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I. HUMMING-BIRDS, Thirty-six Coloured Plates; with 
Portrait and Memoir of Linn^us. 
II. MONKEYS, Thirty-two Coloured Plates ; with Por- 
trait and Memoir of Buffon. 

III. HUMMING-BIRDS, Thirty-two Coloured Plates; with 

Portrait and Memoir of Pennant. m 

IV. LIONS, TIGERS, &c, Thirty-eight Coloured Plates ; 

with Portrait and Memoir of Cuvier. 

Coloured Plates; with Portrait and Memoir of 


VI. BIRDS OF THE GAME KIND, Thirty-two Coloured 

Plates ; with Portrait and Memoir of Sir Thomas 

Stamford Raffles. 

Coloured Plates ; with Portrait and Memoir of Sir 

Joseph Banks. 
VIII. COLEOPTEROUS INSECTS, (Beetles,) Thirty-two 

Coloured Plates ; with Portrait and Memoir of Ray. 
IX. COLUMBIDjE, (Pigeons,) Thirty-two Coloured Plates; 

with Portrait and Memoir of Pliny. 

Thirty-six Coloured Plates ; with Portrait and 

Memoir of Werner. 
XI. RUMINATING ANIMALS ; containing Deer, Ante- 
lopes, Camels, &c., Thirty-five Coloured Plates ; 

with Portrait and Memoir of Camper. 
XII. RUMINATING ANIMALS; containing Goats, 

Sheep, Wild and Domestic Cattle, &e. &c, 

Thirty-three Coloured Plates; with Portrait and 

Memoir of John Hunter. 









P t22? o 1 ?^ ™r tin " ed »«**•* i 

&e &e on TW, ^ ', Rhinoceroses ' Tapirs, 

trait and Memoir of Bewick. 

WHALES, Thirty-two Coloured Plates ; with Por- 
trait and Memoir of Lacepede. 

loured Plates ; with Portrait and Memoir of Rkvcv 

FOREIGN BUTTERFLIES, Thirty-three Coloured 
Plates ; with Portrait and Memoir of Lamarck 

four Coloured Plates ; with Portrait and Memoir of 
Le Vaillant. 


Thirty-six Coloured Plates ; with Portrait and Me- 
moir of Sir Robert Sibbald. 

FLYCATCHERS ; their Natural Arrangement and 
Relations, Thirty-three Coloured Plates ; with Por- 
trait and Memoir of Baron Haller. 

Thirty-six Coloured Plates; with Portrait and 
Memoir of Ulysses Aldrovandi. 
AMPHIBIOUS CARNIVORA ; including the Wal- 
rus and Seals, and the Herbivorus Cet^cea 
Mermaids, &c., Thirty-three Coloured Plates ; with 
Portrait and Memoir of Francois Peron 
Thirty-two Coloured Plates ; with Portrait and Me- 
moir of William Smellie. 





JOGS, Thirty-three Coloured 
and Memoir of Pallas. 




rs S' 



IngJYivm fa?" th<'A<7diirii l/s tW Jjhri ry. 



T©a. m 














.- ■ 



^ e ^ogs of M t S* Bernard. 
















F.R.S.E., F.L.S., &C. &C. 
























CANIDjE or genus canis op authors. 







VOL. I. 















We have much satisfaction in fulfilling the assur- 
ance, given in our last advertisement, that many- 
volumes were in an advanced state of progress, and 
would follow each other in as rapid succession as 
attention to the execution of the various depart- 
ments would allow ; and we have now the pleasure 
to present to our friends and the Puhlic the first 
portion of the Natural History of the Dog, 
written hy Colonel C. Hamilton Smith, a well- 
known and talented Zoologist, and one whom we 
may in future hope to rank as an ahle coadjutor in 
our work. This part contains the description of 
the principal wild races, allied to, and from which 
it is supposed most of our domestic hreeds of 
Dogs have sprung ; while the second part, com- 
pleting their history, and illustrating all those ani- 
mals which have heen cultivated from them for the 
use or amusement of man, is so far advanced, that 



H "■ 






we are enabled confidently to promise it within the 
usual time. 

The Volume which will succeed those above 
mentioned, and which we hope to publish before 

History of 



in which the extraordinary in- 


The economical management will, however, also be 
treated of; and a sketch of the history of the foreign 
forms which are allied to this interesting group of 
insects, will be added. 

These will form the subjects which will occupy 
the volumes to be given within the present year ; 
and it will be seen that the support which the 
Public has so liberally afforded to the " Library," 
has enabled us to receive assistance from Naturalists 
who bear a high rank in their respective walks of 
science. The names of Selby, Swainson, Hamilton 
Smith, Hamilton, Dunbar, Duncan, and Mac- 
gillivray, already stand as our co-operators, and 
the volumes for the coming year promise to increase 
our list with many able companions. 

3, St. James Square, 





Memoir of Pallas » 

Chronological List of some of his Works 


The Canine Family in general 

The Diurnal Canidse . 

Sub-genus I. Chaon. — Section I. Lupus. The Wolves 
The Common Wolf. 

Lupus vulgaris. Plate I. 

The Black Wolf. 

Lupus lycaon. Plate II. 
The American Wolves 
The Dusky Wolf. 

Lupus nubilus. Plate III. 
Wolf of Southern States, North America 

Lupus Meocicanus. Plate IV. 
Section II. Lyciscus. — .The Lyciscan Dogs 
North American Prairie Wolf. 

Lyciscus latrans. Plate V. 






The Caygotte of Mexico. 
Lyciscus cagoUis. Plate VI. 
Section III. Chryseus. 


The Red Dogs 

Chryseus scylax. Plate VII. 
Dhole of Ceylon. 

Chryseus Ceyhnicus. Plate VIII 
The Pariah Dog. 

I Sumatran 



The New Holland Dingo. 

Ohrysceus Australia*. 
Chryseus Javanicus. 

Plate IX. 

Plate X. 


Plate XIII. 

Section IV. Thous.-The Thoa Wild Dogs 
Thous Anthus. 

Canis Anthus 
The Thous of Nubia. 

Thous variegatus. Plate XI. 
The Yenlee, or Pied Thous. 

Thous mesomelas. Plate XII. 
Senegal Thous. 

Thous Senegalensis. 
Thous Tokla 

Wild Dog of Natolia. 

Thous acmon. Plate XIV. 
Section V. Sacalius.— The Jackals 
The Common Jackal. 
Sacalius aureus. Plate XV. 
The Barbary Jackal. 

Sacalius Barbarus 
Sacalius Procyonoides. 


Canis procyonoides . 

Section VI. Cynalopex 
Corsae Dog- Fox. 

Cynalopex corsae. Plate XVI. 



















The Kokree. 

Cynalopex kokree . 
Fulvous-tailed Dog-Fc 

Cynalopex chrysurus 

The Pale Dog-Fox. 

Cynalopex pallidus. 
The Isatis. 

Cynalopex insectivorus • • 

The Turkish Dog-Fox. 

Cynalopex Turcicus. Plate XVIII. 

-The Fennecs 

Plate XVII. 

Plate XIX. 

Section VII. Megalotis. 
The Anubis Zerda. 

Megalotis famelicus 
Caama Fennec. 

Megalotis caama, 1 

Fennec of Bruce. 

Megalotis zerda. Plate XX. 
Section VIII. Chrysocyon. — The Aguara Wolves 
The Maned Aguara. 

Chrysocyon jubatus. Plate XXI. 
Section IX. Dusicyon.— The Aguara 


Hoary Aguara Dog. 

Dusicyon canescens. Plate XXII. . 
Falkland Island Aguara Dog. 

Dusicyon Antarticus. Plate XXIII. 
Aguara Dog of the Woods. 

Dusicyon sylvestris. Plate XXIV. 
The Crabodage, or Surinam Aguara Dog. 

Dusicyon sylvestris. Plate XXV. 
Dun-footed Aguara Dog. 

Dusicyon fulvipes. Plate XXVI. . 
Section X. Cerdocyon. — The Aguara Foxes 
White-barred Aguara Fox. 

Cerdocyon mesoleucus. Plate XXVII. 

Guaraxa Aguara Fox. 

Cerdocyon guaraxa. Plate XXVIII. 





















- h s 






Crabodago Aguara Fox. 

Cerdocyon A zarce. Plate XXIX. 
Magellanic Aguara Fox. 

Cerdocyon Magellanicus. 



. Plate XXX. 

Portrait of Pallas 
Vignette Title-page 

. 266 
Plate XXXI. 


In all Thirty-three Plates in this Volume. 



I / > 



Juvat integros accedere fontes 

Atque haurire, juvatque novos decerpere flores. 

LucreU de Nat. Rer. bib. iv. 



the illustrious subject of the following 

Memoir, was probably the most eminent scientific 
Naturalist w T hose name adorns the latter half of the 
eighteenth century. His discoveries, in almost every 
department of Natural History, are perhaps more 
frequently quoted than those of any other author ; 
and hence the interest that is very generally and 
Naturally felt respecting the particulars of hi§ life 
and history. No detailed and regular account, how- 
ever, so far as we know, has hitherto enriched the 
annals of biography ; and though the work might be 
difficult, we cannot entertain a doubt that its accom- 
plishment would amply repay the best exertions of 
any one competent to the task. 

vol. I. 






his whole life to science; when entirely occupied 
m making observations and in recording them, the 
only suspension in his researches being that required 
for their publication, it will easily be imagined that 
his life will not exhibit many striking incidents, 
and will be read accurately only in the analysis of 
his works. But if, besides, working only for men 
of science of his own grade, he despises all orna- 
ment ; if to assist him in the accumulation of facts, 
he always clothes them in the simplest and most 
meagre expressions, and leaves to others the humble 
merit of deducing the results, then this analysis be- 
comes almost impossible ; and to make known his 
works, it is necessary that we should copy them. 
These remarks apply to Pallas. Removed in youth 
from his family and country, a third of his life 
was spent in the desert, and the rest in his study ; 
and in both these situations he made an immense 
number of observations, and wrote a great many 
memoirs and volumes. All his writings dry, and 
not composed with the object of pleasing, are yet 
filled with important and novel remarks : they have 
elevated the name of the author to the first rank 
among naturalists, who peruse them without ceas- 
ing, and quote them in every page ; they are studied 
and consulted with pleasure by the historian and 
the geographer, by those who study the philosophy 
of language, and the moral condition of the different 
races of mankind. But it is precisely this multitude 
of his labours, and their diversity, which compels 




me to make his Eloge a kind of ' table of contents/ 
for which I must crave the indulgence of my audi- 

This eminent naturalist, Peter Simon Pallas, 
^vas bom in Berlin, September 22d, in the year 
1741. His father, Simon Pallas, a native of Jo- 
hannisburg in Prussia, was surgeon-major in the 
regiment of Doenhof, and in 1741 was appointed 
professor of surgery at Berlin, and chief surgeon of 
the public hospital of that city. His mother, Susan 
Leonard, w^as of French extraction, being born in 
the colony of French emigrants which had for some 
time been established in the Prussian metropolis. 

Young Pallas received the early part of his edu- 
cation at home from private tutors, and made most 
satisfactory progress in his studies. His father, 
who intended him to follow his own profession, 
entertained the judicious purpose of familiarizing 
him, when still almost a child, with many lan- 
guages ; and the boy made such proficiency, that 
he could soon write almost equally well in Latin f 
and French, in English and German. The manifold 
advantages accruing from this accomplishment, usu- 
ally so easily acquired in youth, were very apparent 

* See Recueil des Eloges Hist par M. le Chev. Cuvier, t. u. 

109 Of course we shall freely avail ourselves of this masterly 

eloge, so far as it goes. The Baron states he was much as- 
sisted by VEssai BiograpMque sur Pallas, which was read by 

M. Rudolphi to the Academy of Berlin in 1812. This we 
have not seen. 




utility to every student of science is so manifest, 
that it is matter of surprise the example is not more 
generally, not to say universally, followed. This 
acquirement was so little trouhlesome to the learner, 
that he still kept ahead of his youthful comrades in 
his other studies j and not content with what was 
taught by his masters, he employed his leisure hours 
m the study of natural history ; and with such suc- 
cess, that at the age of fifteen, he sketched ingenious 
classifications of several groups of animals. 

It was in his fifteenth year that Pallas entered 
seriously upon his professional pursuits, and com- 
menced attendance on lectures upon anatomy and 
physiology, botany and medicine, under Professors 
Meckel, Sproegel, Rolof, and his father. So apt a 
scholar was he in these several branches of science, 
that m the beginning of the year 1758 we find him, 
according to the account he gave to Mr Coxe, ena- 
bled to read a course of public lectures on anatomy.* 
Yet although thus occupied in his professional "la- 
bours, he found leisure to prosecute, under the special 



the study of entomology and other branches 
zoology. In the autumn of the same year he re' 
paired to the university of Halle, where he attended 
the lectures of the celebrated Segner on mathematics 

* See Coxe's Travels, and Rees's Cyclopedia, under « Pal- 
las r where may be found by far the best sketch of his history 
we have seen in the English tongue. 




and physics, and also improved his acquaintance 
"With mineralogy, in the environs of that city. 
■ In the sprin 

of the year 1759 young Pallas 
removed to Gottingen ; and though prevented by a 
l°ng and dangerous illness from prosecuting his 
studies with his wonted ardour, yet he reaped much 
benefit from the instructions of the physicians Roe- 
derer and Voegel, and improved his general know- 
ledge by diligently availing himself of the many 
rare books belonging to the library. During his resi- 
dence at this celebrated university, he made numer- 
ous experiments on poisons and the effects of the 
ttiost potent medicines, applied himself to the dis- 
section of animals, and made many observations on 
^orms. On the last named subject, he at this time 
composed an ingenious treatise under the title " De 
ln festis Viventibus intra viventia"* in which he seems 
to have taken great pains to discriminate these noxi- 
ous animals, and to have described many of them 
"With singular accuracy. 

In July 1 760 Pallas was attracted to the univer- 
Sl ty of Leyden by the fame of its celebrated profes- 
sors, Albinus, Gaubius, and Muschenbroeck ; and 
by them he was noticed as a young man of pro- 
mising genius and indefatigable application. In 
December he took his Doctor s degree, and distin- 
guished himself by his inaugural dissertation, in 
^hich he defended by new experiments, the treatise 

See list in the Appendix, where we have given as com- 
plete an enumeration as we could of the titles of his works, 
clironologically arranged. 



! ! 




mentioned above as composed at Gottingen. This 
Thesis seems to have been his first work, and was 
published in the nineteenth year of his age. 

At this epoch, the possession of numerous colo- 
nies all over the world, as well as the first and 
longest established rank in commerce, had accumu- 
lated a vast number of rare natural productions in 
the several museums of Holland, and natural history 
itself was receiving a new impetus, from the taste 
and attention bestowed upon it by the gifted mother 
of the last Stadtholder. We cannot be surprised, 
therefore, that during his stay at Leyden, this 
science should have become the predominant pas- 
sion of our enthusiastic student, who employed all 
the time he could spare from his professional pur- 
suits in visiting the public and private museums, 
and in carefully noting what was most worthy of 

Having visited the principal cities of Holland, 
1 alias directed his course to London, where he 
arrived m July 1761 ; the ostensible "objects of his 
journey to England being to improve his know- 
ledge of medicine and surgery, and to inspect the 
hospitals. He was now, however, so much absorbed 
in his contemplations on zoology, that he neglected 
every other pursuit, and gave himself up entirely to 
his favourite branch of science. At this juncture 
his zeal was so ardent, that after having passed the 
day in curiously examining the various collections 
of natural history, and perusing the principal works 
he could procure on the subject, he would frequently 




employ the greater part of the night, and occa- 
sionally even whole nights together, in devouring 
some new publication, which either awakened his 
curiosity, or which bore upon his more immediate 
researches. With the view of extending his infor- 
mation, he took several journeys to the sea-coasts, 
and more especially into Sussex. 

Being at length summoned by his father to return 
home, the young naturalist quitted London with 
regret, in the latter end of April 1 762, and repaired 
to Harwich, in order to embark for Holland. Here 
he was detained by contrary winds ; and while most 
men would have regarded this circumstance as a 
grievous annoyance, he turned it to profit, and re- 
joiced in the opportunity it afforded of examining 
the coasts and shores, and collecting a variety of 
marine productions. On the 13th of May he landed 
in Holland, and passing through the Hague, Ley- 
den, and Amsterdam, arrived in Berlin on the 1 2th 

of June. 

Previous to commencing the practice of his pro- 
fession, his father sent him to Hano ver, for the pur- 
pose of procuring the post of surgeon in the allied 
army ; but as peace was soon concluded, he returned 
to his native city, where he spent a year, employed 
chiefly in preparing materials for a " Fauna Insec- 

or " A Description of the Insects in the 

March of Brandenburg." 

Animated by his predilection for natural history, 
and encouraged by the favour and patronage of the 
great Gaubius, he at length prevailed with his father 






to allow him to go and settle in Holland. Thither 
accordingly he went, and took np his abode at the 
Hague. His reputation at this time was so well 

PC-fa KIioT-irkrl +V>~J. 1- _ .1 , i_^ * 

.,—,1764, _„_ 

age of 23, elected Fellow of the Royal Society of 
London^ and in the following year, Member of the 
A cademie des Curieux de la Nature, to both of which 
Societies he had previously sent interesting and 
ingenious papers. 

The intimacy which Pallas now contracted with 
the celebrated naturalists in Holland, and particu- 
larly with those of the Hague, who had commenced 
the formation of a literary society,— the free access 
he had to the great museum of the Prince of Orange, 
and other valuable cabinets,— the systematic cata- 
logues of these collections which he drew up, and 
several of which he published,— contributed much to 
advance his knowledge of the productions of nature 
m the various quarters of the globe, and to the 
collection of those materials which gave birth to the 
many works on zoology which have deservedly 
distinguished their author as the first naturalist of 
his time. One of the earliest treatises which ren- 
dered him conspicuous was his Elinchus Zoophyto- 
rum, or " Tabular View of Zoophytes." 

This could not be considered but as an extraor- 
dinary production for the time, proceeding from the 
pen of any one, and was still more remarkable as 
coming from so young a man. Haller characterizes 
it as Princeps m hoc classe opus, quce U mites utrim _ 
que,regni cmfundit, and adds, totam classem per 



sua genera accurate definite speciesque* In its com- 
position he availed himself of all that had been 
done before him, including the labours of Marsigli 
and Roemphius, of Peysonelli and Trembley, and 
especially of the more recent discoveries of Linnasus 
and Ellis. In the volume we find an Elinchiis 
Auctorum ad Historiam Zoophytorum Spectantium. 
We thence perceive that he consulted no fewer than 
a hundred treatises on the subject, and in the rich 
collections of Holland he found treasures more 
varied and extensive than probably had ever fallen 
nnder the examination of any other individual. 
All these he handled as a master. He divided 
those he considered as true zoophytes into 15 genera 
and 250 species ; and added three genera which he 
considered doubtful, genera ambigua, comprehending 



The former included, 1st, the Hydra ; 
2, Eschara ; 3, Cellularia ; 4, Tabularia ; 5, Brachi- 
onus ; 6, Sertularia ; 7, Gorgonise ; 8, Antipathes ; 
9, Isis; 10, Millepora; 11, Madrepora; 12, Tubi- 
pora; 13, Alcyonium; 14, Pennatula; and 15, 
Spongia. The three ambiguous genera are Tenia, 
Volvoces, and Corallina. His definition of sponge 
is animal ambiguum^ crescens, torpidissimum ; and 
he distinctly says that corals are to be referred to 
the class of vegetables. But we must not enter 
upon any thing like criticism : Cuvier remarks of 
the work generally, " that the clearness of his de- 
scription, and the care with which he refers the 

* Bibl. Dot. t. ii. 566. 


I \ 





synonyms of authors to his species, was quite 
remarkable for an author of twenty-five years of 
age, and his ' Introduction' was still more so. With 
regard to corals, he pointed out the errors of the 
prevailing opinion, as if they had been a mere hive 
so to speak, to the polypes. He demonstrated that 
their trunk itself is living ; that it is a kind of ani- 
mal tree, with its branches and heads ; a composite 
animal, the stony portion of which is nothing more 
than the common skeleton which grows, as do the 
animals, but is not fabricated by them. Linnaeus 
was the first who energetically supported these bold 
views, which are now adopted by every one." 
Pallas's ideas concerning true corals excited the 
attention of our countryman Ellis, who wrote an 
admirable essay in reply, which silenced, if it did 
not convince, his able adversary. It is somewhat 
curious, notwithstanding the advance which has 
been made in this department,* how truly it might 
still be remarked concerning these doubtful genera, 
the sponges and coralines, in the very words of our 
author, " At verurr " 1 ' 

labor est. 



The history of our rising zoologist, not to say 
Zoology itself, was this same year (1766) distin 
guished by another and scarcely less remarkable 
production of his pen. In this goodly quarto, of 
more than two hundred pages, adorned with four- 

* See Dr. Johnston's Paper on the Nat. Hist, of British 
Zoophytes, in the Magazine of Zoology and Botany, vol. i. 
p. 229 ; and his History of British Zoophvtes 1838 



its title Miscellania 


X J 

lead us to infer, a great variety of subjects are 
brought under review. The author particularly 
describes several species of vertebral animals new 
to science, and a number of invertebral, not wholly 
disregarding either insects or plants. He was en- 
gaged, as he states in his preface, for several years 
in its preparation, and was induced to undertake 
it from the great attentions and facilities he had 
experienced in Holland.* 

Though we must not attempt any thing like an 
extended analysis, yet we cannot pass by this inte- 
resting volume without a few remarks. It contains 
a minute description of a species of bat, concerning 
which family Pallas remarks, much was required 
at the time to perfect the history. From its resem- 
blance to the shrew-mouse, he named it Vespertilio 
soricinus ; it is the Glosophaga soricina of systema- 


It was not more 

than two inches in length, but was in many re- 
spects remarkable. It had been procured both in 
Surinam and the West Indies ; and yet, he remarks, 
its natural history was quite a blank. We need 
scarcely remark, that our author, both with pen 
and pencil, amply supplied this deficiency. Though 
many species are now included in the genus, yet no 

In Belgium triennio fere abhinc advena summa humani- 
tate a curiosis et Scientiae patronis excerptus fui. . Ditissima 
abinde, quibus Batavse urbes gloriantur, rerum naturalmm 
musea in hoc genus studii ardentissimo mihi liberahter patu- 

erunt. &c. 









one has received a more detailed description. ■ The 
next animal of which he gives an account is the 
great flying-squirrel from the islands of the Indian 
archipelago, by him denominated Sciurus petaurista, 


wing-like membranes. It is the Pteromys petaurista 
of our systems. After briefly alluding to the dimi- 
nutive species of Northern Asia and America, which 
had long been known, and mentioning the very 
little that had been recorded of the animal before 



states, that, he drew his description from three spe- 
cimens in the respective museums of Leyden, the 

Hague, and the Prince of Orange. 

size equal to that of a small rabbit, about eighteen 

These gave the 

inches long. The description is accompanied by 
an excellent representation, which is still copied 
into some of our most popular works. Another 
animal, concerning which he states that naturalists 
had preserved the most profound silence, and which 
he descnbes at length, supplying good figures, is 
his Cavia Capemis (CaMai). He is at pains to 
distinguish it from the water-hog (Hydrockoenis) 
and the Guinea-pig (Cabaya) of South America • 
he also distinguished it from the agouti and the 
aperia and paca of Marcgraf, & c . This animal is 

Hyrax of Hermann, the Duman 
of Buffon, Desmarest, &c. ; it is the Israel of the 
Arabs of Mount Lebanon, and is generally regarded 

as the Coney of the Sacred Scriptures, 
next allude to his Apis JEtkiop 





niatists, " I shall now/' says he, " describe a new 
species of boar which is peculiar to Africa, and 

form :" a form 


jreat excrescences about the snout, and which has 
procured for it the popular name of the marked or 
wart-hog. It was by mere inference that he con- 
cluded that it was the same as the boar of Mada- 
gascar (Stcs larvatus). His words are, " I scarcely 
doubt that the African boar seen by Adanson was 
this species, and hence we may conclude it is found 


far as the Niger. It is probabfy, too, an inhabitant 
°f Madagascar, according to the testimony of Flac- 
court ; hence I conclude I may apply to it the name 
Aper JEthiopkus. This name is probably unfortu- 
nate, as it would appear that the characters of that 
species described by Ruppel, A . JEliani, as existing 
in that country, are sufficiently distinct/'* Passing 
by the short paper in which he maintains that the 
opossum and ant-eaters are not confined to the New 
World, we shall draw our account of the quadru- 
peds mentioned in this volume to a close, by stating 
that there is a minute description first given in this 

la Zoologica^ as it is fire- 

work, not in the 
quently stated, of the Grim, or Antilope grirnmice : 
this is preceded by a monograph of the antelopes, 
in which they are divided into three genera and 
seventeen species. 

* See the Naturalist's Library, Mammalia, vol. v. p. 2 1 9. 

\ : 




We must not stay to make any remark on his de- 
scription of a crane, his Grus crepitans, the golden- 
breasted trumpeter of Linnaeus ; neither shall we say 
a word on the insects he describes, species of Onisci, 
of a marine Acarus, and of the Cicada; nor shall 
we dwell upon several zoophytes, actinia, and pen- 
natulcB, which he again introduced to notice ; but 
shall add, that to more than any, or than to the 
whole of the foregoing, inclusive, he directed his 
attention to the great class Mollusca, which our 
readers will remember immediately succeeds the 
vertebral animals, and precedes insects ; and includes 



one half of the Miscellanea is devoted to this most 
interesting and difficult class ; and with a degree 
of acuteness and success which was scarcely inferior 
to that which attended his researches regarding 

We dwell the longer on this volume, because we 
conceive that, from a variety of causes, it has not 
taken that rank in general estimation to which it is 
fully entitled. One reason of this appears to have 
been, that the author almost immediately afterwards 
brought out a second edition, we may call it, of that 
part of the volume which treated of quadrupeds in 
his Spicilegia Zoologica, although much is omitted 
in this latter which appears in the former : and ano- 
ther and equally influential cause is to be found in 
the difficulty of the investigation connected with the 
mollusca. As our space does not allow us to dilate, 
we shall simply state, that he dwells at considerable 




Aphroditce^ the Echiurece^ Lumbrici, and Hydatids. 
Instead, however, of passing any opinion of our own, 
we will here adduce the sentiments of Cuvier : 
" What would have excited the liveliest astonish- 
ment, if the public at the time had been in a condi- 
tion to appreciate it, was the sudden light which 
Pallas threw on those classes of the animal economy 
which were least known, and which had long been 
huddled together under the common appellation of 
worms. Not permitting himself to be imposed upon 
by the errors of Linnaeus, any more than by those 


of Buffon, he demonstrated that the presence or 
absence of a shell could not furnish a satisfactory 
basis for their arrangement, and that the whole ana- 
logy of their structure should be regarded ; that in 
this respect the ascidia are properly analogous to 

bivalve shells, * * 

nearly connected with snails, and that the Aphro- 
?, whose anatomical structure he beautifully 
elucidated, should be approximated to the nereides, 
serpula?, and other articulated worms, whether they 
have shells or not. Assuredly," he continues, " the 
naturalist whose glance was so piercing, could have 
dispelled the chaos which enveloped those inverte- 
bral animals, if he had continued to prosecute his 
investigations; but at the time he published his 
views, they were not quite matured. Those errors 
which a little trouble would have speedily corrected, 
probably contributed to delay a necessary revolution 
of opinion till a subsequent period ; and we here 

* that the univalves are more 






see "how often progress is arrested by the slightest 
circumstance. The most astonishing thing of all is, 
that he himself neglected to procecute these beauti- 
ful observations." 

To Cuvier s remarks on this portion of the trea- 
tise, we must not omit to add his general estimate 

of this too much neglected work. " We cannot" he 

observes, " behold, without astonishment, so young 
an author unite the merits of the two great masters 
who then divided between them the empire of 

science. He boldly took for his models the great 

French naturalist and his assistant Daubenton ; he 
charged himself with their double work, and with- 
out allowing himself to be dazzled by their authority, 
he conjoined, with the profound sagacity of the one 
and the patient accuracy of the other, those precise 
and methodical views which were too much ne- 
glected by them both." 

After this brief critique and analysis, both of that 
part of the work which treats of the mollusca, and 
of the vertebrata, no one we apprehend can doubt 
that this was a production of the rarest merit; 
which, appearing within a few months after the 
Elinchus Zoophytorum, could not fail most deservedly 
to raise the character of the author to the very first 
rank among naturalists. 

In the dedication prefixed to this work, the author 
laid before the Prince of Orange a plan for a voyage 
to the Cape of Good Hope and to the other Dutch 
settlements in the East Indies, and which, impelled 
by his wonted ardour for scientific knowledge, he 



offered to undertake and superintend. This project 
"was strongly recommended by Gaubius and 
proved of "by tbe Prince, but was prevented from 
being carried into execution by the author s father, 
who not only refused his consent to his taking such 
a distant expedition, but even recalled him to Ber- 
lin. In obedience to his father s wish, but with the 
greatest reluctance, he quitted Holland in Novem- 
ber 1766. 

On his return to his native city, his only consola- 
tion for his separation from his friends in Holland, 
and in having lost so many opportunities of improv- 
ing himself, consisted in arranging the vast stock of 
materials he had collected, and the observations he 
was unceasingly making, and presenting them to the 
public. This he did in that work so well known 
and so often quoted, the Spicilegia Zoologica, which 
was somewhat on the plan of our modem periodi- 
cals, coming out in successive numbers, though not 
rigorously restricted as to time. It extended to thirty 
or forty qnarto pages letterpress, and was illustrated 
with excellent engravings, both of the entire ani- 
mals, and of the parts of their structure which were 
insisted upon. Four numbers only were at tins 
time brought out under his own eye at Berlin ; they 
appeared, however, in less than six months, thus 
supplying new proof of the unwearied energy of the 


As we have already remarked, this volume might 
be regarded as an improved edition of a part of the 


The first number is occupied wholly 

VOL. I. 








with what we have designated a Monograph of 
Antelopes. Here the general description is some- 
what altered, and sixteen species are enumerated ; 
and to the minute account of the Grim, that of the 
Cervicapra is added ; the second fasciculus contains 
the Apis JEtkiopicus and the coney or cavia, hoth 
of which are somewhat further illustrated ; the third 
is wholly occupied with bats, and another new 
species is added, the Cephalotes of Geoffrey; and 
the last treats of the crane before mentioned, and 
the crested and mitred guinea-fowls of Africa. 

But the work, together with Pallas's residence in 
Berlin, were brought to a sudden close, by his being 
invited by the Empress Catherine II. to accept of 
the professorship of natural history in the Imperial 
Academy of Sciences at St Petersburg ; and although 
in this instance his father and other relatives again 
refused their assent, yet his own ardent zeal for his 
favourite science induced him, without a moment's 
hesitation, to accede to the invitation, and to hasten 
his departure for a country where his curiosity was 
so likely to be amply gratified. He accordingly 
quitted his native land in June 1767, and arrived 
in Petersburg on the 10th of August, 

His stay, however, was likewise very short in 
this capital, as his services were almost immediately 
put in requisition in connexion with an important 
and extended scientific expedition. The reigning 
Empress was excited to promote this measure by a 
somewhat curious circumstance. At the time of 
the transit of Yenus over the suns disk in 1763, the 




French goyernment despatched the Abbe Chappe 
d'Auteroche to Tobolsk to make the required ob- 
servations; and he, on his return, published an 
account of what he had seen, the sarcastic tone of 
which so irritated the Empress that she took the 
trouble, it is stated, to refute him herself. On this 
account, too, she was unwilling that foreigners should 
a gain undertake the examination of a similar transit 
°f Venus in 1769, and she therefore appointed 
astronomers of the Imperial Academy to undertake 
it, conjoining with them naturalists also, who were to 
examine and report on the face of the country. To 
this latter project she was the more excited, from 
her recently having made a progress down the Volga 
and through the interior provinces of European 

ssia. She had then become aware of the great 
deficiencies of the existing topographical and geo- 
graphical information, and 




which would accrue from deputing learned and 
skilful men to visit the distant provinces of her 
extensive dominions, with a view to enlarge the 
boundaries of science and extend a knowledge of 
the useful arts among the natives. On being made 
acquainted with these plans, Pallas immediately 
offered to accompany the expedition, and was 
eagerly accepted. In consequence of the orders of 
the sovereign, the Academy amongst others named 
Messrs Pallas, Lepechen, Gmelin the nephew, Gul~ 
denstedt, and Georgi as members of the commis- 
sion, which upon the whole consisted of these five 
naturalists and seven astronomers and mathemati- 





cians, and of a great number of assistants, whose 
services were to be devoted to the several objects of 
pursuit. To Pallas was entrusted the preparing 
the general instructions for the naturalists, and he 
was gratified with the choice of his more immediate 
associates : on him too was conferred, at his own 
request, the conduct of the expedition to the east 
of the Volga, and towards the extreme parts of 

Pallas spent the winter previous to his departure 
in Petersburg ; and in the midst of his innumerable 
preparations, found time for a multitude of scientific 
labours. He drew up a systematic catalogue of the 
animals in the museum of the Academy of Sciences ; 
he arranged the celebrated collection of Professor 
Breyn of Dantzic, which has been lately purchased 
by Prince Orlof; and prepared for the press six 
additional numbers of the Spicilegia Zoologies which 
were printed at Berlin, during his absence, under 
the direction of Dr Martin.* The work, however 
which produced the liveliest sensations at the time, 
was a memoir which was read to the Imperial Aca- 
demy concerning the bones of the great quadrupeds 
which are so often found in Siberia ; among which 
he recognized those of the elephant, rhinoceros, buf- 
falo, and many others belonging only to intertropical 
countries, and in quantities which are quite enor- 
mous. These statements raised the attention of all 
the naturalists in Europe to these astonishing ap- 

* These we have not been able to procure. 



pearances, and excited an interest which has since 



yielded an abundant harvest.* 

Our Naturalist set off from Petersburg in June 
1768, and having passed through Moscow, and 
crossed the plains of European Russia, spent the 
winter at Simbirsk on the Volga, in the^ midst of 
those Tartars who were originally masters in Russia, 
but who have since devoted themselves to agricul- 
ture. He then moved forwards to Orenburg, which 
is the great rendezvous for the migratory hordes 
who wander over the salt deserts on the north of 

and who conduct the caravans which 
convey the commerce of India across the deserts. 
Descending the river Jaik, or Oural, he stopped at 
Gurief, a small Russian fortress upon the Caspian, 
and with much care examined that great sea, which 
formerly, according to him, was much more exten- 
sive, and whose ancient shores may stdl be recog- 
nized at a great distance from its present waters 
towards the north and west. Returning through 
the province of Orenburg, he spent the second win- 
ter at Ufa. 

The year 1 770 was employed in visiting the two 
slopes of the Oural mountains, and the numerous 
iron mines which have been worked among them ; 
and which have supplied to- many families, in a 
few generations, fortunes equal to those of European 
princes. In December he reached Tobolsk^ the 
capital of Siberia, and there wintered. In 1771 he 




* Nov. Com. Petro. t. xiii 



crossed the Altai'sk mountains, followed the course 
of the Irtish as far as Kolivan, where he inspected 
the celebrated silver mines, and finally arrived at 
Krasnoyarsk, a town upon the Enissey. In spring 
1772 he set off for another district which is still 
richer in mines, and which belongs to the crown, 
on the northern slope of the Altay mountains, th 
great chain which extends from east to west, and 
which, by obstructing the south wind, imposes on 
Siberia a climate much more rigorous than its lati- 
tude indicates. 

ward, he crossed the great lake Baikal, and traversed 
that mountainous country known under the name 
of Daourie, which extends to the frontiers of China. 
He here experienced so great a cold, that he wit- 
nessed the natural freezing of mercury, — which 
phenomena he minutely described. It was in these 
regions that he for the first time began to witness a 
complete difference from every thing seen in Europ 

After advancing still farther east- 


the plants assumed new forms, and the animals, of 
kinds altogether unknown to us, climbed the rocks, 
having wandered from the immense deserts of cen- 
tral Asia. After having met with a great manv 
hordes who were half savage, he here at leno-th 
discovered a civilized nation, but one whose civi- 
lization is very different from an 



seen 111 

Europe ; and he could not prevent himself from con- 
cluding that the Chinese were a race distinct from 
the others, so far hack at least as the last great catas- 
trophe of the glohe, and which in its developement 
had followed a course alike isolated and peculiar. 



Retracing his steps, after having passed a second 
winter at Krasnoyarsk, our traveller returned in 
1770 to the Oural and the Caspian, visited Astra- 
kan, and there studied the manners and characters 
of the Indians, Buchares, and other inhabitants of 
southern and central Asia who unite in composing 
the extraordinary population of that city. He then 

resorted to the Caucasus, the great nursery of the 
white races of mankind, — as the mountains of Da- 
aurie appear to be of those of a yellow hue. He 
again passed the winter at the foot of that range 
which separates the Volga from the Tanais, and 
finally returned to Petersburg on the 30th of July, 
after an absence of six years. During the time that 
he himself pursued the principal route, he was in 
the habit of despatching several of his young asso- 
ciates in different directions to investigate whatever 
was important, and then carefully availed himself 
of their observations. 

