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Full text of "St.Cyril of Jerusalem; St. Gregory of Nazianzen"

The Sage Digital Library 



Select Library 

of 

The Nicene and 

Post-Nicene Fathers 

of 

The Christian Church 

SECOND SERIES 



Under the Editorial Supervision of 
Philip Schaff, D.D., LL.D. and 

Proiessor of Chinch Histoiy in the 
Union Theological Seminary, New York. 



Henry Wace, D.D., 
Proiessor of King's 
College, London. 



VOLUME 7 

S. Cyril of Jerusalem 

S. Gragory of Nanzianzen 



New York Christian Literature Company 1890-1900 
riajjUj^ Digital Hublifortigns 




CONTENTS OF VOLUME VII 



S. CYRIL, Archbishop of Jerusalem: Catechetical Lectures 

By Edward Hamilton gifford, d.d., Formerly Archdeacon of 
London, and Canon of S. Paul's. 

S. GREGORY NAZIANZEN, Archbishop of Constantinople: 
Select Orations 
Letters 
By Charles Gordon Browne, M. A., Rector ofLympstone, 
Devon; and James Edward Sw allow, M. A., Chaplain ofthe 
House of Mercy, Horbury. 

Note . — S. Cyril is issued under the Editorial supervision of Dr. Wace, 
and S. Gregory Nazianzen under that of the translators. 



THE 

CATECHETICAL LECTURES 

OF 

St. CYRIL 

ARCHBISHOP OF JERUSALEM 

WITH A REVISED TRANSLATION, INTRODUCTION, NOTES, 

AND INDICES, 

BY 
EDWIN HAMILTON GIFFORD, D. D. 

FORMERLY ARCHDEACON OF LONDON, AND CANON OF S. PAUL'S. 



PREFACE 



The present translation of the Catechetical Lectures of S. Cyril of 
Jerusalem is based on a careful revision of the English translation 
published in the "Library of the Fathers of the Holy Catholic Church," 
with a most interesting Preface by John Henry Newman, dated from 
Oxford, The Feast of St. Matthew, 1838. 

In his Preface Mr. Newman stated with respect to the translation "that for 
almost the whole of it the Editors were indebted to Mr. Church, Fellow of 
Oriel College." Mr. Church was at that time a very young man, having 
taken his First Class in Michaelmas Term, 1836; and this his first 
published work gave abundant promise of that peculiar felicity of 
expression, which made him in maturer life one of the most perfect 
masters of the English tongue. Having received full liberty to make such 
use of his translation as I might deem most desirable for the purpose of the 
present Edition, I have been obliged to exercise my own judgment both in 
preserving much of Dean Church's work unaltered, and in revising it 
wherever the meaning of the original appeared to be less perfectly 
expressed. 

In this constant study and use of Dean Church's earliest work I have had 
always before my mind a grateful and inspiring remembrance of one whose 
friendship it was my great privilege to enjoy during the few last saddened 
years of his saintly and noble life. 

In the notes of this Edition one of my chef objects has been to illustrate S. 
Cyril's teaching by comparing it with the works of earlier Fathers to 
whom he may have been indebted, and with the writings of his 
contemporaries. 

In the chapters of the Introduction which touch on S. Cyril's doctrines of 
Baptism, Chrism, and the Holy Eucharist, I have not attempted either to 
criticize or to defend his teaching, but simply to give as faithful a 
representation as I could of his actual meaning. The Eastern Church had 
long before S. Cyril's day, and still has its own peculiar Sacramental exact 
conformity with the tenets of our own or other Western Churches. 



The Indices have be revised, and large addition made to the lists of Greek 
words, and of texts of Scripture. 



E. H. G. 



Oxford, 

26 May, 1893. 



CONTENTS OF THE INTRODUCTION 



Chapter! Life of S.Cyril. 

Chapter II. Catechetical Instruction. 

1. Catechesis 

2. Catechist 

3. Catechumens 

4. Candidates for Baptism. 

5. The Name Ocoxi^ojxevoi. 

Chapter III. Special Preparation for Baptism . 

1 . Penitence 

2. Confession 

3. Exorcism. 

Chapter IV. Ceremonies of Baptism and Chrism. 

1 . Renunciation 

2. Profession of Faith 

3. First Unction 

4. Baptism 

5. Trine Immersion 

6. Chrism 

Chapter V. Eucharistic Rites. 

1 . First Communion 

2. The Liturgy 

Chapter VI. Effects of Baptism and Chrism. 

1 . Baptism 

2. Chrism 

Chapter VII. Eucharistic Doctrine 
Chapter VIII. 



Chapter IX. Tiem and Ar4rangement of S. Cyril's Lectures. 

1. The Year 

2. The Days 

3. Arrangement 

Chapter X. The Creed of Jerusalem: Doctrine of the Holy Trinity. 

1 . The Creeds of Jerusalem and Nicea 

2. Doctrine of the Holy Trinity 

Chapter XI. S. Cyril's Writings. 

1. List of Works 

2. Authenticity of the Lectures 

3. Early testimony 

4. Editions 

5. Manuscripts 

6. Versions 



INTRODUCTION 

CHAPTER 1 
Life Of S. Cyril. 

The works of S. Cyril of Jerusalem owe much of their peculiar interest 
and value to the character of the times in which he wrote, born a few years 
before the outbreak of Arianism in a .d . 3 18, he lived to see its 
suppression by the Edict of Theodosius, 380, and to take part in its 
condemnation by the Council of Constantinople in the following year. 

The story of Cyril's life is not told in detail by any contemporary author; 
in his own writings there is little mention of himself; and the Church 
historians refer only to the events of his manhood and old age. We have 
thus no direct knowledge of his early years, and can only infer from the 
later circumstances of his life what may probably have been the nature of 
his previous training. The names of his parents are quite unknown; but in 
the Greek Menaea, or monthly catalogues of Saints, and in the roman 
Martyrology for the 18 th day of March, Cyril is said to have been "born of 
pious parents, professing the orthodox Faith, and to have been bred up in 
the same, in the reign of Constantine." 

This account of his parentage and education derives some probability from 
the fact that Cyril nowhere speaks as one who had been converted from 
paganism or from any heretical sect, his language at the close of the vii rh 
Lecture seems rather to be inspired by gratitude to his own parents for a 
Christian education: "The first virtuous observance in a Christian is to 
honor his parents, to requite their trouble, and to provide with all his 
power for their comfort: for however much we may repay them, yet we 
can never be to them what they as parents have been to us. Let them enjoy 
the comfort we can give, and strengthen us with blessings." 

One member only of Cyril's family is mentioned by name, his sister's son 
Gelasius, who was appointed by Cyril to be Bishop of Caesarea on the 
death of Acacius, a .d . 366 circ. was usual to choose a Bishop from among 



10 

the Clergy over whom he was to preside, a preference being given to such 
as were best known to the people generally. 

That Cyril, whether a native of Jerusalem or not, had passed a portion of 
his childhood there, is rendered probable by his allusions to the condition 
of the Holy Places before they were cleared and adorned by Constantine 
and Helena. He seems to speak as an eye — witness of their former state, 
when he says that a few years before the place of the Nativity at 
Bethlehem had been wooded, that the place where Christ was crucified and 
buried was a garden, of which traces were still remaining, that the wood of 
the Cross had been distributed to all nations, and that before the 
decoration of the Holy Sepulchre by Constantine, there was a cleft or cave 
before the door of the Sepulchre, hewn out of the rock itself, but now no 
longer to be seen because the outer cave had been cut away for the sake of 
the recent adornments. 

This work was undertaken by Constantine after the year 326 a.d .; and if 
Cyril spoke from remembrance of what he had himself seen, he could 
hardly have been less than ten or twelve years old, and so must have been 
born not later, perhaps a few years earlier, than 315 a .d . 

The tradition that Cyril had been a monk and an ascetic was probably 
founded upon the passages in which he seems to speak as one who had 
himself belonged to the order of Solitaries, and shared the glory of 
chastity. We need not, however, suppose that the "Solitaries" 
(u-ovd^ovxec;) of whom he speaks were either hermits living in remote and 
desert places, or monks secluded in a monastery: they commonly lived in 
cities, only in separate houses, and frequented the same Churches with 
ordinary Christians. To such a life of perpetual chastity, strict asceticism, 
and works of charity, Cyril may probably, in accordance with the custom 
of the age, have been devoted from early youth. 

A more important question is that which relates to the time and 
circumstances of his ordination as Deacon, and as Priest, matters closely 
connected with some of the chief troubles of his later life. 

That he was ordained Deacon by Macarius, Bishop of Jerusalem, who 
died in 334 or 335, may be safely inferred from the unfriendly notice of S. 
Jerome, Chron. ann. 349 (350 A .D.): "Cyril having been ordained priest by 



11 

Maximus, and after his death permitted by Acacius, Bishop of Caesarea, 
and the other Arian Bishops, to be made Bishop on condition of 
repudiating his ordination by Maximus, served in the Church as a Deacon: 
and after he had been paid for this impiety by the reward of the 
Episcopate (Sacerdotii), he by various plots harassed Heraclius, whom 
Maximus when dying had substituted in his own place, and degraded him 
from Bishop to Priest." 

From this account, incredible as it is in the main, and strongly marked by 
personal prejudice, we may conclude that Cyril had been ordained Deacon 
not by Maximus, but by his predecessor Macarius; for otherwise he 
would have been compelled to renounce his Deacon's Orders, as well as 
his Priesthood. 

Macarius died in or before the year 335; for at the Council of Tyre, 
assembled in that year to condemn Athanasius, Maximus sat as successor 
to Macarius in the See of Jerusalem. This date is confirmed by the fact 
that after the accession of Maximus, a great assembly of Bishops was held 
at Jerusalem in the year 335, for the dedication of the Church of the Holy 
Resurrection. 

It thus appears that Cyril's ordination as Deacon cannot be put later than 
334 or the beginning of 335. 

Towards the close of the latter year the bishops who had deposed 
Athanasius at the Council of Tyre proceeded to Jerusalem "to celebrate 
the Tricennaliaof Constantine's reign by consecrating his grand Church on 
Mount Calvary." On that occasion "Jerusalem became the gathering point 
for distinguished prelates from every province, and the whole city was 

thronged by a vast assemblage of the servants of God In short, the 

whole of Syria and Mesopotamia, Phoenicia and Arabia, Palestine, Egypt, 
and Libya, with the dwellers in the Thebaid, all contributed to swell the 
mighty concourse of God's ministers, followed as they were by vast 
numbers from every province. They were attended by an imperial escort, 
and officers of trust had also been sent from the palace itself, with 
instructions to heighten the splendor of the festival at the Emperor's 
expense." Eusebius proceeds to describe the splendid banquets, the lavish 
distribution of money and clothes to the naked and destitute, the offerings 
of imperial magnificence, the "intellectual feast" of the many Bishops' 



12 

discourses, and last, not least, his own "various public orations 
pronounced in honor of this solemnity." Among the Clergy taking part in 
this gorgeous ceremony, the newly ordained Deacon of the Church of 
Jerusalem would naturally have his place. It was a scene which could not 
fail to leave a deep impression on his mind, and to influence his attitude 
towards the contending parties in the great controversy by which the 
Church was at this time distracted, he knew that Athanasius had just been 
deposed, he had seen Arius triumphantly restored to communion in that 
August assembly of Bishops "from every province," with his own Bishop 
Maximus, and Eusebius of Caesarea, the Metropolitan, at their head. It is 
much to the praise of his wisdom and steadfastness that he was not misled 
by the notable triumph of the Arians to join their faction or adopt their 
tenets. 

In September, 346, Athanasius returning from his second exile at Treves 
passed through Jerusalem. The aged Bishop Maximus, who had been 
induced to acquiesce in the condemnation of Athanasius at Tyre, and in 
the solemn recognition of Arius at Jerusalem, had afterwards refused to 
join the Eusebians at Antioch in 341, for the purpose of confirming the 
sentence passed at Tyre, and now gave a cordial welcome to Athanasius, 
who thus describes his reception: "As I passed through Syria,, I met with 
the Bishops of Palestine, who, when they had called a Council at 
Jerusalem, received me cordially, and themselves also sent me on my way 
in peace, and addressed the following letter to the Church and the 
Bishops." The letter congratulating the Egyptian Bishops and the Clergy 
and people of Alexandria on the restoration of their Bishop is signed first 
by Maximus, who seems to have acted without reference to the 
Metropolitan Acacius, successor of Eusebius as Bishop of Caesarea, and a 
leader of the Arians, a bitter enemy of Athanasius. Though Cyril in his 
writings never mentions Athanasius or Arius by name, we can hardly 
doubt that, as Touttee suggests, he must at this time have had an 
opportunity of learning the true character of the questions in dispute 
between the parties of the great heresiarch and his greater adversary. 

We have already learned from Jerome that Cyril was admitted to the 
Priesthood by Maximus. There is no evidence of the exact date of his 
ordination: but we may safely assume that he was a Priest of some years' 
standing, when the important duty of preparing the candidates for 



13 

Baptism was intrusted to him in or about the year 348. There appears to 
be no authority for the statement (Diet. Chr. Antiq. "Catechumens." p. 
319 a), that "the Catecheses of Cyril of Jerusalem were delivered by him 
partly as a Deacon, partly as a Presbyter." 

At the very time of delivering the lectures, Cyril was also in the habit of 
preaching to the general congregation on the Lord's day, when the 
candidates for Baptism were especially required to be present. In the 
Church of Jerusalem it was still the custom for sermons to be preached by 
several Presbyters in succession, the Bishop preaching last. From Cyril's 
Homily on the Paralytic we learn that he preached immediately before the 
Bishop, and so must have held a distinguished position among the Priests. 
This is also implied in the fact, that within three or four years after 
delivering his Catechetical Lectures to the candidates for Baptism, he was 
chosen to succeed Maximus in the See of Jerusalem. 

The date of his consecration is approximately determined by his own 
letter to Constantius concerning the appearance of a luminous cross in the 
sky at Jerusalem. The letter was written on the 7 th of May, 351, and is 
described by Cyril as the first — fruit of his Episcopate, he must therefore 
have been consecrated in 350, or early in 351. 

Socrates and Sozomen agree in the assertion that Acacius, Patrophilus the 
Arian Bishop of Scythopolis, and their adherents ejected Maximus and 
put Cyril in his place. But according to the statement of Jerome already 
quoted Maximus, when dying, had not only nominated Heraclius to be his 
successor, which, with the consent of the Clergy and people, was not 
unusual, but had actually established him as Bishop in his stead (in suum 
locum substituerat). The two accounts are irreconcileable, and both 
improbable. Touttee argues not without reason that the consecration of 
Heraclius, which Jerome attributes to Maximus, would have been opposed 
to the right of the people and Clergy to nominate their own Bishop, and to 
the authority of the Metropolitan and other Bishops of the province, by 
whom the choice was to be confirmed and the consecration performed, and 
that it had moreover been expressly forbidden seven years before by the 
23rd Canon of the Council of Antioch. 

Still more improbable is the charge that Cyril had renounced the 
priesthood conferred on him by Maximus, and after serving in the Church 



14 

as a Deacon, had been rewarded by the Episcopate, and then himself 
degraded Heraclius from Bishop to priest. As a solution of these 
difficulties, it is suggested by Reischl that Cyril had been designated in the 
lifetime of Maximus as his successor, and after his decease had been duly 
and canonically consecrated, but had incurred the calumnious charges of 
the party opposed to Acacius and the Eusebians, because he was 
supposed to have bound himself to them by accepting consecration at 
their hands. This view is in some measure confirmed by the fact that "in 
the great controversy of the day Cyril belonged to the Asiatic party, 
Jerome to that of Rome. In the Meletian schism also they took opposite 
sides, Cyril supporting Meletius, Jerome being a warm adherent of 
Paulinus'," by whom he had been recently ordained priest. It is also 
worthy of notice that Jerome's continuation of the Chronicle of Eusebius 
was written at Constantinople in 380-381, the very time when the many 
injurious charges fabricated by Cyril's better enemies were most 
industriously circulated in popular rumor on the eve of a judicial inquiry 
by the second general Council which met there in 381, under the 
presidency of Meletius, Cyril, and Gregory of Nazianzum. had Jerome 
written of Cyril a year or two later, he must have known that these 
calumnies had been emphatically rejected by the Synod of Constantinople 
(382) consisting of nearly the same Bishops who had been present at the 
Council of the preceding year. In their Synodical letter to Pope Damasus 
they wrote: "And of the Church in Jerusalem, which is the Mother of all 
the Churches, we notify that the most reverend and godly Cyril is Bishop: 
who was long ago canonically appointed by the Bishops of the Province, 
and had many conflicts in various places against the Arians." 

The beginning of Cyril' s Episcopate was marked by the appearance of a 
bright cross in the sky, about nine o'clock in the morning of Witsunday, 
the 7 th of May, 35 1 a.d . Brighter than the sun, it hung over the hill of 
Golgotha, and extended to Mount Olivet, being visible for many hours. 
The whole population of Jerusalem, citizens and foreigners, Christians and 
Pagans, young and old, flocked to the Church, singing the praises of 
Christ, and hailing the phaenomenon as a sign from heaven confirming the 
truth of the Christian religion. 

Cyril regarded the occasion as favorable for announcing the Emperor 
Constatntius the commencement of his Episcopate; and in his extant letter 



15 

described the sign as a proof of God's favor towards the Empire and its 
Christian ruler. The piety of his father Constantine had been rewarded by 
the discovery of the true Cross and the Holy places: and now the greater 
devotion of the Son had won a more signal manifestation of Divine 
approval. The letter ends with a prayer that God may grant to the 
Emperor long to reign as the protector of the Church and of the Empire, 
"every glorifying the Holy and Consubstantial Trinity, our true God." The 
word ojioo-uoiov, it is alleged, had not at this time been accepted by Cyril, 
and its use has therefore been thought to cast doubt upon the genuineness 
of this final prayer, which is nevertheless maintained by the Benedictine 
Editor. The letter as a whole is certainly genuine, and the phenomenon is 
too strongly attested by the historians of the period to be called in 
question. While, therefore, we must reject Cyril's explanation, we have no 
reason to suspect him of intentional misrepresentation. A parhelion, or 
other remarkable phenomenon, of which the natural cause was at that time 
unknown, might well appear "to minds excited by the struggle between the 
Christian Faith and a fast — declining heathenism to be a miraculous 
manifestation of the symbol of Redemption, intended to establish the 
Faith and to confute its gainsayers." 

The first few years of Cyril's episcopate fell within that so — called 
"Golden Decade," 346-355, which is otherwise described as "an uneasy 
interval of suspense rather than of peace." Though soon to be engaged in a 
dispute with Acacius concerning the privileges of their respective Sees, 
Cyril seems to have been in the interval zealous and successful in 
promoting the peace and prosperity of his own Diocese. 

We learn from a letter of Basil the Great that he had visited Jerusalem 
about the year 357, when he had been recently baptized, and was 
preparing to adopt a life of strict asceticism, he speaks of the many saints 
whom he had there embraced, and of the many who had fallen on their 
knees before him, and touched his hands as holy, — signs, as Touttee 
suggests, of a flourishing state of religion and piety. Cyril's care for the 
poor, and his personal poverty, were manifested by an incident, of which 
the substantial truth is proved by the malicious use to which it was 
afterwards perverted. "Jerusalem and the neighboring region being visited 
with a famine, the poor in great multitudes, being destitute of necessary 
food, turned their eyes upon Cyril as their Bishop. As he had no money to 



16 

succour them in their need, he sold the treasures and sacred veils of the 
Church. It is said, therefore, that some one recognized an offering of his 
won as worn by an actress on the stage, and made it his business to inquire 
whence she had it and found that it had been sold to her by a merchant, 
and to the merchant by the Bishop." 

