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LIST OF VOLUMES 



OF THE 



NATURALIST'S LIBRARY, 

IN THE ORDEK IN WHICH THEY WERE PUBLISHED. 



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1. HUMMING-BIRDS, Vol. I. Thirtx-six Coloured Plates ; 

with Portrait and Memoir of Linnaeus. 

2. MONKEYS, Thirty-two Coloured Plates ; with Portrait 

and Memoir of Buffon. 

3. HUMMING-BIRDS, Vol. II., Thirty-two Coloured Plates; 

with Portrait and Memoir of Pennant. 

4. LIONS, TIGERS, &c.. Thirty-eight Coloured Plates ; with 

Portrait and Memoir of Cuvier. 

5. PEACOCKS, PHEASANTS, TURKEYS, &c.. Thirty 

Coloured Plates ; with Portrait and Memoir of Aristotle. 

6. BIRDS OF THE GAME KIND, Thirty-two Coloured 

Plates • with Portrait and Memoir of Sir T. S. Raffles, 

7. FISHES OF THE PERCH GENUS, &c., Thirty-two 

Coloured Plates ; with Portrait and Memoir of Sir 
Joseph Banks. 

8. BEETLES (Coleopterous Insects), Thirty-two Coloured 

Plates ; with Portrait and Memoir of Ray. 

9. PIGEONS, Thirty-two Coloured Plates ; with Portrait and 

Memoir of Pliny. 

10. BRITISH BUTTERFLIES, Thirty-six Coloured Plates; 

with Portrait and Memoir of Werner. 

11. RUMINATING ANIMALS; containing Deer, Ante- 

lopes, Camels, &c.. Thirty-five Coloured Plates ; with 
Portrait and Memoir of Camper. 

12. RUMINATING ANIMALS ; containing Goats. Sheep, 

WitD and Domestic Cattle, &c., Thirty-three Co- 
loured Plates ; with Port, and Mem. of John Hunter. 

13. THICK-SKINNED QUADRUPEDS (Pachidermata),— 

Thirty-one Colomred Plates ; with Portrait and Memoir 
of Sir Hans Sloane. 

14. BRITISH MOTHS, SPHINXES, &c., Thirty-two Co- 

loured Plates ; with Portrait and Memoir of Madame 
Merian. 



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11 . LIST OF VOLUMES. 

15. PARROTS, Tliirty-two Coloured Plates; v/ith Portrait 

and Memoir of Bewick. 

16. WHALES, Thirty-two Coloured Plates; with Portrait 

and Memoir of Laeeperle. 

17. BIRDS OF WESTERN AFRICA, Vol. I., Thirty-four 

Coloured Plates, witii Portrait and Memoir of Bruce. 

18. FOREIGN BUTTERFLIES, Thirty-three ColouredPlates; 

witV Portrait and Memoir of Lamarck. 

BIRDS OF WESTERN AFRICA, Vol. II., Thirty-four 
Coloured Plates ; with Port, and Mem. of Le Vaillant. 

20. BIRDS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND, 

Part I., Thirty-six Coloured Plates ; with Portrait and 
Memoir of Sir Rohert Sibbald. 

21. FLYCATCHERS ; their Natural Arrangement and Rela- 

tions, Thirty-three Coloured Plates ; with Portrait and 

Memoir of Baron Haller. 
BRITISH QUADRUPEDS, Thirty-six Coloured Plates ; 

with Portrait and Memoir of Ulysses Aldrovandi. 
AMPHIBIOUS CARNIVORA; including the Walrus 

and Seals, and the Herbivorous Cetacea, Mermaids, 

&:c., Thhfcy-three Coloured Plates ; with Portrait and 

Memoir of Francis Peron. 

24. BIRDS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND, 

Part IL, Thirty-two Coloured Plates; with Portrait 
and Memoir of William Smellic. 

25. DOGS, Vol. I., Thirty-tliree Coloured Plates ; with Por- 

trait and Memoir of Pallas. 

HONEY-BEE, Thirty-two Coloured Plates ; with Portrait 
3.nd Memoir of Huber. 

FISHES, particularly their Structure and Economical 
L^ses, &c., Thirty-tlu^ee Coloured Plates ; with Portrait 
and Memoir of Salviani. 

28. DOGS, Vol. IL, Thirty-two Coloured Plates ; with Por- 
trait and Memoir of Don Felix D**Azara. 

2.9. INTRODUCTION TO ENTOMOLOGY, Thirty-eight 

Coloured Plates ; with Memoirs of Swammerdam and 
De Geer, and Portrait of the latter. 

30. HORSES (Equida3), containing Asses, Zebras, &c. ; 

Thirty-five Coloiued Plates ; with Portrait and Memoir 
of Gesner, 



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EDINBURGH.. 
W.H.LIZATiS. 

LONDON: SAMTJEI. HI&HLEY52.rLEKT STREET, 

HUBLlNiW-CUlUiYJUNR ^ C? 



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THE 



NATURALIST'S LIBRARY 





CONDUCTED BY 



SIR WILLIAM JARDINE, BART. 

F.R. S. E., F. L. S., &C. &C. 



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MAMMALIA 



VOL. XII. 



H E S E S. 

^ 

THE EQUID^ OR GENUS EQUUS 

OF AUTHOES. 



BY 



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LIEUT-COL. CHAS. HAMILTON SMITH, 

K.H. AND K.W., F.R. AND L. S., PRESIDENT OF THE DEVON ANO 

CORNWALL NAT. HIST. SOCIETY, &C. &C. 



EDINBURGH : 

W. II. LIZARS, 3, ST. JAMES' SQUARPJ ; 

8. IIIGHLEY, 32, FLEET STREET, LONDON ; AKD 

W. CURRY, JUN. AND CO. DUBLIN. 

1841. 



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EDINBURGH 1 
PBINTED BY W. H. I.IZARS, 







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THE 



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NATURAL HISTORY 



OF 



HORSE S. 

THE EQUIDiE OR GENUS EQUUS 

OF AUTHORS. 








BY 



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LIEUT.-COL. CHAS. HAMILTON SMITH, 

K.H. AND K.W., F.R. AND L. S., PRESIDENT OP THE DEVON AND 

CORNWALL NAT. HIST. SOCIETY, &C. &C. 




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ILLUSTRATED BY THIRTY-FIVE COLOURED PLATES, 

WITH PORTRAIT AND MEMOIR OP 

GESNER, 










EDINBURGH : 



W. H. LIZ A RS, 3, ST. JAMES' SQUARE ; 

S. HIGHLEY, 32, FLEET STREET, LONDON ; AND 

W. CURRY, JUN. AND CO. DUBLIN. 

1841. 



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ADVERTISEMENT 



FROM THE PUBLISHER. 



We have again to lament the delay which lias 
taken place in bringing out a Volume of this popular 
Work ; and although not in the order we promised 
in our last advertisement, we have now the pleasure 
of publishing the present, from the pen and pencil of 
a most distinguished contributor, one which cannot 
fail of interesting all classes ; for the Horse is, in- 
deed, in the concluding words of the Author, " the 
animal destined by Almighty Wisdom to be the 
solace and servant of man." 

In our last publication we anticipated that the 
Natural History of the Marsupialia, or pouched 
animals, would have taken precedence of this Vo- 
lume, but, from unavoidable delay, it must be our 
next in order. 

We are most happy to be able now to assure our 
Subscribers of the steady progress of this Work 



that 



until the Forty Volumes are completed, 
the subject just mentioned, and the first on the 
Fishes of the Essequibo and Guiana, by Mr. Schom- 
burgk, are far advanced, indeed almost ready for 





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ADVERTISEMENT 



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publication, — while all the remainder are in a state 
of great progress. 

We avail ourselves of inserting the following very 
interesting Letter from Major Gwatkin, the informa- 
tion contained in which would have been introduced 
in our pages, had they not been printed off before 
its receipt ; and we now beg leave to offer, in this 
place, our best acknowledgments to our friend the 
talented Author, Colonel C. Hamilton Smith, for 
the great pains he has bestowed in his researches, 
and the promptitude with which he has carried the 
Volume through the press. 

3, St. James' Square, Edinburgh, 

Ma^ 4, 1841. 



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Extract of a Letter to CoL Hamilton Smithy written 
since the Work went to Press^ and received from 
Major Gwatkin^ Superintendent of the Hon, East 
India Company s Stud in Northern India, Dated 
Camp^ \bth February y 1841. 



. . . " I am glad to find you in a measure confirm 
an impression I have taken up, that the Arab is a 
pure and almost a distinct breed. I have at times 
brought the Arab blood to the notice of the British 
public by occasional letters in Mr. Pitman s Sporting 
Magazine. The Arabs are particular in continuing 
the purity of their blood, and to it all the best horses 
bred, in what we term India, more or less, owe 

their origin, on the side of the sire. We have in 



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ADVERTISEMENT. 



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India as many variations in figure, general form, 
temper, &c. as in the different counties of England. 
*' The original mare of India is very inferior in 
shape, and generally a jade, with narrow chest, 
drooping mean quarters, and if beyond fourteen 
hands three inches, runs to leg ; even to this day, 
after the importation of many English horses^ this 
defect continues, and you never meet that great 
length, with depth of brisket, which is so distin- 
guishing a mark of the English horse, without the 
fault of a long hack. 

" In the stud of Haupper, the native breeders 
select whichever stallion pleases their fancy; for 
judgment they have none : size is their best recom- 
mendation. At the central stud, the stallions are 
located within a space of fifty square miles, and are 
more under the immediate control of the officers, 
because the mares are the property of the govern- 
ment; but even there the same fault exists, after 
so many years of attention, and above fifteen hands 

the breed is leggy. 

The Tattoo, or pony of the country, is strong 
but cross made; generally employed in carrying 
burthens: those bred about Patna and in Bengal 
have certainly a cross of the ' Duckney ' or of the 
Arab, and are superior to those of our more northern 
possessions. The real native horses of the Dooab 
(between the Ganges and the Jumna) were for- 
merly a weedy coarse breed, but for a century have 
been undergoing improvement ; and within the last 
twenty years it has been great ; for anteriorly the 




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Persian and Duckney stallions had but partially 
advanced it, but since that time, when the Haupper 
stud was established by the India Company, the 
merit is become so decided, that out of five hundred 
and seven yearlings bought by the superintendent 
for the service, five hundred and six passed muster 
when they were four years old. 

'' There are, or I should say there was, a class of 
horse called the Jungle Tauzie ; they sprung from 
the common mare and the real Eraun Tauzie stal- 
lion ; they were in some consideration, but are now 
very scarce. Some twenty-five years ago, many horses 
were imported into Upper India from Bokhara, and 
were called northern horses ; their chief character 
was a very fine head, but with a very long back, 

'' From the Bokhara hills, we obtain a species of 
galloway called ' Ghoonts,' and another caste called 
' Toorkees ;' the latter again are distinguished by 
the term ' Rahwals,' which means amblers, and 
^ Chargoseahs/ meaning ears cut, not cropped, but 
slit from the top. 

" There is also a breed of horse called ' Ma- 

jinis,' which means mixture. The breed is a cross 
from the real Eraun Tauzie and Turkoman with the 
Bokhara mare: they have also a mixture of the 
Arabian sire. The ' Majinis' is the battle-horse 
of the Rajpoot, and in the days of turmoil amongst 
the native chieftains, was considered the best and 
noblest in the field ; having a fine generous temper, 
large bone, great strength, hardy, and long lived. 
Three and four thousand rupees was a common 



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ADVEKTISEMENT. 



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sum given for one. The cliieftains of Eajpoo- 
tanah often gave much more to the Persian mer- 
chants who brought them down to this the Seik 

country. 

" From the Majinis sprung another class called 
the ' Raje Darra/ bred in the vicinity of Pokhur. 
Again, we have a treed called],^ Kutch/ or ' Kah- 
teawar / Kutch bemg the country where the mares 
are bred. The sire is the Arab! they are active, 
but not^thought lasting, and generally sulk on the 
spur. £They are generally greys or light duns, and 
almost invariably have the zebra marks on the 
arms and thighs, with list down the back, j This, 

I suspect, is the horse referred to by Bishop Heber. 

" Another breed is the ' Duckanee,' from the 
Deckan ; they are from an Arab sire and native mare, 
and highly prized. Those called the ' Bhemra' are 
the best. Other classes are distinguished in this 
breed by the country of their dams, — ' Mecundase,' 
' Chunddase,' ' Najpore,' &c- 

" The colours of horses by the Hindoo Shasters 
are three: — 1. Sheah Jannoo^ or bay, — the term 
means black points ; 2. Soorung^ chestnut or red ; 
3. Nookra^ white, with black eyes and skin. 

I have met horses in India, brought from beyond 
Caubul, so curiously spotted, you wou.ld declare they 



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were painted. 'TKnovroTohe which I shall probably 
see again in the course of the month. Mr. Reynolds 
Gwatkin, who is with me, says he will take a 
sketch for you and send it by next mail." . . • 



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CONTENTS 



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Memoir op Gesner . . 

Natural History op the Equid^. — Introduction . 

Breeds of Horses noticed by the Ancients 

Medo- Persian Horse, ancient maned Dun Stock, from 

Bas-reliefs of the Che-el-minar Plate A. fig. 1. 

Egyptian Horse, Ancient Bay Stock, from Thebes, 

Plate A. fig. 2. . 
Skeleton of the Horse, Plate I. 
External Muscles of the Horse, Plate H. 

The WUd Horse 

The Tarpan Wild Horse, primaeval Bay Stock, from a 

Drawing sent from Russia, Plate III. 
Feral Horses of America . . • 

The Equid>e in General . . . . 

The Horse. Equus cahallus . - . . 

The Domestic Horse. Equus cahallus domesiicus 

Races and Breeds of Domestic Horses 

The Arabian Race, Plate VIII. 

The Barb of Morocco .... 

The Shrubat-ur-reech, grey, of the Morocco Desert, 

from the print published in Italy, Plate XI. 

The Bomou White Race of Africa, drawn frcm life by 
Col. Hamilton Smith, Plate X. 

The Dongola white-footed Slack, from the Lithograph 
published in Italy- It represents the horse which 
carried a Mameluke chief from the Upper Nile across 
the Desert to Tunis ! Plate X.* . 



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CONTENTS. 






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The Ttirkish Race ..... 

The Persian ...... 

The Toorkee Races . . . . ' , 

East Indian Races (see Advertisement, p. viii.) 

The Paramero of Peru, from a beautiful Model done 

in Peru. Plate XII. . . . . 

The EngUsh Breeds of Horses . 

The English Race-horse. Eclipse, from the print, 

drawn to scale by Sainbel. Plate IX. 
The Villous Horse, primseval White Stock, drawn from 

life by Col. Hamilton Smith. Plate IV. . 
Marengo Arab, once the property of the Emperor Bo- 
naparte, white breed of the Bay Stock, from the 

print. Plate VIII. .... 

Crisp-haired Horse, probable original Stock of the 

Black Horse, drawn from life by Col. Hamilton 

Smith. Plate Y. \ . . ' 

The English Draught Horse, Black Race, from life, by 

Col. Hamilton Smith. Plate XIII. . 

Decussated Horse, Eelback Duri of the Ukraine, drawn 

from life by Col. Hamilton Smith. Plate VI. 
Head of Hungarian Horse, with slit septum naris, from 

a drawing by Zo^ani.' Plate XXXI, 
Shetland Pony, from life, by Mr. Stewart. Plate XV. 
The Saran Race , ' . 

Tiie TangTimj or Tangan, Piebald primseval Stock of 

Tibet, domesticated race of Sikim, Lower Tibet ; 

drawing sent from India. Plate VII. " , 

The Koomrah (by mistake named Lalisio), Equiis Mp- 
pagrus^ from life, by Col. Hamilton Smith. PL XVI. 

The Asinine Group . 

The Yo-to-tze (by mistake named Hippagrus), Asinus 
equuleits^ from life, by Col. Ham. Smith. PL XVII. 

The Onager, Asimis onager^ from life, by Col Hamil- 
ton Smith. Plate XVIII. . 

The Wild Ass of Persia, Asinus hamar^ from Sir R. 

Kerr Porter- Plate XIX, . 



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CONTENTS. 



The Domestic Ass. Asinus domesticus 

The Pjiggetai (by mistake engraved Quagga Male), 

Asinus hemio?ius, from the print, An. Lithograjoh.^ of 

Fred. Cuvier. Plate XX. .. 

The Hippotigrine Group of Zebras . 

The Zebra Male, from life, by Col. Hamilton Smith 
Plafce XXL 

■ ■ • • 

The Angola Dauw, Hippotigru antiquorum^ by Mr 
Stewart. Plate XXII. 

Dauw Mare and Colt, Hippotigris BurcJielli^ by Mr 
Stewart. Plate XXIII. . . . . 

The Quagga, Hippotigris quacha, from life, by Col. Ha- 
milton Smith., Plate XXIY. . , v . 

The Isabella Quagga, Hippotigris isahellinus^ from spe- 
cimen in the British Museum, by Col. Hamilton 
Smith. Plate XXV. 

The Mules . . . , . 

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Brood Mare and third Foal, with marks of Qnagga 
from the paintings by Agasse, in Surgeons' College 
London. Plate XIV. ... 

Filley, bearing ditto, from ditto, Plate XXVL 
Colt, bearing ditto, from ditto. Plate XXVIL 
Hybrid first Foal of Brood Mare and Quagga, from 

ditto. Plate XXIX. 
Hybrid Ass and Zebra, from drawing by Mr. Stewart 

Plate XXVIIL .... 
The Hinny, from a drawing made at Paris, by Col 
Hamilton Smith. Plate XXX. 



Portrait of Gssner 
Vignette Title-page . 



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In all Thirty-five Plates in this Volume, 



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LIST OF PLATES. 




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PLATE 

A. MedoPersian and Egyptian Horses, from ancient 

Ba&-reliefs . • . , 

1. Skeleton of the Horse. 

2. External Muscles of the Horse. 

3. The Tarpan Wild Horse, primaeval Bay Stock 

4. The Villous Horse, primseval White Stock 

5. Crisp-haired Horse, probable original Black Stock 

6. Decussated Horse, Eelback Dun of the Ukraine 

7. The Tangum Piel-ald, primaeval Stock of Tibet 

8. Marengo Arab, once the property of the Emperor 

Bonaparte, white breed of the Bay Stock 

9. Eclipse. The English Race-horse 

10. The Bomou White Race of Africa 
10.* The Dongola Race 

11. The Shrubat-ur-reech 

12. The Paramero of Peru 

13. The English Draught Horse, Black Race 

1 4. Brood Mare and third Foal, with marks of Quagga 

15. Shetland Pony 

1 6. The Koomrah. Equm Uppagrm 

17. The Yo-to-tz^. Asinus equuleus , 

18. The Onager. Asinus onager 

19. The Wild Ass of Persia. Asinus hamar 

20. The Djiggetai, ' Asinus hemionus , 

21. The Male Zebra . 

22. The Angola Dauw. Hippotigris antiquorum 

23. Dauw Mare and Colt. Hippotigris BurcJielli 

24. The Quagga. Hippoligris quacha 

25. The Isabella Quagga. Hippotigris isahellinus 

26. Filley, bearing marks of Quagga . 
27- Colt, third issue of Brood Mare, and second by 

Black Arab T . . . 

28. Hybrid Ass and Zebra 

29. Hybrid first Foal of Brood Mare and Quagga 

30, The Hinny . . . • 

31, Head of Hungarian Horse, with slit septum naris 



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Portrait of Gesner 
Vignette Title-page . 



In all Thhiy-five Plates in this Volume, 



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MEMOIR OF GESNER. 



In several of the biographical memoirs accompany- 

mgr former volumes of this Work, we have, given 
a record of the labours, and attempted to appreciate 
the merits, of some of the most eminent naturahsts 
who flourished in the sixteenth century. Such of 
them belonging to that early period as deserve to 
be held in remembrance, are comparatively few in 
number ; but these few are entitled to our warmest 
gratitude. It was by their means that Natural 
History was enabled to emerge from the obscurity 
in which it was sunk, in common with every other 
department of knowledge, during the long intellec- 
tual night of the dark ages. 
may be described as having " eyes but who saw 
not, ears but heard not, and understandings but un- 
derstood not;' had given place to others in which 
the senses and faculties were beginning to be con- 
verted to their proper use. Individuals appeared 
in various countries making observations for them- 
selves, collecting and appropriating the knowledge 
which had been transmitted by the sages of Greece 



The generations who 



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MEMOIR OF GESNER. 



and Rome, and, in short, accomplishmg, tliough in 
a smaller degree, for natural history, what Dante, 
Petrarch, and others, had previously done for lite- 
rature. 

Among the small hand of congenial spirits hy 
whom this result was hrought ahout, there is none 
more meritorious than Conrad Gesner. Indeed, 
when we consider his high scholarship, indefatigable 
industry, general knowledge of natural history, and 
the influence which his works have had on the pro- 
gress of knowledge, it may perhaps be doing him 
injustice not to assign him the first place. We 
should not at least hesitate to do so, were we to 
trust implicitly to the eulogium.s that have been 
passed on him by his admirers, for he has been 
affirmed to be the greatest naturalist the world had 
seen since Aristotle, the discoverer of the only true 
principles of a botanical arrangement in the flower 
and fruit, to which the very existence of botany as 
a science is owing, — as the German Pliny, a pro- 
digy of diligence, learning, and penetration. Even 
the more philosophical and discerning judgment of 
Cuvier allows him a high degree of merit, v/liicli 
will, we think, be fully borne out by the character 
of his works hereafter to be examined. 



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NER was bom at Zurich on the 26tl; 



Conrad 

March, 1516. His parents were in very humble 
circumstances; his father, Ours Gesner, being a 
worker in hides, and his mother, Barbara Friccia, 
of a very poor though respectable family. Having 







MEMOIR OF GESNER. 



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a numerous offspring besides Conrad, his parents 
CO aid do little to encourage the love for reading and 
learning which he showed at an early period. But 
his maternal uncle, John Friccius, who was a minis- 
ter, did every thing in his power to promote the 
talents which he could not fail to discover in his 
young relative ; and it was to this individual that 
Conrad was indebted for the rudiments of his edu- 
cation. Besides instructing him in the elements of 
literature, his uncle inspired him with a love for 
the study of plants, from which the transition be- 
came easy to other branches of natural history. 
He had a garden well supplied with plants, in- 
cluding many of the rarest kinds then known, the 
care of which was in a great measure entrusted to 
young Gesner, who even at this early perjod 
quired some reputation in his immediate neiphbour- 



ac- 



bood as an herbalist. But before his progress had 
been considerable, this valuable friend was removed 
by death, and Gesner's prospects assumed a very 
■unpromising aspect. He vv-as taken for a while, 
however, into the family of John James Ammianus, 
a professor of polite literature, who gratuitously 
superintended his studies, and show^ed him many 
acts of kindness otherwise for a period of three years. 
Shortly after the death of his uncle, his father, 
■who was engaged in the civil wars of Switzerland, 
Was killed in the battle of "Zug (the same in which 
the famous reformer Zwinglius perished) ; and thus 
deprived of any assistance that might be expected 
from that quarter, he was thrown entirely on his 



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own resources. 
years of age 



MEMOIR OF GESNER. 

He was at this time about fifteen 



informs ns, 



The 



He proved for a time, however, so unfortunate in 
obtaining the means of prosecuting his studies, that 
he was reduced to great extremities ; and he is even 
said, by one of his biographers, to have repaired to 
Strasburg and engaged himself as a servant. * The 
same authority on which this statement is made 

^ that his master soon discovered his 

strong inclination for study, and was so indulgent 
as to afford him every opportunity of doing^so, 
consistently with the duties of his station, 
knowledge he now acquired, added to his previous 
attainments, rendered his scholarship highly respec- 
table, and he was employed for a time by Capiton, 
a distinguished scholar of the day, to assist him m 
his literary labours. With the means acquired m 
these various ways, and aided by a contribution 
from the prebendaries of Zurich, who manifested 
considerable interest in the welfare of their towns- 
man, he was enabled to repair to Bourges and com- 
mence the study of medicine, a profession which 
both expediency and inclination led him to ad^opt. 
Subsequently to this, and when he was -^""* 
eighteen years of age, he visited Paris, where he 
remained for a considerable time, devoting himself 
entirely to the acquisition of different branches of 
learning, and completing his acquaintance with the 

* This circumstance is not mentioned by Schmiedel, one of 
Gesner's ablest biograpbers, and may therefore be considered 
as questionable. 



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MEMOIR OF GESNER. 



21 



ancient languages of Greece and Rome, in which he 
attained more than usual proficiency. During his 
residence in the French capital his circumstances 
were often much straitened, and he was frequently 
relieved on these occasions by a young Bernoin of 
noble family, named Steiger, with whom he had 
contracted a friendship. But all his resources were 
ultimately exhausted, and he was obliged to return 
to Strasburg, in the hope that his friends m that 
city would be able to obtain for him some employ- 
ment either as a private or public teacher. Here, 
however, his stay was very short, for we find that, 
in 1536, he returned to his native place, and opened 
a school for teaching the languages and philosophy. 

He was now about twenty years of ao-e, and 
although his professional studies were far from beino* 
completed, and his situation in life unsatisfactory 
and precarious, he thought proper to marry ; and 
notwithstanding the remonstrances of liis friends on 
the imprudence of such a step, under the circum- 
stances, he never appears to have had the least 
reason to regret having taken it, but in every 
respect the contrary. 

We are not informed what success attended him 
in his capacity as an instructor of youth, but while 
so employed he conciliated the good will of the 
magistrates of Zurich, who, appreciating his learn- 
ing and abilities, sought to obtain him the means of 
turning them to better account. Through their in- 
fluence and support, he was enabled to repair to 
Basle for the purpose of resuming his medical 



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MEMOIR OF GESNER. 



studies, wliicli had suffered a considerable interrup- 
tion. His residence there, however, was hut short, 
not upwards of a year, for the senate of Berne had 
founded an academy at Lausanne, and prevailed on 
him to become one of the teachers. Here he conti- 
nued for about three years, employed, most of that 
time, in teaching Greek. His worldly circum- 
stances being by this time greatly improved, he 
w^as enabled to reside for about a year at Mont- 
pellier, then the seat of a celebrated school of me- 
dicine, and the resort of learned men from all parts 
of Europe. Here he formed a friendship with Ron- 
delet, professor of medicine at Montpellier, and one 
of the ablest naturalists of his age, whos 






excellent 



work, De piscihus marinis^'^ illustrated with w^ood- 
cuts of great merit, has rendered his name known 



and honoured even in the present day. It was, in 
all probability, owing to his intercourse with this 
naturalist, and others then residing at Montpellier, 
that his predilection for the study of Nature was 
fully confirmed, and the resokition, which he ap- 
pears to have formed at a very early period of his 
life, of illustrating it by his writings, first carried 
into effect. 

* Gulielml Eondeletii Libri de plscibus marlnis, in quibas 
verse Piscium effigies cxprcsrj 

foi. Tlxe figures are rudely engraved, as might be expected 
from the state of the art at that period, but the outhnes are in 
■general accurate, and highly characteristic of the species. We 
will not say this rauch, ho-vvever, for the Bishop- fish, and sorae 
others, v/hich afford curious instances of the credulity of 
the age. 



a} sunt. Lugduni, 1.5a4, I vol. 



l^Jx.j 




MEMOIR OF GESNER. 



23 



After many vicissitudes, the most important of 
which have already been alkided to, he obtained his 
degree of doctor of medicine at Basle in 1540, being 
then in his tvfenty-fourth year. '^" He shortly after- 
wa.rds settled as a medical practitioner in Zurich, 
and his success wa.s such that he was enabled to 
devote a portion both of his time and money to the 
prosecution of the studies which he had so much at 
heart. He even had it in his power to make excur- 
sions, at intervals, through various parts of Switzer- 
land, Savoy, &c, in search of plants and other natural 
objects; and, in 1545, he paid a visit to Venice, 
W'here he became acquainted with many individuals 
who were in a condition to promote his views, and 
where he had an opportunity of consulting many 
rare books and manuscripts, whence he derived 
valuable materials for his numerous w^orks both on 
literature and natural history. While there, he de- 
voted much of his time to the examination of the 
fishes of the Mediterranean, writing descriptions of 
them, and getting drawings made by the best artists 
he could obtain. 

From this period the life of Gesner was of a 
pretty uniform tenor, and affords not very many 
incidents of sufficient interest to be deserving of 
minute record. Every moment of his time ivas 






1 



* It is worth while to irierxtion the subjccL cf Gesner's 
Thesis, as an example of the questions then discussed on such 
occasions : — I, An cerebrum sit principium 'sensus et motus, 
a-n cor ? II. An qui cresciint, plurimum habeant calldi in- 
nati ? III. An qualitates formas sint elementorum ? 



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MEMOIK OF GESNER. 



employed on the numerous works he had on hand, 
and scarcely a year elapsed in which he did not lay 
several before the public. The most important of 
these will be afterwards alluded to ; the mere enu- 
meration of their titles would occupy a large space ; 

r 

many of them, moreover, were only of temporary 
value, and a particular account of these could not 
be of much interest in the present day. The cele- 
brity which Gesner had now acquired, both as a 
scholar and naturalist, caused his correspondence to 
be courted by most of the learned of Europe ; and 
find him in communication with nearly all 
those whose names have come down to us as pro- 
moters of learning and science. His botanical gar- 
den included many of the rarest and most curious 
plants then known; and the numerous specimens 
of natural objects sent to him for examination, formed 
the basis of a general museum. Much of his time 
was spent in the most zealous exertions to collect 
materials for his history of animals and plants; 
his reading was interrupted only for the purpose 



we 



(to 



use 



the words of one of his 



) 



'' domi et foris videndo, subinde sciscitando a qui- 
busvis doctis, indoctis, civibus, peregrinisj ventori- 
bus, piscatoribus, aucupibus, pastoribus, et omni 
hominum oenere," in order that his works on these 
subjects might be more perfect than any that pre- 
ceded them. 

In the midst of his multifarious occupations con- 
nected with literature and natural history, he con- 
tinued his practice as a physician ; and, indeed, it 



• 



I 



* 





MEMOIR OF GESNER. 



25 



was from this source that his income was princi- 
pally derived. In 1554 the magistrates of Zurich 
appointed him chief physician (agx/ar^o^), and pub- 
lic professor of philosophy and natural history, an 
honour which he justly merited, and which he 
seems to have valued highly. He had scarcely at- 
tained this more influential sphere of action, than 
he exerted himself to turn it to the public good ; 
and he succeeded in establishing an association of 
medical men to watch over the public health. By 
these means, a college of medicine and surgery was 
ultimately established; and Gesner may thus be 
regarded as the founder of an establishment which 
has been of great service to the city of Zurich up 
to the present day. 

His natural history expeditions into various parts 
of Switzerland, Germany, &c., were frequent, and 
he had an additional motive for undertaking them 
besides his love of collecting, for his constitution 
was naturally feeble, and he had still further im- 
paired it by ardent study, 
sions of less note, we find, that in the year 1555, 
he visited Lucerne and the places adjacent, in com- 
pany with two brother physicians, an d a draftsman 
named John Thoma, He was received with dis- 
tinguished honours by the magistrates of that place, 

honours such as were wont to be paid only to 
those invested with of&ces of public authority. He 
asked permission, as was then the custom, to ascend 
Mont Pilate ( mons fr actus ) ^ and a public officer 
was appointed to conduct him, and guard him from 



Among other excur- 




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MEMOIR OP GESNER. 



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danger ; for the well-known superstition reo-ardino- 
the vicinity of this mountain, was at that time in 
full force. He ascended on the 21st of Auo-nst 
passing the night in a hay-loft. He carefully 



examined everything in which he felt interested, 
and a few days after his return home, published an 
account of the mountain, along with his curious 
treatise, " De Lunariis/' ''* 

It has just been stated that Gesnerwas of a deli- 
cate constitution, and this circumstance' had a con- 
siderable influence on his proceedings during several 
of the latter years of his life. While a youth, he 
was threatened with general dropsy, and although 
the immediate effects of this malady were overcoi 



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it seems to have produced a permanent debility, 
which peculiarly exposed him to the inroads of other 
disorders. In 1565 we find him complaining, in a 
letter to a friend, of an affection of the brain, which he 
says lasted nearly nine years. In 1559 he was afflicted 



with calculus. 



and used all the remedies then 



m 



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vogue, against that excruciating disease. He like- 
wise tried to find relief by travelling, as he was 

wont to do on like occasions. Some of his friends 
at the court of Ferdinand, Emperor of Germany, 
thought that his visit to that country on this 
occasion, afforded a good opportunity of introduc- 
ing him to that monarch, to Avhom his celebrity as 

* Conr. Gcsneri, de raris et admirancTIs herbis, quas sive 
quod noctu luceant, sive alias ob causas. Lunarian nominantur, 
&c. Ejusdem descriptio montis fracti, sive montis Pilati, 
juxta Lucexuam in Helvetia. Tigurini, 4to. (without the year). 





MEMOIR OF GESNEU. 



27 



r 



torv of veo-etables. 

- O 



a scholar and naturalist were well known. His 
reception was liighly flattering, and led the way 
to several important favours, which he afterwards 
received from the hands of the emperor. On this 
journey, Gesner likewise visited Ulm, and ulti- 
mately repaired to the v/arm baths of Baden, that 
he mio'ht try their effect on his health. These 
proved more beneficial than he anticipated, and he 
returned to Zurich greatly invigorated both in body 

and mind. 

The following year he was much occupied in 
forming a new botanic garden, to facilitate the study 
of plants, which now engaged a large share of his 
attention, as he designed to publish a general his- 

Shortly after his appointment 
to the professorsliip of natural history, he had em- 
ployed his increased means in building a museum, 
of such extent, that it contained fifteen windows. 
These windows (we translate the description of his 
biographer, Schmiedel), he ornamented in a manner 
as unusual, as it was agreeable ; on each of them 
he painted most elegantly on the glass, arranged 
according to their classes, different species of marine, 
river, and lacustrine fishes. His shelves contained 
an immense quantity of metals, stones, gems, and 
other natural productions, which he had either ob- 
tained as presents from his friends, or purchased. The 
most liberal of the contributors to his museum^ was 
his friend Kentmann, who, among other objects, 
presented him with a collection of fossil fishes, and 
a great many diflferent kinds of metals. Amidst 



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28 MEMOIR OF GESNER. 

these riches of nature, he was often wont to spend 
his time, seeking tranquilHty of mind from the con- 
templation of them, and refreshing himself after the 
numerous toils and vexations of life^ from which the 
best are not exempted.'^ As a necessary adjunct 
to this museum, he now enlarged and enriched his 
botanic garden, stimulated thereto by having wit- 
nessed the superiority of that of Didymus Obrecht 
at Strasburg. He obtained rare plants from most 
parts of Europe, in particular from France, Italy, 
Britain, Germany, and Poland, and it contained 
many of the most curious kinds found in his own 
country, which is of such great interest in this re- 
spect, as well as in most other of its natural 

features. 

Towards the close of 1560, his health again gave 
way; he was afflicted with severe pain in the 
limbs, and almost entirely lost the use of his right 
leg. Having tried various remedies, without de- 
riving much benefit, he again repaired to Baden, 
and the baths so far restored him, that he was able 

in the beginning of 1561, to visit many different 
parts, both of Germany and Switzerland. He tra- 
versed the Rhetian Alps, ascended Mount Braulius, 
and penetrated into several of the most retired parts 
of the country. Part of the Venetian territory was 
likewise included in this extended expedition, the 
chief object of which was the improvement of his 
health, one, however, quite compatible with the 
study of botany, which he prosecuted with unwea- 

* Schmieders Vita (lo'nradi Gps7iP.Ti..ri YYiiJ 






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MEMOIR OF GESNER. 



29 





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rled zeal. The advantao^e he derived from the warm 
springs of Baden, seems to have likewise turned his 
attention to various mineral springs in Switzerland, 
with a view to ascertain their medicinal properties. 
The water of some of these he used as a bath, and 
others, of a chalybeate nature, were taken internally. 
These various restoratives, in connexion with his 
long travel, bodily exercise, and the agreeable society 
of friends, of whom he had many scattered over the 
whole country, so improved his health, that we find 
him writing, on his return, to one of his friends, 
that he was now stronger than he had been for 
many years. Among other fruits of this expedition, 
his herbarium, garden, and museum, received large 

accessions. 

He now enjoyed a respite for some time from his 

various maladies, and we accordingly find him im- 
mersed in a multitude of literary undertakings, in- 
cluding several publications on botany. It was 
probably, in a great measure, in consequence of the 
too great exertions thereby entailed, that he was so 
soon again compelled (in the month of August 1562) 
to seek relief from the waters of Baden, Avhither he 
repaired, for the third time, in company with his 
wife, whose health had been all along as precarious 

By using the waters in a manner 
somewhat diifferent from his former practice, he 
speedily became convalescent, and in order to fol- 
low up this favourable change, as he had been 
accustomed to do on former occasions, by long con- 
tinued exercise in the open air^ he invited his friend 



as hi 



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MEMOIR OF GESNER. 



This arrano-e- 



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i 

John Bauliine, the well-known botanist, to accom- 
pany him back to Zurich on foot, that they mio-ht 
have abetter opportunity of conversing by the way on 
the subject of their common study, 
ment, however, could not be effected, and Gesne 
returned alone. It was soon after this that 
wrote a long letter to the English botanist. Turner, 
in which he gave a particular account of all hi 
writings up to that date. 

Although Gesner at no time neglected any of the 
great branches of natural history, but used every 
exertion to improve his various works, which may 
be said to embrace them all ; yet, during the two 
or three last years of his life, botany was his prin- 
cipal study. One of the great objects of his ambi- 
tion was, as has been already intimated, to produce 
a history of plants, and foreseeing, doubtless, that 
his life was not destined to be a long one, he re- 
doubled his exertions to attain the purpose he had 
so much at heart. This formed his chief occupa- 
tion in 1563. He had plants in a living state 
brought to him from all parts of the country; 
Bauhine sent him many dried specimens ; and even 
when his health was most precarious, he was in the 
habit of swimming in the lake of Zurich and others 
in that neighbourhood, for the purpose of collecting 
aquatic species. The utmost exertions were at the 
same time made to have these plants drawn and en- 
graved, which was done entirely at his own expense. 
The number, qualities, and ultimate destiny of the 
engravings thus accumulated, we shall afterwards 



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MEMOIR OF GESNEK. 



31 



have Gccasion to allude to. This, and numerous 
other avocations, both of a literary and profes- 
sional nature, were interrupted by a recurrence of 
his old complaints, which occasioned a fourth visit 
to Baden, the only quarter to which he vv^as now 
accustomed to look for relief, nor were his expec- 
tations disappointed even on this extreme occasion. 
Knowing the favourable opinion which the Em- 
peror Ferdinand entertained of his services to science 
and literature, Gesner felt desirous of obtaining some 
public expression of his regard, not only as an en- 
couragement to others to follow his example, but 
as an honorary distinction to his family. This was 
no sooner intimated by his friends, Alexander, 
Amorfort, and Craton, physicians to the court, than 
the wish was immediately complied with; and letters 
patent were issued granting armorial bearings to 
Gesner and his family, with a statement of the cir- 
cumstances for which this honour was conferred. 
Without attemiDtiniT to describe the shield in the 
technical language of heraldry, it may sufnce to say, 
that the devices were all emblematical of the sub- 
jects which Gesner had ilhistrated by his writings. 
Each of the four quarters was occupied by an ani- 
mal an eagle with expanded wings, a lion ram- 
pant, a basilist, and a crowned dolphin ; the crest, 
a swan sitting on a crown of laurel, with three stars 
on its breast, and a like number on each of its ex- 
panded wings. As Gesner was childless, he obtained 
permission that the same arms should be borne by 
Ills uncle, Andrew Gesner, an old man of eighty. 







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as well as his offspring, who were very numerous. 
This honour was accompanied by another mark of 
the Emperor's esteem, which our naturalist valued 
highly, namely, a present of some fragments of bezoir 
stone, which was then very rare, an,d held in high 
estimation. 

Subsequently to this he again visited Baden, and 
for the last time. On his return he was greatly 
distressed by the death of his mother, to whom he 
was very warmly attached : this event took place 
in April 1564. Soon after, the plague, which had 
for some time raged in Basle, made its appearance 
in Zurich ; and Gesner, both on account of his pro- 
fessional experience and scientific skill, was looked 
to more than any other individual for some means 
of checking its ravages. He was not slow in de- 
voting himself to the inquiry ; and the result of his 
investigations soon appeared in a work on the nature 
of the contagion and the best means of cure. He 
was fully sensible of the risk he incurred by visitino- 
so many patients, and had a strong presentiment 

that he was himself to be a victim. In a dream 
which made a great impression on him, he thouo-ht 
that he was bitten by a serpent ; this he interpreted 
to denote the attack of the disease ; and he wrote 
to several of his friends to intimate that he was now 
preparing himself for another world. For the pre- 
sent, however, it pleased Providence to spare him. 
The severity of the disease gradually abated, and 
Gresner was enabled to resume his former occupa- 
tions, and for a considerable time to labour at his 



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MEMOIR OF GESNER. 



33 




favourite work on plants, and likewise another on 

the nature of stones and fossils. 

Although the pestilence had abated, it had 
never entirely left Zurich and its neighbourhood, 
^'Ud about the middle of July, 1565, it again 
broke out in that city with greater virulence than 
before. Gesner witnessed its approach with tran- 
quillity ; but his presentiment again returned, and 
he endeavoured to make preparation for the great 
change which he believed to be near. He was 
seized with the disorder on the 9th of Decern- 
her, when it had a second time greatly moderated, 
and he had again almost overcome his apprehen- 
sions. A large pestilential carbuncle made its ap- 
pearance under his right arm, but it was accom- 
panied with no pain in the head, fever, or other 
bad symptom. His strength w^as so little reduced, 
that he continued to walk about his apartment, 
only reclining occasionally on a couch. But he 
had seen many die w4th precisely the same symp- 
toms, and from the first he indulged no expecta- 
tions of recovery. He therefore called together 
his friends, and delivered to them his will, in 
^hich he made some provision for his wife and 
nephews, and appointed his only surviving sister 
his heiress. His library and manuscripts were en- 

r 

trusted to Caspar Wolf, formerly his pupil, and 
latterly his colleague, with injunctions that his 
^vritings should be carefully perused and arranged, 
and such of them published as were likely to be 

serviceable. 

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MEMOIR OF GESNER, 



- These matters arranged, his whole thoughts were 
turned to futurity, and he conversed calmly with 
Henry Bellinger and John Simler (two clergymen 
with whom he had lived on terms of the most inti- 
mate friendship), using words of hope and resig- 
nation. The fifth day after the commencement of 
his disorder, his medical attendants saw that death 
was near ; but he thought himself better, and de- 
clined having any one to sit by his bed-side during 
the night. About eleven o'clock, however, of the 
same night, he became conscious that his strength 
could hold out very little longer against the violence 
of the disease ; and calling his attendants, he re- 
quested that they would carry him into his museum, 
where he had caused a bed to be prepared for him 
the day before. It was in this place, the scene of 
many a laborious study, and among the objects 
which he had collected with such indefatigable zeal, 
that he breathed his last, in the arms of his wife, 
on the 13th December, 1565, not having quite com- 
pleted his fiftieth year. 

The whole city was thrown into mourning by 
Gesner's death, and his funeral, which took place on 
the following day, was attended by a large con- 
course of people of all ranks. He was interred in 
the cloister of the great church of Zurich, near the 
tomb of his Intimate friend Frisius, who died the 
preceding year. His funeral oration was pronounced 
by Simler, who afterwards became his biographer. 
Many verses, both Greek and Latin, were written 
m his praise ; and among the authors of these we 



% 








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MEMOIR OP GESNEK. 



35 



< 



1 



find Theodore Beza, and many others of scarcely 
inferior name. 

It may be inferred, from what has been already 
said regarding the frailty of Gesner's constitution, 
that there was little likelihood of his attaining an 
advanced age, even if he had escaped the contagion 
which carried him off. The delicacy of his health 
Was indicated by a pallid and almost emaciated 
countenance, the general expression of which was, 



howe 



ver, highly agreeable, and indicative of great 



or undulating, 



sensibility. His forehead was broad, high, and pro- 
niinent, marked with numerous deep wrinkles, the 
result of severe study and profound thought. His 
nose was long and elevated, without being aquiline; 
his lips thin ; mouth expressive and agreeable. His 
beard was copious, long and dense, slightly curled 

" lenitatis ingenii indicium esse 
potest," says his biographer Schmiedel, on whose 
authority we wish the statement to rest. Various 
portraits exist, corresponding to this description; 
that prefixed to this memoir is taken from one 
which w^e regard as the most characteristic. 

The voluminous works of Gesner may be di- 
vided into three classes; first, those on literary 
subjects; secondly, those relating to medicine and 
the materia medica; and, thirdly, those on natural 

r 

history. 

-As it is most appropriate to the purpose we have 
at present in view to consider Gesner as a natu- 
ralist, we do not propose to enter, in this place, into 
a very minute detail of his numerous productions 



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MEMOIR OF GESNER. 



cism 



on the two former of these subjects; but some 
account of them is necessary to enable us to form 
an idea of the extent of his acquirements his extra- 
ordinary powers of application, and the wonderful 
fertility of his genius. Shortly after obtaining his 
degree, he published numerous translations of Greek 
treatises, on various subjects of literature and criti- 

an edition of Martial, &c., besides editing 
several works for his friends. Of the latter we may 
mention that of his friend Moibau, of whose work 
on Dioscorides he superintended the publication, in 
order that the friends of the author might obtain 
the emoluments : that of Valerius Cordus, '^ De 
HistoriaPlantarum,'''a zealous naturalist, who died 
at Rome at the early age of twenty-nine ; and 
lastly, the " Lexicon Rei Herbaria Trilinque" of 
his friend Kyber, who was carried off by the plague 
at Strasburg at an equally eariy age. But his most 
important work in this department was his Bihlio- 
theca Universalis^ the object of which was not only 
to give the titles of all the works then known, in 
Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, whether actually exist- 
ing or lost, but to afford some knowledge of their 
contents, a specimen of their style, and a critical 
estimate of the merits of the respective authors. 
The idea was an excellent one, and has, as is well 
known, been often acted upon since. It is said 
to have suggested to Haller the plan of his Bib- 
Hotheca Britannica, and Biblioth. Anatomica. The 
fi^st part of tlie work was published at Zurich in 
ii>45. This contained the names of the authors 



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MEMOIR OF GESNER. 







arranged alphabetically. The second part, which 
he called the Pandects, appeared in 1548, divided 
into nineteen books, and arranged according to the 
nature of the subjects : the twentieth book was to 
be devoted to medical subjects, but was never 
finished, as the author was unable to satisfy himself 
as to its completeness and accuracy; the twenty-first 
embraced theological authors and did not appear till 
about a year after the rest/^ Many editions of 
Oreek and Latin authors, with notes and commen- 
taries, were published by Gcsner, as well as several 
Dictionaries, amended and enlarged, such as the 
Latin Lexicon Ambr. Calepiniy Greek Dictionary 
of Favorini, &c. He likewise published many por- 
tions of Greek manuscripts which he had copied 
during his travels in Italy and Venice, such as the 
Aphorisms of Abbas Maximus, Institutions of Theo- 
philus, the Oration of Tatianus Assyrius, translating 
several of them into Latin, and adding explanatory 
notes; besides many other treatises relating to an- 
cient literature. One of the most curious and in- 
genious of his productions on literary subjects was 
published in 1555, under the name of Mithridates, 
or an inquiry " De differentiis linguarum," an inves- 
tigation for which his extensive acquaintance both 
with ancient and contemporaneous languages ad- 
mirably qualified him. He originated many views 
in this work which have been more fully developed 

* An abridgment of the Bib. Universalis^ with the addition 
^^ a good deal of new matter, by Simler and J. J. Fries, was 
Pubhshed at Zurich in 1583, 1 vol. fol. 




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MEMOIR OF GKSNER. 



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since by authors who have neglected to mention the 
source from which they derived them. 

Medical men have often expressed their regret 
that the portion of the Bib. Universalis relating to 
the literature of the healing art was never com- 
pleted; the materials which Gesner had amassed 
were certainly extensive (he expressly affirms so in 
a letter to one of his friends), and their publication 
would have been desirable, even although they fell 
short of his own wishes. This desideratum, how- 
ever, was to a certain extent supplied by the publi- 
cation, in 1555, of a large volume entitled, " De 
Chirurgia Scriptores optimi quique veteres et recen- 
tiores, plerique in Germania ante hac non editi, 
nunc a Conr, Gesnero in unum conjuncti volumen," 
to which various treatises on medical subjects are 
appended. Many small treatises on medical sub- 
jects emanated at different times from his prolific 
pen. He published more than one edition of Ga- 
len; that of the date 1562 was enriched with pro- 
legomena, an elaborate life of Galen, and a very 
full list of the authors who had in any way illus- 
trated his doctrines. With a view to induce medical 
men to co-operate with each other, and communi- 
cate their discoveries for the general good, he pub- 
lished,' in 1552, what he called " Thesaurus de 
remediis secretis," &c. This at first appeared under 
the fictitious name of Euonymus; but it came into 
great request, and was afterwards laid before the 
public in an enlarged and amended form, with the 
name of the author attached. " Libelli tres medi- 



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MEMOIR OF GESNER. 



39 



cinales ; unus de sanitate tuenda ; alter contra luxus 
convlviorum; tertius contra notas astrologicas Ephe- 
i^aeridum in secandis venis ;" Avere printed at Zurich 
m 1556. He was likewise the author, or editor, of 
severlal other small works and treatises on subjects 
similar to those mentioned, but we cannot here 
afford space for a full list of them. A little work, 
" De lacte," treating of milk and its various pre- 
parations, which appeared in 1543, may, from the 
luode in which the subject is treated, be regarded as 
a contribution to medical dietetics- 

We shall now proceed to give some account of 
his principal works on Natural History, and shall 
first mention his " Historia Animalium," for that 
is the work with which Gesner's name is usually 
associated, and on which his reputation principally 
depends. It is certainly a singular mass of matter, 
original and compiled, displaying a degree of erudi- 
tion, research, and industry, which might well lead 
us, as has been remarked, to believe, that instead of 
being the work of a physician, who raised and 
maintained himself by his practice, and who was 
cut off in the midst of a most active and useful life, 
it was the labour of a recluse, shut up for an age in 
his study, and never diverted from his object by any- 
other cares. He had conceived the design of such 
an undertaking at an early period of his life, but it 
is not probable, when we consider his other avoca- 
tions, that much of it was executed till a few years 
before its appearance. The numerous friends in 
various parts of Europe whom his- reputation for 



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learning had procured him, encouraged his design 
by transmitting specimens, and remarks on the ani- 
mals of their respective countries.* The jour- 
neys also which he had an opportunity of making, 
afforded him a rich harvest of materials, of which 
he did not fail to avail himself to the uttermost. 
Still it is surprising how he could accomplish so 
much, in the comparatively limited time whicli" he 
could devote to the task. 

The work in question is divided into five books, 
generally bound up, as he himself recommended, in 
three folio volumes. The first part, printed at Zu- 
rich in 1551, treats of viviparous quadrupeds; the 
second, published in 1554, of oviparous quadrupeds ; 
the third, of the date 1 555, of birds ; and the fourth, 
1556, of fishes and other aquatic animals. The 
fifth part was a posthumous publication, drawn up 
from Gesner s manuscripts by James Carron, a phy- 
sician of Frankfort. It is said to be rarer than the 
others; it treats of serpents, and has usually ap- 
pended to it a treatise on the scorpion, published 
from our author s papers under the superintendence 
of Caspar "Wolf. The two latter treatises did not 
appear till 1587, that is, twenty-two years after 
the author s decease. 

Besides this, the original edition, it may be pro- 

* In the list of contributors, to whom he expresses his obli- 
gations, we find the names of Gulielmus Tmrnerus, Anglus ; 
Jo. Caius, medicus Londini clarissimus ; Jo. Fauconerus, An- 
glus ; Jo. Parkhurstus, Anglus, theologiis et poeta elegantissi- 
nius ; and Theodorus Beza. 



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MEMOIR OF GESNER. 



41 



per to mention that a number of others subsequently 
appeared, some in Latin, others in German, and one 
or two in French. Several of these, we believe all, 
^5^e more or less abridged and altered in the arrange- 
ment ; some of them are designed to be mere vehi- 
cles for the woodcuts, with the addition of a portion 
of the original text in explanation of the figures. It 
IS these later and less regular editions which are 
most commonly met with in libraries. 

The animals are simply arranged in the alpha- 
hetical order of their Latin names ; and the account 
of each is divided into eight heads or chapters, 
referring to the following particulars : 1st, the names 
in different languages, ancient and modern ; 2d, de- 
scription of parts external and (occasionally) inter- 
nal, and varieties of the species ; 3d, various actions 
and passions, whether natural or contrary to nature ; 
4th, affections of the mind, manners, and instincts, 
&c. ; 5th, various uses to man, besides food and 
remedies; 6th, uses as food; 7th, diseases; 8th, 
philology, or references made to them by authors, 
■^vhether in prose or verse, the epithets they have 

applied, &c. 

The general arrangement, if such it can be called, 

differs but Jittle from that of Aristotle, the grand 

division being into land and water animals. As an 

example of his mode of subdividing a primary group 

into what he calls orders, we shall give a digest of 

his arrangement of quadrupeds : 



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42 



MEMOIR OF GESNER. 



Quadrupedes aut sunt vivipane, aut oviparse ; illas in sex 
ordines distribuimus. 



Continet igitur Quadrupedum vivipararum mansuetai' 



um 



Ordo 1. bestias mansuetas, quae armenta vel greges constl- 
tuunt ; cornutse onmes et bisulcse sunt, et ruminant, non 
utrinque dentatse ; ut boves, oves, capree. 
2, ex naansuetis jumenta quse sine comibus et solipeda 



sunt ; ut equum, sues, canes, et felem domesticam. 



dentatce sunt. 



qtccc 



Ordo 1. complectitur feras eomutas ; ut boves, capras, ccr- 
vum, elephantum, * &c. 

2. non cornutas majores : quse hominem aut alia ani- 

malia unguibus et dentibus laedant, multifid^ omncs 
praeter aprum bisulcum ; ut sunt ursus, leo, tigris, &c. 



que noxias ; ut sunt castor, Intra, vulpes, &c. 



minus- 



nuurium 



arbores aut parietes repere et scandere possunt ; ut sunt 
cuniculus, mus, glis, talpa, &c. 

Animalium Quadrupedum ovipararum 

Ordo 1. et ultimus, complectitur chamaeleontem, testudinem 
terrestrem, lacertarumque et ranamm terrestriura genera. 
Nam crocodilum, ranas et lacertas aquatiles, aquatilium 
libro subjunximus. f 

r 

At the period wlien Gesner wrote, any thing 
approaching to accurate views of classification or 
arrangement could not be expected; indeed the 
importance of the subject was never thought of. 
But the above subdivisions are altogether arbitrary 
and useless ; nay, with our present notions on the 

* He regards the tusks of the elephant as horns. 
+ Icones Animalium, &c, ed. sec, Tigur. 1560, p. 8. 



^ 



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I 



MEMOIR OF GESNER. 



43 



subject, they cannot be regarded as otherwise than 
ludicrous. Animals are referred to different orders 
according to the accident of their being domesti- 
cated or wild ; and size is assumed as determining 
ordinal differences. Thus the lion and tiger are 
placed in one order, while their near relatives the 
panther and other smaller spotted felines, are re- 
ferred to another, magnitudinis ratione, as he him- 
self expresses it. Perhaps his division of fishes is 
preferable; but after having afforded one example 
of this kind, it is unnecessary to dwell on the 

subject. 

His description and history of the animals them- 
selves cannot in general be spoken of otherw^ise than 
m terms of high commendation, particularly of those 
kinds w^hich fell under his 
mals of Switzerland, for example. We have at full 
length all that has been previously written respect- 
ing them, combined with much original information. 
Take the general history of hawks for an example, 
in the commencement of his volume on birds. With- 
out attempting to discriminate many of the closely 
allied kinds, — an object which can scarcely be said 
to be satisfactorily accomplished even in the present 
day,^he enters into the generalities of the family 
^ith considerable knowledge of their habits and 
general history ; giving instructions for rearing them 
axid training them for the chace, for curing their 
disorders, &c. All this, it is true, is mixed up with 



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and obsolete 



erudition : but when these are subtracted, not a 



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44 MEMOIR OF GESNER. 

little sound natural history remains. As a sood 
specimen of his manner, we may refer to the ac- 
count of the eagle, which extends to nearly thirty 
closely printed folio pages. Much curious informa- 
tion might be extracted from his volumes regarding 
many species of almost every order, as, for example, 
the account of the speaking nightingales ; but space 
cannot be afforded in this place for such a selection. 
We may translate, however, his short account of 
the white ox of Scotland (what is now usually 
called the Hamilton breed of cattle), which is curi- 
ous in several respects. He names it the Bison 

Scoticus, and gives a figure of the animal, 
which, however, is not so well executed as many 
of the others. « The Caledonian forest of Scot- 
land produces very white oxen, having a mane 
like that of a lion, but in other respects very similar 
to the domesticated kinds. They are so fierce, un- 
tameable, and eager to avoid human society, that 
when they feel that any plant, tree, or shrub has been 
touched by the hands of man, they continue to flee 
from it for many days. When taken by any stra- 
tagem (which is very difficult), they die soon after 
for grief. But when they are aware that they are 
pursued by any one, they rush upon him with great 
fury and drive him to the earth. They fear neither 
dogs, hunting- spears, nor any kind of weapon. 
Their flesh is very agreeable to the taste, and parti- 
cularly in request by the nobility, although it is 
cartilaginous. Although they were wont to occur 
throughout all the forest, they are now found in 







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MEMOIR OF GESNER. 



45 



only one part of it, which is called Cummernald ; 
the rest having heen destroyed for food. This race 
^f oxen/' adds Gesner to the above account, vv^hich 
IS partly from another author, " seems properly to 
be called the white Scottish or Caledonian bison, 
because it is maned like a lion, as Oppian writes of 
the bison/' 

We must now allude to what forms not the least 
^^niarkable or interesting feature in this great work, 
iiamely^ the woodcuts with which it is so copiously 
deplenished. The great majority of the animals de- 
scribed are represented by wood-engravings, many 
^f them on a large scale, those of the horse, camel, 
^lid swan, for example, nearly filling a folio page, 
^nd there are many others of equal magnitude. 
The number, it is obvious, must therefore be very 
great, almost every page presenting one or two, 
and the majority several. By far the greater num- 
ber of them are well executed, so much so in- 
deed, that several can be pointed out which would 
bear comparison with modern specimens of the art. 
The outlines, in general, are accurately drawn, and 
although the workmanship is occasionally rather 
coarse, the figures are, in most cases, not only 
perfectly recognisable, but even form faithful and cha- 
^^acteristic delineations. It is a matter of surprise that 
^I'tists could then be found capable of representing 
^^ch objects so well, and that Gesner could incur 
the expense, for he must have had what may be 
^^most called a little manufactory under his charge ; 
^nd we are told that the artists resided in his own 



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46 MEMOIR OF GESNER. 

house- We find him thus modestly speaking of 
these figures in one of his prefaces : '^ With regard 
to the Icones, I acknowledge that they are not all 
very well^drawn ; this, however, is not my fault ; but 
this is not the occasion to speak on that matter. 
Most of them are very fair and tolerable, especially 
those of quadrupeds, which may be esteemed the 
best. None of them are fictitious, as some suspect ; 
or if any of them be, they were not approved by 
me, but pointed out and censured, such as the rein- 



and 



some 



ders, &c. If I have not delineated such as these 
myself (that is to say, superintended the engraving) 
from the life, I have mentioned the authors from 
whom I received them, or the books from which 
they are copied," &c. 