Five goodly quartos, with another of plates,* 
were the immediate result of these travels. We say 
immediate, because their publication did not wait 
the return of the author, but, on the contrary, 
according to the plan prescribed by Count Orlof, 
president of the Academy, the MSS. were sent 
every year to Petersburg, and were published as 
soon as they arrived. In consequence probably of 
this plan, very different estimates have been made of 

* See Appendix. Voyages de Pallas Traduits de VAlle- 
maud. Paris, 1788. 








the character of these u Travels ;" and whilst some 
have conferred on them the highest eulogiums, more 
perhaps have bestowed only limited praise. As 
•exhibiting the sentiments of the former of these 
classes, we shall adduce only the testimony of the 
illustrious De Saussure, a no less competent than an 
unexceptionable judge. " The accounts/' he says, 
46 of these long and painful journeys comprehend all 
that can interest the naturalist and the statesman ; 
and they are perhaps the grandest and most beauti- 
ful specimen of this kind of work which we possess." 
With this we connect the criticism of the judicious 
Cuvier : — " It may easily be supposed that thus 
working in haste, and in these solitudes, without 
books and every means of reference, the author must 
necessarily have fallen into some errors, insisted 
upon familiar matters as if they were unknown, 

fey of repetition. It must moreover be 
conceded, that he might have infused more life into 
his narrative, and given greater prominency to the 
more interesting objects which he met. It can 
scarcely be questioned that the long and dry enu- 
meration of mines and forges, and the often repeated 
catalogues of common plants and birds he encoun- 
tered, do not supply agreeable reading. He does 
not carry his readers along with him, nor, like more 
fortunate authors, pourtray the features of Nature's 
Grandeur to the eye, nor the singular peculiarities 
of those who passed under his review. At the same 
time however, it must be allowed, that the circum- 
stances in which he wrote were any thing but 





favourable. Long winters of six months duration 
spent in a miserable cabin, with black bread and 
brandy for bis only luxuries, at a temperature which 
froze mercury, and 'a summer's heat almost insup- 
portable the few weeks it lasted ; with his time 
fully occupied in clambering rocks and fording mo- 
rasses, in pioneering a road through thick forests, 
amidst myriads of insects which darken the air, and 
almost devour you, amongst people who bear the 
stamp of all the miseries of their country, generally 
disgustingly dirty, often frightfully ugly, and always 
dreadfully stupid,— all this could not but damp the 

liveliest imagination." 

In encountering these very different estimates of 
our author s most voluminous work, it will be well 
to consider the real aim he had in view. He under- 
took a iourney over regions which were ~ 
wholly unknown to the civilized world ; he did so 
at the country's expense, and under the most favour- 
able and illustrious auspices ; expectation was m the 
last degree excited, and curiosity was impatient tor 
gratification, so that each volume was published as 
it was filled. Under these circumstances the work 



VVU1VA V/iiJ-7 KJ\s ww—— i v 

and it should never be regarded in any other light. 
This was unquestionably the light in which the 
author himself regarded it, as it was the view taken 
by his contemporaries, and hence the high mead _ot 
praise they so invariably bestowed upon it. As the 
author himself remarks, « the encomiums which 
many learned men have bestowed on this treatise 

1 I 







have been most flattering to me ; and I can affirm 
that the only knowledge I have of them is from their 
works and general reputation. I regard their suf- 
frage as a most ample reward for all my fatioue and 
suffering, though at the expense of my health ; and 
I am content, because I have fulfilled the wishes of 
my sovereign and the Academy/' His own apolooy, 
and his plan, must we think be satisfactory to every 
one : " I shall mention only what appears to me the 
most necessary, and I shall do it as laconically as I 
can. I have bestowed the most scrupulous care on 
all my observations ; in my estimation, trutl 
first requisite of the traveller, and it has been my 
principal object in my own remarks, and in all tfc 

1 is 


observations of others which I repeat. If I had 
had time at my disposal, and a library at my back, 
my work would have been more beautiful and 
richer. I may possibly have inserted some remarks 
which will be regarded imperfections by many, but 
I owe them to a class of readers who find them 
agreeable : I have only had two months to prepare 
this great volume, and I therefore anticipate indul- 

Probably the most satisfactory method of enabling 
the reader to form his own estimate of the style and 
merit of this work will be to present him with some 
extracts ; and though these must be necessarily few 
and short, yet from the pervading uniformity, they 
may prove sufficient. " This day the ice broke up on 
the Samara (a tributary of the Volga) ; on the 9th 

of April the waters began to rise, and on tli 







the Volga was so far cleared that two-thirds of its 
bed was free of ice. The north wind which pre- 
vailed on the 13th very much hastened the descent 
of the ice, till the 15th, when it was entirely free. 
It rarely happens that the opening of the river is 
later than this date, and sometimes it is accom- 
plished in March. The weather was beautiful and 
the country was covered with flowers by the middle 
of April. The willow and hazel-nut began to flower 
on the 14th; between the 15th and the 17th, all 
the cleared spots were strewed with patentilla and 
spring Adonis, and the star of Bethlehem. Violets 
and anemonies surrounded the shrubs in full blos- 

The birch and service now put on their 
summer garb, as did most other shrubs by the 
20th The almond-tree and the wild cherry, the 
tulip and scented iris, blue and purple, yellow and 
white valerians, astragulus, and very many other 
flowers were in blossom before the 20th of April, 
and formed an agreeable carpet upon all the hills. 
The wild apple and the arbutus, which is very 
common about Samara, were in flower by the end 
of the month, as well as the fruit-yielding robima 
and the prickly cysticus, which generally affects all 
the moist parts of the moors. . 

« Birds of passage had made their appearance at 
an earlier date. By the 19th of March we noticed 
flocks of geese and wild swans ; by the 25th, quan- 
tities of all sorts of ducks appeared in the free parts 
of the river ; lapwings did not show themselves till 
the 26th, but before the end of March all the aqua- 




tic birds had arrived. I have remarked, that not 
only in these countries, but generally throughout 
Europe, those birds of passage come from the west 
and north-west ; whilst it is also true that the bit- 
tern and the stork, of which there is a species here 
quite white, as also cranes and other land-birds, 
come about the same time from the south. The 
common and ash-coloured crow appeared about the 
middle of March, and consequently were the first 
visitors of that class : the wood-pigeon, the starlin 
and the alpine lark appeared only towards the end 
- of the month ; they come in flocks, and are as com- 


mon as sparrows 

Among the latest visitants was 

the beautiful hoopoe, and it too was in great num- 
bers. Insects appeared at the same time as the 
flowers. Notwithstanding the extraordinary heat, 
and the great number of insects, swallows did not 
arrive before the 16th of April, though they pre- 
ceded the wasp. This is a proof that swallows are 
really birds of passage ; because, if not, they should 
have arrived at least at the same time with the 
insects. The fable of swallows hybernating at the 
bottom of the streams, is unknown in Russia- 
although there is not a country in the world where 
fishing is prosecuted with greater ardour, and where 
the net is so much employed, both in winter and 


T. i. 224—227 

One other specimen we shall supply. " It would 
be difficult to find a more delightful locality than 
the neighbourhood of Samara. It is rich in superb 
forests of birch and aspens, occasionally mixed with 




firs, and varied by hills and rich, meadows. Few 
countries more deserve to be peopled. It abounds 
in rich arable land and green valleys, and here are 
found in great numbers every variety of the elk and 
deer. These separate during the winter, in the 

woods and thickets which skirt the rivers 


streams, as well as over the moors and mountains. 
There the elks browse upon the young shoots and 
bark of the aspen and poplar, which grow in great 
luxuriance : they here also find excellent shelter in 
summer, and abundant nourishment upon the moun- 
tains and heaths. The roe-buck thrives equally well, 
as the wind sweeps the snow from the heights, and 
they feed on the herbs thus exposed. The Cossacks 

every year kill a great number of these animals. 

They pursue them chiefly in March : at this period 
the power of the sun melts the surface of the snow, 
and the evening cold produces a layer of ice, which 
enables them to move over it with wooden shoes, 
whilst the poor animal sinks deep with its hard and 
sharp hoofs. They track their footsteps into the 
valleys where the snow is deep, and fire as soon as 
within gunshot ; and the dogs, which can run won- 
derfully on the snowy crust, so arrest their flight, 
that the hunters approach and despatch them with 
their lances. The skins are greatly esteemed, ^ and 
sell at a high price ; they are beautiful, very light, 
and almost water-proof." — T. i. 304 — 30o. 

We mentioned in a former page that Pallas 
prepared the instructions for the guidance of the 
zoologists, and they were fully as ample as these 








documents usually are. And now we may venture 
to add, that with scarcely an exception, there was 
not a single subject indicated, on which he did not 
bestow a most enlightened and unceasing attention, 
and accomplished all that could be desired, in a 
way that is alike calculated to excite wonder and 
admiration. The " Travels" are filled with an in- 
finity of judicious and learned remarks, and present 
much information of the highest value to history 
generally, and to that of our race especially. Man, 
and still more the various tribes he encountered, 
receive a large share of attention; their natural 
dispositions and habits; their religions, supersti- 
tions, rites, and ceremonies ; their diseases, and 
popular and peculiar remedies; along with their 
languages, in their various affinities and contrasts ; 
as also the important subject of antiquities, con- 
nected with architecture, sepulture, &c. ; likewise 
their employments, whether in agriculture and hor- 
ticulture, including the rearing of cattle and horses, 
the management of forests and vineyards, the pro- 
duction of dye-stuffs, drugs, cotton, mulberries, 
silk-worms, bees, cochineal ; or in arts and manu- 
factures, as of leather, pottery, potash, soda, sulphur, 
vitriol, ardent spirits, wines, &c. ; not foroettino- 
their fisheries, so requisite among those observing 
the superstitions of the Greek church; and their 
trade and commerce generally ; — these, and similar 
matters, obtain all due regard. Geology and mine- 
ralogy are scarcely second in his regards, and we 
might extract volumes on this subject alone which 



could not be read but with the deepest interest. 
He descants largely on salt lakes and mines, on 
sulphur mines, lakes and rivers, on many of the 
rarer minerals, and very largely on mining, espe- 
cially of iron, copper, and silver. Some of our 
readers may remember that of those extraordinary 
bodies the metallic stones, one of the most famous 
has the name of Pallas attached to it, from his being 
the first who made it generally known. It was 
isolated on the surface, upon the top of a mountain, 
far from every appearance of any volcano or mining 
operation, and weighed 1600 pounds. The metal 
was quite maleable when cold, was cavernous, and 
studded with quartz. The Tartars declared it had 
fallen from heaven, and regarded it as sacred. The 
famous chemist Berzelius has lately devoted his at- 
tention to the composition of many of these stones, 
which he divides into two species, and among others 
to that of Pallas.* Our author s minute and very 
interesting details, we must altogether omit. ^ 

It is not because the author has given an inferior 
attention in these Travels to natural history that we 
notice it last, but for the very opposite reason : this 
was certainly to have been expected, and in all its 
departments there are never ending acute and most 
interesting statements. In addition to all the in- 
formation in the body of the work, he subjoins at 
the end three supplements in Latin which contain 
a classical description of three hundred and ninety- 


El < 





and plants which he had examined with care, and 
many of which were new, or previously imperfectly 

It was here was supplied the first description of 
an extinct rhinoceros which was found in December 
ly?!^ m the Vilui, a branch of the Lena, where 
was found the somewhat similar fossil elephant in 
1801. It was considerably advanced towards decay, 
imbedded in a sandy bank, six feet above the water. 
It measured about eleven feet in length and ten and 
a half in height. The carcase of the animal, in all 
its bulk, was still covered with skin; but it was 
so far gone that only the head and feet could be 
removed. " I saw the parts," says Pallas, " at 
Irkutsk, and at the first glance perceived they be- 
longed to a rhinoceros fully grown ; the head espe- 
cially was easily distinguished, since it was covered 
with the hide, which had preserved its organization, 
many short hairs remaining upon it. The country 
watered by the Vilui," he adds, " is mountainous, 
and the strata horizontal : they consist of sandy and 
calcareous schists, and beds of clay mixed with 


great quantities of pyrites. 

•* * *- 

Near the spot 


ninety feet elevation, and which, though sandy, 
contains beds of grind or mill-stone. The body of 
the rhinoceros was buried in a coarse sandy gravel, 
near this hillock ; and the nature of the soil, which 
is always frozen, must have preserved it. The ground 
is never thawed to any great depth near the river. 







In the valleys, where the soil is half sand and half 
clay, it is still frozen, at the close of summer, 
two feet below the surface. Had it not been for 
these circumstances, the skin and other soft parts 
could not have been so long preserved. This crea- 
ture could not have been transported from the 
torrid zone to these frozen regions, except at the 
time of the deluge : the ancient chronologies being 
silent concerning any later change, to which might 
be attributed these remains of the rhinoceros, mam- 
moth, &c. every where found throughout Siberia. 

T. iv. 130. 

It is in this work likewise that we find the first 
detailed account of the Dziggtar or wild horse of 
Tartary which the natives assert is the swiftest of 
animals, the fleetest of horses not being ^able to 
approach it. Its whole natural history is most 
fully dwelt upon (T. iv. 306), but must here be 
omitted, as must also many notices we had marked 
about domestic cattle, sheep, goats, seals, ermines, 


And as with these mammalia, so must it be witl 

birds. His notice concerning the 
(Chryscetos) is very curious, and we think new. 
" There is," he remarks, " another singular branch 
of commerce : the Russians sell many golden eagles 
in barter to the Tartars. These birds are very 
much in request by the Kirguis, who train them to 



olden eagle 

chase the wolf, the fox, and the gazelle. According 
to certain markings and movements, these people 
judge of the bird's excellence and its capability of 

VOL. I. 


l . 


I • 



being trained. A Kirguis will often give a first- 
rate horse for an eagle of good breed, whilst he w T ilI 
not give a sheep, or a halfpenny, for one in which 
he does not discover the requisite qualities. I have 
sometimes seen them seated for hours over an eagle, 
examining its merits and defects." (T. i. 36 — 38.) 
Some of his statements respecting the pelican are 
also singular: — "They congregate in troops of 
twenty on the banks of the rivers and bays ; and 
on commencing their fishing in concert, they arrange 
themselves in an extended line, and altogether beat 
the water with their wings, to attract the fish, 
which they then seize upon. They seek their food 
principally before day-break and about mid-day, 
and they entirely clear of fish every lake they visit. 
When they do not find either lakes or ponds, which 
they prefer, they resort to the Oural. They are of 
a prodigious size, measuring five feet from beak to 
tail and eight feet and a half across the wings, and 
weighing from eighteen to twenty-five pounds." 
{lb. 589.) With a curious remark concerning the 
starling, we shall dismiss his notices on ornithology. 
" The river-starling, so common in Russia and 
Siberia, and so rare elsewhere, frequents the terri- 

tories of the Oural in great numbers. 




affirm with great certainty, that this bird dives, 
without wetting itself, into the deepest streams, to 
catch the water-snails and other worms which are 
found in the bed of the river. When shot, but not 
killed on the frozen edges of the stream, they imme- 
diately dive, and do not reappear on the surface till 



they are dead. We are not, however, to conclude 
that this bird swims, since it has not the necessary 
instruments ; but it flies, so to speak, in the water ; 
and it has probably the power of hooking itself to 
the bottom of the river whilst searching for its prey." 

{lb. 146.) 

We must now bring these extracts to a close, and 
must altogether deny ourself and readers the plea- 
sure which might be derived from his numerous 
notices on ichthyology, and the various modes in 
which the fisheries are conducted ; as also on ento- 
mology, including so many of the attractive wonders 
of the insect world ; and so likewise, finally, must 
we omit the whole wide field of botany, not one 
specimen of which ever seems to have escaped his 
piercing and scrutinizing glance. 

But the many objects which during these six 
years of travel Pallas had witnessed, and which 
were alluded to in the work on which we have 
been dwelling, had taken too strong a hold on his 
imagination to permit him to be content with the 
somewhat hasty sketches he supplied in this jour- 
nal; he had extensively and deeply studied man 
and animals, the crust of the earth, and whatever 
is found upon it ; and meditating on his remarks, 
they became the subjects of so many distinct trea- 
tises, to which he devoted all his powers. He now 
published " The History of the more remarkable 
Animals of Siberia, including the Musk Ox. the 

the White Be; 
admirably giv 




• ■ 




to Cuvier, no animal, even the commonest amonor 
ourselves, are so well known. He also introduced to 
notice a new species of wild cat {Nov. Com. Pet. 
ann. 1781), and supplied 


ass of the desert (Act. Petr. i.) ; also concerning 
the small buffalo or yak, and regarding those small 
yellow foxes {Canis cor sac) of northern India which 
some believe to be the pretended golden ants of 





is a pity," remarks Cuvier, " that Buffon did not 
acquaint himself with these invaluable memoirs, 
the simple translation of which would have made 
an admirable addition to his work." The Lepus 
and Mus genera alone, including hares, rats, and 
mice, supplied materials for a quarto of two hun- 
dred and sixty pages {Nor. Spe. Quadrup. e. Gli- 
rium Ordine) with many beautifully illustrative 
engravings; a striking warrant and example for 
our present work, and for those monographs we are 
making it our business to supply. There are thirty- 
two engravings of the genus Mus alone, frequently 
illustrative not only of their general appearance, 
but of their habits, layers, food, and capture. The 

" The 
history and anatomy of these animals are unfolded 

with that rich amplification of which Buffon and 
Daubenton alone had previously set the example ; 
and although, from modesty, the author has not 
established new genera, yet his descriptions are so 
precise, that any intelligent systematist may easily 
extract the generic characters from them. 

following is Cuvier's estimate of this work : 


!■"■■■■ • 


In 17S1, he began a work which he meant parti- 
cularly to dedicate to the insects of Russia (Icones 
Insectorum, &c.), although only two numbers ap- 
peared. But it is quite impossible here to enume- 
rate in detail the numerous quadrupeds, birds, 
reptiles, fishes, mollusca, worms, and zoophytes, of 
which he at this time published the original descrip- 
tion. The simple enumeration of the memoirs which 
he sent to the various academies to which he be- 
longed, would occupy much room. He was not 
even alarmed at the prodigious project of a general 
history of the animals and plants of the Russian 
empire ; and he had really made great progress in 
its execution, although the labour must have pre- 
sented innumerable difficulties. 

Pallas's circumstances, perhaps, still more than 
his tastes, contributed to make him a devoted 
botanist. Having in 1781 published " A Cata- 
logue of the Plants in Mr Demidof s Garden at 
Moscow," {Enumeration Plants &c), the Empress, 
whose love of the magnificent was flattered with 
the idea of a " Flora Russica" directed all the her- 
baria which had been collected by previous travellers 
to be sent him, and engaged him to undertake the 
work, she becoming responsible for the expense. 
Pallas himself had made very considerable collec- 
tions, and the work promised to extend widely our 
knowledge of the vegetable kingdom. Two volumes 
only, however, appeared, which contain principally 
trees and shrubs ; and this because in Russia, as m 
most other kingdoms, a change of ministry puts a 



stop to those most important publications, when 
the new government has no immediate interest in 
them. Our author endeavoured subsequently to 
exhibit part at least of his botanical discoveries, in 
less magnificent works, and by foreign assistance. 
These volumes of the Empress truly merit the appel- 
lation of magnificent; so much so, that they are 
almost beyond the attainment of private individuals. 
They are of imperial folio size, and the coloured 
plates amounting, if we remember right, to nearly 
a hundred, of large dimensions and high finish, are 
truly beautiful and satisfactory. Each plant is 
exhibited in its different stages of growth, on diffe- 
rent branches, — the bud, leaf, flower, and fruit. 
The last plate is a finely coloured representation of 
specimens of most of the native woods which are 
used for economic purposes, amounting, we think, 
to about twenty-five varieties. His next work on 
botany was the history of the Astraguli ; then 
another on the Halophytes^ and others on Absinthes 
and the Armoises ; but the progress of the last was 
arrested by the miseries of the German war. 

The interruption to the Professor s Flora Russiax 
did not prevent him from undertaking, as we before 
hinted, a work equally extensive on the animals 


{Fauna Asiat. Russica) of the empire, a region 
which nourishes nearly all those of Europe, the 
greater part of those of Asia, and which possesses a 
great number that are peculiar to itself. One volume 
of this work was printed at Petersburg; but for 
several years at least it was not published. (Eloge, 








135.) Pallas laboured at it till his last days, and 
had completed the manuscript, including all the 
vertebrate animals; and M. Rudolphi, who had 
seen the work, states that it described many new 
species and contained many interesting views* 

Nor was Pallas engrossed only with his own 
publications, but with much kindness and praise- 
worthy zeal he exerted himself to do justice to the 
memories of his less fortunate associates, 
during his travels and afterwards, much annoyed 
with ophthalmia, one of his most distressing but 

not most dangerous complaints, yet he had fared 
better than most of the others, few of whom lived 
to publish the relation of their adventures. Both 
Gmelin and Guldenstredt had fallen victims in the 
service, and Pallas, in 1 784, undertook the task of 
publishing their papers, and executed it with great 
diligence and accuracy; though we believe that 
these works, like several more peculiarly his own, 
but very partially saw the light. 

It was about this time that our naturalist was 
distinguished by a peculiar mark of imperial favour, 
in being appointed member of the Board of Mines, 
with a salary of £200 a-year, and honoured with 
the order of Vlodimir. The Empress likewise pur- 
chased his ample collection of natural history, in a 
manner highly flattering to the owner and honour- 
able to herself. Being informed that he was desirous 
of disposing of the collection, the Empress informed 
him that the country could not be deprived of so 
excellent a museum; that she would become the 




purchaser, at the same time desiring him to mat 
out the catalogue and fix the price. He accordingly 
named fifteen thousand rubles. Having examined 


u Mr Pallas understands natural history much bet- 
ter than figures : he ought to have charged twenty 
thousand instead of fifteen thousand rubles, for so 
many valuable articles. The Empress, however, 
takes upon herself to correct the mistake, and hereby 
orders her treasurer to pay twenty thousand. At 
the same time, Mr Pallas shall not be deprived of 
his collection, which shall still continue in his own 
possession during his life, as he so well understands 
how to render it most useful to mankind." 

It has been acutely observed, that it rarely hap- 
pens that men who are very assiduously occupied in 
such multifarious enterprises have the requisite op- 
portunities and powers for originating those master 
ideas which effect great changes in the sciences ; 
but Pallas was an exception to this rule. It has 
already been noticed that he all but changed the 
face of zoology ; and it has been stated upon high 
authority, that he was really the instrument of 
effecting a revolution in geology, concerning what 
has been called the theory of the earth. An atten- 
tive examination of the two great mountain ranges 

of Siberia, led him to the recognition of this general 
rule which has since been universally verified, that 
there is a reoular succession in the three primitive 
orders of mountain rocks, viz. that there is a granite 
in the middle, then schists lying upon it, and, 






lastly, limestone strata the most external. " It may 
be stated," says Cuvier, " that this great fact, clearly 
expressed in 1777, in a memoir read to the Peters- 
burg Academy (Art. Petro. 1778) in the presence 
of Gustavus III. King of Sweden, gave birth to a 
new view of geology; and that Saussure, Deluc, 




at a correct knowledge of the true structure of the 
earth, very different indeed from the absurd ideas 

of previous writers. 

All the writings on wdiich we have hitherto 
dwelt, more especially belong to the department of 
natural history in the more extended signification 
of the term ; this, however, is not the case with 
regard to our authors history of the Mongolian 
nations."' A w^ork which must interest every well 
educated man, for it is perhaps the most classical 
treatise on the varieties of our race that exists in 
any language. 

The name of Mongul might be extended to 
those tribes of the north and east of Asia, whose 
oblique eyes, yellow complexion, black and lank 
hair, slender beard, and projecting cheek bones^ 
make them appear so frightful to us; and one 



tribe of which ravaged Europe, under Attila, in the 
fifth century. At the same time the name belongs 
more especially to another tribe, which, under 
Gengis-Khan, in the eleventh century, established 
the basis of the most formidable dominion which 

* Collection of Documents concerning the Monguls, in 
German, 2 vols. 4to. 1776, 1801. 





the world has ever seen. China, India, Persia, and 
the whole of Tartary, were necessarily subjected to 
its sway ; Russia, too, was rendered tributary, and 
irruptions were made into Poland and Hungary. 
In a very few ages, however, the fortunes of these 
invaders became changed: they were driven from 
China and Persia ; they were extirpated in India, 
subjugated by the Russians in the western part of 
their ancient conquests, and by the Chinese in the 
country of their origin; and since that time they 
have been able to preserve only a few independent 
establishments in some districts to the west of the 
Caspian, where they follow a pastoral life, a great 
number wandering, as did their ancestors, over the 
immense deserts of central Asia, expecting that the 
discord or the decay of neighbouring empires may 
permit some enterprisir 

mon them to new conquests. It is this desire that 
Russia and China seek to thwart, by sowing dis- 
sension among them, by reducing their number, 
and by sometimes transplanting them to enormous 
distances, when they have a pretext after a meeting 
or rebellion. And, nevertheless, in this persecuted 
state, these unfortunate men maintain all the pride 
of rank and nobility ; they preserve their long gene- 
alogies, and their princes cabal against each other, 
and intrigue at the court of their chief for the aug- 
mentation of authority. The grand Lama, too, who 
rules over their consciences through the agency of 
a religious corps, confers, by his patents, what is 
esteemed a sacred character on this authority ; and 




thereby subj ects himself to much trouble and vexa- 
tion. We cannot convey a better idea of those 
constant agitations, than by reciting an event nar- 

rated in detail by Pallas, and which gives an idea 


tuted a remarkable epoch in the history of Europe. 
An entire people, who, after the conquest of Kien- 
Long, lately emperor of China, had fled for refuge 
to the Kussian territory, and who had been esta- 
blished since the year 1758, in the rural district of 
Astrakan, having become dissatisfied, and, moreover, 
influenced by the intrigues of their chief Lama, 
resolved twelve years afterwards to return to the 
countrv which had been subjugated by China. Their 
preparations continued for many months without 
their secret being divulged j and, finally, on an ap- 
pointed day in the commencement of 1771, the whole 
nation, men, women, and children, to the amount of 



gage, and all they could pick up in their route either 
of men or wealth. Thus did they travel 1 500 miles 
without being arrested by the troops which pu: sued 
them, nor by opposing rivers, nor by the interme- 
diate hostile tribes, nor by the mortality which 
prevailed among them and their cattle. We believe 
that no other event of the sort, to the same extent, 
had previously occurred, since the flight of the 
Israelites from the land of Egypt. 

Pallas does not treat only of the origin and physi- 
cal characters of these people, nor of their manners 



■ I 




li' ; 

I Pi 





and government, but devotes a large portion of his 
work to an account of their religion, which is truly 
shocking and singular in its essence and history. 
It is not a little astonishing that this work has noi 

been translated either into French or English, whilst 
every day increases the number of travels which are 

of infinitely less valu 




This is a work, 




Mr Tooke in his Russia Illustrata, " that will enrich 
the stock of human knowledge with discoveries, the 
greatest part entirely new, and which no person but 
Professor Pallas is able to communicate." 

A most important part of the history of nations, 
and one which enables us to penetrate farther into 
the antiquity of their history than all written docu- 
ments, is the knowledge of their language. It is by 
it we can judge of their origin, and can better follow 
their genealogy than by all their traditions; and 
there is no government which can more promote this 
important study than that of Russia, whose subjects 
speak sixty different languages. Catherine II. con- 
ceived the ingenious idea of making a digest of the 
vocabularies of all the tribes which yielded obedi- 
ence to her sceptre: she actually commenced this 
work herself, and then charged Professor Pallas, who 
was the individual who had seen most of these hordes 
and was best acquainted with their languaoe, to col- 
lect together all the Asiatic vocabularies, at the sam 
time restricting him to a list of words which she 
had drawn up. Hence the two quartos under the 
title " Linguarum totius Orbis Vocabularia Com- 
parativa." It is not matter of astonishment that a 




woman and a sovereign did not happen to make the 
best possible selection, nor act with as correct views 
as a scholar w r ould have done ; but it is difficult to 
conceive how those she engaged to co-operate with 


her, did not venture to point out to her the imper- 
fection of her plan, seeing it is very clear that a 
dry vocabulary could never supply an idea of the 
mechanism and genius of a language. But notwith- 
standing all this, the treatise before us is a truly 
valuable work, and has been useful in promoting the 
researches of other learned men. 

The Empress seemed never to weary in giving 
her favourite Naturalist fresh proofs of her partiality 
nd confidence. He was appointed a member of 
the commission which was selected in 1777 to pre- 
pare a new topography of the empire ; he was also 
elected historiographer to the admiralty, an office 
which obliged him to give attention to many scien- 
tific questions connected w^ith the navy ; and the 
Grand Duke Alexander, lately Emperor, and his 
brother, the present Grand Duke Constantine, re- 
ceived his instructions on the subjects of natural 

history and physics. 

Thus employed in so truly an honourable manner 
by government, distinguished by titles corresponding 
to his employments, and esteemed by all the learned 
men in Europe, Pallas enjoyed at Petersburg all 
the consideration which could be paid to him m his 
twofold character of a foreigner and a literary man ; 
but it would likewise appear that his long habit of 





travelling, like that of a savage life, made him 
impatient of a stated residence in a city. 

Equally tired of a sedentary life and of the influx 
of the fashionable world, whether foreign or native, 
for which the mansion of so celebrated a man was 


the natural rendezvous, he eagerly seized the oppor- 
tunity which the conquest of the Crimea afforded of 
visiting new countries, and spent the years 1793 
and 1794 in travelling, at his own expense, over 
the southern provinces of the empire. He was 
accompanied by an able draftsman and other pro- 
fessional assistants, who afforded him all possible 
facilities for improving his opportunities ; and hence 
his published work is literally crowded with sketches 
of all sorts, with views, maps, &c. 

He ao-ain visited Astrakan, and travelled over 
the frontiers of Circassia, — that mountainous region, 
which supports some of the finest races of the 
species. This country is also remarkable for the 
great number of tribes, differing in language and 
appearance, which it maintains in its ravines, — the 
small remnants of those nations which traversed it 
at the time of the vast migrations of mankind, 
the Huns, the Allans, the Bulgarians, and those 
many other barbarians, whose very names were 
almost as terrible as their cruelty, and who left 
colonies amid the precipices of the Caucasus; and 
hence it has been remarked, that we may here find 
mankind in samples. An account of these travels 
appeared in Gennan in 1799, in French in 1801, 



and in English in 1802. The plan pursued, and 
the style of these volumes, are very similar to those 
of his earlier " Travels," already dwelt upon. As 
this is the only work of our author, which we have 
seen, to which the English reader can have access, 
we shall quote a paragraph which may help him to 
form his own estimate hoth of the or 
translation, which, upon the whole, is excellent : 
" The Asiatic method of rearing silk- worms is pre- 
ferable to the Russian. The Persian rears his mul- 
berry trees to about six feet high, which they attain 
in four or five years. He then begins to lop their 
tops and branches, which are given to the insects, 
as soon as they have sufficient strength, by placing 
them gently on their beds. By this means the 
shoots remain fresh and succulent, and the worms 
devour them even to the woody fibres, so that no 
part of the nutritive foliage is wasted. As these 
insects are every day supplied with food, the leafless 
branches gradually form a kind of wicker-work, 
through which the impurities pass; so that the 
cheerful worms preserve the requisite cleanliness 
without trouble to the cultivator, and speedily 

In this manner they are 
continually supplied with leaves till they prepare 
to spin, when small dry brushwood is placed in all 
directions over the leafless branches, and on this the 

attain a vigorous state. 



(Vol. i. p. 190.) 

But Pallas did not wish to incur risk by remain- 
ing among a people who are no less dangerous than 
they are interesting. He ere long, then, proceeded 


\ I 




to the Crimea or ancient Taurica, that singular 
peninsula, which is flat and arid on the side next 
the continent, and bristled on the opposite side with 
mountains which enclose many a smiling valley- It 
was in ancient times occupied by Grecian colonies, 
then during the middle ages by the Genoese, and 
afterwards inhabited by the Tartars, who speedily 
acquired peaceable dispositions, and, finally, it had 
lately fallen under the power of the Russians. It is 
matter of history, in what more than regal splendor 
Potemkin conducted his imperial mistress into this 
new conquered region, and by w T hat profligacy of 
expense and despotism this favourite converted, for 
some days, the sterile desert into the guise of a fertile 
and flourishing country. It has been said that 
Pallas partook of the delusion of his sovereign ; or 
perhaps the contrast between the dreary plains of 
the north, and those agreeable valleys, with theii 
southern exposure, delightful sea view, and rich 
vines and flowers, overcame him. He sketched a 
most enchanting picture of Taurida (Tableau Phy- 

sique, 4 


la Tarida) ; and the proof that his 

genuine sentiments were therein expressed, is found 
in his desire to retreat thither himself. 

It is likewise, however, true, that repose, of which 
he had long been deprived, was now become highly 
necessary for him. In his latter travels, whilst 
vishino- to examine the banks of a river w^hich was 

frozen over, the ice gave way, and he was precipi- 
tated into the water. At a distance from every 
convenience, he was transported many miles exposed 






to great cold, with very insufficient covering. This 
accident produced pains, which he hoped the mild 
climate to which he was resorting would abate ; but, 
on the contrary, change of residence, far from assuag- 
ing, only added to his physical ailments more insup- 
portable sufferings, disappointments, and anxieties. 

The Empress, on being informed of Pallas s desire 
to take up his abode in the Crimea, with much 
kindness gave him a grant of two villages which 
were situated in the richest district of the peninsula, 
along with a large mansion in the town of Sympe- 
ropol, at that time chief city of the district, along 
with a considerable sum of money for his settlement. 
He resorted to this " scene of delights " at the end 
of the year 1795 ; but the climate, which had ap- 
peared so delightful during a short journey, even- 
tually proved damp and variable; extensive marshes 
rendered the beautiful valleys pestilential in autumn ; 
the winters also proved tempestuous, so that the in- 
conveniences of both a northern and southern climate 
were experienced. Besides, the property which was 
conferred somewhat unceremoniously, found other 
claimants, which occasioned its new lord vexatious 
disputes and lawsuits. Finally, and more than all, 
Pallas had not sufficiently contemplated the void he 
would experience when removed from well educated 
men, and placed in a position where he could not 
enjoy the interchange of thought. Accordingly, he 
was now undeceived regarding his terrestrial para- 
dise, and in the preface of the second volume of his 
* Travels," he thus, in the year 1801, expresses his 











disappointment : — " "Were this the proper place to 
inform my readers of the disquietude and hardships 
which oppress me in my present residence, and em- 
bitter my declining days, I could easily apologise 

for the late appearance of this volume." 

But notwithstanding these feelings, he remained 
nine years longer in this country, occupied with the 
continuation of his works, and labouring also to 
accomplish a project which was very important for . 
Russia, the improved culture of the vine, quantities 
of which he had planted in the valley of Sondac, 


the ancient Saldaca of the Genoese. He had satis- 
fied himself that this country was the more suitable 
for its growth, because he supposed he had found 
the vine in its wild state, although probably it was 
nothing more than the degenerated stock of the 
ancient Grecian vineyards. 

It was, when thus engaged, that he was visited 
by our countryman, Dr Clarke, whose account is 

•' This city," he remarks, " will long 
be celebrated as the residence of Professor Pallas, so 
well known to the literary world. His fame would 
have been sufficiently established, if he had pub- 
lished no other work than that begun by him under 
such favourable auspices, the " Flora Bossica f yet 
the barbarity of the people, with whom he is com- 
pelled to live, is such, that they will not allow him 
to complete the undertaking. The drawings are all 
finished, and almost all the text. To the hospitality 
and humane attentions of this excellent man we 
were indebted for comforts, equal, if not superior, 




to those of our own country, and for every literary 
communication it was in his power to supply. 
When we delivered our letters of recommendation 
to him, he received us rather as a parent than a 
stranger to whose protection we had heen consigned. 
We refused to intrude hy occupying apartments in 
his house : this had more the appearance of a palace 
than the residence of a private gentleman ; hut one 
day when we were ahsent upon an excursion, he 
caused all our things to he moved, and upon our 
return we found a suite of rooms prepared for our 
reception, with every convenience for study and 
repose. I consider myself indebted to him even for 
my life. The fatigue of travelling, added to the 
effect of bad air and unwholesome food, rendered a 
quartan fever so habitual to me, that, 
been for his care and skill, I should not have lived 
to make this grateful acknowledgment. He pre- 
scribed for me ; administered every medicine with 
his own hands; carefully guarded my diet; and, 
after nursing me as his own son, at last restored me 
to health. When I recovered, he ransacked his 
museum for drawings, charts, maps, books, anti- 
quities, minerals, and whatever else might gratify 
our curiosity, or promote the object of our travels ; 
he accompanied us upon the most wearisome excur- 
sions, in search not only of the insects and plants of 
the country, but also of every document likely to 
illustrate either its ancient or its modern history. 
His decline of life had been embittered by a variety 
of afflictions, which he bore with stoical philoso- 

had it not 








him to quit the country and accompany us to Eng- 
land ; but the advanced period of his life, added to 
the certainty of losing all his property in Russia, 
prevented his acquiescence. Our entreaties were to 
no effect ; and perhaps before this meets the public 
eye, our friend and benefactor will be no more."* 

These gloomy anticipations of Dr Clarke's were 
fortunately disappointed. But time and circum- 
stances, instead of reconciling Pallas to his lot, only 
aggravated all the privations and annoyances to 
which he felt himself subjected, and he could not be 
reconciled to his mode of life. All the marks of 
esteem, likewise, which he received from Europe, 
only increased his chagrin, and recalled to his vivid 
recollection the interests he had left behind. At 
length, therefore, having made up his mind to re- 
move, he sold his property for a very inadequate 
price, bid a final adieu to Russia, and, after an ab- 
sence of forty-two years, returned to his native land, 



years in Little Tartary, was almost a return to ano- 
ther world. Some old friends, too, whom he rejoined, 
seemed almost to renew his youth; and he was 
always excited to warmth and eloquence when he 
listened to the account of the advance of science, 
the intelligence of which had penetrated most imper- 

* See Dr Clarke's Travels, quoted in Rees ; also Tooke's 
Review of the Russian Empire. 


olitude : his calmed 


vived prodigiously under all these gratifications and 


The young Naturalists who had been created by 
his works, impressed with the admiration of his 
genius, though he had been to them an invisible 
oracle, listened to him as a superior being who was 
come to make his estimate of their acquirements ; 
for his long absence had multiplied time, and inter- 
posed many generations between them and him. In 
the frank and ready approbation he bestowed on all 
new discoveries, they recognised, in this excellent 
old man, a mind above the common prepossessions 
of his years ; and he always treated his new scho- 
lars, not as a churl, but as a father. It is true that he 
had' never been disposed severely to criticise, and that 
in all his works he freely gave to his contemporaries 
their due praise ; a practice which was not less me- 
ritorious as bestowed upon his pupils. It is likewise 
true, that he is, perhaps, of all naturalists of the 
eighteenth century, the one who has least been 
criticised by others. He has sometimes, indeed, 
been accused of a certain ardour in amassing from 
all quarters, and almost of monopolizing the observa- 
tions and subjects of study selected by others; a 
conduct which is calculated to displease those whose 
limited labours may readily be lost in the blaze of 
glory which legitimately belongs to the man who 
has conceived a vast plan, and without which an 
immensity of facts, which become useful chiefly 
from their approximation, would have been lost to 


i . 




science. Besides, he had never borrowed from others 
without rendering them explicit justice. 

