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Full text of "St. Paul's Epistle to the Philippians"

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ST PAUL'S EPISTLE 

TO THE 

PHILIPPIANS. 

FOR ENGLISH READERS. 



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ST PAUL'S EPISTLE 



TO THE 



PHILIPPIANS 



WITH TRANSLATION, PARAPHRASE, AND NOTES 



FOE ENGLISH READERS. 



BY 



a J, VAUGHAN, D.D. 

DEAN OP LLANDAFP, 
AND MASTER OF THE TEMPLE. 



Uontron : 
MACMILLAN AND CO. 

1885 

[Mi Righu reserved.] 



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tfambriDge : 



PBINTBD BY C. J. CLAY, M.A. & SON, 
AT THE UNIVERSITY PRHSS. 




■ ^"\y'>' 



St. A-^c 



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PREFACE. 



This little work is the product of a brief season of 
seclusion (occasioned by a failure of voice) in the 
Summer and Autumn of last year. I had intended 
to include in one Volume the four Epistles of the 
same period, but the resumption of active work 
postponed this project into a future too remote and 
precarious to be waited for. 

I once hoped to be able to prepare an Edition of 
St Paul's Epistles for English Readers. Many years 
ago I published the First Epistle to the Thessalonians 
as an instalment of this work, and proceeded some 
way with an Edition of the Epistle to the Galatians. 
But the arrangement was not quite satisfactory, 
and the notes were becoming too elabomte for their 
purpose. The appearance of Dr Lightfoot's work on 
the Galatians, anticipating me in many places and 
modifying my own view in others, led me to abandon 



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vi PREFACE. 

the attempt, and to cancel the sheets which were 
akeady struck off. 

More than twenty years ago I published a 
Volume of Lectures on the Epistle to the Philip- 
pians, which had been delivered in the Parish Church 
of Doncaster. Each Lecture was prefaced by a very 
literal rendering (from the Greek) of the passage to 
be commented upon, the text used being that ot 
Tischendorf's second Edition, without any attempt 
at discussion or comparison of readings. 

In the present publication I have taken as my 
basis the text of Professors Westcott and Hort, 
though I have exercised something of an independent 
judgment, and have departed in many places from 
their punctuation and paragraphing, matters too 
closely connected with interpretation to be taken at 
second hand by any commentator. It has been a 
pleasure to me thus to avail myself, late in life, of a 
work of which I was permitted more than a quarter 
of a century ago, by Dr Westcott's kindness, to give, 
I believe, the first specimen to the Public in an 
Edition which I published in 1859 of St Paul's 
Epistle to the Romans. 

A publication designed, like the present, for 
English Readers must of necessity have for its most 



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PREFACE. vii 

prominent feature an English translation. And that 
translation, to have any definite bearing upon the 
particular work, must of necessity be made for himself 
by the Editor. His object is not that of the Trans- 
lators of 1611 or of the Revisers of their work in 
1881. They had to make or to re-make a Version 
suitable for reading in Churches. In the latter case, 
that of the Revised Version, it was indispensable that 
new renderings should be kept in harmony with the 
old by a strict adherence to the English style and 
idiom of the Authorized. This one consideration 
marks a wide difference between that case and the 
present. The translation here given has answered 
its purpose when it has made clear to the reader the 
view of the individual annotator. He is fi:ee from 
any obligation to make his English what is commonly 
called Biblical. It is enough if he finds anywhere 
in the English language a phrase expressive of what 
he believes to be the thought of the Apostle. 

The freedom to which an individual Editor is 
evidently entitled in this particular is no less evi- 
dently his right in another. The preparation or 
revision of a Version for congregational reading must 
be made by a number of persons, entitled to an equal 
voice in the decision of each question arising in the 



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viii PREFACE. 

course of it. In such decisions, by a simple majority 
or by a majority of two-thirds of those present as 
the case may be, there can be little room for striking 
or telling results. Any bold or happy suggestion 
has to run the gauntlet of a multitudinous criticism, 
and the average judgment necessarily carries the day 
against the individual intuition. It can scarcely be, 
perhaps it scarcely ought to be, but that something 
of a colourless and negative character is thus given 
to the completed work. It would be interesting, 
in a large company of Revisers, to be allowed to 
know how each man would have rendered the whole 
of one Book or one Chapter, had he been left to 
himself to do it. It is quite conceivable, without 
any impatience of the unavoidable conditions of 
composite labour, that there might be touches of 
beauty or even sparks of genius here and there in 
the separate essays, which did not survive in the 
combined and finished work. If this be so, it is 
evident that the contribution of individuals to the 
translation as well as the interpretation of Scripture 
can never really be superseded by the most careful 
or the most successful of collective and corporate 
efforts. 

No man can undertake the task of translating 



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PREFACE. ix 

even a few Chapters of the Greek Testament, with- 
out a painful sense of failure. To produce an easy 
and spirited version of a speech of Demosthenes or a 
dialogue of Plato is by no means beyond the power 
of an expert in the two languages. But that which 
is forcible or felicitous as the rendering of a human 
composition may be in the highest degree distasteful 
in the case of an inspired writing. There the instinct 
of reverence must check alike the clever turn and 
the popular paraphrase, and the result is sure to 
bewray the limits and trammels of the process. 

In the preparation of this Volume, as in all 
previous undertakings of the same kind, I have 
abstained from any direct reference to the notes and 
comments of others. For better or worse, I have 
written down the results of my own diligent study, 
alike in the interpretation of the text and in the 
selection of passages used in illustration. It is thus, 
I think, rather than by an attempted comparison of 
the varying or conflicting opinions of previous com- 
mentators, that a man may best hope to contribute 
his little quota to the knowledge and thought of his 
generation. At the same time every one must be 
conscious how little he can have to offer which is in 
any real sense original — how much, on the contrary, 



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X PREFACE. 

of his own contribution is the product, unconsciously 
at least, of the work of previous toilers — how true, 
in this as in every field of effort, is the humbling yet 
encouraging reflexion, ' Other men laboured, and ye 
have entered into their labours/ 

While professing to contemplate English readers 
rather than students of the original in this Edition 
of St Paul's Epistle to the Philippians, I have not 
scrupled to introduce Greek words into the notes 
where it was impossible without doing so to make 
the necessary explanations intelligible, and I have 
placed the Greek text itself on alternate pages face 
to face with the English rendering. I have hoped 
thus to make the book useful to two classes of 
readers, without losing sight of its special designa- 
tion for one. 

The Temple, 
ApHl 11, 1885. 



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INTKODUCTION. 



The Epistle to the Philippians belongs to a group 
of four letters, written by St Paul during that two 
years' imprisonment at Rome with which the history 
in the Acts closes*. The references in the Epistle 
to the PrsBtorian camp* and to the Emperor's house- 
hold' make the place of writing certain, while the 
allusions to his bonds*, and to the consequences to 
himself and his work", place beyond doubt the cir- 
cumstances of the writer. 

Three of these four Epistles are shown by in- 
ternal evidence to be actually contemporaneous. 
Two of them, those (namely) to the Ephesians and 
the Colossians, are inseparably linked together by 
thought and phrase, by topic and order, by the 
person of the bearer and the identity of his com- 
mission*. The third, that to Philemon, is as de^' 
cisively linked to the second by the name of its 

' Acts xxviii. i6, 30. " Phil. i. 13. 

» Phil. iv. 22. ' Phil. i. 13. 

• Phil. i. 12, 19, &c. 

• Compare Eph. vi. 21, 22 with Col. iv. 7, 8. 

V. P. 1 



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2 INTRODUCTION. 

bearer, by one of the persons saluted, and by 
several of the persons saluting \ 

It is equally evident that the letter to the 
Philippians is entirely independent of the rest, as 
much in date as in destination. Its topics are dif- 
ferent, its language is different, its tone is different. 
Beyond the fact that in all the four St Paul is a 
prisoner, and that in three of them, and by clear 
inference in the fourth also, Timotheus is his com- 
panion*, there is nothing to prove the identity even 
of the imprisonment, much less of the point in the 
imprisonment which was the moment of the writing. 

The question therefore arises, was the Epistle to 
the Philippians prior or subsequent in time to the 
other three ? And different answers have been given 
to this enquiry. 

Some have seen indications in the Epistle to the 
Philippians of an advanced stage in the imprison- 
ment, a closer and harsher treatment, and a less 
hopeful view of the result. In modification of such 
statements it may be urged that, so far from 
anticipating a fatal close, St Paul expresses in strong 
terms his confidence that, though the question of 
life or death is trembling in the balance, the issue 
will be his continuance in life'. And just as in one 
of the other three letters he bids his friend at 

* Compare Philem. lo, &c. with Col. iv. 9 ; Philem. 2 with 
Col. iv. 17 ; Philem. 23, 24 with Col. iv. 10, 12, 14. 

" Phil. i. I. Col. i. I. PhUem. i. » Phil. i. 25. 



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INTKODUCTION. 3 

C0I0SS8B to prepare for his reception, as hoping to 
be (as he expresses it) 'granted' to those who have 
prayed for his deliverance^ so, when he writes to 
the Philippians, he is * hoping in the Lord that he 
shall speedily come to them'*, though he fully 
recognizes the precariousness of a life still dependent 
on the casualties of a Roman trial. 

If then the argument for the later date of the 
letter to the Philippians is thus inconclusive, does 
the subject-matter of the Epistle give any encourage- 
ment to an opposite view ? It has been powerfully 
urged that it does'. 

St Paul's Epistles are commonly divided into 
four groups or volumes, distinct from each other 
scarcely more in date than in subject. Of these 
four groups the one before us is the third. It 
foUows, at an interval of four or five years, that 
weighty and massive volume of which the Epistle 
to the Galatians, the first and second Epistles to 
the Corinthians, and the Epistle to the Romans, 
are the component parts. The two Epistles to the 
Corinthians deal largely with local and personal 
matters, and though they abound in passages of 
transcendant importance and incomparable beauty, 
yet on the whole they leave to the other two, the 
first and last in the volume, the developement of that 
great controversy, which for many years of his life 

* Philem. 22. * Phil. ii. 24. 

• See Bp Lightfoot's Introduction. 

1—2 

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4 INTRODUCTION. 

was the hinge and pivot of St Paul's activity, the 
contest between a pure and a mixed Gospel, between 
Christ as the complement or supplement of Judaism 
and a Christ sufficient of Himself for the salvation 
of sinners and of the world. 

This controversy had in some measure spent 
itself when St Paul entered upon his compulsory 
retirement at Csesarea and Rome. In the one 
Epistle of the third volume which can alone be 
called in any sense polemical, that to the Colossians, 
the form and shape of the adversary is visibly altered 
since the days of the Galatian and Roman argument. 
Ingredients there are of Judaism in the new com- 
pound — the law of ritual and ceremonial, with its 
Rabbinical glosses upon the Divine original, is still 
there, and still potent — ^but it is mingled now with 
other and at first sight incongruous elements, with 
an Oriental speculation and an Essene asceticism 
which carry the war into other regions, and which will, 
in the fourth and last volume of the letters, those of 
the period of freedom between the two captivities and 
of the second imprisonment itself, develope a still 
further growth of heresy, necessitating in the great 
combatant a new terminology and a new phraseology 
to deal with it, furnishing new difficulties to the 
student and new facilities to the sceptic. 

We must not anticipate the topics of other In- 
troductions. At present the remark is this — that 
the Epistle to the Philippians, in its one contro- 



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INTRODUCTION. S 

versial chapter, has no word for those peculiar 
vagaries of error which are the predominant subject 
of the Epistle to the Colossians. It seems im- 
probable that St Paul should entirely ignore these, 
in writing to his most dearly loved Church of 
PhUippi, if they had already taken that place in his 
thoughts which they certainly occupied when he 
wrote to the Church of CoIosssb. The object of his 
attack in the third Chapter of the Epistle to the 
PhUippians is quite that of the second volume of his 
letters, of the Epistle to the Galatians and the 
Epistle to the Romans. If this be so, is it not pro=- 
bable that the Epistle to the Philippians was written 
before the old controversy had been succeeded by the 
new — that it was the connecting link (in some sense) 
between the second period and the third, though 
belonging itself to the latter, as the Epistle to the 
Colossians is the connecting link (in some sense). 
between the third period and the fourth of St Paul's 
writings, though itself belonging to the former ? 

This consideration weighs powerfully with us in 
attempting to fix the place of the letter to the 
Philippians among the four Epistles of its group. 

We are quite aware that such arguments may be 
overstated. The spiritual circumstances, known to 
St Paul, of one Church might be wholly different 
from the spiritual circumstances, also known to 
St Paul, of another Church. To each he would 
address himself according to the requirements of 



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6 INTRODUCTION. 

each. We do not think it necessary (for example) 
to change the received place of the Epistle to the 
Galatians in order to bring it next to the Epistle to 
the Romans, because it resembles it in subject or 
even in phrase. The reminiscences of a recent visit 
to Galatia, of its painfiil character and its distressing 
close, are too evident and too prominent in the 
Epistle to allow us to relegate it to a position which 
would imply a three or a four years' interval between 
the visit and the letter. We still leave the two 
Epistles to the Corinthians between that to the 
Galatians and that to the Romans, supposing that 
the condition of the Corinthians made other matters 
more urgent for them than the refutation of the 
Judaizing heresy, and prepared to expect a con- 
siderable similarity, even of phrase, in writing upon 
the same subject, even at a considerable interval of 
time, to the Churches of Galatia and of Rome. 
Doubtless it might be so in the instance now before 
us. St Paul might know that the Asiatic heresy 
of Colossae would have no interest or no meaning 
for the European community at Philippi. We do 
not press it as an argument which constrains con- 
viction, only as a consideration which ought to have 
weight. 

In any case the Epistle to the Philippians cannot 
be assigned to the very beginning of St Pauls 
residence as a prisoner in Rome. Space must be 
gjlowed for the operation of those eflfects of his 



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INTRODUCTION. 7 

imprisonment of which he speaks in the first cjiapter\ 
The spread of his influence in the Praetorian camp 
on the one hand, in the Palace of the Emperor on 
the other, must have been the work of time. There 
is one special incident of the period, known to us 
only from the Epistle itself, for which room and 
scope must be left. The Philippians had heard of 
St Paul's coming to Rome ; had sent Epaphroditus 
to Home from Philippi with pecuniary supplies ; had 
heard of the illness of Epaphroditus at Rome ; had 
even communicated to him their distress on hearing 
of it' — these four occurrences imply a certain lapse 
of time, and all of them are prior to the writing of 
the Epistle itself. Still, allowing a few months, or a 
large part of a year, for all this, the Epistle before 
us might still be the first written of the four, and 
still be separated from the other three by a very 
considerable interval. 

St Paul's connexion with Philippi had begun 
about ten years before his arrival in Rome, Accom- 
panied by Silas fi:om Antioch', by Silas and Ti- 
motheus fi:om Lystra or Derbe*, by Silas, Timotheus, 
and Luke from Troas^ he for the first time landed 
in Europe, and made his first halt at the Roman 
' colony ' of Philippi'. His work; began there on the 
humblest scale. A few women gathered in the 

* Phil. L 13, &c ■ Phil, il 25, Ac. iv. 18. 
' Acts XV. 40. * Acts xvi. 3. 

• Acts xvi. II. • Acts xvi. 12. 



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8 INTRODUCTION. 

Jewish ' place of prayer ' by the river-side without 
the city, formed his first coiigregation\ The first 
convert was an Asiatic ' purple-seUer ' fi:'om Thyatira, 
and her house became the home of the little party 
of Evangelists during their stay in Philippi*. 
Troubles soon began. A Greek slave-girl, * possessed 
with a spirit of divination', was restored to sanity 
by the word of St Paul, and her ' masters ', who had 
trafficked in her misery, made their selfish loss a 
plea for dragging him and Silas before the * magis- 
trates ' (the duumviri or prcetors of the ' colony ') as 
disturbers of the peace and innovators upon the 
Roman ' customs' of the self-important community*. 
The terrible scourging, the eventfiil night in the 
prison, the conversion of the jailer, and the triumph- 
ant exit of the sufferers, made the third act in 
the drama of the first visit*. After a sorrowful 
parting with 'the brethren' — the nucleus already 
formed of the future Church of Philippi — St Paul, 
with two of his companions, Silas and Timotheus, 
pursues his way to other towns of Macedonia, and 
from Berasa goes on alone to Athens and to 
Corinth'. 

But a mutual affection of exceptional strength 
had sprung up between him and the Philippian 
converts. Already at Thessalonica, when he had 

^ Acts xvi 13. ■ Acts xvi 15. 

• Acts xvi. 16 — 21. * Acts xvi. 22 — 40. 

' Acts xvii. xviii. i. 



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INTRODUCTION. 9 

but lately left them, they sent him supplies — ac- 
cepted by him from them alone of the Churches \ 
Again at Corinth, apparently by the hands of Silas 
and Timotheus, who had been sent back to relieve 
his anxiety about the state of some of the new 
Christian communities, the same Philippian con-, 
gregation renewed its loving assistance ^ 

Six or seven years pass, and St Paul brings to 
its close his long residence at Ephesus. He then 
passes again by Troas into Macedonia '. It is a time 
of great anxiety. The state of the Church of 
Corinth has caused him the keenest distress he has 
yet known in *the anxiety of the congregations*.' It 
is from Macedonia, and in aU likelihood from Philippi 
or Thessalonica, that he writes his second letter to 
Corinth'. We know nothing from the Acts of the 
Apostles of the details of this part of his journey. 
His faithful chronicler, St Luke, appears then to 
have been absent. He arrives in Greece, and 
during a three months' abode there he writes (ap- 
parently from Corinth) his great letter to the Church 
of Rome '. From Greece he retraces his steps into 
Macedonia, paying his third visit to Philippic 
There at last St Luke rejoins him^ and by his 

• PhU. iv. IS, 16. 

■ Acts xviii. 5. 2 Cor. xi. 9. i Thess. iii. i, 2. 

• Acts XX. I. 2 Cor. ii 12. * 2 Cor. xi.'28. 

• 2 Cor. viii. i. ix. 2. • Acts xx. 2, 3. Eom. xvi. i, 23. 
^ Acts XX. 3, 6. • Acts XX. 5. 



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lo INTRODUCTION. 

presence opens another section of the more detailed 
biography. From Philippi, with several companions 
whose names are preserved to us^, the Apostle begins 
his voyage and his journey towards his capture at 
Jerusalem, his two years' detention at Ca3sarea, and 
his two years' confinement at Rome. 

This brief sketch has noticed all the occasions of 
which any record remains to us of personal inter- 
course between St Paul and the Church to which he 
here writes. He was to see it once more, but not 
till after his release from the first Roman captivity. 
Then, according to the brief hint given in his first 
Pastoral letter, he, on some occasion of which no 
explanation is given, went into Macedonia from 
Ephesus, leaving Timotheus there in charge*. But 
this belongs altogether to a later period of the 
history. 

. St Paul is a prisoner in Rome when he writes 
this Epistle to Philippi. The last chapters of the 
Acts contain a fiill record of the dangerous and 
suffering voyage from Csesarea, ending in the ship- 
wreck, and of the later progress, by Syracuse and 
Rhegium, to Puteoli, and finally by the Via Appia 
to Rome'. At Rome he was still in custody, but it 
was that least severe form of confinement which left 
the choice even of a dwelling (doubtless within 
some strict limits) free*, and placed the prisoner 

* Acts XX. 4. ■ I Tim. L 3. 

• Acts xxviL xxviiL i — 16. * Acts xxviii. 30. 



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INTKODUCTION. ii 

under the charge of a single soldier \ changed every 
few hours, to whose left arm his own right arm was 
constantly chained *, and by whom every movement 
and every utterance was necessarily overlooked and 
overheard. When we think of these Epistles as 
the work of one placed in circumstances so trying to 
flesh and blood, it must raise still higher our esti- 
mate of the greatness of that grace which alone 
could give composure to the spirits and elevation to 
the thoughts of the writer. 

St Paul was enabled to make this unsympathetic 
and uncongenial companionship minister to the great 
cause to which his life was given. His bonds, he 
tells us, were the subject of notice and comment 
through the whole camp of the Praetorians I Never 
before, surely, had that motley concourse of rude 
and ignorant men, held together by nothing but 
the strong arm of military discipline, had the oppor- 
tunity presented to them of witnessing the refining, 
elevating, transforming influence of the new faith, 
as it was shown in its full strength and beauty 
in the character of the captive Apostle. If this had 
been all, the words would have been sufficiently 
verified, 'The things which are befalling me have 
resulted rather in the progress than in the retro- 
gression of the Gospel \ ' 

But St Luke opens a wider view than this of 

* Acts xxviii. i6. ' Acts xxviii. 20. Eph. vL 20. 

» Phil. i. 13. * Phil. i. 12. 



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12 INTRODUCTION. 

the influences of the Apostle's confinement, when he 
speaks of his receiving, through these two whole 
years, in his own hired lodging, all that came in 
unto him\ He applies to that private intercourse 
the very terms which belong more naturally to the 
work of one at large, * preaching' and 'teaching'*. 
We must modify our first ideas of bonds and im- 
prisonment. We must take account of that long 
day, 'from morning till evening', spent in earnest 
argument with * the chief of the Jews ' convened by 
him for the express purpose of explanation and dis- 
cussion*. We must call to mind that long list of 
Roman residents, already disciples, already per- 
sonally known to him, which is contained in the 
closing Chapter of an Epistle dated some three or 
four years before his own arrival in the capital*. 
That list had doubtless received many additional 
names in the interval between the record of the twen- 
tieth chapter and the record of the twenty-eighth 
chapter of the Acts of the Apostles. There was 
already a Church of Rome before St Paul had to 
do with it. Already 'their faith was proclaimed 
throughout the whole world ' when he prayed for a 
prosperous journey to visit them'. Many of them 
were known to him much more than by name at 
that earlier date*. The announcement of his having 

' Acts xxviii. 30. * Acts xxviii. 31. 

" Acts xxviii. 23. * Rom. xvL 3 — 15. 

• Rom. L 8, 10. • Rom. xvi. 3, &c. 



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INTRODUCTION. 13 

reached *the Market of Appius' and 'the Three 
Taverns ' on his journey towards Rome as a prisoner 
drew forth 'the brethren' to meet him\ Ah*eady 
therefore the Gospel had its numerous friends and 
adherents in the Imperial city, and had even found 
its way (it is more than probable) into the vast 
' family ' which crowded the Palace of the Emperor. 
The effect of his arrival and residence in Rome 
was marked and powerful. His very bonds, he says, 
instead of daunting or abashing, encouraged and 
emboldened the brethren ^ A feeling of deep sym- 
pathy quickened the zeal of many to help the work 
which he could no longer himself do publicly. In 
other cases, strange as the statement sounds to us, 
an unfriendly motive prompted the activity*. There 
were those who disliked and mistrusted him, even 
within the Christian body. Whether their hearts 
were still hankering after a suppressed and dis- 
avowed Judaism, or whether some more personal 
feeling was the secret of their ill-will, we can know 
only by the vaguest conjecture. Of one thing we 
maybe confident, that St Paul's 'rejoicing' in the 
success even of these last* implies that the preaching 
was evangelical, whatever its motive. The preaching 
of 'another Gospel', which he hastens to say was 
' not another ' because it had no claim to the title of 



* Acts xxviii. 15. * Phil. i. 14. 

» Phil. L 15—17. ' Phil. i. 18. 



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14 INTEODTJCTrON. 

a Gospel at alP, would certainly have been as far 
beyond his toleration when he wrote to Philippi 
from Rome as when he wrote from Ephesus to 
Galatia. We admire the magnanimity which made 
him indifferent to the motive, we could not admire 
the inconsistency which would have been involved 
in indifference to the doctrine. 

Something, however, there was in the circum- 
stances of the moment, which roused in St Paul, 
as he writes to the Philippians, the old fire of his 
jealousy for the preaching of an unmixed Christ. 
Whether from an instinctive suspicion of the secret 
unsoundness of the unfriendly preachers just men- 
tioned, or from some fresh experience, in other forms 
or other directions, of the indestructible vitaUty of 
the old Judaizing, he devotes one of the two most 
remarkable passages of the Epistle before us to the 
reassertion, in solemn and sublime language, of the 
Gospel pure and simple as he had preached it all 
along among the Gentiles*. Nowhere are we ad- 
mitted into a closer or tenderer intimacy with the 
heart of the man in its deepest secrets of aflSance 
and aspiration. *That I may know Him, and the 
power of His resurrection, and the fellowship of His 
sufferings.' 'This one thing I do — I press toward 
the mark'.' 

The Epistle to the Philippians will ever remain 

* Gal. i 6, 7. • Phil. iii. 2, &c. 

• Phil. iii. 10, 14. 



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INTRODUCTION. 15 

as the noblest example to be found anywhere in 
the inspired writings of the working of the pastoral 
heart. * Lovest thou me ? * then * feed my sheep ' — 
such is the unwritten but most real epitome of the 
four Chapters which compose it. Nowhere do we 
more admiringly trace the beautiful combination of 
dignity and dehcacy, of force and tenderness, in the 
character of the great Apostle, than in those more 
level passages of this short letter, in which, for 
example, he expresses his gratitude for their gifts, 
and yet his independence of all gifts ; his gratification 
in the revival of their care for him, and yet his full 
confidence that that care had never really undergone 
change or interruption. Nowhere more conspicuously 
than in the incidental disclosures of this letter to the 
Philippians do we behold the power of Divine grace 
in transfiguring the whole mind and heart of those 
who believe; cultivating and civilizing in the very 
act of evangelizing and sanctifying; calling into 
existence a whole world of beautiful feelings, generous 
affections, and unselfish impulses ; above all, creating 
a new relationship between man and man, directly 
traceable to that revelation of a free forgiveness and 
an indwelling Spirit, which is the 'secret', long 
hidden, in the fiilness of time told, of the everlasting 
Gospel. 

The Epistle to the Philippians is rapid in its 
transitions from narrative to doctrine, fi:om doctrine 



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i6 INTRODUCTION. 

to narrative. In the same degree, j^ is, beyond 
most of St Paul's Epistles, impatient of analysis. 
The following sketch aims rather to track the 
windings of its course, than to spoil its naturalness 
by an attempt to arrange or to methodize. 

I. Address and greeting . . chap. L verses i, 2. 
thankful and hopeful view of them . . i. 3 — 8. 
special desires for their growth in discernment 

and consistency i. 9 — 11. 

II. Narrative i. 12 — 30. 

(i) effects of his * bonds', without and within 

the Christian body .... 12 — 14. 
the latter presenting a painful phenome- 
non, in which yet he can find matter for 

satisfaction 15—20. 

(2) his own state of mind in the present 

suspense — conflicting feelings . . 21 — 24. 

* I shall not die, but live' — ^live, for your sake 25, 26. 
but, however this may be, be stedfast, 
be brave — regarding your sufferings as 

(a) a token, (6) a boon . . . 27 — 30. 

III. Hortatory: on unity iL i — 11. 

(i) its foes — vanity, and selfishness . . 3, 4. 

(2) its motive— the example of Christ . 5 — 11. 
His voluntary self-abasement — 

(a) to human nature .... 6, 7. 

(h) in it— ..... 8. 

and the great reward ..... 9 — 11. 

work out your salvation — ^for God works in you ii. 12, 13. 

especially in unity — 

(a) for the sake of example to others . . ii. 14, 15. 
(6) and of comfort to me, who would gladly 

die for you as I have lived for you . . ii. 16 — 18. 



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INTRODUCTION. 



17 



IV. Prospective 

intentions, as to communications with them 

by Timotheus 
and in peraon 
meanwhile by Epaphroditus 

V. Hortatory 

(i) the duty of joy 

(2) beware of false teachers who fail to see 
that Christ's people are the true Israel . 

account of his own transition from the old 

trust to the new 

and of his present life of effort and aspiration 
be true to present attainments, and God will 
lead you on 

(3) beware of the evil example of the real 
'enemies of the cross', the sensual and 
earthly-minded 

our life is already in heaven — our expectation 

that of a Saviour and a resurrection . 
*so stand fast' 

(4) a particular case of discord tenderly 
dealt with 

(5) several short precepts — joy — charity — 
prayer, and its blessing .... 

directions for thought, and directions for conduct 

VI. Acknowledgment of gifts .... 
I hail them as tokens of love 

content without, thankful for them 
you were of old, you alone, my benefactors in 
this way ....... 

* I seek not yours but you ' . . . . 

' I have all and abound ' . . . . 

and God will not let you want 

to Him be glory ...... 

VII. Final greetings, and benediction . 
V. P. 



11. 19 — 30. 

19—23. 

24. 

25—30, 

iii. I — ^iv. 9. 

I. 

2,3- 

4— II. 
12 — 14: 

15, 16. 



17—19. 

20, 21. 
iv. I. 

4—7. 

8,9. 

iv. 10 — 20. 

10. 

II — 14. 

15, 16. 

17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
iv. 21 — 23. 
2 



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TO THE PHILIPPIANS. 



I Paul ancj Timotheus, servants of Christ 



I. I, 2. *We write to the 
Christians at Philip{>i, with their 
ministers ; and we wish you 
grace and peace.' 

I. Timothetts] Of Derbe or 
Lystra (Acts xvi. i) ; already a 
'disciple* when St Paul visits 
those places for the second time ; 
yet claimed by St Paul as his 
*own son in the faith' (i Tim. 
i. 2), converted therefore in his 
first visit (Acts xiv. 6, 23). He 
accompanied Paul and Silas, 
from Derbe or Lystra, on the 
second missionary journey, and 
was with him at Philippi in the 
first founding of the Church 
there (2 Cor. i. 19), left Philippi 
with him, but remained at Berea 
when St Paul went on to Athens 
(Acts xvii 14), rejoined him 
either at Athens (Acts xvii. 
15) or at Corinth (Acts xviii. 
5), the passage in i Thess. iii. 
I, 2 being rea% consistent with 
either supposition. He con- 
tinued with St Paul at Corinth 
(i Thess. i. I. 2 Thess. i. i), was 
with him during a part at least 
of the long residence at Ephesus 
(Acts xix.) in the third mission- 



ary journey, and after being sent 
on into Macedonia (Acts xix. 
22) and to Corinth (i Cor. iv. 
17) probably before the writing 
of the first Epistle to the Corin- 
tliians (i Cor. xvi. 10), had 
rejoined him before the second 
Epistle to the Corinthians was 
written from Macedonia (2 Cor. 
i. i). He was with St Paul 
when he wrote to the Romans 
(Rom. xvi. 21) probably from 
Corinth (Acts xx. 2, 3. Rom. 
XV. 25, 26. xvi. I, 23), was with 
him at Philippi on that second 
(or rather third) visit there, and 
was one of those who * accom- 
panied him into Asia' (Acts 
XX. 4) on the voyage and 
journey which ended in his 
capture at Jerusalem (Acts xxi. 
30). He is not mentioned 
dui'ing the two years' detention 
at Csesarea, nor in the narrative 
of the voyage and journey to 
Rome, but was with St Paul 
when he wrote thence to the 
Philippians (PhiL i. i. iU 19, 
23), the Colossians (Col. i. i), 
and Philemon (i). The later 
history of Timothy is known 



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npo5 0iAinnH5ioY5, 



ITayaoS Kui Tifxodeo^i BovXol Xpio-roO I. i 



only from the fragmentary hints 
in the two Epistles addressed 
to him by St Paul, the former 
written in the interval between 
the two imprisonments at 
Rome, and the latter during 
the second which ended in 
martyrdom. In the former, and 
apparently (though not ex- 
pressly) in the latter also, 
Timothy is addressed as in 
charge of the Church at Ephe- 
sus (i Tim. is), with authority 
to ordain (i Tim. iii. i, &c. v. 
22. 2 Tim. ii 2), to exercise dis- 
cipline over ministers (i Tim. 
V. 19) and people (2 Tim. iv. 2), 
to regulate worship (i Tim. ii.) 
and doctrine (i Tim. i. 3, &c. 
2 Tim. ii. 14), to superintend 
and control institutions (i Tim. 
V. 9 — 16), and generally to dis- 
charge Episcopal functions as 
the delegate and representative 
of the Apostle (i Tim. iii. 14. 
iv. 13). Whether the charge 
was permanent or temporary 
does not appear. At all events, 
St Paul regards him as free to 
leave Ephesus, and does in fact 
summon him to his own presence 



at Rome (2 Tim. iv. 9, 11, 21). 
Whether the passages about the 
ordination of Timothy (i Tim. 
L 18. iv. 14. 2 Tim. i. 6, 14) 
refer to the charge at Ephesus, 
or to his first commission as 
an Evangelist, is not certain, 
but the latter supposition seems 
the more probable. The *good 
confession made by him before 
many witnesses' (i Tim. vi. 
12) may be a reminiscence of 
his baptism rather than of 
either of the two occasions just 
mentioned. * The prophecies 
which went before on (pointing 
to) thee' (i Tim. i. 18) were 
probably some such utterances 
of * prophets' designating Timo- 
thy for the ministry, as we 
read of in Acts xiii. i, 2 in 
the case of the first special mis- 
sion of St Paul himself. That 
Timothy should be here as- 
sociated with St Paul in writing 
to the Philippiau Church, of 
which he had assisted in the 
founding, and which he had 
visited since that time, twice at 
least, in company with St Paul, 
is quite natural. But so little 
2—2 



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20 



TO THE PHILIPPIANS. 



I. I Jesus, to all the saints in Christ Jesus that are in 
Philippi, with any their bishops and deacons. 



does he really share in the com- 
position of the letter that St 
Paul writes throughout in the 
singular number, and when he 
has occasion to mention Timothy 
(ii. 19) speaks of him in the 
third person. The character of 
Timothy, as represented by St 
Paul in this Epistle and else- 
where, is faultless and beautiful. 
The inference of indecision and 
faintheartedness, which some 
have drawn from St Paul's ex- 
hortations to courage and devo- 
tion in his letters to Timothy, 
seems to be quite fanciful. 

SSfrvants] Literally, slaves. 
That rendering might sound 
hai*shly in modem ears. But 
when we think of the two ideas 
suggested by the word, owner- 
ship on the one side and de- 
votedness on the other, we shall 
feel that to be the slave (the 
lfiA^nr)(pv ofjyavovy the animated 
implement) of Jesus Christ could 
be nothing but the highest hu- 
man glory. St Paul so de- 
scribes himself in the first verse 
(also) of his Epistle to the 
Romans ; and St James, St 
Peter (2 Pet i. i), and St Jude 
take the same title. See also 
Gal. i. 10. Tit. i. i {servant 
of God), Col, iv. 12 {Epaphras 
a servant of Christ Jesus), 2 
Tim. ii. 24. 

tSaints] ffolypersons,The pro- 



minent thought, when the word 
(aytos) is applied to Christians 
indiscriminately, is that of con- 
secration rather than of sanctifi- 
cation; of the act of God in 
claiming as His own and caus- 
ing the response of the man to 
that claim in the Christian con- 
fession, rather than of the de- 
gree in which the life, inward 
and outward, has been brought 
into haimony with the call and 
the profession. Thus the Co- 
rinthian Christians, with all their 
faults, are addressed by St Paul 
as saints by Gods call (i Cor. i. 
2), no less than the Romans 
(Rom. i. 6). Compare i Cor. 
vii. 14, where the children of 
one Christian parent are said 
to be holy in virtue of that re- 
lationship. 

In Christ Jesus\ These words 
belong to saints (see iv. 21) 
who are such in virtue of be- 
ing included or contained in 
Christ. See i Cor. i. 30, and 
of Him (God) are ye in Christ 
Jesus. 

With any their bishops and 
deacons\ An attempt has been 
made in this rendering to mark 
the absence of the definite arti- 
cle in the Greek. St Paul does 
not address the ministers of the 
Church at Philippi as known 
to him personally or by name. 
He speaks of them as the na- 



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npos ^lAinnHSioTS. 