The latter remark leads us to say a few words 
respecting the numerous monsters scattered through- 
out Gesner s work, which at first sight, and on 
superficial observation, are apt to make us distrust 
his authority altogether as a veracious author, and 
indeed tend to throw an air of ridicule over the 
whole. A careful perusal of his text, however, will 
soon convince us that no author of early date has 
been more solicitous to guard his readers against 
mistaking what is imaginary for what is real, — for 
placing that which has been merely supposed to 
exist, on the same level with what has fallen under 
the evidence of the senses. The most remarkable 
of these ideal figures are, a marine lion, covered with 



1 








MEMOIR OF GESNER. 47 

scales, and haying the face of a man ; the monk and 
hishop fish, strongly resembling the parties from 
whom they derive their names, hut with the visage 
somewhat distorted, and the figure slightly pisci- 
form; a marine Pan or Satyr; several monstrous 
cetaceous animals, with snouts like a hog, and al- 
most capable of swallowing a moderate sized ship ; 
the monoceros or unicorn ; two wild men of the 
Woods ; the hydra with seven heads like those of a 
hum 



H 



an 



None of these monsters origi- 
nated with Gesner; they are in every instance 
adopted fi-om other authors, who produce a kind of 



With ..^ 



heai-say evidence to justify their descriptions. In 
general work like Gesner's, their entire exclusion 
Would have been scarcely warrantable ; he does all 
that can be expected of him ; intimates his suspi- 
cion of their authenticity, and cites the authority on 
which they rest, 
dragon, the most absurd of the whole, he distinctly 
states that it is to be regarded as equally fabulous 
with Castor and Pollux, or any other fancies of the 
heathen mythology ; and with this belief it would 
have been better to have excluded it ; but he wished 
to gratify his readers by the representation of a spe- 
cimen said to have been brought from Turkey to 
Venice, and which appears to have been so skilfully 
Manufactured as to deceive for a time even the most 
incredulous. As to many of the sea-monsters, par- 
ticularly the huge cetacea and snakes, we are not 
yet in a condition to say th^t they do not exist ; on 
the contrary, there is every reason, arising from 



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MEMOIR OF GESNER. 



tradition and the incidental reports of voyagers, to 
believe that there are such creatures, of extraordi- 
nary size and aspect, although opportunities have 
not occurred of examining them with sufficient care 
to bring them within the established categories of 
natural history. The existence of sea-snakes, of 
enormous volume, has been proved beyond question. 
But it may be asked, why figure and describe such 
inhabitants of the " bottom of the monstrous world," 
until their forms and history can be more accurately 

^ 

ascertained ? The answer of Gesner, w^hich we give 
in his own w^ords, is judicious and satisfactory. 
" Falsas etiam vel prorsus vel aliqua ex parte ima- 



gines 



adhuc 



dederit, exhibere, modo nominato authore et nulla 
dissimulatione id fiat, non est inutile : sed occasio 
ad inquirendas ab aliquibus, aut communicandas ab 
eis qui jam habent, veras." 

One of the objects for which this great work of 
Gesner s may yet be consulted with advantage, is 
the ascertainment of the names of animals in many 
different languages. A slight glance at his syno- 
nyms often reveals the meaning of a common and 
familiar name, and the transitions through which it 
has passed before assuming its present form. The 
name marmot (to take a simple example) does not 
convey any obvious meaning ; but a very brief 
synonomy renders it obvious ; mus montanus, Lat. ; 
marmontana, or contracted, marmota, /^a/. . 



jnur 



lan 



mote; whence the English name, a literal transla- 



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MEMOIR OF GESNER, 



49 



tion of mountain-mouse. Most of the English 
names of animals were communicated to Gesner by 
the famous botanist. Dr. Turner. * 

This work, the most famous of Gesner's produc- 
tions, continued for a considerable period to be the 
principal authority on zoological subjects. Much of 
it Was copied by Aldrovandus, in his voluminous 
^compilations ; Jonson did little more than abridge 
it ; and it has formed the basis of works of much 

naore recent date. 

As it was designed to be a general work on ani- 
mals, it necessarily formed part of the author s plan 
to include insects, and with this view he had col- 
lected a good many materials, but of these his early 
death prevented him making any use. His manu- 
scripts and wood-engravings on the subject fell into 
the hands of Dr. Penny, an Englishman, who was 

■t 

at that time travelling in Switzerland, and had be- 
come intimate with Gesner. It is conjectured by 
Pulteney that Penny was present at Gesner's death ; 
^ud, being a zealous botanist, that he assisted Wolf 
i^ arranging the plants of his deceased friend. How- 
ever this may be, it is well known that Penny 
studied insects with great care, t and must have 

* Prefixed to the third volume of the Frankfort edition of 
<^Gsner's Hist. Anim., 1620, we find a letter from Dr. Turner 
^^lating to English fishes. It consists of three pages, briefly 
*^Gscribing more than fifty species ; and seems to be intended 
^Q give infcrmation respecting English names, which Turner 
^iad carefully noted, and often added the provincial appella- 

■^ions. PuUejiefs Sketches of Botany^ vol. i. 

t Asaproof of this, and as an example of the subjects ^iiich 



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MEMOIR OF GESNER. 



highly valued such an acquisition as the manu- 
scripts and drawings of so distinguished a zoologist. 
The use he made of them is well known. They 
formed a portion of the work on insects published 
in England in 1634, under the title of " Insec- 
torum sive minimorum Animalium Theatrum olim 
ab Edoardo Wottono, Conrado Gesnero, Thomaque 
Pennio, inchoatum; tandem Tho. Movfeti, Londi- 
natis opera sumptibusque maxime concinnatum, 
auctum, perfectum, et ad vivum expressis iconibus 
supra quingentis illustratum." Schmiedel supposes 
that it is chiefly the figures of butterflies that were 
obtained from Gesner, These are, in most cases, 

recognisablCj but they cannot be compared to the 
icons of plants. 

Although Gesner was unable to complete the 

then interested entomologists, the following extract from a let- 



written 



u 



Te 



exoro, si quid certi de insectis sequentibus habeas, ut me, emu 
otium nactiis fueris, certiorera per litteras facias: T'^vB-p'/jl&jv 
Aristotelis quid sit lubenter scirem ; et an in nostris reglonibus 

reperiatur? Bo^f^ovXio; vero an sit Humlen Gennanorum Intel- 
ligerem? Uoccirojiov^'is an sit species erucse, ut D, Gesnerus 
arbitratur? T^&jlaXXis an sit bestlola cauda bifurca, quem 
Germani Orenmotel vocant, quamque ut arbitror, Hadr. Junius 
in suo noraenclatore FuUonem Plinii non recte arbitratur. 
Scias Auriculariam alas habere sub cingiilo absconditas, ac 
aliquando volare quod idem experientia didici. Arodit llores, 
si quse alia, etc. Blattam foetidam spero etiam reperlsse, Sca- 
rab^eo piiulari similis est, sed corpore magis oblongo, nee tarn 
crasso ; caudam habet mucronatam, vel ut Plinius loquitur, 
acutam. Nullas habet alas, tardigradum animalculum et valde 
ftetcns." 



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MEMOIR OF GESNER. 



51 



m 



^ 



great work on botany which he so anxiously con- 
templated, the result of his labours were by no 
means lost; and these, in connexion with what he 
did publish, have proved of the greatest service to 
the science. In order to appreciate his merits in 
this respectj we have only to consider the state of 
botany at the time when it first attracted his atten- 
tion. It was considered solely as a branch of the 
materia medica. The only authors consulted on 
the subject Avere the ancient writers of Greece and 
Rome. Manuscripts of Theophrastus, Dioscorides, 
Pliny, and some other writers of similar character, 
had been at all times rare ; and while they conti- 
nued as manuscripts, even the meagre information 
they contained was consequently accessible to fev/. 
Pliny was first printed at Yerona in 1448; Dios- 
corides, in Latin, at Cologne in 1478; and Theo- 
phrastus at Venice in 1483. Numerous editions, 
both in Latin and in Greek, soon followed, and 
these works were now in the hands of most of the 
learned. 

made any attempt to add to the knowledge which 
they contained ; contenting themselves by writing 
Voluminous commentaries, translations, &c. of the 
original text. This continued to be the state of 
things till a good while after the commencement of 
the sixteenth century, when several individuals ap- 
peared who entered upon the study wdth more 
enlarged views, and a juster estimate of its import- 
ance. The following names include the most dis- 
tingnished of these '^ Patres Botanici :" Brunsfelsius, 



It was long, however, before the latter 



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MEMOIR OF GESNKR. 



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Tragus, Fuchius, Cordus, Csesalpinus, Clausius, 
Tvirner, and Gesner. They began to study in the 
fields, and instead of confining themselves to the 
closet and the musty glosses of the scholiast, en- 
deavoured to peruse the illuminated page of Nature 
herself. 

The original motive with most of these, was still, 
perhaps, the laudable one of improving the materia 
medica. Gesner made great exertions for this pur- 
pose, and discovered many useful remedies, some of 
which, with slight modifications, are still in use. 
Like Sir Humphrey Davy, he frequently made 
himself the subject of his own experiments, and, as 
happened on" several occasions with the eminent 
philosopher just named, he once nearly killed him- 
self by an over dose of the root of doronicum. 
When he recovered, he amused his friends by an 
account of his sensations while under its influence. 
But although the sanatory properties of herbs may 
have first led most of these individuals to investi- 
gate them, they soon ceased to be restricted by that 

consideration, and sealously studied the subject, as 
it ought to be studied, for its own sake, and irre- 
spectively of the benefit that might arise from it in 
any economical point of view. 

Several works on botanical subjects have been 
already named as edited by Gesner for his friends, 
as well as an original work of his own, " De Lu- 
narlis, &c/' His earliest botanical work Vt^as entitled 
'' Enchiridion HistoriEe Plantarum, ordine Alpha- 



betico, ex Dioscoride 



5 



sumtis 



descriptionibus, et 



fetH 







♦ 




MEMOIH OF GESNEK 



S3 



multis ex Tlieoplirasto, Plinlo et reautioribus Graecis; 
facultatibus autem ex Paulo Aegineta, &C.5" Basle, 
1541. This, however, is deserving of little con- 
sideration, as it was a work of his youth, and pro- 
fessedly a mere compilation. In 1552 he wrote an 
elaborate preface to Tragus's History of Plants, and 
superintended the publication of the work. A long 
letter addressed to Melch. Grilandinum, a celebrated 
botanist of Padua, in which. Gesner discussed an- 
cient and modern names of plants, and many other 
matters relating to them, appeared in 1557. Several 



unne 



cessary to allude particularly to them, because the 
reputation of Gesner as a botanist rests on what 
was laid before the public long after his death. In 
the specimen, published by Caspar Wolf, of the 
plan of his great work on plants, Gesner first gives 
the various names, Including Hebrew, Greek, Latin, 
and most of the modem languages of Europe ; se- 
condly. Descriptions, derived both from ancient and 
recent authors, with the addition of his own re- 
marks in reference to the leaves, roots, flower and 
fruit, habit, sex, &c. of the plant ; thirdly, the time 
of flowering, ripening of the seed, and places best 
adapted for germination ; fourthly, Sympathia and 
Antipathia; fifthly. Culture, and various matters 



relating to' its use in agriculture and gardenin 




sixthly, the various useful purposes to which the 
plant may be converted ; seventhly, the Remedies 
prepared from it, and temperamenta ; eighthly, 
Philologia. 



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54 MEMOIR OF GESNER. 

Such was tlie extensive plan on which the work 
was conceived. In prosecuting his task, we have 
the high authority of Sir J. E. Smith for sayincr, 
that he united the investigation of the external cha- 
^racter of plants with a careful study of the fructifi- 
cation, the importance of which, as affording stahle 
and obvious characters for the distinction of species, 
had been previously very little understood. In 
many of his figures the parts of fructification are 
dehneated separately, as w^ell as the root and other 
important parts of structure. In letters to his cor- 
respondents, he often tries to impress them with 
the necessity of attending to such parts as yielding 
the most valuable characters. The figures of the 
plants are much more accurately executed than 
those formerly spoken of as illustrating the History 
of Animals. Many of them, in fact, are finished 
with considerable delicacy ; they are highly charac- 
teristic of the habit of the plant, and dispLay no 
small degree of freedom and skill in the drawing. 
The fate of these excellent figures we cannot better 

describe than in the words of Pulteney. ^' '' It 



forms," he says, " a mortifying but curious anec- 
dote in the literary history of the science of botany. 
Of the fifteen hundred figures left by Gesner, pre- 
pared for his ' History of Plants,' at his death, in 
1565, a large share passed into the Epitome MatthiolU 
published by Camerarius in 1586^ which contained 
in the whole a thousand and three figures ; and in 
the same year, as also into a second edition in 1590, 

* Sketches of Botany, vol. i. 













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MEMOIR OF GESNER. 



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they crnbellislied an abridged translation of Mattlii- 
olus, printed under the name of the ' German Her- 
hah' In 1609 the same blocks were used by 
Uffenbach for the herbal of Castor Durantes, printed 
at Frankfort. This publication, however, compre- 
hended only nine hundred and forty-eight of these 
icons, nearly another hundred being introducc^d of 
very inferior merit. After this period, Camerarius 
the younger being dead, the blocks were purchased 
by Goerlin, a bookseller of Ulm, and next seryed 
for the ' Parnassius Medicinalis illustratus' of Be- 
cher, printed at that city in 1663; the second part 
of which work contains all those of the Epitome, 



except six figures 



1678 



a German herbal, made up from Matthiolus by 
Bernard Verzascha, printed at Basle ; and such was 
the excellency of the materials and workmanship of 
the blocks, that they were exhibited a sixth time in 
the Theatrum Botanicum of Krauterbuch of Zwin- 
ger, being an amended edition of Verzascha, printed 
also at Basle in 1696, with the addition of more 
than one hundred new blocks, copied from C. Bau- 
hine and Tabernas-montanus ; and finally into a 
new edition of the same work, so late as the year 

1 744. 

" Thus did the genius and labours of Gesner add 
dignity and ornament to the works of other men, 
and even of some whose enmity he had experienced 

during his lifetime. 

" Besides the above mentioned, Gesner left five 
V volumes, consisting entirely of figures, which, after 



40KI 



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56 



MEMOm OF GESKEK. 



>y X. 



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armor 



various vicissitudes, became the property of Trew 
of Norimberg. Sensible that, whetlier we view the 
extent of Gesner's knowledge and learning or his 
singular industry, such must be the veneration for 
his character, that any of his remains must claim 
the attention of the curious, the possessor gratified 
the public, by the pen of Dr. Schmiedel, with an 
ample specimen, published in 1753. 

The work alluded to by Pulteney is an ele- 
gant folio in two volumes. The first, which in the 
copy ROW before us bears the date of 1751, con- 
tains an elaborate and interesting life of Gesner by 
Schmiedel, to which we have been largely indebted 
in drawing up the present biography ; portrait and 

! of Gesner; the history of his 
works on plants ; commentaries on the fifth book 
of Yalerius Cordus, with a notice, De morbo et 
obitu Valerii Cordi ; the first book of Gesner's His- 
toria Stirpium ; and an extensive series of his wood- 
engravings, followed by others on copper by Se- 
ligmann of Nuremberg. This work is beautifully 
printed and embellished, and forms a kind of reper- 
tory of the botanical lore of the period, of the 
highest interest to the historian of the science. 

Much valuable botanical information is likewise 
to be found in Gesner's letters to his friends, many 
of which letters still exist. His views with regard 
to arrangement are chiefly to be derived from this 
source. 

When we have mentioned our authors work, 

* Pulteney'a Sketches of Botany, vol. i» 





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MEMOIR OF GESNER. 



r. 



7 



Do omiii reruin fossilium genere, geinrnis, lapidlbus, 
nietallis et hujusmodi," (Zurich, 1565), a publica- 
tion which excited great attention at the time, and 
contains much curious information, as well as many 
illustrative engravings of a no less curious character, 
"vve shall have noticed the most important of Ges- 
ner's contributions to the general stock of know- 
ledge. An entire list of everything he v/rote may 
be collected from SchmiedeFs life, the additions of 
Tussier to the eloges of M. de Thou, and his own 

letter to "W^illiam Turner. 

Every one who has written of Gesner has ex- 
pressed surprise that he should have been able to 
accomplish so much; and when we consider the 
difficulties he had to encounter in his youth, the 
laborious duties of his profession at a subsequent 
period, his frequent illnesses, and his early death, i 
is impossible to regard the results of his labours in 
any other light. His devotion to literature and 
natural science must have been intense ; his appli- 
cation unceasing; the facility and fertility of his 
genius such as are rarely met with. With much 
that is crude, obsolete, and useless, the necessary 
consequence of the period and circumstances under 
which he wrote, his publications must be regarded 
as of great merit, displaying a wonderful accumula- 
tion of knowledge derived from previous Avriters, 
with an important accession resulting from his own 
observation and original power of thought. Whether 
we consider them as a repertory of the existing 
knowledge of the times, or in reference to the light 



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58 MEMOIR OF GESNER. 

■vC-hicli they for the first time shed on tlie subjects 
of which they treat, they must ever secure for their 
author a venerable name among the Fathers of 
Natural History. 

In accordance with the praiseworthy practice of 
botanists, whose beautiful science it is desirable to 
surround with all agreeable influences and asso- 
ciations, the name of Gesner has been conferred 
on a species of tnYii^ ,~Tulipa Gesneriana. Not 
contented with this, Plumierj who has indulged in 
the practice more than any other botanist, has de- 
voted to his lionour an American genus of the family 
Campanulacece. under the name of Gesneria. 



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THE 



NATURAL HISTORY OF EQUID^E, 



OR THE 



GENUS EQUUS OF AUTHORS; 



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tl»!» 




COMPREHENDING 



THE HORSE, THE ASS, THE ZEBRA AND 

THEIR CONGENERS. 



1 





i 



A HISTORY of tlie Solipede animals^ of the species 
contained in the Linnsean genus Equus, and more re- 
cently designated by the appellation of Equidse^ would 
he liable to disappoint a scientific reader if with 
Zoological views alone, he expected to find in its 
pages much that was new or unobserved by anterior 
writers; for, when we consider, that in the gen as, 
two species, the Horse and the Ass, have been the 
object of the most unremitting attention to man from 
the beginning of human civilization, that poets, philo- 
sophers, statesmen, historians, rural-economists, ivar- 
I'iors, hunters, speculators, physiologists and veteri- 
narians have all objects where the horse at least 
forms a conspicuous element, that from the inspired 



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60 



INTRODUCTION". 



poetry of tlie book of Job, from tbe timos of Homer, 
Aristotle, Xenopbon, Herodotus, Virgil, Varro, 
Columella, Gesner, Aldrovandus^ Jobnston, BufFou, 
Linn93us, Pennant, Pallas, Gmelin to Cuvier, Bell, 
and a host of otbers, ancient and modern, facts and 
observations have been accumulating, researches 
pursued and descriptions produced, where we trace 
patient investigation and often eloquent description. 
It must be confessed that the inquiry is all but ex- 
hausted, and that we must confine our views to a 
collection of the more prominent facts, for the atten- 
tion of those vvho have neither time nor inclination 
to search the whole field, and while due place is given 
them, draw forth from their general or particular 
tenor some observations and comparisons that perhaps 
have not as yet been offered to the public or have 
only met with transient attention. Thus we may 
still hope to submit in the result of our labours some- 
thing worthy of notice to the learned, and not unin- 
viting to the casual reader, whose object is merely to 
obtain correct information combined Avith amusement. 
Where historical reflections embracing the earliest 
periods of antiquity are concerned^ we hope to point 
out some philological considerations that may obtain 
the assent of linguists and assist inquiries on the pro- 
gress of the more ancient human colonies ; particu- 
larly the irruptions of the first Equestrian conquering 
hordes, and the indications where the Mongolian 
variety of man commences to press westward upon the 
Caucasian. In the discussion on the fossil remains of 
Equidae there also maybe found arguments deserving 



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INTRODUCTION. 



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attention, as reeardine: their original distribution^ and 
the sources whence mankind first drew the animals 
it suhdued and subsequently mounted. Finally^ a 
review of the breeds noticed by the ancients will 
expose some facts in history which we think both 

new and curious. 

In the 12th edition of the Linnsean system, the 
horse, or genus Equus^ is placed among the Belluse, 
constituting the sixth order of his Mammalia ; it is 
a group very distinctly characterized, and perfectly 
natural ; but^ at the same time, remarkably isolated 
from all other genera, by the form of particular 
organs, which remain so constantly similar in the 
several species as to make in their turn but slight 
approximations to surrounding families, and leave 
but trivial distinctions, to separate the genus Into 
subordinate parts, or mark the difference of species. 
These circumstances appear to have induced systema- 
tic writers to admit them all into one. Gmelin, 
indeed, in the 13th edition of the system of Linnasus, 
formed two, making his first out of Molinas Equus 
Bisulcus, or cloven-footed horse, now universally 
^'egarded as fabulous, or as a mere variety of Lama, 
and the second of the solidungular species, which 
constitutes the true Equidte. Storr formed for it a 
distinct order under the name of Solipedes, and 
I'anged it after the Ruminants ; while Illiger, adopt- 
^^S this order, followed Erxlehen, who had located 
the borse between the elephant and camel, which 
^vas nearly the same as the 
Hvcdish naturalist: one corresponding to Belluss^ 



arrangement 



of the 



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62 



INTUODUCTION. 



' ttie other to Ruminantia : but Baron Cuvier^ follow- 
ing at first the same distribution, finally made the 
genus horse one of the pachydermous order, and 
leaving it undivided,, fixed the location last in that 
serieSj and immediately before Camelus^ which con- 
stitutes the first of the next. 



Mr. Gray, in the 



Zoological 



Journal, Vol, L, 



defines the family of Equidse as distinguished from 
all other animals by the form of the hoof being un- 
divided, the stomach simple, and the female having 
two teats on the pubes: the teeth are, incisors f. 



canines in the males ^-j-, molars §-| 



40. He 



further divides Equidae into two genera: namely, 1st, 
the horse; (Equus Caballus;) and 2d, the ass; 
(Asinus;) embracing Hemionus, the common ass, 
and the zebras ; the former type being destitute of 
stripes, having warts or callosities on both arms and 
legs, and the tail furnished with long hair up to the 
root, while the latter are genei^ally white, more or 
less banded with blackish brown, and always have a 
distinct dorsal line ; the tail furnished with a brush 
only at the extremity, and warts existing on the 
arms alone. These distinctions have been considered 

by M. Lesson, insufficient to constitute two genera ; 

and although Mr. Bell supports the views of Mr. 

Gray, and justly contends that several of them are 
structural, we do not admit all the facts of either 

naturalists as unexceptionable to the extent required 

to constitute separate genera; there being in reality 

not two, but three types or distinct groups, as will 

be shewn in the sequel; and exceptions to uni- 



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INTRODUCTION. 



63 



■ L 

formity, which even then point to a further sub- 
division. 

The Equidse seem appropriately placed between 
Pachydermata and Ruminants^ from their conforma- 
tion being intermediate,^ and also^ because they are 
found in a fossil state, accompanying the debris of 
both, and thereby proving that they co-existed in a 
former Zoology, or at least in a Zoological distribu- 
tion, more ancient than the present ; for, among the 

in limestone caverns, in osseous 
breccias, in tertiary or alluvial strata, (the pliocene of 
Lyell) in the fresh water deposits, and in the Eppes- 
heim sand, among several species of Elephant, of 
Rhinoceros, of Bovine and Cervine genera, their 
bones are found along with the remains of a former 
hycena, or of a species perhaps still extant. Their 
debrisj often in great abundance, are spread over 
an immense surface of the Old World, from eastern 



Talitary to the west of Ireland, and from the Polar 



organic remams 



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regions to 



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ae sou 




of the Himalaya mountains, 
and to an unknown distance in northern Africa.t 



^' Such as the rudiments of two other toes attached to eaclTV 
of the canon bones, the structure of the stomach, the teeth, are | 
pachydermous ; the consolidation of the phalanges, separately 
immoveable, homogenous ; but the conformation of other parts 
approximates the ruminantial character. 

t We have seen teeth of Equidee found in Polar ice, along 
"^^'ith the bones of the Siberian Mammoth, others from the 
Himalaya range, down to its southern spurs, mixed with frag- 
ments of lost and unascertained genera ; many more from the 
Oreston and Torquay caverns, with bones and teeth of hyeena 
and sheep • some from Ireland, and one from Barbary, com- 




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64 



INTRODUCTION. 



ing 



Although different authors have bestowed specific 
Dames upon the remains of these animals found in 
different places^ such as Hippotherium of Caup, 
Equus fossilis, Equus Adamiticus, of Schlotheim, 
Equus (Caballus) primigenius, Equus (Mulus) primi- 
genius, and Equus (Asinus) primigenius, we find, 
from the confession of Baron Cuvier, that he never 
discovered a character sufficiently fixed in the exist- 
species, and therefore still less in the fossil, to 
enable him to pronounce on one from a single bone. 
All the remains of Equidse hitherto discovered, ap- 
pear so perfectly similar in their conformations to 
the domestic hoi*se, (Equus Caballus,) that they can 

scarcely, or at most only in part, be ascribed to other 
species of the genus. From the commixture of their 
debris, there cannot be a doubt that they have existed 
together with several great pachydermata, and with 
hyaenas, whose teeth have left evident marks, pro- 
miscuously, upon a great number of them : but what 
in this question is deserving of attention is, that 
'while all the other genera and species, found under 

■- "^ ^ ■ I _ 



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'^^^r<^<^ 



pletely fossilized. Horse bones, accompanied by those of 

elephant, rhinoceros, tiger andh3'£sna, rest by thousa^nds in the 
caves of Canstadt, in Yfuitemberg-, they have been found with 
elephant bones at Sovran, in digging the canal of Ourcq ; 
at Fouvent-le-prienre ; at Argenteiiil ; in Val d'Arno with 
Mastodon ; and on the borders of the Hhine with colossal 
Urus, Crav\^furd does not notice any among the organic re- 
mdns observed by him in Ava ; but Captain Cantley found 
Equine bones in the sandstone, and among fallen cliifs of the 
Sewallick mountains, at the southern base of the Himalayas 
between the Sutleje and the Ganges. 



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INTRODUCTION. 

the foreojoms: conditions liave c 



65 



eased to exist, or 



have removed to liiglier temperatures, the horse alone 
has remained to the present time in the same regions, 
without, it would appear, any protracted interrup- 
tion ; since, from the circumstances which manifest 
deposits to he of the earliest era in question, frag- 
ments of its skeleton continue to he traced upwards 
in successive formations, to the present superficial and 

vegetable mould. 

Moreover, the hones of Equidse, in all their 
localities, agree sufficiently, at least so far as our 
researches extend, to fix the stature of the animals 

standard of the wild horses oi 



at or near 



the 



Asia, and the middle-sized unimproved breeds of 
the present day; while nearly all the others, and 
particularly those of Ruminants, found in the same 
deposits, often announce structures considerably 



larger 



than their present 



congeners. 



Now, as 



and 



the debris of Mastodons, Elephants, Bovidte 
Cervidee, have likewise been discovered in the 
western continent, but it would seem without those 
of the horse, or the hyeena, it appears that neither 
were at any time indigenous, while in the old con- 
tinent, both are found ; one having only retreated 
to a southern latitude, and the other contmumg to 
reside without, or with no sensible difference of 
characters, in its primeval location: as if, wlnle 
several very remarkable species of animals have dis- 
appeared, and others are now only extant in climates 
of higher temperature, the horse alone had escaped 
the operation of some great agency in nature, which 



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66 



INTRODUCTION. 



acted with decisive power to the destruction of all 
the other Mammals in question.* 

These considerations, and more particularly the 
presence of horse-hones upwards to the surface, 
seem to indicate the original fesTcTence of the pre- 
sent domestic horse to have extended over the same 
surface of the Old World as the anterior fossil ani- 
mal ; we say the domestic horse, without therefore 
excluding the Hemionus, which once resided as far 
west as Prussia, or denying that the Koomrah 



existed in northern Africa, which is of the true 

r 

form of Eq. Caballus, though the specifical identity 
may he doubted. We are also Inclined to question 
the positive unity of species in the Tangums and 
Kiangs of the central high ridges of Asia, and even 
that of the wild horses originally indigenous in the 
British Islands: possibly the Sarans of the great 
Indian chain may he distinct, although the homoge- 
neous character of their structure cannot be doubted : 
they, and other varieties hereafter to be mentioned, 
appear to be different forms of one type, very closely 
allied, vet distinct- 

We do not as yet know the limits of what con- 

stltutes a genus, nor have we a satisfactory definition 
of species, since it is admitted that hybrids derived 
even from assumed distinct genera, are not without 
the power of procreating a fertile offspring, with 

* From this view burrowing Canidae and Eodentia are 
purposely excluded, because, from their habits, they may be 
found in the same localities, without belonging to the same 






era. 



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INTRODUCTION. 



67 



either of the parent species, if not among them- 
selves ; thus implanting new forms and new charac- 
teristics in a progeny, which may again and agani 
receive additional hlood of the foreign stock, with 
the more facility, since the hyhrid conformation is 
already prepared for further adulteration ; and, not- 
^vithstanding the known tendency to sterility, obli- 
terate specific distinctions, and form a homogeneous 

race. 

The circumstances of the existence oL disjimilar 
forms of a commoii^type, are parallel to those of the 
AVgali, (Ovls Ammon,) equally found identical or 
different in Asia, Africa, and the islands of the 
Mediterranean; "which existed anciently in Spain, 
and^ this moment is spread over a great part of 
Western North America, In no case are these ani- 
mals suspected to have been transported by human 
intervention, and yet they are located in some places 
where, without the aid of man, they cjmjiot 




migrated, unless we admit of changes on the surface 
of the earth since the present Zoology was in being, 
of such magnitude, as to include the formation of 
the Mediterranean— the separation of the British 
Islands from the continent of Europe— of the Indian 
Islands from that of Asia— and the formation of a 
channel to cut America from connexion with the 
Old World. How this genus Ovis could have re^ 
sisted the effects of extreme alterations of climate 
such as then must have occurred under the two con- 
editions of existence before and after the great catas- 
trophe, forms a further case of difficulty; while to 



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68 



introduction; 



make the whole still more inexplicable^ it may be 



a 



dded 



that no fossil remains of anv of the eenus 
exist, excepting, perhaps, of one to all appearance 
belonging to the domestic sheep found nnder ques- 



* 



tionable conditions in the Devonshire deposits. 

If the Argali^ therefore, are all of the same 
species, they must have been separated during the 
great diluvian catastrophe, at the time the species of 
rhinoceros, of buffalo, tiger, and others, found in the 
Indian Islands, were likewise separated from the 
continent, and placed in locations where species un- 
kn©wn to Asia, such as the Tapir and Marsupiata, 
still exist, who have congeners only in South Ame- 
rica. The more we pursue these reflections, the 
greater is the dilemma. Without attempting to ex- 
plain in what manner, we must ultimately revert to 
the opinion of a Zoological distribution being effected 

F 

* The existence of debris of horses in South America, in 
company with the Megatherium in aqueous deposits, is not 
yet sufficiently proved to be coeval ; and -with regard to the 
teeth of a horse, at least equal in size to our great domestic 
breeds described by Mr. J. C. Bellamy, and found in the 
ossiferous caves of South Devon, the difference of size is not 
so great as to change the nature of the general conclusions ; 
and several of these sites, where the remains of sheep, of a 
canine, possibly a wolf, flint knives, potsherds, and even 
human bones have been detected^ although with or near those 
of rhinoceros and hyena, lead to doubts respecting the real 
cause and time of their juxtaposition. If the discovery of 
true Equine debris in South America be now admitted in de- 
ference to the late report of the accurate Owen, it remains to 
be ascertained whether they do not belong to the Austral 
group, that is, to the zebra form. 






1 



i r 






■ \ ■ 



INTRODUCTION. 



(59 



at so 'remote a period, that our conclusions respect- 
ing identity of species,, are only inferential and for 
the convenience of classification : that^ notwith- 
standing the superabundant inclination in man to 
assume dominion over matter, there appears to be 
distinct evidence to prove, by their fitness, the in- 
tention of the Creator regarding the destination of 
several animals was meant for human use. For if 
"^ve do not admit these views, there remains only 
the supposition of a creation of pairs, or of only one 
family of each species, which^ gradually increasing, 
t^xtended and migrated to a multitude of localities 
in many cases so inaccessible, as to demand more 
violent causes, more unphilosophical necessities thaia 
the former ; disregarding w^ithal a totally unba- 
lanced state in the system of co-ordained organic 
bei 



ngs. 



This conclusion "we have already endeavoured to 
draw in the historv of the Canidse : it will be farther 
illustrated in that of the domestic horse; is more or 
less perceptible in all the thoroughly domesticated 
animals, and when we examine their capacity to bear 
in man's company, the variations of climate and 
changes of food to which he has subjected them, we 
inay take the law of sterility in the commixture of 
^lifferent species to have its limits where the forms 
<iease to be sufficiently homogeneous; a law unques- 
tionably ordained for the wisest purposes, but marked 
^vith exceptional modifications for purposes not less,, 
beneficent : — There are so many proofs of the beauti- 
ful flexibility of their action upon organized beings,, 



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70 INTRODUCTION. 

tliat to reject the above conclusion^ evidently reduces 
us to tlie necessity of regarding the wolf and the dog, 
the camel and the dromedary^ the goat and the sheep 
as constituting hut single species ; for all these pro- 
duce fertile oiFspring. 

It seems therefore more consonant with the distri- 
bution of several genera of animals on the earth's 
surface to believe, that osculating forms existed a5 
initio distinct, circumstanced to accomplish certain 
ends, such as the service of man, and therefore framed 
so as to render them fusible into one species. The 
Argalis or wild sheep before-mentioned, bear all the 
evidence of this fusibility, and that the domesticated 
varieties spread over the Old World, have the blood 
of more than one original species in their organization, 
may fairly be inferred from several of Persia and 
High Asia bearing a near resemblance to the wild in 
their vicinity. We may even assume, that civilized 
man, if it had been his lot to deal with the zebras of 
South Africa instead of the horses of Asia, in due time 
would have succeeded in amalgamating the three or 
four species now existing into one domestic animal 
little inferior to our present horse : that the powers 

of draught would have been found in the Quagga, 
the qualities of charger in the Zebra and the properties 
of mountain pony in the Dauw. 



With 



our 



wh ether several wild races of 
horses were, or were not originally of the same species. 




and with the greater cause, since there are Equidae 
undeniably different who produce nevertheless mules 



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4 



INTRODUCTION. 



71 



not totally sterile. There are besides phenomena as 
yet not satisfactorily explained, in the few and partial 
experiments that have been made relating to this 
Very question of intermixture, and the traces it leaves 
on succeeding generations: phenomena which the 
remarlcs of Mr. Bell and Mr. Macdonald have not 
set at rest, and where superfetation is out of the 
<luestion. We allude to the characters of . the sire 
of the mothers first offspring remaining impressed 
upon the succeeding in form, colours and markings, 
although the first was of a different species and the 
second of the same as the female ; thereby showing 
a tendency to propagate strange forms in preference 
to the homogeneous. The most striking example of 
these facts was made known by the late Earl of 
Morton and recorded in the Philosophical transactions 
for the year 1821, where it is stated that he had 
bred an hybrid foal, between a chestnut mare of 
Arabian blood and a Quagga, which in form and 
colour bore decided evidence of a mixed origin ; this 
was her first foal ; but where interest was most ex-^ 
cited occurred fi-^g years after , when the same mare^ 
then the property of Sir Gore Ousely, bred by a black 
Arabian horse a filly and the next year a colt, by the 
same parent, which, although both were then unques- 
tionably |§ths of pure Arabian blood, of homogene- 
ous species, still retained strong marks of the anterior 
spurious commixture, in the character of the mane, 
the colour of the hair, and in the striped markings 
on the neck, shoulders and joints ! These facts were 
fullv onvrnhnrn.tpA hv the latc Dr. WoUaston and in 






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72 



INTRODUCTION 



part came under our own observation. Portraits of 
the animals, painted by the accurate Agasse are pre- 
served in the Museum of Surgeons College^ London. 

We represent the 1st 2nd and even 8rd produce of 
this mare and black Arabian, where these marts 
are all conspicuous. In the last foal the mane retains 
its Qitagga character as much as iu the first, and in 
all the streaks on neck and back are more decided 
than even in the mule j which we shall figure Avhen 
the Nat. historv of Mules is considered. 

It has been remarked on this tendency of the dur- 
ation of characters belonging to the first male parent^ 
however different he may have been in form or colour, 
that it recurs in the dog and hog, but Mr. Bell does 
not attempt furthur to account for it/ although the 
question is of still stronger import, since, in the case 
of the mare, the first male was of a different species, 
and not of the same ; as according to his authority, 
dogs and hogs are, when subject to these effects. 
We, on the contrary, having already noticed this 
question in the history of the dogs, and adduced the 
example of hogs, to prove a j)luralit;Lof homogeneous 
forms in both, reo^ard the facts above recorded as in- 



cj 



dicatiris; a plural orio;in exceeding the limits of even 
■* our own inferences. 

Mr. Macdonald's remai^ks, which we know only 
from an abstract in the Athenaeum No. 612, 1889, 
refer the phenomena described in Lord Morton's 
communication to a possible cross in the progenitors 
of the mare with an Eelback dun, which is always 
marked with a, streak on the back, and not unfre^ 



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INTRODUCTION. 



73 



quently with, cross bars on the joints : "but this con- 
jecture would not account for the stripes on the neck 
and shoulders, and though far fetched, explains only 
the dorsal streak and bars on the limbs, which the 
Eelback dun seems to have derived from an ancient 
cross with Hemionus, for this race of horses is nearest 
in colour and markings to the Isabella breed of 
antiquity, so renowned for mounting the Median 
cavalry, and not always destitute of a cross on the 



should 



er. 



Whetl 



iier one 



more s 



ecie s of wild horses con- 
stituted the pri^^val form's of the distinct races of 
the northern half of Asia, and merged gradually into 
theE 



caballus of systematic writers, is a question 



not likely tobe tully determined, but beside them 
there are at least two other Equidjs, one ranging 
over the Steppes of Tahtary, and from thence south- 
ward to the plains of Persia, is known by the names of 
Hemionus and Dziggetai, and the other a more south- 
ern animal, though ascending in summer as far north 
as Lake Aral, is questionably regarded as the original 
^vild ass, and bears the names of Hymar, Ghoor-Khar 
and Kulan ; while a third, the Kiang of Ladauk, is 
not as yet sufficiently described, and a fourth more 
nearly allied to Hemionus, probably the Yo-to-tze of 
China, will be noticed by us under the appellation of 
Asinus Hippagrus. All these species or varieties have 
teen confounded by travellers and naturalists until 
t^eir namesand distinctive marks cannot becompletely 
rectified. There exists besides in the northern half 
of Africa an Equine animal designated by the natives 



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74 



INTKODUCTION. 



as the Koomrah,* which the Mograbins report to be 
the offspring of a bull and mare, the Hippotaurus of 
older naturalists. It is nearly allied to the true horse, 
but small, a tenant of the mountains and distinct from 
the wild ass which Pliny took to be the Onager 
noticed by Leo Africanus, Marmol and lately by M. 
Linant. 

_ Regarding Equus Caballus Equus Variusand Equus 
Lalisio as belonging to the same type, the last 
mentioned shewing an approximation to A sinus, we 
take Hemionus and Onager or Hymar as belonging 
to Asinus, although we may doubt the Kiang and 
Kulan being identical with either, and A. Hippagrus 
must be considered as absolutely intermediate. Be- 
sides these two general types, there is a third entirely 
confined to the South side of the Equator and belong- 
mg to Africa, but distinctly separated by the uni- 
formity of the striped liveries which invariably adorns 
the three or perhaps four species it contaius. 

^ The domestic ass supposed to be derived from the 
wild Hymar of the desert and the horse of Asia 
enter at a remote period into the circle of human 
economic establishments. The first mentioned, as 
might be expected, resided in the same regions where 
the dawn of civilization commenced, and gifted with 
inferior powers of resistance, is presumed to have 
been subjugated several ages before the second, be- 

* Koomrah, Cumri seems to be a Mauritanian mutation of 
Hymar, mixed up M'ith the Negro Kumrie, (white) the animal 
being found in the snowy mountain range of Nigritia, and hence 
also the idea that it is white. 



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INTRODUCTION. 



75 



cause we find it repeatedly indi cated js tlie Penta- 



teuch before lEe JEo rse" is" j ioticed, sucli as, in the 
sacrifice^ ot^ATraliam • in Hs^visTt to Egypt, where 
he received presents of Abimelech ; and in the spoils 
of Shechem, where asses are numbered with other 
cattle, but the horse is not mentioned. Yet that 
noble animal, by nature provided with greater phy- 
sical capabilities, with more intelligence, and more 
instinctive tendencies for adapting his existence to 
the circumstances of domestication in every region, 
is in his servitude grown larger, more adorned, 
more acute, and more educational than in a state of 
nature ; while the ass, in similar circumstances, has 
degenerated from his pristine character, becoming, 
even in the greater part of Persia, smaller in stature, 
less fleet, less intelligent, and by his own impulses 
less the associate of man. When the horse, from 
thorough domesticity, is again cast upon his own 
resources, he resumes his original independence, 
provides for his own safety and that of the herd 
under his care, without altogether losing his acquired 
advantages ; the ass, on the contrary, although never 
a spontaneous associate in his domestication, is no 
where known to have again become wild, or to have 
sought his freedom with a spirit of persevering 
vigilance ; and in cases where by accident he has 
found himself in freedom, he has made no energetic 
efforts to retain it, nor recovered qualities that 
restore him to the filiation of the Hymax or the 
Kul ^. 
effort, the prey of the lion, the tiger, the hyaena, or 



an. 



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INXriODUCTION. 



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the Avolf, and in America he has been known to 
succumb under the beak of a condor. It is evident 
that the difference in the relative conditions of the 
two species, is, with regard to the ass, not entirely 
referrible to human neglect and want of kindness, but 
m part, at least, must be ascribed to inferior sensibility 
and weaker intellectual powder; both being alike 
evinced by the hardness of his hide, by his satisfac- 
tion with coarser food, and his passive stubbornness.* 
^ We know, besides, so little of the social condi- 
tion of the primitive seat of civilization, of the 
original centre, whence knowledge radiated to China, 
India, and Egypl, perhaps in Bactria, in the higher 
valleys of the Oxus or in Cachmere, that it may 
be surmised the first domestication of the horse was 
achieved in Central Asia, or commenced nearly 
simultaneously in several regions where the wild 
anmials of the horse form existed, and in point of 
date, perhaps, even earlier than that of the ass, 
whose natural habitat is more superficially extended 

* "What Don Ulloa says respecting wild asses in Peru, and 
Molina of the same animals in Chili, are mere local accounts 
of a few strayed animals that may have bred in independence 
on the borders of the plantations, but they do not resume cha- 
racteristics of vigilance, of liberty, and of voice, such as are so 
beautifully depicted in the glov/ing images of the Hebrew pro- 
phets and Arabian poets ; they are not noticed by later travel- 
lers, and in no case appear in droves on the Pampas or troops 
in the mountains, in a fixed feral state, like the horse. There 
were feral asses, according to the Buccaneers, in St. Domingo 
and other places ; yet though they ought to be the most ^dgi- 
lant, the least sought, and the most inaccessible, they have 
disappeared, while . the feral hoyse stiU remains. 







[ 



m 




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INTRODUCTION, 



77 



to the south of the great mountain range of Middle 



Asia. 



In the natural history of the horse, lately pub- 
lished, there is an opinion expressed, contrary to 
the conclusion of others, that the species is of Afri- 
can origin. With a view, therefore, of instituting 
some inquiry into the primitive habitat and period 
of domestication of the horse, by a philological 
I'esearch concerning the names bestowed upon ani- 
mals of that family in the most ancient known 
languages, we find in the Hebrew, the oldest criti- 
cally studied tongue of the Semitic branch, a variety 
of terms applied to Equidae, some of which in our 
biblical version seem to be occasionally translated 
Avith questionable accuracy, or are more generical 
than specific, and there are others whose radical 
Hebrew origin may be doubted. Aware how vague 
and inconclusive studies of this kind are deemed to 
be by many persons of erudition, and how open 
they are to abuse in themselves, still, to one whose 
attention has been long and repeatedly called to 
linguisitics, and who in his inquiries into the origin 
of the older nations of history and of the West has 
met with numerous relations between the remotest 
times and the present, between the most ancient 
lanp'uap-es and those of the older dialects spoken in 



guages 



Europe, the affinities are often so obtrusive, that the 
result may be worth noticing in an abstract form 
and confined to the object we have immediately 



befor 



:e us. 



We find, for example, the name of the 
ass, T»*13;^ orud^ if it be onomatopoeically an imita- 






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78 INTRODUCTION. 

tion of braying, that ^^^^, pra, another assumed 
name for the same animal, is not likely again de-r 
rived from an imitation of the asinine voice, and he 
equally from an Hebrew root, in a language not 



rnN 



vocabulary 




lated by female ass, and also asserted to mean a 
particular species or race of saddle-asses, and y)U7\, 
chamor^ in Arabic chamara, hamar, and Tiymar^ in 
iEthiopic cehmiriy one decidedly Semitic, refers to 
the wild ass, and appears again to allude to the 
voice of the animal. As for iy2"7, recites^ translated 
mules, and not found until about the time of the 
first kings of Israel, we think the true meaning to 
be a carrier, equally applicable to a mule and to the 

, hedgeen^ as seems proved by Jm, 
redieh, a chariot ; and again traceable in the West- 
em Arabic shruhat-er-reech^ the celebrated fleet 
horses of the desert, or swallowers of the wind. 
The names of animals, in original and in most an- 
cient languages, unquestionably are often to be 

traced to imitations of their voice, or to some pre- 
dominant obvious quality in their form, colours, or 

uses, and we find this fact particularly applicable 



to Equidse. 



perdah 



to mean an ass, a mule, or more properly a riding 
beast, and comparing them with tt^*T3, paras ^ horses, 
and D^^I^IS, Parasim^ Persians, later Parthians, 
that is, horsemen, we see that the root has a more 
eastern origin, and belongs to a people coming from 

ons of Hindukoh. whose name was derived 



\ 



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INTRODUCTION. 



79 



i 



from the quality of riding or charioteering; in a 
secondary sense, an exalted people, and was con- 
nected with a dialect, if not Sanscrit, at least Zend 
or Pelhevi, not remote from Msesogothic and Teu- 
tonic, where pherd^ perd^ paert are dialectical varia-, 
tions of the same origin, and even the Latin ferro * 
is not an alien. We may therefore suspect that 
Jt?^a, para^ &C.5 in common with many other Indo- 
Sacian, Germanic, or Scythic t words abounding in 
the Arabic and other Semitic languages, were im- 
ported by the first equestrian colonies that invaded 
Syria and Egypt. We find it in a remoter sense in 
the name of phre, a title of the sun, the charioteer 
and the image of beauty, as it is again in the West, 
where the Scandinavian freya and fray denote 
beauty and pre-eminence : these inferences are fur- 
ther supported by the Babylonian name nimis^ 
ninnus^ hinnus^ through the Greek v/vvov, from an 

* Probabl y through the imperative fer^ which is radically 
the same as Fhra, Fhar^ the " Car-horn*'*'' Pharoak and, Per- 
sian, Varanes seem both to be epithets derived from faren^ 
varen. Even the Sanscrit mystical boar Vahrahan^ Teutonic 
Vehr^ and Latin Verus preserves the character, if not of being 
borne, but of bearing up ; for he upholds the world on his tusks. 

+ We use the term Scythic for want of one more expHeit, 
and understand by it the Caucasian nations of the northern 
half of ancient Asia, who, being .provided with horses, came 
across the Jaxartes, down the Oxus and the Indus, across the 
Tigris, the Euphrates, to the Bosphorus and the Nile, in the 
character of conquerors more than colonists. Servius, in his 
remarks on the language of Virgil, who in common with most 
ancient writers gives the creation of the horse to Neptune, 
states that some name this horse ScytUus. 



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80 



INTRODUCTION. 



Asiatic root, always denoting a young Equine ani* 
inal, and tlie old Persian name pful^ * a beam of 
|;he sun, a horse, a foal consecrated to the sun, t and 
the later as2?, ^^\, both epithets and names of a 
whole series of kings and princes. :|: Surely these 
inferences are more admissible than to take phar or 



/' 



"With rep'ard to 



r 






the oldest Sanscrit names of the horse, it is true we 
find none directly sounding like pra m pei^d ; they 
are asica and turanga^ with several other epithets : 

* An object to cross ; a bridge. 

+ The Centaurs, children of Centaurus, son of Apollo, amoiic 
uhom Pholus apjjears to be again jit/m/, ot ful^ fullen^ foal. 

The original idea seems always to refer to conveyance, 
being carried, riding, drawn, sailing, ever associated Avith ele- 
vation, grandeur, velocity ; hence, in Hebrew, equally appli- 
cable to a horse and an ass. Northern words, in the Arabic 
alone, amount to several hundred, derived most likely from an 
unknown parent stock through Zend or Pelhevi, and closely 
allied to Gothic and Sanscrit. The known Indo-Sac^ and 
Germanii had first proceeded south before they moved west- 
ward at a later period, and cannot have had such strong influ- 
ence upon the Semitic tongues : we must look for an earlier 
and more permanent cause to account for the fact ; perhaps to 
the giant invasion of Canaan, or of the shepherds in Egypt. 
That there were inroads of cavalry nations from the north-east 
at a later period, is sufficiently implied by the predictions in 

Deuteronomy, where the expressions " from afar off, even from 
the ends of the earth, as swift as an eagle flieth," are perfectly 
to the purpose ; and at an earlier period these terrible invaders 
would no doubt have been denominated giants. With regard to 
the word Asp^ it affords another indication of the original habitat 
of the horse in the names of most ancient nations of Central 
Asia noticed by Greek authors, such as the Asjra^ Arimaspii^ 

horsemen and mouutain-horsemenj probably Mongolcs of Tibet, 




\ 



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Ml 



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INTRODUCTION. 



81 



+ 

the first of these^ ho doubt, parent of the Persian 
asp^ and the latter of Turan, the land of the swift, 
an ancient appellation of Bokhara or the valley of 
the Jaxartes, that river which in Hindu mythology 
is always represented issuing out of a horse's mouth, 

H 

and therefore another indication of the quarter 
^vhence horses hecame known to Southern Asia. 
-Now, referring to atun^ we may believe it to be 
another mutation like asp from aswa^ or along with 
f^wa from a root still older, and be likewise in con- 
nexion with m^og and equus^ which are claimed to 
Ve Pelas^ian modifications, and that the Finnic epo 

an ancient Anglo-Saxon and Frisic 



and 



upping 



term, is similarly related to /'^ro^. All these names 
are expressive of qualities, and their roots may be 
fairly traced. A similar slight mutation places the 
Hebrew l?!, ramach^ and the Celto-Scythic march 
a horse, a mare, in the same affinity; and if we 
take one more name, 7V3 sits or sush^ in Turkish 
still sukh^ the most ancient term for that aiiinial 
knovm in the south-west of Asia, and the origin of 
Susia?2a and Susa^ whither the earliest Caucasian 
invaders appear to have come to settle with their 
horses in the pastures along the river Choaspes, we 
have also an indication of colour, for sush^ a muta- 
tion of sur, the inversion of rhus, applies to bay, the 
general livery of horses ; a name which in the West 
slightly varied to rJtos, or hros, and horse, belongs to 
l^oth the animal and the colour ; Avhile the word bay, 
in Latin hadius, and in old Teutonic la?/ert, may be 
iniported from Arabia, wlicre be^/al denotes the same 






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INTRODUCTION. 



animal, or is again a coincidence between the Ara- 
bic, the old Pelasgian, and the Teutonic. 
'^"Thus we may infer that the original horse of 
South-western Asia came already domesticated from 
the north-east, and therefore We find no mention of 
it made till the patriarch Joseph, holding the highest 
ministerial power in Egypt, sends a chariot drawn 
by horses to bring his aged father to the banks of 
the Nile : for if he resided at Zoan on the borders 
of Goshen, or at On (the Greek Heliopolis), where 
the sun was honoured under the title oi phre and 



phm\ he was in the region where the g 



Hyk- 



505, invaders and charioteers from High Asia, had 
until lately resided. * 

If, without the aid of horses, the progress of 
colonization could at first be affected only by a 
gradual and slow advance, and that of military 
conquest could not be extended beyond a mere 
vicinity, we see how readily Sesostris availed him- 
self of the spoils obtained from the expelled shep- 
herds ; that with the aid of horses, which they first 
brought to Egypt, he retaliated and passed eastward 



to the very sources whence they had issued; and 

* The Hy]<sos or Haikos, that is, HaiJc wearers, is a name of 
ancient Upper Armenia, and denotes a garment, from which 
wc retain the old v/ord Hitch^ and the ancient Belgians Fiiilc. 
Siiorro gives to Scythia the name of SarUand^ the land of 
Tiinic^ i. e. ImcJc wearers, which coincides with the received 
opinion of the region whence these Scythie invaders had issued, 
aud the direction they took in their retreat, although it is pro- 
bable tliat they went no farther north than the Hauran, beyond 
Jordan, 



«f 



-■-A- - 





INTRODUCTION. 



83 



although he may have missed their line of retreat 
across the Jordan, by taking the road along the 
Syrian coast, it appears, if faith can be placed in 
relations more legendary than historical, that he 

r 

penetrated into Bactria ; and from his era horses 
are evidently used in Egypt. But although these 
animals are seen in numerous battle-pictures repre- 
senting his wars and conquests, and are drawn with 
a. skill which marks the perception of high bred 
^ces, we must not take them to be all coeval, but 
as tokens of refinement in art during successive 
ages. The abundance of war-horses they pourtray 
is an exaggeration, for, as already shown, they are 
unnoticed until the era of Joseph, and therefore of 
recent introduction, when the shepherd kings were 
already expelled; nor numerous at the time of 
Exodus, since the whole that could be called out, 
indeed on a short notice, but still from that part 
of Egypt where provender was most abundant, 
amounted, in the pursuit of Israel, only to six hun- 
dred chariots of war, '' all the chariots of Egypt ; 



33 



wliicli implies either an enormous destruction in the 
murrain of cattle, or a very scanty establishment of 
horses in the district of Memphis, two being the 
amount for each chariot in Egypt. This shows 
liow little reliance can he placed in the profane 
historians, Avho allowed twenty-seven thousand cha- 
i-iots to Sesostris, and one hundred thousand chariots, 
^vith a million of horsemen, to Semiramis. * 

* These hieroglypliie pietur/BS show by the cross,— the Swas- 
teka cross of Budhu, figured on the robes of several foreign 



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INTRODUCTION, 



From motives that may be assigned to the inten- 
tions of Moses, or from causes operating at this 
moment in part of Arabia Petrea, horses were not 
permitted to be bred by the people of Israel, who 
being intended to lire isolated from other nations, 
might not become conc^uerors, — and destined to oc- 
cupy a mountainous range enclosed between deserts 
and the sea, could not come down into the plains 
without danger, and only became predominant under 
the kings who first disregarded the injunction.'^ 
The case was similar on their nearest border in 
Arabia; for even in the time of Saul, the conse- 
quence of a victory over Arab tribes furnished the 
Hebrews with plunder in camels, asses, and sheep, 
but not in horses. In the Psalms, horses are gene- 
rally noticed as, used by their Canaanitish enemies : 
David himself, in a batde where a number of priso- 
ners were taken, ordered most of their horses to be 
slain. But although these facts apply to Judea 

that tliey are not themselves of the era of Scsostris 
Remses II. or III. ; they also hidicate the region whence Eoynt 
derived horses, since, in the tribute paid by a conquered 
people, horses, and even chariots, are represented: now, this 
people is painted with long dresses, light complexions, brown 
hair, and bhie eyes, and named Eot~7i-no, Among other objects 
of interest there are bears, and elephants with short ears and 
high foreheads, pecuhar to the Asiatic species, ail offering 
proofs of the Rot~7i~7io being residents in High Asia and not 
Africa, though it involves the difficulty of elephants being then . 
found to the west of the Indus and of Ilindukoh, but it is 
probable that they were ah'eady imported from Ind'a at a re- 
mote period. See Wilkinson's " Ancient Egyptians/' vol. i. 
* Deuteronomy; xvii. 16. 



nations," 



I 




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iJ 







INTPvODUCTION. 



8 



and part of Arabia, all round these regions liorses 
had multiplied at an early period, as we shall see 
in the sequel. 

In the most ancient legislation of India, dating 
hack to a period nearly coeval with Moses, horses 
are mentioned, and in particular, where the astva- 
meda jug^ or sacrifice of these animals is enjoined, 
which, during the predominance of the worship of 
Kah, was an awful solemnity, only next to the im- 
molation of a human victim. The importance thus 
bestowed upon a horse shows, however, the scarcity 
of the species at that period; but in later ages, 
horses for sacrifice or ascribed to mystical purposes 
occur, already bearing denomination of breeds and 
of native countries : thus the Ay, explained to refer 
to Arabia, on account of their swiftness are designed 
to carry angels ; the talizees of Persia belong to 
Kundhorps, or good genii ; the washa^ a deformed 
kind of tahzees^ are ridden by Gins and demons ; 
and the ashoor^ of Toorkee race, perform the jour- 
neys of mankind. Although this legend is evi- 
dently of a comparative late date, it is remarkable 
that no Indian indigenous horse is mentioned, and 
as for the Hy, interpreted Arabian, the explanation 
is probably still more recent. '^ 



Mahoharata 



nominations of gods and superhuman agents, Kaurams and 
Pandavas, it appears that the first great military religious in- 
vasion of India is recorded ; and in the enumeration of the 
AhsliausMiiis^ or corps of armies, both chariots and cavaky are 
mentioned. 




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86 



INTRODUCTION. 



thougli poetical 



r ^P 

Nor should tlie arrival of the Centaurs he over- 
looked in these researches, for 
records are not history, the fact of their presence, 
their superior attainments, and the character of their 
horses, proves that a basis of truth was wrought up 
into fictions, which, though they conferred upon that 
horde impossible characters, nevertheless, in their 
circumstances, permit reason to detect the first ap- 
pearance of a riding nation, mounted upon a breed 
of horses which we shall trace out in the sequel. 
This irruption belongs to the earliest movement 
of the cavalry hordes from Central Asia, coming 
upon Thrace and Thessaly by the north of the 
Black Sea and across the lower Danube ; while 
another, not long after, evidently composed of a 
more southern tribe, broke into Asia Minor, and 
was known in tradition by the appellation of Ama- 

The first, most likely, were northern Scythse 
of High Asia, real horsemen ; the second, high land 
Sacse, Stri-rajas, perhaps Pandu followers of Crishna 
and Ballirama, led by martial queens, wearing long 
clothes, and detached westward from a cause un- 
known, '^ but both more civilized than the Pe- 



zons. 



lasoians of either 



JEcr 



the first 



exclusively riders, the second both riders and cha- 



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+ 

* The Stri-rajaJis^ or women princes of Marawa, opposite 
Ceylon, have in Indian records all the characteristics of Ama- 
zons, and are represented with similar attributes in sculpture. 
At present the robber tribe of Kaluies, occupying the same 
territory, have women in chief authority, and j>olygandry is 
the law. 





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T ^ ' 



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INTHODUCTUN 



n 



rioteers, mtt institutions akin to tliose of Indian 



nations. * - 

Both events synchronise with the heroic age of 
Greece, and are sufficiently near the periods of the 
expulsion of the shepherds, the invasion of Asia by 
Sesostrls or Remses II. and III., and the Indian 
epic legends, to establish the epoch of great move- 
ments through all the regions in question, and fix 
the period when horse, chariot, and rider first make 
their appearance : the northern nations exclusively 
as riders; at Nineveh, t in Asia Minor, and in 



Centaurs 



Carpathians and pushed onwards to the Baltic, traces of which 
might be pointed out in their peculiar horses, we would have 
a clue to the arrival of the first Asa race in Northern Europe, 
and account for their riding gods, their Indian divinities, their 
horse sacrifices, and their language approximating to the San- 
ecrit, and the mythical legends of Sagara and Asa-manga. 
^ Mr. Rich mentions a bas-relief of a man on horseback, 



carved 



pvirposes 



sents a cylinder living the figm:e of a riding sportsman catch- 
ing a deer with a casting-net, found at the same place. 

Sesonchosls first mounted a horse according to Apoll. m 

natalis comes. . ™. xu a 

Bellerophon on the winged Pegasus m Phny, the Amazons 

in Lvslas Rhetor , and, lastly, Mareo, a person half-man half- 
horse first taught riding to the Italian people ; his name is the 



Mar on 



Centaur 



vaders from Asia. There is even an older evidence that riding 
was not unkuown in the days of Jacob, in Genesis xhx. 17,- ^^ 
" An adder in the path, that biteth the horse\s heels, so that ^^^^ 
his rider falleth backward. 



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iNTROBtJCTION 



'India, as cliarioteers and riders; and in Greece, 
Palestine, and Egypt, as charioteers only. 

Although no people could be conversant with 
horses, or accustomed to mount asses, without learn- 
ing the practicability of sitting on horseback, these 
differences are distinguishable in written authorities, 
and visible on fictile vases, bas-rehefs, and Egyptian 
painted outlines : they are a general result of the 
apposite manners of nations, according to the cli- 
mates , they inhabit ; intensely cold, or relaxino-ly 
warm. As they reside among marshy rugged steppes, 
or dry hard plains, they adopt short dresses of 
peltry or long encumbering clothes ; they ride or 
they drive, but necessity, fashion, and habit change 
their inclinations ; they fight from chariots, because 
more convenient to carry heavy darts and shield, 
till they experience the superiority of mounted 
opponents, and then modify their own customs. 

Now, if we compare these considerations with the 
claims in favour of Africa set up by late writers 
who consider the domestic horse was first brought 
from thence to be subdued in Egypt, we find no 
true indigenous wild horse in that quarter of the 
globe, unless the puny hoomrah deserves that name ; 
and we appeal to the current of human civilization, 
which most certainly did not set in from Central 
Africa towards the north-east, 
dian horsemen occur, they are not charioteers, nor 
noticed until Carthage and Greek Cyrenaica flou- 
rished, or had already lost their independence, and 
then they were naked riders, little acquainted with 



Although Numi- 












41 



fi 



\ 



\ 



INTRODUCTIOK. 