Thus restored to the country of his nativity, and 
to a circle of admiring friends, and more especially 
enjoying the society of a brother in whom long 
separation had only caused the natural affection 
more ardently to glow, and watched over by an only 
daughter who loved him with the utmost tenderness, 
Pallas looked forward to years of happiness. He 
read with the deepest interest all new works on 
natural history, and projected a visit to the towns 
of France and Italy w^hich were richest in museums ; 
and anticipated no small happiness in making the 
acquaintance of the eminent men he would neces- 
sarily have met with ; whilst he would collect new 
materials which would enable him to put the last 
finish to his own labours. The germs, however, of 
those maladies which he had contracted during his 
travels and his sojourn in the Crimea, developed 
themselves with a severity and rapidity he had 
little expected. They seemed soon to be beyond 
the reach of medicine ; and, as he had ever been em- 

arrangements for the continuation of those works 
which he left incomplete, in a way which promised 
the greatest utility and advantage. 

He died on the 8th of September, 1811, having 
almost attained the limit of seventy years. 

He w^as twice married, and left behind him a 
dauohter, to whom we have just alluded. She 
became the wife, and afterwards the widow, of 

his closing days were spent in making 



Baron Wimpfen, lieutenant-general in the Russian 
service, who died at Luneville in consequence of 
wounds received at the battle of Austerlitz. 

In the review of Pallas's history, it is impossible 
not to recognise great sagacity, and the most de- 
voted enthusiasm in his pursuits. The peace in 
which he lived with his competitors, very decidedly 
proclaims amiability, for it is difficult to attribute it 
only to prudence; and though nothing so much 
disposes to the exercise of benevolence as the expe- 
riencing it, yet it does not always happen that where 
a man is not assailed he does not attack others. 
Those who were personally acquainted with him 
commend the evenness and sprightliness of his dis- 
position. He had no objection to pleasure as a 
relaxation, but would never allow it to interfere 
with his usefulness or repose. He was all his life 
o-reatly engrossed with his scientific pursuits, and 
experienced in them his chief and most satisfactory 



j I 







[The reader will please to remember, that we do not give the 
following as a complete list of our author's Works ; but, 
having experienced the want of such a catalogue our- 
selves, we have been at some pains, even partially, to 
supply the deficiency for the use of others. We trust 
it may be useful, so far as it goes, and may lead to a 
more perfect enumeration, which would be esteemed by 
all Naturalists.] 


1760. De Infeslis Viventibus intra Viventia. LugcL 

This is his Thesis, on becoming 




Fauna Insectorum Marchica. u A Descrip- 
tion of the Insects in the March of Bran- 
denburg." So quoted in Rees. 
1764. Pallas was this year elected Fellow of the 

Royal Society of London. He had pre- 
viously presented a paper ; and we have 





one we have met is on the Siwna jacu- 
lalrix. Thomson s Hist. Eoyal Society. 
He also sent Memoirs to the Acad. Cwser. 
Nat. Curiosorum. But we cannot supply 

a list of them. 
1766. Elinckus Zoophytorum, Sistens generum ad 

umhrationes generaliores et specierum 

cognitarum succinctas descriptiones. 8vo. 

1766. Miscellania Zoologica, quibus novae imprimis 

atque obscurae animalium species descri- 

buntur. Hagae. 

1767. S J 

1 768-70 
1768. I 


4to. Berlini 

fungionae prope Wolo- 
Julio 1768, Observatce. 



Siberian f 


mtiones (c. Tab.). Nov. Com. Petro., t. xiii. 

1769. Descriptio Leporis pusilli (c. Tab.). 




of Pallas (in German) in different 


1772, 1773 


1 776, with many plates and maps, i nere 
are two editions of a very good French 
translation, by M. Gauthier de la Peyro- 
nie, one in 5 vols. 4to. with one of plates, 
with Notes on the Natural History by 





the Count Lacepede, 1788 ; and the other 
in 8 vols. 8vo. and one of plates, with 


Notes by Lamarck and Longles, in 1 793. 

An Account of the Rhinoceros found on the 
Banks of the Vilui in 1771- We cannot 
refer either to the exact date or work in 
which this memoir may be found. 

Leporis minuti Description &c. " Dissert, 
de TAcad. Imp. des Sciences de Peters- 
burg," (Cuv. Eloge). 

Mustellce Sarmaticce Descriptio. " Nouv. 
Com. de Petro.," t. xiv. p. 441. 

Equus Hemionus. The Dzhiggtai or Wild 
Siberian Horse described. Nov. Com. 
Petro., t. xix. (Eloge). 
1 773-80. Some remarkable Quadrupeds of Siberia. 

(Four Nos.) Probably additional Nos. of 
Spicilegia Zoologica, quoted as under. 

Spicilegia Zoologica, 14 Nos. 4to. Berlin, 
1766 and 1801. Collection (in German) of Docu- 
ments on the Political, Physical, and Civil 
History of the Mongul Tribes. 
1 777- Observations sur la Formation des Montagues. 

Act. Petro., Part I. Published separately 
at Petersburg, and reprinted at Paris in 
1779 and 1782. Mr Tooke has given a 

translation in his " Russia Illustrata. 


1777- Obs. de dentibus molaribus fossilibus ignoti 

Animalis Canadensibus analogis, etiam ad 
Vralense jugum reperitis. Part II. 





] 777. Obs. circa Myrmecophagum Afric. et Didel- 

phidis novum speciem orientalem. Part Ix. 

Description du Buffle a queue de Cheval, et 

Observations generates sur les especes sau- 




1777. Obs. sur VAne dans son etat sauvage, et sur le 

veritable Onagre des Anciens. lb.; also 

in his 

Neue Nordisch 


ascription of the small yellow Fox of nor the 
India, in Neue Nordische Beytrage. 

1778. Novcb Species Q 


4to. Erlang. 


Siberia? peculia 

Act. Petro. 

1779. Capra Caucasiea e Schedis A. J. Giildenstadt. 




Memoir on the Aerolite found 



yf Animals. Act. 

Petro., Part II. (Eloge). 

1780. Galeopithicus volans Camellii descriptus. Act. 

Petro., Part I. 



en Siberie, et sur leurs rapports avec crnx 


Act. Petro. 

1780. Descriptio Didelphis brachyurce. Part II. 

• • 




Idof Mi 

Act. Petro. 


* - MM 





1781. Sorices Aliquot illustrati. Sorex moschalus 

et S. myosurus e. Tabulis. Act. Petr. 

1781. New Northern Collection (in German) on vari- 
ous Subjects in Geography, Nat. History, 
and Agriculture, to which were afterwards 
added two more volumes (apud Rees). 

1781-2. Icones Insectorum prcesertim Russia? Si- 

bericeq. peculiarium 

4to. Erlang. 


I I 

1 784. Giildenstadfs Remains, containing his Journal 

and Description of the Caucasus. (Rees.) 

1784-88. Flora Rossica, seu Stirpium imperii Rossii 

per Europeum et A slam indigenarum de- 
scriptiones et icones, in fol. Petr. torn. ii. 

1786-9. Linguarum totius Orbis Vocabularia Com- 

parativa augustissimw Curw Collecta, t. ii. 

in 4to. Petro. 
1799. Tableau physique et topographique de la Tau- 

ride, in Nov. Act. Petro., reprinted in 

Paris in 1800. 

1 799. Travels through the Southern Provinces of the 

Russian Empire, in the Years 1793-4, 
2 vols. 4to. with many coloured plates. 
Published in German in 1799 ; in French, 

1801; in English in 1802. 

1800. Species Astragalarum descriptor et iconibus 

coloratis instructed In folio, Leipsic. 
1803. Illustrationes Plantarum imperfecte vel non- 

dum Cognitarum. In folio, Leipsic. 
1811-12. Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica, 3 torn. 4to. 









the brute creation is brought in review for the pur- 
pose of bestowing pre-eminence on one particular 
species Europeans, with few dissentients, will con- 
sider them in relation to their utility for economic 

They will see in them objects of aliment 


and clothing ; the producers of the raw materials 
for manufactures ; they will think of navigation, 
exports, and imports, and then conclude that sheep 
and oxen are the most important animals to man. 


similar motives, would fix upon camels and drome- 
daries ; a Nabob would point to his state elephant, 
and a Tartar, an Arab, a soldier, and a jockey, would 
unanimously claim the post of honour for the horse 
No argument in favour of the Peruvian lama would 


muse upon the patient and hardy virtues of the ass. 
None but the savage and the mere sportsman would 
first think of the importance of the canine species. 






It may indeed be conceded, that in the social con- 
dition of nations long congregated and civilized, 
necessarily under the impulses of utilitarianism, 
dogs do not obtain that universal consideration 
which is granted to other animals in many respects 
their inferiors ; and it is true that various tribes of 
the south-east abhor their presence, and view them 
only as scavengers, little better than the jackal and 


But when the intellectual endowments of the 

domesticated races of dogs are permitted to weigh 
in the scale, — when we begin to consider the facul- 
ties which the bounty of Nature has bestowed upon 
them, — the sincerity and disinterestedness of their 
attachment,— the sagacity, strength, velocity, cou- 
rage, and perfect obedience which they proffer to 

we cannot refuse them our admiration and 
affection. To what other species could we look 
for voluntary association with our fortunes ? "Which 
of them would, like the dog, lend us the full use of 
senses so acute as his? Which can rejoice in our 
joy, be vigilant and bold in our defence, obedient to 
™w foUlifnl in miT fldversitv. understand our least 

words and signs, and die on our graves from pure 


attachment? These qualities, we all know, dogs 
possess. Here, then, we find the source of that 
consideration which is granted them by all men 
near a state of nature ; and although conceded by 
them with niggardly hands, the wild man of the Old 
World, the stoical hunter of the New, the half- 
frozen Esquimaux, and the savage of Australia, 





differ only in their mode of acknowledgment, from 
the expressions of favour with which the drover 
the shepherd, the sportsman, and the fine lady of 
civilized society regard them. 

As the dog alone, of all the hrute creation, volun- 
tarily associates himself with the conditions of man s 
existence, it is fair to presume also that he was the 
first and therefore the oldest of man s companions ; 
that to his manifold good qualities the first hunters 
were indebted for their conquest and subjugation of 
other species. We do even now perceive, notwith- 
standing the advance of human reason and the pro- 
gress of invention, that in a thousand instances we 
cannot dispense with his assistance. 

If we still feel the importance of his services in 
our state of society, what must have been the ad- 
miration of man, when in the earliest period of 
patriarchal life he was so much nearer to a state 
of nature ? When the wild hunter first beheld the 
i oy ous eyes of his voluntary associate, and heard 
his native howl modulated into barking ; when he 
first perceived it assuming tones of domestication fit 
to express a master s purposes, and intonate the 
language which we still witness cattle, sheep, and 
even ducks and hawks learn to understand : What 
exultation must he have felt when, with the aid of 
his new friend, he was enabled to secure and do- 
mesticate the first kid, the first lamb of the moun- 
tain race ! When, with greater combinations ol 
force and skill between man and Ins dogs the mm, 
the buffalo, the camel, the wild ass, and then the 

* I 



horse, were compelled to accept his yoke; and, 
finally, when, with the same assistance, the wild 
boar was tamed, the lion repelled, and even attacked 
with success. Although the total development of 
canine education must have been the work of ages, 
yet that it was very early, however imperfect, of 
great acknowledged importance, is attested by the 
prominent station assigned to the dog in the earliest 
theologies of Paganism. We know that his name 
was given to one of the most beautiful stars, among 
the oldest designated in the heavens, and that it 
served for the purpose of fixing an epoch in the 
solar year, by its periodical appearance.* Other 
constellations, nearly as old, were likewise noted by 
the name of dogs ; and there are proofs, in typifying 
ideas by images representing physical objects, that 
the admiration of mankind degenerating into super- 
stition, moral qualities of the highest order were 
figured with characteristics of the dog, till his name 
and his image became conspicuous in almost every 
Pagan system of theology, from Nabhass of the 
Avim, to Kalb, Kan, Sag, Bog, and Dok of the 



But if these animals were 

* Sirius, Sottris, Canicula, Nabhas, Anubis, Elur, El-habor, 
El-schere, Ur-chan, &c— See Porphyry de Nymphas aut. 
Herodotus, 1. xi. Servius, ast. of the east. Juvenal, Sat. v., 

f It would lead us too far in a work of this kind to enter 
upon an etymological inquiry concerning the singular connec- 
tion there appears to exist in the mutations of a general root 





thus early an object of deep felt interest, w 
naturally led to ask the question of whence dogs 
originated ? For, as there must have been a period 

when that species, or the genus whence the domestic 

races have sprung, were in a state of nature, the 
original and typical kind is to he sought in existing 
wild dogs, or their real progenitors have totally dis- 
appeared. In the present state of our knowledge 
on this particular subject, no reply can be made 
which is wholly free from objections. The oldest 
records represent the dogs then noticed, though they 
were less educated, as not very dissimilar in natural 
qualities from the present races; for, referring to 
the most ancient authorities (if we except a passage 
in Aristotle attesting the co-existence of wild and 
domesticated animals in his time in Europe, among 
which the dog is enumerated,— and another in Pliny, 
acknowledging that there were no domesticated ani- 
mals then to be found which had not their counter- 
parts in a wild state),* writers of the classic period 
seem not to have bestowed much real attention on 
the question. J Linnaeus, in his system, justly 

designating fitness, capacity, and power, with God, goodness, 
and dog. In this view, Nabach, or Nabass, would not be a 
true Semitic name, but a northern epithet signifying the 
watch-dog or barker-after. The Hebrew, indeed, has many 
other words that appear of foreign or Scythic origin ; n01]"\, 
Haunsbeak, or Anubis, is the more true Semitic term for 


* In omnibus animalibus placidum eiusdem invenitur et 

ferum Pliny. 

J What may be thought of the ancient opinions in Aris- 

VOL. I. 


< I 





admitted the wolf and the jackal to be constituents 

of his genus Canis ; but it does not appear that he 
entertained an opinion that his Canis famil\ 

domestic dop\ was identical with either. Buffon 

viewed the shepherd's dog of Europe as the original 
species from whence all the others had sprung, and 
in prosecuting his investigation, drew up a kind of 
genealogical table, showing how the varieties were 
derived by means of changes of climate, food, and 
education, and multiplied by crossing the races so 
produced to form all the others. 

There is both truth and ingenuity in these opi- 
nions of the eloquent writer ; but it must neverthe- 
less be confessed, that his inferences being in a great 
measure fanciful and arbitrary, they should not have 
been permitted to exercise such an influence upon 
subsequent systematic writers, as evidently pervades 
their classifications, even though they have rejected 

his theory. 

Baron Cuvier, in his Begne Animal, considering 

the species to be distinct, remarks that " taming 
the dog is the most complete, the most useful, and 
the most singular conquest man has achieved, the 
whole species having become our property/' 

Since that time Mr Hodgson, residing in a public 
capacity at Katmandoo, near that central region of 
the world where many of our most ancient elements 
of social existence seem to have emanated; where 

totle, Calisthenes, Xenophon, Pliny, Oppian, Grotius, Pollux, 
&c, relative to Hybud dogs, sprang from lions, tigers, thoes, 
and foxes, will be examined in the sequel. 


- H -6 „ 





many plants are found in a wild state that man 
appears to have carried with him in his devious 
migrations ; and wild animals still exist, that may 
perhaps justly claim to be of the typical species first 
brought under human subjection; in that remote 
region, a wild dog, the Buanser {Canis primcevus), 
is pointed out by him as the primitive species of 
the whole canine race. Another writer (Professor 
Kretschmer), in describing the most interesting 
mammalia of the Frankfort museum, chiefly col- 
lected by the indefatigable Ruppel, notices a jackal 
{Canis anthus, F. Cuv.) as the type of the dogs of 
ancient Eoypt ; and referring to the antique carved 
and painted figures in the temples, and a skull taken 
from the catacombs of Lycopolis, shows the resem- 
blance to be so great, that their identity cannot well 

be denied. 

More recently Mr Bell, in his History of British 

Quadrupeds, is inclined to conclude that the wolf is 
the original stock whence domesticated dogs are 
derived : for this purpose, that gentleman observes, 
" It is necessary to ascertain to what type the ani- 
mal approaches most nearly, after having for many 
successive generations existed in a wild state, re- 
moved from the influence of domestication and 
association with mankind. Now we find that there 
are several different instances of the existence of 
dogs in such a state of wildness as to have lost even 
that common character of domestication, variety of 
colour and marking ; of these, two very remark- 
able ones are the Dhole of India and the Dingo of 






Australia; there is, besides, a half reclaimed race 
among the Indians of North America, and another 
partially tamed in South America, which deserve 
attention ; and it is found that these races, in diffe- 
rent degrees, and in a greater degree as they are 
more wild, exhibit the lank and gaunt form, the 
lengthened limbs, the long and slender muzzle, and 
the great comparative strength which characterise 
the wolf ; and that the tail of the Australian dog, 
which may be considered as the most remote from 
a state of domestication, assumes the slightly bushy 
form of that animal. We have here, then, a con- 
siderable approximation to a well known wild 
animal of the same genus, in races which, though 
doubtless descended from domesticated ancestors, 
have gradually assumed the wild condition ; and it 
is worthy of especial remark, that the anatomy of 
the wolf, and its osteology in particular, does not 
differ from that of dogs in general, more than the 

different kind of dogs do from each other. 


cranium is absolutely similar, and so are all or 
nearly all the other essential parts ; and to strengthen 
still further the probability of their identity, the 
dog and wolf will readily breed together, and their 
progeny is fertile. The obliquity of the position of 
the eyes in the wolf, is one of the characters in 
which it differs from the dogs ; and although it is 
very desirable not to rest too much upon the effects 
of habit or structure, it is not perhaps straining the 
point to attribute the forward direction of the eyes 
in the dogs, to the constant habit, for many succes- 








sive generations, of looking forwards to their master 

and obeying his voice." 

This extract, taken from the Penny Cyclopedia, 
where it appears as a quotation, is then followed up 
by a paragraph not clearly pointed out as being in 
continuation, though the diction seems to be that of 
the same writer ; it is as follows : — " Another crite- 

and a sound one, is the identity of gestation. 



bitch goes with young; precisely the same time 
elapses before the wolf gives birth to her offspring. 
Upon Buffons instance of seventy-three days, or 
rather the possibility of such a duration in the ges- 
tation of a particular she- wolf, we do not lay much 
stress when opposed to such strong evidence of the 
usual'period being sixty-three days ; the young of 
both wolf and dog are born blind, and at the same 
or about the same time, viz. at the expiration of the 
tenth or twelfth day. Hunter s important experi- 
ments proved without doubt that the wolf and the 
jackal would breed with the dog, but he had not 
sufficient data for coming to the conclusion that all 
three were identical as species. In the course of 
those experiments he ascertained that the jackal 
went fifty-nine days with young, whilst the wolf 
went sixty-three ; nor does he record that the pro- 
geny and the dog would breed together; and he 
knew too well the value of the argument to be 
drawn from a fertile progeny, not to have dwelt 
upon the fact, if he had proved it; not tojiave 
mentioned it, at least, if he had even heard it." 



Mr Bell concludes these observations in the fol- 
lowing words :— " Upon the whole, the argument 
in favour of the view which I have taken, that the 
wolf is probably the original of all the canine races, 
may be thus stated. The structure of the animal 
is identical, or so nearly so as to afford the strongest 
a priori evidence in its favour. The dog must have 
been derived from an animal susceptible of the 
highest degree of domestication, and capable of 
great affection for mankind, which has been abun- 
dantly proved of the wolf. Dogs having returned 
to a wild state and continued in that condition 
through many generations, exhibit characters which 
approximate more and more to those of the wolf, m 
proportion as the influence of civilization ceases to 
act. The two animals will breed together and produce 
fertile young. The period of gestation is the same." 
Unquestionably the foregoing observations are 
stated with considerable force, but the conclusions 
to be drawn from them do not appear to have satis- 
fied the writer, nor have they' sufficient weight to 
be completely admissible. We shall therefore pro- 
ceed to offer some remarks upon the alleged facts, 
to show the reasons for withholding an unqualified 
assent ; and we may be allowed to remark that the 
statements are occasionally grounded upon insuffi- 
cient data : moreover, where the question of iden- 
tity, as in the present case, is concerned, it may be 
doubted whether the words " all or nearly all the 
essential parts being identical," appear to be unob- 
j ectionable. 









We may therefore commence our remarks by 
observing that dogs are found in every quarter of 
the globe, wherever man resides or has penetrated ; 
and ask whether, in the present state of our infor- 
mation, we can assert with safety that the common 
wolf (Canis lupus, auctor.) is to be found south 
of the equator ? That there are representatives ot 
wolves or wild dogs beyond the Crishna in India, 
in the Australian islands, and in South America, is 
not the question ; but so far as personal observation 
went, we have not met with the wolf of the western 
hemisphere to the south of the equator, nor are 
they known in South Africa. Next, it may be 
added, that as there are confessedly several species 
of wolf in North America, and probably also in 
the northern part of the Old World, ~ — 
species likewise derived from the C. lupus 
they originally distinct \ And if so, are they ex- 
cluded from the probability of being also in part a 
source whence domestic dogs are derived ? It we 
assert the several species of wolf in the northern 
hemisphere to be mere varieties, are we sufficiently 
well informed to infer that the wild canines of South 
America, India, Australia, Java, and Sumatra, and 
the black Derboun of Arabia and Tokla of Abyssinia, 

are these 
or are 

are also of the same origin? 

Again : 

there are 

several species of foxes on the old and new centi- 
pedes that no zoologist will venture to 


declare of identical origin ; and are we sure that 
their gestation is of sufficient difference not to per- 
mit them to breed a prolific offspring ? 




. ! 








Now, adverting to the circumstance of the fertility 
of the mixed breed between wolf and dog (one cer- 
tainly of very great weight), the experiments made 
by Buffon should have been taken into the account ; 
for that celebrated naturalist, after denying that 
they would commix, lived to prove that they bred, 
and the offspring of the wolf and dog to be prolific 
indeed, but that in four generations, the Hybrid 
type, though not obliterated, had not passed into a 
domesticated race. If wolves and dogs commixed 
breed readily, how does it happen that several races 
of true dogs, such as mastiffs, bulldogs, and particu- 
larly the Irish greyhound, breed so imperfectly with 
their own variety of species that it requires much 
attention to preserve the race ? 

If the Australian Dingo be a true dog, what is 
the cause that experiments to make it breed with 
well selected individuals of the domestic species 
have failed ? At least, this was the case at Paris.* 
Finally, if the facility of breeding together were 
admitted, would it establish identity of species ? It 
is asserted, and we know of no contradiction, that 
the older breeds of sheep in Russia have very coarse 
fleeces, because they breed promiscuously with 
goats. Should this be a fact, and we believe it 
rests on the authority of Pallas, would the inference 
of the identity of the two species be established ? 


* We believe Sir John Jamieson, who made similar expe- 
riments in New Holland, was not more successful ; but I find 
that Mr Cunningham mentions a breed of Hybrids of the race 
to be now established in New Holland. 



Or in the case noticed by Mr Hodgson at Katman- 
doo, where his experiments proved the Capra tharal* 
and domestic goat to breed together without diffi- 
culty. Are we thence to conclude that the musmon 
and the ibex, the tharal and the domestic goat, are 
mere varieties of one species ? 

Almost all recent writers on dogs have copied 
one another so repeatedly, that it is scarcely possible 
to trace the original authority whence given state- 
ments of facts have been taken. We cannot there- 
fore refer to the text whence Mr Bell drew his 
conclusions ; that there exist " several different in- 
stances of dogs in such a state of wildness as to 
have lost even that common character of domestica- 
tion,— variety of colour and marking ;" naming as 
examples the Dhole of India, the Dingo of Aus- 
tralia, a half reclaimed race of North America, and 
another partially tamed in South America. ^ Now, 
if the source whence this statement be derived is 
the Supplement to the Carnassiers of Mr Griffith's 
English edition of Cuviers Animal Kingdom, we 
may state that it is from one of our own notes, and 
that the words are, in part at least, those we used ; 
but it certainly was not, in the original, intended to 
decide the question, whether these animals were 
specifically distinct,— wild aborigine, or the descend- 

The writer of the article 
used his own discretion ; and even he placed it m 

ants of domestic dogs. 

* This name must not be confounded with the C. Jaela, 
Ham. Smith._No. 869 of Griffith's An. Kingd. 








the first division of his arrangement, where he refers 
to the wolf; and thus far left the argument of 
identity and filiation untouched.* 

All we as yet know of the Dhole "or Q.uihoe 
would lead us to a contrary conclusion. t The Dingo 
is indeed better known : his conformation in general, 
and the fact of his being in a country of marsupial 
animals, as yet almost the only true mamiferous 
animal found in a state of nature, offers a fairer 
field for presuming his identity with domestic dogs ; 
but the failure of mixing his race with the Euro- 

* In the plate of heads of dogs in Mr Griffith's Animal 
Kingdom, representing wild varieties of the dog taken from 
Colonel Hamilton Smith's drawings, the engraver has erro- 
neously marked the numbers. Head, No. 1, is that of the 
Dhole ; 2, of the South American wolf or dog ; 3, of the 
Dingo ; and 4, of a specimen formerly in the possession of 
Mr G. Astor of New York, which he denominated, and by 
comparison with numerous skins, proved to be of the wolf of 
the Falkland Islands, 

+ If Mr Bell, in referring to the Dhole of Asia, had in 
view the observations of Mr Frederick Cuvier (in the Dic- 
tionnaire des Sciences Naturelles, at the word Chien), it will 
appear that, on this occasion, that learned and attentive 
observer quoted from Captain Williamson's Oriental Field 
Sports, probably without referring to the text ; for he cites 
the plate where some Pariah dogs have driven a panther into 
a mango tree, and not that where Dholes attack a tiger. On 
consulting Captain Williamson's text, he speaks of the Dhole 
as a wild dog, but he does not say that this animal is de- 
scended from a domestic breed. The context would lead to 
a different conclusion. As for the plate, it was Colonel 
Hamilton Smith who made the sketch of the Dholes, not 
very correctly reproduced in the plate. 






demands at least that we should suspend our 


opinion until this question he hetter elucidated, 
for those of America, the half reclaimed of the north 
is presumed to refer to our description of a domesti- 
cated individual that had been the property of the 
celebrated Indian chief Tecumseh, one which we 
regarded as coming nearer to the Coyotl of Mexico 
than the wolf : neither that specimen nor others of 
the same stock that came under our observation, 
were either gaunt or long-legged ; and with regard 
to the South American partially tamed species, we 
there referred to the Aguara* dogs of the Canbs, 
Tapuias, and Arookas, all seemingly allied to the 
wild dogs of the primaeval woods along the Oro- 
noque We may therefore conclude, that reasoning 
upon such a statement, where the word dogs was 
used, is mistaking the common acceptation of that 
name for the generical term which naturalists, for 
the convenience of classification, have adopted and 
applied in a more extended form. On this subject 
our language is deficient in a sufficiently correct 


* Aguara is one of those indefinite appellations which ex- 
tend over a vast surface of America. It would seem to be 
derived from the Mexican wolf or fox, whose cry is said to 
repeat the sounds Agou-a-a ! hut, in other places, it is a fox, 
a wolf, a feline animal ; we have heard it even bestowed on 
several species of fishes. This name is given with some sy - 
lable before or after, or both before and after the word, ana 
appears to be an epithet. In the East Indies the * a ™ ^ 
occurs, for there Beriah is a name applied both o ^^ 
and hyaena. The Dhole appears to be in * simud * 



terminology. The French have adopted a clear dis- 
tinction, by naming the dog considered as a genuine 
wild species, wild dog {chien sauvage), and the dog 
run wild from a domestic state {chien maron), ma- 
roon dog, or more properly, perhaps, errant dog ; 
but as this word is again a Gallicism, it might he 
better to adopt a native term and call it Feral dog. 
The oblique position of the eyes in the wolf may 
be of some importance when compared with the 
domestic species ; but physiologists, we apprehend, 
would scarcely admit a dogs anxiety to see his 
master and obey his voice, as sufficient cause for the 

There remains only one more remark to be made 

upon Mr 

namely, that which 

allows the gestation of the dog and wolf to be sixty- 
three days, whereas he fixes that of the jackals, 
according to Hunter, at fifty-nine. Now, the ex- 
periments conducted by Mons. F. Cuvier, breeding 
between two different species of jackals, showed 
gestation to be sixty-two days; so that, in this 
respect, the three species may be considered equal, 
as they are likewise in the duration of blindness of 
the young litter, — jackals opening their eyes on the 
tenth or eleventh day, wolves and dogs between the 
tenth and twelfth days. 

We must be guarded even in drawino- inferences 
from the conformation of the skulls of canines. A 
comparative series, duly authenticated, is a desidera- 
tum not as yet, we believe, existing in any cabinet : 
we know that the shades of difference gradually 






pass from one to the other, from the largest Insa 

grevhound, through wolves, dogs, jackals, and 

foxes, down to the zerda. Even in the wild species, 

the skulls of the European and American wolves 

differ sufficiently, if they were of dogs, to constitute 

two very dktinct races ; yet if the specimens ot 

M. F. Cuvier can he depended upon, and that 

ascrihed to the American wolf, in particular, he of 

the species common in the United States, it is 

singular that, in fur, markings, and stature, there 

should be almost no external distinction * But we 

are not even certain when identity of origin has not 

been hitherto disputed, as in the case of domestic 

It is admitted that in the forest they occa- 


lion's Au xo c^v^.***- - ^ 

sionally breed with the wild boar, and that their 

offsprino- is as prolific as if it were the result of 

breeding from the same race. This is also known to 

be the fact in the mixed produce of the Chinese 

and European hog. We have had opportunities of 

seeing the Spanish and domestic breed become wild 

in South America and in Jamaica, resuming the 

characters of the wild boar of Europe ; even the 

young becoming striped, like the marcamns ot 

France. Yet if the observations by T. C. Eyton, 

Esq., reported in the Proceedings of the Zoological 

* Several living specimens, one recently shot, many stuffed, 
and an immense number of skins, have .been exam-d y 


us, wmcn resem^u „» c ^ «— - -•-- a]s0 

last mentioned do the Russian, of which we have 

several specimens. 








of the back, loins, and sacrum differ, between the wild 
boar, the English and Chinese pigs, from fifteen to 
fourteen, from six to four, and from five to four. 
Even the French and English differ ; so that taking 
the totals of vertebrae, they run fifty, fifty-five, 
forty-nine, and the French fifty-three. Surely it is 
allowing too much to the semi-domestication of such 
animals, and denying the same to the plastic powers 
of creation, to prop up our artificial maxims in zoo- 
logy. On the contrary, we may justly suspect this 
to be a case of providential arrangement for a given 
purpose, and that there are three if not four original 
species (including the African) with powers to com- 
mix. In the wild boar of India, the hair of the tail 
is bristly and sagittated ; in the species of Europe, 
it is a scanty coarse tuft, as well as in the wild 
breed of Jamaica. 
With re 

mW, Cuvier admits that the bones of the wolf, the 
matin, and shepherd dogs, are not distinguishable. 
Now, where the whole anatomical character in all 
the species of the genus that are well known is so 
similar, we may with safety infer the constancy of 
that similarity in those but little known ; and, more- 
over, presume the conditions of life, generation, 
gestation, blindness, growth, maturity, longevity, 
and diseases, to correspond in the natural relation 
that must subsist between them. This beino- the 
case, we are reduced to admit, either that, excepting 







the foxes, some one species, let us say the wolf, is 
parent of the whole, — and therefore that the genus 

Canis of authors, so far as the diurnal species are con- 
cerned, consists of one only ; the wild and tame being 
alike mere varieties, produced by passing to different 
latitudes and longitudes of the earth, and subsisting 
upon different qualities of food ; or we must adopt 
some standard of specification other than the merely 

anatomical method. 

Fixing upon certain species as typicial animals, is 
in itself a proper mode to serve our comparative 
data ; but we must not mistake these types for real 
generical beings, the parents of different species. 
Nature does not recognize them, excepting perhaps 
in a very few cases : the more indistinct modifica- 
tions of her creatures are called into being to serve 
the inexhaustible fecundity of her adaptations, and 
to consume, according to their modified structures, 
a prescribed portion of antagonist produce, bal- 
ancing the circle of production and consumption so 
that nothing should be lost and nothing super- 
abundant. This is so obvious to all inquirers, that 
in our apprehension there are sufficient grounds for 
extending the principle to specific purposes ; and 
applying it to canines, induces us to presume, there 
may have existed several congenerical species, pro- 
vided by the liberality of Nature with qualities more 
social and intellectual, and therefore more readily 
brought into subjection by man; animals whose 
types nevertheless are either not as yet ascertained, 
or which have been totally absorbed by domestica- 


' I i 





tion.* Writers more imbued with the spirit of 
system than with the phenomena they have to 
investigate and classify, may not assent to the pro- 
bability of this surmise ; but until they are better 
prepared with facts, the question must remain un- 
determined. It may be added, that whilst natu- 
ralists, especially in the writings of the present 
century, have very generally acquiesced in the doc- 
trine of the varieties {quasi species) of man, as 
descending, after the great catastrophe of the deluge, 
from several of the highest ranges of mountains in 
Asia and Africa, have nevertheless not thought that, 
whether they were civilized or savage, they must 
have possessed dogs ; and in that case, their domes- 
tication being of so remote a period, anterior to the 
present zoological distribution of terrestrial animals, 
we have no sufficient data to fix the filiation upon 
any known type or types; and should it be an- 

* We may quote as examples in the Ruminantia, the Gayal 
(Bos gaveus), the hunched oxen of India, and the common 
breed, perhaps even the Yak of Tartary, all breeding together 
a prolific offspring, if proper precautions are used. See these 
articles in Griffiths' version of the Animal Kingdom. 

It may be claimed also for the domestic cat : the parent 
race, if we may trust the cat mummeries of Egypt, appearing 
to be in that country derived from Felts maniculata, while the 
wild cat of Europe, extending into the East of Asia, is also a 
progenitor, as well as the Tabby, apparently derived from 
South America. Their mixed offspring is prolific, and can 
we say that they are of the same species ? What shall we say 
of the wild horses of Europe, whose remains are found in suc- 
cessive deposits, up to the superficial mould ? 




swered that dogs proceeded from the species in tin 
ark, what becomes of the Mongolic, the Negro, and 
the Caucasian man, each escaping to his own moun- 
tains? And in what manner would this reply fix 
the parentage upon a wolf or a jackal only? 

If domestic dogs were merely wolves modified by 
the influence of mans wants, surely the curs of 
Mohammedan states, refused domestic care, left to 
roam after their own free will, and only tolerated in 
Asiatic cities in the capacity of scavengers, would 
long since have resumed some of the characters of 
the wolf: there has unquestionably been sufficient 
time for that purpose, since we find allusion made 
to these animals in the laws of Moses ; they were 
then already considered unclean, for all cattle wor- 
ried injured, or not killed as the law prescribed, 
were ordered to be flung to them. We do not 
know how long before the departure of Israel dogs 
may have been held in the same outcast condition 
in Egypt, yet to this day the curs of the Levant 
are in no respect to be mistaken for wolves ; and to 

fact still more remarkable, the zeeb 
abounds in every part of Western Asia, and is 
found on the northern borders of Egypt ; he nightly 
visits the haunts of man, and disputes the carrion 
and offals with the curs of the streets. In India 
the case is precisely similar between the indigenous 
wolves (beriah) and the domestic pariahs ; the true 
pariah dog of India being a wild canine chiefly 
established in the woods along the lower ranges of 
the Himalaya mountains, where the wolf is likewise 

render this 

VOL. I. 






abundant. Yet none of these do^s have assumed 
its aspect ; nor have they mixed, further south, with 
jackals, equally numerous ; nor, in the wildernesses 
of the western coast, with the dhole. Their several 
voices are not to be mistaken, and the name pariah, 
or rather pahariah (which it is true Europeans give 
to the curs of India, domesticated or half wild), 
denotes nevertheless a being of the mountains, one 
residing in the woods, and is applied by the Hindoos 
to a wild race of aboriginal inhabitants, as well as 
to wild 'dogs. 