21 



'Itjcovy ttSctip Toh dyioi^ ev XpKrrw 'Irjcrov toi^ L i 
ovo'ii/ ev (PlXittttoiSj cvu iTncKoiroi^ Kal SiaKOi/ois, 



tural and necessary complement 
of the Christian people. 

Bishops and deacons'] It is 
obvious that bishops (hna-Koiroi) 
here are synonymous with pres- 
hyters (Trpco-^vrcpot). The same 
inference is justly drawn in 
Acts XX., where St Paul sum- 
mons the dders {presbyters) of 
the Church of Ephesus (verse 
17), and then addresses them 
as bishops (verse 28). In i Tim. 
iii., he passes at once from the 
qualifications of the bishop 
(verses i — 7) to those of the 
deacon (8 — 13). And in the 
Epistle to Titus, after saying 
that he had left him in Crete 
to ordain elders (presbyters), 
who must possess certain quali- 
fications, he goes on to say, for 
a bishop must be blameless (Tit. 
i. 5 — 9). The one term (bishop, 
overlooker) is suggestive of the 
duty, the other term (elder, 
senior) of the dignity, of the 
office. The one, a classical word 
for a particular officer of the 
Athenian constitution, Twa^/ have 
been in use by preference in the 
Gentile Churches, the other in 
the Jewish. The eventual limi- 
tation of the former to the one 
chief minister of a group of 
Churches, belongs to the gene- 
ration after the Apostles, though 
already foreshadowed in the 
position of James the Lord's 



brother (Gal. i. 19. Acts xxi. 
18) at Jerusalem, and in the 
functions assigned by St Paul to 
Timothy at Ephesus and to 
Titus in Crete. The perpetual 
Presence promised to the Church 
(Matt, xxviii. 20) is a living 
power, adapting the institutions 
as well as the energies of the 
Christian society to the needs 
of each age — yet so as that the 
three functions of ruling, shep- 
herding, and serving, shall al- 
ways be exercised and always 
embodied in the ministry of the 
period. At first the Apostles 
were tlie sole ministera; then 
Apostles and deacons ; then 
Apostles, presbyters (bishops), 
and deacons ; then Apostles 
(represented here and there by 
delegates), presbyters (bishops), 
and deacons; finally, bishops, 
presbyters, and deacons. Names 
and titles change, J)oth in use 
and meaning; but the essence 
changes not. The Pentecostal 
gift of men for the service of 
men (Eph. iv. 11) has never 
been withdrawn in any one of 
its operations ; not even where 
the particular community has 
preferred (wisely or unwisely) 
to put the Episcopal office itself 
into commission, acting by a 
council of presbyters and not by 
one ruling elder. The definition 
of Church in our Article leaves 



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22 



TO THE PHILIPPIANS. 



I. 2 Grace to you and peace from God our Father and 
the Lord Jesus Christ. 

3 I thank my God for all my remembrance of 

4 you, always in all supplication of mine making 

5 my supplication for you all with joy, for your 

room for this charitable and the whole of God's love in Christ 

(see note on verse 7). Grace 
(without the definite article) 
means the putting forth of that 
free favour which in God never 
stops ^ith. feeling but manifests 
itself in blessing. Benevolence 
and beneficence are one in God. 
Hence grace in its usual theolo- 
gical sense is the natural se- 
quence and consequence of its 
sense in the original Greek. 

Peace"] Peace is the harmony 
of the being ; in its three rela- 
tions and aspects, towards God, 
towards itself, towards fellow 
beings (Rom. v. i. 2 Thess. iii. 
16. E-om. xii. 18). It is the 
result of the realization of grace, 
and is commonly so placed in 
the Apostolic greetings. Twice 
only does St Paul, and once St 
John, interpose a third term, 
mercy, between the two (i Tim. 
i. 2. 2 Tim. i. 2. 2 John 3). 

From God... and tlie Lord] 
An incidental and oft-recurring 
testimony, of the deepest kind, 
to the true Divinity of our Lord 
Jesus Christ. It would be as 
much insanity as blasphemy to 
wish grace and peace from God 
and — a man. 

3 — II. * My recol lection of 
you is all thankfulness, and 



reasonable comprehensiveness. 

Deacons] The institution of 
the diaconate may fairly be 
traced to Acts vi., though the 
title itself does not occur either 
there or in any later mention of 
individuals among the seven 
(see, for example. Acts xxi. 8, 
where Philip, one of the seven, 
is styled not the deacon but the 
evangelist). There is, in fact, 
no scripture proof of the actual 
or intended permanence of the 
particular institution recorded 
in that narrative of Acts vL It is 
not till we reach this Epistle to 
the Philippians (interpreted as it 
is by the Pastoral Epistles) that 
the office of deacon is stereo- 
typed as one of the Orders of 
the Church. Expressions such 
as those of Rom. xii. 7, and still 
more of Rom. xvi. i, are too 
vague to be appropriated to an 
office. 

2. Grace] Grace is free fa- 
vour, the opposite alike of wrath 
(Eph. ii. 3, 5) and of debt (Rom. 
iv. 4). It difters from mercy as 
non-merit from demerit in the 
recipient. Grace might be shown 
to a worthy person ; mercy pre- 
supposes a sinful and lost state. 
Sometimes the grace expresses 



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npox 4>iAinnH2iOTS. 



23 



Kvpiov ^lr}(rov Xpicrov^ 

EvxctpicrdS Tft> ©€« jiiov eirl Trdarj rj; fxveict^ 
vfivivy irdvTore iu Trdo'ri hericei fiov virep Trdi/Twu 4 
vfiwi/ fxerd x^P^^ '^^^ Seticiu Troiovfievo^, im ttj 5 



every prayer of mine for you is 
full of joy. When I think of 
your united devotion to the 
Gospel from the first day until 
now, I cannot doubt that the 
good work begun in you will 
have its accomplishment in the 
day of Jesus Christ. I find my 
warrant for this confidence alike 
in your participation with me 
in personal peril and suffering, 
and in your cooperation with 
me in the support of the Gospel 
as it stands its trial at the bar 
of a hostile world. God knows 
my yearning love for you — a 
love which has its source in the 
very heart of Jesus Christ. It is 
my prayer that your love may 
abound more and more in spirit- 
ual knowledge, and in that en- 
lightened appreciation of all 
that is excellent, which shall 
both keep you till the day of 
Christ from all evil, and fill you 
also with all that fruit of right- 
eousness which Christ works in 
His people to the glory and 
praise of God.' 

3. / thank my God^ Most 
of St PauPs Epistles open with 
thanksgiving. The Epistle to 
the Galatians is the only real 



exception, and the omission 
marks the anxiety and dis- 
pleasure under the influence of 
which it was written* 

MyGod'\ The appropriating 
pronoun is used by St Paul in 
like manner in Hom. i. 8. 2 Cor. 
xii. 21. Philem. 4. Compare 
GaL iL 20. In this Epistle it 
occurs again iv. 19. 

Fot\ It is the same prepo- 
sition (€7rt) as in verse 5, and 
there seems to be no reason for 
rendering it differently in the 
two places. See also i Cor. L 
4, / thank my God,,. for the 
grace, d&c. St Paul thanks God, 
not only when he remembers 
them, but for the kind and non 
ture of the recollection, alto- 
gether satisfactory and comfort- 
ing. 

4. Alway8\ Notice the re- 
peated all. A U my remembrance 
. . . always . . . all supplication . . 4 
you all. The full heart will 
allow no exceptions. 

With joy"] The stress lies 
here. The keynote of the Epi- 
stle is joy. See iiL i, where a 
sort of apology is made for the 
reiteration. The reason for the 
joy folio ws* 



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24 



TO THE PHILIPPIANS. 



5 partnership in aid of the Gospel from the first 

6 day until now ; persuaded as I am even of this, 
that He who hegan in you a good work will 
bring it to accomplishment in the day of Jesus 

7 Christ ; even as it is right for me to be thus 
minded in behalf of you all, because I have you 
in my heart, as being all of you, both in my bonds 
and in the defence and support of the Gospel, my 



5. For your partnership] 
Verse 4 was parenthetical. 
Verse 5 explains the thanks- 
giving of Terse 3. / thank my 
God for all my remembrance of 
you,,, in other words, for your 
parinershipy dsc. 

In aid of the Gospel] liter- 
ally, unto the Gospel; so as to 
ftirther it, and help it on its way. 
Compare ii. 22. 

From the first day] of your 
receiving it. Acts xvi. 13. 

6. Persuaded as I am] I 
thank my God for,,. for,,, per- 
suaded as I am, <fec. Further 
explanation of the thanksgiv- 
ing. 

Even of this] Literally, of 
this thing itself Of this and 
nothing less than this. Itself ia 
added to emphasize and enhance 
the thing spoken of. 

In you] Or among you. 
But the thought of the spiritual 
nature of the work is best ex- 
pressed by the former. In you, 
not in isolation certainly, but 
yet individually. In Gal. iii. 
3, the beginning of the work of 



grace, here expressly ascribed 
to God, is spoken of (usiug the 
same word) on the human side ; 
having made a beginning by (or 
in) spirit, are ye now seeking to 
be com,plsted by (or in) flesh? 

will bring it to accomplish- 
ment in] Literally, will accom- 
plish it until, A condensed 
form of expression, requiring 
the pamphrase given above. 

The day of Jesus Christ] 
The definite article can scarcely 
be dispensed with in English, 
but the Greek says a day of 
{belonging to) Jesus Christ, A 
day which, unlike these days of 
time, shall be all His, with no 
disturbing or conflicting inter- 
ference of alien influences. Luke 
xvii 30, the day on which the 
Son of Man is unveiled. Be- 
fore, there has been a veil over 
Him. 

7. Even as it is right] This 
persuasion (verse 6) is justified 
by my knowledge of you as being 
truly and practically m,y part- 
ners in the grace of God, St 
Paul does not infer their salva- 



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npos 4>iAinnH2ioTS. 



25 



Koivfavia v/juSp eh to evayyeXiop diro Tfj^ Trptortj^ I. 5 
fjfxepa^ a^pL toO vvv* TreTroidto^ avTO Tovroy on 6 
6 ei/ap^dfxei/o^ ev vfxiv epyov dyaQov eirireXio'ei 
^xpt iifJiepa^ *ltj(roO XpiCTOv* Kadcis eaTiv SiKaiop 7 
ijiioi TOVTO (ppoveiv virep ttclvthov vfjiiovy Zid to 
e-^eiv fxe ev Ttj Kaphla vfia^j ev re roFs Secr/uors 
ixov Kai ev tyj diroXoyia Kal ^e^aiwa-eL tov 
evayyeXiov cvvkoivcovov^ fxov Trjs ;^a|0iTOs TraVras 



tioii from his own love for them 
(as a hasty view of his words 
might suggest), but from the 
rcflwoT* of that love ; namely, their 
being proved by their ppirit and 
conduct to be united with him 
in the divine grace. 

To be thvs minded] To have 
this persuasion of your safety. 

You all,,. alio/ you] There 
may be a hint (nothing more) 
of their requiring this reminder 
of unity. See ii. i, 2. iv. 2. 

/ Iiave you in my heart, as 
being] Not from a vague or 
sentimental affection for you, 
but because you are united with 
me in Christian faith and devo- 
tion. 

Both in my bonds] Partners 
with me in grace, first in the 
fellowship of suffering, and 
secondly in the fellowship of 
the great cause. For the former, 
see verses 29, 30. Though they 
were not actually prisoners like 
him, yet his bonds were but a 
sample and specimen of that 
persecution for Christ's sake 



which they did share with him. 
St Paul is not speaking of sym- 
pathy but of feUou)-8uffering, 
two different ideas, for which 
the Greek has two different 
words. 

And in the defence] Com- 
pare verse 16, knowing thai 
I am appointed to aid the da- 
fence of the GosjyeL In both 
places the word defence is un- 
avoidably open to misunder- 
standing. The Greek term 
(aTToXoyta) with a simple geni- 
tive after it does not mean the 
defence of another person, but 
one's own defence. See 2 Tim. 
iv. 16, at my first defence no 
ina7i sided unth me. So in the 
text. The Gospel is represent- 
ed as being on its tiial, engaged 
in defending itself against a 
charge of falsehood or impos- 
ture. And in this Gospel's 
self-defence St Paul and these 
Philippians are represented as 
siding with it Partners with 
ms in grace, both (1) in the mat- 
ter of enduring persecution like 



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26 



TO THE PHILIPPIANS. 



'. 8 fellow-partners in the divine grace. For God is 

my witness how I long after you all in the 

9 aflfections of Christ Jesus. And this I pray, that 

your love may still more and more abound in 

lo knowledge and all perception, to the end ye may 



me and with me, and (2) in the 
mMter (a) of the GoapeVs defence 
of itself, and (b) of the support of 
it by a>ctive help and testim>ony. 

In the divine gra^e] The 
insertion of the epithet is de- 
signed to indicate the definite 
article of the Greek. TJie grace 
is the sum total of God\s self- 
manifestation in Christ for the 
salvation and blessing of man. 
See especially Tit. ii. 11, the 
grace of God appeared {had its 
Epiphany) bringing salvation 
to all men. And so (frequently) 
in closing benedictions, tJie 
grace (the great, the divine 
grace, in which alone we have 
our new being) be with you in 
all its fulness of power and 
blessing. Eph. vi. 24. Col. iv. 
18. Heb. xiii. 25. i Tim. vi. 21.. 
2 Tim. iv. 22. Tit. iii. 15. 

8. God is my witness"] The 
same appeal is made in the same 
connexion in Rom. i. 9. Some- 
times it is expressed with yet 
stronger emphasis, as in 2 Cor, 
i. 23. Compare i Thess. ii. 5, 
10. St Paul read our Lord's 
prohibition of any stronger mode 
of assertion than the simple Yea, 
yea, Nay, n/iy (Matt. v. 37), in 
the spirit rather than, in the 



letter; as forbidding a light and 
trifling introduction of the name 
of God, not a serious appeal to 
Him on grave and important 
subjects. 

/ lon/g after you\ Compare 
Rom. i. II, / l(yng to see you, 2 
Tim. i. 4, longing to see thee, St 
Paul, as natural as he was spi- 
ritual, was not satisfied without 
the sight and presence of those 
whom he loved. 

In the affections of Christ 
Jesus] The original expression 
is more graphic, but can scarcely 
be literally rendered. The Au- 
thorized Version here and else- 
where translates it {(nrXdyxvo) 
in accordance with a phrase- 
ology now obsolete, by the word 
bowels. This was never an 
accurate rendering, the Greek 
denoting the larger interior 
organs of the body, not the in- 
testines. Thus the word hea/rt 
is often the best rendering, as 
combining the physical form 
with the moral idea. In the 
short Epistle to Philemon, the 
word occurs three times in this 
sense, verses 7, 12, 20, ^Ae hearts 
of tlie saints.,. my very heart.., 
refresh my Jieart in Christ, It 
must not be narrowed to the 



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57 



tifxa^ ovTa^. jiidpTvs yap fxov 6 0€os ws eirnroBfa I. 8 
Travra^ Vfxa^ ev (TTrXdyx^OK XpKTTOv 'Iricov. Kal 9 
TOVTO 7rp0(Tev')(0iJLai,yiva tj dydirri vfxwv €ti fxaXXop 
Kal jjLciWov TrepKrcevYi ev eiriyvwa-ei Kal irdo'tj 
alo'drio'eij eU to ZoKifid^eiv v/iid^ rd hiaipepovrUj lO 



sense of mercy or compassion; 
it is more inclusive. See 2 Cor. 
vi. 12, ye are not straitened 
in lis, but ye are straitened in 
your oum affections. And vii. 
15, and his affection is more 
abundantly toward you, <fec. 
When compassion is intended, 
it is added to the word, as in 
Luke i. 78, through tlie tender 
mercy {the heart o/m>ercy) of our 
God, And Col. iii. 12, a heart 
of compassion. In the verb 
formed from it the idea of com- 
passion does (by usage) prepon- 
derate. In the text St Paul 
says that he longs q/ler them in 
the affections of Christ Jesus; 
that is, with an affection which 
has its source in the heart of 
Christ Himself. 

9. And this I pray^ He 
has spoken (verse 4) of his con- 
stant supplication for them, and 
now he says what the aim of 
his supplication is. And this is 
tJie object of my prayer for you, 
that your love, dec. He might 
have called it the subject of his 
prayer, but the Greek makes it 
the aim or purpose. In fact, sub- 
ject and object, purport and pur- 
pose, in this connexion are only 
different modes of expression. 



Abound in knowledge] He 
assumes their love, towards God 
and man, and prays that that 
love may abound (may have its 
redundance and overflow) in the 
form and shape of knowledge. 
Another turn might be given 
to the thought, inverting the pro- 
cess, and making knowledge the 
way to abounding in love : that 
your love mayaboundin (through 
the acquisition and exercise of) 
a deepening knowledge. It is 
equally true in divine things to 
say that to know is to love, and to 
say that to love is to know. But 
St Paul prefers the latter (i Cor. 
viii. 3), and it is the preferable 
explanation here. 

Knowledge] The compound 
form (cTTtyvoxrts) used here, and 
predominantly in St Paul's E- 
pistlesof this and of the one later 
group, suggests the thought of 
further (and so true, deep, spirit- 
ual, as distinguished from su- 
perficial or merely intellectual) 
knowledge, whether of divine 
truth (Col. ii. 2), the divine 
will (Col. i. 9), or of Christ 
(Eph. iv. 13) or God Himself 
(Col. i. 10). The contrast im- 
plied is that of Job xlii 5, / 
have heard of Thee by the hear- 



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28 



TO TffE PHILIPPIANS. 



I. lo approve the things that are excellent, that ye 

may be clear and consistent against the day of 

1 1 Christ, filled with the fruit of righteousness, 

which is through Jesus Christ to the glory and 

praise of God. 



*w^ ^f i^ ^(^Ty but now mine eye 
seeth Thee. 

Perception'] The word (alcr- 
Otfo-isi) is used only here in the 
New Testament In the Sep- 
tuagint it occurs in Pro v. i. 22. 
ii. 10, /00I3 Iiate knowledge.,, 
(when) knowledge is pleasant 
unto thy soid. The verb occurs 
in Luke ix. 45, it wa>s concealed 
from them, that they should not 
perceive it. The idea is that 
of apprehension by the senses. 
Christians receive as it were 
a new senscy as of touch or taste, 
by which they discriminate the 
properties of things proposed to 
them for thought or action. 
The explanation follows. 

10. Approve th>e things that 
are exceUent] Or, discriminate 
things that differ. Both words 
are ambiguous, (i) To prove 
and to approve^ (2) to differ and 
to excel, are equally correct and 
equally common uses of the two 
words. Thus (i) i Thess. v. 
21, prove all things, i Thess. 
ii. 4, we have been approved of 
God to be entrusted with the 
Gospel. (2) Gal. ii. 6, it maketh 
no difference to me. Luke xii. 
7, ye are of more value than {ye 
excel) many sparrows. Here, 



and in Horn. ii. 18, either ren- 
dering would be suitable. The 
one gives the process, the other 
the result. To discriminate 
differences is (with a Christian) 
to approve excellences. 

Clear] Or, pure, A pecu- 
liar word {dKixpivris) of doubtful 
derivation. Three suggestions 
have been made for it; one con- 
necting it with the idea of test- 
ing by the sunbeam, another 
with that of sifting by rolling, 
the third with that of dividing 
an army into distinct troops and 
regiments. In Scripture it is 
found only here and in 2 Pet. 
iii. I. It expresses clearness 
from all admixture of heteroge- 
neous or incongruous elements. 

Consistent] A paraphrastic 
rendering of the word (dirpoar- 
KOTTos), which has no real 
English equivalent. Inoffen- 
sivcy though literally approxi- 
mate, scarcely suggests the true 
meaning, which is literally ^ree 
from stumblingblocks, and is ap- 
plied in Ecclus. xxxii. 21 to a 
smooth and level road which 
presents no stones or other 
obstacles for the traveller to 
stumble over. Compare Matt 
iv. 6 (from Psalm xcL i2)r. And 



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29 



/i/a ^T€ €i\iKpiP€h Kai dirpocTKOiroi eU i^/nepapl. 10 
XptCTOVf TreirXripwfxevoi Kapirov hiKaiocvvt]^ tov i i 
Sea 'Iricov XpiCTOv eU Bo^ap Kal eiraivov Qeov. 



this seems to suggest as the sense 
of the word in its moral appli- 
cation, not • so much that of 
freedom from stumbling, but 
rather of giving no ocGosion of 
stumbling. It occurs three times 
in the New Testament. Acts 
xxiv. 16, a conscience void of 
atumhlinghlockSy presenting no- 
thing to shock or stagger it as 
it retraces the steps of the life. 
I Oor. X. 32, present no stum- 
hlinghlock whether to Jews or 
Greeks, Thus here St Paul de- 
sires that they may be so con- 
sistent in their Christian course 
as to offer nothing for others to 
stumble over, either in the way 
of evil example, or of reproach 
to the Gospel. The word is thus 
equivalent to the longer phrase 
of 2 Cor. VL 3, Giving no offence 
{occasion of stumbling) in any^ 
thing. See also Rom. xiv. 13, 
20. I Cor. viii. 9, 13. 

Against^ Literally, unto, 
Not in the sense of until-, as in 
verse 6 {oixpf)^ but rather of /or; 
that is, in expectation of and 
preparation for. 

II. Filled with tJie fruii\ 
The figure is that of a tree laden 
with fruit Compare Isai. Ixi. 
3, That tliey might he called trees 
cf righteousness ^ the planting of 
the Lordy timt He might he glo- 
rified. The parallel is the 



more remarkable from the com- 
bination of the two thoughts, of 
righteousness as the fruit, and 
the glory of God as the object. 
Compare verse 11 of the same 
chapter. 

Fruit (frighteou>s7iess] Fruit 
consisting of (which is) righte- 
ousness. 

Bighteousness] Used here 
in its moral and spiritual sense, 
the fulfilment of relations to- 
wards man and towards God. 
See, for example, 2 Cor. vi. 7, 
Eph. vi. 14. 

Which is through Jesus 
Christ] Reminding them that 
true righteousness, even in its 
sense of a holy life, can only be 
attained by the grace of Christ. 

To] As the final aim and 
goal. See Rom. xi. 36. 

Glory and praise] Glory is 
self-manifestation, and praise is 
the ec/io and reflexion of it in 
admiring and adoring love. 
Compare Eph. i. 6, 12, to tlie 
praise of the glory of His grace 
. . .that we should he to the praise 
of His glory. 

12 — 20. *You have heard 
of my condition — a prisoner 
waiting his trial; and you may 
have inferred from it hindrance 
and damage to the great cause. 
It is not so. Rather has it 
helped the Grospel. The report 



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30 



TO THE PHILIPPIANS. 



I.* 1 2 Now I wish you to know, brethren, that my 
matters have resulted rather in the progress than 

1 3 the decline of the Gospel ; so that my bonds are 
become notorious (in Christ) throughout all the 
camp of the guard and to all the rest of the people , 

14 and that the multitude of the brethren in the 



of my imprisonment has spread, 
not without effect, through the 
camp and through the city. Its 
influence too upon the Chiistian 
body has been stimulating rather 
than depressing. From various 
motives, of affection for me or 
the contrary, Christ is preached 
with increasing energy. Some 
recognize my mission as the ad- 
vocate of an accused Gospel, and 
are stirred by love to help me. 
Others in a spirit of jealousy 
and partisanship think to vex 
me in my compulsory inaction 
by taking the word from me 
and preaching it in my stead. 
Whatever the motive, Christ is 
preached, and in this I do and I 
shall rejoice. If there is trial 
in it for me, it shall be over- 
ruled for blessing. Pray for me, 
and the supply of the Spirit of 
Jesus Christ shall come to me : 
I shall be bold to speak, and 
whether by life or by death 
Christ shall be magnified in my 
body.' 

12. My matters] The things 
which relate to me. So Eph. vi. 
21. Col. iv. 7. With a different 
preposition, but with scarcely a 
shade of difference of meaning, 



iL 19, 20, Tour affairs {the things 
which concern you). 

Have resulted rather iri\ 
Literally, have corns rather unto. 
An unusual expression ; compare 
Mark iv. 22, NeitJier was cmy 
thing kept secret, hut that it sli^ould 
come to light {come unto, result 
in, that which is manifest). 

Progress] l^ot furtherance. 
The word {irpoKowq) is neuter, 
not transitive ; like the verb- 
from which it is formed {to make 
progress, to go forward; Luke ii 
52. Rom. xiii. 12). It occurs 
again in verse 25. Also i Tim. 
iv. 15. 

13. In Christ] In whom 
I live (verse 21); in whom there- 
fore all happens which befalls 
me. 

Throughout all the camp of 
the guard] Literally, in the 
wJbole of the Frcetorium; that is, 
the camp of the Praetorian guard, 
established by the Emperor Ti- 
berius in immediate contact with 
the city. St Paul's imprison- 
ment was of that kind which 
consisted in having the right 
arm chained to a soldier's left 
arm (Acts xxviii. 16 and 
Eph. vi. 20, where the literal 



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31 



TivviarKeiv he vfxd^ fiovXofxaiy dhe\(j)oi, oti ra I. 12 
KUT ifxe fxdWop ei? TrpoKOTrrji/ too evayyeXiov 
eXriXvBeVy cicTTe tov9 hecimovs fiov (pavepov^ ei/ 13 
XpiCTw yeveadai eV oXto tw TrpaiTtaplw kul toI^ 
Xonroi^ irdo'LVy koI Tom irXelova^ twv dheXcfxSi/ 14 



rendering would be in a cou- 
pling chain or handcuff). The 
periodical changing of his guard 
would send back into the Prae- 
torian camp one soldier after 
another more or less impressed 
by the remarkable prisoner 
whose inseparable companion he 
had been during the hours of 
his wat€h, and may well ac- 
count for the statement of the 
text. 

And to all the re8t\ That is, 
of the population of Kome. A 
hyperbolical expression doubt- 
less, but conveying the true im- 
pression to his readers. Com- 
pare iv. 22, which speaks of the 
spread of the Gospel among the 
retainers and domestics of the 
Emperor himself. For a like 
hyperbole, see Col. i. 23, tlie Gos- 
pel... which was preached in all 
creation which is under heaven, 

14. The multitude of the 
brethren] Literally, the ma- 
jority of the brethren. But the 
phrase (pi ttXciWcs) is far more 
inclusive than that literal ren- 
dering would make it. From 
the universal practice of de- 
ciding matters by the vote of 
a majority (whatever the kind 



of assembly or community in 
question), the term comes to 
mean the main body, the society 
as a whole, without any intima- 
tion of a dissenting minority, 
and differs in no appreciable de- 
gree from the well-known phrase 
the ma/ny {ol iroXKoi). In i Cor. 
ix. 19, the ina jority means the 
multitude of mankind, and is 
practically coextensive with the 
all men of the preceding clause. 
In 2 Cor. ii. 6, the majority 
means the Church as a body, not 
suggesting that there had been 
a close (or any) division of votes. 
So in 2 Cor. iv. 15, the grace 
(shown in St Paul's continued 
life and activity) having a- 
bounded through the prayers of 
the majority conveys no idea of 
an indifferent or unkindly mi- 
nority, but points to the commu- 
nity as making intercession. 
And thus in the text St Paul 
speaks of the Christians in Rome 
generally as having been stirred 
into activity by his imprison- 
ment. 

Brethren in the Lord] These 
words should be taken together. 
All Christians are brothers (not 
in flesh but) in Christ. 



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32 



TO THE PHILIPPIANS. 



I. 14 Lord, relying upon my bonds, are more abundantly 

1 5 bold to speak the word of God fearlessly. Some 
indeed preach Christ even through envy and 

16 strife, and some also through good will : the one do 
it from love, knowing that I am appointed to aid 

1 7 the defence of the Gospel ; but the other proclaim 
Christ from partisanship, not sincerely, suppos- 
ing that they thus raise a vexation for my bonds. 

1 8 But it is not so; for what is the result but that every 
way, whether in pretence or in truth, Christ is 
proclaimed ? and herein I rejoice — ^yea, and I shall 



Rdylng upon my bonds] 
Such is the literal rendering, and 
it seems to need no pai*aphrase. 
His imprison! aent was a sort of 
stronghold or safeguard to them. 
It sliowed them that the Gospel 
was something real and precious, 
if he felt it thus worth sujQTeriug 
for. 

1 5. Through envy and strife] 
Jealousy of St Paul, and quar- 
relsomeness of disposition. 
Strange as the statement may 
seem, it is repeated and empha- 
sized in verse 17. 

16. Tlie one] These last. 
Verses 16 and 17 are transposed 
(as above) in the revised text, 
so as to invert the reference to 
the two classes mentioned be- 
fore. 

Am appointed] Literally, 
lie, am laid, set, or placed, Luke 
ii. 34, this child is set for the fall 
and rising, dec, i Thess. iii. 3, 



we are appointed /hereunto. 

To aid tJve defence] Literally, 
unto the Gospel's defence; that 
is, to help the Gospel in its 
defence of itself on its trial. See 
note on verse 7. 

1 7. From partisanship] The 
Greek word (f/ot^ciiot) is derived 
from one meaning a worker for 
hire, and seems to have early 
taken a bad colour (like our 
yivord jobbery) from its connexion 
with the idea of putting the 
hand to any low job for a day's 
pay. The Authorized Version 
renders it strife, by an apparent 
mistake as to its derivation. 
The idea of faction, intrigue, 
party-spirit belongs to it in its 
Scripture use by St Paul (Rom. 
ii. 8. 2 Cor. xii. 20. Gal. v. 20. 
Phil. ii. 3) and St James (iii. 
14, 16) in association with ^60- 
husy, wrath, backbiting, &c. 
Not sincerely] Not from 



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33 



eV Kvpita ireiroiBoTa^ tol^ SearjULoT^ fxov Trepic-I. 14 
croTcpo)^ ToXfxav d(p6fi(a^ tov Xoyov tov Qeou 
XaXeTv. tiv€^ fiev Kal Sta (pdovov Kal epiVy 15 
TLve^ Se Kal Si evBoKiai/ tov XpiCTov KYipvc- 
crovarip* oi fxev i^ dy dirtily elZore^ on eU diro- 16 
Xoylai/ TOV evayyeXiov Keifxar 01 Be e^ epideia^ 1 7 
TOV XpiCTOV KUTayyeXXovciVy ovx dyvw^y old- 
fievoi dXlyj/'iv eyelpeiv Toh hearfxol^ fxov. tI yap 18 
TrXriv OTi iravTi Tpoinpy eiTe irpoKpda'ei eire 
dXtidelctj Xpto'TO^ KaTayyeXXeTai ; Kai iv 



pure motives. Connected by de- 
rivation with Iwly (ayto?), this 
word (ayvos) has the special 
idea of chaste in such passages as 
Tit ii. 5. 2 Cor. xi. 2. i Pet. iii. 
2; and even where this is less 
prominent (as in 2 Cor. vii. 1 1 
and I Tim. v, 22) it still sug- 
gests the thought of a sensitive 
delicacy of feeling and action. 

liaise a vexation] The word 
affliction (elsewhere suitable as 
the rendering of OXliJ/ls) seems 
here scarcely expressive of the 
exact thought, which is that of a 
new pressure or tightness given 
to St Paul's chain by the know- 
ledge that unfriendly lips are pro- 
claiming his Gospel. The change 
of rendering (raise for add) is 
due to a change of reading (cyci- 

p€LV for €7n<l}€p€Lv). 

18. But it is not so; for 
wJiat] The /or is difficult, and 
seems to imply a suppressed 
clause. The rendering What then ? 

V. P. 



seems to cut rather than to untie 
the knot, and is (besides) the 
translation of a different phrase 
(tl ovv;) found in Bom. iii. 9. 
vi. 15. (fee. I have removed the 
note of interrogation to the end 
of the sentence, and have read 
straight on. For what is it hut 
that every way, dec. For what is 
the result hut this — Hiat every 
way, iSsc, ' 

Every way] Whatever be 
the motive of the preacher, false 
or sincere. 

And herein I rejoice] Is this 
the same man who says to the 
Galatians (v. 10), He that trou- 
hleth you shall hear his judgment, 
whosoever he he, with still strong- 
er words following] The ques- 
tion involves another. Are the 
insincere preachers here de- 
scribed faulty in doctrine (as 
mixing up the Gospel with Ju- 
daism), or only in motive? If 
the former, we have St Paul 



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34 



TO THE PHILIPPIANS. 



I. 19 rejoice: for I know that this shall issue for me 
in salvation, through your supplication and the 
20 supply of the Spirit of Jesus Christ ; according to 
my earnest expectation and hope, that in nothing 
I shall be ashamed, but in all boldness of utterance, 
as always, so now also, Christ shall be magnified 
in my body, whether by life or by death. 



saying, * Better an imperfect 
Gospel than none;' which, how- 
ever much might be said for it, 
does not seem like him. There 
is nothing said of erroneous 
doctrine; and in the absence of 
any such statement, it appears 
safer to suppose (painful as it is 
to think of) sound preaching by 
unsound men, 

19. This] The painful ex- 
perience <of being silent while 
others preach, and some of them 
in so unfriendly a spirit. Even 
this shall be one of those all 
things which v)ork together for 
good to them that love God (Rom. 
viii. 28). 

Through your supplication] 
St Paul attached immense im- 
portance to intercessory prayer. 
See, for example, 2 Cor. i. 11, ye 
also helping together in our he- 
^If ^y your supplication^ that 
for the free gift bestowed upon 
us by means of ma/ay thanks may 
be given by many persons in ov/r 
behalf. Compare also 2 Cor. iv. 

15- 

And the supply] There is a 
peculiarity in the Greek, which 



places the prayer and the answer 
under the vinculum of a single 
article. So certain is the an- 
swer that it can be spoken of in 
the same breath with the prayer. 
Supply] The noun (iTrixoprj- 
yla) occurs but twice in Scrip- 
ture, here and in Eph. iv. 16. 
The cognate verb (simple or com- 
pound) is used more frequently. 
They are borrowed from a well- 
known Athenian custom, by 
which the wealthier citizens un- 
dertook various public services 
(XctTovpytat), one of which was 
the equipment and training of 
a chorus for one of the Greek 
dramatic performances. Losing 
all that was distinctive in their 
first meaning, the words came to 
mean simply supply, to supply, 
and are used in Scripture for the 
divine giving, whether providen- 
tial (2 Cor. ix. 10) or spiritual. 
Thus Gal. iii. 5, He that supplieth 
to you tlie Spirit, and worketh 
(supernatural) powers in you, 
^c, 2 Pet. i. 5, II. The parallel 
passages in Eph. iv. 16 and Col. 
ii. 19 are explained by the text. 
The vital supply of which they 



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35 



TOVT(p ^aipu), dWa Kal j^api^co/xar oiSal, 19 
yap OTi TOVTO fxoi d7ro/3f]G'€Tai €£9 arwrripiav 
hid T^9 vfjivov heria-evo^ Kal eTri^opriyia^ rod 
TTvevfxaTO^ 'Irjcov XptcrroVj Kara Trji/ dfroKa- 20 
pahoKiap Kal eXiriZa fxov oti ev ovhevt alar- 
'Xyvdricroixaiy d\\* ev irdcri Trapptjcla W9 Trap- 
TOT€ Kal vvv fxeyaXvpOtia-eTat Xpicrro^ ev tw 
crtofxarl fiovy eiTe hid ^wfj^ eire Bid davdrov. 



speak as transmitted through 
the whole Christian body is here 
expressly described as that of 
the /Spirit o/Jesics Christ 

20. Earnest expectation] It 
is but one word in the Greek 
(diroKapaBoKia), watching (for 
some expected object) a« with 
outstretched head. It occurs 
only here and in Rom. viii. 19. 

Ashamed!^ Either ( i ) abash- 
ed into cowardice or compro- 
mise; a sense which suits well 
the boldness of utterance which 
follows in the next clause, but 
which would seem to have re- 
quired never rather than in no- 
thing to be joined with it; or 
(2) put to shame by failure or 
disappointment. Thus 2 Cor. x. 
I. I John ii 28. 