89 



tlie bridle or tlie saddle, and with less adaptation of 
the arts of Asia than the modern Patagonians have 
copied from those of Europe. Egypt was not a 
country for wild horses; we have already seen 
when the domestic first appear there : and surely it 
,was not from Nubia that the elements of progres- 
sive civihzation were taken, but from Asia, whence 
the people came, and to which alone they acknow- 
ledged affinity. 

Even in that quarter of the globe there was a 
difference respecting horses : in the northern half, 
the whole male and occasionally the female popula- 
tion have used the saddle ever since human records 
began; in the southern, within the commencement 
of profane history only, the better classes alone are 
mounted, and riding tribes, such as the Kyale 
Arabs, formerly sate on swift camels (hedjeens), 
and until now, on many occasions, continue to pre- 
fer them to horses. 

With regard to primitive Arabia, it should be re- 
marked that its geographical limits are very mdefi- 
nite ; Hira and Gassan, or a great part of Western 
Persia, and all Eastern Syria and Palestine, being 
occasionally claimed as part of the national domain 
in ancient times, and since the Ilejira, they have 
been extended eastward far beyond the Euphrates, 
and west to Morocco. Ancient Egypt similarly 
comprised, at times, part of Arabia, of Syria, and 
all Palestine, which, with the Ethnic nations, was 
always viewed as a province more or less under 
Persia or Egypt. When, therefore, a question is 



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90 



INTRODUCTION. 



'raised concerning horses in eitlierj durino- antiquity, 
^xe are liable to be misled for want of more accurate 
geographical knowledge ; but this difficulty appears 
not to apply in refuting the argument of Count de 
Buffon, where he asserts the primitive horse to be 
still found wild in Arabia; for all the peninsula, 
and the provinces that can by any extension be 
claimed as within the limits, having been tenanted 
from .the earliest periods by wandering tribes, graz- 
ing camels, goats, and sheep on every space that 

produced verdure, there are nowhere districts suffi- 
ciently inaccessiblCj^ or cover properly qualified to 
shelter horses in a wild state, although wild cat- 
tle are mentioned, which in reality are not animals 
of the bovine family, but oryges belonging to the 
Antilopidw.^ It is more probable, as before ob- 
served, that there were no horses in this open and 
barren region, until Scythic conquerors of the giant 
race, Imilicon, Cuthites, or Hyksos, brought them 
down from High Asia ; and that these hordes and 
their animals were incorporated like tlie Idumeans 
or left their horses, and many words of their Ian- 
guage, when they perished or w^ere expelled, t. If 

■ J 

* The leucoryoe^ and other antelopes, are usually classed with 
oxen in Oriental relations. 

■f Events of this kind had occurred, and are again foretold 
by the prophet Ezekiel, vi. 26,—" A king of kings from the 
norths with horses and with chariots, and with horsemen," (S:c. 
A king of kmgs, literally Clmhgan. The Tahtars have a pro- 
verb, tliat for seven years after a horde has passed, no com will 
grow. In the eleventh century, when the terrible Comans 
oYerthrew Persian, Turk, and Christian, and took possession of 






i 

f 



^..- 





INTRODLCTION. 



91 




the capture of wild horses be recorded and be fact, 
we may rest assured that the term means either feml^ 
animals, or, by misnomer, the wild ass of the desert. 

In Europe, where there is reason to believe wild 
horses existed, and in particular among the Celt^, 
acquaintance with a domesticated breed seems to 
date, on the continent, from the period when the 
Celto-Scythic and Centomannic Gauls ascended the 
Danube and crossed the Rhine, and in Britain when 
commerce with Phoenician merchants first intro- 
duced some practices of Asiatic origin ; for the for- 
mer were riders, having the well known system of 
iHnar arrangement, called trimarclmia '% m their 
cavalry, and the latter were charioteers to the time 
when the Romans first crossed the Channel ; the first, 
therefore, had habits analogous to the manners of 
the north, the second to those of the south of Asia. 

It is to the beginning of the period when con- 
quering horsemen had spread to the south and west 
of the old world, that is, between the seventeenth 
and fourteenth centuries before the Christian era, 
that the veneration attached to the horse may have 
commenced ; though, no doubt, a date still earlier 
must be fixed when the zodiacal belt was deter- 
mined ; t for, in the houses of the sun, no horse is 



Jerusalem 



See 




figured in Europe like lions, and the riders like Chinese, 
MS Marino Zanuti, Burgundy Library, Brussels, 1326. 

^ *' Noticed in Pausanias, seemingly from the Celtic tri-march- 
kesec, that is, three horses combined,— a knight and his two 

squires. ^ / 



shown 



i&odiacal 



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INTRODUCTION. 



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■indicated; because it may be that aillmal was tlieit 
already regarded as the moving emblem of the 
planet of day, and had become one of its personifi- 
cations. We find evidence to this effect among 
those nations, neighbours of the Hebrews, who, as 
before remarked, appear to have descended from 
north-eastern Scythse or giant tribes ; one of which 
worshipped Ana-Melek, according to commentators, 
in the form of a horse, probably the same idolatrous 
divinity known to subsequent Arabs by the name of 
Yauk. Other tribes, of more indigenous origin, had 
similar idols under the form of their own native Equi - 
d93 ; such was Tarhak or Tartak of the Avim, who 
typified their national god by the figure of an ass, and 
Adra-melek is mentioned to have been formed in the 
likeness of a mule ; which, if the assertion Avere cor- 
rect, would establish the antiquity of that hybrid 
produce at an early period indeed ; but most likely 
we should understand by the name the hemionus 
of naturalists, which once existed as far to the south 
at least as Great Armenia and Asia Minor. 

In Europe, the black horse was long considered 
as a form of an evil demon; among the modern 
Pagan Asiatics, Schaman sorcery is usually per- 
formed with images of small horses suspended from 
a rope ; and a sort of idolatrous worship, is admitted 
even by Mohammedans, when effigies of the horse of 

w 

constellations named, in a region more northerly than either 
Egypt or the plains of India ; therefore, anteriorly to the civi- 
lization of either, prior to the arrival of the horse ; and conse- 
quently we are carried back to an unknown social state in 
Bactria or Cachemire, 



^ 




.a: 






INTRODUCTION. 



93 



Hoseln, or of that of Khizr, the St. George of Islam, 

are produced. 

The earliest cavalry nations set tlie example of 
expressing beauty, power, exaltation, by terms 
which they also gave to the horse, and particularly 
in the north, made it a type of the sun ; thus, froni 
the commencement of the first Persian dynasties, as 



already noticed, 



P/ul, and Asp, all 



names of that animal, are not only titles of the sun, 
but also names of frequent occurrence among the 
sovereigns and grandees. * The same practice pre- 



vailed among the Celtic and Gothic nations, where 



March, Hengist, Horsa, Uppa, Hako 
are similarly observable. 

Pegasus and other Avlnged horses figure in the 
constellations of all ancient systems, and with or 
without wings are types of victory, national em- 
blems, and standards of battle, either by exhibition 
of their skulls, their tails, or by whole or parts of 
the animal in a sculptured form, t Most of the 
solar and year gods had sacred horses, which drew 

the idol's chariot, or were led before his shrine or 
the perpetual fire. Those of the Persian Oznuisd, 
as well as the royal stud, were Jnvanably white, 
aiid were derived from Cilicia. 

repeatedly polluted by this idola- 

* Ninus, Pfid, Varanes, Pharnabasus, Phraortes, perhaps 
FJiaraoli ; again Lorasp, Gustasp, SUerasp, Aspliendiar, &c. 

f The tv/o-headcd winged horse of Egypt, Pegasus. Sleipner, 
the solar horse of Odin ; in the harvest month, Gidfaxi, horse- 
skiUls of the Sueiones, the, figures and heads as signa of Ni^a,: 
Susa, Corinth, Thessaly, Etruria, Carthage, Beturigcs, Silures, Se- 

quani, Mauri fcroces, Saxons, Tahtars,.Tm-3is, and many others. 



Even the kings of 



Judal 



were 





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INTRODTJCTION. 





{ry, *^ In India and in Western Europe, where the 
same colour was yenerated, one or more were annu- 
ally sacrificed to the sun, and even to other divini- 
ties, such as Ertha in the island of Rugen. From the 
Ganges to the Baltic, stalls for these animals existed 
about the temples and in the sacred groves. 

As the camel had been emphatically styled the 
ship of the desert, so was the ship denominated the 
horse of the sea. Under the names of horse and 
mare, the helio and lunar arkite enclosure, or kid, 
was typified by the Celtic Druids of the fifth and 
sixth centuries, when their ancient lore became 
araakamated with Gnosticism; and the eastern 
fables of Bellerophon and Perseus had their myste- 
rious counterparts in western initiation. 

To ancient Egypt we appear to be indebted for 
tlie first systematic attention to rearing and im- 
proving breeds of horses. Numerous carved or out- 
lined pictures, in temples and halls, represent steeds 
whose symmetry^ beauty of outline, and even co- 
lour, attest that they are designed from high bred 
types, and evince the care bestowed upon them by 
the addition of grooms, Avho are rubbing their 
joints, and attend sedulously to their comfort on all 






fitting occasions, in the same manner as is still the 
practice in the East. In all these pictures, the 
horses are represented harnessed to chariots; no in- 
stance occurring of a mounted rider, except on one 
occasion, where the execution of the design is recog- 
nised to belong to the Roman era. + 

^ 2 Kings, sxiii. 11. 

t There are two or three, indeed, -vvliere riders cccicT in 



i 



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\ 



INTRODUCTION. 



95 



The Homeric lieroes of tlie Iliad, the Persian and 
Babylonian warriors, likewise had these warlike 
vehicles ; but the last mentioned had no mounted 
cavalry' until after the invasion of Madyes, or at 
least till the conquests of Cyrus, for chariots alone 
are sculptured on the bas-reliefs of Persepolis ; 
though, from the figures already noticed, found at 
Nineveh, the Medes were in all probability a 
mounted people at an earlier date. * Saddle-horses 
were not common in the south of 'Western Asia, 
and perhaps not even in Media, since Cyrus op- 
posed his camels to the Lydian cavalry of Croesus ; t 
and hence we may infer that riding steeds, of recent 
introduction, by the passes of Caucasus, along the 
west coast of the Caspian, gave the advantage to 
that power which was most accessible to the ad- 

Egyptian battle-pictures, but tliey always represent enemies, 
such as those opposed to Remses in his Asiatic expedition. 

* See note, page 87. 

t Herodotus, Aristotle, and Pliny are sufficient authority 
for the original dislike of the hor.^e to the camel, and the fact 
proves their subjugation and domestic habits were not then 
completely established, for now, and for several centuries past, 
they are not only thoroughly reconciled to each other, but ni 
actual friendship, since she camels suckle foals, and many of 
the best Arabians chiefly subsist on camels' milk. If Cyrus 
be Kaikaus and reigned in Bactria, it might be inferred that 
in Western Asia the first charioteers came through the Arian 
desert to the lower Euphrates ; but it is most likely their route 
lay between the Caspian and the Caucasus into Armenia; 
though it is more probable that the bay stock of horses spread 
by the Sulimani range and Heimond to Southern Asia, W 
men, and Egypt 





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2NTK0DXTCT10N. 



-venturous -warriors who came from the north and 
offered their services to the nearest sovereign. From 
that time, however, a mounted cavalry became con- 
spicuous in all the Aramean regions, and they are 
often represented in sculpture of a later period, in 
various parts of Persia. 

The people of Israel we have seen, though shep- 
herhs of kindred origin with the Edomite Arabs, 
had no horses in Goshen, and continued without 
studs till the Mosaic prohibition was disregarded by 
Solomon, who established a force of chariots of war 
and, it is supposed, of mounted cavalry. It was 
then the kingdom extended in glory and in surface 
far beyond its ancient boundary. With the mer- 
cantile spirit of eastern princes, he monopolized a 
trade in horses, importing them in strings from 
Egypt, and out of all lands ; * he sold teams and 
chariots to the Phoenicians, who, as they did not 
possess land armies or extensive territories, 
dently bought horses for luxury, and still more for 
exportation, t The Tyrians, at another time, ob- 
tained theirs from Armenia, and, no doubt, both 

r 

* 2 Chronicles, ix. 28, and 2 Kings, x. 28. 

t The sacred historian gives the prices both of horse and 
chariot : a horse from Egypt cost 1 50 shekels of silver, or about 
£17 sterling ; a chariot, most likely in part of cast metal, was 
worth 600 shekels, or £68 8s. sterling. This trade was evi- 
dently carried on by the gross or string, as the price was not 
for different values of single horses ; and it proves that even 
then in Egypt they required particular care and Vvcre expen- 
sive in rearing, and that in Syria they were either scarce or of 
inferior value. Sec 1 Kings, x, 29. 



evi- 



fn 



I 








I 



' , 



INTRODUCTION 



97 



carried them to their African colonies, to Crete, 
Sicily, Spain, and Greece. Thus it may have been 
that, in their allegorical poems, Helenic fabulists 
represented Neptune striking the earth with his 
trident, and, producing the horse, distributed the 
species to gods and heroes. Similar opmions are 
held in modern times by the Circassians, who 
deem the Shalokh steeds, the noblest of Kabarda 
horses, to be sprung from the sea ; probably because 
the parent stock was imported by water. _ _ 

Recent authors have endeavoured to maintain, 
>vith still less appearance of reason even than Buf- 
fon s opinion concerning the original location of the 
domestic horse, that Arabia had no horses m the 
early ages, nor during the Roman empire, and 
scarcely any at the date of the hejira. In support 
of this opinion we are told, that, in the second cen- 
tury, horses were sent a present to the reigning 
princes of that country ; that in the fourth, two 
hundred Cappadocian steeds were again forwarded 
by the Roman emperor to the same region ; and m 
the seventh, when Mohammed in person attacked 
the Koreish, that he had but two of these animals 
in his army ; finally, that not a single horse was 
cantured by him in his sanguinary and victorious 



campaign 



Without 



nevertheless refer to what has already been said in 
the foregoing pages, to show the condition of the 

* See the Horse, « Library of Useful Knowledge," 8vo. 1831 ; 
a book we have consulted witb great interest, and invaluable 
in many particulars : its humane tendency is above all praise. 




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98 



INTRODUCTION. 



question as it regards the immediate neioTjLours of 
Arabia, and next offer a few facts which we think 
completely refute the argument. Although Mecca 
and Medina, and the Edomite camel-riding clans of 



the 



Wady 



possessed many horses, the admission in no way 
disproves that abundance of them were in the hands 

•J 

of the Bedoueen tribes, and in Yemen. They are then 
already described riding naked like the Numidians, 
without saddle or bridle, and guiding their horses 
with a rod or with a single thong. The first conflicts 
of the prophet, with his own tribe and others, were 
mere mob quarrels of townsmen and camel herds. 
Even at this day, the Edomite Arabs, residing along 
the upper part of the Red Sea, exclusively use ca- 
mels or walk : their country is too barren to sup- 
port more than sheep and goats; and the people 
talk of the riding Arabs, and their splendid horses, 
with wonder, envy, and delight. -"• But the Be- 
doueens, the true wandering Arab ihn Arab, for 
many centuries the neighbours of Canaanites, Babv- 
lonians, Syrians, Persians, and Parthians, robbers 
by profession, could not possibly be without them. 
Already, before the fall of Jerusalem, Hebrews of 
the tribes of Manasseh and Gad, stray remnants of 
the captivity, had taken refuge in the desert, and 
exercised a nomad system of warfare under a suc- 
cession of their own princes. They fought great 
battles, they captured Mithridates and two brethren, 
Asinous and Anileus, and defeated a Parthian army^ 



* See Laborcle, " Journey through Arabia Pctrea.'' 



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INTRODUCTION. 



99 



commanded by Artaban in person, entirely coni^ 

posed of cavalry. 

When, in revenge, the Jews were massacred in 
Iran, they were not exterminated: whole famihes 
sought refuge among the Eastern Bedoneens and 
Southern Arabs of Yemen, where they were re- 
ceived as Matnoub; and several centuries later, 
their wrongs not forgotten, they joined heartily in 
the Islam cause, and avenged the memory of their 
ancestors in the memorable battle of Kadesiah, 
where the Parthian dominion was laid prostrate.* 
In proof that they had horses at the commence- 
ment of the Roman empire, we appeal to Hirtius 
{de Bell. Alex.\ where C^sar is recorded to have 
sent to an Arabian, Regulus, there styled Malchus, 
that is, Melek, for a reinforcement of cavalry ; t 
later, but still before the hejira, we hear of a war of 
forty years' duration, between the tribes of Abs and 
Dobian, which arose out of a dispute on account 
of a race between two horses named Dahes and 
Ghabra : next, when we look to the tenor of the 

* Matnonh are strangers to whom is conceded the privilege 
of pitching their tents on the same line with the hospitable 
tribe. It is conjectured that these adopted famihes givadually 
mero-ed in the Arab tribes, and were the chief cause of the 
raimerous Hebrew names we find given to individuals,— sueli 
as Issa, Haronn, Musa, Daond, Suleiman, Jussuf, Ibrahim, &e. 
It is natural that their fine intellects should give them influ- 
ence, Islam a new impulse, and with the tenacity of tribal 
reminiscence, reveuge was an additional stimulus. 

f Laborde shows the Nabatheans to have had cavalry, de^ 
riving their horses from the/Scenite Arabs. The Nubian ^rab 
tribes are still headed by their Meieks. 



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100 



INTRODUCTION 



poems once suspended in the Kaaba, all reported to 
have dated before t^e era of Mohammed, we find 
in Amriolkais, Amru, and Antar, animated and 
technical descriptions of the horse, splendid pictures 
of cavalry battles, and notices, which attest that 
the nation had their noble breeds from their ances- 
tors. They are written with all the feeling of con- 
noisseurs habituated for ages to excellent horses, 
and show a thorough knowledge of what constitutes 
their best qualities. Finally, if the Arabs had been 
without horseSj had not possessed them in abun- 
dance, and of the best quality, at the time of their 
uniting under the sway of the Koran, no enthu- 
siasm could have suddenly transformed mere herds- 
men into the best and most daring cavalry of their 
era, or enabled them in a few campaigns to crush 
the enormous mounted armies of the Sassanian Par- 
thians and the disciplined science of Eastern Eome ; 
none but a people long in possession of numerous 
and well trained chargers could have given wings 
to the sword of Islam, and in sixty years planted 
its victorious banners on the Pyrenees and on the 
banks of the Ganges. 

Nevertheless, in these researches, no proofs of an 
indigenous wild race of horses can be traced, nor, as 
already mentioned, does the nature of the region 
and of the vicinity offer the requisite conditions for 
maintaining them. It is to care in breeding and 
crossing imported races of animals, to attention in 
selecting the finest forms, that Arabia owes the 
celebrity of its studs. Evidently Egypt, Persia, 



* 






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IKTRODUCTION. 



101 



and Armenia first supplied tlie nomad tribes with 
the means of producing their magnificent races, and 
the comforts of the domestic tent, the constant pre- 
sence of human kindness, the experience of interest, 
the proportions of a scanty but nutritive food, the 
abstemiousness in drink, and the dry sunny climate, 
were necessary to the full development of the excel- 
lent qualities they possess : hence, Arab chiefs may 
have desired and willingly received horses as pre- 
sents from renowned breeds of Egypt, or from the 
warlike races of Upper Asia. Presents of horses in 
the East have always been interchanged or given, 
but that fact is no argument that the receivers were 
in want of them ; it only shows Arabia and Lower 
Asia to have been, as it still is, Avithout horses in 
such droves as are seen in the north, and that the 
rrreat variety of colours in the Arab breeds arises 
from the introduction of foreign animals- With the 
nations of Central and stilLipore of Northern Asia, 
the case formerly was very different, and in some 
measure is still so. Attention and ^selection in 
breeding is only casual, w^hefe "Immense herds of 
horses occupy pastures of interminable surface; 
where, from the absence of human interposition, 
they retain the instincts of independence: under 
such circumstances, the resident proprietors, little 
valuing individual animals, care only for the aggre- 
gate numb(^s; the whole people are mounted, and 
do nearly all their domestic work in the saddle; 
they cross rivers by holding their horses' tails, or 
fastening them to rafts or boats, convey themselves 




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102 



INTRODUCTION. 



• and families to tlie opposite shores, sometimes seve- 
ral miles distant. Of all the races of man, they 
alone eat their flesh, drink the milk of mares, and 
know how to conyert it into curmL an intoxicatino- 
beverage ; they marry on horseback, their councils 
meet on horseback, and declarations of war, treaties 

of peace or alliance, are dated from the stirrup of 
the sovereio'ii. * 

The nations of High Asia were inventors of the 
bridle, of the true saddle, of the stirrup, f and pro- 
bably of the horse-shoe. With many of them, a 
horse, a mare, and a colt were fixed nominal stand- 
ards of value, such as the cow was once among tlie 
Celt^e. In a general view, equestrian habits be- 
come more and more decided as we advance towards 
the East. In Europe, the Poles continued to elect 

r 

their kings on horseback to our own times. At pre- 
sent, no nation of the west can oppose an equal 
force of cavalry to the Russian ; in the earlier cam- 
paigns of Suwarrow, the Russian could not cope 
with the Turkish ; a century ago, the Turks were 
inferior to the Persian horse; and these were re- 
ipeatedly overwhelmed by Usbeks, Afghauns, and 
Toorkees, who, descending from North-eastern Tah- 
tary, came from the Jaxartes down the valley of 



the Oxus, each in turn propelled by riding armies 

^' Not a few of these haLits are, however, already in vogue 
among tlie Abipones and Pawnees, the new TalRtars of Ame- 
rica, both in the north and south. 

f Siirnip^ or Fiikioh^ first mentioned by Avicenna. Of horse- 
shoes we shall speak hereafter. 



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INTRODUCTION. 



103 



from tlie same quarter. Tahtar tribes repeatedly 
swarmed westwards from the age of Attila to the 
thirteenth century, when they still penetrated to 
the Nile and as far as Silesia ; and twice within the 
middle ages, Tahtar hordes invaded and subdued 
China. To such a people, the present of a few 
horses may appear an expression of consideration or 
of value, on account of the rarity of their breed, but 
a mere troop of horses, as such, cannot be deemed 
of consequence to the smallest khan, in a region 
where, according to Marco Paolo, the Chagan pos- 
sessed more than ten thousand head of white horses 

When, therefore, we endeavour to fix the original 
habitation of the domestic horse, considered as a 
single species, and we recal to mind the statements 
already made respecting the remains of these ani- 
mals found in the soil, the regions where they are 
still observed in a wild state, as will be shown in 
the sequel more at large, and compare the facts 
with the foregoing reflections, it seems to be clearly 
demonstrated that the aboriginal region, where the 
wild horse was first most generally subdued, should 
be sought in High Asia, about the fortieth degree 
of latitude, the table lands whence riding and cha- 
rioteer nomads have incessantly issued, penetrating 
to the east, the south, and the west, from periods 
evidently anterior to historical record, almost to our 
own times ; that from Central Asia, northward and 
westward, and including, to the south, Bactria^ the 
vallev of the Oxus, Northern Aria, Chorasmia, and 



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INTRODUCTIOX. 



' probably the wbole of Europe, constitute the great 
primitive habitation of the horse. Far to the north 
the species has no congener, but soon the hemionus 
is known to be its companion ; and further south, 
the wild ass extends eastward across the Indus to 
the Bramaputra and west into Africa, 'far up the 
banks of the Bahar-el-Abiad and Atbara. * Other 



congeners there are on this side the equator, but 
they are not sufficiently known, nor is their precise 
location determined. 

These reflections are in harmony with the earliest 
appearance of horses in the south-west of Asia ; 



thev admit a succession of immigrations 



and 



m 



some 



degree point out the routes follow^ed by colo- 
nies and conquerors possessed of horses; and in 
conjunction with other remarks, for wdiich we refer 
to our description of wild horses, the conclusion 
appears to be further substantiated by an evidence, 
which is generally regarded as the most ancient 
written record in existence, namely, the book of 
Job, — where the author, in a description of the 
horse, unsurpassed in sublimity by any profane 
writer, notices the flowing mane, or as our versions 
express it, "-^ a mane clothed in thunder." An allu- 
sion to the mane of a horse, in bold and figurative 
lan^^uao-e, indicates the character of this fine orna- 
ment to be conspicuous; but on reference to the 
pictured forms of ancient Egyptian war-horses, or 
to the high bred chargers of Arabia and Southern 

* Voyage on the Bahr Abiad, or "White Nile, by M. Adolpho 
Linaut, Geogr. Journ. 



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INTRODUCTION. 



105 



Asia, it is Lut little applicable ; nor do we find it 
long or flowing in wild horses ; those, however, of 
Northern Asia and Eastern Europe, that belong to 
a particular race, possess it in all the glory of poeti- 
cal exuberance. In the inspired vision of the writer, 
we fancy he descried one of those Scythian tribes, 
belted haik wearers from the regions of Caspian 
Caucasus, — riders, not charioteers,— who had pene- 
trated to the region of the hippopotamus and croco- 
dile* as conquerors or as hirehngs, for such the 
north has ever produced for the service of the south 

of Asia. ■ -11 

These remarks, we trust, will not be considered 

entirely irrelevant, for, without them, the natural 
history of the Equine family would contain little 
more than technical distinctions and enumerations 
of species, races, and breeds, without touching upon 
topics of high interest to the biblical reader, the 
philologist, and the historian. All of them deserve 
to be treated more at large, but we hope to have 
done suffiLcient to excite attention and lead others 
better quahfied than ourselves^to f ^ff ^^^'*;^^;'; _*^^'^^ 
directions here pointed out "" ' "' 



ive a succinct review of the races of renown 






We 



to 




:{ 



and mark in their descriptions the uniformity of 

* Hippopotamus, elepliaiit, or rhinoceros. The geographi- 
cal position of the witer of the hook of Job, as well as his era, 
remains inexphcahle ; although there exists a tomb ascribed 
to Ayoub, perhaps of the Meveleyi Den'ish of that name, near 
Birs Nimrod. 




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INTRODUCTION. 



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colours and characters recorded of the primitive 
breeds, to create a belief that the nations who first 
subdued their horses derived each their own race 
from the wild stock in their vicinity, and therefore 

' that varieties at least in colour occupied different 
regions ; such as the pied in the central mountains 
of Middle Asia, the dark l}ay southwards of the 

\ banks of the Jyhoun or Jaxartes, the dun more 
westward — as far as the Caspian, the white on the 
north shore of the Euxine, and the sooty and black 
in Europe. We shall find among these, races al- 
ways clouded of two colours, others constantly 
marked with a black streak along the spine, often 
cross -barred on the joints, with dark or black extre- 
mities; and again, another, where circular spots, 
commonly clearer than the ground colour, occur. 
whether they be bay, blackish ashy, or grey : the 



durability of these distinctions, not obliterated even 
in our time, during more than three thousand years 
of perpetual crossings of breeds, affords emother 
and a strong argument in favour of an aboripinal 
difference of species in the single form of the do- 
mestic horse. 



BREEDS OF HORSES NOTICED BY THE ANCIENTS 



From what has been said of the apparent distri- 
bution of the primeval forms of Equiis Cahallus^ we 
may consider the variety first known to the nations 
of historical antiquity, was that which from geogi'a- 
phical position would be the first to spread among 



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INTRODUCTION. 



107 



them ; this was the bay stock, which, coming from 
the eastern borders of the Caspian, probably the 
property of the shepherd kings, reached the Nile 
and became an object of enlightened attention with 
the government, from the moment the invaders were 
expelled. The proof of a systematic care in breed- 
in o- may be presumed, from a similarly coloured 
race beino' predominant in Asia Minor, Assyria, 
and Armenia, but inferior in stature and beauty, 
and with thick unsightly manes, as will appear when 
we come to the Grecian horses. In Egypt, on the 
croyemment farms, they were evidently improved in 
eleo-aiice, as may be gathered from the outlme pic- 
tures in the temples and tombs, where they are 
figured equal in size to the present Arabian, but 
shorter in the back, with rather slender arched 
necks, straight chaffrons, large eyes, small pointed 
ears, a small body, clean limbs, and the tail well 
set on, not abundantly furnished v/ith hair, and in 
the oldest representations the mane hogged ; an In- 
dication of recent subjugation : where these outhnes 
are filled with colour, the animals are painted red, 
either bay or chesnut, and sometimes left white^. * 
A race of this stock was in possession of the Ca- 
naanites perhaps before, but most certainly after, 
the defeated shepherds, flying from the Cyrbonian 
lake, retired to the Hauran, east of the Upper Jor- 
dan, for then commenced that breed which is still 

of the first value, though now considered Arabian, 

* I have been told of one instance wliere a pair of cliariot 
horses are spotted ; but not knowing tlie loeaUty, they may 




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belong to a later date. 



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108 



INTRODUCTION. 







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From tills locality it is likely the robber remains of 

Dan and Manasseli, in subsequent ages, first drew 
their horses, and they may hare been the means to 
spread them in Yemen. 

The bay stock is likewise seen in Egyptian pic- 
tures, brought as tribute ; and on some occasions, in 

r. 

representations of battles, it is mounted by riders of 
Upper Asia, equally advanced in the arts of civiliza- 
tion. The Lydiaii breed, so valued for stature and 
the strength to carry heavy-armed riders, in the time 
of Crossus, is to this day principally brown ; but the 
Arian horses, probably allied to the Masacian, the 
breed of Susiana, now, and possibly at an early pe- 
riod, in the hands of an Arabian people, are not 
described. Those of the breeding station at Aspan 
Farjan, near Darab, in Persia Proper, are equally 

unknown. 

We may refer with some confidence to the bay 
Scenite race of Arabia, the Apamean studs of Syria, 
where, according to Strabo, three hundred stallions 

and thirty thousand mares were maintained for the 
service of the government ; but the Babylonian of 
Herodotus, who assigns eight hundred stallions and 
sixteen thousand mares to that stud, may have been 
of diiferent origin. In Egypt, the system of atten- 
tion to the breeding of horses relaxed, and gradu- 
ally fell into disuse, when reduced to a province. 
The Persians and Romans, from reasons of state, 
w^ould prefer building temples to rearing horses. 

The breed of Syene, on the Upper Nile, is like- 
wise praised, but not so much as the Calambrian 

bays of Lybia, where there is still a valuable race 



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INTRODUCTION. 



109 



of horses. The Numidian, Mauritanlan, and fulvous 
G^tulian, with long lips, bold lion hunters, but 
smaller than the last mentioned, and less valued, 
were of the same origin. The Cyrenian, handsome 
and fleet horses ; the Calpe breed, and Lusitaniasi 
of Spain, and the Agrigentine of Sicily, bays and 
chesnuts, with some white, appear to belong to this 
stock conveyed westward by Phoenician and Car- 
thagenian ships, and partially mixed with other 
blood. But the dark bay, Peleian of Epirus, were 
no doubt of the true original stock. 

The next in historical importance was the Median 
race best known by the name of Nisean; because, 
in the plain about Mount Corone, there was in the 
time of Darius an enormous hippobaton belonging 
to the o-overnment, whence the ill-fated monarch 
drew one hundred thousand horses to oppose the 
Macedonian invasion, and still left fifty thousand in 
the pastures, which Alexander saw in his march 
through that country ; they w^ere all, it appears, of ^f 
a dini,.aiL cream colour, which caused some Greek 




writers to assert that the Median cavalry was 
mounted upon asses ; ^' but shows that it was de- 
rived from the wild race, further north, which is 
still of a similar colour, with an asinine streak down 

* " Nisa omnes equos flavos habet." Plin. The Nisean plain 
is mentioned by Arrlan and Diodorus. Ammian. Marcel, places 
their pastures in the plains of Assyria, Avest of Mount Corone, 
which forms a part of the Zagros chain. Alexander, in passing 
through Kelone, on his march to Eebatana, saw the remaining 
herd. The spot is now a resort of the Bcni Lam Arabs. This 
locality does not agxee with other authorities, who place fho 
Nisean plain east of Casbeen, 



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110 



INTRODUCTION 



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the back, cross-bars on the joints, and even on the 
shoulder ; the muzzle, mane 

black. 



5 

tail 



and pasterns, 
Isaiah mentions a chariot drawn by asses, 
xxi. 7 ; and Herodotus, that the Medes used wild 
asses to draw their war- chariots ; both apparently 
referring to the dun variety, which can be traced 
even now in the Ukraine, and is known in Scotland 
by the name of eel-back dun : or they confounded it 
with the hemionus, which we may take also to be the 
Caramanian asses used in war-chariots, or took it for 
the same breed ; as also a cream-coloured one that 
penetrated very early into Greece, and was known 
in the time of Homer by the name of Epeian. The 
Eleian Epirotic, of dun colours, and subsequent 
Dacian and Sarmatian, were coarser varieties. The 
Asiatic and Greek are stated to have been of good 
stature, but those of the Danube low, with small 
heads, huge manes and tails, exceedingly hardy and 
vicious, which is still in some measure true of the 
Wallachian, and more particularly the Ukraine 

It was most likely this race which gave 
Media a momentary ascendancy : they had the 
mane shorn on the near side, while the off hair w^as 



race. 



suffered to han^ down at full Ieno;th. 



But the 



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must have been a breed emphatically the Nisean, of 
great rarity, since Masistius is stated to have rode 
one at the battle of Platsea, and Xerxes was drawn 
by four in his expedition to Greece : Alexander 
gave another to carry Calannis to the funeral pile, 

and the king of Parthia sacrificed another to t]:c 

* This race was the first emasculated, on account of its fierce- 
ixess ; and hence geklings, in Germany, are still called Wallachs, 




( 1 



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INTRODUCTION. 



Ill 



sun while App. Tyaneus was at his court.- There 
is here, perhaps, some confusion in ancient author!- 
ties ; for we find, that from the time of Cyrus to 
Darius, the Persian kings w^ere drawn by white 
horses, and that Darius had his stud of that colour, 
consisting of three hundred and sixty Avar-horses, 
drawn annually from a Cilician breed. '" This was 
most likely the breed which supplied the horses of 
the sun, always of a pure white livery, and particu- 
larly mentioned for its stately action and arched 
neck bedecked with a long flowing mane ; or there 



w^as a white breed among the real Nisean, of such 
value as to be reserved for the great, and to be the 
object of particular mention in presents and on other 
important occasions. The mare which carried Da- 
rius, in his flight from the battle-field at Issus, was 
probably more fleet than showy, but her breed is 
not mentioned. If the beautiful mosaic battle-pic- 
ture, lately* discovered at Pompeii, may be trusted, 
the Nisean horses of the royal chariot were certainly 
elegantly shaped animals ; and it is from them, most 
likely, that Phidias took the types of the beautiful 
sculptured horse, of which we still possess the head 
in the Biitish Museum. 

The Persians, at a later period, derived from the 
Erythraean Sea a white breed, speckled with black, 
and so highly valued, that it is still eagerly bough 
up by grandees for purposes of parade. 

Another breed of antiquity, one of older date as 

* It seems, however, to be noticed by Homer under tlie 
name of Dardanian. iEneas had a set, and those of Rhesus, 
all attest the locality of the white stock. 







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INTRODUCTION. 




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a saddle-horse in tlie legends of Europe, and second 
in speed only to the Persian, was that which, after 
the overthrow of the Macedonian dynasties, became 
conspicuous as the principal stock of the Parthian 
cavalry, and was distinguished by a muscular form, 
excellent feet, great courage and elasticity combined 
! with gentleness, but still more by being invariably 
; white, clouded with large deep bay spots, piebald, 
or more technically called skewbald. This race was 
known in Europe as early as the arrival of the 
Centaurs, and historically constituted the Thes- 
salian and Thracian breeds. It seems that Homer 
indicates both its speed and colours by the epithets 

of aioXo^ojXov ^oKiXods^f/jOiisg. * 

Such also was Bucephalus, the celebrated charger 
of Alexander, which he bought for sixteen talents 
from Philonicus, out of his breeding pastures of 
Pharsalia. The Parthians valued this race above 
every other, and bred it almost exclusively, fancy- 
ing even different coloured eyes in the same animal, 
probably because they believed a wall or moon-eye 
enabled it to see better by night. The Romans, 
however, didiked piebald horses, because they were 
more easily detected in the dark. 

* Statins, when speaking of the mare of Admetus, pohits to 
their Centaur origin : 

" Quern et Thessahcis felix Admetus aboris 
Vix steriles compescit equas, Centaurica dicunt 
Semina (credo), adeo sexum indignantur et omnis 
In vires adducta venus, noctemque diemque 
Assimilant maculis internigrantibus albse. 

In the sequel we shall find Yirgil equally attentive to tlicse 
chai-acters. in describing the Ardean breed. 



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INTRODUCTION. 



113 



The clouded horses of the Huns are remarked, 
we believe, as mounted by the Hiatili, who, coming 
from the north side of the wall of China, or more 
truly from Central Asia, seem to have been the last 
tribe of Gothic blood that reached the west about 
the time of Theodosius.'^ We next find Paul War- 
nefried, in the time of Charlemagne, extol them as 
the best for war, and when we come to describe the 
wild horses, Ave shall revert to this race, evidently 
sprung from the Tangum or Tannian highland form, 
pursue the later accounts of it to our own times, 
and by this genealogy point out a strong argument 
in proof that the movements of conquest in Europe, 
in China, in India, and in Persia, effected by so 
many nations all upon the same race of steeds, 
thouo-h at different periods, come from Central 

Asia, where alone the original stock is found wild 
in Thibet. ^ 

It appears, from what we have already said, that 
the horses of Asia Minor and Armenia were early 
in part of the bay variety, others of the pale dun 
wild stock of the north of the Caspian, and the rest 
the white : it is fair to presume, from the abundance 
of horses of that colour belonging to the races of 
Asia Minor and Armenia, all represented to have 
been of high stature, that they w^ere originally de- 
rived from the dapple stock of the Scythian desert, 
[escribed by Herodotus as roar^iing vv^ild near th 



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* In the Vatican fresco, ■where Attila is diverted from 
marching to Rome, Raphael represents one of tlicse horses, 
- ^-hich bespcalcs his laformation as an historic painter. 




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INTRODUCTIdN. 





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Euxine, about the river Borysthenes ; this applies 
chiefly to the Cappadocian, and by what is said 
of the white Nisean, a CiHcian breed, their orio-in 
is somewhat corroborated, there still being noble 
white studs of horses among the Circassians. We 
do not find whence Great Armenia derived its 
hardy race with huge manes, but probably it was 
of the wild dun-coloured, and from that very cir- 
cumstance occasioned the fashion of hogging it into 
a ridgy crest, a practice followed in Greece until 
the nation was subdued by the Romans. From 
Armenia the Tyrians derived horses, and it is be- 
lieved that trade existed already in the era of Nebu- 
chadnezzar. The Romans, in like manner, preferred 
these robust warlike chargers to the Egyptian, from 
the time thev obtained footino; in Asia, and reo^u- 
larly drew remounts from thence for their cavahy. 
There was, in the time of Homer, in Asia Minor, a 
Phrygian breed of cserulean or light ash colour, 
clearly a variety of the white, but on account of 

the livery ascribed to a marine origin, and therefore 

r 

styled Neptunian and Borean, because it came from 

r 

the north and was extremely fleet. At a later 
period, the Colophonian, Chalcedonian, and other 
Greek Ionian breeds, were of a mixed race, carried 
across the Euxine by the colonies from Europe, who 
liad, by their geographical position in the mother- 
country, tribes of different descent that had each 
brought their own horses with them. . 

Greece, we have seen, possessed horses of various 
origin^ though the greater proportion were of the 










A 



^f\. 










INTRODUCTION. 



115 



dun and cream-coloured wild stock, which included 
the Arcadian, much used for breeding mules, aiid 
the Chaonian : the Argolic, having a good head and 
fine limbs, hollow-backed but cat-hammed, were of 
the same blood, and appear to exist still in the 
Morea: the Cretan were neglected, though appa- 
rently derived from the best breeds of Asia and 
Egypt : those of Altica, vaunted by Sophocles, and 
probably mixed like the Cretan, if we may trust to 
Greek and sculptured representations, were ewe- 
necked, with large heads, shallow-chested, and hol- 
low-flanked, but with excellent limbs and feet, and 
possessed of high mettle. We know that the ^Eto- 
lian and Accarnanian, nursed in solitary plains, 
were large and warlike, scarcely inferior to the 
Thessalian ; they were nearly allied to the Abidean 
of Macedonia and the Pellan, which were chesnut : 
the Tasnarian, sprung from Castor's horse, were no 
doubt white, and the glaucous or slaty asli-coloured 

breed of Erictlionius, belonging to Mycense, also 
descended from a gift of Neptune, attest a foreign 
marine importation : of the Meegarian and Eginetan 
mention is made only in a proverb. All these Gre- 
cian horses show no sign of an indigenous stock, 
unless it was the same as the Istrian dun; all the 
breeds appear introduced by man, and, exclusive of 
those of the north, were little superior to the Italian 
and Gallic. 

In Italy, the Tarentine were of Greek origin^ the 
same as the Apulian and Roseau of Rieti, prdlsed 
bv Yarro. and now known bv the name of Gala- 



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\\Q INTROBTTCTTON. 

brese : among them was the Hirpinic breed, aud 
the Lucanian were the largest horses ^vithin the 
Alps : of the Tyrrhenian or Etruscan, we only know 
that they had a small nose, a very thick mane, and 
hard hoofs, being probably of the liasenic stock, 
and alUed to the horses along the Danube or Ister, 
for they were compared to the Yenedic and Adriatic 
race. In the islands the races were very distinct : 
of the Etna and Agrigentine horse we have already 
noticed their probable intermixture with the bay 
race introduced by the Phoenicians, and the Greek 
of different breeds ; they were often victorious in 
the chariot races of Greece, and inferior in speed 
only to the Armenian and Iberian: but Sardinia 



one 



' and Corsica possessed an indigenous horse, 
apparently not imported by man, perhaps of the 
Koomrah species of Africa, and resembling the 
smallest shelties of the Scottish islands : the former, 
thou'^h small, were full of fire, and the latter, little 

larger than great dogs, "were so vicious, that it Avas 
necessary to hoodwink them to be mounted; their 
feet were like asses', the manes short, and the tails 

I long : these horses are still wild in both islands. 

^^ Spain contained two very distinct forms of the 
animal, one indigenous, the other imported from 
Africa and improved by Phoenician attention ; this 
was the Hispanic Iberian of Calpe, or Lusitanian,^ 
so well known for fleetness and the fable of the 
mares being impregnated hy the Favonian wrind. 

" Ore omnes versee in Zephyrum stant rupibiis aitis/' 

YiRG. Georg. iii. v. 273. 



J^- 



.-^^ 












/ 



INTRODUCTION. 



117 



A legend* wliich in after times tlie horse-dealers 
modified so far as to pretend that the foals begotten 
in this manner never survived their third year. The 




Ancient Spanish Mare, 



race was handsome, but timid, and had hollow 
backs and soft hoofs; it was chiefly bred in the 



«- a 



Circa Olysipponem et Taguni equas favonio stante ob- 
versus animalem eoncipere spiritum, idqiie partum fieri et 

gigni." Flin. viii. c. 42, Well represented in the Mosaics of 
Italiea ; see Alex, la Borde, " Descripcion de un pavimento en 
mosayco," &c. folio. They were the Honesti spadices of Vir- 
gil, and valued for the course in the circus ; hence Isidorus 



savs; 



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Color hie prsecipue spectandus, badius, aureus." 

De OrigiNj lib, xii, art. 41, 




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118 



INTROBUCTIOX. 



south-west of Spain, from Gibraltar to the Doiiro, 
usually coloured dark bay, which shows the Asiatic 
blood, and grey, derived from a Mauritanian race, 
or from a mixture with the second : the Gallaican, 
which was small, hardy, daring, with excellent feet, 
and indigenous in the northern mountains of Astu- 
ria, hence also called Asturcan and Celtiherian, and 
spread through the Western Pyrenees, where those 
of Bilbilis, now Callahorra on the Ebro, were cele- 
brated, according to Martial, " Bilbilim equis et 
armis nobilem." It was usually grey, and in the 
Roman era was trained to amblin 



Under the 

name of Thieldones, we find these ponies praised 
by Pliny and Martial, and extolled by Silius and 
Lemma Astureo, both native Spaniards. Lud, Car- 
rio, in his notes upon Leutprand's Chronicle, quotes 
the often repeated verses : 



parvus 



Aut in concusso glomerat vestigia dorso 
Aut molli pacata celer trahit esseda collo." 



^ - 



The other horses of Europe become know^n to us 
only from the period when Rome had extended her 
empire to the Danube, the Rhine, and to Britain ; 
they may therefore be considered together, in their 
own characters, and in connexion with the relation 
they boi'e to the imperial administration. 

Helvetian Algoici were in request for durability : 
in common w^ith the general breed of Gaul, they 
were black or sooty, and, as wnll be shown hereafter, 
wQre considered indigenous, long-backed, high-hip- 



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INTRODUCTION. 



119 



heavy 



covered with bristles: the best ^vere Canterii, or 
gelding's. The Menapian, of Guelderkmd and Lower 
Rhine, of the same colour, wexe^ however, tall and 
cleaner about the limbs, but still hairy-heeled; it 
was, no doubt, upon this kind of steeds the Bata- 
vian cohorts obtained their great reputation, for 
they were thought to be the best south of the- 
river, though the breed extended into Germany. 
From Pannonia, the Quadic and Sarmatian nations 
residino" on the Danube, the government bought 

usually o'eldings, of the wild dun-coloured 



horses, 

and dappled race before mentioned. ^^ From Mysia, 

the present Servia, the later emperors drew a valu- 
able horse, and evidently not satisfied with those 
reared within the pale of the empire, imported the 
best they could obtain from the north and east of 
Europe ; such was Hadrian's celebrated hunter, Bo- 
rysthenes, most likely of the white or grey stock. 
From the same region came the Gelonian, which 
furnished its owners with milk, and served their 
predatory expeditions by its fleetness. The Alan, 
from the northern cantons of Germany, were inele- 
gant and low, but equally hardy and rapid ; but the 
Rugian was more esteemed for war. In the fifth 
century, the Huns, according to Vegetius, had large 

* There was among the Sarmatian a light bay breed, hand- 
some, with big heads and arched necks ; and those that were 
dappled in a particular manner on the shoulder and croup 
were sometimes bought, and at others refused, from an unex- 
plained belief that these marks were of evil omen. 



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•120 



INTRODIJCTIOX, 




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liorses, witli a liawk's-billed liead, prominent eyes, 

broad jaws, a strong neck, and an immense mane ; 
they had round ribs, a straight ])ack, sound legs,' 
and a bushy tail ; their figure was low and long' 
but they were gentle and sober. 

In the British islands there was a race of indi- 
genous poneys'which Ccssar found in part subdued 
by the natives, and was known also for ages after 
to roam in a wild state in every part of the island : 
it is still imperfectly represented by the Scottish 
Wei " ~" 



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New Forest, and Dartinoor breeds, they 
4 all the same characters of hardiness and a 



irloftg-^low form with bushy manes and tails; the 
original colour may have been sooty, or else dun, 
with the black streak on the spine which marks 
the Avild races of Northern Europe,— for these two 
colours are, we believe, the most frequent. The 
remains of war-cars discovered by Sir Richard Colt 
Hoare, and still more the remarks of St. Austin, 

The Mannii, or 



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attest their stature ; for he says, 

poneys brought from Britain, w^ere chiefly in use 

among strolling performers, to exhibit in feats of 

r 

their craft.'' Although the legions, and in particu- 
lar the Alse of auxiliary cavalry, must have created 
a new British race of horses, composed from the 
different breeds brought to the island, and subse- 
quently amalgamated with a part of the indi^en- 
ous race, the Anglo-Saxon conquest necessarily 

third, consisting of their own, a 



brought m 



a 



Jute, Frisonic, Frankish, Scandinavian, and Da- 
nish intermixture, — in which the Frisonic and 



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INTRODUCTION. 



121 



Danisli. Biost likelv, furnished most of stature and 
of beauty. 

It "svas Avitli tliese instruments of war and police 
that the Romans, in this respect far inferior to the 
Greeks, acted for ages in a spirit of legislation 
which evinced their ignorance of this branch of 
national economy. In a host of some thirty "writers, 



among Avhom 



more 



poets, philosophers, and amateurs, 
some few seem to have understood what points a 
aood horse should possess, none felt the importance 
of improving the breeds they had upon fixed and 
iBOund principles; none saw in them more than 
objects of parade, luxury, w\ar, or draught, that 
might he bought, like a murrhine vase, for money; 

anxious for the reputation of rhetoricians than 
for the acquirement of facts, they were busied in 
the manner more than the matter of what Greek 
authority had stated, never once correcting an error, 

supplying a new observation, or discovering a mis- 
statement; they believed in all the absurdities foreign 
horse-dealers thought proper to invent, or their owai 
Jdlers gossiped into omens : such was the case with 
Caesar s horse, which they gravely relate had human 
fore feet, and was an infallible sign of his coming 
fortunes; and what was at best a mal-forraation, it 
appears, was rendered important by a statue of the 
animal set up in public. They believed that bay 
horses were the best to hunt lions, slaty ash colour 
to attack a bear, and black to pursue a fox and 
other wild animals. Vegetius asserts tliat they were 
coiLStantly the dupes of dealers^ Avho passed off in- 



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122 



TNTRODUCTION 



different horses for steed 



of liigli foreign breeds. 



There exist, indeed, a few fragments of the writings 
of veterinarians, Avhich tlie polley of the govern- 
ment attached to the army, and tliese contain some 
of the most vahiahle information relatino; to horses 
the ancients have left; but the Roman Italian ca- 
valry was always despicable, though individually 
brave; for, seated on pads or inefficient saddles, 
loaded Avith heavy armour and w^eapons, in all real 
actions they Avere obliged to dismount, and could 
only oppose equally inefficient enemies, pursue or 
escape, without vigour or celerity ; they never were 
able to cope with the Parthians, or face the Sar- 
mata?, excepting by means of their foreign auxi- 
liaries, Numidians, Germans, or Asiatics ; in general 
they acted only under cover of the legions, and 
C^sar himself was so indifferent a cavalry general, 
that the celebrated Prussian hussar officer. Warnery, 

7 V 7 

has ridiculed his dispositions, where cavalry are con- 
cerned, with justice. 

If other proof Avere wanting of the absence of a 
true appreciation of the importance good breeds of 
horses are to a state, Ave shall find it in the absence 
of all government institutions of the kind, until 
taught by the misfortunes this neglect had brought 
upon the empire, some were tardily adopted in the 
Asiatic conquests. '^' rriA''ate studs there were, but 

* This A^^as rather in the lower empire, under the Byzantine 
sovereigns, Avho had retained the studs of Asia Minor chiefly 
in Cappadoeia ; they favoured others in Syria, and in the 
foui'th century obtained their curule horses from a stud kept 



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INTUODUCTIOX; 



123 



they belonged to the wealtlilest families of Rome, 
and were managed by servants in Spain, Africa, and 
the East, without the superintendence of the owners, 
as mere objects of revenue ; and in a few cases by 
young men of fashion in Italy, who sought notoriety 
by being possessors of Pegasidse, a kind of fleet 
horses, a^c6f t^T-ro/, or double horses, for the purpose 
of imitating the Desultorii or mountebanks, who 
vaulted from one to the other ; or Thieldones, which 
were amblers ; or Guttonarii and CoUatorii, trained 
to step in cadence with their feet high, or perhaps 
merely trottino- ; all arts of education, and not qua- 
lities of races."' There were, besides, poneys known 
by the name of Manni, obtained from the Asturian 
and British provinces, which served for boys to ride, 
and it was the fashion in summer to shave all the 
upper parts of their bodies, as is still done with 
mules in the south of France. But where, in the 

government statistics, the laws, and colloquial lan- 
guage, horses were distinguished in the following 
classification, no notions of races or breeds could be 
generally entertained : 

at Pampati, near the Mansio Andavilici, not far from Tyaila, 

in Caramania. 

* The horses destined for the circus could not legally he 

applied to any other purpose, and it became the fashion to 

talk of their pedigrees in the horse-breeding provinces, such as 

Spain ; hence Statins, in the second century, says, 

" Titulis generosus Avitis 
Expectatur equus, eujus de Stemmate longo 
Felix emeritos habet admissura parentis.'' 

Lib. V. s. 4. Protrep. ad Crisp, y. 22. 



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124 



INTRODUCTION. 



1. Eqiius Avertarkis^ or Sagmarms, The bat or 
sumpter horse, 

2. ^^. Publkus. Horses mabtalned by goyern- 
ment for the Equites. 

3. Eq. Sellarius, or Celes ; x^kr^g. Saddle-horse. 

4. Eq, Apninales. Horses maintained for public 
purposes, on cross-roads, where there were no posts, 

5. Eq. Cursales^ OT Veredi. Post-horses. 

6. Eq. Destdtoriiy or Pares. Horses of mounte- 

Lanks- 

7. Eq. Ftmal.es ; 1 and 4 of a quadriga^ 2 and 3 
hemg jiiffaleSj ^v^oi. 

8. Eq. Lignei ! Wooden horses, for youth to 
learn riding. 

9. Eq. Singulares. Horses of volunteers. 

10. Eq. Trmmphales. The four or six horses 

that drew triumphal cars. 

Nations, whose ideas are thus undefined on the 
subject of horses, we may rest assured are never 
really equestrian. In the above series w^e find, how^- 

ever, that where the machinery of dominion was 
concerned, the Romans, as in war, could also bor- 
row from their enemies systems of administra- 
tion ; such as regular post stations to convey public 
ofl&cers and orders; imitated by Augustus from the 
Persian Astrandi, or Astandi; where there are still 
expresses called Chuppers, as in Turkey, Tartars, 
always distinguished by their yellow caps. The 
Romans had, for the same purpose, horses selected 
for their swiftness, and thence called Pegasid^, sta- 
tioned at the mutationes of their cursus piibliats or 




I 






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INTRODUCTION. 



125 



post roads; and it was in imitation of tlie govem- 



nient, that Pegasidae or fast going horses became 
fashionable among the great. ^ 

Copyii^g, no doubt, from nations possessed of 
great droves of horses, we may believe the legionary 
cavalry marked theirs on the thigh; for it was the 
practice to fix similar brandmarks npon the horses 
of the circus, not as the property of individuals, but 
as attached to one of the tour factions of the chariot 
races. Several of these are distinctly marked in 
bas-reliefs and other ancient monuments, and axe 
here represented : 



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But the Imperial government, without foreseeing 
it, was nevertheless the first cause in Europe of the 
improvements in domestic horses, by permitting as 
much as possible the remounts of the foreign co- 
horts, stationed often at opposite extremities of the 
empire, to be drawm from the native region of each ; 
and we may judge, as stallions were mostly used in 
the cavalry service, how much, for example, in 
Britain, Alse and cohorts of Dacians, Mauritanians, 



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* See the Notitia Imperii. Paiicirolus. "VVe may also men- 
tion here the classification of horses in the old monastic insti- 
tutions: they were divided into,— 1st, Manni, large geldings 
for the superiors ; 2d5 Rimdni^ runts, small nags for servants ; 
Sdp Smnernarii^ or sm-npter-horses to carry baggage ; and 4th, 
Axcni^ plongh-horses on the church lands. 



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INrRODUCTION.-^ 



Dalmatians, Tliracians, Asturians, Sarmatians, &c. 
must have influenced the form, colours, and quali- 
ties of horses in the island ; and similarly, if the 
order was equally adhered to, how the British sta- 
tioned in Armenia and Egypt may have introduced 
their own to Asia and Africa. It is to this practice 
that the great intermixture of colours and characters 
of the horses of Europe may he ascribed, although 
the effect was greatly modified when the invasions 
of barbarian conquerors subsequently broke into 
both empires, each nation conveying along with the 
whole moveable property its own native breed of 
horses into the newly acquired territory, and leaving 
a second amalgamation to future generations. With 
the exception of the Huns, who withdrew again, 
the Magyar or Hungarian, and some other nations 
m the east of Europe, most were already known, 
and their horses had been introduced by purchase 
Ifefore they came as conquerors ; we may, however, 
imagine the black race in Spain and in Morocco to 

have originated in the Alan and Vandal conquests, 
and the rufous or chesnut breeds of the north-east 
of France to derive from the Buroimdian invasion. 

We intend to resume this subject when the his- 
tory of the present breeds of horses shall be con- 
sidered, and therefore remark only, that in antiquity, 
with the exception of the black race reared in Gaul 
and Western Germany, the Asiatic and African 

and the white of Asia Minor, all the 



/3 



3 



breeds of horses were undersized ; and indeed it was 
not desirable to have them fifteen hands high, as 



- i 



II 





m 



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INTRODUCTION. 



127 



long as the stirrup to mount them remained un- 
known. In vain Xenophon instructs riders how to 
reach the saddle without lying across the horse in 
an unseemly attitude ; men loaded with armour al- 
ways found it difficult to gain their seats, they 
wanted a lift of the left leg to rise ; stepped upon 
the right calf of an attendant ; had an inconvenient 
cross-har near the hottom of their spear to place the 
foot on, or strained the horse in making it rise after 
lyino- down to receive the rider; or finally. Oriental 
servitude induced the principal officers of state to 
grovel on all-fours, while the sovereign mounted 
upon their backs and thence across his saddle, as is 
still, we believe, the practice with the grand vizir 
when the sultan goes and returns in state to and 
from the mosque. 

The stapes^ or stirrup, is asserted to be known 
only since the eleventh century, Avicenna, who 

died in 1030, being the first who mentions it '" ; but 
we have evidence, even in Saxon England, that the 
instrument in question was known at a mucli 
earlier period, for there is an outline drawing of a 
horseman riding in stirrups in a MS. Aurelius Pru- 
dentius, with Saxon annotations, in the Cotton 
library of the British Museum, marked Cleopatra, 
C. S., and engraved in Strutt's Horda Angelcynnan ; 

* The Persian bas-reliefs represent riders without stirrups ; 
although all the barrows on the plains of Tahtary, where 
liorse-bones and saddlery are detected, produce them of metal ; 
and we have not observed a sinde illuminated Oriental MS.* 
Japanese, Chinese, Tahtar, Persian, Turkish, and Arabic, wheu 
hgrscnien are figured, where they do not ride in stirrups. 



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'128 



INTRODUCTION 



this MS., and a duplicate at Cambridge with simi- 
lar designs, are both ascribed to the latter end of 
the ninth century. We believe to have seen other 
instances in French and German iUuminated books, 
and think that the Spanish Saracens introduced the 
custom. It is true that there are Anglo-Saxon MSS. 
of so late as the eleventh centurj^, where designs re- 



present horsemen without stirrups; but this proves 
only that, like in all other great innovations, time 

^ 

alone confers universal consent ; for, in the figures of 
horses published by Strada, and representing those 
of different nations, there are still some in Europe 
and in Africa without them, and, until lately, seve- 
ral tribes of Mahrattas in India used none. 

In the time of the Roman conq[uest of Syria, 
there were Bedoueen Arabs who, like the Numi- 






Circassian. 



TurkiGh. 



S'\Tian. 







European. 





4 



Blule. 
Ancient Horse-shoes. 



Tahtar. 



dians, still rode Vvithout bridles. With reo-ard to 



i^j 



horse-shoosj recent authors haye concluded that they 





tNTRODLCTION. 



129 



I 



are of comparatiA^e modern invention, but we refer 

to the horse-shoe found at Tournay in the tomb of 
tlie Frankish king, Childeric (who died abont 480), 
which Mr. Bracy Clark would ascribe to a mule be- 
cause it is small, when he should have considered 
the horses were of low stature ; * and if it were of 
a mule, still would prove the practice of shoeing. 
We know, moreover, that the Asiatics of the north 
made a variety of horse-shoes for many ages ; and 
in the high region of the Kirguise country, even 
now they shoe their horses with pieces of deers' 
antlers, and in Iceland occasionally sheep's horn, 
in both cases effected by the peasants, and not by 
reo'ular farriers. In Southern Asia, where the far 
sreater proportion of the earth's surface consists of 
sandy plains and dry deserts, the horses' hoofs are 
hard, and therefore do not even now suffer the ope- 
ration of shoeing, at best a questionable advantage ; 
hence none of the Arab or Persian nations wanted 
or invented them. The marches of Alexander may 
have been impeded, and the operations of Mithri- 
dates thwarted, by their horses being overworked in 
rocky districts ; and it is sufficiently clear that in 
Rome horse-shoeing was unknown to the end of 
the republic, and began in the time of Csesar. Vir- 
gil seems to have been guided by his feelings for 

* A mule in the tomb of a northern king, a Frank, wouki 
have been an insult to his memory. As Pagans and horse-, 
sacrificers, the object is sufficiently clear, and the size of the 
animal corresponds to the era and the race of horses then used 

in Germany, 

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130 



INTROBIJCTION. 



the herolcal in speaking of horses, for Catullus evi- 
dently alludes to horse-shoes in the line where the 
object is indeed a mule : 

+ 

« Ferream lit soleam tenaci in Yoragine mnla 
Derelinquit." 