These considerations must have presented them- 
selves to both G. and F. Cuvier, as well as to other 
naturalists, for the Baron did not point out the wolf 
or any other wild animal as parent of the domestic 
races ; he merely notices the greater approximation 
of the jackal, and inclined to one or more species 
being absorbed in the domestic dogs as we now find 
them. At least this was our impression when some 
of the foregoing arguments were submitted by us to 
provoke an opinion. Both he, and more particu- 
larly his brother, have pointed out the importance 
of studying the intellectual character or moral in- 
stincts of the species, as a method too much neglec- 
ted, and in this instance of the first importance. It 
may however be doubted in what manner such an 
inquiry could be carried on with sufficient inductive 
foundation, when it is considered that we have no 
other instance of a similar nature to guide us, and 
that it would embrace the estimate of gradual mo- 
dification by domestication, through a period of 




about four thousand years, or of fifteen hundred, 
perhaps nearly two thousand, generations."* If it 
were said that man alone furnishes circumstances 
partially similar, we would find that they would 
be adverse to the devised conclusions ; for if there 
be but one original species of man, although it has 
undergone all and more vicissitudes than his dogs, 
we do not find his physical characters so greatly 

varied, increased, or diminished, in the sense of 
smelling, in the mass of the brain in growth, in the 
form of the ears, and quality or quantity of hair, as 
in the dog, when assumed to arise from a single 
stock. And if it were said that there are more than 
one original species of man, then we cannot deny 
the conclusion, that as these are known, when mixed, 
to produce prolific offspring, they would furnish a 
proof that separate species of canines may be in the 
same condition. Still, however, the mule breed 
between dog and wolf, reared by Count de Buffon, 
through four generations, leave no satisfactory re- 
sult ; and M. F. Cuvier, in later experiments, attests 
that the procreative power in the descending line 
becomes less and less, leading to early sterility and 
extinction. The term mule breed, used by Buffon, 
be it observed, is only a repetition of the words of 
the ancients, and shows in all the pre-supposition 
that the species were distinct. Besides, if this breed 

* Mr. Hodgson, however, also claims the intervention of 
moral qualifications in his account of Capra tharal, as being 
bolder and livelier than his Ovis nahoor, in opposition to tho 
conclusions of Colonel H. Smith's account of sheep. 


■ ■ 

I J 

m 1 



had had other results, it would still have remained 
to be decided, whether a litter wholly of wolf ex- 
traction was capable of domesticity. The specimens 
hitherto reduced to familiarity, had been all bred 
up in confinement ; those showing attachment, we 
believe, were, with one exception, she- wolves ; and 
in no case were they ever sufficiently liberated to 
determine, whether, with all their docility, they 
would not have taken the road to the forest and 
resumed the character assigned them by Nature, on 
the first favourable opportunity, or as soon as the 
first case of excitement appealed to their sensa- 

We leave it to physiologists to inform us of the 
facts, if such there be, in the whole circle of mam- 
miferous animals, where the influence of man, by 
education and servitude, has been able to develope 
and combine faculties and anatomical forms so dif- 
ferent and opposite as we see them in different races 
of dogs, unless the typical species were first in pos- 
session of their rudiments. We do not pretend to 
deny a certain influence to education even on the 
external form, and to servitude and misery that 

degeneracy which will produce some corresponding 
decrease of size. But climate cannot have effected 
much difference in the growth, since the two ex- 
tremes are found both in hot and cold countries. 
Nor can food have had a material influence, since 
man, existing entirely on vegetables or on fish, 
retains all his faculties as well as when he subsists 
on flesh; and to a late period in the history of 







Europe, the fiercest clogs, such as the packs kept by 
the feudal nobility for boar and wolf hunting, were 
invariably fed on bread,* If the dog proceeded 
solely from one typical species, allowance being 
made for some modifications as above specified, all 
his developments would continue within the circle 
of powers and faculties belonging to the original 
type. They might diminish, but increase only in a 
trifling degree. We may infer, that food or climate 
would not truncate and widen the muzzle, nor raise 
the frontals, nor greatly alter the posterior branches 
of the lower jaw-bone, as in mastiffs. t It would 
scarcely have the effect, in other cases, of producing 
a high, and slender structure, while it took away the 
sense of smelling and several of the best moral qua- 
lifications resulting from domesticity and education, 
as occurs in greyhounds. All these qualities appear 
to us indications of different types, whose combinable 
properties have enabled man to multiply the species 
of dogs into the several races his wants required. 
In these views we expect to have the concurrence 
of all sportsmen, who have studied the characters 
of the animals more than the books of systematic 


and the household institutions of the dukes of Burgundy ; 

the ancient Welsh laws, &c. 

f " The deep jaw-bones of (some) domestic dogs are inde- 
pendent of the more general character of the family, and 
indicate a corresponding possession of actual physical power, 
as in the lion and jaguar, compared with the more insidious 
habits of the puma, we find a similar correspondence.—^^ 
mal Kingdom, in the Edinburgh Review of Nat. History. 

I ■ 



writers, and are led by inferences from their own 
observations, rather than by the authority of names. 
"We know it to be the opinion of foresters and hunts- 
men- of the north and east of Europe, men generally 
well educated, who live wholly in the presence of 
nature. We are assured it is the doctrine of the 
Chinese and Tartars, particularly in the notice on 
dogs in the treatise on hunting under the names of 
Id, 1st, and Kuschuk. We know from personal 
inquiry, that both the North and South American 
Indians do not doubt their dogs being of the same 
origin with the wild canines of their forests ; and, 
lastly, we may appeal to inferences drawn from 
conversations with Baron Cuvier, and laying aside 


what was merely verbal, point to his text, where, 
bearing in mind that he made it a law not to assert 
as fact that which he had not verified by personal 
inspection, speaking of dogs as a species, he never- 
theless admits that " quelques naturalistes pensent 
que le chien est un loup, dautres que c est un chacal 
apprivoise : les chiens redevenus sauvages dans des 
iles desertes ne ressemblent cependant ni a Tun ni 
a l'autre."* He then notices the matin, a breed not 


known in England, but approaching our great farm- 
yard and drover dogs, as possessing a skull most 
similar to that of the wolf, though the ears are 
drooping. Further on,t speaking of the jackal, he 
says : " c est un animal vorace, qui chasse a la ma- 
niere des chiens et paroit lui ressembler plus qu au- 

Regne Animal, vol. i. p. 1 49. 

f lb. p. 151. 




cune autre espece sauvage, par la conformation, et 
par la facilite de s'apprivoiser." 

In conclusion, we may assume, that man being 
created for higher purposes than a mere animal 
existence, subordinate creatures, so constituted as 
to be important elements of co-operation, were called 
into existence to further that design, and to facili- 
tate his intellectual advancement. Among others, 
that canines were endowed with faculties of a pecu- 
liar nature in aid of his exertions, and in compensa- 
tion for the physical inadequacy of his structure, to 
compete with the fiercer tenants of the world. How 
the brute creation was at first distributed, we never 
can ascertain ; but we may conjecture, judging from 
that balance which we may trace is kept up in 
organised matter, vegetable as well as animal, that 
all the classes and orders must have been co-existing 
from the beginning in such proportions, 
had so decided a preponderance in either kmgdoui 
of nature as to outweigh and destroy ofhers, or even 
to exceed their useful quantity. And here again we 
find an exception ; for to man alone it was given, in 
proof of his higher destinies, to violate this law for 
his convenience ; to diminish, to exterminate whole 
species of animals, clear whole regions of forest 
banish whole classes of plants, and supply thei 
places by multiplying those creatures and that vege- 
tation necessary to his own comfort, and converting 
a wilderness into cultivated regions for his benefit, 
without disturbing the harmony of the creation ; 
unless in the duration of ages and in obedience to 

that none 




other laws, whose periods of operation w r e are not 
competent to measure. 

Without, therefore, recapitulating the various 
arguments adduced in the foregoing pages, we are 
inclined to believe there are sufficient data to doubt 
the opinion that the different races of domestic 
dogs are all sprung from one species, and still more 
that the wolf {Cants lupus, Linn.) was the sole 
parent in question ; on the contrary, we are inclined 
to lean, for the present, to the conjecture that seve- 
ral species, aborigine, constructed with faculties to 
intermix, including the wolf, the buansu, the anthus, 
the dingo, and the jackal, were parents of domestic 

That even the dhole, or a thous, may have 
been progenitors of the greyhound races ; and that 
a lost or undiscovered species, allied to Canis tricolor 
or Hyarna venatica of Burchell, w r as the source of 
the short muzzled and strong jawed races of primi- 
tive mastiffs. 

"Whatever may be thought of this opinion, thus 
much at least is certain, that the advances towards 
forming hybrid races are always made by the domes- 
tic species to the wild ; and that when thus obtained, 
if kept to itself, and the cross breed graduallv be- 
come sterile, it does not prevent repeated intermix- 
ture of one or the other, and therefore the admission 
of a great proportion of alien blood, which may 
again be crossed upon by the admission of hybrids 
from another source, whether it be wolf, jackal, 
pahariah, or dingo; and that experiments, in the 
form thev have been hitherto made, in a different 




climate and in captivity, are not conclusive because 
they have terminated in the negative. We may add, 
that it is likely dogs are at least as likely as horses 
to he affected by impressions of former impregna- 
tions effected by different species, and not oblite- 
rated in the offspring of a subsequent homogeneous 


We know already enough of the kindlier moral 

instincts of several wild canines to render their apti- 
tude for domestication, during the pressure of a 
series of ages, not very problematical ; and if the 
education of some of the races nearer to the wild 
condition do not appear to be advanced to a great 
decree of tractability, we must reflect that domestic 
anilities are of very slow growth, as long as wild 
congeners exist in the same country; and that 
where man is a savage, his dog cannot be expected 
to be civilized. This truth is indeed of such univer- 
sal application, that in some measure we may deter- 
mine the social condition of a nation by the degree 
of education its dogs have acquired. 

If, therefore, we were to distribute the more 
typical races of dogs according to their apparent 
affinities with those wild species which we know to 
reside in zones of latitudes sufficiently proximate for 
admitting their paternity, and place the more aber- 
rant tribes likewise in their congenial zones, although 

* We refer to the case of the mare and quagga, and her 
subsequent foals, recorded in Surgeons' College London ; 
where the pictures of the successive foals, painted by Agape, 
are preserved. 

i t 




they be without a known prototype we might form 
a system as philosophically admissible as our present 
knowledge will suffer, or as those already established. 
We might view the dogs residing nearest the arctic 
circle, or considered as descended from that quarter, 
and resembling wolves, as their offspring, more or 
less modified by the conditions of their being, during 
a long process of ages, and their fertile intermixture 
w^ith other more southern species. We might take 
the more aberrant forms, whose original types we 
want, from that point in their zones w T here the most 
vigorous race of them is known to exist ; and next 



South America, with the group of their congeners 
in that part of the New. We would in this manner 
distinguish the large wolf-headed and long-haired 
species of the north from the smaller jackal-headed 
tribes of the south ; and find the species belonging 
to the mastiff race, know T n to degenerate alike in 
cold and hot countries, strong, numerous, and typi- 
cal in central Asia ; spreading eastward into Chinese 
Tartary and westward to Great Britain,— always in 
temperate regions ; while the long-nosed greyhound 
group, in the highest state of procreative vigour and 
serviceable activity, occupies another belt of the old 
continent centering in the Persian Taurus, west of 
Hinducoh, and spreading from China through north- 
ern India, Persia, and Arabia, including both sides 
of the Mediterranean to Morocco, and to the extre- 
mity of Europe. 




This distribution is sufficiently correct, in a gene- 
ral point of view, to merit consideration ; and the 
modifications which can he pointed out in the habi- 
tat may well be ascribed to the migrations of man, 
the necessity of administering to his wants and his 
pleasures, and therefore to his particular care; 
which, after all, never enabled him to carry out his 
desires beyond the few degrees of cold and heat, 
one way or the other. If, then, by their 
tion, these animals were not invincibly debarred the 
faculty of breeding together and producing prolific 
lines of descent, we would find the great variety of 
races of dogs now existing completely accounted 
for by the demoralization they have suffered from 
slavery. For although the laws which bind organized 
beings within the prescribed limits of given ana- 
tomical and external consimilarities, still that power 
whence these laws emanated, has also shown itse t 
in their exceptions. Exceptions that would m all 
probability be much more numerous, if our know- 
ledge was more extended and accurate. Some have 
been already pointed out, others are known to exist 
in other classes of animals, as in birds organized on 
a different but not an inferior plan, such as the hy- 
brid between different species of ducks, as well as 
finches, whose offspring are equally prolific and 

continuous. . 

To the obj ection that in this manner the difficulty 
of the question is avoided but not overcome, we 
answer, that the foregoing arguments tend at least 
♦„ „ . *i „™i ;„w™e. and that we do not 




see how or why a difficulty should he overcome, 
which in itself seems to lie more in the maxims of 
a system than in an invariable law of nature. 

Before we close the introductory view of the 
origin of dogs, it is proper to notice in a few words 
the fossil canines. Of these only one questionable 
species is, we believe, indicated in the older or 
deeper strata of ossiferous caverns ; one that must 
have been adequate to walk the earth at a period 
when colossal forms of various kinds abounded. It 
is noticed by Kaup under the name of agnotherium, 
and stated by him to have been in size equal to a 
hon. It is doubtful whether a true diumal canine 
of the existing zoological forms has yet been de- 
tected in the same assemblages of bones where the 
fossil hyasna is found mixed with so many others. 
One, considered to be of a wolf, we examined in the 
collection taken from the cave near Torquay, but 
the Rev. Mr M'Ennery stated that it was discovered 
on the surface of the stalagmite which covered the 
deeper hy^na deposit, and lay on the same floor 
with flint knives. Whether domestic dogs have 
ever been found in a fossil state, is still more ques- 
tionable. The Canis speleus of Goldfuss, found in 
the cavern of Gailenreuth, we know not under what 
conditions, has the muzzle shorter and the palate 
wider than the present wolf, and may be the most 
ancient representative of the family, which even in 
that case may not have preceded the first hunters or 
the later shepherds who migrated from high Asia 
westward ; for goats and sheep are equally wanting 


l V .*.^l 






among ossiferous debris, or are found under ques- 
tionable circumstances ; as if the progress of man 
with his flocks had been attended by wild and 
domestic canines, and their presence in the west 

was coeval.* 

With regard to foxes, their remains may be of a 

somewhat, older date ; but still they occur in the 
tertiary series, though it is stated to be the older in 
the Eocene of Lyell. Others were found in the 
gypsum of the basin of Paris, and in the quarries of 
Oeningen and Constance; but burrowing animals 
might be found below very ancient rocks, without 
therefore positively fixing the period of their exist- 
ence. It must, however, be admitted, that frag- 
ments of jaws of foxes were found mixed in the 
same red earth which contains bones of hyaenas, 
horses, ruminants, elephants, &c. in the Oreston 
and other caves near Plymouth.t 

The species noticed by Baron Cuvier seem to have been 
mere debris, from which, however, he was enabled to indicate 
four,— the two first from the Franconian caverns, the last 
from the calcariferous selenite of the vicinity of Paris ; they 
were therefore of a coeval period with Paleotherium, and be- 
long to an anterior zoology ; but their characters and distinc- 
tions are not explicitly given. The two first mentioned, 
however, belong to the latest period ; one representing the 
characters of a wolf, may be the same as that of the Torquay 
deposit, the skull perhaps deserving the name of lurcher wolf; 
and the other approaching the jackal, but larger than our 

present foxes. 

f The foregoing chapter was -written before we became 
aware of the review of Mammalia in the Edinburgh Journal 
of Natural History, where many considerations relating to 






canines are investigated ; and although the author's object 
was not to question the single or plural view of the parentage 
of domestic dogs, and his argument occasionally seems to lean 
to the former opinion, yet we claim many of his facts ar d 
reasons as confirming the latter. Want of space forbids these 
being reproduced here in the form of quotations, and con- 
densation would only garble and do them injustice ; we there- 
fore refer to the original, particularly the Nos. x. xi. and 







GENUS CANIS, (Linn.)- 


Dogs taken in a collective sense, constitute a family 
of di Atigrade carnivore, distinguished from all others 
by an uniformity of characters, which leaves no 
doubt respecting the limits, but renders subdivision 
the more difficult. Where all the species are so 
nearly alike in their structure, naturalists have been 
compelled to adopt distinctive characters of inferior 
importance, and sometimes even of a trivial nature. 
M. Frederic Cuvier, and other acute and practised 
investigators, thoroughly convinced of the necessity 
of bringing to bear upon this question all the light 
that can be collected, have justly recommended the 
investigation of the different intellectual and sensi- 
tive instincts of canines, for the purpose of applying 
them in aid of the other means of classification ana 
the distinction of species. But in what manner 
physiologists, who have advocated the intervention 
of man as the sole cause of the modifications dogs 





have undergone, can fix species by such aid, con- 
sistently with their own argument, we do not pre- 
tend to understand. In our view, however, which 
leans, without at present adverting to wild species, 
towards the conclusion that the domestic may he 
derived from several distinct though slightly sepa- 
rated canines, this resource is applicable; and we 
intend to adopt it to the extent our information will 

All canines, excepting in size, are surprisingly 
similar in osteological structure and in their whole 
anatomy. Even minor peculiarities are rare and 
evanescent. Recourse has therefore been had to 
the comparison of the bones of the head, where 
the seat of the senses was most likely to give evi- 
dence of different appetites, wants, and powers. 
But even here, the skulls of the French matin dog, 
the shepherd's dog, the new Holland dingo, and the 
European wolf, differ less than the last mentioned 
does from the American wolf; and the variation 
that can be detected in the wild species is chiefly 
in the teeth being more bulky than in the domestic. 

In order to illustrate this fact, we here subjoin a 
series of views of skulls of different species and 
varieties of these animals, seen from above and in 
profile. Some are taken from F. Cuviers plates, 
others from nature ; and as it is not consistent with 
the plan of this work to enter into a detached 
anatomical discussion on the subject, the reader 
will, it is hoped, find sufficient evidence, even upon 
a cursory inspection, to admit, that where the simi- 




larity is so very great, the general structure of the 
animals cannot depart from this leading and chief 

organ of the whole. The principal, it will he ob- 
served, is detected in the relative development of 
the cranial chamber that holds the brain, for, in 
proportion to this increase of size, the instinctive 
and intellectual faculties are found to be augmented. 
In one group of domestic dogs, however, there is 
one bearing evidence of a much greater departure 
from the general similarity, — a departure leading to 
a strong presumption that the typical animal was 
taken from an aberrant species, — one more nearly 
approximating the hyaana, and allied to Cams tricolor 
or pictus of authors. The group is that of the mas- 
tiff and our bulldog, whose structure will be exa- 
mined in the sequel. 

We invite the attention to the difference in the 
frontal line of the profiles, the relative position of 
the orbits, and the strength of the great carnassier 
molar, and it will be observed that the great Canada 
wolf (if it be a wolf?) is possessed of a greater 
development of the brain, less space for attaching 
the muscles of the neck and jaws, a more plain 
profile, and forms in general approximating the 
din.o-o : and therefore we think the head belongs, 
not to a true wolf, but to one of our group Lyciscus. 
In the dingo, Canis Australia?, of our arrangement 
Chrysms Australia?, we see the cerebral chamber 
not greatly enlarged, the molars of middle propor- 
tion, the incisor teeth nearly in a straight line,^ dif- 
fering from the jackal where they form a semicircle, 

VOL. I. 









and all the teeth are proportionably stronger than in 
the dingo. 

The teeth of canid^ consist, in the upper, of six 
incisors, two canines, and six molars on each side ; 
of which number, three are false molars, one is the 
carnassier, and two are tubercular molars. In the 
lower jaw there are likewise six incisors, two ca- 
nines, and seven molars on each side ; four being 
false molars, one carnassier, and two tubercular. 
Of these the incisor teeth are small, in wolves 
generally irregular and somewhat projecting. The 
canines are, on the contrary, very strong, pointed, 
slightly recurved, long, and those of the lower jaw 
clasping the upper, giving mutual support in the 
act of tearing animal substances. The molars are, 
as such, also but partially efficient, being tubercular 
or false, and indicating that Nature intended them 
only for occasional trituration of vegetable sub- 
stances, and more commonly for animal food. This 
intention is powerfully evinced in the carnassiers, 
both above and below, which being vertically rather 
flat and jagged into three points, act upon each 
other, in mastication, with the mixed powers of a 
saw, a pair of shears, and a bruiser ; thus serving 
to cut through and splinter what the canines have 
torn, the false molars have prevented from coming 
in mass to the carnassier, and the tubercular molars 
finally triturate more, before it passes into the sto- 
mach. Here we have therefore a complete example 
of the adaptations in teeth famished by Nature to 
effect certain ends, shewing the general but not 




absolutely exclusive subsistence of canines to be 
animal food; and this law, with its modifications, 
is so constant, that the nature of the food of mam- 
malia may be ascertained with certainty by an in- 
spection of the structure of the teeth alone. We 
may further observe from the teeth of canines, that 
the carnassiers and false molars effecting only a 
coarse imperfect division of their nutriment, the 
animals so constituted must have a tendency to 
subsist on putrescent flesh and broken bones, to 
gorge with more avidity than selection, and conse- 
quently to suffer alternately from the lethargy of 
indigestion and from protracted abstinence. Mr 
J. E. Gray has observed, respecting the milk teeth 
of young dogs, that the carnassier is provided with 
a small internal central lobe, as in other carnivora, 
whilst the same tooth in the permanent set always 
presents a large anterior lobe. In the growth of 
the animal, the anterior part of the jaws alone 
increases in length, so that the carnassier continues 
as near the fulcrum of the lever as before; and 
this precaution of Nature seems to be a further 
proof of her case, because, as the animals in ques- 
tion draw a part of their sustenance from the bones 
they masticate, if the principal teeth used to break 
them were not retained nearest the angle of the 
mouth, there would not be sufficient muscular power 

to effect that purpose. 

There is, however, some slight variation in the 
teeth of the Buansa, or Canis primcevus of Hodgson, 
in whose lower jaw the second tubercular tooth is con- 





stantly wanting ; and the same difference occurs in 
the Cants Dukhunensis of Colonel Sykes, and in all 
of the species noticed as dholes. But the group of 
Megalotis, and several of the fur-footed canines, 
show, in their tuberculous teeth, that they are, par- 
tially at least, insectivorous. One hitherto con- 
sidered as the largest of the Megalofis, is, however 
sufficiently distinct to constitute a sub-genus, having 
seven molars on each side in the upper jaw and 
eight in the lower. 

The nostrils are lunulated, with the lower angle 
opening out at the side: they are situated in a 
glandular muzzle. The erasure large, pointed, 
moveable, turned forwards; the tongue soft, long, 
thin at the edges ; the pupils of the eyes are round 
in many species, but contract vertically, like those 
of cats, in others; and from this circumstance 
alone, the family is divided into two great branches, 
the former including the w r oives, dogs, and jackals, 
and the latter the foxes. But there are many spe- 
cies, especially in South America, and among the 
fur-footed canines, where the faculty of eliptically 
contracting the pupils is doubtful* or imperfect; 
nevertheless, from the power of excluding a propor- 
tion of light indicating nocturnal habits, and the 
round pupils an opposite propensity, they have been 
called diurnal and nocturnal canines : although the 
fox hunts by day as frequently as the wolf, and the 
jackal is perhaps more exclusively nocturnal than 

The fore-feet have five toes ; the hind- feet four 







or five ; one group alone has only four toes on all 
the feet. In all of them the two middle toes are 
longest and equal, and the two outer shorter ; the 
fifth on the fore -feet is internal, and never reaches 
to the ground. Of the feet the toes only rest on the 
earth ; the claws are not retractile, but are strong, 
blunt, and fit for digging the ground ; the soles and 
end of each toe are furnished with tubercles. Several 
species, both in high and low latitudes, have the 
soles or tubercular part of the feet covered with hair. 
Near the arctic circle, Nature has conferred this 
protection upon some kinds of domesticated dogs, \ 
and even upon the red fox. It is a sort of glove. 
To which end, then, was it likewise bestowed upon 
several smaller species living near or within the 
tropics ? This question is not yet determined ; but 
we may surmise that the fur is of a different struc- 
ture, and intended to enable the possessors to ap- 
proach their prey without noise or concussion of the 
earth, of which small birds and insects are remark- 
ably sensible ; and, therefore, that those so provided 
are all to a certain extent insectivorous. 

Canines have two sorts of hair, an under fur of a 
soft woolly nature, and one of longer coarser piles 
forming the outer coat. The tail in general is long 
and hairy, reaching below the heel to the ground, 
or even more. Its muscular flexibility and action 
furnishes some slight additions for the separation of 
the different groups, and most naturalists agree with 
Iiniusus in the assertion, that in domestic dogs it 



f I 


■ I 


hangs to the left ; which Sonnini justly ascribes to 
their action of galloping. 

The mammas are from six to ten in number, and 
their liability to vary in domestic dogs is a further 
indication of a plurality of original species in their 
constitution. The typical colours of the fur appear 
to be ochrey, white, and black, commonly inter- 
mixed, so as to form greys of different tones, or 
clouds, of tan or brown: the aberrant are fiery 
rufous and bluish ash. These colours are liable to 
vary according to the latitudes the species occupy, 
or according to the season of the year or particular 
race they belong to. Some true wolves and the 
lyciscans of America are reported to differ very 
considerably in the same litter, and the Lycaon 
pictus never occurs with the markings distributed 

exactly alike. 

They are almost universally animals endowed 
with a prodigious delicacy in the organs of scent : 
their hearing is acute; the sight very good; but 
the senses of touching and tasting are not so per- 
fect : the last mentioned, in particular, taken accord- 
ing to human notions, is singularly at variance with 
delicacy, for it shows no repugnance to corrupted 
flesh. It is observed, even of lap-dogs, most daintily 
fed, that they will often forsake the savoury dishes 
prepared for them, to gorge upon carrion, and 
manifest the intense pleasure they receive by rolling 


upon it. 

Hence, perhaps, canines are not personally so 




cleanly as animals of the cat kind. In this respect 
the nocturnal species, whose fur is also more close 
and fine, are far superior to the larger diurnal ; and 
the fact may serve as another distinctive indication 
between them. All the species drink by lapping, 

require water often, 

turn round repeatedly 

before lying down. Their voice consists in howling, 
but some bark even in a wild state ; and several 
have various intonations expressive of different 

feelings." 96 


and temperate climates are in heat during winter, 
and once only in the year, or even two years. 
Within the tropics, the period probably differs. 
Gestation seems to be from sixty- two to sixty-eight 
days ; but it may be shorter in the smaller species 
of hot climates, and perhaps longer in some cases. t 
Mons. Frederick Cuvier, whose views have been 
generally followed in this article, extends it to three 
or even three and a half months. Buffon was of 
the same opinion. The young amount to three, 
six, and even to nine and ten; they are not full 
grown till the second year, and longevity scarcely 

* The numerous experiments of Mr Tessier prove consi- 
derable diversities in the gestation of some orders of animals, 
but in dogs he does not allow the limits to exceed four days. 
See Cooper's Tracts quoted in Buck's Medical Jurisprudence. 

t Mingit ad latus, cacat supra lapidem. Odorat anum alte- 


. This habit of smelling each other is connected with the 

two glands found on each side the anus, and communicating 
with it ; they are ovoid in form, and exhale a penetrating foetid 

smell. — Dauberton in Sonnini. 







exceeds twenty years. The phenomena of gestation 
in canines demand some observations, from the 
number of whelps produced at a birth by animals 
destined to make violent exertions to obtain their 
daily food, and therefore not fitted to be inactive 
for. any length of time. It appears that the young 
are produced in a premature condition, for they 
born blind; and while they remain in this state, 
the foramen ovale is still open, according to the 
experiments attributed to Mr Edwards.* But it 
appears, in the work of that able observer, that he 
regards the blindness of the new-born animal rather 
as a proof that the vital action is not sufficiently 
energetic to generate animal heat, a process effected 
by the combined action of the nervous and vascular 
systems ; and that animals born with their eyes open 
are more mature. But whether under these circum- 
stances their blood is imperfectly arterialized, or the 
vital energy be as yet insufficient, and consequently 
that if they be removed from the nest, or for any 
length of time from the maternal warmth, it is a fact 
that they soon cool down to the temperature of the 
surrounding atmosphere and perish. Now, the in- 
complete and helpless state of these animals, in their 

* Edwards sur la vie. — This conclusion may demand some 
qualification ; for we are informed by a medical officer in the 
Royal Navy— one of unquestioned ability and experience- 
that in opening a seaman killed by a fall, the foramen ovale 
was found open, admitting the passage of a quill ; yet the man 
had been as strong, active, and healthy, as any othe] 

on board. 






first state of existence, may be one of the many 
provisions of Nature to keep up the balance be- 
tween the carnivora and the other orders of mam- 
malia; for as the reproduction, in hot climates at 
least, may amount to two litters in the year, and 
each be of eight or ten, it follows that the destroyers 
would increase beyond measure, unless by the above 
and probably other precautions, a great number 
perished at an early period of life ; and in this way 
became themselves food for other carnassier in the 
form of living prey, or in a corrupting state, when, 
at their second dentition, numbers are carried off by 
disease. The adults of different species, and even 
of the same, if disabled, are prey to others ; nay, 
the mothers occasionally eat their own whelps; 
they mutually destroy each other in their battles, 
and are devoured by hyaenas. Nature appears to 
have implanted an innate hostility between ' 
canine and feline genera. The hyaena, the dhole, 
and other wild dogs, are alike reported to destroy 
all tiger-cubs they can find ; and the last mentioned 
in particular, enabled by their superior instinct to 
act in packs, and combine their attacks, are even 
more than a match for the most powerful of the 
felinsB. Those that perish in these conflicts only 
add to the repast of the survivors, and in this man- 
ner further the purposes of Nature. It is to this 
peculiar inslinct, no doubt, that the desire of tigers 
to escape from the presence of sporting dogs, so 
often observed in India, is mainly to be ascribed. 
Of the smaller canines, the jackal still evinces the 







pursuit of them in the night, and announcing his 
approach by a particular cry of warning, which for- 
merly was mistaken for the act of providing for the 
monster. The jackal does not precede, but follows 
at a safe distance ; and at the time his note of cau- 
tion is uttered, no other animal is heard to respond 
to it; while at other times the cry of one is an- 
swered in every direction, by all the individuals 
then in hearing. The disposition to 
or wounded companion, which we still see partially 
evinced in domestic dogs (who generally, when two 
are fighting, rush to the spot and join in biting the 
one who is worsted), is, however, modified by their 
social instinct ; for Dr Daniel Johnson, long resident 
in India, relates, that in earths of burrows (those 
troglodyte cities of canines usually dug by jackals), 
both wolves and hyaenas take up their quarters 
without attempting to molest each other, although 
the openings of their mutual retreats are not far 
asunder. There is a kind of understood confederacy 


of burrows. 


In the diurnal canines, part are of a middle stature 
and a part are small. Their structure indicates 
vigour and activity ; the larger species, in particular, 
exhibit in the fore-quarters solidity and strength, 
and in the posterior part slenderness and speed. 
The legs are long, the neck muscular and length- 
ened; the head is rather pointed, the chest deep, 




the thighs and shoulders fleshy, and the legs ten- 
dinous ; the muscles appear very prominent, but the 
gait is not in perfect harmony with the conforma- 
tion* Movement with them is somewhat indecisive. 
The head is not carried high, nor is the look bold ; 
for canines in general are prudent, and become 
daring only when pressed by hunger. 

The smaller diurnal species and the foxes are pro- 
portionably lower on their legs than the first men- 
tioned. The body appears to be longer and the 
head more pointed. Foxes have the muzzle very 
much sharpened ; they carry the head between the 
shoulders ; their forms are more rounded ; and they 
naturally timid and distrustful. They hunt 
exclusively such creatures as have no means of 
defence; trust entirely to silence and cunning, 
unless they find themselves forced into some unfore- 
seen circumstance: hence they are crepuscular 
and nocturnal in their habits, oppose flight alone to 
every kind of danger, and seek retreat in their earths 
as quickly as possible. They are more cleanly in 
their persons than the diurnal canines, and their fur 
is almost invariably finer and fuller. 

It is among canines, wild or domesticated, that 
the terrible disease known by the names of madness 
and hydrophobia solely originates. Other mam- 
malia may be infected by a bite, but do not seem to 
communicate the virus : to all who are attacked it is 
invariably fatal. India is greatly ravaged by the 
disease ; hyaenas, wolves, dogs, jackals, and toxes 
being alike subject to the infection. In Germany 








and France, hydrophobia attacks wolves and foxes 
as well as the dogs ; both the first mentioned are 
then without the fear of man, but run on in rabid 
ferocity, biting all living beings they can reach. In 
this condition mad foxes have been killed, in the 
middle of people assembled at market. 

The dogs of South America are not afflicted by 
hydrophobia, but they suffer from an eruptive dis- 
ease that has been compared to the human small- 
pox, and is very destructive, but never attacks the 
animal a second time. The disease is attended 
with convulsions; the beast in delirium bites at 
random and mechanically ; drops saliva mixed with 
blood, and the distemper is so extensively fatal, that 
in Peru it is considered as a plague. 

In a wild state the greater number reside in dense 
forests, but it would seem that those destined to 
become the companions of man are not so exclu- 
sively the tenants of the woods. The wild Canis 
latrans and C. anthus are examples of this fact, and 
the typical race whence greyhounds have sprung 
appears to owe its origin to the northern plains of 
Eastern Persia. Even the black wolf and the der- 
boun, are more tenants of mountain ranges than of 
forests. The large wild species of Europe do not 
burrow, though in India and America they still 

reside in retreats under ground. It 



natural sagacity has taught them that there is no 
longer sufficient safety in burrows amidst the dense 
population of the Christian states ; and numerous 
local names still remaining attest, at least, that they 





formerly had their earths in Germany. Many of the 
species hunt in troops; those who are permanent 
inhabitants of woods uniting only occasionally for 
that purpose, and those of the more open country 
keeping habitually together. They are cruel, vora- 
cious, lascivious, watchful, and capable of the greatest 
alternations of exertion and sloth. With some few 
exceptions in the Pacific Ocean and the antarctic 
region, canines are spread over the whole earth; 
and under all circumstances of human existence, 

found to be the companions of man. All, 
it appears, are capable of some kind of domestica- 
tion and of attachment. The domesticated, when 
suffering, yell and moan; the wild will hardly utter 
a cry of pain, even when in the chase they receive 
a severe wound, and they mav be beaten to death 
without a groan. With excellent memories, none of 
the species seem to seek revenge for ill treatment, 
if once they have found their hostility unsuccessful, 
and they are treated with forbearance. 

It may be surmised, that since the commence- 
ment of history, some remarkable changes have 
taken place in the local diffusion of digitigrade car- 
nivora, in India and in Northern Asia. The wolf 
may be suspected to have spread farther to the 
south, over the plains of Hindostan; the hyaena 
farther to the north, beyond the Ganges, to the 
highest mountains. This animal and the jackal 
seem likewise to have gained ground in "Western 
Asia, in Palestine, and then over all Asia Minor,- 
where they may have partly replaced other species 





and races that have since been nearly or entirely 

This opinion is strengthened by the fact, that in 
the Scriptures repeated allusions are made to the 
wolf as then existing in India; allusions inappli- 
cable to any other wild canine; and yet, at the 
present time, the animal now called the wolf in 
Palestine, the deeb of the Arabs, is a far inferior 
species in strength; by naturalists classed among 
jackals, and by us referred to the particular group 
of Sacalius. Again, beyond Bengal, east of the 
Burhampootra, including the Burman empire, Siam, 
Pegu, and the Malay peninsula, no hyaena^ wolf, 
fox, or jackal, is known, and, by implication, no 
wild species of dog may be added ; a circumstance 
tending to the surmise, that the first mentioned 
advanced from the west and all the others from the 
north, have not penetrated to this south-eastern 
angle of Asia, and consequently, that the primitive 

to particular places.* 

The jackal is now found even in Europe, although 
neither that nor the hyaena are described by Greek 
writers with the knowledge which they would have 
evinced, had the animals been so common as they 

* See Crawford's Embassy to Ava, and our account of 
Topel hysena. Indo-China is, however, possessed of several 
species of elongated carnassiers, wholly or in part supplying 
the place of Canidse. Beside the deeb of the Arabs, the zeeb 
is mentioned as allied to the wolf, but does not seem to be 
found in Palestine, 




now are in Natoiia. Canines are indicated by them 
under denominations which the moderns applied at 
random to animals now found on the spot, without 
comparing the notices which for a considerable pe- 
riod have been within reach ; but it is only since 
numerous recent travels have been published, that 
an attempt may be made to clear up several obscuri- 
ties in the path of zoology, without incurring the 
same certainty of misleading the public as 






The several groups of canine animals which are 
provided with a circular disk or round pupa in the 
eyes, are, as already stated, classed under the gene- 
ral division of Diurnal Canidse. They embrace the 
largest species of the family, and the most interest- 
ing to man ; both with regard to his alliance with 
some, and to the ravages which others inflict upon 
his property. At the head of these tribes the wolves 
unquestionably claim the first place ; because they 
offer the best points of comparison whereby to exa- 
mine the others ; they are the best known in a wild 
state; in Europe they approximate most to the 
domestic races, and constitute the only group in the 
condition of nature which resides alike in both con- 
tinents, and occupies nearly the half of the northern 
hemisphere. In this series we intend first to review 
the wolves, properly so called; whether they be 
regarded as mere varieties of each other, or as actu- 
ally distinct species. Next will be examined the 
groups of lycisci or wild dogs, being those which 
depart farther from the typical characters ; and after 
them we intend to arrange, in successive sections, 
others still viewed as wild dogs, but more aberrant ; 
and among which, nevertheless, there may be species 
directly concerned in the parentage of some races of 
the domestic breeds. 