This was one of the charges brought against Cyril in the course of the 
disputes between himself and Acacius, which had commenced soon after 
he had been installed in the Bishopric of Jerusalem. As Bishop of 
Caesarea, Acacius exercised Metropolitan jurisdiction over the Bishops of 
Palestine. But Cyril, as presiding over an Apostolic See, "the Mother of 
all the Churches," claimed exemption from the jurisdiction of Caesarea, and 
higher rank than its Bishop. It is not alleged, nor is it in any way probable, 
that Cyril claimed also the jurisdiction over other Bishops. The rights and 
privileges of his See had been clearly defined many years before by the 7 th 
Canon of the Council of Nicaea: 'As custom and ancient tradition she that 
the Bishop of Aelia ought to be honored, let him have precedence in honor, 
without prejudice to the proper dignity of the Metropolitical See." 
Eusebius, in reference to a Synod concerning the time of Easter, says: 
"There is still extant a writing of those who were then assembled in 
Palestine (about 200 a.d .), over whom Theophilus, Bishop of Caesarea, 
and Narcissus, Bishop of Jerusalem, presided," If one Synod only is here 
meant, it would appear that the Bishop of Caesarea took precedence of the 
bishop of Jerusalem, which would be the natural order in a Synod held at 
Caesarea. Bishop Hefele, however, takes a different view: "According to 
the Synodicon, two Synod s were held in Palestine on the subject of the 
Easter controversy: the one at Jerusalem presided over by Narcissus, and 
composed of fourteen Bishops; and the other at Caesarea, comprising 
twelve Bishops, and the other at Caesarea, comprising twelve Bishops, 
and presided over by Theophilus." In confirmation of this view we may 
observe that when next Eusebius mentions Narcissus and Theophilus, he 
reverses the previous order, and names the Bishop of Jerusalem first. 

However this may have been, Acacius, who as an Arian was likely to have 
little respect for the Council of Nicaea, seems to have claimed both 
precedence and jurisdiction over Cyril, From Socrates we learn that Cyril 
was frequently summoned to submit to the judgment of Acacius, but for 
two whole years refused to appear. He was therefore deposed by Acacius 



17 

and the other Arian Bishops of Palestine on the charge of having sold the 
property of the Church, as before mentioned. Socrates, who confesses that 
he does not know for what Cyril was accused, yet suggests that he was 
afraid to meet the accusations. But Theodoret, a more impartial witness, 
says that Acacius took advantage of some slight occasion (occpoppdc;) and 
deposed him. Sozomen also describes the accusation as a pretext (kn\ 
rcpocp&aei ToiocSe), and the deposition as hastily decreed, to forestall any 
countercharge f heresy by Cyril (cpGdvei kocGeXcov). The deposition was 
quickly followed by Cyril's expulsion from Jerusalem, and a certain 
Eutychius was appointed to succeed him. Passing by Antioch, which at 
this time, 357-358, was left without a Bishop by the recent decease of the 
aged Arian Leontius Castratus, Cyril took refuge in Tarsus with its Bishop 
the "admirable Silvanus," "one of the Semi — Arians, who, as Athanasius 
testifies, agreed almost entirely with the Nicene doctrine, only taking 
offense at the expression 6|xootjgio<; because in their opinion it contained 
latent Sabellianism." Cyril now sent to the Bishops who had deposed him 
a formal notice that he appealed to a higher Court (jxel^ov kneKaXeaaio 
SiKocoxripiov), and his appeal was approved by the Emperor 
Constantius. Acacius, on learning the place of Cyril's retreat, wrote to 
Silvanus announcing his deposition. But Silvanus out of respect both to 
Cyril, and to the people, who were delighted with his teaching, still 
permitted him to exercise his ministry in the Church. Socrates find fault 
with Cyril fro his appeal: "In this," he says, "he was the first and only 
one who acted contrary to the custom of the Ecclesiastical Canon, by 
having recourse to appeals as in a civil court." The reproach implied in this 
statement is altogether undeserved. The question, as Touttee argues, is not 
implied in this statement is altogether undeserved. The question, as 
Touttee argues, is not whether others had done the like before or after, but 
whether others had done the like before or after, but whether Cyril's 
appeal was in accordance with natural justice, and the custom of the 
Church. On the latter point he refers to the various appeals of the 
Donatists, of Marcellus of Ancyra, and Asclepas of Gaza, and to the case 
of the notorious heretic Phontinus, who after being condemned in many 
Councils appealed to the Emperor, and was allowed to dispute in his 
presence with Basil the Great as his opponent. Athanasius himself, in 
circumstances very similar to Cyril's, declined to appear before Eusebius 
and a Synod of Arian Bishops at Caesarea, by whom he was condemned 



a.d . 334, and appealed in person to Constantine, requesting either that a 
lawful Council of Bishops might be assembled, or that the Emperor would 
himself receive his defense." 

In justification of Cyril's appeal it is enough to say that it was impossible 
for him to submit to the judgment of Acacius and his Arian colleagues. 
They could not be impartial in a matter where the jurisdiction of Acacius 
their president, and his unsoundness in the Faith, were as much in 
question as any of the charges brought against Cyril, he took the only 
course open to him in requesting the Emperor to remit his case to the 
higher jurisdiction of a greater Council, and in giving formal notice of this 
appeal to the Bishops who had expelled him. 

While the appeal was pending, Cyril became acquainted with "the learned 
bishop, Basil of Ancyra" (Hefele), with Eustathius of Sebaste in Armenia, 
and George of Laodicea, the chief leaders of the party "usually (since 
Epiphanius), but with some injustice, designated Semi — Arian." One of 
the charges brought against Cyril in the Council of Constantinople (360, 
a .d .) was, as we shall see, that he held communion with these Bishops. 

Cyril had not long to wait for the hearing of his appeal. In the year 359 the 
Eastern Bishops met at Seleucia in Isauria, and the Western at Ariminum. 
Constantius had at first wished to convene a general Council of all the 
Bishops of the Empire, but his intention he was induced to abandon by 
representations of the long journeys and expense, and he therefore directed 
the two Synods then assembled at Ariminum and at Seleucia "the Rugged" 
to investigate first the disputes concerning the Faith, and then to turn their 
attention to the complaints of Cyril, and other Bishops against unjust 
decrees of deposition and banishment. This order of proceeding was 
discussed, and after much controversy adopted on the first day of meeting, 
the 27 th of September. On the second day Acacius and his friends refused 
to remain unless the Bishops already deposed, or under accusation, were 
excluded. Theodoret relates that "several friends of peace tried to persuade 
Cyril of Jerusalem to withdraw, but that, as he would not comply, 
Acacius left the assembly." Three days afterwards, according to Sozomen, 
a third meeting was held at which the demand of Acacius was complied 
with; "for the Bishops of the opposite party were determined that he 
should have no pretext for dissolving the Council, which was evidently his 



19 

object in order to prevent the impending examination of the heresy of 
Aetius and of the accusations which had been brought against him and his 
partisans." A creed put forward by Acacius having been rejected, he 
refused to attend any further meetings, though repeatedly summoned to be 
present at an investigation of his own charges against Cyril. 

In the end Acacius and many of his friends were deposed or 
excommunicated. Some of these, however, in defiance of the sentence of 
the Council, returned to their dioceses, as did also the majority who had 
deposed them. 

It is not expressly stated whether any formal decision on the case of Cyril 
was adopted by the Council: but as his name does not appear in the lists 
of those who were deposed or excommunicated, it is certain that he was 
not condemned. It is most probable that the charges against him were 
disregarded after his accuser Acacius had refused to appear, and that he 
returned, like the others, to his diocese, but he was not to be left long in 
peace. Acacius and some of his party had hastened to Constantinople, 
where they gained over to their cause the chief men attached to the palace, 
and through their influence secured the favor of Constantius, and roused 
his anger against the majority of the Council. But what especially stirred 
the Emperor' s wrath were the charges which Acacius concocted against 
Cyril: "For," he said that "the holy robe which the Emperor Constantine 
of blessed memory, in his desire to honor the Church of Jerusalem, had 
presented to Macarius, the bishop of that city, to be worn when he 
administered the rite of Holy Baptism, all fashioned as it was with golden 
threads, had been sold by Cyril, and bought by one of the dancers at the 
theater, who had put it on, while dancing had fallen, and injured himself, 
and died. With such an ally as this Cyril," he said, "they undertake to 
judge and pass sentence upon the rest of the world." 

Ten deputies who at the close of the Council of Seleucia had been 
appointed to report its proceedings to the Emperor, "met, on their arrival 
at the Court, the deputies of the Council of Ariminum, and likewise the 
partisans of Acacius. After much controversy and many intrigues, a 
mutilated and ambiguous Creed adopted at Ariminum in which the 
ou-ooijgioc; of Nicaea was replaced by "like to the Father that begat Him 
according to the Scriptures," and the mention of either "essence" (ovoia) 



20 

or "subsistence" (vnoaxaaiq) condemned, was brought forward and 
approved by the Emperor. "After having, on the last day of the year 359, 
discussed the matter with the Bishops till far into the night, he at length 
extorted their signatures .... It is in this connexion that Jerome says: 
Ingemuit totus orbis, et Arianum se esse miratus est." Early in the 
following year, 360 a.d ., through the influence of Acacius a new Synod 
was held at Constantinople, in which, among other Semi — Arian 
Bishops, Cyril also was deposed on the charge of having held communion 
with Eustathius of Sebaste, Basil of Ancyra, and George of Laodicea. 
Cyril, as we have seen, had become acquainted with these Bishops during 
his residence at Tarsus in 358, at which time they were all zealous 
opponents of Acacius and his party, but differed widely in other respects. 

George of Laodicea was a profligate in morals, and an Arian at heart, 
whose opposition to Acacius and Eudoxius was prompted by self — 
interest rather than by sincere conviction. He had been deposed form the 
priesthood by Alexander, bishop of Alexandria, both on the ground of 
false doctrine, and of the open and habitual irregularities of his life. 
Athanasius styles him "the most wicked of all the Arians," reprobated 
even by his own party for his grossly dissolute conduct. 

Basil of Ancyra was a man of his moral character, grant learning, and 
powerful intellect, a consistent opponent both of the Sabellianism of 
Marcellus, and of every form of Arian and Anomoean heresy, chief among 
those of whom Athanasius wrote, "We discuss the matter with them as 
brothers with brothers, who mean what we mean, and dispute only about 
the word (6|xootjgio<^ .... Now such is Basil who wrote from Ancyra 
concerning the Faith" (358 A .D ., the same year in which Cyril met him at 
Tarsus). 

Eustathius is described as a man unstable in doctrine, vacillating from 
party to party, subscribing readily to Creeds of various tendency, yet 
commanding the respect even of his enemies by a life of extraordinary 
holiness, in which active benevolence was combined with extreme 
austerity. "He was a man," says Mr. Gwatkin, "too active to be ignored, 
too unstable to be trusted, too famous for ascetic piety to be lightly made 
an open enemy." 



21 

S. Basil the Great, when traveling from place to place, to observe the 
highest forms of ascetic life, had met with Eustathius at Tarsus, and 
formed a lasting friendship with a man whom he describes as "exhibiting 
something above human excellence," and of whom, after the painful 
dissensions which embittered Basil's later life, that great saint could say, 
that from childhood to extreme old age he (Eustathius) had watched over 
himself with the greatest care, the result of his self — discipline being seen 
in his life and character. 

Of any intimate friendship between Cyril and these Semi — Arian leaders, 
we have no evidence in the vague charges of Acacius: their common fault 
was that they condemned him in the Synod of Seleucia. The true reason 
for Cyril's deposition, barely concealed by the frivolous charges laid 
against him, was the hatred of Acacius, incurred by the refusal to 
acknowledge the Metropolitan jurisdiction of the See of Caesarea. The 
deposition was confirmed by Constantius, and followed by a sentence of 
banishment. The place of Cyril's exile is not mentioned, nor is it know 
whether he joined in the protest of the other deposed Bishops, described 
by S. Basil, Epist. 75. His banishment was not of longer continuance than 
two years. Constantius died on the 3 rd of November, 361, and the 
accession of Julian was soon followed by the recall of all the exiled 
Bishops, orthodox and heretical, and the restoration of their confiscated 
estates. Julian's object, according to Socrates, was "to brand the memory 
of Constantius by making him appear to have been cruel towards his 
subjects." An equally amiable motive imputed to him is mentioned by 
Sozomen: "It is said that he issued this order in their behalf no out of 
mercy, but that through contention among themselves the Church might be 
involved in fraternal strife." Cyril, returning with the other Bishops seems 
to have passed through Antioch on his way home, and to have been well 
received by the excellent Bishop Meletius. 

It happened that the son of a heathen priest attached to the Emperor' s 
Court, having been instructed in his youth by a Deaconess whom he 
visited with his mother, had secretly become a Christian. On discovering 
this, his father had cruelly scourged and burnt him with hot spits on his 
hands, and feet, and back. He contrived to escape, and took refuge with his 
friend the Deaconess. '"She dressed me in women's garments, and took me 
in her covered carriage to the divine Meletius. He handed me over to the 



22 

Bishop of Jerusalem, at that time Cyril, and we started by night for 
Palestine.' After the death of Julian, this young man led his father also into 
the way of truth, this act he told me with the rest." 

The next incident recorded in the life of S. Cyril is his alleged prediction of 
the failure of Julian's attempt to rebuild the Temple of Jerusalem. "The 
vain and ambitious mind of Julian," says Gibbon, "might aspire to restore 
the ancient glory of the Temple of Jerusalem. As the Christians were 
firmly persuaded that a sentence of everlasting destruction had been 
pronounced against the whole fabric of the Mosaic law, the Imperial 
sophist would have converted the success of his undertaking into a 
specious argument against the faith of prophecy and the truth of 
revelation." Again he writes: "The Christians entertained a natural and 
pious expectation, that in this memorable contest, the honor of religion 
would be vindicated by some signal miracle." That such an expectation 
may have been shared by Cyril is not impossible: but there is no 
satisfactory evidence that he ventured to foretell any miraculous 
interposition. According to the account of Rufinus, "lime and cement had 
been brought, and all was ready for destroying the old foundations and 
laying new on the next day. But Cyril remained undismayed, and after 
careful consideration either of what he had read in Daniel' s prophecy 
concerning the 'times,' or of our Lord's predictions in the Gospels, 
persisted that it was impossible that one stone would ever there be laid 
upon another by the Jews." This account of Cyril's expectation, though 
probable enough in itself, seems to be little more than a conjecture founded 
on this statement {Cat. xv. 15), that "Antichrist will come at the time 
when there shall not be left one stone upon another in the Temple shortly 
before the end of the world. It was impossible for Cyril to see in Julian 
such an Antichrist as he has described; and therefore, without any gift or 
pretense of prophecy, he might very well express a firm conviction that 
the attempted restoration at that time must fail. Through gibbon is even 
more cynical and contemptuous than usual in his examination of the 
alleged miracles, he does not attempt to deny the main facts of the story: 
with their miraculous character we are not here concerned, but only with 
Cyril's conduct on so remarkable an occasion. 

In the same year, a.d . 363, Julian was killed in his Persian campaign on the 
26 th of June, and was succeeded by Jovian, whose universal tolerance, and 



23 

personal profession of the Nicene faith, though discredited by the 
looseness of his morals, gave an interval of comparative rest to the Church. 
In his reign Athanasius was recalled, and Acacius and his friends 
subscribed the Nicene Creed, with an explanation of the sense in which 
they accepted the word opoouaiov. As Cyril's name is not mentioned in 
any of the records of Jovian' s short reign of seven months, we may infer 
that he dwelt in peace at Jerusalem. 

Jovian died on the 17 th of February, 364, and was succeeded by 
Valentinian, who in the following March gave over the Eastern provinces 
of the Empire to his brother Valens. During the first two years of the new 
reign we hear nothing of Cyril: but at the beginning of the year 366, on the 
death of his old enemy Acacius, Cyril assumed the right to nominate his 
successor in the See of Caesarea, and appointed a certain Philumenus. 
Whether this assumption of authority was in accordance with the 7 th 
Canon of Nicaea may be doubted: Cyril's choice of his nephew was, 
however, in after times abundantly justified by the conduct and character 
of Gelasius, who is described by Theodoret as a man "distinguished by the 
purity of his doctrine, and the sanctity of his life," and is quoted by the 
same historian as "the admirable," and "the blessed Gelasius." 

Epiphanius relates that "after these three had been set up, and could do 
nothing on account of mutual contentions," Euzoius was appointed by the 
Arians, and held the See until the accession of Theodosius in a.d . 379, 
when he was deposed, and Gelasius restored. In the meantime Cyril had 
been a third time deposed and driven from Jerusalem, probably in the year 
367. For at that time Valens, who had fallen under the influence of 
Eudoxius, the Arian Bishop of Constantinople, by whom he was baptized, 
"wrote to the Governors of the provinces, commanding that all Bishops 
who had been banished by Constantius, and had again assumed their 
sacerdotal offices under the Emperor Julian, should be ejected from their 
Churches." Of this third and longest banishment we have no particulars, 
but we may safely apply to it the words of the Synod at Constantinople, 
382, that Cyril "had passed through very many contests with the Arians 
in various places." 

The terrible defeat and miserable death of Valens in the great battle against 
the Goths at Adrianople (a .d . 378) brought a respite to the defenders of 



24 

the Nicene doctrine. For Gratian "disapproved of the late persecution that 
had been carried on for the purpose of checking the diversities in religious 
creeds, and recalled all those who had been banished on account of their 
religion. Gratian associated Theodosius with himself in the Empire on the 
19 th of January, 379; and "at this period," says Sozomen, "all the 
Churches of the East, with the exception of that of Jerusalem, were in the 
hands of the Arians." Cyril, therefore, had been one of the first to return to 
his own See. During his long absence the Church of Jerusalem had been the 
prey both of Arianism and of the new heresy of Apollinarius, which had 
spread among the monks who were settled on Mount Olivet. Egyptian 
Bishops, banished communion. Jerusalem was given over to heresy and 
schism, to the violent strife of rival factions, and to extreme licentiousness 
of morals. 

Gregory of Nyssa, who had been commissioned by a Council held at 
Antioch in 378 to visit the Churches in Arabia and Palestine, "because 
matters with them were in confusion, and needed an arbiter," gives a 
mournful account both of the distracted state of the Church, and of the 
prevailing corruption. "If the Divine grace were more abundant about 
Jerusalem than elsewhere, sin would not be so much the fashion among 
those who live there; but as it is, there is no form o uncleanness that is not 
perpetrated among them; rascality, adultery, theft, idolatry, poisoning, 
quarrelling, murder, are rife." In a letter written after his return to Caesarea 
in Cappadocia he asks, "What means this opposing array of new Alters? 
Do we announce another Jesus? Do we produce other Scriptures? Have 
any of ourselves dared to say "Mother of Man" of the Holy virgin, the 
Mother of God.? 

In the year a.d . 381 Theodosius summoned the Bishops of his division of 
the Empire to meet in Council at Constantinople, in order to settle the 
disputes by which the Eastern Church had been so long distracted, and to 
secure the triumph of the Nicene Faith over the various forms of heresy 
which had arisen in the half — century which had elapsed since the first 
General Council. Among the Bishops present were Cyril of Jerusalem, and 
his nephew Gelasius, who on the death of Valens had regained possession 
of the See of Caesarea from the Arian intruder Euzoius. Cyril is described 
by Sozomen as one of three recognized leaders of the orthodox party, and, 
according to Bishop Hefele, as sharing the presidency with the Bishops of 



25 

Alexandria and Antioch. This latter point, however, is not clearly 
expressed in the statement of Sozomen. Socrates writes that Cyril at this 
time recognized the doctrine of 6u.ooijgiov, having retracted his former 
opinion: and Sozomen says that he had at this period renounced the tenets 
of the Macedonians which he previously held. Touttee rightly rejects 
these reproaches as unfounded: they are certainly opposed to all his 
teaching in the Catechetical Lectures, where the doctrine of Christ's unity 
of essence with the Father is fully and frequently asserted, through the 
term 6poo\>aio<; is not used, and the co — equal Deity of the Holy Ghost 
is everywhere maintained. 