In aW] That is, in the use 
or exercise of all boldness. 

Boldness of utterance] The 
word (irapprja-La) properly means 
frankness of speech arising from 
freedom of heart, and it goes 
well with Christ shall be mag- 
nified. Compare Eph. vi. 19. 



If it is so taken, St Paul, 
having begun with the thought 
of magnifying Christ by bold 
oral confession, enlarges it after- 
wards into that of entire devo- 
tion for life and death. Such 
an expansion of thought in the 
course of a sentence is charac- 
teristic of his writings. See, 
for example, verse 29. 

Magnified in my body] To 
magnify (as to hallow or to glo- 
rify) means not to make, but to 
declare, manifest; treat as, &c. It 
is the first word of the Magni- 
ficat (Luke i. 58). See Acts x. 
46. xix. 17. Christ shall be shown 
and seen as that Great One (com- 
pare Acts xxii. 14, and see that 
Just One) in each action and 
each condition of my body, by my 
counting Him worth living for 
and worth dying for. 

21 — 26. 'For what is life 
to me, and what is death t To 
me to live is Christ, and to die 
is gain. To live on is to work on 
— and this has its profit. I 
shall see of my travail, and be 



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36 



TO THE PHILIPPIANS. 



. 2 1 For to me to live is Christ, and to die is gain. 

22 And if to live on in flesh is my portion, this is to 
me the profit of labour ; and what I shall choose 

23 I know not, but I am in a strait between the 
two, since my desire is toward departing and 
being with Christ — ^for that is far, far better — 



satisfied. Suppose the choice 
given me, to live or to die — what 
shall I say 1 It is a pei*plexing 
question. Each of the alterna- 
tives has its attraction. To de- 
part is to be with Christ — that, 
if I think of myself alone, is be- 
yond compare desirable. But 
for you it may be better that I 
should continue. I may still 
aid your progress, I may still 
help your joy. This thought 
assures me that my race is not 
quite run. I shall not die but 
live; I shall see you again, and 
your Christian trust and hope 
shall be enlarged and strength- 
ened thereby.' 

21. To live is Christ] The 
expression is more commonly 
found in its converse form, Christ 
is our life (Col. iii. 4). But 
here, the life spoken of is (as the 
context shows) this present life. 
Compare Gal. ii. 20, th^t life 
which I now live in the flesh I 
live in the faith o/tJie Son of God, 
To live {in the flesh) is Christ to 
me. I breathe Him, I eat and I 
drink Him (John vi. 57), / will 
Him, I speak Him, I act Him — 
in one word, I live Him. 

And to die] Not the act of 



dying, but the having died; the 
having (as the Greek expresses 
it) done the one act of dying. 
In this respect the aorist differs 
from the perfect, which would 
mean the state after death. 

. 22. And %f] In this dif- 
ficult verse, which on any view 
of it is abbreviated and ellipti- 
cal in its form, the rendering 
adopted (which is substantially 
that of the Authorized Version, 
and which stands in the margin 
of the Revised) appears the sim- 
plest and the least involved. 
Life and death, literal life and 
death, are the subject, from the 
closing words of verse 20. Life 
is Christ, and death is gain. 
And (not hvi, for it is sequence, 
not antithesis) if to live on in 
flesh is my portion, this is to me 
fruit (consisting) of work; this 
has the profitable result of en- 
abling me still to work. And 
then, instead of directly stating 
the conflicting advantage of the 
opposite alternative, that of his 
death, he passes at once to the 
dijficulty of deciding between 
the two, and leaves till a later 
clause the statement which logi- 
cally should have stood earlier. 



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npos «>iAinnH2ioT2. 



37 



*Efxoi yap TO ^fip XpicTTO^ koI to cctto-I. 21 
daveiv Kepho^. el Se to ^v ev capKiy tovto fioi Z2 
Kapiro^ epyov* Kai tl alpi^cofxai ov yvwpi^w, 
(TVpixoiuLai Se €k twv SJo, tviv eTridufxiai^ e^coi/ 23 
eU TO dvaXvarai Kal cvv Xpio'Tw eivai^ ttoWoJ 



Profit of lahour\ The geni- 
tive is explanatory or apposi- 
tional. Profit consisting o/{or 
which is, being interpreted) 
labour. The advcmtage of being 
able to work on for Christ and 
the Church. 

And whai\ That is, which 
of the two. 

Shall choose'\ Supposing the 
choice between life and death 
offered me. 

/ know not'\ The ordinary- 
sense of the word (yvcDptfo)) in 
the Greek Testament is to make 
known, to decla/re. Thus it 
would be equivalent here to our 
phrase, / cannot tell. But the 
rendering given above is a legi- 
timate meaning of the Greek 
verb, and seems to suit the 
sense better. 

23. / am in a strait be- 
tween] Literally, / am strait- 
ened {placed under painful pres- 
sure) on the part of the two con- 
flicting claimants for my pre- 
ference, life and death. The 
word straitened {(rvvixofiai) is 
used in Luke viii. 45 for the 
pressure of the thronging mul- 
titude ; in Luke xix. 43 for the 
hemming in of the city by its 



besiegers; in Luke xii. 50 for 
our Lord's sense of constraint 
and limitation till His baptism 
of blood shall be accomplished. 
From it is derived the word 
{(Tvvo)(T^ rendered distress in 
Luke xxi. 25, and anguish in 2 
Cor. ii. 4. 

Since my desire is toward] 
More exactly, having my desire 
unto. If it were a question of 
inclination, it would be soon 
settled. But there is another 
side to it. 

Departing and being] The 
former is a single act, the latter 
a continuing state. The word 
for departing (dvaXvaai) is taken 
either from the breaking up of 
an encampment, or from the 
loosing of the cable in setting 
saiL Either metaphor is beau- 
tiful and suggestive as St Paul's 
expression for dying. Compare 
2 Tim. iv. 6, the time of my 
departure (dvahia-ed)^) is at /land. 

And being with Christ] In 
some real sense, therefore, this 
is the instant consequence of 
dying. See 2 Cor. v. 8, willing 
rather to be away from home from 
the body and to be at home vnth 
the Lord, Luke xxiii. 43, to- 



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38 



TO THE PHILIPPIANS. 



24 but to continue in the flesh is more necessary for 

25 your sake. And having this persuasion I know 
that I shall continue, and continue with you all, 

26 to aid your progress and joy in the faith, that 
your glorying may abound, in Christ Jesus, through 
me by my presence with you again. 

27 Only live your citizenship as is worthy of the 



day ahalt thou he with me in 
Paradise, 

Far, far better] The Greek 
is, much more better. The double 
comparative is without a paral- 
lel in the Greek Testament, and 
carries an immense emphasis. 

24. To continue in theJlesK] 
Literally, to remain at, upon, 
attached to, the flesh. So in va- 
rious connexions, Kom. vi. i. 
xi 22, 23. Col. i. 23. I Tim, iv. 
16. 

More necessary] The other 
alternative is the better in it- 
self and for me; this the more 
beneficial to others, and there- 
fore the one which has the com- 
parative mtist in it 

25. This persuasion] Name- 
ly, that my life is more neces- 
sary than my death. 

/ A^OM?] This expression 
must not be understood as an 
inspired prediction (though it 
was doubtless in this case veri- 
fied by the event), but only as a 
strong present conviction. St 
Paul used the same word at 
Miletus to the Ephesian elders 
(Acts XX. 25), / know (otSa) 



tha>t ye shall see my face no more, 
and yet lived to revisit Ephesus 
(i Tim. i. 3). 

Continue, and continue witK] 
The repetition of the word con- 
tinue is required by the Greek. 
The first time it means (as in 
verse 24) continuance in life, 
the second time continuance 
with his Fhilippian and other 
Churches. 

To aid] Literally, unto. 

Progress] See note on verse 
12. 

Joy in the faith] Literally, 
of, A joy belonging to, and so 
derived from, inspired by, tlie 
faith, that is, the Gospel. It 
is somewhat difficult to decide 
between the renderings, your 
faith, and th£ faith. But that 
the latter is a legitimate ren- 
dering can scarcely be doubted 
by a careful student (to take a 
single example) of Gal. iii. 22 — 
26, where we have a remarkable 
alternation of the word faitlt 
with and without the definite 
article in a way which can 
scarcely be casual or undesigned. 
The t«rms coming and being re- 



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"... ./•■■«- L'^"-" 



npos 4)iAinnH2iOT2; 



39 



yap fxaWov KpeTccop, to Se iTTifxiveip r^ crapKi I. 24 
dvayKaiorepov hi vfxa^* Kal tovto TreTroidm 25 
olSa OTi fxevci Kal irapafxevvo Traanv vfxiv eU tyjv 
vjULcov TrpoKOTTrjp Kal x^P^^ '^^^ Tr/crrews, ii/a to 26 
Kavx^/ixa viiwv TrepKrcrev^ ev XpicrT(a 'IricoO ev 
ifxol Sia T^9 ififj^ Trapovcria^ iraKiv Trpo^ vfxa^* 

M0//01/ d^ico9 Tov evayyeXlov tov XpiCTOv 2 7 



veaUd in that passage could 
scarcely be applied to the qua- 
lity or principle of faith, but are 
quite suitable to the Gospel as a 
system of faith. 

26. That your glorying] 
Quite literally, that your subject 
of glorying (the Gospel and all 
that it gives you of peace and 
strength) may a6oit»c? (may have 
continual increase and overflow 
in your happy experience) in 
Christ Jesus (in whom alone we 
can have any good thing) in me 
(as its human channel of com- 
munication to you) through my 
presence again with you. All 
this fulness and exactness of 
meaning can scarcely be given 
in the rendering. 

27 — 30. * Only live as you 
ought your heavenly citizenship. 
Present or absent, let me have 
you such as I would. Stand 
fast in one spirit. The Gospel 
is struggling — ^be of one mind in 
helping it. Have no panic fears 
of human opponents. To oppose 
the Gospel is to fight against 
God. To be on the side of the 
Gospel is a wan*ant of salvation. 



To suffer for Christ is God's 
choice gift to you. You saw, 
you hear of, my conflict — it is 
yours too.' 

27. Only] For this alone 
is of vital moment. All else is 
circumstantial, this is essential. 
My continuance in life, my pre- 
sence with you, is secondary 
and subordinate to this. 

Live yowr citizenship] It 
is one word in the Greek, and 
this is its proper meaning. lu 
Acts xxiii. I (the other place of 
its occurrence in Scripture) it 
may be less suitable to render 
it so exactly, for St Paul is there 
addressing a Jewish audience, to 
which the mention of his Romcm 
citizenship would not be appro- 
priate, and the addition of the 
words unto God seems to show 
that that thought was not in 
his mind. But the Philippians 
were proud of their Roman citi- 
zenship, and St Paul may well 
remind them of a higher and 
nobler. Compare iii. 20, and 
the note there. 

As is worthy] The phrase 
occurs elsewhere in St Paulas 



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40 



TO THE PHILIPPIANS. 



27 Gospel of Christ; that, whether coming and see- 
ing you, or being still absent, I may hear of your 
state, that ye stand fast in one spirit, with one 
soul sharing the contest of the faith of the Gospel, 

28 and not scared in any thing by them that oppose 
you; for such opposition is to them a sure proof 
of destruction, but of salvation for you; and this 



Epistles, and with interesting 
variations. Here it is worthily/ 
of the Gospel. In Bom. xvi. 2, 
worthily of such as are saints, 
Eph. iv. 1^ worthily of the calling. 
Col. i. 10, worthily of the Lord, 

1 Thess. ii. 12 (3 John 6), wor- 
thily of God, 

Thaty whetlier coming] The 
sentence is not quite complete, 
but it is easy to see how it would 
be made so. The addition of 
the words / may find (after 
seeing you), or the substitution 
of a more general word, such as 
lea/m, for hear (which suits only 
the second supposition, that of 
his continued absence), would 
make all smooth. In these de- 
partures from strict accuracy of 
style, which are so frequent in 
St PauPs Epistles, we have an 
interesting reminder of his 
chained arm (in this group of 
letters), as well as of his Jwhi- 
tual use of an amanuensis in 
writing, whether from defective 
sight or other causes. Compare 
Horn. xvi. 22, where the amanu- 
ensis inserts his own gi*eeting; 

2 Thess. iii. 22, where the rule 



of St Paul's writing is stated; 
and Gal. vi. 11, where an ea> 
cation to that rule will be 
found. 

Stand fast] A favourite 
word of St Paul's, having some- 
thing of a military tone, found 
first in I Thess. iii. 8, for now 
we live, if ye stand faM in the 
Lord, It occurs again in this 
Epistle, iv. i. 

Sharing the contest of] Li- 
terally, contesting along with 
the faith. The Gospel is repre- 
sented as a competitor in an 
athletic contest (a favourite 
figure with St Paul), and the 
Philippians are exhorted to side 
with it in that competition for 
victory ((rwa^Xourrc? tJ TrtoTrct). 
Elsewhere the individual Chris- 
tian is the competitor. See i 
Cor. ix. 24 — 27, Phil, iii 12 — 
14. The personification here 
of the Gospel seems to illustrate 
that implied in its trial and self- 
defence as explained on verses 
7 and 16. For the expression 
of the text compare Horn. xv. 
30, where St Paul desires the 
Boman Chiistians to share his 



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-•^ 



npos 4)iAinnHSiOTS. 41 

*rro\ir€V€(r6€y *lva eire i\6wv Kal Idtop vfia^ eirel. 27 
dirwv ctKOvu) Ta Trepi v/awp, oti a'Ti]K€Te eV ei/i 
TTveufxaTif Ilia "^VXV ^^^^^^^^^^^^ '^^ TrlcTei tov 
evayyeXioVy Kal fxrj TTTvpofxei/oi ev jin^evl viro 28 
TftJi/ avTiKeifxevcDP' f?Vi9 ecTTiv avToh ep^et^i^ aTTO)- 
\eiasj vfxtou Se (Twrtipia^, Kal tovto diro Qeov* 



own struggle {crvvaytavio'aa'Oai 
fioi) in prayer to God. 

Tlie faith of the Gospel] 
Either, tlie faith belonging to 
{revealed in) the Gospel; or, the 
faith consisting of (which is) the 
Gospel. 

28. Scared] The word 
(TmjpofjLcvoi) is peculiar, and no- 
where else used in Scripture. 
It is said to be specially applied 
to the alarm of animals, birds 
or horses, at some fancied dan- 
ger. 

Them that oppose you] i 
Cor. xvi. 9, and. there are many 
adversaries. Sometimes in the 
singular, as i Tim. v. 14. 

For such opposition] Liter- 
ally, which, but the sense is 
clearly which opposition, which 
fact (of their opposing you), is it- 
self the twofold proof spoken of. 
For the thought there is a re- 
markable parallel in 2 Thess. 
i 5 — 7, where the fact of being 
persecuted is said to involve the 
same twofold inference of retri- 
bution on the one side and re- 
lief on the other. 

Sure proof] The Greek 
word (IvSctf is) means manifesta- 



tion or demonstration. It occurs 
also in Rom. iii. 25, 26, and 
2 Cor. viii. 24. In 2 Thess. i. 
5 another form (cvSctyjua) of the 
same word is used, differing 
from this in being a proof given 
instead of the act ofprovhig. 

Destruction] Here made 
the opposite of salvation; in 
Matt. vii. 13, of life; in Heb. x. 
39, of the saving (or rather ^am- 
ing) of the soul. 

But of salvation for you] 
Literally, but of salvation of 
you; the word you standing 
first, for the sake of emphatic 
contrast with them. 

Salvation] Properly a state 
of safety or well-being in all de- 
partments of the life, in body, 
soul, and spirit. But, inasmuch 
as this state has been Zo«^ through 
sin, the Scripture context of the 
word (in its full sense) is always 
that of recovery of the well- 
being by redemption, faith, and 
grace. See, for example, Luke 
i. 77. Acts xvi. 17. 2 Cor. vi. 2. 
Eph. i. 13. Heb. i. 14. 

And this] For the phrase, 
compare Rom. xiii. 11. i Cor. 
vi. 6, 8. Eph. ii. 8. It adds a 



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42 



TO THE PHILIPPIANS. 



I. 29 from God: for to you it was granted, in behalf of 

Christ — not only to believe in Him, but also to 
30 suffer in His behalf; having the same sort of 
struggle which ye saw in me and now hear of in 
me. 

II. I If then there is any encouragement in Christ, 



further thought, giving weight 
and emphasis to a foregoing 
statement. Here, and that too 
a proof not from man but from 
God, 

29. For] I say, a proof 
from God Himself because suf- 
fering such as yours is a special 
boon from Him, 

It was granted] Such is 
the tense in the Greek. It 
seems to date the boon spoken 
of either (i) from God's eternal 
counsels of love, or else (2) from 
that outpouring of spiritual gift 
on the day of Pentecost which 
is so often represented in Scrip- 
ture as having had in it the 
endowment of the Church and 
the Christian for all subsequent 
time. Easter and Pentecost are 
the two Gospel dates. The one 
is the date of grace, the latter 
of gift. The one is the date of 
salvation, the other the date of 
ministry. For the former, see 
I Pet. i. 3. Col. iii. i. &c. For 
the latter, Eph. iv. 7 — 16. 

In behalf of Christ] Again 
there is a broken construction. 
St Paul began to say, To you it 
was granted (as a special boon) 
to suffer in behalf of Christ But 



Li- 
It 

the 



after writing in behalf of Christ, 
and before adding to suffer, he 
interposes the thought of another 
and earlier boon, that of faith 
itself And then he repeats in 
behalf of Him to repair the 
breach. 

30. The sam^ sort of] 
terally, the same., such as, 
was not strictly identical; 
Philippians were not actually 
imprisoned as he was; but their 
struggle was of the same general 
character. 

Struggle] The word (dywv) 
is applied to any kind of severe 
effort whether of body or mind, 
specially to those athletic con- 
tests to which there are so many 
allusions in Scripture. Com- 
pare Heb. xii. i, where the kind 
of contest is defined by the words 
let us run prefixed to it. Else- 
where it is more general, i 
Thess. ii. 3. i Tim. vL 12. 2 
Tim. iv. 7. In Col. ii. i it is 
the word for St Paul's wrestling 
in prayer for his converts; pos- 
sibly with allusion to Gen. xxxii. 
24, interpreted by Hos. xii. 4. 

Ye saw in me] When I was 
vnth you the first time. See 



Acts xvi. 19, &c. I TJiess. ii. 



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EPOS 4)IAinnH2lOT2/ 



43 



on vfxiv €xctpi<r6^ 'ro virep XpiCTOv, ov /xoVoi/I. 29 
TO eU avTOV TriarTeveiv aXKa Kal to virep avTOv 
irdarx'^^v* top avrov dywva €;^oi/t€9 oiov e'/Sere 30 
€1/ efxol Kal vvv aKOvere iv i/uLoi. 

E'/ T£9 ovp TrapaKXrici^ ev XptCTWy el ti 7ra- II. I 



2, having suffered before, and 
been shamefully handled, as ye 
knoWj at Fhilippi, 

In me...inme] In my case 
or person. 

II. I — II. *One word of 
entreaty I have for you. By 
all the deep blessings, comforts, 
and privileges of the Christian 
state, I beseech you to crown 
my joy in you by a life of love 
and unity. Away with parti- 
sanship, and its motive vanity. 
Lay deep in humility the foun- 
dation of peace. Lay it deeper 
still in an absolute unselfish- 
ness — such an unselfishness as 
was in Jesus Christ, who, being 
from eternity in the form of 
God, thought not of that equality 
with God as giving Him a bound- 
less range of getting and having, 
but, on the contrary, divested 
Himself of all that was His, by 
taking creature-form, by assum- 
ing the human likeness — nor 
rested even there, but carried 
humiliation further still, by an 
obedience which stopped not 
short of death, yea, a death of 
uttermost pain and shame, the 
death of the cross. In reward 
of this humiliation, and propor- 



tioned to it, was that exaltation 
to a name above every name, 
in virtue of which every knee 
throughout God's universe shall 
bend in worship and homage in 
the name of Jesus, and every 
tongue tell out the great con- 
fession that Jesus Christ is Lord, 
to the glory of God the Father.' 

II. I. If then there is] Such 
is the form of expression. (Com- 
pare iv. 8, i/" there is any virtue, 
i&c.) So surely as there is any 
grace or any blessing in the Gos- 
pel, I beseech you, dsc. In other 
words, / beseech you then by all 
the grace and blessing which is in 
the Gospel, 

Encouragement] This great 
Gospel word {TrapdKXrja-Ls:) is ge- 
nerally said to have two distinct 
senses, exhortation and consola- 
tion. But in fact the two meet 
in encouragement. On the one 
hand it never means cold or bare 
exhortation ; on the other it 
never means mere soothing. 
It is always sympathetic, and 
it is always animating. It is 
cheering on. It is the call of 
the general who heads, sword 
in hand, the army which he 
would incite to bravery. The 



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44 



TO THE PHILIPPIANS. 



II. I if any comfort of love, if any partnership in the 

2 Spirit, if any affections and compassions, fulfil ye 
my joy, that ye be of the same mind, having the 
same love, knit together in soul, of one mind; 

3 doi7ig nothing in a spirit of partisanship, nor in 
a spirit of vainglory, but in the lowliness of your 
mind accounting each other better than your- 

4 selves ; not looking each of you at your own 



word encouragement (which is, 
by derivation, putting the heart 
into another) seems to be a fair 
summary of the contents of the 
Greek word. Son of encourage- 
ment (Acts iv. 36) is no dis- 
paraging title for Barnabas, wJio 
(Acts xi. 23) when he came to 
Antioch, and had seen the grace 
of God, was glad, and encour- 
raged them all that with purpose 
of heart they would cleave to the 
Lord, It is not necessary, how- 
ever, to force the one rendering 
upon every passage. Here, we 
need co7?z/or^ for a different Greek 
word in the next clause. 

Comfort^^ The precise word 
here used {irapafxvOLov) occurs 
only here in v Scripture. With 
another termination (modifying 
comfort into comforting) it is 
found in i Cor. xiv. 3. 

Pa/rtnership in the Spirii\ 
Joint participation in (of) the 
Holy Spirit, For the construc- 
tion, see iii. 10, partnership in 
His sufferings, i Cor. x. 16. 2 
Cor. viii. 4. For the thought 
(though in that passage both 



words have the definite article) 
see 2 Cor. xiii. 13. 

If any affections'] If there 
is a/ny such thing amongst us as 
Christian affection and Christian 
compassion. See note on i. 8. 

2. Fulfil] This word, in 
all its forms, is characteristic of 
this group of Epistles, and may 
perhaps indicate a growing sense 
in the writer of the capacities 
and capabilities of the Gospel. 

Fulfil ye my joy] As though 
there were just this wanting to 
his perfect happiness. The in- 
ference of a supposed want of 
unity in the Philippian Church 
may be too roughly and coarse- 
ly drawn, but it is true that the 
only hint of imperfection lies in 
this direction. See note on i 
7, You all, <ihc. 

That ye he] The Greek ex- 
presses this as the object of his 
injunction, in order tJiat ye may 
he, whereas our idiom would sug- 
gest rather, hy being. See note 
on i. 9. 

Of the same mind] In the 
four nea/rly equivalent phrases 



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EPOS <I>IAinnH2IOT2. 



45 



pafxvdiov dyaTTf]^, ei ris KOivwpia TrvevfiaTO^^ 6i II. 
T£9 CTTrXdyx^ct kuI olKTipfioi, TrXrjpcicrare julov 2 
rrjv X^P^^9 "'^ ^^ avTO (ppoi/fjre, Trjp avTrjv 
dyaTrriP €;^oi/t69, crvi/\}/^vxoi, to cV (ppovovvTe^* 
ixf]hev KaT epideiav fxrjSe Kara icej/oSo^/ai/, dWd 3 
T^ Taireivocppoa-vvfj dWriXov^ fjyovfJLepoi vTrep- 
e^ovTa^ eavTwi^' Hirj rd iavTwu eKacrroi ctko^ 4 



which follow, a climax may be 
faintly traced from the same 
tiling in the first to the one thing 
in the fourth. But this is pre- 
carious, and we are safer in 
regarding the multiplication of 
expressions as due rather to *the 
tautology of earnestness.' 

Knit together in soul] An 
attempt is made by this render- 
ing (not wholly satisfactory) to 
distinguish the vdth of the Greek 
(oT/'vi/a;xoi) from the same of the 
two preceding clauses and the 
one of the following. 

0/ one mind] The exact 
phrase is found only here. 

3. Doing nothing] This 
might be taken, with the Author- 
ized Vei-sion, as a new sentence. 
Do nothing. But the participle 
best suits the following clauses 
(accounting . . . looking, ic, ). 

In a spirit of] Literally, 
according to; that is, by the rule 
of, on a principle of, <&c, 

Partisanship] See note on 
i. 17. 

Vainglory] The substantive 
is found here only in Scripture, 



and the adjective only in Gal. 
V. 26. In both places the con- 
nexion of vanity with discord is 
strikingly shown. 

But in the lowliness of your 
mind] Literally, by your low- 
lymindedness. As vanity is 
one of the two roots of discord, 
the other being selfishness, so 
humility (a low estimate of one- 
self) is one of the two secrets of 
unity, the other being self-for- 
getfnlness. Compare E.om. xii. 
10, in Jwnour preferring one 
another (literally, accounting one 
anotlher before yourselves). 

4. Looking at] Making 
them your mark or aim. The 
word is that of 2 Cor. iv. 18, 
while we look not at the things 
which are seen, dhc. The root of 
the word is that mark {o-kottos) 
which guides the course of the 
runner (iii. 14). For the sense 
com[)are i Cor. x. 24, let no one 
seek that which is his ovm, but 
every one that which is his neigJi- 
bour^s interest. 

JSach of you.,. each of you] 
The each is plui-al (twice) in the 



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46 



TO THE PHILIPPIANS. 



II. 4 things, but each of you also at the things of 

5 others. Have this mind in you which wcls also 

6 in Christ Jesus; who, subsisting in the form of 
God, counted not as a means of gain the being 

7 equal with God, but made Himself empty, taking 



revised text. This in Classical 
Greek would mean, each set of 
you ; each little section into 
which you may be divided, by 
birth, choice, or accident, by 
family, acquaintance, society, 
<fec. And this tinge of meaning 
seems quite suitable here. 

Things . . . things] Interests, 
wishes, feelings, ic. 

5. ITave this mind] More 
exactly, Jiave this thing for your 
mind (your principle of thought 
and feeling) in your case^ which 
was (or is) also had for His mind 
(His principle of thought and 
feeling) in the case of Christ Jesus, 

This] An entire and abso- 
lute self-forgetfulness. 

. Which was also] Or, which 
is also. Is not the same mind in 
Him still 1 

6. Subsisting] In so im- 
portant a passage accuracy is 
more vital than beauty of ren- 
dering, and a somewhat formal 
and metaphysical term may be 
acquiesced in for its fidelity to 
the Greek. We have in this 
passage three words for exis- 
tence, to he (cTvat), to he hefore- 
hand (virapx^tv), to begin to he 
(yivea-Oai), and the variation is 
not accidental. To subsist (vwdp- 



;j(€iv) is to he beforehand, to he 
to begin with, to he by nature or 
originally. If the word says 
slightly less than John i. i {in 
the beginning was), it is at least 
entirely in ha/rmony with it, and 
asserts preexistence if not (in so 
many words) eternal existence. 
The condition which was the 
basis and substratum of all else 
was a prior existence in the form 
of God 

The form of God] Three 
words occur in this passage ex- 
pressive of the general idea of 
resemblance, form (jiop^fy/i), fa- 
shion {(rxrjijua), likeness (ofioiuyfia). 
The first alone is applicable to 
God, for it alone has the sense, 
not of external appearance, but of 
essential quality. For a full ac- 
count of the words I must refer 
to Bishop Lightfoot on this pas- 
sage, and to Archbishop Trench's 
SynonymsoftheNewTestament. 
Counted not as] In the in- 
terpretation of this difficult 
phrase there are two main lines 
of divergence, i. The Autho- 
rized Version, with its render- 
ing, ^Aoi^Ai it not robbery, makes 
the clause refer to the preex- 
istent Christ; He counted it no 
grasping, no assumption of that 



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npos <i>iAinnH2ioT2. 47 

irovpr€^9 dWa kul tcl irepcou enaa'TOi. tovto II. 5 
(l>popeTT€ 61/ vjuiiu o Kai iv XpiCTip 'Irio'ov* 6s eV 6 
fJiopCpYi Qeov vTrdp'x/^v ov^ dpTrayjULou tjyrjaraTO 
TO ehai iara QeiS, dWd eavrov eKei/cocrep iuLOp(}>rjv 7 



which was not His right, to be 
equal with God — nevertheless 
He divested himself of that 
glory. Three objections lie a- 
gainst this: (i) the aorist tense 
of the verb (ifyiyVaTo), which is 
unsuitable to a habitual state of 
mind, and suggests rather a par- 
ticular mental act; (2) its being 
a verb at all, when the participle 
(and thinking it no robbery) 
would have been a far more na^ 
tural mode of expression; (3) 
the emphasis thus laid upon a 
thought least of all appropriate 
to the desigued moral, whicli is 
not that of self-assertion but of 
self-abnegation. 2. The Re- 
vised Version, on the contrary, 
renders it thought it not a prize 
(with the margin, * Greek, a 
thing to be grasped'), thus mak- 
ing this clause the transition 
from the preexistence to the 
humiliation. I have just so far 
modified this view as to make 
the word (dpirayfios) not a thing 
to be grasped but an act or means 
0/ grasping, and to understand 
the exact thought to be, that 
He who was from eternity in 
the form of God, instead of re- 
garding that equality with God 
as giving Him an unbounded 
power of self-aggrandisement, 



did on the contrary empty Him- 
self of all by a voluntary self- 
incorporation with the creature, 
and with the creature not in its 
greatness but in its littleness, not 
in its conditions of comfort and 
honour, but in its uttermost a- 
basement of shame and suffer- 
ing. Thus (i) we preserve the 
exact sense of the precise form 
of the principal word (dpwayfio^ 
not afmayfia), and (2) we avoid 
the appearance of a disparage- 
ment by Christ Himself of His 
own equality with God (counted 
it not a prize to be on an equal- 
ity vnth God), 

The being equal"] The form 
of the Greek is the being equal 
things (neuter plural) with God, 
A passage in the Septuagint 
(Job XL 12) is quoted to show 
that no real difference is made 
by this peculiarity (such as 
should make it necessary to 
render the phrase here to have 
equality of being with God), while 
possibly the more obvious form 
(masculine singular) might have 
seemed to involve a risk of * di- 
viding the substance* of the 
Godhead. 

7. But made Himself empty] 
Instead of filing, He emptied. 
Instead of taking to Himself 



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48 



TO THE PHILIPPIANS; 



II. 7 the form of a servant, being bom in the likeness 

8 of men; and, being found in fashion as a man, 

made Himself lowly, becoming obedient, even 



(as the equality with God would 
have enabled Him to do with- 
out stint or limit) He put 
away and put off from Himself. 
Leaving us an example, 

Empty\ The figure is that 
of empty-handed, destitute of 
possession. Ruth i. 21, / went 
out full, and the Lord Iiath 
brought me home again empty, 
Mark xii. 2, 3, that he might 
receive /rom the husbandman of 
the fruit of tJie vineya/rd : and 
they... sent him away empty, 
Luke i. 53, the rich He hath 
sent empty away. For the idea 
of the text compare 2 Cor. 
viii. 9, though He was rich, 
yet for your sakes He became 
poor. 

Taking the form] Literally, 
having taken. The assumption 
of human form is conceptionally 
prior to, and the means of, the 
self- emptying. 

Taking] The figure is that 
of taking into the hand for use 
or equipment. John xiii. 12, 
Wheii He had,., taken His gar- 
ments. 

The form of a servant] The 
wordybrm (see note on verse 6) 
is applied both to the divinity 
and to the humanity of Christ. 
Not so the word fashion, which 
can only be used of the hu- 
manity (verse 8). 



A servant] Literally, a slave. 
But this not in relation to men 
but to God. Christ was a free 
man. In this one respect He 
did not take our nature in its 
lowest level of degradation. It 
was necessary for His ministry 
that He should be personally 
free. Also slavery is an unnar- 
tural condition, and therefore 
unsuitable to Him who took 
upon Him our nature in its 
truth not in its unrealities. But 
in relation to God creatureship 
is servitude. Of Him and 
through Him and to Him are 
all things. 

Being born] This clause is 
strictly parallel and equivalent 
to the preceding. In other 
words, being born in the likeness 
ofm^en, 

Borri] Literally, having be- 
come, having begun to be. The 
preexisteut Christ enters upon a 
new being by Incarnation. He 
begins to be in a likeness which 
was not His before. The word 
bom is adopted from the English 
Version (both Authorized and 
Kevised) of the same word in 
Ga). iv. 4, bom of a woman, 
bom under (the) law. It is too 
definite, but seems preferable to 
the made which appears to be 
practically the only alterna- 
tive. 



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npos ^lAinnHSioTS. 



49 



dovXou Xafioivj ev ojULOico/xaTi dvdpcuTTCov yevofxevo^ ' II. 7 
Kal (r;^^/>(aT£ evpeOek ws apdpwTro^ eTaTreivcocev 8 
eavTOV yevofievo^ vTrtjKOOs t^^XP^ davaTOVy davarov 



Likeness] E.om. viii. 3, God 
sending His oum Son in the 
likeness of sinful fiesh^ &c. 

Of men] Of mankind. 

8. And, being found] A 
further stage of the humiliation 
begins here. He might have 
condescended to take our nature, 
and yet, in doing so, He might 
have stipulated for a condition 
of wealth and honour; He might 
have made the original equality 
with God a means of gain {dp- 
Trayfjio^) at least in this, that He 
should take our nature at its 
best, not at its worst. By not 
doing so, He humbled Himself 
over again. 

Found] The word properly 
implies a previous search or en- 
quiry, but often loses that pre- 
cision in its use. Taken cogni- 
zance of, presented to view. See 
for example Luke xvii. 18, tliere 
were not found that returned to 
give glory to God, Acts v. 39. 
2 Cor. V. 3. 

In fashion] See note on 
verse 6. This word {<ryrjiia), 
unlike that rendered /or/» (/lop- 
<^T7), has always the idea of 
something sensible, material, or 
circumstantial, and in reference 
to the humanity of Christ dis- 
tinguishes the accidental in it 
from the permanent. The only 
other place of its occurrence in 

V.P. 



Scripture is i Cor. viL 31, tJi^ 
fashion of this world passeth 
away. For a verb derived from 
it see iii. 21, and the note 
there. 

As a man] That is, sv^h in 
all points as a human being is, 
Heb. ii. 17, it behoved Him to 
be made in all things like unto 
His brethren. 

Made Uimself lowly] Both in 
character and in circumstance. 
Matt. XL 29, / am msek and 
lowly (raireivos) in heart. 

Becoming] Literally, hav- 
ing become. See note on verse 7, 
Taking the form. The obedience 
is conceptionaMy prior to, and the 
condition of, the humbling. 

Becoming obedient] Not as 
though from a prior opposite or 
different state. Compare Heb. 
V. 8, yet learned He obedience 
by the things whi^h He suffered. 
The though t is, the developement 
of the spirit of obedience (which 
was always His) in a series of 
a^ts. 

Obedient] It is left to be 
understood to whom. Just so 
St Paul in Rom. vi. 16 uses 
obedie7ice (without further ex- 
planation) as the opposite of sin. 
His servants ye are, wlwm ye 
obey; wliet/ier of sin, unto death; 
or of obedience, unto righteous- 
ness. 



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50 



TO THE PHILIPPIANS. 



II. 9 unto death, yea, the death of the cross. Where- 
fore God also highly exalted Him, and granted 
to Him the name which is above every name; 
lo that in the name of Jesus every knee might bend. 