Lupus, Linn.— Sub-genus Chaon, Ham. Smith 

Crishna, in 

The typical wolf of Europe and Asia, ana me 
varieties belonging to this tribe in America, may 
be described as animals occupying the two conti- 
nents, from witbin the arctic circle on the north, 
to Spain, and perhaps to Morocco, on the west side 
of the old continent ; to Syria, and beyond the 

India; and to near the isthmus of 
Panama in the New World. Further south, in the 
last mentioned part of the globe, they are replaced 
by an aberrant canine, the red wolf of Cuvier ; and 
in the first, by hyenas, the painted lycaon or Cams 
pictus, and perhaps by other species not as yet fully 
investigated. In China, wolves abound in the pro- 
vince of Xantung ; but how far they are found to 
the south is not known. Buffon, from.the account 
of Adancon, asserts the existence of a powerful race 
of wolves in the Senegal country, hunting in com- 
pany with the lion; but the name is most likely 
applied to an hyama, a lycaon, or one of the red 

chiysean group. 

VOL, I. 

■ i 






In stature and strength tlie wolves of Europe 
vary but slightly, and equal or surpass the largest 
and most powerful dogs. Their laniary and carni- 
vorous teeth are proportionally larger and stronger, 
the incisors distinctly trilobate, grooved within, and 
in general more irregular and projecting than in do- 
mestic canines. The eyes are placed more obliquely ; 
they are smaller, more distant, and apparently higher 
in the head; the forehead is broader and lower; 
the ears are pointed, smaller, and more open than in 
dogs ; they have the body deeper, the belly fuller, 
and less drawn up ; the neck is more thickly fur- 
nished with a bristly sort of mane, which produces 
a turgid appearance about it ; the shoulder is higher, 
the back sloping, the after extremities more crouch- 
ing and lower, and the hind-legs more bent under 
the body. The tail, hanging close between them, 
wants the flexibility of that of foxes, and the re- 
curved attitude of that of dogs : they walk more on 
the ball of the feet than dogs, the fur is coarser, 
and their odour is very offensive. Their whole aspect 



tinguishes them- from the familiar species, 
when in size and similarity of fur they approximate 
most closely. The muzzle, contracted below the 
eyes, is pointed ; the edge of the lips black. On 
the cheek there are two or more hairy warts, and 
the bristles of the whiskers on the lips are short. 
Wolves howl more frequently when the weather is 
about to change to wet. They grovel with the nose 
in the earth, instead of digging w ith their paws, 



when they wish to conceal a part of their food or 
the droppings ahout their lairs. The parent wolves 
punish their whelps if they emit a scream of pain ; 
they bite, maltreat, and drag them by the tail, till 
they have learned to hear pain in silence. Wolf- 
hunters commonly assert that the animal is weak m 
the loins, and when first put to speed, that his hind- 
quarters seem to waver ; hut when warmed, that be 
will run without halting from the district where he 

^m m mm 

has been hunted, takin & 


favourite cover, perhaps forty miles or more in dis- 
tance. On these occasions he will leap upon walls 
above eight feet high, cross rivers obliquely with 
the current, even if it be the Rhine, and never offer 
battle unless he be fairly turned : then he will en- 
deavour to cripple the opponent by hasty snaps at 
the fore-legs, and resume his route. The track of a 
wolf is readily distinguished from that of a dog by 
the two middle claws being close together, while in 
the dog they are separated; the marks, however, 
when the wolf is at speed, and the middle toes are 
separated, can be determined by the claws being 
deeper, and the impression more hairy ; the print is 
also longer and narrower, and the ball of the foot 

more prominent. , 

Inferior in wily resources to the fox, the wolf^s 
nevertheless endowed with great sagacity 
powers of scent are very delicate, his hearing acute 


and his habits always cautious 

The European 

variety is naturally a beast of the woods ; those of 
the arctic regions and of the steppes of Russia and 

: 1 




Tartary have different manners, probably from ne- 
cessity, not choice. 

It is said that the burrows of wolves are originally 
the work of other species, such as bears, badgers, 
wolverenes, jackals, and foxes. They only fit them 
for their own use; and when they burrow, it is 
always in communities, so that not even bears can 
dislodge them. In France and Southern Germany, 
they now retreat under fallen trees, in the hollows 
under large and old roots, in caves, clefts of rocks, 
or overhanging banks, but always in the most 
secluded and dense covers. We have seen a wolfs 
den in a hollow tree, accessible between some high 

In well inhabited countries, where wolves are an 
object of constant persecution, they never quit cover 
to windward; they trot along its edges until the 
wind of the open country comes toward them, and 
they can be assured by their scent that no suspicious 
object is in that quarter ; then they advance, snuff- 
ing the coming vapours, and keep as much as pos- 
sible along hedges and brushwood to avoid detection, 
pushing forward in a single foray to the distance of 
many miles. If there be several, they keep in file, 
and step so nearly in each others track, that in soft 
ground it would seem that only one had passed. 
They bound across narrow roads without leaving a 
foot print, or follow them on the outside. These 
movements are seldom begun before dusk or pro- 
tracted beyond daybreak. If single, the wolf will 
visit outhouses, enter the farm-yard, first stopping, 



listening, snuffing up the air, smelling the ground, 
and springing over the threshold without touching 
it. When he retreats, his head is low, turned 
obliquely with one ear forward, the other hack, his 
eyes hurning like flame. He trots crouching, his 
brush obliterating the track of his feet, till at a dis- 
tance from the scene of depredation; when going 
more freely, he continues his route to cover, and as 
he enters it, first raises his tail and flings it up in 

It is said that a wolf, when pressed by hunger, 
and roaming around farms, will utter a single howl 
to entice the watch-dogs in pursuit of him. If they 
come out, he will flee till one is sufficiently forward 
to be singled out, attacked, and devoured ; but dogs 
in general are more cautious, and even hounds re- 
quire to be encouraged, or they will not follow 

upon the scent. 

During winter, when food is scarce, wolves often 

suffer the extremes of famine. Foiled in catching 
their prey, they are reduced to peel off the bark of 
some trees, and even to load their stomachs with 
clay. It is then they will rush upon danger. The 
French newspapers of January, 1838, contained an 
account of an old wolf attacking a group of seven- 
teen persons, wounding and disabling several, till 
he was struck dead with an axe. It is at that period 
they assemble in troops of from ten to twenty-five, 
and boldly enter the streets of hamlets to attack the 
dogs that may be out of doors ; and if one of their 
own troop be wounded severely, the others immedi- 



ately devour him. At tlie close of the appalling 
famine which desolated India, now more than a 
quarter of a century ago, the wolves, always numer- 
ous and but little molested, had become so daring, 
that in open day they prowled through the villages, 
and became exclusively fond of human flesh. It 
was necessary to hunt them down, and to take them 
in traps and pitfalls. Many contrivances for this 
purpose exist in India, and a vast number were 
taken. It had often been observed in Europe, that 

wolves when taken in a trap lost all their courage ; 
and the same fact was likewise established in India, 
where single men went down into the pitfalls and 
bound several of them, without the least resistance. 
After a foray, these animals separate again, accord- 
ing to Buffon, as soon as they regain the woods ; 
but in wild countries, and where they burrow, this 
is not the case. Capt. Williamson, in his Eastern 
Field Sports, relates the manner of smoking them 
out, and states that on one of these occasions a 
number of trinkets once attached to native children 
were dug out and recognised by the parents. 

Notwithstanding that numberless jackals and 
pariah dogs, nay tigers, prowl about the British 
cantonments in Northern India, wolves also roam 
and even burrow occasionally under the buildings 
of European occupants. We have been told by a 
relative, that one night a servant in his family, 
sleeping in the verandah with his head near the 
outer lattice, a wolf thrust his jaws between the 
bamboos, seized the young man by the head, and 



made efforts to drag liim through ; his cries awa- 
kening the whole vicinity, the beast was compelled 
to quit his hold, but although encountered and 
struck at by many, he escaped ; the man was nearly 
scalped and dreadfully lacerated, but recovered. 
Wolves, when attacking cattle or horses, are said to 
take them by the throat, or by the nose, till they 
pull them down. A French farmer, however, re- 
lated that a horse of his, killed by a wolf the pre- 
ceding night, had been seized by the tail and dragged 
over till it fell upon the side ; and on visiting the 
remains of it, we verified the fact of no wound 
appearing in front ; the ham had been strung, and 
the wolf had fed exclusively on the solid parts of the 
buttock. A similar mode of attack appeared to 
have been adopted, where a cow was the victim of 
an American wolf, which likewise came under our 
personal inspection. Sheep and lambs they actually 
carry off at a round pace, contriving to throw a part 
of the weight upon their shoulders. Capt. William- 
son describes a case that came under his own eyes, 
and where he, being on horseback, attempted to 
interpose, but the wolf laid down his burden and 
>ave signs of assailing the Captain s horse ; and he 

unarmed, felt the prudence of allowing him to 

escape with his prize. 

According to accounts we received from the Don 
Cossacks, their horses bred wild on the steppes 
resist the attacks of whole troops of wolves. 1 he 
mares form circles round the foals ; and the stallions, 
remaining outside, resolutely charge them, and gene- 



rally repel the attack, killing one or more of the 
enemy. Single horses fight a wolf by striking with 
the fore-feet. 

Much of the ubiquity of the species in the north- 
ern hemisphere may be ascribed to its habit of fol- 
lowing the more collective movements of man ; for, 
allured by the scent of slaughter, by the numerous 
dead horses always left along the lines of operations 
of armies, wolves are known to follow in the rear to 
feed upon the carrion; and in India, there have 
been instances when they actually mixed with the 
train of attendants and carried off unguarded chil- 
dren. At other times they have attacked videttes, 
particularly in winter. During the last campaign 
of the French armies in the vicinity of Vienna, the 
Moniteur mentioned several of the outposts thus 
molested, and the videttes carried off, when a dead 
wolf, and pieces of clothing, shewed what kind of 
enemy had been encountered. After the rout of 
the grand army in Russia, wolves of the Siberian 
race followed the 
Germany to the borders of the Rhine. Specimens 
killed in the vicinity, and easily distinguished from 
the native breed, are still preserved in the museums 
of Neuwied, Frankfort, Cassel, &c. 

"Wolves still commit such enormous depredations 
on the property of the most civilized nations of con- 
tinental Europe, and even destroy so many human 
lives, that it is deeply to be regretted there are 
states with immense standing armies, including 
whole corps of riflemen, who have never thought of 

Russians through Poland and 








employing them to extirpate their common enemy ; 
particularly as in times of peaee their garrison 
duties are any thing hut important. The Prussian 
government alone has displayed an active anxiety 
to at least ahate the evil;* and in Switzerland, lor 
more than two centuries, when a wolf appears, the 
church hells ring an alarm ; each person takes his 
rifle, all the dogs are out, and in a short time he is 
killed or driven hack to Zante or Savoy. 

The ferocity of these animals is often of a very 
treacherous character. We were told hy a butcher 
of New York that he had brought up, and believed 
that he had tamed, a wolf, which he kept for above 
two years chained in the slaughter-house where it 
lived in complete superabundance of blood and 
offals. One night having occasion for some imp fo- 
ment which he believed was accessible in the dark 
he went in without thinking of the well The 
butcher wore a thick frieze coat and *^ £apag 
to grope for what he wanted, he heard the chain 
rattle, and instantly he was struck down by the 
animal springing upon him. Fortunately a fovonrit 
cattle-dog had followed his master and he ^rushed 
forward to defend him. The wolf had hold of the 
man s collar, and being obliged to turn in us own 
defence, the butcher had time to draw a stickm b - 
knife, with which he ripped his assailant °P en ; 
But although these examples, and others related 

* See, on this subject, the interesting remarks of Dr Weis- 


• ■ 

- * 



on > 

by Buffon, disclose the usual disposition of wolves, 
yet when taken young and under judicious treat- 
ment, the females at least are not onlv tameable, 
but actually evince considerable attachment. It is, 
however, only attachment, not domesticity; the 
spirit of savage nature still remains, and the whole 
result is no more than what has been seen effected 
with lions and other large felinas ; although these 
have less natural intelligence and possess the con- 
sciousness of greater physical power. 

Monsieur Frederick Cuvier cites an instance of 
a wolf in whom the sentiment of affection existed 
in a very remarkable degree. It refers to 
brought up like a dog, that became familiar with 
every person he was in the habit of seeing. He 
would follow his master, seemed to suffer from his 
absence, evinced entire submission, and differed not 
in manners from the tamest domestic doer. The 
master being obliged to travel, made a present of 
him to the Royal Menagerie at Paris. Here, shut 
up m his compartment, the animal remained for 
many weeks without exhibiting the least gaiety, 
and almost without eating. He gradually, however, 

recovered ; he attached himself to his keeper, and 
seemed to have forgotten all his past affections, 
when his master returned after an absence of 

At the very first word which he 
pronounced, the wolf, who did not see him in the 
crowd, instantly recognised him, and testified his 

eighteen months. 

joy by his motions and his cries, 
liberty, he overwhelmed his old friend with 


Being set at 






just as the most attached dog would have done 
after a separation of a few days. Unhappily his 
master was obliged to quit him a second time ; ana 
this absence was again, to the poor wolf, the cause 
of the most profound regret. But time allayed his 
arief Three years elapsed, and the wolf was living 
very comfortably with a young dog which had 
been given to him as a companion. After this space 
of time, which would have been sufficient to make 
any dog, except that of Ulysses, forget his master 
the gentleman returned again. It was evening, all 
was shut up, and the eyes of the animal could be ot 
no use to him ; but the voice of his beloved master 
was not effaced from his memory ; the moment he 
Tard it he knew it, and answered by cries ^indica 

Tv7o the most impatient desire ; and when the 
rive 01 tuc j. removed, his 

obstacle which separated them ^ , , 

cries redoubled. The animal ^forward, p aced 
his fore-feet on the shoulders of his ^^ 
every part of his face, and threatened with his teJfo 
his very keepers who approached, and to whom an 
instant before he had been testifying the warmest 



pected, was succeeded by the most cruel pam to the 
poor animal. Separation again was necessary, and 
from that instant the wolf became sad and immo - 
able ; he refused all sustenance pme _ awj 
hair bristled up, as is usual with all sick > 

and at the end of eight days he was 

known, and there was every ^^llJ _^ 
his death. His health, however, became re 


blished; he resumed his good condition of body 
and brilliant coat ; his keepers could again approach 
him ; but he would not endure the caresses of any 
other person, and he answered strangers by nothing 
but menaces."* 

In this account, taken from the pen of a dis- 
tinguished naturalist, there is, we may fully believe 
not the slightest exaggeration of the facts ; but the 
inferences to be drawn require, nevertheless, consi- 
derable caution. The wolf was attached, but his 
attachment remained exclusive, and (for in this 
instance it appears that the animal was a male), 
if he had been allowed to go at large and follow 
his master like a dog, it still remains a question 
whether, upon the excitement of instinctive appe- 
tites, he would not have returned to the woods ; 
whether, if his master being accompanied by him, 
had been attacked by other wolves, he would have 
fought in his defence ; or for pure love, as Buffon 
relates of a hybrid she-wolf, he would not have 
joined in eating his protector. 


do not acquire their full 

growth till 

after the end of the second year. Their season of 
heat, in Europe and North America, is late in 
autumn, and the female produces from three to 
seven whelps at a litter. They are brought forth in 

* Cuvier's .Animal Kingdom, by Griffith, vol. ii. p. 342 

We have witnessed the most obstreperous fits of joy in a she- 
wolf at the visits of a young lady, who had never taken other 
interest in the animal than patting her on the head and speak- 
ing to her. This was also at the Jardiu du Roi, at Paris. 

. : 





holes, or under the most sheltered and impenetrable 

where a bed of moss is gathered by the 


mother for their comfort and necessary warmth. 
The male wolves are accused of a desire to devour 
the whelps as long as they are blind ; and the fact 
is well known that the females practise this unna- 
tural brutality if the young have been handled, or 
her attention or suspicion be raised by some cause 
which, it seems, excites in her an idea of apprehen- 
sion for their safety, and is manifested by so singular 
a mode of expression. After the eyes are open, the 
male wolf is no longer an object of maternal fears ; 
he then joins in the care of rearing the young, and 
in brineincr partridges, moorfowl, rats, and moles to 
the lair ; and both stages of the whelps existence 
indicate the further operation of secondary causes 
all in unison with those already noticed. With 
the growth of her progeny, the she-wolf increases 
glance and in daring. By degrees they are 

in \ 

led by her to drink, two or three times a day, to 

the nearest sequestered wat 


As they increase 

in stature, both the parents take them out to 


It is at this time that families of wolves are often 
seen in company skirting the vicinity of habitations. 
By degrees, however, the young acquire strength , 
and ere the autumn ends, the male has forsaken ^the 
troop and taken to his solitary habits ; the m ) her 
remaining with her litter, and often keeping together 
through the next winter and spring season ; it ap- 





pearing, in 





least, that wolves by no 

The figure of one was adored 

means pair every autumn. 

The malevolent sagacity, fearful howling, and 
originally obtrusive pertinacity, which led the wolf 
to roam about the habitations of mankind, and 
show his sinister eyes flaming in the dark, were no 
doubt the cause of that mysterious power he was 
presumed to possess. We can trace, in the earliest 
institutions, poems, and history of nations, the awe 
they inspired. The wolf was sacred to Apollo : a 
she-wolf having nursed him, as another nursed 
Remus and Romulus. 
by the people of Parnassus : it was a military en- 
sign of the Macedonians, of the Romans, and of the 
Ostragoths. In the metamorphoses of the ancients, 
the wolf is conspicuous ; and that demons assume 
shape, that sorcerers and incantators alternately 
pass from the human to the lupine form, is believed 
by the vulgar throughout Asia and Europe ; slightly 
modified it is a common superstition in Abyssinia, 

The goldfoot (wolf) 
is an attendant upon Odin, as he was more anciently 
upon Mars ; and he is the type of the destroyer, 
under the name of Fenrir, 

gods, when, 


and even among the Caffres. 

according to 

in the twilight of the 


Scandinavian lore, the 

orld shall perish, and the gods themselves will be 

consumed. If the Druids assumed the name of 
red-eared dogs, the priests of the Egyptians, Ro- 
mans, and several other nations, including the Blot- 




wolves. Some nations of antiquity, as wellas the 
more recent noble tribes of Goths and " 
claimed the names of wolves* 

In the notices of wolves taken by ancient writers, 
it is evident there is no small confusion ; because, 
having no accurate system of fixed distinctions, 

travelling being rare 

and drawings not m 

authors were necessitated to adopt vulgar names 
which often applied to more than one species and 
thus mixed up the true wolf with wild dogs, jackals, 
hyaenas, and even with lynxes. Copyists next eon- 
fused the question still more, until the moderns, 
without much knowledge of the fauna of Eastern 


a manrer that subsequent investigation tends to 
a m«nner, -a num ber of 

show them wrong m by lax tne b 
instances, and renders a reconsideration o thean 
cient texts equally desirable and perplexing. But, 
although within the last forty years much informa- 
tion has been collected respecting the mammalia of 

* The Taricheutes or embalmers, and the priests of Lyco- 
polis, in Egypt. The 

" Tertia post Idus nudos Aurora lupercos 
A spicit 


of Ovid, relates to the priests of Pan at the Lup^ 
Blotmen, or sacrifices, of the Gothic nations, v, ore w _ 


tappers in their naked and sanguinary «j£V^ (a . we 
second tribe in point of dignity among the Ost : g ^ ^ 
gather from the oldest Teutonic poems) was t f ^ 

The first among the Saxons was 






Asia, we are still insufficiently acquainted with 
several that are known to exist, to pronounce with 
confidence upon the names by which they may have 

been noticed in former ages; 

and as there are 

grounds for surmising the reality of the disappear- 
ance of some, which have been replaced by an in- 
crease of others, not so well known in antiquity, 
we can as yet only attempt an approximation to a 

better understanding of the questions at issue ; and 
this will be attempted, though with considerable 
diffidence, as we proceed through the several groups 
of canines they may affect. 

In America, there are admitted species and per- 
manent varieties of the wolf, which we seem to look 
for in vain in the old continent. The difference, 
however, arises more from the circumstance, that in 


the former they are still in a state of nature, with 
their characteristic qualities not as yet so broken by 
human civilization as has been the case in the lat- 
ter, where, if we search, both different species and 
varieties are likewise found, and even to a greater 
amount ; but their distinctions are more obliterated 
by the long-continued intervention of active and 
civilized nations. They therefore continue to be 
confounded or considered as varieties of climate 
only ; which, after all, is a very easy mode of dis- 
posing of every difficulty. If now, with these 
remarks in view, we examine the wolves of Eastern 
Europe and Western Asia, such as the ancients 
knew them and without adverting to those of the 
north and west of Europe, we shall find, by refer- 





is by far the most distinct, that he enumerates no 
less than five wild canines under the name of wolves. 

The first of these was the ro^ocrqe (Jamlator\ 
the darting wolf, a fleet animal, with a small body, 
strono- limbs, large head, of a rufous colour, with 
round white spots on the belly, and flaming eyes. 
He howled terribly, and was constantly roaming 
about the shepherds' flocks. 

The second species translators have designated 
by the epithets of harpagus, accipiter, and circles : 
because the animal practised a mode of circumvent- 
ing; its prey. This variety was the largest in body 
and limbs, and also the fleetest of the whole. In 
colour it was silvery white, with a splendid tail, 
and it came forth in the dusk. During winter, 
when snows lay deep on the mountains, it de- 
scended to the plains and preyed on the goats and 

flocks of husbandmen. 

The third was the aureus or golden wolf, the 
most beautiful of the species, clothed in a fur of 
reddish golden yellow, and armed with powerful 
teeth. This race resided in the mountains of Cici- 
lian Taurus and Amanus, but was impatient of heat, 
and therefore lay in its rocky retreats during the 
canicular period. 

* Oppian, lib. iii. Messieurs de l'Academie of Fans, m 
their Memoirs, Part I., have toiled hard to show that some 
wolves of the ancients were lynxes ; and then named a lynx 
they dissected Imp cervier, with an erudition and confusion ot 
purpose apparently inherent in learned bodies. 

VOL. I. 





, t 



* • 



The fourth and fifth, acimones, and perhaps icti- 
nus, were smaller ; with a lengthened body, strong 
and shaggy limbs, but having the face more pointed ; 
the ears, eyes, and feet more diminutive. One had the 
back and belly whitish and the feet dark coloured, 
and the other was entirely black : they hunted hares 
with their fur bristling on end. 

In referring these to the species at present known 
to exist in Turkey, we may take it for granted that 
the first mentioned is the common rufous wolf of 
Greece, and especially of Natolia. The second may 
be regarded as the hoary variety, still abundant in 
the north of Canada, and not unfrequent in Norway. 
It was a mountain race, and appears to have hunted 
singly, not in troops like the other. The golden 
species is, however, more questionable ; although 
modern writers have followed Linnaeus in applying 
the name to the jackal, and Gesner believed it de- 
signated the hyaena. It is evident that the animal 
was larger and more formidably armed than the 
former; that it could not bear the heat, and was 
bright fulvous ; characters not applicable to jackals ; 
and that it was not the latter, because beauty can- 
not be ascribed to hyaenas, who are sufficiently 
known, and are likewise able to bear the highest 
temperature without suffering. It is, therefore, only 
referable to the beluel of Persia, which appears to 
be the same as the wild dog of Beloochistan, by the 
ancients confounded with thos, and by the writers 
of the present day it should be included among the 


The fourth species of Oppian we are inclined to 


refer to a canine commonly considered as a fox ; but 
it is larger, more bulky, low on the legs, with a 
hoary grey fur, rather a short brush, and tawny 
limbs. It is still not uncommon in Turkey. In the 
commentary on Fracastor s Alcon, it is added, that 
it was short-necked, broad at the shoulder, had 
small eyes, and a pointed nose. 

The fifth, however, is not referable to a well 
known species. Black foxes might exist and prey 
upon hares. It is possible that the derboun of the 
Arabian mountains, still found in Southern Syria, is 
meant ; but the precise characters of the animal are 
not as yet well known. 

Of the wolves, properly so called, in both conti- 
nents we shall now proceed to enumerate and de- 
scribe the existing species and varieties. We have 
not personally been able to detect any characteristic 
difference in the voice and howlings of the species 
in either hemisphere, but in fur they vary according 
to climate, or the difference of species and race. 
No true wolf has a white tip to the tail, excepting 
where albinism or the rigour of climate clothes the 
animal in a grisly white fur, and even then dark 
hairs, are commonly observable at the tip of the 
brush : the under fur of all is ashy. The typical 
livery of the group consists of various shades of 
tawny, more or less intermingled with black and 
white, causing deeper or lighter tints : the aberrant 
colours are black and fiery rufous. The species re- 
ceding from the true wolf, and more directly assimi- 
lating with domestic dogs, will be considered in the 






Lupus vulgaris. 


The common wolf of Western Europe is in stature 
from twenty-seven to twenty-nine inches at the 
shoulder. The general colour on the head, neck, 
and back, is fulvous grey; the hairs being mostly 
white at the root, then annulated with black, ful- 
vous, and white, and pointed with black. Those 
beneath the ears, on the neck, shoulders, and but- 
tocks, being considerably longer, furnish a kind of 
mane, which particularly protects the throat : all 
are hard and strong, especially about the nose and 
on the ears. The muzzle is black ; the sides of the 
cheeks and above the eyes more or less ochry, turn- 
ing grey with age. The upper lip and chin are 
white ; the limbs ochry or dun, and adults have on 
the wrists an oblique blackish band. 


somewhat smaller than those of Germany. "White 
wolves occur sometimes among the races of middle 
Europe, but they are mere cases of albinism. 

The race of Russian w r olves is larger, and appears 
more bulky and formidable from the great quantity 
of long coarse hair on the cheeks, gullet, and neck. 

- - 



In colour, the head, face, neck, and back is light 
grey ; the hair being a mixture of sandy and ash ; 
on the nose and lips, and upon the limbs, tke sandy 
tint predominates. The eyes are very small, and their 
whole aspect is peculiarly savage and sinister: 

The Swedish and Norwegian wolves are similar 
to the Russian in form, but appear heavier and 
deeper at the shoulder. Those towards the north 
are still whiter, the mixture of colour being white 
with a varying quantity of ashy and black ; but in 
winter totally white. 

The Alpine wolves are brownish-grey, and smaller 
than the French. Those of Italy, and to the east- 
ward towards Turkey, are fulvous, with a slight 
mixture of black, evidently the same as they were 
in ancient times, the epithet fulvous being bestowed 

upon them by Virgil. 

The wolves of Asia Minor are nearly the same 
in colour, but the fulvous is redder and more predo- 

In India there ar© two species referred to the 
wolf; one not larger than a greyhound, commonly 
known by the name of beriah, is of a light fox- 
colour, inclining to dun, with a long head and ears 
like those of a jackal; slenderly made, but bony* 
The tail is long and not very hairy. The other is 
somewhat smaller, and belongs to our group ot 


All the foregoing animals appear to be essentially 

tenants of woody regions. 






Lupus lycaon. 


This species is at least equal in stature to the com- 
mon wolf, and even stronger in the limbs and 
shoulders. Though likewise an occupant of woody 
covers, it is more exclusively found in rocky moun- 
tains and elevated ranges : although we doubt whe- 
ther the whitish variety before mentioned, as well as 
the harpagus of Oppian, do not in reality belong 
to this species. It is certainly distinct from the 
common, notwithstanding that it inhabits the same 
latitudes, for they do not mix. 

There are some indications of a more placable 
nature about the black, and of the probability that 
they would breed with domestic dogs a more pro- 
lific intermediate race. The variety best known is 
the Pyrenean wolf, or lobo of Spain, and is entirely 
black ; some have a few white hairs on the breast. 
They are exceedingly ferocious and shy. A pair 
confined in the king's menagerie at Paris produced 


whelps equally untameable, and yet they had a 
different physiognomy and varied in the colour of 
the fur. Mons. Frederick Cuvier, in his notice of 





tlie species, appears in doubt whether it be not hy 
brid ; although in a former part of the same account, 
he maintains the gradual extinction of mule breeds 
between wolf and dog. This is the wolf of Southern 
Europe, and is the predominant species of Spam, 
where the dark brown variety of the more open 
mountain ranges is even still more powerful and 
heavv than the black. We have seen a letter from 
an English gentleman holding a high puhlic station 
in the Peninsula, wherein he describes a wolf-hunt 
in the mountains near Madrid. There was a battue 
of the country people driving the game towards the 
mountain, where the sportsmen, armed with rifles, 
were placed in ambush. One came bounding up- 
wards towards him, so large, that he took it, while 
drivino- through the high grass and bushes, for a 
donkey. The slight noise of cocking Ins rifle was, 
however, sufficient to warn the animal, for it turned 

At the close of the hunt seven 
were found skin, and their weight was so consider- 
able, that, although the gentleman is both active 
and in the flower of life, he could not lift on 
tirely from the ground. The specimen we were 
enabled to figure came from the banks of the Tagus ; 
it was equal in size to the largest mastiff', of a very 
dark brown colour, with ears rather larger and the 

off out of sight. 




muzzle thicker than in the common wolf; but, 

withal, resembling a very large and shaggy wolf-dog. 

The Spanish wolves congregated formerly m the 

passes of the Pyrenees in large troops, and even 

* Diet, des Sciences Naturelles. au mot fituea. 




now the lobo will accompany strings of mules as 
soon as it becomes dusky. They are seen bounding 
from bush to bush by the side of travellers, and 
keeping parallel with them as they proceed, waiting 
an opportunity to select a victim ; and often sue- 
ceeding, unless the muleteers can reach some place 
of safety before dark, and have no dangerous passes 
to traverse. Black wolves occur again in the moun- 
tains of Friuli and about Cattaro. 

The Vekvoturian mountain- wolf of Russia is ano- 
ther race of the black species. From the females, 
crossed by domestic dogs, a hybrid progeny has 
been obtained at Moscow, which, according to Pal- 
las, resembled wolves, but carried the tail higher 
and had a hoarse barking. " They multiply ," says 
that celebrated naturalist, " among themselves, and 
some of the whelps are 
white, like the wolves of the arctic circle. One of 
those I saw, in shape, tail, fur, and voice, was so 
like a cur, that, was it not for his head and ears, his 
ill-natured look and fearfulness at the approach of 
man, I should have hardly believed that it was of 
the same breed. 


The Rossomalc of the Lenas, in Siberia, is another 
canine of a shining black colour, probably of the 


able fur. 

The Derboitn of the mountains of Arabia and the 
south of Syria is the last black canine we can refer 

to the wolf. 

Little is known concerning this ani- 

* Pallas, in Pennant's Arctic Zoology, vol. i. p. 42. 



mal, and there is an indication that, like the former, 
it assimilates more with dogs than the grey wolf, 
for the Arahs eat its flesh like game, which proves 
that it cannot have the very offensive smell that 

real wolves possess. 

In the British islands wolves existed even to a 
late period, although there was at all times a ten- 
dency to their being extirpated. " Nullos fovet 
Brittania" (lupos) is a quotation from Textor, cited 
by Gesner; and it is probable that the Eomans 
laboured to clear the island of them. The Saxon 
monarchs pursued the same measures, as is attested 
by the tribute of wolves heads they demanded from 

the "Welsh. 


were, however, not so patriotic ; they bestowed only 
lands by the tenure of keeping dogs to hunt wo ves. 
Whether they were real wolves or only wild dogs 
is a question that cannot now be clearly deemed ; it 
is nevertheless worth observing, that the Celtic 

terms fool, mactire, and blaidd, designating the 
wolf, are not so often found in the old manuscripts 


Welsh gwyddg 


tion, in North Britain, likewise favours the opinion 
that the so-called wolf was in reality a wild dog, 
resembling the Irish wolf-hound, and was the parent 

of the gazehound. 


It hunted in packs. The last 


It is, however, not at all clear what we are to understand 

by gazehound. 




I I 



was killed in Scotland, in 1 680, by Sir E wen Came- 
ron ; and in Ireland, the last presentment for killing 
wolves was in the county of Cork, in 1 710. 


If now we examine the species known to exist in 
the North American continent, we find correspond- 
ing species distributed in nearly similar latitudes. 

But whether they be distinct from those of the 
eastern hemisphere, or primeval varieties, is not as 
yet satisfactorily established. The high authority 
of Dr Richardson leans towards the opinion that 
they are different species ; that of Prince Maximi- 
lian of Wied, perhaps still more practically con- 
versant with the races of both continents, that they 
are of the same ; and so far as the wolves are con- 
cerned, our own somewhat extensive researches lead 
us to subscribe to the last-mentioned opinion ; al- 
though it may be proper to observe, while our ideas 
respecting the characteristics of species remain un- 
settled, the difference of conclusion is perhaps only 

The common wolf of North America is found in 
the states of New York, Vermont, and the Canadas, 
resembling the German race in stature, colours, 
form, and maimers; even the oblique bar on the 

wr^— *~ 



wolves near the arctic circle in America, we have 
found them also on the Lenas. Of the latter there 
is no distinct account beyond the observation that 

fore-wrists is present. The grey about the eyes 
and face, in old individuals, is likewise similar ; and 
in voice and manners little or no difference exists.* 

The white, or white and grey race, is found far- 
ther north towards the arctic circle, and corresponds n ^ ^ 
with the white wolves of Norway, Sweden, and ^ IT ^ 
Lapland. It deserves to be remarked, however, of 
the white wolves, as well as the black, that neither 
intermix with the common variety, though they 
occasionally reside in the same countries. Oppian, 
we have seen, considered his foist or whitish wolf as 
distinct, and the name of harpagus might perhaps 
be admitted for its particular epithet. The highest 
ridges of New Spain produce also a whitish wolf, 
referred by Fernandez to his Mexican species, and 
is a counterpart of the harpagus of Asia Minor. 

The Black Wolf, or lupus lycaon of America, is 
again found in corresponding latitudes. It abounds 
chiefly in the southern states of the Union, as m 
Europe we have the species in Spain and borders 

of the Mediterranean. If there be genuine black 




* Our drawings, made from the living animals in the 
United States, when examined in Germany, were taken to be 
of the race found about the borders of the Rhine. They were 
submitted to several Oberjaeger (foresters) and gamekeepers. 
One of these, killed in Vermont, was reported to weigh ninety- 
seven pounds. We figure a specimen with more black than 
usual about the j owl and throat. 










their fur is shining and pure black : of the former, 
Mr Griffith, in the English version of the Animal 
Kingdom, furnished a very good figure, taken by 
Mr T. Landseer from a living specimen brought 
from Hudson's Bay, and remarkable for the im- 
mense quantity of rough long hair guarding the 
throat, its uniform black colour, and bushy tail. 
Yet this animal, like the black wolf of Europe, 
reminded the spectator of the great dogs of the 
arctic circle more than a genuine wolf. The speci- 
men we drew in the Edinburgh Museum had a 
small white space on the breast, and came also 
from North America. This had a canine aspect 
like the first mentioned, and both seemed to have 
the eyes placed nearer the ears and with a longer 
nose than is observed in the common wolf. 





Lupus nubUtis, "Wied. 


Observed in latitudes to the north of the Canadas, 
presents the counterpart to the Russsian black 
variety of the mountains, and approximates also 
more to dogs. It is of a greyish black partially- 
tinged with brown. 

These species of the two continents may there- 
fore be considered as identical at present, forming 
three ancient and permanent races. 

Although the wolves of America, like the foxes 
of the same part of the world, are varied in their 
colours, we think Baron Cuvier mistaken when he 
thought the older authors, who minutely described 
the Mexican, are not to be credited, for the species 
sent by Mr Humboldt is evidently not different, 
and is undoubtedly the same as the caygotte of the 
natives and coyotl of Fernandez. 