Nero had horses shod with silver, and his wife, 
Poppsea, had her mules similarly protected with 
gold; and although Beckman, after Cardamus, 
would insinuate that these were plates, it still is 
evident that they were fastened with nails, since, 
in the life of Caligula, Suetonius expressly notices 
the iron shoe, with eight or more nails, as remarked 
by Aldrovandus. ^' It is probable that the ancient 
shoe was similar to the present thin plates used in 
Persia, which may be perforated with nails any- 
where, and are very like the Turkish, only the last 
mentioned have a small opening in the middle, but 
the heel and frog are quite covered. There are in- 
deed ancient Tahtar horse-shoes of a circular fo 
apparently with only three nails or fasteners to the 

outside of the hoof, as may be seen in the brand- 
marks of the first race of Circassian horses : t this 
was perhaps the shoe the Tahtars used, and which 
every horseman could fasten on without the aid of a 
farrier. There is further evidence in favour of the 
antiquity and form of the usual shoe, in the circum- 
stance, that from Ireland to the extremity of Siberia, 
from Lapland to Abyssinia, from the Frozen Ocean 



rm 



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" U. Aldrovandus de Quadrupedibus," fol. p. 50. 



f " Pallas's Travels." It is the brandniark of tlie Abassiau 
race of Shalokli. 



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INTRODUCTION. 



131 



to Canton and to the Malay islands, the horse-shoe 
is found nailed ao-ainst buildings, under the same 
system of mysterious superstition, and evidently 
from a remote age, — for how, otherwise, could the 
practice have spread over the whole world. "We 
have seen it sculptured in bas-relief with a Runic 
incription certainly as old as the ninth century, ac- 
companying a figure of Ostar, upon a stone found 
on the Hoheiistein, near the Druden Altar in "West- 
phalia, a place of Pagan worship that was destroyed 
by the Franks in the wars of Charlemagne: had 
the horse-shoe been invented in that age, it could 
not already have become an object of mysterious 
adaptation In the religion of barbarians which was 
on the wane at least a century earlier. 

It has been remarlced that the Romans paid only 
a tardy and imperfect attention to breeding horses, 
and we have observed also that the stature of these 
animals, with exception of the races before named, 
was below the present ordinary size. The Norman 
pirates carried in their ships the small hardy breed 
of Scandinavia, still in perfection in Iceland : all 
the riding nations from the east and north,— Huns, 
Bulgarians, Goths, and Magyars, had small horses : 
thos°e of the Ardennes, of many parts of France, of 
the Camargue, of Switzerland, the Pyrenees, and Bri- 
tain, were still smaller : the Netherland Menaphian 
alone appear to have reached a full stature. It was 
therefore in the first centuries after the Moslem inva- 
sion of Spain, France, and Calabria, when art and 
science began to revive, and the great empire of the 



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'139 



iNTRODtrCTIOK. 



Franks could and did provide wide-spreading pre- 
cautions against inraders, among wliich the most 
pressing were those that were calculated to resist 
the conq^uests of Islam. With the newly introduced 
stirrup, they could more properly adopt heavy de- 
fensive armour, and in order to give the Christian 
chivalry a fair chance of success, that which would 
increase the stature of their war-horses became an 
object of importance. Accordingly, about this pe- 
riod, we begin to observe, in the West, places for 
breeding and institutions of horse-fairs. "^ The 
Moorish and Spanish Vandal (Andalusian) breeds 
gradually passed the Pyrenees, captured in forays, 
received as presents, or introduced by Jews, who 
were then great horse-dealers. The race of the 
Frankish Netherlands, carried to the south, and the 
largest mares that could be procured in Lombardy, 
were crossed by the southern varieties in breeding- 
places called Haras^ modified after a name which 
was derived from some nation on the Danube, 
where Garas and Giiida denoted both sexes of that 
animal. The Anglo-Saxons denominated them horse- 
steeds; the Celtic nations, Arich;'\' and the Bel- 

* In this view the Welsh march is connected with the Teu- 
tonic marcht^ a market, — and Latin mercator and merces may 
be of GaUic origin. The German jahr marcld^ annual fair, 
always denoted one where horses were sold, in its original 
acceptation. 

+ Argyle, in Scotland, is presumed to be derived from Are- 
Gael^ the breeding or horse-stud of the Gael. Sted^ or steed^ 
from the Teutonic stute^ a mare. Broisel is said to be derived 
from hroeden^ to breed ; broisel^ a brood. 



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iNTllODrCTION. 



133 



Brussels, 



Broisel, — for such is the interpretation bf 
—the site where the city stands being an- 
teriorly a breeding pasture, on the river Senne, 
formed by the counts of Louvain before Brabant 
was raised into a duchy. The fair of Beaucaire 



became the great mart for horses as early as 832, 
when the count of Barcelona built the castle : others 
existed from the Celtic or Roman times, at those 
places called Ventw^ — as Yienne on the Rhone, 
Vienna on the Danube, Vannes in Brittany, Yenta 
Beb'arum, or Winchester, Yenemaere near Ghent, 
and new horse-fairs sprang up in many places. 

It was then that the nobility and chivalry of 
Europe, leading almost a nomad life, in quest of 
war and adventures, began to pay large prices for 
tall, fleet, and strong horses : the Christian kings of 
Oviedo and Leon were often pressed to sell or pro- 
cure war-horses. We find a pope, John, applying to 
the king of Gallicia for " Aliquantos utiles et opti- 
mos Mauriscos, quos Hispani caballos Alfaraces 



Alfi 



vocant." These 

breed of Arab blood upon the black Yandal and 
other Gothic races, themselves crossed with Roman 
and the ancient Spanish Calpe studs; which last 
retained the name of Ginetas because they were 
smaller and fit only for light armed cavalry. Afri-^ 
can and Barbary blood, by crossing with the Gothic, 
likewise rose in stature, and spread in Navarre to 
the Garonne. These two formed the first well 
bred horses in Christian Europe, and the grey being 
most accessible, probably in consequence of a farj^her 



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INTRODUCTION. 







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cross with the Galliclan mountain race, was soon 
noticed in France by the names of Ferrant^ Aitfer- 
rant^ and Blamferrant^ as they were of different 
shades of their colour. We find in the older poets 
and troubadours, repeated reference to them ; such 
as, — 

" Chacuns d'eux broche son auferrani Gascon. 
La peust on voir maint auferrani d'Espagne. 
D'Estriers, auferrant et Gascon," 

occur, showing that auferrant is occassionally in- 
tended to express the native country of the destrier 
or charger ; for dextrier^ destrier^ or dextrarhis^ Avere 
terms given to a war-horse because it was led by a 
>TOom or squire until wanted for battle : the word, 
besides, was synonymous w^ith great-horse and war- 
horse, and denoted his quality, without reference to 
colour or race. '^' 

In Britain, we have already pointed out the gra- 
dual importations in the time of the Romans and 
during the Saxon invasions, although the last men- 



^ 



* ♦. 



* These terms stood in contradistinction to tlie smaller 
sized horses, called acMnem^ in French liacqimiis^ with us hack- 
neys^ and in Italian uhinas ; there were, besides, arlanni^ scoppce^ 
and paJfrej/s^ all under-sized horses, usually bred to ambling, 
and the last mentioned almost exclusively reserved for the use 
of ladies, was if possible white or marked with some peculiar 
colours. I know of only one instance Vvhere a knight in full 
armour is pourtrayed riding a mule dressed in armorial trap- 
pings, and that is of Piero Farnese, 1363, a statue in the pro- 
portions of life, and perhaps in real armour, over a door in the 
cathedral of Florence ; for a drawing of which I am indebted 
to my friend Seymour Khkup, Esq. 



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INTRODUCTION. 



155 



tioned cannot have been considerable, if, according 
to the venerable Bede, the insular Saxons did not 
begin to ride much before the year 630. Athelstan 
is the first on record who, in 930, received German 
running-horses as a present from abroad, and there- 
fore had more particular opportunity of improving 
the English stock by the infusion of select foreign 
blood : these presents came from Hugh the Great, * 
when he solicited the Saxon king's sister in mar- 
riage • and he seems to have bestowed some attention 



on the subject, since he issued a decree prohibiting 
the exportation of horses without his licence ; and 
the order proves that his steeds were already suffi- 
ciently valuable to incur the risk and expense of ship- 
pino- them for the continental fairs. In a document of 
the year 1 000, we find the relative value of horses 
in this kingdom, directing, — ^if a horse was de- 
stroyed or negligently lost, the compensation to be 
demanded was thirty shillings; a mare or colt, 
twenty shillings ; a mule or young ass, twelve shil- 
lings ; an ox, thirty pence ; a cow, twenty-four 
pence ; a pig, eight pence ; and a man, one pound ! 
In the laws of Hyweldda, sovereign of Wales, 
dated a few years before this period, a foal not four- 

We derive the facts of this and the following paragraphs 
fi-om a treatise on " The Horse," pubUshed under the superin- 
tendence of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, 
1 vol. 8vo. 1831. The text says Hugh Capet by mistake ; it 
%vas Hugh the Great, father of Capet, who mamed, in second 
nuptials, Ethiida, daughter of Edward the elder, and sister of 
Athelstan. 




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736 



INTRODUCTION. 



teen days old is valued four pence; at one year 
and a day, forty-eight pence; and at three years, 
sixty pence: this refers evidently to the native 
horses, for there it is ordered to tame them with 
the bridle and rear them as palfreys or serving- 
horses, but the war-horse is not mentioned. When 
completely broken in, the value rose to one hundred 
and twenty pence, bnt if left wild or an unbroken 
mare, was worth only sixty pence. 

The trinal system of the ancient Celtic nations, it 
is perceived, still continued in nse at that time, 
and may be traced in the laws regarding horses; 
for to obviate the frauds of dealers, the following 
singular regulations were in force : the purchaser 
W'as entitled to time, in order to ascertain whether 
the horse was free from three diseases. Three nights' 
possession to determine whether he was not subject 
to the staggers; three months to prove the soundness 
of his lungs, and one year to remove all apprehen- 
sion of glanders. For every blemish discovered after 
purchase, the dealer was liable to a deduction of 
one-third of the money, excepting in obvious cases, 
such as, where the ears or tail were defective. Com- 
pensations were likewise granted in cases of injuries 
done to hired horses ; all showing a humanity of 
principle, emanating from the Celtic source, notwith- 
standing that prince had repeatedly visited Rome 
for the purpose of rendering his code more perfect. 
We find, even among the enactments, that " who- 
^ver shall borrow a horse and rub off the hair, so as 
to gall his back, shall pay four pence; if the skin 



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INTRODUCTION. 



137 



be forced into tlie flesh, eiglit pence ; if tlie flesh 
be forced to the bone, sixteen pence." * 

Until the latter part of the tenth century, neither 
the Anglo-Saxons nor the Welsh employed horses 
in the plough ; but about that period, some innova- 
tion of the kind must have occurred, since a Welsli 
law prohibits the farmer to plough with horses, 
mares, or cows, oxen alone being lawful. On a 
part of the border of the so called Bayeux tapestry, 
representing the landing of William the Conc^ueror 
and the battle of Hastings, A. D. 1066, a piece of 
needlev/ork ascribed to the dexterity of Saxon em- 
broiderers, there Is a representation of a man driv- 
ing a horse attached to a harrow; which is the 
earliest instance we have of horses used in field 
labour. 

With the Norman conquest, effected by adven- 
turers from every country in the west of Europe, 
a marked improvement took place in the breed of 
horses : the martial barons and their followers had 
brought with them a great force of cavalry, and they 
were sensible that it was owing to superiority in 
horse the victory had been obtained. It was then 
the effect of the Spanish breeds extended to Eng- 

* According to the Anglo-Saxon computation, forty-eight 
shillings made a pound, equal in silver to about three pounds 
of our present money ; in value to fifteen or sixteen pounds : 
five pence made one shilling. '* The Horse," page 23. — ^There 
were also the qualities required to constitute a good horse, in 
triplets, — 3 of a "vvoman, 3 6f a lion, 3 of a bullock, 3 of a sheep, 
3 of a mule, 3 of a deer, 3 of a wolf, 3 of a fox, 3 of a serpent, 
and 3 of a hare or cat ! All whimsically applied. 



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' 138 



INTRODUCTION, 



land ; William himself rode, in battle, a favourite 



charger 



of that race : and 



amonsc 



the installed 



nobles, Roger de Boulogne, * Earl of Shrewsbury, 
established the race of Spain on his newly acquired 
estates at Povisland. In the year 1121, during 
the reign of Henry I., the first Arabian horse on re- 
cord was introduced; about the time Alexander I., 
King of Scotland, presented another to the church of 
St. Andrews : both of these were most likely real 
Barbs from Morocco, and were acquired by means 
of the Jew dealers. Our Norman princes were, 
however, not only attentive to improve their studs 
in England, but perhaps still more so on the conti- 
nent ; for, it is at this period that both the bay and 
the grey races of JSTorman horses were formed, which 
continue still to be the best in France. At the 
battle of Hastings the horses were not yet barbed, 
nor the knights completely covered in armour, 
and their lances were still sufficiently light to be 
cast like darts; but during the reign of Henry II. 

we think, from the increased number of " great 
horses," both horse and man were protected by 
mail or other defensive armour ; the helmets closed 
with visors, and the lance became ponderous, and 
could only be used couched. 
11/0, Fitz Stephen the monk, in his description of 
London, mentions trotting horses, brest ? horses, 
and running horses, and relates with animation the 

* I do not find whether it was Roger de Montgomerie or his 
son Eob¥rt de Belcsme, or Boulogne ; the names appear to be 
confounded. 



In this reio^n circa 



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INTKOBUCTION. 



139 



I 

races tliat took place in Sraithfield, wliitlier mer- 
chants and strangers resorted, and which was then, 
it is evident, a great mart for foreign as well as 
native horses. Then was the era of the crusades : 
thousands of the hest horses w-ent with their riders 
to perish in Palestine, and those champions of the 
Cross that survived to return, were always in such 
distress tliat they could not, if they would, bring 
oriental steeds back to their homes. Richard I., in 
the various metrical poems concerning his expedi- 
tion is mentioned riding a Gascon bay, a Cypriot 
' and several Arabians. Two other Cyprus 
suno- in romance, most likely never came to 

Eiiolaiid, tlio-ugh 



roan, 

horses 



« Yn this worlde they hadde no pere, 
Dromedary and Destrere, 
Stede, Rabyte, *, ne Cammele, 
Gocth none so swifte, without fayle." 



We perceive, in the sum of two pounds twelve 
and sixpence, given by the king, in 1185, for fifteen 
breeding mares, and distributed by him to his tenants 
at four shillings each, the low value of the common 
race, as compared with ten capital war-horses, which, 
some years later, cost twenty pounds a piece,— the 
demand and necessary consequence of the havoc 
made among them during the frenzy of distant 
marine expeditions; and in the case of a pair of 
chargers, twelve years after (1217), brought over 
from Lombardy at the extravagant sum of thirty- 
eight pounds thirteen and four-pence, we find the 

* An Arabian. 






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140 

eagerness evinced 



INTRODIjCTION. 



for possessino* 



the largest and 



heaviest w^ar-horses then in Europe, For in the 
rich pastures of the river Po, a race of ponderous 
Destrieros had been formed, which, if thej ac all 
resembled those figured by the early sculptors on 
the monuments and statues of Condotieri, were 
equal to our largest breed of dray-horses, the boast 
of London brewers. 

King John had a passion for horses ; he imported 
one hundred chosen stallions from Flanders, and 
thereby contributed materially to the improvement 
of that class of horses which subsequently became 
more exclusively employed for draught. In the 
same reign, a gentleman named Araphitil Till, one 
of the numerous persons who fell under the enmity 
of the king, was imprisoned, and agreed to pay for 
his ransom ten horses, each worth thirty marks, 
which is nearly equal to £300 of our present 
money : * but the circumstance only proves the 
value of his stud, not that they were of English 
race. 

Whether the old grey breed of England w\as of 

the same extraction as the Norman is uncertain ; 
but while the crown was in possession both of that- 

r 

country and Guienne, where the Ferrant breed 
abounded, it is likely that from the time of Henry II. 
it had been introduced : for the names of grev 
Lyard, and Sulyardt, occur in ancient heraldry 



* 



See Kymer's Fsedera, quoted by Henry. 



i" Lyard, dappled grey ; Sulyard, mouldy grey. The ancient 
femily of Sulyard bore for arms a stumbling wliite horse, and 





INTRODUCTION- 



141 



and early English poetry. In a satire on Edward, 
Earl of Cornwall, hinting at his escape from prison^ 
there is the following allusion to it : 

r 

" Be the leuf, be the lout, Sire Edward, 
Thou shait ride sporelcss o' thy Lyard, 



AH the righte way to Doverward. 



11 



Edward II. purchased thirty Lomhardy war- 
horses and twelve heavy draught-horses, between 
which there could not be much difference, except- 
ing in the training. His son, Edward III., expended 
one thousand marks for fifty Spanish horses, and 
obtained for their transmission a safe conduct from 
the kings of Spain and France, who showed more 
liberality in granting the boon than he did to a 



German dealer, who, having imported some Flan- 
ders stallions on speculation, was only permitted to 
re-embark them, but not to take them to Scotland, 
where no doubt they would have amply repaid 
him, since, so late as the reign of Queen Mary, 
Perlin, a French traveller, remarks, that the Scots 
chivalry were wretchedly mounted. "'' 

Edward had many running horses, by which we 
think are meant fleet hunters, of a lighter make 



9 



fcr motto, " Hoist Bayard." Byard, or Bayard, denoted a bay 
■probably from the Arabic bayel, a horse. jVldrovandus thinks 
tliat Valus, the name of Behsarius's charger, indicates a bay ; 
we think it derived from mle, a pale or Isabella horse. Bayeii, 
nevertheless, is an old Teutonic word, to which, in the Nether- 

^ 

lands at least, the idea of black was affixed. 

* 



Description d'Angleterre et d'Eeosse, par Etienne Perlin, 








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• 142 



INTRODtrCTION. 



than tlie '^ great horses," which it was believed re- 
quired bone ; their price was about twenty marks, 
or three pounds six and eight-pence. That, prince 
was fond of field sports, and felt that war-horses 
would give him no superiority in continental battles, 
where during several reigns all our kings won their 
great victories fighting on foot. 

Italian great horses, there is reason to believe, 
were imported, if not for breeding, at least for 
mounting the nobility and richest knights ; for al- 
though we do not know whether they were sent to 
England or only presented, Paul Jovius relates that 
Galeazzo II., duke of Milan, gave seventy war- 
horses to Lionel, duke of Clarence, all furnished 
with saddles of velvet, embroidered with silver. 

From this time English horses improved steadily, 
and the amount demanded and given, and the mal- 
practices of dealers, caused Richard II. to issue an 
edict in 1386 to regulate their prices. In this do- 
cunient, ordered to be promulgated in the counties 
of Lincoln and Cambridge, and the east and north 



i. 

A. 



ridings of Yorkshire, we perceive the principal 
breedinp' localities were then the same as now; but 
the civil wars began at this time to arm one part of 
the nation against another, and the breed of horses 
diminished and deteriorated greatly during the san- 
guinary struggles of three-fourths of a century. 
Philippe de Comines, who saw an English army 
which Edward IV. disembarked in France, speaks 
with little admiration of its equipment or armour; 
and it is probable these deficiencies were not re- 



^ 



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INTRODUCTION. 



143 



paired while Ilemy YII. sat on the throne, for he 
prohibited the exportation of stalhons, and even of 
mares, unless they were above two years old and 
under the value of six shillings and eight-pence ; 
by which, it may be, was meant the unimproved 



pony 



breed. We 



way of explaining an order, which could otherwise 
be easily evaded. 

Henry VIH., Avith ostentatious propensities, was 
anxious to possess a valuable breed of horses, and 
his connexions with Charles Y. evidently facilitated 
the acquisition. In the tournaments and processions 
of which drawings and engravings remain, the grey, 
olden bay, and deep bay Andalusian and Asturian 
breeds may be represented: he was not, however, 
satisfied with his own stud : his arbitrary temper 
devised a law, by which it was intended none but 
good horses should be kept, fixing a standard of 
value for that purpose, and regulating that the 
lowest stallion should be fifteen hands high and the 
mares thirteen hands ; and before they had arrived 
at their full growth, no stallion at two years old, 
under fourteen hands and a half, was permitted to 
run on any forest, moor, or common where there 



w^ere mares 



At Michaelmas tide, tl 



le 



neighbourinpf 



magistrates were ordered to " drive" all forests and 
commons, and not only destroy such stallions, but 

or foals, 



eldings, 



" unlikely tits," whether mares, 
which they might deem not calculated to produce a 
valuable breed ; he moreover ordained, that in every 
deer-park a certain nimiber of mares, in proportion 




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144 



INTRODUCTION 



to its size, and each at least thirteen hands high^ 
should he kept ; and that all his; prelates and nobles, 



These regulations, though they died 



and " all those whose wives wore velvet bonnets," 
should keep stallions for the saddle, at least fifteen 
hands high. 

with the obstinate and wrong-headed king, effected 
little towards improvement, but greatly diminished 
the number of horses; for when Elizabeth, forty- 
one years after, called out the whole strength of her 
chivalry to oppose the expected invasion of the 
Spaniards, she could muster only three thousand 
men-at-arms mounted ; and Blundeville, who wrote 
on the art of riding, speaks with contempt of the 
qualities of the horses. Yet there existed then a 
valuable showy breed in England, eagerly bought 
by foreign grandees for state occasions, particularly 
when they were white or light grey, as is proved by 
the notice of Aldrovandus, who died blind and aged 
eighty, in the year 1605. The majority, neverthe- 
less, were strong sturdy animals, fit for slow draught, 
and the few of lighter structure w^ere w^eak and 
without powers of endurance. But now commenced 
the practice of racing, chiefly at Chester and Stam- 
ford ; and although these were as yet without sys- 
tem, admitting hunters and hackneys and every 
description of horse, the foundation was laid of that 
rising improvement in English horses, to which we 
shall revert when the particular breeds of the pre- 
sent time are reviewed. ''' 

* See " Tlie Horse," page 27. Grooming, on the Englisli 
plan, was already an object of attention abroad ; for Maurice, 



I 





\Mr 



INTRODUCTION. 



J 45 



Both the foregoing remarks, and the account of 
the ancient breeds of horses, appeared to be neces- 
sary in a preliminary statement, before the question 
of wild horses could be considered ; because, while 
they throw, we hope, some light on their primitive 
distribution, considered merely as different races, as 
varieties, or as distinct forms, more or less approach- 
ing to actually separate species, they prepare the 
reader more fully to enter upon the question of the 
true vnld horse, and the distinctions which, even 
how animals collectively so called present to the 



observer. We 




colour, 



at least were in the earliest ages located in a line of 
nearly the same latitude, but separated in longitude 
from east to west upon geographical surfaces, where 
there still remains evidence of their presence, not- 
withstanding the lapse of ages, and the position 
they occupied in the colonial route of nations; and 
that their gradual intermixture was effected by these 
causes, and still more by the north-eastern progress 
of Islamism. There are allusions to the different 
stocks, beside those already noticed, in the sacred 
and profane writers ; the former in the mysterious 
visions of the prophets, and even in the Revela^ 
tions;* the latter in poets and historians to the 

the learned landgxave of Hesse, in his secret visit to Henry IT, 
of France, observed, in 1002, " English grooms with the king's 

horses at the Louvre." 

* Zachariah, chap. i. ver, 8, although in a mysterious allu- 
sion, yet marks the bay Syrian, the white Armeno- Persian, 
and piebald Macedonian race ; and in the Revelationsj chap, vi.. 



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INTRODUCTION. 



thirteenth century of the Christian era; and we 
shall point out, in the next chapter, that feral 
horses return to particular colours or liveries, as a 
further proof of the probability in favour of the 
views offered in the present. 



THE WILD HORSE. 



■ f 

As among the Equidse the domestic horse is beyond 
comparison the most important species to man, so 
is it also the type of the others in systematic ar- 
rangement, and the constant object of reference by 
which their station and qualities are judged ; hence 
the horse, properly so called, occupies singly the 
far greater part of the history of the whole group. 
Having already furnished some description of the 
ancient history of the animal, we can now, before 
we proceed to detail that of the races at present 

.diffused over the surface of the world, enter upon 
the question of the wild horse,— one which natu- 
ralists are not wholly agreed on: we shall make 
some remarks on varieties now extant which appear 
to have a claim to be distinct, being regarded as 
such by the natives of the localities where they re- 
side ; and examine whether they, like the differently 

r 

the same white and hay, the pale Median, and the black Ro- 
man or Scythic ; they are not golden, nor silvery, nor green, 
nor blue, but actually taken from existing types, depicting the 
nations who owned them. 



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THE WILD HORSE. 



147 



coloured forms of horse already noticed are species 
osculating with others, in their original state of li- 
berty, or mark one or more races that hare returned 
to their primitive condition and resumed manners 
and habits conformable with their organization, 
after they had been under the dominion of man, at 
an anterior period more or less remote. On the one 
hand, differences cannot he consistently drawn from 
facts not immediately in the reach of physiology, 
without a careful consideration of the data that 
must justify them; nor, on the other, can any ad- 
vance he obtained in this direction of the natural 
sciences without the license and use of some daring 
in the solution of propositions depending in a certain 
degree upon induction from testimonial authority. 

Respecting the wild or rather feral horses, of 
South and North America, Cuba, and St. Domingo, 
whose origin is well known, no difference of opi- 
nion can properly arise, notwithstanding that a late 
acute observer detected, in alluvial deposits, the 
bones of horses in company with those of Megathe- 
rium, and apparently belonging to the same zoolo- 
gical period ; and that several recent travellers, in 
the northern portion of that continent, question the 
race of horses, now so abundant, being imported sub- 
seGuent to the discovery by Columbus. ^ But doubts 

* Notwitlistanding that the period of the destruction of 
Megatherium, or Megalonix of Jefferson, admits of little doubt, 
there exists among the North American Indians a curious 
legend of a large animal they name Tagesho^ or Yageslio^ much 
superior to the largest bear, remarkably long-bodied, broad at 




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148 



THE WILD HORSE. 



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may be entertained respecting the real source of the 
wild horses roaming from the Ukraine, in Europe, 
eastwards to the northern extremity of Chinese 
Tahtary ; those about the Don, it is asserted, are 
spnmg from domesticated animals sent to grass 
during the siege of Azof in 1696, ''^ which could 
not again be entirely recaptured. Fors terjvas dis- 
posed to consider all the wild horses in Asia de- 
scendants from strayed animals belonging to the 
inhabitants ; and ^Pallas, who had likewise travelled 
in Asiatic Russia, inclined to the same conclusions. 
He thought the horses from the Volga to the Oural 
the progeny of domestic animals; and again, that 
all from the Jaik and Don, and in Bokhara, were oF 
the Kalmuck and Kirguise breed, remarking, that 
they are mostly fulvous, rufous, and Isabella ; while, 
on the Yolga, he noticed them as usually brown, 
dark brown, and silver-grey, some having w^hite 
ieo's and other signs of intermixture. Undoubtedly 
men of science, so well trained to observation as 
both these learned naturalists, carry with their opi- 
nions a weight of authority which is evinced by 

the shoulders, more slender and weak hehmd, "with a large 
head, short thick paws, and very long claws, spreadmg wide ; 
the skin almost bare, excepting on the hind legs, where the 
hair was very long, and therefore called a kind of bear : it was 
slow, but killed women and children, unless they escaped on 
rocks, trees, or in the water, and then swam fast and far: the 
last was killed in an attempt to climb a rock where the hunters 
were posted. See " Legends of the North American Indians." 
Many of these characters will apply to a giant armadillo. 
* Or, as iu other authoiitles, 1657. 



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THE WILD HORSB^' 



149^ 



cence in these conjectures, have actually pronouncea 
them to he settled conclusions. Yet, knowing from 
personal experience, how little a traveller can see 
and determine hy his immediate single observation, 
even in favourable regions, and taking into consi- 
deration the jealous character of the authorities, his 
confined condition in a sleigh or Russian travelling 
carriao-e where he must pass over great distances xn 
haste in'order to reach a secure asylum, be constantly 
in the hands of the post officers, among a scanty po, 
ILion strangers to the language of government, 
LtS" m^to his own (the German) ; where 
with rare exceptions, all are exceedmgly ignorant 
Tnd indSerent,'and the climate three-fourths of the 
year prohibiting going abroad, we question whether 
under snch circumstances, opinions expressed with 

doubt should be adopted as conclusive. Now, if 
we examine the extent of the travellers' own imme- 
diate means of judgment, we find that they have 
occasionally seen troops of v.ild Equid^ at a dis- 
tance and been enabled to give one drawmg of a 
^^g cTlt recently captured, besides two or three 
xnore species from living specimens or stuffed skms : 
surely a sweeping conclusion upon such scanty data 
iBay be convenient, but is scarcely deserving of ac- 
ouiescence ;' particularly when we take mto account, 
that including the collected opinions of those upon 
the spot, in themselves of only conditional value, the. 
field of observation explored is scarcely a hundredth 
part of the surface whereon this zoological problem 




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150 



THE WILD HORSE. 



must be decided. The Russian dominions extend 
over the most level part only : four chains, at least, 
of enormous mountains, whose direction is even in 
a measure unknown, occur within the great basin of 
the Thianchan, the Little Altai, the Himalaya moun- 
tains, and Hindukoh ; and upon them there are table 
lands of more than 16,000 feet in elevation, not as 
yet traversed by a European foot, though known to 
be stocked with wild horses and other animals. Be- 
ginning from the chain, east of Budukshaun more 
than forty degrees of longitude, by from five to 
twenty of latitude, stretch north-eastward along the 
nomad haunts of the Kalmuks, Eleuths, Mongols, 
and Kalkas, consisting mostly of the sandy wastes 
of Gobi or Shamor, and to the west of these are the 
deserts of the Sea of Aral, the Karakoum, and 
wildernesses of the Kirguise. * Over the whole 
extent of this almost boundless surface, several 
species of Equidae are noticed, and shall we as- 
sume that these also are feral descendants of stray 
animals at the siege of Azof, though neither Forste 
nor Pallas advanced such an opinion ? Surely no : 
nor can we deny that in the south-eastern mountain 
frontier of Russia, upon the inclined plains resting 

r 

* From longitude 73° to 113° east, and in latitude from 30** 
to 50° north. 



-wn 



\ 



the Jesuit memoirs ; still the best and almost the only docu- 
ments for the greater part of the region in question. By late 
British travellers, who with almost super-human perseverance 
have penetrated into parts of the western extremity of Cen- 
tral Asia,, mir doubts are suDoorted. as will be shown vassinu 



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THE WILD HORSE. 



151 



(rainst 



ca6<^?/M^ is still found ; and that in the other regions 
of the empire stretching westward, they are likewise 
of the wild stock, but more and more adulterated 
^vith domestic races as they approach towards Eu- 
rope, or have been long peopled by fixed residents. 
Even in the south-western steppes to the Ukraine, 
there have been wild horses, as is attested by the 
earliest historians, poets, and geographers: across 
these plains, ancient Teutonic or Indo-Germamc 
.• r. eTib^eauently Ouralian tribes, Sarmatians, 
HrBulgtl, MaU -^Tahtars all mounted 
hordes, have passed, and some repassed ; and rf the 
horses on the banks of the Don are of feral or of 
mixed blood, their origm and contammation is 
surely much older than the siege of Azof. Even 
at that period, there were still wild horses kept m 
the parks of Eastern Europe, like other game for 
'the service of the tables of the great. To adifiit 
therefore, the conclusion, that all the wild horses of 
the old continent are descended from animals at 
some period under the dominion of man, appears^ 
gratuitous assumption resting upon no proof and m 
Position to historical records from the trme of 
Herodotus to our own age : it would imply the 
absorption into domesticity of the whole species or 
of several species, in regions where such unbounded 
wildernesses exist, in several parts still maintaining 
the parent stock of other domestic animals ; or in- 
volve the total destruction of the ongmal wild 
i,...o. „T.nm this immeasurable surface, where man 





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THE WILD HORSE. 



subsequently could not prevent their again multi- 
plying to uncountable numbers ; while In Europe, 
the most peopled part of the old world, there were 

still m existence wild individuals of a race never 
reclaimed. -^ 



As long as the sources of information were scanty^ 
and public curiosity had defined the objects of na- 
tural history with less attention, writers were more 
liable than at present to be misled by erroneous, 
and indistinct accounts, or by the absence of all 
information, and were induced to report the extinc- 
tion of species of mammalia in several places, long 
before they were warranted by the fact. The wolf 
existed in Britain for ages after historians had as- 
serted his destruction : BufFon, before the year 1 760,, 
declared the stag extinct in England, while it is 
still found in Somerset and the north of Devon; 
although since his time agricultural extension and 
population have increased enormously. It was long ' 
believed in France that no beavers could be found 
in the kingdom, whereas they have recently been 
taken in the Rhone : the ibex was admitted to be 
extirpated in every part of Europe, excepting in the 
Alps, where his presence was doubted; we have 
ourselves seen several specimens in the country, and 
pointed out, in the Berhn Museum, the spoils of a 
female, shot in the Spanish Pyrenees by Count 
Hofftnansegg, without being recognised by him, 

* Ukraine wild horses, fit to be eaten, but not fit for thd 
saddle, says Beauplan. Equiferi are the Kondziki of the Poles, 
aceording to Rzonozynski, 



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153 



because he had surrendered his opinion to the com- 
monly received assertion that there were none in 
Sixain. * We might extend the hst to the regions 
of the elk, the bison, the lion, and others, but the 
foregoing are sufficient to prove that the extinction 
even of large wild animals is not so rapid as is 
often believed, — ^nor founded in fact, although it is 
asserted. 

Now, with regard to wild horses, in the relations 
of the ancients and in the travels of modern writers, 
though we have reason occasionally to suspect they 
mistake the onager and the hemionus for real horses,- 
their still remains sufficient authority for their pre- 
sence in a state of nature, under one or other of 
their primaeval forms, as far as the south and west 
of Europe, and in their characteristics assuming the 
same preference for opposite habitations in plains or 
in woody mountains, which we now perceive to be 
a leading distinction of the zebra and the Dauw; 

traits of character the more important, as they indi- 
cate a different mode of living, a choice of plants, 
not alike in both, — a dissimilar temperament ; and 
when coupled with different proportions and posi- 
tion of the ears, an arched or plane forehead, a 
straight or curved nose, a difference of colour in the 
eyes, of the skin, of the hoofs, the constancy of their 

* We were shown the specimen with the foregoing account 
by Professor Lichtenstein, and when we asserted that it was a 



own 



judgment 



ciitting at once the truth of our declaration. 



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154 



THE WILD HORSE 



liveries, of their marks, in a streak along the back 
and bars on the limbs, of dappled croups and shoul- 
ders, or of dark uniform colours, dense or thin 
manes and tails, although traits now mixed, feeble, 
and evanescent, they appear to be indications of 
original difference of forms sufEcient to be distinct 
though osculating species, or at least of races sepa- 
rated at so remote a period that they may claim to 
have been divided from the earliest times of our 



present zoology. 



Wild 



hippag 



eqiiifi 



dotus as being of a white' colour and inhabiting 
Scythia, about the river Hypanis or Bog ; he no- 
tices others in Thrace, beyond the Danube, distin- 
guished by a long fur. Aristotle {de Mirab) indi- 
cates them in Syria, but with manners that seem 
to refer them to hemionus or onager. Oppian places 
his hippagnis in Ethiopia, and denies the presence of 
wild horses in Syria ; an opinion entitled to credit 

from his local knowledge and his description of the 
onager 



with 



» 



both. Leo Africanus, in support of Oppian, men- 
tions the wild horse of Africa as rarely seen or 
captured by hunters with their dogs, but to be 
entrapped in snares laid for them about the fresh- 
water springs. The Gordians produced in the shows 
of Rome eighty wild horses, according to Julius 
Capitolinus, and it is supposed they were obtained 
from Africa, where the family had its principal 
inmrlfi,! nronertv: unfortunately no description is 



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THE WILD HORSE. 



155 



given of these animals. Leo and Marmol say the 
colour of the African wild species is whitish ashy- 
grey, with mane and tail short and crisped : Oppian 
makes the hippagri rufous. Struys saw wild horses 
near the isle of May and Cape Yerde, Avhere they 
have not since been noticed ; and Mungo Park fell 
in with a troop of them about Ludamar, that fled, 
snorting, stopping, and looking back ; but, .again, 
gives no other particulars. None were ever pre- 
tended to be seen to the south of the equator in 
Africa; and it maybe asked whether these alleged 
horses are specifically the same as the Equus cabal- 
lus of the north ? In reply, we think that some of 
the foregoing accounts refer to the wild ass, whose 
silvery mouse colour may be more or less taken for 
white : that others have seen the koomrah, which 
we shall describe as a distinct species , and, finally, 
that there inay be feral horses in Northern Africa, 
although it is strange that none are noticed in 
Morocco, in Arabia, Persia, or India, w^here there 
should be great numbers, if the doctrine of African 
or Arabian original parentage is consistently main- 
tained. 

In Varro, we find that there were wild horses in 

Spain ; the ancients generally admit their existence 
in Sardinia and Corsica ; Dapper places others in 
Cyprus ; Strabo, in the Alps ; and we know that 
they existed in the British islands: all seem to 
refer to a sturdy form of mountain-forest ponies, 
still found in the province of Cordova, in the Pyre- 
nees, the Vogesian range, the Camargue, the Ar- 






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THE WILD HORSE.^ 



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deiines, Great^ Britainj and in tlie Scandinaviait. 
highlands : * all remarkable for an intelligent but 
inalicious character, broad foreheads, strong lower 
jaws, heavy manes, great forelocks, long bushy tails, 
robust bodies, and strong limbs; with a livery in 
general pale dun, yellowish brown, a streak along 
the spine and cross bars on the limbs, or the limbs 
entirely black, as well as all the long liair 
mostly having a tendency to ashy and grey, often 
dappled on the quarter and shoulders. They prefer 
the cover, delight in rocky situations, are dainty in 
picking their food, do mischief in plantations, and 
their cunning, artifice, and endurance is far greater 
than that of large horses. From many circum- 
stances, this form of Equus may be deemed indi- 
genous in North-western Europe, and aborigine 
distinct from the large black race of Northern Gaul, 
which once ranged wild in the marshy forests of 
the Netherlands, and was so fierce that it was held 
to be untameable. It was a gaimt, ugly animal, 



I 

I 



These we take to have been the peall, gwilwst, and JceffU 
of the British Celt^,— tit and zippir/g of the subsequent Saxons, 
for we find, in some notes taken from MS. documents col- 
lected for the Acta Sanctorum of the Bollandists in Vita 
St. Hubert! and Ste. Genovevee, " Runeini \n]go ttpping ;'' and 
in a fragment apparently of the patrimonial property of the 
Carlovingian dynasty at Heristhal, some account of stabled 
horses and uppings. It is the same as the Finnic hepo^ Greek 
i^r^ros^ and Latin equus^ but the first of these only indicates the 
root to be connected with getting up, mounting ; hence our 
epping-^ioneB or horse blocks, and Epping Forest, where they 

mgy have run wild, &q. 




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THE WILD HORSE. 157 

with a large head and bristly mouth, small, pale, 
often blue eyes, a haggard and abundant mane and 
tail, which, according to Cardanus, when rubbed in 
the night, emitted sparks of fire; the hips were 
high, the legs nodose, and the feet broad, flat, and 
hidden in an immense quantity of long bristly hairs 
about the fetlocks : this form of horse may have ex- 
tended northward as far as the Hartz, for there, as 
in the Netherlands, we hear of traditions and legen- 
dary tales where the electrical phenomenon first 
mentioned, and the pale eyes, are evident ingredients ~ 
of superstition to connect it with apparitions, de- 
mons, wizards, and Pagan divinities. It may^ 
indeed, have been a feral branch, only in part wild, 
and introduced with the first Gallo-Belgic colony 
that ascended the Danube ; for the black-coloured 
horse occurs in Egyptian pictures, was evidently 
known to the Romans and Greeks at an early period, 
and was figured as Pluto's team : "' if this suppo- 
sition could be substantiated, it would in some 
measure show the orioinal location and route of the 
Centomannic Celts and true Gauls; it would also 
indicate the black race of Transouralian origin, wdtli 

the more probability, because melanism in horses is^l 

unknown among the bay breeds, and where it i^/ 
intermixed, shows a tendency to obliteration. 

* The black demon-liorse of the West appears to have beeu 
called a Baiert : Theodoric, carried off by one, shows its anti- 
quity. The wizard Scott's, and the horse Pardolo of Spanish 
legends, is of Gothic origin. I think there are similar allusions 
to black horses in Tahtar tales, ■ 



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■j^^g THE WILD HORSE. 

But the ancients all agree in their statements 

concerning wild horses of the north-east of Europe, 
residing, according to their narratives, from Pontus 
northward into regions unknown to their geogra- 
phy; some we have seen are described as white, 
and having the hair five or six inches long, charac- 
ters we find verified at present in Asiatic Russia 
and in the wild horses of the Pamere table land. 
In the woods and plains of Poland and Prussia 
there were wild horses to a late period. Beauplan 
asserts their existence in the Ukraine, and Erasmus 

his work " De Origine Borussorum," 



Stella, m ms worK ua vugiuc x^u^ ix^ow. -..., 
speaks of the wild horses of Prussia as unnoticed by 
Greek and Latin authors. " They are," he writes, 
in form nearly like the domestic species, but with 



soft backs, unfit to be ridden, shy and difiacult to 
capture, but very good venison." These horses are 
evidently again referred to by Andr. Schneebergius, 
who states, that " there were Avild horses in the 

I preserves of the prince of Prussia, resembling the 
domestic, but mouse- coloured, with a dark streak 
on the spine, and the mane and tail dark; they 

j were not greatly alarmed at the sight of human 
beings, but inexpressibly violent if any person at- 
tempted to mount them. They were reserved for 
the table like other game." It may be that in both 
the above extracts the hemionus or the onager is 
presumed to be depicted, but the difference of mane 
and tail is so obvious, that such an objection cannot 
be entertained; and should it be said that these 
were merely feral horses, it might be asked in 



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THE WILD HORSE. 



159 



return, wliat a true wild species must be like to 
satisfy the dissentient. In our view, this form 'oTn 
horse is the original eelback dun of the west, and 
allied to the common Median horse of antiquity; 
the parent, by gradual subjugation and intermix- 
ture, of the mouse-coloured and sorrels still common 
in Lithuania ; and particularly of those breeds that, 
with the black streak along the back, have cross 
bars on the joints, and black mane, tail, and fet- 
locks. * These were the wild and feral horses of 
Europe, as far as Bessarabia, from the earliest era 
to the close of the seventeenth century ; and from 
the facts recordqd, we may with some confidence 
conclude, that farther east, where Europe displays an 
Asiatic character, becoming more and more, as we 
advance in that direction, wild and uncultivable, 
that the appearances of the wild animals, particu- 
larly the horses, have retained their original nature 
more and more purely as we recede from the haunts 
of civilization, showing marks of degeneracy only 
where the old human migrations have passed, but 

* Rzonoz^^ski compares the Polish wild horses {Kondziki)^ 
in size, to the Samogitian {Zmudzinehs), mostly with tan or 
mouse-coloured liveries ; but there being other furs, attests 
they were mixed in his time. He describes the manners of 
the stallions, and admits that they can be trained, which, in- 
deed is equally true of the zebra and quagga. He relates their 
extension over the Ukraine, and gradual decrease. See Hist. 
Nat. Curiosa Regni Polonise. Sendomir, 1721, p. 217. — For 
several of these authorities we must express om* thanks to the 

Polish Literary Society (of Paris), and in particular to Colonel 
Lach Szyrma. 









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igO THE WILD H0RS13. 

leaving the typical characters everywhere percep- 
tible. This is the cause which induced authors to 
derive all the wild horses of Asia from the stray 
troop-horses at the siege of Azof, then, be it ob- 
served, already geldings^ yet made to replenish the 
steppes with a species of animals constantly noticed 
before and since as abundant in a wild state in the 
same regions ! Within these few years, Moorcroft 
and the brothers Gerrard, when they penetrated 
into Independent Tahtary and within the borders of 
China, met with numerous herds of wild horses, 
scouring along the table lands, sixteen thousand 
feet above the sea, and express not the least hint of 
their having been domesticated at any period. 

Whatever may be the lucubrations of naturalists 
in their cabinets, it does not appear that the Tahtar 
or even the Cossack nations have any doubt upon 
the subject, for they assert that they can distinguish 
a feral breed from the wild by many tokens ; and 
naming the former Takja'^ and Muzin^ denominate 

the real wild horse Tarpan and TarpanL We have 
had some opportunity of making personal inquiries 



on wild horses among a considerable number of 



Cossacks of different parts of Russia, and among 
Bashkirs, Kirguise, and Kalmucks, and with a sufti- 
cient recollection of the statements of Pallas, and 

* If I mis-read not my note, Talga^ and tliis name, I find 
also, in Nemnich, written Taga ; but I am not sure if it is there 
meant to bear the same definition as above. I took the word, 
on one or two occasions, to be applied to all unowned horses of 
the steppes. 



* 






I 




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THE WILD HORSE. 



161 



\ 



Buffon s information obtained from M. Sanchez, to 
direct the questions to most of the points at issue. 
From the answers of Russian officers of this irregu- 
lar cavalry, who spoke French or German, we drew 
the general conclusion of their decided belief in a 
true wild and untameable species of horse, and in 
herds that were of mixed origin. Those most ac- 
quainted with a nomad life, and in particular an 
orderly Cossack attached to a Tahtar chief as Rus- 
sian interpreter, furnished us with the substance of 

the following notice. 

" The Tarpany form herds of several hundred, 
subdivided into smaller troops, each headed by a 
stallion; they are not found unmixed, excepting 
towards the borders of China; they prefer wide, 
open, elevated steppes, and always proceed in lines 
or files, usually with the head to windward, moving 
slowly forward while grazing,— the stallions leadin^ 
and occasionally going round their OAvn troop; 
young stallions are often at some distance, and 
single, because they are expelled by the older until 
they can form a troop of young mares of their own ; 
their heads are seldom observed to be down for any 
lenoth of time ; they utter now and then a kind of 
snort with a low neigh, somewhat like a horse 
expecting its oats, but yet distinguishable by the 
voice from any domestic species, excepting the woolly 
Kalmuck breed : they have a remarkably piercing 
sio-ht; the point of a Cossack spear, at a great dis- 
tance on the horizon, seen behind a bush, being 
sujSficient to make a whole troop halt; but this is 

L 



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162 



THE WILD HORSE. 



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alarm 



to graze 



some young stallion on the skirts begins to blow 
with his nostrils, moves his ears in all directions 
with rapidity, and trots or scampers forward to 
reconnoitre, bearing the head very high and the tail 
out : if his curiosity is satisfied, he stops and begins 

; but if he takes alarm, he flings up his 
croup, turns round, and with a peculiarly shrill 
neighing, warns the herd, which immediately turns 
round and gallops off at an amazing rate, with the 
stallions in the rear, stopping and looking back 
repeatedly, while the mares and foals disappear as 
if by enchantment, because with unerring tact they 
select the first swell of ground or ravine to conceal 
them until they reappear at a great distance, gene- 
rally in a direction to preserve the lee side of the 
apprehended danger. Although bears and wolves 
occasionally prowl after a herd, they will not ven- 
ture to attack it, for the sultan- stallion will instantly 
meet the enemy, and, rising on his haunches, strike 
him down with the fore feet; and should he be 
worsted, which is seldom the case, another stallion 
becomes the champion: and in the case of a trcop 
of w^olves, the herd forms a close mass, with the 
foals within, and the stallions charge in a body, 
which no troop of wolves will venture to encounter. 
Carnivora, therefore, must be contented with aged 

or injured stragglers. 

'^ The sultan-stallion"^ is not, however, suffered 

* The sultan-stallion of a great herd was anciently an object 
ef research for the chiefs of armies, who endeavoured to catch 



I 






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» 



« 





THE WILT) HORSE. 



163 



to retain the clilef authority for more than one sea- 
son, without opposition from others, rising in the 
confidence of youthful strength, to try hy battle whe- 
ther the leadership should not be confided to them, 
and the defeated party is driven from the herd in 

exile. 

" These animals are found in the greatest purity 
on the Karakoum, south of the lake of Aral, and 
the Syrdaria, near Kusneh, and on the hanks of the 
river Tom, in the territory of the Kalkas, the Mon- 
golian deserts, and the solitudes of the Gobi : withiii 
the Russian frontier, there are, however, some adul- 
terated herds in the vicinity of the fixed settlements, 
distinguishable by the variety of their colours and a 
selection of residence less remote from human habi- 



t 



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tations. 



.*0 



-^ 



■ 

'' Real Tarpans are not larger than ordinary 
mules, their colour invariably tan, Isabella, or mouse, 
being all shades of the same livery, and only vary- 
ing in depth by the growth or decrease of a whitish 
surcoat, longer than the hair, increasing from mid- 
summer and shedding in May: during the cold 
season it is long, heavy, and soft, lying so close as 
to feel like a bear s fur, and then is entirely griz- 
zled; in summer much falls away, leaving only a 
certain quantity on the back and loins : the head 
is small, the forehead greatly arched, the ears far 
back, either long or short, the eyes small and ma- 

them with the comaund (the antique lazzo), and then made 
them their chargers. The breed of Raksh, say the poets, was 
long traced in the herds of Masende^ran. 



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THE WILD HOUSE, 



lionant the chin and muzzle beset with bristles, the 

rather thin, crested ivith a thick rugged mane. 



i \ 



neck I 

^vhich, like the tail, is black, as also the pasterns,. 

which are long: the hoofs are narrow, high, and 
rather pointed; the tail, descending only to the 
hocks, is furnished with coarse and rather curly 
or wavy hairs close up to the crupper j the croup 
as high as the withers : the voice of the Tarpan is 
loud, and shriller than that of a domestic horse ; and 
their action, standing, and general appearance, re- 
sembles somewhat that of vicious mules." ^* 

The feral horses, we were told, form likewise in 
herds, but have no regular order of proceeding: 
they take to flight more indiscriminately, and were 
simply called Mtizin. They may be known by 
itheir disorderly mode of feeding, their desire to en- 
tice domestic mares to join them, by their colours 
being browner, sometimes having white legs, and 
being often silvery grey : their heads are larger and 
the neck shorter ; but their winter coat is nearly as 

heavy as that of the wild, and there is always a 
certain number of expelled Tarpan stallions am.ong 
them ; but they are more in search of cover and of 

* Such is the general evidence, chiefly obtained from the 
orderly before mentioned ; a man who was a perfect model of 
an independent trooper of the desert ; who had spent ten or 
twelve years on the frontier of China, and, I understand, was 
often seen at Paris attending his Tahtar chief at the theatres, 
ia 1814. My interpreter was an officer in the Don Cossack 
regiment of Colonel Bigaloif, whose French was not super- 
abundant. From the Mongolic troopers I obtained little in- 

foi-mation; they were stupid or unwilling. 







\ 





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THE WILD HORSS. 



i65 



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-k 



watery places^ the wild herds being less in want of 
drink and more unwilling to encounter water, being 
even said not to be able to swim ; while the Muzin 
will cross considerable rivers. During winter, both 
resort to elevated ground where the winds have * 
swept away the snow, or dig with their fore feet 
and break the ice to get at their food. '^ 

Their olfactory sense, though not delicate in dis- 
tingulshing enemies at great distances, is remarkable 
for judging the nature of swamps, which they often 
traverse, particularly to the south of Lake Aral: 
when thus entangled at fault, their scent indicates 
the passable places, and the snorting of the first 
that finds one is immediately observed and followed 

by the others. 

The genuine wild species is migratory, proceed- 
ing northward in summer to a considerable dis- 
tance, and returning early in autumn. The mixed 
races wander rather in the direction of the pas- 
tures than to a point of the compass ; nearer Europe, 
they haunt the vicinity of cultivation, and attack 
the hay-stacks which the farmers make at a dis- 
tance in the open country. Though in many respects 
they have similar manners, they want the instinct 
of the wild : upon being taken young, after severe 
resistance, they submit to slavery. The Tarpan 
always die of ennui in a short time, if they do not 
break their own necks in resisting the will of man : t 

* I have seen South American horses extricate themselves 
in the same manner. 

L 

f This assertion, as in other cases, is not consistent with 



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166 THE WlIiD HORSE. 

they are, moreover, said to attack and destroy do- 
mestic horses : they rise on their haunches in fight- 
ing, and bite furiously ; while the mixed races, 
though ready to bite, are more wiUing to strike out 
with their hind feet, and neither have ever been 
remarked lying down. In these particulars, the 
younger Gmelin, who likewise travelled in Eastern 
Russia, corroborates our account, and he does not 
appear to have come to the same conclusions as 
Forster or Pallas; we may therefore infer, from 
Avhat is here stated, that the foal observed by the 
last mentioned author, when he was on the Samara, 
opposite Sorotschinska, caught at Toskair Krepost, 
was of the mixed race, or not sufficiently grown to 
furnish a satisfactory representation. 

We made further inquiries respecting the resi- 
dence of the piebald race of ancient history, in 
High Asia, and found that a variety of this kind 
was deemed distinct from the Russian horses, and 
occasionally seen among the Tahtar and Ural do- 
mestic breeds, but differing from the Chinese and 
wild race " beyond the southern mountains," * in 
having their feet very generally dark, while the 
others have invariably white limbs. Those within 
the frontier were said to be a breed belonging to the 

facts observed, if care be taken in the process of domestication ; 
it must be understood to mean that the wild horse resists, till 
death, the unceremonious forcible system of subjugation prac- 
tised by the natives. 
, * I understood by that appellation, that the Cossack spoke 

relatively to his own position being north of the central chains 
of Asia. 



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THE WILD HORSE. 



167 



D'Hobsonville was 



black Kalmucks, and we saw a few in the Russian 
irregular troops that may have been of this Kal- 
muck stock ; but the real piebald animal is known 
by the names of Tangum and Tannian^ from the 
Tangustan mountains of Bootan, although it is 
spread further along the north side of the Hima- 
laya range beyond Thibet. Father Georgi alludes 
to Tangums, when speaking of the wild horses, vari- 
ously coloured, which he saw on the banks of the 
Montza in his route to Lasha. 
informed they were found on the borders of Thibet, 
and described not to be above ten or eleven hands 
high, tolerably well proportioned, active, fiery, with 
the hair between four and five inches long, coloured 
in regular corresponding spots. The domesticated 
are also in general piebald, thirteen hands high, 
deep chested, short bodied, with strong full quarters, 
robust limbs, and altogether remarkable for sym- 
metry, strength, and compactness ; it is a true 
mountain animal, very sure footed, very active, and 

bold. 

We have already noticed the earlier history of 
this form of horse down to the eighth century : in 
the seventh, the Arabian hero Zohara, a prisoner in 
the Persian camp, escaped upon a piebald horse, 
and was greatly instrumental in the Islam victory 
of Kadesia. The clouded horses of Turan are 
mentioned by Firdausi: other poets incidentally 
name them, and Mickhoud the Persian historian 

relates of the eighth Abasside Caliph, Motassem, 
'' that he raised a mound at the time he was build- 







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THE AVILT) HORSS. 



168 

ing Samarali by means of 130,000 pied horses of his 
. army, each conveying a sack of earth to the spot. It 
was on this mound, called Tel-al-MeJchali^ or the hill 
of sacks, that his son and successor Wathek built 
the famous tower." They are again mentioned in 
the Tahtar army under Peta Khan, when in 1241 
he broke throudi Russia and Poland and defeated 
and slew Duke Henry II. of Silesia at VYahlstadt. 
They continue at present to exist in small breeds 



m 



Mold 



avia 



Wallachia 



erania, 



but are now only used to mount trumpeters and 
, the bands of Hussar regiments, excepting in Italy, 
where the Borghese breed of pied horses is still in 
repute. It is reared near Rome, in the sandy pine 
district about ancient Ardea, the classical site of the 
exploits of Turnus and iEneas, and proves the dura- 
bility of the markings of this form of horse, since 
Yirgil clearly alludes to it in the same locality : 



" Turnus, 



"^ Turnus, 

ImproYisus adest ; maculis quem Thracius albis 

Portat eauus, " ■ -^n. ix. 



4 



o 



and the same breed was in the poet's mind Avhen he 
describes the Trojan game as it was performed by 
the Roman youth : 

4 

" quern Tliracius albis 



Portat equus bicolor macuiis ; vestigia primi 
Alba pedis, frontemque ostentans arduus albam. 

JEn, v. oGo. 

The great Roman poet shows, in other writings, as 
well as in the local legendary part of the -S^neid, a 




* 







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1 • 



THE WILD HORSE. 



169 



profound knowledge of the Latin traditions ; and if 
their race of horses had been of late Introduction, 



his judgment would have rejected making it the 
distinguishing character of the Ardean and Volscian 
horse. Since it has continued unimpaired from the 
beginning of the Roman empire to the present time, 
there is no reason to reject the belief that it was of 
sufficient antiquity to belong to the stock of centaur 
oris'iH and a companion of the Thraco-Pelasglan 
colonists, among whom Mares was the first eques- 
trian in Italy. 

. Raphael, we have seen, displays his extensive in- 
formation when one of these horses is introduced in 
his Vatican fresco of Attila, and both Titian and 
Guido have immortalized them in their pictures of 



Aurora. 



■K- 



It is the most southern of all the original wild 
forms, and probably also the most ancient that 
invaded China ; for on the square and perforated 
coins of a very ancient dynasty, the figure of a 
horse bearing the Tangum form is the distinguish- 
ing token, either of the family or of the value. It 
is less spirited and smaller in the southern pro- 
vinces of the empire, and there used for an ambling 
pony, as may be seen in Chinese paper-hangings, 
where the cultivation of rice-grounds and the super- 
intendence of tea-plantations is represented. On 
our Indian frontier it is the parent stock of the 

T 

* Tliey are noticed by the troubadour poets, and Guillauine 
de la Ferte, 1221, is figured with a pied horse, in stained glass, 
at Notre Dame de Chartres. 



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l;70 > THE WILD HORSE. 

F 

Ghoonts reared in the vicinity of Kalunga ; and 
further westward, where it is probably more mixed, 
the mountain ponies of the Himalayas are more 
grey and the spots often small; but in courage, 
activity, and sure-footedness they are admirable. 
The common neglected class of Afghaunistan and 
the Indian peninsula, usually called Yahoos^ attest 
by their not uncommon piebald livery that they are 
in a great proportion descended from the Parthian 
breed j and in the original battle-pictures of the 
wars of Aurungzebe, engraved about a century ago 
from Indian originals, we can trace the piebald 
horse among the chargers of the principal figures. 
We have been informed that, in the late wars, 
whole russoolahsy or corps of Pindarees, have been 
seen mounted upon this race. 

There are still other wild horses of Asia, such as 
the white woolly animal of the Kara Koom and 
the high table land of Pamere, * whence the Kir- 
guise and Kalmucks appear to have drawn one of 

their principal races. It is about fourteen hands 
high, with a large head, small eyes and ears, a thick 

* Pamere, with the Surikol lake in the centre, twelve clays' 
journey across, gives birth to the Jaxartes, the Oxus, and to a 
branch of the Indus : from the table land all the mountains in 
sight appear as under the feet ; there are no trees, but rich 
pasturage, never long covered by snow, because of the violent 
drift winds. The wild and domestic horses, and nearly all the 
mammiferse, are clothed in long shaggy white furs. Kara Koom, 
comparatively low, is still higher than Hindo Koosh and the 

plateau of Ladakh, 17,000 feet above the sea, where Dr. Gerrard 
met great droves of wild horses. ' 



J 






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1 



THE WILD HORSE. 



171 



mi 



'4t 



muzzle, a short thin neck, joining the head at a 
considerahle angle ; the mane is short and ragged, 
the tail not very abundant, the shoulder low and 
rather vertical, the limbs long, and the hoofs wide ; 
all the proportions hidden and deformed by a heavy 
hear-like fur, particularly under the jaws, where 
there is a considerable beard, not long, but extend- 
ing to the gullet : the colour is grisly white, some- 
what darker in summer, and the hair on the outside 
shining and hard, within soft and downy. The 
Kiancr, which Mr. Moorcroft saw in great numbers 
in the'elevated deserts of Khoten, and described as 
different from the Ghoor Khur of Sinde, is in form 
more like an antelope, having a bnlhant eye and 
great vivacity of movement, which the name Kian^ 
(rushing) sufficiently explains. This animal stands 
about fourteen hands high, with a round muscular 
form, is probably again the wild stock of the Tan- 
gum ; but the Yo-to-tze, which we regard to be our 
Asinus equuleus, intermediate between the horse and 
hemionus, like the former in shape and the latter 
in colour, is allied but not identical with the onager. 
These short notices show how defective our habits 
of superficial examination are, since no less than 
three species may be concealed under the name of 
Ghoor Khur, and as many in the more general term 

of wild horses. 