We find no mention of Cyril in the proceedings of the Council itself. As 
consisting of Eastern bishops only, its authority was not at first 
acknowledged, nor its acts approved in the Western Church. The two 
Synods held later in the same year at Aquileia and at Milan, sent formal 
protests to Theodosius, and urged him to summon a General Council at 
Alexandria or at Rome. But instead of complying with this request, the 
Emperor summoned the Bishops of his Empire to a fresh Synod at 
Constantinople; and there in the summer of 382 very nearly the same 
Bishops were assembled who had been present at the Council of the 
preceding year. Their Synodical letter addressed to the Bishops assembled 
at Rome is preserved by Theodoret, and in it we read as follows: "Of the 
Church in Jerusalem, the Mother of all the Churches, we make known that 
Cyril the most reverend and most beloved of God is Bishop; and that he 
was canonical ordained long ago by the Bishops of the providence, and 
that he has very often fought a good fight in various places against the 
Arians." Thus was done at last to one whose prudence, moderation, and 
love of peace, had exposed him in those days of bitter controversy to 
undeserved suspicion and relentless persecution. His justification by the 
Council is the last recorded incident in Cyril's life. We are told by Jerome 
that he held undisturbed possession of his See for eight years under 
Theodosius. The eighth year of Theodosius was a.d . 386, and in the 
Martyrology, the 18th of March in that year is marked as "Thee birthday 
('Natalis," i.e. of his heavenly life) of Cyril, Bishop of Jerusalem, who 
after suffering many wrongs from the Arians for the sake of the Faith, and 
having been several times driven from his see, became at length renowned 



26 



for the glory of sanctity, and rested in peace: an Ecumenical council in a 
letter to Damasus gave a noble testimony to his untarnished faith." 



27 

CHAPTER 2 

CatecheticalInstruction. 

1. Catechesis. The term "Catechesis" in its widest sense includes 
instruction by word of mouth on any subject sacred or profane, but is 
especially applied to Christian teaching, whether of an elementary kind 
appropriate to new converts, or, as in the famous Catechetical School of 
Alexandria, extending to the higher interpretation of Holy Scripture, and 
the exposition of Christian philosophy. 

The earliest known example of a Catechetical work is the "Teaching of the 
Twelve Apostles," which Athanasius names among the "books not included 
in the Canon, but appointed by the Fathers to be read by those who are 
just recently coming to us, and wish to be instructed in the word of 
godliness (KociT|%£ia9oci xbv xf|<; euaepeiocc; Xoyov)." This use of the 
Didache for the instruction of recent converts from paganism agrees with 
its original purpose as stated in the longer title, "Teaching of the Lord 
through the twelve Apostles for the Gentiles." The first six chapters are 
evidently adapted for those who need elementary instruction, more 
particularly for Catechumens of Gentile descent, as a distinct from Jewish 
candidates for Baptism. The remaining chapters of the Didache relate 
chiefly to the administration of Baptism, to Prayer, Fasting, and the 
services of the Lord's Day, and to the celebration of the Agape and 
Eucharist. This same division of subjects is observed in the two classes of 
S. Cyril's Catechetical Lectures: the first class, including the Procatechesis, 
consists of XIX Lectures addressed to candidates for Baptism, and these 
are followed by five "Mystagogic" Lectures, so called as being 
explanations of the Sacramental Mysteries to the newly — baptized. 

The Didache was taken as the basis of other manuals of instruction, as is 
evident from Church Order," supposed to date from Egypt in the third 
century. The Greek text, with an English translation, of the part 
corresponding with the Didache, is given in "The oldest Church Manual" 
as document V. 



28 

A further development of the Didache, "adapted to the state of the 
Eastern Church in the first half of the fourth century," is contained in the 
Seventh Book of the Apostolical Constitutions of Pseudo — Clement of 
Rome, chs. 1-22. "Here the Didache is embodied almost word for word, 
but the significant omissions, alterations, and additions, which betray a 
later age. . . . The Didache was thus superseded by a more complete and 
timely Church manual, and disappeared." Dr. Schaff has appended this 
document also to his edition of the Didache, noting the borrowed passages 
on the margin, and distinguishing them by spaced type in the Greek text, 
and by italics in the English translation. 

In this work the directions concerning the instruction of Catechumens and 
their baptism are addressed to the Catechist and the Minister of baptism. 
They contain only a short outline (c. xxxix.) of the subjects in which the 
Catechumens are to be instructed, most if not all of which are explained at 
large in Cyril's Lectures: and in the directions concerning Baptism, 
Chrism, and the Eucharist, the similarity is so close, that in many passages 
of the Constitutions the author seems to be referring especially to the use 
of the Church of Jerusalem. 

From this close affinity with earlier works we may be assured that in the 
Catecheses of Cyril we have trustworthy evidence of the great care which 
the Church had from the beginning bestowed on the instruction and 
training of converts, before admitting them to the privilege of Baptism; but 
beyond this, Cyril's won work has a peculiar value as the earliest extant 
example of a full, systematic, a d continuous course of such instruction. 

2. Catechist. The duty of catechizing was not limited to a class of persons 
permanently set apart for that purpose, but all orders of the Clergy were 
accustomed to take part in the work. Even laymen were encouraged to 
teach children or new converts the first elements of religion, as we learn 
from Cyril's exhortation: "If thou hast a child according the flesh 
admonish him of this now; and if thou hast begotten one through 
catechizing, put him also on his guard." That this remark was addressed 
not to the Catechumens, but to such of the Faithful as happened to be 
present among his audience, appears form what he says elsewhere, "So 
thou likewise, though not daring before thy Baptism to wrestle with the 
adversaries, yet after thou hast received the grace, and art henceforth 



29 

confident in the the armor of righteousness must then do battle, and 
preach the Gospel, if thou wilt." 

The more systematic instruction of those who had been already admitted 
to the order of Catechumens was entrusted to persons appointed to this 
special duty. Thus Origen "was in this eighteenth year when he took 
charge of the Catechetical school at Alexandria," which "was entrusted to 
him alone by Demetrius, who presided over the Church:" and S. 
Augustine's Treatise, De Catechizandis Rudibus, was addressed to 
Deogratias, who being a Deacon at Carthage, and highly esteemed for his 
skill and success as a Catechist, felt so strongly the importance of the 
work and his own insufficiency, that he wrote to Augustine for advice as 
to the best method of instructing those who were brought to him to be 
taught the first elements of the Christian Faith. 

The final training of the (pom^opevoi, or candidates for Baptism, was 
undertaken in part by the Bishop himself, but chiefly by a Priest specially 
appointed by him. Of the part taken by the Bishop mention is made by S. 
Ambrose in a letter to his sister Marcellina (Ep. xx.): "on the following 
day, which was the Lord's day, after the Lessons and Sermon, the 
Catechumens had been dismissed, and I was delivering the Creed to some 
candidates (Competentes) in the Baptistery of the Basilica." 

Of this "delivery of the Creed," which was usually done by a Presbyter, 
we have examples in S. Augustine's Sermons In traditione Symboli, cxxii. 
— ccxiv., each of which contains a brief recapitulation and explanation of 
the several articles of belief. In Serm. ccxiv., after a short introduction, we 
find the following note inserted by the preacher himself. ["After this 
preface the whole Creed is to be recited, without interposing any 
discussion. I believe in God the Father Almighty.' and the rest that 
follows. Which Creed, thou knowest, is not wont to be written: after it has 
been said, the following discussion (disputatio) is to be added."] 

From the opening words of Sermon ccxiv., and of ccxvi., "ad 
Competentes,: it is evident that these were delivered by S. Augustine as the 
first — fruits of his ministry very soon after he had been reluctantly 
ordained Priest (a .d . 391). Two other examples of addresses to Candidates 
for Baptism are the Catechesesl., II., 7tpo<; tovc, peMovToct; 
(pcoTi^eaGoci, delivered at Antioch by S. Chrysostom while a Presbyter. 



30 

Another duty often undertaken by the Bishop was to hear each Candidate 
separately recite the Creed, and then to expound to them all the Lord's 
Prayer. 

3. Catechumens. The term Catechumen denoted a person who was 
receiving instruction in the Christian religion with a view to being in due 
time baptized. Such persons were either coverts from Paganism and 
Judaism, or children of Christian parents whose Baptism had been 
deferred. For though the practice of Infant — Baptism was certainly 
common in the Early Church, it was not compulsory nor invariable. "In 
many cases Christian parents may have shared and acted on the opinion 
expressed by Tertullian in the second century, and by Gregory Nazianzen 
in the fourth, and thought it well do defer the Baptism of children, cases of 
grave sickness excepted, till they were able to make answer in their own 
name to the interrogations of the baptismal rite." 

It is stated by Bingham, but without any reference to ancient authors, that 
"the children of believing parents, as they were baptized in infancy, were 
admitted Catechumens as soon as they were capable of learning." Though 
the title "Catechumen" was not usually applied to those who had been 
already baptized, it is probable that such children were admitted to the 
Lectures addressed to Catechumens both in the earlier and later stage of 
their preparation: for it seems to be implied in the passage quoted above 
from cat. xv. 18, that admission was not limited to the candidates for 
Baptism. 

To believe and to be baptized are the two essential conditions of 
membership in Christ's Church;: but for the admission of new converts to 
the class of Catechumens nothing more could be required than evidence of 
a sincere desire to understand, to believe, and ultimately to be baptized. 

We know that unbelievers, Jews, and heathens were allowed in the 
Apostolic age to be present at times in the Christian assemblies; and in 
Cyril's days the stood in the lower part of the Church (vdp9r|^) to hear 
the Psalms, Lessons, and Sermon. 

Any persons who by thus hearing the word, or by other means, were 
brought to believe in the truth of Christianity, and to wish for further 
instruction, were strictly examined as to their, character, belief, and 



31 

sincerity of purpose. The care with which such examinations were 
conducted is thus described by Origen: "The Christians, however having 
previously, so far as possible, tested the souls of those who wish to 
become their hearers, and having previously admonished them in private, 
when they seem, before entering the community, to have made sufficient 
progress in the desire to lead a virtuous life, they then introduce them, 
having privately formed one class of those who are just beginners, and are 
being introduced, and have not yet received the mark of complete 
purification; and another of those who have manifested to the best of their 
ability the purpose of desiring not other things than are approved by 
Christians." Such as were thus found worthy of admission were brought to 
the Bishop on Presbyter, and received by the sign of the Cross, with 
prayer and imposition of hands, to the status of Chatechumens. 

We have a description by Eusebius of some of these ceremonies in the case 
of Constantine: When the Emperor felt his life to be drawing to a close, 
"he poured forth his supplications and confessions to God, kneeling on 
the pavement in the Church itself, in which he also now for the first time 
received the imposition of hands with prayer." Soon the sacred ceremonies 
in the usual manner, and having given him the necessary instructions made 
him a partaker of the mystic ordinances." 

Another ceremony used in the admission of Catechumens, at least in some 
Churches, is mentioned by S. Augustine: "sanctification is not of one kind 
only: for I suppose that Catechumens also are sanctified in a certain way 
of their own by the sign of Christ's Cross, and the Prayer of the 
Imposition of Hands; and that which they receive, though it be not the 
Body of Christ, is yet an holy thing, and more holy than the common food 
which sustains us, because it is a sacrament." From this passage it has 
been inferred that consecrated bread (euXoyioci panis benedictus), taken 
out of the oblations provided for the Eucharist, was given to the 
Catechumens, — an opinion which seemed to have some support in the 
comparison between "that which the Catechumens receive," and "the food 
which sustains us." But the Bingham maintains" that S. Augustine here 
refers only to the symbolical use of salt, of which he says in his 
Confessions, I. xi., that while yet a boy he "used to be marked with the 
sign of His Cross, and seasoned with His salt." The meaning of this so — 



32 

called "Sacrament of the Catechumens" was that by the symbol of salt 
"they might learn to purge and cleanse their souls from sin." 

In the African Church in the time of S. Augustine it was customary to 
anoint the new convert with exorcised oil at the time of his admission, but 
in the Eastern Church there seems to have been no such anointing until 
immediately before Baptism. 

Persons who had been thus admitted to the class of Catechumens were 
usually regarded as Christians, but only in a lower degree, being still 
clearly distinguished from the Faithful. "Ask a man, Art thou a Christian? 
If he is a Pagan or a Jew, he answers, I am not. Bit if he say, I am, you ask 
him further, Catechumen or Faithful? If he answer, Catechumen, he has 
been anointed, but not yet baptized." Augustine, like Tertullian, complains 
that among heretics there was no sure distinction between the Catechumen 
and the Faithful: and according to the second General Council, Canon, 7, 
converts from certain heresies to the orthodox Faith were to be received 
only as heathen: "On the first day we make them Christians, on the 
second Catechumens, on the third we exorcise them by three times 
breathing on them on the face and on the ears; and so we instruct them 
(KOCTr|%o'ujxei), and make them frequent the Church for a long time, and 
listen to the Holy Scriptures, and then we baptize them." 

Whether Cyril calls his hearers Christians before they had been baptized is 
not very clear: in Cat. z. 16, he seems to include them among those who 
are called by the "new name;" but in 20 of the same Lecture he assumes 
that there may be present some one who "was before a believer (7tiax6<;)," 
and to him he says "Thou wert called a Christian; be tender of the name;: 
and in Lect. xxi. 1, speaking to those who had now been baptized, he says, 
" Having therefore become partakers of Christ, ye are properly called 
Christs. Now ye have been made Christs by receiving the antitype of the 
Holy Ghost," that is, Chrism. 

4. Candidates of Baptism. Bingham, who himself makes four classes or 
degrees of Catechumens, acknowledges that "the Greek expositors of the 
ancient Canons, " and other writers, "usually make but two sorts." These 
were 
(1.) the imperfect (orceXecycepoi), called also hearers (6cKpocojj,evoi), 
because in Church they were only allowed to remain till the Holy 



33 

Scriptures had been read, the Sermon preached, the special prayers of 
the Catechumens said, and the blessings given to each by the Bishop in 
the words of the "prayer of the imposition of hands." After this the 
Deacon says, "Go out, ye Catechumens, in peace." 
(2.) After the Energumens also have been dismissed, the more perfect 
(xeXeioTepoi, (pcoTi^6(j,evoi) remain on their knees in prayer 
(YovukXivovt£<; ei)%6jx£voi). Then the Deacon is to cry aloud, "Ye 
that are to be illuminated, pray. Let us the faithful all pray for them. 
And being sealed to God through His Christ, let them bow down their 
heads, and receive the blessing from the Bishop." The "Prayer of the 
Imposition of hands" is then pronounced over them by the Bishop. 

The period of probation and instruction varied at different times and 
places: according to canon 42 of the Synod of Elvira, 305, it was to be two 
years: "He who has a good name and wishes to become a Christian, must 
be a Catechumen two years: then he may be baptized." After this 
probation had been satisfactorily passed, the Catechumens were invited to 
give in their name as Candidates for Baptism. This invitation, described by 
Cyril as a call to military service (kXt|gic; GTpocTeioct;), appears to have 
been often repeated on the approach of Lent. Thus S. Ambrose, in his 
Commentary on S. Luke, v. 5; We have toiled all night and have taken 
nothing, complains, "I to, Lord, know that for me it is night, when I have 
not Thy command. No one yet has given his name: with my voice I have 
cast the net throughout Epiphany, and as yet I have taken nothing." 

This preliminary "call to service" must be distinguished from the actual 
enlistment in the Christian army at Baptism, in anticipation of which Cyril 
prays for his hearers that God "may enlist them in His service, and put on 
them the armor of righteousness." The same metaphorical language in 
reference to the Christian warfare recurs in many passages. 

The next step for those who responded to the call was the registration of 
names (ovopaToypacpia). It appears form passages of Dionysius Pseudo 
— Areopagites, quoted by his Presbyters and Deacons to register his 
name, together with that of his sponsor (dvd8o%o<^) in the Diptychs of 
the living. This ceremony took place at Jerusalem at the beginning of Lent, 
as we learn from Procat. 1: "Thou has entered, been approved; thy name 
inscribed. ... A long notice is allowed thee: thou hast forty days for 



34 

repentance." Those who had been admitted as candidates for Baptism 
were in most Churches still reckoned among the Catechumens, being 
distinguished asativaiTO-uvxeg, "competentes." But from Cyril's language 
in several passages it appears that in the Church of Jerusalem they ceased 
to be regarded as Catechumens, and were reckoned among the Faithful. 
"Thou wert called a Catechumen, while the word echoed round thee from 
without. Think not that thou recivest a small thing: though a miserable 
man, thou recivest one of God's titles. Hear S. Paul saying, God is faithful. 
But beware, lest thou have the title of 'faithful;'' but the will of the 
faithless." "Thou receivest a new name which thou hadst not before. 
Heretofore thou wast a Catechumen, but now thou wilt be called a 
Believer (TIiot6<;)." 

Again, "How great a dignity the Lord bestows on you in transferring you 
from the order of Catechumens to that of the Faithful, the Apostle Paul 
shews, when he affirms, God is faithful" 

Two passages in S. Cyril have been thought to imply that the newly — 
admitted Candidates for Baptism carried lighted torches in procession, 
perhaps on the first Sunday after the registration. He speaks of their 
having received "torches of the bridal procession;" and on this expression 
the Benedictine Editor observes that "Wax tapers" were perhaps given to 
the Illuminandi to carry, a custom which may also be indicated in the 
words, "Ye who have lately lighted the torches of faith, guard them 
carefully in your hands unquenched." 

Others are of opinion that the custom of carrying torches or tapers was 
observed only in the procession of the newly — baptized from the 
Baptistery to the Church, and that here Cyril means by the "bridal 
lamps," those motions of the Holy Ghost, and spiritual instructions, 
which had lighted their way to Christ ,and to the entrance to His Kingdom. 
This latter interpretation is rather vague and far — fetched, and it is 
evident that the words, "Ye who have lately lighted the torches of faith," 
gain much in clearness and force, if suggested by the visible symbolism of 
a ceremony in which the Illuminandi had just borne their part. The lighted 
torches would be a significant symbol both of the marriage of the soul with 
Christ, and of its enlightenment of faith. 



35 

5. Ooyci^opevoi. In the first words of his Introductory Lecture Cyril 
addresses his hearers as of 01 (pcoxi^ojxevoi, "Ye who are being 
enlightened," and from the Titles of the Catechetical Lectures I. — xviii., 
we see that this name was constantly used to distinguish the candidates 
preparing for immediate Baptism. 

The Verb cpcoxi^co is frequently used by the LXX., both in a physical and 
in a spiritual sense. In the New Testament it is found but rarely in the 
physical sense, being generally applied to the light of spiritual truth, and 
to Christ as its source. 

In two passages of the Epistle to the Hebrews, the Aorist ((pcoxiaGevToc^ 
marks "the decisive moment when the light was apprehended in its glory, 
"from which the thought easily passes on to the public profession of the 
truth thus received, that is, to Baptism. 

That the word began very early to be used in this new sense, is evident 
from just in Martyr's explanation of it in his First Apology, c. 61; where, 
after speaking of instruction in Christian doctrine, of the profession of 
faith, and the promise of repentance and holy living, as the necessary 
preparations for Baptism, he thus proceeds: "And this washing is called 
Illumination ((pcoTiouxx;), because they who learn these things are 
illuminated in their understanding The same transition of the meaning from 
instruction to Baptism is clearly implied by Clement of Alexandria: 
"Among the barbarian philosophers also to instruct and to enlighten is 
called to regenerate;" and again: "For this reason the teaching, which made 
manifest the hidden things, has been called illumination (cpcoTiapoc,)." 

