOOQl€ 


§ 1214. Give plurals and meanings of neowfn, gtnncfrt, 
CAibiti, fpAitpin, T>iui-oin, quiifcin, ■oneoilfo, also the 
olurals of the nouns in -in, §§ 1081 to 1084. 

§ 1215. Nouns ending in -dip, -tSi|% -61 j\, 
meaning persons, add -1 in the plural, as 
t>AT>6ij\, a boatman, bAt>6ijtf, boatmen. In 
like manner, T>oi|ife6ip, a doorkeeper, 
T>occtiirt (dhuCH'thoor), a doctor, CAittithp, 
a tailor, ptiin&p (shoon'aer), a joiner, 
mtntne6i]i, a miller, fgjiibneoiji (shgreev'- 
nor), a writer, teujjcdip (/ae'hor), a reader. 
§ 1 2 16. Nouns of more than one 
syllable ending in -4 usually form the 
plural in -<\i , 6e, pronounced -ee. geoxa, a 
gate, j;e<\c<M*6e (gath'ee), gates. 

§ 12 1 7. In older writings, we find this ending spelled 
-A'OA, geAU^o*. The pronunciation is the same, -ee. It 
is only quite recently that -ai has been written, but this 
form introduces a new digraph into modern Irish 
spelling, and is objected to by some. Some write it 

§ 1218. Give meanings and plurals of milA, feomnA, 
c6ca, cigeAjuiA, p6cA, pucA, popA, eAlA,bAllA, peACA. 

§ 12 19. A few nouns of the first declension, not verbal 
nouns, ending in -a 1 © have the plural in -Afoe, as m ajnjjao, 
a market; tnAngAi-oe (mor'aGee), markets; wa-oa*, 
m At>nA-6, a dog ; niAonAioe (moclh'aree), dogs ; flAOpA'O, 
a chain ; flAbnAi'be (slou'ree), chains. 

§ 1220. Like cjxei-oeAf, form the past tense of bnif, 
bnuig, t>6ig, milt, CAOin, t£i£, buAil, cai£, pn, 
beAnnttig, baguig, meu-ouig, glAOi-o, CU15, "ouipg, 
cuin, nit, coifnig, ceAnnuig, •ojun-o, uuic, feinn, £uit>, 
fui*, tuig, cofntnj, cothnuig, lei 5, and give the 
meaning of each. 

$ 1 221. Like tholAf form the past tense of *>un, cnom, 
5IAC, fgniob,* gAb, C65, *>fol, meAf, fCA-o. Give 

* Note that t, r\, n cannot be aspirated, ancP that r 
cannot be aspirated when any other consonant than I, 11, 
p, comes after it. 

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§ 1222. The particle *oo is either ex- 
pressed or understood before the past tense, 
except in a few irregular verbs. H the verb 
begins with a vowel or f, "oo cannot be 
omitted, as t/otAf (dhol'uss), I drank ; 
x>f AfA*oAf\ (dhauss'udhur), they grew; t)'ic- 
e4m<\]\ (dfih'umur), we ate. 

§ 1223. Instead of "oo, ]\o was formerly 
used, flo is still used in a contracted form, 
being always joined to certain particles 
when they precede the past tense, as ni, 
not ; nio]\ iceAf, I did not eat ; nac, not 
(interrogative), as nACAft itif, commonly 
shortened to nap iui]\ did you not eat? 
go, that ; gup it f e, that he ate ; nAc, that 
not ; nac<\|i c|\ei*o f 6, usually nAp cpeit) f 6, 
that he did not believe; tnunA, if not; 
munAjA c|tei"oe<\m<xp, if we did not believe, 
etc. See § 974. 

§ 1224. Form the past tense of the following, with x>' 
(for t>o) prefixed in each instance : Ayvouig, fAg, j:eu6, 
pan, 61, f Af, £ij\ig, 16, pA^ui^, lompuig, ullthuig. 

§ 1225. The particle An (un) is used in 
asking a question. It eclipses the initial 
consonant of a verb, as An* 5qteit)eArm 
cu ? do you believe ? Before the past tense 
An combines with j\o, forming a^ (er) Aft 
tfiot cu 6? did you praise it? aja <5tAif 6? 
did you drink it? 

* In colloquial Irish the n of this particle is usually 
dropped unless the verb followed begins with a vowel, 
and sometimes the whole particle is dropped, but its 
eclipsing force remains, — a' gcnei^eAtin uu ? or 'gcnei- 
T>eann uu ? But before a vowel, n is always pronounced, 
as An n-icearm uu? or 'n-iceAnn uu? do you eatt 
When An is the interrogative form of if > it is always pro- 
nounced, as An mAiu leAu 6? do you like it? 

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| 1226. N.B.— Although t>o is used before the imper- 
fect (oo iholAWti, T>'6l«iirm) and the conditional (oo 
iftolpAinn, T)'6L|:<Mnn), yet no is never used with these 
tenses. When any of the particles (ni, nAd, 50, An, 
mund, etc.)» which combine with no before the past 
tense, are used before the imperfect or conditional, they 
are used in their simple form, t>o being omitted, as 111 
thotAinn, I used not to praise, nac molainn, 50 mobAinn, 
An moLawn. 

§ 1227. Vocabulary : 
fcingAOAn (haun'-uGudhur 5 Munster, haun'udhur), 

ihey came, 3rd plural of tAinig. 
fUApAt>A|\, 3rd plural of piiAin. 
chuAT>An((CHoo'a-dhur), 3rd plural of cuai£. 
cor > A-'n-Ai|\x)e=cofA 1 n-Aijvoe, feet on high, i.e., at 

full gallop. 
6ini§eAnn leif, he succeeds. 

ctAinfeAC (Klaur'shacH)/, harp, genitive cLiinp§e. 
An An 5clAi|\p§, on the harp. 
cem> (/aedh)/, a string, a cord ; genitive u6iT>e. 
An t&xo (er haed?), on a string, 
pone (purth), genitive puinc (pwir/), ) a tune, 
ponn (Iun), genitive ptnnn (fwi*), ) an air. 

cnAfnA (thross'Na), across (followed by genitive). 
peuT>Aim (faedh'im), I can, I am able, 
nion f eti-o, could not, was not able. 
An teAfcA-6 (/ah'uw), open. 
gAthAin (Ga'win), m., a calf. 
piAtAC (Gnau'haCH), customary, usual. 

§ 1228. Translate: Aw bpAcA cti nA 
cAiUnf tit) aji An mbdcAji mt>d? Cuatjaja 
ifceAc mf An bpAipc 7 bAineAt)Aji neomini. 
^Xnnpn (then) CAn^A-DAft attiac Aft An 
mbotAft A|\iY 7 x>'f aj;at) aj\ nA geACAi'oe aji 
teACA-o 'n-A n , oiAi , 6. X)i b6 7 gAriiAin aji An 
mbocAfi, 7 ntiAip |:ua]\ax)A|v nA jjeACAVoe Aft 
teACA'6, cuax)A|\ ifueAc. ¥>i Setrniuf 6 
\)|AiAin Ag t>ul ffof An b6tA|t 7 nA ttia'o- 
|\Ai , 6e teif, ma\\ if gnACAc teif. HuAip 
connAic An b<5 nA mA'OjAAi'oe, v'imeig yi aji 
cofA-'n-Aiivoe 7 An gAthAin 'n-A wavo. 
teA5At)A|i An ctAi'oe 7 ^ua'daii cjtAfnA An 
5tn|ic eor\nA tit) caIX, 7 mitteA'OAp An 


Digitized by V 


eofuia <vja jnvo. tliop f eut> Seumuf iat> x>a 

§ 1229. Did you write the letter ? Where 
did you put it? Did you tell (to) Brian 
that Niall left this town ? Did you not ask 
him (pAppuig ve) if (<vn combined with po) 
he succeeded? If you did not (ask), you 
must write another letter and send it (i 'cup) 
to him (cuige) to-morrow. Used you not 
to play on the harp long ago ? I used (to 
play), but I am afraid that I cannot play 
on it now. I heard that you played a tune 
on it last week. I did not indeed. I have 
not put (past tense) a finger on a string of 
a harp for a year (te btuvoAin). It is long 
since I played a single tune (say, it is (ir*) 
long that I have not played any tune) on 
the harp. 



§ 1230. Nouns (chiefly of ©ne syllable) with plural in 
•6a or -ce : 

t>tige-<v6 G//ee'ttw, diet) m. t a law ; "oti^ce (dfl!h&), laws. 
|\f, a king; ^iogta (ree'ha), kings. 
nro or «i (*ee) m., a thing ; tietce («e"he'), things. 
5116, business; gnofcA (G'no'ha), affairs. 
"Oia, God ; t)eite (dae'he), gods. 
c'aoi, a way ; CAoite (Kee'hfi), ways. 
O601 (dhee) m., an ignorant person, plural u&oite 

fAoi, a learned person, plural fAoifce (see'hg). 
■opaoi (dhree) m. t druid, magician, plural Djxaoifce 

ot&oi (dh'Lee) /., a lock of hair, plural T>tAOi£e 


§ H31. "$6, a goose, plural ggAnn* (gae'Na). The 
historical form of this word is 564-6, gen. sing, and nom. 
plural jjeoi-o. These forms are preserved in Scotland. 

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§ 1232. Cnu (K'noo) /, a nut, plural cti6£* (K'nee). 
The various forms of this word are very uncertain. 

§ 1 233. Plurals of the Fifth Declension (see Ex. C LVII.) 
(a) Formed by attenuating the genitive singular : — 
Ia6a, a duck ; lACAm (LoCH'in), ducks. 
cti, a hound ; com (K'in), or con a (Kun'a), hounds. 
p6e, twenty ; pcio, twenties, see § 1179. 
caot\a, a sheep ; cAoijug (Keer'ee), sheep. 
bj\ei£eAih, a judge; b|\ei£eAm aw, judges. 
cothti|\f a, a neighbour ; coriiuftfAW (Kor'sin), neighbours. 

(J) Ending in a : — 
cti, see above. 

mi, a month ; mforA (mee'sS), months. 
ctiifte, a vein; cuifteannA (KishVuNa), veins. 
ueAti£A, a tongue ; ueAngfcA (/aNG'ha), tongues. 
ca£aoij\, a chair ; cAfcAoipeAfcA (Koh'eeraCHa), chairs. 

caSai^, a city ; ca£i\a6a (Koh'racHa), cities. 

eipp, an oyster ; eifpeA6A (eshVacna), oysters. 
(c) Ending in e : — 

gAbA, a smith ; gAibne (Gav'«6), smiths. 

a!}a, a river ; ai one (av'aifc), rivers. 

cajva, a friend ; CAijvoe (Kaur'dft), friends. 

riAihA, an enemy ; ttAimoe(Nauv'rfe'), enemies. 

ceine, a fire ; ceitice (/i»'/6), fires. 

flige, a way ; ftigfce (sh/I'hfi), ways. 

coill, a wood ; coillce (Ke/?e), woods. 

tndin, turf; mdwue (mSrt'/fi), bogs. 

§ 1234. In colloquial Irish, another syllable is often 

added to some of the foregoing plurals, as ceAnrtacA for 

peAngA, cemueACA for cemce, AibneA6A for Atone, etc. 
§ 1235. The plurals of At;Aij\, miuAin, ■oeAjVbnAtAip 

and t>einbfiun now in use are Ai£|\eA6A (ah'raCH&), 

mAir;i\eACA (mauhVaCHa), t>eAj\bpiir;i\eACA (afer'raah'- 

raCHa, b silent), and -oeipofiupACA (^er'iv-hooraCHa), 



§ 1236. In the GENITIVE SINGULAR, 
adjectives undergo changes similar to the 
changes of nouns, e.g., An bean rh6p, the big 
woman ; n<v mnA rnoijAe (m5Ve), of the big 
woman; Uxoit) tia tntiA mdipe tAmig cap 
te<v|t, the lay of the big woman who came 

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4 6 

over sea (thor lar'). The rules for these 
changes are easily remembered when we 
know the changes of nouns. 

§ 1237. An adjective ending in a broad 
consonant (i.e., a consonant preceded by a 
broad vowel) forms the genitive MASCU- 
LINE by attenuation, like the masculine 
nouns in Exercise CXLI , and the genitive 
FEMININE by attenuation with e added, 
like the feminine nouns in Ex. CXLVIL* 

§ 123S. Examples of adjectives, genitive masculine : 
An cat m6n, the great battle ; genitive Ia An caca m6if\ 
(m5r) the day of the great battle ; An c-eun 65, theyounq 
bird; ctum (Kloowh') An £w 615, the young biro's 

§ 1239. Examples of adjectives, genitive feminine : 

-An cop t>ub, the black foot, feAn nA cotfe x>uibe (dhivfc) 

the man of(}.c. having) the black foot. 
An fgiAn geun, the sharp knife ; cop nA rpne ge^ine 

(gaeVe) the handle (lit. foot) of the sharp knife. 

§ 1240. The initial of the adjective is 
aspirated by a masculine noun in the geni- 
tive, as CuAn An £i|t ttl6ijt (Koo'an wi-ir* 
wor), (the) Great Man's Bay, name of a bay 
in Connemara, THAttAiT) An cApAitt bAin 
(waa' in), the white horse's saddle.-f- 

§ 1 24 1. The genitive of nouns of the third and fifth 
declensions {i.e., nouns forming the genitive by adding a 
or a consonant) ought not to have the initial of the 

* An adjective is masculine when it qualifies a mascu- 
line noun, and feminine when it follows a feminine noun. 

t Another form of -oiaLLaio is iaHaio (iaIX, ee'aL, 
means a leather straps a thong). 

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adjective following them aspirated, as Ctann 4o6* 
bvmoe, the descendants of Aodh the Yettow^-Kaired) ; 
V>j\ua6 An toe a m6in, the hink of the great lake. Usage, 
however, differs somewhat on this point. 

§ 1242. Euphony or convenience of pro- 
nunciation often prevents aspiration. For 
example, c and "o are usually not aspirated 
when the preceding word ends in t>, n, c, t, f 
(DeNTaLS). C and 5 are usually not 
aspirated when the preceding word ends 
in c, 5, or ng. p and b are usually not 
aspirated when the preceding word ends in 
p, b, or m. These exceptions apply to 
most rules for aspirations of nouns or 

§ 1243. Vocabulary, 
conn (thuN ; Munster, thooN) /, a wave. Genitive 

uuinne (thiw'S), plural conn a (thuN'4). 
bnuA6 (broo'aCH) w., brink. Gemlive bnuai6 (broo'eh). 

§ 1244. Give the Irish for : The bald 
man's horse. The big horse's halter. The 
blind woman's purse. The black hen's 
eggs. The taste of the cheap wine. The 
colour of the dear wine. The middle of 
the clean floor. The waves of the rough 
(5 Apt) sea. The people (luce) of the cold 
heart. The girl of the crooked foot The 
people of the New Island. On the brink 
of the full lake. The lad of the grey (sto.)*) 
eye. The apples of the tall tree. The land 
of (the) lasting (buan) life. Against the 
swift (Luac) wind. The red-haired (puo.'d) 
womaa's husband. The end of the broad 
road. The young woman's shoes. 

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§ 1245. Adjectives undergo the same vowel-changes 
as n«uns in the genitive. See §§ 883, 931. 


lorn, bare 
501x111, blue 
T>onn, brown 
cnom, heavy 
bopb, rude 
beg, soft 
cnom, bent 
Seat, bright, 

be6£, small 
ceApu, right 
meA]\, active 
feAnb, bitter 
■oeAf, pretty 
•oeaps, red 
feAng, lean 

ei|\eAT1T1A6 * 

4tbAn*6 * 
SagfAnAd * 
Lo6tAnnAC * 


straight * 


tuim (Lim) 
guijmi (GiHfm) 
t>umn (dhii») 
uj\uim (thrim) 
btnnb (bwir'Ib) 
buig (bwig) 
cnurni (Knm) 
git, (gil) 

cipu (kiri) 
nun (mir) 
f ei|\b (sherlv) 
■oeip (<fesh) 
t)ei|\5 (dertg) 
femg (sheng) 





*>fni§ (</eer'iy , ) 

lurnie (Lim'8) 
gtnnme (Gi^i-mfi) 
t>umne (dhm'6) 
unuime (thrim'8) 
butnbe (bwir'i-be) 
buige (bwig'S) 
cnuime (Krim'S) 

bl 5 e 0>ig'«) 
cinue (kir/*8) 
mine (mir'd) 
feinbe (shefi-v«) 
■oeife (dfesh'ft) 
■oeipge (dcrt-gfy 
f einge (sheng'g) 




•oiro£* (dfeer'ee) 

UAigmS (©•'eg-niy') UAi£m£e(oo'eg-nee) 

* Note the difference between the sound of -1J and -1 je 
at the end of words. In words of more than one 
syllable, the letters 1*, 1$, ai*, Aig, urt, uig, sound like 
y in trusty j property, heresy ; if e be added (i"6e, ige, 
Arte, Aige, ui"6e, uije), the sound is like that %l ee in 
trustee^ repartee, Pharisee. The sound of y at the end 
of a word is usually hardened into g in Munster, e.g., 
OineAnnAtJ = aer 'uN-ig, oinij = deer 'ig. 

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aai—*i— Genitive Genitive 

Adjective. Masculine# Feminine. 

geup, sharp ge^n (per) 5&ne (gaerY) 

porm, fair pun (fiis) pnne (h«'6) 

P^t, generous feit (fael) f e"ile (fael'e) 

ftitit, wet piic (flih) ftico (flih't) 


§ 1246. Adjectives can be formed from 
many nouns by adding -a6 or -cac. Such 
adjectives form the genitive masculine and 
feminine like 4lb4n4c and x>i]Ae<\c. Ex- 
amples : 

f e^ng, anger ; foa^ac, angry. 

y eAfAth, standing ; feAphac (shass'u-waCH), steadfast. 

T>4ce*LL, endeavour ; oiceAttdC, energetic. 

putt, blood ; pnlueAC (fwi/'/aCH), bloody. 

5116, business ; cn6eAC (G'nS'haCH), busy ; •oi\o6-$«6ca4, 

cW, fame ; cttiiceA6 (kloo/acH) famous. 
ACAf, gladness ; iCAf a6, glad 
tiit&AineAC, 01x6040^ nfmeuoAC, glad, joyful. 
F eu P» grass ; f euj\AC, grassy. 
t>oitg(of , grief ; t>oit JeAf ac, mournful. 
congnAih, help; congAncAC, (KooNthaCH), helpful. 
rAotAn, exertion ; fAotpAC (saeh'raCH), industrious, 
opeug, a lie ; bneugAC, lyin*, false. 
cApnAig, a rock ; CAinpgeac (k'ar'rig-aCH), rocky. 
b|N6n, sorrow ; bnonAC, sorrow f uL 
cteAf, a trick ; cteAfAC, tricky. 
ttib, a twist ; ttibAC, deceitful, 
cwpfe, weariness 5 cuinfeac, weary, sad. 
T>oiceAtt, a grudge ; T>oiceAttAC, inhospitable, 
f Ao£*t, life ; fAo£tA6 (sae'laCH), long-lived. 
btJAi-6, success ; duaoac, victorious, 
fit*, one's fill ; f&AA, satiated. 

§ 1247. Vocabulary. 
Ati &nuA£ (Groo'aG), /, the hair of the head ; genitive, 

«a gpuAice (Groo'eg-8). 
fteAthAin (sh/ou'in), slippery. 
UAinr**c (thaur'shaCH), m.. a threshold ; genitive, ciiji- 

p$ (thau/shly). 
o©Af, pretty, mhe means right (hand, foot, side, etc.) 


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cU (klae), left (hand, etc> 

m\Aob (Kraev ; Copnacht, Kree'u*),/, a branch ; genitive, 

cjxAoibe (Kree'vfi) ; plural, q\Aobd. 
ojvtobAd, branchy. 

§ 1248. Translate into English: 4jtc tia 
rjiuAige finne. CeAnn m6\\ nA ceitte btge. 
1f fteAriiAin r^i]ife<\6 ah age moip. pAt 
cimceAtt ha pAipce Unme. b|\iAfct^ mnA 
btupbe. 4bpAn nA fuif eoige bige -oe^e. 
t)i p£ A5 ffneA-6 a tAime t>eife cujjAm. 
Ua neApc A-omAi-o bins AgAr Annjo. V>6 
*a bAt)Mpce cpuime. UAW15 ^piAn 1 
n-AgAi-o An cftuAis LoclAnnAig. D' i 
T16t\A cjuonnA cAiUn nA fuiLe su^me, 7 
V i iefbiA cAitin nA fuite t>uibe 561^. 