Turning to Africa and excluding from the pre- 
sent consideration the zebra group, we find the an- 
cients were still more liable to confound the real 
Equine animals, and depending upon reports of the 




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] 72 THE WILD HORSE. 

natives to include in their description of horses, spe- 
cies that can be only referred to ruminants. Con- 
fusion, thus created, was increased by Albertus 
Magnus, who finding in Oppian a true account of 
the onager and another of the hippagrus or eqid' 
ferus of the Latin writers, coupled the two last 
names with the description of the first, and was 
followed by succeeding naturalists, excepting by 
Johnston, who finding the poet's hippagrus a brown 

bisulcate hornless animal of Ethiopia, caused a figure 
to be engraved from the description, according to 
which it is represented also with tusks and a mane 
extending the whole length of the spine. It is not 
easy to account for the refusal of Linnean compilers, 
to place this supposed species by the side of Molina's 
Eqmis hisulcus^ the Huemel of Patagonia, for both 
appear to be real species placed in a wrong order. 

The hippagrus, when reported to be solidungu- 
lated, may be our E. hippagrus ; and when stated to 
be bisulcate, is not a horse but a ruminant, probably 
the same which Mr. Eiippel noticed by the name 
of Boitra of Koldagi, and perhaps the Boryes of 
Herodotus, * as well as the Pegasus of Pliny. + 

* Boura of Koldagi, Ruppel. " A ruminant the size of an 
ass ; both sexes hornless, covered with dark brown bristly hair 
and having a long black mane on the neck, the legs brown- 
black ; the animal is fleet, and resides on the hills." Mj-. 
Ruppel saw the skin of one at Cairo, and conjectures that it is 
an undcseribed species of Ovis. It may be also the Feshtall, 
but that fesh^ slightly modified, will admit of other explana- 
tions. See Herodotus, lib. iv. 

f See Griffith's Cuvier, Ruminantia. 




-r^^ 







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FERAL HORSES. 



173 



We shall see in the description of the koomrah how 
much the love of the marvellous may mislead the 
ignorant natives, and through them naturalists bet- 
ter informed than Oppian. The wild horses seen 
by Leo, Marmol, Struys, Bruce, and produced by 
the Emperor Gordian, may indeed be partly of 
feral oriffin, and the rest the species above noticed, 
or the wild ass, which is found along the White 
Nile as far as it has been discovered ; but no other 
wild Equus is described in Africa on this side of the 

equator. 



FERAL HORSES OF AMERICA. 

Having endeavoured to show the real existence of 
wild horses on the soil where the unsubdued species 
must have roamed in freedom, and where at no 
time the enterprise of man can have entirely extir- 
pated them ; since it could not, even if the present 
races were feral, prevent their again multiplying and 
resuming the characters of aboriginal independence, 
is in itself, we think, sufficient proof to establi^ 
the argument: we may therefore, after admitting a 



partial intermixture of the domestic species with 

the wild in Asia, take a view of those of America, 
where they were foimd in such prodigious numbers, 
shortly after the first settlements of the Spaniards, 
that it required the united testimony of the abori- 
ginals, and the evidence of the terror they at first 
excited, to establish the absolute credibility of their 



ha vm g 



■}een imported. In their appearance, more- 





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FERAL HORSES. 



i 



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174 

over, tliey bore, and still bear, evident tokens of 
Spanish origin ; and in their manners, proofs that 
they were not wild, but only restored to freedom, 
or what we have called feral. In genial climates, 
with abundant herbage and few dangerous enemies 
to encounter, it was natural that animals of such 
power and intelligence should increase most rapidly ; 
and hence no surprise was expressed at finding them 
in abundance in St. Domingo and Cuba, within a 
century after they had been first imported. Cortez 
carried them to Mexico, * and Pizzaro to Peru / the 
Portuguese to Brazil, and soon after the plains of 
the Pampas began to swarm with their numbers, t 
If it be true that at first only six were turned loose, 
there can be no doubt that many others from botli 
sides of the southern part of the continent became 
free, and collectively that they acquired habits of 
self-preservation only in part like the real wild races 
of Asia; the time is not perhaps far distant, when 
they will be gradually again absorbed by domesti- 
cation, excepting those which will retreat towards 
the two poles ; and as the species is not restricted 



I 



{ 



* Bemal diaz del Castillo. 

+ Dr. Rengger notes the first horses in Paraguay to have 
been imported from Spain and the Canaries in _l^^ and shoAvs 
the error of Funes (En Saya de la Historia ciYiTael Paraguay), 
who pretends that in the exploratory voyage of Irala, in 1550, . 
six hundred were conveyed to the country, since Azara found 
in the archives of Asuntion a document proving that Irala, in 
the year 1551, actually bought a Spanish horse for 15,000 
florins. " Naturgesehichte der Sauegethiere von Paraguay " 
1 vol. 8vo. 



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.4. 







FERAL HORSES. ^/'^ 

by the rigour of climate, but solely by tbc extent of 
available food, the wilds of Patagonia and the lati- 
tudes of the northern deserts will continue to main- 
tain them in freedom, and render them migratory 
like the deer and the bison of the same climate. 

Of the South American feral horses, none that 
we ourselves have possessed or seen, living, depicted, 
or described, had assumed the aspect or original 
colours of the wild species of Asia; they all bore 
the stamp of the domesticated races of Old Spain, 
with more or less modification; and though the 
herds roaming in freedom are mostly of a similar 
livery, there are amongst them individuals of every 
shade and mixture of colours that exist in Europe ; 
black as far as our personal observations went, 
being rarest; modifications of grey perhaps the 
most abundant in the mountainous regions towards 
the Gulf of Mexico, and shades of bay in the Pam- 
'^ Azara, the best qualified naturalist to express 
an opinion on this particular subject, estimates the 
proportion of bays (bay-brown) to be about ninety 
to tenjzains, that is, entirely dark-coloured, without 
any white; black, there is not one in two thou- 
sand; pied and greys occur sometimes, but they 
are invariably individuals escaped or left from do- 
mestic conditions. + Jet black, though very rare, 



pas 



* On the colours of Spanish horses, see " Escuella do a 
Caballo," a . translation from La Gueriniere, but with addi- 

3un. 2 vols. 8vo. Madrid, 



Tru: 



1786. 



f There is a race of starred skewhalds in Patagonia, an evi- 



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176 



FERAL HORSES. 



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is a true colour among the feral races ; and lie re- 
gards tlie bay, the dark, and the jet black as three 
typical liveries of the original wild animal, and in- 
fers that the first pair of horses was of one of these 
colours ; he then remarks that the black decreases 
or is liable to be effaced, next, the dark zain^ and 
therefore that bay-brown is the primitive colour. 
The statement of this able observer is nearly the 
same as our own, but w^e explain the effects in a 
different manner, in the conclusions aheady drawn ; 
namely, that the Spanish horse in general is of the 
bay stock imported by Phoenicians, Carthaginians, 

and other African tribes, including the Arab Mus- 
sulmen ; the black, a residue of the Vandalic im- 
portation, and thence most anciently the Aiidalus, 
that is. Vandal breed of the Moors ; the zain pro- 

F 

bably an original race, or a residue of Roman intro- 
duction, which with the greys belonged to the 
mountains, and is now in the New World chiefly 
! confined to mountainous regions ; hence the black 

being the feAvest, must necessarily be absorbed un- 
less other causes intervene. 

We have seen the Tarpans of Asia forming herds 
composed of minor families, but headed by a sul- 
tan-stallion, Avho guides the march and fights the 
battles of his subjects; we know these instincts to 
be Aveaker in the mixed and feral troops of Asia, 
and find it still less evolved in America. 
in the West a greater abundance of food, they con- 

%\ dent approximation to white^ just as real pied horses are chance 
--'*^ occurreuces in England, . ' 



Having 



1^ 






FERAL HORSES. 



177 



and though 



gregate in thousands, where the influence of a leader 
cannot act in a similar manner, or the stallions 

■r ' 

efiect more than keeping some of their immediate 
family together, while of the larger felinse, the ja- 
guar and the puma only are dangerous to horses; 
both being tree-climbing carnivora, they seldom 
roam far from the woods or venture on the plains, 
where the thunder of horses' hoofs is sufficiently 
terrific to frighten bolder animals ; and with regard 
to the red wolf, our Chrysocyon jiihattis^ he is soli- 
tary, and usually satisfied with much smaller prey ; 
hence, being more disturbed by man, and less obliged 
to watch predaceous animals, their instincts are less 
matured, their eyesight less piercing, 
by the qualities of their olfactory powers they can 
make the nicest distinctions, their nostrils do not 
detect the jaguar at a small distance. The im- 
pulses of fear they receive are always caused by the 
first stallion that happens to be impressed with dan- 
ger : if a carnivorous animal is detected, they crowd 
together, and then the stallions rush forward to 
trample him to death; but the mares strike out 
with the heels, and although they are more timid, 
do not evince the same fear at the sight of man ; 

the males alone being chosen by him for service, 
and subject to the hardest usage ; they yet approach 
travellers, call to their captive brethren toihng un- 
der the weight of riders, then toss their heads, and, 
looking askance, canter a,way with their heads and 
tails raised ; while the mares, unconscious of dan- 
ger, look on with surprise at the jaded look of the 

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1^8 t^ERAL HORSES. 

passing strangers, and their foals run innocently up 
and start back witli sudden apprehension. 



•X- 



The 



males having but little cause for exercising their 
intellectual faculties, and being often captured, se- 
verely ridden, and then again restored to liberty, 
their wild instinct is more confused than fully de- 
veloped, and a tendency to obedience and domesti- 
cation remains impressed on tbeir tempers. There 
is, nevertheless, one trait in the character of the 
South American horses not now observed in Asia, 
though,, probably, were the conditions similar, a 
similar effect might be expected : t we allude to a 
disposition of becoming frantic from thirst in the 
heated plains where water is rare, and then with 
the impetuosity of madness, when chance or instinct 
has at length conducted them to a pool or a river, 
rushing forward to the brink, trampling each other 
under foot, others sticking in the clay, and many 
forced into the water ; causing a destruction of their 
numbers exceeding belief. Thousands of skeletons 
are said to blanch the borders of some localities 

where they resort, 
sufficient antagonist power in a due proportion of 
great carnivora, it is perhaps justly remarked by 
the author of the treatise on the Horse, that " this 

* See Captain Head's grapliical description in Lis Journey 

across the Pampas, 

f In Mr. Buckingham's Travels there is a case of a caravan 

of men, horses, mules, and asses, under the influence of severe 
thirst, suddenly coming upon a river in the dark, and over- 
throwing each other, as each pushed his predecessor before 
him infn the strea^i. 



Where 








t 

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FERAL HORSES, 



179 



J 

is one of the means by which the too rapid increase 
of this quadruped is by the ordinance of Nature 
there prevented " 

North America likewise contains herds of feral 
horses; they are in form stout cobs, mostly J)ay? 
though there are herds where black predominates ; 
they have considerable speed, and are very sure- 
footed. The herds belong exclusively to the prairie, 
avoiding mountains and w^oods. They were for- 
merly abundant in the Floridas, and still range 
through the open districts to Cahfornia and the 
plains of the Columbia, but are not described with 
equal detail. In numbers they herd together per- 
haps still more considerable, 

In the description furnished by a recent traveller, 
the Hon. C. A. Murray, * we are furnished with a 
picture of what he denominates a Stampede^ or pas- 
sage of these animals, surpassing in graphic spirit 
every account of wild horses upon record. " About 
an hour," he writes, '' after the usual time to secure 
the horses for the night, an indistinct sound arose, 
like the muttering of distant thunder; as it ap- 
proached, it became mixed with the howling of all 
the dogs in the encampment, and with the shouts 

and yells of the Indians ; in coming nearer, it rose 
high above all these accompaniments, and resembled 
the lashing of a heavy surf upon a beach ; on and 
on it rolled towards us, and partly from my own 
hearing, partly from the hurried words and actions 
of the tenants of our lodge, I gathered it must be 

* Travels in North America, 2 vols. 





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180 FERAL HORSES. 

the fierce and uncontrolable gallop of thousands of 
panic-stricken horses : as this living torrent drew 
nigh, I sprang to the front of the tent, seized my 
favourite riding-mare, and in addition to the hobbles 
which confined her, twisted the lono- larielt round 
her fore legs, then led her immediately in front of 
the fire, hoping that the excited and maddened flood 
of horses would divide and pass on each side of it- 
As the galloping mass drew nigh, our horses began 
to snort, prick up their ears, then to tremble ; and 
when it burst upon us, they became completely un- 
governable from terror; all broke loose and joined 
their afixighted companions, except my mare, which 
struggled with the fury of a wild beast, and I only 
retained her by using all my strength, and at last 
throwing her on her side. On went the maddened 
troop, trampling, in their headlong speed, over skins, 
dried meat, &c., and throwing down some of the 
smaller tents. They were soon lost in the darkness 
of the night and in the wilds of the prairie, and 

nothing more was heard of them, save the distant 
yelping of the curs, who continued their ineffectual 
pursuit." These wild animals have produced the 
same effect upon the native savages which their 
similars have done in the south. In the latter por- 
tion of America, the Gosquis, Araucas, and Pata- 
gonian Indians have become riding tribes, as well 
as the Pawnees, Camanchees, and Ricarras in the 
former ; all are nomad hordes of riders, only re- 
strained by the presence of European colonists from 
becoming the conquerors of their fellow red men. 



i 




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FEPvAL HORSES 



181 



.* 



They have already acquired equestrian habits, as 
dexterous lancers and throwers of the lazzo and 
holas. Numerous superstitions exist among them 
which show a long familiarity with horses, and an 
opinion of the Ricarras, that the souls of horses will 
rise in judgment against unmerciful riders, does 
them honour. This ready departure from their an- 
tique habits, from the circumstance of horses being 
casually introduced to their observation, shows what 
must have occurred in the Old World among the 
primitive barbarous nations who had wild horses 
within their reach. As soon as one tribe could show 
the example of a successful experiment in the sub- 
jugation of the animal, others necessarily must have 
undertaken the same task; and those tribes that 
first accomplished it, immediately made the new 
instrument of power applicable to invade the others 
and commence the era of conquests. An indigenous 
possession of horses exhibits the further similarity in 
manners which result from it, for in both continents 
the Tahtar and the Patagonian feed upon the flesh, 
both do most of their common daily business on 
horseback, and, after death, both are laid in a tomb 
with the stuffed skins of their favourite animals set 

up. around it- 
There remains one more form of feral or wild | 
horse to notice, namely, that which is of question- 
able origin, and found independent on the island of 
Celebes. East of the Bramapootra, and south of 
the tropic, through all Indo- China, Malaya, and 
the great islands, horse? are dwindled to very small 



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•182 



FERAL HORSES, 



ponies ; collectively they may be called Sarans, and 
although by some travellers they are considered 
indigenous, the antique navigation of the seas sur- 
rounding the Australian islands, in ships of suffi- 
cient burthen to convey horses, and the variety of 
colours we observe in the different breeds, seem to 
attest, that if Solipedes, along with the tiger and 
rhinoceros, were located upon them by the hand of 
Nature, domesticated races have mixed with them 
from very early times. We prefer to conjecture 
that they were imported from opposite directions 
by the favour of each monsoon, and that the Chi- 
nese stock spread by Formosa or Haynan, Ln9on, 
the Philippine group, to the north-east coast of 
Borneo and Celebes, where the people, less civilized, 
permitted them to run feral, while the others of 
higher race came through Sumatra and Java, spread- 
ing eastward as far as Timor. 

Such is the result of a general review of the 
question relating to wild horses, and we believe the 
conclusions may be legitimately drawn : that of the 
existing herds in a state of nature in High Asia, 
some are not feral, but really wild ; that there was 
a period when Equidse of distinct forms, or closely 
approximating species, or races widely different, 
wandered in a wild state in separate regions, the 
residue of an anterior animal distribution, perhaps 
jipon the great mountain line of Central Asia, where 
plateaux or table lands exceeding Armenian Ararat 
in elevation are still occupied by wild horses ; that 

of these some races still extant never have been en- 



-t 






FERAL HORSES. 



183 



fr 



cies. we 



are forced to accede to tliem? How object 
to fusion, when species more remote, as in the case 
of the quagga and mare, leave such lasting impres- 
sions; and on the other hand, when we find the 
white and the black hide of horses bearing inde- 
lible coloured fur, which crossing unceasingly only 
masks but does not obliterate ? When we see the 
dun coloured form even now always middle-sized 



tirely subdued, snch, for example, as the Tarpans ^ 
, before noticed, the Kirguise and Pamere woolly 
white race, and the wild horses of Poland and 
Prussia before described ; that from their similarity 
. or antecedent unity, they were constituted so as to 
be fusible into a common, single, specific, but very 
variable stock for the purposes of man, under whose 
fostering care a more perfect animal was bred from 
their mixture, than any of the preceding singly 
taken. These inferences appear to be supported by 
] the ductility of all the secondary characters of wild 
and domestic horses, which, if they are not ad- 
mitted to constitute in some cases specific differences, 
where are we to find those that are sufficient to dis- 
tinguish a wild from a domestic species? Since 
most wild animals, and certainly all Equidse, are 
placable in nonage ; else, why is the hemionus do- 
' mesticated at Lucknow not considered feral ? Why 
. is the onager or wild ass not claimed as a domestic 
animal merely escaped from bondage ? And with 
regard to different though osculating species, why 
should the conclusions be unsatisfactory in horses, 
when in goats, sheep, wolves, dogs, and other spe- 




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184 



FERAL HORSES 



and along with an asinine streak on the back, in 
the purer breeds also marked with cross bars on 
the joints, sometimes on the shoulder: the light 
limbed races provided naturally with ewe necks, 
and the heavy with the ceryical vertebra more 
straight or arched: the raw-boned, large, broad- 



own 



plains, and the small hardy cylindrical-footed ponies 
invariably belonging to rocky mountains : all these 
characters may be trivial, they may be called acci- 
dental, or the results of the usual explanations, 
food and climate, yet several evidently lie deeper 
in the nature of animal organization. Their aggre- 
gate importance is supported by the history of the 
ancient races, and appears adequate to confirm 
the presumption we contend for and have already 
drawn, when we compared the aboriginal races of 

the northern hemisphere with the striped group of 
the southern, both having probably an aberrant spe- 
cies on each side. 

We mean not, however, to infer that all large 
horses belong to low regions, or all the small to 
rocky sites ; numerous circumstances no doubt have 
disturbed the conditions of existence, and climate, 
food, and the fostering care of man, have had their 
legitimate influence. Albinism, though it affects 
horses like other animals, must not be confounded 
with natural greys, where round dappled marks 
show a particular tendency unconnected with a defi- 
ciency of colouring matter in the hair, and melanism 

is not perceptibly accidental. The main facts are 



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FERAL HORSES. 



185 



not tlie less unimpaired, the bay, the dun, the 
dappled, the pied, and the black, still continue to 
form great races under the care of man ; and even 
the asinine marks, in token of some ancient direct 
adulteration, return when in the least excited, and 
show their spinal ray, their bars on the joints, and 

L ■ 

in some cases a cross on the shoulder ; all confirm- 
ino^ the probability that high-bred and frequently 
crossed races of the horse are the most artificial, 
and in the form we now have them, were never 

really wild. 



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THE 



EQUID^ IN GENERAL 



In the structure of the whole family, we find, 
among fossil remains, only slight differences in size 
and relative proportions ; and the teeth, from those 
of a large horse (which are exceedingly rare) vary, 
to some, with the crown obviously narrower than 
in the domestic races. Turning to the existing spe- 
cies, all have similar viscera, the same form of 
stomach, not adapted for rumination; they have, 
with perhaps one exception, the same number and 
structure of teeth; that is, six incisors both above 
and below, one cuspidate on each side in both jaws, 
six molars above and the same number below on 
each side, making forty teeth in all. In the fe- 
males the cuspidates are not commonly observed. 
One species (the hemionus) is reported to have only 
thirty- four teeth, and another (the female dauw) 
may be furnished with a kind of udder and four 

'^ The whole family is distinguished from 
all other mammalia by the bones at the extremity 



mammae. 



Capt. Harris's Sporting Expedition in South Africa. 



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THE EQUID^ IN GENERAL. 



187 



of the feet being lodged in a single round hoof; they 
hare all more or less mane on the neck ; the whole of 

L ■ 

their structure is remarkably strong and well ba- 
lanced, being in heiglit at the shoulder and croup 
about equal to the length from the breast to the but- 
tock and the head and neck comparatively lighter, 
in proportion than in animals that bear horns; hence, 
above all other quadrupeds, the horse is the most sym- 
;metrical for his stature ; the fleetest, the strongest, 
and the most enduring; for, considering that his 
speed is always reckoned with the additional weight 
of a rider, that velocity which gives near a mile in 
a minute, and four miles in about six mmutes and 
a half, * has been calculated to be at the rate of 
eighty two feet and a half per second ; exceeding 
what a vigorous stag or the fleetest greyhound^ can 
achieve unencumbered by any extraneous weight. 
Such speed, with the powers of endurance, is surely 
superior 'to every other quadruped; for while we 
know what effect the difference of one or two pounds 
weight produces on the velocity of the pace of racers, 
horses will carry heavy riders and keep up with a 
running ostrich, overtake a stag, and toil at a gal- 
lop in the withering sun of the desert, oyer sixty 
or eighty miles without drawing bit. It is to the 
elasticity and form of structure, to the inclination 
of the shoulder, the width of the trunk giving play 
to the lungs, the breadth of the quarters, the vigour 
of the fore-arm, the consolidation of the feet into 

one hoof, and the lightness of the head and neck, 

* Achieved by " Flying Childers." 



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•188 



THE EQUIBiE IN GENERAL. 




and with 



that we must chiefly refer these powers. In the 
wild ass, where we also find very great speed, a 
vertical shoulder and low withers prevent additional 
weight being carried in a similar 
equal convenience. 

Equidae are essentially grazing animals, all ai'e 
tempted by thistles, thorny shrubs, and brooms, 
but none of them digest their food so completely as 
not to leave the power of vegetation to many seeds, 
especially of gramineous plants and tritica that 
have passed through the stomach and are lodged in 
their dung ; while their fondness for brambles, and 
their active energy, tends to spread them over barren 
plains, where they are thus made agents for intro- 
ducing new plants, and gradually increasing the 
vegetation, prepare whole regions to support both 
vegetable and animal life in a multiplicity of forms 
previously Impossible. * They are gregarious : in 
common with ruminants they see well in the dark, 
have the pupil rather elongated, the eyes beino- 

placed far apart so as to enable then\ when the 
head is down to view objects with facihty before 
and behind them, as well as sideways : the length 
of head and neck is nearly equal to their height, 
giving the power of cropping the herbage by means 
of their flexible lips and well-set nipping teeth, to 
accomplish which they are nevertheless obliged to 
throw one of the fore-legs forward and the other 

* In this manner the Pampas, towards the Straits of Magel- 
lan, are altering for the better, according to the observation of 
Mr. Bartlett. 




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THE EQUID-S; IN GENERAL 



189 



g 



to the rear, while at the same time they straighten 
the line of the back : the ears are very moveable, 
independent of each other, conveying sound with 
facility from all directions : their sense of smell is 
very delicate : they sleep little ; in a wild state 
seldom or never lie down, and consequently have an 
individual security as well as the collective protec- 
tion of their gregarious habits ; most, however, pre- 
fer mountainous and rocky regions, and with triflin 
exception all keep out of cover. True horses resist 
the severest temperature, and can live in the coldest 
climates that will allow them to find food ; and 
races or forms of them bear heat with nearly equal 
facility ; but in the two extremes somewhat of op- 
posite effects take place; for while in the north 
wild horses are not dimini-shed in stature, the do- 
mestic become very small ; and in the south, the 

r 

domestic rise above the common standard, while 
the so called wild are not more than ten hands at 
the shoulders, Notwithstanding the density of hide, 
the asinine section finds heat and barren regions 
genial, and cold insupportable beyond a certain lati- 
tude. The striped group likewise bears heat best, 
but is confined to a comparative small area. There 
is a great disparity of intelligence between all the 
wild snecies and the domestic horse, whose acts 
often display faculties nearly as elevated as those of 
a doo' ; memory almost as tenacious, and a power of 
abstraction and comparison, a degree of benevolence, 
and a generosity . of dispositioHy which, notwith- 
standing our common ruthless mode of educating 




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,190 THE EQUIDJE m GENERAL. 

them, often pierces through, when least expected. 
Qualities of so elevated an order appear to be neces- 
sarily connected with greater irritability of nerve, 
and this sensitiveness is manifested in horses more 
than in other Equidaa, their skins suffering so much 
from the stings of flies, that Nature, in order to en- 
able them to have leisure to feed and repose, has 
furnished their neck with a long mane, and the tail 
forms a sweeping brush which reaches every part 
of the body where the head cannot attain : they 
have moreover a quivering muscular action of the 
skin which impedes the tormenting power of insects, 
and both these means of defence are In proportion 
to the irritability of the species and to their degree 
of docility; for in the ass these are scarcely any, 
and in the dauw we may expect from the presence 
of them that placability is every way attainable. 

The period of copulation, the time of gestation, 
the number of offspring, the years of growth, the 
conditions of dentition, and the duration of life, are 

in all nearly alike, or differ only from local causes • 
none appear to suffer convulsions from dentition; 
all are in disposition gay, sociable, and emulous; 
even the ass has the instinct of trying his speed 
against competitors ; the voice of all is sonorous, 
loud, but, excepting in tLe horse, exceedingly dis- 
a^Tceable. 

In animals M^hose typical species Is so well known, 
extended generalities are not necessary ; and among 
the more particular questions, considering the most 
important to belong to the veterinary science, to 



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THE EQUID-S: IN GENERAL. 



191 



economical or to sporting pursuits, more than to 
natural history, we shall, with a few exceptions, 
noticed particularly in our remarks on the domestic 
horse, refrain from details which already ahound in 
other publications avowedly written for the purpose, 
and treating the questions at full length ; we can- 
not however, refrain from offering to the reader two 
plates of the horse, one representing the skeleton of; 
the animal, and the other the appearance of the ex- 
ternal muscles ; the former an example of the soHd 
elegance of the frame, npon which the tendons and 
muscles act like levers ; the other a great surface of 
the muscles themselves, in their beautiful disposi- 
tion for effecting the manifold purposes they are 
destined to perform. To have numbered and named 
the many parts, would have led us into the veteri- 
nary science, foreign to our more immediate purpose, 
and to the extent w^e would here give details, readily 
found in every Encyclopaedia and Hippiatric trea- 
tises, explanations must have proved unsatisfactory 

to the reader. 

For reasons already offered in the introductory 
pages of this volume, we divide the Linnasan genus 
Equus into three sections, whereof the first contains 

the Horses properly so called, the second the Asi- 
nine group as it was separated by Mr. Gray, with 
the exception of the South African striped species, 
which have characters sufficiently distinct to form a 

third. 



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192 



:■ 



THE HORSE. 

Eqims cahalhis^ Linn. 

In tins section we place the true horses, wild and 
domesticated, whether or not they be sprung from 
several varieties, forms, or species, or constituted 
only one, ah initio. They are distinguished by the 
mane being pendant and the tail furnished with long 
hair up to the root; the head is long; the ears 
short and pointed ; the withers somewhat elevated ; 
the shoulder oblique; they have callosities on the 
fore-arms and hind-canons ; the hoof round ; colours 
of tlie hair uniform, or clouded, or with a tendency 
to dappling ; the voice consists in neighing ; intel- 
lectual instinct naturally more developed than in 
the other species, though no doubt much perfected 
by long domestication. The wild have been al- 
ready described. 

We now nroceed to 



THE DOMESTIC HOKSE. 

Eqims cahallus domesticus. 

In the domestic horse we behold an animal equally 
strong and beautiful, endowed with great docility 
and no less fire; with size and endurance joined to 
sobriety, speed, and patience ; clean, companionable, 



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THE DOMESTIC HORSE. 



193 



emulous, even generous ; forbearing, yet impetu- 
ous ; with, faculties susceptible of very considerable 
education, and perceptions which catch the spnit 
of man's intentions, lending his powers with the 
utmost readiness, and restraining them with as ready 
a compliance : saddled or in harness, labouring will- 
ingly ; enjoying the sports of the field and exulting 
in the tumult of battle ; used by mankind in the 
most laudable and necessary operations, and often 
the unconscious instrument of the most sanguinary 
passions : applauded, cherished, then neglected, and 
ultimately abandoned to the authority of bipeds, 
who often show little superiority of reason and much 
less of temper. One, who, like ourselves, has re- 
peatedly owed life to the exertions of his horse, m 
meeting a hostile shock, in swimming across streams, 
and in passing on the edge of elevated precipices, 
will feel with us, when contemplating tbe qualities 
of this most valuable animal, emotions of gratitude 
'and affection, which others may not so readily ap- 

■ r 

r 

preciate. , 

Mohammed, in his pretended inspiration, speak- 
ing of horses, makes the Almighty create them from 
a condensation of the south-west wind, which is a 
repetition of the Lnsitanian fable ; but when he re- 
presents the Deity saying, « Thou shalt be for man a 
source of happiness and wealth ; thy back shall oe a 
seat of honour, and thy belly of riches : every grain 
of bariey given to thee shall purchase mdulgence lor 
the sinner !" he knew what people he addressed. 

* This is clearly the language of a keen judge of the feelings 




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194 THE DOMESTIC HORSE. 

All domestic horses, as now constituted, we con- 
sider as cross breeds from ancient forms, of which 
we know at present only a few characteristics : all 
to a certain extent are improved breeds, though 
some have lost stature and others spirit; in most 
countries, nevertheless, they are adapted to the 
general wishes and wants of the communities. 
Varying from race to race, from individual to in- 
dividual, there is no absolute standard of beauty 
in a practical view, although there may be a maxi- 
mum of ideal beauty for the painter and sculptor, 
physically unattainable, and probably undesirable ; 
therefore, general qualities of health, age, sound- 
ness, structure, and temper, being admitted, the 
horse should be considered in relation to the par- 
ticular purposes it is bred for, and the social condi- 
tion and predominant desires of each nation. In 
Spain, the animal differs in outward appearance 
from an English race -horse; it is more curvilinear 
in outline, because this form is most graceful and 

adapted to cadenced steps and elegant curvettings , 
in England, its frame is more rectangular, best adap- 
ted for impelling the mass with velocity forward; 
the beauty of the first is not that of the second ; 
and while courtly notions of display were predo- 
minant on the continent, the Spanish horse was, and 
still is, considered the handsomer animal; though 



1 



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further 



he liad to deal witli men in full possession of horses highly 
valued ; and true enough, horses have been the source of ho- 
nours, and are a source of wealth to the Arabs, 






■^?T" 




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THE DOMESTIC HORSE. 



195 






the endurance and speed of the English horse, after 
generations of disparagement, is at length, though 
unwillingly, admitted; and to obtain horses simi- 
larly constituted is an evident desire of many, 
who with amusing circumlocutions endeavour to 
stave off the unpalatable truth of their undeniable 
superiority. Comparing the blood-horse with the 
magnificent cart-horses of England, we find even 
greater difference in their respective beauties, and 
vet neither the racer nor the last mentioned pos- 
sess the characters best suited for a war-horse, 
nor for the road and other mixed purposes ; hence 
beauty in horses is a relative term, and n.ust de- 
pend upon modifications adapted for particular pur- 



I 



poses 



A horse of the usual standard is now considered 
to attain the height of fifteen or fifteen hands and 



^ half. In the east of Europe they range usually 
from below fourteen to fifteen hands. The gestation 
of mares lasts about eleven months, though some- 
times the time is less by thirty-five days and at 
others extended to forty-one or forty-two days oe- 
yond it; and foals are bom usually m Apnl and 
May. They see and have the use of their limbs 
shortly after birth, they are then short-bod, ed and 
short-necked animals, and very high on the legs ; 
they are frohcsome and sport about the mother 
scratching their own ears with the hmd-legs, and 
astonishing the stallion, if perchance he can ap- 
proach, for the gambols of the colt set him on his 
mettle, his crest rises, his tail is flung up, he snorts 



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196 



THE DOMESTIC HORSE. 



and gallops about in exceeding wonderment, and 
with marked signs of pleasure. 

The foal at birth is usually already furnished 
with the first and second molars cut throuoh the 
gum, and m little more than a week shows the 
two middle nippers or incisor teeth in both jaws, 
and after five weeks more the two next and also a 
third grinder : about the eighth month the third 





pair of incisors aboTe and below are cut, and then 
the front of the mouth is full. The enamel on 
these teeth is hard and thick, forming forward a 

swelling above the edge which remains sharp, and 
within or behind the edge the surface is depressed 
and becomes dark, which constitutes the 7nark or 











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THE DOMESTIC HORSE 



197 



evidence whereby tlie age of a colt or horse is de- 
termined. At the end of a year the fourth grinder 
appears above and below, and the fifth at the end 
of the second year, and then the first dentition is 
complete. When three years old, the central nip- 
pers in both jaws make room for a larger pair in 
each and are the first of the permanent set; six 
months after, a second pair extrude the former on 
1 • j^ ^4? +1.C. firet rvm-manent : and at four and a 





h 

half the last set will be supplied, all distinctly 

bearing the marh : at five this mark begins to be 
effaced by the wearing of the two first pair, and 
the tushes or cuspidate teeth are exposed, leavmg a 




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l98 THE DOMESTIC HORSE. 

space between the nippers, and approaching nearer 
to the grinders ; at six years old the centraf nippers 
are without a mark, or nearly so : at seven, in the 
next pair, it likewise disappears ; and at eight, all 
the cutting teeth have lost their black stain and 
hollow. * 

A full grown horse, notwithstanding the different 
purposes he may be intended for, is required to 
possess some general qualifications in order to be 
valuable : the head should be middle sized, well set 
on, with the branches of the lower jaw sufficiently 
separated to give the head liberty of action; the 
eyes large and rather prominent; the ear small, erect, 
lively ; the nostrils open, not fleshy ; the neck long, 
with little curve along the gullet, but arched on 
the crest ; full below, slender near the head ; the 
withers somewhat high, and the shoulder slantino- 
backwards, but more vertical in proportion as the 
animal is destined for draught ; the chest should 
be capacious, deeper in horses for speed, rounder for 
others ; the arm muscular, the canon bones forward, 
flat and short ; the loins broad and the quarters 
long ; the thigh muscular, the calcis high, and the 
whole hock well bent under the horse. It is in the 

* These are the marks for estimating the age of the horse 
till the animal is deemed old ; and it may be proper to add, 
that there are tother tokens taken from the tushes, &c. The 
age of a horse is always calculated from the first of May, and 
there is considerable difference in the marks between stabled 
horses, crib-biters, and animals usually at grass. For an ad- 
mirable account of these questions, we refer to the history of 
" The Horse," before quoted. 









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199 



I 

stmcture of the bones of the hind quarters tKat the 
principal characteristics of high bred horses are de- 
tected, and the straight horizontal line of the croup 
gives tliose attached to the pelvis greater length, 
and consequently greater angles ; whence the power 
of throwing the weight forward is chiefly derived. 
This explains the cause of the velocity of English 
thorough bred horses being so superior to those 
whose croups are round and the tail set on low. 

From the different colours of the original stocks, 
liorses are clothed in a greater diversity of liveries 
than any other anix^als, cattle and dogs not ex- 
cepted ; they are a natural consequence of mtei- 
xninable crossings of the^e great .^zr^.. already 
mentioned, producing combmations which have 
caused French and Spanish writers to enumerate 
above sixty: the piebald and dappled find only 
their counterparts in the forms and shades of colour 
in some species of seals, and it is there also we find 
the light blue greys with brown spots, of which we 
have exampl^Thnh^-New^^st and in Spain : 
yet excepting the five primitive, all the rest have a 
tendency to return to them, and sometmies it would 
seem capriciously to resume the bay, dun, grey, or 

the Romans believing in the 



black. 

We 



seen 



superior advantages of certain coloured horses in 
huntin<^ each particular kind of game, over others 
differing in that particular. The Arabs probably 
had superstitious notions of the same kind, for 
Mohammed has shown himself a dupe to these 





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200 



THE DOMESTIC HORSE. 



prejudices, and confirmed them among his be- 
lievers, by asserting « that prosperity is with sorrel 
horses," that certain white marks on the head are 
advantageous, and others, on the legs, signs of ill 
luck. Although in Europe we are by no means in 
want of mysteries in the stable, the proverb, that 
' ^J^'^y g^od horse is of a good colour," is luckily 
well established ; but there was a time, and that 
even not long since, when similar absurdities were 
believed and gravely set down by learned writers. 

The life of horses extends naturally from twenty- 
five to thirty j ears ; cases have occurred of indivi- 
duals attaining tlie age of more than forty ; and in 
countries where they are not tasked by constant over 
exertion, the period of existence is usually between 
nineteen and twenty-one. But in England the 
destruction of these noble animals is excessive : the 
value of time with a commercial people, incessantly 
urged into activity both mental and corporeal, has 
demanded rapidity of communication, and spread an 
universal taste for going fast ; the fine roads have 

permitted horses to be subjected to more than they 
can draw ; betting, racing, and hunting are pursued 
by persons whose animals are not constructed for 
such exertions, and violent usage in grooms, stable- 
boys, and farm-servants isi so common, that few 
reach the age of fifteen years, and all are truly 
old at ten.^ Were statistics directed to the relative 
length of life of horses between Germany, Belgium, 
and England, the comparison would show an enor- 
mous difference against us, and the mischief can be 






I 









THE DOMESTIC HORSE. 



201 



only partially remedied by an effective society for 
preventing cruelty to animals ; such as we find em- 
bodied in the skill of our civil engineers, who have 
given a regulated velocity to iron surpassing the 
powers of the whip, and railroads and steam-ships, 
will effect more for the relief of horses than all 
the remonstrances of humanity. 

In the structure of the horse, mares are always 
comparatively lower at the withers than geldings or 
stallions ; these last have the neck much fuller than 
either of the above, their spirit is also much more 
noisy, and their disposition, when they meet at 
liberty, exceedingly pugnacious : they are even dan- 
gerous when ridden ; so that where they are com- 
monly used for the saddle, as, for instance, in India, 
two horsemen cannot venture to ride side by side 
without constant attention, and always at some 
distance asunder. A striking example of the fierce- 
ness of stallions occurred, we are informed, during 
the last war, when the Marquess de la Romana 
made his celebrated march towards the Baltic, 
where, by the celerity of the movement, he distanced 
the pursuing enemies and embarked his corps in 
transports ; the cavalry, mounted on stallions, as is 
usual in Spain, was obliged to abandon their horses 
on the beach, where they had just arrived after ex- 
cessive forced marches, yet no sooner were the horses 
sensible that they were out of human controul, than 
rushing together in wild troops, they galloped head- 
long up and down, and then attacked each other 
with such fury, that it was believed a great number 








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202 . THE DOMESTIC HORSE. 

were killed, and nearly all were rendered useless. 
The case was very different witli the English troop- 
horses (all geldings) when Sir John Moore's corps 
emharked after the hattle of Corunna : orders havi 



mo- 



been Issued to shoot them, they witnessing their 
companions fall one after another, stood trembling 
wath fear, and hy their piteous looks seemed to 
implore mercy from men who had been tlieir 
riders; till the duty imposed upon the dragoons 
entrusted with the execution of the order be- 
came unbearable, and the men turned away from 
the task with scalding tears : hence the French 
obtained a considerable number imhurt, and among 
them several belonging to officers, Avho, rather than 
destroy, had left their faithful chargers with billets 
attached, recommendino^ them to the kindness of 
the enemy.* 

It is asserted that horses with a broad after-head 
and the ears far asunder are naturally bolder than 
those whose head is narrow above the fore-lock ; 
some are certainly more daring by nature than 
others, and judicious training in most cases makes 
them sufficiently stanch. Some, habituated to war, 
will drop their head, pick at grass in the midst of 
fire, smoke, and the roar of caimon ; others never 
entirely cast off their natural timidity. We have 
witnessed them groaning, or endeavouring to lie 
down when they found escape impossible, at the 

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* Tlie King's German Hussars alone brought off their horses, 
in consequence of being ordered to march by Vigo, where they 
had time to embark the whole unmolested. 






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THE DOMESTIC HORSE. 



203 



fearful sound of shot, shrapnel-sliells, and rockets ; 
and it is most painful to witness their look of ter- 
ror in hattle, and groans upon being wounded. Yet 
many of the terrified animals, when let loose at a 
charge, dash forward in a kind of desperation that 
makes it difficult to hold them in hand; and we 
recollect at a charge, in 1 794, when the light dra- 
goon troop-horse was larger than at present, and 
the French were wretchedly mounted, a party of 
British bursting through a hostile squadron as they 
would have passed through a fence of rushes. 

Horses have a very good memory ; in the darkest 
nights they will find their way homeward, if they 
have but once passed over the same road. They 
remember kind treatment, as was manifest in a 
charger that had been two years our own ; this 
animal had been left with the army, and was brought 
back and sold in London : about three years after^ 
we chanced to travel up to town, and at a relay, 
getting out of the mall, the off- wheel horse attracted 
our attention, and upon going near to examine it 
with more care, we found the animal recognizing 
its former master, and testifying satisfaction by 
rubbing its head against our clothes, and making 
every moment a little stamp with the fore-feet, till 
the coachman asked if the horse was not an ac- 
quaintance. 

powerful charger belonging to a friend, then a cap- 
tain in the 14th dragoons, bought by him in Ireland 
at a comparative low price, on account of an im- 
petuous viciousness, which had cost the life of one 




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204 



THE DOMESTIC HOUSE. 



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or two grooms : the captain * was a kind of Cen- 
taur rider, not to be flung by the most violent ef- 
forts, and of a temper for gentleness that would 
effect a cure, if vice were curable : after some very 
dangerous combats with his horse, the animal was 
subdued, and it became so attached, that his master 
could walk any where with him following like a 
dog, and even ladies mount him with perfect safety. 
He rode him during several campaigns in Spain, and 
on one occasion where, in action, horse and rider 
came headlong to the ground, the animal making 
an effort to spring up, placed his fore-foot on the 
captain s breast, but immediately withdrawing it, 
rose without hurting him, or moving, until he was 
remounted. . When we saw him he was already 
old, but his gentleness remained perfectly unaltered ; 
yet his powers were such, that we witnessed his 
leaping across a hollow road from bank to bank, 
a cartway being beneath, and leaping back without 

apparent effort. 

We all know to what extent horses may be edu- 
cated to perform a variety of tricks, appear dead, 
simulate fear or rage. There is an instance on re- 
cord of a rider breaking his leg in a fall, with the 
limb entangled in the stirrup, and his horse assisting 
him in getting it out. We see them constantly 
walk of themselves to their places in the relays of 
coaches. Their love of a well known home is 
equally established, there being cases where they 

* Major Anderson. We know not if this gallant and amiable 
man is still alive. 



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THE DOMESTIC HORSE, 



205 



have s^yam tread and rapid rivers to return to it. 
The Arabs all insist upon the truth, that their horses 
or mares, when sleeping abroad in the open desert, 
will wake them on the approach of an enemy or of 
a beast of prey : their gentleness may be witnessed 
in the Bedoueen tent, where mare, foal, and children 
all sleep and play together, without the least fear o£ 
accident. The mutual attachment known to subsist 
between the Northern Germans and their horses, 
may be ascribed in a great measure to the structure 
of the farm-houses, where the heads of cattle and 
horses are turned towards the threshing-floor, at the 
top of which the family usually resides, and has the 
kitchen hearth ; the animals being able to see all 
that passes, are more familiarized, and comprehend 
the doings of human beings better; and these, by 
being constantly in the presence of the domestic 
animals, have their eyes upon them, and learn to 
treat them more with a feeling of companions, than 
that of brutes, fit only to cudgel and to command 

with curses. 

' In submission to a master, the horse is affected 
by kind treatment almost as much as the dog^and 
elephant ; for although habitually his actions 
timidity, they are more an effect of good temper 
than fear, for where severity is unreasonably exer- 
cised obedience readily granted to kind treatment 
becomes doubtful, and sooner or later breaks out 
in vicious resentment and opposition : a horse knows 
his own strength, and oppression has its limits. In 

emulation to surpass a rival, no more convincing 



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206 



THE DOMESTIC HORSE; 



instance can be cited than in the case of a race- 
horse finding his competitor begin to head him in 
the course, seizing him by the fore-leg with such 
firm teeth, that both jockeys were obliged to dis- 
mount to part them, * 

But the confidence of a horse in a firm rider 
and his own courage is great, as was conspicuously 
evinced in the case of an Arab possessed by the late 
Gen. Sir Robert R. Gillespie, who being present on 
the race-course of Calcutta, during one of the great 
Hindu festivals, when several hundred thousand 
people may be assembled to witness all kinds of 
shows, was suddenly alarmed by the shrieks of the 
crowd, and informed that a tiger had escaped from 
his keepers ; the colonel immediately called for his 
horse, and grasping a boar-spear, which was in the 
hands of one among the crowd, rode to attack this 
formidable enemy : the tiger probably was amazed 
at finding himself in the middle of such a number 

r 

of shrieking beings, flying from him in all directions, 
but the moment he perceived Sir Robert, he crouched 
with the attitude of preparing to spring at him, and 
that instant the gallant soldier passed his horse in 
a leap over the tiger's back, and struck the spear 
through his spine. The horse was a small grey, 
afterwards sent home by him a present to the Prince 
Regent. When Sir Robert fell at the storming of 

* This was a horse of Mr. Quin's, in 1753. Forester, ano- 

4 - 

ther racer, caught his antagonist by the jaw to hold him back. 
Surely such animals should not be gored or cut with the whip 






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to do their utmost. . 



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the privates of the 8th dragoons 



THE DOMESTIC HORSE. 207 

Kalunga, his favourite black charger bred at the 
Cape of Good Hope, and carried by him to India, 
was at the sale of his effects competed for by several 
officers of his division, and finally knocked down to 

who contributed 
their prize-money to the amount of £ 500 sterlinn-, 

to retain this commemoration of their late com- 
mander. Thus the charger was always led at the 
head of the regiment on a march, and at the station 
of Cawnpore was usually indulged with taking his 
ancient post at the colour-stand, where the salute of 
passing squadrons was given at drill and on reviews. 
When the regiment was ordered home, the funds 
of the privates running low, he was bought for the 
same sum by a relative of ours, who provided funds 
and a paddock for him, where he might end his 
days in comfort ; but when the corps had marched, 
and the sound of trumpet had departed, he refused 
to eat, and on the first opportunity, being led out to 

exercise, he broke from his groom, and galloping 
to his ancient station on the parade, after neighing 
aloud, dropped down and died. 

All these intellectual and moral qualities vary 
in horses as much as the physical ; for spirit and 
daring is not more universal than timidity and 
cowardice; memory, prudence, aptitude in some, 
heedlessness, stupidity, and obstinacy in others. 
These distinctions are not always individual, but 
commonly generical, and propagated with the other 
character of races and breeds, enter in the composi- 
tion of the original forms of each stock ; and it wilL 



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208 • DOMESTIC HORSES. 

be found in treating of them, that the most beauti- 
ful and noble is also the most gentle and most 
educated. 

^ Anecdotes replete with interest might be com- 
piled on the subject of the horse, sufficient to fill 
volumes, but they are more the theme of sporting 
works than fit for Natural History, where they are 
only proper as examples to illustrate facts. 

We shall now proceed to give a summary of the 
principal breeds of horses, such as they are known 
at present to be established in different parts of the 
world, entering occasionally into details, where the 

race under consideration demands more particular 
notice- 




ft 



RACES AND BREEDS OF DOMESTIC HORSES. 

From the tenor of the foregoing pages, it is a natu- 
ral consequence to treat of the races of horses in 
accordance with the views therein expressed; con- 
sequentl}^ while we keep their original stock as a 
guiding mark, we shall endeavour to class them 
according as they are known, or appear to belong 




Sn 



the bay, the grey, the dun, the sooty or black, and 
the piebald. Although, through constant inter- 



there would be no sufficient traces to mark them 
out, we shall find, with due allowance for the effect 
of such powerful agents, that they are still in gene- 



-f 












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THE BAY STOCK 



209 



suffi 



even in countries where 



great races of difiFerent origin exist, as is quite ob- 
vious in Great Britain, where we have at least 
three that still retain their pristine characteristics. 
Some there will be found of unascertainable origin, 
but when they are likewise considered in the geo- 
graphical spaces they occupy, and with relation to 
the nations that have traversed them, or still reside 
within their limits, we shall at least have approxi- 
mating data for our purpose. Beginning with the 
most ancient domesticated race of Western Asia 
and Egypt, we find 



THE BAY STOCK, 

which, celebrated in early antiquity, and then unno- 
ticed for some ages, recovered its pristine celebrity 
from the date of the hegira, and with the Islam 
conquests spread again towards the east till it 
reached the Bramaputra; came westward through 
Barbary to Spain ; is now established in England ; 
in South and J^orth America ; and is fast rising into 
importance in Australia. Like the Caucassian race 
of man, it is the variety of horse which gradually 
either obliterates all the others or assumes an indis- 
putable pre-eminence, for from that source the most 
beautiful and the best horses in existence are de« 
rived. Although the stock is reared into its superior 
characteristics by education and human interven- 
tion, it seems more naturally confined in pre-emi- 
nence within the twentieth and thirty-sixth degrees 

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210 



THE ARABIAN RACE. 



of nortliern latitude, and from the fifth to the sixtieth 
of east longitude, where the thermometer is seldom 
below 50 in the night, or 80 in the day, though 
often as high as 120 of Fahrenheit. This stock has 
a black or slate-coloured hide, darkest in the white 
or grey varieties ; the ears are small, the forehead 
broad and flat, the limbs always light, and the mane 
and tail not superabundant. Its ancient history we 
have already sufficiently noticed to the period of the 
Arabian conquests, and now have to enter more par- 
ticularly on a few details on the present condition of 






m 





THE ARABIAN RACE. 
PLATE VIII. 

It is the most artificial, the first of high-bred 
horses, and the parent of the noblest breeds in every 
part of the world : a race of great intermixture, but 
for ages in the care of attentive and skilful breeders, 
and under the influence of circumstances favourable 
to the attainment of the greatest perfection. Al- 
though the bay colour, of all others, seems the most 
inclined to pass into albinism, yet there are traces 
that the white or rather grey race was early and 
largely mixed with it ; for it is in those two that 
the dappled or pommeled marks peculiar to horses 
are alone perceptible ; and admitting the high irri- 
tability of their intellectual instincts, which clearly 
affect the markings upon horses, it does not appear 
that real changes of colour can be ascribed to a dif- 
ferent cause than what results from inter-union with 






THE AKABIAN RACE. 



211 



different and other forms or races. * In this view 
the Arabian blood is much mixed, for we find reck- 
oned in the colours of the race: dhmar^ or clear 
h^y\aAhem^ brown bay; ashekwar^ sorrel; ahiad-^ 
white; azrek^ pure grey; rahtha^ mottle grey; 
ahdar^ blue grey; udhem^ black brown; ulmar 
vnuruk^ dark chestnut; and Mohammed himself 
mentions aswad^ or black, which, however, is not 
recomised nor ashehad^ light chestnut, as real Ara- 
bian colours. Green, indeed, occurs in the national 
writers, which seems to denote what we call sallow, 
but it does not appear that there is any breed of 
the kind, or it is an occasional kadescM. It is evi- 
dent the whole of the true Arabian horses are refer- 
rible to the bay and the grey, with perhaps a slight 
addition of a Toorkeo black race. The perfection of 
the bay blood is no doubt due to the Arabs, and 
particularly to the period when their princes, in 
, the career of 'conquest, became more enlightened, 
sagacious, and wealthy than they could have been 
while they were the mere tenants of their tents. 
Even now, when for some centuries they have con- 
tinued to breed, nearly without exception, from 
their own perfected studs, they produce horses im- 

equalled in form, with fine bone, firm horny legs, 
limbs small yet hard, muscle sinewy and elastic, 
and all the parts free from vascular superabundance 
and unnecessary weight ; though the breast may be 
deemed narrow, the barrel expands, the head, small 

■ 

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* Albinism would produce wlute, or flea-bitten, or sorrel 
liorses, but does not afford the round dapples and black legs. 



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212 



THE ARABIAN RACE. 



and square, is admirably placed, the eyes large and 
brilliant, tbe ears small and pointed, and the tail 
well set on ; even the prominence of the blood-ves- 
sels beneath the skin attest high breeding; and 
although the Arab is rather small and English 
horses are decidedly fleeter, none are more graceful, 
more enduring, or fitter for war and privation. It 
may be doubted whether these noble races are not 
now in a state of gradual decline in their native 
country, but all have been and still are subjected to 
the same vigilant system of care and to the condi- 
tions of life inseparable from the climate and barren 
-soil of the regions where they flourish; they have 
been educated in the society of man, used to artifi- 
cial food not intended for them bv nature, such as 
camels' milk and bruised dates ; inured to sobriety, 
even in the quantity of water ; but watched, pro- 
tected, and caressed by a people imperatively called 
upon to consider them as the only source of riches, 
the chief agent of national glory, the principal com- 
panion in daily enjoyments, and the sole instrument 
of independence* Hence the most hardy breeds are 
precisely those of the wandering tribes, and also the 
most docile, because, while the mares have young 
foals, they partake of the comforts of the tent, and 
horses are always treated with affection ; excepting 
when the first great trial of their capabilities is 
made ; then, indeed, the treatment the young ani- 
mal suffers is more severe than any horse is liable 
to in Europe : for, being led out, as yet totally un- 
conscious of a rider, the owner springs on its back 






I 








I 




THE ARABIAN RACE. 



213 



and starts off at a gallop, puslied to tlie highest 
speed, across plaias and rocks, for fifty or sixty 
miles without drawing bit ; then, before dismount- 
ing, he plunges into deep water with his horse, 
and on returning to land, offers it food ; judgment 
of its qualities depending upon the animal immedi- 
ately beginning to eat. This treatment is more 
particTilarly inflicted upon fillies, because the Be- 
douin rides for his own use only mares, who are in 
truth more patient and durable than stallions, and 
never betray the marauder by neighing ; whereas, 
if stallions are present, this certainly occurs, and 
therefore these are kept for breeding, sold at high 
prices, or used by grandees and chiefs who reside m 
fixed habitations and towns. 

Habitually in company with mankind, all the 
Arabian breeds become exceedingly gentle and in- 
telligent ; a look or a gesture is suf&cient to make 
them stop, take up with their teeth the rider's 
jereed or any other object he may have dropped, 
stand by him if he has fallen off their backs, come 
to bis call, and fight resolutely in his defence; even 
if he be sleeping, they will rouse him in cases of 
danger. Kindness and forbearance towards animals 

is inculcated by the Koran and practised by all 
Mussuhnen, to the shame of Christians, who often 
do not think this a part of human duty ; and as a 
Moor well known in London sneeringly remarked 
to ourselves, " It is not in your Book !" 

As the Arabian blood is now extended, we must 
$ake in some measure the whole of South-western 



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214 



THE ARABIAN RACE. 



Asia and the northern half of Africa, as within its 
limits, and refer to the local reports of the com- 
parative qualities of the principal breeds, as they 
are estimated to depend upon native countries. In 
this view, the Nejed claims the noblest ; Hedjas, 
the handsomest ; Yemen, the most durable ; Syria, 
the richest in colour; Mesopotamia, the gentlest; 
%ypt, the swiftest; Barbary, the most prolific; 
and Persia and Koordistan, the most warlike. We 
have here at least the general claim of this ex- 
tended geographical range for Arabian horses main- 
tained as it was more anciently, when they were 
called Persian or Egyptian. 

There is apparently some confusion in the accounts 
of travellers in the collective denomination of Ko- 
hayl and Kochlani given to horses by the Arabs, 
the last mentioned being only a slight mutation of 
one of the many names of the Kulan, wild ass, or 
rather the Ghurkhar, shows probably the origin of 
the mistake about wild horses being found in Ara- 
bia, and also the probability that the two animals 
just mentioned are not considered to be identical by 
the Arabs. 

The term Kohayl, or Kohelga, embraces col- 
lectively the races denominated Attechi, not much 
valued, and said to be occasionally feral ; next the 
Kadeschi, or horses of improved blood; and last, 
the Kochlani, whose genealogy, is kept with rigor- 
ous care ; their descent from high-bred studs being 
capable of proof for many generations, and claiming, 
in oriental grandiloquence, a lineal ancestry to the 






"> ■ 



THE ARABIAN RACE. 



215 



time of King Solomon, and even older. There are, 
however, different opinions expressed by native 
writers on this head : one asserts the highest breed 
proceeds from the stallion Zad-el-rakeb and the mare 
Sherdat Shekban, both the property of Muthaym 
ibn Oshaim, chief of the primitive Arabian tribe 
of Yemen: others that Mashour, stallion of Okrar, 
chief of the Beni Obeide, was sire of the noblest 
breeds • while the more pious Arabs claim the five 
most renowned races for lineal descendants of Ehab- 
da, Noorna, Waya, Sabha, and Hesma, the five 
favourite mares of their prophet. There can be no 
donbt that Mohammed, although no connoisseur, 
was well mounted; and it would not have been a 
token of great fanaticism m his followers to value 
descendants from his stud.- It is likely, therefore 
that some truth may be attached to the claim ; but 
at present the five recognised great races are deno- 
minated Tauweyce, Monakye, Kohayl, Saklawye, 

and Gulfe or Julfa : the names of studs derived from 
the two first mentioned we have not found detailed 
but the third or Kohayl reckon among others of 

^h. Aauz Kerda, Sheikha, Dubbah ibn 
renown the Aguz, jve^^ , ^ 

Kurysha, Kumeyseh, and Abu Moaraff : the Sak- 
lawye have the Jedran, Abnyeh, and Neinh el 
Subh ; and the Julfa has the Estemblath. There 

* Had he been one of a riding tribe, the world would have 
heard of a mystical mare ; but being a eamel-driver he only 
rimed of the Borak, that mysterious camel which earned 
Wm up to the third heaven, and the object of profound discus- 
sions among the Ulema, as to whether it was red or white. 





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216 



THE ARABIAN RACE. 



are, besides, breeds of inferior consideration, such 
as the Henaydf Abu Arkab, Abajan, Sheraki, 
Shueyman, Hadaba, Wedna, Medhemeh, Khabitha, 
Omenah, and Sadathukan. Indeed, an old Arabic 
MS enumerates one hundred and thirty-six breeds 
^ Arabia, three Persian, nine Turkoman, and seven 
Koordish ; and mentions the Safened race to have 
been presented by the Queen of Sheba to Solomon, 
which IS at least a proof that it is of very ancient 
estimation. * But it is evident, from the somewhat 
conflicting claims of superiority concerning the seve- 
ral breeds, that European statements depend upon 
authorities varying according to the tribe or the 
part of the country where they have been obtained, 
or purchased horses; we have, as such, the first 
Arabian of the Monaki breed sent to England by 
Mr. Usgate, British consul at Acre, who in 1722 
produced with the animal an affidavit of pedigree 



!gul 



M. Rosetti 



claims the very first rank fo. the Saklawye race, 
distinguished for very long necks and brilliant eyes 

Count Rzewusky vaunts the Kohlan as the first 
breed, which seems merely to assert that thorough 
bred horses are the best; for by Kochlani others 



Sanateym 



nery, wherein are found mentioned several of the above remarks 
For most of the detaUs concerning Eastern horses, it wiU be 
observed that we are indebted to Malcolm, Elphinstone, Prazer 



Bums 



particulars, to relatives and friends who have long resided iu 



ladia. 



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THE ARABIAN RACE. 217 

L 

understand the first class of horses collectively, in- 
cluding many breeds: the Count, however, pur- 
chased three animals of this class, and vouches for 
the Avonderful properties ascribed to them : temper, 
faithfulness, sagacity, courage, fierceness, &c. ; he 
aflfects even to believe that they know when they 
are sold, not granting implicit obedience until they 
have been duly transferred with the presentation of 
bread and salt to a new master. There are among 
those studs many whose pedigrees ascend through 
numerous generations of the noblest blood, perfectly 
well attested ; and some even, it is asserted, to a 
period of four hundred years. In the market there 
are, however, only stallions; mares they justly re- 
gard as of greater importance in breeding than is 
thought in Europe, and therefore it is held so un- 
lawful to part with any, that very rarely they can 
be obtained by purchase. It is even considered a 
crime to sell one under any circumstances ; and in 

\ - 

proof of the resolute opposition to the practice, we 
were assured of a case that lately occurred in Cal- 
cutta, where some Arabian dealers had sold their 
horses, and in consequence of a lieavy bribe one was 
induced to part with his mare. Some weeks after, 
when the dealers had already gone homeward, th 
senior of the party was observed to have returned 
to the city, a distance of several hundred miles ; he 
lurked about for some days; subsequently it was 
discovered that he had inquired for the stables where 
the mare was kept : — she was found poisoned, and 
he had disappeared ! 