Even unto deatK\ In the 
Authorized Version obedient 
unto death might easily be mis- 
understood. The insertion of 
even in the Revised ought to 
obviate this. Obedient {to tlie 
Father's will) to tJie very extent 
of dying. Beyond that limit 
obedience cannot go. Greater 
love, greater devotion, hath no 
man than this, that he lay down 
his life for its object (John xv. 

13). 

Yea, the death of the cross] 
More exactly, and {that death) a 
death of {belonging to, caused by) 
a cross. The absence of the de- 
finite article in the Greek lays 
the stress upon the kind of death, 
so ignominious, so torturing. 
The word itself {o-ravpo^) origi- 
nally meant only an upright 
stake such as palisades are made 
of, and even as an instrument 
of punishment was not confined 
to what we understand by cru- 
cifixion. (In Esther vii. 9 the 
Septuagint renders Let him be 
hanged thereon by the Greek for 
Let him be crucified thereon,) But 
its use in the New Testament is 
uniform, involving all the feel- 
ings of natural disgust and horror 
connected with a Roman cruci- 
fixion, as well as the patriotic 



resentment of it as one of the 
most odious badges of a foreign 
yoke. It may be worth no- 
ticing that our Lord used the 
figure of bearing the cross as the 
duty of* the true disciple (Matt. 
X. 38) even before He foretold 
His own death by crucifixion 
(Matt. XX. 19). The force of 
the text, which lies in the de- 
grading character of the death, 
is seen in such passages as i 
Cor. i. 23, Christ crucified, to the 
Jews a stumblingblock (o-KavSa- 
\ov). Gal. V. II, the stumbling- 
block of the cross. Heb. xii. 2, 
endured a cross, despising shame, 
"While the more attractive aspect 
is shown in Eph. ii. 16. Col. i. 
20, having made peace through 
the blood of His cross, 

9. Wherefore] As the re- 
ward of this uttermost self- 
humiliation. Compare Heb. xii. 
2, wJio for the joy that was set 
before Idim, 

Highly exalted Him] One 
of St Paul's strong compounds 
with the preposition over (virip). 
Like, we are more than conquer'^ 
ors (Rom. viii. 37). Grace did 
much more abound (Rom. v. 20). 
Explained by Eph. i. 20, &c. 
He raised Him from the dead, 
and set Him at His own right 



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npo2 ^lAinnnsioTS, 51 

Se (TTavpov. hio Kal 6 Qeo^ avrov vTrepvyJ/^wa-ev, II. 9 
Kai exo-pio'aro avrw to ovofxa to virep Trap ovo^ 
fxa* iva iu tw dpofxaTi 'Iriaov irav yovv Kct/x-^j; lO 



hand in the htaverdy 'places above 
all rule and authority and power 
and dominion^ dhc. 

Granted] Gave as a free 
gift. See i. 29. The word 
(xaptfeo-^ai) is peculiar in Scrip- 
ture to St Luke and St Paul. 

The name] We are not to 
imagine one particular name 
(such as JesiLs, or even Lord) to 
be intended. The name is the 
summary of the person; it is that 
expedient by which we repre- 
sent to ourselves and to others 
a person such as He is in form, 
feature, character, <fec. Name, 
in Scripture, has very sacred 
applications. The great passage 
is Exod. xxxiv. 5, Ac, where 
tlfs name of the Lord is the enu- 
meration of His attributes, and 
is made equivalent to God such 
as He is. Thus in the Lord's 
Prayer, Hallowed he Thy namje 
is a petition that God may be 
regarded and treated as that 
Holy Person which He indeed 
is. In the text the rvame given 
to Christ is the designation or 
description of Him in His com- 
pleteness, as the crucified and 
glorified Saviour, in whom dwell- 
eth all the fulness of the God- 
head bodily (Col. ii. 9). The 
expression is equivalent to the 
more general terms of i Pet. i. 



21 {raised Him up from the 
dead, and gave Him glory) and« 
Heb. ii. 9 {for the suffering of 
death crowned with glory and 
honour). 

Above every name] Above 
every designation or description 
of created being, human or super- 
human. Eph. i. 21, every name 
that is named, not only in this 
world, but also in that which is 
to come (in that world of spirit 
and heaven, of which the full 
disclosure waits for the Advent 
of Christ). 

10. That in the name of 
Jesus] Not at t/ie name. That 
in the nams of Jesus — within 
(and not apart from or indepen- 
dently of) the revealed being (in 
pei-son, work, office, and mind) 
of Jesus — every knee might bendy 
whether in submission, worship, 
or prayer. A magnificent ampli- 
tude is thus given to the divine 
purpose in the exaltation of the 
risen Lord. He is the Person 
who comprehends and contains 
in Himself all the worship as well 
as all the life of Grod's universe. 

Every knee might bend] 
Three thoughts are here, as above 
indicated. (i) Submission; 
Isai. xlv. 23, / have sworn by 
my8elf,,,tJiat unto me every knee 
shall bow. (2) Worship; i 

4-2 



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52 



TO THE PHILIPPIANS. 



II. lo of beings in heaven and on earth and under the 

1 1 earth, and every tongue make confession that 
Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the 
Father. 

12 Therefore, my beloved, even as ye always 
obeyed, so, not as if in my presence only, but 
now much more in my absence, work out your 

13 own salvation with fear and trembling; for it is 



Chron. xxix. 20 (Septuagint), 
they bowed their knees^ and wor- 
shipped the Lord, and the king. 
(3) Prayer; Eph. iii. 14, / how 
my knees unto the Father.,. that 
He may grant yoUy <kc. 

Of beings] Or, of things. 
The Greek is ambiguous. The 
context seems to suggest per- 
sons rather than things, and the 
passage in Rev. v. 13 is of too 
poetical and pictorial a character 
to be pressed to a decision of the 
question of gender here. 

Under the earth] In Hades, 
the conceived abode of departed 
spirits. Psalm Ixiii. 9, they shall 
go under the earth. Luke xxiiL 
43. Rev. i. 18, / am alive for 
evermore, Amen; and have the 
keys of death and of Hades. 

II. And every Umgue] A 
continuation of the quotation 
begun in verse 10 from Isai. xlv. 
23, TJrdo m>e every knee shall 
bow, every tongue shall swear. 

Make confession] The word 
(c^oftoXoyeto-^at) is used both in 
the sense of confession of sin, as 
in Matt. iii. 6. Acts xix. 18. 



James v. 16 ; and (which is more 
suitable here) of the acknow- 
ledgment in grateful praise of 
what God is. See Matt. xi. 25. 
Luke X. 21. Rom. xv. 9. 

Jesus Christ is Lord] Here 
there could be no question as to 
the rendering, though in the 
Greek order Lord stands first. 
In some like passages the dis- 
tinction of subject and predicate 
is not so clear. Rom. x. 9, if 
thou shalt corf ess with thy mouth 
Jesus as Lord. 2 Cor. iv. 5. 
Compare i Cor. xii. 3. 

To the glcyry of God] This 
is the ultimate object of all. 
See I Pet. i. 21, who through 
Him are believers in God, that 
raised Him from tlie dead, and 
gave Him glory; so that your 
faith and hope might be in God. 
Rom. xi. 36. 

12 — 18. * Listen, beloved, 
to the word of exhortation. 
Let my absence itself plead with 
you. In earnest reverence work 
out your salvation — not as left 
to yourselves to do it, but know- 
ing that it is God who works in 



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EPOS 4)IAinnHSlOT2. 



53 



eirovpavitav Kai eiriyeitav kui KaTa')(6ovi(aVy KalJl.ii 
irdara yXwcrcra e^OfioXoytio'riTai oti Kvpio^ 
'I^croiys Xpicro^ ek Bo^av Oeov Tlarpo^. 

*'li(rT€, dyaTrrjToi fxovy Kadm irdvroTe vTrti" 12 
KOV(raT€j fxrj ws eV Trj irapovcrla fiou fiopou, 
dWd vvv TToAAttJ fxd7\Xov ev t^ dwova-ia fxovy 
IxeTa (j)6l3ov KUi Tpoixov rriv eavrwv (rcorrjpiap 



you first to will and then to 
work- Put away from you dis- 
sensions, secret and open. Be 
what children of God ought to 
be, blameless and innocent, in 
the sight of a world that sorely 
needs the light of such an ex- 
ample, the presentment of such 
a Gospel. Let me have where- 
of to glory in the day of Christ 
— ^the proof of no fruitless toil, 
of no disappointed eflPort. Then, 
though my life-blood may soon 
be demanded as the consumma- 
tion of a life-long sacrifice, I 
can still rejoice, I can still share 
your joy — be that joy yours also, 
in itself, and in its sympathy 
with mine.' 

12. There/ore] Literally, «o 
tluit The result of all which is 
this — the duty of earnestness in 
working out in the individual 
life so great salvation. 

My beloved] The eosact 
phrase is used by St Paul only 
in I Cor. x. 14 besides. 

Obeyed] Not ha/ve obeyed; 
for the next words show that 
St Paul's thoughts are going 



back to the time of his own 
presence with them. 

iVo^ as if in] That is, not 
as i/jovL were obedient only in 
my presence. Not as if your 
obedience depended upon my 
being present. 

Work out your own salva- 
tion] The salvation has not to 
be earned, but it has to be 
wrought out. It has to be work- 
ed from and worked upon. Com- 
pare John vi. 27, where the 
literal rendering would be, work 
not the food which perishethy but 
work the food which ahideth 
unto life eternal (make it the 
subject-matter of your working). 
This is the aspect of salvation 
for stimulus, as another aspect is 
for comfort. Thus salvation itself 
may be spoken of as either past, 
present, or future, according as 
redemption, grace, or glory is 
the poiut of view. Compare 
Kom. viii. 24. Eph. ii. 5, 8. i 
Cor. XV. 2. Eom. v. 9, 10. 

With fear and trembling] 
The precise expression occurs 
three times in St Paul's Epistles. 



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54 



TO THE PHILIPPIANS. 



II. 1 3 God that worketh in you both to will and to 

14 work in behalf of His good pleasure. Do all 

15 things without murmurings and disputings; that 
ye may be blameless and innocent, children of 
God without blemish amidst a crooked and 



In 2 Cor. viL 15 he applies it 
to the reception of Titus at Co- 
rinth at a critical and hazardous 
moment. In Eph. vi. 5 he bids 
Christiaji slaves to obey their 
masters with fear and trembling. 
As there he would not recom- 
mend an abject or cringing 
spirit, so here he does not pre- 
scribe a timid or depressed habit 
of mind, but only an alert and 
sensitive desire to make the call- 
ing and election sure (2 Pet. i 

10). 

13. For it is God] A re- 
markable and instructive for. 
Work, for God works in you. 
It is thus that Scripture com- 
bines the two opposite truths, 
of grace and free will. Mark 
xvi 4, when they looked, they 
saw that the stone was rolled 
away, for it was very great. 

Worketh in you... to work] 
This striking combiuation is 
lost in the Authorized Version, 
which renders this one Greek 
word (iv€py€Lv) by two English 
ones, worketh in you... to do. 
Compare Heb. xiii 21, where 
in the same way the word do 
(iroulv) occurs twice, make you 
perfect in every good thing to do 
His will, doing in us that which 



is well-pleasing in His sight. 

In behalf of His good plea- 
sv/re] This may best be taken 
with the words immediately pre- 
ceding. Both to will and to 
work in behalf of (so as to pro- 
mote and accomplish) His good 
pleasure. Christian conduct in 
both its parts, will and act, 
purpose and performance, has 
for its object the carrying out 
of God's good pleasure. See 2 
Thess. i. 11, we pray always 
for you, that our God may. . .fvZ- 
fil every goo^ pleasure of good- 
ness (may fulfil in you each pa/r- 
ticuLar of that goodness in which 
He is weU pleased). 

14. Do all things] The 
call is to (i) a contented and 
cheerful, (2) a peaceable and 
friendly life. Each of the two 
words which follow has both of 
these aspects. 

Murmurings] The word 
{yoYyvo-yuo^) expresses all man- 
ner of smothered or half-uttered 
complaints {grumblings) whether 
against God or man. Its first 
occurrence in the Septuagint 
(Exod. xvi. 7) combines both: 
He heareth your murmurings a- 
gainst the Lord; and what are 
wcy that ye murmur against us? 



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npos <i>iAinnH2iOT2. 



55 



karepyd^ecrde* Qeo^ yap ecrriv 6 evepyvov eu vfuup II. i; 



Kai TO 6e\eip kui to evepyeiv virep rtjs evhoKta^. 
irdvra iroieiTe x^P^^ yoyyva-fitav Kai SiaXo- 14 
yia-fxiavy ^Iva yepfjcrde dfiefiTrroi Kai aKepaioiy 15 
T€KPa Qeov aficojuLa [xecrov yevea^ CKoXia^ Kai 



Matt. XX. II, they murmured 
against the goodman, of the house. 
Luke V. 30. John vi. 43. Acts 
vL I. I Cor. X. 10. Jude 16, 
these a/te murm/urerSy complain- 
ers, ike, 

Disputings] The exact ren- 
dering of the word {Suxkoyicrfxat) 
would be divided or diverse 
reasonings. These, if silent, are 
doubts; if uttered, are disputes. 
In some places the context gives 
the former sense, in others the 
latter. Thus (i) Luke xxiv. 38, 
why do doubts arise in your 
heart? (2) i Tim. ii. 8, without 
wrath and dispute. The second 
of the two senses predominates 
in the text. 

15. That ye may be] This 
is one of many cases in which a 
servile rendering would give 
become instead of be, but with 
loss rather than gain to the 
sense. There is no intimation 
of any special present defect in 
the persons addressed. The 
sense is, that ye wxiy be in the 
result {whatever you are now). 
In fact all that is essential in 
the become, or come to be, of the 
Greek is implied in the combi- 
nation tJuU ye may. 



Innocent] From the literal 
sense of vnthout admixture, as 
wine or metal, the word (cikc- 
paws) comes to mean simple, 
guileless, innocent in character. 
In the two other places of its 
occuiTence in Scripture it stands 
in contrast (yet in combination 
also) with the two words for 
wise. Matt. x. 16, wise (<^povt/4.oi) 
as serpents, and harmless as doves. 
Kom. xvi. 1 9, wise ((ro<^ovs) unto 
that which is good, and simple 
unto that which is evil. 

Without blemish] This is a 
word of frequent occurrence in 
the Septuagint Version of Le- 
viticus and Numbers (first in 
Exod. xxix. i) in connexion 
with the choice of victims for 
sacrifice, and the idea is pro- 
bably always discernible in its 
higher application in the Psalms 
and in the New Testament. 
Eph. 14. v. 27. Col. i. 22. Heb. 
ix. 24, who through the eter7ial 
Spirit offered Himself without 
blemish unto God. i Pet. i. 19, 
as of a lamb without blemish 
and vnthotU spat. Be v. xiv. 5. 
A crooked and perverse gene- 
ration] The expression comes 
from the song of Moses, Deut. 



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56 



TO THE PHILIPPIANS. 



II. 1 5 perverse generation, amongst whom ye appear 

1 6 as lights in the world, presenting a word of life, 
that I may have whereof to glory in the day of 
Christ, that I ran not in vain, nor in vain laboured. 

1 7 Nay, if I am even poured as a drinkoffering upon 



xxxii.5 (Septuagint). (i) Crook- 
ed is the opposite of straight 
(Luke iii. 5, from Isai. xl. 4), 
and so, morally, it is the oppo- 
site of straightforward^ right- 
minded^ upright^ <fea Acts ii. 40, 
save yoursdveafrom this crooked 
generation, i Pet. ii. 18, not 
only to the good and gentle, but 
also to the froward {crooked). 
(2) Perverse is literally distorted 
(as eyes, limbs, <kc.), and easily 
passes into the sense of a twist 
or obliquity in the mental and 
moral being. Matt. xvii. 17, 

faithless and perverse genera- 
tion. Acts XX. 30, speaking 
perverse things. 

Ye appear] Or, appear ye; 

1 toould have you (ye ought) to 
appear. The mood of the verb 
is ambiguous (indicative or im- 
perative). The voice (^atVco-^c, 
not <l>a[v€T€) does not admit the 
rendering to shine (John i. 5. 
I John ii. 8. &c.), but is that of 
Matt. ii. 7 {the time of the sta/r 
that appeared), xxiv. 30 {t/ien 
shall appear t/te sign of the Son of 
Man in heaven). The Christian 
exami)le is represented in the 
text as a sort of appearance of 
a new luminary in the heaven 
of mankind. 



Lights] Lumiiiaries, givers 
of light. The word {it>(a<mjp) 
occurs but twice in the New 
' Testament; here, and in Rev. 
xxi. II, hsr light {the luminart/ 
of her, the light which she gave) 
was like unto a stone most pre- 
cious. In the Septuagint it is 
the word used in Gen. L 14, 16, 
Let tliere he lights,,, God made 
two great lights. 

In the world] The absence 
of the definite article in the 
Greek gives the sense in a 
(whole) world. It has the effect 
oi emphasizing the greatness of 
the sphere in which the Chris- 
tian influence is to act. So in 
Rom. iv. 13. xi. 12, 15. 2 Cor. 
V. 19. The world {Koa-fxaq) in 
St Paul's view here is that uni- 
verse of mankind which is as 
yet outside the Gospel. See i 
Cor, xi. 32. Eph. iL 2, 12. i 
John V. 19. 

16. Presenting] The word 
(c7r€;(€iv) means to hold a thing 
to a p'erson, as a cup of wine to 
a banqueter, or a light to one in 
the dark. The latter may be 
the idea here. The word of life 
is a sort of light held out into 
the darkness of the world for 
the acceptance and comfort of 



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57 



ZiearTpaixixevYi^y ev ol^ (paivecde w^ (pcocTfipe^ II. 15 
eV Koa-jULU), \6yov ^0)^9 eire-xovre^, ek Kavxrifict 16 
€/io/ ek fiixepav XpiCTOv, otl ovk eU Kevov eZpa- 
fULOP ov^e eU k€i/6u eKOTriao'a. dWaei Kai (nrev^o- 17 



all who will take it. In Him 
was life, and the life was the 
light o/men (John i. 4). 

A word of life] A divine 
utterance ha/ving for its subject 
and purport life, in the Scrip- 
tural sense of the word life, 
which is, not mere existence, 
but an existence which is (i) 
conscious, (2) satisfying, (3) ever- 
lasting. John i. 4. iv. 14. v. 24, 
40. vi. 33, 51. X. 10. xvii. 3. &c. 

That I may have] Literally, 
unto (so as to form) a subject of 
glorying for ms unto {against, 
in preparation for) the day of 
Christ The faithful effort of 
the Philippians in the character 
of Christian luminaries will be 
his glorying in the great day. 
2 Cor. i. 14, we a/re your glory- 
ing, even as ye also are (or shall 
be) ov/rs in the day of our Lord 
Jesus. I Thess. ii. 19, what is 
our . . . crown of glorying ? are not 
even ye, before our Lord Jesus 
at His coming? 

That I ran not] This is 
the sum and substance of that 
which he hopes for as his sub- 
ject of glorying. 

Ban.., laboured^ The tense 
of the two verbs indicates the 
retrospect of the life as a single 
act from the other side of death. 



For the figure of the runner 
(taken from the foot-race) com- 
pare iii 14. I Cor. ix. 26. Gal. 
ii. 2. 2 Tim. iv. 7. 

In vain] Literally, unto 
emptiness; so as to be empty- 
handed at the end of it. 2 Cor. 
vi. I. Gal. iL 2, lest by any 
means I should be running, or 
had run, in vain. 1 Thess. iii. 5. 

17. J}^ay, if] Nay, if I 
not only ru/a and labour but 
even give my very life-blood in 
martyrdom, I not only sludl 
have whereof to glory in the great 
day, but even now I rejoice, and 
bid you to rejoice with me. 

If I am even poured] Not 
if I should be, but if I am. 
He speaks of it as a process 
already begun. / am being 
poured. Even if the present 
imprisonment should not end in 
death (see verse 24), still the 
pouring out of the life-blood is 
in course of realization. The 
tense is the same as in 2 Tim. 
iv. 6, when the second imprison- 
ment, which did end in death, 
was far on in its course. 

Poured as a drinhoffering] 
The Levitical law required that 
the offering of a certain quan- 
tity of wine should in most cases 
accompany the sacrifice by fire. 



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58 



TO THE PHILIPPIANS. 



IL 1 7 the sacrifice and ministry of your faith, I joy, and 

1 8 rejoice with you all. And do ye also have the 
same joy, and the same rejoicing with me. 

19 But I hope, in the Lord Jesus, to send you 
Timotheus speedily, that 1 also may be of good 



See, for example, Exod. xxix. 
40, 41 (the daily sacrifice at 
morning and evening), Lev. 
xxiiL 13, &c. (the feasts of the 
Lord), Num. vi. 17 (the Naza- 
rite's offering), xv. 4, &c. (free- 
will offerings), xxviii. 10, <kc. 
(sabbath, new moons, passover, 
firstfruits), xxix. 6, <kc. St 
Paul using this figure speaks of 
the pouring of his own blood at 
last upon the life-long sacrifice 
of his ministry for others. 

Upon the sacrifice] Totur 
faith is the sacrifice spoken of. 
ButwhereaselsewhereChristians 
are represented as offering their 
own sacrifices, whether general 
^i,Pet. ii. 5), or of the body 
(Rom. xii. i), or specifically of 
praise or almsgiving (Heb. xiii. 
15, 16), here St Paul describes 
himself aa offering up the sacri- 
fice of others. Compare Rom. 
XV. 15, 16, thaJt I should he a 
minister of Christ Jesus unto 
the GentileSy ministering (in sor- 
orifice) the Gospel of God, that 
the (my) offering up of the Gen- 
tiles might be acceptable, d;c. 

And ministry] This word 
(XciTovpyta) was appropriated 
in Attic usage to those expen- 
sive public services which the 



richer citizens undertook for the 
benefit or entertainment of the 
people. It and its cognate forms 
occur about 140 times in the 
Septuagint, and are specially 
applied to the priestly ministra- 
tions (Exod. xxviiL 35. Deut. x. 
8. I Sam. ii. 11. <kc.). And so 
in most cases of its occurrence 
in the New Testament (where 
it is used fifteen times) a sacred 
if not sacrificial sense prepon- 
derates. Here its combination 
with sacrifice marks this strong- 
ly. St Paul is the officiating 
minister in the offering up of 
the faith of the Philippian 
Church to God. 

I joy, a/nd] First he asserts 
his own joy, and then, in that 
yearning sympathy which re- 
fused the very thought of isola- 
tion in happiness, he assumes 
their joy, and claims to sha/re it. 
It is the very spirit of the tvith 
you of 2 Cor. iv. 14. He can 
enjoy nothing alone, 

18. Have the same joy] 
Literally, rejoice the same thing. 
And the same thing is put at 
the beginning of the clause, so 
as to serve as an accusative to 
both the verbs, rejoice and rejoice 
with. The above rendering is 



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EPOS 4)IAinnHSlOTS. 



59 



imai eVi rfj dvcria Kai XeiTOvpyla t^s iriarreco^ II. 1 7 
vfxoou, X^'^P^ '^"^ (Tvi/x^aipto iraa-iv vjuup. to Se i8 
avTO Kai v/xeT^ ^^ipere Kai (ri;i/;^;a/|0€T€ /xoi. 

'EXTri^co Se ip Kvpio) 'Irjcrov Tifxodeov raxeco^ 19 
Trifiylrai v/xiu^ 'Iva Kayo) evylrv^fS 71/01)9 rd irepi 



an attempt to express this con- 
struction, (i) Have the same 
joy that I have; and (2) have 
the same fellow- joy with m>e that 
I have with you, 

19 — 30. *I hope soon to 
send Timothy to Philippi, that 
he may bring me back the com- 
fort of good tidings of you. He 
is the only person, among those 
at this time available, whose 
interest in you is entirely real 
and genuine. Selfishness is 
commoner than devotion — ^you 
know what he is, a very son to 
me in the service of the Gospel. 
I shall send him, as soon as I 
see what turn my imprisonment 
takes — I trust that I shall my- 
self soon come. Meanwhile I 
despatch Epaphroditus with this 
letter. He knows that you have 
heard of his illness, and he is 
unhappy in the thought of the 
anxiety it must have caused you. 
It was indeed a severe and dan- 
gerous illness, but God, in mercy 
to me as well as to him, has 
raised him from it. The sight 
of him will be joy to you, and 
the thought of your joy will be 
a relief to my sorrows. Such a 
man deserves your honour: in 



his zeal for Christ's work, in his 
efforts as your representative in 
my service, he hazarded, and all 
but lost, life itself.' 

19. In the Lord Jesus^ In 
whom I live, and in whom there- 
fore my every hope, about things 
earthly as well as heavenly, is 
conceived and fostered. See i. 
13, and note there. In Christ 

To send you Timotheus^ 
Such is the English idiom cor- 
responding to the particular form 
of the Greek. You is a simple 
dative ( meaning ybr your benefit, 
comfort, (fee), not the unto you 
{Trp6<i vfjids) of verse 25. For the 
dative you, compare i Cor. iv. 1 7, 
for this cause I sent you Timo- 
theus, . ,who shall remind you, d&c. 

/ also'l Taken literally, it 
would mean / as well as you. 
But this literal sense sometimes 
requires to be modified into / 
on my pa/rt See, for example, 
Eph. i. 15, wherefore I also. Col. 
i. 9, for this cause we also. 

May he of good courage] A 
word {fvxpvx^) used only here in 
the New Testament. In i and 
2 Mace, forms of the same com- 
pound occur in the sense of 
spirit or courage. 



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6o 



TO THE PHILIPPIANS. 



II. 20 courage when I know your state. For I have 
no man his equal in soul, one that will have a 

2 1 true concern for your state. For they all seek 

22 their own, not the things of Jesus Christ. But 
the proof of him ye perceive in this, that, as 
a child serves a father, so he served with me in 

23 aid of the Gospel. Him then I hope to send as 
soon as ever I shall clearly see how it is with me : 

24 and I am persuaded, in the Lord, that I also 

25 myself shall come speedily. But I have thought 



Your state] Literally, the 
things which concern you (rd 
irepl u/xoJv). So in the next verse. 
Slight variations of the phi-ase 
are found in verse 23 (ra 7r€pt 
€fi€) and i 1 2 (ra xar e/xc). 

20. / have no man] We 
do not know who were with St. 
Paul at this moment. Timo- 
theus and Epaphroditus are the 
only two actually named in the 
letter. The strong expression 
of the text may be regarded 
either (i) as not quite literal, or 
else (2) as meaning, ?io one of- 
those who might be at present 
available for the purpose. 

His equal in soul] The 
same word (to-oi/o^x*^^) occurs 
only here in the New Testa- 
ment, and once in the Septua- 
gint Version of Psalm Iv. 13 
{a ma/yi mine equal). There is 
one like compound (t<roTtfios, 
equal in value) in 2 Pet. i. i. The 
common rendering, likeminded, 
exchanges the idea of equality 
for that of similarity. 



True] Genuine, as opposed 
to spurious. Compare iv. 3, trUfS 
yokefellow. 2 Cor. viii 8, the sin- 
cerity of your love, 1 Tim. i. 2, 
my own son. Tit. i. 4. 

21. They all] tinder the 
stress of strong emotion, the ge- 
neral is made universal. 

Seek their own] Things; 
interests, comforts, objects. 
Compare i Cor. x. 24, let no 
man seek his own, but each his 
neig^ibour's good. xiii. 5, seeketh 
not hev own. 2 Cor. xii. 14, / 
seek not yours, but you. Col. 
iii. I, seek the things above. St 
Paul's two characteristic words, 
to seek (fr/Tctv) and to mind 
(f^poveiv), represent severally the 
aim of the life and the spirit of 
the life. 

The things of Jesus Christ] 
His interests, the things which 
He has made His own in * tak- 
ing upon Him to deliver man.' 
Isai. liii. 10, 11, tJ^e pleasure of 
the Lord shall prosper in His 
hand ; He shall see of the travail 



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npos 4>iAinnH2ioTS. 



6i 



vfxwv. ovheva yap eyja Ico^vx^ovy octi^ yutjcicos II. 20 
Tci irepl vfjiwv lULepiiup^cei. ol irdvTe^ yap Ta2i 
eavTtop ^rjTOvciPy ov Tci XpiarTOv 'Iricov. Trji/ 22 
Se SoKifxrii/ avTOv yipeocKcrey otl <as irarpl t€kpov 
arvv efxol ehovXevaev eU to evayyeXiov. tovtov 23 
ixev ovv iXTTi^o) 7r€fJL\}/'ai cJ? aV dcpiSo) tcl irept 
ifxe e^avTrjs' ireiroida Se ev Kvpiu) oti Kal avTo^ 24 
Taj(^ea)^ iXevcofxai. dvayKalov Se iiyYia-afxriv 25 



of His soul. 

22. The proof of hirn\ That 
is, what he is you can see by 
this proof nam/dy^ thxU, dtc. 2 
Cor. iL 9, that I might know 
the proof of you (that I might 
ascertain by putting you to the 
test) whether ye are obedient 

Thaty as a child] St Paul 
was going to write, that, as a 
child serves afatlter, so he served 
me in the Gospel But with 
that beautiful courtesy which is 
characteristic of him he avoids, 
when he reaches it, what might 
have seemed to place Timothy 
in too inferior a position to him- 
self, and inserts iMi before me, 
breaking the construction but 
with admirable effect. 

Served] The word is left 
absolute : did service, it not being 
necessaiy to say to whom. Com- 
pare Kom. vii. 6, that we should 
serve in newness of spirit 

In aid of] Literally, unto. 
See i. 5. 

23. Him then] The Greek 
by an anticipative particle (/Aev) 



places this verse in contrast with 
the next — Timothy's coming 
with his own. 

As soon as ever] Literally, 
forthtmth whensoever; hnt forth- 
with stands in the Greek at the 
end of the sentence, and its un,- 
avoidable transposition in En- 
glish makes the paraphrase of 
the text all but necessary. 

24. And I am persuaded] 
So little foundation is there in 
St Paul's own language for the 
idea that this Epistle was writ- 
ten in an unfavourable state of 
his prospects, and for the argu- 
ment founded upon this as to 
its being later in date than the 
other three. The tone is just 
that of Phil em. 22. 

In tJie Lord] See note on 
verse 19. 

25. But] Though I pur- 
pose soon to send Timotheus, 
and though I expect soon to 
come myself, yet I cannot post- 
pone for either of these events 
the return of Epaphro<Htus. 

/ have thought] The tense 



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62 



TO THE PHILIPPIANS. 



II 25 it necessary to send unto you Epaphroditus, my 
brother and fellow-worker and fellow-soldier, and 
moreover your messenger and minister to my 

26 need; seeing that he was longing after you all, 
and in sore trouble because ye had heard that he 

2 7 was sick. For sick indeed he was, very nigh 
unto death: but God had mercy on him; and not 
on him only, but on me also, that I might not 

28 have sorrow upon sorrow. I have sent him there- 
fore the more eagerly, that seeing him ye may be 



in the Greek is what is known 
as the epistolary aorist (corre- 
sponding to the epistolary im- 
perfect in Latin). The English 
ifliom makes this either the pre- 
sent (I think), or the perfect (/ 
have thought), but not the pre- 
terite (/ thought). 

Upaphroditus] Only known 
from this Epistle. From this 
passage, supplemented by iv. 18, 
we learn that he was a Philip- 
pian Christian, that he had been 
sent by the Church of Philippi 
with supplies for Sb Paul at 
Rome, and that there, either 
from over-exertion or from ex- 
posure to climate or infection, 
he had a dangerous illness from 
which he had just recovered 
when St Paul wrote. 

Fellow-soldier] This parti- 
cular title is only given else- 
where by St Paul to Archippus 
(Philem. 2). The foregoing 
term fellow-worker is applied in 
other Epistles to Timotheus, 



Titus, Aquila and Priscilla, 
Mark, and others. 

And moreover] After three 
words describing what Epaphro- 
ditus is to him, St Paul turns to 
what he is to the Philippians. 

Messenger] The word apo- 
stle, elsewhere generally distinc- 
tive of the twelve, or of the 
twelve with two (or three) others, 
is here (and in 2 Cor. viii. 23) 
used in the most general sense 
of messenger or delegate. 

Minister] See note on verse 
17, And ministry. The more 
sacred sense of the word (Xct- 
rovpyoi) may be said here to be 
merged in the human. And 
yet even the supplies carried by 
Epaphroditus to St Paul are 
called in iv. 18 a sacrifice. 

26. Seeing that] An un* 
usual particle (cttciSt;) with St 
Paul, only used by him (besides) 
in the first Epistle to the Corin-» 
thians, where it occurs four 
times. 



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EPOS 4>IAinnHSlOT2. 



63 



'ETraCJypohrop top dSeXcpop Kai arvvepyov ica£ II. 25 
crvpaTpartcoTtiP julov v/jlwp Se ciTroaToXop Kai 
Xeirovpyop r^s XP^'^^^ 1^^^ 'TreiaylraL Trpo^ v/mas*^ 
€7r€ihri eTTLTTodtap t]p irapra^ vfxa^ Kai aSfj- 26 
fjLOPcSp SiOTi i]KOvaaT€ on rjardepria-ep. Kai 2 7 
yap Yiardepriarep TrapaTrX^ciop dapuTOv* d?\Xa 6 
0609 nXeriaep avrop* ovk avrop Se /uiopopy dXXd 
Kai €/x€, iW fiti Xvnrjp iiri XvTrrjp o")(j^» ctttoV' 28 
Sa£OT€j0ft)9 ovp eTrejUL^a avrop, 'ipa iSopre^ avrop 



He was longing] It may be 
doubted whether the epistolary 
tense here should not be ren- 
dered is rather than was. But 
the English idiom allows some 
laxity. 

Longing after] Or, accord- 
ing to another strongly attested 
reading, longing to see you 
all. 

In sore trotible] A sancti- 
ty is attached to this word 
(dBrjfjioviov) by its being only 
used besides (in Scripture) in 
the narrative of the Agony; 
Matt. xxvi. 37 and Mark xiv. 
33, and began to be.,, very heavy 
(sore troubled). The probable 
derivation of the word gives the 
idea of a surfeit of grief or other 
emotion. 

Because ye had heard] A 
beautiful example of unselfish 
sympathy ; the more remarkable 
when we remember that the 
Gospel was only about ten years 
old at Philippi 



27. For.,, indeed] Literally, 
for also, Not only had you 
hea/rd it, but it was trv^. 

Very nigh unto] An un- 
usual word {irapairXria-Lov), meanr 
ing literally alongside near, so 
near as to be by the very side 
of the thing or person spoken of. 
In Heb. ii 14 (the only other 
place of its occurrence in Scrip- 
ture) it is used of the exact 
similarity of our Lord's bodily 
nature to ours. 

God had mercy on him] So 
natural is St Paul's language. 
He speaks of a recovery from 
sickness as a mercy, though he 
has said in i. 23 that to depart 
isfa/r^far better, 

28. I have sent] Ov, I send. 
No doubt E[)aphroditus carried 
the letter. 

Eagerly] Luke vii. 4, they 
besought him earnestly, 2 Tim. 
i. 17, he sought me diligently. 

Ye inay be glad again] Ye 
may recover cJieerfulness, The^ 



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64 



TO THE PHILIPPIANS. 



II. 29 glad again, and so I may be less sorrowful. Receive 
him then, in the Lord, with all joy ; and hold such 
30 men in honour; because for the sake of the work 
of Christ he drew nigh even unto death, having 
put his life in jeopardy that he might supply that 
which was lacking on your part in ministering to 



me. 



III. I Finally, my brethren, rejoice, in the Lord. 



word again might be taken with 
seeing hiniy but seems to be more 
expressive in the above con- 
nexion. 