§ 1249. Give the Irish for: The two ends 
of the white (geAt) rod. He was drinking 
the bitter draught (t>eoc). The brown 
bull's horns. The sails of the little boat, 
and the masts of the great ship. The 
generous man's welcome. The island of 
the dark (x>ub) foreigner. The days of the 
wet weather. The bjink of the white rock. 
The dove (cottn) of the sorrowful music. 
The work of a heavy hand. The people 
(tucc) of the fine (caoI) clothing (eu-OAc). 
The poems of the Scottish bard. The 
poems of a Scottish bard. The little 
fisherman's nets. The mountains of a 
lonely country. The hawk of the branchy 

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§ 1250. The endings of the persons in 
the future tense are the same as for the 
future of hi (see § 688), except that in most 
verbs f follows the stem. 

§ 125 1. This letter f is now usually pro 
nounced A, as motf <vo,pronounced mul'hudh 
The h sound combines with b, *o, 5, changing 
them into p, c, c, respectively. Sgiobp At> 
pronounced shgi'pudh, c|\ei"Ofe<\*o = 
k/ie/'udh, f ^5f <vo = fau'Kudh. 

§ 1252. Example. 
cpetOfeAt) (kraffudh, krertidh), I shall or will believe. 
cpeiop|\ (kraffir, Vrefir), you shall or will believe. 
cpei-opti (kraffee, kre/ee), [he, she, it] shall or will 

cpefopmto (kretfftmid, krefimid), we shall or will 

cpeioptf (kre^fihee, krerthee), ye shall or will believe. 
C|\eiojrio (krtifdd, kre/u/), they shall or will believe. 

§ 1253. Example, 
irtolpao (mul'fudh, mul'hudh), I shall or will praise, 
motf Aif\ (mul'fwir, mul'hir), you shall or will praise. 
motpAio (mul fwee, mul'hee), [he, she, it] shall or will 

molfAmuto (mul'ft-mwU/, muVha-mwu/), we shall or 

will praise. 
motf Aifci (mul'/a-hee, mul'hee), ye shall or will praise, 
molf Alt) (mul'fwtf, muYhid ), they shall or will praise. 

§ 1254. With regard to the pronunciation 
of the 3rd person singular, we have given 
-ee as to sound of the ending -I'd, as in all 
other words ending in those letters. It 
would be more exact, however, in all such 
words to give, as the nearest English sound 

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of 1-6 or 15, the sound of y in the word trusty \ 
which is easily distinguished from ee in 
trustee. In Munster, this y sound is usually 
hardened to -ig f but when a personal pro- 
noun follows, the g is not sounded, e.g., 
motf oxb fib, pronounced mul'hi shiv. 

§ 1255. The second person plural is also spelled cj\eit)p', 
wolf aoi, and incorrectly, cjveit>p'6, molf Aiti. But all 
these forms may be regarded as obsolete, the form in use 
being cpei^p* fib, molf A1"6 fib. 

§ 1256. The third person singular of the future can be 
used with any personal pronoun. 

Instead of we can say 

q\eit)feAt), molf ao G^erop-o m6, molf Ai"6 mi. 

c^\eit)fi|\, molf aijx cpenop-o uu, molf ay6 uu. 

cfieiofimix), molf Am Alt) cfxeiop-o pun, molf Art prni. 

cpeiopt), molf Ait) C|\eit)po pAt>, molf Art pAt>. 

§ 1257. Like cneit>feAt>, form the future of bnif, 
bj\ui§, t>6i£, mill, CAom, L6ig y buAil, caic, ffl» pri, 
feic, UU15, UAiri, cui|\, j\iu, coipMg, t>j\uit), uuiu, fewn, 
gurt, f«rt, lutg, leig, I6im, mAip, give meanings. 

§ 1258. Like molf a-o, form the future of ■oeAn, -own, 
q\om, jIac, fspiob, fAg, U65, feu6, fAn, ofol, 61, 
f if, meAf, fCAt), feAf. Gire meanings, 

$ 1259. Vocabulary. 

leonAim (/on'im), I desolate (a poetic word). 

A|\ Aif (er ash), back, as in " come back." 

An clArte (Klei), m. t the fence (of earth or stone) ; gem 
tivesame; plural, clArtue (Klei'hB). 

le h-Aif (le hash), beside, by the side oi,folUwed by noun 
in the genitive. 

meAf, esteem ; trf-meAf (/ee-vass), m. t disesteem ; leni- 
tives, meAf a, , ©f-meAfA, 

1 n-iijvoe, up ; uog 1 n-iijvoe, raise up. 

§ 1260. Translate: 

" X\\ cjtei'opeAt) 50 t>eo 6 <xon <x bei*6e<&f 
beo 'beip (=ber6iji) bocc t\6 50 teonfAi-6 
An b^f tii-' " 

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^AnpAiti cti Arnifo n6 50 bpeicfip tnife 
atj ceAcc A|t Aif. -Ann-pm cuipp-o ctS ftiAf 
&r\ ftnmieog, 7 tdimp'd cti attiac aji <\n- 
•p|t-dit>, 7 jucpti cti pof 50 t>cf An cobA]\ 7 
ftn*6p|t Aft An 5ctAi"6e aca te 1iAif an 
coU&i ji. <dn nT>eutif ai*6 cti f m ? *Oetm pAtx 
l/eigp^ TDife Ati ptrnineog AnuAf Annpn, 
7 x>tmf At) ah t)o|iAf. Sftp'd pAt) Annpn 
gap cti acA ifcig. 

§ 1 26 1. Translate: 

We will not allow (teig *oo) our own 
Irish to die (§ II 17). We will not leave it 
under disesteem. We will raise it up 
again. We will take delight in it, we will 
read it and we will write it. We will not 
desist (fCAt)) from (*oe) that work until we 
shall understand it as well as our fathers 
understood it. It shall live and (it shall) 
grow. It shall strike its roots down into 
(1) the soil (caIatti) of (the) Ireland. It 
shall sttfctch its branches throughout the 
country. We will not lament it, but we 
will do our best, and we will establish it 
again with the help of God. 



§ 1262. Many adjectives are formed by 
adding -tftAji to nouns. ttlAji is pronounced 
wiir, often with a slight vowel sound before 
it, u-wfir, and often slurred into -oor. See 


All such adjectives form their genitives 
like m6p, § 1236. 

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§ 1263. Examples :— 

fotin, fancy ; fonmhAn (fuN'wtir, etc.), desirous. 

gi\e6ttti, fun ; £neAnmh*p, lunny, amusing. 

5l6i|\, glory ; gloniftAp, glorious. 

peu|\, grass ; jreupmap, grassy. 

feun, happiness ; feumhAjx, happy. 

ceo I, music ; ceolmap, musical. 

Iuac, value ; luadriup, valuable. 

ciaIX, sense ; ciAtlthAn. intelligent 

neA|\c, power ; neapcm*^ powerful. 

&6 t luck ; AOma|\, lucky. 

Uon (an old word for) number ; UonriiAjv numerous. 

f£4t t a shadow ; fgitniAp, shy, startled. 


§ 1264. Formation of verbs in -15. Many 
verbs are formed from nouns or adjectives 
by the addition of -15 or -U15. The ending 
-U15 is used when the consonant next pre- 
ceding it is broad. 

§ 1265. Examples :— 

Apo, high; ajvoui£ (aurdh'ee, aurdh'Iy, M. aurdhig), 
ban, white ; binuig, whiten, 
oeaf, pretty ; oeafuig, put in order. 
Laj;, weak ; lajjui £, weaken, 
fl^n, well ; fUitiui£, make welL 
cir^m, dry ; uionmuig, dry. 
bif, death ; bifuig, injure mortally. 
ob4i|\, work ; oibjug, operate. 

§1266. Further Examples:— 

bocc, poor ; boccuig, impoverish. 

bo'OAp, deaf ; boopuig, make deaf, "deave," "bother." 
(bo64|\ pr. bor in the North, bour in the South. So, 
botipuig pr. bor'ee, bdYly, and bour'ig.) 

Ainm, name ; ammr.ig, name (an'im-nly). 

be&t& 9 life ; beacuig, nourish. 

cneaf, skin ; cneafuig, form a skin (over a wound). 

cuimne, memory ; cuimnij, remember, recollect 
think, (pr. Kir' nee, Kiv'nty ; Munster, Keenig ; in part 
of Connacht, Kim'infy.) 

Digitized by VjOOQI€ 


$ 1267. Further Examples:— 

ceAfvu, right ; ceapuui £, correct. 

c6ir\, proper; c6j\wg, fix properly. 

miri, fine ; mftiig, explain. 

ctn-o, part ; cui"oig (le), take part with, assist. 

cu\jy back of head ; cului§, retire backwards. 

f AotA|\, exertion ; r Aofcptng (saeh'rfy, saer'hfy), labour, 

if eat, low ; iflij, lower (ecsh'liy). 

cuai|\u, a visit ; cuajxcuig, search (Munster, cuajvoui§, 
■ bear, improvement ; leAfuig. improve. 

neA|\u, strength ; neA|\uui J, strengthen. 

§ 1 268. Verbs in 15 form the verbal noun 
in -U5<vd (00), as ce^jicuig, ce<\pcu5<vo 
(karth'oo), act of correcting, mini 5, minm- 
5<v6, act of explaining, explanation. A few 
exceptions will be found in §§ 1 109, 1121, 
1 125, 1136. The verbal noun of cuajauuij 
or cuajvouij is cu&jicac, cu<\|vo4c (koo' 
arth-aCH, Koo'ardh-aCH). 

§ 1269. Instead of adding f, all verbs in 

which the second syllable is ..15 or -tnj, 

change this syllable into -e6c- or -6c- in 

' forming the future, and then add on the 

same endings as follow f in § 1253. 

If the foregoing consonant is slender, 
-eoc- is used ; if broad, -<5c- is used. 

Except in the northern parts of Ireland, 
the c of this ending is not pronounced. 

§ 1270. Example (future of arvouig, raise):— 

a^oocao [aurdh'6-cnudh, usually aurdh'odh], I shall 

a|\o6caij\ [aurdh'dCHirv aurdh6r], thou wilt raise. 

A|\o6caio [aurdh ocHly, aurdh'6 y', Munster aurdhS'ig] 
(he, she, it, etc.), will raise. 

i|\o6c^muio[aurdh'6cHamwi</,aardh'6mwi(i]) we shall 

i|\odC4maoio [ Munster % aurdh-6-mweccfJ. ) raise. 

£pT>6tt&Qi\ (aurdh'ocH-iiee), ye will raise. 

ajvoocaio [aurdh'6*/, etc.], they will raise. 

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§ 1271. Example (future of mini J ; explain) t — 
mfoeoCd-o (meen'5CHudh, meen'5-dh), I shall explain. 
mineocAin (this and the other endings pronounced at 
n § 1270), thou wilt explain. 
mineocAio (he, she, it, 4c.) will explain. 
nrfneocAftiuio, mineocAmaoio, we shall explain. 
mtneoCAio pb, ye will explain. 
mfaeoc4io, they will explain. 

§ 1272, Form in like manner the futures of beAnntng, 
taguij, metrotii£, ullthui£, ceAiinui£, im£ig, 6iru&, 
fiAf1\ui£, copjuiig, comtiutg, lompuit, the meanings of 
which have already been given in Part V. Also the 
futures of the verbs given in §§ 1265, 1266, 1267. 

§ 1273. Vocabulary : — 

beut • Afcd • x\a - flu 41 JeA-6 (bael - au-Na-sLoo'a-yttw), 
Ballmasloe : lit. the mouth of the ford of the hostings. 
f euoAim (faedh'im), I can, I am able, 
cmeil (kin'auin 

(All masculine and 1st declension) 
kind, sort, species. 

f6|\u (sorth) 
fojvo (sordh) 
f eo|\u (shSrth) 

if eol 00m (iss 51 dhum), I know. 

§ 1274. An tnbei'6 ct3 0.5 t>ut 50 h-AonA6 
todit-ACA-nA-fLuAijjeA'o? t)eit>eA"o. 6ip- 
edcAiti m6 &]\ a rpf a clog A|t mAiT>in 1 
mbA]iAC, 7 imteoc<vo Af f o Aft a ceACAijt A\ 
clog. <<\n gceAnndcAro cti CApAUl Ann ? 
Ce<xnn6c<vo cjtf CApAitt, niA £eut>Aim An 
cineo.L ce<\]\c t)'f A§Ait aji An AonAC, 7 iat> 
fAop. X\i beAcdcAiio An pAi]tc m6\\ z\\i 
CApAitt. tli beAt6cAi*6, acc cuijtpmto Aft 
An ftiAb ia*o 50 ceAnn c&mAitl. Cinmntg 
A]i An t>iaIIait> t3*o nAji ceAnntngif nuAtp 
bif 1 n 5^1 tilth. CuiihneocAT), £iAf|t6cArd 
m6 x> f jreAp An cpopA &n bpmt "diaHaix) 
rhAic Aige, 7 iriA ca, ajvo6ca"o (carry off) 
tiom i. Ua eAglA o)tm 50 mboccdcAi'o An 
c-AonAc fo cti. Imcig 7 nA boojunj; firm* 

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§ 1275. We shall go offOmcig) to Cork 
the day after to-morrow. Will you stay 
(00111111115) long there (atiti) ? No. A short 
visit is best (cuaijic 5e<\j\ji if i if f e<tyti). 
"We shall put the house in order while 
(1047) y° u are there. Bring (cAbaiji Leac) 
a guide-book (teAbaji eoUxif) and it will 
explain much that you do not know (n ac eot 
■owe). Your friends will correct the guide- 
book if there is anything that is not right 
in it. You will assist them in their (share 
of) work, will you not? I will, indeed. 
Shall we turn the boat on its face (b6*L) 
before we (shall) go away? We shall. 
That will dry it well. 


genitive of adjectives— continued. 

§ 1276. Adjectives which end in a slender 
consonant do not change in the genitive 
masculine, as m&ic, good, ceac 411 f ip riiaic, 
the house of the good man. In the geni- 
tive feminine, e is added, as ceac n<\ mtiA 
maice, the good woman's house. In like 
manner, ciuin, c<\if, upim, mit\, c\m&\x), 
fotlAiti, ji4i"6, 5UIHC, cmn, binn, fifing 
(meanings already given). 


§ 1277. Many adjectives are formed by 
adding the ending -<\rii4it to nouns. If the 
consonant preceding is slender, -e^rinxit is 
added. This ending is pronounced tl-wil, 
the w being sounded through the nose, as 

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is always the case when it represents in 
The two syllables (uwil) are often slurred 
into one syllable (ool or oo-il). See Part 
II., §§415, 416, 418. 

§ 1278. Examples : — 

r>At, colour ; oAtiArhAiL (dho'hu . wil, etc.), well- 

I*, day ; laede, days ;, daily. 

gr\6in, disgust ; 5t\6ine6Th6il, hateful. 

me6(\ esteem ; me6f6m6it, estimable. 

ctti, fame ; clumail (k loo' wil), famous. 

C6p6, fiiend ; ciinoe, friends; C6inoe6rhAil, friendly. 

cr\oi*e, heart; cr>oioe6rh6il, hearty, gay. 

j:e6r\, man ; t/eAr\Ath6il, manly. 

|\i, gen. r\iog, king ; tuoJaitiaiI, kingly, royal. 

Ainm, name ; AinmeAthdil, noted, renowned. 

flAit, prince ; flAiteaitiAit, princely. 

C601, a way ; CAOifcearhAil, (Kee'huwil), opportune. 

be 6ti, a woman, gen. plural, oah, bAnAifiAil, womanly. 

§ 1279. Adjectives ending in -annul 
(-eATiiAit, -rinut) form the genitive, both 
masculine and feminine, in -AthW (pr. 
-uwl'a, -oola, with a nasal sound of rh), as, 
A 5 teigeao Ar! te<xbAi|i AinmeATtitA, reading 
the famous book, te hoiy&i'o ha hoibjie 
LAeceATTit^, for (the purpose of) the daily 

In like manner, the adjectives cofrhAiL (Kuss'- 
uwil, Kuss-ooil), like, similar, and eugfAThAit 
(aeG'suwil, aec'sooil), different, various, have for their 
feminine genitives cop Arhl6, eugf 6riit6. 

§ 1280. A few exceptional adjectives make their genitive 
feminine end in a, as c6ir\, just, gen. fern. c6j\a (K6'r5.) ; 
ocacAir\, difficult, i>eAcj\A (</aK'ra) ; 5eAT>r>, short, 
5ior\r\6 (gir'ra). 

§ 1 281. Some adjectives are contracted when a vowel 
is added, as AOibwn, delightful, gen. fern. Aoibne 
(eev'»8) ; f Arobijx, f Ai^b^e (sev'rfc) ; liioip, tAione ; 
rmtif, rmlfe (mi/'shfc, Munster, mee/'shfi, E. Munster, 
mei/'shS), Alumn, AiWie or AilXe (pr. au/'€). 

S 12&2. Adjectives ending in a vowel never undergo any 

Digitized by VjOOQI€ 


change of termination. Ce, hot, is an exception. It 
becomes ceo (/6) in the genitive singular feminine. 


§ 1283. Many verbs of two syllables drop 
the vowel of the second syllable when any 
ending commencing with a vowel is added. 
We shall take the verbs mmf, tell, and 
^f 5<xit (or fof 541L), open, as examples. 

§ 1284. Imperative (see § 950). 

Sing. 2, mnif, 3, innreA-6, plur. 1, mtinmir, 2, 
mnp-6, 3, intipoif (i^shuw* or iw'shuCH, i»'shimeesh, 
if'shee, itt'shufcesh). 

Of gAil, ofgLA-b, ofgtAmAoif, ofgtAio, ofglA-OAOif 
or of gLdioif. 

§ 1285. Present (see § 990). 

Intipin, uuip|\, irmpeAnn, imipinfo, inmprf, wnf 10.: 

OfglAlm, OfglAIJX, OfglAtW, OfglAniAOIT), ofgAilcf,, 

§ 1286. Optative (see § 1253). 

IntifeA-o, irnipp, innp*, irmpmfo, mnpo. 

OfglAO, OfglAlf, OfglAlO, OfglAHIAOIT), OfglAIO. 

§ 1287. Imperfect (see 1 188). 

TVmnpnn, o'wnifcei, o'lnnfeA-o, o'ltmpmif, o'wn. 
poi r . 

o'ofgldmti, -o'orgAilcei, o'ofgtA-o, tfofglAniAoif 1 
o of glAOAoif or o'of glAioif . 

§ 1288. Past (see § 1207). 

"O'mnfeAf, o'mnpf, o'mnif, o'ltinfeAmAf^ o'ltmf 
eAOAp, o'mnfeAOAf. 

t)'of gUr, -o'of jjlAif, o'of 5A1I, o'of glAniAf, o'ofgtA- 

§ 1289. Like mnif (in omitting the vowel of the second 
syllable when a vowel begins the added syllable) are 
rniif, play, oibif (*/eeb'ir), banish, cuitml (Kim'il), rub, 
Aictn (ah'in), recognise, etc. 

§ 1290. Like ofgAit are cofAin, tAbAip, pubAil, 
cooaiI (Kudh'il), sleep; reAdAin (shaCH'm), avoid, 
beware of; AbAif, say; da^ai^ (boG'ir), threaten; 
ceAii^Ail (kaNG'il), bind- In the case of cooaiI, when 
x the x> and I come together, they sound like IX, as cooIawi, 
pr. Kui/im, I sleep. 

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§ 1 291. When we come to the future of 
contracted verbs, we find ourselves on more 
or less debateable ground. The usage of 
the writers of the i6th and 17th centuries 
differs from the general spoken usage of 
the present day. As the older forms are 
frequently met in books, it is well to be 
familiar with them, but for practical use, 
the modern form is recommended. 

§ 1292. The old method of forming the 
future of contracted verbs was, by changing 
the 1 or 41 of the last syllable into eo. In 
the case of 41 the preceding syllable had 
also to undergo a change, in accordance 
with the euphonic law "slender with 

§ 1293. Examples : innif, mtieof at>, I shall tell ; 
intieof A1|\, thou wilt tell, etc 1mii% mieonAT) ; t)ibi|% 
ofbeojvAo ; cuitnil. cuimeolAT) 5 aichi, AifceonAT). 

OfSAil, oirgeoUM ; lAbAin, lAibeoj\AO ; cooaiL, 
coi-oeolA-o ; AOAin, AibeonAo ; ceAttgAil, ceingeolAT). 

§ 1294. LADAnpAT), I shall speak ; fttibalf at>, I shall 
walk ; fedCAnf at), I shall avoid, are instances of con- 
tracted verbs with the future in f . 

§ 1295. The future of contracted verbs 
is now formed as if the imperative ended 
in 15. 

§ 1296. Examples : 1mip, rnineocA-o (im'roeHudh, 
imrodh) ; T)(bin, T)fbj\eoCAT) ; cuitnil, cuimleoCAo ; 
416111, AitneodAt) ; ofgAil, ofgl66AO ; lAbAip, tAb^\6- 
6ao ; cooaiI, cot>166ao (Kui/oCHudh, KuLodh) ; AbAin, 
AbpodAO ; ceAngAil, ceAnglocAO ; fiubal, publocAT) 
or puoAtf ad ; feACAin, feACn66AT>. 