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218 . THE ARABIAN RACE. 

Towards tlie end of the last century, full-grown 
unblemished stallions of the several breeds stood 
somewhat In the following ratio of value: — The 
Oel-Nagdi, reared In the vicinity of Bussora, beau- 
tiful, docile, and swift, either dark bay or dapple 
frey, and remarkable for attachment to their owners, 
stood foremost In estimation, and were valued at 
eight thousand piastres: a mare sold at Acre for 
the enormous sum of fifteen thousand piastres. 

The GiteJfe^ originally from Yemen, patient, in- 
defatigable, and gentle, were held to be most valu- 
able, selling at four thousand piastres. 

The Saklaicye^ bred in the Eastern desert, with 
more speed and hardier constitutions, were of the 
same price. * 

.. The Oel-Mefki of the Damascus district, stately 
and superb in aspect, but less durable, were esti- 
mated at three thousand piastres, and chiefly used 
by the Turkish grandees. 

The Oel-Sabi resemble the last mentioned, but 
are not so highly valued, their price ranging be- 
tween twelve hundred and two thousand piastres. 

The Oel-Tredi are very handsome, but with less 
courage, more inclined to restiveness, and hence 

might be obtained for nine hundred or a thousand 
piastres. 

The MonaJci and Shaduhi of Yemen, belonging 
to the Mohammedad tribe, are still in very high 

* I believe the renowned Darley Arab was a Saklawye : he 

L 

was purchased at Aleppo by Mr, Darley's brother, from an 
Arab tribe near Palmyra, 



« 



THE ARABIAN RACE, 



219 



estimation. The Roswallas likewise possess most 
numerous herds of beautiful horses, and the powerful 
tribe of Benilam are now in possession of the Ghi- 
lan pastures, as well as of those in Shuster, where 
the ancient studs of Nisa and Susa were reared for 
the Persian kings, Mr. Bruce adds the Moualis, 
south of Palmyra and Damascus, where the studs 
are of similar ancient renown. 

The Kochlani, or superior breed, appear to be 
reared more generally in the deserts than in the 
more fixed abodes of the Arabian nation; it being 
evident elsewhere also, that horses acquire the most 
valued qualities by living in dry wildernesses and 
on scanty vegetation : every where the present Asi- 
atic races are traceable to these nurseries, and the 
Arabs have extended their selection of this kind of 
residence far beyond their own frontiers. At this 
moment, their Negeddy breed of Sannaa, which we 
take to be a part of the Najd of Arabia Felix, is in 
part stationed to the east of the Indus, in the well 
known desert of that region. 

Prince P. Muskau differs in many particulars 
with the foregoing statement, and it may be ob- 
served every writer on the subject of Arabian horses 
seems to generalize the information he has obtained 
in a particular quarter as applicable to the whole ; 
the Prince believes that to the first rank belongs 

two races : 

The real Nedschdis; that is to say, those bred 

in the province of that name, from whence all 

the noblest blood has been derived; it forms five 



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THE ARABIAN RACE 



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breeds : — 1st, Sada-Tokan ; 2d, Touesse-al-HamIe ; 
3d, Shouahi-em-Anhoub • 4th, Hamdanye-Symra ; 
5th, Souat-hije-aedem-Sachra ; the first of these 
names records that of the mare, the second gives 
the proprietors. 

The second is the race of Kaehel (we take to be 
the same as the Koheyl and Kaylan already men- 
tioned) ; of this the Prince knows only four studs : 

1st, Kaehel-el-Adschroass ; 2d, Kaehel-Moussou- 
me ; 3d, Kaehel-Moussalsal ; 4th, Kaehel- Wednan ; 
all chiefly found on the desert between Bassora and 
Bagdad. He states that a Nedschi presented to 

Abbas Pacha was above eighteen years old, and yet 
valued at £ 400 sterling ; and moreover, that he 
could find no traces of the genealogies of blood- 
horses pretended to be preserved by the Arabs, but 
that they are fabricated in towns, if the purchaser 
demands them. " The Arab of the desert is content 
to know the dam and sire of the colt, and to rely 
on the care that every one takes of the purity of 

Of the Emir Bechir s stud he speaks with 
contempt, though we can hardly believe the old 
man of the mountain could have given cause for it 
to one so profoundly read in men and horses. 

Although the Arabian steed may not be acknow- 
ledged by amateurs of exceeding fast going, as per- 
fect in form, no race is possessed of a more beautiful 
head, for above the eyes it is squarer and below the 
nose IS plane and more tapering than any other; 

r 

the muzzle being fine, shorty and adorned with wide 
and delicate nostrils ; the eyes are very prominent. 



race. 



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THE ARABIAN RACE, 



221 



large, and brilliant ; the ears small, pointed, move- 
able; the jaws and cheeks adorned with minute 
swelling veins; the head is well set on the neek, 
which arches gracefully and is bedecked with a fine 
but rather deficient mane; the withers are high; 
the shoulders inclining and beautifully adjusted; 
the chest and body perhaps not sufficiently ample, 
but yet spreading out behind the arms to give room 
for action to the lungs and heart, which are in pro- 
portion larger than in any other kind of horse; 
the limbs are remarkably fine, sinewy, and firmly 
jointed ; the legs flat and clean, with pasterns rather 
long and flexible, so that with an oblique position 
they appear to the heavier European not quite so 
strong as is desirable ; but considering that in sta- 
ture these horses do not often exceed fourteen hands 
and three-quarters, it is evident from the length of 
time they will carry a rider at great speed, and 
under great restriction of food, and the number of 
years they endure, that for their climate at least 
they are fully competent to accomplish all that is 
desirable, and even execute tasks which are not al- 
ways believed of them. The quarters of an Arab 
are deep, the muscles of the fore-arm and thigh pro* 
minent ; the tail set on high, with a middling pro- 
portion of sweeping hair ; the skin on all parts of 
the body thin, presenting veins above the surface ; 
and the hoofs, rather high, are hard and tough. 

From the broad forehead and space between the 
ears, judges assert their greater courage and intelli- 
gence, which, aided by education and kind treat- 



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THE ARABIAN RACE, 



inent, they certainly possess beyond all other horses ; 
and in temper and docility, none can be compared 
to them. 

For sobriety, these horses are equally notorious ; 
the Arab of the desert allowing his mare only two 
meals in twenty -four hours : she is kept fastened 
near the entrance of the tent, ready saddled for 
mounting in a moment, or turned out to ramble 
around it, confident in her training, that on the 
first call she will gallop up to be bridled. She re- 
ceives only a scanty supply of water at night, and 
five or six pounds of barley or beans with a little 
chopped straw, and then she lies down contented 
in the midst of her master's family; often with 
children sleeping on her neck, or lying between 
her feet ; no danger to any being apprehended or 
experienced : in the morning, if not immediately 
wanted, another feed, and on some occasions a few 
'dates and camels' milk are given, particularly where 
water is very scarce and there is no green herbage 
whatever, or during an expedition which admits of 

little or no respite. Camels' milk is almost the only 
nutriment of foals, who for that purpose are seen 
trotting free by the side of the camels, and every 
now and then thrusting their noses to get hold of 
the nurse's udder; being treated by them with the 
same fondness as if they were their own young. 
Hence there is friendship instead of enmity be- 
tween the two species of animals, and the facts al- 
luded to by Herodotus and Xenophon, Aristotle 
and Pliny, respecting the repugnance of one for the 



+ * 



■^ - 




« 





THE ARABIAN RACE. 



223 



other, stow that in the age of Cyrus and the Per- 
sian invasions of Greece, the Arabs had not yet 
established their own breeds according to the system 
which the nature of the soil rendered unavoidable. 
The Bedoueen mares, under this mode of training, 
will travel fifty miles without stopping ; and they 
have been known to go one hundred and twenty 
miles on emergencies, with hardly a respite, and no 
food. In the newspapers, there was lately an ac- 
count of a bet against time, won by an Arab horse, 
at Bangalore, in the presidency of Madras, running 
four hundred miles in the space of four consecutive 
days. This exploit occurred on the 

1 840. 



27th 



This power is further evinced in the relation of 
Mr. Frazer * who states that Aga Bahram's Arab 
horse went from Shirauz to Teheraun, 522 miles, in 
six days, remained three to rest, Avent back in five 
days, remained nine at Shirauz, and returned again 
to Teheraun in seven days. The same officer related 
that he once rode another horse of his from Tehe- 
raun to Koom, twenty-four fursuks, or about eighty- 
four miles, starting at dawn in the morning, near 
the vernal equinox, and arriving two hours before 
sunset ; that is, in about ten hours : '' but Aga 
Bahram," observes the author, '' had always the 
best horses in Persia." When, therefore, we take 
too-ether all the qualities of the Arabian horse, and 
compare them with other races, we may find some 
of greater single powers, but none endowed with so 

* Frazer's Tartar Journeys. 



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THE BARB OF MOROCCO. 



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many to endear, to admire, or to use; and this 
opinion we are warranted in passing, since neither 
Asia nor Europe can boast of a breed in all or in 
some respects superior or equal, that is not mainly 
indebted to the Arabian blood for the estimation it 
has obtained. But it is doubtful whether the great 
qualities of these animals are not now rapidly on 
the decline, the wants and expectations of the people 
evidently taking a new direction. 

Numerous anecdotes might be here inserted re- 
lating to these horses, but as they occur mostly in 
books deservedly popular, we would repeat only 
what is familiar to most readers. 

Of the bay stock, but already distinguished before 
the Arab was extolled, is 



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THE BARB OF MOROCCO. 

Ancient and renowned, but nevertheless greatly 
improved since the conquests of the Moslem, and 
therefore m every respect the nearest ally in blood, 

and superior in some qualities. The climate and 
soil of that empire might indeed sustain an enor- 
mous number of horses such as the best among 
them are; but that under a government, where pro- 
perty is insecure, there is not sufficient inducement 
for breeders to bestow the same unremitting atten- 
tion upon them for a succession of generations, as 
among the free Arabs, and hence the Moors do not 
produce pedigrees of horses equally valued with 

those from the East. In the Barbary states^ the 



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THE BARB OF MOROCCO 



225 



hay stock race, with its accorapanying greys, once 
the only colours of horses, is now found to contain a 
proportion of black, with full manes and tails ; at- 
testing a northern infusion of more recent date than 
the Roman empire, and, it may be surmised, intro- 
duced by the Vandal conquerors of Africa. There 
nro n-nlrlpn or li^bt chcstuuts, which likcwise consti- 

tile MUlUCli ^* O ^ 11 

tute a proportion of the ancient northern breeds, 
and were much used by the Alans. 

Barbary horses, particularly from Morocco Fe., 
and the interior of Tripoli, are reported to be re- 
markably fine and graceful m their action, but 
somewhat lower than Arab, seldom ^-g more 
than fourteen hands and one inch high with fl.U 
shoulders, round chest, joints inclined to be long, 
and the head particularly beautiful They are 
claimed by some as superior to the Arab m form, 
but inferior in spirit, speed, and countenance. A 
French traveller describes them to be in wretched 
condition, neglected, and not to be compared with 
them. Recent authors state the Godolphin Arabian 
to have been a Barb ; but in a manuscript note, we 
find this celebrated horse claimed as one^o the 
Guelfe blood of Yemen, which his form of^head 
neck and mane seemed to confirm : thus, althoug^i 
in Encrland several thorough-bred mares and stal- 
lions have been imported from the Barbary coast, 
there was no account containing much personal ob- 
servation respecting them in their own country 



Washin 



Bavy, communicated a paper to the Geographical 



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226 



THE BARB OV MOROCCO. 



Society, relative to a tour through Morocco, and the 
unfortunate Mr. Davidson's papers gave more satis- 
factory intelligence on the subject. The first men- 
tioned gentleman often observed in Barbary, horses 
that were of great beauty, with more power than 
the Andalusian, having a long striding walk, not 
shppmg in the quarters, and galloping with great 
surety of foot over rough ground, while hunting 
wdd boar and gazelle. According to him, they 
stand from fourteen to fifteen hands in height, are 
of every colour, but the black and chestnut are con-^ 
sidered the best bred : their full flowing manes are 
never docked, though in youth it is a practice to 
shave the tail, probably to obtain a more abundant 
growth of hair ; hence two feet and a half of mane, 
and a tail sweeping the ground, is not rare. The 

Moors do not ride mares, nor mount horses under 
four years old. 

On a journey, the Barb starts unfed and without 
water ; at the end of his day's work, he is picqueted, 
unbrulled, never unsaddled; he then receives as 
much water as he will drink, then barley and broken 
straw is thrown before him as far as he can stretch 
his neck ; hence he rarely or never lies down, nor 
gets sleep, and yet he is high spirited. Broken 
wind is rare, but tender feet and shaken in the 
shoulder from the abuse of the bit and sudden stop- 
ping in a gallop, are not unfrequent. In the interior 
of Morocco, a good horse may be obtained for a 
hundred Spanish dollars, or about £20 sterling, 
but not readily, and to export one requires an order 







THE SHRUBAT-UR-REECH. 



o^ 



227 



from government. In the province of Ducalla, the 
breed is of high reputation. 

Some years ago we were informed by a Moorish 
centleman that the Emperor had made a cross breed 
with his finest mares and a giant black stallion sent 
from Encrland, we think the horse above eighteen 
hands high which was exhibited in London, and 
that he had succeeded in rearing several splendid 
black horses from it, which were the wonder of his 
countrymen. Here we have an actual instance of 
introducing a cross of the black race with the Arab 
stock, already partially mixed at a former penod 
with the same blood, and the black so ca led Ara- 
bian horses in England are very likely real Barbs. 
On the sandy plains, south of Atlas, are 



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THE SHRUBAT-UR-REECH, 

PLATE XI. 

or drinkers of the wind, reared by the Mograbins 
of the West ; they are brown or grey, rather low, 
shaped like greyhounds, destitute of flesh, or, as 
Mr. Davidson terms it, like a bag of bones ; 4)ut 
their spirit is high and endurance of fatigue proai- 

On an occasion w^here the chief of a tribe, 
where he sojourned, was robbed of a favourite and 
fleet animal of this race, the camp went out in pur- 
suit eight hours after the theft ; at night, though 
the animal was not yet recovered, it was already 
-ascertained that the Daman pursuers had headed 
his track and would secure him before morning. 
The messenger who returned with the intelligence 



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228 



THE EORNOU RACE. 



had ridden sixty miles in the withering heat of the 
desert, without drawing hit. These horses, accord- 
ing to Marmol, are not mounted till they are seven 
years old, and until then are allowed to follow the 
she-camels, whose udders they suck for a long time- 
From the information which Mr. Davidson received 
when he viewed one at the imperial stables of Mo- 
rocco, and afterwards while he had daily opportunity 
of seeing them in their own region, it appears they 
are fed only once in three days, when they receive 
a large jar of camels milk as their only food ; but 
it is known that they have sometimes a handful of 
crushed dates : yet with such scanty sustenance, by 
nature not intended for horses, they retain a vigour 
which their real food would not bestow upon them, 
and hunt the ostrich with unceasing speed. 



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THE BORNOU RACE, 

PLATE X. 

found more towards the centre of Northern Africa, 
is extolled by Mr. Tully as possessed of the quaH- 
ties of the Arabian and the beauty of the Barb. An 
individual of this, or perhaps of the Dongola race, 
which we have seen and sketched, was full fifteen 
hands high, and in proportion short of body ; the 
head was not set on gracefully, nor the eyes suffi- 
ciently large ; his back w^as carped, with flat quar- 
ters and flanks ; the tail set on rather low, but the 
shoulder fine, the upper arm the most robust possi- 
ble, and the limbs and feet beautiful. He came to 
England from the Gambia, was greyish white iu 



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THE DOKGOLA RACE. 



229 



colour, with black limbs, and so vicious that the 
owner at length broke his neck, at the risk of losing 
his own life. 



THE DONGOLA RACE. 

PLATE X.* 

Nubia possesses horses, considered by Mr. Bruce 
as far superior to the Arab, though not of African 
origin, but introduced at the time of the Moham- 
medan conquest, and pretended to be descended 
from the five horses ridden by the prophet, his 
companions Abubekr, Omar, Atman, and Ali, on 
the night of the hegira, when they fled together 
from Mecca! But among them, perhaps Atman 
must have been some believer of Turkoman or of 
Genseric's blood, since the cast of horses in Dongola 
is often black, of a stature rising above sixteen 
hands, with ample manes and tails. They are found 
at Alfaia, Gerri, and Dongola, where the sandy 
desert produces scarcely any pasturage, and that 
only consisting in roots more than leaf. 
already noticed in the Bornou breed, and differing 
in proportion from the Arab, they are nevertheless 
remarkably handsome, tall, powerful, and active ; 
-very supple, capable of great fatigue, docile, and 
attached to their masters. Mr. Bruce estimated 
the weight carried by the charger of the Prince, 
when he and his horse were accoutred in full ar- 
mour, at no less than three hundred pounds. Those 
.of Alfaia and Gerri are not so large as the Dongo- 
lese; their usual colours are bay, black, and white, 



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THE DONGOLA RACE. 



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not grey, and never dappled. Stallions only are 
ridden, and they are fed with doiirra (Holcm durra, 
Lin.), >vhich is very nutritious, and vvith roots well 
washed and dried before they are offered as fodder. 
They feed and drink saddled and bridled, with a 
kind of snaffle, and they are secured by means of a 
cotton rope attached to the fore-foot. 

Mr. Iloskins the most recent traveller w^ho de- 
scribes this race, says that the black are the finest : 
they have all white legs, sometimes the white ex- 
tends over the thighs, and occasionally over the 
helly ; they are not light, slender horses, but more 
remarkable for their strength; but they have all 
rather upright pasterns. They are now rare even in 
Ethiopia, where they fetch from £50 to il 150 ster^ 
ling. From these details it might be 
they descend from the Tahtar Katschentzi race we 
shall notice in the sequel. From their speed, size, 
and durability, they constitute excellent war horses : 
one of them was sold at Cairo, in 1816, for a sum 
equivalent to £1000 sterling; several have since 

been imported into Europe, where they do not ap- 
pear to have obtained great consideration, because 
they are not so fleet as Arabs, and consequently 
unable to compete with English racers, but they 
might be used to great advantage in forming a 
superior breed of cavalry horses by crossing with 
three-part bred mares. * 

In Abyssinia the horses are of tiie Arabian stock, 



surmised 



* 



figured, 



desert 






compUshed. 




1 






THE TURKISH RACB. 



231 



but seldom of any real value, a fact the more re- 
markable, as pasturage is abundant and very fine, 
and the pure air of mountain regions breeds, in all 
parts of the northern hemisphere, small horses at 
least of great vigour ; but the bay stock is no where 
a mountain race. 



^^^ 



The Bedoueens, as far as the deserts of Ludamar, 
on the borders of Kaarta, are remarkably well 
mounted ; and good horses of the bay race are found 
among the Soolimas and Begharmis: Even further 
on towards the equator, those of the Moors fre- 
quenting the gum-forests towards the Gambia, and 
of the Foulahs, and in Cashna on the north of the 
Niger, they axe obtained from Fez and Bomou ; but 
from the Guinea coast they become more and more 
weak, unsafe, and untractable ; nor does it appear 
that the Portuguese colony of Angola, to the south 
of the line, is possessed of any worth recording. 

At the Cape of Good Hope, the horses are of a 
mixed breed of the black Dutch and Arabian Ka- 
deschi ; they are not larger than the Arab, but show 
also that the northern black offer an improving 
mixture, for the best Cape horses are generally of 
that colour. Sir Robert R. Gillespie's favourite 
charger, already mentioned, was of this race; 

Turning to the north and east of Arabia, we first 
meet with 



THE TURKISH RACE 



of horses, proceeding from the old Armenian and 

Western Asiatic brown, but now principally com-- 




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232 



THE TURKISH RACE. 



posed of Aral) blood, belongs chiefly to NatoHa, and 
only in part to Roumella in Europe. The Turks 
cannot be said strictly to possess permanent breeds 
of ^ horses, with distinct names of established cele- 
brity ; they are purchased, or more generally the 
result of individual amateurship and caprice in 
wealthy persons. They derive their blood almost 
wholly from some imported Arabian, and are much 
m the care of Arab grooms; hence they possess all 
the gentleness and acquirements of the parent race, 
all and even more beauty, but want their vigour 
and durability. They have, from the ancient Tur- 
koman blood, a tendency to Roman-nosed chaffrons 
and ewe necks, but the head is finely set on; they 
are delicate, have very tender and irritable skins, 
making it necessary to use the brush and sponge 
alone in cleaning them ; but also they are docile and 
graceful like gazelles. We made a sketch of one 
that had been sent a present by the Sultan, which 
walked and moved with inimitable elegance, had a 
head and swan-like neck, slender limbs, springing 
pasterns, and high hoofs, fit only to carry a lady, 
but, notwithstanding, possessed of fire and speed 
whenever the rider pleased. 

Turkish horses have contributed materially in the 
improvement of the older English breed. Queen 
Elizabeth had one purchased for her by Sir Thomas 
Gresham, and the Byerly and Lister Turks are well 
known to all who interest themselves in the pedi- 



grees of our best blood-horses. 




remaina 



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THE PERSIAN. 



233 



of the more ancient breeds, — Tahtar, Hungarian, 
Wallacliian, and lowest class of Arabians. They 
are fed at sunrise and sunset, and watered at the 
same time, contrary to the Persian mode, who do 
not let them drink till an hour after. 



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THE PERSIAN. 



J ■ 

If we ^vere to judge from ancient sralptures, the 
Persian liorses of antiquity were as heavy as the 
present Flemish cart-horses ; for mail-clad riders and 
horse armour rendered bone necessary. In the great 
wars of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the 
superiority of the Persian horse over the Turkish 
was still chiefly owing to their greater bone enabling 
them to bear armour on man and beast, while the 
Turks had no other defence than a shield ; but at 
present the form of the animal is much altered. 
Like the Turkish, it consists, in their mutually bor- 
derino- provinces, of pure Arabians, already men- 
tioned ; but, further east, is more intermixed with 
the residue of the ancient breeds and later Turko- 
man importations. Persian horses seldom exce^ed 
fourteen hands and a half, have the neck slender, 
often a httle ewe-like, the ears handsome, the chest 
narrow, the legs fine, the hoofs hard, and the croup 
well turned. The nobler studs have the head some- 
what larger, but nearly as beautiful as the Arabian ; 
the frame is more developed, and their spirit is war- 
like. From the speed of chupperSy or express mes- 
sengers, we know their endurance of fatigue. Major 



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234 , THE PERSIAN. 

Keppel mentions one of these riding expresses, who 
passed him between Kermanshaw and Haraadauj 
one hundred and twenty miles distant from each 
other, in a stony mountainous country, who per- 
formed that route on one horse (and of course a 
common horse) in little more than twenty-four 
hours, and next morning went on upon the same 
for Teheran, two hundred miles further, expecting 
to reach it on the second day. Indeed chuppers^ 
unlike Turkish Tahtars, seldom change horses ; they 
go on at a steady ambling pace of four or five miles 
an hour, and some have gone from Teheran to 
Bushire, seven hundred miles, in ten days. 

These instances are sufficient to prove the en- 
during power of the Persian horses, even of inferior 
studs, and the adventurous riding of the native 
sportsmen, as acknowledged by British gentle- 
men well acquainted with fox-hunting, evidently 
proves their sure-footedness, in the daring way 
the riders gallop down the steepest and most rug- 

They are usually fed and watered an 

hour after sunrise, and again at sunset, when they 
are rubbed down and brushed : their barley or rice, 
and chopped straw or chaff, is put in a nose-bag 
hung from their heads, if they are at the picquet; 
but in the stable it is placed into a lozenge-shaped 
hole made in the mud- wall for that purpose, but 
higher than European mangers, and thence the ani- 
mal draws it at his leisure. Hay is unknown in the 
East: horse-litter, in Persia, consists of the dung 

reduced to powder and daily dried in the sun* 



ged hills. 



) 



< 




i 






THE PERSIAN* 



235 



They wear nummuds, or clothes, for winter and 
summer, which reach from head to tail, and are 
secured by surcingles. 

In the day-time they are kept under the shade of 
trees or awnings, and at night placed in court-yards, 
with their heads secured to double ropes from the 
halters and the heels of the hind feet strapped to 
cords of twisted hair, which are fastened to rings 
and pegs driven in the ground behind them ; a cus- 
tom likewise in vogue in India, and known m the 
time of Xenophon. These precautions are necessary 
to prevent their fighting; for this purpose stable- 
boys and grooms constantly sleep near them, and 
notwithstanding all the care they can take, some 
occasionally get loose, and then an uproar and 
battle ensues before they can be separated, such as 
is not to be remedied without damage to the horses 

^ ^er to the men. The pugnacity of stallions, 

Indeed, extends to all occasions where opportunity 
is triven them, and in feuds of different tribes, no 
skfrmish takes place between the riders without 
their horses taking part and endeavouring to paw 
and bite each other with consummate fury. 

The Persian nobiUty have horse races, consti- 
tuting more properly trials of bottom than speed ; 

for the distance they are made to run is not less 
than about twenty-four miles, and to effect this 
with tolerable speed the animals are put m training, 
particularly by sweating them down to mere skele- 
tons and making them go over the ground repeat- 



dan 



edly 



In breaking 



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236 



THE PERSIAN. 



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the saddle, their walk is first tauglit to be made 
into long strides, and the next qnalification consists 
in darting off at full gallop, and the best in the 
practice who possess likewise speed are emphatically 
called hmd-pee, or wind-heeled. 
Among the more noted are 

The Kaimrooni breed, obtained by crossing the 
Arab^and Turkoman races, and may be the same as 

ordi/. It is from this the best roadsters are 
derived, combining the speed of the one with the 
strength of the other, but not in an equal degree. 

The Erscheck breed, from the vicinity of Ardebil, 
is in repute for beauty ; and those of Shirvan, Ka- 
rabag, and Mokan, where there are good pastures, 
are extolled. The sovereigns of the Sefi dynasty 
likewise maintained brood mares on the Tzikziki 
hills, between Sultanieh and Casvin. 

The Ishepatan breed is now principally within 
the Russian frontier, and numbered in the table of 
brandmarks furnished by Pallas, where he notices 
no less than fifty-six Circassian and Abassian breeds 
of great Kaharda^ among which that of Shalokh, in 
possession of the Tau Sultan family, is of the highest 
reputation. All of these are of breeding studs be- 
longing to the nobles, each having a peculiar mark 
branded on the buttock or shoulder, with scrupulous 
attention to authenticity ; a misapplication thereof 
being considered the same as a forgery. 

We have seen, among the Cossack officers, very 
handsome chestnuts of Circassian race, in size equal 
to English horses, but they . appeared to be lesa- 





^^'^- --- * r_- 



1 




THE PEESIAN. 



237 



.£rmly jointed; and this deficiency seems to be 
o-eneral, since, in a noted trial of speed and endur- 
ance between Sharper and Mina, two first-rate 
English blood-horses, and the best bred animals 
picked for the purpose among the Don, the Black 
Sea and the Ural Cossacks, which occurred in 1825 ; 
thev were to run to the cruel distance of forty-seven 
miles, and although both the English had gone out of 
the course uphill for above two miles, yet Sharper 
was winner by eight minutes, running the whole dis- 
tance in two hours and forty-eight mmutes, carry- 
ino- three stone more than his best opponent, leavmg 
him to be warped in without a saddle, and having 
only a child on the back, with two horsemen hold- 
ing him up on both sides, and other men draggmg 
at his head with a rope ! 

The horses of the vicinity of Caucasus, both to 
the north and south, are, however, more particularly 
of the ancient dappled and grey stock, now gradu- 
ally merging into the bay, but still numerous ; in 
some pastures predominant, and both in Persia and 
India, on gala days, often beautified by having 
their manes, tails, and sometimes parts of the body, 
stained with a crimson or an orange dye. There is 
also, on the coast of the Persian Gulf, the Musjeed 
breed of white horses, naturally speckled with deep J 
brown or black, known early in the middle ages, 
and then considered as the most eligible of all 
parade horses 

* We think the name of Tazi is given to them by ancient 
Indian writers, but do not know where it is so defined. The 



* 



White 




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238 



THE TOORKEE RACES. 



ficially stained with small spots of black, orange, or 
even crimson ; their name may have some connexion 
with the use they are principally put to, namely, to 
be ridden in parade to the mosque, &c. 



THE TOORKEE RACES, 

also named Turkoman and Toorkoman, so far as 
they are mainly indebted for beauty and speed to 
the Arabian stock, should be separated from the 
original unimproved breeds of the nation which 
extends to the north of the Syr-deriah or Jaxartes 
and the Sea of Aral; these waters forming a line of 
separation from west to east to the Kiptchak moun- 
tains. On the south of this line we find horses 
strong and bony, larger than the Persian, standing 
fifteen or sixteen hands high, capable of immense 
fatigue and privation. Some are said to have tra- 



veiled 
days. 



nine hundred jjiiles in eleven consecutive 
They cannot, however, be compared in 
beauty with the southern breeds; their heads are 
always much larger, they have ewe-necks, a small 
barrel, and long legs, yet even on the spot a thorough 
bred specimen will sell for £ 300 sterling, which 
is an enormous price, considering the country.* The 



ancients spoke of these horses as inhabitants of the isles in 

the Red Sea, — probably Bahrein, &c. on the east coast of 

Arabia, and near the Persian Gulf, sometimes called the Ery- 
thraean Sea. 

■V __ 

* Captain Frazer (Journey to Khorasan) says " they are. 
deficient in compactness ; their bodies are long in proportion 






I 

I 



i 



THE TOORKEE RACES. 



239 



natives of course pretend that they are descended 
from Rustum's wonderful charger Ruksh, though 
there is better evidence of the introduction in the 
country of the first class of Arabian stallions by 
Timur and Nadir Shah; and the constant inter- 
course "wath Arabia is still kept up by pilgrimage 
and caravans. These horses bear the marks of de- 
scent from the ancient grey stock, crossed with the 
bay in their grey and chestnut coats and general 
make, and the presence of a third in the Karaltilo 
of black horses, of ancient reputation for speed, 
and not uncommonly found in oriental illuminated 



race 



books- 



■K- 



The Ashoo breed is mentioned in the legends of 
India, but the most renowned we believe to be, at 

present. 

The Tekeh, being the tallest, most hardy, and 

warlike, and therefore preferred to the Arab, the 

best being worth four hundred tomauns each. 

The Gorgnm breed is reared in the desert east of 
Asterabad, having the defective appearance of the 
blood, but standing sixteen hands high, and remark- 
to their bulk ; they are not well ribbed up, are long on the 
legs, deficient' in muscle, faHing ofF below the knee, narrow- 
chested, long-necked ; head large, uncouth, and seldom well 
put on. ' Such was the impression," &c. But if these defects 
were real, the horses could have neither durability nor speed. 

* See the Gottingen MSS. of the Shah-Nameh, and a book 
of fables in Turkish, Brit. Mus. They always carry heroes an^ 
chiefs. It was on one of these Sehm, flying f.om his father 
Bajazet, escaped to Varna. They liave usually white feet and 
a white star on the forehead. 



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240 



THE TOORKEE RACES. 



7 



ably sinewy; I)iit both Arab mares and stallions are 
now introduced among them, particularly on the 
fixed studs and permanent residences, where their 
figure improves; still those of the desert retain pre- 
eminence for use. Their long journeys are always 
performed in a lengthened stride or a jog-trot. 

The Toorkmimee of the Lower Oxus are large 
and spirited, much valued in Bokhara, where they 
are put into condition about Nirk Merdaun, west of 
Caubul, and then sold ; fetching from £20 to £100 



sterling. 



The Chuprastee (swift) 



Ki 



(war) 



horses are two Turkoman breeds of the vicinity of 
Shurukhs, to the northward between Mushed and 

Herat. 

The Aghuholah, on the Oxus, seems to be a fimcy 
breed, being most remarkable for a dimple or a 
whorl on some part of the neck or body, which 
among Asiatics is always an object of wonder, and 
still more of good or evil omen. This fancy was 
known to the ancients, and is still in some repute 
among Spaniards, who call a line of feathering in 
the hair of the neck, below the root of the mane, 
Espada Bomana; that in the flank is called Daga^ 
and when double, it is Espada Condago. But what 
is here principally in view is a depression or suture, 
without scar, in the neck or shoulder, not uncom- 
mon among Turkish and Barbary horses ; the for- 
mer in particular, considering this mark as of good 
omen, pretending that it is a spear- wound received in 
battle by a war-horse and perpetuated in his breed. 



--i 



TT- T 






EAST INDIAN RACES. 



241 



Karaheer 



hood of Samarkand and Sliur-Subhs, is in the highest 
estimation, and 

The Kataghan breed of Bunduz is hardy though 
under- sized, but considered far superior to the Kir- 
guise, by which we apprehend the white and black 
woolly-haired races are to be understood. 

The Meros, small sized horses, we take to be the 
same as the Toorkee or Usbekee, bred about Balkh 
in Bokhara ; they are strong, hardy, and subdi- 
vided into three breeds, and are sold for prices vary- 
ing from £ 5 to £ 20 sterling. But these pony 
forms, commonly called Yaboos, ' do not strictly 
belong to the' bay stock, but to the small mountain 
races we shall revert to in the sequel. We now pass 
on to the east side of the Indus, where, until the 
Mahommedan conquest, the Persian, Arabian, or 

r 

bay type was rarely or never seen, where it has 
never thriven, even under Moslem masters, and is 
now only risen to a proper standard of height, and 
improved to an equality with the better class of 
horses of Western Asia, since the Hon. East India 
Company has established breeding studs for mount- 



mg 



its numerous and formidable native cavalry. 



EAST INDIAN RACES. 



Beyond the Indus we still find the bay stock of 



West 



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only perceptible because it was introduced by con- 
querors, is still perpetually imported, and for several 



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242 



EAST INDIAN KACES. 



ages attempts have been made to nationalize breeds 
of it. One of these is 

The Dunnee breed of the Punjaub, reared between 
the Indus and Hydaspes or Jelum, not sufficiently 
superintended in the choice of stallions, yet much 
superior to the common horses of the country. 

The Toorkee^ bred from Turkoman and Persian 
races, is beautiful in form, graceful, and even good- 
tempered. The animal has great spirit, and exerts 
himself so vigorously, that to a beholder it appears 
he is much excited, while the rider feels by his bridle 
his perfect coolness and obedience, * Toorkee and 
Kaqthi horses, when they have been taught an easy 
lengthened amble, are called TameJcdar or Kadom- 
has^ and from their durability are much valued. 

The Iranee^ of Persian origin, is a strong, well- 
jointed, and quartered animal, but with loose ears 

and deficient in spirit. 

The present Tazzee of Bengal are not of the an- 
cient race; they grow to sixteen hands high, but 

are in general a hand or more below that standard, 
having Roman noses, narrow foreheads, much white 
of the eyes visible, ill-shaped ears, thin necks, lank 
bodies, cat hams, and mostly very vicious. 

The Jungle Tazzee is a mixed breed, of a fine 
stature, bold and commanding appearance, and ex- 
cellent racers. Their spirit requires good riders to 
mount them. The form of the head is longer than 
the Arab, but not so delicate ; the neck is rather 

* Captain Williamson describes them as broad, short, heavy, 
aad phlegmatic. 











EAST INDIAN RACES. 



243 



stiff, and their eyes betray the viciousness of dispo- 
sition, which not uncommonly requires the rider, 
while mounting, to have his horse blindfolded. They 
are of all colours, but mostly bays, some roans and 
white, and a few betray their Tangum intermixture 
by being piebald : the tall and mane are long, not 
abundant ; the ears generally laid back ; but they 
bear vast fatigue, as was proved in our wars with 
the Mahrattas and Pindarrees chiefly mounted upon 

them. 

The Serissahs of North Bahar, though of the 

Tazzee breed, are valued, and so abundant, that up- 
wards of twenty thousand are sold at the annual 

fairs. 

The Maginnee, bred by Tazz;ee horse and Persian 

mares have beauty, speed, spirit, and endurance. 

The TaJcan of India, remarkable for strong backs 
and well made, are natural amblers. 

The Kolaree breed, of a good height, with a long 
curved chaffron, is devoid of vigour ; but the Mah- 



rattas possess a 



middle-sized horse, of Arab or 



Persian origin, in considerable abundance, and very 
fit for service. " '"~ 

The Cutch breed, remarkable for the structure of 
the withers, which drop three or four inches so 
suddenly, that there appears to be a part of the 
vertical ridge of the spine taken away. Saddles 
must be made on purpose for them ; and although 
this defect is unsightly and must weaken the ani- 
mals, they are nevertheless much valued by the 
natives and in the Mekran. 



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244 



EAST INDIAN RACES. 



The Cattywarr breed is of superior blood and at 
least equal beauty with the Cutch, having gentle 
dispositions ; and the rare dun-coloured breed, with 
black stripes like a tiger, is particularly valued, and 
competes with true Arabians. 

But the mode of feeding horses, among the na- 
tives, shows a system of quacking which does not 
trust to what nature has prescribed; they are, it 
seems, often fed at night on boiled peas, no doubt 
gram^ which is a kind of vetch, with sugar and 
butter ; others employ lentiles, or small beans, boiled 
with a sheep's head, or wheaten flour with molasses, 
adding from time to time messals^ or balls composed 
of pepper, curcumi, garlick, coriander ; even arrack, 
opium, bang, or hemp-seed, mixed with molasses ! 

Such a system, with the exception of gram, we 
understand, is totally rejected in the Hon. Com- 
pany's studs in Bahar, where at first the horses 
"reared were rather under-sized and afterwards wanted 
bone ; but by attention and perseverance in the selec- 
tion of brood-mares and stallions, a splendid race of 
Indian horses is at last obtained, and fast increasing. 
Formerly, our cavalry in India was chiefly mounted 

r 

on the Jungle Tazzee race, and on purchases ob- 
tained from the fairs in Thibet, at Hurdwar, and 
other places, but the practice is fast decreasing, and 
the stud at Hissar is now, we are told, unrivalled.'^ 

* The Cozahee is regularly imported, and therefore not an 
Indian breed; and the Kaqthi comes from Thibet. The Ghoonts, 

Pickarrows, and Bhooteah mountain ponies do not belong to 

the bay stock. 





n 





DOMESTIC HORSES. 



245 



Of the bay stock there is also now forming the 



Holland 



gentleman being in possession of a stud of three 
hundred thorough bred horses, each on an average 
valued at £ 100 sterling. 

On the west of Turkey we have the noble breeds 
of Transyhania, in stature rising to fifteen hands 
and more; with slender bodies, fine heads, high 
withers the tail set on level with the back, and the 
limbs fine —evidently a race of Turkish origin, and 
very like Ihe Spanish. Colours bay or grey ; mane 

and tail long and silky. 

The Moldaman, nearly of the same stature, but 
less elegantly made, the head being larger, the tail 
set on lower, but still a noble race, with more of 
the ancient blood, and in colour bay or chestnut. 
These characters prove an affinity with 

The Greeh horse, of similar stature, but still 
coarser head and jowl, scraggy neck, and rather 
knotty joints, but possessed of enduring qualities 
and temper. This breed belongs more particularly 
to Eastern Greece, and is in general chestnut ; there 
are bays and greys, but very few black. 

More westward in Europe, the bay stock, as we 
have already mentioned, was early carried to seve- 
ral places on the coast of the Mediterranean, to 
Sicily and in particular to Spain, where, if it was 
• deteriorated by the Goths during their dominion, 
more than pristine nobility was restored to it by 
the Saracen invasion, which brought directly both 
Arabian and Barbary blood in great abundance to 






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246 



DOMESTIC HORSES. 



the peninsula. We have noticed the earlier history 
of the Alferes, Andalus, and Ginetas, and may 
add, that the period of their decay commenced with 
the expulsion of the Moors, increased during the 
Bourbon dynasty, and what was left of good horses 
after the barbarous order of Bonaparte's marshal to 
disable and blind the right eye of every serviceable 
horse in Andalusia, has perished, it seems, in the 
present civil war. Yet Spain may still restore, or, 
as soon as public tranquillity Avill permit, no doubt, 
wdl revive her pristine race of noble horses ; some, 
we trust, have escaped the general ruin, enough to 
justify an account of them in this place, and serve 
for comparison with the South American, entirely 
derived from the Andalusian blood. 

The Spanish race is subject to have the lower 
jaw heavy, the head rather large, and the nose 
Roman; the ears, often fixed low, are somewhat 
long ; the neclc fleshy, with superabundant mane ; 
the shoulders and breast broad and full ; the croup 
mule- like; the body round, and the joints long; 
but notwithstanding small defects, the Andalusian 
horses are flexible, graceful, and active, forming ex- 
cellent manege or riding-school steeds, and very 
good chargers. They vary in colour, but bays pre- 
dominate, and next, black and greys. Of colours, 
the Morcillo, or black without a white mark, or 
with only a star on the forehead, are esteemed of the 
highest breed and strongest bone, even to a proverb. 






* (( 



A mulberry black horse is what every one should wish 
for, though few can possess/' 







DOMESTIC HORSES. 



247 



The Isabella variety is, we believe, always albino, 

or witli a roseate skin. 
The Andahisian owe their latest reputation chiefly 

to the Xeres breed of the Chartreuse, somewhat 
smaller more delicate, with rather long pasterns, but 
exceedingly graceful, and not fully prepared for the 
saddle tiU six or seven years old. The other Anda- 
lusian Grenada, and Estremadura races, are larger, 
more robust, sooner reared, and therefore more pro- 
fitable and more abundant. There as also a breed of 
Murcia, which, like those of the Pyrenees, is small, 

^^ ^ ^^k^V J M— ^"^ ^^^ I ~^^ 



and belongs to a 



different stock. 



Sardinil possesses three races of horses, of which 
noble and now almost entirely composed of 



dirnda:;: of Spanish blood introduced by Don 
Alvarez de Madrigal about 1565: the prmcipal 

breed belongs to the crown at Paulo-latino ; there is 
a second the property of the house of Benevente, 
and a third to that of Mauca. They are handsome, 
fourteen hands and a half high, naturally disposed 
to amble, sure-footed, and capable of going a hun- 
dred and twenty Italian miles in thirty hours. 
There are horse-races at Sassari; the aim, however, 
seems to be not speed, but secure flexibility, ^ m 
going fast through a winding course, and passing 
into a narrow gate at an acute angle. 

The South American horses are marked with 
most if not all the characters of their Andalusian 
r,rogenitors ; they have their grace and good temper, 
and surpass them in speed, surety of foot, and bot- 
tom Individuals taken on the Pampas have been 



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248 



DOMESTIC HORSES. 



iwn 



without drawing bit ; but some account having al- 
ready been given of them, and recent travellers 
having repeatedly described the mode of subduing 
and management of horses by the Gauchos, we shall 
point out only two or three breeds. Well known 
m reru is 

The Parameros (see Plate XTL), so called from 
the word paramos (mountains), because they gallop 
down steep precipices and leap across ravines with 
equal rapidity and safety. A second, named 

Aiguilillas, are not less vigorous and active, and 
prized for a most rapid mode of moving, resembling 
an amble, but so fast that, according to Don Juan 
de Ulloa, the best gallop cannot keep up with it. 

In the hills and mountain regions of the northern 
states of South A merica, we ha ve found the grey of 
the Asturian stock veiy prevalent, and among them 
rufous greys with soft somewhat curled hair ; those 
we have seen were powerful, square-built, and sure- 
tooted cobs, remarkably serviceable in precipitous 



mountain regions. 



In Paraguay, however, the Spanish horse blood 
is sadly degenerated, and there are no feral herds, in 
consequence of an hippohosca or an wstrus attacking 
the umbilical region of young foals, producing ulcers 
which invariably destroy the animal, unless human 
care interposes. To this care the natives solely con- 
fine the protection they give horses, and neglected 
in this manner, they are become heavy inelegant 
animals, with a deformity among them we do not 



J& 



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DOMESTIC HORSES. 



249 



find noticed in any other country, namely, the fre- 



short distorted legs. 



very 



The Mexican are known to be derived chiefly 
from Andalusian progenitors, and so are the race of 
Seminole horses, in the Creek or Muscogulge tongue 
named Echochicco, or big deer, according to Bartrara. 
They are a beautiful and sprightly race, of small 
stature, and delicately formed, like roebucks, with 
handsome heads, the nose being slightly aquiline : 
this peculiarity is likewise observed in the race of 
the Chactaws, which is larger and less lively, the 
former having been introduced by the first Spanish 
settlers in East Florida, the latter coming from New 

Spain. 

In the Floridas there are breeding quarters called 

stamps^ where the animals, reared almost wholly in 
a state of independence, acquire nevertheless an 
affection for mankind by being occasionally enticed 
into his presence by means of handfuls of salt being 
offered, a dainty so much rehshed, that the older 
mares gallop up to the giver at the first sight of 
him, and the fillies and colts, after a little coyness, 
are easily reconciled to his presence. 

In Jamaica we find a breed of blood-horses of the 
Arab stock, derived from the English. There arc 
several studs reared in what are there called breeding 
pms^ in the western parishes of the island. They 
appeared to us in general lighter and smaller than 
thorough-bred English horses, but certainly the pro- 
duce of a noble race, elegant in form, fleet on the 




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250 



THE ENGLISH BREEDS. 



race-course, and equally serviceable for the saddle 
and light carriages. 

From the same sources are derived the blood- 
horses of the United States, reared more particularly 
in Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Kentucky. 
Some of the best horses ever bred in England, such 
as Shark and Tallyho, have contributed to give a 
high character to the breeds of Virginia and the 
Jerseys. The Conestoga breed of Pennsylvania, and 
those of the middle states, long in the leg and light 
in carcase, often rise to seventeen hands at the 
shoulder, and make splendid gig-horses, while those 
of less stature are most sought for riding. Towards 
the north the Endish race is mixed with the Ca- 
nadian, originally from Normandy, and judicious 
breeding between them has produced remarkable 
fast trotters. 



THE ENGLISH BREEDS OF HORSES. 

We are now come to the unrivalled breeds of Great 

r 

Britain, — the first in form, in strength, in speed, and 
in stature, and the highest in value, of any period in 

■ ^ 

the history of the world. As our immedate object 
is, however, to complete the view of the bay stock, 
we shall confine ourselves, for the moment, more 
immediately to what is termed the blood-horse, and 
resume w^hat remains to be said of its history from 
the time of James I., who patronized horse-racing 
and first reduced the pursuit to a regular system. 

In his time, Tuikish and Barbary horses had been 



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THE ENGLISH BREEDS. 



251 



repeatedly introduced to form a breed with English 
mares, without as yet any acknowledged advantage; 
he carried his views farther, and ventured to buy, 
at the enormous price of five hundred pounds, an 
Arab horse, from a merchant of the name of Mark- 
ham, But the minds of the nobility and gentry were 
still so strongly imbued with the old predilection 
for what were then termed great horses, that is, 
large and bony chargers for heavy-armed knights, 
that his intentions were thwarted, chiefly by the 
celebrated duke of Newcastle, who was thoroughly 
enamoured of the Pignatelli * school of horseman- 
ship, and wrote two works, which have remained 
text-books on the continent, even down to the late 
French revolution. He judged the Arab horse to be 
a little bony animal of ordinary shape, and it hav- 
ing been trained and found not to be fleet, he set it 
down as good for nothing, and by his rank and, 
deserved reputation for knowledge, checked the pro- 
gress of improvement for a great number of years, t 
King James, however, was not discouraged ; he 
bought a second horse that came from some part of 
the north coast of Africa, of Mr. Place, who was 
afterwards stud-master of Oliver Cromwell. This 
x.r.^csa. WQG flift nplfthrated. so called. White Turk. 




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* Pignatelli was the person who, in the reign of Henry VIII., 
first introduced at Naples the modern system of riding, or 

manege. 

+ Buffon and Sonnini, with equal self-satisfaction and perti- 
nacity, have inflicted a similar consequence upon their own 
country. 



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252 



THE ENGLISH BREEDS. 



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whose name is still constantly found at tlie head of 
many of the best pedigrees. Soon after, Villiers 
first duke of Buckingham introduced the Helrasley 
Turk, and Lord Fairfax added the Morocco Barb. 
From this time great horses, notwithstanding they 
were still cried up, began visibly to diminish. 

Races were now established by Charles I. at 
Newmarket and Hyde Park ; and during the civil 
war, Cromwell, who had trained himself the best 
regiment of horse then perhaps in existence, had 
no doubt discovered that mere bone and stature was 
no match against speed and bottom. From tbe time 
of the Protectorate, the question was decided; for, 
at the Restoration, Charles II. sent his master of the 
horse to the Levant to purchase mai'es and stallions : 
Barbs and Turkish horses were more repeatedly 
imported, and, in time, stallions of every breed of 
the East were implanted on the British stock. This 
was the case more particularly from the period when 
Mr. Darley, in tbe reign of Queen Anne, produced 
his celebrated Arabian, and after much opposition, 
succeeded in engrafting that race upon the English ; 
and then finished the organization of a system, 
which, under judicious management, has given 
speed, strength, and beauty, not only to the nobler 
class of horses, but gradually extended these advan- 
tages through every breed of importance in the 
kingdom. At present, thorongh-bred horses are 
more numerous than ever, and Arabians may be 
found in every county. 




253 







^ If 1 



THE ENGLISH RACE-HORSE. 

^ 

n ■ 

PLATE IX. 

To what blood the British race-horse is chiefly 
indebted for his supremacy, is a question that has 
been repeatedly agitated. Turk, Barb, Arab, and 
Persian the Spanish jennet, and the best formed 
animals of the domestic, originally Flemish black 
breed, German and Norman horses, are all directly 
or remotely connected with it ; but the meaner and 
less generous families are allied only at a more 
ancient date, and even the Spanish for many gene- 
rations has been discarded, although some horses of 
great speed are mentioned to have been of this 
blood so late as the latter half of the last century, * 
and others with a pedigree stained with vulgar 
blood have occasionally acquired considerable repu- 
tation;t yet both the race-horse and the hunter, 
when stud-hooks are conf^ulted, where the pedigrees 
are recorded, clearly descend from Turkish and Barb 
parentage more exclusively in the beginning, and 
from the Arab at a subsequent period. Thus, to 
the Byerly Turk we owe the Herod blood, whence 
Highflyer descended; to the Godolphin Barb the 
Matchem, considered as the stoutest, or what is 
termed as the most honest fihation ; to the Darley 
Arabian, the sire of Flying Childers, is due the 

* Shotten-herring, Conqueror, Butter, and Peacock, accord- 
ing to Sonnini, were of Spanish blood. 

t Such as Sampson and Bay Malton. 







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254 




THE ENGLISH RACE-flORSE. 

Wellesley, 



to be of Persian origin, the only real advantage 
obtained by a foreign cross of late years. ^ Tlie 
names of these progenitors, mixed with those of 
many others, sufficiently prove this general truth ; 
for among them we may reckon, besides the above^ 
the Helmsley Turk, Lister Turk, Darcy white Turk' 
Hutton's bay Turk ; Morocco Barb, Thoulouse Barb' 
Cur wen Barb, Torrans Barb, Hutton's grey Barb, 
Cole's Barb; the Markham Arabian, Leeds Ara- 
bian, Darley Arabian, and a great number of others 
less renowned. Of the powers of English racers 
we have already seen the effect, when tried against 
the best Russian horses ; the same result was shown 
in India, where, a few years ago, Recruit, an Eng- 
lish racer of moderate reputation, easily beat Pyra- 
mus, the best Arabian in Bengal. The Devonshire, 
or Flying Childers, we have also named; he ran 
over the course at Newmarket (three miles, six 
furlongs, and ninety-three yards) in six minutes 
and forty seconds, and the Beacon course (four 
miles, one furlong, and one hundred and thirty- 
eight yards) in seven minutes and thirty seconds. 
In 1772, a mile was ran by Firetail in one minute 
and four seconds. In October 1741, at the Curragh 
meeting, in Ireland, Mr. Wilde engaged to ride 
one hundred and twenty-seven miles in nine hours ; 

* We have little doubt that the Wellesley was a Persian of 
the ancient white stock, mixed with the highest blood of Tui-- 
koman race, and probably, with a cross of the Arabian, as the 
uiake of the head evinced, ' 






^, 



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THE ENGLISH RACE-HORSE 



255 



763 



he performed it in six hours and twenty-one mi- 
nutes, riding ten horses, and allowing for mounting 
and dismounting and a moment for refreshment: 
he rode for six hours at the rate of twenty miles an 
hour. Mr. Thornton, in 1745, rode from Stilton to 
London, back, and again to London, making two 
hundred and fifteen miles, in eleven hours, on the 
turnpike and uneven ground. Mr. Shafto, in 1762, 
with ten horses, and five of them ridden twice, 
accomplished fifty miles and a ^quarter in one hour 
and forty-nine minutes. In . 
match, which was to provide a person to ride one 
hundred miles a day, on any one horse each day, 
for twenty-nine days together, and to have any 
number of horses, not exceeding twenty-nine : he 
accomplished the task on fourteen horses ; and on 
one day he rode one hundred and sixty miles, on 
account of the tiring of his first horse. Mr. Hull's 
(^uibbler, however, afibrded the most extraordinary 
instance on record of the stoutness as well as speed 
of the race-horse, when, in December 1786, he ran 
twenty-three miles round the flat at Newmarket in 
fifty-seven minutes and ten seconds. 

Prince Piickler Muskau admits the undeniable 
superiority of the English horse over the Arab. 
He had practical opportunity of judging both, as 
racers and as jumpers over lofty fences ; but he 
would place high-born persons oh Arabs alone,* and 
leave the English blood-horse to jockeys, wisely 

* Turkish baslmws and Persian chiefs being notorioiisly 
high-bom. 



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256 



THE ENGLISH RACE-HORSE. 



vatlon. Wl 



abstaining from the^ question of chargers in war, 
and overlooking the fact, that in England, where 
valuable Arabs abound, they are not as such pre- 
ferred by riders over the thorough-bred blood-horses 
of the land. Now, by the term blood is understood 
the qualities produced in a horse by a superiority 
of muscular substance, lightness, and compactness 
of form, united with a justly proportioned shape ; 
or a physical structure of tendon, bone, and lungs, 
proper to afford the full effects of the mechanical 
means of speed, when set in motion by high iner- 

en these conditions of the problem 
are fully carried out by a judicious and persevering 
course of breeding and education, there will be 
beauty of form, and the blood will be adapted to 
such purposes, within the compass of the laws of 
nature, as were aimed at, provided recourse has 
been had from the beginning to select the finest, 
models for the purpose. Such has been the practice 
in England for more than a century, and it is to 
strict adherence to these laws the British turf can 
show troops of blood-horses unrivalled in the world, 
equal in beauty to the noblest Arab, and superior 
to them in stature and power : they alone have power 
to excite the modern muse in a strain that Pindar 
would not have disowned, as we here show, in a frag- 
ment describing the Doncaster St. Leger race : 

" Again — the thrilling signal sound 
And off at once, with one long bound, 
Into the speed of thought they leap, 
Like a proud ship rushing to the deep, 




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THE ENGLISH RACE-HORSE. 

A start ! a start ! they're oflP, by heaven, 
Like a shigle horse, though twenty-seven 
And 'mid the flush of silks we scan 
A Yorkshire jacket in the van : 

Hurrah, the bold bay mare ! 

A hundred yards have glided by 

And they settle to the race, 
More keen becomes each straining eye, 

More terrible the pace. 
Unbroken yet, o'er the gravel road, 
Like madd'ning waves, the troop has flow'd, 

But the speed begins to tell ; 
And Yorkshire sees, with eye of fear. 
The Soutluron stealing from the rear, 

Aye! mark his action well! 

Behind he is, but what repose ! 
How steadily and clean he goes ! 
What latent speed his limbs disclose ! 
What power in every stride he shows I 
They see, they feel, from man to man. 
The shivering thrill of terror ran, 
And every soul instinctive knew 
It lay between the mighty two. 



These now are nothing, time and space 
Lie in the rushing of the race ; 
As with keen shouts of hope and fear 
They watch it in its wild career. 



257 



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' Who leads ? Who fails ? How goes it now : 

One shooting spark of life intense, 

One throb of refluent suspense. 

And a far rainbow- eolour'd light 

Trembles again upon the sight. 

Look to yon turn ! Aheady there ! 

Gleams the pink and black of the fiery mare. 

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THE ENGLISH RACE-HORSE. 



Now— now— the second horse is pass'd, 
And the keen rider of the mare, 
With haggard looks and feverish care, 
Hangs forward on the speechless air, 
By steady stillness nursing in 
The remnant of her speed to win. 
One other bound — one more — 'tis done ; 
Right up to her the horse has run, 
And head to head, and stride for stride, 
Newmarket 's hope and Yorkshire's pride. 
Like horses harness'd side by side. 

Are struggling to the goal. 
Ride ! gallant son of Ebor, ride ! 
For the dear honour of the North, 
Stretch every bursting sinew forth. 

Put out thy inmost soul, 
And with knee, and thigh, and tightened rein. 
Lift in the mare by might and main." 

DoNCASTER St. Leger, hi/ Sir Francis Doyle. 

^ In shape, the race-horse, if we except his supe- 
rior stature, is very like the noblest Arab; with 

similar eyes, ears, and head gracefully set on the 
rieck, long oblique shoulders, high withers, power- 
ful quarters, hocks well placed under their weight, 
vigorous arms and flat legs, short from the knee to 
the pasterns, these long and elastic ; the tail placed 
high, not superabundantly furnished with long hair, 
and the mane likewise rather thin and drooping : 
the colours of the blood-horse are bay, chestnut, 
brown, black, and grey, but never dun, Isabella, or 
roan; the black itself being a residue of ancient 
foreign alloy, derived either from the old English, 






\ 



\ 



THE BAY STOCK. 



259 



tlie Spanish, or Barbary breeds. Such is the blood- 
horse racer; and since cultivation is spread over 
nearly every part of Britain, hunting is pursued 
with increasing speed, and thorough-bred horses are 
become necessary for the sports of the field ; * but 

The Hunter heir 
with varied pace, through deep ground, or across a 
broken and storxy country, demands stoutness and 
stature as high as sixteen hands, with lofty shoul- 
ders; he must be habituated to going higher, leap 
fearlessly fences and ditches, be light in hand, and 
have sound, hard, comparatively broad feet ; he 
must possess many qualities which are not of first 
necessity in a racer, but belong equally to the war- 
horse, — for both are the companions of their masters, 
and on their good qualities life, safety, and success 
are often dependent. The hunter and the charger 
are not, however, in general thorough-bred, and the 
same may be said of the coach- horse, but all owe 
their beauty, powei', and bottom, nearly without 
exception, to the quantity of high-bred blood they 

have in their pedigree. 

The Irish Blood-horse, chiefly reared in the coun- 
ties of Meath and Roscommon, is large, but con- 
sidered as inferior in beauty; and the rest are in 
i*eneral smaller than the English. The race, though 
ther ragged and angular, possesses immense power, 
fire, and courage ; and there have been some, such 

* Steeple hunting, that sport aUke reckless of the life of man 
and horse, is now perhaps the main cause of breeding steeds of 
first-rate power-s, as v/ell as first-rate speed. 



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260 



THE BAY STOCK. 



as Harkaway and others, that evinced first-ratC 
speed. Irish horses exceed the English in leaping, 
not by stepping over lower obstacles or springing 
with a flight clear above a fence or lofty hedge, but 
by jumping gracefully, like deer, upon and then 
down a stone-wall or a bank, often considerablv 



higher tha 



n 



their heads. 



r ■ ir 

the best charo-ers in the world. 



The Queen s Bays, and the British light cavalry 
in general, are mounted on half-bred horses of the 
bay stock ; and excepting in consequence of the 
^node of treatment at home, which renders them 
delicate in the vicissitudes of a campaign, they form 

From half to three- 
quarters bred are also selected roadsters or the road- 
horse, the most difficult to meet w^ith of any, and 
the hackney, which is a hunter on a reduced scale, 
or like our present Hussar horses. 

On the continent of Europe the introduction of 
high-bred horses from an Arabian stock is now also 

r 

the practice. France and Belgium imitate the Eng- 
lish system, with some exceptions, as a fashion : in 
Wurtemburg and Prussia it is a government affair, 
steadily pursued ; but none have yet produced first- 
rate horses for the turf, or visibly ameliorated the 
native races. In Russia, however, where Toorko- 
man, Persian, Arab, Abassian, and Circassian horses 
were easily procured, the progress of improvement 
is more manifest, and even the Kirguise nomad 
tribes now possess horses of great powers and speed, 
no doubt the produce of a similar parentage as Avith 
us, introduced from the south. If reliance can be 



A 




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THE BAY STOCK. 