And so / mat/ be] A very 
tender thought Their recovery 
of cheerfulness, which St Paul 
would picture to himself as the 
consequence of the arrival of 
Epaphroditus at Philippi, would 
mitigate, if it could not heal, 
his own many sorrows. 

29. Eeceive] Kom. xvL 2, 
tliat ye receive her, in the Lord, 
wortkUy of the saints. The 
other sense of the word (irpoa-- 
B€X€(rOai), to eocpecty is more fre- 
quent in Scripture (Mark xv. 
43. Lukeii. 25. Tit. ii. 13. &c.), 
but would be out of place here, 
as the letter and Epaphroditus 
would arrive together. 

In the Lard] As above, L 
13. ii. 19, 24. 

Such men] 1 Cor. xvL r6, 
18, tliat ye also submit your- 
selves to su^h men... acknowledge 
then such men. 

In honour] The two senses 
of honour and value often run 



into one another in this word 
(IvTi/xos) as in its root (tiijltj). 
Luke vii. 2, a certain centurion's 
servant, who was valu€d)le to him 
(or hdd in honour by him), i 
Pet. ii. 4, 6, 7. Col. ii. 23. 

30. The work of Christ] 
The close of the verse speaks of 
his self-devotion in bringing 
supplies to St Paul, and this 
too might bespoken of as Christ's 
work. But the expression seems 
rather to point to a more di- 
rect ministry of the Gospel in 
Kome during his stay, in the 
course of which he had fallen 
sick. See note on verse 25, 
Epaphroditus. 

Drew nigh even unto death] 
The Greek is peculiar. Even 
unto is literally up to, to tJts 
extent of (ftexpt). So that the 
construction would seem to be, 
He drew nigh {death), up to {to 
the very verge of) death itsdf 
See note on verse 7, Even unto 
death. 

Drew nigh... having put] The 
two acts are not contemporane- 
ous. Having put his life in 



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npos 4>iAinnHXioT2. 



65 



irdXiv x^P^*^^ Kciyto dXviroTepo^ «• 'TrpoaSex^o'de II. 29 
ovv avTov ev Kvpito fxeTci wdam x^P^^* ^^^ TOv<i 
ToiovTOv^ ii/Tifxov^ €x^T€' OTi ^id TO epyov Kvpiov 30 
fJicxpi davdrov nyyiarev^ irapafioXevo'dfxevo^ Ttj 
'^^XV '^^^ dpaTrXfipwcfi to viulcSu ia'Teprifxa Trj^ 
irpo's fie XeiTOvpyia^* 

To XoiTTovj d^eX(poi jULOVy x^^^P^'t^ ^i/ Kvpiu). III. i 



jeopardy to serve me, he after- 
toards fell into an all but fatal 
sickness. The sickness was sub- 
sequent to, and consequent upon, 
the risk run in St Paul's service. 

Having put his life in jeo- 
pardy] Literally, Jtaving play- 
ed the venturesome man with his 
life. It is a figure drawn from 
games of hazard, the man's own 
life being in this case the staka 
The received reading (frapa^ov- 
Xcvo-a/Acvos) gave the feebler 
sense of Jiaving counselled amiss 
for his life. 

T/iat he might supply] First 
by bringing your contributions 
to Rome, and secondly by minis- 
tering personally to me there. 

That which was lacking] 
Literally, your deficiency of (in) 
tJie ministry to me. No com- 
plaint or blame is involved in 
the expression. It is rather, 
hs came to me from you, to do 
in your helwlf tliat which you, 
absent and distant, necessarily 
left undone by yourselves. Com- 
pare I Cor. xvi. 17,/ rejoice at 
the coming of Stephanas and 
Fortunatus and Achaicus; for 

V. P. 



that which was lacking on your 
part they supplied: for they re- 
freshed my spirit, and so yours. 

Ministering] See notes on 
verses 17 and 25. 

III. I. *My letter draws 
to its close. Its keynote has 
been the duty of joy, and it 
shall be so to the end.' 

I. Finally] Literally, as 
for that which remains to be 
said. The word marks an ap- 
proach to the end of the letter, 
but not always a very 'near ap- 
proach. See, for example, t 
Thess. iv. i, where this finally 
opens the fourth chapter out of 
five; and 2 Thess. iii. i, where 
it begins the third chapter out of 
three. Too much therefore may 
be made of it here as an indica- 
tion of St Paul's having design- 
ed to close the Epistle at once. 

My brethren] This form of 
address specially belongs to St 
James. St Paul more common- 
ly uses brethren alone. In each 
of the three Epistles, Komans, 
I Corinthians, and Philippians, 
my brethren occurs twice. 

Rejoice] The same word 



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66 



TO THE PHILIPPIANS. 



Ill, I To write the same things unto you, to me is tiot 
2 irksome, and for you it is safe. Beware of the 



laesLUS farewell in 2 Cor. xiii. 
II. But no inference can be 
drawn from the use of it here 
as to a supposed intention of 
closing the letter immediately. 
See iv. 4. i Thess. y. 16, 

In the Lord] To be read, as 
often elsewhere, independently 
of the particular word preceding, 
and as a perpetual reminder of 
the all-including Person who is 
the very life itself. See former 
notes on the same (or equivalent) 
words. 

To vrrite the same things] 
To repeat again and again the 
same things. It is not quite 
clear what these are; whether 
the foregoing precept of joy, 
which has been called the key- 
note of the Epistle, or the fol- 
lowing cautions and warnings 
Against false teachers. The 
latter reference would be less 
easily underatood by the readers, 
the subject having been an- 
nounced by nothing going be- 
fore. On the other hand, the 
word safe (for you it is safe) 
seems to point rather to dangers 
than to comforts. But in fact 
, the transition is by no means 
abrupt, from the duty of joy to 
the peril of losing it by a Ju- 
daizing half-gospel. Thus we 
may understand St Paul to have 
both thoughts in his mind when 
he speaks of the same things. 



And thus, instead of imagining 
a breach of continuity at this 
point, a pause, a surprise, and a 
new start, we shall see an en- 
tire coherence and beautiful har- 
mony in the whole structure of 
the Epistle. 

Irksome] In the two other 
places of its use (Matt. xxv. 26 
and Rom. xii. 11) the word 
(dKviypos) means slothful. And 
so in Acta ix. 38 the cognate 
verb (o^cvcti') is to he tardy. 
Here it has rather the kindred 
idea of wearisome. 

Safe] Elsewhere (i) firm 
(Heb. VL 19), and so (2) certain 
(Acts xxi. 34. &c.). Here (like 
the above word) it has from the 
context something of a causative 
sense, (3) conducive to safety. 

2 — 14. * There is one influence 
at work, among you doubtless as 
elsewhere, hostile to Christian 
joy. Beware of it, though it uses 
the plausible talk of God's law 
and God's privileged people. We, 
we Christians, are God's privi- 
leged people; we, whose worship 
is a spiritual worship, whose 
glorying is in Christ alone, who 
renounce all carnal confidence, 
whether of race, work, or ritual. 
In my case, there is material, 
enough and to spare, for the con- 
fidence which yet I renounce. 
Each several boast of the Jew is 
mine in perfection. I am no 



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67 



Ta avrd ypdcpeii/ vfxit/ ifxoi fxev ovk OKprjpop, vfiiv III. I 
Se dcr(pa\e£. 

B\€7r€T€ TOi)? Kvva^y (ixiirere tov^ kukov^ 2 



proselyte, incorporated late in 
life in the commonwealth of 
Israel: race, tribe, parentage — 
Pharisaic orthodoxy, zeal even 
to persecuting, character of 
blameless strictness — all can 
challenge scrutiny. Yet all 
these advantages I have counted 
loss for Christ. Nor these alone, 
but whatsoever else is in the 
eyes of man precious and beau- 
tiful, I not only did, but do, 
count but scum and refuse, for 
the sake of one thing more ex- 
cellent — the knowledge of Christ 
Jesus my Lord, for whose sake 
I was contented to lose my all 
that I might gain and be found 
in Him, the possessor not of 
a self-righteousness, earned by 
meritorious obedience to a code 
of precepts, but of that which 
comes by faith in Christ, that 
which is the gift of God Him- 
self on the footing and ground- 
work of the Gospel. Yes, to 
know Him, and His resurrec- 
tion-power and passion-fellow- 
ship — day by day growing into 
the very likeness and form of 
His death, if so be I may ar- 
rive at last at the blessed resur- 
rection from among the dead — • 
this, this is my goal. Not that 
I received at once, when I gave 
myself to Him, the thing de- 



sired and made for — not that I 
am already arrived at the per- 
fection or the consummation of 
the Christian beings — ^not this. 
No, I am pressing on towards 
an object not yet reached. It 
was in order that I might at 
length grasp this, that Christ, 
one memorable day, laid hold 
on me. Do not suppose, I be- 
seech you, that I (long as I 
have been in the race) reckon 
myself to have grasped the prize. 
One thing, one only, I can say — 
that, like the runner, I forget 
the things behind, the part of 
the course already traversed, 
and strain every sinew and every 
muscle to get over the ground 
in front of me, and thus, with, 
the goal full in my view to guide 
my running, I press on toward 
the prize which lies there, the 
prize for which God in heaven 
called me in the person of Christ 
Jesus.' 

2. Beware of] The Greek 
says only, look at, observe. But 
the sense is just as in Mark xii« 
38, where the addition of from 
(dird) expresses the avoidance 
which is here implied. 

The dogs] Thus the term of 
reproach usually applied by the 
Jew to the Gentile (see Matt. 
XV. 26) is here turned upon the 

5—2 



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68 



TO THE PHILIPPIANS. 



III. 2 dogs, beware of the evil workmen, beware of the 

3 concision. For we are the circumcision, we who 
worship by the Spirit of God, and glory in Christ 

4 Jesus, and trust not in flesh: although I too 
might trust even in flesh. If any other man 

5 thinks to trust in flesh, I more: circumcised the 



Judaizer. He by his refusal of 
the true hope of Israel, salva- 
tion in Christ alone, has made 
himself the alien which he calls 
the Gentile (Eph. ii. 12). 

JEvil workrnen'] Not exactly 
in the sense of evildoers, but in 
that of labourers (Matt. ix. 37. 
XX. I, James v. 4) or craftsmen 
(Actsxix. 25) who, either through 
incapacity or malice, spoil and 
ruin their work. Compare 2 
Cor. xi 13, such men are false 
apostles, deceitfulworkmen, trams- 
forming themselves into apostles 
of Christ, It is against Ju> 
daizing Christians, not against 
openly hostile Jews, that St 
Paul is warning the Fhilippians. 

The concision] A happily 
chosen rendering for a word 
(^Kararofi-q) intended as a con- 
temptuous travesty of circumr 
dsion {irtpLTOfLq), Where (i) 
circumcision was not God's or- 
dinance (as it never was for the 
Gentile), or where (2) circum- 
cision was trusted in for salva- 
tion (as it never ought to have 
been by the Jew), it became at 
once a mere mtUilation, rather 
shameful than honourable. Here 
St Paul uses the word concision 



collectively, for the whole party 
and community of Judaizers, 
just as tJie circumcisio7i is used 
for the Jewish nation in Rom. 
iv. 9. XV. 8. Gal. ii. 7, &c. Eph. 
ii. II. 

3. We!\ We ChristioTis are 
the real circumcision. For the 
expression, see the above note. 
And for the thought, compai'e 
Rom. ii. 29. Gal. iii. 7, 29. vi 16. 

Who worship by the tSpirit of 
God] The received text reads, 
Who worship God (0cw) in spirit. 
An easier reading. In the re- 
vised text worship has no case 
after it; as in Luke ii. 37 (rvor- 
shipping with fastings and sup- 
plications), Acts xxvi. 7 (ear- 
nestly worshipping nigJU and 
day), Heb. ix. 9. x. 2. And 
the Spirit of God is spoken of as 
the instrument of the worship ; 
by His presence, agency, grace, 
and inspiration. 

Worship] The term (Xa- 
rp€v€iv), though not originally 
so restricted, is appropriated in 
Scripture to a divine and spe- 
cially a ritual and sacerdotal 
worship. See Rom. ix. 4, who 
are Israelites; witose is,,, the 
service (of God). Heb. ix. i, 6, 



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69 



ipyaTa^, fiXeirere rrju Kararofxriv. 77/1619 yap III. 3 
icfxev r] TvepiroiJiriy 01 TTvevfxari Qeov XaTpevovTe^ 
Kal Kav')((aiJLevoi ev Xpicrw 'IricoO Kal ovk ev 
aapKL TreiroidoTev Kaiirep eyto €;^coi/ Trewoidricip 4. 
Kal ev capKi. ei n^ SoK€i aWos TreTroidevai • 
ev capKi, eyta ixaWov* Treptroiufj OKTatjiuLepo^y 5 



ordinances of ((iivine) service,,, 
the priests go in contintuUly 
into the first tabernacle, a>cco?nn 
l^lishing tlie services, xiii. 10, 
thef/ who serve the tahemacle. 
St Paul claims here for all 
Christians that spiritual priest- 
hood which is the antitype (un* 
der Christ the one High Priest) 
of the whole Levitical system. 
Compare Acts xxvii. 23, God^ 
wJiose I am, wlwm also I serve. 
Rom. i 9, God, wJiom, I serve 
in my spirit in the Gospel of 
His Son. 2 Tim. i. 3, God, whom 
I serve from my forefathers in a 
pure conscience. 

And glory in Christ JesrM\ 
To glory or triumph (Kavxaa-Ba^ 
in a thing or person is one of 
St Paul's favourite expressions. 
He uses it almost sixty times 
in his Epistles, St James and 
the writer to the Hebrews alone 
sharing it with him. He seems 
to have derived it from Jerem. 
ix. II, which he quotes more 
than once. 

And trust not infiesJi] Flesh 
is the antithesis of spirit in all 
sensea The contrast runs through 
all St Paul's Epistles, though it 



is most fully drawn in those to 
the Romans and the Galatians. 
The present passage shows how 
comprehensive is the term fiesh 
in St Paul's thought; including 
not only all external privilege, 
of birth, nationality, and class- 
religion, but also all that self- 
effort and self -attainment which 
is independent of divine grace. 

4. Might trust] Literally, 
have confidence; that is, as the 
context interprets, material of 
confidence ifsu^h can anywhere 
be found. 

ThinJss to trust] The con- 
struction is that of Matt. iii. 9, 
think not to say within yov/r- 
selves. I Cor. xi. 16, (/* any 
man thinket/i to be contentious. 
The expression seems to come 
from the impersonal use of the 
same verb (Sokciv), and to be 
equivalent to tldnks it good or 
right to do so. 

5. Circumcised the eighth 
day] And therefore a bom 
Jew, no proselyte. 

Of the race of Israel] Re- 
gularly descended from th e father 
of the patriarchs. See 2 Cor. xi. 
22, are tfiey Israelites? so am L 



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70 



TO THE PHILIPPlANa 



in. 5 eighth day, of the race of Israel, of the, tribe of 
Benjamin, a Hebrew of Hebrews; as to law, a 

6 Pharisee; as to zeal, a persecutor of the Church; 
as to righteousness, such as law has in it, blame- 

7 less. But whatsoever things were gains to me. 



Of the tribe of Benjamin] 
Able to name my tribe, as well 
as my nation. And that a dis- 
tinguished tribe; the tribe of 
the first king; the tribe which 
alone was faithfal to Judah in 
the great division. 

A Hebrew of Hebrews] No 
Hellenist, or son of Hellenists; 
true from my forefathers to the 
language and customs of the 
Hebrew race in its purity. 

Ae to law] Doubtless when 
St Paul speaks of law it is the 
Jewish law, and not the Koman 
or any other, that he has in the 
background (at least) of his 
thought. The law of Moses 
was his specimen and embodi- 
ment of all law, human and Di- 
vine. But this does not pre- 
clude him from generalizing the 
idea, from speaking of the prin- 
ciple as well as of the instance. 
There are points in which even 
the Jewish law shares with other 
laws; as a rule of duty ^ even as 
a revelation of duty, it may be 
conceived as having, if not rivals, 
at least parallels, in other codes : 
Nature has her rule of duty, Pa- 
radise had its revelation of duty. 
We claim for St Paul the free- 
dom of saying a lawy law, or 
^ law, at his pleasure, and ac- 



cording to the shade of thought 
intended. There are passages in 
which he combines the varying ex- 
pressions, passages in which he 
contracts them, passages in which 
he uses one or uses another, and 
it is seldom, if ever, impossible 
to track him. Here, as to law — 
as regards the revelation of 
duty, whatever it was, under 
which I lived — I was not only- 
mindful of it, I was a member of 
that particular body of religion- 
ists who were notorious for their 
scrupulosity in its observance. 

A Pharisee] Acts xxii. 3, 
hrov^M up...a>t the feet of Ga- 
m^aliel, instructed according to 
the strictness of tlte law of our 
fathers, xxiii. 6, / am a Phari- 
see, the son of Pharisees, xxvi. 
5, after the strictest sect of our 
religion I lived a P/tarisee, 

6. As to zeal, a persecutor] 
Acts xxii. 3, 4, being zealous 
for God., for I persecuted thv< 
way unto the death. Gal. i. 
13, 14, I persecuted the Church 
of God, and wasted it.,. being 
more exceedingly zealous for the 
traditions of my fathers, 

A persecutor of t?ie Church] 
I Cor. XV. 9, because I perse- 
cuted the Church of God, Gal. 
i. 23, our former persecutor. 



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7t 



eK yepov^ 'l<rpai]\^ ^vXfjs Bepiafxeli/, 'EfipaTo9 i^ III. 5 
'EfipaiwVy Kara vofiov ^apicaio^y Kara ^fjXo^ 6 
ZitaKwv rrjp eKKXriciaUy kutu StKaiocuyriu rtjp eu 
vofiio yepofxeuo^ afULefXTTTO^. dWa ariva riv fioi 7 



The Church] From the 
classical use of the word (ckkXi^ 
o-ta) as the assembly of adult, 
freeborn, legitimate citizens, 
through the application of it in 
the Septuagint to the congrega- 
tion (or gathered people) of Is- 
raely it passes into the Chris-^ 
tian sense of (i) the whole body 
of professed believers in all ages 
and nations, as in Matt xvi. i8 
(on this rock I wiU build my 
Church)^ I Cor. xii. 28. Eph. 
i. 22. &c. Col. i. 18, 24 ; (2) the 
several provincial or local Chris- 
tian communities rep^'esentative 
of the universal, as in Matt xviii. 
17 (teUit unto the Church), Acts 
viii. I. xiv. 23, 27. &c, E.om. 
xvi. I. &c. I Cor. xi. 16. &c.; 
(3) the local Church actually 
assembled for worship, as i Cor. 
xi. 18 {wlien ye come together in 
congregation), xiv. 19, 28. &c. 
In the text St Paul probably 
means the Church universal, 
though the actual perMecution 
could only affect particular com* 
muni ties (Acts xxvi. 10, 11, 
and this I also did in Jerusor 
lem, . ,and being exceedingly m>ad 
against them, I persecuted them 
even unto foreign cities). 

As to righteousness] The 
clause begins as though St Paul 



were about to assert his blame- 
lessness absolutely. But this 
with his present view of righ- 
teousness, as lying far deeper 
and rising far higher than mor- 
ality, he cannot do, and there- 
fore he adds the limiting words, 
that righteousness, I mean, which 
is contained in (obedience to) law, 
that is, to any rule or revelation 
of duty under which the indi- 
vidual may be placed. So far, 
andunth that limitation, blame- 
less. Compare Rom. ix. 31, 
but Israel, following after a 
law of (capable of giving) right- 
eousness, did not attain to such a 
law. See note on verse ^, As to 
law. 

Blameless'] The Greek says, 
having become (or come to be) 
blameless. It expresses the re- 
sult of the life. But it has no 
real English equivalent, and the 
Authorized Version omits it, 
with no loss to the sense. The 
rendering ybwTMJ? blameless is un- 
satisfactory in a passage where 
found occurs just below (verse 9) 
w^ith so important and emphatic 
a meaning, as the translation of 
its regular Greek equivalent. 
See note on ii. 14, That ye may 
be, 

7# Gains'] The plural is 



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72 TO THE PHILIPPIANS. 

III. 7 these I have counted for Christ's sake loss. 

8 Nay rather, I do count all things to be loss for 

the sake of the more excellent knowledge of Christ 

Jesus my Lord, for whose sake I suflPered the loss 

of all things, and do count them but refiise, that 



important. Separate items of 
profit. The figure is that of a 
great account-book, on one side 
of which are entered all the par- 
ticulars of the income. St Paul 
speaks of himself as having 
transferred all the entries (as he 
had once made them) of gain to 
the side of looa 

Have counteti] The perfect 
tense is a combination of prsete* 
rite and present. It expresses 
a past act having consequences 
in the present. I did so and 
so, with abiding effect. The 
estimate of gain and loss here 
spoken of was made at his con- 
version, and his life still bears 
the impress of it. 

For Christ's sake] Because 
of Christ, Because they could 
not be kept with Christ, and be- 
cause they were valueless with- 
out Him. This more general 
sense is better than to antici- 
pate verse 8 by the interpre- 
tation, /or tlie sake of gaining 
Christ. 

Loss] The word {tp/jiiCa) oc- 
curs elsewhere in Scripture only 
in the narrative of the ship- 
wreck. Acts xxvii. 10, 21, tJie 
voyage toill he with injury and. 
much loss.,. and not have gotten 



this injury and loss. The ac- 
companying word there, injury 
(v)3pi9, properly injury with iiv- 
svlt), marks the strength of the 
word before us. 

8. Nay rattier] The phrase 
here is a confluence of no less 
than five Greek particles, of 
which the central three (ji€v 
ovv y€) form a combination ex- 
pressing the correction of a fore- 
going statement as either erro- 
neous or else inadequate. See 
Kom. ix. 19, 20, thou wilt say. 
Why doth He still find fault?... 
nay rather, man, let this be 
the question, wlio art thou that 
repliest against God? x. 18, 
where, as here, the previous 
statement is corrected as inade- 
quate, St Paul has spoken (verse 
7) of (i) certain things, now he 
speaks of all things. He has 
spoken of (2) having a>ccounted, 
now he speaks of accounting. 
The na,y ratfier both expands the 
scope and advances the time. 

/ do count] Literally, / also 
or even count. The emphatic 
do answers the purpose in Eng- 
lish, 

All things] The stress is on 
the ally as explained in the above 
note, Nay rather, 



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npos a>iAinnHSi0T2. 



73 



Kephviy ravra riytjiixai hd tov XpiarTOP ^rifxiav. HI. 7 
dWd fxev ovv ye Kal jfyovixai wavra ^tiixiav elvai 8 
Zid TO VTrepe^ov Ttj^ ypcoarew^ Xpicrov 'Itjcov 
TOV Kvpiov fioVy Sl 01/ Tci irdvTa e^rjfxicodtip Kal 
i^youiuLai (TKvfiaXa 'iva XpiarTOP KepStjarto Kal eiJ- 



The more excellent knowledge] 
This rendering in framed on 2 
Cor. iv. 17, our light affliction 
which 18 for the moment ; where 
the literal rendering would be, 
the momeifUary light thing of 
{consisting ofy which is) our af- 
fliction. So here, for the sake of 
the surpassing thing of (consist- 
ing of which is) the knowledge of 
Christ. In the one passage, it 
is not the lightness of the afflic- 
tion (the fact that it is light), 
but the affliction which is light, 
which works out the glory. In 
the other, it is not for the sake 
of the superiority of the know- 
ledge (the fact that it is sui)erior), 
but for the sake of the knowledge 
which is superior, that he counts 
all things loss. 

My Lord] This individual 
appropriation is rare in St Paul. 
Gal. ii. 20, who loved Tne, and 
gave Himself for me. Compare 
note on i. 3, My God. 

I suffered the loss of] More 
exactly, / tvas sentenced to the 
loss of (iCrffutadrfvy The iigure 
is that of a fine or penalty im- 
posed by a court. St Paul thus 
expresses the utter confiscation 
of all that he had, position, pos- 



session, reputation, family, so- 
ciety, interests, prospects, and 
stDl more (to such a man) reli- 
gious advantages, hopes, and 
confidences, to which he sub- 
jected himself by becoming a 
Christian. For the figure see 
Matt. xvi. 26, if he shall gain 
the whole world, and forfeit {he 
sentenced to the loss of) his life, 
Luke ix. 2^, if he gain the whole 
tuorldf and lose or forfeit {be 
sentenced to the loss of) his oum 
self 1 Cor. iii. 15. 2 Cor. 
vii. 9. 

All things] The definite 
article here seems to look back 
to all things (without it) in the 
first line of the verse, and to 
say now those all things of which 
I spoke. Otherwise it may be 
taken as my all. 

And do count] Thus he goes 
on from the single act of the 
past (/ suffered the loss) to the 
continually repeated act of the 
present {and do count). 

Refuse] The doubtful deri- 
vation of the word (o-icv/3aA.a) 
may justify either rendering, 
that of the text, or that of the 
margin, of the Revised Ver- 
sion. 



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74 



TO THE PHILIPPIANS. 



III. 9 I might gain Christ, and be found in Him, not 
having a righteousness of my own, such as larw 
can give, but that which is through faith in 
Christ, the righteousness which is of God on the 
lo ground of the faith; to know Him, and the power 
of His resurrection and partnership in His suflfer- 



That I might] Or may; 
according as we make it depend 
more upon suffered or upon 
count. 

Gain Christ] The single 
item replaces all the cancelled 
items. Whatsoever things were 
gains (verse 7) / now count loss 
for the sake of the one gain. 
Compare Eph. iii. 8, the un- 
searchable riches of Christ To 
gain Christ is to receive posses* 
sion of Him cw one^s own for use 
and enjoyment, so as to justify 
the above expression, my Lord. 

9. And be found in Him] 
The figure is that of a search 
and discoveiy. As the * slayer' 
pursued by the 'revenger of 
blood' is safe in the *city of re- 
fuge' (Num. XXXV. II, &c.), so 
the Christian, renouncing all 
self-confidence and self-de[)end* 
ence, is found in Christ, safe and 
uncondemned, in the great day. 
For found, see 2 Cor. v. 3, we 
shall not be found naked. And 
for the sense, compare Rom. 
viii, I, there is therefore now 
no condemnation to them that 
are in Christ Jesus. 

Such as law can give] Liter- 



ally, which is from (out of deriv- 
able from obedience to) a law. 
Compare verse 6, such as lato 
has in it; literally, which is in 
{contained in^ to be found in 
obedience to) a la/w. The two 
expressions are equivalent. In 
both cases, though the law of 
Moses may be the example in 
St Paul's mind, the principle 
lies deeper, and he expresses 
himself accordingly. 

Which is of God] Literally, 
which is from {out of as its 
source and origin) God Himself. 
Compare E,om. i. 17. iii 21, &c. 
X. 3. 

On the ground of the faith] 
See note on i. 25, Jot/ in tlie 
faith. Here the faith seems to 
be the true rendering, indicated 
by the presence of the definite 
article (cn-l ry ttiotci) which was 
absent above in the words through 
faith (8ta TTtoTcws) irt, Christ 
For the preposition (ctti) com- 
pare Matt. xvi. 18, on this rock 
I will build my Church. Eph. 
ii. 20, built upon the foundation 
of the Apostles and Frophets, &c. 
The righteousness which has 
God for its Author rests upon 



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npos 4>iAmnHSioTS. 



^s 



peddo ev avrw^ fxrj e')((av efxriv SiKatoavvtiv Tt]v Ik III. 9 

VO/ULOVy dWd Tl)l/ Sid 7r/o"T€ft)S XpKTTOV^ TflV €IC 

Oeov SiKuioa-vvYiv eirl rj} Tria-rer tov yvvivai avrov lO 
Kal Tviv Zvvafxiv Ttj^ dvaG'Toiarett)^ avrov Kai KOi- 



the basis of the faith, that is, 
the GospeL 

10. To know Him] It 
seemed desirable to mark thus 
the change of construction here 
from the form, that I mighty &c., 
of verses 8 and 9, into the equi' 
valent phrase, for the {purpose 
of) knowing y &c. 

Him, and] Pirst the know- 
ledge of the Person, and then of 
a twofold aspect and relation of 
the Person. 

The power of His resurrec- 
tion] This might mean either 
(i) the power eocerted in raising 
Him, or (2) the potver with which 
resurrection invested Him, The 
former interpretation might 
claim the support of Eph. i. 18, 
&c., that ye may know what is 
the eocceeding greatness of His 
(God's) power totvard us who 
believe, according to {on the scale 
of) that working of the strength 
of His might which He turought 
in Christ when He raised Him 
from the dead. But the latter 
best suits the context here. To 
know by daily spiritual experi- 
ence Christ's resurrection-pouter. 
See Rom. xiv. 9, to this end 
Christ died, and lived {again), 
that He might be Lord both of 



the dead and living. 2 Cor. xii. 
9, that the potver of Christ unay 
rest {tahemacle) upon me. Rev. 
i. 18, / uxis dead, and, behold, 
I am, alive for evermore, and I 
have the keys of deaih and of 
Hades. 

And partnership m] It is 
difficult to express in English 
the peculiarity of the Greek, 
which connects this phrase with 
the former by placing both un- 
der the vinculum of a single 
article, l^he power . . . and part- 
nership. The two particulars 
are inseparable. To know the 
one is to know the other. His 
resurrection-power and passion-* 
fellowship. If we would feel 
His power, we must share His 
sufferings. 2 Cor. i. 5, even 
{according) as the sufferings of 
Christ abound unto (have their 
redundance a/nd overflow in) us, 
even so through Christ abounds 
also our encouragement, iv. 10, 
II, always carrying about in 
the body the putting to death of 
Jesus, that tJie (risen) life also 
of Jesus m/ay be manifested in 
our body, <lcc. Col. i. 24. i 
Pet. iv. 13, rejoice in so much 
as (in proportion as) ye are part- 
ners in Christ's sufferings. 



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76 



TO THE PHILIPPIANS. 



III. loings, being gradually conformed to His death, 

1 1 if by any means I shall arrive at the resurrection 

1 2 from the dead. Not that I at once received, or 
am already perfected; but I press on, if so be 



Conforrrhed to] Mads of one 
form with, assimilated to, made 
to resemble, Chrisfs death, that 
is, Christ in His death. See 
the Visitation of the Sick, 'There 
should be no greater comfort to 
Christian persons, than to be 
made like unto Christ, by suffer- 
ing patiently adversities, trials, 
and sicknesses... He entered not 
into His glory, before He was 
crucified. Our door to enter 
into eternal joy is gladly to die 
with Christ.' Rom. vi. 3, <fec. 
we were buried tvith Him... into 
death... we have become united 
(made of one nature) tvith the 
likeness of His death... we died 
with Christ... reckon yourselves 
to be dead men vnth regard to 
siny (to, 

II. Jf by any means] St 
Paul speaks of it as a difficult 
attainment. Matt. xix. 26, with 
men this is impossible. The con- 
nexion of this clause with the 
preceding has an exact parallel 
in Rom. viii. 17, if so be that 
we suffer with Him, that we rtmy 
be also glorified tvith Him, 

I shall] Or, / might; for 
the form of the verb is ambigu- 
ous between the indicative (fu- 
ture) andthesubjunctive (aoriat). 
Still as (i) grammatical correct- 
ness, and (2) the clear parallel 



of Rom. L 10, where the same 
particles (ct irws) are found with 
ah unquestionable indicative, 
favour the shall of the text, "we 
may fairly give it the preference. 
The same remark will apply to 
Rom. xi. 14, where there is a 
like ambiguity. On the other 
hand, in verse 12 there is an 
evident subjunctive (with ct), if 
so be I may apprehend. The 
combination, if by any means I 
shall, brings into striking union 
the two thoughts, the difficulty, 
and the certainty. 

Arrive at] As the terminus 
of the life-journey. The word 
occurs repeatedly in the Acts in 
its literal local use (xvi. i. xviii. 
19. &a). St Paul employs it 
figuratively (as. in the text) in 
Eph. iv. 13, till we all reach 
(arrive at) the unity of the faith, 
dsc. 

The resurrection from the 
dead] The twice repeated ^om 
(out of, ov from among) of the 
Greek cannot be reproduced in 
English. The word used here 
(alone) for resurrection is liter- 
ally resurrectionfrom (i^avdara- 
(719), and the same preposition is 
repeated. It strongly marks 
the idea of a select resurrection; 
in other words, of a blessed (as 
opposed to a promiscuous) re- 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



npo2 *iAinnH2ioT2, 



n 



vwviap TradnixoLTiav avTOVy (rvfiiJiopcpi^oiixevo^ rcS III. lo 
Oavdrto avTOVy ei ttoj? KaTam^aa) eU ti)i/ €^a- 1 1 
vda-raariv Ttjp eK veKpviv. ovx on tjSri e\a/3op 1 2 
^ fjSri TereXeiiaiiar SieoKO) Se el koi KaraXdfiu) 



surrection. It is the resurrec- 
tion of the jtiat (Luke xiv. 14. 
Acts xxiv. 15), 0/ life not 0/ 
judgment (John v. 29), of the 
d^ad in Christ (i TheHS. iv. 16). 
The appa/rently equivaleDt ex- 
pression of Rev. XX. 5, 6 {the 
first resurrection) is capable of 
another sense, and cannot be 
quoted with absolute confidence 
as a parallel text. 

12. Not that 7] The vi- 
gorous statement preceding, of 
his having renounced all things 
for Chris^ and of its grand com- 
peDsation, might give an impres- 
sion of attainment and perfection 
which he proceeds to repudiate. 

At once received] The tense 
of the Greek ]X)ints to a single 
past moment, evidently that of 
his conversion. And the ren- 
dering already is incompatible 
with the expression of this in 
English. The phrase at once 
may give something of the idea, 
though it has the disadvantage 
of not being equally suitable to 
the same Greek word in the ac- 
companying clause. 

lieceived] The thing to be 
received is implied, not express- 
ed; as in Luke xi. 10, every » 
one that asketh receiveth (under- 
stand, the thing asked). Here 



we may supply, the ultimate object 
of my abandonment of my aU, 
the whole of the gift of grace 
and glory which was to be even- 
tually mine. The Authorized 
Version, by rendering two dif- 
ferent Greek words by the same 
English (attain , . . attained) in 
verses 11 and 12, has suggested 
a misleading antithesis. 

Perfected] This important 
word occurs here alone in St 
Paul's writings (it is replaced by 
another word in the revised text 
of 2 Cor. xii. 9). In the Epistle 
to the Hebrews it occupies a 
prominent place, in several ap- 
plications. Properly meaning 
to make mature or complete^ it 
passes into the sense (i) of per- 
fectly qualifying for an assigned 
work, whether by consecration 
(Heb. vii. 28) or experience 
(Heb. ii. 10. v. 9), or (2) of 
bringing into a satisfactory state, 
whether of spiritual peace (Heb. 
vii. 19. ix. 9. X. I, 14) or final 
blessedness (Heb. xi.40. xii. 23). 
In the text St Paul uses it, by 
a modification of the sense last 
mentioned, in reference 'rather to 
a moral perfection. 

I press on\ This verb (SuuKct)) 
is commonly transitive, to pur- 
sue ov follow after (as in Romu 



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78 



TO THE PHIUPHANS. 



III. 1 2 I may apprehend that for which I was also 

13 apprehended by Christ Jesus. Brethren, I do 
not yet reckon myself to have apprehended; but 
one thing / do— forgetting those things which are 
behind, and reaching forth toward those things 

14 which are before, I press on, with the mark in 



ix. 30. xii 13. xiv. 19. &c.), and 
might be so taken in this verse. 
But as in verse 14 it must be 
intransitive, it may be better 
to keep the unity of the passage 
by making it so here. 

If 80 be I may] Literally, 
if I may also (or even). If I 
may (not only press on, but) 
also (or even) attain my object 
in doing so. Perhaps the above 
rendering is close enough. And 
indeed the unusual construction 
(ct with a subjunctive), of which 
only some two other examples 
(i Cor. xiv. 5. I Thess. v. 10) are 
found in St Paul, seems to re- 
quire some emphasizing of the if. 