§ 1297. The future of mmf" is in Munster miieof ao 
\*-5-sudh), as formerly. Elsewhere mtifeoCA-o. 

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§ 1298. Vocabulary. 

bite-awnac (bih'uw'naCH, bihoonacH), thief, villain. 

|\1A|\ (ree'ar), order, regulation. 

j\iA|VAtfiAit, subject, obedient, docile. 

Do6cAnA6c (buCHth'unaCHth),/., poverty. 

cfvtiA'OCAn (Kroo'a-thun), qunvocam (-thin),/! hardship. 

reo-o (shodh), tn. t a precious thing, gen. seoid. 

*f ilX (fi/, Munster, fee/), return ; fille**, returning. 

1 gCAieeAtii, during, followed by genitive. 

mAcinuA (moK-auNtha), honest, well-behaved. 

ceu-otonjA'b (kaedh-LuNGuw\ -a), m. t a literary word 
for the vulgar bpeicjreAjXA, breakfast. 

SoLarii (Sul'uv), Solomon. 

"OAibi* (dhau'vee, Munster, dhau), also "GAiti (dhau'hi), 

T3|\iAti t)6|\ArhA (bo'ruwu, bo'roo), or t)6poiihe 
(bo'riv-8), Brian Boru. 

hhit (blauh), bloom, a flower, plural, blit*. 

fOfgA* (fuss'Guw', fuss'GS) or f AfgA* (foss-), shelter, 
gen,, -ai*. 

te f eicf inc, to be seen ; te f AjAit, to be found \ te 
■oetmAth, to be done. 

te in the foregoing and similar phrases placed before a 
verbal noun expresses what is possible or necessary, 
mACAifte (moCH'ir-S), m. t open country, a plain. 
|ier&» smeeth, clear of obstacles 

§ 1299. ¥>i |ti Ann fA-o* <5, 7 if feAfi 

'OACATTlAlL 01101*66 A1T1 Alt CAIjVOeATTlAlL jrtAIC- 

eMhait t>o bf Ann. *Oo cofn<v6 f 6 a cty 
50 feAjiAiriAit, 7 t>o •ofbjieA'o f 6 aij*o jac 
biceAthnAC 7 jac •ojtoc-'otiine nAC mbio*© 

CiAjvAriiAit x>6. <dcu iia •oeAg-'OAOine 50 
£i]t, bfoff A5 CAiceAtn beAUAti Aoibne 
f oqtA f AiT3bif\e j;An boccAnAcc 5An cjwa < 6- 
CAin. *0A jqiocA-o *otnne f Ainne dip n<5 
reo*o Luacitiah aji bic aji cjtAnn te cAob An 
odcAiji, 7 t>a n-imcigeA'd f6 teir Annfin 
5An f it/leA'6 Ajt Aif 50 ceAnn btiAtinA, 7 
50 pubtA'd nA mftce An cftijje pn 1 

* In Ulster, cill and pill are used in this meaning. 

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gCAiceArh nA btiA"6nA, bfo*6 An f^itine no 
An f eot) te fAJAit aji An gcp^nn rioime -at; 
ceAcn a^ Aif t>6. 

SeAcndcArd md An 'orioc-mnne 7 tii 
bAoJAt t>om An twine mACAncA. 

Uaji 4if mo ceu'otonjAiti (nd, mo brieic- 
peA]XA) pubtdcATO md (nd, pubAtfAi-6 
md) mite, caj\ dip md 'oinndip, CAiupit> m£ 
piopA, 7 caj\ dip mo puipdiri, ccotdcAi-ome 
An oi*6ce, 7 dirieocAi'6 md Ap mAitnn 5 An 
cuippe 5AH fgic opm. 

Da copmAit &n fii tit) te SotAm mAc 
l bAibi , 6 nd te t)ttiAn t)dpAtnA pf CirteAnn. 

-dp peAo ha nAimpipe ceo (hot) cipime, 
bfoti ha hdm (nd, nA heunACA) A5 •oeur.Atfi 
ceoit binn, acc beiti piAt> (rid, beix>) 'nA 
•ocofc Af po Am ac -co •oeipeA'd An jjeimpm 
cpuAi*6 puAip. flf oevo VAaca buroe An 
cfAmttAi'b te peicpnc Art put) An m&cAipe 
Flipping tidfo, nA t>uitteAbAp gtAr* ha 
coitteAO crt^obAige op Ap gcionn Ag t>eu- 
nAth popgAi-o -ouinn d 'n ceAf 7 d 'n bpeAp- 



§ 1300. In English, adjectives are the 
same in singular and plural. But in Irish, 
as in other languages, adjectives have a 
plural form when they qualify a plural 
noun. The plural is the same in form 
whether the noun be masculine or feminine. 

j 1301. Adjectives ending in a broad 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


consonant form the plural by adding &. 
L<\ fUAjt, a cold day ; taeceAnca piaf^, 
cold days. Cnoc ajvo, a high hill ; cntnc 
ajvoa, high hills. 

§ 1302. Adjectives ending in a slender 
consonant form the plural by adding e. 
t)eAn til 41 c, a good woman ; mnA m<Mce, 
good women. <dic f ollAin, a healthy place ; 
AiceacA fottAine, healthy places. 

§ 1303. A few adjectives ending in a slender consonant 
form the plural in -a, as c6ij\, cojva ; 'oeACAip, ■oetcn* ; 
fOCAIJX, focn*. 

§ 1304. All adjectives ending in -rhAit 
end in -rht& in the plural, as t)*oine f eaji- 
atyiIa, manly people (far'uw'la, faroola). 

§ 1305. tUfAl " noble " becomes twifle (oo'esh-/8) 
in the plural ; twine UAfal, a gentleman, o*ome 
MAifte, gentlemen, gentlefolk (of both sexes). 1fOAl 
(eesh'ul), low, not noble, plural (fie (eesh'*8). 

§ 1306. When an adjective ends in a 
vowel, it undergoes no changes whatever 
in termination, either in singular or plural. 
T)uine AOfCA, an aged person ; corfiAipte 
•otnne <\ofca, an aged person's advice ; 
•OAoitie AOfCA, aged people. 

§ 1307. Ue ** hot " is an exception. It becomes ced 
both in the genitive singular feminine and in the plural. 
"O'eif v\a hAimpuxe ce6, after the hot weather. X\a 
1-AeteAticA ce6, the hot days, beo " living " follows the 
general rule, except after X>6 9 the genitive •? On, " God,'* 
as bniAtn* X)6 bi, the words of the living God, tTUc X>6 
bf, the Son of the living God. 

§ 1308. When the plural of the noun 
ends in a slender consonant, the initial con- 

Digitized by VjOOQI€ 

sonant of an adjective following it is 
aspirated, as pp rndjtA, big men ; Uxc^in 
bATiA, white ducks (§ 1233). 


§ 1309. beioeAt),* I shall be, 

jtACAt) (roCH'udh),I shall go (also fto-g^o, 


ciocf At> (/uK'fudh, AiK'udh), I shall come 
AoeujifA-o (a-</aer'fudh, a-d&er'hudh) ) g » 
or t>eujif<vo (d&er'fudh, </aer'hudh) )*+ % 
beupfAt) (baer'fudh, baerliudh), I shall 

bear, bring. 

beujif ao aj\, I shall catch (see § 1066), 
•oo beujif At) or beupf At) (vaer.) \ x lhall 
ciubjiAt) (foor'udh), #/fer certain > give 

particles ) °* brin 8 

reob<xt> (gyS'wudh)) 1 ^ «£* 8° <**»*{* . 
5 eab*t> (gyou'udh) Jf s a i s ' b tt sed). F 
•oo jjeobAt) or j;eob<vo (yo-) ) I shall get or 
t>o geAbAt) or jeAbAt) (y° u -) J find 
pji^eAt) (fwee'udh) or f AigeAt) (fwei'udh), 

after certain particles, I shall get or find. 
fofA-o (eess'udh), I shall eat. 
tntnfibf eAt) (mwir'fudh), more commonly 

mAjAdbAt) or mAij\eobAtrf- (morodh, mwar- 

odh), I shall kill (future of tnAftb, — mor'uv, 

or mAiAbui5, kill, §417). 

* N.B. — Also written beat) and beao, I shall be; 
Wits beip, thou, etc.; beitmo, beimfo, we, etc.; beitf, 
beifcf, ye, etc ; b£it>, beiT>, they, etc. See § 688. 

t Also written WA^b66At) and mAinbeoCAO, the b 
being silent, as it is in mAnbui£. IYI Anb and mtiinbfOAo, 
used in Ulster, have the best authority. 

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§ 131a The forms <voeuj\jr<vo, oeurifAO, beupfAt>. 
beupjNVO, were formerly always A-oeup or A-oeuj\Ao, 
beurtoo, x>o beuj\ or 00 beu|\<vo. The rule was that 
when a short vowel in the present (A-oeip, &c.) became 
a long vowel in the future, no r was added. This rule is 
still observed in the futures ending in -ocao or -eoCAO. 

§ 131 1. The first a in AoeupfAo and the *oo in 00 
ben|\pAo, -oo JeobAo, «o geAbAO, through not being 
accented, are now commonly dropped altogether, thougn 
formerly they formed part of the word. See §§ 763, 794, 

§ 1312. Instead of beur\f a*o or ciubj\At>, I shall give, 
CAbAppAt) (thourludh, thoor'fudh) is frequently used, 
especially in Munster. It is a new formation from the 
imperative CAbAin. 

§ 1 3 13. The particles after which ciub|tAt> 
and ftnjeAt) or pMgeAt) are used are the 
same as those after which ]t4ib is used 
instead of bf, § 671, namely, an, nf, n<*c, 
50, also ca and mutiA. See also §§ 730 

§ 1314. After nf, fince^t) or pMgeoo) is 
written as if eclipsed, ni opjigeAO (wee'udh) 
mi bpAigeat) (wei'udh). 

§ 1315. The 2nd person plural of the 
future is seldom used, *>., cuippci. Instead 
of it the 3rd singular with pb is usual 
(cui]\fi-6 pb). When there is no f in the 
future ending, the 2nd plural, if used, must 
end in -caoi or ci, according as it follows a 
broad or slender vowel, e.g., ajtooccaoi, 
§ 1270, bei-ocf, § 688 (or beici), ]\, 
ciuba|\c4oi, jeobuAoi, piijcf, etc., § 1309. 
Of course in all these instances the 3rd 
singular with pb is more usual. 

§ 1 316. Vocabulary. 

gApf un (Gorsoon), a small boy. 

reAfg (shasK), dry, #>., not mijking. 


# Digitized by VjOOQl€ 


mApc (morth), m, t a steer or beeve. 

t>e<Aih4|\ (rour, ra'wur), fat. 

£4riiAin (Ga'win), m. t a calf (usually of over six months). 

li^Ad*, plut alof\i\^ mare. 

bfvomAC (brum'aCH), m. t a foal, a colt. 

eu"Ocr\om (aedh'rum), light ; cof-euoc^om, lightfooted 

5646, 56 (gae), m. f goose, plural, goa-ona (gae'Na). 

gLdf means greyish as well as green. 

ceAiWAi'oe (kaN'ee), a merchant, trader. 

e4]\jv4i-6e (ar'ee), plural, wares, goods. 

pirmce (ri«k'8), m. t dancing, capering. 

mnA feAf-a, women of knowledge, " wise- women.' 1 

cirmc£ip (tinkzcr), tinker. 

f ao|\ (saer), a craftsman, artizan. 

ceAjvoAifo (kaardhee), tradesman, craftsman. 

cei^-o (ke*/),/, a trade or craft, an occupation. 

|Tt\6icfc«(sthi6k'hft), torn. 

ca ruil 454m, I hope, expect. 

Atfi|\Af (ou'rus, av'xus), m., doubt, gen, AtfifVAif. 

t>ocar\ (dhuCH'ur), m. t harm, £**. t>o6ai|\. 

§ 1 3 17. t)f acmac Ann An La fin. t)f 
t)AOine m6\\A Ann 7 T>Aome beAgA, uo.oine 
UAifte 7 t)Aomeifte,tyAoine boccA 7 t)Aoine 
fAi'obpe, fijt 65A 7 mnA 65A, feAn-rnnA 7 
^eAn-t)Aoine, CAiUnf 7 gA^fuin beAjjA. t)i 
bA bAinne Ann 7 bA feAfgA, mAipc peAii'ipA 
7 gAtfinA beAgA geo^A, Iajiaca 7 bpomAig, 

CApAltt bj\eAJA ttl6|1A 7 CApAlttbeAJA COf- 

etmcjiomA, mucA ]\eATfi]\A 7 bAinb, CAOijtig 
7 Af Alt, ceAftcA 7 coibj 7 Iacaw, g&vonA 
bAnA 7 5eA"6nA gtAfA 7 jAnntxMt. t)f 
ci5e<\|AiiAi*6e CAtriiAn Ann 7 ceAnnAi"6ce 
eAjApAi'oe, tucu ceoit 7 Lucu pinnce, mnA 
feAfA 7 cmnc£ij\i, fAOip A-omAit) 7 fAoip 
ctoice, ceA]\t)Ait>ce gAn ceijvo, CAitXitiir\i 7 
cdcAme fqidicce opr\A, 7 jjpeufAi'oce beAgA 
bpeujACA 7 bpogA bjtif ce oppA. 

<dn bpuijjro cu nA teAbpA nuAOA u*o T>om ? 

SeAbA-o mA'f f ^ix)i|t, 7 munA bpuigeAt), 



ca p3it ajaiti 50 bfuigeA-o tiA teab]\& eite, 
ttiaY m^ic te<\c i<vo. 
. -An ^ac-aiu SeAmuf 50 CopcAig 1 mbA]AAc ? 

Hi jiacai'o. Hi ciocpAfo ye <\]a <Mf Af 
JaiLLitti 50 cearm feo.ccrh<vine eile. 

-An j ociub|t4i , 6 ye Le\y <vn cap<\U, u*o t)o 
ce&nnuij; f6 1 n£AiU,irn ? 

t3eupfAi"6 gan ariijtaf. Hi £eu , 0]:o.i , 6 f6 
e ^AgAit 'n<\ "diaro. 

-An fib y eoit no io.f 5 ? A|t n^ooij. 
iof AmAOit) <xn t>a cuit) (both). Hi -oeAnf 0.1*6 
pA*o t)oc<\tt A]\ biu 'o'a c6ite. 

-An gccoldcAi-o fib fa' mobile <xnocc? 
bu-o •oeACAip a f 0V6 (to say it, its saying) 
Co.icf mux) imce&cc 50 tu<\c <\]\ niAi'oin. 



§ 1 3 18. We have seen that the use of the 
verb with the " auxiliary " shall or will in 
English is rendered by a special form of 
the verb in Irish, the future tense. When 
shall or will, in English, change to should 
or would, the future in Irish changes to the 
CONDITIONAL. See § 712, where the use 
of the conditional of the verb bf is explained. 

% 1 3 19. The conditional form is sometimes called the 
" conditional mood." But it may, with better reason, be 
regarded as a tense, as it expresses the idea «f future time 
in connexion with a past statement. If, in speaking to a 
person yesterday, I said, "ni peicp-6 me 1 mbAjiAC tu " 
(I shall not see you to-morrcw— fulu e), in reporting the 
fact to another person to-day, 1 say, " T>ub4ifiu me teip 
nac bpeicpinn imoiu 6" (1 told him that I should not 
see him to-day — conditional). For this reason, instead of 
conditional the term secondary future is usrd, i.c, future 
in secondary or past time, in the narration of a past state- 

Digitized by VjOOQI€ 


§ 1320. Besides this use in reporting a statement, or 
alluding to an event regarded as future at some past 
period, the conditional is also used to express a supposi- 
tion or some fact regaided as depending on a supposition. 
Example : *oa bpeicpmn 6, ni fiACAinn A-batte, if I werr 
1© see him, I should not go home. 

§ 132'. In the foregoing sentence, the first clause 
jexpresses a supposition, and the second clause expresses 
something depending on that supposition. In both the 
conditional is used. The first clause contains the condi- 
tion on which the second clause depends, hence the form 
of the verb used is called conditional, 

§ 1322. It must be observed that when "should" in 
English means " ought," its equivalent in Irish is " bu-6 
coiji" or "bu-6 ce-Ajic" = it would be right (t>uic, for 
you), or some similar phrase. Also when " would n 
expresses desire, it is to be translated by "bu*6 m&i£ 
tiom," " bu-6 thiAn tiom," or some such phrase. 

§ 1323. In all verbs the conditional is formed in the 
same way, by changing the terminations of the future, 
just as the terminations of the future of bi are changed to 
form its conditional (§ 712). It may be also remarked 
that the terminations of the conditional correspond to 
those of the imperfect (§ 1 188), and, except in the 1st and 
2nd persons singular, to those «f the imperative. 

§ 1324. Example: 
(•00) cftei-opinn (hy>ed'fi». hyVefiw), 1 should 

„ c^ei-opeA (hyVed'fau, hyVe/au), thou wouldst 

M cjiei-opeAo (hyVed'fuCH, hyVe/uCH, or 
hyVerf'fuw', hyVe/'uw'), (he, she, it) would 

w 6tiei*opimip (hyVed'fimeesh, hyye/imeesh), we 

„ CftefopeA-o fib, ye would 

„ cpei-opi-oif (hyVed'fitfeesh. hy Ve/'ideesh), they 

§ 1325. Example: 
(*oo) motfAmn (wul'fwitf, wul'hiw), I should 
„ motf a (wul'fau, wul'hau), thou wouldst 
„ motfA-o (wul'fuCH, wulhuCH, or wul'fuw*, 

wul'huw'), (he, she, it) would 
„ thotfAmAOif (wul'famweesh, wul'hamweesh), ^ '« 

we should 
„ motpA-6 fib, ye would 
„ motpA-oAoif or motpAi-oif (-dheesh or -deesh), 

they would 

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§ 1326. The notes in §§ 1191, 1192, 1193, 1194, and 
1198, all apply to the conditional as well as to the im per- 
fect % the letter f, of course, preceding the terminal ion in 
each instance in the ca^e of the conditional, and the 
meaning being changed from *' used to " to." should " or 
" would." 


§ 1327. We have seen in § 835 how to 
translate "of a horse" in the phrase, "the 
head of a horse." The form c^paitA,, cor- 
responding to " of a horse," is, as we are 
aware, called the genitive singular. When, 
however, we wish to translate " of horses," 
we use a different form. The Irish for 
" the feet of horses " is cof a c^patl. Here 
the word cap^Ul is still in the genitive case, 
but it is also in the plural number, and it 
is called the GENITIVE PLURAL. 

§ 1328. It will be observed that CApAtt, meaning "of 
horses," is exactly the same in form as CApAtt, meaning 
" a horse." This is true of a very large number of nouns, 
but not of all nouns. As a rule, nouns of the first 
(§ &3%) second (§ 912), and third (§ 979) declensions 
are the same in form in the genitive plural as they are in 
the nominative singular (the form usually given in the 

§ 1329. Examples for translation : mo euro teADAft 
(see § 847). T)o cuix> udaVL Cf Arm -] a cam-o ff eum. 
feuf ^cwo ctoc. SeA«-beAn -] a cuit> ceAjtc. Iao -j 
a gcuro cteAf. CiAif feAC -j a cuit> cent). &$ scwo 
feox>. Distinguish between obAip mo true and obAiji 
mo rhAC. 1Tl6jtAn cnArh. t)eA5A« focAt. lomAO 
iqpAn. Ax\ oifeA"o fin dao. Ca meux> cotm ? Of 
ctonn a jCAifteAn. 1 bfOCAif bujt mbAjvo. 1 n-Atce 
■oo bf 65. 

§ 1330. Sometimes, when the final consonant is slender 
in the nominative singular, it becomes broad in the 
genitive plural (i.e. the vowel 1 is omitted), as fuit, an 
eye, gen. pi, f ut„ Of comAtft mo f ut, before my eyes. 
Ra-oaji c a f ut, the sight of her eyes 

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§ 1331. When the noun has a strong plural (§§ 1 139 to 
1 144, and 1172), the tendency is to use the form of the 
strong plural as genitive plural, as 1 meAfj nA mAt>ftAix>e» 
among the dogs ; Aft peat) t\& t&ete&nz& fin, throughout 
those days. 

1 332. Hut this popular tendency is not usually observed 
in literature, and not always even in colloquial language, 
e.g. cimceAlt nA r^^fe around the armies ; A5 umfiwx: 
fjeut, telling stories. 

§ 1333. When the nominative plural ends in -1 or me 
(§§ "99» ,200 » ,2I 3» I21 5» 1216), or when the plural 
dffers strongly from the singular, the genitive plural is 
usually the same as the nominative plural. 