TAipiis MearicanuS) Smith, 


Is still very imperfectly known, although it was 


In stature 

it is equal to the common, but the head is broader 
the ears are long and pointed ; the neck very thick 
the tail scanty and not so long as in the former 
the vibrissa are very robust, almost like quills, having 
black and white rings ; the fur is grey with spots of a 
rusty tan-colour; the grey of the head is marked with 
several transverse blackish bars, and on the forehead 
with fulvous spots ; the neck is grey with a fulvous 
bar and a similarly coloured spot on the breast, and 
with another on the chest ; blackish bars and fell- 
pots run irregularly down the sides j the tail 
is grey, with a fulvous mark about the middle ; the 
limbs are grey with blackish rings from the body 
to the feet, distinguishing this species from all other 
wolves. We have never met with a specimen in 
museums, and only found an imperfect skin at 
Cura9oa, brought from Honduras, where the species 
did not appear to be well known ; but it may be 
that these animals vary considerably in the markings 

vous s 



of their fur, for we figure here an individual shot in 
Virginia, which is evidently much allied to, if not 
the very same species as the wolf of Hernandez. 
In size it was at least equal to other large wolves. 
The general colour an ochry grey, passing down- 
wards into buff, and hoary about the throat and 
face. The nose, mouth, and jowl were sooty black, 
with irregular bars of the same colour crossing the 
cheeks; the vibrissas were heavy, laid back, and 
reached to the eyes. The forehead bright rufous, 
interspersed with black marks which reached to the 
back of the head; the outside of the ears (which 
were rather long), the middle part of the tail, and 
the feet up to the j oints, were rufous, with a black 
bar across the carpus ; the root and tip of the tail, 
a space on the croup, another on the shoulder, and 
a number of irregular bars across the back of the 
neck, were sooty black, and the flanks between the 
bars bright buff-grey, paler below. This specimen 
was stuffed, and formed part of the museum of 

* Prince Maximilian of Wied, in the account of his travels 
in North America, now in the press, will describe, under the 
name of Canis variabilis^ a species of wolf liable to very diffe- 
rent colours in the livery ; and Dr Richardson remarks also, 
that in the same litter, both of his Canis lupus occidentalis and 
Canis lupus occidentalis latrans, there is often a great diversity 
of colour; but the last-mentioned observer claims for both 
species a different aspect from the European wolf, which tends 
to a conclusion that he does not think the species of both 
continents identical. 







Under this denomination we propose to class the 
diurnal canines that are not strictly wolves, and 
reside, with one exception, in lower latitudes, from 
the southern part of the temperate zone to within 
the tropics. In examining this group, a further 
proof may be found, how much the natural history 
of the whole frmily is still open to conjecture; and 
though it might be objected, perhaps justly, that 
the species not thoroughly known should not as 
yet be admitted in the catalogues of mammaliae, we 
think, as the existence of the animals is unques- 
tionable, to present their imperfect descriptions to 
the reader, has at least the advantage of pointing 
them out more directly to the inquiries of travellers 
and naturalists ; the errors that may be committed, 

Lyciscus. Hoc idem e lupis galli, quorum greges suis 
quisque ductorem e canibus Lyciscam habent." Plin. quoted 
by Cirino. — We do not find this text, but the name is evi- 
dently connected with the wolf, and has originally no refer- 
ence to barking. The Teutonic lucks, anciently given without 
discrimination to the lynx and to a kind of wolf, is a nearer 
etymon, and may be derived in both cases from the luminous 
eyes. The Lupus cervarius of Pliny is similarly both a wolf 
and a lynx. 

* 66 


VOL. I. 




in our present state of knowledge concerning them, 
being no more than to place their names in one 
group, when perhaps they may be ultimately found 
to belong to another. Fastidiousness on this head, 
tends more to prolong obscurity than to advance 
the science. With this impression of the subject, it is 
likewise consistent to subdivide the family into sub- 
ordinate groups under distinct subgenerical names ; 
because the contrary practice tends to advance our 
knowledge no farther than it was in the time of 
Oppian, and to keep the whole natural family in 
that indistinct state it still is ; subordinate groups, 
on the contrary, must necessarily produce deter- 
mined and final investigation. 

In conformity with these considetiitions, the ly- 
cisci represent those species of wild canines that are 
inferior in stature and possess manners different 
from true wolves, instinct more placable, and facul- 
ties more amenable to the general wants of man- 



to bark in their wild state ; they burrow, and there- 
fore do not absolutely shun the presence of man ; 
they hunt in troops with the clamour of dogs, so 
that the wild native is sometimes puzzled to distin- 
guish between them and his own domestic breed. 
Hence a just surmise may be drawn, that in the 
New World at least, it was from the lycisci that the 
aboriginal Indians reared their present races of dogs ; 
while in Asia, and even in Europe, breeds of similar 
origin appear to be traceable. 




Lyciscus latrans. 



This species, partly residing in the higher latitudes 
of the western continent, is the object of Dr Rich- 
ardson's principal remarks, in his account of the 
American wolves. They are described by this acute 
and persevering investigator, as occupying the high 
sandy plains between the sources of the Saskatche- 
wan and the Missouri. They burrow like foxes, 
and come out of their holes, assembling round the 
hunter on the first report of a gun, with evident 
hopes of sharing in the spoils of his sport. They 
are exceedingly swift of foot, assemble in great 
numbers, hunt in large packs, and have a barking 
voice. In the form of the head, the muzzle, nose, 
and position of the eyes, the specimen we have seen 
greatly resembled the northern shepherd's dog ; the 
fur was entirely of an ashy grey, as described by 
former naturalists, but there was some white about 
the breast, and even in the end of the tail, which 
was more bushy than in the common wolf. Although 
all these distinctive characters are trivial, yet in their 
apOTpprate thev remove this animal from the stout) 




of lupus. The choice of open plains, burrowing m 
large communities, instinctive confidence at the 
approach of man, hunting in large packs, barking, 
and, finally, the presence of white hair and general 
aspect, warrant this conclusion. But the prairie 
dog is reported to be found also in California, and 
to vary in colour, even in the same litter, as much 
if not more than two wolves ; we suspect, however, 
that this assertion refers to Lyciscus cagottis. 

In the old continent, no pale, ashy, wild canine 
is at present known ; but among domestic dogs of a 
similar latitude, there are the great Danish dog, 
and in all probability the primitive greyhound, as 
will be shown in our description of the feral dog of 
St Domingo ; and there was a race of molossi, the 
" Glauci molossi" in the classical times of antiquity, 
which Cselius mentions as not remarkable for cou- 

It may be that the typical animal of the old 
continent has been early absorbed by domestica- 


The little wolf, hunting beavers between the lati- 
tudes sixty-five and seventy, mentioned by Mac- 
kenzie, may be presumed to belong to L. latrans^ 
or is a race of the next species. 








Lyciscus cagottis. Smith. 



is a 

probably the Coyotl of the native Indians, 
second species, but slightly noticed by travellers. 
Mr William Bullock observed \t timt "Rin Ti\™ ^ 



teers, then with him, that it was the Caygotte, a 
very fierce kind of wolf: the individuals he saw 
were in size equal to a hound, of a brownish rusty- 
grey, with buff-coloured limbs, and rather a scanty 

This description nearly coincides with a 
similar animal we have met on the north coast of 
South America ; only the tail was dark brown, with 
a white tip, and the under parts and feet were dirty 

* The Basque name, Caygotte, bestowed by the Spaniards 
upon a Mexican canine, offers a curious coincidence with the 
indigenous name Coyotl. In Beam and the south of France, 
Cagot is a term of contempt applied to a race of human beings 
for ages persecuted and expelled social life. It is there inter- 
preted for Ca-goth, Gothic dog or Arian, but it seems to sig- 
nify dog of the woods, or wood-hound, which is synonymous 
with Coyotl. Is it therefore another instance where these 
two remote dialects resemble each other ? 



white. The Indians named it aguarra, an appella- 
tion we shall find in the sequel applied to several 

This lyciscus measured ahout twenty -four inches 
at the shoulder, resembled a common wolf, hut had 
a muzzle and the ears proportionally shorter ; the 
body appeared to be rather long and robust, com- 
pared with the height ; the nose, cheeks, and limbs, 
to the carpus and tarsus, were buff; the forehead, 
neck, and back, clear grey ; all the hair rather hard to 
the touch ; the rest as before stated. In the Animal 
Kingdom, Baron Cuvier describes as a wolf, under 
the name of " The Mexican," one that can be no 
other than this species ; and we have little doubt 
but that the Cuyota or " Jackal Fox * of Captain 
Belcher, observed by him on the banks of the Sacra- 
mento river, in California, about 37 deg. 43 min. 
north, and 122 deg. west, is again the same animal, 
notwithstanding that by the compound name of 
jackal-fox given to it, seems to imply a smaller 

The grey wolf-like lycisci of the old continent, 
which seem to correspond to the L. latrans and Ca- 
gottis of the new, are still less known than the first 
mentioned, but we refer to this group the Jungle 
Koola, Lyciscus tigris of Smith, because it may be 
this species which caused all the rumours of the 
ancients concerning the tiger-dogs of India being 
the hybrid produce of domestic bitches with wild 
tigers, and of such indomitable ferocity, that only 
the third generation could be reared and trained 




for domestic purposes. Captain 
founds them with his beriahs^ but they are reported 
to be somewhat lower than that animal, with a 
broader back, and of a light grey colour, obscurely 
marked with darker cross bars by the tips of the 
hair being black; the limbs and face pale buff. 
A specimen shot among the rocks on the sea-shore, 
near Vincovah, in the vicinity of Bombay, w T as 
in colour yellowish-grey, brindled with blackish 
streaks : the head was sharp ; the under parts dirty 
white ; the tail not yery hairy, whitish below ; and 
the markings on the body so distinct, that some 
young officers present conceived it to be a young 
tiger ; but other persons immediately named it a 
jungle Jcoola (wild dog). It was killed in the act 
of searching for offals and putrid animal matter cast 
on shore by the sea.* 

* Communicated by Colonel Dunsterville, Hon. East India 
Company's service, who was present. 











The second group of wild dogs belongs to the old 
continent, and at present is found in Asia from the 
southern side of the Himalaya ridge to Ceylon, and 


from China to the Mediterranean. By a notice in 
Shaw's Zoology, it appears equally spread through 
Africa, and with a slight modification of characters ; 
other species are observed in the great Australian 
islands, occupying, with the exception of New Hol- 
land, the same portions of the ancient world where 
the largest felinse reside, as if they were appointed 
to keep them within bounds. The obscure name of 
Cham, mentioned by Casiius to be the parent of the 
Chaonian dogs, and merely noted as luporum genus, 
may have indicated this group in the earliest Doric 
tongue. All the species examined were found to 
want the second tubercular tooth in the lower jaw, 
had the soles of the feet hairy, and were more or 
less long-bodied and fulvous in their livery: they 
had the eyes oblique, and eight mammas. There is 
no evidence that any of them burrow ; hence their 
greater shyness and retired life in the jungles, the 
habits of constant co-operation, the necessity of 





raee. and the i 


ing each other in danger. Their voice is a kind of 
barking ; they hunt both by day and by night ; and 
though fearing the presence of man, they have the 
courage to attack the largest animals, the antelope, 
the wild boar, the buffalo, not excepting the tiger 
and lion. Bearing an inherent hostility to the larger 
felinae, they are incessantly on the watch to destroy 
the whelps, and the concert and energy they display 
in encountering the adults, is believed to be the 
chief cause, which all Indian sportsmen admit, of 
the alarm of the tiger at the sight even of a domestic 
spaniel ; indeed, the dread cannot have been caused 
by the sportsman's domesticated spaniels or pointers, 
but must lie deeper in the natural instincts of beasts 
of the forest ; and we may surmise, that the species 
of Chryseus are the instruments Nature has ap- 
pointed to keep down the superabundant increase 
of the great felinse of the wilderness. The manners 
and instinctive faculties of these animals remove 
them alike from wolves and from jackals. No natu- 
ralist adverts to the offensive odour so commonly 
remarked in wolves, jackals, and foxes, as belonging 
to them ; whence, we may conclude, that they ap- 
proximate dogs also in the smaller volume of the 
anal glands ; and as there appears to be a proba- 
bility that a species of this group formerly resided 
in Europe, to their nightly hunting, perhaps more 
than to the wolf, may be ascribed the origin of the 
mysterious stories of romance, first found in the 
Ostrogoth sagas, concerning the wild hunter of Ger- 



many and his demon hounds, the Hellequin and 
King Arthur in the forest of Broceliant. 

As we find species of this group in the southern 
part of the Old World, so we find an approximating 
species (or perhaps group) with similar colours, and 
it seems with a like want of the second tubercular 
tooth, in the corresponding latitudes of the New 
World. The Aguara gouzou is the species we 

mean ; and until its manners are better known, we 
may suspect it executes some parts of the same 
duties, although, not being gregarious, it does not 
possess the same efficient means. 

We consider it to be absolutely begging the ques- 
tion, when canines, by travellers called wild dogs, 
are deemed varieties that are descended from the 
domestic, or that may by some chance be their 
offspring, even when in all the country where they 
are observed, tl}e familiar dogs are totally different, 
or are a poor degenerate race when compared with 
the wild. This practice only tends to protract the 
uncertainty, as is evident when we look to the state- 
ments of Viscount de Querhouent, who, we believe, 
first noticed the Canis pictus of authors, and whose 
description continued most pertinaciously to be 
placed with dogs run wild. Sparrman indicates 
both the same animal and the red wild dog, and 
points out a third, which is no doubt the Hywna 
villosa, so lately described by Dr Smith ; yet, until 
his figure and description appeared, this also was a 
feral dog ; whereas, if they had been entered in the 
catalogues of naturalists, their existence would have 






attracted inquiry much earlier. It is because we 
think there is sufficient evidence to presume that it 
was a species of the group now under consideration, 
winch Oppian described as the aureus of Mount 
Amanus, that the appellation of Chryseus has been 
applied to distinguish the five or six species, varie- 
ties, or races, we have to enumerate. Notwith- 
standing the absence of a tubercular, and that the 
sole paternity of domestic dogs cannot in our view 
be ascribed to a single species, we think Mr Hodg- 
son was fully justified in offering to his species the 
name of Canis primcevus, the animal we take for 
tb e type of the whole group. 

primcevus. Canis primcevus, Hodgson. 
The Buansa of Nepaul. — This species wants the 
second tubercular tooth on each side of the lower 
jaw, has the soles of the feet hairy, the ears erect, 
the superior parts of the body deep rust colour, the 
lower yellowish, and the tail very bushy, straight, 
and of medial length. The buansa is a true wild 
dog, in size between a wolf and a jackal,* hunting 
both by day and by night, in troops of from six to ten 
individuals ; following game rather by the scent than 
sight, and generally overcoming the quarry by per- 
severing exertion, combination, and force. The 
animal barks with a peculiar tone of voice; a™** 
unless taken very young, is quite untameable. 
Young pups, reared among domestic does, are 

* From nose to tail, three feet ; tail, one foot ; height at 
slioulder, about one foot seven inches. Ears three inches. 



ported to have quite as much instinct and discern- 
ment as the familiar breeds, but it is not as yet 
known what their temper may be when grown up. 
The species belongs to the woody and rocky moun- 
tain ranges between the Sutleje and the Boorham- 
pootra, but it is found, with some distinctive features 
of race or variety, more to the south, in the Pindya 
hills, the Ghauts, the Nielgherries, the Casiah hills, 
in South Bahar, and Orissa, to the coast of Coro- 

H r 

mandel. Among these, 

The Kolsun, or Cants Dukhunensis of Col. Sykes, 
is stated to be a mere variety of the above, having 
a similar skull and dentition, but differing in the 
colours of the fur being somewhat paler and the 
quantity less dense; a difference which may be 
ascribed to the latitude and the habitat being both 
lower, and therefore much warmer. Colonel Sykes's 
specimen had the head elongated and compressed, the 
nose not very sharp, the eyes oblique, pupils round, 
irides light brown, the expression of the counte- 
nance similar to a coarse ill-tempered Persian grey- 
hound, distinct from all other wild canines ; the ears 
were erect, long, somewhat rounded, without fold of 
the tragus; limbs remarkably large and strong in 
relation to the bulk of the body ; neck long ; body 
elongated ; between the eyes and nose red brown ; 
end of the tail blackish ; general colour red, paler 
beneath; the tail pendulous and bushy. Length 
from nose to tail thirty-three inches; tail eight 
inches and a half; height at the shoulder sixteen 
inches and a half. 







[r Wooller. di; 

the Mahablishwar hills, is also considered to be at 
most only a variety of this race. 

The Qijo* of Dr Spry is by him identified with 
the Kolsun, and represented as a rufous brown dog, 
paler beneath, with a hairy hanging tail and round 
pupils. The size is superior to that of the jackal, 
the body longer, and the limbs more robust. He 
reports the claws to be sharp, and that they scratch 
out the eyes of their prey. It was from a pack of 
ten or twelve Qyos, Colonel Bowles took a buck 
antelope, which had been so hard pressed by them, 
that it was already at bay in a pond of water, having 
in the extremity of distress boldly dashed through a 
column of camp followers, whose shouts had not 
arrested the pursuit, but brought the officers at the 
head of the troops back to the rear to secure the 




but possibly a very distinct species. It was first 


the 8th Dragoons, who was a native of the East 
Indies, a keen sportsman, and many years resident 
in that part of the world. A printed account of a 

*. m -• ft <a _ 


similar animal, observed in captivity, has 
appeared in one of the annuals ; both agree in the 
description, one having been killed in Central India, 

* The word is likewise written Quihoe and Quao 9 evidently 
allied to the Greek Chao. 



the other seen in the southern provinces. This 
Dhole was represented to be a robust thick-bodied 
animal, nearly equal in height to a harrier hound, 
but heavier in weight ; the head broad and ponder- 
ous ; the forehead flat, with a greater distance from 
the ears to Ihe eyes than from these to the nose ; 
this was blunt, dark-coloured, and rather broad, the 
rictus or gape black, opening to beneath the eyes, 
which were of a greenish yellow, set in dark eyelids, 
and offering a most ferocious aspect ; the teeth very 
powerful ; the legs and claws remarkably strong, 
resembling a bulldog's, and the tail rather short, but 
most bushy towards the end, and sooty in colour ; 
the general colour of the fur tanned, browner on the 
back, with some white on the breast, belly, and 
between the limbs. It growled with a deep and 
threatening voice, and the natives related, that, in 
danger, the animal, by means of the tail, flings its 
urine in the eyes of pursuers. The Colonel con- 
sidered this not to be the true Dhole, and character- 
ized it as reminding the spectator of a low-legged 
hyaena with the colour of a dog, but he was too 
familiar with the Hoondar* to mistake it for that 
animal. It was reported to hunt in packs, uttering 
an occasional deep-toned bay. 

The Beluel of Avicenna, which he seems to have 
considered to be the Thos of antiquity, is the next 
we have to mention. This we take to be the Beluch 

* The name of the hyama of India, very distinctly marked 
with dark zigzag lines down the back, but lower than the 

j I 



of Beloochistan, one of two species of wild canines 
found in the woody mountains of South-eastern 
Persia, and probably extending along the high lands 
west of the Indus into Caubul. It is described as a 
red wild dog, very shy, and extremely ferocious ; 
hunting by day in packs of twenty or thirty, seizing 
a bullock or a buffalo without hesitation, and tearing 
the animal to pieces in a few moments. A British 
officer, who traversed a part of this wild region of 
alternate jungle and sandy plateau, deeply scarred 



plete exhaustion, observed a group of these red dogs 
basking on the edge of the forest, yet on the watch 
for game ; but they withdrew into cover before he 
could fire at or completely examine them ; they 
were, however, long, and rather low on the legs, of 
a rufous colour, with a hairy tail and a powerful 
structure : their foot-marks in the sandy soil were 
very distinct, and indicated that their feet were 
exactly like those of a hound. The native peasants 
related that they keep aloof from human habitations, 
and consequently do little injury to human pro- 
perty ; but that no animal, especially if it be 

entangled in the billowy ridges before mentioned, 
can escape the pertinacity of their pursuit. Having 
demanded some particulars about their structure, 
they pointed to a domestic dog then present, and 
said that the Belueh was very like it, but larger 
and destitute of white colour, which marked the 
domestic animal ; but that there existed, farther to 



the west, a wild species still larger than the red, 
which had so much white that the brown and black 
occurred upon its back in the form of spots.* 

The Red Wild Dog of Southern China is most 
likely another race or species of our sub-genus 
Chryseus. This animal is described as resembling 
the Dingo of Australia, though somewhat lower on 
the legs ; but whether this or the Beluch wants the 
second tubercular tooth, is not ascertained. 


On reviewing the notices of the present group of 
wild dogs, whether they be one or several species, it 
is evident that they extend their habitat over an 
immense surface of Asia ; and since they are found 
to the westward of the Indus, it is likely they also 
inhabit the deep forests along the Caspian, and, 
continuing in the same parallel of latitude, that 
they have existed, and possibly may still be found, 
in the mountains of Asia Minor. If, now, we com- 
pare the foregoing descriptions with the account of 

* A very dangerous canine sometimes follows the caravans 
from Bassora to Aleppo. The Arabs call it Sheeb, and report 
that all who are bitten by one die of the wound. Dr Russel 
accounts for this statement by supposing the animals in a state 
of hydrophobia, which indeed would be sufficient cause for 
inducing the Chryseus, at other times sullen and shy, to quit 
his haunts ; but then several unite in these expeditions, which 
no mad canines do ; and we question whether hydrophobia 
really exists in Western Asia, at least it is unknown among 
the street curs in cities. This Sheeb is most likely a Chryseus, 
or the Thous toeta. See that name. 


3 76 * THE RED DOGS. 

the hoxp Hovgog or Aureus of Oppian, which he 
relates was a resident of the rocky jungles of Mount 
Amanus and Taurus of Cilicia, a province where he 
the poet, naturalist, and sportsman — was born, 
we cannot suppose that he spoke wholly from hear- 
say, and, ignorant of the characters of his golden 
wolf, mistook it for a jackal, then not frequent so 
far to the north ; but which in comparison is insig- 
nificant, does not fear the heat, nor retires during 
the appearance of the dog-star ; * is not of a bright 
fulvous colour, but greyish in Natolia ; is not to be 
mistaken on account of its howling ; burrows in the 
vicinity of human habitations ; is the reverse of a shy 
and solitary nature j and, finally, is not noticed by 
him under another name.t The uncertainty and 
confusion respecting this group commenced with the 
ancients, who ranged in, all probability no less than 
three very distinct canines under the names of 

. Pliny, in speaking of a Thos, which he 
viewed as a kind of wolf, merely remarks that it had 
a longer body, shorter legs, sprang with velocity, and 
lived by hunting ; adding, not dangerous to man. 




* Sirium orientem meduit. 

+ Oppian \s Thous was a spotted animal. 


« Luporum genus est (Thos) procerius longitudine, bre- 
vitas crurum, dissimile velox saltu, venatu vivens innocuum 
homini. Pliny.— Elian's Thos may be jackals, but the Thoes 
of Homer, described as put to flight by the lion, while they 
surrounded a stag at bay, cannot be jackals but the Chryseus. 
So also is the Thos of Aristotle, when he notices their engaging 

the lion. 



All these characters are perfectly applicable to the 

Chryseus of our type, and to its varieties. The 
mistaking Oppian commenced with Belon, and 
Kaempfer, being unacquainted with the existence 
of the rufous wild dog, referred aureus to the jackal 

and misled Linnaeus. 

It is even more likely that from this group the 
mixture with a domestic race might be reported to 
have been obtained, which the ancients, and even 
Aristotle, repeatedly assert to be the Alopecides or 
the Chaonian and Spartan breeds, but which, from 
their strength and courage, could never have re- 
sulted from crossing dogs with foxes * 

There is some reason to presume that the Chry- 
seus formerly existed in Southern Europe ; for to 
what other species can we refer the kind of wild 
dogs noticed by Scaliger as existing in the woods of 
Montefalcone in Italy ? " There resided," he says, 
" for ages, about Montefalcone, a species of wild 
dogs; animals differing from wolves in manners, 

and colours; never mixing with them, and 




This last 

character may have been a gratuitous addition of 
his informers ; he does not in this paragraph notice 
the particular colour, but in another part of the 
work, wild dogs of a rubiginous colour are mci- 

* Isocrates and Xenophon represent the Laconian dogs to 
be amongst the most powerful, and Aurelius Nemesianus : 

Non humuli de gente canem, sed cruribus altis, 
Seu Lacedemonio natam seu rure molosso. 

VOL. I. 


; ; ! 






dentally recorded;* and Pliny, who collected all 
the information within his reach, without attempt- 
ing much of arrangement or identification, may 
hare had that race in view, when he asserts that all 
animals in a domestic state had their counterparts 
also in a wild condition. These considerations we 


the name of Chryseus to the present group, and 
even to add to it 

* A family of the name of Montefalcone bore a wolf salient 
gules. Another of the same name had red dogs for supporters, 

St Mark at Venice. 






Chryseus scylax, Smith. 


The Dhole of Capt. Williamson, and Quihoe of Dr. Daniel 


The names here brought in juxta-position, show 
how much confusion there exists in designating the 
animals already described and the present species 
among the natives of India ; a confusion they ex- 
tend to hyenas and wolves, Qyo, Quihoe, and 
Qao appear to signify imitations of the animal's 
voice when hunting, Dhole a Praerit name ; but it 
is evident that where the names of Hoondar and 
Beriah, hyama and wolf, are considered synonymous, 
species still more indistinctly marked may well be 
expected to be confounded. The Scylax is described 
to be in size between the wolf and jackal, slightly 
made, of a light bay colour, a sharp face, fierce 
keen eyes ; in form approaching a greyhound ; the 
tail strait, not bushy; the ears wide, pointed, open, 
and forming a triangle ; the skin dark ; nose, muz- 

* This name is an antique Asiatic root, implying darii 
recklessness ; in Turkish, Deli ; in Teutonic, Dol, mad ; in 
Belgie, Dulle, outrageous. 

n v: 








zle, back of the ears, and feet sooty. From tins 


vus and the other races, in being more slender and 
higher on the legs, in having a sharper muzzle, a 
long close-haired tail, and large dark ears. It is 
reported to hunt in packs of greater numbers, to 
utter a cry, while on the scent, resembling the voice 
of a fox-hound, intermixed with occasional snarling 

yelps. Dr Daniel Johnson witnessed a pack attack- 
ing a wild boar. 

The drawing we possess of Chryseus scylax was 
taken from a carefully executed Indian water- colour 
painting, observed in a collection on sale in London, 
some years before Capt. Williamson s Oriental Field 
Sports were published. Colonel Deare, then a cap- 
tain, was about this time in London, and the copy 
being shown him, he first conveyed the information 
that it represented the Dhole, or, as he termed it, 
the True Dhole, distinct in form from the other 
species already described. In Europe, that name 
was then only known to a very few persons who 
had previously resided in India. Specimens occur, 
it seems, very rarely, and these only in the Rham- 
ghany hills, and sometimes in the western Ghauts. 




Chryseus Ceylonicus, 


Canis Ceylonicus, Shaxo ; or Wild Dog of Ceylon, 

First described by Vosmaer. This species is evi- 
dently much allied to the last-mentioned, althougl 
the account of it was not taken from an adult. The 
stuffed specimen was not much larger than a domes- 
tic cat, measuring about twenty-two inches from 
nose to tail ; the tail itself sixteen inches, gradually 
tapering to a point ; the colour yellowish grey with 
a cast of brown, owing to some hairs of that colour 
being longer than the rest ; the feet strongly tinged v 
with brown ; the hair close but soft to the touch ; 
the head long and pointed; the snout and under 
chin brown, but the top of the head yellowish ash- 
colour, which, passing beyond the ears, forms a spot 




In this specimen, the last molar of the lower jaw 
was also wanting. The claws resembled those ot a 
cat more than of a dog, and there were five toes on 
the hind as well as the fore feet. We have exa- 



mined, in Holland, the skin of a clog which was said 
to have come from Ceylon and corresponded suffi- 

ciently to admit of its being 


I same species, 

although it was at least four inches longer and the 
colours were less grey and more fulvous ; the tail 
was long and without a brush, and the claws blunt, 
but with five on each foot. It is evident that the 
discrepancies between the two were owing to non- 
age, in BoddaBert's specimen. The skull we have 
not seen. 

Although in the following extract it is likely that 
more than one species may be confounded^ yet the 
description is in general so like that of the true or 
greyhound Dhole, that it may be surmised a race of 
Chryseus actually extends to the Cape ; and it is 
probably mixed up with some characters of the 
Tokla, w r hich will be mentioned with the Thoes. 

In Dr Shaw's Zoology, wild dogs are mentioned 
as inhabiting Congo, Lower Ethiopia, and the vici- 
nity of the Cape of Good Hope. " They are said 
to be red-haired, with slender bodies and turned up 
tails, like greyhounds. It is also added, that they 
vary in colour, have upright ears, and are of the 
general size of a large fox-hound; they destroy 
cattle, and hunt down antelopes and many other 
animals, and commit great ravages among the sheep 
of the Hottentots ; they are very seldom taken, 
being exceedingly swift as well as fierce ; the young 
are said to be sometimes obtained, but grow so 
fierce as to be with great difficulty rendered domes- 
tic. In this short description we recognise the 



Mebbia of Congo, which assemble to the number 
of thirty or forty, and hunt all kinds of animals, 
but offer no hostility to man. These wild dogs 
cannot be confounded with the Cams pictus^ which 
in all probability resides in Western Africa, because 
the limbs of the Mebbia are described as remark- 
ably heavy, and the colour of their fur is rufous. 








Chryseus pahariah, Nobis. 

Chien marron of the French at Pondicherry. 

It may be questioned whether the races of Pariah 
clogs of India be merely a low degraded kind of 
mongrels, descended from a nobler breed of domes- 
ticated dogs, or be the offspring of an indigenous 
wild species of the jungles. Naturalists in general, 
preoccupied with the views which Buffon dissemi- 
nated on this subject (views w T e shall have occasion 
to show the great and eloquent naturalist affirmed 



bability, as a fact, that where wild and domestic 

found, the former 

feral or bewildered descendants of the latter. In 
the present case, however, the wild Pariah is found 
in numerous packs, not only in the jungles of India 
Proper, but also in the lower ranges of the Hima- 
laya mountains, and is possessed of all the characters 
of primeval independence, without having assumed 
the similitude of wolves or of jackals, which syste- 
matists seem to think must be the result of returning 
from slavery to freedom. There is nowhere any 




notice taken that they burrow, apparently resem- 
bling in this respect the rest of the present group ; 
they associate in large numbers, and thereby approxi- 
mate jackals, but their voice is totally different from 
them. In form the wild Pariah is more bulky than 
the last-mentioned species, but low on the legs and 
assuming the figure of a turnspit ; and the tail of 
a middling length, without much flexibility, is more 
bushy at the end than at the base; the ears are 
erect, pointed, and turned forward ; the eyes hazle ; 
the density of fur varies according to latitude, and 
the rufous colour of the whole body is darker in the 
north than in the south, where there is a silvery 
tinge instead of one of black upon the upper parts. 
They are said to have five claws on all the feet, but 
if there be a molar less in the lower jaw, is not 

This species is in general so similar to the 
domestic, that if it were not ascertained they existed 
in great numbers in the wildest forests at the base 
of the Himalayas, all possessing uniform colours, 
they would be considered, in the lower provinces, of 
the domestic breed, and are often mistaken for them 
when they follow armies. The domestic, however, 
are less timid, generally more mixed with other 
races of dogs, more mangy about the skin, and 
variously coloured in fur. Their voice is yelping 
and howling, but may be distinguished from the 

jackals' by the sound. 

The Pariah is certainly the connecting link with 
the jackals, but as these constitute a small group 
occupying an immense surface of the old continent, 






: l 


! I 1 



extending to the south beyond the equinoctial line, 
and in their turn form the nearest approach to the 
nocturnal canines, it may be preferable, before they 
are considered, to examine another group more 
nearly allied to wolves, residing almost entirely in 
Africa, and therefore by us detached from the 


Chrysmis Sumatrensis, Smith. 


Canis familiaris, var. — Sumatrensis of Hardwicke. 


- . 

This is one of the smallest of the group, and is pos- 
sessed of characters distinct from all the known 
canines, being only about two feet long from nose to 
tail, and yet standing fourteen inches high at the 
shoulder. The countenance is that of a fox, the 
nose pointed and muzzle black ; the whiskers long 
and black ; the eye oblique ; ears erect, very hairy, 
and more rounded than in the jackal or fox; nose 
and lips foxy brown, mixed with black ; tail pen- 
dulous, bushy, particularly in the middle, smaller at 
the base, and reaching to the leg joint ; five toes on 
all the feet, the fifth being small, and a round cal- 



losity above each ; the general colour a foxy ferru- 
ginous red, varying to lighter shades on the belly 
and inside the thighs. The action of the animal, in 
confinement, was restless in the extreme ; and while 
in the presence of human beings, or if teazed, it 
emitted a most fetid urine. The voice was more of 
a cry than a bark. 

We place in the Chrysean group also several 
wild canines of the great Australian islands, which 
seem by their external characters to belong to this 
type, although they are provided with the second 
tubercular molar, wanting in the former. Among 
these the best known is 




Chrysceus Australia. 


The Dingo of New Holland, or Canis Australasise of Authors. 

This animal has been regarded by French natu- 
ralists as a feral dog, although it is unquestionably 
a wild species, only in a small degree reclaimed by 
the savage natives. The fact of being partially do- 
mesticated is not sufficient ground for assuming that 
the Dingo was introduced by human intervention ; 
for this argument would demand its existence in 
New Guinea, and include the necessity of the other 
canines, the jackals of Sumatra and Java, being 
introduced by similar means. The wild Dingos are, 
however, larger and more powerful in the interior 
than the domestic race. In confinement they are 
entirely mute, neither howling, barking, nor growl- 
When offended, they raise the hair upright, 
nd assume a truly menacing aspect, but howl in a 
melancholy tone when prowling in a state of free- 
dom. When they attack sheep, their delight is to 
kill as many as they can overtake ; and their bite is 
so severe, that few who are wounded recover. They 




emit a strong odour, and in fighting domestic dogs 
snap very severely. The number of their pups is 
equal to that of domestic dogs, littering in some 
hollow log, deserted ant-hill, hole in the ground, or 

dense brush cover. 

If we may generalise a fact related by Mr Oxley, 
Surveyor-General of New South "Wales, and re- 
corded in his Journal, the Dingos possess the quality 
of mutual attachment in a degree far exceeding all 
other brute animals. His words are, " About a 
week ago we killed a native dog and threw his body 
on a small bush; in returning past the same spot 
to-day we found the body removed three or four 
yards from the bush and the female in a dying state 
lying close beside it ; she had apparently been there 
from the day the dog was killed, being so weakened 
and emaciated as to be unable to move on our ap- 
proach ; it was deemed mercy to dispatch her/' * 

Domestic dogs falling in their power are imme- 
diately devoured. t They hunt in pairs or in small 
families of five or six, and their fierceness and acti- 
vity is equal to, if not more than a match for, the 
most powerful dogs of Europe. They possess the 
daring courage of the present group far superior to 
that of wolves, having been known to chase sport- 
ing dogs to the feet of their masters. One brought 
to England attacked and would have destroyed an 
ass, if he had not been prevented : another in the 
menagerie of Paris would fly at the bars of cages 
where he saw a panther, a jaguar, or a bear. Do- 

* Oxley 's Journal, &c. p. 110. 

f P. Cunningham. Two Years in New South Wales. 



mestic dogs they seize without hesitation : yet these 
facts, excepting the first, relate to individuals of 
the reclaimed race, not larger than our shepherd's 
dog, or less than two feet high at the shoulder. 
They have the muzzle somewhat fuller, the head 
large ; under fur grey, covered by longer and abun- 
dant hair fulvous or white; the forehead, neck, 
back, and superior side of the tail is dark fulvous ; 
the sides, under part of the throat, and brush paler ; 
all beneath, the inside of the thighs, the legs, and 
nose whitish. We have seen two with the tip of 
the tail white, but the wild race is said to be desti- 
tute of that colour, and many of them are dark 
with shaggy hair;* they carry the tail horizon- 
tally, not curled, bent down when watching, and it 
is only partially furnished with long hair. They 
run, unlike dogs, with the head high, the ears 

[ The specimen at Paris 

could not swim. The parent race is wild all over 
Australia, but an inferior breed is partially tamed 
by the natives, who make some use of it in hunting 
kangaroos and emus. The young obtained from a 
pair in the Zoological Gardens were all more or less 
spotted with white. 

We understand that there is a strongly marked 
variety or race of these dogs in Van Diemen s Land. 

, „ — & 

erect and turned forward. 

* A skin from the Swan River, now before us, measures 4 1 
inches to the tail, the tail 12 inches. The fur in colour resem- 
bles the wolf of Asia Minor, but the eyes are very near the 
nose, only 3| inches distant ; the head is small for the size of 
the animal. One recently brought to Plymouth was as large as 
a tall lurcher and resembled that race in make. 




Cards Javanicus, Desm. 


Probably the Asuwawa of Raffles. This species 
was first brought to Europe by Monsieur Lesche- 
naut. It is in size and proportions equal to a com- 
mon wolf, but the ears are smaller; the colour is 
fulvous brown, blackish on the back, feet, and tail. 
It is evidently a tenant of the woods. Messrs. 
F. Cuvier and Desmarets class the C. Javcmlcus 
with wolves. Its manners are still unknown. 

This short review of the Chrysean group, we 
trust, will be sufficient to make naturalists pause 
before they come to the gratuitous conclusion that 
wild diurnal canines* i 

being neither wolves nor 

jackals, are necessarily feral dogs or dogs become 
wild, after they or their progenitors had been do- 
mesticated. They have been traced through Asia, 
Africa, and the Australian islands; and although 
there are clearly several very distinct species m the 
number, they all retain the fulvous livery, and in 
their wild state none assume the distinctions to 



which, if they were descended from wolves or 
jackals, they must have returned; neither do they 
assimilate with the Thoes of our distribution, for 
under that name the ancients noticed such a variety 
of anomalous or fabulous animals, that having al- 
ready disposed of some, and others will occur among 
the jackals and lychaontes, we restrict the group to 
those which appear to have been principally had in 
view by them. 