That this is the sense in which Cyril uses the word is placed beyond doubt 
by a passage of the Lecture delivered immediately before the 
administration of Baptism: "that your soul being previously illuminated 
(7tpo(pcoTi^o(xevr|<;) by the Lord of doctrine, ye may in each particular 
discover the greatness of the gifts bestowed on you by God." 

We thus see that the Present Participle ((pcmi^opevoi) describes a process 
of gradual illumination during the course of instruction, to be completed in 
Baptism, a sense which is well expressed in the Latin Gerundive 
"Illuminandi." And as we have seen that the candidates are expressed as 



36 

(oi (pcoxi^6(j,evoi) even before the course of instruction has commenced, 
the quasi — Future sense "follows necessarily from the context." 

The spiritual "Illumination,: of which Baptism was to be the completion 
and the seal thus became by a natural development one of the recognized 
names of Baptism itself. On the contrary, the inverse process assumed by 
the Benediction Editor is entirely unnatural. Starting from the later 
ecclesiastical use of cpcoTi^co and (pcoxiauxx; as connoting Baptism, he 
supposes that this was the first application of those terms, and that they 
were transferred to the previous illumination acquired by instruction in 
Christian truth, only because this was a necessary preparation for 
Baptism. He therefore maintains that (pcoxi^6(xevoi throughout the 
Catechetical Lectures is another term for (3a7ii^6(j,evoi: and as a decisive 
proof of this he refers to Cat. xvi. 26: \xeXXi 8e koci kn\ oe xov 
poc7tTi^6jj,evov cpG&veiv f| %ocpi<;, not observing that the grace is come 
upon "the person being baptized" at a time still future. This meaning of 
the passage is made absolutely certain by the words which immediately 
follow, — "But in what manner I say not, for I will not anticipate the 
proper season." We may conclude, therefore, that in Cyril's Lectures the 
term oi (pcoxi^6u.evoi refers to the preparatory course of enlightenment 
rather than to baptism. At the same time we must remember that in 
Cyril's day, and long before, cpcoxi^co (pcoxiopoc,, and cpcbxiapa were 
constantly used to denote Baptism itself, as being the time of special 
illumination by the grace of the Holy Spirit then given. Thus Clement of 
Alexandria writes: "In Baptism we are illuminated. . . . Thus work is 
variously called grace, and illumination ((pcoxiajioc), and perfection, and 
washing: . . . illumination, by which that holy light of salvation is beheld, 
that is, by which we see God clearly." Gregory Nazianzen speaks in the 
same way: "We call it gift, grace, baptism, chrism, illumination, garment of 
incorruption, washing of regeneration, seal, all that is precious." 



37 



CHAPTER 3 



SpecialPreparation for Baptism. 



1. Penitence. The candidate for Baptism, having been duly admitted and 
registered, was required not only to be diligent in attending the course of 
Catechetical instruction, but also to enter at once upon a course of strict 
devotion and penitential discipline. "Those who are coming to Baptism," 
says Tertullian, "must be constantly engaged in prayers, fastings, 
kneelings and watchings, together with confession of all past faults." 

On these subjects Cyril's teaching is earnest, wise, and sympathetic: he 
seeks to lead to repentance by gentile persuasion, and pleads for self — 
discipline as needful for the good of the soul. One whole Lecture is 
devoted to the necessity of thorough repentance for all past sins, and 
forgiveness of all offenses: another to the sure efficacy of repentance for 
the remission of sins. 

2. Confession. E^ojxoXoyr|cn<;. Great stress is laid by Cyril on the 
necessity not only of sincere inward repentance, but also of open 
confession. The words e^opo^oyelaGou, e^opoXoynaic, have a twofold 
meaning and a wide application. 

(l.)In the Septuagint they occur very frequently, especially in the 
Psalms, in the sense of "giving thanks or praise" (Heb. HEB), a 
meaning which is also found in the New Testament. Perhaps the 
earliest instance in an Ecclesiastical writer is in Hermas, Mandat. 
X. hi. 2: e^opoXoyoijpevo<; %& Qe&. I have not found nay 
instance of this meaning in Cyril. 

S. Chrysostom, commenting on the words, "/ will give thanks unto 
Thee, O Lord," says, "There are two kinds of exomologesis; for it 
is either a condemnation of our own sins, or to Achan, My son, 
give, I pray thee, glory to the Lord, the God of Israel, and make 
confession unto Him. R. V. Margin. Or, give praise. 



38 

(2.)In the sense of "confessing" sins, the Verb is not uncommon in the 
N. T., and in the early Fathers. Tertullian adopts the Greek word, 
and calls Exomologesis "The handmaid of repentance," adding that 
it will extinguish the fire of Gehenna in the heart, being a second 
remedy for sin, after Baptism. 

Again, speaking of the outward act of repentance, he says: "This act, 
which is more usually expressed and commonly spoken o under a Greek 
name, is e^ou-oXoynoK;, whereby we confess our sins to the Lord, not 
indeed as if He were ignorant of them, but inasmuch as by confession 
satisfaction is appointed, and of confession repentance is born, and God 
appeared by repentance. Accordingly exomologesis is a discipline of 
man's prostration and humiliation, enjoining a demeanor calculated to 
move mercy. With regard also to the very dress and food, it commands 
(the penitent) to lie in sackcloth and ashes ... to know no food and drink 
but such as is plain, — to feed prayers on fastings, to groan, to weep and 
roar (mugire) unto the Lord God; to roll before the feet of the presbyters, 
and kneel to God's dear ones, to enjoin on all the brethren embassies of 
intercession on his behalf. All this exomologesis does, that it may enhance 
repentance, etc." 

In this highly rhetorical description of the ecclesiastical discipline so dear 
to Tertullian there are many features of extreme severity to which Cyril 
makes no allusion; yet he frequently and very earnestly insists on the 
necessity and the efficacy of confession. "The present is the season of 
confession: confess what thou hast done in word or in deed, by night or by 
day; confess in an acceptable time, and in the day of salvation receive the 
heavenly treasure." "Tell the Physician thine ailment: say thou also, like 
David / said, I will confess me my sin unto the Lord; and the same shall be 
done in thy case, which he says forthwith, and Thou forgavest the 
wickedness of my heart." "Seest thou the humility of the king? Seest thou 
his confession? .... The deed was quickly done, and straightway the 
Prophet appeared as accuser, and the offender confessed his fault; and 
because he candidly confessed, he received a most speedy cure." 

"Ezekias prevailed to the canceling of god's decree, and cannot Jesus grant 
remission of sins? Turn and bewail thyself, shut thy door, and pray to be 



39 

forgiven, pray that He may remove from thee the burning flames, for 
confession has power to quench even fire, power to tame even lions." 

The confession to which Cyril attaches so high a value, whether made in 
the privacy of solitude, or openly before the Ministers of the Church and 
the congregation, is a confession to god, and not to man. "Having 
therefore, brethren, many examples of those who have sinned and repented 
and been saved, do ye also heartily make confession unto the Lord." 
Elsewhere he expressly disclaims the necessity of private confession to 
man: "Not that thou shouldest shew thy conscience to me, for thou art not 
to be judged of man' s judgment; but that thou shew the sincerity of thy 
faith to God, who trieth the reins and hearts, and knoweth the thoughts of 
men." He also limits the season of confession and repentance to this 
present life: "Therefore the just shall then offer praise; but they who have 
died in sins have no further season for confession." 

3. Exorcism. One of the earliest ceremonies, after the registration of names, 
was Exorcism, which seems to have been often repeated during the 
Candidate's course of preparation. "Receive with earnestness the 
exorcisms: whether thou be breathed upon or exorcised, the act is to thee 
salvation." 

The power of casting out devils, promised by our Lord, and exercised by 
Apostles, and by Philip the Deacon and Evangelist, was long regarded in 
the early Church as a direct gift still bestowed by the Holy Ghost, apart 
from any human ordinance. Justin Martyr, Tertullian, Origen, all speak of 
exorcism as being practiced by laymen, even by soldiers, and women, by 
means of prayer and invocation of the name of Jesus. Accordingly "an 
Exorcist is not ordained, for it is a gift of the spontaneous benevolence and 
grace of God through Christ by visitation of the Holy ghost. For he who 
has received the gift of healing is declared by revelation from God, the 
grace which is in him being manifest to all." When declared by revelation 
from God, the grace which is in him being manifest to all." When the 
extraordinary gift was found to have been withdrawn, exorcists are 
mentioned among the inferior officers f the Church, after readers and 
subdeacons. From an early period certain set formulae, such as the Divine 
names, "The God of Abraham, and God o Isaac, and God of Jacob," "The 
God of Israel," :"The God who drowned the king of Egypt and the 



40 

Egyptians in the Red Sea," were frequently invoked against demons and 
certain wicked person. 

Accordingly, when an exorcist was ordained the bishop was directed to 
give him the book in which the exorcisms were written, with the words, 
"Receive thou these, and commit them to memory, and have thou power 
to lay hands upon Energumens, whether they be baptized or only 
Catechumens." Though this Canon speaks only of exorcising Energumens, 
or such persons as were supposed to be possessed by evil spirits, we 
must remember that the power of such spirits was believed to extend to 
the whole world outside the Christian Church. Thus all converts from 
paganism and Judaism, and even the children of Christian parents were 
exorcised before being baptized. The practice was closely connected with 
the doctrine of original sin, as we see in many passages of S. Augustine, 
and is declared by him to be very ancient and universal. In expounding the 
Creed to candidates for Baptism, he says: "Therefore, as you have seen 
this day, and as you know, even little children are breathed on and 
exorcised, that the hostile power of the devil may be driven out of them, 
which deceived one man in order that he might get possession of all men." 

We fine accordingly that Cyril enforces the duty of attending the 
Exorcisms on all the cndidates alike,and form his use of the Plural 
(Exorcisms) we see that the ceremony was often repeated for each person, 
thus in the Clementine Homilies Peter is represented as saying, "Whoever 
of you wish to be baptized, begin from to — morrow to fast, and each day 
have hands laid upon you," The imposition of hands being one of the 
ceremonies used in exorcism. From expressions in the Introductory 
Lecture, "When ye have come in before the hour of the exorcisms." and 
again, "when your exorcism has been done, until the others who are to be 
exorcised have come," it seems that before each Catechizing the candidates 
were all exorcised, one by one, and that the earlier, after returning from 
their own exorcism, had to wait for those who came later. The catechizing 
was thus frequently delayed till late in the day, and Cyril often complains 
of the shortness of the time left at his disposal. 

At Antioch, the Catechizing preceded the Exorcism, as we learn from S. 
Chrysostom: "After you have heard our instruction, they take off your 
sandals, and unclothe you, and send you on naked and barefoot, with your 



41 

tunic only, to the utterances of the Exorcists." Cyril says nothing of this 
unclothing, but mentions another ceremony as practiced at Jerusalem: 
"Thy face has been veiled, that thy mind may henceforward be free, lest 
the eye by roving make the heart rove also. But when thine eyes are veiled, 
thine ears are not hindered from receiving the means of salvation." The veil 
may also have been a symbol of the slavery and darkness of sin, as S. 
Augustine regards the removal of the veil on the octave of Easter as 
symbolizing the spiritual liberty of the baptized. Of this meaning Cyril 
makes no express mention. 

In the Greek Euchologion, as quoted by Kleopas, the act of the Exorcist is 
thus described: "And the Priest breaths upon his mouth, his forehead, and 
his breast, saying, Drive forth from him every evil and unclean spirit, 
hidden and lurking in his heart, the spirit of error, the spirit of wickedness, 
etc." 

Besides such invocations of the names of God, as we have mentioned 
above, the Exorcist used set forms of prayer "collected out of the Holy 
Scriptures." Their effect, as described by Cyril, is to "set the soul, as it 
were, on fire," and scare the evil spirit away; and his power we have over 
them is from naming the name of Christ, and recalling to their memory the 
woes with which God threatens them at the hands of Christ as Judge. . . . 
So at our touch and breathing, overwhelmed by the thought of those 
judgment — fires, they leave the bodies they have entered, at our 
command, unwilling and distressed, and before your very eyes put to an 
open shame." 

The Exorcisms were performed in the Church; where also the Lectures 
were delivered Catechumens of the lower order being excluded, "and the 
doors looking towards the city closed, while those which looked towards 
the Holy Sepulcher, from which the ruins of the ruins of the ancient 
Temple, Golgotha, and the old city could be seen were left open." 



42 



CHAPTER 4 



Ceremonies of Baptism and Chrism. 



1. Renunciation. We have seen the Cyril's last Catechetical Lecture was 
delivered in the early dawn of the great Sabbath, Easter Eve. The additional 
instructions then promised concerning the behavior of the Candidates were 
given on the same day, probably in the evening, when hey were all 
assembled immediately before the administration of Baptism, The most 
important parts of the Baptismal ceremony are described by Cyril in the 
first Mystagogic Lecture, delivered on the Monday of Easter week. Thus 
in 1 he says, "Let us now teach you these things exactly, that ye may 
know the significance of the things done to you on that evening of your 
Baptism." 

The first act was the renunciation of the Devil and all his works. This, as 
described by Tertullian, was done first in the Church "under the hand of 
the Bishop," and again immediately before entering the water. Cyril speaks 
of the latter occasion only. "First ye entered into the outer chamber of the 
Baptistery, and there facing towards the West (as the region of darkness) 
ye heard the command to stretch forth your hand, and as in the presence 
of Satan to renounce him." For the formula of renunciation in the 
Apostolica Constitutions, see note 2 on Mystag. 1, 8; it corresponds 
closely with Cyril's, except that this is addressed to Satan as if personally 
present: "I renounce thee, Satan, and all thy works, and all thy pomp, and 
all thy worship." 

2. Profession of Faith. After the renunciation of Satan the Candidate 
immediately turned to the East and said, "And I associate myself 
(<yi)VT&aao|j,ou) with Christ." Cyril does not give the words, but seems to 
allude to the custom, when he speaks of the Candidates "turning from the 
West to the East, the place of light." 

Then, still facing the East, the Candidate was bidden to say, "I believe in 
the Father, and in the Son, and in the Holy Ghost, and in one Baptism of 



43 

repentance." We have seen that in CAT. xviii. 22, 32, Cyril intimated to 
his Candidates that they would be required to profess publicly the Creed 
which he had delivered to them and which they had repeated after him. 
This public profession of faith ('OjxoXoyioc, "Redditio Symboli") was in 
some Churches made on Holy Thursday, according to Canon 46 of the 
Synod of Laodicea: "Those to be baptized must learn the Creed by heart, 
and recite it to the Bishop or Presbyters on the fifth day of the week." But 
in the Apostolic Constitutions, c. xli., the Candidate is required to recite the 
whole Creed immediately after the Renunciation: "And after his 
renunciation let him in his consociation (ctuvtocgg6|j,£voc;) say: 'And I 
associate myself to Christ, and believe and am baptized into One 
Unbegotten Being, the Only True God Almighty, the Father of Christ. . . . 
. and the Lord Jesus Christ .... and I am baptized into the Holy Ghost, . . 
. . into the resurrection of the flesh, and into the remission of sins, and into 
the kingdom of heaven, and into the life of the world to come.' And after 
this vow, he comes in order to the anointing with oil." 

Such appears to have been the custom of the Eastern Churches in general 
and of Jerusalem in Cyril's time, although he mentions only those articles 
of the Creed which were commonly held to be indispensable to a valid 
profession of Christian belief. 

Dr. Swainson represents the matter somewhat differently: "When we 
come to the profession of his own personal faith which was made at 
Jerusalem bay the Candidate for Baptism, we find that this was far briefer 
not only than the collection of 'necessary things' (Cat. iv.), but also than 
the Creed of the Church of Jerusalem." Then after quoting the short form 
in Cyril, Myst. 1. 9, "I believe in the Father, and in the Son, and in the 
Holy Ghost, and in one Baptism of repentance," Dr. Swainson adds: "The 
words are clear and definite. In these words each answered the question of 
which we read elsewhere, 'Did he believe in the name of the Father, and 
the Son, and the Holy Spirit?' In this his reply the Candidate 'confessed' 
what Cyril called 'the saving confession.'" 

It is evident that two separate parts of the Baptismal Service are here 
confused: the question to which Dr. Swainson alludes, and "the saving 
confession" of which Cyril speaks in Mystag. ii. 4, belong, as we shall 
presently see, to a later stage of the ceremony. 



44 

3. First Unction. On passing from the outer to the inner chamber of the 
Baptistery, the Candidate who had made his renunciation and profession 
barefoot and wearing his tunic (Xitcov) only, now put off this inner 
garment also, as an emblem of putting off the old man with his deeds. A 
further significance is ascribed by Cyril to this unclothing of the 
Candidate, as being an imitation both of Christ, who hung naked on the 
Cross, and by His nakedness put of from Himself the principalities and the 
powers, and "of the first — formed Adam, who was naked in the garden, 
and was not ashamed." 

"Then, when ye were stripped, ye were anointed with exorcised oil, from 
the very hairs of your head to your feet." The consecration of the 
"exorcised oil" is thus described: "Now this is blessed by the chief — 
priest for the remission of sins, and the first preparation for Baptism. For 
he calls thus upon the Unbegotten God, the Father of Christ, the King of 
all sensible and intelligent natures, that He would sanctify the oil in the 
name of the Lord Jesus, and impart to it spiritual grace and efficacious 
strength, the remission of sins, and the first preparation for the confession 
of Baptism, that so the Candidate for Baptism, when he is anointed may 
be freed from all ungodliness, and may become worthy of initiation, 
according to the command of the Only — begotten." 

Bingham's observation, that Cyril describes this first unction as used 
"between the renunciation and the confession" is not quite accurate: in fact 
it came between two confessions, the one made, as we have seen, 
immediately after the renunciation in the outer chamber, the other at the 
very time of immersion. Chrysostom clearly distinguishes two 
Confessions, but places one before Baptism, and the other after: "What 
can be more beautiful than the words by which we renounce the devil? Or 
those by which we associate ourselves with Christ? Than that confession 
which comes before the washing? Or that which comes after the washing? 

This first unction is not mentioned by Tertullian, nor in any genuine work 
of Justin Martyr, but in the Responsiones ad Orthodoxos, a work which 
though still early is regarded as certainly spurious, we find the question 
put, "Why are we first anointed with oil, and then, having performed the 
before — mentioned symbolic acts in the Laver, are afterwards sealed with 
the ointment, and do not regard this as done in opposition to what took 



45 

place in our Lord's case, who was first anointed with ointment and then 
suffered?" And in the answer it is stated that "We are anointed with the 
simple oil that we may be made Christ's (Xpicrcoi), but with the ointment 
in remembrance of our Savior Christ, who regarded the anointing with 
ointment as His burial, and called us to the fellowship of His own 
sufferings and glory, typically in the present life but truly in the life to 
come." 

Cyril attributes to this "exorcised oil" the same power as to Exorcism 
itself, "not only to burn and cleanse away the traces of sin, but also to 
chase away all the invisible powers of the evil one. 

According to the directions concerning this first unction in the Apostolical 
Constitutions, the bishop was first to anoint the head only, the anointing 
of the whole body being then completed by the Deacon or Deaconess. 

4. Baptism. After this anointing the Candidates were "led by the hand to 
the sacred pool of Holy Baptism." This pool (KoXt)(x(3r|9pa) was 
supplied with water raised from the reservoirs, of which, as we shall see, 
the Bordeaux Pilgrim speaks in his description of the Basilica. 