§ 1334. It was formerly the custom with many writers 
to make the genitive plural of such nouns end in -a-6, as 
ceACCAtjte, gen. pi. ceAcrAifieA'6 ; twine, nem. pi. 
t>AOine, gen. pi. T>AoineA*6 ; seACA, gen. pi. seACAroeAO 
or 5eAUA*6. But this seems to have been only an artifice 
to keep the forms distinct in writing. 

§ 1335. In the fifth declension (see § 1094, etc.) the 
genitive plural is the same in form as the genitive singular, 
as tube (or uibeACA) lACAn, ducks' eggs. 

But when the nominative plural diners much from the 
singular, the form of the nominative plural is often used 
for the genitive plural (as stated in § 1333) e.g. ; cap a, 
friend (§ 1098), 1 bfocAip mo tAijvoe, in company with 
my friends ; coill, a wood (§ 1099), 1 n-Aice ha 
gcoiltce, near the woods. 

§ 1336. When the strong plural ends in -Ann a or -a6a 
(see examples in § 1 172), it is the practice sometimes to 
form the genitive plural by dropping the final a of the 
strong plural— tidf, a letter, cumA nA ticpeAc, the 
shape of the letters. But the full form ending in -a is 
also used. 

§ 1337. The genitive plural of bean, a weman, is bAn 
(bon), as compA^o bAn, women's conversation. The 
genitive plural of b6, a cow, is b<S, as aoajica bo, cows' 
horns. t>6 being also the genitive singular, aoajica \>6 
may likewise mean " a cow's horns." 

§ 1338. We have already had the word juit>, a thing. 
There is another word, which means "a thing," namely, 
ni (nee) also written nix>. The pluial of this is neice 
(*S'h«), things, and the genitive plural is also neice, e.g. 
rnottAn neite, many (of) things. 

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§ I 339- To sum up, the genitive plural is usually 
formed in one of three ways : 

(i) It is the same as the nominative singular. This is 
the rule for the first, second, and third declensions, except 
in some instances of strong plurals ; 

(2) It is the same as the nominative plural. This is the 
rule for the fourth declension, and for most strong plurals*. 
Final a is sometimes dropped ; 

(3) It is the same as the genitive singular. This is 
the rule for the fifth declension. 

§ 134a After the article, nA, the genitive plural is 
eclipsed, as StiAD nA mbAn, the mountain of the women ; 
A'OAftCA tiA mb6, the horns of the cows. (See § 375. ) 
If the noun begins with a vowel, n- is prefixed, as 
6V&mAoif ptAince nA n-eun, let us drink the health of 
the birds. 

§ 1341. Read the Rule in § 852 as to the omission of 
the article before the first of two nouns. This rule also 
applies when the second noun is a genitive plural. Ex- 
amples : uptAift nA f£iob6t, the floors of the barns ; 
A^AfCAip nA n-AfAt, the halters of the asses ; gtAif nA 
nx>oitire, the locks of the doors ; cofA ha fcot, the feet 
of the stools ; uifse nA t>cobAjt, the water of the wells ; 
olAnn «a n-UAn, the wool of the lambs; A"6mAT> nA 
n-ttftlAti, the wood of the floors 5 teAtAp nA n-AOAfCAjt, 
the leather of the halters ; teADAip nA nAoih, the books 
of the saints ; a'Dajica nA TCAfib, the horns of the bulls ; 
fninn ha n-AbjtAn, the airs of the songs; t>AncA nA 
mbA|ro, the poems of the bards ; bAf a thAC, the death of 
his sons. 

§ 1342. Vocabulary : 
■D'AbftocAinn (dh'ob'rfCHi*, dh'ob'r6»), conditional of 

ADAift, say. 
rseut, story, also means a matter, an affair. 
t>ei'6eAnAC (Vaen'aCH), late, last. 
cioc^At) (AiK'fudh, AiK'hudh), I shall come (future of 

pop, down ; also spelled fcfof. 
ca bpof (Kov'iss), how is it known ? Who can tell ? 
c a bpof tunc, how can you know or tell ? 
cteAthnAf (klou'nus), a match, a marriage alliance. 
p6f (poss), marry. 

CAit>6 (Ka-^ae 1 ) or soi-oo (Gu-dae), what. 
Seic (ge/) or jeice fee/*), m. a start, a fright 
cuAitum (thooV-im),/. a guess, an opinion. 

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t>a f uit, two eyes 

co$a-6 (kuguw', Kuoa), m. war. 

■oaII, as a noun, means a blind person. 

Sea-onA (shae'Na), a man's name. 

Sa-od (seiv, or sa-wh'),/ a woman's name. 

§ 1343. Translate : 

TH AopdcAinn 50 pAib ah fgeut com otc 
pin Ap |r<xt>. tluAip ciocj-wo ah La 'odi'deAnAc, 
ni beit>e*x*6 ciop Leip acc e pdm. Ciomiup 
bei*6eAt> <\n pgeut aici, t>a rroeAHA'd Se<von& 
niAp •odAtifA'o SeAgAii fauroe ? 

TJubAipc f 4 teif f 6m, '< Ca bpop An 
mAippnn nA cpf btiAonA "oeu^ f&n ?" 

T)ubAipc S<vob gup b* i yem t>o bpip An 
cteAtiinAf, 7 Aon cleAtiinAf t>o •o&vnpvi'oip 
00 S^atwa, 50 mbpiffeAO yi Ap An gcumA 
5c6At>nA 6, nuAip nA pdr-fA'6 (= nAC 
bpdpp At>) p£ i f 4in. 

Cai*o6 An jjetc t)o bAwpeAO feAp nA 
n-A'OApc Aif a ! 

1f 6 mo cuAipim,'mA bAinpeAO y6 geic 
Aifa, 50 mbAinfeAt> p geic Af . b'f 4it>ip 50 
gcAicf eA*6 fi An c-uip ge ce iT>ip An t>a f thL 

Hi btiAn C05AO nA gcApAt). 

1 n*oomAn nA n'OAlt, if pi feAp &on- 

CAicp'd feAp nA mbpd*5 beic Amuig. 



§ 1344. Adjectives have the same form 
in the genitive plural as they have in the 
nominative singular. Example : feAp mdp, 

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a big man ; ce<\c n<v bp e<vft mo\\, the house 
of the big men. 

§ 1345. The genitive plural of nouns 
causes eclipsis in the initial consonant of the 
adjective that follows, and if several adjec- 
tives follow, each is eclipsed. Example: 
ci|\ ha bfeaji gqxdtxv tjcaUikx, the land of 
the brave, valorous men (c&tnio., Kol'um-£, 
valorous). If the adjective commences with 
a vowel, n- is prefixed as in the other 
instances of eclipsis already given. Exam- 
ple : ftuo.5 n<x bpe<vi\ n-65 n-Atumn, the 
host of the young handsome men. 

§ 1346. If a noun is followed by another 
noun in the genitive case, singular or plural, 
"the initial letter of the second or genitive 
noun is subject to precisely the same rules 
as if it were the initial of an adjective. 

(a) When an adjective follows a feminine noun in the 
nominative or accusative case, singular number, the first 
consonant of the aujeclive is aspirated (§ 471). The same 
applies to a genitive, as 06 OAinne, a cow of milk, a 
milch cow. 

(6) When an adjective follows a masculine noun in the 
genitive singular, the initial of the adjective is aspirated 
(§ 1240). The same applies to the initial of a genitive 
following a masculine genitive, as T eA V fiuttail, a man of 
walking, a wayfarer ; fjetit jmji f iuoaiI, the story ©f a 

(c) When an adjective follows any noun in the genitive 
plural y the initial of the adjective is eclipsed (§ 1345), 
The same applies to a genitive noun following a genitive 
plural, as ctoc fctainn, a stone of (bonn) foundation, of 
cionn n-A jctoc mbtiinn, above the foundation stones. 

(d) If in the last rule, the initial of the adjective is a 
vowel, n- is prefixed (§ 1345). The same applies to a 
genitive, as fiuAJ f e-Aft neifteAnn, the host of the men 
of Ireland. 

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§ 1347- The rale as to an adjective or genitive being 
eclipsed after a genitive plural is often broken in collo- 
quial Irish. The following is the way in which the 
instances already given would commonly be spoken : 
cijt na bf eajt cji6va calma ; ftuAg «a ope-Aft 63 
Atuirm ; op cionn ha 5CI06 buirni ; ftuA§ peAfi 


§ 1348. Refer back to §§ 750, 751, for an 
explanation of the forms bi*6e4f (or bfof ) 
and bei*6eo.r* (be<vf). Similar forms are 
used in relative clauses for all other verbs, 
with the exception of a few irregular verbs. 
The relative form always ends in -Af (-e<xf 
after a slender consonant). The only tenses 
that have the relative form are the present 
and future. The initial consonant of the 
relative form is aspirated. 

§ 1349. Examples of relative forms : 

Verb Relative Present Relative Future 

mot mot-Af (wul'us) motpaf (wul'fus, 

cji eix> Cftei-oeAf (hy'fied'us) Cf eiT>pe4f (hy'recf - 

fus, hy'refus) 
ifotiij Aft T>ui§eaf (aurdh'eess) AfVo6c4f (aurdh- 

och-us, aurdh-5ss) 

§ 1350. In the northern half of Ireland, there is a 
corrupt form of the relative present in common use, 
motannf, c-ftei-oeannf, formed by adding f to the 3rd 
person singular of the present, motann, efteiT>e4nn. 

§ 1351. In the southern half of Ireland, especially in 
the eastern part of Munster, the relative forms, both 
present and future, have almost gone out of popular use> 
though they are probably pretty generally understood. 
Instead of them, the ordinary form of the third person 
singular is used, with the initial aspirated, motAnn, 
c^tei'oeAnn, riiotpAi'o, dftei-ojM'o. 

§ 1352. The relative form is never used 
after n<vc. 

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| 1353. During recent times it has become usual to 
prefix the particle *oo, or its broken form a, to the verb 
in a relative clause. This particle has been erroneously 
termed a relative pronoun.* Example : An feajt a 
6tiAiteAf for An peAft ouAiteAf, the man who strikes. 

§ I 354- Examples of use of relative forms? 

An ce fiubtAf b6tA|t faoa, meiteAnn \k min t 
SAjifc. He who travels a long road, (lie) grinds (both) 
tine and coarse. tYleil (mel), grind. 

An ce f iubAt|?Af (or f itibtocAf ) b6cAjt faoa, meit- 
pi-o f e min *j SA-ftb. He who will travel a long road 
will grind both fine and coarse. 

An c6 nAC fiubtAnn b6cAft f ada, n! meiteAnn f« 
min ni jAftb. He who does not travel a long road will 
grind neither fine nor coarse. 

An ce nAC fiubAtf ai*6 (or nAC fiubt6cAi£) b6iAjt 
Fat>a, ni meitjM'6 re min n£ jAftb. He who will not 
travel a long road will grind neither fine nor course. 

§ 1355. 11 0.6 eclipses the initial conso- 
nants and prefixes n- to the initial vowels, 
of verbs only. There is another form tia, 
which does not change initial consonants, 
and prefixes h- to vowels, 

§ 1356. Vocabulary : 

choice Ann (Krek'uN), m. skin. 

6<S e iP'&bj' youth. 

FognAm (fo'nuv), m. use, service, usefulness. 

piucA-6 (fyuCH'uw', fyuCH'a), act of boiling. 

* There was never a simple relative pronoun as nomina- 
tive or as direct object of a verb in Irish, the relative 
being expressed by the position and form of the verb. 
There is a relative pronoun governed by prepositions, 
and also a compound relative {i.e. compound in sense) 
containing its own antecedent. ihese forms will be 
introduced later on. The so-called relative in the 
nominative and accusative is really the particle *oo used 
by analogy with the t>o of the imperfect, past, and con- 
ditional, and with the t>o prefixed to a few irregular verbs, 
■oo-seioim, etc. This *oo, often weakened to a, was 
usually dropped at the beginning of a sentence, but 
retained in the middle of a sentence, where the verb has 
usually a relative meaning. 

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Ainnn (a/i»),/ furze, whins. 

lomcAip (ump'ir, Munster oomp'ir), carry. 

iom£*, many, in the phrase if lomtia, " it is many a," 
etc. Pronounced irregularly, eem'a in Ulster, um'ee in 
Connacht, um'o in Connacht and Munster, and 'mo in 

§ 1357- Translate: 

If m<xi|\5 bfof ci of An ceu*o La. 

An put) fgpiobAf An pucA, t6ij;eAnn f£ 
fern 6. 

1f ioitvoa cpoiceAnn cuipeAf An oige "di. 

1f Iuacitia|i An nvo An 61 ge Wn ce 
cui|\e^f 1 aji f ojjnArn. 

tli h-i<vo nA mnA t>eAfA cuipjreAf pocA 
Ap fiucAt>. 

1f f eApp An c£ cuipfeAf Aininn Ap clAi*6e 
nA An c£ cuipfeAf cAifteAn 'f An 5C01LL. 

1f mime bAmeAf t>ume ft,Ac a buAitfe&f 
6 y em. 

An peAp nAC n-iomcApAnn a coca An La 
bpeAj;, ni bionn pe Aige An La fbuc. 

SliAb nA mbAn bponn. 

CiApp Aige nA bfeAji bpiAt. 



§ 1358. The dative case of a noun is 
the form used after a preposition, 

§ I 3S9« Only two classes of nouns have 
a distinct form for the dative case singular : 
(1) feminine nouns ending in a broad con- 
sonant, and (2) nouns of the fifth declension 
(§ 1095, &c.). 

§ 1360. In all other nouns, with a very 
few exceptions, the dative singular is the 
same in form as the nominative singular. 

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§ 1 361. Feminine nouns ending in a 
broad consonant form their dative case by 
attenuation, i.e. y by changing the broad 
consonant into a slender one (just as the 
genitive case is formed in the first declen- 
sion, § 836). Examples : ^65, a shoe, 
dative, bpoig (bro'ig) ; cof, a foot, dative, 
coif (Kush) ; tAtti, a hand, dative, t<virh 

§ 1362. Give the dative singular and meaning of each 
of the following feminine nouns: puinnpeos, 'o-ftifeos, 
ofvo63, jjumneos, ub, fAt, A-OAjtc, stun, tub, tuc, 
fft6ri, bof , muc. 

§ 1363. Sometimes attenuation is accom- 
panied by a change of vowel, as ciatt, 
sense, dative, c£iUl (kae/) ; ctann, chil- 
dren, dative, ctomn (Kle«, Munst, Kleea, 
Klei«). See §§ 883, 931, etc. 

§ 1364. Further examples: 
f51* 10b, a scrape, dative, fjjt fb (shkreeb).* 
f6A|t5, anger, dative, pei|t5 (fer'ig). 
ce^jic, a hen, dative, ape (kirk). 

§ 1365. For nouns of the second dtclension (§ 912), this 
rule for forming the dative may be stated in another way : 
the dative is formed by omitting the final e of the genitive. 
This applies to all the examples given above. 

§ 1366. When c (aspirate c) final is 
attenuated in forming the dative, it changes 
into 5, as it does in forming a genitive 
(§§ 891, 892, 937). C<viUe*c, an old 
woman, dative, caiIIij; ; ge^t^c, a moon, 
dative, jjeAtAig* 

* It may occur to the student to ask, is there any 
difference in sound between f5|tiob and f5|tib. There 
is. When p, b, f or m (the labials or lip-consonants) are 
broad, they are pronounced with the lips protruded. 
When they are slender, they are pronounced with the lips 
drawn back and compressed. 

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| 1367. In these words the final $ is sounded asjp in 
Connacht and Ulster, and as g in Munster (§§ 891, 893). 

§ 1368. In the fifth declension, all words 
form the genitive, as we have seen, by 
adding a broad consonant. The dative is 
formed by making this consonant slender, 
as -Atba, Scotland, dative, <Atb<xm ; 6ijte, 
Ireland, dative, Cijtinn ; c<vp<v, a friend, 
dative, cA|tAi*o ; ceine, fire, dative, ceim-6 ; 
C40ftd, a sheep, dat, caojkmj;. 

§ 1369. Write out the dative of each of the remaining 
nouns given in Ex. CLVH. 

§ 1370. Nouns ending in -ace do not 
change in the dative singular, though they 
are nearly all feminine. 

§ 137 1. Nouns in -ace are usually formed from adjec- 
tives and denote qualities : 

beo-6* (byo'T*), lively; beooAcr (byS'yacmh 01 
byd'aCHth), liveliness. 

tnofOA (m5r'7&), majestic; mOjvoACc (-yacmh), 

cpd-OA, brave ; Cfld-OACC (KrO'yaCHth or Kro'aCHth), 

bfteAj;, fine 5 bfteA^ACc (braa'aCHth), beauty. 

tmaoa, divine; ■oiaoacc (</ee'a-7acmh or dee'acmh), 

miAO, new ; nuAi"6eA6c, news. 

uAf At, noble ; UAipteACC (oo'esh/aCHth), nobility. 

feAtroA (shair'dha, Munster, shouN'dhi), ancient; 
feAnt)A6c (shaN'dhaCHth, shouN'dhaCHth), antiquity. 

AftfAi-o (aur'sly, aur'sa), ancient ; Aft pai'oeACc (aur'see 
aCHth), antiquity. 

CftionnA, prudent ; eftionnACC (kreeN'aCHth), prudence. 

nAOthcA, holy ; nAothtACc (Naev'hacmh), holiness. 

SeAttf, short ; gio^^ACC (gir'raCHth), shortness. 

5jteAnnniA|t, amusing; sfteAnnniAitteACC (g^N'wir- 
aCHth, graN'oof aCHth), amusingness. 

gtOfriiAft, glorious ; 5t6ftmAifteACc, gloriousness. 

UonthAtt, numerous ; tfonmAifteACc, numerousness. 

ffeAt, low ; ifteACC (eesh'/aCHth). lowness. 

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3fiAineAniAit, hateful ; sftAineAthtACC (oraun'uw- 
lacmh, GraunoolaCHth), hatefulness, 

•peAftAmAit, manly ; f eAjtAmtACC, manliness. 
copbAit, like, resembling ; cofAihtACc, resemblance. 
T>6i-6ednA6, late ; •oei-oeAnAcc (^ae'naCHth), lateness. 

§ 1372. All the foregoing are feminine, but fUACC, 
cold, coldness, from fua-ft, cold, is masculine. All nouns 
formed in -acc from other words form the genitive by 
adding -a, as fe&\i ua cftionnACCA, the man of (the) 
prudence. But in the spoken language this a is often 

§ I 373« Irregular datires : 

ftiAO, m., mountain ; genitive, fteibe, dative, f t&b 

ceAC, m. 9 house; genitive, uije, dative, ci£ (fly*). 

l/A, m. t day ; genitive, l&e, dative, t6 (l6). 

bean, f.> woman, wife ; genitive, mnA, dative, uiuaoi 

x>eoc,/, drink; genitive, "0156, dative, 015 fatty'). 

T^iau, /., a knife; genitive, fgine, dative, fjw 

b|tiAtA|t, f. t a (solemn) word ; gen., bjt6it|te, dat, 
bftSifcift (brae'hir). 

b6,/*, a cow ; dative, bum (bwin). 

§ 1374. In colloquial Irish, the nominatives are often 
used instead of the irregular datives. This sometimes 
happens also in the case of regular nouns. On the other 
hand the dative is sometimes used instead of the nomina- 
tive, as peifc (paesh/) instead of piApc (pee'asth),/., a 
worm ; camait> (Kor'W) for CAjtA, a friend ; nAmAi-o 
(Nau'wi*/, Munster, n Am Ait), Nou'itf) for nAthA, an enemy ; 
C15 (rty', Munster, rig) for ceA6, a house.* 


§ 1375. After the numeral v& or *6a, two, 
a special form of the noun is used, which 
is neither singular nor plural. This form 
is called the DUAL number of a noun. 

§ 1376. The dual number is always the 

* CeAC has coije (t'thee) as well as cije in the geni- 
tive, and 5015 (thS-y') as well as cij in the dative. 

Digitized by VjOOQl€ 


same in form as the dative singular : toa 
te<vb4f\, two books; -da Uvith, two hands ; 
<mi t>A ctnx>, the two parts; an t>a coif, the 
two feet. 

§ J 377- The t> of x><v is usually aspirated, 
unless it follows a word ending in t>, c, t, 
n or f (DeNTaLS), or the femtnine possessive 
adjective a, her, its. 

§ 1378. " Two " followed by a noun is t><\ 
or -oa. Not followed by a noun, it is x>6 
or tid. 

# § 1379- All the cases, nominative, geni- 
tive, dative and vocative, have the same 
form in the dual number. 

But the genitive dual may also have the same form as 
the genitive plural. 