261 



■^Ui 



placed on newspaper report, we sliall find the 
achievement of the horses at the races of Ouralisk, 
such as the fleetest and stoutest of English thorough- 
bred steeds will scarcely equal; for it is therein 
stated, that on the 29 th September, 1838, a contest 
of speed took place between the Oural Cossacks 
and the Kirguise Kaisaks, over a course of eighteen 
versts, said to be equal to thirteen and a half Eng- 
lisli miles ; the winners, for they were twins, on the 
course, ran neck and neck the whole distance, ar- 
rived at the winning-post in twenty-four minutes, 
thirty-five seconds, — and a Kirguise Kaisak black 
horse, ridden by the Sultan s son in person, went 
over the same distance in nineteen minutes ! * 
These achievements, we may remark, took place in 
the very centre of the principal region where, in 

horses were first subdued, and where all 
the original stocks appear to have sojourned at one 
time or other, in the first ages of our present zoolo- 

ical distribution. 
Of the old bay stock, we have seen at Munich 
the Life Guard Cuirassiers, mounted upon horses of 
Normandy selected by the Bavarian government, 
and taken in part of the indemnity paid by France 
in 1815-16 to the allied armies, and we never ob-^ 
served the royal guards of France so well mounted, 

^ 

L ■ 

* If we continue the present practice of -wearing oui- noblest 
horses before they are fully arrived at maturity, it will be diffi- 
cult to prevent the reality of a degeneracy, which many sur- 
mise is already commenced. 



OUT view. 



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262 



yUE WHITE OR GREY STOCK. 



nor with their horses in such good order, as these 
were in German hands. 

In the more northern regions of Asia and Europe, 
the bay primeval stirps, including the domestic races 
of both regions, and extending to the Rhine, are all 
more or less intermixed with the black, the grey, 
and the dun ; they bear more particularly the form 
and characteristics of the last mentioned, and there- 
fore we shall revert to these more anomalous races 
when we review the smaller unassignable breeds. 



THE WHITE OR GREY STOCK 
PLATES IV. AND VIII. 

IS one, as before observed, which resided and still 
resides ^ in^ part on the territory vdaere we have 
noted it in the most ancient existing historical 
records. We have shown it on the plateau of 
Pamere, * on the steppes north of the Euxine, in 

ancient Armenia and Cilicla, and may add the 



name 



ports, of riders on white horses, and as they were 
feeders on mulberries, may denote Kauhul or mo- 
dern Abassia, where there are still numerous herds 
and several high-bred studs of white and dappled 
grey horses, forming the majority of those men- 

I, 

r 

* Touching the western border of the Kalkas, where the 
villous race is abundant. It is remarkable that the white horse 
of Vishnou should bear the name of Kaiki. 



*t # 



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1 



THE WHITE OR GREY STOCK. 



263 



tioned among the Persian bays of Circassia. The 
dapplings, of a purer white than the general colour, 
seem to be a typical character of the grey stirps, 
marking the quarters and the shoulder more parti- 
cularly, and in general obliterated by blackish on 
the limbs. With age the colour becomes more 
white, and the animal's skin is of a light slaty 
blue; but there is a tendency to become roseate 
in some cases, and oftener to ladre^ or with smut- 
coloured stains, and in both cases producing albi- 
nism, or very pale cream, with the round dapples 
scarcely whiter, and then the eyes are often blue, 
and the region round them and on the nose flesh- 
coloured. The greys, however, are often without 
the light spots, and vary in shades to an inter- 
mediate neutral, tending to blue; but usually tlie 
mane and tail are more or less mixed with black. 
The grey stock is naturally of a higher stature 

r 

than the, bay, and possesses, with greater breadth 
and more solid limbs, the contour of form which 
painters and sculptors more particularly delight in. 
It mixed at all times best with the noble bay of 
Western Asia, and it may have added to its stature 
and bone, when the breeds of Cilicia and Armenia 
came down to Egypt. It may be questioned whe- 
ther the white and grey races of Northern Africa 
and the Date region are descended from a primeval 
invasion from Central Asia, or are merely whitish 
in consequence of a law which in those burning 
climates operates in a similar manner upon rumi- 
nants, such as several species of Bovidce and Ante- 



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264 



,THE WHITE OR GREY STOCK. ' 



lopidcB, whose black hides are protected by white 
coats of hair ; yet if this eflFect were to be solely 
ascribed to the climate, it would not account for 
the dappled greys which are not 



Morocco 



uncommon in 



with the true Arab blood, that we have described 
them among the bay stock in our former pages. 

Whether from the nature of the food or the pre- 
sence of particular kinds of Hippohosca, or Tahanus, 
or horse-flies, the grey races in the east of Europe 
are subject to boils which produce great irritation. 
By a natural instinct, all these animals tear them 
open with their teeth; and it is common, when 
they feel their blood heated, to do the same thing, 
and produce an effusion ; hence it is usual to find 
their shoulders raw and bloody. Even the horses 
of different colours, if they belong in part to the 
grey stock, have the same propensity. It is most 
observed m the Hungarian and in the grey Circas- 
sian breeds, upon which the Russians have several 

regiments superbly mounted. 

The grey stock having at all times excited atten- 
tion from its colour, and been regarded as a fit 

distinction for divinities and 

wonder that many breeds should have been carried 



princes 



it 



IS no 



* The solar gods, Apollo, Odin, Crishna, the Persian mo- 
narchs, &e. all had possession of or access to the original 
locatioa of the white stock of horses, and are represented to 
have used them. They dwelt on the Tanais, or came from 
Farther Thrace, from Armenia, or their legends came from 
quarters where the white horse was found. 






s 





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THE WHITE OR GREY STOCK. 



265 



into distant regions. Thus a dappled grey race 

occupied the Pyrenean mountains, being perhaps 
the primeval companions of that Ouralian portion 
of the Basque tribes, which in their migTation west- 
ward brought along that worship which it is well 
known contained a solar mystery, whereof some 
traces may still be found in the romances of the 
Graal Cyclus. * But whether the breed of the 
Lower Alps, and of the Camargue, near Aries, form 
connecting links, is beyond the reach of satisfactory 
investigation, although we find, again ascending 
northward, the Ardenne greys, where St. Hubert's 
shrine long supplanted the worship of Arduenna, a 
type of Ertha, and resembling the Indian Durga, 
whose white consecrated animals were in the Pagan 
era devoted, and in the Christian long held as pecu- 
liarly patronized by the saint. Further on, at the 
Saxon altars on the Weser, those white or cream- 
coloured steeds, still esteemed, were once sacrificed 
to Woden, and at another sent in tribute to the 
Danes; and in the isle of Riigen, Pommeranian 
greys or white horses were again sacred to another 
divinity, probably another Ertha. The distribution, 
therefore, of the grey breeds and races seems to 
have a connexion with the local worship of ancient 
tribes and with their movements westward at the 
most early period, and might be further indicated 
by other facts of the same nature as those already 
ited. It is true that in several cases the stature of 



/ 



* See " Einleitimg uber den Dichtungskreis des Heiligen 
Graals," in the Lohengrun of J. Gon-es. 






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THE BLACK STOCK. 

the local greys, such as the Pyrenean and the Ar- 
denne, is low, or reduced to the pony form ; but 
still there is in their proportions an indication of a 
larger sized animal, which immediately developes 
when crossed with another race, or when removed 
to a new locality. Thus the splendid breeds of this 
stock, which our Norman and Plantagenet princes 
formed by means of crossing the Pyrenean and Gas- 
con Lyards, both in their continental possessions 
and in England, attest that with slight care the race 
'ramediately resumes its full development. Expe- 
rience has likewise shown, in all ages, how advan- 
tageously it was amalgamated with the bay in the 
East and with the black in the West, acquiring all 
the elegance of the former, and all the colossal bulk 
of the latter, with half-bred intermediates ; of one 
of these our enormous grey breed of brewers' horses 
is a sufficient proof ; of the other the ancient moiis- 
quetaires gris in France and the Scots greys in 
England are likewise examples, without recurring 

to the Russian regiments mounted on Circassians. 



1 



THE BLACK STOCK 
PLATES V. AND XIV. 

is most generally spread over Europe, and was at 
one time, it appears, wild, both in the Alps and the 
forests of northern Gaul, living in marshy woods 
from the Jura to the Seine, and spreading to the 
Ardennes, the Yogesian range, the Black Forest at 
! sources of the Danube, the Thuringian and the 



th 



; 



■z'^r" 



THE BLACK STOCK. 



267 

Hartz, bnt chiefly in the valleys of the Rhine^ 
Meuse, and Scheldt. * Many indications, partially 
noticed in a former page, tend to conclusions that 
this form of the horse, with the mysterious proper- 
ties assigned to it, was indigenous in the West; 
but it must be admitted, that sooty races, more 
Ijp-htly made, extend over the Scandinavian penin- 
sula, and are scattered through Eastern Europe, till 

they reach Tahtary, where there are black breeds of 
great reputation. These may be considered to have 
been mounted by some of the invaders of ancient 
Egypt, or to have been conveyed to the Nile as 
tribute, after the first conquest of Remses in Asia ; 
for we find there are black horses in the hieroglyphic 
paintings, which may indeed have been of the Don- 
^ola breed, but that this was itself unquestionably of 
Asiatic origin, whether it came across the Red Sea 
or by the Nile to where we now find it, resembling 
the Karahulo and Katchenski races of Central Asia 
in form, and even in their white feet, as we have 

before noticed. 

Among the present races of Asia, we find the 
Bashkirs'^possess one of a slaty black colour, with 
tanned muzzle and inside of the limbs; the hair 
does not grow to the length of the white villous 
race but undulates with an indication of curling. 
The individuals v/e saw had large thick heads, full 
necks and heavy shoulders ; the withers were rather 

* The whole vegetable mould of tlie above geographical sur- 
face is more than any other supplied with horse-bones and 
heavy teeth, most applicable to the black stirps. 




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268 



THE BLACK STOCK. 



low, the back hollow, the barrel small, the mane 
heavy, but the quarters and limbs remarkably firm 
and clean. They were clearly of the same race as 
the specimen described by Frederick Cuvler under 



/^ 



J9 



which 



came from the stables of the Emperor of Austria, 
havmg been plundered by the French at the cap- 
ture of Vienna. We saw the individual in Baron 
Cuvier's possession at the Jardin du Roi, where the 
groom said it was a cross between a Bashkir horse 
and a French black. None of those that fell under 
our notice exceeded in stature a large mule, but 
they had much greater breadth at the hips,' and 
with their short ears and sunken eyes, really looked 
like a low caste of French horses, excepting the 
legs, pasterns, joints, and hoofs. We attach no 
great importance to the character of the hair, havina 
ourselve. possessed a powerful roan with a similar 
coat, which had been purchased from a drove of 
horses, said to have come from the mountains above 

the Magdalena m Columbia: but regarding the co- 
lour and structure, if the original type of the stirps 
should be sought in High Asia, it is to this race 

that we would refer it. * 

In the West, that type is unquestionably the 
large-boned heavy Flemish or Belgian breed, almost 
invariably black, without any mark of white ; with 
a large head, clumsy limbs, short pasterns, broad 

1 

* Johnstonus de Quadrupedihus seems to have intended a 
figure of tins stock in his tab. v., under the name of Equu9 
htrsutus^ but it is not described. 



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THE BLACK STOCK. 

hoofs, an excessive thick mane, and tlie fetlock not 
only profusely clothed Avith long hair, hut a fringe 
of the same passing up the hack of the legs to the 
knee-joints. There are studs of a lighter form, 
still retaining the characters of the type, hut suffi- 
ciently elegant to have served formerly, and we 
helieve again latterly, for occasional remounts in 
our heavy cavalry regiments ; the head, however, is 
not so well qualified for the saddle as for draught, 
and it is from crossing the old English and Norman 
blood with Flemish mares that we have obtained 
our present splendid 



Hi 



This class of horses, if 



it was not already imported in the Saxon era, was 
certainly introduced hy the Flemish associates of 
William the Norman, who, in company with their 
Earl, obtained a large portion of the landed spoil at 
the conquest. Agricultural improvement, intro- 
duced from the same province at a subsequent 
period, no doubt increased the number of the large 
breed in England, so superior to the indigenous 
ponies : there are occasional indications of the fact 
in the Flemish archives during the Plantagenet^ 
dynasty. At i)resent, in the west of England, the' 
black breed of horses is far from improved ; but in 
the midland counties, the Lincoln and Staffordshire 
studs produce those broad-chested bulky animals 
so conspicuous in London, but slower even than the 
Flemish. 



u 

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are of a similar origin, but in 

many cases preferable^ because they have greater 




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270 



THE BLACK STOCK. 



are conse 



activity and more supple limbs; tliey 
quently not seldom used in private carriages. - 
Northampton, Suffolk, Norfolk, and Cleveland have 
all breeds more or less resulting from the black 
stock, though their blood is mixed with Norman 
and the indigenous older races. Among all these 
heavy horses, there are specimens according to their 
kind of very great beauty, and stallions may be 
found that have been valued at four hundred gui- 
neas, or nearly the same price as a first-rate Arabian, 
in the English market. '^ 

Exclusive of the bays and greys already men- 
tioned, all our heavy cavalry was and still continues 
to be mounted on black horses ; but without chang- 
ing the colour, they are now of higher blood, and 
the Life Guards in particular are from half to three- 
fourths of the Arab stock. To the unwieldy old 
form, a lighter and more compact kind of charo-er 
has been substituted ; ^d it is rather a curious cir- 
cumstance, that while we have been reducing the 
standard of our cavalry horses, abroad, and in parti- 
cular in Eussia, the government is making efforts to 
increase the size of its own. While the late Grand 
Duke Constantino ruled in Poland, as we were 
informed by one of the chiefs, he raised the stature 
of ail the Lancer horses. 



* M. Huzard, and after him Desmarets, assert that the 
great brewers' horses of London are of the Boulogne race o^ 
France ; but beyond the mere occasional experiments made by 
breeders, no French horses, excepting of Norman blood, has 
met with consideration in England for more than a century. 



/ 





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/ 



THE BLA.CK STOCK. 



an 



d 



On the continent, tlie noblest black breed in 
Europe is the Friesland or Dutch, commonly called 
Hart-dracer, or fast-trotter : they are from fourteen 
to sixteen hands high, with good necks and shoul- 
ders full bodies, round prominent haunches, the tail 
attached rather low, and limbs sufficiently fine, 
frinoed a considerable way up the tendon above the 
pasterns with longish hair : they have fire 
temper, but generally want bottom, although Ave 
have formerly seen the Friesland Carabineers, and 
even the black Hussars of Eckeren, handsomely 
mounted upon them. Indeed, both the larger and 
smaller sized horses of this breed extended con- 
siderably into the Westphalian territories towards 
Holsteia, and the Dutch, Hannoverian, and Hegsiaa 
cavalry draw their remounts entirely from thence 
for the heavy, and from Holstein and Denmark for 
the light cavalry. Other studs are chiefly appro- 
priated for coach-korses, and are exported to France 
and Belgium. 

With slight variations ia stature and form, the 
black stock extends into Germany, through Swabia, 
and by Alsatia, into Switzerland ; we find it again 
large and bony in Italy, about Bologna, Tuscany, 
and in the March of Ancona; here, however, the 
breed becomes more modified by alliance with the 
ancient Sicilian and the more recent Spanish horses 
introduced at Naples. In Lombardy, the Hunga- 
rian and Turkish races have likewise influenced the 
better class of horses, and the princes of the country 
have exerted themselves of late with the same laud- 



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272 



THE BLACK STOCK. 




or ponies, and 



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able views, excepting at Naples, where the noble 
breeds of ancient times, Saracen, Norman, Hunga- 
rian, and Spanish, have gradually sunken almost to 
a level with the rest, and furnishing now only a 
few handsome carriage-horses. 

In France, where for ages horses do not seem to 
have been an object of steady national attention, 
they are never sufficiently abundant to mount the 
regular force respectably; and although there are 
real good horses in the kingdom, the provinces in 
general are overrun with 

double bidets, galloways comparatively worthless: 
the efforts of government, the formation of JIaras, 
and the liberal exertions of enlightened individuals, 
seem to have kindled little more than a temporary 
fashion for the display of equestrian paraphernalia 
and the excitement of imitation races; while the 
once vaunted breed of Limousin is all but extinct,* 
and the more ancient Navarrese and Guienne steeds 
are now without a representative worthy of the 

Yet, for draught, there are, in Picardj, 

horses very like the breed of Flanders, and ■ there 
are others of the stock in Brittany and Normandy ; 
but that of Auvergne is perhaps the most ill-shaped 
of the whole, though in many points resembling 
the Francomptois, which is extensively employed 
in the land-carriage trade. From these general cen- 

* We saw, some years ago, specimens of the restored race ; 
they were black, tolerably well-shaped, but not improved by 
foreign noble crosses ; their number was still confined within 
the royal Haras. : " 



name. 



-■- 




, ■ 



THE BLACK STOCK. 



273 



sures Normandy and the environs of Paris may 
claim exemption, for, within a small circle at least, 
a real determination to obtain a race of high-bred 
horses seems to exist ; and that to some extent they 
will be worthy to compete with the efforts made 
elsewhere in Europe, is sufficiently evident from the 
prominent part taken in the question by the heir to 

the throne. 

The black stock, reproducing everywhere in Eu- 
rope horses of ' a large stature, extends, with little 
intermixture, down the Danube and through Cen- 
tral Germany, Silesia, Moravia, and Bohemia, to 
the north side of the Balkan in Turkey. The three 
great military monarchies mount their heavy cavalry 
almost entirely upon breeds of that origm. They 
occur again in Asia, for we have already mentioned 
the Karahuh race, so highly valued for speed and 
bottom among the Toorkomans and the Katschen- 
stzis of Eastern Tahtary, remarkable for a white or 
^rey mane, tail, and feet, while the rest of the body 
is shining black. One or other of these, no doubt, 
produced the black horse which ran the course at 
the Ouralisk races in nineteen minutes. * In the 
mixture of the varieties, the black form may be 

found in a grey livery, but retains its own when 
fused into the bay, or at most becomes dark brown ; 
but while the typical indications remain, clear bay, 
dun or mouse colours never occur. In the chestnut 

* There is, nevertlieless, in Eastern Asia, a prevalent opinion 
that black horses come from the West ; from Fu-lang, which 
Father Jaul)il translates, Europe, 



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274 



THE DUN OR TAN STOCK. 



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progeny, apparently brought to the south of Europe 
by the ancient Burgundians, the black characters 
are strongly marked, but this colour is anomalous 
wherever found ; it is one that has baffled our re- 
searches. It is seen to assume the shape of all the 
stirpes, and yet to be so fixed, that foals of a chest- 
nut dam by a black sire are most frequently without 
the least assimilation to the paternal colour, but 
wholly like the mother. 






THE DUN OR TAN STOCK 

PLATE VI. 

is in our view the fourth stirps, and perhaps even 
more distinct from the three already mentioned than 
the fifth or pied stem; for, in the 'form and mark- 
ings there occur evident approximations to the Asi- 
mae group, never acquiring the lofty stature of the 
black or grey, but always lower and proportionably 
longer, with more slender limbs, clean joints, and 
smaller hoofs. The dun is typical of the generality 
of the real wild horses, still extant in Asia, and the 
semi-domesticated, both there and in Eastern Europe. 
Beside the general form, the smaller square head, 
great leng-th of mane, tendency to black limbs, it is 
known by the black streak along the spine, some- 
times, though very rarely, crossed by a second of a 
fainter colour on the shoulders, and often marked by 
black streaks on the hocks and upper arms. * 

* Beside the animal figured, Plate VI., we have seen but 
two others similarly marked with a cross bar ; but my friend 



I 



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iv. 



«# 



THE DUN OR TAN STOCK, 



275 



I 



(■ 



I 



The common chestnut, through all Temperate 
Asia and Eastern Europe, when bearing withal the 
dappled spots of the grey, in token of a twofold 
intermixture, still often shows, in the dorsal line, 
the colour of the legs, the general structure, and 
form of the mane and tail, his tendency to absorp- 
tion into the more indelible type of the dun, whose 
stock, subdivided into many races, everywhere recur- 
ring, shows the livery under the names of eelback- 
dun, tanned, mouse-coloured, light bay, cermno, pelo 
de loJjo, &c., but always distinctly bearing the spinal 
streak down to the tail, even when deeply mixed 
with the noblest blood or divergentjnto^the chest- 
nut or Alezan livery, where alone stature is deve- 
loped, and where, in the solitary instance of the 




' t 






H 



Burgundian 



that colour clothes forms 






belonging to the heavy black and draught horse. 

From the mountains of Scotland to the plains of 
Eastern Tahtary, from Iceland and Norway to the 
sierras of Central Spain, notwithstanding the cease- 
less intermixture with breeds of other origin, or the 
further decrease of stature from climate or want of 
food, these various shades of jun and th e dorsal 
streak often reappear upon individuals among droves 



ostensibl 



apparently all bay, or all sooty 

cause to the exclusion of grey and da- 






are a 



the result of direct intermixture. 



In manners and characteristic intelligence, this 
type displays peculiarities not found in the larger 



informs 



found several in England. 



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278 THE DUN OR TAN STOCK. 

forms of horse, and in part at least tliey may be 
fairly ascribed to a different cerebral organization. 
Unlike the other types, the dun alone invariably 
husbands its strength and resources, never wasting 
them by untimely impetuosity or uncalculating re- 
sistance; ever provident in securing the moment to 
bite at food, or drink ; cautious, cunning, capable of 
concealing itself, of abstaining from noise, of stoop- 
ing and passing under bars or other obstacles with a 
crouching gait, which large horses cannot or will 
not perform ; these, and many other peculiarities of 
their wild educational instinct, are reflected again 
upon all the races of the type, however diversified 
by mixture, so long as the prevailing feature of their 
stature remains, as all antiquity attest, and modern 
times daily witness in domesticated ponies, and 
above all, in the high intelligence of those which 
have been trained for pubhc exhibitions. 

Although varying from circumstances, the dun- 
coloured stirps is pre-eminently attached to rocky 
and woody locations, always in a state of nature 
seeking shelter in cover, or security among rocks, 
where either are accessible ; it feeds upon a greater 
variety of plants than the others, and, contrary to 
them, residence in the open plains is rather an 
accessary condition than one of preference in their 
mode of existence. 

The dun, as before stated, was exclusively used 
by the ancient Median cavalry, and in chariots of 
war. It is still the principal stock of the wild races 
of Asia, and even of the Ukraine and Poland ; but 



M^ 



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<11 



TilE DUN OR TAN STOCK. 



277- 

in a domesticated state, colour is so intermixed, that 
all tlie semi- wild breeds of Russia, Hungary, and 
Poland have a great proportion of their numbers 
bay, particularly since the Arabian conquests ren- 
dered this superior stirps more valued and accessible 

in fhe north. 

In their anomalous state, we shall now proceed to 

o-ive a few details on the most remarkable of the 
smaller stock, wherever they may be found, and 
beginning with those of Northern Asia, we tind. 

In China, exclusive of the pied horse, there is a 
race of mountain ponies, known by the name of 
Mycmtze, which gallop down declivities at an angle - 
of forty-five degrees, dash through woods and broken 
rocky ground without losing their footing, and are 
therefore highly prized by the Chinese officers for 

There is no notice of the colour of their 
We find also an ill-shaped sooty pony, with 
little spirit, and unfit for severe work; but the 
Tahtars possess, beside those already mentioned, 
brown, bay, and dun breeds of horses, full fourteen 
hands and a half" high, with small square heads, 
long ewe necks, good manes and tails, and mule 
backs; the barrel is of little girth, but they have 
clean and firm limbs, with small feet ; and their 
sobriety, hardihood, and speed render them very 
valuable. Uniform chestnut and white breeds are 
scarcer ; these are reported to have the form of more 
western horses, with high hips, and in common with 
others above mentioned, as well as ^ith the follow- 
ing, they have habits of lightness and sobriety. 



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coats. 



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278 



THE DUN OR TAN STOCK. 



In Khoten the horses are likewise small but 
hardy, mostly geldings, reared by the Kalmuks; 
they are from thirteen and a half to fourteen hands 
high, and great droves are exported towards the 
south, as far as the plains of Indi^. 

The Bhooteahs are very beautiful rather shaggy 
ponies, not unlike the Siberian, commonly grey, 
white, or spotted ; their strength, courage, prudence, 
and surety of footing, in the precipitous paths of the 
highest mountains, are highly extolled. 

Of the Pickarrow ponies, apparently held in 
esteem among the British residents in India, we 
have found no description. 

The Yahoos^ or ponies of Afghaunistan, are the 
common travelling animals of the country, and 
though mixed with every race of the East, are of 
the original wild bay stock. 

Among them, as well as with the Hungarian 
horses, it was formerly the custom to sht the nos- 
trils, ^ or rather, divide the septum, because that 
practice was said to facilitate breathing in violent 

galloping, and also to prevent the animals neigh- 
ing : the custom is not credited in the writings of 
several English authors, but although we have 
never seen an instance, we have at this moment 
before us a finished sketch of an Hungarian horse s 
head by the celebrated ZoflFani, where the operation 



displayed. We 
copy ; see Plate XXXI. 

The common Bashkir horse is short, compact, 

yni\i a heavy head, broad- hipped, small-eyed, and 



\ 



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lilt 



THE DUN OR TAN STOCK 



279- 



nearly allied to the curly-haired Wack horse before 
mentioned : they do not exceed thirteen and a half 
hands and are bred wild, requiring all the skill and 
daring to subdue the colts, when captured, that is 
evinced by the South American Gauchos. 

There is no great difference in the horses of the 
Cossacks of the Don, the Oural, and of Siberia, ex- 
cept perhaps in size ; but in general they are rather 
low, raw-boned, meagre-looking animals, ragged in 
the extreme, and apparently unable to perform the 
work, bear the privations, and sustam the ^ weight 
which they carry ; yet, taken all together, in good 
qualities, the Cossack races have resisted fatigue 
and all the incidents of war better than any other 
cavalry of the Russian empire, as was fully proved 
in the campaigns of 1812, 1813, and 1814; and 
recently, still more signally, in the terrible march 
towards Khiva. We have never known them en- 
tering a stable from necessity, but in the severest 
weather they are occasionally sheltered from the 
blast by the Cossacks raising a bank of snow in a 
circle, with a fire in the middle to warm themselves 
and their ever-saddled horses behind them. ITie 
Donski appeared to us in general of dark brown 

and sooty bay colours; so also, as might be ex- 
pected, the common breeds of Russia, descended 



intermixture 



termed 



foul liveries. 



The fast trotters are a breed in common use for 



winter 



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280 



THE DUX OR TAN STOCK. 



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ment consists in trotting with the foro-legs and 
cantering with the hinder, proceeding at 'this rate 
fifteen or sixteen miles an hour. There are some of 
them higher hred that will go the pace of twentv 
miles, but how long they can keep it up is not quitl 
satisfactorily ascertained. These animals are rather 
long for their height, very well shaped, with a 
square head, and mane so exuberantly long, that 
their masters knot them up to keep them fron 
trailing on the ground. 

This long-maned race is extensively spread to 
wards the south into Poland, the Ukraine, and 
Podolia, there being, in the Dresden Museum, a 
stuffed specimen, of which we made a drawing ; it 
had belonged to the last Saxon king of Poland, and 
had a mane which measured twenty-four Ehghsh 
feet in length, and the tail thirty feet. A case of 
this kind must be taken, we think, as a result of 
what may be termed disease, united with extraordi- 
nary care m the grooming to foster the excessive pro^ 

duction. 

r 

It is to this stirps that the wild horses of Lithu- 
ania and Piaissla, already described, unquestionably 
belonged ; and those of the great forest of Bialowitz 
have still in general the same characteristics of 
livery and form. In Plate VI. we have figured one 
ridden by a Russian Lancer officer^ who stated the 
animal to be of Ukraine race of the wild stock ; we 
found it chiefly remarkable for the cross bar on the 

Bay Bitshock was lately noticed at Moscow for speed, 
pretending to thirty miles an hour ! We suspect, thirty versts. 



. 



HI 



t 





.— ^--,^- 



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1 




THE DUN OR TAN STOCK:. 



281 



r 



shoulders, distinctly marked, its vicious aspect:, and 
for the close resemblance it bore to the description 
of the wild in colour, thouo-h in form there was a 
greater siniilarity with the Samogitian horses, being 
rather long than high, though extremely vigorous. '". 
This stirps, therefore, approximates the Hemionus,*! 
Djiggetai, and Yo-to-tze in livery and markings. 

The Samogitian horses are small, compact, hardy, 
rather short-legged ; the Polish, somewhat loftier, 
have more blood^ and are occasionally dappled grey. 
But there are dappled bays and dun-coloured, as 
well as dark chestnuts among them. 

In the Tzeckler mountains of Transylvania, there is 
a smaller sized dun horse, nearly in a state of nature, 
probably the remains of a wild indigenous race ; but 
in the plains a considerable intermixture of Turkish 
and Arab blood is found, which spreads likewise 
into Hungary. 

The Hungarian and Moldavian common race is 
small, dry, angular, with large eyes, small mouth, 
plane chaffron, open nostrils, no great carcase, slender 
neck ; but broad-chested, with firm legs, hard hoofs, 
and the tail rather low. This race extends into 
Styria, lUyria, and Dalmatia, and is evidently a 
mixed descendant of the horses brought by the 
mounted tribes which invaded the Roman empire, 
partially improved by Turkish blood: we see this 

* Kesearclies, subsequently made among tlie Russian ca- 
valry, procured only two other horses marked with the cross 
bar ; in both it was less distinct, though the animals appeared 
to be of the same race as the above. 



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282 



THE DUN OR TAN STOCK. 



in the great variety of colours the horses possess, 
but where dun, chestnut, and bay are predomi- 
nant. They are in general bred almost wild, bein*/ 
caught only for marking or for sale, when the art 
and energy required .to subdue them is very much 
of the same character as that of the Tahtars and 
Cossacks in Russia and the Gauchos in South 
America. 

In the Morea there is a race of unshorn small 
horses, driven down to Attica in herds for sale ; they 
have small heads and ears, thin jaws and narrow 
foreheads, slender arched necks, but with broad 
deep chests, slender firm limbs, oblique pasterns, 
and longish hoofs, grey and firm. They are exceed- 
ingly wild and vicious, running at dogs, and fight- 
ing with their teeth and fore^feet ; but it is probable 
that with good management they might be made 
excellent light-cavalry horses. The bay and chestnut 
colours predominate, and it is likely that their orioin 
remounts to the early ages of Greece. ^ 

Sweden and Norway likewise have small breeds 

of the ancient stock in CEland about twelve hands 
high, handsome, docile, and intelh'gent, though bred 
in the woods. Those of 

the head rather large, the eyes prominent, the ears 
small, the neck short and breast broad, the body 
rather long, full and well ribbed up, tail and mane 
abundant: the arm of this breed is remarkably 
powerful, and the fetlocks without long hair. Their 
colours are bay and brown to blackish. We saw 

I 

the Hussars of Mbmer, another Swedish Hussar, and 



"Western 



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THE DUN OR TAN STOCK. 



283 



r 

aligW-dragoonreglment, all respectably mounted on 

this kind of horse. 

Finland has a similar race, hut still smaller, and 
the Norwegian, notwithstanding the opinion of Hor- 
rebow, may be safely regarded as the parent stock 
of the Iceland ponies, so renowned for enduring the 
excessive cold of an Arctic winter without the least 
protection of man. These resemble in almost all 

respects 

The Scottish or rather Shetland ponies, Plate XV., 
some of which scarcely exceed in size the stature of 
a large dog, and have been actually carried in a gig. 
Yet there are among them many handsome shaggy 
' little animals, with huge manes and abundance of 
tail ; they are of all colours, but it is not difficult 
to perceive the original dun stock as forming the 
parent race. 

The Galloway^ now no longer found in purity, 
was of the same character as the Swedish, though 
somewhat higher at the shoulder. In colour the 
breed was bay, with black extremities, mane, and 
tail ; but it has been suffered to disappear, though 
the name itself continues to be used for horses above 
the standard of ponies. In the north of England it 

is used for Welsh and New Forest horses, when 
they are about fourteen hands high. Many of these 
animals are of mixed breed, as is very perceptible 
by the head and body being often out of propor- 
tion, bulky for the length of the Hmbs ; but others, 
though shaggy, want not a certain degree of ele- 
gance, and are remarkable for speed as well as 



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THE DUN OR TAN STOCK 

s, in 1754, one of fliP«^ 



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a Mr. Corker, performed, without distress, on°e hun- 
dred miles a day, for three successive days, over 
the Newmarket course. Another Galloway, be- 
longing to a Mr. Swelan, executed, at Carlisle, the 
extraordmary feat of going one thousand miles in a 
thousand hours. Among the New Foresters, there 
IS a breed of blue-greys, with large dark spots. 

The Dartmoor and Exmoor are now also much 
adulterated, since the moors have been parcelled out 
and partly divided by stone-walls. Formerly this 

; breed of horses bore all the characters of true de- 

\ scendants of the ancient British ; it 
mow is, wild, daring, 
always ascending towards the Tors or rocky preci- 






cunnmg. 



was, and even 
and intelligent : 



pices for safety, and often 



escaping 



by leaping 



down high blocks, or jumping over the pursuers 
when they were thought to be at bay. It was one 
of this race that started from London for Exeter 
with the mail, and notwithstanding the repeated 
changes and hard driving, accomplished the whole 
distance, being one hundred and seventy-two miles, 
a quarter of an hour before the coach. Another, 
with a heavy rider, similarly outstripped the coach 

between Bristol and South Molton, a run of eighty- 
six miles. 

Of the Ardennes horses, and the Bidets and 
double Bidets of Brittany, some notice has been 
already taken, and the Asturian and other smaller 
horses of Spain were hkewise mentioned; but wa 
naay add to the foregoing two races, which may be 



«.• 







A 



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I ■ 



THE DUN OR TAN STOCK 



285 



-claimed by the Asiatic bay horse, or the wild 
Koomrah of Africa, for they have been assimilated 
to both. The first is 

The Sm^dinian Wild fforse^ found most abun- 
dantly in the territory of Bultei and of the Nurra. 
The best are found in the woods of Canai, in the / 
island of St. Antiochio. According to Cetti, they;/ ' 
resemble the wild horses of Africa described by Led 
Africanus; they are very small, rugged, and gene- 
rally bay, with asses' feet, long tails, and short 



manes. 



Wh 



is inclined, after making an 
oblation at the church of the patron saint of the 
island, may proceed to hunt them according to his 
desire ; but the hides alone are worth having, for 
by nature the horses are so vicious, that no domesti- 
cation is possible; they perish in their desperate 
resistance, or tire out the patience of the captor/' 
They were well known to the ancients. "^ 

In Corsica, the mountain pony is nearly the 
same ; but the domestic horse, like that of Sardinia, 
is about twelve hands high, with rounded form, 
flat head, and short neck, considerable girth of body, 

and small hoofs. 

Returning towards Southern Asia, we find in the 

East Indies the Tattoo, or native pony, shabby, ill- 
made and neglected for ages ; but gradually ac- 
qnirino" more of public attention since the bullock 

^•' These horses are most certainly wild, never having been 
reclaimed at any period, not being worth the trouble ; their 
unbroken freedom is as unquestionable as tliat of their com- 
jmnion the Mouflon. 



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286 



THE DUN OR TAN STOCK. 

egun 



the kerrachee, a four-wheeled vehicle on springs, 



commo 



coaches. Tattoos are in general deep-bodied, with 
heavy heads, staring eyes, scraggy necks, fijie limbs, 
cat-hammed, under thirteen hands high, bay or 
chestnut; sometimes gi'ey, or even piebald, and 
remarkably enduring: they are obstinate, vicious, 
prone to fighting, but easily maintained. 

Seringapatam and vicinity produces a similar 
small breed and but little improved, although dur- 
ing the reigns of Hyder Ali and Tippoo considerable 
pains were taken to introduce a better standard. 

Indo-China, a land of great rivers, high moun- 
tain ranges, and endless forests, is not kno\vn to 
have an indigenous horse. From the Burrampooter 
east, and from the tropic south, horses are reduced 
to ponies. Already, iu Cassay, Ava, and Pegu, 
Uhey are seldom above thirteen hands high, but they 
,are spirited, active, and well-shaped. Further east, 
in Lao, Siam, and Southern China, they are still 

smaller and of inferior beauty. In Siam and Oochin- 
/China, although the diminutive ponies of the coun- 
try are ridden, there is no military cavalry. In the 
Malayan peninsula, the horse is not even yet natu- 
ralized. But the breeds of the great islands we are 
about to mention appear in a great measure to be 
allied to those of Indo-China and Yunan in China 

Proper, and are commonly designated by the name 
of 



I 





^ ^- 



^ 



287 



THE SARAN RACE. 

Of this class we find, first, in Sumatra, the Achin 
and Batta breeds, spirited, but small, and better 
suited for draught than the saddle. It appears the 
natives call them Kuda^ and bring them down in 
numbers for sale, according to Mr. Marsden, who 
adds, that in the Batta country they are eaten for 

food. 

In Java the animal is somewhat larger, more a 



form 



/^'"A 



more abstemious. Those of the plains are very 
distinct from the mountain breeds: the first is 
rather coarse, sluggish, and rises to the height of 
thirteen hands one inch ; the second is small and 
hardy : the Kuningam breed of Cheribon is one of 
them, and is often very handsome ; both are more 
used for drawing than riding, and although four 
ponies on the roads of the country will travel at the 
rate of twelve or fifteen miles, a pair of English 

post-horses will do the work which requires three 
relays of the above mentioned four, and costs in 
maintenance only one-third. There is an inferior 
breed on the islands of Bali and Lombok. 



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The Tamboro and 



of Sanibawa 



enumerate among their studs the Gunong-api, be- 
longing to the Bima ; it is reckoned the handsomest 
of the Archipelago, and extensively exported. Be- 
yond Sambawa there are horses found on Flores 
Sandalwood Island and Timor, but no further to 



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THE TANGtJM HORSE. 

the east, being unknown in the Moluccas and New 
Guinea. Next to Jaya, it is most abundant in 
Celebes, where the best of all the Saran race are 
said to exist, and where alone it is found in a wild 
state. We find horses, again, in Borneo and at the 
Phihppine Islands. 

The different breeds vary in colour according to 
their localities ; at Achin the ponies are piebald, 
,ibut this distinction gradually disappears: the Bat- 
i tas are mostly mouse-colour : in Java they are bays 
and greys ; roan and mouse-coloured are esteemed, 
and the worst are black or chestnut : duns, bays, 
and greys form the majority of the Bima breed, 
and greys and bays almost exclusively constitute 
those of .Celebes and the Philippines. In Mr. More's 
notices of the Indian Archipelago, from which the 
above account of the Saran race is almost entirely 
extracted, some considerations are affixed in proof 
that the original breeds must have come from the 
main land of Asia : our own views, repeatedly re- 
ferred to in the foregoing pages, certainly coincide 

with his, and show by the marks of the races, from 
what quarter it is likely they were first imported. 



THE TANGUM, PIEBALD, OR SKEWBALD HORSR 

Equiis varmSy Nobis. 

PLATE VII. 

This form of the domesticated horse, which w^e 
have repeatedly pointed out to notice, appears to 

claim a distinct specific existencOvin as much as the 



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THE TANGUM HORSE. 



289 



typical animal is found witli its characteristic marks 
in a state perfectly wild, and it appears unmixed 
with wild horses of other shape or colours. "We 
have hefore remarked that it was first ohserved hy 
Father Georgi on the northern declivities of the 
Himalaya range ; it was again noticed from report 
by D'Hobsonville, who describes the wild animal as 
below ten hands in height, in the winter dress, 
covered with long hair, and marked symmetrically 

with spots. In Bell's Travels, the wild asses skins, 
curiously marked with waved white and hrown, of 
which he saw many in his route near the sources of 
the Obi, skins which have puzzled succeeding natu- 
raUsts, may indicate this animal. Another account 
refers to the wild spotted horses about Nipchou m 
Eastern Tahtary, being the size of asses, but more 
compact and handsome. Moorcroft, agam, saw the 
species on the highest summits of Thibet, in their 
shining summer coats, and with their antelope 
forms, scouring along in numbers ; and a Monsieur 
de Tavernier seems to allude to them in a recent 
notice of his travels to the wall of China. The 
Kiang of Moorcroft, which he insists is not the 
Ghoor Khur, is evidently the same, as well as 
Dr Gerrard's wild horse, mentioned in his observa- 
tions on the Skite valley. * " Horses," he says, 
" alone undergo the transition from the elevated 
pastures; hut they lose the woolly covering that 

* Asiatic Researches, xviii. pl. H, 247. We regret not to 
1- T,o<q anr.pss to tilis work: it is probablv also the Tangut 



Ksching. 



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290 



THE TANGUM 



invests the roots of their long hair." Comparing 
this animal with the domestic horse, he further re- 
marks, " both would appear to have the same origin, 
yet the circumstance of their eluding every attempt 
to tame them when caught, and their uniform 
speckled colour oifawn and white^ demonstrate them 
to be a distinct species." Our own correspondence 
with British officers, stationed in the higher parts 
of India, bears testimony to similar conclusion, do- 
mestication excepted, for the Kiang no doubt is 
amenable to the same laws as the rest of the genus, 
and indeed almost every other highly organized 
animal. Applicable to the present species, we be- 
lieve there is sufficient proof to view the great pro- 
portion of pied horses all over China, and even so 
far south as the Indian Archipelago ; and we con- 
tend, moreover, that to this form should be referred 
the steeds of the Centaurs, which we noticed as first 
penetrating westward, and were progenitors of the 
Thessalian. They are pointedly noticed in the Scrip- 
tures,^'' and again celebrated under the name of Par- 
thian, then, as ridden by the Tahtar conquerors of 
Saracen Persia ; they were extolled by the writers of 
the classic and the middle ages, sung by troubadours, 
figured in stained glass in the Indian illuminated 

r 

battles of Aurungzebe, and immortalized by the 
pencils of Raflfaelle, Titian, and Guido, who took 
their types of them from the Ardean, 
called, Borghese breed ; which, however, has been 
latterly neglected, and we understand is now nearly 

* Zachariah, i. 8., and other authorities before noticed. 



or. since 



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THE TANGUM HORSE 



291 



obliterated by newer forms of bay and black co- 

■ 



lours. * 

Although we possess a series of drawings of the 
pied form of horses derived from Indian, Tahtar, 
and European specimens, it is to be regretted that 
of the Kiang, in either his winter or summer garb, 
no trustworthy figure has reached us; we have 
therefore been compelled to offer a specimen of one 
of the domesticated breeds, known, it appears, m 
India, by the name of Tangum race, which came 
from Sikim in Lower Thibet. It appears to be 
taller than the " Tanghans" of the hiUs near Kat- 

mandoo. See Plate VII. 

There is some variety in the stature and livery ot 
these horses, the wild in general being the smallest 
and having the greatest number of squarish clouded 
spots ; while the domesticated, similarly white about 
the limbs and part of the back, are marked by such 
large clouds of bay, that two or three spread over 
the whole body, head, and neck. In general the 
head is included in the bay colour, and where it 
comes down over the shoulder and the thigh, that 
colour deepens into black ; there is also a proportion 
of black and white in the mane and tail, not unfre- 

quently a black edging on the ears, and the eyes 

r 

* See the anterior part of this work, where the breeds of 
antiquity and the wild horses are described. Pierre Vidal, 
who attended Richard CcEur-de-lion, spealis of them in his 
Novelle 1208. Guill. de la Ferte, 1221, stained glass in Notre 
Dame de Chartres, has a pied charger. Raffaelle, m his 
picture of Attila, frescos of the Vatican ; and the two other 
painters in their Auroras. 




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THE TANGUM HORSE. 



horn 



of the hoofs is pale yellowish, with two or three 
slender, vertical, black streaks, and the frogs wider ; 
on the inner arm the caUosities are large, but scarcely 
perceptible on the hind legs ; the hide itself is dull 
white or greyish, often spotted with a darker colour 
or ladre^ particularly on the inside of the thighs 



and nose. 



stock 



rounded, somewhat fleshy, with rather large bone ; 
the head thick, though small ; the neck long, rigid, 
but little arched, somewhat full ; the mane rather 
erect, and tail not superabundant ; short hair run- 
ning down the ridge of the dock, and long hair at 
the sides, it is set on low; the shoulders are well 
placed but thick, the withers rather full, the barrel 
round, with flank well ribbed up, the quarter full. 
Few rise to fifteen hands in height, and most are 
little above twelve or thirteen ; but tbey stand on 
rigid pasterns, have hard hoofs, vigorous sinews, and 
move with unflinching security through the most 
dangerous mountain precipices : they bear privation 
and fatigue with unconquerable spirit, have good 
speed and wind, and are very tractable and docile. 

Although the Tangum blood mixes freely with 
the other stocks, its characteristic distinctions are 
sufiiciently indelible ; as is proved by the foregoing 
description taken in India, being almost entirely 
correct when compared with the breeds of Europe ; 
although the last mentioned have been separated 
from the parent stock for many ages, and have been 
liable to unceasing crossings: personally we are 

only acquainted with the Prussian, Austrian, and 



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THE TANGUM HORSE 



293 



Borghese, and in these, particularly the Borghese, 
we have a remarkable proof of the permanency of 
its characters, since, as we have before mentioned, 
it was evidently of ancient standing in the time of 
Virgil, and nevertheless is not yet extinct. -^ 

We have mentioned a cross breed among the 
black Kalmucks, one clouded with brown or sooty 
black, and with one or more limbs usually dark. 

There is another frequent among the Pmdarrees, 
when it is a cross with the native Tattoos. We 
, ,. XI A„ 1.^ +1,^ voal (Iboonts foiftid m the 




.Pio Ale- 



vicinity of Kalunga. 

There are in Spain horses of this kind, 
zan, Pio Castanno, and Pio Negro,— and x.uxx. .x..... 
may have sprung the skewbalds of Patagonia; but 
these possibly descend from accidental causes, which 
we know operate sometimes in a similar manner on 
the livery of horses in England and elsewhere, but 




real Tangum stock. 



distinguished 



Finally, the skewbald breed of Achin in Sumatra, 
no doubt anciently brought across from the Malay 
peninsula, has likewise been mentioned. 

In Europe the race is now almost exclusively 
employed to mount trumpeters and military bands 



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'and docility, as well as striking aspect, they are 
cherished for the exhibitions of equestrian perform- 
ances in the modem circus. ^' 

* There Were, in 1815, some squadrons of Bavarian Hussars 
mounted on skewbalds. 




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294 



THE KOOMEAH. 

Bquus hippagrus. Nobis. 



PLATE XVI. 



This animal we regard as a distinct species of 



Equus, exclusively confined 

Africa, and, as far as it is yet known, nowhere 
abundant; from its somewhat equivocal structure, 
shyness, and mountain residence, though known to 
the ancients, a certain mystery has continued to 
hang around its history. In the writings of Hero- 
dotus, an undescribed animal, by him denominated 
Boryes, we may suspect to be no other than the 
Bourra of Koldagi mentioned by Riippel, * and 
that they are the same as Oppian's Hippagrus. 
Ihe two last mentioned animals being brown, horn- 
less and maned, characters completely applicable 
to the Koomrah, and only partially observable in 
cloven-footed rummants, which are confounded with 

this Equine species, both in the notices of the an- 
cients and the tales of the moderns. 

The Koomrah, in Northern Africa, is held to be 
a rare animal, a species of monster-mule between a 
mare and a bull, similar to the produce of the same 
kind known in Europe by the name of Hippotaurm; 
which was believed to be a possible creature down 
to the middle of the last century, when the real 



in tlie article on ■wild horses. 



species 





THE KOOMRA.H 



295 



ninny ^ Yviixvxx ,,v. ^..^ ~ - T + fl. 

mules, was pretended to be tliat monster. In trutn,, 
the Koomrah and Hinny are sufficiently similar to 
serve the purpose of an imposture, or of a wonder 

,1 1 1^,1+ +iio flvcf ;<= n wild animal. 



among the vulgar ; but the hrst is a wua a 
the second a scarce result of domestication. 



The 



Koomrah 

Ahmar. Koh 



the AraD A/iJwar, XX w^-«—— — ^ 

horse, to the Negro term Koomri, one denoting a avi Id 
Equine, the other a colour, white, as applicable to 

the snowy ridge south of the Niger named the 

. ■ ...v +1,-. animal IS likewise 



Koomri 
found. 



and Shelluhs, 



Among the wonder-loving Arabs 
the Hippotaurine Koomrah is of course believed to 
be not unfreciuently met with, not as a wi d but as 
a domestic animal ; occasionally a dwarf kmd of 

Hinny is shown as sucji, and hence there are greys, 
which then answer the descriptions of some travel- 
lers and correspond with the meaning of the Negro 



Koomri 



there are others of a black colour, one of which he 
saw, when it was on the way to Constantinople, a 
present from the sovereign of Morocco to the Grand 



Seign 



wild 



land. 



ther the first came from Barbary, the second died 
on board a slave-ship on the passage from the coast 
of Guinea to the West Indies in 1798, the skm, 

legs, and Lead having been carefully preserved by 



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296 



THE KOOMRAH. 

permitted a sket 



taken of it at Dominica. 

The Koomrah of the mountains is about ten or 
ten and a half hands high ; the head broad across 
the forehead and deep measured to the jowl, is 
small, short, and pointed at the muzzle, making the 
profile almost triangular ; instead of a forelock be- 
tween the ears, down to the eyes the hair is long 
and woolly ; the eyes are small, of a light hazel 
colour, and the ears large and wide ; the neck thin, 
forming an angle with the head, and clad with a 
scanty but long black mane; the shoulder rather 
vertical and meagre, with withers low, but the croup 
high and broad ; the barrel large, thighs cat-ham- 
med, and the limbs clean, but asinine, with the 
hoofs elongated ; short pasterns, small callosities on 
the hmd-legs, and the tail clothed with short fur for 
several ^ mches before the long black hair begins. 
Tlie ammal is entirely of a reddish bay colour, with- 
out streak or mark on the spine, or any white about 
the limbs. TV e made our sketch at Portsmouth, and 
believe it refers to the same animal, which lived for 
many years, if we are rightly informed, in a pad- 
dock^^of the late Lord GrenviUe's. There was in 

a stuffed specimen exactly 
corresponding in colour and size, but with a head 
(possibly in consequence of the taxidermist wanting 
the real skull) much longer and less in depth. The 
other specimen, which came from the mountains 
north of Accra in Guinea, was again entirely simi- 



Museum 



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THE KOOMRAH. 297 

L 

both horse and ass, and in temper, that which died 
on board ship, though very wild and shy at first, 
was hy no means vicious, and fed on sea-biscuit 
with willingness. 

It would appear that this species is not gregari- 
ous in Africa, but an inhabitant of mountain cover, 
and always desirous of the shelter of the woods ; it 
comes down to the wells and drinking-springs alone 
or in small famihes, and is there liable to be way- 
laid by men, the great felinae, and hyaenas ; but 
there is no want of courage in its defence, bitmg 
fiercely ; and having a very delicate sense of smell, 
danger is avoided by the wariness of its actions and 
the readiness of its rapid retreat up the mountams. 




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298 



V 1 




See page 302. 



THE ASININE GROUP. 

Although there are no very prominent external 
differences, the eye of the most superficial observer 
is almost always sufficient to distinguish this se- 
condary and less elegant form of Equidse from the 
Caballine species already described. We have al- 
ready remarked on the conflicting opinions of natu- 
ralists, whether the two forms should be separated 
by generic names; and though we adopt the ar- 
rangement of Mr. Gray, it is because it is viewed 
by us as more advantageous in a natural system of 
classification to refer the species of minor groups to 

their common centres, than to insist on the necessity 



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THE ASININE GROUP. 



299 



of creating genera for every trifling structural varia- 
tion that may be detected. 

There is an evident tendency in both, not only to 
approximations, but even to actual interchange of 
some prominent external distinctions. In the wiloN 
horses of Asia, a highly arched forehead and length- / 
ened ears are often' very observable. We have de- 
scribed and figured a specimen of the eelback dun 
stock, not only marked with the spinal dark streak 
and bars on the limbs, but actually with a cross on 
the shoulders : again, the first species of the present 
group will be shown to have the head of a high-bred 
blood-horse and the cross on the shoulders like the 
onager, but totally different in relative proportions 
from the Persian wild ass, which is very commonly 
destitute of that mark. In a wild state, both groups 
are nearly of the same size. If there be more than 
one species domesticated in the first, so there are 
also in the second ; all, no doubt, can and have been 
subdued by man, and it might be suspected that 
there has been even an intermixture sufficient be- 
tween both, for the sympathetic action of transfer- 
ring the marks and the livery of one to the other, 
and in some cases perhaps to perpetuate them. 
Excepting some slight structural characteristics, the 
chief distinctions between the horse and asinine 
groups evidently lie in their instinctive aptitudes ; 
one being highly irritable and educational, with a 
social temperament, the other dull, intractable, soli- 
tary, seems to bear the unceasing impression of his 

servitude alone. Like a slave, the sensual appetites 




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300 



THE ASININE GROUP. 



remain nevertheless in great vigour, and the males 
of the asinine group differ particularly from horses 
in their mode of fighting with the teeth instead of 
the feet ; for, in a wild state, it was observed by the 
ancients and confirmed by more recent information, 
that they destroy or disable each other, so that 
males are comparatively rare. For the same reason, 
m domestication, it is held dangerous to allow a 
male ass to pasture in the same field where there is 
a stallion. * 

The ass tribe has long ears, a short standing mane, 
and the tail furnished with only a tuft of hair at the 
end ; the hoofs form oval impressions, and sustain 
short rather rigid pasterns ; the limbs are clean and 
firm; the croup narrow, and often more elevated 
than the withers; there are callosities on the ante- 
rior legs only, and the hide is more dense and callous 
than that of the horse; yet none of the group can 
sustain the same degree of cold, although they ap- 
pear more insensible to intense heat, and are found 
wild in Africa as far south as the line. The typical 
colours of their livery are silvery grey and tawny, 
in a wild state never passing into black or complete 
white ; they have mostly a dark dorsal streak, less 
distinctly seen in the females, and sometimes en- 
tirely wanting in both sexes, while bars on the 
joints are not uncommon, and a cross line on the 

* Aristotle had observed that the more powerful males 

attack the weaker — " Tandiu ilium persequuntur donee asse- 

cuti ore inter posteriora crura inserto testiculos ejus evel- 
lant." 



■^- 



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K->- ---^ -I 



THE ASININE GROUP. 



301 



shoulders is occasionally double. It is said of some 
in Africa that they never drink ; they are known 
to be in their food still more sober than horses, and 
more easily satisfied with thistles and other thorny 
plants : in their habits they are cleanly, and fond of 
basking in the clean heated sand of the desert, where, 
though they want not courage, vigilance, and speed, 
they aflFord the common subsistence of the larger car- 
nivora ; for, in the absence of man, the lion, hyaena, 
and lycaon, or marafeen, appear chiefly destined to 
maintain the balance ; and where wild Equidae are 
found in the South, one or more of these are sure to 
be in their vicinity. 



more 



In the ancient history of these animals, 
than one species appear to be confounded, and even 
at present the differences between them are not 
satisfactorily cleared up, if not altogether overlooked 
by travellers. In the earlier languages, zoological 
names of animals which have been recently acquired 
are commonly borrowed from others already fami- 



known 



confirm 



the name of Lucanian bull to the first elephant they 
saw, and the South Sea islanders called the first 
horse landed on their shores a pig or a great dog : 
in Celebes, the horses now feral still bear, among 
other native names, that of buffalo. Adjectives, as 
names, are slow in acquiring a strictly defined mean- 
ing ; a carrier may still designate a pigeon or an 
errand-man ; and thus the same epithet in Hebrew 

was long applicable alike to a horse, an ass, the He- 



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302 



THE ASININE GROUP- 



dromedary 



been translated an ass in Isaiah and Herodotus, or 
actually so named in Pliny, Strabo, and Arnobius, 
may in some cases, with good reason, be regarded as 
applicable only to the Hemionus, Thus, where 
asses are made to draw chariots for war and peace 
by the Caramanians, and even the Scythians; and 
agam, in the painted sculptures of Egypt, where 
chariots occur drawn by short-eared animals, which 
nevertheless have the cross on the shoulders, asinine 
tails, and in stature equal the figures of horses, w^e 
must refer them, not to the small thick-headed 
Hamar of the desert or Ghoor of Persia, but to the 
Onager, or to the Hemionus, which we shall see is 
still domesticated in some parts of India.* 

It is no doubt to these larger and nobler animals 
that respect was paid in the earlier ages as types of 
abstract ideas. The Arabs had an asinine divinity 
named Yauk, and Tartak, one of the gods of the 
Avim, was most likely figured like an Onager ; 
though it may be suspected that several of these 
animal forms were not personifications but attri- 
butes or companions of deities, similar to those we 
still find figured behind Indian idols. To the voice 
of the wild ass repeated allusion is made in the 
Scriptures, and that of the prophet crying in the 
wilderness, has reference to the impression which 
the solitary cry of the tenant of the desert creates 
on the mjnd of human wanderers when traversing 
his haunts. It is even doubtful w^hether the belief 

* Sec wood-cut at tile head, of this article. 



■/= 



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i (I 



THE ASININE GROUP. 



303 



of the heathens, that the Jews worhipped an ass's 
head, or the blasphemous ahsurdity of the Onoel 
form holding a book, with the motto, " Deus Chris- 
tianorum Menechytes," was not more the delirious 
act of hieroglyphical emblematisers of that Gnostic 
sect which strove to unite Christianity with Pagan- 
ism, rather than the result of absolute malice ; cer- 
tain it is, that in the circles of Behemoth, figured 
by the Ophites, the last genius, or Eon ? is deno- 
minated Onoel and pictured with asinine forms. 
Evidently, when Mirvan II., the last Caliph of 
the Ommiad line, was distinguished by the title 
of Hymar-el-Gezirah, or the wild ass of Mesopo- 
tamia, no disrespect was meant to his person ; nor 
in the memorable declaration of Jacob, where Issa- 
char is compared to a strong ass between two bur- 
thens, for it became an emblem and probably an 

Similar ideas of respect were 
attached to the figures of asses on the shields of 
several Roman legions of the third century, repre- 
sented in Pancirolus ; to the Borak banner of the 
first Babylonian Caliphs, and to those borne on the 

aples and Vicenza. 
It is to be regretted that travellers of talent and 
education have paid so little attention to minutise in 
their accounts of the wild species of the asinine 
form and thereby confounded one with the other: 
such, among others, is the description of a wild ass 
from the Cape of Good Hope, seen by Bishop He- 
ber at Barrackpore, in the menagerie of the Gover- 
nor-general of India, led about almost choked with 



ensign of his tribe. 



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304 



THE YO-TO-TZE. 



its bridle. " It is extremely strong and bony, of 
beautiful form, has a fine eye and good counte- 
nance, and though not striped like a zebra, is beau- 
tifully clouded with different tints of ash and 
mouse-colour." * Is this a mistake as regards the 
native country? For the description appears to 
apply to a real Kiang of Central Asia, and there is 
no indigenous unstriped Equine animal in South 
Africa ; or if it refers to the Onager or Ahmar of 
the northern part, how did it escape so enlightened 
an observer that it was of the same species with the 
wild ass of Cutch, the Ghoor-Khurs of Persia, and 
Djiggetai of the Mongolese ? 



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THE YO-TO-TZE? 

Asinus equuleus. Nobis. 

I 

PLATE XVIL 



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We have hesitated long whether the present animal 
should not be placed with horses, for the external 

r ■ 

appearance is so intermediate, and even the voice, 
as we were informed, so much a compound of neigh- 
ing and braying, that it may be most proper to con- 
sider its location with this group as only provisional. 
The specimen here figured was drawn by ourselves 
at the request of the late Sir Joseph Banks, who 
obtained from Earl Rivers information that there 
was an undescribed species of diminutive horse 
brought from the Chinese frontiers north-east of 



^ Vol. i. p. 39, 



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THE YO-TO-TZE. 



305 



Calcutta, and was then to be seen in a livery stable 
near Parle Lane. We give, with the sketch, the 

notes made at the time. 

" The animal was a male, by examining the teeth, 
not quite four years old, and was somewhat under 
three feet in height at the withers ; the head eleven 
inches and a half from the fore-top to the under 
part of the nostrils, with a straight profile, very small 
mouth, delicate nostrils, and deer-like aspect resem- 
bled that of a noble Arab ; excepting that the eyes 
displayed less fire and more cunning, and the nos- 
trils opened a little lower ; the ears were only four 
inches long, with the tips suddenly contracted and 
then again slightly dilated ; their insides white, the 
upper third black; the. neck was ewe-like, with a 
coarse abundant mane, longer than in the ass, but 
still standing upright. Compared with its general 
size, the barrel was full, very closely ribbed up in 
the flank, but the withers, shoulder, croup, hams, 
and legs were asinine, with short rather vertical 
pasterns and round, more than oval soles of the 
hoofs ; the tail, not reaching the hocks by six inches, 
was scantily supplied with long hair nearly to its 
root, resembling that of a rat-tailed horse; there 
were warts on the inner arms, but none on the 
hind-legs ; all the limbs clean, yet very strong, 
was entirely of a yellowish red clay colour, except- 
ing black tips of the ears, the mane, and long 
hair on the tail, a well defined line along the back 
extending down the middle of the tail, crossed by 

a broad bar of the same colour over the shoulders, 



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306 



THE YO-TO-TZE. 



three or four cross streaks very distinctly marked 
over the knees and hocks, the cannon joints brown 
and the fetlock and pasterns down to the hoofs 
black, the hoofs and hide dark, the eyes brown." 
i he groom informed us that its voice was a kind of 
horse neigh ; terminating with a roar like the lower 
tones of an ass's braying. There were on the back 
two white marks evidently the effects of a saddle, 
attempts having no doubt been made to ride it in 
India ; where the sons of grandees are very com- 
monly placed on the backs of ponies, young stags, 
hinds, little oxen, and even sheep. There was an 
appearance of considerable docility in its manners, 
which induced the groom to throw his leg across its 
back and canter up the stable yard;; the man was 
certainly much heavier than the beast he rode, but 
It took him along to the end, and then with a wild 
fling pitched him on a dunghill, and came back at 
a trot stopping by us with perfect gentleness. We 
were here again told that it came from some part 
of Chinese Tahtary. 