As great multitudes both of men and women were baptized at the special 
seasons, the Baptisteries were large buildings outside the Church, such as 
the Baptistery of the Lateran, said to have been originally built by 
Constantine. The font itself also was large enough for several persons to 
be baptized at the same time. In some places the men were baptized first, 
and then the women: in others different parts of the Baptistery were 
assigned to them, and curtains were hung across the Font itself. 

The consecration of the water is not mentioned in the Didache or Justin 
Martyr; but Tertullian thus describes its effect: "The waters after 
invocation of God acquire the sacramental power of sanctification; for 
immediately the Spirit comes down from heaven upon the waters, and 
rests upon them, sanctifying them from Himself, and they being thus 
sanctified imbibe a power of sanctifying." 

In the prayer of consecration given in the Apostolic Constitutions the 
bishop is directed first to offer adoration and thanksgiving to the Father 
and Son, and then to call upon the Father and say: "Look down from 
heaven, and sanctify this water, and give it grace and power, that so he 



46 

that is to be baptized, according to the command of Thy Christ, may be 
crucified with Him and may die wit Him, and may be buried with Him, 
and may rise with Him to the adoption which is in Him, that he may be 
dead to sin and live to righteousness." 

Cyril ascribes the like effect to the consecration of the water, as imparting 
to it a new power of holiness by "the invocation of the Holy Ghost, and 
of Christ, and of the Father." 

While standing in the water the Candidate made what Cyril calls "the 
saving confession." The whole Creed having been already recited (Redditio 
Symboli) in the outer chamber immediately after the Renunciation, a short 
form was now employed containing only the necessary declaration of faith 
in the Holy Trinity, and in the Baptism of Repentance for the remission of 
sins. 

5. Trine Immersion. This short confession appears to have been made by 
way of question and answer thrice repeated. "Thou wast asked, Dost thou 
believe in God the Father Almighty? Thou saidst, I believe, and dippedst 
thyself, that is, wast buried. Again thou wast asked, Dost thou believe in 
our Lord Jesus Christ and in His Cross? Thou saidst, I believe, and 
dippedst thyself; therefore thou wast buried with Christ also: for he who 
is buried with Christ, rises again with Christ. A third time thou wast 
asked, Dost thou believe also in the Holy Ghost? Thou saidst, I believe, a 
third time thou dippedst thyself; that the threefold confession might 
absolve the manifold fault of thy former life?" But Cyril of Alexandria, as 
quoted by Bingham, "makes these answers not only to be a confession of 
the three Persons of the Trinity, but a triple confession of Christ; which 
implies a repetition of the Creed (the shortened form?) three times over." 

In which of these ways the threefold interrogation ("usitata et legitima 
verba interrogationis") was made at Jerusalem, is not quite certain from 
Cyril's words: "Each was asked, Dost thou believe in the name of the 
Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, and ye made that saving 
confession, and went down thrice into the water." The Didache enjoins 
baptism simply into the names of the Three Person of the Holy Trinity. 
Justin Martyr adds a few words only to the names "of god the Father and 
Lord of the universe, and of our Savior Jesus Christ, and of the Holy 
Spirit," and Tertullian observes that "Wherever there are three, that is, the 



47 

Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, there is the Church, which is a body 
of three." The trine immersion had reference not only to the Trinity, but 
was also a symbol of the three days of our Saviors burial. The use of the 
tree Holy Names was made more strictly indispensable as heresies were 
multiplied: thus the 49 th Apostolic Canon, which, Hefele says, "must be 
reckoned among the most ancient Canons of the Church," orders that "If 
any Bishop or Presbyter does not baptize, according to the Lord's 
command, into the Father, the Sons, or three Comforters, he shall be 
deprived." 

We see here that the power of administering Baptism was not restricted to 
the Bishop: and Cyril speaks of it as possessed by "Bishops, or 
Presbyters, or Deacons," assigning as the reason the great increase of 
believers, "for the grace is everywhere, in villages and in cities, on them of 
low as on them of high degree, on bondsmen and on freemen." 

Thus the rule of Ignatius, that "it is not lawful either to baptize or to hold 
a love — feast apart form the Bishop (%copi<; xo-u ETtiaKOTtoi))," must be 
understood to mean "without the authority and permission of the 
Bishop." 

Of certain minor ceremonies connected with Baptism, such as the "Kiss of 
peace," and the taste of milk and honey administered to the neophyte, no 
mention is made by Cyril. 

6. Chrism. The custom of anointing the baptized with consecrated 
ointment is regarded by Cyril as a sacramental act representing the 
anointing of Jesus by the Spirit at His Baptism. "As the Holy Ghost in 
substance lighted on Him, like resting upon like, so , after you had come 
up from the pool of the sacred waters, there was given to you an unction 
the counterpart (to avirurcov) of that wherewith He was anointed, and 
this is the Holy Ghost." As "He was anointed with a spiritual oil of 
gladness, that is with the Holy Ghost, called oil of gladness, because He is 
the author of spiritual gladness, so ye were anointed with ointment, and 
made partakers, and fellows of the Christ." The ceremony was very 
ancient: there is probably a reference to it in the words o Theophilus of 
Antioch (c. a.d. 170): "We are called Christians, because we are anointed 
with the oil of God." Tertullian, a little later, after speaking of Baptism, 
says: "Immediately on coming out of the Laver we are thoroughly 



48 

anointed with a consecrated unction;" and again. "After that, the hand is 
laid upon us in benediction, invoking and inviting the Holy Ghost." In 
another a passage he mentions also the sign of the Cross: "The flesh is 
washed, that the soul may be cleansed; the flesh is anointed that the soul 
may be consecrated; the flesh is signed [with the Cross] that the soul also 
may be guarded; the flesh is overshadowed by imposition of the hand, that 
the soul also may be illuminated by the Spirit." 

The consecration of the ointment is compared by Cyril to the consecration 
of the Eucharist; after the invocation of the Holy Ghost it is no longer 
simple or common ointment, but a gift (X&piapoc) of Christ, and by the 
presence of the Holy Ghost is able to impart of His Divine Nature. And 
this ointment is symbolically applied to thy forehead, and thy other 
organs of sense." 

The ears, nostrils, and breast were each to be anointed, and Cyril explains 
the symbolical meaning in each case by appropriate passages of Scripture. 

The consecration of the chrism could be performed by none but the 
Bishop, and he alone could anoint the forehead, Presbyters being allowed 
to anoint the breast, but only with chrism received from the Bishop, the 
several ceremonies are thus explained in the Apostolical Constitutions: 
"This baptism is given into the death of Jesus: the water is instead of the 
burial, and the oil instead of the Holy Ghost; the seal instead of the Cross; 
the ointment is the confirmation of the Confession." 

In like manner the chrism is explained again, "The ointment is the seal of 
the covenants," that is, both of God's promises, and of the Baptismal 
vows. 

The members to be anointed were not the same in all Churches, but 
everywhere the chief ceremony was the anointing of the forehead with the 
sign of the Cross. This is what Cyril calls "the Royal Sign," and "the 
Royal Seal to be borne upon the forehead of Christ's soldiers," and again, 
"The Seal of the fellowship of the Holy Ghost." 

These last were probably the very words pronounced by the Bishop in 
making the sign of the Cross on the forehead; for by canon 7 of the Second 
General Council at Antioch (381), converts from heretical sects were to be 
"sealed or anointed with the holy ointment of the forehead, eyes, nostrils, 



49 

mouth, and ears. And in sealing them we say, 'The seal of the gift of the 
Holy Ghost.'" 

An additional prayer to be said by the Bishop is given in the Apostolica 
Constitutions: "O Lord God, the Unbegotten, who hast no Lord, who art 
Lord of all, who madest the odor of the knowledge of the Gospel to go 
forth among all nations, grant also now that this ointment may be 
efficacious upon him that is baptized (|3oc7n;i£ou.evcp), that the sweet odor 
of thy Christ may remain firm and stable in him, and that having died with 
Him, he may arise and live with Him." 

The whole ceremony was called by the Greeks "Chrism," the "Unction" 
being regarded by them as the chief part. In the Latin Church the name 
Confirmation is of later date, and indicates that greater importance was 
then attached to the "Laying on of Hands" with prayer. 

Another ceremony, not alluded to by Cyril, was the saying of the Lord's 
Prayer by the neophyte, standing up, and facing towards the East, after 
which he was also to pray, "O God Almighty, the Father of Thy Christ, 
Thine Only — begotten Son, give me a body undefiled, a clean heart, a 
watchful mind, an unerring knowledge, the influence (e7ti(poixr|aiv) of the 
Holy Ghost for attainment and full assurance of the truth, through Thy 
Christ, by whom be glory to Thee in the Holy Ghost for ever. Amen." 



50 

CHAPTER 5 

Eucharistic Rites. Liturgy. 



1, First Communion. When the rites of Baptism and Chrism were 
completed, the new made Christians, clothed in white robes (Myst. iv. 8), 
and bearing each a lighted taper in his hand, passed in procession from the 
Baptistery into the great "Church of the Resurrection." The time was still 
night, as we gather from the allusion in Procat., 15: "Mary God at length 
shew you that night, that darkness which shines like the day, concerning 
which it is said, The darkness shall not be hidden from thee, and the night 
shall be light as the day." As the newly — baptized entered the church, 
they were welcomed in the words of the 32nd Psalm. "Even now," says 
Cyril (Procat., 15), "let your ears ring, as it were, with that glorious 
sound, when over your salvation the Angels shall chant, Blessed are they 
whose iniquities are forgiven, and whose sins are covered; when like stars 
of the Church you shall enter in, bright in the body and radiant in the 
soul." During the chanting of the Psalm the neophytes seem to have stood 
in front of the raised 'bema' or sanctuary, as we learn from Cyril's 
eloquent contemporary, Gregory Nazianzen, Orat. XL. 46: "The station 
in which presently after Baptism thou wilt stand before the great 
sanctuary prefigures the glory from yonder heaven; the psalmody, with 
which thou wilt be welcomed, is a prelude of those heavenly hymns; the 
lamps, which thou wilt light, are a mystic sign of the procession of lights, 
with which bright and virgin souls shall go forth to meet the Bridegroom, 
with the lamps of faith burning brightly. 

From the Syriac "Treatise of Severus, formerly Patriarch of Alexandria 
(Antioch), concerning the rites of Baptism and of Holy Communion 
(Synaxis) as received among the Syrian Christians" (Resch, Agrapha, 12, 
p. 361), we learn that it was the custom "to lift up the newly — baptized 
to the altar, and after giving them the mysteries the bishop (Sacerdos) 
crowned them with garlands. 



51 

The white garments (Procat., 2: Mystag., iv. 88) were worn until the 
Octave of Easter, Low Sunday, Dominica inAlbis (Bingham, XII. c. iv. 3). 

2. The Liturgy. In Cyril's last Lecture, MystagogicV '., he reminds his 
hearers of what they had witnessed at their first Communion on Easter — 
day, and thus gives a most valuable testimony to the prescribed from of 
administering the Holy Eucharist in the Eastern Church in the middle of 
the fourth century. 

Passing over all the preparatory portion of the Liturgy, he tells us first 
that the Deacon brings water to the Bishop or Priest (%& lepei) and to the 
Presbyters who stand round the altar, that they may wash their hands in 
token of the need of purification from sin; a ceremony which evidently had 
reference to the words of the Psalmist, "I will wash mine hands in 
innocency; so will I compass Thine altar, O Lord." In some Churches, 
perhaps also at Jerusalem, the words were actually chanted during the 
ablution. 

"Then the Deacon cries aloud, Receive ye one another: and let us salute 
(ocoTtoc^coLieGoc) one another." In the Clementine Liturgy the "Kiss of 
Peace" precedes the "Ablution." 

Sometimes these two sentences are combined: "Salute ye one another with 
the holy kiss." In the Liturgy of S. James there are two separate rubrics, 
one immediately after the dismissal of the Catechumens, "Take knowledge 
one of another," and a second after the Creed, "Let us embrace 
(6cYOC7tf]G©|X£v) one another with a holy kiss." 

"After this the Priest (lepeiSc;) cries aloud, Lift up your hearts. Then ye 
answer, We lift them up unto the Lord." 

The meaning of this Preface, as explained by Cyril, is an exhortation by 
the Priest, or Bishop when present, and a promise by the people, to raise 
all their thoughts to God on high, in preparation for the great Thanksgiving 
to which they were further invited: "Let us give thanks unto the Lord," — 
"It is meet and right." 

The follows a very brief summary of the Eucharistic Preface, and after that 
the Trisagion, corresponding in part to the long Thanksgiving in the 
Apostolic Constitutions for all God's mercies in creation, providence, and 



52 

redemption. 

It is important to observe how S. Cyril in this and the following sections 
associates the people with the Priest, using throughout the Plural "We." 
That this is intentional and significant, we may learn from a passage of S. 
Chrysostom which is so interesting that we may be allowed to translate it 
a length: "Sometimes moreover no difference is made between the Priest 
and those over whom he presides, as for example when we are to partake 
of the awful mysteries; for we are all alike deemed worthy of the same 
privileges: not as in the Old Covenant some parts were eaten by the Priest, 
and others by the governed (6 6cp%6(j,evo<;), and it was not lawful for the 
people to share in what the Priest partook of. It is not so now: but one 
Body is set before all, and one Cup. And in the prayers also one may see 
the laity contributing much. For the prayers on behalf of the Energumens, 
and on behalf of those in Penitence are offered in common both by the 
Priest and by themselves and all say one prayer, a prayer that is full of 
compassion. Again, after we have excluded from the sacred precincts those 
who are unable to partake of the Holy Table, there is another prayer to be 
made, and we all alike lie prostrate on the floor, and all alike rise up. When 
again we are to receive and give a kiss of peace, we all alike embrace each 
other. Again even amid the most tremendous Mysteries the Priest prays 
over the people, and the people over the Priest: for the formula, "With 
Thy Spirit," is nothing else than this. The words of the Thanksgiving again 
are common: for he does not give thanks alone, but also the whole people. 
For having first got their answer, and they agreeing that 'It is meet and 
right so to do,' he then begins the thanksgiving. And why wonder that the 
people sometimes speak with the priest, when even with the very 
Cherubim and the Powers on high they send up those sacred hymns in 
common. Now all this I have said in order that each of the common people 
(tow dp%opevcov) also may be vigilant, that we may learn that we are all 
one Body, having only as much difference between one and another, as 
between members and members and may not cast the whole work upon 
the Priests, but ourselves also care for the whole Church even as for a 
common Body. 

It is remarkable that in Cyril's account of the Eucharistic rites in this 
Lecture there is not the slightest reference to the words of Institution, 
though these hold so prominent a place before the Invocation both in the 



53 

Clementine Liturgy and in the Liturgy of S. James. But we cannot justly 
assume, from a mere omission in so brief a summary, that the 
Commemoration of the Institution had no place in the Liturgy then in use 
at Jerusalem. It seems more probable that Cyril did not think it necessary, 
after his repeated references to the Institution in the Preceding Lecture, to 
make further mention of a custom so well know as the recitation of 
Christ's own words in the course of the Prayer preceding the Invocation. 
On the previous day he had quoted S. Paul's account of the Institution, 
with the remark, "Since then He Himself has declared and said of the 
Bread. This is My Body, who shall dare doubt any longer? And since he has 
Himself affirmed and said, This is My Blood, who shall ever hesitate, 
saying that it is not His Blood?" The like efficacy he again ascribes to "the 
Lord's declaration" concerning both the Bread and the Wine, that they are 
"the Body and Blood of Christ." 

In the Didache, which gives the oldest elements of an Eucharistic Service, 
there is neither the Commemoration nor the Invocation, but only two 
short and simple forms of Thanksgiving "for the Holy Vine of David," and 
"for the broken Bread." Justin Martyr seems to imply that the 
consecration is effected by the Commemoration of Christ' s own words in 
the Institution: "We have been taught," he says, "that the food which 
Christ's own words in the Institution: "We have been taught," Jesus, "that 
the food which is blessed by the prayer of the word which comes from 
Him (/cf|v 81 e\)%f|<; Xoyoo) xov nap ocuto-u ex)%ocpiaTr|9£iGocv Tpocpriv), 
and by which our blood and flesh are by transmutation nourished, is the 
Flesh and Blood of that Jesus who was made Flesh." He gives no separate 
Invocation of the Holy Ghost, but his may have been supplied in the" 
praise and glory" or in the "prayers and thanksgiving's" sent up "to the 
Father of all through the name of the Son and of the Holy Ghost." 

Irenaeus is apparently the earliest writer who represents the Invocation of 
the Holy Ghost as the immediate act of consecration: "We make an 
oblation to God of the bread and the cup of blessing, giving Him thanks for 
that He has commanded the earth to bring forth these fruits for our 
nourishment. And then having completed the oblation, we call forth 
(eKKOcXo-ujiev) the Holy spirit, that He may exhibit this sacrifice, both the 
bread the Body of Christ, and the cup the Blood of Christ, in order that 



54 

the partakers of these antitypes may obtain the remission of sins and life 
eternal." 

Mr. Hammond writes that, "By the Oriental Churches an Invocation of 
the Holy spirit is considered necessary to complete the consecration. In 
the three Oriental Families of Liturgies such an Invocation is invariably 
found shortly after the Words of institution." 

It is an accordance with this statement that, we find Cyril so frequently 
declaring that the elements which before the Invocation are simple bread 
and wine, become after the Invocation the Body and Blood of Christ. In 
the first of the passages referred to below he speaks of "the Holy 
Invocation of the Adorable Trinity," in the others of the Holy Spirit only. 

Cyril next describes the Invocation as "completing the spiritual Sacrifice, 
the bloodless Service," and then gives a summary of the "Great 
Intercession" as made "over that Sacrifice of the propitiation." The 
Intercession, as represented by Cyril, is not simply a prayer, but an 
offering of the Sacrifice, and this is in accordance with the usual language 
of the Liturgies. "We offer to Thee, O Lord, on behalf also of Thy holy 
places, which Thou hast glorified by the Theophany of Thy Christ, and 
by the visitation of Thine All — Holy Spirit: especially on behalf of 
glorious Sion, the Mother of all the Churches, and on behalf of Thy Holy 
Catholic and Apostolic Church throughout the whole world." In the 
Liturgy of S. Chrysostom, as now commonly used in the Orthodox 
Eastern Church, we find the fuller phrase, "We offer unto Thee this 
reasonable Service on behalf of the world, on behalf of the Holy Catholic 
and Apostolic Church." 

In some particulars Cyril's summary agrees most nearly with the 
Clementine Liturgy, as, for example, in the prayer "for the King and those 
in authority, and for the whole army, that they may be at peace with us." 
In others he follows the Liturgy of S. James, as in the intercession for 
"every Christian soul afflicted and distressed, that stands in need of Thy 
pity and succor." 

Cyril next describes the commemoration of departed Saints, and "of all 
who in past years have fallen asleep among us," that is, in the bosom of 
the Church, and states his belief "that it will be a very great benefit to the 



55 

souls, for whom the supplication is put up while that holy and most awful 
Sacrifice is presented." He refers to objections against this belief, and 
brings forward in defense of it a reason applicable only to sinners: "When 
we offer,: he says, "our supplications for those who have fallen asleep, 
though they be sinners, we offer up Christ sacrificed for our sins, 
propitiating our merciful God for them as well as for ourselves." His 
language on this subject seems in fact to shew an advance in doctrine 
beyond the earliest Liturgies. In those of S. James and S. Basil we find 
prayers that the offering may be acceptable as a propitiation "for the rest 
of the souls that have fallen asleep aforetime;" and again, "that we may 
find mercy and grace with all the Saints who have ever been pleasing in 
Thy sight from generation to generation, forefathers, Patriarchs, Prophets, 
Apostles, Martyrs, Confessors, Teachers , holy men, and every righteous 
spirit made perfect in the faith of Thy Christ." 