§ 138°; The plural form of an adjective, 

with the initial consonant aspirated, follows 

a noun in the dual number, as i>& Uarft 

ge^ta, two white hands. 

§ 1381. Vocabulary : 

jeitt (gae/), yield, submit, give in. getlteAo (gae/W 
or gae/fc), act of yielding, etc., to yield, etc. 

•o'a (dhau) or -o'a (yau) = *oo a, to his, her, its, their. 
. bACAijeACc (boK'ee-aCHth),/, lameness. 

ci pee (kish'/S), m., a chest, a treasury ; genitive, same 

ceijvo {kcrd), /., a trade or occupation ; genitive, 

a pojtAim, the learning of it, to learn it (a feminine). 

cjtioc (kfieeCH), f., an end ; genitive, Cftice(kree'hy8). 

chaix) (Knaurf),/, mockery; genitive, ctiAioe. 

tei*6eAf , relative form of ceioim, I go. Subjunctive, 
cei , 6i , 6. 

ii|tf a (ursa), f,, a doorpost ; genitive, ujtf ah, as in 
§ 1096. 

ni h-Ait teif , he is not pleased, i.e., satisfied. 

Atcoijt (aLthor), f., an altar ; gen., AlcoftA. 

tA£A6 (Lau'aCH), pleasant in manner, agreeable. 

1 «-a (in'aj or 'nA (na), in or into his, her, its, their, 

Digitized by VjOOQI€ 


S^lifOA (irregular pronunciation, Gorr'ee), m. % a garden 
or cultivated plot ; genitive, same. 

^norac (G'nS'haCH), busy; 5116, business. 

ctiAc (Koo'aCH), /., a cuckoo, also a drinking cup; 
gen., cuAice (Koo'a-hy«). 

■ouitte (dhi/6), m., a leaf; genitive, same. 

CAif 5 (Kaushg),/, Easter; genitive, CAfjA (Kauss'Ga> 

peit (fael),/., a festival ; genitive, t?6ite (fael'S). 

tA f6ite (contracted to Lau '«), the word for "day * 
111 naming a holy day or a saint's day. 

fcoc (sthuK), tn. 9 live stock, also a trumpet ; genitive, 
fctiic (sthik). 

t>6n (Lon), m ., provision ; genitive, t6m (Lo'in). 

F^S^ift (foo'aGir), announce, proclaim ; fUASttd 
(foo'aGra), m., act of announcing, to announce, an an- 
ndlincement or proclamation* 

•o^ijic (rfaefk), /., alms ; genitive, -oeifce. 

bt^itce, see § 1127. 

te^riitiACu (/ounacHth),/., new milk. 

beifi A|t tAiih oftm, idiom, catch me by the hand, 
literally, bear on hana on me. 

fnAtt (sh/ee'aL), m. % a piece cut off, a cut or strip. 

ct&tie-dc (klaer'aCH), m„ a clerk; gen., cUiftis. 

ftiAinineAf (soo'evnfes), m. t rest, repose; genitive, 
rniAitrmif (soo'ev-nish). 

fop (sup), m., a wisp, a handful of hay, etc. ; genitive, 

r«ip (sip). 

buAi-o (boo'ey'), m. 9 success, victory; gen., oua-oa 
(boo'a-a, boo'a). 

3jteim (grem, Munster, g^eim), m. t a bite, also a 
grasp ; genitive, 5fteAniA (gram'a). 

coinin (Kun'een), *»., a rabbit ; genitive, same. 

§ 1382. Translate the following proverbs : 

C<Mqpw twine g^itte^yo t>'A fcACAigeAcc. 
1f fUAji ctti 5<xn cifce. 
1f nATftA An ceijvo Jan a fojtAim. 
fM'L AtnAOAn <xp bic 5001 a 661U, f 4m. 
TM C15 ci^tt |toith aoij\ 
1f otc An cjif 06 fcei jteAf Aft f eAft cnAit>e 
lltiAift c^noeAf An gAbAit 50 hupf Am, nt 
tiAit teif 50 TC61616 50 tiAtcdijt. 


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Ua j;ac uite "6ume 50 tA§Ad 50 , ou6i i 6i a 6 
bo 1 n-A jjajijvoa. 

Ua fe corii gnocAC te feAn-thnAoi A|i 

tlUAIJl tAbAJlf Af An CUAC Afl cjiAnn 5 An 

mntte 7 cuicfeAf T)oThnAc CAfgA aji La 
£eite tfluifte, triol t>o fcoc 7 ceanntnjj 

UobAc 1 «'01A1 , 6 bf6, if aji riinAoi An 
cige aca pn. 

TTIaY tniAn teAC Aon nfo t>'puA5j\A, mnip 
mAjt jitin t)o tnnAoi 6. 

Ua t>6ijtc 1 nt>ij; btAicce, acc ca oa 
•66ijic 1 TT015 teAthtiAccA. 

til a beipeAtin cti aj\ tnuic, bei|t aji 
6otf tuppi. 

1f ftlA^I AH fttlt), ctti JJAn CAJlAlt). 

1f tjfi fciAtt t>e teACA|\ mime eite. 

T)eA]iTnAt) An ct^ntig Ap a clog. 

1f feAj\j\ fUAithneAf aji fop ha bu&io 

Aft CT10C. 

1f te 5AC bum a tAog. 
1f feA|\|\ 5|teim t>e cowfn ha •6a 5Jieim 
•oe cac. 



§ 1383. The dative case singular of the 
article (*>., the article An following a pre- 
position) usually causes eclipsis of the initial 
consonant following, as Ag ah b^umneoig, 
at the window ; Aft An mbojtt), on the table ; 
teif An bffon, with the wine ; 6 'n gcAji- 
ftAig, from the rock. 
$ 1384. Strictly speaking, tfhereVer a consonant it 

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eclipsed, a Towel in the same place should always have 
n- prefixed to it ; but it has not been the custom to prefix 
n- after the article ah, or after the interrogative particle 
An. Thus instead of Aft ah n-Aonac it has been usual to 
write Aft An aohac, at the feir; and instead of An 
n-6t4nn cu fion, it has been usual to write An olAnn 
cu |?ion, do you drink wine. 

§ 1385. After the prepositions t>o, to, 
for, and t>e, off, of, the article causes 
aspiration instead of eclipsis, as Wfi feojvo, 
for the table; t)e , n fumneoig, off the 

§ 1386. After the preposition 50m, with- 
out, the article produces no change in the 
initial consonant following, as 5001 an pfon, 
without the wine. After 54m and the 
article, c is retained before the initial vowel 
of a masculine noun, as $<vn &x\ c-eun, 
without the bird ; and c is also retained 
before the initial f of a feminine noun, as 
jjan ax\ cpjht, without the eye. 

§ 1387. The rules given above for the 
use of the singular article after a preposi- 
tion are those most adopted by writers of 
Irish. They are also the rules of the 
spoken language in Connacht. 

§ 1388. In Ulster, all prepositions (except $An) fol- 
lowed by the singular article cause aspiration, as teip An 
pon, with the wine ; 6 'n boftt), from the table. 

$ 1389. In Munster, the preposition 1, in, followed by 
the article (the two together becoming if-An iss'un, wf- 
An, fAn, or before a consonant, f a) usually aspirates, as 
ifAn (infAn) t>Aite, fA bAite, at home (Connacht fA 

§ 1390. In Monster, the preposition Aft followed by the 

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article sometimes aspirates and sometimes eclipses, as Ap 
An t>6t&\\ cr Aft An mb6cAjt, on the road. 

§ 1391. In part of Munster, the prepositions *oo and 
■oe followed by the article usually eclipse, instead of 
aspirating, as "oo'n ofedft, to the man, •oe'n mbo-ffo, off 
the table. 

§ 1392. After the dative article, the 
initials, c and x> are usually not eclipsed, as 
aji Ati caIatti, on the ground ; 6 'n twine, 
from the person. But in Munster t) and c 
after the dative article are usually eclipsed 
like other consonants, as aji An ^caIatti, 6 
'n TTouine. 

§ *393» After the article ati preceded by 
a preposition (as in other cases, see § 441), 
■o and c cannot be aspirated, as Wn twine, 
to the person 5 *>eVi caIa™, off the ground. 

§ 1394. After the article ati, wherever 
another consonant would be aspirated, the 
sound of f is replaced by c (spelled cp ) as 
t)o'n cf AgApc, to the priest ; t>e'n cff ot>a, 
of the silk. See also § 503. But f never 
changes when it precedes a consonant, the 
liquids t> n, and |t excepted, as t>e'n fpeit, 
of the scythe ; •oo'n fcdt, to the stool. 

§ 1395. The preposition qte (**ae) 
through also adds f before the article : qief 
ati (/raess'un) ngojtc, qt6f tia (/raess'Na) 
gojtCAib, through the field, fields. But in 
the spoken language, the form qiit> * 
(treed) or cpfo (Jciretd) is generally used 
instead of cjte, as cjtft) An rigo^c. 

* This is really the form of cp6 combined with the 
personal pronoun of the 3rd person singular masculine. 

Digitized by VjOOQl€ 


§ 1396. In the dialect of Southern Munster, some 
other prepositions add p before the article, as oof na 
pe-Aft-Aib for t)o r\& f eAftAib, to the men ; t>ef nA 
cto^Aib for *oe nA clocAib, off the stones ; Aise-pnA 
mnAi'rj for A3 nA mnAib, at the woman ; ftoimip (rim'ish) 
tiA hx\tbAnACAib for ftoith nA h-A., before the Scotsmen. 

§ 1397. Vocabulary:— 

KeAftftcAC (gaar'KaCH), m. t a young bird; gen., 

lomAin (imau-in, um-au-in), f. t hurling, the game of 
hurley ; gen., 10m AnA. 

lomAnAioe (imaunee, umaunee), m. t a hurler; gen., 

ct-Ai-oe (Kla'yS, Klei), m. t a fence of earth or stone ; 
genitive, same. 

Aiuinn (a7i»), £, furae, whins; genitive, Aitinne. 

cVuaIa (CHoo'afa), heard. 

ctn-ft, sow, plant; 

buAin (boo'en), reap ; buAinc {boo'cnt), act of reaping, 
to reap. 

conjAib (KuNG/iv), keep ; future, comseobAO 
(Ku«5-wudh), I shall keep ; conjbAit (KuNG'wau-il), 
act ©f keeping, to keep. Popular forms : coinnij 
(Kuw'iy'X keep, future comneocAO (Ku»0CHudh, 
Kuwodh), verbal noun, comneAit (Ku»au-il). 

c6riijtA (Ko'rS) or c6p|tA (Kof'ra),/, a coffer, a cup- 
board, also a coffin ; gen., same or cothftAn. 

ftifeos (shZish-OG, /., a cutting or chip ; gen, 

fAit (sal),/, a beam. 

5-dft (Gor), near ; 50ifte (gu^*), nearer, nearest. 

geuft, sharp ; seifte (gae/e), sharper, sharpest 

cuit (Koo'il),/, a corner ; gen., cutAC (Kool'aCH). 

jobAoAn (Gub'adhaun), m. f a kind of sea-bird ; gen., 


c^Ais (thrau-y', Munster, thrau-ig), /., a strand, an 
ebb ; gen., C|iAtA (thrau). 

FtteAfOAit (frass'dhil), attend to, serve; fjieAfOAt 
(frass'dhul), act of attending, &c. 

cuittc (Koor/), /., a court ; gen., cuifce. 

bonn, a sole, also a " groat," fourpence. 

mAift (mwar), live % mAftAin (mor'hin), act of living, 
to live. 

§ 1398. Translate the following pro- 
verbs ;— 

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1f ]?e<x]\]\ <mi c-eun aca fA lAttn nA -ati 
c-eun aca A]t An gcpAoife. 

1f pe^]\}\ An cu biof fA pubAt nA An cu 
triof 1 ttiib. 

1f geAt teif An bpAc t)ub a §eAnnc<xc 

tluAin if cnuAit) Wn cAittij;, cAicp*6 j*i 

1f mAic An c-iomAnAi*6e An feAn Aft ah 

^\f An obAin C15 An frogtAim. 

1f feA]\n An ce cuineAf Aicmn An An 
gctAi'oe nA An ce cuineAf cAifleAn Yah 

t>ionn btAf An An mbeAgAn. 

UAip corn bneugAC leif An bpeAn 
At>ubAinc 50 jcuaIa f e An peun Ag p\j\ 

HlunA gcuiivTo cu f An eAnjtAC, ni buAin- 
px> cu |* a bpojjniAn. 

^5 cun cLAi*6e cimceAtt guinc, teif An 
gcuAic x)o congbAit ifcij. 

Cuijt f a jcdninA 4> 7 jeobAit) cti gnd , 6e. 

Sbf eogA T)e'n cf aiL ceuxniA. 

1y iTiAic An bAodin An jreAn biof An ah 

-An nut) if goine •oo'n cnoroe, if 6 if goine 
t>o'n beut. 

1f geijie ftnt f a jjcijmL (or ctilt) nA t>a 

f Ull |'A f otAf (or CfotAf). 

Tli 1 gcotiinui'oe C15 cnoni-cnAob 6 'n 

Wi C15 teif An n 50b at) An An *oa cnAij t)o 

1f jreAnn focAt fA gctiinc (cuinc) nA 
bonn f a fpAnAn. 

Digitized by VjOOQl€ 


l/t»5 teif <xn u<\n 7 &jtit teif *n eun. 
t)onn mop <\p <sm 5c<xp<xtt mbe^g. 
1H<Mpe<\nn <\n cjuxob Aft an bf<xt, 7 ni 
th-Aipe<xnn <\ti tarn *oo cuip. 



§ 1399. The dative plural of nouns 
always ends in 1b or 41b (both pronounced 

§ 1400. If the nominative plural (up to 
now called simply " the plural ") ends in e 
the dative plural is formed by changing -e 
into -ib, as *ooiftf e, doors, *ooippb ; ftnte, 
eyes, fthtib ; CpiofCAi'oce, Christians, 
C]tfo]x<\i , 6cib. 

§ 1401. If the nominative plural ends in 
-a or in a consonant, the dative plural ends 
in -*ib, as ubta, apples, ubtaib; com, 
hounds, con-Aib ; b<\ijro, bards, bAjYoaib. 

§ 1402. If the nominative plural is made to end in -1 
(§§ 1 199, iai S)» the Native plural is written by adding o, 
as lAfSAi^tl, fishermen, lArsAififo (-eev) ; b-A-ooijii, boat- 
men, bAtrfipio. 

The dative plural of bean is mnAio (m'nau 'iv) and the 
dative plural of b6 is bu aid (boo 'ev). 

§ 1403. The dative plural, like the dative 
singular, is used only after prepositions 
The vast majority of Irish-speaking people 
do not use the dative plural at all, but use 
the nominative plural instead. 

§ 1404. After the preposition gan the 
form of the nominative plural must be 
used, not the dative. 

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§ 1405* The plural article n* leaves 
initial consonants unchanged and prefixes 
h to vowels, in the dative plural, just as in 
the nominative plural (§ 1 135). 

§ 1406. Before the plural article n<\ as 
well as before the singular article <ui, the 
prepositions 1, in, and te, with, have f added 
to them, as if na (iss'Na) bAtxxib or mf n<\ 
b<voAib, in the boats; leif (lesh) n* 
hubUxib, with the apples. 


§ 1407. After a masculine noun in the 
dative singular, an adjective has the same 
form as after the nominative singular, /yn 
peAp mdp, the big man, 6 'n bfe-Ajt in dp, 
from the big man. 

§ 1408. After a feminine noun in the 
dative singular, an adjective ending in a 
broad consonant must have the final con- 
sonant attenuated, as bean tridp, a big 
woman, *oo'n riinaoi th6i{t, to the big 

§ 1409. In other words, the dative feminine of an 
adjective ending in a broad consonant is always the same 
in form as the genitive masculine. Or again, the dative 
feminine is the same as the genitive feminine with final e 

§ 1410. Attenuation in adjectives, as in nouns, is often 
accompanied by change of vowel (see §§ 8S3 to 890, and 
931 to 936). 

§ 141 1. 1o becomes 1 : peAft fionn, a fair man ; beAn 
ponn, a fair woman ; mac &n pijt pitin, the son of the 
fair man ; mac da mini, pmne, the son of the fair woman ; 
tn^c -oo'n riinAoi ftnn, a son of (" to ") the fair woman. 

Digitized by VjOOQl€ 

8 9 

§ 1412. to becomes I : fjeut pfoft, si true story; A3 
inrif me fg^it fty, (at) telling (of) a true story. 

§ 14 13. ea becomes sometimes 1 : tA seat, a bright 
day ; oroee jeAt, a bright night ; -oeifteA-o Ue jit, the 
end of a bright day ; *oeifteA"6 oif>ce 51 te, the end of a 
bright night ; *f An oi"6ce jit, in the bright night. 

§ 1 41 4. eA becomes sometimes ei : An tAih -deAf, the 
right hand ; offo65 nA tAiriie "oeife (<*esh'6), the thumb 
of the right hand ; Aft *oo tAim *6eif (yesh), on your 
right hand. 

§ 1 4 15. Ba becomes 61 : fgiAn jeuft, a sharp knife; 
Co-p nA fgine seifte, the handle of the sharp knife ; 
teif An f5in jeiji (or ng^ijt) with the sharp knife. 

§ 1416. 1a becomes 61 : V eA V P^t, a generous man ; 
mAC fi-p f eit, a generous man's son ; mAC mtiA ^61 te, a 
generous woman's son ; mAC Wn mnAoi ^6it, a son of 
the generous woman. 

§ 1417. O short becomes -ui: c-ftAnn cpom, a bent 
tree ; bun An 6-ftAinn 6jiuini, the foot of the bent tree ; 
btm «a fiamnfeoige cftuime, the foot of the bent 
ash-tree ; pA'n bpuinnf eoi$ cftuim (or septum) under 
the bent ash-tree. 

§ 1418. In the dative feminine, as well as in the 
genitive masculine and feminine, the ending -a6 in an 
adjective becomes -A15, and -oa6 becomes -13 : as beAn 
bjieujAC, a lying woman ; Wn mnAoi ojieugAis, to the 
lying woman ; efft CAippgeAC, a rocky country ; 1 -ocijt 
^ A1 1 t 1 t 5 1 5i m a rocky country. 

§ 1419. Adjectives ending in a slender 
consonant do not change in the dative 
feminine: ob<xip UvecearinMt, daily work, 
'pan obfeip t<\ece<\, in the daily work. 

§ 1420. Adjectives ending in a vowel 
never undergo any change. 

§ 142 1. The dative plural of adjectives 
has always the same form as the nomina- 
tive plural (§§ 1300 to 1307). 

§ 1422. The initial of an adjective 
following a noun in the dative singular 

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should, as a rule, be aspirated, as Ap X>o\\x> 
gtAn, on a clean table. However, when 
the noun is eclipsed after the article, the 
adjective is often eclipsed also after the 
noun, as Ap An mbojtt) ngtAti, on the clean 

§ 1423. In the spoken language, many 
use the adjective in the dative just as in 
the nominative, i.e., they aspirate the initial 
after a feminine noun, and do not change 
it in any way after a masculine noun, as aji 
ati Iaiiti 614, on the left hand ; aji bojvo 
5t<\n, on a clean table. 

§ 1424. Vocabulary t — 

•oufc&df (dhoo'CHus), m. % nature, inborn character/ 
genitive, *oufccAif. 

CAft teAft (thor lar), beyond sea. 

tion (/een), fill; UoucAjt, (/eeN'thur), is filled. 

poijiin (pSr'een), *»., a small potato; p6ft (p5r), m^ 

■oe^to (<&l'uv), poor, needy. 

fcoca (sthuic4), m., a stocking. 

t)6i§, burn; t>6i£ce (dho'/8), burnt. 

te&c, /., a flat stone, a flag ; plural, teACd, teAC&6A, 

fteAthAin (shAra'n), smooth, slippery; plural, fteAriin a. 

focAi-ft (suK'ir), easy, gentle, settled. 

f eot) (shodh), m. or/., a precious thing, a gem. 

Aibne (av'ne), plural of aoa or AOAinn, a river. 

§ 1425. Translate the following pro- 
verbs : — 

Ceo foinmne aji Aibmb 7 ceo *ooinmne 

Afl CTlOCAlb. 

\)pifeAnn An miccAf cpe fthtib An caic. 
\)ionn atjajaca mdpA aji ha buAib caji 

LioncAtt ah f ac te pdiptofb. 

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Hi male teif n<x tun Ait) T>e<xtb<x <ui 


ScocAi'oe bana ap fvktaib tjoijce. 

t)ionn teac&CA fte<\riin<M •ocigcib txxome 

L<\b<\iji 50 focAip, bionn clu<xjv\ 45 

Seot><x 1 gcUnxpo-ib riA muc. 

Se<\p&rii jnvoa A|t cof Aib taga. 