:' : 


The Tlioan group represents in form the wolf on a 
reduced scale ; being only somewhat larger than 
jackals, but differing from them in manners and 
livery. They do not burrow, and are marked on 
the back by black and white colours, contrasting 
into lines, chequers, pencils, or stipples ; the rest of 
the fur being in general ochry or buff. The Thoas 
likewise emit little or no offensive odour, are not 
PTeo-arious, and do not howl in concert; nor are 
they warners on the approach of the great fclinae, 
as jackals certainly are wont to do. The interme- 
diate position of the group is illustrated by the 
component species being alternately classed among 
wolves, jackals, and foxes. Aristotle, we think, had 
in view the typical species, Canis antkus (F. Cuv.), 
when he remarks that the Egyptian wolves were 
•smaller than those of Greece. In Guldenstasdt's 
notice of jackals, he appears to confound some spe- 
cies of Thous with others of our group Sacalius. 

F. Cuvier, after remarking the difference 
between individuals of each section which bred to- 
gether in captivity, retains them in the series of his 



j i 






dogs only as distinct species, but we think that in 
a late paper he has felt the necessity of forming 
them into more separated locations- The variegated 
colours on the back were most likely the cause 
which induced the ancients to assert that the Thos 
(or Chaber of Africa) was, according to Oppian, an 
h/brid between the wolf and panther, or between 
the hyasna and wolf, according to Varinus; and 
Solinus justly named the Ethiopian wolves Thoas. 
All the species have the tip of the tail black, and 
prefer rocky sandy districts where there are bushes 
and water, to humid woods. We suspect the grey- 
hound of the desert was originally derived from a 
species very nearly if not actually belonging to this 




Canis Anihus, F. Cuvier, 

The Wild Dog of Egypt— Deeb of the Natives. 

The head of this species is rather deep at the jowl ; 
the nose full at the point ; the ears erect ; the throat 
and breast dirty white ; the body above of a mixed 
fulvous, white, black, and buff, producing a series 
of small black spots, or pencils, caused by the tips 
of the longer hairs being black and uniting in 
meshes. The woolly under fur is reddish brown, 
darkest on the back ; the ears are rather small ; the 
nose, edge of the lips, and whiskers black; lips, 
under cheeks white ; ridge of the nose brown ; a 
black band passes round the neck towards the 
breast ; tail hairy, rather long, with a brown spot 
one-third down the base and a long black streak 
spreading down to the end; below it is buff; the 
black hairs shining; lower limbs rusty brown on 
the outside, buff on the internal face ; soles naked 
and black, as well as the claws. Irides brown; 
the female more buff in the colours. The animal 
from nose to tail measures about two feet six 
inches, the tail one foot, height at shoulder one foot 
four inches. 




possessed of the greatest 



Dr Ruppel obtained specimens about Bahar el 
Azrak. It is not common in Egypt. The same 
traveller observed a head taken from the catacombs 
of Syout or Lycopolis, which he concluded to be of 
this species. It may be also the animal the ancient 
Egyptians employed to typify the southern hemi- 
sphere, as perhaps the Syrian cliaon designated the 
northern. Professor Kretschmer, in Ruppel's Atlas, 
after remarking upon his unwillingness to view all 
the races of dogs as descended from one stock, al- 
though it be difficult, even in those the most 
decidedly marked and 
purity of descent, to decide from which of the ori- 
ginal species they may be derived, is nevertheless 
disposed to consider the Thorn anthus as the abori- 
ginal species whence the Egyptians obtained their 
domestic dogs ; and in support of this opinion, he 
appeals to the similarity existing between that 
species and the smaller breed of wolf-dogs (the 
Pomeranian dog) still abundant in the vicinity of 
Frankfort. But he appears to overlook this ques- 
tion, even if it were decided, that the mummy dogs 
of Egypt were embalmed from their domestic race, 
whether those of Lycopolis, or the wolf city, be- 
longed to it. The probability, we think, would be 
that they were entombed one degree lower down 
the river at Cynopolis, or the dog city, on the island 
opposite Eo, where Anubis was the presiding divi- 
nity and the attendant priests ate their food out of 

I Although it 

is not unlikely that this race also produced a breed 

the same dish with the sacred dogs. 



of domestic dogs, still there is reason to believe they 
were a distinct species.* 

* It may be remarked that the Greek Lycopolis is the pre- 
sent Syout, and referring to the animals represented in the 
prcenestine mosaic. The figure of a canine in a howling atti- 
tude occurs in the part depicting Upper Egypt or Nubia, and 
above it is the name SIOIT, which agrees sufficiently with the 
Ethiopic plural Zybt, Azybit, a wild canine, or canines ; though 
not a wolf, unless the animals of that species, wild in Nubia, 
be classed with the wolves. 

ancient name of Lycopolis. 

Syout, or Assiout, is therefore an 







Thous variegatus^ 


Is about an inch lower at the shoulder and in other 
respects proportionally smaller than the last men- 
tioned animal. The head is rather broad, buff with 
black hairs on the occiput ; the under fur buff and 
soft ; the upper coat of hard hair, buff at the roots, 
then black with a buff ring, and the tip again black 
and shining : these tips gather together on the sur- 
face in small pencils or patches, resembling chequer 
work on a buff ground ; the nose is blunt and black, 
thence to the eyes pale buff: the ears eight inches 
ten lines in height, buff on the outside, white within ; 
under parts dirty white ; tail rather short, chequered 
like the body, the tip dark. The extremities are 
long, the hind legs longest ; all are buff-coloured ; * 
the feet hard, tumid, naked, and the claws blunt. 
This animal has the same wolfish aspect as the 

anthus. It resides in rocky regions, not burrowing, 
and feeding on small mammalia and birds. During 
nonage the colours are less clear, and the coarse hair 
prevails. In old age the woolly fur predominates, 
the coarse hair being more scanty, but from the nape 
of the neck to the tail there is a mane of shining 
black and considerably lengthened hair. M. Ruppel 
observed this species in Nubia and Upper Egypt. 


|;i 1 !! 




Thous meso?ne!as. 


Canis mesomelas of authors. — Yenlee of the Hottentots. 
Boutevos of the Dutch Colonists. — Chacal du Cap. 

All the canines found in a wild state to the south- 
ward of the line, in both hemispheres, approximate 
the foxes in some of their characters or aspect. The 
Died Thous is an example in point, for being some- 
what less in bulk than either of the former, and 
more vividly reddish about the sides and limbs, it 
has been classed with foxes, although the tail is not 
vulpine, and we are assured that the eyes are diur- 
nal. The individual we have seen alive had neither 
the movements nor head of a fox, and the ocular 
disks were always circular, while observed. Of 
three drawings with dimensions taken from diffe- 
rent individuals, one was twenty-five inches from 
nose to tail, the next twenty-six, the third twenty- 
seven. The tails varying, with the length of body, 
from eight inches and a half to ten and a half. The 
different locations of dog, jackal, and fox, assigned 
to the species by naturalists, indicates the interme- 
diate position it should occupy ; and the livery or 




intermixture of colours the fur exhibits, claims its 
place to be in the present group ; and if we look to 
the dogs of the Bosjemen and Koran as, there may 
be a question, whether their descent is not, in part 
at least, derived from a cross with the present spe- 
cies. The ears of the T. mesomelas are larger than in 
the T. anthus ; the nose and forehead are ashy grey ; 
the ears rust-colour outside, whitish within ; the 
cheeks whitish-ash and buff ; from between the ears, 
over the back of the neck, and from thence spread- 
ing down each shoulder, the colour is black and 
white, variously intermixed ; the space narrows gra- 
dually to a point at the root of the tail or partially 
down the base: this space is composed of hair 
longer and harder than that of the sides, and in 
some specimens the white forms only pencils on the 
black, in others it is a succession of waves, and 
sometimes it forms something of a regular yet unde- 
scribable figure in the midst of the black. The 
throat and breast are whitish grey ; the lower part 
of the shoulders, the hams, and part of the base of 
the tail, with the outside of the limbs, is of a lively 
rusty buff; the belly, furnished with long hairs, is 
dirty white ; the terminal half of the tail invariably 
black; the claws are blunt, the feet naked and 
hard. We are assured that this animal does not 
burrow, but lives among bushes and under promi- 
nent rocks. It is not found on the Karroo or 

* - 




Thous Senegalensis. 


Cliacal de Senegal, F. Cuv. 


The able French naturalist, last quoted, considers 
the Senegal Thous to be a variety of his Canis an- 
t/ius, but an artist seeing both would hardly admit 
more than the approximation of the two species. 
The animal is at least an inch higher at the shoul- 
der, and several inches longer ; the ears are larger ; 
the head more dog-like ; the tarsi higher ; the tail 
shorter, less hairy ; and the form more gaunt. The 
colours differ likewise; the nose and forehead are 
greyish-buff; the throat and under parts white; 
there is no black ring round the neck, nor the 
stippled arrangement of black points on the back ; 
that part is buff and greyish, with four or five 
cloudy bars running in wavy lines downwards on 
each side, the space between with fainter greyish 
undulations; the darkest bars are on the croup, 
where a sixth passes down to near the hocks and 
upwards again towards the groin, leaving a whitish 
space at the buttock and in front of the thigh ; the 



base and upper part of the tail is dark sepia-browia ; 


hind legs are buff, very long and slender, making 
the animal stand with the croup elevated, and 
therefore the species must be very fleet. It resides 
in common with the jackal on the uplands of Gam- 
bia and Senegal. 



Tulki of the Persians, and probably the Tokla of Abyssinia, 

Is a larger canine than the T. anthus, distinguished 
from the rest of the group by the predominance of 
rufous woolly hair, interspersed on the sides and 
covered on the back with long coarse black hairs ; 
the belly is snow white and the ears jet black ; the 
tail, rather short, is of the colour of the woolly fur, 
but with a patch at the root, and the tip of shining 
black hair. It howls with a moaning voice, and is 
confounded by Olearius with the common jackal. 
In Abvssinia the Tokla s bite is much feared, and is 
evidently the same as the Toqua of the Hottentots, 
which the Dutch of the Cape interpret by the name 
of wolf, and Mr Kolbe as well as Sir J. Barrow 
seem to have regarded as the Lupus vulgaris. The 
long hair on the back of the ^Ethiopian Lycaon of 
Solinus may be the black hair above mentioned, and 
this ridge is not singular in Africa. We shall find 
it again in the Megalotis faindicus, offering a counter- 
part to the red Aguara wolf in Troj>ical America. 





Thous acmon, Smith. 


Perhaps the Schib of Syria, 

This animal has been confounded with the Turkish 
fox and with the jackal, and unless carefully ob- 
served would be mistaken for a country dog. The 
specimen whence our drawing was taken measured 
about seventeen inches at the shoulder, and was in 
length from nose to tail two feet eight inches ; the 


- ■* CD ' 

but the forehead is broader and flatter; the ears 
small and triangular; the girth of the body and 
neck full ; the hair of the forehead, neck, back, and 
sides coarse ; the tail short, but the basal part had 
crisped hair ; the remainder longer and divided into 
five rings, three of which were black and two rust 
colour ; from the nostrils to beneath the eyes, and 
from thence somewhat irregularly downwards to 
between the fore legs, the colour was white. All 
the rest of the head, body, hams, sides, belly, and 
upper part of the fore legs, including all the coarse 
hair, was rufous, buff, white, and sepia, mixed into 
a hoary fawn-coloured grey ; from the nape of the 
neck down the back, including the base of the tail, 



the hair, forming a broad streak, stood up crisped. 
This appearance may be accidental, 


second specimen somewhat more rufous and larger 
had likewise the hair of the back standing up at the 

points.* The first was in the museum of Prague ; 
the second, in private hands, came from Scanderoon. 
A reverend friend, who resided long in Asia Minor 
and is well known in his literary* capacity, commu- 
nicated to us a part of his journal where he had 
noted the discovery of a suspicious looking animal 
in a chalk quarry about six miles from Smyrna, 
much superior in size to a jackal, but not a wolf; 
he is however in doubt whether it is this species or 
one of the Chryseus beluel before named. The na- 
tives of Natolia informed him that it was likely he 
had seen the animal they call the Great Jackal. 

As the characters which Oppian assigns to his 
acimones appear to agree with the animal under 
consideration in the short neck, broad shoulders, 
heavy limbs, small eyes, and sharp anterior part of 
the head, we think the name of Acmon may be 
applied to distinguish it from others. We are even 
inclined to believe that this race of animals is 
intended, where the ancients relate that a kind of 
wolves damaged the fishing-nets of the inhabitants 
on the Canopian Gulf of the Palus Meotis, unless 
they were allowed a proportion of the produce 
obtained from the water by the fishermen, t 

* Tliis character of the hair seems to be in the notice of 
Acmon in Oppian. 
f Stephanus. 

'. i , 




Naturalists, searching for the name of the Jackal 
in the writings of the ancients, are invariably per- 
plexed with the obscurity of the descriptions relating 
to the wild canines of antiquity. Some are inclined 
to fancy the panther was meant, and it is likely a 
spotted canine was understood by that designation ; 
others imagined Oppian intended a jackal by his 
Ghryseus; and Belon and Kjempfer, among the 
moderns, first applied Aureus, the Latin translation 
of Sov% g, for the distinctive name of it, among the 
canines. Others, however, sought it in Thous, Thos, 
Thoa ; and here again all the above names are inter- 
mixed ; for Aristotle, after a vague notice of Thous, 
finished by saying that there are two or three spe- 
~ ~ i leaving the question totally undefined.* The 
precise name of the animals of this group having 
thus escaped distinct notice among the ancients, the 
modern Greeks adopted those of Squilatchi'md 
SaMia, one of which being an oriental adaptation, 
proves the absence of a national and ancient name • 


* Arist. Hist. Anim., lib. ix. cap. xliv. 



and for the same reason we apply it to the present 
form of minor gregarious canines.* By separating 
our group of Thous from the true Jackals, much 
confusion in the discrepancies of size, manners, 
and colours, is removed; and as the former are 
unquestionably the ancient occupants to whom the 
oldest authors refer, we find that there is no distinct 
proof of the Jackal or Chakal being abundant in 
Asia Minor during the earlier classical ages : there 
is not even sufficient to show the existence of the 
species in Western Asia before the Macedonian 
invasion of Persia. At the present time it is, ac- 
cording to Ruppel, still a stranger to Egypt ; and 
had a creature so notoriously unpleasant been com- 
mon, some one of the very numerous writers of 
those regions would have noticed it in a manner 
not to be mistaken. It may be, that one of the 
smaller Thoes of Aristotle is the true Jackal ; and 
he may have first obtained a knowledge of the 
animal by means of his correspondence in Alex- 
anders army. Pliny mixed it up with his Thoes ; 
and in the Scriptures, if noticed at all, the animal 
is not distinguishable from other canines. Had it 
been common, the epithets of warner or howler, 
the two most striking characteristics of the group, 
could have hardly escaped forming similies in the 
picturesque and magnificent denunciations of the 

Gesner contends that Papio was the classical name of the 
Jackal : this word may be of barbarous origin, and it is also 
clear that the ancients understood a four-handed animal by it ; 
probably an ape or a baboon. 





prophets. Though it is thus overlooked, or con- 
founded with the Deeb (the wolf) in the Hebrew 
and ancient Arabic, and in the modern dialects of 


these tongues, the pracrits of India, and other 
languages from Morocco to the Burhampootra, 
there are at least forty names applicable to it.* 
The religious and military conquests of the Arabs 
have carried these animals into European Turkey, 
and to the north, in Asia, among the steppes of 
Southern Russia and the wilds of Tartary : similar 
movements may have extended it westwards, for 
Jackals are found in some islands of the Adriatic, 
Greece, Morocco, Nigritia, and southward in Abys- 
sinia and Caffraria. But whether the common 
Jackal of Java, 

and the 

races of Borneo and 
Sumatra, are of the same species as the continental, 


* The following list may serve as a sample of these names, 
and the meaning several convey of King or chief baivler. 
Chakal, Tschakkal, Chatal, in Barbary ; Chikal, in Turkish ; 
Schekal, in Pers. ; Tschagal, in Kerguise ; Tsehober, in Kal- 
muc ; Tschubbolka, in Tartaric. Waoui, or Wairi ; ben awi 
and alsoboo of the Bedouins denoting howler, children of howl- 
Phial of Indostan, imitative of its cry. Phinkar, Hindos- 
tanee, the warner. Jaqueparil, in Bengal, or howler-dog. 
Alshali, Adcditach, Akabo, Alkabo, Alzaba, Aziba, Karabo, 
Syrian, and other dialectical variations, in which, however, the 
Thous is intermixed. Quoilah in Bombay ; Nari in Malabar ; 
Gola in Indee ; Kadlu Nari in Tamuli. We omit the numer- 
ous Arabic epithets with the prefix abu, such as Abu Zoboo, 
&c. If the word D S T]K, ochim, or aehim, in Isaiah, xih. 21, 
could be taken as a mutation oianim, ta^YJK, it might indicate 
the Jackal, but Bochart and Ehrenberg evidently strain the 


is not as yet ascertained ; they occupy the greatest 
geographical range of all the wild canines known. 
Although not common in remote antiquity, it is 
likely that, after the wars of the Romans in the 
east they became more abundant, and were then, 
it seems, partially noticed in the confused relation 

)f the Thoes by iElian, where he assumes, 
that the impudence which caused them not to shun 
man, was an indication of their love and respect for 
human beings. 4 

Jackals form a group of crepuscular and nocturnal 
canines, never voluntarily abroad before dusk, and 
then hunting for prey during tliq whole night ; 
entering the streets of towns to seek for offals; 
robbing the hen-roosts ; entering outhouses ; exa- 


doors and windows ; 


upon all 

dressed vegetables and ill-secured provisions; de- 
vouring all the carrion they find exposed, and 
digging their way into sepulchres that are not 
carefully protected against their activity and vo- 
raciousness; and, in the fruit season, in common 
with foxes, seeking the vineyards and fattening 

* " Thoa dicunt esse animal humanissimum, prsecipueque 
homini amicum et si forte in hominem incident revereri, ac 
velut observantes venerari ; amplius si a feris aliis circumven- 
tum senserit, turn vero occurrere protemis, opitularique pro 
virions." This description shows the readiness of the animals 
to watch mankind, and to be present where they hope to share 
the spoils. Still, while no mention is made of their incessant 
howling, there is a doubt whether it be not applicable to Thous 
acmon or to a Chaon. such as Chrvseus aureus* or even to a feral 


VOL. I. 








upon grapes. They congregate in great numbers, 
sometimes as many as 200 being found together ; 
and they howl so incessantly, that the annoyance 
of their voices is the theme of numerous apologues 
and tales in the literature of Asia. Their cry is a 
melancholy sound, beginning the instant the sun 
sets, and never ceasing till after it has risen. The 
voice is uttered and responded to, by all within 
hearing, in a concert of every possible tone, from a 
ihort hungry yelp to a prolonged crescendo cry, 
rising octave above octave in the shrillness, and 
mingled with dismal whinings as of a human being 
in distress.* Jackals retire to woody jungles and 
rocky situations, or skulk about solitary gardens, 
hide themselves in ruins, or burrow in large com- 
munities. If by chance one of the troop be 
attacked, all are on the watch, and, if practicable 
with self-preservation, issue forth to the rescue. 
The Indian wolf and hyaena occasionally avail 
themselves of their burrows ; but while they occupy 
these retreats they abstain from hostility with their 
neighbours. t We have already stated in what 
manner they attend upon the forays of the tiger, 
and the different warning cry then uttered by one 
only, without the response of others. J In the 

* MS. Notes of Frederic Burnet, Esq. 

+ Dr. Daniel Johnson. 



his watchmen were attracted by the peculiar voice, and, crouch- 
ing, crept along under the walls bounding his compound, till 
they reached the spot whence it issued ; looking over with 





Moslem dominions they remain entirely unmolested ; 
but in British India they are occasionally coursed 
with greyhounds, or hunted with fox-hounds, and 
leaving a strong scent are readily run down, unless 
they can regain their earths, or mislead them in the 
jungles. Nevertheless, when at bay, the Jackal 
fights so desperately, and his snap is so severe, that 
it is usual to have them destroyed by terriers. They 
unite the cunning of foxes, and the energy and 
combination distinguished in the best trained dogs, 
with a tenacity of purpose surpassing both. When 
overpowered by superior force and resistance 
vain, they affect to be slain, and lie simulating 
death ; but if they be thrown into water while in 
this state, they swim immediately. They emit a 
very offensive smell, not totally obliterated even in 
a domestic state, when they have been fed for a 
considerable period on rice, plantains, and other 
vegetables, as is usually the practice with the 


caution they saw a tiger with his eyes fixed upon them, one 
fore and one hind foot lifted, and his tail in a straight line be- 
hind him, evidently in an attitude of attention. Sinking their 
heads, they made a hasty retreat, but his foot marks were fully 
traced in the morning. The tales of the Jackal being the lion's 
provider rest on the practice here mentioned ; what there may 
be of truth in them should be taken in a reversed sense, for 
although there is an instinctive impulse in these animals to 
follow the tiger and lion, uttering a peculiar cry, which many 
other mammalia may understand, it is evident that a Jackal 
would be always ready to feast on the leavings of the royal 
beast, which with the aid of his fine scent he can always 






native Indians. Although when in captivity they 
know and will follow their master, they are far 
from tractable, or to be depended upon. They 
associate readily with dogs, and hybrid offspring is 

not uncommon ; nor is there a question that these 
mules are not again prolific. The domestic cur 
dogs of all the nations where the Jackal is found, 
bear evidence of at least a great intermixture of 
their blood in the native races. The fact is strik- 
ingly exemplified in the greater number of the cur 
Pariahs of India and the house breeds of Turkish 
Asia, as well as of the Negroes and the inhabitants 
of the great islands of the India Seas. Monsieur 
Jeannon, Navies Mayor of Coire, is, or was lately, 
in possession of a hybrid dog produced by a cross 
of the smaller wolf dog (Pomeranian) and Jackal. 
It was of small size, but so quarrelsome and fierce, 
that all other dogs were afraid to associate with it. 
Voracious in the extreme, ducklings, chickens, all 
that came within reach, it devoured ; and of such 
activity, that it sprang upon walls, and bounded 
along them with the security of a cat. It was very 
affectionate to the owner ; but not a good watcher, 
seldom barking, and very fond of digging in the 

earth. The fur was often in a changing state, 
sometimes casting the coat before that under was 
well grown. On the thighs it was long, and 
streaked obliquely, producing a wavy appearance ; 
the tail formed a long brush ; the ears resembled 
the sires, the conch being firm, erect, and pointed 
backwards; the muzzle was pointed, and it had 



long vibrissas on the lips ; the eyebrows were pro- 
minent, which, with a peculiar expression of the 
eyes, gave it a look of suspicion and ferocity. 

The Jackal group is still smaller in size than the 
Thoes, seldom exceeding fifteen inches at the 
shoulder ; the form of the head is narrower, termi- 
nating in a pointed muzzle ; the eyes small ; the 
whiskers long ; the ears rather large ; the tail 
shorter than that of foxes, but nearly as well 
furnished with hair ; their make is light and active, 
and the pupil of the eye round ; they have six or 
eight mammas, and the cascum, according to Guel- 
denstadt, differs from that of the wolf and the fox. 
All have buff and fulvous colours, more or less 
mixed with grizzled white or brown hairs, and the 
tip of the tail is invariably dark. Belon is the 
only author who ascribes to them a beautiful yellow 
coloured fur (une belle couleur jaune), apparently 
carried away by his determination to make this 
species pass for the Aureus of Oppian. From the 
constancy of these characters it is difficult to divide 
them into species, although, from the immense 
territorial surface, and the variety of climate they 
inhabit, it is likely that there are several. 








Sacalius aureus, Smith. 


Canis aureus, Auct. 

We will assume the Turkish and Persian species to 
be the typical animal of the group, because it is 
described with more detail ; and although, perhaps, 
not located in its original region, the variation of 
colour and stature in others may be the more 

readily compared with it. 


this species bears more the aspect of a diminutive 
wolf than of a fox. It is also somewhat higher 
at the shoulders, and more erect in the legs, and 
the forms are more angular than those of the fox ; 
the head has a broader dog-like nose, and is 
covered with rufous and ashy-grey hairs, all tipped 

with black points; the whiskers are black; the 
ears are rufous on the outside and white within ; 
the neck and back are yellowish-grey, with some 
shades of dusky ; the shoulders and thighs rufous- 
red; under parts and limbs pale reddish-yellow; 
the claws black; the fifth, or internal toe of the 
fore-legs, placed high upon the joint, and the claw 


' * 



crooked ; the tail is straight, somewhat longer in 
proportion, and more brushy than in the wolf; the 
hair, four inches long, being yellowish beneath, and 
more greyish above, but all tipped with black, 
which causes the end to appear of that colour. 
The fur of the animal is externally more coarse 
than that of the wolf, and on the shoulders it is 
particularly long; the woolly under coat is grey. 
The four central incisor teeth are truucated, with- 
out apparent notches; the exterior upper incisors 
larger, and carinated ; the same below are obtuse ; 
and the tongue is bordered with a row of warts. 

This race is spread over Northern Persia, south- 
ernmost part of Russia, and Natolia; they are 
very abundant on the Asiatic side of Constantinople, 
about Smyrna, &c. ; and it is believed to be this 
species, or a variety of it, which is found in the 
Morea, in the mountains of Pindus as far west- 
ward as Cattaro, and in the Guipona and Corzoca 
islands of the Adriatic. 

The Syrian Jackal is distinguished by brown 
ears ; the fur above is dirty yellow, deeper on the 
back, lighter at the sides, whitish-yellow below; 
the feet are reddish-brown ; the tail of the colour 
of the back, having a black tip. Each hair of the 
back is of four distinct colours ; white at the root, 
then black, above which foxy-red, and the point 
black. Gueldenstsedt gives the length, from nose 




to tail, at 29 inches, and the height at 17| indies, 
which is certainly an error of inadvertence, or of 


the press, unless he confounded in his account o 
the species some other animal, such as Tkoua 
authus. The Canis Syr locus of Hemprich and 
Ehrenbero* was measured indeed from a young 
specimen. It was 2 feet 2 inches in length ; the 
tail 8 inches? the height at the shoulder 9, and 
at the croup 10 inches. The colour whitish-fulvous, 
with a blackish line on the back ; the head, out- 
side of the ears, and feet, fulvous; the inside of 
both these, and the abdomen, whitish; there was 
a yellowish bar on the breast ; and the under fur 
was buff. Yet this insignificant animal appears to 
be now the only representative of the wolf in Syria 
and Palestine. 

The Grey Jackal. In 1814 or 1815 there was 
exhibited in London a couple of animals of this 
group, said to be from Senegal, and their figures 
were taken both by the late Mr Howitt and by 
ourselves. They were remarkably long in the 
body, and low limbed ; the nose long and pointed ; 
a circle round the eyes, the cheeks, lips, and sides 
of the nose, white ; the ridge of the nose, the fore- 
head, neck, throat, and shoulders, black ; and base 
of the tail wavy grey, mixed with black ; the base 
of the ears lively fulvous, the tips black and the 
inside white; lower parts of the flanks reddish- 



vellow ; the limbs, under part and tip of the tail, 
the same ; inside of the thighs dirty white. It was 
not practicable to take their dimensions ; but their 
height at the shoulder w T as below 14 inches. If 
they came from Western Africa, that race may 
spread as far as the Cape; for Sir J. Barrow 


observed Jackals in troops about the Snewsbergen* 






SacaMus Barbaras. 

Canis Barbarus, Shaw. 

The Thaleb of Bruce, and the Deeb of Tunis of 
Dr. Shaw ; who merely states that it is of darker 
colours than the common ; is of the size of a fox, 
and resorts at night to the gardens to howl and 
feed, like the Dubhah or Plyjena. This species 
was first described by Mr. Pennant, from a skin in 
the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford, and the drawin^ 
was communicated by him to Count de Buffom 
The animal had a long slender nose, sharp upright 
ears, and a long bushy tail. Its colour was a very 
pale brown ; from behind each ear ran a black line, 
which, dividing in two, passed downwards along 
the neck ; the tail was marked with three dusky 




the limbs were shorter, and the nose more acute. 
Buffon figured it in his Supplement 6, page 112, 
plate 16. 

We are assured that a ring-tailed Jackal, with 
some obscure bars across the back, is likewise 
found in central India. 




Sacalius Indicus. This race is probably the 
Gola quoilah and Kadlu nari of southern India, 
It is about 25 inches in length ; the head 5^ inches 
long, is pointed ; the eyes large and the lids oblique ; 
the colours are yellowish-buff, grey, and white, the 
latter colour predominating ; the head is yellowish 
and white, brownish about the nose and jaws; 
from the anterior angle of the eye a band, widest 
at the beginning, runs along the upper jaw ; and 
from the posterior angle, another more narrow 
passes down the cheek to below the ear ; the muzzle, 
edge of the lips, and eyelids, are black, as well as 
the whiskers, which are 3^ inches in length ; the 
throat, neck, and thighs, are greyish, slightly more 
ochry on the back and shoulders ; the external side 
of the limbs is deep fulvous, paler on the feet ; 
the internal side whitish ; the thumb-claw of the 
fore-feet is placed at the joint of the wrist ; the 
claws are grooved ; the tail, above ten inches long, 
is narrow at base, but large, and tufted in its 
length; the colour is yellowish- white and dark 
brown to more than a third towards the tip, and 
there are some dark spots on the upper side ; and 
the hair is about two inches in length. 

A specimen brought from Madras by F. Bennet, 
Esq. was in size equal to a terrier ; the prevailing 
colour of the livery yellow ; the back somewhat 
silvered over with whitish pointed hair ; the throat 
and chest, inside of ears, white; the tail long, 
straight, and a little brushy at the extremity ; the 
ears erect, and pointed ; the muzzle sharp, producing 







a vulpine expression ; the eyes full ; iris dark hazel, 
emitting a greenish gleam; forward, the animal 
was compactly formed, hut the hind-quarters and 
tail exhibited a skulking character; the fore-legs 
were bowed forward at the shins ; the claws longer 
than in domestic dogs. Mr Bennet bought it when 
a pup, and whilst it was still wholly of a light fawn 
colour, with a downy fur ; but even then it was 
fierce and untractable, retiring to the furthest 
corner of its cage, resisting on being taken out, and 
even offended if looked at. Its voracity was exces- 
sive, swallowing masses of flesh without mastication. 
By degrees, becoming more tractable, it was let 
run at large, became sensible of caresses, was not 
offensive in smell, and would receive its master by 
throwing itself down, rubbing and frisking about 
his feet, taking his hand in the mouth, whinino- 

1 <"*, 

and wagging the tail. 

T fc ' 

In England it followed its 

master about the house, but would unwillino-ly 
enter the street. Left with a friend during a voy- 
age to India, it did not recognise him by the sight 
on his return ; but on hearing his voice, testified 
the joy it felt in the manner of dogs on similar 
occasions. This animal was presented by Mr Ben- 
net to the Zoological Gardens ; yet, from the above 
description, it may be doubted whether it is not a 
feral, or perhaps a wild pariah. 

We place here, with considerable hesitation, the 




Canis procyonoides. Gray. 

Racoon-faced Dog, IUust. of Ind. ZooL 

Grey-brown, varied with black tips to the hairs ; 
cheeks and legs dark chocolate-brown ; tail short, 
thick, pale brown, with white tips to the hairs ; 
ears rounded, hairy. Length of head 5| inches ; 
body, 1 7 inches ; tail, 5 inches. Inhabits China. 
J. R. Reeves, Esq. British Museum. 

Mr Fred! Cuvier lately noticed five varieties of 
the Jackal :— The Caucasian, the Nubian, the Se- 
negal, the Algerine, and the Morean. Two of 
these, we apprehend, we have classed with Thous. 
The Caucasian may be our T. acmon; and the two 
last are no doubt true Sackalii. But not having 
been able to see his descriptions we know not if 
they are introduced here. 

4 t\ 







The following may be considered as Jackals with 
long tails, or Foxes with diurnal eyes, in 


respects assimilating with a kindred group of South 

America, But 



show, that they have all furred feet, and 
largely developed, and a black spot on the base 
of the tail covering a gland; therefore that they 
belong in reality to, and constitute the Asiatic- 
part of the Megalotine group, having similar pro- 
pensities to feed on insects as well as birds. 


*. -* 



Cynalopex corsac. 




We think with Monsieur Desmarets, that this 
species should be placed with the diurnal canines ; 
and upon comparing one with the Pondicherry 
Jackall, above described, we found the whole ex- 
ternal form so very similar, that in the present 
group appears to be its true location. 

Of the smaller wild canines of Asia we have as yet 
a very imperfect knowledge. The Jackal is found 
to have invaded a part of Russia ; and the Corsac, 
it seems, is discovered far to the southward of the 
Himalaya mountains. Although we doubt of its 
being the Nongi hari of Malabar, the several indi- 
viduals we have seen living and stuffed in London, 
Paris, and elsewhere, indicate more than one race 
ao exist in India of diminutive Jackals with long 
tails, and differing from the Corsac dog-foxes and 
Buffon's figure of Isatis in nothing but shades of 
colour. The Ckacal adwe of the same author, re- 
ferred to Corsac, differs, however, materially ; the 
legs being much shorter, the tail likewise scarcely 




half the length, and the snout prolonged to a point, 
indicating an approach to viverrine forms. The Cor- 
sac and Isatis of Buffon, Cynalopex corsac, Nobis, 
appear to form the connecting link between the diur- 
nal dogs and the foxes, but to be very distinct from 
the arctic fox, or Lagopus, by the superior height of 
their legs, the large ears, and shorter fur. We have 
compared them repeatedly, and cannot account for. 
the mistake otherwise, than by supposing that the 
older specimens in Museums have been misnamed, 
and when the Indian designations were superadded 
to those of the north, the confusion being already 
established was suffered to remain unrectified. 

The species is little more than one foot nine inches 
in length, from nose to tail ; the tail about eleven 
inches ; the ears, two inches ; and the height at 
the shoulder nearly twelve inches. The form of 
the head is sharp, the ears open, pointed. The 
colours of the upper parts of the body yellowish- 


uniformly spread, and resulting from 


visible part of the hairs being annulated ochry and 
white, with only a few pointed black ; the limbs 
deeper buff; and the tail of the same colour, with 
a black tip and a blackish spot a short distance 
down the base : all the inferior parts are yellowish- 
white. The species lives in large communities, 
burrows, prowls in packs, feeds upon birds and 
birds' eggs, conceals superabundant food, utters a 
kind of barking, and is possessed of a very offensive 
odour. The Corsac resides chiefly in the 

deserts of Tartary, between the rivers Jaick, Emba, 




and the sources of the Irtish. It is said never to 


The Indian race we have seen had the ears two 
inches and a half long, the whiskers abundant and 
long, and the colour, red, was without any black 
tipped hair on the back ; it wanted also the black 
spot on the superior part of the base of the tail, or 
it was not observed. 

Another specimen we made a drawing of at Am- 
sterdam was of the size of a small fox, but more 
lightly made; there was much white and grey 
about the face, lips, breast, and under parts, the 
forehead, neck, shoulders, back, upper arm sides 
hams, hocks, and tail were of a rufous yellow with 
a slight intermixture of grey ; the back of the ears 
brown, and the tip of the tail dark ; the whiskers 

were very long, 
to the Corsac. 

and the whole animal was similar 

VOL. I. 






Cynalopeos kokree. 


Canis Kokree of Col. Sykes, 



We place this animal here, as most likely a con- 
gener if not a variety of the Corsac. It is described 
as a handsome species, much smaller than the com- 
mon fox» The head short ; muzzle very sharp ; the 
eyes oblique ; the irides nut brown ; the legs slen- 
der; tail trailing on the ground and very bushy;; 
the colour along the back and on the forehead fawn y 
each hair having a white ring near the tip; the 
back, neck, between the eyes, along the sides, and 
half-way down the tail, reddish grey, each hair 
being banded with black and reddish white; the 
legs reddish outside, reddish white inside ; chin and 
throat dirty white; ears externally dirty brown y 
the fur appearing as short as velvet; the edges of 
the eyelids black; muzzle brown; length twenty- 

two inches ; tail eleven inches and a half 




Cynalopex chrymrus. Grey. 

The length of this animal is twenty-three inches and 
a half; the tail ten inches. The fur pale foxy-brown, 
varied with black-tipped rigid white hairs, most 
abundant on the sides, and only scattered on the 
hinder parts of the back. Under fur soft, silky; 
of the back, fulvous ; of the sides, whitish ; lead- 
coloured at the base. Cheeks, chin, throat, and 
belly, white : sides of the chest, internal surface of 
the legs, yellowish- white. Upper parts of the legs 
and subcaudal region bright reddish fulvous. Tail 
cylindrical, reaching nearly to the ground, pale 
yellow, with a dark brown tip and a large tuft of 
rather rigid hairs, placed over a gland, at its upper 
basal surface. Ears rather large, acute, grey, and 
edged with black externally; internally whitish. 
Inhabits India. Specimen in the British Museum. 
The long hairs of the back are thin at the base, 
swell out and become stiff at the tip, each being 
marked with a broad blackish ring and a brown 




Cynalapex pallidus. 


Canis pallidus, Ruppel. 