There is nothing here, nor in the Clementine Liturgy, nor in that of S. 
Mark, corresponding to the purpose which Cyril ascribes to the 
commemoration, "that at their prayers and intercessions God would 
receive our petition." In the Anaphora of S. Chrysostom contained in the 
later form of the Liturgy of Constantinople we find, apparently for the 
first time, this prayer added to the commemoration of all Saints, "at whose 
supplications look upon us, O God." 

There was much controversy on the subject of prayers for the dead in 
Cyril's time and the objections which he notices were brought into 
prominence by Aerius, and rebuked by Epiphanius. 

From the commemoration of the departed Cyril passes at once to the 
Lord's Prayer, omitting the Preface which is found in the Liturgies of S. 
James and S. Mark. In the Clementine Liturgy, contrary to general use, the 
Lord's Prayer is not said at all. Cyril adds an exposition of each petition, 
and gives an unusual explanation of eTtio-uaioi;, for which see the 
footnote: he also explains xov Ttovripo-u as referring to "the wicked one," 
following in this the Embolismus of S. James, "deliver us from the wicked 
one and from his works. 

"After this the Bishop says, Holy things for holy men." Chrysostom 
explains this as being both an invitation to the Faithful in general to 
communicate, and a warning to the unholy to withdraw. "The Bishop, 



56 

with loud voice and awe inspiring cry, raising high his arm like a herald, 
and standing on high in sight of all, above that awful silence cries aloud, 
inviting some and repelling others, and doing this not with his hand, but 

with his tongue more clearly than with the hand For even he says, 

Holy things for the holy, he means this: whosoever is not holy, let him not 
draw near." 

In regard to the doctrinal significance of the formula, Dr. Waterland's 
remarks should be cone suited, 

The response of the people to the { Sancta Sanctis" is given by Cyril in 
accordance with the Liturgy of S. James and the Clementine: "One is 
Holy, One is the Lord, Jesus Christ:" but he does not mention the "Gloria 
in excelsis" nor the "Hosanna," both of which follow here in the 
Clementine. 

"After this," says Cyril, "ye hear the chanter inviting you with a sacred 
melody to the Communion of the Holy Mysteries, and saying, O taste and 
see that the Lord is good. This agrees with the Clementine rubiric: "Let the 
33rd Psalm be sung while all the rest are partaking." In the Liturgy of S. 
James, while the Bishop is breaking the Bread and dipping it in the Wine, 
the "Agnus Dei" and several Psalms were sung: but of these there is no 
mention in the Clementine Liturgy or in Cyril. 

On Cyril's directions for receiving the Bread and the Cup with due 
reverence, see the footnotes on the passages. 

His final injunction to remain for the prayer and thanksgiving is taken from 
that in the Clementine Liturgy: "Having partaken of the precious Body 
and the precious Blood of Christ, let us give thanks to Him who hath 
counted us worthy to partake of His holy Mysteries." The thanksgiving, 
benediction, concluding prayers, and dismissal, vary much in the different 
Liturgies. 



57 

CHAPTER 6 

Effects of Baptism and of Chrism. 



1. Baptism. When we try to ascertain the exact relation between Baptism 
and the Unction of Chrism which immediately followed, we find that 
Cyril's teaching on the subject has been understood in very different 
senses. By some he is thought to regard the Unction as being merely an 
accessory rite of the one great Sacrament of Baptism; to others he seems 
to draw a clear distinction between them, assigning to each its proper grace 
and efficacy. 

The former view is stated by the Oxford editor, Milles, in his note on the 
words: "And in like manner to you also, after you had come up from the 
pool of the sacred waters, there was given an unction a figure (ocvxiTUTtov) 
of that with which Christ was anointed; and that is the Holy Ghost." "It is 
evident," says Milles, "from his words here, that the Chrism of which 
Cyril treats in this Lecture is not to be referred to the Unction which is 
administered by the Romanists in Confirmation. For every one sees that 
by unction in this passage a ceremony of Baptism is indicated. The 
ancients employed two Unctions in Baptism, the first before the 
immersion in the water, of which he spoke in the preceding Lecture; the 
second immediately upon ascending from the water, of which he speaks in 
this Lecture." 

This opinion is elaborately discussed by the Benedictine editor, Touttee, 
Dissertatio iii. c. 7, who argues that the Unction described by Cyril is a 
Sacrament distinct form Baptism, that it has for its proper grace the gift of 
the Holy Spirit, and further that this gift is not conferred in Baptism. Of 
these assertions the first and second appear to represent Cyril's view 
correctly: the last is an exaggeration and a mistake, the tendency of which 
is to identify the Chrism of the Eastern Church with that which is used in 
Confirmation by the Roman Church, and to exalt the rite of Confirmation 
as a proper Sacrament distinct from Baptism, and even superior to it. A 
view differing in some respects from both of these has been recently put 



58 

forward by learned and devout writer of our own Church, who has fully 
discussed the teaching of Cyril and other Eastern Fathers, and gives the 
result of his investigation in the following "Summary:" "For very many 
centuries the Christians of the East have never been forced to define to 
themselves at all clearly the position of a person baptized but 
unconfirmed. Their mode of administering Confirmation (Chrism?) by the 
hands of the baptizing Presbyter — though among the two rites. 
Confirmation (Chrism?) is for them, far more than it has been for a long 
while in the West, a factor in Baptism. Only a more or less conscious 
desire not to fall behind Western teachers in honoring the perfecting 
Unction can have led their later authorities to treat that Unction as a 
sacrament numerically distinct from Baptism. To all the early doctors of 
the East the two things are one, and Baptism culminates in the unction. 
The tendency among Oriental Christians was, not to attribute to Baptism 
in our modern sense the gift of the Holy Ghost, but rather to consider 
Baptism by itself as a bare rite, benefiting the body alone, and dependent 
for its spiritual efficacy upon other actions, after and before. Not that this 
tendency has its full way. The Greek Fathers may be said certainly on the 
whole to trace the forgiveness of sins, the preparatory cleansing, to the 
baptismal Laver; the gift of the Holy Ghost, for the ordinary purposes of 
Christian living, they trace, like S. Chrysostom, to that act which comes 
"immediately after Baptism, and before the Mysteries." 

When we come to inquire how far these several theories agree with the 
teaching of Cyril himself, we must in the outset put aside altogether the 
name Confirmation: for as applied to the Unction used in the Eastern 
Church it is only confusing and misleading. In the early ages of the Church 
Confirmation was not known even by name. In the Latin Church "neither 
Tertullian, Cyprian, Ambrose, Augustine, Jerome, nor any of the Latin 
Fathers, makes mention of Confirmation in this sense. Nor have the 
Greeks any word to answer to this Latin term." So far, therefore, Milles 
appears to be perfectly right in refusing to connect the Chrism of which 
Cyril treats with the Unction used in Confirmation by the Roman Church. 

We may add that in Cyril's account of Chrism account of Chrism it is 
wholly unconnected with Confirmation, both in its symbolic reference and 
in its outward form. Chrism, he says, is the antitype of the Unction of 
Christ by the Holy Ghost at His Baptism: Confirmation is universally 



59 

admitted to have been a following of the Apostles in their laying on of 
hands. But in that Apostolic rite there was no unction, and in Chrism there 
was no such laying on of hands. 

In several passages Cyril clearly distinguishes the outward form of 
Baptism from the spiritual grace. 

"If thy body be here, but not thy mind, it profiteth thee nothing. Even 
Simon Magus once came to the Laver: he was baptized, but was not 
enlightened; and though he dipped his body in water, he enlightened not 
his heart with the Spirit: his body went down and came up, but his soul 
was not buried with Christ, nor raised with Him." 

It is impossible here to regard "the Spirit" as referring to the grace of 

unction: for 
(1.) Baptism was not accompanied by Unction in the time of the 
Apostles, and 

(2.) we should thus make a false antithesis between the outward part of 
the one rite (he dipped his body in water"), and the inward part of the 
one rite ("he dipped his body in water"), and the inward part of the 
other. Here, therefore, Cyril attributes enlightenment of the heart by the 
Spirit to Baptism apart from Unction, and at the same time lays stress 
upon the difference between the worthy and unworthy recipient of the 
outward form. 

The importance of this difference is further enforced throughout the next 
two sections, and at the close of 4 the distinction between the outward 
sign and inward grace of Baptism, strictly so called, is again asserted, 
"though the water will receive thee, the Spirit will not accept thee." 

"Some might suppose," it is said, "from these words that Cyril thought of 
water and the Spirit as the sign and the thing signified in Baptism 
respectively, and a passage in a later Lecture upon the subject of the 
Sacrament (Baptism) at first confirms that impression." 

To suppose that Cyril had any other thought in the former passage, seems 
to me impossible for any ordinary reader; and the later passage, not only 
at first, but more fully the longer it is considered, confirms that impression 



60 

beyond all doubt. The whole quotation, including Cat. iii 3, 4, is too long 
to repeat here, but may be read in its proper place. 

It will be sufficient to give the passages which are of chief importance in 
the question before us, according to Canon Mason's translation. 

Cat. iii. 3. "Do not attend to the laver as mere water, but to the spiritual 
grace given along with the water" . . . "the mere water, receiving the 
invocation of the Holy ghost, and of Christ, and of the Father, acquires a 
power of sanctity. For since man is a two — fold being composed of soul 
and body, the cleansing element also is two — fold, the incorporeal for the 
incorporeal, the bodily for the body. And the water cleanses the body, but 
the Spirit seals the soul, in order that having our hearts sprinkled by the 
Spirit, and our bodies washed with pure water, we may draw nigh to God. 
When, therefore, you are about to go down into the water so not pay 
attention to the mere nature of the water, but expect salvation by the 
operation of the Holy Ghost. For without both it is impossible for thee to 
be perfected." 

No words could state more clearly the distinction between the outward 
sign and the inward grace of Baptism, and the absolute necessity for both. 
There is no possible reference to Unction, but "the operation of the Holy 
Ghost" in cleansing and sealing the soul is unmistakably connected with 
Baptism as "the grace given with the water" (\xeia tov -u8ocTO<;),and 
below, as "the seal by water" (xf|v 8i uSorcoc; acppaylSa), the latter 
phrase shewing that Baptism by water is the signum efficax of the grace in 
question. 

Cryil then quotes our Lord's words, Except a man be born of water and 
the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God, and explains them 
thus: "On the one hand he who is being baptized (|3oc7n;i^6u.evoc;) with the 
water, but has not had the spirit vouchsafed to him (KocTa^ico9ei<;), has 
not the grace in perfection: on the other hand, even if a man be 
distinguished for virtue in his deeds, but does not receive the seal 
bestowed by means of water (xf|v 8i iSSorcot; acppayiSa), he shall not 
enter into the kingdom of heaven." Canon Mason, whose translation I have 
followed, finds here a reference both to Baptism and to Unction as "the 
first baptismal act and the second," and in support of this interpretation 
gives a second and more emphatic version: "He who is in course of being 



61 

baptized with the water, but has not yet had the Spirit vouchsafed to him, 
has not the grace in perfection." This introduction of the word "yet" in 
order to represent a distinction between two separate acts, is not justified 
either by the reading of the older to represent a distinction between two 
separate acts, is not justified either by the reading of the older editions 
(o\)8e T(o -uSocxi poc7tTi^6|xevo<; u.f| KOCTa^ico9ei<; 8e xox> I7.v£ij|j,oci;oc;), 
nor by that of Codices Monac. Roe, Casaub. adopted by Reischl (ovxe 6 
PePocTtxiapevoc; k.t.X.), nor by the Benedictine text (cute 6 
pocTtTi^opevoq K.x.X.). The obvious meaning of the passage, with either 
reading, is that "the man who in Baptism did not receive the Holy Spirit, 
has not the grace (of Baptism) complete." The Benedictine Editor in his 
elaborate argument for regarding Chrism as a distinct sacrament, does not 
even refer to this passage. 

A statement which is important in this connection is found in Mystag, ii. 
6: "Let no one then suppose that Baptism is the grace of remission of sins 
only, or further of adoption, as the Baptism of John conferred only 
remission of sins; but as we know full well that it cleanses from sins and 
procures a gift of the Holy Spirit, so also it is a counterpart (ocvxix^Ttov) 
of the sufferings of Christ." 

Here besides "the remission of sins, which no man receiveth without the 
Holy Spirit," we find "a gift of the Holy Ghost," and the fellowship of 
Christ's Passion distinctly attributed to Baptism. 

If the "adoption" mentioned at the beginning of this passage were identical 
(as Touttee thinks) with the "gift of the Holy Ghost," it would by no 
means follow that Cyril here means to include Unction in Baptism. For the 
grace which beyond all others is exclusively attached to Baptism, and not 
to Unction, is the new birth, and this is "the new birth into freedom and 
adoption" In fact Cyril's teaching on this point is in strict accordance with 
that of St. Paul in Galatians 4:4-6, that we first receive the adoption of 
sons (uioGeGiocy), and then "because ye are sons, God sent forth the spirit 
of His son into our hearts, crying, Abba, Father." The Spirit Himself 
beareth witness with our spirit that we are the children of God." In both 
passages St. Paul clearly distinguishes two things, "the adoption" itself, 
and the witness of it by "the Spirit of adoption." Cf. Bengel on v. 4: 
"Prius adoptionem, deinde Spiritum adoptionis accepimus;" and on v. 6: 



62 

"Filiorum statum sequitur inhabitatio Spiritus Sancti, non hanc ille." The 
adoption itself belongs to Baptism strictly so called, in which we are made 
children of God and joint heirs with Christ (cf. Cat. iii. 14): the witness of 
the indwelling Spirit of adoption is the special grace ascribed to Chrism in 
the Eastern Church, and to Confirmation in the Western. There are many 
other passages in which Cyril ascribes to Baptism itself, as distinct from 
Chrism, a gift of the Spirit, such as the following: "But He trieth the soul: 
He casteth not His pearls of the Spirit, such as the following: "But He 
trieth the soul: He casteth not His pearls before the swine: if thou 
dissemble, men will baptize thee now, but the Spirit will not baptize 
thee." 

"The Lord, preventing us according to His loving — kindness, has granted 
repentance at Baptism, in order that we may cast off the chief — nay, 
rather the whole burden of our sins, and having received the seal by the 
Holy Ghost, may be made heirs of eternal life." 

Again, after speaking of "the invocation of grace having sealed the soul," 
he adds: "Having done down dead in sins, thou comest up quickened in 
righteousness. For if thou hast been united with the likeness of the Savior's 
death, thou shalt also be deemed worthy of His Resurrection." The 
benefits ascribed to Baptism in these several passages without any 
allusion to Chrism, are brought together with rhetorical effect in the 
Introductory Lecture, 16: "Great is the Baptism that lies before you; a 
ransom to captives, a remission of offenses, a death of sin, a new birth of 
the soul, a garment of light, a holy indissoluble seal, a chariot to heaven, 
the delight of paradise, a welcome into the kingdom, the gift of adoption." 

From such language it is clear beyond question that in Cyril of Jerusalem, 
not to speak of other Oriental Fathers, the tendency is not "to consider 
Baptism by itself as a bare rite, benefiting the body alone, and dependent 
for its spiritual efficacy upon other actions after and before," but as 
depending on the power of the Holy Ghost, and the sincerity of 
repentance and faith in man. 

If further proof were needed, a glance at the Index under the word 
"Baptism" will shew the extraordinary richness, variety, and precision of 
Cyril's teaching , as to the gifts of the Holy Ghost conferred therein. 



63 

2. Chrism. When spiritual blessing so many and so great have been 
ascribed to Baptism, in what light, it may be asked, does Cyril regard the 
Unction which follows? Does he treat it as being merely an additional 
ceremony subordinate to Baptism, or as having for its own proper grace 
some special gift of the Holy Ghost? We find no answer to this question 
in the earlier course of Lectures. But that Chrism was not regarded by 
Cyril as a mere accessory to Baptism, as Milles thought, may be safely 
inferred from the fact that in announcing the subjects of his Mystagogic 
Lectures, he mentions first Baptism, then "the seal of the fellowship of 
the Holy Ghost," and then "the Mysteries at the altar of the New 
Covenant:" and this inference is fully confirmed by his language elsewhere: 
"Ye have heard enough of Baptism, and Chrism, and partaking of the 
Body and Blood of Christ." A mere additional ceremony of Baptism could 
not have been so independently placed between the two great Sacraments, 
and, as it were, in the same rank with them. 

The importance thus attached to Chrism is further shewn in the fact that 
Cyril uses the very same language in reference to the consecration of the 
ointment of Chrism and of the water of Baptism, and of the Eucharistic 
elements. "The bread and wine of the Eucharist before the Invocation of 
the Holy and Adorable Trinity are simple (Xixro) bread and wine, but after 
the Invocation the Bread becomes the body and the Wine the Blood of 
Christ." "Regard not the Laver as simple water having received the 
Invocation of the Holy Ghost, and with the water." :The simple water 
having received the Invocation of the Holy Ghost, and of Christ, and of 
the Father, acquires a new power of holiness." 

"But see thou suppose not his to be plain (yiXov) ointment. For as the 
Bread of the Eucharist, after the Invocation of the Holy Ghost is no longer 
simple (Xitoc;) bread, but the Body of Christ; so also this holy ointment is 
not longer plain (\|/iX6v) ointment, nor, as one might say, common, after 
Invocation, but Christ's gift of grace (%apia\ia), and is made effectual to 
impart the Holy Ghost by the presence of His own Godhead." 

The spiritual benefits which Cyril ascribes to the Unction are set forth in 
the same Lecture. "This holy thing is a spiritual safeguard for the body, 
and salvation of the soul": it sanctifies all the organs of sense: "the body is 
anointed with the visible ointment, and the soul is sanctified by the Holy 



64 

and Life — giving Spirit". After being anointed the Christian is now 
entitled to that name in its fullest sense; he is clothed with the whole 
armor of the Holy Ghost, that he may stand against the power of the 
adversary: he may say, "I can do all things in Christ who strengtheneth 
me". 

In regard to the supposed identity of Chrism and Confirmation, it is 
important to notice carefully how Cyril speaks of the laying on of hands 
in the only passage where he mentions it. 

He first illustrates the freedom of the Spirit, and His independence of 
human agency, by the gift of prophecy to the seventy elders, including 
Eldad and Medad: he then refers to the gift of the spirit of wisdom to 
Joshua by the laying on of Moses' hands, and adds, "Thou seest 
everywhere the figure (rurcov) in the Old Testament, and in the New the 
same. In Moses' time the Spirit was given by laying on of hands 
(%eipo0eoioc), and Peter gives the Spirit by laying on of hands: and upon 
thee also, who art to be baptized, the grace is about to come; but the 
manner (to 7tccx;) I tell thee not, for I do not forestall the time." 

From this passage it has been inferred 
(1.) that Cyril alludes to a gift of the Spirit by laying on of hand sin 
immediate connection with Baptism and Unction, and 
(2.) that he refers this gift of the spirit not to Baptism itself, but to the 
laying on of hands, or to the unction as a figure that answers to it. 

(1.) The first of these inferences is opposed to the fact that Cyril neither 
mentions the laying on of hands as part of the actual ceremonial in 
Baptism or Unction, nor as the analogous rite in the old Testament, but on 
the contrary expressly says that the symbol (to gij(x(3oXov) of this holy 
Chrism in the Old Testament lies in the consecration of Aaron t be High 
Priest, when Moses, "after the washing in water anointed him, and he was 
called 'anointed,'' evidently from this figurative unction (to-u %piojxocToc; 
onXocoTi xox> ruTtiKoi))." 