Hi C15 5<xoc <\f aep n^c mbionn 1 
|*eotx<xib *ouwe ^igm. 



§ 1426. The vocative plural, like the 
vocative singular, is used in addressing per- 
sons, or things regarded as persons, and 
therefore capable of being addressed. 

§ 1427. When the dative plural ends in 
-41 b, the vocative plural ends in -a, as f eap, 
dative plural, feajvAib, vocative plural, a 
f e<xfi<x (ar'a), men ! cAiUleac, c-AitteacAib, 
vocative plural, a c<utteACA, (ye) old 
women ! coniufif a, comupf\xnAib, a cotnufi- 
j\xn<A, (ye) neighbours ! 

§ 1428. In all other nouns, the vocative 
plural has the same termination as the 
nominative plural, as 4 rh<v6p<\i'6e, (ye) 
dogs ! a rhn-A, (ye) women ! a 6<utini or 
a c<vi tinroe, (ye) girls ! 

§ 1429. Read again what has tyeen said about the voca- 
tive singular, Part IV., pages 70 and 71, and footnote. 

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§ 1430. After the vocative singular of a 
noun, the initial consonant of an adjective 
is aspirated, as a "6ume 66ijt, (my) honest 
man 1 (used as equivalent to "sir" in Eng- 
lish. 4 •6tnne tiAfait, in addressing a 
person of higher rank). 

§ 143 1. In this, as in most other instances, 
the initials t> and c are usually not aspirated 
when the foregoing word ends in t>, n, c, t 
or f (DeNTaLS), as <x tldipti mTbl (my) 
dark little Rose (ro'sheen) 1 

§ 1432. According to the rule given in 
§ 1346, the initial of a genitive is also 
aspirated following a noun in the vocative 
singular, as a *6ume cjtoi*6e, man of (my) 
heart = my dear friend 

§ 1433. Adjectives ending in a broad 
consonant are attenuated when they follow 
a noun in the vocative singular masculine, 
as a fr 1|\ big ('ir vig), (my) little man I 

§ 1434. In all other instances, the adjec- 
tive remains unchanged in its termination, 
with the single exception of beo in the 
phrase a X)6 hi ! (a yae vee), O living God ! 
sometimes used in prayers. 

§ 1435. After a noun in the vocative 
plural, an adjective has the same form as 
after a nominative plural (§§ 1300 to 1307), 
and the initial consonant of the adjective 
undergoes no change, as <\ rhna be^gA 
t>ub<\ -An riiuitinn, little dark-haired women 
of the mill! * •bAome u^ifte, gentlemen 1 
a mn<\ UAifte, ladies. 

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§ 1436. In the vocative singular mascu- 
line, one adjective following another under- 
goes the same changes as if it followed the 
noun, as a 510VI4 (yit'a) big bam, (my) 
little white-haired lad ! 


§ 1437. In English, the comparative form 
of adjectives ends in -er, as old, older ; just, 
juster. In Irish, the comparative form 
usually ends in -e, as fean, old, fine 
(shin'8), older. Sometimes in -a, as c6if , 
just, c<5fw\, juster. 

§ 1438. The rule is that the COMPARA- 
TIVE of an adjective has the same form as 

again §§ 1237, 1239, 1279, 1280, 1281, 

§ 1439. In Irish, the comparative is 
always preceded by some part of the verb 
if, expressed or understood, as if fine 
Se<\5<xn x\L S^Atnuf, John is older than 
James ; ha fine Se<xj;in x\k S6Amuf, John 
was older than James : t\i f Ait>e 50b <ui 
56 nA 50b An 5*nn*o<nL, the goose's beak 
(Gub, genitive, guib, Gib) is not longer than 
the gander's; nfojt 51 te An jjfiKMi tia a 
jnihf, the sun was not brighter than his 
countenance (G'noosh, genitive gnuif e, f. 
51 te is the comparative of geAt). 

§ 1440. When it is necessary to use the 
comparative after ca or any other verb 
except if, the word x\i or nto (a thing, 
something) is placed before if preceding 

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the comparative. KM if is usually written 

as one word, nfof (aeess). U4 tofiKxn niof 

-peApp ma fLamce, Brian is (something) 

better in his health. *0 , fr <\n f 6 nf ba f ocjvc\, 

he kept (= stayed) (something) quieter 

(suK'ri, comparative of foc<xijt). 

§ 1441 . In such sentences, the verb if, properly speak- 
ing, should be in the same tense as the verb preceding. 
This is exemplified in the example just given. Some- 
times, however, this usage is not followed, e&, x>'f&n f£ 
niof focfiA, he kept quieter. 

§ 1442. Instead of nfop , the form nf *f A was formerly 
used and is still in use locally. After nf 'p*, the initial 
consonant of the adjective is aspirated, as ni 'f A S 1 ^ e » 

§ 1443. Irregular Comparatives : — 
be<\5, little camp, tuja (Loo), less 
m 6]\, large „ mo (mo), larger, more 

f <vo4, long „ f <xit>e (fwa'^),longer 

„ „ „ P A (shee'a), longer 

geAftft, short „ 510^4 (girr'a),shorter 
ttkmc, good „ *fe<fyp(faar), better 

otc, bad „ meafo. (mass'a), 

iotttoa, many „ tnd, to* (/ee'a), more 
tf upuf a „ V^V 6 - (fuss'a), easier 

(fur'ussa) easy 
ce, hot „ ceo (/o) hotter 

cjieun, strong „ cpeife (tresh'e), as 
well as cf\6ine, 

* In Munster sometimes f eAjtjtA (far'a). In like man- 
ner, bAftf! is sometimes pronounced bAfttA (bar 'a) and 
geAfttt, 5 eA W A (gar'a). 

t Locally pronounced pujtufDA (fur'ttstha), pjiupoA 
(frus'tha), futfifce Cfwir'ish/S), or fftuip>e (frish'/l). 

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5tvArm<x comp. £p4inne (Grau»'8), 

(GrauN'S), uglier 

hateful, ugly 
5<\jt (1 T15AP -oo), „ 501 pe (Ger'S), nearer 

£jvo, high „ 4if\T>e(aurdPe),4oij\'oe 

(eer^'8), or Atp*oe 
(an/ '8) higher 

§ 1444. When the comparative preceded 
by if follows the noun to which it refers, it 
has the force of a superlative, as om tn<xc 
if pne, the eldest son ; V 6 \)piAn &t\ m<\c 
b* fine aca, Brian was the eldest son of 
them {lit. at them). 

§ 1445. Except when nA follows, as x\\ \ 
A|t tolAtft nA h6if\eo.nn f e<xp if txvnA na 6, 
there is not on the soil of Ireland a bolder 
man than he. 


§ 1446. An adjective has the force of an 
adverb when the preposition 50 is placed 
before it, as otc, bad, 50 h-otc, badiy ; 
t>AHA (dhaun'si) bold, 50 *o<xnA, boldly. T)o 
Lab-Aip f 6 50 ixmia, he spoke boldly. X)o 
UdbAip f 6 50 h-otc, he spoke badly. 

§ 1447. As seen in the example 50 h-otc, h is always 
prefixed to a vowel after 50. 

§ 1448. In Irish, an adverb is often 
placed at the beginning of a sentence and 

f receded by if, in order to emphasize it 
n this position 50 is omitted, as if otc x>i 
to.b<Mf\ f £, it is badly he spoke ; if txjokx x>o 
V^Wm f 4, it is boldly he fyoke. 

Digitized by VjOOQl€ 


§ 1449* 1° the comparative degree, an 
adverb has the same form as an adjective, 
as Wb<M|\ y6 niof me^f*, he spoke worse ; 
if me-AfA *oo tAtxxift f£, it is worse he 
spoke ; if e An feaji if meapo. x>o LAbAiji, 
he is the man who spoke worst 

§ 1450. The phrase if e<vo (ish-a'), it is 
it, contraction to 'f e *° (sha), is often used 
to refer to a clause going before, as "1 
jCacaiji na tHajiu, if e<vd coxxmI m6 <\|t^ij\," 
in Westport it was that I slept last night 
Co.t-o.ip n<\ 1Tlo.pc (Koh'ir N& morth) = 
Westport (city of the oxen); co*oaiL 
(Kudh'il) sleep (verb). 

§ 1451- Vocabulary: 

CAbAitt (Kou'ir) or cobAijt (K5'ir) /. help. Gen. 
CAbfiA, coofiA (Kou'ra, KS'ra). 
fttijit) (freed) /. a fleshworm, a mite. 
uftc6iT> (ur'CHoa?),/., vice. Gen., ujtcofoe. 
ipteAn (eesh'/aun), m. t a hollow; ipeAt, low. 
■ooiiA (dhun'a), wretched, bad, poor ; opposite of f on a. 
piobAn (pee'baun), /»., windpipe, throat. 
AnAdAin (on'acHin), /., distress, 
tnite, lying (in reference to a shoe), pressing. 
A (a), whom, which, after a preposition* 
ciftre (larVe*), comparative of ceAftu. 
f3Aoit (sGeel), loosen, let go. Verbal noun, 


5ftmn, genitive of jfteAnn, fun, humour, 
feifbe (sheriv-S), comparative of peAjto. 
5i)iftu, bitter. 

gAinne, comparative of £Ann, scarce, 
jtoinn (re*, Munster, rem), divide. Verbal noun, 
teAt (/ah),/., a half, a side. Genitive, teifce (/eh'6). 
tneAt (man), m., failure. 
l» A |itji3 (saurdy), overcome, outdo, beat. Verbal noun, 


■oiAbAt (^ee'a-wulj Vfoul, Munster, tfee'al), m. % devil. 
Gen., «oiAbAit. 

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tiA is often used with a singular noun where a plura' 
noun is used in English. 

§ 1452. Proverbs: 

1f goipe cAbAip X>6 nA An Do^or. 

YMlujA fttijit) nA mACAiji nA nupcoroe 
(mACAip=mother, i.e. origin). 

YH tiA ifteAn foriA Ann nA Apt>An Don a 
Ann, mo.|\ A*oubAipc An feAp 7 6 A5 ice 
piobAm An gAnntJAiL. 

HuAip if mo An AnACAin, if eA*6 if goipe 

An CAfeA1|\. 

-dn c6 Ap a tnbionn An bpdg A5 luige, if 
t><5 if apce i f gAoiteA-d. 

*Oo •oume $An nAipe if fUfA a jnd 

dn *oume fAitibip A5 *oeunAtti jpwn, 
XDeipit) inte jup bmn a §tdp ; 

dec if feipbe nA An feApbAn ginpc 
dn t>ume bocc A5 t>eunAtTi ceoit. 

HuAip ip gAinne An btA'o, if eA*6 if cipce 
6 pomnc. 

1f f eApp LeAt nA meAC. 

1f t)AnA tnuc nA gAbAji, a6c f AJAU15 beAn 

An T)1AbAt. 

§ 1453. Vocabulary : 

ftac (sLothj,/, a rod. Genitive, ftAice (sLa/'S). 

buAine (boo'en-e*), comparative of ouau, lasting. 

peAOAft (fadh'ur), I know ; f eAT>Aifi (fadh'ir) f e. he 
knows. Only used after ni, uac (11 a), an. Now only 
used in the South. 

teAf (/ass), #*., benefit, improvement. Genitive, teAfA. 

l/Aft a teAfA, the middle (i.e., essence, utmost) of his 

copAn (Kup'aun), m„ a cup. Genitive, cupAin. 

•ooif c (dhor/) or -coifr (dhur/), spill, pour out. Ver- 
bal noun, •ooftcA'd or -ooftCAO. 

CAC (KauCH), everybody, the rest. 


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9 8 

fit (sheel), think. Often I'Aoit in books. 

pfteucAn (pracCH'aun), m., a crow. Genitive ppeti- 

jmac two, same as jmac, a raven. 

cuifi *oo oocaji tMoc, put your road from you, step out 

■ftAt (roh), m. t success. 

etnjcftom (aedh'rum), light. Opposite of Cftom. 

lomcAfi (irregular, umpur, Munster, oompur), verbal 
noun of lomcAifi (ump'ir, oomp'ir), carry. 

euf^Ai-oe (aess'Gee), or eupjCA (aess'K&), comparative 
of eufgAi 1 © (aess'Giy'), quick, rapid. 

neoin (no'in),/., afternoon, evening. 

cui-oeACUA (KijTaCHthft), /., company. Genitive, 

•oo-^AJAtA (dhu-auli), hard to get. So-f AgAtA (su- 
aula), easy to get. From pAJAit, to get. 

Aitne, Aitte (au^S), comparative of Aluirm, beautiful. 

ceAnn (/aN, Munster, /oun), stiff, tight. 

5nAf (G'nanss), m., custom. Genitive, jnAfA. 

§ 1454. Proverbs: 

1f mime t)o bAin t>uine j*Lau t)o buAit- 
peAo e -p6w. 

1f be^g An put) if buAme nA An mime. 

Ax\ fuiT) if meAfA te twine (§ 682), ni 
peAt>Aip f e nAc cum Iaija a teAfA 4. 

tluAip biof An copAn b<\n, if eAt> ip 
goifte *66 6 t>6pcAt>. 

tlf Iia fmeu-p fA bfojmAp tia iat>. 

TH meAfA cac nA ConcobAp. 

SiteAnn An p]\eucAn gup t>eife a etm 
y6m tiA Aon eun eite f o. 5C01LL 

bionn mtninjjin niof mo at; mteoitin n<*. 
aj pAc twb. 

" Cuiji t)o bocAft trioc, belt) *oo jvac 50 
rt-eut)Cfiom ojic.'' "til a 'y eut>cpom, if 
ftifA t>om 6 10m ca^." 

V eufjjAi'oe tieom nA mArom. 

1f feAjip beic 1 n-AonAp tia 1 nwioc- 

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*Vn p eo*o tto-'fAJAlA, if 6 if Aitne 
1-p hiaiju; tAbttAf 50 ueatin. 
'An put) if goipe *oo , n cpoi-oe, if 6 if 
5oi|\e tjo'ti beu1. 
tlf tiA cip tia 511 Af. 

§ 1455* Vocabulary: 

wiotiiiAn (miNaun), m. f a kid. Genitive, mionnAin. 

tevm (/aen), m. t misfortune. Genitive, tern. 

AnnAih (on 'uv), seldom, rare. 

ion5AtiuA6 (iNG'uNthaCH), contracted to eeN'thaCH or 
ooN'thaCH, wonderful. 

■oeAC|tA (aaK'ra), comparative of -oeACAitt (^aK'ir), 

mnrteACC (iw/'/aCHth),/, intellect, mind. 

beA6 (baCH),/, a bee. Genitive, beice (beh'yg). 

uAOfoe (theeaf 6),/., tide. , 

rSOjtriAC (sGor'NaCH), /., throat. Genitive, 

ftefocead (rae'/aCH), *w., verbal noiln of |t6ix>ut5 
(rae'/iy), set right, fix, arrange. 

f pojtc (spSrth), w., sport, play. Genitive, f potftu. 

fiiAftcAiseACU (morK'ee-acHth),/., riding. 

fpoft (spur), m., a spur. Genitive, f puift (spwir). 

A|t iAftfi&i 1 6, wanting, missing. 

5^i|ie (gaer'S) comparative of jeutt, sharp. 

CeAjtt) (karrdh),/, or ceifvo (ker</), /I, a trade. Geni- 
tive, ceijroe. 

oiteAmAtn (el'nwin), or oiteAthaim; (el' uwm/)> /•» 
rearing, nurture, upbringing. Genitive, oiteAriwA 
(el'uw'na, el'oona). 

§ 1456. Proverbs: 

1f geApp 50 rnbeiti An rmonnAn nfof 
meAf a nA An fe<Mi-j<\bAp. 

TTIa Y S^PF 6 worn 50 -oci m*oe, if 
51oj\|\a biof An teun A5 ceAcc. 

^\n cuAinc if f eAfn, cuaiju: jeAnn 7 gAri 
i *66AtiATfi acc 50 hATiriArfi. 

4\t1 flit) 1f AtltlATfl, 1f lOngATlCAC. 

HA Cfl fUT)A 1f TjeACfA TJO ctngfwc fA 

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■ootiiATi, wncleAcu nA mbAti, obAift tia 
mbeAC, ceAcc 7 imce<\cc ha CAOi*oe. 

-dn 5-At) if 50if\e T>o'n fgo^nAig, if coijt 
4 ji&'dceAC aj\ *ocuf . 

fluAip if m6 An fpdjic, if cdijt fCAO t>e. 

-An z6 nAC *oc6it> Ag mApcAigeACc acc 
50 tiAnnAth, bionn a fp ul P ^t 1 iAp|\Ai*6. 

Ar\ put) if gioftftA if 561 ]\e. 

Hi Ua ceAnn tiA ceAjvo. 

1f cjieife t)uccAf aa oileAtiiAin, 

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I. Proper Nouns. 


Ballinasloe, 1273 
"bjMAn boparha (or 

t^Spoirhe), Brian Boru, 

C^trS»A Easter. 1 381 
C-aCaip na tYUpc, West- 
port, 1450 
Cacaoip, a man's name, 

Ce Ann. Silt e, Kinsale, 

1 185 
Ciannatge, Kerry, 1169 
Cill-6otmtig, Kilkenny, 

"Oiibid, David, J298 
T)di£i, Dathi, David. 1298 
TJun-Sapbain, Dungarvan, 

5e«poio, Gerald. 1085 
luimnead, Limerick, 1185 
muipf, Maurice, 1085 
noinin,/., little Nora, 1084 
popclatpge, Waterford, 

ttoipn, little Rose, 143 1 
Satib, anglicized " Sarah," 

"Sophia," 1342 
Se6t>n6, a man's name, 1 342 
Seoippin, little George, 

SotAm, Solomon, 1298 

II. Nouns. 
Aibne, rivers, 1424 
gjj/. beauty, m 9 

aicinn,/., furze, whins, 1356 
4lba, /., Scotland, 10916 
*tc6ip,/, altar, 1381 
4rhpAf\ doubt, 1316 
Anacain, distress, 1451 
-AOibne^r, delight, 1129 
AppAioeacc, /., antiquity, 

-df^'Un, m., little ass, 1080 
OACAigeacc,/, lameness, 

beoe,/:, bee, 1455 
be«n feAfA, wise-woman, 

be»lin, m. t little mouth, 

beooadc,/, liveliness, 1371 
biccamnac, ihief, villain, 

blac. bloom, flower, 1298 
bUtae,/., buttermilk, JJ27 
boec Ana£c,/ , poverty, 1298 
boicnin, m., little icad, JI28 
bonn, foundation, 1346 c 
bonn, groat, 1397 
bpaCAtp, friar, 1 1 1 6 
bpei^ec, ) / , 6neness, 
bpeageaccjf beauty, 1 371 
b pei c earn, judge, 1096 
bpicin, m., freckle, J081 
bpoma6, foal, colt, 1316 
bpuad, brink, J 243 
buAi6, m., success, 1381 
caba«p, help, relief, 1451 
cattin aimppe, //*., maid- 
servant, 1 09 1 
CAilltcin, little «ld woman, 

CAipe-dt, fortress, 1128 

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CAt*in city, 1 102 
ceAlg, f. t deceit, 1112 
ccannAtoe, merchant, 

ttader, 1316 
ceAjvoAtoe, tradesman. 

craftsman, 1316 
peapo, /., trade, 1455 
ceApocA,/., forge, smithy, 

ceipo, trade, craft, 1316 
ceuotongAD, breakfast, 

J 298 
cineal, kind, sort. 1273 
cipcin, Jit tie hen, 1081 
cifce, m. t chest, treasury, 

clAioe, m., fence of earth 

or stone, 1259 
ctAipreac,/., harp, 1227 
cleAthnof, marriage al- 
liance, 1342 
oteibin, in. y little basket, 

cletnead, clerk, 1381 
cleicin, i»„ little feather, 

cttim, /., plumage, 1238 
ctiAix), mockery, 1381 
cmi, /., nut. 1232. 
cobAip, lelief, 1451 
co£4t>, war, 1342 
coiru'n, tn, t rabbit, 1381 
coipoe, a person who goes 

on foot, 1203 
com ai pie,/"., advice, 1112 
compA, coffA, /., coffer, 

chest, cupboaid, coffin, 

corhupfA, /"., neighbour, 

cop An, cup, 1075 
copAtht acc, f. , resemblance, 

cpAob,/., branch, 1247 
cpioc,/., end, 1381 
cpfonnAdc. f., prudence, 


cp6*Acc, f. t bravery, 1 371 
dpoiceann, skin, 1356 
cpuatiuAn,/.,hardship, 129S 
cptiifgfn, ///., little jar, 1084 
cpupgA, m., jar, 1084 
cuac,/, cuckoo, 138 1 
cua6,/., drinking-cup, 1381 
cuah, bay, haven, 1240 
cuit)C4dcA,/., company, *■ 

cuit, comer, 1397 
cutpc, court, 1397 
cuplo, #*., couple, 1136 
T>ab4c, /., vat, 1127 
oaII, a blind person, 1342 
tdaoi, ignorant person, I -230 
DAOine, persons, people 