Apprehend] Lay hold upon, 
grasp. The same contrast be- 
tween the same two words is 
seen in Rom. ix: 30, tlie Gen- 
tiles^ which followed not after 
righteousness^ apprehended righ- 
teousness. Compare i Cor. ix. 
24, so run, that ye may appre- 
hend. 

That for which] That thing 
with a view to which. This is 
the simple and satisfactory ren- 
dering. The alternative, given 
in the margin of the Revised 
Version, seeing that (for that). 



has the support (i) of a like 
phrase (i<l> <S) used in that sense 
in Rom. v. 12 and 2 Cor. v. 4, 
and (2) of the use of appreherul 
(with no case after it) in i Cor. 
ix. 24. But it seems inferior in 
force and ease, both here and in 
iv. 10, where also it has a place 
in the margin of the Revised 
Version. 

I uxis also apprehended] The 
figure is deeply impressive. 
Christ Himself is represented as 
having grasped or seized the per- 
secutor as he drew nigh to Da- 
mascus (Acts ix. 3, &c.); and 
that, with a definite design and 
purpose {that for which, d;c.), 
namely, his salvation and bless- 
edness. It is striking that here 
the object is not made to be St 
PauFs preaching or evangelizing 
(as in Gal. i. 16), but his own 
personal happiness. 

13. Brethren] When this 
word begins the sentence, it is 
always in preparation for a par- 
ticularly earnest appeal. See 
Rom. X. I. I Cor. xiv. 20. Gal. 
iii. 15. vi. I. I Thess. v. 25, 
brethren, pray for us, 

I do not yet reckon myself] 
The / and myself are both em- 



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npos 4>iAinnHSiOT2. 



n 



e(f>' w Kal KaTeXfifx^dtiv vtto Xpicrov 'Ii^croi/. III. 1 2 
dSe\(J)ol, eyto ifxavroi/ oi/Vo) Xoyl^ojuiai Karei^ 13 
\rj(pei/af ev Se, Ta fxev oTrlcru) iiriXavQavofxevo^ 
Toi^ Se eixTrpoadev eTreKTeii/ofJiepos Kara (tkottov 14 



phatic, and stand together first 
in the Greek. It is not quite 
easy to say with what special 
intention, (i) /, long as I have 
been running. Or (2) /, though 
I am your appointed guide and 
example. Or (3) /, whatever 
others may think of me. Or 
(4) /, whatever others may think 
of themselves. The first seems 
the most natural and most suit- 
able to the context. 

But one thing] One, and 
one only. Probably an accu- 
sative, but the verb is not ex- 
pressed. It might be (from the 
former clause) / reckon, or take 
as my piinciple of thought. 
Perhaps the more general ex- 
pression, / do, is the simplest 
and best. 

Forgetting] Like the run- 
ner, who would lose the race by 
looking behind him. 

Those things which are he- 
hind] Compare Gen. xix. 26 
(Septuagint), his wife looked to 
the things behind, Mark xiii. 
16, let him not turn hack to the 
things hehind. Luke ix. 62, 
Iiaving put his hand to tJie 
plough, and looking to the things 
behind, John vi. 66, many of 
His disciples went away to tlie 
things hehind. These examples 



will suggest ample illustration 
of St Paul's saying. The things 
hehind are the things of the past 
life; its motives and principles, 
its habits and confidences. The 
precept of forgetting is the cor- 
rection alike of elation and of 
depression, of half-heartedness 
and backsliding. 

Reaching forth toward^ Lit- 
erally, stretching myself forth 
toward; exerting to the utter- 
most every limb and muscle so 
as to reach. It is a lively and 
vigorous picture of the runner. 

Those things which arche^ 
fore] The things of the new 
and future life; its joys and 
hopes, its heaven here and here- 
after. 

14. With the mark in view] 
Literally, according to (by the 
rule of) a certain mark or ob- 
ject, indicating to the eye of the 
runner the goal of the race. 
This point in the distance is said 
here to regulate the running, 
keeping it straight and direct. 

The prize] 1 Cor. ix. 24, 
all run, hut one receives the 
prize. The word is formed from 
that which means umpire {Ppa- 
)8€vs) or judge of the contest. 
St Paul has told us in verse 1 1 
what is the prize — a blessed re- 



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So TO THE PHILIPPIANS. 

III. 14 view, unto the prize of the high calling of God 
in Christ Jesus. 

15 Let us then, so many as are perfect, be thus 
minded: and if in any thing ye are otherwise 

16 minded, this also will God reveal to you. Only, 
to whatsoever we have attained, by that same 
thing walk. 



surrection. Compare 2 Cor. v. 
2, longing to be clothed upon 
tuith our Jiabitation which isfronh 
heaven (the spiritual body of i 
Cor. XV. 44). 

Q/"] Belonging to; which ia 
the subject and promise of the 
Christian calling. 

The high calling'] Literally, 
th^ above (avo)) calling. (Com- 
pare Gal. iv. 26, the Jerusalem 
which is above. Col. iii. i, 2, 
seek those things which are above, 
itc.) Equivalent to the heaven- 
ly calling of Heb. iii. i. (See 
Acts ii. 19, in the heaven above.) 
The force of the two phrases 
lies not in the idea of upward 
or to heaveuy but in that of the 
Person who calls being Himself 
above or in heaven. Compare 
I Pet i. 12, them that preached 
the Gospel unto you by the Holy 
Ghost sent forth from heaven. 

Calling'] A favourite Scrip- 
ture figure, representing the 
Gospel (i) as an invitation from 
God to a feast of blessing (Isai. 
XXV. 6). Matt. xxii. 3, sent 
forth his servants to call to the 
marriage -feast them tliat had 
been called. Or else (2) as a 



personal summons to a personal 
following. Matt. iv. 21, He 
saw other ttvo brethren... and 
caMed them. The calling is al- 
ways ascribed in Scripture to 
God Himself (Rom. viii. 30. &c. ). 

In Christ Jesus'] God's call 
is made in Christ Jesus; it is 
contained in Him, alike as its 
meritorious cause and its life- 
giving virtue. 

15, 16. *Let this constant 
struggle after a perfection not 
yet attained be the very mark 
and badge of the perfect. That 
which is yet lacking to you God 
will communicate in its season. 
Only be faithful to the know- 
ledge already vouchsafed,' 

15. Let us then] There is 
no emphasis on us. The Greek 
order is, as many then as are 
perfect, let us 'be thus minded. 

Perfect] The rendering is 
not quite satisfactory, the idea 
being simply that of maturity as 
opposed to infancy. Heb. v. 14, 
but solid food belongs to full- 
grown (perfect) men, &c. 1 Cor. 
ii. 6, but we speak wisdom among 
(in the judgm^ent of) the perfect. 
The choice of the word in the text 



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npos 4>iAinnH2iOT2. 8i 

OKOKw eU TO ^pafieiov r^s avta K\t](re(a^ rov Qeov III. 14 
eV XpKTTw 'IriaoO. 

"Oo"Oi ouu reXeioif tovto (ppopwfxep^ Kal eiTi 15 
irepo)^ (ppoveirey Kal tovto 6 Geos viXiv diroKaXv" 
^€1. TrArjv €ts o e(p6d(rafieVy T(S avTM (Ttoix^Tv^ 16 



suggests the question whether 
perhaps there was some leaven 
of self-conceit among the Philip- 
pians, requiring to be reminded 
that true perfection has for one 
at least of its characteristics a 
sense of imperfection (/ count 
not myself to have apprehended). 

Thus] How? Is the refer- 
ence to the whole preceding pas- 
sage, with its renunciations, as- 
pirations, and concentration of 
efforts? Or does it (as suggest- 
ed in the last note) point a]:)eci- 
ally in the direction of humility ? 
The next clause, if in any thing 
ye are otherwise minded^ seems 
to show that the reference must 
not be too much narrowed. 

Otlierw%se\ Than as has been 
laid down in the foregoing para- 
graph? Or, than as you ought 
to be? The latter is best, and 
a fuller stop tlian would else 
have been required has been ac- 
cordingly placed after thus mind- 
ed, St Paul's thought is taking 
a new direction, and this is the 
point of transition. 

This ols6\ This in which 
you are at present at fault, as 
well as that which has already 
been rightly apprehended. 

ReveaX\ All spiritual reali- 

V. P. 



ties have a veil over them to 
our sight till God lifts it up to 
disclose first one portion and 
then another of the whole thing 
that is. See i Cor. iL 9, <fec., 
things which eye saw not... unto 
us God revealed {unveiled) them 
through the Spirit, <lcc. And 
this, which is spoken of as an 
accomplished act in general, is a 
gradual and progressive act for 
the individual. 

16. Only] Though the 
promise of gradual enlighten- 
ment is true and to be relied 
upon, there is one condition; 
namely, that we must carefully 
u^e the light already communi- 
cated. 

To whatsoever] Whatever is 
the attainment (in knowledge of 
truth and duty) already reached, 
it must be made the rule of 
our steps. Otherwise, being 
unfaithful to our present trust, 
we cannot look for additions to 
it. Luke viii. 18, whosoever 
hath, to him shall he given, <Scc. 

Have attained] The have i« 
not in the Greek, which rather 
looks back upon the past as a 
single act. To whatsoever ye 
attained in that which lies be- 
hind of the life. The nicety is 

6 



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82 



TO THE PHILIPPIANS. 



JII. 17 Be ye imitators together of me, brethren; and 

mark them that so walk even as ye have a pattern 

18 in us. For many walk, of whom I often spoke to 

you, and now speak even weeping, as the enemies 



scarcely capable of expression 
in English. 

Attained] The word {<^fla- 
V€Lv) is properly to anticipate 
(i Thess. iv. 15, shall not anti- 
cipate them that are fallen a- 
sleep)] and so (i) ^o arrive at a 
place hy anticipation of others^ 
to reoAih a person hy surprise 
(Matt xii. 28); and {2) to ar^ 
rive at, or attain to, without any 
such additional idea (Rom. ix, 

31). 

By that same thing walk\ 

The rest of the verse as it stands 
in the received text is omitted 
in the revised, with a marked 
difference in the sense. There 
it was, Only {for to this we have 
attained) walk hy the same rule, 
he of the sams mind. It was a 
precept of unity. Without the 
additional words, it is a precept 
of fidelity to the amount of 
light already given, whatever 
it be. 

Walk] This is not the com- 
mon word for walking, though 
even that (TrcptTrarctv) is some- 
times used in the same construc- 
tion and sense (Acts xxi. 21. 2 
Cor. xii. 18. Gal. v. 16). De- 
rived from a noun meaning a- 
row or rank, the word before us 
(<rTotx€tv) is (i) sometimes used 
absolutely, to tvalk in an orderly 



manner (Acts xxi. 24), and (2) 
more often with a dative of the 
regulating principle. Thus Rom. 
iv. 12, who walk by the steps of 
that faith, &c. Gal. v. 25, if 
we live hy spirit, hy spirit let «e« 
also walk, vi. 16, flw many a>s 
shall walk hy this rule. In the 
Athenian military oath the pro- 
mise was given, not to desert the 
soldier hy whom (not hy whose 
side, but hy whose regulating 
step as it were) the man 
tvalked, 

17 — 21. *Let me be your 
example. There are those whose 
example could but mislead. I 
told you of them often when I 
was with you — I tell you of 
them now with tears. Ene- 
mies of the cross of Christ is 
their true title. Their end is 
destruction. Appetite is their 
God. Their glory is in their 
shame. Earthly things are their 
thought and their affection. How 
different is the Christian life ! 
heaven already our home and 
our country, on which the eye 
is ever fixed in patient waiting 
for a Saviour's Advent, to change 
the body of our humiliation into 
the likeness of His body of glory, 
in the exercise of a power which 
is able to put all things under 
Him.' 



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npos 4)iAinnH2iOT2. 



83 



^Vf/fjiiiuLriTai fxov yiP€<r0€y dSeXcpoi^ kuI o"/co-IIL 17 
Trelre tov^ ovtw TrepiTrarovvTa^ Kadto^ €;)^ct€ 
TVTTOv f)iuLa^. TToWoi yap 7r€pi7raT0v(riPj ov^ 18 
TToWaKi? eXeyov vfxivy vvv Se kuI KXaitov Xeyeo^ 



1 7. Imitators together] The 
compound word occurs only here; 
but the phrase itself, and even 
the present application of it, is 
common in St Paul (i Cor. iv. 
16. xi. I. I Thess. i 6. &c.). 
The rendering imitators is not 
pleasing, but the alternative 
followers conveys a different 
idea. The idea of a copyist 
(which is that of the word) should 
lose its disparaging associations 
when the model is one of moral 
perfection. Eph, v. i, he ye 
therefore imitators of Gody as be- 
loved children, 3 John 11, imi- 
tate not that which is evil, hut 
that which is good: he that doeth 
good is of God, 

Mark] Here for imitation, 
as elsewhere (Rom. xvL 17) for 
avoidance. 

Walk] The common Scrip- 
ture figure for the daily life, 
which is rather a walk than a 
journey. This figurative use is 
seen in the Gospels (Mark vii. 
5. John viii 12. xiL 35, walk 
while ye have the light\ and be- 
comes very common in the E- 
pistles, occurring in almost every 
one of them, beginning with 
Rom. vi 4, might wodk in neiv- 
ness of life. 



Pattern] The literal sense 
of the word (tvitos, type)\^ seea 
in Acts vii. 44 (from Exod. xxv. 
40), that he should mxike it after 
the type (model) that h^ had 
seen. Its figurative senses be- 
gin in the Epistles, where, for 
example, Adam is a type of 
Christ (Rom. v. 14), Christians 
obey a particular type or pat- 
tern of teaching (Rom. vi. 17), 
the Israelites in the wilderness 
are types ofus(i Cor. x. 6), and 
Christians, whether minister^ 
(2 Thess. iii 9. i Tim. iv, 12, 
Tit. ii. 7. I Pet. v. 3) or people 
(i Thess. i. 7), are types (modeU 
for imitation) to others. 

18. For] There is room 
and need for the charge thus 
given, /or the conduct of many 
is quite opposite. 

Many tvatk] The sentence 
is somewhat broken. It begins 
as if its course would be. For 
mjany walk otherwisCy as enemies 
of the cross. But the parenthe- 
sis (of whom I often spoke to you^ 
dec.) interposes, and modifies the 
following clause. 

Spoke] Used to speak when 
I was with you in my several 
visits, 

6 — 2 



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84 



TO THE PHILIPPIANS. 



III. 19 of the cross of Christ; whose end is destruction, 

whose god is the belly, and whose glory is in 

20 their shame; who mind earthly things. For our 

citizenship is already in the heavens; from whence 

also we wait for a Saviour, the Lord Jesus Christ, 



Enemies of the croaa] The 
term would suit either Judaizers 
(Gal. vL 12) or Antinomians. 
Some may have been both (see 
Kom. xvi 17, 18. 2 Cor. xL 
13—15. Gal. V. 12, 13. vi. 13, 
1 4). But it is clear that St Paul 
is dealing now with the latter. 
See note on verse 15, Otherwise. 
The humbling, softening, trans- 
forming power of the Cross, its 
unselfi^ness, unworldliness, new 
estimate of sin, regeneration of 
motives and principles, all this 
is an offence to them; in their 
hearts thej hate, in their lives 
they contradict it. They are 
still enemies in spite of (nay, 
enemies of) the reconciliation 
(Bom. V. 10); still enemies in 
mind, because still living in 
wicked works (Col. i. 21). 

19. Whose end is] The ex- 
pression (and the structure of 
the phrase) is that of 2 Cor. xi 
15, whose end shall be according 
to their works, Heb. vi. S^ifit 
{the land) beareth thorns and 
thistles, it is rejected, and nigh 
unto a curse; whose end is to 
he burned. 

Destruction] See note on i. 
28. The word is the keynote of 
2 Pet ii. False teachers, who 



shaU privily bring in heresies (or 
sects) of{doo7rvedto) destruction. . . 
bringing upon themselves swift 
destruction . . . their destruction 
slumbereth not (verses i and 3). 
Whose god is] Rom. xvi. 
18, sttch men serve not our Lord 
Christ, but their oum belli/... they 
beguile the hearts of the innocent. 
There St Paul seems to have 
teachers specially in view, and 
the charge will be that of merce 
noHness even more than of sen- 
suality. Compare 2 Pet. ii. 3, 
in covetousness shall they with 
feigned words make merchandise 
of you. So in i Tim. vi. 5, sup- 
posing that godliness is a means 
of gain (compare verse 3, if any 
Tnan tea>ches a different doctrine). 
Tit. i. 1 1, teaching things which 
they ought not, for filthy Ivxre^s 
sake. In the text there seems 
to be no direct, certainly no ex- 
clusive, reference to teachers, 
and the warning will become 
the more general one, against 
the idolatry (in whatever form) 
of appetite. 

Whoie glory] This great word 
(So^a), used (i) in the Septua- 
gint for the visible light of God's 
presence (in the tabernacle, tem- 
ple, &c.), and (2) in ordinary 



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npos ^lAinnHSioTS. 



85 



Troi)s ixGpoifs rov (rravpov tov Xpurrov* wv to III. 19 
T€\os aTroiXeiUj wv 6 6e6^ tj KOiXla^ Kai ty ^o^a 
€1/777 a\a")(yvri avTfSvj oi Tct imyeia (ppovovvre^. 
ij/ucop yap TO 7ro\iT6V/ia ev ovpavoh V7rdp)(^6iy e^ 20 
ou Kai (rcoTripa d7reKhe')(6fie6a Kvpiov 'Irjaovv 



Scripture language for God's 
self - manifestatioii spiritually, 
and hence (3) for the future 
manifested sonship of the blessed, 
is here by a very rare use ap- 
plied (4) to the imaginary excel- 
lence of the fallen human being, 
which in reality consists in that 
which is its disgrace rather than 
its glory. 

Shame] Jude 13, foaming 
up their oivn shame {shames). 

Who mind] The construc- 
tion here returns to the nomina- 
tive, agreeing (intentionally or 
by accident) with the mcmt/ of 
verse 18. 

Mind] Have as their one 
subject of thought and their one 
object of affection. The word 
(</)pov€iv) is characteristic of this 
Epistle and of that to the Ro- 
mans. 

Earthly things] James iii. 
i^^nota wisdom descending frovi 
ahovBy but eartMy, <lcc. In Col. 
iii. 2 St Paul uses the resolved 
form, set your mi/nd on the things 
that are above^ not on the things 
that a/re upon the earth, 

20. For] How opposite is 
this to the life to which I invite 
you— for y 6cc. 

Citizenship] This is perhaps 



as near an approach as can be 
made in English to the sense 
of the Greek word (TroXrrcvfta), 
which is properly a thing done 
as a citizen^ and so an act, 
function, or department, of the 
citizen-life. It is here used for 
the swm of the citizen-life (in the 
spiritual and heavenly sense of 
that word). Our citizen-life is 
already in heaven. See note 
on i. 27, live your citizenship^ 
And for illustrations of the 
thought see Gal. iv. 26. Heb. 
xi. 10, 16, the city which hath 
the foundations, ike. xii. 22, ye 
are come to... the city of a living 
God, the heavenly Jerusalem. 
xiii. 14. Rev. iii. 12. xxi. 2. 
&c. 

Is already] See note on ii 
6, Subsisting. It is the same 
word (vTrapx**)- Our citizen-life 
is already {is to begin with, is as 
the basis amd grounduxyrk of all 
thought, feeling, and action) in 
heaven, where Christ is. See 
Eph. i. 3. ii. 6. Col. iii. i — 4. 

We wait for a Savimir] Or, 
we wait for the Lord Jesus 
Christ as our Saviour. But the 
construction adopted in the text 
is simpler and more natural. 

WaUfor] One of St PauVs 



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S6 



TO THE PHILIPPIANS. 



III. 21 who shall change the fashion of the body of our 

abasement into the form of the body of His glory, 

according to the working of His power even to 

subject all things unto Him. 

IV. I Therefore, my brethren beloved and longed 



strong double compounds (aire#c» 
SexofieOa), suggesting intense 
earnestness of expectation. Rom. 
viii. 19, 23, 25. I Cor. i. 7, wait- 
ing/or the revelation (K/nveiling) 
of our Lord Jesua Christ Com- 
pare Heb. ix. 2S, to them thcU 
wait for Him He shall appea/r 
a second time,.. unto salvation. 
The salvation which is still fu- 
ture, the Saviour still waited for 
in that character, is described in 
verse 21. Kom. viii. 23, loait^ 
ing for an adoption^ which is, 
the redemption of our body by 
resurrection. 2 Cor. v. 2, 4. 
Thus salvation itself is either 
past, present, or future, accord- 
ing as redemption, grace, or glory 
is the thing in view. 

21. Change the fashion of'\ 
Transfigure. It is remarkable, 
however, that the word before 
us {fxeTaa-xrjfjLaTL^eLv) is not the 
one applied to the Transfigura- 
tion of our Lord, but the other 
and stronger term (/icra/Jtop^owr- 
Oat) ; perhaps because the 
Transfiguration was the antici- 
pative assumption of that resur- 
rection body which is permanent 
and everlasting. The distinc- 
tion between the words form 



(fiopKfinf} and fashion (c7X7fU)t) 
has been glanced at in a note 
on ii. 6, The form of God. That 
distinction is strictly adhered to 
in the language of this verse. 
Who shall change the {tempora/ry 
a/nd fleeting) fashion of this body 
of flesh amd blood into the {abid- 
ing and indestructible) form of 
His oum glorified body. For the 
word see i Cor. iv. 6. 2 Cor. 
xi 13, 14, 15. 

Ofourabasem>ent'] Belonging 
to {charax:teristic of) our abase- 
ment, as inheriting the conse- 
quences of sin entering into Hie 
worldy and death by sin (Rom. 
V. 12). For the word see Acts 
viii. 33 (from the Septuagint 
Version of Isai. liii. 8), in His 
abasement His judgment was 
taken away. And for the thought, 
Rom. viii. 20, the creation was 
subjected to vanity (emptiness 
and nothingness)... 63/ reason of 
Him who subjected it, in hope, 
<icc. The rendering of the text 
might be, our body of abasemsnt 
...His body of glory. But the 
sense is the same. 

Into the form ff] More ex- 
actly, (so as to be) of the same 
form with, i Cor. xv. 49, even 



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87 



^piarrovj os iJL€Tatrxf1l^ctTi<rei to awfia Ttjs III. 2 1 
Taireiviio'eia^ tifxHv avfXfJLopipoi/ tw cwiuLaTi Ttj^ 
So^ri^ avToO KUTci rrjp ivepyeiav rod SvpacOai 
avTOV Kal vTroTCL^ai avTw Tci iravra. 

*'Q,arrej dhe\(poi fxov dyaTrrjTOi Kal €7ri7ro-IV. i 



as we wore in this life the image 
of the earthy J of him who was 
made of the dust or mould of 
the earth (Gen. ii 7), we shall 
also wear the image of the hea- 
venly. The word (avfifiop(f>og) 
occurs only besides in Rom. viiL 
29, to be corformed to the image 
of His Son, 

Of His glory] Belonging to 
(characteristic of) His Tnanifes- 
tation as the Son of God with 
power by resurrection of the dead 
(Rom. i. 4). Compare i Pet. i 
21, who raised Him from the 
dead, and gave Hvm glory. John 
xvii. I. Acts iii. 13. &c. 

According to the working'] 
This transfiguration by resur- 
rection will be according to (on 
the scale of proportioned to, comr 
mensurate with, as might be ea> 
pected from) the exercise of a 
power which is absolutely uni- 
versalin its range. See Eph. i. 1 9, 
20, what is the exceeding great- 
ness of His power towa/rd us who 
believe, according to the working 
of tJie strength of His might 
which He wrought in Christ 
when He raised Him from the 
dead. 

The working of His potver] 



As in the passage quoted above 
(Eph. i. 19, 20), so here the 
possession of power is distin- 
guished from the exercise of it. 

To subject all things unto 
Him] The reference is to Psalm 
viii. 6 (the text of i Cor. xv. 
27, (fee. and of Heb. ii. 8), Thou 
didst subject aU things under his 
feet (the feet of man, and there- 
fore of tlie Man). 

Unto Him] Christ. The 
rendering Himself though cor- 
rect in sense, seems not to lie in 
the Greek (according to the now 
generally received accentuation) 
and not to be necessary in En- 
glish. Compare, for example, 
Eph. i. 5, having foreordained 
us unto adoption through Jesus 
Christ unto Him (that is, Him- 
self but the reflexive sense, 
though obvious, is not ex pressed). 

IV. I. 'Stand fast then in 
the Lord.' 

I. My brethren beloved and 
longed after] This prolonged 
form of address has no parallel 
in St PauFs Epistles. 

Longed after] The adjective 
occurs only here. But the verb 
has already occurred twice in 
this Epistle. See i. 8. ii. 26, 



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88 



TO THE PHILIPPIANS, 



IV. I after, my joy and crown, so stand fast in the 
Lord, beloved. 

2 I beseech Euodia, and I beseech Syntyche, to 

3 be of the same mind in the Lord. Yea, I pray 
thee also, my true yokefellow, help them ; for 
they shared my contest in the Gospel, together 
with both Clemens and the rest of my fellow- 
workers whose names are in the book of life. 



^y joy «^ crotmi] Com- 
pare I Thess. ii. 19, w?iat is our 
hope, or joy, or crown of glory- 
ing 1 are not even ye,,. for ye 
are o^i/r glory and joy. 

Crown] Of the two senses 
of crown, a king's diadem, and 
a victor's wreath, the latter is 
clearly meant here, and gener- 
ally in St Paul (i Cor. ix. 25. 
I Thess. ii. 19. 2 Tim. iv. 8), 
while the former is predominant 
in the Book of Kevelation and 
in the Septuagint. 

So] In this tuay, on these 
principles; specially those of the 
last paragraph of chapter iii., 
the avoidance of evil example, 
the realization of the heavenly 
citizenship, and the maintenance 
of the Christian expectation. 

Stand fast] See note on i. 
28. 

2, 3. *I hear of discord 
between two Christian women. 
I beseech them to be at one 
again. Help them, my trusty 
comrade, in becoming so. They 
deserve this of thee; for they 
aided me in days past, in the 



struggles of the Gospel, with 
Clement and my other fellow- 
labourers whose names are in 
the book of life.' 

2. / beseech] Euodia and 
Syntyche were evidently two 
Christian women at Philippi, 
between whom a misunderstand- 
ing had arisen. 

In the Lord] St Paul re- 
minds them of the Christian 
motive and principle of union. 
All being contained in one Per- 
son, how can there be place or 
room for discord 1 

3. Yea] Philem. 20, yea^ 
brother, may I have profit of thee 
in the Lord, The yea enapha- 
sizes and supplements a previous 
request. 

Trv>e] For the word true 
{genuine, the opposite of «pwrioie5 
or pretended) see note on ii. 20. 

Yokefdlow] Who is intend- 
ed is uncertain. There is no 
mention in the Epistle of any 
one presiding or leading person 
at Philippi to whom such a 
phrase would apply itself as a 
matter of course. In the ab- 



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89 



drji-oiy %«/)« Kai (rT€<f}ap6^ fxov, ovrcos (rrfffcere lY. i 
61/ K.vplwy dyaTTfjToi. 

Ei;oS/ai/ 'TrapaKoXtS Kal ^vptvx^v irapaKaXw 2 
TO avTO (ppoveiv eV Kvpio). vol epiordu Kal ere, 3 
ypf](ri€ crvj/^uye^ (rvvXafx^dvov avraisj aiTiv€£ ev 
TO) evayyeXiia G'vvridXtiardv fioi fieTci Kal KXfjpLei/^ 
7"09 Kal Twp XoiTTtSp avvepywv fxov wp tcc Spo^ 
^a^a ip fiifiXta ^wfj^. 



sence of any such obvious appli- 
cation, Epaphroditus the bearer 
of the Epistle may be thought 
of. The idea (favoured by some) 
of a proper name, Syzygus, does 
not commend itself on the whole, 
though it would have the ad- 
vantage of giving force to the 
epithet genuine as indicating a 
play upon the name like that 
upon Onesimus (profitable) in 
Philem. 11. 

Help thsm] In the difficult 
work, that is, of reconciliation. 
The word (crvXXafipdvecrOaL) is 
that of Luke v. 7, they beckoned 
to their partners in the other 
boat, tJiat they shmiM come and 
help them. It is an expressive 
figure; that of laying hold of e^ 
weight or burden along with 
another, so as to share the toil. 

For they] More exactly, 
persons who. A reason for tak- 
ing pains in effecting their re- 
conciliation. They are worthy 
of the effort. 

Shared my contest] Liter- 
ally, contested along with me. 



See note on the same word in 
i. 27, Sharing the contest of. St 
Paul at Philippi was an athlete, 
contending for a prize, and these 
Christian sympathizers (though 
they were women) are said to 
have taken paii; with him in 
that contest. 

In the Gospel] In the matter 
of tlie Gospd. Hia contest was 
not one of pei'sonal success or 
worldly distinction. Its subject 
was the Gk)spel. In the Gospel 
it was comprised and contained. 

With both] The both is un^ 
graceful in English, but the 
Greek suggests it ratherthanaZ«o. 

Clements] Evidently (in this 
connexion) a Philippian Chns- 
tian, and apparently of at least 
ten years' standing as such. 
What else he may have been is 
conjectural. The name is too 
common to prove an identity. 

The book of life] Literally, 
a book of belonging to, having 
for its characteristic, life (in the 
sense stated in note on ii. 16, ^ 
word of life). The figure is that 



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90 



TO THE PHIUPPIANS. 



IV. 4 Rejoice, in the Lord, alway: I will say it again, 

5 Rejoice. Let your charity be known unto all 

6 men. The Lord is nigh. Be anxious about 
nothing, but in every thing by your prayer and 
your supplication, with thanksgiving, let your^ re- 



of a list or 'register' (Ezra ii. 62. 
Neh. vii. 5) of names, at pre- 
sent secret, hereafter to be open- 
ed. In Gen. v. i (Septuagint) 
we have a hook of the generation 
of men, open and public : in 
Exod. xxxii. 32, 33, we read 
of a book which God has written^ 
andyrowi which He blots out (or 
refuses to blot out) individual 
men. The same figure is used 
ill Psalm Ixix. 28, let them be 
blotted out of the book of the 
living^ and not be written with 
the righteous, Isai. iv. 3 (Sep- 
tuagint), they shall be called 
holy, all that are toritten unto 
life in Jerusalem, Ezek. xiii. 9, 
neither shall they be written in 
the writing of the house of Israel, 
Dan. xii. i, thy people shaU be 
delivered, every one that shall be 
found written in the book. Lake 
X. 20, but rather rejoice, because 
your names are written in hea^ 
ven, Heb. xii. 23. Rev. xiii. 
8, written in the book of life of 
the Lamb, xvii. 8. xx. 12, 15. 
xxi. 27. 

4 — 7. *Once more, rejoice. 
Rejoice, in the Lord. Rejoice 
always. Yet once more, rejoice. 
Let all men see what spirit ye 
are of. The Lord is nigh, for 
help and salvation. Let prayer 



replace and cast out anxiety — 
prayer with thanksgiving. So 
shall heart and thought find 
their perpetual safe-keeping iu 
that peace of God which no in- 
tellect of the wise and prudent 
can either communicate or com- 
prehend.' 

4. Bejoice] See notes on 
iii I. 

Will say] The tense is un- 
doubtedly future, as in all the 
other places of the use of the 
word by St Paul and other wri- 
ters. 

5. Charity] Or charUabte- 
ness. The disposition of the 
cirtctKifs, as drawn by Aristotle 
in the Ethics, has been said to 
be the nearest approach in any 
heathen writer to St Paul's cha- 
racter of dyaTTYj in i Cor. xiu. 
And if * charity' in that chapter 
and other places of its occur- 
rence must be replaced by *love/ 
it may still keep a place in the 
Eijglish Bible as the rendering 
of the word before U8. The idea 
of the word is primarily fair or 
reasonable^ but it passes on into 
kindred associations, such as 
forbearing, considerate, kind, 
gentle. See, for example, 2 Cor. 
X. I (where it is combined with 

I Tim. iii. 3 (with 



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91 



Xaipere ev Kvpiw TrdpTOTe • ttoKiv iptSy %a/- IV. 4 
peT€. TO iirieiKes vjjmp ypcocd^ro) Tractu di/dpta- 5 
7rof9. 6 Kvpio^ €771/9. fjLtjhep fiepifjivare, dXS! 6 
eu TravTi Trj 7rpo(rev)(tj Kal Trj det^aei fxeT evx^^' 



uncorUentious). Tit. iii. 2 (with 
uncontentioios and meekness), 
James iii. 17 (with peaceable axid 
easy to be entreated). 1 Pet. ii. 
18 (with good, and in contrast 
with /rou)a/rd). The remaining 
passage is Acts xxiv. 4, where 
it is rendered clemency. 

Be known] Or, com£ to be 
knovm. It is the tense used in 
Luke xxiv. 35, and how He was 
known of them in the breaJcing 
of the bread. 

The Lord is nigK\ In which 
of the two senses, (i) nea/r for 
a^ccesSy or (2) nea/r in approach? 
Either of the two would well suit 
the precept which follows a- 
gainst anxiety, while the former 
best suits the precept of prayer. 
Parallel passages may be quoted 
for either. Thus ( i ) Psalm xxxiv. 
1 8. cxix. 151, Thou art near, 
Lord, cxlv. 18, ths Lord is nigh 
untoall them that call upon Him, 
<kc, ( 2 ) Matt. xxiv. 3 3 , kTiow ye 
that He is nigh, even at the doors, 
Mark xiii. 2 9. On the whole, the 
former thought seems to predo- 
minate. The Lord is nigh for 
perpetual access to Him; tu/rn 
anxiety into prayer, 

6. Be anodousaboui nothing^ 
M«tt yi 25, ^ Luke xii. 1 1, 
(fee. I Pet. V. 7, casting all 



your anodety upon Him, because 
He ca/rethfor you. 

By your prayer] The defi* 
nite article (twice repeated) 
seems to mean that prayer and 
th^t supplication which of course 
you make. The rendering your 
gives this sense. 

Prayer, . . supplication] The 
same combination is found in 
Eph. vi. 18, and (in the plural, 
and in the inverse order) in i 
Tim. V. ,5. In Heb. v. 7 the 
latter of the two words (8e»7<rts) is 
combined with another llK€Trjpia) 
of which supplication is the only 
possible rendering, and must 
therefore find for once some 
other translation. In i Tim. ii. 
I we have yet another word 
added to the two in the text. 
The words are not synonymous. 
Prayer {irpoa-evxi}) is the general 
word for any address to God; 
supplication or petition (Seiyo-is)^ 
is the expression of definite 
wants; and the less usual terra, 
application or entreaty (cvrcuf ts), 
indicates rather the earnestness 
of the suppliant than any special 
characteristic of the app^ it- 
self. 

WUh thanksgiving] The 
prominence of thankfulness, as 
a precept of duty, in this group 



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92 



TO THE PHILIPPIANS. 



IV. 7 quests be made known unto God. And the peace 
of God, which transcends every mind of man^ 
shall guard your hearts and your thoughts in 
Christ Jesus. 
8 Finally, brethren, whatsoever things are true, 
whatsoever things are grave, whatsoever things 



of St PauPs Epistles, is striking 
and suggestive. See Eph. v. 20. 
Col. ii. 7. iii. 15. iv. 2. In 
St Paul's own mind it was per- 
])aps equally powerful in the 
earliest See i Thess. i 2. ii. 
13. iil 9. 2 Thess. L 3. iL 13. 
Even as a precept^ we find it in 
I Thess. V. 18, in every thing 
give thanks; /or this is the wiU 
of God in Christ Jesus concern- 
ing you, 

Yoii/r requests'] The same 
woi*d (aiTT/fia) is found in the 
same connexion in i John v. 1 5, 
whatsoever we ask (request) y we 
know that we Iiave the petitions 
(requests) which we have asked 
(requested) of Him, 

Made known unto God\ A 
very unusu al phrase and though t, 
that of making known to the 
Omniscient, it occurs once in 
the Septuagint Vereion of Psalm 
xxxii. 5, / made known my sin 
unto Thee, d:c. 