(2.) In support of the second inference the argument offered is as follows: 
"That the Spirit was to come upon them in the course of their Baptism is 
here again clearly stated; but that Cyril did not intend them to suppose 
that baptism itself would convey the gift is equally clear. Again and again 



65 

in earlier Lectures, as well as in the words actually before us, Cyril has 
taught them to expect the gift in Baptism; if therefore the immersion itself 
would convey the gift is equally clear. Again and again in earlier Lectures, 
as well as in the words actually before us, Cyril has taught them to expect 
the gift in Baptism; if therefore the immersion itself were to be the means 
of receiving it, he has already told them his secret. Yet now he says that he 
will not tell them 'how' they are to receive it. That remains for a future 
occasion," The mistake, as I venture to consider it, lies in the words which 
I have marked with italics. For of the mysteries which were to be 
concealed from the unbaptized (d(j,ijr|Toi) the first was the manner of 
administering Baptism itself, and the second, the unction of Chrism; and in 
the preceding Lectures Cyril has no more told the secret of the one than of 
the other. "Baptism, the Eucharist, and the oil of Chrism, were things that 
the uninitiated (du/OTycoi) were not allowed to look upon." 

"We bless," says S. Basil, "both the water of Baptism and the oil of the 
Chrism, and moreover the baptized ((3a7txi^6(j,evov) himself. From what 
written commands? Is it not from a secret (aiccmcojj,£vr|<;) and mystical 
tradition? Again, the very anointing with the oil, what word of Scripture 
taught that? And the dipping the man thrice, whence came it? And all the 
other accompaniments of Baptism, the renunciation of Satan and his 
angles, from what Scripture came they? Come they not from this 
unpublished and secret teaching, which our fathers guarded in a silence 
with which no prying curiosity might meddle, having been well taught to 
preserve the sanctity of the mysteries by silence? For how could it have 
been right to publish in writing the doctrine of these mysteries, which the 
unbaptized are not even allowed to look upon?" 

As these secret ceremonies of Baptism and Unction are revealed by Cyril 
only in the Mystagogic Lectures, the supposed reason for saying, that in 
Cat. xvi. 26, the promised gift of the spirit refers not to Baptism but only 
to Unction, at once falls to the ground. 

The true state of the case is well expressed by Bingham, "Though the 
ancients acquainted the Catechumens with the doctrine of Baptism so far 
as to make them understand the spiritual nature and design of it, yet they 
never admitted them to the sight of the actual ceremony, nor so much as to 
hear any plain discourse about the manner of its administration, till they 



66 

were fitted and prepared for the actual reception of it," — or rather, till 
they actually received it. 

There is in fact no reason to exalt the benefits of Unction, or Confirmation, 
by robbing Baptism of its proper grace. "It was this Unction, as the 
completion of Baptism, to which they ascribed the power of making every 
Christian in some sense partaker of a royal priesthood. To it they also 
ascribed the noble effects of confirming the soul with the strength of all 
spiritual graces on God's part, as well as the confirmation of the 
profession and covenant made on man's part." We may well as the 
confirmation of the profession and convenient made on man's part." We 
may well be satisfied that the doctrine of the early Church has been so 
fully retained in essential points in our own Office of Confirmation, 
recalling as it does by the ratification of the baptismal vows the immediate 
connection of the ancient Unction with Baptism, and in its Prayers 
invoking the same gifts of the Holy Spirit, — "Strengthen them, we 
beseech Thee, O Lord, with the Holy Ghost the Comforter, and daily 
increase in them Thy manifold gifts of grace; the spirit of wisdom and 
understanding; the spirit of counsel and ghostly strength; the spirit of 
knowledge and true godliness; and fill them, O Lord, with the spirit of Thy 
holy fear, now and fore ever. Amen." 



67 



CHAPTER 7 



Eucharistic Doctrine. 

We have seen that Cyril makes the consecration of sacramental elements in 
every case consist in the Invocation of the Holy Ghost, after which the 
water of Baptism is no longer mere simple water, the ointment no longer 
plain ointment, the bread and the wine no longer plain bread and wine, but 
the Body and Blood of Christ. 

Upon these statements an argument against Transubstantiation has been 
founded by Bishop Cosin, and adopted both by Dr. Pusey and Dean 
Goode. It being universally admitted that the substance of the water and of 
the ointment remains unchanged, it is argued from the identity of the 
language employed in each case that, according to Cyril, no substantial 
change takes place in the Bread and Wine. Bishop Cosin quotes the 
following passage, of which the original is given below: :Take heed thou 
doest not think that this is a mere ointment only, for as the bread of the 
Eucharist after the invocation of the Holy Ghost is no longer bread, but is 
the body of Christ; so this holy ointment is no longer a bare common 
ointment after it is consecrated, but is the gift or grace of Christ, which, by 
His Divine Nature, and the coming of the Holy Ghost, is made efficacious; 
so that the body is anointed with the ointment, but the soul is sanctified 
by the holy and vivifying Spirit." 

Bishop Cosin proceeds to argue thus: "Can anything more clear be said? 
Either the ointment is transubstantiated by consecration into the spirit and 
grace of Christ, or the bread and wine are not transubstantiated by 
consecration into the Body and Blood of Christ. Therefore as the ointment 
retains still its substance, and yet is not called a mere or common 
ointment, but the Chrism or grace of Christ: so the bread and wine 
remaining so, as to their substance, yet are not said to be only bread and 
wine common and ordinary, abut also the Body and Blood of Christ." 

Notwithstanding the great authority of Bishop Cosin, and the assent 
Theologians of such opposite schools as Dr. Pusey and Dean Goode, it 



68 

must be admitted that the argument, even as against Transubstantiation, is 
pressed beyond its just limits. The identity of language extends only to 
two points, 
(1.) the mode of consecration by Invocation, 

(2.) the effect negatively stated, that the material element in each case is 
no longer simply a material element. A change, therefore, of some kind 
has taken place, and we have still to inquire how the change in each case 
is described by Cyril. "The water acquires a power of sanctity," 
otherwise described as "the spiritual grace given with the water." 

The ointment is Christ's gift of grace (XapiG|j,a), and becomes effectual 
to impart by the presence of the Holy Ghost His Divine Nature." :The 
Bread becomes the Body and the Wine the Blood of Christ." 

There is here no such identity of language as would justify the assertion 
that the change described is of the same nature in each case, that because it 
leaves the substance of the water and the ointment untouched, therefore 
the substance of the bread also must, according to Cyril, remain 
unchanged: this must be proved by other arguments. We must also 
remember that if this argument based upon the identity of the language 
used on the two sides of a comparison is trustworthy, there is another 
passage in Cyril to which it may be applied: "He once, in Cana of Galilee, 
changed the water into wine akin to blood (oiKeiov ociporci), and is it 
incredible that He changed wine into blood?" The change of the water into 
wine was a change of substance: are we then prepared to agree with the 
Roman Church that the change of the bread also is a change of substance? 
Nay further, would the Roman Church itself accept the principle of the 
argument? For observe that in fact Bishop Cosin himself, when he comes 
to deal with this passage, gives up his former argument, and distinctly 
rejects it. "Protestants," he says, "do freely grant and firmly believe that 
the wine, in the sense already often mentioned, is changed into the Blood 
of Christ; but every change is not a transubstantiation; neither doth Cyril 
say that this change (i.e. of the wine) is like that of the water, for then it 
would appear to our senses; but that He who changed the water sensibly 
can also change the wine sacramentally, will not be doubted by any." 
Again, in describing the act change the wine sacramentally, will not be 
doubted by any." Again, in describing the act of consecration, Cyril says: 



69 

"We beseech the merciful God to send forth His Holy Spirit upon the gifts 
lying before Him, that He may make the bread the body of Christ, and the 
wine the blood of Christ, for certainly whatsoever the Holy Ghost has 
touched, is sanctified and changed (fiyiaaxai koci peTa(3e(3^r|Tai)." Here 
again, as in the passage quoted from Myst. iii. 3, a sacramental change of 
some sort is asserted, but is specific character is not defined. 

There is, however, a passage which throws some light on Cyril's 
conception of the change in Myst. iv. 3: "In the figure of Bread is given to 
thee His Body, and in the figure of Wine His Blood; that thou by 
partaking of the Body and Blood of Christ mightest be made of the same 
body and the same blood with Him. For thus we come to bear Christ in us, 
His Body and His Blood being distributed to our members (eiq xoc 
f|(xexepa avaSiSopevoi) peXn.)." Several good MS S. read 
dvocSiSopevoi, which would give the meaning, "having received of His 
Body and of His blood into our members." This does not alter the general 
sense of the passage; but the reading dvocSiSouivo'u is supported by 
another passage, Myst. v. 14: "Our common bread is not substantial 
(ercio-uaiof;): but this Holy Bread is substantial, that is appointed for the 
substance of the soul. This Bread goeth not into the belly and is not cast 
out into the draught, but is distributed (ocvocSiSotoci) into they whole 
system for the benefit of body and soul. 

In order to accommodate these passages to the Roman doctrine of 
Transubstantiation the Benedictine Editor here introduces the idea of 
species, the outward forms or accidents of the bread. "We must not 
suppose," he says, "that Cyril thought the Body of Christ to be divided 
and digested (digeri) into our body; but by a customary way of speaking 
he attributes to the Holy Body what is suitable only to the species which 
conceal it. And he does not deny that the species pass into the draught, 
but only that the Body of Christ: to him the Bread and Wine after 
consecration are the Body and the Blood of Christ. For how could it be 
said that the species, which in Transubstantiation are the mere outward 
accidents of bread and wine, are distributed into the whole system for the 
benefit of body and soul? 



70 

In whatever sense the bread and wine become by consecration the Body 
and Blood of Christ, in that same sense the Body and Blood of Christ, are, 
according to Cyril, distributed to our whole system. 

This was no new doctrine: Ignatius, Ephes xxi. speaks of Christians as 
"breaking one bread, which is the medicine of immortality, and the 
antidote that we should not die, but live for ever in Jesus Christ." This is 
perhaps the earliest expression of the belief that the resurrection of the 
body is secured by the communion of the Body of Christ in the Eucharist. 
The manner in which this communion is effected is described by Justin 
Martyr (Apolog. I. 66) in language which shews clearly what Cyril meant: 
"We do not receive these things as common bread and common drink: but 
in the same way as Jesus Christ our Savior was made flesh by the Word of 
God, and took both flesh and blood for our salvation, so we have been 
taught that the food over which thanksgiving has been made by prayer in 
the word received from Him (xr\\ Si e\)%f|c; Xoyot) xoxmocp ocutox) 
e{)%ocpiai;r|9eiaocv Tpocpr|v), from which (food) our blood and flesh are 
by transmutation (Korea pexaPoXf|v) nourished, is both the Flesh and 
Blood of Him the Incarnate Jesus." 

Here it is plainly taught that by consecration the Bread and Wine have 
become the Flesh and Blood of Christ, and that as such they nourish our 
"blood and flesh" (observe the inverted order) by undergoing a change: in 
other words, the Eucharistic Body and Blood of Christ are changed into 
nourishment of our blood and flesh, by being distributed (as Cyril says) to 
all our members, that is by being subjected to the natural processes of 
digestion and assimilation. The unusual order of the words "our blood and 
flesh" is not accidental, but answers to the process of assimilation, in 
which the digested food first nourishes the blood, and then the blood 
nourishes the flesh. 

The meaning is, as Otto says in his note, "that the divine food passes 
away into our bodies entire, so that nothing remains:" and Dr. Pusey 
seems to take the same view, in his note on the words, "from which (food) 
through transmutation our blood and flesh are nourished:" "i.e. the material 
parts are changed into the substance of the human body." 

Thus then, according to Cyril, the Eucharistic Body and Blood of Christ 
are distributed to all our members; His Flesh and Blood pass by a change 



71 

into our blood and flesh, and we thereby become "of the same body and 
the same blood with Him:" and "this Bread does not pass into the belly, 
and is not cast out into the draught." but wastes away as the body itself 
wastes. 

However much this view of the Sacramental mystery may differ from later 
theories, it was certainly held by many of the Greek Fathers. Irenaeus, for 
example, in addition to those already mentioned, thus writes: "When 
therefore both the mingled cup and the created bread receive the Word of 
God, and the Eucharist becomes the Body of Christ, and form these the 
substance of our flesh increaseth and consisteth, how say they that the 
flesh is incapable of the gift of God which is eternal life, that flesh which is 
nourished from the body and blood of the Lord, and is already 
(vndpxovoa) a member of Him? — even as the blessed Paul saith, that 
we are members of His Body, of His Flesh, and of His Bones." 

That this was also the teaching of Cyril' s contemporaries is clear form the 
famous passage of Gregory of Nyssa, in which this doctrine is fully 
developed. It will be sufficient to quote here the latter part of the passage, 
in which Gregory is speaking of the Wine. "Since then that God — 
containing flesh partook for its substance and support of this particular 
nourishment also, and since the god who was manifested infused Himself 
into perishable humanity for this purpose, viz. that by this communion 
with Deity mankind might at the same time be deified, for this end it is 
that, by dispensation of His grace, He disseminates Himself in every 
believer through that flesh whose substance comes from bread and wine, 
blending Himself with the bodies of believers, to secure that, by this union 
with the immortal, man too may be a sharer in incorruption. he gives these 
gifts by virtue of the benediction through which He transelements the 
natural quality of these visible things to that immortal thing." 

In another remarkable passage Cyril gives a further explanation of the 
effect of consecration: "In the New Testament there is heavenly Bread and 
a Cup of salvation, sanctifying soul and body: for as the Bread 
corresponds to the body, so also the Word (6 ^6yo<;) is appropriate to the 
soul." With this language of Cyril we may compare further what is said by 
Gregory of Nyssa in the context of the passage already quoted: "Just then, 
as in the case of ourselves, as has been repeatedly said already, if a person 



72 

sees bread he also in a kind of way looks on a human body, for by being 
within this it becomes this, so in that other case the Body into which God 
entered (to 0eo86%ov acojxoc), by partaking of the nourishment of bread 
was in a certain sense the same with it, since that nourishment, as we have 
said, is changed into the nature of the body: for that which is proper to all 
men is acknowledged also in the case of That Flesh, namely, that That 
Body too was maintained by bread; which Body also by the indwelling of 
God the Word was changed into the dignity of Godhead. Rightly then do 
we believe that now also the bread which is sanctified by the Word of God 
is changed into the Body of God the Word. For even that Body was once 
virtually (if\ 8vva\xei) bread, but has been sanctified by the inhabitation 
of the Word that tabernacle in the flesh." 

In this passage we have the full explanation of what Irenaeus meant when 
he said that the elements "by receiving the Word of God become the 
Eucharist," and what Cyril meant by saying that "as the Bread 
corresponds to the body, so also the Word is appropriate to the soul." 
Their common doctrine is, that besides the Body and Blood of Christ, that 
is, His soul." Their common doctrine is, that besides the Body and Blood 
of Christ, that is, His Humanity offered upon the Cross for our 
redemption, His Divine Nature, the Word, is also present, and that it is by 
receiving the Divine Word that the Bread is made the Body of Christ. 
"The fathers," says Touttee, "often play upon the ambiguity of the term, 
saying at one time that the Divine Word, at another that the word and 
oracles of God nourish our soul. Both are true. For the whole life — giving 
power of the Eucharist is derived from the Divine Word united with the 
flesh which He assumed: and the whole benefit (fructus) of Eucharistic 
eating consists in the union of our soul with the Word, by meditation on 
His mysteries and words, and confirmation thereto." O si sic omnial 

In this view the Bread and Wine are signs or figures of the natural Body of 
Christ crucified; but they are also much more, they are endued by the 
Divine Word, and through the operation of the Holy Ghost, with the life 
— giving power of the same Body and Blood of Christ, — a power which 
being imparted to the faithful recipient makes him to be "of the same body 
and the same blood with Christ," thereby assuring him of the resurrection 
of the body to eternal life, and at the same time strengthening and 



73 

refreshing the soul by its being united through faith with the Word, and 
being thus made "partaker of the Divine nature." 

This is not the language of the Western Church, whether Roman, Lutheran, 
or Anglican, but it is the language of the earliest Greek Fathers, and of 
Cyril, as is partly and reluctantly admitted by so cautious a writer as Dr. 
Waterland. After referring to the passage quoted above from Justin Martyr 
(Apol. i. 66) he proceeds: "There is another the like obscure hint in 
Irenaeus, which may probably be best interpreted after the same way. he 
supposes the elements to become Christ's body by receiving the word 
(Word). He throws two considerations into one, and does not distinguish 
so accurately as Origen afterwards did between the symbolical food and 
the true food." The elements, Waterland adds, "are made the representative 
body of Christ; but they are at the same time, to worthy receivers, made 
the means of their spiritual union with Christ Himself; which Irenaeus 
points at in what he says of the bread's receiving the Logos, but should 
rather have said it of the communicants themselves, as receiving the 
spiritual presence of Christ, in the worthy use of the sacred symbols." 

Again, in c. vii., he says more explicitly of Irenaeus, what is equally true of 
Cyril; "Least of all does he favor the figurists or memorialists; for his 
doctrine runs directly counter to them almost in every line: he asserts over 
and over, that Christ's body and blood are eaten and drunk in the 
Eucharist, and our bodies thereby fed; and not only so, but insured 
thereby for a happy resurrection: and the reason he gives is, that our 
bodies are thereby made or continued members of Christ' s body, flesh, and 
bones." 

From this view of Cyril's doctrine concerning the Sacramental elements we 
can easily understand in what sense he applies the terms "type" and 
"antitype" to the Eucharistic elements. "The Sacrament of the Holy 
Eucharist having two parts, an outward and an inward, and the outward 
part having been instituted by our Blessed Lord with a certain relation to 
the inward, and gifted with a certain significance of it, nothing is more 
natural than that the titles, type, antitype, symbol, figure, image, should 
be given to the outward part." Add to this that, according to Cyril's 
doctrine as already explained, the bread after the Invocation, without 
ceasing to be bread, not only signifies but also is the body, and we see how 



74 

natural it was for him to say in one passage that "His Body bore the figure 
of bread," and in another that "in the figure of bread the Body is given." 
The Body which "is given" cannot be an absent Body of our Lord, but 
must be that Sacramental Body, of which Cyril goes on to say in the same 
sentence that it is "distributed to our members." Thus the Bread broken is 
a type or figure of Christ' s Body as crucified for us and by virtue of its 
union with Cyril's words, "of the same body and same blood with 
Christ." 

Another term applied by Cyril and other Greek Fathers to the sacramental 
elements is "antitype." 

In Mystag. ii. 6, where Baptism is called "the counterpart (ocvxix^Ttov) of 
Christ's sufferings," the meaning is clearly explained by the context: for in 
5 the reality of Christ's sufferings is emphatically and repeatedly 
contrasted with the figurative representation of the same; and this 
figurative representation no less emphatically contrasted with the real and 
actual bestowal of the grace of salvation: ev e'ikovi f| u.ijxr|ai<; ev 
6cXr|9eia 8e f| acoxr|pia, . . . . 'ivoc xf| u.i|xr|a£i xcov 7ta9r|(j,dcTcov 
7ta9r|uxxTcov amou KoivcovriaavTec;, 6cXr|9eia xr\\ acoi;r|piav 
KepSriacopev. 

We have thus a clear distinction of 
(1.) the 'res sacramenti,' Christ's Death and Resurrection, 
(2.) the 'sacramentum' or 'sign,' the outward form of Baptism, and 
(3.) the 'virtus sacramenti,' our real participation in the benefits of 
Christ's Passion, "a death unto sin, and a new birth unto righteousness." 

Thus, as Cyril adds at the end of the section, Baptism "has the fellowship 

by representation of Christ's true sufferings," it is the spiritual 

counterpart in us of that which was actual in Him. 