11 12 
oei-oeanACC, /., lateness, 

1371 , 
t>eipc, alms, 1136 
waoaI, devil, 1451 
t>ia£acg, /., divinity. 1371 
xn-mear, disesteem, 1259 
t>Laoi, /., lock of hair, 1230 
T>li£eA*, law, 1230 
t)o6Ap, harm, 1316 
t>occuip. doctor, 1215 
T>oipr*eoip, doorkeeper, 

opAOi, druid, magician, 

mnlXe,/., leaf, 1381 
T>uccAf, nature, 1424 
eAppAioe, wares, goods, 

x 3 l6 . 
efoneAtt, ivy, 1128 

e^nin, m. 9 little bird, 1081 

eirgfn, m, little fish, I0S1 

etpp, oyster, 1 102 

painnin, m., little ring, 1083 

FAfgAO, shelter, 1298 

fie, »*., reason, 1112 

peAfiAmtACC,/., manliness, 


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f%*6 T>ub, raven, 1453 
pixin, m. f little man, 1081 
f-octdtjt, m., vocabulary, 

dictionary, 1 128 
f o^nAifi, service, use, 1356 
jrotin. tune, air, 1227 
jropmdp, greater part. 1 204 
For^AO, shelter, 1298 
Ft^S 10 * fleshworm, 1451 
FUAgfta, m. t proclamation, 

giiyxoin, m. 9 garden, 1091 
3; Amain, calf over 6 months 

old, 1316 
SAnjvOA, m.y garden, croft, 
5A|ifijii, small boy, 13 16 
5eAnj\CA6, young bird, 1397 
geic, \ m. f start, fright, 
geice,)" 1342 
510II4, lad, 1436 
giopt^ACC, /, shortness, 

proximity 1371 
gl6p, voice, 1136 

ness, 1371 
Snar, custom, 1453 
5«uif, countenance, 1439 
50b, beak, 1439 
gobA-OAti, cuilew, 1397 
gnAineAmlACC, /., hateful- 

ness, 1371 
5fte4t>*m4iped£c, /*., 

amusingness, 1371 
5fem», m. t bite, grasp, 

Et™ A 5> /•» hair, 1247 
£uipciti. m. t little field, 

iaU, Ait) = t>iaIIait>, saddle, 

1240, note 
ir§e-An, /., daughter, 1091 
inr»cteA6c, /., intellect, 

lOmAnAi'de, hurler, 1397 
tongtiA*, wonder, 1204 
frteAtc, /., lowness, 1371 j 
irle^ti, a hollow, 1451 

Iacac,/, mud, 1 127 
le^bAjt eotdif, guide- 
book, 1275 
leabftati, booklet, 1128 
Icac, /"., flat stone, 1424 
leaihtiAdc,/., new milk, 

teAf, benefit, 1453 
teat,/., half, side, 145 1 

leugc6ifi, reader, 1215 
leun, misfortune, 1455 
lion, linen, flax, 1136 • 
Uon, number, 1263 
UonriiAifteACG, /., nume- 

rousness, 1371 
Ion, provision, 1381/ 
lu6u, people, 1169 
mAdaifie, m.> open country, 

mAilin, *»., little bag, 1084 
mafic, steer, beeve, 1316 
meet, failure, 1451 
meirge, intoxication, 1122 
miomiAn, kid, 1455 
miorA, miof, gen. of mi, 

mdjvOACu, /., majesty, 1371 

nAothCA6c,y!, holiness, 

neoin, n6w, afternoon, 

ni, nte, m, thing, 1230 
oibjie, gen. of obaift, 1087 
toge,/., youth, 1356 
01 tea main, upbringing, 

1 earing, 1455 
piifoin, m„ little child, 

pAjtiifGe, pAjtdif ce, m.y 

parish, 1091 
petfc, piAfu,/,worm, 1374 
pfobin, windpipe, neck, 

y Google 



point 11, m., small potato, 

poj\u, tune, air, 1227 
pneuc-An, crow, 1453 
j\ac, success, 1453 
rxiAn, order, regulation, 1298 
r*£*Tf kind, sort, 1273 * 
f AitibjieAr, wealth, 1129 
fail, beam, 1397, 
Ismail, the like, H22 
f aoi, learned man, 1230 
fAop, craftsman, artisan, 

feanoAic, f„ antiquity, 

X eoo, a precious thing, 1298 

reopc, sort, 1273 

fgeili'n, m», little story, 

rj;6jinAC, /:, throat, 1455 
fgnibneotn, writer, 1215 
f ium£i|\, joiner, 1215 
rUc, /., rod, 1453 
fltge beACAO, livelihood, 

ftireog,/, slice, chip, 1397 
fop, wisp, 1381 

rftf *«* 80rt ' I273 

rpior\A-o, »»., fpiofiAiv, f„ 

a spirit, 1091 
fpon, spur, 1455 
ff>6[\c, sport, 1455 
fpruo, see r pi on Ait), 1091 
fctAtt, m., a strip, 1381 
fcoc, live stock, 1381 
fcoc, trumpet, .1381 
/roc a, m. t stocking, J424 
fuoirhneAf, repose, 1 381 
CAinreAd,/., threshold, 

CAOit>e,/, tide, 1455 
ceu-o, string, cord, 1227 
cinnc&n, tinker, 1316 
conn, /., wave, 1243 
cr\Aig, strand, ebb, 1397 
norgAn, furniture, 1204 

cuAifitm, guess, opinion, 

x 342 
cuiftnin, m. or/*., little spin- 
ning-wheel, 1083 
UAtfte, f. t nobility, H27 
UAifteACC,/,, nobility, 1371 
unc6io, vice, 1451 
uplift, greater part, 1204 
unfA, f. t doorpost, 1381 



Participles, Numerals. 

A&mAjt, lucky, 1263 
Aille, Attne, more beauti- 
ful, 1453 
Aimne Arii Ait, renowned, 

<£int>e, Aipt>e, AOipoe, 

higher, 1443 
Ann Atfi, rare, seldom, 1455 
Aon, any, 1112 
Anr^i'o* ancient, 137 1 
ACAfAC, glad, 1246 
ban -am ait, womanly, 1278 
beoOA, lively, 1371 
biieugAC, lying, 1246 
bnooAc, joyful, 1246 
bjionac, sorrowful, 1246 
buA'OAt, victorious, 1246 
CAinoeAth Ait, friendly, 1278 
CAinngeAi, rocky, 1246 
cAtmA, valorous, 1345 
CAogA, fifty, 1182 
choice Arii Ait, opportune, 

ceAcn^cA, forty, 1182 
cercne, four (with noun), 

ceicne pici-o, eighty, 1180 
ceolrhA^, musical, 1263 
ceuo, first, 1091 
ciAllriiAfi, intelligent, 1263 
ciftce, juster, 1451 

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ct£, left (hand, &c), '247 
cleAfAC, tricky, 1246 
duice^c, famous, 1246 
cltiiiiAil, famous, 1278 
con£AtiGA6, helpful, 1246 
cof-eu-ocftom, light-footed, 

cpAobAC, branchy, 1247 
ti|\eiT>iheA6, having faith, 

cpoi^eAthAit, gay, 1278 
t>a, *a, two (with noun), 

t>4 pt\x> 9 forty, 1178 
oAtAtiiAit, well-coloured, 

T>e6tb, needy, 1424 
oeAf, right (hand, &c), 

■oe^eAttAC, late, last, 1342 
ofceAttAC, energetic, 1246 
•oo-frA^AtA, hard to get, 

-ooiceattAC, inhospitable, 

t>6i£ce, burnt, 1091 
■ooitgeAf ac, mournful, 1246 
ootiA, wretched, poor, bad, 

I45 1 
etrocttom, light, 1316 
eufgAro, rapid, 1453 
pAioe, longer, 1443 
fAi^png, wide, roomy, 

plentiful, 1169 
fAiceAC, timid, 1128 
f eA|\5A6, angry, 1246 
feupad, grassy, 1246 
reutuhAts grassy 1263 
ponnthAts desirous, 1263 
puitceAC, bloody, 1246 
fU|\upA, easy, 1443 
gAi% near, 1397 
5ite, brighter, 1439 
510^, shorter, 1443 
gtAf, grey or green, 1244 
5t6tuhAt\, glorious, 1263 
gnA^AC* usual, 1227 

gn6r;A6, busy, 1246 
5otj\e, nearer, 1443 
5|\AitieAifi4it, hateful, 1278 
5t>Ainne, uglier, 1443 
S^nnA, ugly, 1443 
5t\eAntiihA|\, amusing, 1263 
longAticAC, wonderful, 

, 1455 

ifeAt, low, 1305 
tAe^eAifiAit, daily, 1 278 
1,a§a6, affable, 1381 
tiA, more numerous, 1443 
LiomhAft, numerous, 1263 
tuACiftAjx, valuable, 1 263 
Luoa6, deceitful, 1246 
Iu£a, less, 1443 
tuCgAipeAd, joyful, 1246 
mACAticA, honest, well- 
behaved, 129S 
meAfA, worse, 1443 
meAf AitiAit, estimable, 

™6, more, larger, 1443 
mojvoA," majestic, 137 1 
neA|\cihA|\, powerful, 1 263 
yi66a, ninety, 1 182 
oictfiogA, eighty, 1 182 
^\eAihA]\, fat, 1 3 16 
f 61*6, clear of obstacles, 

jUAftAriiAtt, docile, 1298 
|\fweuT>A6, joyful, 1246 
j\iogAihAit, kingly, 1278 
fAogtA6, longlived, 1246 
fAotj\AC, laborious, 1128 
fAr;AC, satiated, 1246 
feACcihojA, seventy, 1182 
feAnt)A, ancient, 1371 
reAfg, dry, not giving 

milk, 13 16 
feAfgA, sixty, 1182 
feAftfiA6, steadfast, 1246 
feijxbe, bitterer, 145 1 
feunihA^, happy, 1263 
rSAtthAfi, shy, startled, 

ftA, longer, 1443 

y Google 



pile, older, 1439' 
fteAthAin, slippery, 1247 
fOCAip, easy, at ease, 1424 
fo-f a£aIa, easy to get, 

fC|\6icce, torn, 13 16 
ceAtw, stiflf, tight, 1453 
ceo, gen., fern., and plural 

of ce, 1282, 1307 
ceo, hotter, 1443 
C|\etfe, stronger, 1443 
cj\i pcto, sixty, 1179 
cpioCA, thirty, 1182 

IV. Verbs. 

At>eui\pvo, I shall say, 

Ainmmg, name, 1266 
aicw, recognise, 1289 
ip-otng, raise, carry off, 

1265, 1274 
OAgAip, threaten, 1290 
OAm, cut, etc., 11 12 
binuig, whiten, 1265 
bifuifc, injure mortally, 

beACuig, nourish, 1266 
beupfAX), future of beip, 

1309 • 

beuTOrA-o, future of CAOAip, 

bo6ctn£, impoverish, 1266 
bortr\uig, deafen, 1266 
ouaiI, strike, 1088 
buAW, reap, r397 
ceAtigAil, bind, 1290 
ceA^cuig, correct, 1267 
cneafuig, form skin, 1266 
cox) Ail, sleep, 1290 
corhtiui£, stay, 1275 
congAib, coining, keep, 

corung, fix, 1267 
cof Am, defend, 1109 
cu a^cui g,cu ajvoui g,search, 


cuimil, rub, 1289 
cuimmg, remember, think, 

culuig, retreat, 1267 
rearing, put in-order, 1265 
t>eu|\fAt), I shall say, 1309 
t>ibi]\, banish, 1289 
t>6i|\c, t>oir>c, spill, pour, 

eilig, claim, 1136 
peAOAp, I know, 1453 
feux>4im, I can, 1204 
fill, return, 1298 
FpeAfOAil, attend to, 1397 
ptJAgAip, proclaim, 1381 
jrAigeAt), putgeAO, I shall 

get, find, 1309 
561II, yield, submit, 1381 

geAbAT), geobAt), gAbfAU, 

future of gAb, 1309 
geAbA-o, JeobAt), I shall 

get or find, 1309 
5IAOV6, call, 1091 
imip, play, 1109 
iomCAi|\, carry, 1356 
lonvpuig, turn, 1125 
iof a-o, i shall eat, 1309 
ffli£, lower, 1267 
UAgtiig, weaken, 1265 
leAfuig, improve, 1267 
leig 00, allow, 1261 
leon, wound, desolate, 

lion, fill, 1424 
UoncAp, is filled, 1424 
mAip, live, 1397 
minig, explain, 1267 
mui|\bf eAX), I shall kill, 

neA|\cui£, strengthen, 1267 
oib|M g, operate, 1266 
p6f, marry, r342 
jxacao, |\AgAt), I shall go 


|\omn, divide, 1451 
fAOCiwig, labour, cultivate, 

y Google 



f aj\ui£, overcome, 145 1 
fe-ACAiti, avoid, 1290 
feAf Aitfi, stand, 1121 
femti, play music, 1121 
fgAoib, let go, 1451 
fit, fAoil, think, 1453 
fiubAil, walk, 1120 
ftinuig, make well, 1265 
fcao x>e, desist, 1261 
ciocp ao, I shall come, 

' cionmuig, dry, 1266 
ciudj\ao, future of UAbAip, 

uui£, understand, 1107 
ctnc, fall, 1121 

V. Verbal Nouns. 

ajvou^a-o, raising, 1089 
bAinc, cutting, etc., III2 
beAntiu§A-6, blessing, 1089 
bpeit, bearing, 1125 
bpeit aj\, catching, 1125 
b^MfeA-6, breaking, 1088 
bjuigAO, bruising, 1088 
buAitic, reaping, 1397 
buAtaT), striking, 1088 
CAiteAO, CAlfceAifc, spend- 
ing, etc., 108S 
CAoineao, lamenting, 1088 
ceAnnAC, buying, 1121 
ceA]\cu§At), correcting, 

coifpeAgAti, coiftxeAgA*, 

blessing, 1121 
consul £e, moving, 1125 
GOfAinc, copiAth, defend- 
ing, 1 109 
cj\eiT>e4tiiAin(c), believing, 

cpomAO, bending, 1088 
cuajvoac, cua|\ua6, search- 
ing, 1268 
cup, putting, planting, etc*, 

viol, selling, 1120 

oo^a-o, burning, T088 
onuioim, shutting, 1121 
t>uif eA6c,ouf 5A-6, awaken- 
ing, 1109 
t>un ao, shutting, 1088 
eileAtfi, ^iliujAt), claim- 
ing, 1136 
<hp§e, rising, 1 125 
f AgAil, leaving, 1087 
i f ajai L, getting, finding, 
peicpn(c), seeing, 1107 
fiArpuige, asking, 1 125 
p lie At), returning, 1298 
jmuCao, boiling, 1356 
foglAim, learning, 138 1 
FpeAfOAl, attending, 1397 
fUAgpA, proclaiming, 1381 
^AbAil, taking, going, 110$ 
g&U***, yielding, 1381 
jLacat), taking, I088 
^LAOt)A6, calling, 1 091 
5Uit>e, praying, 1125 
mtifin(c), telling, 1107 
fomAiti, hurling, 1397 
iomp6o, turning, 1125 
ite, eating, IT25 
bAbAipc, speaking, 1 109 
La£u£a£, weakening, 1089 
l£i £eAT), reading, 1088 
leigeAti, Leiginc, letting, 

1 125 
Unge, lying, pressing, 1125, 

mA|\cAi^eA6c, riding, 1455 
mA|\CAin, living, 1397 
meAf, judging, 1120 
meuougAO, increasing, 

milleAO, destroying, 1088 
mimu^At), explaining, 1268 
molAt), praising, 1088 
oiieAiiiAin(c), nourishing, 

p&ttceAd, m. t arranging, 

pwnce, dancing, 1 169 

y Google 



tu>ttiti(c), dividing, 1451 
feAfAtn, standing, 1121 
feinnm, playing music, 

fgpio'bA'b, writing, 1088 
pneA-o, stretching, 1088 
|XAt), stopping, 1 1 20 
ftn-oe, sitting, 1 125 
cabAij\c, giving, 1 109 
c6j;aiI, raising, 1 105 
uuij;pn(c), understanding, 

1 107 
caicim, falling, 1121 
uttthugA*, preparing, 1089 

VI. Miscellaneous. 

a I4n, many, 1112 
ArhAin, only, 1112 
Aon . . AifiAin, one, 1112 
Ari Atf , back, 1259 
Ap £15111, hardly, III2 
A|\ LeAtAO, open, 1227 
aj\ tnerfge, drunk, 1 122 
ca bpop, how is it known ? 

who knows? 1342 
<Jac, everybody, the rest, 


cofA-'n-Airroe, at full gal* 

lop, 1227 
eAO, idiom, 1450 
50, forming adverb ',•1446 
50 ceAnn, for (a time to 

come), 1112 
1 gCAiteAth, during, 1298 
1 mb<i*\A6, to-morrow, 1204 
1 n-Ai*voe, up, 1259 
lonncA, in them, 1161 

if (A'f, 'ur)> for A 5 u n n 7 6 " 
if eott>om, I know, 1273 
Ia a*\ n-A oa*\a6, the fol- 
lowing day, 1204 
le, during, in 2 
le, before verbal noun, 

1298 ^ 

lehAif, beside, 1259 
Le cam all, for some time 

past, 1 1 13 
tnA|\ a ceile, alike, 1 1 12 
triA|\ pn, so, 1091 
niof, with comparative, 

ua pill AgAtn, I hope, 

ca*\ leAr\, beyond sea, 

cpAfnA, across, 122S 

y Google 


I. — Proper Nouns. 

Ballinasloe, beul-A6A-nA- 

^UiAi£eAo, 1273 
Brian Boru,b|MA« oopAihA 

or "b6|\oiitie, 1298 
Cahir, Ca£aoi|\, 1085 
David, "Oaioio, T>£iti, 

Dungarvan, T>tin-5Af\biiti, 

Gerald, 5eAi%6it>, 1085 
Kerry, CiAt\|\Ai£e, /, 

Kilkenny, Citt-Coirmi$, 

1 185 
Kinsale, CeAtin-SAite, 

1 185 
Limerick, UiimneAC, <, 
1 185 

Maurice, tn uijuf, 1085 
Rose (little), Tl6iffn, 1431 
Scotland, 4tA>A, f., 1096 
Solomon, SoLath, 1298 
Waterford, popctAipge. 