7. The peace of God] That 
liarm/ony of the being, which is 
God's gift. See note on i 2, 
Peace, 



This seems to be the accurate 
lendering and the true sense of 



the words. Not all understand- 
ing, which would imply in En- 
glish the a>ct of understand- 
ing, but every v/nderstandingj 
that is, every intellect or mifuL 
About the usage of the 'word 
(voxs) there can be no question. 
It is always mind, not exercise 
of mind. Luke xxiv. 45 (the 
only occurrence of the word in 
the Gospels), then opened He 
their mind, that they might un- 
derstand tlie Scriptv/res, And 
so throughout St Paul's Epistles, 
ending with 2 Tim. iii. 8, men 
corrupted in their mind. This 
is the point of difference between 
the phi-ase before us and a like 
expression in Eph. iii 19, to 
kru>w the love of Christ which 
passes knowledge (which, how- 
ever, surpasses the knowing ; 
which, after all, is beyond the 
sphere of the very knowledge of 
it which I desire for you). In 
the text, not knowledge, but 
mind, is the word used. The 
peace of God lies in a higher re- 
gion than intellect, A pi^gnant 
saying, suitable to these times. 

SlioU gu^ard] Shall keep as 
in a fortress. For the proper 
meaning of the word (<f>povptiy) 



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EPOS «>IAinnH2I0TS. 



93 



piCTTia^ Ta aiTfjfJLaTa vfxtop yi/wpi^ecrdw Trpos tcv IV. 6 
Qeov. Kai t] elpf]vri tov Qeov ^ v7repe')(ova'a 7 
Trdirra vovv (ppovpriaei ras Kaphias vfJLWp Kai ra 
voriixaTa vfjuop ev XpKTT^ 'Itjcrov. 

To XoiTTOi/y dd€\(l)oiy o(ra icrip dXtidfjj oca 8 
acfivdy oca hiKaiay oca dyvd^ oca 7rpoc(j>i\fiy 



see 2 Cor. xi. 32, in Damascus 
the governor under Aretas the 
king was guarding the city,., to 
take ine. The two purposes of 
such guarding, to keep foes out, 
and to keep friends in, are seen 
in the text, where the peace of 
God is represented as garrison- 
ing heart and thought, protect- 
ing alike from attack from with- 
out and from perilous roving 
from within. For metaphorical 
uses of the word, compare Gal. 
iii. 23, before the faith came, we 
were kept in tuard under a law, 
shut up unto tJie faith, <kc, i 
Pet i. 5, wlio are kept in ward 
in Gods power through faith 
unto salvation, <lcc. The protec- 
tive power of divine peace, first 
upon the heart, out of which are 
the very issues of the life, and 
secondly upon thought, even in 
its intellectual processes, is a 
suggestive thought, due no doubt 
to a deep personal experience, 
and very full of wisdom. 

Thou^hts^ Not minds (Au- 
thorized Version), but operations 
of mind (voijfiaTa). The whole 
thought is confused by the double 
mistranslation — (i) all under- 



standing for every mind, and 
then (2) minds for thoughts. 

In Christ Jesus] Christ is 
the fortress within which divine 
peace guards heart and thought. 
Thus the metaphor is thoroughly 
and yet simply worked out. In 
the passage quoted above (i Pet. 
15) divine power is the fortress 
within which Christians are kept 
in ward. Scripture metaphor is 
free and versatile, capable of 
many adaptations. 

8, 9. *Let your thoughts 
run on things true and pure, 
virtuous and praiseworthy. Let 
your acts be consistent with my 
teaching and my example. So 
shall the God of peace be with 
you.' 

8. Finally] See note on 
iii. I. 

Grave] The rendering is 
not quite satisfactory, and yet 
honourable is ambiguous and 
venerable impossible. Meaning 
properly worthy of reverence 
(orc/Avos from a-^j^ofmi), the word 
came to denote that weight and 
dignity of character which re- 
spectable once expressed, but 
fi-om which it has now sunk in 



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94 



TO THE PHILIPPIANS. 



IV. 8 are just, whatsoever things are pure, whatsoever 

things are kind, whatsoever things are gracious, 

if there is any virtue, and if there is any praise, 

9 take thought for these things. What things ye 

both learned and received and heard, and saw in 



common usage to a lower level. 
Under these circumstances the 
rendering grave (with its remi- 
niscence of the Latin gravis^ 
which carries the ver^ idea 
wanted) may perhaps be accept- 
ed, both here and in the Pas- 
toral Epistles, where St Paul 
makes it one of the characteris- 
tics of the Christian life gener- 
ally (i Tim. ii. 2), and in parti- 
cular of the presbyter (i Tim. 
iii. 4), of deacons (verse 8), of 
deacons' wives (verse 11), of 
aged women (Tit. ii. 2), and of 
the bishop himself (verse 7). 

Kind] The word (Trpocr^i- 
Xrys), occurring here only in the 
New Testament, but twice in 
the Apocrypha (Ecclus. iv. 7. 
XX. 13), has the two leading 
senses of dear (acceptable) and 
kind (friendly). The latter seems 
best to suit the present context, 

Gracums] This word (cvc^i/- 
fios), like the last, occurs no- 
where elsein the New Testament. 
Its kindred verb is found in i 
Mace. V. 6 4f uttering joijiful acclor 
mations. The rendering of good 
report, in the sense of weU re- 
ported of seems to have no clear 
support, and would besides an- 
ticipate praise in a following 



clause. Its opposite (Svo-^/xo?, 
ahibsive^ scurrilous) confirms the 
rendering gra^ciousj with refer- 
ence to kindliness and charity 
of speech. 

If there is any\ In other 
words, whatsoever is virtu^ovs, 
and whatsoever is pn^aisevxyrthy. 
For the form of expression see 
ii. I. Rom. xiii. 9. Eph. iv. 29, 
sv/ih (speech) as is good (liter- 
ally, if amf is good). 

Virtus] The word (apcnf) 
is used here only by St Paul. 
In 2 Pet. i. 5 virtue stands in 
the climax of Christian attain- 
ment between faith and knotu- 
ledge. In verse 3 of that chapter 
it 16 ascribed to God : who called 
us by (or by His ovm) glory 
and virtue. In i Pet. ii 9 (as 
in Isai. xlii. 8. <&c.) it is used (in 
the plural) for the divine excel- 
lences. In the Septuagint Ver- 
sion of Hab. iii. 3 and Zech. vi. 
13 it is the rendering of the 
Hebrew for glory. It is only in 
the Apocrypha (Wisdom iv. i. 
&c.) that it has the ordinary 
classical sense (as here) of virtus. 

Praise] In the sense of the 
recognition of excellence by God 
or man. Compare Kom. iL 29, 
whose praise is not from men, 



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npos 4>iAinnH2iOT2. 



9S 



iica ev(j>rjiJLay et tis dperrj koi el tx9 kiraivo^y TV. 8 
^avra Xoyi^eade. a kui efiddere kui wapeXd^g 
/Sere kol nKOvaraTe Kal eihere ev enioi, ravTa 



hiU/roni God, xiii.3. i Cor. iv. 
5. 2 Cor. viii. 18. i Pet. ii. 14. 

Take thought for] Take a^c- 
count o/y as things to be sought 
and aimed at. An exact paral- 
lel does not suggest itself: but 
it is a legitimate application of 
the word (Xoytf ccr^ai), which in- 
cludes all senses of computing 
and considering. 

9. Wha;t things] From 
thought he passes to action. 
The only doubt in this verse is as 
to the grouping and coupling of 
the four particulars, learned, re- 
ceived, heard, saw; whether they 
form tuH) pairs, the words in 
me belonging to both members 
of the second {heard and saw in 
me)', or should rather be ar- 
ranged as three and one, in me 
belonging only to saw^ The 
latter arrangement, though it 
may involve something more of 
redundancy in the terms express- 
ing their reception of the (ros- 
pel, is yet on the whole prefer- 
able, because hean'd in me would 
suggest a time when he was 
absent from them (see i. 30), 
and thus would confuse the de- 
scription. And indeed each of 
the three word s,foarwec?,r6ceii?ec?, 
Jhcard, has its definite and dis- 
tinctive meaning. See the fol- 
lowing notes. 



Learned] As your lesson of 
Christian doctrine. Eom. xvi. 
1 7, contrary to the doctrine which 
ye learned. Eph. iv. 20, hut ye 
did not so learn Christ, Col. i. 
7, even as ye lea/rnedfrom Epor- 
phras, dhc. 

deceived] As the true Gos- 
pel revelation. The word ex- 
presses a reception by transmis* 
sum, that is, by communication 
as from hand to hand and heart 
to heart i Cor. xv. i, 3, the 
Gospel. . .which oho ye received. . . 
/ delivered to you first of all 
that which also I received. Gal. 
i. 9. Col. ii. 6, as therefore ye 
received Christ Jesus the Lord, 
so walk in Him. i Thess. ii. 13. 
iv. I. 2 Thess. iiL 6, the tra- 
dition which they (or ye) received 
from us. 

Heard] By oral instruction 
from the living teacher. Kom. 
X. 14, and how shall they liear 
ivitliout a preacher? Eph. i. 13. 
iv. 21, if so he that ye heard 
Him {preached) and were taught 
in Him, <kc. CoL L 6, 23, since 
the day ye heard... the Gospel 
which ye hea/rd. 2 Tim. i 1 3. 
ii. 2, the things which thou didst 
hear from, Tne, dhc. 

And saw in me] Exempli-* 
fied in my own practice* Com- 
pare i. 30. 



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96 



TO THE PHILIPPIANS. 

And the God of peace shall be 



IV. 9 me, these do. 
with you. 

10 But I rejoice, in the Lord, greatly, that now 
at length your thought for me is revived: and 
indeed ye did think of me, but ye lacked oppor- 

1 1 tunity. Not that I speak on account of want ; 
for I have learned, in whatsoever circumstances 

1 2 I am, to be content. I know both how to be 



And the God] As if it were, 
And BO the God of peace, dec. 
The presence of God, in His 
character of Hhe Author of 
peace / can only be where thought 
and act are earnestly and watch- 
fully conformed to the above 
directiona 

The God of peace] Rom. xv. 
33. xvi. 20. I Cor. xiv. 33, 
God is not (a God) o/con/usiony 
but 0/ peace. 

I o — 2 o. * I am thankful for 
your new gifts to me. I know 
that your care for me has never 
flagged, but now you have found 
opportunity to show it. Not 
that I was in want till your 
gifts came — the secret of con- 
tentment has been taught me, 
and in Christ I find myself 
strong for all circumstances, 
whether of adversity or of pros- 
perity. But your liberality is 
welcome, and it is characteristic. 
You know that from the first 
you had a monopoly of helping: 
I had scarcely left you the first 
time when you sent me help 
again and again. Do not think 



me mercenary : I seek not yours, 
but you — not the gift, bnt your 
reward for the giving. Ajnd now 
your gifts by Epaphroditus have 
made me rich indeed, and Crod 
has accepted them as a sacrifice 
offered to Himself. Nor wiU He 
suffer you to lack anything by 
reason of your bounty ; He will 
provide — to Him be glorj.' 

10. BtU] It is the but of 
transition rather than of con- 
trast. 

Rejoice] The Greek form is 
r^oiced. See note on ii 25, / 
Jiave thought. 

In the Lo7'd] See note on 
iii. 1, In the Lord, His joy is 
not only a human or natural but 
a Christian joy. 

Greatly] The form (/uLeyd- 
\m) is found only here in Scrip- 
ture. 

Your thotight for me] A 
new application of the often re- 
curring verb (^poveiv), to mind, 
or to be thus or thus minded. 

Is revived] (i) The figure is 
that of a tree sprouting and 
blooming afresh in spring. (2) 



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npos *iAinnH2ioT2. 



97 



TTpdaceTe. kui 6 Geos rfj^ €ipi]pm earai fi^d* IV. 9 

*B.')(apYiv §€ iv Kvpiip fxeydXw^ on tj^ri irore 10 
dveddXere to VTrep ijnov (ppoi/eTi/* i(j>* do Kal €- 
ippoveiTey ^KaipeTa&e Se. ovx on Kad' vcrepricriu 1 1 
Xeyco* iyw yap eixaSov ev oh eifxi avTapKfjs ehai. 
o2Sa Kai Taireivovo'daiy olSa koi irepiaaeveiv* ev 12 



The verb (avatfaXXctv), found 
only here in the New Testament, 
has two constructions in the 
Septuagint (compare Ezek. xvii. 
24 with Psalm xxviii. 7), and 
the literal rendering of the 
phrase before us may be either, 
ye revived your tliought for me, 
or, ye revived as to your t/umght 
for me. The latter seems pre- 
ferable. (3) The tense in the 
Greek is the simple praeterite, 
revived. St Paul speaks of the 
moment when the project of 
helping took shape in their 
minds. 

And indeed ye did] Literally, 
on which ye did also think or 
take thought But the which 
refers rather to the general sub- 
ject, which is, St Paul himself, 
than to the actual words, your 
tJiought for me. Instead there- 
fore of the more exact rendering, 
which would be and indeed ye 
did think of it, the form and 
indeed ye did think of me has 
been adopted for the sake of 
clearness. We have here a 
beautiful instance of St Paul's 
refinement and thoughtfulness. 
The now at length might seem 

V. P. 



to reproach them for tardi- 
ness; the word revived might 
seem to impute to them a pre- 
vious forgetfulness. He hastens 
to say that he knew the thought 
had been there all along, and 
only an opportunity of acting 
upon it wanting. 

1 1 . ^ot that I speak] WIie7i 
I say that I rejoice in your gift, 
I do not say it as having wanted 
before. 

Want] The exact form (ucr- 
rip-qai^) is found only here and 
in Mark xii. 44, hut she of Iter 
want did cast in all that slie liad. 

For I] The pronoun is em- 
phatic. 7, however it may be 
with others. 

Have learned] More exact- 
ly, learned; that is, when I be- 
came a Christian. 

Content] The word (avrop- 
joys) is properly self-sufficing, 
and soindependentalikeoi things 
and persons. 2 Cor. ix. 8, Jiaving 
all sufficiency (in your own pos- 
sessions, without having to de- 
pend upon others), i Tim. vL 
6, godliness with contentment is, 
great gain. The word content, 
meaning contained or selfcon- 



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98 



TO THE T^HILIPPIANS: 



IV. 1 2 abased, I know ^so how to abound : ki every 
matter and in all circumstances I have been 
taught the secret both how to be filled and how 
to be hungiv, both how to abound and how to 

1 3 want. I have strength for all things in Him that 

14 enables me. Howbeit ye did well in having made 

15 common cause with my affliction. And ye know. 



tainedy as the opposite of a per- 
petual leakage or overflow into 
that which is not ours, is a fair 
English equivalent for the aelf- 
sujfficing of the Greek. 

12. / know\ Literally, / 
know to he; that is, / have the 
knowledge for being this or that; 
the knowledge qualifying me 
for either condition. The con- 
struction, though classical, does 
not seem to occur elsewhere in 
tlie Greek Testament. 

Both how] The sentence 
begins as though the two infini- 
tives would hang upon one / 
know. I know both how to be 
abasedy and how to ahouiid. But 
to give the greater emphasis a 
second / know is introduced, 
and thus the both loses its pro- 
priety. Still it may be borne 
with in the English rendering, 
where it has just the same effect 
as in the Greek. 

Abased] Brought low in' 
outward circumstances. James 
i. 10, let the brother of low es- 
tate glory in his exaltation, but 
tlie rich in his abasement 

Abound] In earthly pos- 
sessions. Luke xii. 15, a jnan^s 
dife is not in his abundance, to 



wit, from the things which fte 
posse^seth. 2 Cor.ix. 8. 

In every maiter] Literally, 
in every thing and in all things. 
The combination is by no means 
usual. Li 2 Cor. xi. 6, where 
the two phrases occur in the 
same clause, the latter should be 
rendered, among (or in thejvdg- 
m£ntof)aUmen. In the passage 
before us it may be merely an 
emphatic redundancy: in every 
(separate) thing and in all (com- 
binations of) things. The ren- 
dering adopted is an attempt to 
give distinctness to the two ex- 
pressions. 

TaugM the secret] Properly, 
initiated (fxefivT^fuii). The verb 
used is the root of tlie word 
mystery. Its use here (and only 
here in Scripture) is one of the 
many examples in St Paul's 
writings of an adaptation to a 
Christian sense of heathen cus- 
toms and phrases. That which 
in heathen Greece was the pri- 
vilege of the few, admission to 
peculiar rites and to a know- 
ledge concealed from the multi- 
tude, has become, under the 
Gospel, the possession of all 
mankind, the 'open secret' of a 



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HP02 *IAIIfflHSIOT£. 



99 



TraVTi Kai e'v Trda-iv fxeiXvtifiai Kal x^P^^^^^^^^ IV- 1 2 
KM Treimi/, Kai irepta'areveiv kui varrepeiaBai . 
'rrdvTd ia")(y^ eV rto iphvpafiovuri fie. wXriP 13, 14 
KuXws €7roit](raT€ crvvKOivtavriaravTe^ fiov tt} 6\i^ 



new revelation and a new son- 
Ahip, .and (which is the point 
here) the direct communication 
of God Himself with the soul of 
the individual man, for spiritual 
transformation into' Hhe image 
of Him that created him.' Psalm 
XXV. 14, the secret of the Lord 
is with them that /ear Him, and 
He will sliow them His covenant, 
EpL iii 9, to enlighten all men 
what is tlie dispensation of the 
mystery which from all ages has 
been hid in God» 

Both how to'\ See note above, 
on / know. I have been initiated 
to be; that is, / have been taiight 
the secret of being tolerant of the 
most opposite conditions. 

Filled... hungry] Luke vi. 
21, blessed are ye that hunger 
ficnUffor ye shall be filled. 

Abound... want] 1 Oor. viiL 
8, neither, if we eat not, do toe 
want ; nor, rfwe eat, do we abound, 

13. / have strength for] 
Literally, / am strong as to aU 
things. Strong to do, and strong 
to suffer. The construction is 
that of Gal. v. 6, availeth any 
thing (has any strength). 

In] Ifind strength for all 
thing* in Christ. My strength 
lies in, is contained in, Him. 

Enables] From a rare and 
late adjective {Ivhvvaiio^, in 
power, investecUoith power) comes 



the verb before us, to endue 
with power, to empower, enable; 
found also in Actsix. 22. Eph. 
vi; 10. I Tim. i. 12, / thank 
Him that enabled me, Chriat 
Jesus our Lord, .2 Tim. ii. i, 
be sPrengthened {find continual 
strengthening) in tJie grace which 
is in Christ Jesus, iv. 17, the 
Lord stood by me,and strengthen- 
ed m^, 

14. Howbeit] Though I can 
bear want, yet I am thankful for 
relief 

Having made] See notes on 
ii. 7, 8, Taking the form... Be- 
coming. ^ Here the making com- 
mon cause is prior (in concep- 
tion) to the acting upon it. 

Having made common cause 
with] Literally, having become 
fellow-partners with. The aMic- 
tion is personified, and the ±*hi- 
lippians are said to have entered 
into partnership (as it were) wiHh 
it. Compare Eph. v. 11, be not 
fellow-partners with the unfruit- 
ful works ofdar^n^s. Rev. xviiL 
4, that ye be not fellow-partners 
with her sins. 

15. And ye know] And 
this is not the first time that you 
have thys acted. I need not re- 
mind you that in the first days 
of your Christianity it was, as it 
is now, your exclusive privilege 
to assist me. 

7—2 



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100 



TO THE PHIUPPIANS. 



IV. 15 Philippians, yourselves also, that in the beginDing 
of the Gospel, when I was gone forth from 
Macedonia, no Church had dealings with me in 

1 6 respect of giving and receiving, but ye only: for 
even in Thessalonica ye sent me both once and 

1 7 twice help for my need. Not that I seek for the 
gift; but I seek for the ^it which is thvs multi- 

18 plying to your account. But I have all, and 
abound: I am filled to the full, having received 
from Epaphroditus the things from you, an odour 



Yourselves also] As well as L 

The beginning of the Gospel] 
That is, in its relation to yov. 
The earliest period of your recep- 
tion of the Gospel, The same 
phrase is applied in Mark i. i 
to tlie actvxd opening of tlie Gos- 
pel history. 

Iladdealingstvithme'] Shared 
with mc, became my partner. So 
in Gal. vi. 6, let him tliat is 
taught in the word, impart to 
(go shares with) him tliat teacheth 
in all (m^aterial) good things. 
The word is the same as in verse 
14, except the prepositional 
compound (with) there. It is 
indeed one of the characteristic 
words and ideas of the Epistle. 
See i 5, 7. ii. i. iii. 10. 

In respect of] Literally, 
unto (so as to form) an account 
(reckoning) of giving and re- 
ceiving. And so in tlie matter 
of as rega/rds^ dhc. 

Giving and receiving] Ecclus. 
xlii. 7, (in) giving and receiving^ 
let all be in writing. 

16. For even] And no won- 



der—for even before I quitted 
Macedonia, <S:c. 

Even in Thessalonica] When 

1 Jiad but just left you^ and 
during so short a stay as I then 
made tliere. See Acts xvii. i, 
due. The supplies referred to in 

2 Cor. xi. 9, as having been sent 
from Macedonia (and, as it ap- 
pears from the passage before us, 
from Philippi), came a little 
later, when St Paul had reached 
Corinth in the same eventful 
journey. Though the supplies 
are not mentioned in the Acts, 
there is a remarkable coincidence 
between the language of Acts 
xviii. 5 (when Silas and Timo- 
tfieus were come from Macedonia) 
and that of 2 Cor. xi. 9 (the bre- 
thren, lohen tliey came from Mace- 
donia, supplemented my want). 

Both once and twice] It 
seems desirable to retain the 
literal rendering, which marks 
definitely two missions of pecu- 
niary help from Philippi during 
that brief stay in Thessalonica 
of which the history records only 



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npos 4>iAinnH2iOT2. 



lOI 



A^€£. oihare Se Kai y/xel?, ^iXiTTTrtjo'ioiy otl iv IV. 1 5 
cipx^ '^ou €vayy€\ioVy ore i^fjXdoi^ diro Maice- 
hovia^y ovZefxia fioi €KK\ri(ria eKOivcuprjorev eh 
\6yov Soaeo)^ kul Xriixyp^eia^ el jULtj v/aeh fxoi/or 
OTi KOI ev SeararaXoviKfi Kal aira^ kol Sk eU 16 
Trjp ;^|0€iai/ fWi 67re/x>^aT€. ov^ on ewL^Yirw 17 
TO toixa' dWa eTri^tjraj tov Kapirov tov irXeovd^ 
^ovTa eh Xoyov Vfioiv. dTre^o) Se irdvTU Kal 18 
7repi(r(reva)* ireirXriptaixai Ze^dpievo^ irapd 'ETra^- 
podiTOv Ta Trap" vpwu, oapLtjp evwhia^y dvaiav 



* three sabbath days* (Acts xviL 
2), though it leaves room for 
some little extension of the visit. 

Help^br] The Greek has the 
single word unto. Compare the 
use of the same preposition (cts) 
ini. 5, 12, 16, 25. ii. 22. 

17. I^ot that J] Tlie sen- 
sitive spirit of the writer sug- 
gests a fear lest he should seem 
to be showing a mercenary feel- 
ing. He hastens to correct such 
an impression. Do not suppose 
tlmt it is tJie gift itself that I de- 
sire: no, in this as in all else I 
seek not yours hut you (2 Cor. 
xii 14); and if I value tlie gift, 
it is because I see in it tlie pro- 
fiting of the givers. 

The fruit'] The result and 
product of your bounty in refer- 
ence to its eternal recompense. 
Psalm Iviii. 11 (Hebrew and 
Septuagint), verily there is fruit 
for tlie righteous, Prov. xix. 22 
(Septuagint), mercifulness is fruit 
to a man, John iv. 36, he that 



reapei/h receiveth wages, and ga- 
thereth fruit unto life eternal. 

To you/r account] Literally, 
unto {so as to form) an account 
(or reckoning) belonging to you. 
It is the same phrase and the 
same figure as in verse 15. See 
note there, In respect of 

18. But I Itave aU] Again 
the fear suggests itself, lest they 
should suppose him to be urging 
them to fresh giving. He has- 
tens to say. Send me nothing 
more: I luive enough, and more 
tlian enough. 

Have] It is the strong form 
(dTrixfn) of have. I have to the 
full. It is the word used in the 
thrice repeated tliey have their 
reward of Matt vi. 2, 5, 16. 
Luke vi. 24, ye have your con- 
solation. Philem. 15, that thou 
mightest have him for ever, 

I am fitted to the full] My 
every want is more tlian supplied. 
For the expression, see 2 Cor. 
vii. 4, / am filled to the full with 



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I02 



TO THE PHILIPPIANS. 



IV. 1 8 of a sweet smell, a sacrifice acceptable^ \vbH- 

19 pleasing to God. And my God will fill .ta tbe 
fiill every need of yours axjcprding to His riches 

20 in glory in Christ Jesus. And unto God our 
Father be all glory for ever and ever. Amen. 



the comfort given me. 

An odour of a sweet smeU] 
He regards the self-denying 
bounty of the Philippians as a 
sacrifice to God Himself, of 
whiah the scent rises to heaven, 
bringing bacK God's blessing 
upon them. The original of the 
phrase is found in the record 
of Noah's sacrifice in Gen. viii. 
21, the Lord smelted a sweet sa- 
vour, St Paul applies it to the 
sacrifice of Christ in Eph. v. 
2, gave Himself up for tw, an 
offering and sacrifice to God for 
an odour of a sweet smell, 

A sacrifice] Thus Heb. xiiL 
1 6, to do good and to communi- 
cate (impart) forget not; for tcith 
such sacrifices God is tvell pleased. 
The same term is applied also to 
the offering of praise, Heb. xiii. 
15; to the presentment of the 
living body, Rom. xiL i ; and to 
all the services of the universal 
Christian priesthood, i Pet. ii. 5. 

Acceptable] Luke iv. 19. 2 
Cor. vi. 2. 

Wellpleasing] Horn. xii. i. 
xiv. 18. 2 Cor. V. 9. Tit. ii. 9. 

19. Mt/ God] See note on 
i. 3, / thank my God. 
' Will fill to ihefuiq In al- 
lusion to his oum like abundance. 
See verse 18. 



According to] In aceorcUmce 
with. On the scale of. As might 
he expected in consideration of 
See note on iiL 21, According 
to the working. 

His riches] His ineT^hattsti" 
hie stores of good. This spiritual 
application of ric/ies to the un- 
limited resources of the Divine 
capacity, of blessing is peculiar 
to St Paul, and is specially 
characteristic of the Epistles of 
this group. See however also 
Kom. ii. 4. ix. 23. xi. 33. 

In ghry] The connexion 
of these words is not evident. 
The ricltes of his glory (Rom. ix. 
2 3) gives a clear sense. But riches 
in glory seems a difficult combi- 
nation. Ifthus connected, it must 
mesLiiy according to His houndless 
store of blessing (shotvn) in the 
m/inifestation of what He is. Or, 
it may be taken with the verb, 
fill. He wUl supply your every 
need.,. in glory; that is, in and 
by manifesting His own excel- 
lence, showing forth what He is 
in power and in goodness. See 
i. II. 

In Christ Jesus] In whom 
He does all His acts, and most 
of all those acts which concern 
the welfare and comfort of His 
Church and people. 



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nPOS <IxIAHHIHSlOTS. 



loj 



heKT9^Py evapecTTOv Tip Qe£. 6 3^ Qeo^ [xov irXri^ IV. 19 
ptmr^t iraXTov ^pelai/ vfxwi/ kutcl^ to ^ ttXovto^ 
ctvTOV ev So^t] ev Xpi(rT(S ^Iricov. toJ Se G^oJ 20 
icai iraTpl .t^fiviv 1] ^o^a €£9 tov^ alwm^ toov 
alcovvov* dfiriv. 



20. And unto God\ Not a 
separate and disjoined doxology, 
but in close and natural sequeuce 
to the verse preceding. He iviU 
do thu8 and thus, and to Him 
be all glory, 

God our Father] More ex- 
actly, to Him who is (i) God^ 
and (2) Father of us. The and^ 
if retained in English, suggests 
the thought of two Persons, which 
the Greek (with its one article) 
precludea The rendering, our 
God a/nd Father, is quite defen- 
sible (see I Cor. vi. 11), but that 
of the text is more according t6 
to the u^ttal tenor of Scripture. 
AU glory] The definite arti- 
cle might suggest the rendering, 
the glory. But this diverts the 
thought from the proper idea 
of glory, which, does not mean 
praise, but (i) forthshining of 
light, manifestation of excel- 
lence, God's self-manifestation 
in grace, power, &c. (2) the echo 
and reflexion o£ this, self-mani- 
festation in the admiring adora- 
tion of His creatures. The lat- 
ter is the sense here, and the 
article expresses the universality 
and eocclvsiveness of this ascrip- 
tion. To oflfer it or any portion 
oL it to any other is blasphemy*^ 



Glory universal. All glory. See 
note on iii. 19, W^iose glory. 

For ever and ever] Literally, 
unto tJie ages of the a^ges. There 
are two modes of approximation 
to the conception of eternity; 
the one is by negation, (without 
end, unending, <i*c,), the other- is 
by aggregation,- The latter is 
the one used in, the phrase before 
us, which takes a great variety 
of forms in the?Septuagint, but 
of which the. radical idea is the 
word a^fe or peinod (aiwv) in the 
sense of. a long and undefined 
suaoession of time: this is en- 
larged into the plural number, 
and then further amplified, by 
the addition of. a like genitive, 
also in the plural^ so as to make 
the ages themselves to consist oft 
ages, thus magnifying and mul- 
tiplying the total sum to an ex< 
tent beyond expression in any 
human figures or numbers. The 
particular phi^ase before us, the 
double plural, appears to be used 
only in the New Testament; 
four times by St Paul, once by 
St Peter, and eleven times in 
the Revelation. For a peculiar 
form of the same general idea see 
Eph. iii. 21, unto all the genera-- 
tians of the age of the ages. 



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104 

IV. 2 I 



TO THE PHILIPPIANS. 



Salute every saint in Christ Jesus. The 

22 brethren that are with me salute you. All the 
saints salute you, and especially they that axe 
of the house of Caesar. 

23 The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ be with 



your spmt. 

21, 22. * Greetings to you, 
individaal greetings — in which 
all join with me, especially they 
of the Emperor's household.' 

21. Salute] We have ex- 
amples in Scripture of the uso 
of this word (d<rirai|ccr^at), (i) 
in meeting, Mark ix. 15; (2) in 
passing, Luke x. 4; (3) in part- 
ing, Acts XX. I ; (4) in absence, 
2 Cor. xiil 12; (s) in compli- 
ment, Acts XXV. 13; (6) in 
mockery, Mark xv. 18. Often 
as a request from the absent, (a) 
as here, and Rom. xvi. 3 — 15. 
Ool. iv. 15. 3 John 15. <fcc., 
or (b) with the addition of the 
/u>lf/ kiss or kiss of c/iariti/^ as 
Rom. xvi. 16. I Cor. xvi. 20. 
2 Cor. xiii. 12. i Thess. v. 26. 
I Pet. V. 14. 

Every saint] See note on i. 
I, Saints, 

In Christ Jestts] These words 
probably belong to the term saint 
(see note on i. i), and not to 
salute. 

The brethren that are with 
me] The only persons mention- 
ed by name in the Epistle as 
being with St Paul are Timo- 
theus and Epaphroditus, and 
the latter of these probably car- 
ried the Epistle. In the Epistles 



to the Colossians and to Phile- 
mon, belonging to the same im- 
prisonment, bat probably to a 
later part of it, several other 
companions are named ; Aristar- 
chus, Epaphras, Demas, Mark, 
Luke, <kc. But there is no in- 
dication of their presence in 
this Epistle, and the language 
of ii. 20, 21, unless a somewhat 
arbitrary qualification is put upon 
it, seems to imply that St Paul 
had no such entirely congenial 
companionship when he wrote it. 
22. Of the house of Ccesar] 
A comparison of i Cor. i. 16 
with I Cor. xvi. 15 seems to 
show that no distinction is to be 
made in the Greek of the New 
Testament between the two 
words Aot«e(oMcta) and household 
(oTko?). Thus the text may re- 
fer not only to actual slaves and 
servants resident in the Imperial 
palace, but to any persons hold- 
ing what we should call house- 
hold offices in the court. But 
doubtless the saying of St Paul, 
not many powerful, not many 
noble^ are called (i Cor. i. 26), 
was literally true of the Roman 
Church when he was personally 
sojourning in Rome. The long 
list of greetings in the Epistle 



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npos 4>iAinnH2ioTS. 



105 



^AcTrdcao'de iravra ayiov eV Xpiarw 'Itjaov. IV. 2 1 
dcird^ovTai vfxa^ 01 avt/ ifxoi d^€\(j>oi. daTrd- 22 
^ovrai vfias irdvTe^ oi dyioiy fxdXiara Se oi 
€K T^s Kaiaapo^ oiKia^. 

'H x^P^^ ^^^ Kvpiov 'Irjcrov Xpicrrov fierd 23 
n'ov iruevfiaTO^ vfxwv. 



to the Romans is the only real 
guide, and that a very partial 
and even ambiguous one, to the 
position and nationality of the 
members of the Church of the 
capital at the time of its writing, 
some four or five years before 
the date of this Epistle, and be- 
fore St Paul had yet visited the 
great city. The expressions 
used in the first Chapter of this 
Epistle imply, however, a mark- 
ed growth of the Eoman Church 
in all directions during (and 
partly in consequence of) St 
Paul's imprisonment. 

23. 'Grace be with you.' 
With your spirit] The same 
prayer for the companicynship 
of the grace of Christ with the 
spirit of the Christian commu- 
nity is found in Gal. vi. 18 and 
Philem. 25. In 2 Tim. iv. 22 
we have the double form, the 
Lord be with thy spirit: the 
{divine) grace he with you. 

Your spirit] The combina- 
tion of the singular {spirit) with 
the plural {your) is remarkable. 
On the one hand, the spirit is 
an integral part of the constitu- 
tion of the individual man, and 
might have been expected to 



take the plural number when 
a plurality of persons was spoken 
of. But in fact spirits is by no 
means a common expression in 
Scripture, except in certain spe- 
cial cases (such as i Cor. xiv. 
23). Thus in Rom. viii. 16, tfie 
Spirit Himself heareth witness 
with our spirit (not spirits), i 
Thess. V. 2 3, may your spirit and 
soul and body, &c. The text last 
quoted gives us not only spirit 
but also soul and body in the 
singular, though with a plural 
pronoun. And so your body 
in I Cor. vi. 1 9, although verse 15 
has your bodies. Compare Rom. 
vi. 12 {your tnortal body) with 
viii. II {your mortal bodies). 
The plural of soul is common. 
See Luke xxi. 19. 2 Cor. xii. 
15. I Thess. ii. 8. The expla- 
nation of the preference of the 
singular in the case of spirit 
may lie in the unity of that in- 
dwelling Holy Spirit (Rom. viii. 
11) by whom alone the spirit 
of the man is quickened into 
activity. There is., one Spirit 
(Eph. iv. 4), and in that all-em- 
bracing unity the separateness 
of the individual human spirit is 
in some sense merged and lost. 



Digitized byCjOOQlC 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



I^IDEX OF WORDS, ENGLISH AND GREEK, 
IN TRANSLATION AND TEXT. 