Notwithstanding the striking difference of the 
head, tail, livery, stature, and voice, we doubted 
this individual being merely a variety of the Onager 
or Djiggetai, until we saw living specimens of these 
animals, when there appeared sufficient reason to 
regard the Equuleus as distinct and identical with 
the Yo-to-tze of China, provided that in that country 
not more than one species is included under the 
name. Should the wild ass of the Deccan in Cen- 
tral India, described by Colonel Sykes as not larger 






k 





J?^ 



THE ONAGER. 



307 



tlian a mastiff, be of the same species, tlie fact would 
prove another instance of the uncertainty we are 
thrown into by naturalists asssuming that approxi- 
mate resemblances are sufficient to warrant the con- 
clusion of a community of species : travellers and 
sportsmen amid the many other causes of indif- 
ference, are thereby induced to regard the question 
as settled, neglect detailed descriptions, and continue 
the duration of ignorance. 



THE ONAGER, KOULAN, OR WILD ASS. 

1 

Asmus onager. Nobis. 
PLATE XVIII. 

The concluding remark in the former paragraph is 
again verified in the accounts of the Onager and 
Hemionus, both of which are confounded by modern 
writers, and none of the late travellers who noticed 
wild EquidEe, have given more than such slight re-_ 
ferences, that whether they indicate species of the 
horse or of the asinine group, whether the Koulan 
is the Ghoor Khur, the Asmus silmstris, the Ha- 
mar or the Djiggetai, remains absolutely uncertain. 
Mr.' Pennant describes from Pallas an animal under 
the name of Dshikketai, wild mule, and Uquus he- 
mionus, and gives the figure of the Petersburgh 
Transactions, xix. 394, tab. 7, ^vith a cross bar on 
the shoulder, which we consider was drawn from the 
Koulan. Shaw takes no notice of the Koulan ; yet 



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308 



THE ONAGKK. 



the Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles makes tlnit 
animal identical with the wild ass, but then there 
is a species or race of wild asses of Persia without 
the cross on the shoulder of the males, and therefore 
wanting in the females : thus there would appear to 
be no distinction between the two, but that one is 
deficient in two of the usual number of teeth in 
Equidae, and has a neighing yoice, while the other 
invariably brays and has the same dentition as the 
ass : that the former seeks the plains and the latter 
the mountains. Thus the Djiggetai, Hemionus, Mu- 
lus Dauricus, Cappadocius, Kitscharah, and D'Jhen- 
gli-Kitscharah appears to be that species which is 
without a cross on the shoulder, or at least is but 
imperfectly marked with one and is provided with 
an evanescent spinal streak usually bordered by a 
white line ; while the other is the wild ass or Kou- 
lan of the Kirguise, Bucharians, Kalmucks, and 
Northern Persians, the Ghoor-Khur of A ^ 
tan and the banls of the Indus, and partially the 
Kuhr or Ghur of Western Persia, where it is con- 
founded with the Hamar or Ahmar, Djaar of the 
Arabs and Mogifabins, and Daja-Ischake of the 
Turks : it is the Baja Mural of the Tahtars, was 
certainly known to the ancients by the name of 
Omy^og^ Onagrus^ and was sometimes confounded 
with the Hippagrus or Equifertis. We have there- 
fore restored to the species the name of Asimis 
onager. 

The Koulan is about twelve and a half hands 
high at the shoulder and thirteen and a half at the 






fii 




THE ONAGER. 



309 



croup ; the length from nose to tail exceeds seven 
feet; the head is large, the forehead arched, the 
nose sloping down to the lips and thick ; the ears 
pointed, nearly ten inches long, very erect, and 
moveable; the eyes small; the neck slender, fur- 
nished with an upright mane, and the tail, like that 
of the domestic animal, is two feet and a half long; 
the body is comparatively small in girth, with the 
ridge of the back sharp, the thighs cat-hammed, 
and the limbs fine, with narrow hoofs, hard on the 
edges, and hollow in the sole ; the mane, line along 
the spine, cross on the shoulder, and tuft at the end 
of the tail dusky and dark brown: the general 
colour of the fur is a silvery grey, passing to white 
on the belly and limbs; but the head, neck, shoul- 
der, flank, and haunches are pale Isabella or flax- 
colour: there are callosities on the inside of the 
arms; the cross bar is sometimes double on the 
shoulder, and commonly is wanting in the females, 
who are always smaller and more slightly made._^ 
The species inhabits the dry mountainous parts of 
Great Tahtary up to the forty-eighth degree of 
north latitude, but only in summer returning south- 
ward with the change of season, whole herds being 
seen, in motion as far as the deserts of the Lowe;r 
Indus but spreading chiefly in the eastern provinces 
of Persia, * where their venison is highly prized, and 

* Migration from Tahtary to India and Persia is scarcely 
possible : there are no passes from Thibet across the Hima- 
layas; that -which the Indus offers, if frequented by these 

animals, would long since have led the nations around to w^y- 



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310 



THE ONAGER. 



again 



the cliase of them, from the time of Rustum to the 
present, has always been held the pastime of heroes 
and princes. It was m hunting the Gour or Guht 
that Baharam V. perished, and Olearlus still speaks 
of a number of them being slain in his presence by 
the Shah and his court. 

The manners of this species are very similar to 
those of the wild horse and Djiggetai, like them 
forming herds under the guidance of a leader, and 
with similar distrust watching and escaping from 
the presence of danger ; but the curiosity of the 
males is greater, for in their flight they stop and 
look round, resuming their speed to stop and look 

perhaps, indeed, from want of wind to con- 
tinue a protracted pace without interruption. They 
are mountain animals, invariably seeking refuge 

precipices, which they ascend with ease, 
looking down upon the pursuers when they have 
reached the summit and believe in their security. 

The Ghoor-Khur of Ladakh, according to Moor- 
croft, is white about the nose and under the neck, 
the belly, and legs ; the back is light bay, and the 
mane dun : they herd in droves, fly at a trot.^ stop, 
look back, and then fly off with wonderful speed 
and wildness, being never taken alive. The same 

lay them in their passage : over Hindukoh they could not 
come ; further west the Jaxartes and Oxus intervene, and the 

4 

asinine group are not swimmers : the migration is probably 
only a few hundred miles either way, about Tomsk, and simi- 



amon^ 



down 



The 



species or races of Africa and Western Asia do not migrate, 
excepting in following the herbage. 






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K' 







THE ONAGER 



311 






animal is common in Khoten and in the country of 
the Kalmucks; everywhere observed to have the 
females numerous in proportion to the males, who 
are accused of that species of hostility, already 
mentioned, which destroys or greatly reduces their 
numbers. This species is noticed in the book of 
Job and described with the same manners it still 
retains in Cutch, where Bishop Heber found it the 
size of a galloway, beautiful and admirably formed 
for fleetness and power, apparently very fond of 
horsesj and by no means disliked by them, in which 
respect the asses of India differ from all others of 
which he had heard: the same fact had been told 
him of the wild ass of Rajpootana. " No attempt 
has been made to break the wild ass in for riding, 
nor did it appear that the natives ever thought of 
such." In another place this learned and excellent 
man remarks that the Cutch species has the cross 
stripe on the shoulder and differs in colours and 
heavier proportions from the wild ass of Kerr Porter, 
and suspects that it may not be the ass but the 
Onager (Hemionus) or wild mule, '' a name which 
I have also seen written Angra." These doubts of 
the Bishops are certainly legitimate, as we also 
entertain them respecting some of the above men- 
tioned Ghoor-Khurs. 

The Ahmar or wild ass stock of Northern Africa, 
and probably the Djaar of Arabia, the theme of 
glowing imagery in the inspired language of the He- 
brew prophets, the object of curiosity in the Roman 
shows of wild beasts, whose colts under the name of 



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312 



THE ONAGEIl. 



Lalisiones were extolled as delicious food for the 
tables of epicures, appears to be the same species, 



slightly differing in colour. 



The species is said to 



have ^ once been found in the Canary Islands ; it is 
mentioned by Leo and Marmol, occurs on the Nile, 
above the cataracts, and is abundant in the upland 
plains, between the table hills below Gous Regein 
and the Bahar-el-Abiad in Atbara.+ It is most 
likely that which we find figured among the paint- 
ings of ancient Egypt in the yoke of a chariot, and 
we have already represented ; agreeing in all respects 
excepting the ears, which may have been cropped at 
the time that its sexual character was likewise 
annihilated. We have seen a pair of these animals 
brought from Cairo ; they were equal in size to an 
ordinary mule, neatly if not elegantly formed, white 
in colour, but silvery grey on the ridge of the back 
and nose, with the forehead, neck, and sides of a 
beautiful pale ash with a tinge of purple, the mane, 
tail, and cruciform streak black. 

Both the stocks of Eastern Asia and of Africa 

were confounded by the Eomans, and generally by 
them named Onager : of one or both Varro remarked 
that they were easily tamed, and the domestic ass 

* Pliny says those of Africa were esteemed the best for the 
table : — 

" Cum tener est Onager, solaque Lalisio matre 



Paseitur : hoc infans, sed breve nomeu habet. 



t") 



Mart. xlii. 97. 



t See Voyage on the Bahar-el-Abiad by Adolphe Liuant, 

and Hoskins's Travels in Ethiopia. 




THE ONAGER. 



313 



never became wald again: Pliny states that the 
domestic breeds were always improved by cross- 
ing v/ith wild animals. It is unquestionably from 
these also that the fine race of Egypt and Arabia is 
derivedj for there is here again a suspicion that the 
low smaller domestic breeds of Asia are not of the 
same origin, but derived from 

The Hymar, or Hamar (Plate XIX.), probably 
the real Chamor of the Hebrews, and was first 
figured by Sir R. Kerr Porter. It is justly re- 
marked by Bishop Heber, that this animal differs 
from the great wild ass, Ghoor-Khur, or Djiggetai, 
being smaller, with proportionably a large ugly head, 
no streak or cross on the shoulders, and having a 



uit-4J^kfi*^ ^Hr»l 



Though con- 



dirty BaylT^ 

the former. The habits of stopping may be chiefly 

applicable to this animal, when pursued on the open 

plains of Mesopotamia and the provinces bordering 

the two rivers. It is no doubt the animal Xenophon 

particularly mentions to have been seen by him, like 

the Zebras of the south, in company with ostriches, 

when he traversed the same region. 

founded at present, it is probably one of the several 

designated in the Scriptures. * From this stock the 

small little valued domestic asses of Ispahan, per- 

f 

r 

* The Emperor Philip, after his campaigns in Mesopotamia 
sjid J^rmenla, exhibited only twenty Onagri in the shows of 
Rome which, had the gregarious kind been within his reach, 
he would scarcely have deemed sufficient ; for being by birth 
an Arabian, he had every inducement to procure them. See 
Pomp. L^tus, 1. i. 




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314 



THE DOMESTIC ASS. 



haps even as far as Beloochistan in India, may be 
chiefly derived ; though not unmixed, for towards 
the east, the cross on the shoulders is most frequently 
wanting. Whether the foregoing be of one original 
^species or of several, certain it is, that both the 
African and Persian may be traced in the domesti- 
cated species, and that a small insignificant animal, 
as compared with the present Arabian ass, is already 
found figured among the earlier pictures of ancient 

Egypt. ^ 



THE DOMESTIC ASS.f 



A sinus domesticus. 



It may be questioned whether both the wild ass 
and the Hemionus have not contributed towards 
the formation of the domestic breeds. Aristotle 
and Pliny assert the advantage of crossing the 
tame animal with the wild, and neither seem to 
have been aware that there were two species in 
their time still wandering free In Syria; indeed, 
Sir R. Kerr Porter s wild ass may be a deteriorated 
race of Hemionus, and have partly furnished the ru- 
fous small breeds, and the African the large bluish. 
The domestic ass, if not of this parentage, is then a 
mixed breed between the African and Persian, 

r 

* At Beni-Hassan. 

f Borello^ Arabic ; Bourique^ French ; Tasandimi of the 

Shelluhs ; Pico in ancient Egypt. 



' 





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4 



THE DOMESTIC ASS. 



315 



clilefly derived from the first mentioned, tlie marks 
on the shoulders and the common hluish ashy fur 
being taken as indications of the inference. All 
the races of the species are most distinguished^ by 
their profound degradation, heavy dull aspect, thick, 
slouching, long ears, and stiff walk. They are 
patient and laborious, slow and ohstmate ; mankmd 
thinking every where that no care or kmdness is 
due to them in return for services ; no wonder they 
are both slow and vicious. It is a mistake to be- 
lieve in their unlimited resignation to mdigmty ; 
when offended, they give warning by drawmg back 
the lips and showing the teeth ; an insult is repelled 
by a kick, but a more grievous injury by bitmg ; 
and when roused by danger, asses will fight with 
skill and obstinacy. In distress they bray with an 
accent of despair; and we have personally wit- 
nessed, on an occasion of grievous torment inflicted 
upon one by inhuman schoolboys, the animal, after 
proclaiming his sufferings, attack and route his 
enemies with the energy of a lion. Thougli the 
species is libidinous, it is also sober, and of such 
strength, that no domestic animal, in proportion to 
its bulk, can carry a greater weight, or continue to 
labour longer without sustenance. The ass is em- 
phatically the poor man's horse in every country ; 
and if care were taken of the breed, and well se- 
lected animals imported from Arabia, perhaps from 
the province of Oman, or of those of the white breed 
of Zobeir near Bussorah, there is no doubt that m 

the sandy districts of Northern Australia, a very 



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316 



^-^ 



THE DOMESTIC ASS. 



useful and handsome race might be reared, valu- 
able to the poorer settler, and instrumental in work- 
ing out the civilization of the natives. * 

It is singular that the wild ass of Tahtary should 
be able to resist a temperature of climate in winter 
more severe than that of Norway, where the do- 
mestic is with difficulty maintained ; and if they 
be the same species, that the African should be dif- 
ferent in manners, still more handsome in form, be 
the parent of the best domestic breeds, and deterio- 
rate gradually towards the east, till it ceases to be 
foTind even domesticated beyond the Bramaputra. 
Egypt, Barbary, then Spain, the south of France, 
and part of Italy, produce, with the exception of 
Arabia, the finest asses ; but in the last mentioned 
region there is the Zobeir Albino breed, apparently 
as ancient as the times of the kings of Judah, and 
still in equal request : it was the vehicle of princes 
m antiquity, and even now is reserved for the grave 
personages of Islam law and priesthood. 

If the Romans were not the importers of the first 
asses in Britain, it was most likely effected by the 
monks before they adopted the luxuries of feudal 
proprietors ; hence they are noticed in the time of 
King Ethelred, as quoted by Pennant ; t but they 
cannot have been naturalized, since, in the reign of 
<iueen Ehzabeth, if Holinshed may be credited, 

* A choice breed of asses, and of Arabian camels, appears 
to be an object well worthy the attention of the local govern- 
ments of Australia and New Zealand. 

+ British Zoology, article Ass. 



_" ■- 



THE DJIGGETAI. 



317 



there were none in England ; now, however, they 
are common in every part of the kingdom. Lin- 
iisens and Gmelin erroneously believed that the 
males alone were decussated, and Aldrovandus is 
mistaken wlien lie asserts that the females do not 
bray. A more detailed description of this animal 
we think superfluous, and therefore proceed to men- 
tion the last species of the present group. 




' ^ 







L±-l 



THE DJIGGETAI. 



Asinus liemionus, ^ 



PLATE XX. 



* 



The Mongolese name of this animal, very variously 
spelt by European writers, signifies the eared^ he- 
cause, like the wild ass, it is provided with longer 
ears than the horse. In size the animal is little in- 
ferior to the wild horse, in general shape resembling 
a mule, in gracefulness of action a horse, and in the 
mixed colours of its livery and difference of fur in 
the cold and warm seasons so like the wild Kiang 
or spotted horse, that both are confounded in some 
descriptions, and in others a similar confusion exists 
between it and the wild ass, as already observed in 
our notice of the Koulan, If the account we be- 
lieve derived from Pallas can be relied on, the 
Djiggetai wants two teeth, but we do not find in 
what place of either jaw. The head is long, flat in 

* A stalls or Hemippus of the ancients. 




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318 



THE DJIGGETAI. 




front, narrow, the nostrils placed low down the 
muzzle, the neck slender, shoulder rather vertical, 
the withers higher than in the ass, the body and 
haunches like a mule s, the tail asinine, and the ears 
very erect : the fore-top, like in the Fquus hippagrm^ 
forms a tuft of downy hair ; the mane is erect, short, 
and dark ; from thence a line of similar colour ex- 
tends along the spine to the terminal tuft of the 
tail, and it is asserted to have occasionally an eva^ 
nescent cross streak on the shoulder; the fur of the 
coat, in winter rather long and hoary, is in summer 
smooth, with a variety of featherings or whorls in 
the direction of the hair ; silvery on the nose, and 
light Isabella, varying to bright bay, on the head, 
neck, flanks, and thighs, covering more surface in 
southern specimens than in those of the north, 
where silvery grey and white run along the ridge 
of the back and occupy the belly, passing up the 
flank, behind the arm, and under the throat, while 
the same colour edges the quarters: the legs are 
white, with the usual callosities on the inner arms 

and the hoofs asinine. 

The species extends to the north into Southern 
Siberia, spreads over the deserts of Gobi, frequents 
the salt marshes of Tahtary, is abundant in Thibet, 
in the Himalayas, and is not unknown in India, 
unless there is again a confusion between this and 
the Asinus equuleus. From the testimonies of Hero- 
dotus, it appears that his Hemionus, which we think 
is justly taken to be identical with the Djiggetai, 
was found at that time in Syria ; and Theophrastus, 



/ 



I 



THE DJIGGETAI. 



319 



in Pliny, likewise assigns Cappadocia as its dwell- 
ing: we hear it is still abundant in Turkistan be- 
yond the Oxus, and all describe it as prodigiously 
fleet and cautious, yet possessed of the same curio- 
sity which decoys the wild ass. They live in small 
herdsj or large families of females and young ani- 
mals, headed by a male. They neigh with a deeper 
and a louder voice than a horse, and are much 
hunted by the Mongoles and Tunguse for their 

flesh. 

The assertion of Pallas, and the common opinion 
concerning their indomitable nature, is founded in 
error; such a conclusion is in fact an assumption 
that all animals have been created on invariable 
conditions of existence, and that all their actions 
are simple results of a mechanical instinct, according 
with their organic structure, and therefore without 
the exercise of any degree of intelligence ; for, as 
Frederick Cuvier justly observes, to what purpose 
would intelligence exist in beings who did not pos- 
sess faculties for distinguishing circumstances favour- 
able or hurtful to their existence? To a certain 
extent such beings do not exist among mammifcraB ; 
to find them, we must descend much lower in the 
scale of animal life : it is certainly not the case 
with the rhinoceros, the tiger, or the hyeena; nor 
is it applicable to the Hemionus, for the accounts 
of this animal serving in a domesticated state, as 
already mentioned in Isaiah and Herodotus, is con- 
firmed by the late M. Duvaucel, whose figure, here 
reproduced, is of a male individual, which it appears 



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320 



THE HIPPOTIGRINE GKOUP. 



was one of a breed he saw domesticated and la- 
bouring along with asses at Lncknow. '^ It differs 
from the fine specimen in the Zoological Gardens, 
in having the nose black and the proportions fuller, 
or such as domestication would render them. 




Hoi'se. 






Ass. 



Dau"W'. 



Zebra. 



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Owing to this 



THE HIPPOTIGRINE GROUP, 

OR ZEBRAS. 

We are now arrived at the third form of Equida), 
one completely separated from all the others by 
being geographically confined to South Africa, ex- 
tending little beyond the equator. 
circumstance none of the species were known to the 
ancients, excepting, it appears, in one instance, 
where Xiphilinus, in his abridgment of Dion Gas- 

* Pharnaces, Satrap of Phrygia, brought nine of them to his 
government, whereof three were Kving in the time of Pharna- 

basus his son. — Aristotle Which shows that they were no 

longer wild in Western Asia in the era of Alexander, though 
the ostrich still roamed in Mesopotamia. Aristotle seems to 
overlook his former assertion, or to confonTid fwn snpnifts. 



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V 



THE HIPPOTIGRINE GROUP. 



321 



< 



sius, lib. lxvii.5 relates that Caracalla caused to be 
exhibited in the circus, an elephant, a rhinoceros, 
a tiger, and a hippotigris. This circumstance ap- 
pears to us another indication of what Ave have 
show^n in the history of Canidae ; we mean a certain 
and gradual diflFusion of species over parts of the 
world where previously they did not exist, for the 
Romans, though possessed of less influence in Equa- 
torial Africa than the Egyptians during the ages 
when Meroe flourished, nevertheless obtained a spe- 
cimen of the Zebra, while no such animal appears 
painted in any known monument of earlier date in 
the valley of the Nile that has yet been discovered. 
The indication of Hippotigris is so apposite, that 
almost all travellers have made a similar comparison 
on observing any one of this group of animals, and 
on this account we have thought it the most befitting 
appellation for the group collectively taken. If the 
ancients were silent concerning the striped species, 
no wonder that the moderns were not better informed 
until the Portuo-uese established themselves on the 
coast of Congo and Angola ; here they encountered 
the Zebra, which seems to be the Negro mutation of 
the Abyssinian Zeuru of Lobo and the Galla Zeora, 
or Zecora, according to Ludolphus ; neither, how- 
ever of these indicated species is the Zebra of the 
moderns, for the earliest descriptions, such as that 
of Pigafetta, applies to a Dauw, or a species with 
alternate stripes of black and brown upon a lighter 
general surface, which we shall describe more parti-^ 
cularly. 




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322 



THE HIPPOTIGRINE GROUP. 



There exist several engravings of striped Equidse 
in the older writers, Jonston, De Bry, Kolben, &c. : 
of these the uppermost in plate v. of Jonston alone 
is not drawn from fancy; it represents, like the 
others, a Dauw, but clearly from a skin : Kolben s, 
though absolutely worthless, is meant for that of the 
Cape Zebra. All might have been better known 
and figured at that time, since several authors had 
noticed the Galla and Congo Dauw ; one had actu- 
ally been sent from Cairo to the king of Naples, 
and Tillesius, Thievenot, and others assert that they 
had seen domesticated individuals. 

This group, in general, has the head of inter- 
mediate length between the Equine and Asinine; 
the neck naturally fuller, more arched; the mane 
vertical, forming a standing crest : there is more 
girth, muscle, and compactness than in the fore- 
going; the lower jaw more curved; the ears wider, 
though lanceolated ; the shoulder more obhque, and 
the withers more elevated than in asses ; the hoofs 
higher, and as in the horse they are round and flat, 
in the ass oval and hollow^, so in the species of Hip^ 
potigris they are oval at the toe and square at the 
heel, by the spreading of the frog; which causes 
the limb to stand more vertically upon the pastern : 
the tail is always, but especially in youth, more se- 
taceous than in asses, and less than in horses. They 
are all partially or entirely marked with symmetri7 
cal stripes of black and white, or with fulvous 
intermediate passing downwards across the body 
and neck : all have the limbs white, with callosities 



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THE HIPPOTIGRINE GROUP. 



323 



man. 



on the inner surface of the upper arm : they have 
sonorous but varied voices ; their dentition is Equine, 
but in one species it is said that there is some ano- 
maly in the mammae of the female. They see re- 
markably well both by day and by night, surpass 
the Equidae of the northern hemisphere in natural 
courage, are their equals in speed, and the species 
that are least adorned with stripes appear above the 
rest and, next to true horses, formed for the use of 

They can be all tamed and ridden; their 
vicious disposition, though an impediment, being 
placable under judicious treatment; and there is 
little doubt that, in a few generations of domestica- 
tion most if not all, might be rendered serviceable, 
particularly in South Africa, where they find their 
coarse but natural food, and are exempt from the 
distempers which are there often so fatal to our 
present breeds. 

They are gregarious, but do not keep together in 
such numbers as the horses and asses of the northern 
hemisphere ; nor does it appear that they are under 
the guidance of a stallion leader, who exercises au- 
thority, and exposes himself in defence of the herd. 
Some prefer mountain localities, others the upland 
plains, and each species seems to affect the more 
exclusive society of some particular ruminants. The 
species amount at least to three, with others not 
as yet sufficiently examined to be permanently ad- 
mitted, but whether distinct or mere varieties the 
location of all in juxta-position, with at best the 
separation of a river or of a different mountain or 



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324 



THE ZEBRA. 



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plain, not rigidly maintained, offers a similar pic- 
ture of osculating forms as were pointed out in the 
earliest distribution of true horses ; and if it be a 
question yet to be solved, whether most of these 
would not under the care of man similarly commix, 
and m time produce races more perfect than any 
of the wild, still the probabilities seem to be en- 
tirely on the affirmative side. 



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THE ZEBRA. 

Hippotigris zebra. 
PLATE XXI. 

The name of this animal is properly a result of the 
mistake made by the earlier travellers, who, finding 
at the Cape^^ a striped Equine, concluded that it was 
of the same species with that already known by the 
equatorial term of Zebra. Mr. Burchell first pointed 
out the difference between the two, and proposed 
the restoration of the original name to the Cono-o 
animal, and to describe that of the Cape under the 
appellation of Equus montamis^ because the species 
is properly an inhabitant of mountain districts. 
Naturalists, however, seem to have preferred be- 
stowing Mr. Burchell's own name on the species he 
had so clearly pointed out, and left the Zebra's 
attached to the animal, such as it had been fixed by 
Lmnajus. This decision may be so far fortunate, 
as we think It doubtful whether the Burchelllan 
I>auw is really the same as the Congo species. 



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THE ZEBRA. 



325 



Of all the banded Equidse^ the Cape Zehra has 
the greatest external resemblance of form to the 
Hemionus, though the head is shorter and the neck 
fuller. In order to avoid confusion, it may be ne- 
cessary to point out the differences between the 
South African banded species somewhat more in 
detail than was necessary in the description of the 
horse and asinine groups. 

The Zebra, wilde paard and wilden esel of the 
Cape colonists, is about twelve hands high at the 
shoulder and above double in extreme length. In 
shape the animal is light, symmetrical, the limbs 
slender and hoof narrow, though rounded forward ; 
the head is light, the ears rather long, and much 
more open than in the ass ; the neck full, with the 
skin under the throat lax ; the tail asinine, about 
sixteen inches long, with a tuft of hair at the tip; 
the ground colour of the coat is white, sometimes 
slightly tinged with yellow ; and what distinguishes 
the species from all others is, that, leaving only the 
belly and inside of the thighs and upper arms par- 
tially unpainted, it is cross-barred with black over 
the head, neck, body, and limbs to the hoofs, having 
regular distinct nearly undivided bands in the male, 
and in the female similar bands of a less intense, or 
rather brownish colour ; the region around the nos- 
trils is bay, darkening to black towards the mouth ; 
over the head there are numerous equidistant nar- 



row streaks running down the chaffron to the orbits, 
around them, and again others forming curves on 
the cheeks ; from the ridge of the neck downwards 




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326 



THE ZEBRA. 



there are almost always eight or nine bands, exclu- 
sive of two passing down the shoulder, opening 
below, where several others in the form of chevrons 
are interposed till they gradually become rings down 
to the hoofs ; on the sides there ar 



e SIX or seven 



descending to the edge of the belly, and crossing a 
streak from the mane along the spine, dichotomising 
above, and those on the flank running four or five 
into one as they descend ; on the croup, down to 
the tuft of the tail, are short cross bars; on the 
thigh there are four very broad cross bands, fol- 
lowed by others doAvn the hocks and hind-legs; 
from the breast along the belly there is a single 
black streak ; the tips of the ears are black, with 
four or five smaller streaks beneath them ; and the 
mane, erect and bushy, is alternately banded black 
and white : to these characters Captain Harris adds 
" a bare spot a little above the knee in all four of 
the legs/' The female has two inguinal mamma?. 
The species is gregarious in movmtainous regions, 

from the territory of the Cape eastward to beyond 
Mozambique, perhaps as far as the southern moun- 
tains of Abyssinia. 

Although vicious and fierce, the animal may be 
tamed, as was fully proved by the female that was 
long kept in the menagerie of Paris, which was ex- 
ceedingly gentle, and could be ridden with safety. 



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327 






THE CONGO DAUW, OR ZEBRA OF PIGAFETTA. 

Hippotigris antiquorurn^ Nobis. 

PLATE XXII. 

Although the animal we place under this name 
xnay be only a variety of the Cape Dauw, there are 
so many instances of pretended varieties becoming 
admitted species, that we think it preferable to 
separate the two ; the present species, even allowing 
for certain individual variations, differs from the 
other in being, like the Zebra, white with only a 
tinge of yellow : the ears are more open, with two 
black bars and white tips ; the mouth and nostrils 
black ; and the stripes, extending downwards to the 
knees and hocks, and even to the pastern joints, are 
fewer than in the Zebra of the Cape, more irregular, 
scattered, dichotomous, than in the Cape Dauw, 
and disposed in spots, with the slender brown in- 
termediate streaks often interrupted ; the a.1 is 
equine and white, frequently tmged with nifous 
or black at the end. In stature and form it is the 
most elegant of the whole group, and if the female 
had four mamm^, as is affirmed to be the case m 
the Cape Dauw, we think the fact would not have 
escaped the notice of Dr. Smith when he secured the 
unborn foal, which we think belongs to the pre- 
sent species. If this be the case, the Congo Dauw 

extends from the Gareep along the west side of 



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328 



THE CONGO DAUW. 



Africa to the Zezeere in Nigritia, for the description 
of Pigafetta is only applicable in every part to the 
animal we have here figured, and comparing it with 
the first Zebra, plate v. in Jonston, the identity will 
likewise immediately appear. 

It is likely to spread also from Congo eastward 
to the Galla country, because we learn that there a 
species striped black and brown upon a white 
ground is likewise denominated Zeora, Zecora, and 
Zecuru, all mere mutations of the Negro Zebra. 

The Abyssinian and Galla chiefs adorn the necks 
of their horses with a wreath made of the mane of 
these animals, secured near the throat-band of the 
bridle ; one of these we have examined, and recog- 
nised the three colours, white, brown and black, 
which formed the bars. It may be this species, and 
not the Cape Zebra, which Mr. Hoskins, from the 
description of the Arabs, conjectures to exist in the 
desert of Ethiopia above the fifth cataract of the 
Nile, that is, in about the 18th degree north. 

The Congo species abounds particularly in the 
province of Bamba, and when first encountered by 
Europeans, was so little alarmed at the report of 
fire-arms, that Battel relates his shooting several, 
while others stood by without endeavouring to 
escape. * 

Near the Gareep river they seem to be mixed 
with what we consider the Cape Dauw or 

^ Purchasers Pilgrims, book 6, chap, i, sect, 2, p. 706, folio. 

London, 1617. 



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329 



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THE DAUW. 



HippoUgris Burchelli, 

r 

PLATE XXIII. MARE AND FOAL. 

Bontequagga of the Cape colonists._Peechy of the Bechuana 

and Matalibi. 

Notwithstanding that the merit of first noticing 
this species is due to the enterprising and scientific 
traveller whose name it hears, we doubt his ap- 
proving the practice of bestowing proper names on 
species in honour of persons, so long as more appro- 
priate may be selected, and believe he would him- 
self have preferred another, such as H. campestns, 
by which it is designated in our own series. 

The Dauw, like the former animal, is about 
thirteen hands and a half at the shoulder; the 
body is round, the legs robust, crest arched, black, 
and surmounted by a standing mane, five inches 
high, banded black and white; the ears smaller 
than in the former, less open, with only one black 
bar and white tip; tail tufted to near the root, 
or semi-equine, white, and about thirty-six inches 
lon<r ; region round the nostrils and mouth blackish ; 
head^ neck, body, and croup light bay ; below and 
limbs white ; numerous black streaks forming ovals 
on the face, broader in chevrons of the same on the 

side of jaws, and vertical still wider down the neck, 



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330 



THE QUAGGA. 



shoulders, body, and obliquely over the croup, they 
dichotomise and divide, but not so irregularly, nor 
descend so low as in the Congo species ; on the 
spine there is a black streak edged with white 
where the cross bars end, though in the former they 
pass on until they touch the ridge line ; between 
the black there are regular brown lines relieving the 
pale bay. 

According to Captain Harris, the female has an 
udder of four mammas ; the hoofs of both species 
are black. The foal is marked like the parents, and 
differs from the adults only by its juvenile form. 
The Dauw inhabits the plains of South Africa north 
of the river Gareep in numerous herds, wliere they 
mix and accompany those of the ko-koon or Cato- 
Uepas gorgon. Notwithstanding what is reported 
of the fleetness of these animals, it appears that 
they can be overtaken, and are actually speared by 
hunters when they are well mounted. 



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THE QUAGGA OP THE CAPE COLONISTS. 

Hippotigris quacha. 
PLATE XXIV. 

This species, equal or superior in size to the former, 
is still more robust in structure, with more girth, 
wider across the hips, more like a true horse, the 
hoofs considerably broader than in the zebra, and 
the neck full, the ears rather small, twice barred 



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THE QUAGGA 



331 






qua 



with black, the head somewhat heavy, and the 
muzzle black ; the head, neck, and body are reddish 
brown ; the mane, edges of the dorsal streak, and 
the tail, as well as the colour of the under parts 
and limbs white, like the dauw; head and neck 
banded likewise in the same manner, but on the 
shoulder the bars become pale and on the side 
gradually indistinct, till they are totally lost on 
the croup, and there are no intermediate brown 
bands. The name of this species is derived from 
its voice, which is a kind of cry somewhat resem- 

cha! It is unquestionably 
best" calculated for domestication, both as regards 
strength and docility. The late Mr. Sheriff Parkins 
used to drive a pair of them in his phaeton about 
London, and we have ourselves been drawn by one 

•ig, the animal showing as much temper and 
delicacy of mouth as any domestic horse. 

Quaggas are still found within the boundaries of 
the Cape of Good Hope, but on the open plains, 
south of the Vaal river, they occur in immense 
herds, associating with the gnu, Catohlepas gnu. It 
is this species that is reputed to be the boldest of 
all Equine animals, attacking hyaena and wild dog 
without hesitation, and therefore not unfrequently 
domesticated by the Dutch boors for the purpose of 
protecting their horses at night while both are turned 
out to grass. 



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THE ISx\BELLA QUAGGA 

Hippotigris isahelliniis , 



PLATE XXV. 



We 



* o O/ — 

cause with characters most nearly allied to the last, 

such as the equine head, ears, body, croup, tail, 

and even shoulders, it still differs in size from all, 

being scarcely ten hands high, and still more in 

the colours and forms of the cross hands upon its 
lirery. 



Museum 



drawing of it was taken when it had been recently 
set up ; it struck us then as representing the zebre, 
or Ane isahelU of Le Vaillant, and found afterwards 
that Mr. Temminck, on seeing it, made the same 
observation.* At that time there was, however, an 
opinion that it was the skin of a colt whose dark 
streaks were not as vet aDrarent : hnt as wp now 



* Monsieur Le VaUIant was a travelling naturalist in the 
employ of Mr. Temminck's father, who held a high official 
situation in the Dutch East India Company's government at 
home. From the context of what Le VaiUant says about this 
animal, it is clear that he saw, but did not possess it. Buffon's 
figure of the young Quacha is copied from AUemand, of which 
we have seen an original drawing with black streaks, and there- 
fore is not like the Isabella. For these reasons we cannot assent 
to the opinion of Mr. Gray, nor agree with the writer of the 
article Horse in the Penny Cyclopaedia, vol. xii. p. 313. 




THE ISABELLA QUAGGA. 



333 



J 



know that even in the foetus the black mark^ are 
very distinctly visible, the objection is not valid, 
and there are besides other indications which prove 
the skin to have belonged to an adult.* We there- 
fore shall describe the specimen under the above 
name, in order to' attract the attention of natu- 
ralists, and leave to future information the final 
determination of its locality as a species or acci- 
dental variety. 

The Isabella Quagga is, as before remarked, much 

below the stature of the others, and in a stuffed 
form proportionably longer ; the specimen is a male, 
and, compared with the quagga, has a different 
coloured nose, ears, and mane, — all being white; 
the general tone of the head, neck, body, and croup 
is yellowish buff, with brownish streaks on the face 
and cheeks, but more undefined, and not extending 
the usual length ; on the neck, shoulder, body, and 
croup there is a series of bands more numerous 
than in the dauw, some few are branched, but in- 
stead of a dark colour, while the specimen was 
recent, they were all pure Avhite, and those on the 
croup particularly numerous and interwoven; the 
belly and limbs are white, but, as if to prove that 
these marks were not the result of albinism, the 
anterior pasterns and rings above the hoofs of the 
posterior feet were sooty black and the hoofs dark. 
These marks do not occur in any known species. 

* In tlie whole group there is a greater tendency to lose the 
marks with age than to increase them. When we last saw the 
Bpeeimen, the original colour was much changed. 





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334 



THE MULES. 



The late Dr. Leach believed the skin to have 
come from the Cape, and it appeared that in his 
opinion the white markings were owing to nonage. 
We think it exceedingly prohable that Le Vaillant 
had a sight of a similar animal and gave the above 
notice of it from its diminutive size, and, at a small 
distance, the seeming uniformity of its livery. 



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THE MULES. 




As the space we have remaining is insufficient to 
enter at full length into the physiological views 
which offer themselves in the consideration of 
hybrid propagation, we must be content with a 
more abstracted notice, and endeavour to present to 
the reader some general notions of the progress 
made in this department of research since Buffon 
wrote his article on the mule, and Frederick Cuvier 

published remarks on the same subject in the " Me- 
nagerie du Musee d'Histoire Naturelle." 

Although naturalists establish, upon the myste- 
rious action of the reproduction of species and its 
accompanying phenomena, some most important 
maxims of the zoological science, and in particular 
point out the law which asserts the identity of 
species where consimilar individuals follow each 
other in succession through a series of generations ; 
yet, when they draw conclusions from known ob- 
servations in order to generalise theni over others. 



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THE MULES. 



335 



■where all the conditions of the problem are not 

^ T ■ • r 



similar 



of inference, as we have already shown in the !N atu- 
ral History of Dogs, and endeavoured again to point 
out in the foregoing pages. — ' 



The laws affecting 



organic matter are modified by the Power that 
ordained them, and subjected to a multitude of 
exceptions, warning us at every moment to be cau- 



gnment 



Formerly, 



because science would not recognize the evidence of 
these modifications, it was endeavoured to escape 
from acknowledging the value of truth, by asserting 
that bats were birds and cetacea fishes, because they 
were not quadrupeds ; and when the objection was 
destroyed by adopting as a general term the word 
mammalia, many, habituated to received doctrines, 
maintained them to be at best on the utmost verge 
of possible adaptations of that class of beings ; but 
with a more intimate knowledge of American ani- 
mals, and still more after the discovery of the 
Marsupiaha of New Holland, new phenomena in 
gestation and reproduction came to light. In the 
case of Opossums, they had often been denied or 
overlooked, and were held impossibilities, until sys- 
tematic research overthrew all doubt and transferred 
incredulity to the as yet unsettled questions relating 
to the Monotremes, whose wonderful history is con- 
spicuous in the Ornithorynchus or water-mole. 

Now, all these questions Avere and are accessible 
to direct proof by anatomical investigation ; and if 
they were so long contested more than examined, 




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336 



THE MULES. 



we must not expect assent to be readily granted 
to others not amenable to similar demonstration. 
Where we have as yet only a very small stock of 
experiments to guide us, where a multiplicity of 
distant and minor considerations must be weighed 
against each other, conclusions that appeared legiti- 
mate become questionable ; and though the human 
mind often continues to uphold them with more 
tenacity than judgment, they are defended with 
less and less ardour, and finally are surrendered, 
like all other unprofitable prejudices. We might 
go on to show how little we are acquainted with 
the resources of Natures in the history of insects, in 
the laws affecting the life of those low orders of ex- 
istence which pass into vegetable and stony forms ; 
we might ask what is known of the microscopic and 
ephemeral beings which spring into vitality and 
perish within the few hours of a solar day, and are 
not again rejSroduced until a space of time is elapsed 
indefinite or exceeding three hundred fold the dura- 
tion of the appointed limits of animation ; we might 
point to surmised animals and their germs reposing 
in the depths of earth, slumbering perhaps in a night 
of ages, to be called at some future moment into 
their day of active being ! Finally, when Ave every- 
where observe organic remains in evidence of an 
infinity of lost animal forms, of destroyed families 

and genera and species that once were quickened 
by the irritabilities of life, once fulfilled a design 
and accomplished the tasks assigned them, we 
surely, while the plastic power is undeniable in all 




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THE MULES. 









337 

its modifications, may with propriety refrain from 
denying the probahility of those other flexibihties in 
the laws of propagation which we have here advo- 
cated, although the evidence as yet remains in some 
cases presumptive, and we only descry the workings 
of Almio'hty Beneficence darkly. 

With the limited knowledge we as yet possess, 
we are not justified assuming as law, without strik- 
ing exceptions, that sterility is a necessary result of 
the commixture of different species, and fertile off- 
spring an unerring proof of their identity. Frederick • 
Cuvier, notwithstanding an evident disinclination to 
depart in opinion from the conclusions of the great 
and eloquent Buffon, is obliged to quahfy his assent, 
and points out himself the disregard of his own con- 
clusions and the unsatisfactory state of opinion that 
noble writer and his followers are driven to when 
they attempt rigorously to uphold them. 

" In this science (zoology), as in all those depend- 
ing upon observation, the generalisation of facts," 
says F. Cuvier, '' " is the surest guide to truth ; but 
the inductions to be drawn, in order to escape false 
conclusions, must rest upon facts strictly amenable to 
comparison. Nothing appears more natural, from 
an observation of the phenomena of the succession of 
individuals in an ascending or a descending line 
being similar to each other, than that they are of 
the same species; and this consideration, coupled 

* Frederick Cuvier's great work, Lithographed Mammals of 
the Menagerie of Paris. Folio, coloured. Axticles Zebra and 

Mule. 

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338 



THE MULES. 



with a certain repugnance which many animals 
manifest towards others very similar to themselves, 
induced Buffon to draw the above mentioned con- 
clusion. But he soon after could not help perceiv- 
ing, that we can only pursue our inquiries with 
certainty among a few domesticated species, some of 
them expatriated, or under various conditions of 
restraint, and that with all the others we depend 
entirely upon inference." B[e discovered that ther^ 
were species, admitted to be distinct, which never- 
theless produced fertile offspring : this was the case 



J - i 



in his later experiments with wolves and dogs, with 
goats and sheep, and he was not then aware that 
all these names include more than one species, which 
there is every reason to believe can mix and pro- 
duce fertile descendants, since several are already 
known to possess the faculty. It was in endea- 
vours to account for these exceptions that Buffon 
was driven to arbitrary restrictions and extensions 
of his rule ; and had he given due consideration to 
the fact, first published by himself, of the different 
number of mammas in different dogs, and known 
that the vertebra of the back, the sacrum, and tail 
vary exceedingly in hogs, said by those who main- 
tain the rigorous maxim before quoted to be of the 
same species, he would most unquestionably have 
framed his view of the law with more circumspec- 
tion. 

As a general proposition, we do not mean to dis- 
pute that it is still the best and most trustworthy 
method for distinguishing species ; only the inferences 




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THE MULES. 



339 



than 



necessary, and should be limited in the application 
to the true phenomena of each case, for these vary 
exceedingly upon the slightest discrepancies between 
osculating or nearly osculating animals, some hy- 
brids being sterile, others reproductive, though with 
an apparent decreasing power of fertility, and some 
where there is no observable check in progenitive- 
ness, or where it is soon obliterated. Such we 
conceive to be the true horses here described, the 
two species of camel, the goat and sheep, and most 



[FnoflSrEK 



we might add the 



domestic cats, inghiding the blue or chartreux, ori- 
ginally belonging to a distinct feline group; the 
Bengal cat described by Pennant, of a second, and 
the tortoisesBiircat. to airappearance sprung: from a 



-^- — "'" - nn#-_y^^. 




third group originally indigenous in South America, 
and still sufficiently aberrant to produce in the do- 
mestic commixture males with the greatest rarity, / 
though the distinctive character is so strong that the 
females alone are competent to preserve it. Frederick 
Cuvler rejects the existence 6T"mules where neither 
of the parents are domesticated, but we know wild 
mammalia under restraint are likewise in the pre- 
dicament as well as several species of birds in a 
state of liberty, such as Gallinacea and several Meru- 
lidse and Fringillid^e. We question the reserve of 
all polygamous ruminants and of some pachyder- 
mata ; all those that expel a proportion of the males 
from the herd and that can find approximating 

species. From personal inc[uiry among those who, 



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340 . THE MULES. 

r 

like the ancients, reside in the presence of uncon- 
trouled animal nature, we have found that, like 
them though they believe in heterogeneous inter- 
mixtures known to be untrue, they nevertheless 
infer them from others which have every appear- 
ance of reality; thus, we may instance the well 
authenticated fact of the American bison, in the 
frenzy of defeat and expulsion, forcing his way to 
seek companions among domestic cows, whose do- 
mesticity in this case is an accident, not a cause : 
we may point out likewise, in the rut of Indian 
repudiated Axine bucks producing among the un- 
speckled Porcine the intermediate well known breed 
of spotted hog-deer, an instance where both species 

are wild. 



a 



In Natural History," Cuvier remarks, 



we 



judge from the forces acting at present on the laws 
of nature, and not from those of a different charac- 
ter which have ceased' to operate, or are no longer 
within reach of observation." To render this maxim 
wholly admissible, it would be necessary to sub- 
stantiate the facts : undoubtedly the period when 
animals extended their habitation after primitive 
distribution is in a great measure past, excepting 
where the intervention of man continues to act ; yet 
it is not wholly so, nor is it proved that the earlier 
migrations of mammals were entirely without human 
intervention. If the feral horse, stretching without 
his instrumentality towards Tierra del Fuego and 
to California, is not wholly free from objection, the 
progress of the Bengal tiger to the reedy shores of 






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THE MULES. 



341 



Lake Aral is at least believed to be recent and un- 
aided : nor is the influence of man the only remain- 
ing agent in the operation of modifications. We 
believe it at present perceptible in a species of goat 
known as the wild wgagrus^ which is occasionally 
found in the Alps, the Pyrenees, the Caucasus, and 
the mountains of Bootan, in all appearing to be a 
prolific hybrid between the domestic goat, of Avhat- 
ever origin or country it may be derived, and the 
local wild capra of the region, whether it be ibex, 
caucasica, or any other. Besides, if there be not 
already in South Africa, similarly to what we con- 
tend occurred in Asia, one or more modifications 
intermediate between the zebra and quaj 
independent of the intervention of man, we may at 
least point out the probabilities of what might be 
effected by a well ordered system of cross breeding 
with the same species and their actual osculants, 
and what might be the results after repeatedly in- 
fusing the blood of one desirable form to modify 

and perfect another. 

There are as yet so few carefully conducted expe- 
riments of this class, and there is so evident an 
unwillingness in practical men to encounter new 
combinations where certain profit is not immedi- 
ately demonstrable, that the immense latent power 
of sympathy between the foetus and the mother of 
the more highly organised domestic animals is, 
among other subjects, well worthj investigation; 
since the influence exercised upon what is called 

natural education is not only acknowledged, but in 



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342 



THE MULES. 



the reproduction of forms, marks, and colours, the 
evidence of anterior excitements are demonstrated 
in the case of the mare whose first foal having been 
a mule by a stallion quagga, continued after a lapse 
of five years to reproduce the markings of that ani- 
mal in three successive births, although the parent 
of this and the subsequent progeny w^as a black 
Arabian, and of course one of homogeneous species 
w^ith herself: these facts, detailed in letters of the 
late Earl of Morton, and published in the first part 
of the Philosophical Transactions of the year 1821, 
have not yet received all the consideration they de- 
serve, and they prove that at least some important 
forces at present acting on the laws of nature are not 
beyond the sphere of observation. We here subjoin 
representations of the mare and her successive off- 
spring, in Plates XXVI., XXVII., and XXIX., * 

which represents the q^agga mule, and Plate XIV. 
the brood mare and her last foal, still marked with 
the black stripes on the body ; the mare was seven- 
eighths of Arabian blood, and consequently her 
progeny by the Arab was nineteen-twentieths tho- 
rough-bred ; yet not only these hippotigrine marks 
remained, but the manes also were coarse and stand- 
ing, though in other respects the young horses were 
elegant and spirited animals. One more remark on 
this subject must not however be omitted, inasmuch 
as it seems to point out the fact of the quaggas 

* All the figures produced in these plates are reduced' 
copies from the paintings, by Agasse, in Surgeon's College, 
London. 



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THE MULES. 



343 




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themselves being of remote hybrid descent ; because 
any disturbing action in the regular filiation of their 
progeny reproduced indications of a more decided 
system of variegated painting on the true horses 
and superadded cross bars on the joints, neither of 
which occur or are conspicuous in the quagga. 

Already, in the time of Buffon, the idea of pro- 
ducing mules from the striped species of Equidse 
had occurred. Lord Clive, in experiments to eflfect 
this purpose, had found it necessary to deceive a 
female zebra by painting a male j^with hippoti- 
grine stripes. No such precautions, it appears from 
Frederick Cuvier s remarks, were subsequently de- 
manded at the Menagerie du Roi at Paris; here j 
the hybrid result w^as a powerful slate-coloured 
animal with but scanty marks of the zebra dam in 
his livery; as often occurs in the first descent, 
when in the second they are much more conspicuous. 
In a second instance, we do not know, but the sire 
appears to have been zebra and the dam an ass ; 
for the structure indicates her form, and the more 
conspicuous striee the parental livery. See Plate 

XXVIII. 

With regard to the quagga mule, Plate XXIX., 

we detect in the figure a more powerful animal, but 
its subsequent history is not known to us. Equine 
mules, though there are both ancient and modern 
attestations to the contrary, may be justly regarded 
as unable to continue their race : the Paris zebra 
mule Hk^wise evinced an indijBference, which, in the 

course of aTSng ISelSSrampIeTood, proved a simi- 



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344 



THE MULES. 



lar state of organic inability ; but It is in forming 
cross breeds between positively osculating species, 
sucli as the South African, particularly the quagga 
and the two or three dauws, all homogeneous in 
most respects, that an improved Austral horse may 
be attainable, one that would be more durable, more 
serviceable, more easily kept, cheaper, and less 
liable to disease in the southern hemisphere than 
any of the races introduced from the north. 

In hybrids, it is true, deterioration may be at 
first in some measure expected, but after the second 
and third generation, with well selected animals of 
unadulterated blood. Nature recovers from the dis- 
turbing effects, and assuming characteristics of sta- 
bility without loss of a great part of the required . 
qualities brought in by the mule hybrid, is again 
prepared for a further infusion of them by a fresh 
cross, until the desired point is obtained, and stature, 
form, colour, or marks are produced equal to the 
proposed intention in a number of individuals suffi- 
ciently large to prevent decrease or decay in the 
progenitive powers. These inferences rest upon the 
case of the hybrid wolves of Buffon continuing to 
breed among themselves, though they were under 
circumstances of restraint, neglected, and insuffi- 
ciently numerous or aided by recrossings from either 
side of their parentage ; causes in themselves suffi- 
cient to produce a gradual sterility. 

The common mule is the offspring of a male ass 
and a mare ; familiar to every reader. This kind 

of animal was already abundant in Palestine at the . 



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THE MULES. 



345 



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time of the first kings of Israel, and is frequently 
mentioned in the Scriptures and in Persian history. 
In the district of Zobeir, or Old Bussorah, the an- 
cient habitation of Orchasnian magi, and not far from 
the west bank of the Lower Euphrates, there is still 
a race of white asses anciently renowned, as well as 
the breed of similarly coloured mules, reared with 
attention and the most beautiful in form that are 
known. In antiquity, the sons of kings rode them, 
and old princes put them in the traces of their 
chariots. In the time of the cahphs of Bagdad, 
they sold for eighty or more pieces of gold, according 
to Abdulatif. They continued to be bought at high 
prices for the use of Moslem chiefs, of heads of the 

law, civil and religious. 

The common grey mule of En^ ypt and Barbary is 
a handsome, docile, ^nd in^eneraT a large animal, 
much used by merchants, Jews, and Christians, 
who, until very recently, were denied the privilege 
of riding horses. In Auvergne and the south of 
France and Spain, partially supplied from beyond 
the Pyrenees, the raceisi n general black, lar ge, and 
robust. It is the fasHTorTto shave i'fieir "^kins in 
summer, and their tails are often clipped in a suc- 
cession of tassels like a bell-rope. So late as the 
reign of Louis XIV. the medical men of Paris still 
rode mules. In Spain they continue to serve, be- 
cause they are sure-footed and cautious, in travers- 
ing mountain precipices and stony roads with a 
rider or with merchandise upon their backs, and 

have an easy pace. In Italy the dun-coloured breed 






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346 



THE HINNY- 



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of Volterra is in highest estimation for bulk and 
good qualities, and therefore it is eagerly bought up 
to draw the carriages of cardinals and Roman 
church dignitaries. It is in Italy alone, as before 
remarked, that we find a mule in complete panoply 
is mounted by a knight in armour. It is observed 
of hybrids in general, that males are much more 
abundant than females, and the fact is equally true 
in the mules between ass and mare, where the males 
are in the proportion of two or three to one female : 



another observation proves IbaFtheoffspring always 
partake more of the character of the male parent 
than of the female ; thus, in the common mule, we 
perceive the ears to be long, the head, croup, and 
tail asinine; while in the hinny, or progeny of a 
stallion and female ass, the head, ears, body, and 
tail resemble the same organs in a horse ; but the 
mule in bulk and stature takes after the mare, and 
the hinny in like manner is low like the she-ass. 



THE HINNY. 
PLATE XXX. 

This animal, though rather more docile than the 
common mule, is of inferior utility, because less 
hardy and somewhat disproportioned in the bulk of 
the carcase in comparison with the legs, and there- 
fore more easily fatigued. Hinnies are now extremely 
rare in Europe, and even so uncommon in Barbary, 
that few have seen them, and when thev occur are 



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THE HINNY. 347 

a cause of marvel, which the Oriental mode of 
thinking is sure to emhellish. It was no doubt in 
Africa that the story arose, which was long credited 
in Europe, and seemed to have influence even upon 
Buffon, respecting a monstrous breed of hybrids be- 
tween a bull and female ass, or a male ass and cow : 
one author asserting that he had himself rode one in 
Piedmont, and others that they occurred in the 
valleys of the Pyrenees : the first mentioned variety, 
it was said, bore the name of Baf or Bof, and the 
second that of Bif. In France both were supposed 
to be known by the appellation of Jumar, a word 
clearly borrowed from one or other of the Arabic 
dialects, Ahmar or Hymar, already noticed. In 
Barbary, where this story is still believed, and per- 
sons assert they have seen individuals of the mon- 
ster form, we find, if they are all of the kind such 
as a black specimen already mentioned, that it is 
simply a hinny ; but the Western Arabs assert that 
these animals are wild, and produce in proof of it 
the species of horse we have described before under 
the name bestowed upon it by them, namely, the 
Koomrah; which having low withers, a bulky 
body, and the forehead covered with a woolly fur, 
has an e(juivocal appearance, perhaps sufficient to 
have raised suspicion of a bovine intermixture so 
early as to be the same animal which Herodotus 
without a description has denominated Boryes. 

In concluding this essay on the Natural History 
of Equidse, we beg to assure the reader, without 
claiming his implicit assent to the mode of viewing 



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348 



CONCLUSION; 



we have fearlessly ventured to submit as the result 
of our convictions, that vs^e arrived at them after 
researches originally made more amid the wile- 
scenery of Nature than among hooks, and that w. 
found them ever recurring where the maxims of our 
present physiology are incompetent to explain the 
phenomena which offer themselves; they do not 
cl^i^i to be demonstrations, but tentamina to excite 



- f^ "■ - L^^.l 



attention, ah3 to account for facts which otherwise 
are inexplicable. In the progress of science, in the 
accumulation of observation, we daily feel the neces- 
sity of abandoning dicta and maxims, which, after 
having been long trusted on authority, are gradually 
undermined, and finish by being surrendered. 

Thus, neither the depth of view, nor the elo- 
quence of Buffon, have been able to maintain many 
of his conclusions ; they have failed to uphold his 
" Tableaux de la Nature," and his " Degenerations 
des Animaux" has not fared better. If, in the 
leading points we have discussed, we should not 
carry with us the consent of scientific men, the 
cause may be justly ascribed to our inability more 
than to the doctrines here advocated ; and in abstruse 
questions, such as those where systematic nomen- 
clature and physiology are insufl&cient, we believe, 
in order to come at sound probabilities, that we must 
study also the earth's surface, the phenomena of 
its revolutions, its geographical history, and, finally, 
apply an enlightened philological system to the 
whole. Though every way humble and inadequate 
to grapple with these desiderata with real strength, 



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CONCLUSION. 



349 



t 



Ruch means as we possess have been made available, 
not to repeat a thrice told tale, but to offer views 
which close investigation into species appears to 
sanction, so far at least as those mammalia are con- 



Wisdom 



to be the solace and servant of man. 



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350 



SYNOPSIS OF THE EQUID^. 



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Incisors 



- cuspidate 
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molars 



or in the females of 
^~^ = 38 or 40 ; mo- 



some species ^^; ^_^ 

lars furrowed on each side with flat crowns and 
vermiform ridges of enamel ; void space between the 
cuspidate and molars ; upper lip very moveable ; 
eyes large, pupil elongated laterally; ears rather 
large, erect, very moveable ; feet solidungular ; tail 
setose, or with a tuft at the end ; mammae two, ingui- 
nal; stomach simple, membranaceous; intestines and 
csBcum very large ; colour plain, dappled, or striped. 



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THE EQUINE FORM. 

Equus cahallus. 

F 

Tail setose up to the root ; flowing mane ; raised 
withers ; round solid hoofs ; neighing voice ; mam- 
mae two. 

Eq. cahallus domestieus ., . The Bay Wild Horse or Tarpan. 

The White villous Wild Horse. 

The Black ? 

The Eelbaek Dun decussated, 

Eq. varius , . The Tangum or Kiang, 

Eq» Uppagru$ , The Koomrah of Africa, 



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SYNOPSIS OF THE EQUID^. 

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351 



THE ASININE FORM. 

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Tail with a tuft at tip ; forehead arched; nostrils 
more forward; withers low; mane rugged, short, 
erect ; ears long ; back carped ; hoof, soles oval ; 
voice hraying or dissonant; mammse two; colour 
silvery greys ; back decussated. 

Asinus equuleus The Yo-totze. 

A, onager The Wild Ass. 

A, hamar The Wild Ass of Persia. 

A . hemionus The Djiggetai. 




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THE HIPPOTIGRINE FORM. 

Tail asinine or equine ; withers slightly elevated ; 
ears long and wide ; mane erect, forming a standing 
crest ; hoof, soles anteriorly oval, posteriorly square ; 
colours white or clouded with rufous, but all more 
or less regularly and symmetrically striped ; voice 
various ; mammas two or four. 

Hippotigris zehra . . . , The Zebra. 

H. aniiquorum The Congo Dauw. 

//. Burclielli or campestris The Dauw. 

H.quacha The Quagga. 

H. isahellinus The Isabella Quagga, 






{■■ 




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HYBRIDS. 

The Mule. 
The Hinny. 
The Quagga Mule. 
The Zebra Mule. 



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MEMORANDUM. 



In reviewing the manuscript, the author requests 
the reader to correct a slight mistake in stating that 
Joseph sent a chariot and horses for his father, 
when he should have said that chariots and horses 
went up with him when the body of Jacob was 
carried for burial in the cave of the field of Mach- 
pelah ; and since the text was written, among many 
services rendered by Mr. Edward Blyth, whose me- 
rits as a naturalist are well known, the author has 
to thank him for an interesting notice of horse-teeth 
found at the Big Bone Lick, the well known place 
where the remains of Mastodon abound, which 
proves the existence of Equidas in North America 
during a former Zoology; and in that particular 

invalidates the remarks in the text concerning their 
pristine absence. 




THE END 



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EDINBURGH : 
PRINTED BY W. H. LIZARS, 




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