Westport, CAtAijvnA- 

trlA|\c, 1450 

II. Common Nouns. 

advice, cothAipLe, f., 1112 
affair, fgeul, 1342 
afternoon, neoin, 1453 
air (in music), pope, f onn, 

alliance (marriage), 

cleAifwAf, 1342 
alms, o6ipc, 1136 

altar, Atc6ip, 1381 
amusingness, 5|\eAnmh<nt\- 

eA6c,/., 137 1 
announcement, f ua5|\a, m., 

antiquity, reAm>A6c, /£, 

A^xf Ai-oeacc,/., 1371 
artizan, r AO TS l 3 l & 
ass, -df At, 1131 
beam, fAit, 1397 
beauty, kiltie,/, 1 129 
beauty, bpeAjjAic, f„ 137 1 
bee, beAd,/., 1455 
beeve, mA|\u, 1316 
benefit, leuf, 1453 
bird (young), geippcAd, 

bite, spewi, m., 1381 
blind person, oaIU 1342 
bloom, b\J£, 1298 
booklet, leAbjVAti, 1 1 28 
boy, 5A|\fun (gAfup), 1316 
branch, cj\aoo,/., 1 247 
bravery, c^-DAcr, /., 137 1 
breakfast, ceuototigAO, 

b|\eiq:eAf ua, m., 1298 
brink, bpuAC, 1243 
buttermilk, dLa£ac, /., 

1 127 
calf of over 6 months, 

SAtfiAiti, »»., 1316 
charoit, CApbA-o, 11 36 
charity, o&pc, 1136 
chest, cifce, m„ 13S1 
chip, flifeog, 1397 
Christian, C^iopcAioe, 

city, ca£ Ai|\, 1 102 
clerk, cl£i|\eAC, 1 38 1 

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clothing, eut>A&, 1138 
coffer, c6mj\A, coppA,/., 

coffin, cdthpA,/, 1397 

COlt, bjUMTIAC, 13 16 

company, cuioeAdcA,^, 

cord, c/em>,/., 1227 
corner, coil, 1397 
countenance, gnuif , 1439 
couple. cuplA, m. y 1136 
court, cuipc, 1397 
craftsman, f aoj\, ce aj\o Aiue. 

crow, pneuCAn, 1453 
cuckoo, cua6,/, 1 38 1 
cup,copAn, 1075 
cupboard, compA, c6f|\A, 

/., 1397 , , 
curlew, goOAOAn, 1397 
custom, 5«Af , 1453 
cutting, flifeog,/, 1397 
following day, La An n-A 

binAC, 1204 
daughter, inge-an, 1091 
deceit, ceALg, /.. 1112 
delight, AoibneAf , 1129 
devil, -oiAbAL, 1451 
divinity, ©ia^acc, /"., 1371 
disesteem, oi-meAf, 1259 
distress, AnACAin, 145 1 
doctor, T>occtii|\, 1215 
doorkeeper, T)oinreoin 

1 128 
doorpost, unfA,/., 1381 
doubt, AthnAf, 13 1 6 
dove, cotm, 1249 
drinking-cup, cua6, f., 1381 
druid, onAOi, 1230 
Easter, Ciifg, 138 1 
ebb, cnAi £, 1397 
end, cnio6,/., 1381 
enemy, nAihA, 1098 
failure, me At, 145 1 
fence of earth or stone, 

cUn-oe, m.y 1259 
festival, f&L, p£ite, 1381 

flag-stone. leAc.,^, 1424 
flax, lion, 1x36 
flesh worm, pnigit>, 1451 
flower, blAt, 1298 
forge, ceAjvoCA, /., 1 1 12 
fortress, CAifeaU 1 128 
fright, geic, 1342 
furniture, unorgAn, 1204 
furze, Aicinn, 1356 
full gallop, cop A-n-Ai|voe, 

garden, 5Aipx>in, m. t 109 1, 

SAtAjYOA, m„ 1 38 1 
gem, peoo, 1424 
gentleman, oume tiAf aL, 

gloriousness, 5L6ntiiAi- 

neACc,/, 137 1 
goods, eAnpAi-oe, 13 16 
grasp, speim, m., 138 1 
groat, bonn, 1397 
guess, cuAi-jtim, 1342 
guide-book, teAbAneoUhp, 

hair of the head, gnuAg, f. t 

half, leAt, 145 1 
handle of a knife, cop,/., 

hardship, cpuAOCAn, /, 

harm , T>o6Ap, 1 3 1 6 
harp, cLAijxpeAC,^, 1227 
hatefulness, 5j\ai neAih L<\6c, 

/•> 1371 
help, CAbAiji, cobAip, 1 45 1 
holiness, haotti6a6u,^, 137 i 
hollow, if LeAn, 1451 
hurler, lomAnAioe, 1397 
hurling, hurley, 10m Ain, 

ignorant person, "oaoi, 1230 
improvement, leAf, 1453 
intellect, inncleACc, /., 

intoxication, meipge, 11 22 
ivy, eioeAn, eioneAn, usS 

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jar, cptifs*, 0i., 1084 
joiner, fiuin&n, 1215 
judge, bneiteAih, 1096 
kid, miormAn, 1455 
kind, see sort 
lad, giobtA, 1436 
lameness, bACaiijeACu,^, 
' 1381 
lateness, T>ei , 6eAnACu,yi t 

law, oiiteAO, 1230 
leaf, otnlte,/., 1381 
learned person, fAoi, 1230 
like, the like of, leiteio 

fAlflAtl, 1 1 22 

linen, Lion, 1136 
livelihood, fli£e beAtao, 

/., 1112 
liveliness, beo-OACC, f. t 1371 
lock of hair, tjIaoi,^, 1230 
lowness, ifleACG,/., 1371 
magician, t>|\aoi, 1230 
maid-servant, CAitin 

Aimfine, CAiUn, m.,1091 
majesty, m6|\OACu, /*., 1371 
manliness, f eAnAtnlAic /., 

marriage alliance, 

cleathriAf, 1342 
match, cleAthnAf, 1342 
matter, f geul, 1 123 
merchant, ceAnnAioe, 1316 
milk (new), leArhnACu,/., 

miller, tziuilneoin, 1128 
mind, mnuleAiu,/., 1453 
mire, Ia£a6,/"., i 127 
misfortune, ueun, 1455 
mite, fpigio, 1451 
mockery, cniio, 1381 
mud, h&t&tyf.y 1 1 27 
nature T>ur)CAf, 1424 
neighbour, coihtinf a,/., 

neVs, rseuU, 1143 
nobility, UAifte, /., 1120, 

uaifleACc, /", 1 37 1 

numerousness, Uon- 

m&Mpe&6c,f., 1371 
nurture, oileatri Ain(c),T455 
occupation, ceijvo, 13 16 
opinion, cuAinim, 1342 
order, niAn,/, 1298 
oyster, eifin, 1102 
parish, pajvaifue, 

f>An6ifue, m. f 1091 
greater part, uruh6rv 

fonirion, 1204 
people, ■OAome, 11 12, ltt6c, 

1 169 
phantom, fpionAio, fpniT), 

piece, fCiAtt, 1381 
plot of ground, gAnrvOA, m,, 

plumage, ctuih, /C, 123S 
potato (small), p6ij\in, m. t 

poverty, bocuAnACu, f. t 

precious thing, feox>, 1298 
price, jma6a, 1141 
proclamation, fUAgnA, m. f 

provision, I6n, 1381 
prudence, cnionnACu, f. t 

137 * 

rabbit, cowfn, m., 1381 
reader, leujtoin, I2T5 
reason, fit, 11 13 
regulation, ni An,/., 1298 
repose, fUAirhneaf, 1381 
resemblance, cofAthlA6c, 

/, 1371 
rest, fUAiihneAf, 138 1 
river, AbA, Ab, /., 1097 
rod, flAU, 1453 
service, fo§nAth, 1356 
shelter, f of gA*©, f AfgAd, 

shortness, gionnACC,/, 

side, leAfc, /., 1451 
silver, AingeAO, 11 38 

y Google 



skin, cnoiceAnn, 1356 

smithy, ceAnt>CA,/, 11 12 

soil, caIaih, 125 1 

sole, bonn, 1397 

sort, ctneiU f6nc, f6po, 

feonc, r A 6 A r» T2 73 
species, see sort 
spirit, f plOpAlO, fpnio, 

1 09 1 
sport, fp6nc, 1455 
spur, rpop, 1455 
start, geic, 1342 
steer, m Ape, 1316 
stock (live), fcoc, 1 38 1 
stocking, f coca, 1424 
stone (flat), leAC,/, 1424 
strand, unxii J, 1397 
string, ceux>,/, T227 
strip, fciAlt, 1 38 1 
success, bttAi'O m ., 138 1 
success, j\ac, 1453 
surprise, longnAd, 1204 
thief, biceAihnA6, 1298 
thing, nto, ni, 1230 
threshold, UAipfeAC, 1247 
throat, ptobAn, 14.51 
throat, f56pnAC,/., 1455 
tide, CAOioe, *»., 1455 
tidings, fgeulA, 1143 
tinker, cinnc&n, 13 16 
to-morrow, An \A 1 mb a^ac, 

trade, ceAjvo,/., ceint>, 

1316, 1455 
trader, ceArniAi*6e, 13 16 
tradesman, ceAnoAitie, 

treasury, cifce, m. t 1381 
trumpet, fuoc, 1381 
tune, popu, form, 1227 
use, f ojnAtfi. 1356 
usefulness, po^nam, 1356 
up-bringing,oi learn &tn(c), 

I45 *„ 

vat, OAOAC,/., 1127 
vice, unc6to, 1451 
victory, buAio, w., 1381 

villain, biteAifinAC, 129* 
vocabulary, pocloip. 1 1 2& 
voice, 5I6P, 1137 
war, cogA*, 1342 
wares, eAnnAi^e, 13 16 
wave, uonti,/., 1243 
wealth, f Ai*bneAf, 1 129 
whinns, Aicmn, 1356 
windpipe, piobAn, 145 1 
wisp, fop, 1381 
wonder, longnA'd, 1204 
worm, piAfc, peifc, 1374 
writer, raxfbnedin, 1215 
youth, 0i5e,/C, 1356 

III. Adjective? and 

agreeable in manner, 

U£ac, 1381 
alike, uiAn a 66ile, 11 12 
ample, p Ainpng, 1 169 
amusing, gpeAnnmAn, 

1253 , 
ancient, ApfAi-o, feAnoA, 

137 1 
angry, peAngAC, 1246 
bad, oonA, 145 1 
bloody, puilceAC, 1246 
hold, x>AnA, 1446 
branchy, cpAobAd, 1247 
brave, caLitia, 1345 
burnt, t>6i£ce, 1091 
busy, 511664c, 1246 
correct, ceApc, 1124 
customary, gnifcAC, 1227 
daily, l4eceAmAiL,*i278 
deceitful, LubAC, 1246 
desirous, fonnifiAn, 1263 
different, eugfAttiAit, 1279 
difficult, DeACAin, 1455 
docile, |\JAnAifiAiL, 1298 
drunk, An meifge, 1122 
dry (not milking), r eA F5> 

easy, focAin, 1424 
easy to get, fo-^A§AtA, 


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energetic, T>fceAtlA6, 

estimable, meAf AihAit, 

false, bpeugAC, 1246 
famous, cluiueAt, 1246 ; 

cLuriiAil, 1278 
fat, ^\eAihAi% pAihAjv 1316 
fine (cloth, etc.), caoL, 

first, ceuo, 1091 
friendly, CAijvoeAitiAil, 

funny, gpeAnnihAp, 1263 
gay, cpoioeAifiAiL, 1278 
gentle, focAip, 1424 
glad, ifcAfAC, ^meu-OAd, 
b|\6t)AC, tucgiipeAC, 
glorious, glopihAp, 1253 
grassy, peupAd, 1246, 
1 feuprfiAp, 1263 . 
greyish, gLAf, 1316 
happy, fetmiiiAp, 1253 
hard to get, 00-f a^aIa, 


hateful, siY&neAtfiAil, 

hearty, q\oi'6eAittAil, 1278 
helpful, concAtiuAd, 1246 
honest, wacaiica, 1298 
industrious, f ao£]\ac, 1246 
inhospitable, ooiceAltAC, 

intelligent, ciaIUhap, 


ioyful, see glad 
tingly, pfoJathAil, 1278 
laborious, fAot^Ad, 1128 
late, o&oeAr.AC, 1342 
last, o&oeAtiAC. 1342 
left (hand, etc), cL6, 1247 
light, euocfom, 1316 
like, cophAil, 1279 
little, see 1079 to 1084 
lively, beoOA, 1371 
longlived, fAoglac, 1246 

lucky, A-6thA|\, 1253 
lying, bpeugAC, 1246 
majestic, ™6jv6a, 1371 
many, iowoa, 1356 
many, a Lam, 1112 
missing, aj\ ia|\|\aio, 1455 
mournful, 001 1 jeAfAd, 

musical, ceolmAj\, 1253 
near, gAjs IJ97 
needy, oeAto, 1424 
noted, Ainme4ih6il» 1278 
numerous, UomhAjx, 1253 
obedient, |\iA|\AihAit, 1298 
open, A|\ teACA*d, 1227 
opportune. CAOiceAthAil 

pleasant in manner, ligAC, 

plentiful, rAi^ing, 1 169 
poor, oeALb, 1424, ootiA, 

powerful, neAjxcihAp, 1253 
quick, eufgAio, 1453 
rapid, etifgAi*, 1453 
rare, AnnAih, 1455 
renowned, AinmeAifiAil, 

right (hand, etc), oeAf , 

rocky, cAt^eAd, 1246 
roomy, fAippr.g, 1169 
royal, |\io$AriiAil, 1278 
satiated, fit^c, 1246 
satisfied, idiom 1381 
settled, pcAi|% 1424 

«hy» r5 Ae,hA P» "53 
similar, cophAit, 1279 
slippery, fteAihAifi, 1247 
smooth, fleAthAin, 1424 
sorrowful, b|\6tiA6, 1246 
startled, fgiethAp, 1253 
steadfast, feAphAC, 1246 
stiff, ceann, 1453 
subject, j\iA|\AihAil, 1298 
such, idiom, 1 122 
suspicious, fAiceAC, 1128 

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tight, ueAtin, 1453 
timid, fAire/6, 11 28 

torn, r^t 101076 ' *3 l6 
tricky, cte-dfAc, 1246 
usual, £ti At/ c, 1227 
valorous, caVttia, 1345 
valuable, tuACthAfi, 1253 
various, eusfAthAil, 1279 
victorious, b«A"OA6, 1246 
wanting, Aft ia^iai"©, 1455 
weary, cutoff ac, 1246 
well -behaved, mACAnuA, 

well-coloured, T>AtAiiiAit, 

wide, f Aivfins 1 169 
wonderful, lonjAnuAC, 

womanly, b An Am Ait, 1278 
wretched, T>onA, 1451 

IV. Verbs. 

The form given is the Im- 
perative unless otherwise 

allow, teis "oo, 1251 
announce, fUASAifi, 1 38 1 
arrange, ttei-ocij, 1455 
assist, cuiTMJ te, 1267 
attend to, pfteAf-oAil, 1397 
avoid, feACAin, 1290 
banish, "oibi^, 1 289 
beat, TAttuis, 1451 
beware of, feACAin, 1290 
bind, ceAngAit, 1290 
bring, cAbA^t teAc, 1275 
can, pewoAim, 1204 
carry, iomcAitt, I35 6 
claim, eitij, "3 6 
correct, ceAtiuuij, 1267 
cultivate, fAotttuij, 1267 
cut (crops, etc.), bAin, 1112 
defend, cofAin, 1109 
demand, eiti§, «3 6 
divide, ttomn, 145 1 

dry, nopmuij, 1265 

expect, idiom, 13x6 

explain, minig, 1267 

fall, cuic, 1 121 

fill, lion, 1424 

fix properly, co|itii§, 1267 

form skin over a wound, 

cneAftijJ, 1266, 
give in, give way, 561 tt, 


frind, met I, 1354 
eard, 6uaIa, 1 397 
hope, idiom, 13 16 
impoverish, boccui£, 1266 
improve, teAftii^, 1267 
injure mortally, bAf uij, 

judge, meAf, 1 120 
keep, congAib, coinmj, 

1397 " 
know, idioms, 1273, x 34 2 
know, idiom, 1345 
I know, peA-oAti, 1453 
labour, rAofcftuij, 1267 
let go, r5 A ° a * I4S 1 . 
live, mAtjt, 1397 
loosen, p5A0tt, 145 1 
lower, ift^5» i 2 <>7 
make deaf, bo-6|tui5, 1266 
make desolate, teon, 1259 
make well, flAtitni;, 1265 
marry, p6j\ 1342 
name, Ainmnij, 1266 
nourish, beAting, 1266 
operate, oib|tij, 1265 
outdo, rAftuis, H5 l 
overcome, fA^uij, I45 1 
plant, cutfi, 1397 
play, itmtj, "09 
play (music), peinn, 1121 
pluck, bAin, 1 1 12 
pour, T>6ittt, "ooittc, 1453 
proclaim, f«A5Ai|t, 1381 
put in order, t)eAfui§» 

reap,btiAin, 1397 
recognise, At tin, 1289 

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recollect, cuimmj, 1266 
remember, ctmfinig, 1266 
retire, culuig, 1267 
return, pit, 1298 
rub, cuimil, 1289 
search, cuA^cuig, 1267 
serve, j^xeAfOAil, 1397 
set right, t\£n&ui§, 1455 
sleep, cooaiL, 11 30 
sow, cui|\, 1397 
spill, t)6i|\c, THMpt;, 1453 
stand, feAf, reAfAiih, 

stay, comnuig, 1275 
strengthen, neApcuig, 1267 
strike, ouaiI, 1088 
submit, 561 U, 13? I 
take (from), bam, 11 12 
tell, idiom 1342 
think, fil, 1453 
think of, cuimmjAp, 1266 
threaten, bA^Ain, 1290 
turn, iompui§, 1125 
used to, see 11 88 
walk, fiubail, 11 20 
whiten, b<xnui§, 1265 
yield, 561II, 13 1 

V. Verbal Nouns. 

(= infinitives and present 
participles in English.) 

announcing, jrudgpd, 1381 
arranging, peS-oceAC, 1455 
asking, pajrjvuije, 1125 
attending, pjxeAfoal, 1397 
bearing, oneit, 1125 
beating, fi]\u §a*, 145 i 
believing cpeioeAihAiu(c), 

bending, cpoma*, 1088 
blessing, beAnnugA-o, 1089 
blessing, coir^eAgAo, 

coifpeAgAn, 1121 
boiling, fiuc*o, 1356 

breaking, bpifeA*, 1088 
bruising, bpujxvo, 1088 
building, C65A1I, 1117 
burning, t>6^A-6, 1088 
buying, ceAnriAC, 1121 
calling, gtAO^AC, 1091 
capering, jinnee, 13 16 
carrying, iom6Af\, 1453 
catching, bneifc &\\ 1125 
claiming,^! leAth.^iliuJA*, 

H3 6 
closing, t)Uii<! , 6, 1088 
consecrating, coif^eA^A^, 

coif^eA^An, 1 12 1 
cutting (crops, etc), bAint, 

dancing, jinnee, 1169 
defending, coftiAm, 

copAtnu, 1 109 
demanding, £ileAtfi f 

^iIiuja*, 1 136 
destroying, nulLeA'6, 1088 
dividing, \\oinn(c), 135 1 
crinking, 61, 1 120 
dying, pAgAil biif, 1087 
eating, i£e, 1125 
falling, cuicim, H2I 
finding, pAJAil, 1105 
getting, 1*1*1 1, 1 105 
giving, CAbAinu, 1109 
giving way, ^ilXeA-o, 1381 
going, gAbAil, 1 105 
going away, imfceAcc, 1 109 
increasing, meuou^AO, 
judging, weAf, 1120 
keeping, congbAil, 1397 
killing, uiApbA'O, 1089 
lamenting, cAOineA'o, 1088 
leaving, fAgiil, 1 105 
letting, lei geAn, leiginc, 

letting go, fjAOileA*, 1451 
living, inApfcAin, 1397 
looking, feucAirt(c), 1 107 
loosening, 1^011^*6,1451 
lying, luige, 1 125 
moving, copjunje, 1125 

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opening, o^gAiLc, 
fOfgAilc, 1 109 
outdoing, fApugAO, 145 1 
overcoming, p^ugA-o^Sl 
playing (music), feinnm, 

plucking, DAinc, 11 12 
pouring, ■odncAO, ■oopCA'6, 

praising, woLao, 1088 
praying, suite, 1125 
preparing, ullmu £a6, 1089 
pressing, Un£e, 145 1 
proclaiming, pJAg^A, 1381 
putting, cup, 1 1 20 
raising, a^vou**©, 1089 
raising, C65A1L, 1 105 
reading, leifceAO, 1088 
reaping, buAinc, 1397 
rearing, oil»eAiiiAin(u) t 

. I45 * * . 

riding, uiA|\CAi£eAci;, 1455 

rising, fijxje, 1125 

saluting, beAnnugA^, 1089 

searching, cuaj\ca6, 1268 

seeing, feicfin(fc), 1 107 

selling, x>iot, 1 120 

sending, cup, 1 120 

getting right, jxeioceAC, 

shutting, •outiA'6, 1088 
shutting, T)|\ui-oini, 1121 
sitting, fui-6e, 1 125 
sowing, cut\ 1087 
speaking, Iadahic, 1109 
spending, cAiteAO, 

CAiteAih, 1088 
spilling, •odncA'O, -oo^ca*, 

stretching, ffneAo, 1088 
stopping, fCAX), 1 1 20 
striking, ouaIao, 1088 
submitting, 5^110^^,1381 
taking, 5IACA6, 1088 
taking, 5ADA1 1, 1105 
taking (.from), DAinc, 1 1 12 

telling, mtipn(c), 1107 
turning, lompo^o, 1087 
understanding, cuispti(c), 

1 107 
waiting, f AtiAihAHi(c) 

wakening, t>tfifeAdc, 

t>uf5At), 1 109 
weakening, lAgtigA'O, 1089 
writing, f gniobA'O, 1088 

VI. Adverbs, Con- 
junctions, Etc. 

back, Ap Aif, 1269 
beyond sea, can CeAf, 

hardly, aj\ 65111, II 12 
head -foremost, idiom, 1091 
only, Athim, 1 1 12 
seldom, AiwAiti, 1455 
so, mAppn, 109 1 
to-morrow, 1 mDA|VA6, 1204 
up, 1 n-iijvoe, 1259 
very, ah- (prefix), 1204 

VII. Prepositions and 
thru. Combinations. 

across, C|VApiA, 1228 
beside, te hAif, 1259 
during, idioms, 1 1 12 
during, 1 gCAifceAih, 1298 
for (a time), idioms, 1 1 13 
in them, loiincA, 1161 

VIII. Pronouns and 
Indefinite Words or 
Quantity, Etc; 

everybody, everyone else, 

ca6, 1453. 
what, cait>o\ soit>e* 1342 

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