Differs little from the Indian before-mentioned. 
It is only twenty inches long, the tail ten inches, 
the ears two inches, and the height at the shoulder 
nine inches and a half. The fur in general is of a 
pale reddish buff; the under wool of the same, ex- 
cepting on the back, where the roots of it are 
greyish; the stronger hair covers the woolly en- 
tirely ; the nose, eyelids, and whiskers hlack ; irides 
bright brown ; ears middle sized, pointed, edged with 
whitish, naked within ; temples, throat, and inferior 
parts white ; there is a buff band round the neck ; 
the tail, coloured like the back, is tipped with black 
and a dark spot at the root ; the fore-feet are red- 
dish-brown, and the hinder partly of the 
colour. Ruppel found this animal in Darfur and 

i ii — ^m & 


Kordofan, burrowing 

night ; it was seldom caught in traps. 

ground, hunting by 




Cynalopex insectivorus. 

Canis Bengalensis, Shaw. — Bengal Fox, Pennant. — Isatis of 



This animal, shown living in London, resembled 
the Corsac in all its proportions, and was only a 
little more robust in structure ; round the eyes there 
was a circle of white, the belly, lower part of the 
flanks, throat, breast, internal face of the thighs, 
and under surface of the tail were white ; the nose, 
forehead, neck, back, shoulders, after part of the 
upper arm, hams, and upper surface of tail were 
grizzled reddish ochre and sooty colour, with the tips 
of the hairs white, excepting on the tail, where the 
white was more confined to the under surface, and 
tip black ; the ridge of the back was darkest, and 
the limbs were orange-tawny; the irides yellow. 
In form it bore a close resemblance to the figure of 
the Isatis in Buffon, but wanted the bluish cast of 
colour which may be the livery of the Russian race. 
The manners of this species cannot well be traced, 
because the descriptions even in Gmelins account 
are mixed up with the Lagopus of the arctic circle. 
As this species is said to exist also in Nepal and 





Tartary, it may be identical with Cynalopex kara- 
gan, which is only known from a description 

communicated by Dr Pallas to Mr Pennant. It is 
a small species, very common in all the deserts of 
the Kerguise and Great Tartary ; its general colour 
is of a wolf-grey ; the head is yellowish and above 
the eyes reddish ; the ears are black on the outside, 
white within, and the edge and base reddish, with 
a white spot near each ; between the shoulders is a 
dark spot, from whence along the back to the tail 
runs a reddish or yellowish streak ; the throat and 
breast are of a dark grey ; the belly white. 



Cyncdopex Turcicw. 


We figure this animal from a specimen in the Mu- 
seum of Paris, where it was pointed out to us by 
Baron Cuvier. It seems to form the passage from 
the present group to the arctic fox, but is altogether 
most nearly allied to Cynalopex* The individual 
was smaller than the common fox ; lower on the 
limbs, with a cylindrical but rather obtuse muzzle, 
and it had a thick and rather long fur, with a very 
bushy tail. The colour of the forehead and back 
was a hoary brownish buff-grey, whitish on the 
sides of the face and neck, ochry below. The ex- 
tremities were fulvous ; the ears, partly concealed in 
fur, appeared small and triangular, whitish within, 
darker grey on the outside ; the brush, composed of 
the same mixed colours, had a black spot on the 
summit of the base, another larger about an inch 
lower down, no doubt the mark of a gland in that 
place, and the tip was black. From the dense 
clothing of the animal it doubtless inhabits a cold 
region ; and if it be found in Turkey, the mountains 

l ; 




of Natolia and Armenia alone can suit it ; probably 
this was the winter dress. But that it was remarked 
to be like our Thous aemon by the Baron, and 
named Turkish fox, we would have taken it for a 
real arctic fox. 






Without adopting Illiger s reasons, we detach the 
present group, under the denomination he applied to 
the Zerda, from the other diurnal canines, and more 
particularly from jackals and foxes, with which they 
have been confounded, and place them immediately 
after that of Cynalopex, with which it is nearly 
allied. When the long brush-tailed species shall 
have been studied with more care, there is little 
doubt but that others will likewise require to be 
separated. The group now under review is formed, 
because the species that have been attentively exa- 
mined have the eyes with a circular disk, and there- 
fore belong to the diurnal tribe ; they have only six 
mammas, ? and form the last subdivision of those 
found in the eastern hemisphere. Although, by the 
increased proportions of the ears, several of the 
species before described, and most of the smaller 

African canines, 


destitute of the following characters, by which 
alone the Zerdas are distinguished : — They have the 
ears disproportionately developed, and the folds at 
the edges double or treble. Such a structure cannot 
well be given without a corresponding effect ; and 

n i 

] c 




If we compare it with the same forms in Lata, 
whose exquisite hearing, and singular power of 
diversified perceptions, are known to belong to 

their enlarged and complicated ears, we may fairly 
presume the Megalotes likewise enjoy distinct facul- 
ties and increased sensibilities by means of these 
organs. For this purpose, also, they have the 
cerebral chamber very considerably larger than 
those of canines of equal proportion ; the auditory 
apparatus immensely developed; the skulls are 
destitute of the central ridge where the temporal 
muscles are inserted ; and the jaws have no great 
powers of action. Beside the diurnal eyes, the 

great expanded ears, and the spot on the tail, this 
group is further distinguished by the soles of the 
feet being covered with hair ; a provision the more 
remarkable, because all the known species of this 
;roup belong to tropical latitudes. Their teeth, 
though the same in number with the rest of the 
canidse, indicate, that beside fruit, honey, and birds'- 
eggs, they are prone to feed on insects ; this pro- 
pensity is perhaps facilitated by their hairy feet 
making no noise, and causing no concussion of the 
earth while in pursuit of their prey. They burrow 
In the sandy deserts of Africa, and about the roots 
of date palms. 

In this group we do not however admit Megalotis 
Lalandii or Canis megalotis; but, on account of 
the singular dentition, refer it to a distinct sub- 
genus, which, in the natural order, seems best 
placed after Vulpes^ and before Lycaon. 




Megalotis famelicus. 
Canis famelicus, Krcstschmer. — Sabora of the Arabs. 

Tins species is one foot eight inches long; the tail, 
one foot two inches; the ears, three inches ten 

lines ; and the stature, at the shoulder, ten inches 
six lines. This little animal stands high compared 
with its length ; the head is more pointed than that 
of the former ; the hair is silky, grey on the back, 
fawn colour towards the sides; the nose whitish, 
with a chestnut streak on each side, from the nostrils 
upwards to round the eyes ; the tail above dark, 
beneath white, with five or six indistinct darker 
spots, the tip white; inside the thighs and belly 
whitish ; throat, and side of the limbs, pale buff ; 
the soles clad with woolly fur. In adults, there is 
a distinct chestnut streak running from the occiput 
along the back to the tail. In young animals this 
mark is broader, but less distinct. Mr Ruppel 
found this species in Kordofan, in the direction of 
Nubia. Professor Krsetschmer is inclined to believe 
the figures taken for jackals designed on Egyptian 
temples, and in the catacombs of Thebes, to refer 
to the present species ; in which case he might well 
have denominated it Anubis. The species burrows, 
and hunts birds and small mammalia, such as 
jerboas, &c. 







I . 


Megalotis caama. 


Canis (vulpes) caama. 

The smallest of the South African foxes, according 
to Dr. Smith, we place here, on account of the 
treat development of the ears, the general form of 
the animal, and its diurnal habits. In figure, this 
species resembles the last described, having also the 
long brush, with a dark tip: 

It is in stature about one foot high at the shoulder, 
covered with a soft fur coloured like that of a wild 
rabbit. The head is vulpine ; the ears large, with 
expanded tubes; the whiskers long, black, and 
rigid; and its predatory habits best observed 
that of feeding upon eggs of birds nestling upon the 
ground. It is an object of solicitude to ostriches, 
who watch the animal when the laying season has 
commenced. When the Caama has obtained an 
egg of a large size, he is stated to roll it in the 
manner which the Suricate (Rysend) and several 
Viverrse practise, until, by encountering a stone, it 
is broken, and is thus become accessible food. The 
proceedings both of the ostrich and the animal 
attest that it is in the habit of preying by day as 
well as by night, like the other Megalotes. 





Megalotis zerda. 


Zerda or Durda of the Natives. 



Dr Ruppel's specimens are one foot four inches in 
length ; the tail eight and a half inches ; the ears 
three and a half inches ; and the height at the 
shoulder six and a half inches. The head is only 
three and a half inches long, the cranial part very 
round, and the muzzle small and fine ; the ears are 
very ample, slightly pointed, covered outside with 
cream-coloured fur, inside with a border of white 
hair, and the rest naked, in the living animal 
showing a pinkish colour. In the rest of its form 
it is a miniature fox ; the fur is of cream colour, 
with the woolly under-coat dirty white ; the irides 
are yellow ; the pupils round ; the tail is marked 
on the upper surface, near the base, with a black 
spot, and the tip is of the same colour ; the soles of 
the feet are covered with woolly hair. Dr Riippel s 
specimens were obtained about Ambukol, and in 
the desert of Korti ; and the species must extend 
to the south as far as Caffraria and the Cape colony, 




since Mr Sparrmann recognized Brace's Fennec, and 
ed it Zerda, which is since proved to be the 
name m Nubia. It is scarcely necessary to observe, 
that Mr Bruce must have had some confusion in 
his notes, when he asserted that his Fennec climbed 
trees. They burrow, like the former, in the sand. 
There may still be reason to doubt, whether the 
Zerda is Mr Brace's species ; because, according to 
his description, the Fennec was only ten inches 
long, and the tail five and a-half inches ; the pupils 
of the eyes were round and black, the colour of the 
ins blue ; it was, in general, a nocturnal animal, 

molars were but four on each side, above and below ; 
and there were only four toes on the feet, both be- 
fore and behind. All the dimensions were therefore 
smaller, and the teeth and toes fewer, which per- 
haps indicates a very young animal when his notes 
were taken, or he encountered difficulty when the 
animal was to be examined. Mai or 

yet watched birds with uncommon vigilance. 

Major Denhams 
Fenecus cerdo was, however, only nine and a-half 
inches long; the tail six inches; the ears three 
inches long and two in breadth. The general 
colour was white, slightly tinged with yellow; 
above, from head to tail, rufous-brown, delicately 
pencilled with fine black lines, caused by thinly 
scattered hairs tipped with black; the exterior of 

light rufous-brown; a small rufous 
spot beneath the eyes ; ears long, erected, pointed 
externally, covered with pale rufous-brown hair; 
internally with a border of greyish- white, and the 





rest naked, at the base and sides folded and plaited j 
tail foil, cylindrical, rufous-brown in colour, pen- 
cilled with black; a small dark brown spot near 
the base, and the tip black ; fore-feet pentadac- 
tylous. It was in a head of this variety that the 
ossicula auditus were as large, and the auditory 
cells longer, than in the common fox, though the 
animal is two-thirds smaller. 

We now come to the canidse of South America, 

where the species we have to enumerate are but 
few, and very imperfectly known. Yet, in one 
respect, the tropical appear to be influenced by the 
different conditions of their existence ; for an in- 
tensely hot climate, covered with dense woods, 
everywhere intersected with great rivers and exten- 
sive marshes, demanded of the resident carnivora 
that they should be inured to swimming, and fami- 
liarised with food drawn from the waters. Many 
have but a very scanty woolly fur, but are pro- 
tected by longer and more abundant coarse hair, 
than the canines of similar latitudes in the eastern 



The question might be raised, whether they 
should not be all placed after the dogs, properly 
so called, and immediately before the true foxes ; 
but, considering that several of them assuredly mix | 
in prolific breeds with the dogs of European origin, 
while the progeny with real foxes are known to be 
true mules, we prefer, for the present, to place 

them as herein arranged. 

We can discern three groups, all generically deno- 






minated Aguaras by the aboriginal Indians; of 
which the first, being at present confined to only 
one species, and more widely separated in characters, 
it may be well to give the description, before we take 
a more general view of the remainder. 





There being but one species belonging to this 
group, as yet discovered, we proceed to the de- 
scription of it without adverting to general cha- 
racters, excepting that the distinguishing mark is 
the presence of a long mane on the neck and 
shoulders ; and probably, as in the Chrysean group, 
that the last tubercular tooth is wanting.* 

* This is asserted by report of a Creole to Dr Nozeda. See 
Rengger, Saeugethiere von Paraguay ; but it is doubtful if the 
pupils of the eyes are at all times circular. 



* i 


VOL. I. 





Chrysocyon jitbatws. 


Canis jubatus, Desm. — Le Lonp rouge, Cuv. — C. campestri^ 

Wied. — Aguara guazu^ Azara. 


is the largest wild canine of South America 
yet discovered, and, by some of its attributes, 
partakes both of the Hyaenas and Chrysei of the 
old world, being furnished with a remarkable mane 
from the occiput to the end of the shoulders, and 
with the livery and dentition which belong to the 
last mentioned. The head is smaller than that of a 
wolf, and the legs proportionally longer; the ani- 
mal standing much upon its toes, the feet appear 
short ; it is about four feet four inches in length * 
the tail one foot three inches, and the stature near 
tw-enty-six inches in height; the head is long, 
particularly the snout, which is pointed ; the ears 
rather small, and erect ; the muzzle black and 
small: the cheeks, lips, and whiskers black; the 
nose, forehead, and upper parts deep fulvous-red, 
paler at the sides, and more grizzly about the but- 
tocks ; the under parts likewise grizzly and reddish ; 




all the four feet sooty-black ; the hair is rather 
long and shaggy, on the throat and breast whitish, 
with an irregular sooty spot, beginning beneath the 
jaws and passing on each side towards the corners 
of the mouth ; from the occiput to the end of the 
shoulders runs a ridge of long coarse hair, the upper 
half of which is black ; the tail, moderately hairy, 


is mixed, darkish on the upper surface, red and 
grizzly below and at the tip. The hair from the 
hips down the edge of the buttocks is four inches 
in length ; that on the belly is likewise long. The 
dentition, excepting the asserted want of a tubercu- 
lar, agrees with the other species of canidse ; but is 
inferior in strength to that of true wolves ; and the 
number of mammas are only six. The female resem- 
bles the male in every particular of colour. 

This species is not found north of the equinoctial 
line, but resides chiefly in the swampy and more 
open regions of Paraguay and bushy plains of Cam- 
pos Geraes; its habits are solitary and nocturnal; 
it swims with great facility, and hunts by the scent, 
feeding on small game, aquatic animals, &c. 

The Aguara guazu is not a dangerous animal, 
being much less daring than the wolves of the north ; 
it is harmless to cattle, and the opinion commonly 
held in Paraguay, that beef cannot be digested by 
its stomach, was in some measure verified by Dr 
Parlet, who found by experiments made upon a 
captive animal, that it rejected the raw flesh after 
deglutition, and only retained it when given boiled. 
Kind treatment to this individual did not produce 





confidence or familiarity even with dogs. Its sight 
was not strong in the glare of day ; it retired to rest 
about ten in the morning, and again about midnight. 
In the dark, the eyes sometimes shone like those of 
a true wolf. When let loose, the animal refused to 
acknowledge command, and would avoid being 
taken till driven into a corner, where crouched it 
lay, until grasped by the hand, without offering 
further resistance. The Aguara guazu, though not 
hunted, is exceedingly distrustful, and having an 
excellent scent and acute heating, is always enabled 
to keep at a distance from man ; and though often 
seen, is but seldom within reach of the gun. The 
female litters in the month of August, having three 
or four whelps. Its voice consists in a loud and 
repeated drawling cry, sounding like a-gou-a-a-a, 
which is heard to a considerable distance. 

In the next groups, we mean to describe the wild 
dogs and the so called foxes of South America, 
which, in order to be clearly ascertained, demand a 
further subdivision, because the form of their heads, 
bodies, tails, eyes, and colours are not sufficiently 
alike to constitute an homogeneous section. There 
is still considerable uncertainty in the distribution 
of the smaller canines into diurnal and nocturnal 
classes; because the only positive criterion to dis- 
tinguish them depends upon the form of the pupils 
of the eyes one being a circular disk, the other a 




vertical opening, but liable to assume the rounded 
shape in a moment ; and this effect being generally 
produced under all circumstances of emotion or par- 
tial obscurity, in all the nocturnal, the criterion 
escapes notice, unless it be determined by dissec- 
tion, an operation demanding manual skill and pre- 
vious anatomical education ; these requisites not 

being always possessed by travelling investigators, 
leave doubts which can be removed only by such 
establishments as zoological gardens, where species 
can be studied living and be dissected after death. 

South America, when first discovered by the 
Spaniards, was possessed of canines absolutely indi- 
genous, some universally wild and others liable to 
be partially reclaimed ; all more nocturnal than the 
former dogs and less so than true foxes. Of the 

first class there is perhaps only the Chrysocyon 
before described; in the second, although clearly 
distinguishable into two groups, alike furnished 
with rounded foreheads, there are general indica- 
tions of a more placable nature. The eyes of some 
are considered circular; they have comparatively 


longer and bulkier bodies and shorter tails, while 
the others with the external form of foxes, the nose 
still more pointed and brushes even longer and 
more ample than these animals, have indeed the 
pupils of the eyes vertically contractile, but so im- 
perfectly, that they become elliptical only when the 
head is forcibly held against a strong light ; they 
are hence crepuscular, not nocturnal, unless there 
be a clear moonlight. Their propensities to rapine 









are more those of jackals than of foxes, but their 
activity does not cease with daylight; they retire 
only to repose when the sun is strong. Several can 
be sufficiently tamed to accompany their masters to 
hunt in the forest, without however being able to 
undergo much fatigue; for, when they find the 
sport not to their liking, they return home to await 
the return of the sportsmen. In domesticity they 
are excessive thieves, and go to prowl in the forest. 
There is a particular and characteristic instinct 
about them to steal and secrete objects that attract 
their attention, without being excited by any well 
ascertained motive. All subsist upon the usual 
food of the wild canines, but with the addition that 
they eat also fish, crabs, limpets, lizards, toads, ser- 
pents, and insects. They are in general silent and 
often dumb animals ; the cry of some is seldom and 
but faintly heard in the night, and in domestication 
others learn a kind of barking. None appear to be 
gregarious, but several are occasionally encountered 
in families. Although in company with man, the 
domesticated will eagerly join in the chace of the 
jaguar, we have never heard that they are in the 
same state of hostility towards felinse as are their 
congeners in Asia and Africa. The native Indians 
who have domestic dogs of European origin invari- 
ably use the Spanish term perro, and greatly pro- 
mote the increase of the breed in preference to their 
own, which they consider to be derived entirely, or 
with a cross, from the Aguaras of the woods ; and 
by this name of Aguara it is plain, throughout al- 



most all the interior of South America, that the 
whole group of indigenous canines is understood.* 
Although both the long and the short tailed Aguaras 
appear to be at least in part mixed in that semi- 
tlomesticity which savages can produce, we separate 
the first under the name of Dasicyon, because in 
aspect, disposition, and the form of their pupils, 
*hey appear to stand more nearly identified than 
the second with the diurnal dogs of the Old World. 

* We find, from late information, that within the last 
thirty-five years the indigenous dogs of the Indians have been 
gradually replaced by the domestic European, and that now it 
is difficult to find any even in the more remote parts of the 
interior. When we were in the country, this was not the 

ease. v 




. J^ m ^ r -~ J 



' :1 




Buffon, in reasoning upon the scanty data then 
collected concerning the chien des bois and crab- 
eating dogs, assumed that they were descended 
from genuine dogs, although residing in the woods, 
and by his own confession never yet entirely sub- 
dued, because " they bred together/' merely to sus- 
tain his doctrine that all dogs were the offspring of 
sheep-dogs * The races we have seen on the spot 
did not remind us of shepherd's dogs, nor of any ' 
other domestic species, excepting those of the resi- 
dent Indians, who all admitted theirs to be of the 

wild species of the woods. 

The group may be considered to represent, in the 
west, the Thoes of the old continent, and collectively 
to have the forehead more rounded in proportion 
than their consimilars in the east ; the tail consists 
of an imperfect brush, never reaching far below the 

t i 

* II y a plusieurs animatix que Ies habitans de la Guiane 
ont nommes chiens des bois, parcequ'on ne les a pas encore 
reduits comme nos chiens en domesticite constante, et ils me- 
ritent ce nous puisqu'ils s'accouplent et produisent avee les 
ehiens domestiques. — Buffon. 




heel ; the body is long, compared to the height, and 
bulky ; the feet are smaller, a characteristic ex- 
tended over a great proportion of the mammalia of 
South America, including even man. They have 
often the fulvous brown, only in shades deeper than 
the Chrysean group, or it is hoary, and the face has 
the aspect of foxes. The individuals we examined 
had the roof of the mouth black, only six mammae, 

and the eyes rather more oblique than the domestic 
species of the old continent. They are less shy than 
the Chrysocy on, in proportion better armed ; they 
burrow, and therefore prefer more open countries, 
swim, detach clams from rocks, and eat fish, birds* 
and small animals. 





! i 


Dusicyon canescens. Nob. 


This species we have seen domesticated among the 
Indians, who nevertheless asserted that it was wild 
to the southward ; and some years after, we found 
& specimen in the museum of Baltimore,* stated to 
have been shot some degrees to the south of the 
river Plate. It was about two feet eight inches in 
length, the tail nearly eleven inches, and the height 
at the shoulder fifteen or sixteen inches.t The head 
was terminated by a sharp black muzzle, the edges 
of the lips were black, the laniary teeth rather 
slender, long, and sharp; there was a very large 
wart with several bristles on each cheek ; the ears 
small, pointed, and hairy .; the eyes high up in the 
head; the body full and long; mammae not all 
visible ; the legs strong and close haired ; five toes 

* The sketch and the notes were among the materials col- 

— ij* ■ ^# Mai ■_> «- _* _ 



copied at Philadelphia, New York, and other places, about the 
same time, 

f These measurements are approximations only, because the 
specimen, when drawn, was in a glass case. 




to all the feet ; the inner claws largest and sharp ; 
the rictus of the month opened to a great depth, 
and the physiognomy resembled that of a small 
wolf. This animal was covered with loose coarse 
hair on the neck, body, and hams, whitish inter- 
mixed with sandy clouds, and the tips of many 
hairs black, particularly on the back : the legs were 
pale fulvous; the tail was scantily supplied with 
long hairs, black above, whitish beneath. It dif- 
fered only from the domestic breeds in being some- 
what darker and larger. In the domestic we observed 
likewise that the palate was black, and the edge of 
the lower lip of the same colour, but more deeply 
indented and broader than in the dogs of Europe, 
It may be that this is the Canis thous of Linnasus, 
and that his characters of a wart above the eyes 
should have been given as below, and the ciliated 
tongue may refer to the jagged under lip, mistated 
through inadvertence bv his informant. 








Dusicyon Antarticus. 


The Lyciscus cagottis^ before described, appeared to 
us identical with the present species ; being induced 
to form this conclusion from seeing, in the fur stores 
of Mr G. Astor at New York, a large collection of 
peltry, which came from the Falkland Islands, 
where, according to the reports that gentleman had 
received, his hunters had nearly extirpated the 
species.* All we saw were alike in colour and 
proportions, somewhat smaller than the Cagottis, 
equally low in proportion, with rather bulkier 
bodies ; the tail not reaching to the ground, with a 
white tip ; but the fur of the back was darker 
brown than the specimen figured in the Zoology of 

* He had been assured, and we believe to have seen in some 
ancient accounts of our earlier expeditions to the South Seas, 
or in the wanderings of the Buccaneers, that the Falkland 
Island wolf had originally been set on shore there by the 
Spaniards, with a view to prevent foreign nations finding fresh 
provisions at the anchorages : the information stated further, 
that the wolves had nearly destroyed an indigenous fox, and 
taken possession of its burrows. Although the first part may 
be only seamen's tales, the last appears to be so far true, that 
a smaller and now a rare species of canine is found on the 
western Falkland Island. 





the voyage of the Beagle. Captain Eitzroy having 

favoured us with several communications on this 
subject, has removed our former impressions, and 
we now consider the antarctic animal distinct, not- 
withstanding that there are none of the same species 
on the neighbouring islands or on the main land, 
and no other habitat can be ascribed to it than the 
western Falkland Island. There is one more cause 
of misapprehensiori requiring notice, and that is the 
presence of two species, varieties or races not clearly 
distinguished in the accounts, excepting by the dif- 
ference of size, and possibly by the smaller having 
a greater length of tail and more white about the 
feet. The D. Antartkus is full three feet long, the 
tail thirteen inches, and the height at the shoulder 
fifteen inches ; the body is bulky, the legs low, and 
the head wolf-like ; above, the colour is formed of 
hairs ringed with black and fulvous, together with 
dark tan ; the belly and inside of the limbs are pale 
whitish buff, the throat dirty white, the middle of 
the tail brown and the extremity white. There is 
a well-preserved specimen in the Paris museum, 
brought from the Falkland Islands. Mr Bourgain- 
ville found it residing in burrows along the sea 
downs; it had a feeble kind of barking, and fed 
chiefly on birds. Buffon, who examined two speci- 
mens, being deceived by the colours, concludes that 
it was a race of the common fox. This conclusion 
of the Count's was a natural result of his system, 
which on the present occasion tended to confuse more 
than to clear up the history of the canida?. 


\ » 





Dusicyon sylvestris. 


In the collection of original drawings of the Prince 
of Nassau, now in the Berlin library, there is one 
of an animal with the name Aguarra beneath it ; 
the design evidently shows a form of the present 
group ; the head is pointed, the forehead round, the 
ears large, somewhat obtuse, rufous at the back and 
on the edges ; the body is slender, the fur yellow- 
ish grey, darkest on the back ; from the eyes to the 
nostrils the face is blackish; the legs are rather stout ; 
all the feet as far as the joints black, the rest of the 
limbs rufous; the tail does not reach the ground, 
and from the root to the black tip it is yellowish 
grey. The size of this animal is not mentioned, nor 
can it be identified with any other of the group. 
Professor Lichtenstein, in his observations on Marc- 
grave and Piso, has not ventured to assign it to a 
described animal, but we have little doubt but that 
it is a true wild species, and therefore that the name 
of Dusicyon sylvestris should be admitted; for we 
have seen skins of one or two specimens in their 
wild condition and mutilated, but enough to satisfy 



tls tliat this is the true ckien des hois. Buffon s figure 
is, we think, that of a semi-domesticated specimen,, 
obtained through the Indians, who imposed it upon 
the French colonists the more easily T because almost 
all the native dogs will eat shell-fish. * 

The chien des hois, or Aguara of the "Woods, may 
he the Koupara of Barrere,t and the description of 
Buffon repeated by F. Cuvier and Desmarets is quite 
correct in the details, but wrong as to the general 
appearance of the animal, which is more like a cur 
than a shepherd's dog. The length of head and 
body is two feet six inches, the tail one foot, height 
at the shoulder fourteen inches ; the head rounded^ 
the muzzle more blunt than in the former ; the ears 
short, erect, triangular, with a rufous fur at the 
back and spreading towards the neck, similar to 
those of the wild species : the colour more grey on 
the neck and yellowish white beneath ; this colour 
spreads on the insides of the legs and thighs ; that 
of the upper part of the head and back consists of a 
mixed black, fulvous, grey, and white hairs, most 
fulvous on the head and legs, and grey on the back ; 
the legs are slender and the feet small, both of a 
dark brown and reddish colour ; the tail, clothed with 
a close coat of hair without a brush, is brown on the 


* Prince Maximilian of Wied and Dr Rengger, who resided 
six years in Paraguay, do not appear to have met with it ; and 
we therefore conclude that the speeies does not extend to the 
southward of the line. 

+ Barrere is probably mist iken in the true application of 
this name, for m Brazil it refers to a feline and not to a dog. 





upper surface, yellowish beneath, and black at the 
end : the eyelids and muzzle are black, and there 
is an indistinct appearance of two blackish streaks 
on each cheek. 

The attitude of this animal is that of a cur, and 
on comparing our figure of a domestic dog of the 
Indians, taken from a living specimen, with that of 



Dusicyon sylvestris, 


We find such a strict similarity in all, excepting the 
bushy tail, that we believe them to represent the 
same species in the wild and domestic states, and 
that Buffon s chien des bois is again the same, while 
the chien crahier is a Cerdocyon, or Cams Azaras. 

The wild race of these dogs are said to form small 
families of six or eight in company; they hunt 
agoutis, pacas, and wild gallinaca3. The Indians 
say also that they eat the berries of several plants, 
particularly those of the houmiri (houmiria bal- 
samifera ?) ; and a solitary cry, sometimes heard in 
the most dense forest, is ascribed to them. 





Dusicyon fulvipes. 


Vulpes fulvipes, Martin. Culpeu ? of Molina. 

This species is two feet in length, the tail nine 
inches, the height at the shoulder ten inches. It 
has, according to Mr Martin, « a remarkably stout 
form of body and shortness of limbs; the tail is 
rather short, with hairs of moderate length, except 
the extremity, where it forms an abrupt full tuft 
tipped with sooty black ; the fur in general is full, 
rather deep and harsh ; on the body the colour is 
hoary mixed with black, the latter predominating 
down the back ; head rather fulvous, grizzled with 
hoary ; the muzzle and chin dusky ; edges of the 
lips white ; ears short, chestnut brown ; outside the 
anterior limbs are dusky black freckled with ful- 
vous, inner side and toes pale fulvous brown; a 
dark spot above the tarsal joint; tarsi and toes 
fulvous brown; upper coat of hair dusky brown 
at base, with a yellow white band above and 
black tips, whence the grizzled appearance of the 

general colour." 

VOL. I. 








Chiloe ; it showed surprise at the presence of man, 
but made no attempt to escape; from which cir- 
cumstance, and the few particulars known concern- 
ing the Culpeu of Molina, it is inferred to be that 








' * ^ ~ 




We pass from the subdiurnal Aguara Dogs, by an 
almost insensible degree, to the Aguara Foxes, whose 
structure is more completely vulpine, having tails 
with brushes even larger and longer than those of 
true foxes. They are equally low on the legs, 
equally supple, with a fur nearly as abundant, and 
kept very clean, with colours forming mixtures of 
grey, buff, white, and black, the tip of the tail 
always black; but their eyes do not appear to 
assume the vertical contraction with equal facility 
or perfection, and they are thence more crepuscular 
than nocturnal, prowling only in moonlight nights, 
and keeping abroad till the sun becomes hot. They 


Dttsicyon and Canis ft 









Cerdocyon mesoleucus, Nobis. 


We place at the head of the present group a speci- 
men which is marked in some measure like the 
Thous mesomelas of the Cape, and is intermediate 
between the last group and the present. It was 
kept during the space of about four years in the 
house of a° friend residing near Plymouth, where 
opportunities were frequent of watching its charac- 
ter and manners ; and being a great favourite with 
the owner, who is familiar with field sports, and 
therefore qualified to judge with discrimination, we 
learn that in most respects it was as playful as a 
young fox, having all the vivacity and dexterity of 
that species. It was perfectly tame and good-tem- 
pered; but in no instance was the eye observed 
otherwise than with a circular pupil, and it was 
quite destitute of all offensive odour. The specimen 
measured twenty-eight inches in length, the tail 
eleven inches, standing high on the legs, with slen- 
der limbs and small feet, and the whole structure 
remarkably light ; the incisor teeth were small and 
the canines were slender, and never greatly exceeded 
the length of the external incisors ; the whiskers, 
bristles on the cheeks and above the eyes, were long 






and black, as were also the muzzle, edge of the lips, 
and eyelids; there were five toes on all the feet, 
those on the hind feet well developed and armed 
with long claws ; the nose, back of the ears, a small 
space on the shoulders, and the hinder face of the 
legs were reddish buff, the front paler, and the 
inside more grey; round the eyes the hair was 
whitish hoary ; the cheeks and forehead yellowish 
grey ; from the nape of the neck all over the back 
to three or four inches down the tail the colour was 
blackish prey, with a bar on the neck and another be- 
hind the shoulders of nearly pure white, relieved by 
deep black, but with some whitish intermixed with it, 
passing down towards the elbows and a third white 
bar across the root of the tail : the ridge of the 
back was nearly black, but grizzling downwards in 
irregular brindles of black and white to the sides, 

which with the breast, hams, and belly were grey ; 

the tail formed a regular brush, but proportionally 
shorter than that of the foxes, furnished with grey 
hairs to the end where it was black, with a few 
white hairs at the tip ; the ears were rather large, 
pointed, thickly furred with grey hair, and a little 
fulvous at the back ; the external part of the thighs 
was white down to the tarsus; the sides of the 
neck, shoulder, flanks, and hams delicate grey ; the 
limbs pale buff. This beautiful animal came from 
South America, and, judging from the density of 
the fur, belonged to rather a high latitude. It forms 
a kind of counterpart to Thous mesomdas of the 
Cape, and might be mistaken for it. 




f : 




Cerdocyon guaraxa. 


The Guaracha of Northern Brazil. 

There are several varieties or races of the Brazilian 
and Paraguay Guaracha. Both Prince Maximilian 
of Wied and Dr Rengger classed them among true 
foxes, but the last mentioned naturalist admits that 
it can be tamed, and with superior powers of scent 
is used in hunting, though with but indifferent 
docility. It is a dangerous companion among poul- 
try, when unobserved ; and the Doctor reports the 
eyes, though round, when turned against the full 
light of day, to become vertically slit as in true 
foxes ; yet they do not stir abroad in dark nights. 
It is to this species in particular we allude when 
remarking upon the singular propensity manifested 
by them to steal and secrete particular objects: 
bridles and pocket-handkerchiefs have been carried 
off in this manner, and subsequently found in bushes 
at some distance. 

The first variety is we believe represented among 
the original drawings of Prince John Maurice of Nas- 
sau-Siegen, already mentioned, and therein named 




Guaraxa, which Professor Lichtenstein, in his care- 
ful review of the works of Marcgrave and Piso, 
compared with the above drawings, considers to be 
synonymous with d'Azara's Aguarachay. In form 
and stature the Guaraxa is very like the Mesoleu- 
cus, the head and limbs appearing equally small 
and light, when compared with the volume of body 
and tail, both being covered with loose and rather 
coarse hair, the tail is however much longer; the 
nose, cheeks, and forehead sooty grey ; the nose to 
the eyes, the back of the ears, and extremities from 
the joints downwards sepia brown ; the neck, back, 
belly, sides, hams, and tail yellowish white, darker 
on the back flanks and hams, and waved on the 
neck, back, and croup with indistinct bars of sepia 
brown, which appears likewise in similar forms on 
the tail, where there are about three bars and a 
sooty tip. 



Cerdocyon Azarce. 


Canis Azarse, Prince Maximilian of Wied. 

This yariety, belonging to the plains and woods of 
Brazil and Paraguay south of the equinoctial line, 
but spreading partially to the north of it, is similar 
in general form, resembling an European fox, but 
with the head more like a Thous, the neck less 
implanted between the shoulders, and the brush less 
furnished with long hair, the fur on the body is 
pale yellowish grey, on the back being mixed with 
black ; a black streak on the shins, the rest buff ; 
the tip of the lips white ; under jaw dark brownish 
grey, and inferior parts whitish ; the tip of the tail 
black. The length from nose to tail is about twenty- 
three inches, the tail fourteen inches, the ears two 


The animals of this species, found more to the 

southward, and represented in the Zoology of the 

Beagle, appear by the figure publised in the second 

number to be nearly black on the ridge of the back 

and tail, excepting towards the extremity, where a 



— I 




white band interposes immediately above the b ack 
tip • the face and legs are brown, without the black 
streak on the shins, and the sides more mixed with 

pale grey. - 

Mobs. Fred. Cuvier regards the Aguarachay ot 
d'Azara as the C. cinereo argentms of authors, but 
there is no resemblance in the colours, figure, or 
manners j one belongs to South and the other to 
North America. The Guaracha barks, lives on 
terms without restraint when brought up m the 
house, his manners resembling those of the C. Me- 
soleucus ; the young are blackish and white. 1 he 
three coloured animal is a true fox, of which we 
have seen several in a living state, but always 
chained, having the nocturnal eye, the odour, and 
instinct of foxes ; and of a great number of skms 
we examined, there was not one without the space 
of true fox colour behind the ears and on the joints, 
though some were rather darker than others in the 
fur on the back ; the colour was a purer grey, often 

silvery. ,,,.', , 

On reconsidering the varieties of this last species, 

we are inclined to conclude that our figure of Cer- 
docyon cancrivorus represents the young, of which 
Prince Maximilian of Wied's Canis Azarai is the 
adult, and our Guaracha only a different race of the 

same species. 










Cerdocyon Magellanicus . 


Vulpes Magellanicus, Gray. — Canis Magellanicus, Zool. of the 

Voyage of H. M. S. Beagle. 

The figure of this species is published in the above 
cited work, but the letterpress has not as yet ap- 
peared; we therefore refer to the dimensions and 
description in Mr Gray's notice of Mammalia in 
Loudon s Magazine of Natural History, vol. i. page 

577- It is there denominated Magellanic Fox, and 
represented to be " greyish varied with black on 
the back; the cross band on the nape and upper 
part of the tail black; head pale yellowish; back 
of the ears, nape, sides of the limbs, and under parts 
of the tail bright fulvous ; chin, throat, chest, belly, 
and front of legs white. Length of head eight 
inches, body twenty inches, tail twelve inches. In- 
habits Magellanic Straits. Presented to the Museum 
by Captain King, R. N." The figure published by 
Mr Darwin represents an animal in form resem- 
bling the fox of Norway, being equally robust in 
structure and low in stature ; the colours are light 





grey, intermixed with fulvous and blackish along 
the back and at the tip of the tail. 

We do not know if it is this species which is 
stated to exist also on the Falklands, and to have 
been nearly extirpated by the larger Dwicyon 

END OF vol. i 












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