Abase, make lowly (raTrcivovv) 

ii. 8. iv. 12 
Abasement (TairctVaKris) iii. 21 
Abound (irepia-crevetv) i. 9, 26. iv. 

12, 18 
Absence (aTrova-Ca) ii. 12 
Acceptable (Scktos) iv. 18 
Accomplish {iiriTiXelv) i. 6 
Account, count (ijycto-^ai) ii. 3, 

6, 25. iii. 7, 8 
Account, reckoning (Xoyos) iv. 

15,17 
Affections (airXdyxya.) i. 8. iL 

I 
Affliction, vexation (^Xi^ts) i. 

17. iv. 14 
Already, at once (rj&rj), at length 

(tJSyj rrori), iiL 12. iv. 10 
Always (irdvTOTc) i. 4, 20. ii. 

12. iv. 4 
Anxious, to be QjLcpifxvav) ii. 20. 

iv. 6 



Appear (^atvco-^at) ii. 15 
Appetite, belly (koiXmi) iii. 19 
Appointed, to be (Kcio-^at) i. 16 
Apprehend (KaTa\afji/3dv€iv) iii. 

12, 13 

Approve (SoKifid^^Lv) i. 10 
Arrive (KaravTai/) iii. 11 
Ask (cpcDxav) iv. 3 
Attain (^^avctv) iii. 16 

B 

Become, be bom (yiyv€(r^at) i.' 

13. ii. 7, 8 

Before (c/ATrpocr^cv) iii. 13 
Beginning (a>x^') iv. 15 
Behind (oVtcro)) iiL 13 
Beings in heaven, &c. (cTrovpavtoc, 

•fee.) ii. 10 
Believe (Trtorcvctv) i. 29 
Beloved (ayaTn/Tos) ii. 12. iv. i 
Bend (*ca/A7rT€iv) ii. 10 
Beseech (irapaKaXuv) iv. 2 
Beware of (jSXeTrctv) iii. 2 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



io8 



INDEX I. 



Bishop (cruTKcnros) i. i 
Blameless (ofic/xirros) ii 15. iii. 

6 
Biemibh, without (a/ioi/ios) ii. 15 
Bodv {a^fia) i. 20. iii. 21 
Boldness of utterance (wappricrLa) 

i. 20 • 
Bonds (Sccr/ioi) L 7, 13, 14, 17 
Book (piPXoi) iv. 3 
Brother, brethren (aScX^?, -oi) 

i 12, 14. ii. 25. iii. i, 13, 

17. iv. I, 8, 21 

C 

Calling (kX^o-is) iii 14 

Camp of the guard {irpaiTiapiov) 

Change (/ACTao-xiy/iaTtfcti') iii 21 
Charity (to cirtctxcs) iv. 5 
Choose (atpcto-^ac) i. 22 
Christ i 10, 13, 15, 17, 18, 20, 

21, 23, 27, 29. ii I, 16. iii. 

7, 8, 9, 18 
Christ Jesus i. i, 8, 26. ii. 5, 

21. iii. 3, 8, 12, 14. iv. 7, 19, 

21 
Church (iKKXrja-La) iii 6. iv. 15 
Circumcision (irepiTo/xTJ) iii. 3, 5 
Citizenship, citizen-life (TroXtrev- 

fjM -€v€(r6aL) i. 27. iii. 20 
Clear, pure {€tXiKpLVTJ<;) i. 10 
Come (epxea-Oai) i. 27. ii. 24. 
Comfort (irapafxvOiov) ii. i 
Compassion (oiicTtpftos) ii. i 
Concision {KaraToprj) iii. 2 



Confess (i^fioXoycurOai) iL 1 1 
Conform, conformed (<rvfjLfjLofHfn- 

(civ, -^09) iii 10, 21 
Consistent (aTrpoo-Koiros) i. 10 
Content (avrapioy?) iv. 1 1 
Contest, share contest -with {avr- 

a^Xciv) i 27. iv. 3 
Continue (/icvciv) i 25 
Continue in (ctti/io'civ) i. 24 
Continue with (irapa/jieveiv) i 25 
Crooked ((ricoXtos) ii 15 
Cross (cTTttvpos) ii 8. iii 18 
Crown (oTc^avo?) iv. i 

D 

Day (lifiipa) I 5^ 

Day of Christ (ly/x. XpurTor) i. 6, 

10. ii. 16 
Deacon (StaKovo?) i. i 
Dead (I'cxpos) iii. 1 1 
Deal, make common cause, with 

(KOtva)V€tv, trvyK.) iv. 14, 15 
Death (Odvarosi) i. 20. ii 8, 

27, 30. iii 10 
Defence (ciTroXoyta) i. 7, 16 
Deficiency (va-Teprjpu) ii. 30 
Depart (ai/aXuciv) i 23 
Depart {i$€px€a-Oai) iv. 15 
Desire {emOvpia) i 23 
Destruction (airojXcia) i. 28. iii. 

Die (a7ro^r»JcrK€tv) i 21 
Disputing (StaXoywr/Aos) ii. 14 
Do (ttoiciv) ii 14. iv. 14 
Do, practise (Trpao-o-ctv) iv. 9 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



INDEX I. 



109 



Dog (icvwv) iii. 2 
Drinkoffering, pour as a (o-ttcv- 
Sell') iL 17 

E 

Eagerly ((nrouSawDs) ii. 28 
Earnest expectation (inroKapa- 

SoKLo) i. 20 
Earthly, on earth (cirtyctos) iL 

10. iii. 19 
Empty, to make {k€vovv) ii. 7 
Enable (ivSwafnovv) iv. 13 
Encouragement (TrapowcX^cris) iL 

I 
End (reXos) iii. 19 
Enemy (ex^/oos) iii. 18 
Equal (t<ros) iL 6 
Equal in soul (laroijrvxo^) ii. 20 
Exalt highly (vrrepwl/ovv) ii. 9 . 
Excel (Sia<l}€puv) L 10 



Faith, the faith (Trtcrns, ij tt.) i. 

25, 27. ii. 17. iii 9 
Fashion (orx^fia) ii. 8 
Fear (^')9os) ii. 12 
Fellow-imitator (o-v/x./jw/Aiy-n/s) iii. 

17 
Fellow-partner (crvj^KotvcDFos) L 7 
Fellow- soldier (awo-T/oaTtwny?) 

iL 25 
Fellow-worker (avvepyos) ii. 25. 

iv. 3 
Fill, fulfil (7rX^po{)v)L II. iL2. 

iv. 18, 19 



Fill full (xopTttfctv) iv. 12 

Fill up, supply (ai/aTrXi/povv) ii. 

Finally (to Xonrov) iii. i. iv. 8 
Find (tvpia-Keiv) ii. 8. iii. 9 
Flesh {(rdpi) i. 22, 24. iiL 3, 4 
Forget (cTTiXav^avco-^at) iiL 13 
Form (fjLop<l>TJ) ii. 6, 7 
Fruit (KapTTos) L ix, 22. iv. 17 

G 
Gain, means of (dpTrayfw^) ii. 6 
Gain, to gain (KcpSos, -aiVcti/) i. 

21. iiL 7, 8 
Generation (ycvca) ii. 15 
Genuine (yv^a-ios) iL 20. iv. 3 
Gift (Sofia) iv. 17 
Giving (So<ris) iv. 15 
Glory (Sofa) L 11. ii. 11. iii. 

19, 21. iv. 19, 20 
Glorying, to glory (Kavxqfia^ 

-da-Oai) i. 26. iL 16. iiL 3 
God, idol (Oeos) iiL 19 
Good courage, be of (cmlwx^iv) 

iL 19 
Goodwill, good pleasure (cvSoxta) 

L 15. iL 13 
Gospel (evayyikiov) L 5, 7, 12, 17, 

27. iL 22. iv. 3, 15 
Grace (xopt?) i. 2, 7. iv. 23 
Gracious (€u<^^/xos) iv. 8 
Grant (xapt^€o-^at) L 29. ii. 9 
Grave (ore/xvo'?) iv. 8 
Greatly (/xcyaXws) iv. 10 
Guard (^povpciv) iv. 7 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



liO 



INDEX I. 



H 
Have in fall (dirixav) iv. i8 
Hear (ajcovciv) L 27, 30. ii. 26. 

iv. 9 
Heart (xapSia) L 7. iv. 7 
Heavens (ovpavoC) iii. 20 
Hebrew ('E^/witos) iii. 5 
Help {(TvyXafipdvecrdai) iv. 3 
High, on (uva>) iii. 14 
Honour, in (cvrifioc) ii. 29 
Hope (lAirts, -if ctv) i. 20. ii. 19, 

House, household (oocta) iv. 22 
Hunger (irctvay) iv. 12 



Innocent (axc/oatos) ii. 15 
Issue in {diropaiv€w €ts) L 19 



Jeopardy, to put his life in (Tra- 
papoX€V€a'Ocu t^J </r.) ii. 30 

Jesus ii. to 

Jesus Christ i. 6, 11, 19. ii. 
II 

^^7 (x^P<^) i- 4, 25. ii. 2, 29. 
iv. I 



Kind ('jrpo(T<f>iXTJs) iv. 8 

Knee (yovv) iL 10 

Know (yivcooTKCcv, yvwi/at) i. 12. 

iL 19, 22. iii. 10. iv. 5 
Know (ctScvat) i. 16, 19, 25. 

iv. 12, IS 



Know, make known ' (y^ojpfcj^cw) 

i. i2. iv. 6 
Knowledge (yvwo-is, cirtyroifcri?) 

i. 9. iii. 8 



Labour (Koiriav) ii 16 

Lack {v<TT€pi€La6ai) iv. 12 

Law (vofio's) iii. 5, 6, 9 

Learn (/iav^av€tv) iv. 9, 11 

Life (fony) i. 20. iL 16. iv. 3 

Life (i/rvxiy) iL 30 

Light, luminary (<f>oKmjp) ii. 15 

Likeness (ofioCwfia) ii. 7 

Live (f^v) L 21, 22 

Long, longed for (eirtTro^ctv, -^17- 

Tot) i. 8. iL 26. iv. I 
Lord (Kvptos) i. 2, 14. ii. 11, 

24, 29, 30. iiL I, 8. iv. I, 

2, 4, 5, 10, 23 
Lord Jesus iL 19 
XiORD Jesus Christ iii. .20. iv. 

23 
Loss, to suffer loss {tpqp-Ca, 

-ovfrOaC) iii. 7, 8 
Love (ayciTny) i. 9, 16. ii. I, 2 
Lowliness of mind (raireivofjipo- 

ovvrj) ii. 3 

M 

Magnify (fieyaXvveiv) L 20 
Man (dvOptairo^) iL 7, 8. iv. 5 
Mafk (o-K(wretv, -os) ii. 4. iii. 
14, 17 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



i»HMiii»i .i|j»i i^jii.i. 



INDEX t 



III 



Mercy, to Lave mercy on (cXccik) 

ii. 27 
Messenger (ctTrooroXos) ii. 25 
Mind (vovi) iv. 7 
Mind, be minded (<l>pov€Lv) i. 7. 

ii. 2, 5. iii. 15, 19. iv. 2, 10 
Ministry, minister (XctTou/Tyta, 

-705) il 17, 25, 30 
Multiply (irXcovaf €iv) iv. 1 7 
Multitude {ol ttXciovcs) i. 14 
Murmuring (yoyyvo'/ios) ii. 14 

N' 
N!0im,e (oyofia) ii. 9, 10. iv. 3 
Necessary (avay«atos)- i. 24. ii. 

25 
Need (xp^(a) ii. 25. iv. i6j 19 
Nigh, to draw liigh (cyyvs, -t^ctv) 

ii. 30. iv. 5 
Nigh to (iraparrh^aiov) ii. 27 



Obedient (wiy/coos) ii. 8 
Obey (viraxovctv) ii. 12 
Often (TToAXa/cts) iii. 18 
'Oxraiy/Acpos iii. 5 
Once and again (koL airai Kot 

8ts) iv. 15 
Opportunity, lack {dKaLptifrOai) 

iv. 10 
Oppose (dvTLK€L(r0aL) i. 28 
Otherwise (frcpois) iii. 15 



Partisanship {ipiOeia) i. 17. ii. 3 



Partnership (KOLvtaifia) i. 5. ii. 

I. iii. 10 
Pattern (tvttos) iiL 17 
Peace (tlpijvrj) i. 2. iv. 7, 9 
Perception (atcr^^<ns) i 9 
Perfect (rcXctos, -ow) iii 12, 15 
Perverse (Si^a-Tpafifiivos) ii 15 
Pharisee (^apwaios) iii. 5 
Power, to be able (8vva/xis, -air- 

^ai) iii 10 
Praise {arcavos) i. 1 1. iv. 8 
Pray (Trppa-evxecrOai) i. 9 
Prayer (rrpoaevxn) iv. 6 
Preach {Krfpva-o'eiv) L 15 
Presence (7rapov(7ia) i. 26. ii. 

12 
Present, to {€7r€X€iv) ii. 16 
Pretence (Trpo^acrts) i. 18 
Prize {Ppaffiiov) iii. 14 
Proclaim (KarayycAAciv) i. 17, 

18 
Progress {irpoKonrq) i. 12, 25 
Proof (cvSctfts) i. 28 
Pure (ayvos) iv. 8 
tiirsue, persecute (3c(uKecr) iii. 

6, 12, 14 

R 
Race (ycvos) iii. 5 
Reach forth to (cVcxTctVccr^at) 

iii. 13 
Receive (Sexeo-^at, irpoaS,) u.2g, 

iv. 18 
Reckon, think {Xoyc^^co^oi) iii. 

13. iv. 8 



Digitized byCjOOQlC 



112 



INDEX I. 



Refuse {a-KvfiaXa) iii. 8 
Rejoice (xoupciv) L i8. ii. 17, 

18, 28. iii. I. iv. 4, 10 
Remembrance (fOftLo) i. 3 
Request (atrrjua) iv. 6 
Result in (ipx^a-Oai cts) i. 1 2 
Resurrection (avcurrao-i$, iiav.) 

iiL 10, II 
Reveal (aTroKoXvirrctv) iii. 15 
Revive (ava^aXXctv) iv. 10 
Riches (irXovros) iv. 19 
Right, just (Swcatos) i. 7. iv. 8 
Righteousness (SiKouocrvn/) i. 1 1. 

iiL 6, 9 
Run (rpcxciv) ii 16 



Sacrifice (^wia) il 17. iv. 18 
Saint (aytos) i. i. iv. 21, 22 
Salute (dtoTTra^cor^ai) iv. 21, 22 
Salvation (o-iDTrfpia) L 19, 28. 

ii. 12 
Saviour ((r<aTrjp) iii. 20 
Savour of sweet smell (oa-firj 

cvwStas) iv. 18 
Say, will (ipw) iv. 4 
Scared {'jmjp€(rOai) i. 28 
Secret, teach the (fivtlv) iv. 
See, saw (cTSov) i. 27, 30, 

28. iv. 9 
See clearly (af^tSctv) ii. 23 
Seek {^rjTetv, IwiC) ii. 21. 

17 
Send {irip.TTiLv) ii. 19, 23, 25, 28. 
iv. 16 



12 

iL 



IV. 



Servant (SovXos) L i. ii. 7 

Serve {^v\€V€iv) ii. 22 

Shame, to shame (aurx^Ki;, -v€lv) 

i 20. iii. 19 
Sick, to be (da-Ofvelv) ii. 26, 27 
Sincerely (ayv<os) i. 17 
Sore troubled (a^rjixovctv) ii 

26 
Sorrow (XvTriy) ii. 27 
Sorrowless (oAviros) ii. 28 
Soul (i/rvx^) i. 27. ii. 2 
Speak (Xeycif) iiL 18. iv. 11 
Speedily (raxcw?) ii. 19, 24 
Spirit («T€v/xa) L 19, 27. iL i. 

iii. 3. iv. 23 
Stand fast (o-nJKctv) L 27. iv. i 
Straiten (awix^iv) i. 23 
Strong, be {urxyciv) iv.-i3 
Struggle (aywv) L 30 
Subject (vTrordo-crctv) iiL 2 1 
Subsist, to be already (v7rapx«v) 

iL 6. iii. 20 
Suffer {iraa-x^iv) L 29 
Suffering {TrdiOrjjxa) iii. 10 
Supplication (Sciycrts) L 4, 19. 

iv. 6 
Supply (iTrixoprjyia) L 19 
Support (pelSaLioa-is) i. 7 
Surpass, transcend (virc/oexctv) ii. 

3. iii. 8. iv. 7 



Take, receive (A.a/xj8av€tv) iL 7. 

iiL 12 
Taking (Xyful/is) iv. 15 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



INDEX I. 



113 



Tliank, thanksgiving (evxapur- 

Tctv, -ta) i. 3. iv. 6 
Thought (voYj/xa) iv. 7 
Tongue (ykwacra) ii. i i 
Trembling (rpo/xos;) ii. 12 
Tribe (<^vA9;) iii. 5 
True, truth (0X17^179, -eta) i. 18. 

iv. 8 
Tiiist (TreTroiOrja-K) iii 4 
Trust, be persuaded of, (ircirot- 

^ei^ai) i. 6, 14, 25. ii. 24. 



Yain, in (ck kcvof) ii. 16 
Vainglory (KcvoSo^ta) ii 3 
Virtue (opcny) iv. 8 

W 
Wait for (dircKSexccr^ai) iii. 20 
Walk (TTcptTraTctv) iii. 17, 18 



Walk (aroLx^'iv) iii. 16 
Want (vaT€pr)(ri^) iv. 11 
Weep (#cXat€tv) iii 18 
Well pleasing (evapcoro?) iv. 18 
Will {Oiktiv) ii. 13 
Witness {fmfnv^) i. 8 
Word (Xoyos) i. 14. il 16 
Work (cpyov) i. 6, 22. ii. 30 
Work out (Karcpyaf €<r^at) ii. 1 2 
Working, to work (cvcpycia, 

-yctv) ii 13. iii. 21 
Workman (cpyan/s) iii. 2 
World (koct/xos) ii. 15 
Worship (Xarpcvctv) iii. 3 



Yea (vat) iv. 3 
Yokefellow ((nJrfvyos) iv. 3 



Zeal (C^Xos) iii. 6 



V. P. 



Digitized byCjOOQlC 



II. 



INDEX OF TEXTS QUOTED OR REFERRED TO 
IN THE NOTES. 



PAOB 

Gen. i. 14, 16 56 

— ii. 7 «7 

— V. 1 90 

— viii, 21 102 

— xix. 26 79 

— xxxii. 24 42 

Exod. xvi. 7 54 

— XXV. 40 83 

— xxviii. 35 58 

— xxix. I 55 

— xxix. 40, 41 58 

— xxxii. 32, 33 90 

— xxxiv. 5, <kc 51 

Lev. xxiiL 13, &c 58 

Num. vL 17 58 

— XV. 4, &c ib. 

— xxviii. 10, &c ib, 

— xxix. 6, <bc ib, 

— XXXV. II, <kc 74 



PAGE 

Deut. X. 8 58 

— xxxii 5 56 

I Sam. ii. II 58 

Kuth i. 21 48 

I Chron. xxix. 20 52 

Ezra ii. 62 90 

Nehem. vii. 5 90 

Esther vii. 9 50 

Job xi. 12 47 

— xlii. 5 27 

Psalm viii. 6 87 

— XXV. 14 99 

— xxviii. 7 97 

— xxidi. 5 92 



Digitized byCjOOQlC 



INDEX II. 



PAGE 

Psalm xxxiv. i8 91 

— Iv. 13 60 

— Iviii. II loi 

— Ixiil 9 52 

— Ixix. 28 90 



— cxix. 151 

— cxlv. 18 . 



Prov. i. 22 .. 

— iL 10 .. 

— xix. 22 



9^ 
ib. 

28 
ib. 

lOI 



laai. iv. 3 90 

— XXV. 6 80 

— xL 4 56 

— xlii 8 94 



— xlv. 23 ... 

— liiL 10, II 

— Ixi. 3 



Jerem. ix. 11. 



SI 
60 

29 
69 



Ezek. xiiL 9 9® 

— xvil 24 97 

Dan. xil i 9° 

Hos. xii. 4 42 

Hab. iii. 3 94 

Zech. vL 13 94 

Wisdom iv. I 94 

Ecclus. iv. 7 * 94 



Ecclus. XX. 13 

— xxxii. 21 

— xliL 7 



I Mace. V. 64 



Matt. ii. 7 

— iii. 6 

— iii. 9 

— iv. 21 

— V. 37 

— vi. 2, 5, 16 

— vi. 25 

— vii. 13 .... 

— ix. 37 .... 

— X. 16 

— X. 38 

— xi. 25 

— xi. 29 

— xii. 28 .... 

— XV. 26 .... 

— xvi 18 .... 

— xvi. 18 .... 

— xvi. 26 .... 

— xvii. 17 .... 

— xviii. 17 

— xix. 26 .. . 

XX. 1 

XX. II .... 

— XX. 19 .... 

— xxii. 3 .... 

— xxiv. 30.... 

— xxiv. 33.... 

XXV. 26 .... 

— xxvi. 37.... 



IIS 

PAOB 

94 

28 

100 

94 

56 
52 
69 
80 
26 

lOI 

91 
41 
68 

55 
50 
52 

49 
82 

67 
71 
74 
73 
56 

71 
76 
68 
55 

50 
80 

56 

91 
66 

^3 



8—2 



Digitized byCjOOQlC 



ii6 INDEX II. 

PAOS PAGI 

Mark i. I loo Luke x. 21 52 

— iv. 22 30 — xi. 10 77 

— viL 5 83 — xii. 7 28 

— ix. 15 104 — xii. II 91 

— xii. 2, 3 48 — xii. 15 98 

— xii 38 67 — xii. 50 37 

— xii 44 97 — xiv. 14 77 

— xiii. 16 79 — xvii. 18 49 

— xiii. 29 91 — xvii. 30 24 

— xiv. 33 63 — xix. 43 37 

— XV. 18 104 — xxi 19 105 

— XV. 43 64 — xxi. 25 37 

— xvi. 4 54 — xxiii. 43 ib. 

— xxiii. 43 52 

LukeL 53 48 _ xxiv. 35 91 

— i. 5^ 35 — xxiv. 38 55 

— i- 77 41 — xxiv. 45 g2 

— i. 78 27 

— ii. 34 32 

— ii. 37 68 John i. I 46 

— iii- 5 56 — |-4 57 

— iv. 19 102 — i. 5 56 

— V. 7 89 — iv. 14 57 

— V. 30 55 — iv. 36 loi 

— vi. 21 99 — V. 24, 40 57 

— vi. 24 101 — V. 29 77 

— vii. 2 64 — vi. 27 53 

— vii. 4 63 — vL 43 55 

— viii. 18 81 — vi. 57 36 

— viiL 45 37 — vi. 66 79 

— ix. 25 73 — viii. 12 S^ 

— ix. 45 28 — xii 35 ib. 

— ix. 62 79 — xiii. 12 48 

— X. 4 104 — XV. 13 50 

— X. 20 90 — xvii. I 87 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



INDEX II. 



117 



Acts ii. 19 80 

56 

87 

44 

49 

55 

^3 

71 

86 

78 

99 

66 

35 

44 

76 

41 

ib, 

loo 

101 

100 

35 

— xix. 18 52 

— xix. 25 

XX. I 

— XX. 25 

— XX. 30 

— XXL 8 

— xxi. 24 

— xxi. 34 

— xxii. 3, 4 

— xxii. 14 

— xxiii. I 

— xxiiL 6 

— xxiv. 4 

— xxiv. 15 



PAGE 

Acts xxiv. 16 29 



— u, 40 

— iii. 13 

— iv. 36 

— ^-39 

— vi. I 

— vii. 44 .... 

— viii. I 

— viii. 33 .... 

— ix. 3, etc. . 

— ix. 22 

— ix. 38 

— X. 46 

— xL 23 

— xvi. I 

— xvi. 17 .... 

— xvi. 19, &c. 

— xvii. I .... 
— ^ xvii. 2 .... 
-r- xviii 5 

— xix. 17 .... 



68 
104 

38 
56 

22 

82 
66 
70 
35 
39 
70 

91 

77 



— XXV. 13 

— xxvi. 5 

— xxvi. 7 

— xxvi. 10, II 

— xxvii. 10, 21 

— xxvii. 23 ... 

— xxviii. 16 ... 



26 



Rom. L 4 

— i. 9 .. 

— i. 10 

— in 

— i- 17 

— ii. 4 

— ii. 8 

— il 18 

— ii 29 

— ii. 29 

— iii. 9 

— iii 21 

— iii. 25 

— iv. 4 .... 

— iv. 9 .... 

— iv. 12 .... 

— iv. 13... 

— V. 9, 10 . 

— V. 12 .... 

V. 12 .... 

— V. 14 .... 

— V. 20 

— vi. I .... 

— vi. 3, &c. 

— vL 4 .... 

— vi. 12 ... 



104 
70 
68 

71 
72 
69 

30 

87 
69 
76 
26 

74 
102 

32 
28 
68 
94 
33 
74 
41 
22 
68 
82 
56 
53 
78 
S6 

83 
5^ 
38 
76 

S3 
105 



Digitized byCjOOQlC 



Ii8 INDEX II. 

PAOB PAGE 

Rom. vi. 15 33 Rom. xil 13 78 

— vi. 16 49 — xiii. 3 95 

— vi. 17 83 — xiii. 9 94 

— vii. 6 61 — xiii. 11 41 

— viii I 74 — xiv. 9 75 

— viii. 3 49 — xiv. 18 102 

— viiL II 105 — xiv. 19 78 

— viiL 16 105 — XV. 8 6S 

— viii 17 76 — XV. 9 52 

— viii. 19 35, 86 — XV. 15, 16 58 

— viii. 20 86 — XV. 30 40 

— viii. 23, 25 ib. — XV. 33 96 

— viii. 24 53 — xvL I 71 

— viii. 28 34 — xvi. 2 40 

— viii. 29 87 — xvi, 2 64 

— viii. 30 80 — xvi. 3, &c 104 

— viii. 37 50 — xvi. 16 ib. 

— ix. 4 68 — xvL 17 8^ 

— ix. 19, 20 72 — xvi. 17 95 

— ix. 23 102 — xvi 17, 18 84 

— ix.30 78 — xvi. 19 55 

— ix. 31 71*^2 — xvi. 20 96 

— X. I 78 — xvi. 22 40 

— X. 9 52 

— X. 14 95 I Cor. i 4 23 

— X. 18 72 — i 7 86 

— xi 12, 15 56 — i 16 104 

— xi 14 76 — i 23 50 

— xi 22, 23 38 — i 26 104 

— xi 33 102 — ii 6 80 

— xi 36 52 — ii. 9 81 

— xiii 58 — iii 15 73 

— xii I 102 — iv. 5 95 

— xii 10 45 — iv. 16 83 

— xii II 66 — iv. 17 59 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



INDEX II. 119 

PAGE PAOE 

I Cor. vi. 6, 8 41 i Cor. xv. 9 71 

■ — vi. II 103 — XV. 27, die 87 

— vi. 15 105 — XV. 44 80 

— vi. 19 ».. ib, — XV. 49 86 

— vii. 15 54 ^ xvi. 9 41 

— vii. 31 49 — xvL 15 104 

— viii 3 27 — xvi. 16, 18 64 

— viii. 8 99 — xvL 17 65 

— ix. 19 31 — xvi. 20 104 

— ix. 24 78 

— ix. 24 79 2 Cor. i. s 75 

— ix. 24 — 27 40 — i. II 34 

— ix. 25 88 — i. 14 57 

— ix, 26 57 — i. 23 26 

— X. 6 83 — ii 4 37 

— X. 10 55 — ii. 6 31 

— X. 14 53 — ii. 9 61 

— X. 16 , 44 — iv. 5 52 

— X. 24 45 — iv. 10, II 75 

— X. 24 60 — iv. 14 58 

— X. 32 29 — iv. 15 31 

— xi I 83 — iv. 15 34 

— xi. 16 69 — iv. 17 73 

— xl 18 71 — iv. 18 45 

— xi. 32 56 — V. 2 80,86 

— xiL 3 52 — V. 3 49.74 

— xil 28 71 — V. 4 78,86 

— xiiL 5 60 — V. 8 37 

— xiv. 5 78 — V. 9 102 

— xiv. 19, 28 71 — V. 19 56 

— xiv. 20 78 — vL I 57 

— xiv. 23 105 — vi. 2 41 

— xiv. 33 96 — vi. 2 102 

— XV. 1,3 95 — vi. 3 29 

— XV. 2 53 — vi. 12 27 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



I20 INDEX II. 

PAGE PAGE 

2 Cor. vii. 4 102 GaL i. 23 71 

— vii 9 73 — ii. 2 57 

— vii. II 33 — ii- 6 28 

— vii. 15 27 — ii 7 ^^ 

— viiL 4 44 -— ii. 20 36 



— viiL8 60 — li 20 73 

— viii. 9 48 — ill. 3 24 

— viiL 18 95 — iii. 5 34 

— viiL 23 62 — iii. 7, 29 6S 

— viii. 24 41 — iii 15 78 

— ix. 8 97> S — iii 22 — 26 38 

— ix. 10 34 — iii 23 93 

— X. I 35 — iv. 4 48 

— X. I 90 — iv. 26 So 

— xi. 2 33 — iv. 26 85 

— xi. 6 98 — ^' ^ 99 

— xi. 9 61 — V. 10 ^^ 

— xi 9 100 — V. II 50 

— "ici 13 68 — V. 12, 13 84 

— xi. 13, &c. 84 — V. 20 32 

— xi 15 84 — V. 25 82 

— xi 22 70 — V. 26 45 

— xi 32 93 — vi. I 78 

— xii 9 75 — vi 6 100 

— xii 14 60 — vi II 40 

— xii. 14 loi — vi 12 84 

— xii 15 105 — vi. 13, 14 84 

— xii 20 32 — vi 16 68 

— xiii 3 44 — vi 16 82 

— xiii. II 66 — vi 18 105 

— xiii. 12 104 

Epli.i3 Ss 

GaL i 9 95 — i 4 55 

— i i3» 14 7<5 ~ !' 5 ^7 

— i 16 78 — i 6, 12 29 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



INDEX II. 121 

PAGE PAGE 

Eph. i. 13 95 Eph. vL 10 99 

— i. 15 41 — VL 18 91 

— |- 15 59 — vi. 19 35 

— i. 18, &c 75 — vi. 20 30 

— i. i9» 20 50,87 

— i. 21 51 Col i. 6 95 

— i. 22 71 — i. 7 95 

— ii. 2, 12 56 — i. 9 59 

— ii- 3) 5 22 — i. 10 40 

— ii. 5»8 53 — i. 18, 24 71 

— ii. 6 85 — i- 20 50 

— ii. 8 41 — i 21 84 

— ii. II 68 — i 22 55 

— il 12 ib. — i 23 31 

— ii 16 50 — i. 23 38 

— ii. 20 74 — L 23 95 

— iii. 8 74 — L 24 75 

— iii. 9 99 — ii. 1 42 

— iii. 14 52 — ii. 6 95 

— iii 19 92 — ii. 7 92 

— iii. 21 103 — ii. 9 51 

— iv. I 40 — ii 19 34 

— iv. 4 105 — ii. 23 64 

— iv. 7 — 16 42 — iii I — 4...36,42, 60,80, 85 

— iv. 13 76 — iii. 12 27 

— iv. 16 34 — iv. 15 104 

— iv. 20 95 

— iv. 21 95 I Thess. i 6 83 

— iv. 29 . 94 — iy ^3 

— V. 1 83 — ii. 2 42 

— V. 2 102 — ii. 3 42 

— V. II 99 — ii 4 28 

— Vv 20 92 — ii 5, 10 26 

— V. 27 55 — ii. 8 105 

— • vi* 5 54 — ii. 12 40 



Digitized byCjOOQlC 



122 



INDEX II. 



I Thess. iL 13 

— ii 19 

— iii. 3 

— iii 5 

— iii. 8 

— iv. I 

— iv. I 

— i^'- 15 



PAGE 

• 95 
57,88 

• 32 

• 57 
. 40 
. 65 

. 95 
. 82 



— iv. 16 77 

78 

66 



— V. 10 

T. 16 

— T. 18 

V. 21 

— V. 23 

— V. 25 

V. 26 



92 
28 

105 

78 

104 



2 Thess. i. 5 — 7 41 

54 

65 

95 

83 

40 



— 1. II . 

— iii. I . 

— iii. 6 . 

— iii. 9 . 

— iii. 22 , 

I Tim. L 2 . 

— i. 3- 

— i. 12 . 

— i. 18 . 

— iL I 

— ii. 2 

— ii. 8 , 

— iii. 3 . 

— iii. 4 , 

— iii. 8 . 

— iii. II 



60 
3^ 
99 
19 
91 
94 

55 
90 

94 
/A 



I Tim. iv. 12. 

— iv. 16 .... 

— V. 5 

— V. 14 .... 

— V. 22 .... 

— vi. 5 .... 

VL 6 .... 

— vi. 12 .... 



PAOE 

38 
91 
41 
33 
84 

97 

42 



2 Tim. L 3 

— i- 4 

— i- 13 

— i- 17 

— ii. I 

— ii. 2 

— iii. 8 

— iv. 6 37,57 

— iv. 7 42, 57 

— iv. 8 SS 

— iv. 16 25 



69 

26 

95 
63 
99 

95 
92 



— IV. 17 , 

— iv. 22 , 

Tit. i. 4 

— i. II 

— ii. 2 

— ii- 5 

— ii. 7 .. 

— ii. 9 

— ii. II 

— iii. 2 

Philem. 2 

— 7» 12 



. 99 

. 105 

. 60 

. 84 

. 94 

• 33 
83,94 

. 102 

. 26 

. 91 



— II 



62 
26 
89 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



INDEX IL 123 

PAGE PAGE 

I?hilem. 15 loi Heb. xiii 14 85 

— 20 26,88 — xiii. 15 5^*102 

— 22 61 — xiiL 16 102 

— 25 105 — xiii. 21 54 

K®^- |- ^4 41 James i. 10 98 

— ^- ^ ^7 _ iii. 14, 16 32 

— ^^-9 51 — iii. 15 85 



u. 10 77 



111. 17 91 



— ii- U 63 _ V. 4 68 

— ^\ ^7 49 _ V. 16 52 

— iii. I 80 

— V. 7 91 ^ 

-V.8 49 '^'':''^ ^' 



V. 9 77 

V. 14 So 



1- 5 93 

i. 12 80 



-vi.8 84 -^'9 55 

— i. 21 51, 52,87 

— ii.4»6, 7 64 



— vi. 19 66 

— vii 19 77 



— vii. 28 77 



ii. 5 5^* 102 



ix.1,6 69 -!^^ 56,91 

— ix. 9 68 



— 12:. 9 77 

— ix. 24 55 

— ix. 28 86 

— X. I, 14 77 



lu. 2 33 

— iv. 13 75 

— V. 3 83 

— V. 7 91 

— V. 14 104 



— X. 2 68 

— X. 39 41 2 Pet. i. I 60 

— xi. 10, 16 85 — i. 3 94 

— xi. 40 77 — i. 5 34,94 

— xiL I 42 — L 10 54 

— xiL 2 50 — i. II 34 

— xii. 22 85 — ii. I, 3 84 

— xiL 23 77,90 — ii. 9 94 

— xiii. 10 69 — iii. i 28 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC ^| 



124 INDEX II. 

PAGE PACE 

iJohnii.8 56 Rev. i. 18 52 

— ii. 28 35 — L 18 75 

— V. 15 92 — iii. 12 85 

— V. 19 56 — V. 13 52 

— xiiL 8 90 

— 3^iv-5 55 

3 John 6 40 — xviL 8 90 

— II 83 — xviii 4 99 

— 15 104 — atx. 5 77 

— XX. 12, 15 93 

— xxL 2 85 

Jude 13 85 — xxi. II 56 

— 16 55 — xxi. 27 90 



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