In Mystag. iii. 1, speaking of the Chrism, Cyril says, "Now ye have been 
made Christs (Xpiao'i) by receiving the antitype of the Holy Ghost, and 
all things have been wrought in you by imitation, because ye are images of 
Christ:" and again, "there was given to you by imitation, because ye are 
images of Christ:" and again, "there was given to you an Unction, the 
antitype of that wherewith Christ was anointed, and this is the Holy 
Ghost." 



75 

Here again we have 
(1.) the 'res sacramenti,' the anointing of Christ with the Holy ghost at 
His Baptism, 

(2.) the sacramental sign or figure, the anointing of the baptized, and 
(3.) the spiritual benefit received in the gift of the Holy Ghost, for, as 
Cyril adds at the end of 3, "while Thy body is anointed with the visible 
ointment, thy soul is sanctified by the Holy and Life — giving Spirit." 
In these passages we see a distinction between ivnoc, and aWnvnoq. The 
former is simply the outward sign or figure; the latter includes with the 
sign the spiritual counterpart in us of the thing signified, the benefits of 
Christ's Passion in the one case, the gift of the Holy Ghost in the other. 

It only remains to inquire whether there is the same distinction in the 
meaning of the words as applied to the Holy Eucharist. 

In Mystag. v. 20, Cyril informs us that during the Administration the 
words, "O taste and see that the Lord is good," were sung: and in reference 
to that passage he adds, "In tasting we are bidden to taste not bread and 
wine, but the antitypical Body and Blood of Christ." To taste "the 
antitypical Body" is therefore to taste "that the Lord is good," whence it 
clearly follows that "the antitypical Body" is not the mere sign or figure of 
Christ' s own natural Body, but the sacramental and spiritual counterpart 
of it, by which those who faithfully receive it are so united to Him, that 
their spirit, and soul, and body, are to be preserved entire without blame at 
His coming. 



76 



CHAPTER 8 



PlaceofS. Cyril's Lectures. 

We have seen in a passage already quoted that at Milan S. Ambrose 
expounded the Creed to Catechumens in the Baptistery. But whatever 
may have been the custom in other places, it is certain from numerous 
passages in Cyril's Lectures that they were delivered in the great Basilica, 
or Church of the Resurrection, built by Constantine in the site of the Holy 
Sepulcher, and consecrated, as we have seen, with great splendor in the 
year 335. In a passage where Cyril is speaking of the descent of the Holy 
Ghost on the day of Pentecost, he says, "as we discourse on Christ and 
Golgotha here in Golgotha, so it were most fitting that we should also 
speak concerning the Holy Ghost in the Upper Church; yet since He who 
descended there jointly partakes of the glory of Him who was crucified 
here, we here speak concerning Him also who descended there." It appears 
from a passage in the Introductory Lecture that it was delivered in the 
Church itself before the whole congregation, after that portion of the daily 
Service to which Catechumens were usually admitted: "Dost thou behold 
this venerable constitution of the Church? Doest thou view her order and 
discipline, the reading Scripture, the presence of the Ordained, the course 
of instruction?" The same custom was retained in Jerusalem in the time of 
John, Cyril's successor in the Bishopric, who in writing to Jerome says, 
"The custom with us is that we deliver the doctrine of the Holy Trinity 
publicly during forty days to those who are to be baptized." 

The Mystagogic Lectures were delivered not in The Church, but after the 
conclusion of the public Service "in the Holy Place of the Resurrection 
itself," that is, in the small Chapel which contained the Holy Sepulcher, 
and to which the name "Anastasis" more properly belong. Happily we are 
not required by the purpose of this work to enter into the disputed 
questions concerning the Holy Places. Whether the cave re — fashioned 
and adorned by Constantine was the actual Sepulcher in which our Lord's 
body was laid and whether the present Churches occupy the same site as 
the Basilica and Anastasis of Constantine, are matters still under 



77 

discussion, and awaiting the result of further researches. What more 
properly concerns us is to collect the chief passages in which Cyril refers 
to these localities, and to try to give a fair representation of his testimony, 
comparing it with that of earlier or contemporary writers. 

Next to Eusebius, and the Bordeaux Pilgrim who visited Jerusalem in 333, 
Cyril is the earliest and most important witness as to the site of 
Constantine's Churches. 

In Cat. xiv. 5, he says, "It was a garden where He was crucified. For 
though it has now been most highly adorned with royal gifts, yet formerly 
it was a garden, and the signs and the remnants of this remain." From this 
it is evident that the traces of a garden close to the Church were still visible 
both to Cyril and his hearers. Twice again in 1 1 he mentions the garden, 
which he had most probably himself seen in its former state, before the 
ground was cleared at the time of the recovery of the Holy Sepulcher in 
326. 

On this point it may be well to quote the words of Mr. Walter Besant, 
Honorary Secretary of the Palestine exploration Fund, who, in an article 
on "The Holy Sepulcher" in the Dictionary of Christian Antiquities, writes 
as follows: "While the temple of Venus with its foundations was being 
cleared away, there might have been, and most probably was present, a 
Christian lad, native of Jerusalem, eleven years of age, watching the 
discovery, which did as much as the great luminous cross which appeared 
in the sky four (? twenty — four) years later to confirm the doubtful and 
strengthen the faithful, that of the rock containing the sacred tomb. It was 
Cyril, afterwards Bishop of Jerusalem. One must not forget that sacred 
tomb. It was Cyril, afterwards Bishop of Jerusalem. One must not forget 
that he is the third eye — witness who speaks of these things; that though 
he was a boy at the time of the discovery, he lived in Jerusalem, and must 
have watched, step by step, the progress of the great Basilica; that he was 
ordained before the completion and dedication of the buildings, and that 
many, if not all, of his lectures were delivered in the Church of the 
Anastasis itself." 

That Cyril's testimony concerning the Holy places was in full accordance 
with the general belief of his contemporaries is clear from the fact that he 
so frequently points to the traditional sites bearing witness to the truth of 



78 

the Crucifixion and Resurrection, he speaks of Golgotha in eight separate 
passages, sometimes as near to the Church in which he and his hearers are 
assembled, and sometimes as standing up above in their sight. In one place 
he asks, "Seest thou this spot of Golgotha?" and the hearers answer with a 
shout of approval. In other passages he speaks as if the Church itself was 
in or rather on Golgotha, the same Preposition (ev) being repeated when he 
mentions "Him who was crucified thereon." 

In explanation of these different modes of speaking, the Benedictine Editor 
comments thus: "The Church of the Resurrection was built on part of the 
hill Golgotha (intramontem G.): but the actual rock on which our Lord was 
crucified was not within the limits of the Church, yet not far off, namely 
about "a stone's throw," as the author of the Jerusalem Itinerary says. 
For the Church had been built on the site of the Sepulcher. Some think that 
the place of Crucifixion was included in the vast area which was enclosed 
with colonnades between the Sepulcher and the Basilica, . . . that Golgotha 
was midway between the Basilica of the Crucifixion, and the Anastasis or 
Sepulcher. But the area in question Constantine paved with stones, and it 
must therefore have been flat, as we learn from Eusebius; Golgotha, on the 
contrary, stood up high, and moreover shewed a cleft made there at 
Christ' s death, which would either have been a hindrance to the paving or 
covered up by it. In addition to this, from the doors of the Basilica there 
seems to have been a view of the Sacred Tomb. This would have been 
obstructed if Golgotha had been between them." 

The cleft in the rock of Golgotha is mentioned in a fragment of the defense 
made before Maximinus in 31 1 or 312 by Lucian the Martyr of Antioch: 
"If yet you believe not, I will also offer you the testimony of the very 
spot on which the thing was done. The place itself in Jerusalem vouches 
for these facts, and the rock of Golgotha broken asunder under the weight 
of the Cross: that cave also, which when the gates of hell were burst, gave 
back the Body in newness of life" On this passage Dr. Routh remarks that 
Maundrell, Journey from Aleppo to Jerusalem, at Easter, 1697, "shews 
that the rock had been rent not by any instrument, but by the force of an 
earthquake. Also it is related by Eusebius in hisTheophania, a book now 
recovered, that there was one cave only in this cleft of the rock." 



79 

According to Eusebius in the passages of the Life of Constantine already 
referred to, the Emperor first beautified the monument or Sepulcher with 
rare columns, the paved with finely polished stone a large area open to the 
sky, and enclosed on three sides with long colonnades, and lastly erected 
the Church itself "at the side opposite to the cave, which was the Eastern 
side." 

The following is the statement of the Bordeaux Pilgrim: "From thence (the 
Palace of David) as you go out of the wall of Sion walking towards the 
gate of Neapolis, on the right side below in the valley are walls where the 
house or Praetorium of Pontius Pilate was: here our Lord was tried before 
His Passion. On the left hand is the little hill (monticulus) of Golgotha, 
where the Lord was crucified. About a stone's throw from thence is a 
vault (crypto) wherein His body was laid, and rose again on the third day. 
There by command of the Emperor Constantine has now been built a 
Basilica, that is to say, a Church of wondrous beauty, having at the side 
reservoirs (exceptoria) from which water is raised, and a bath behind in 
which infants are washed (baptized)." Neapolis was the name given by 
Vespasian to the ancient city of Shechem, now Nabulus: the "porta 
Neapolitana" therefore was sin the North wall of Sion. 

In reference to the passage quoted above, Mr. Aubrey Stewart says: "The 
narrative is clear and connected, and it is hardly possible, for any one who 
knows the ground, to read it without feeling that the Pilgrim from 
Bordeaux actually saw Constantine' s buildings standing on the site now 
occupied by the Church of the Holy Sepulcher." 

From these earlier testimonies, compared with the several passages already 
quoted from Cyril, we may safely draw the following inferences. 
(1.) The Anastasis properly so called, or Church of the Holy Sepulcher, 
in which the five Mystagogic Lectures were delivered, was built by 
Constantine over the cave which, according to the evidence then existing, 
was fully believed to be the Burial — place of our Lord. 
(2.) The Great Basilica, called also the Church of the Holy Cross, in 
which the Catechetical Lectures were delivered was erected on the East 
of the Anastasis, and separated from it by a large open area. 
(3.) The hill of Golgotha (on which at a later period there was built a 
third Church, called the Church of Golgotha, of Holy Calvary, or of 



80 



Cranium) stood about a stone's throw on the North side of 
Constantine's two Churches, and about equidistant from them. 



81 



CHAPTER 9 



The Time and Arrangement of S. Cyril's Lectures. 

1. The Year. The incidental notes of time in the Catechetical Lectures are 
sufficient to determine with considerable probability the exact year in 
which they were delivered. 

The Cat. xiv. 14, Cyril speaks in the Plural of the Emperors then reigning 
(oi vuv fiaoiXeic) as having completed the building (e^eipydaavTo) and 
embellishment of the great Church of the Resurrection. This can only 
apply to the sons of Constantine, Constans and Constantius; and as 
Constans died early in 350, the Lectures must have been delivered before 
that year. 

In Cat. xv. 6, Cyril asks, "Is there at this time war between Persians and 
Romans, or no?" The time thus indicated was apparently that of the 
campaign which ended in the disastrous defeat of Constantius at Singara, 
348, the battle being soon followed by a suspension of hostilities. 

The Benedictine Editor tries to find another proof of the date of the 
Lectures in Cyril's description of the state of the Church in Cat. xv 7: "If 
thou hear that Bishops advance against Bishops, and clergy against clergy, 
and laity against laity, even unto blood, be not troubled." Touttee refers 
this account to the fierce dissensions which followed the Synod of Sardica, 
where Athanasius and Marcellus were declared innocent and received into 
communion, while the Encyclical to the dissentient Bishops, who had 
withdraw to Philippopolis, condemned them both. But it is now 
ascertained that the Synod of Sardica was held not in 347, as Touttee 
supposed, but in 344: and Cyril's description may unhappily be applied 
to the state of the Church at almost any time from the Council of Tyre, by 
which Athanasius had been deposed in 335, until long after any date which 
can possibly be assigned to Cyril's Lectures. 

There is a much more definite note of time in Cat. vi. 20, where speaking 
of Manes outbreak of this heresy is to be dated from the famous 



82 

disputation between Archelaus and Manes in 277, it follows that Cyril 
must have made this statement in 347 or 348. And further, if Dr. 'Routh' 
is correct in fixing this date of the Disputation between July and December 
277, the Lent in which the Lectures were delivered must have been, as 
Touttee decides that of 348, not of 347, as Tillemont had supposed. 

2. The days. It is expressly stated by Sozomen that "the interval called 
Quadragesima" was made to consist of six weeks in Palestine, "whereas it 
comprised seven weeks in Constantinople and the neighboring provinces. 

It is certain the Catechetical Lectures i.-xviii. were all delivered in these six 
weeks, being preceded by the Procatechesis, which was addressed to the 
candidates before the whole congregation at the public Service on Sunday. 
In the same context Cyril says, "Thou hast forty days for repentance." 
and again in Cat. i. 5. "Hast thou not forty days to be free for thine own 
soul's sake?" It thus appears probable that the first of the eighteen 
Catechetical Lectures was delivered on the Monday of the first week of 
the Fast, the forty days being completed on the night preceding the Great 
Sabbath, that is to say, the night of Good Friday, when the fast was 
brought to an end at a late hour. 

With regard to the date of Cat. iv., which contains a brief preliminary 
statement of all the articles of the Creed, we may obtain some evidence 
from an incident recorded in a letter of Jerome to Pammachius. John, who 
had then succeeded Cyril as Bishop of Jerusalem, had on a certain occasion 
discoursed on the Creed and all the doctrines of the Church in the presence 
of Epiphanius and the whole congregation. Jerome, being ignorant of the 
peculiar custom of the Church of Jerusalem, rebukes the supposed 
presumption of the Bishop, "that a man deficient in eloquence should in 
one discourse in Church discuss all the doctrines concerning the Trinity, 
the Incarnation, the Crucifixion, the descent into hell, the nature of angles, 
the state of departed souls, the Resurrection of Christ, and of ourselves, 
and other subjects.: The rebuke calls out a statement from John: "The 
custom among us is that for forty days we publicly deliver the doctrine of 
the holy and Adorable Trinity to those who are to be baptized." This 
being the custom at Jerusalem in Cyril's time, we may conjecture that Cat. 
iv., which corresponds closely to the description of John's discourse, was 
delivered, like that, on a Sunday before the whole congregation: and this is 



83 

in fact suggested by Cyril's own words in 3: "Let those here present, 
whose habit of mind is mature, and who have their senses already 
exercised to discern good and evil, endure patiently to listen to things 
fitted rather for children." That this could not have been later than the 
Sunday following that on which the Procatechesis was delivered, is shewn 
by the mention in the same section of "the long interval of the days of all 
this holy Quadragesima, an expression which could not well have been 
used later than the second Sunday in Lent. 

In Cat. iv. 32, Cyril speaks of having discoursed on Baptism "the day 
before yesterday," that is, on the Friday. 

In Cat. v. we have first a discourse on the nature of faith, and then towards 
the end, between 12 and 13, the actual words of the Creed are for the first 
time recited by Cyril to the candidates alone. In the next four Lectures 
there are no marks of time, except that vi., vii., viii., were delivered on 
successive days, as is proved by the word "yesterday" (xf| %9e<; fipepoc) 
in vii. 1, an viii. 1. It thus appears probable that the five Lectures, v.-ix., 
belong to the five days, Monday to Friday inclusive, of the second or third 
week. 

In Cat. x. 14 Cyril reminds his hearers that he had preached on the words 
after the order of Melchizedek at the public Service on the Lords day. As 
he does not here employ his usual phrase "yesterday," we may infer that 
Cat. x. was delivered not earlier than the Tuesday following the 4 th Sunday 
in Lent, the Epistle for that Sunday in the Eastern Church being Hebrew 
6: 13-20, which ends with the words on which Cyril had preached. The 
next two Lectures followed Cat. X. immediately on successive days, 
Wednesday and Thursday, the word "yesterday" recurring in xi. 1, and xii. 
4. 

Cat. xiii., which is occupied with the Crucifixion and Burial, seems to have 
followed them immediately on the Friday: it certainly came a few days 
only before Cat. xiv. 1. For speaking there of the preceding Lecture, Cyril 
says, "I know the sorrow of Christ's friends in these past days; because, 
as our discourse stopped short at the Death and the Burial, and did not tell 
the good tidings of the Resurrection, your mind was in suspense to hear 
what you were longing for." Now we know that Cat. xiv. was delivered on 
the Monday after Passion Sunday: for the Epistle for that 5 th Sunday in 



84 

Lent was Hebrew 6: 1 1-14, referring to the Ascension: and in 24 Cyril 
says, "The grace of God so ordered it, that thou heardest most fully 
concerning it, so far as our weakness allowed, yesterday on the Lord's 
day, since by the providence of divine grace the course of the Readings 
(dvayvcooumcov) in Church included the account of our Savior's going up 
into the heavens." 

In Cat. xv. there is no note of time to determine on what day it was 
spoken; but in 33 Cyril speaks as if his course of teaching was to be 
interrupted for a little while: "If the grace of God should permit us, the 
remaining. Articles also of the Faith shall be in good time (koct6c Kocipov) 
declared to you." We may therefore assign Cat. xv. to the early part of 
Passion week ,and the three remaining Catechetical Lectures to the week 
before Easter. This arrangement seems to be confirmed by Cat. xvii. 34, 
where Cyril speaks of the two Lectures on the Holy Spirit, xvi. and xvii., 
as "these present Lectures," distinguishing them from "our previous 
discourses." In the same section he refers to "the fewness of the days," 
and in 20 speaks of "the holy festival of the Passover" as being close at 
hand. We may therefore probably assign xvi. and xvii. to two consecutive 
days in the earlier part of the week before Easter. 

Cat. xviii. contains many indications from which we may conclude with 
certainty that it was delivered either on the night of Good Friday, or in the 
early hours of the morning of the "Great Sabbath." Thus in 17 he speaks 
of "the weariness caused by the prolongation (vnepQeaecoq) of the fast of 
the Preparation (Friday), and the watching." In 21 he calls upon the 
Candidates to recite the Creed, which he had dictated to them, and which 
they would be reguired to repeat more publicly immediately before their 
Baptism, as we learn from 32: "Concerning the holy Apostolic Faith 
which has been delivered to you to profess (ei<; ercocyyeXiocv), we have 
spoken through the grace of the Lord as many Lectures as was possible in 
these past days of Lent. . . . But now the holy day of the Passover is at 
hand, and ye, beloved in Christ, are to be enlightened by the washing of 
regeneration. Ye shall therefore again be taught what is requisite if God so 
will; with how great devotion and order you must enter in when 
summoned, for what purpose each of the holy mysteries of Baptism is 
performed, and with what reverence and order you must go from Baptism 
to the holy altar of God, and enjoy its spiritual and heavenly mysteries." 



85 

The additional instructions here promised were to be given on the same 
day as the last Lecture, Cat. xviii., that is on Easter Eve immediately 
before Baptism. For it was forbidden to reveal the mysteries of Baptism, 
Chrism, and the Holy Eucharist to the uninitiated, and yet it was 
necessary that the Candidates should not come wholly unprepared to 
perform what would be required of them. The full explanation of the 
various ceremonies and of the doctrines implied in them was reserved for 
the Mystagogic Lectures, which were to be delivered on Easter Monday 
and the four following days, after the public Service, not in the great 
Basilica, but in the Holy Sepulchre itself. 

3. Arrangement. The Lectures of S. Cyril have a peculiar value as being the 
first and only complete example of the course of instruction given in the 
early centuries to Candidates seeking admission to the full privileges of the 
Christian Church. "The Great Catechetical Oration" of Gregory of Nyssa 
is addressed not to the learner but to the teacher, in accordance with the 
opening statement of the Prologue, that "The presiding ministers of the 
mystery of godliness have need of a system in their instructions, in order 
that the Church may be replenished by the accession of such as should be 
saved, through the teaching of the word of Faith being brought home to the 
hearing of unbelievers." As an instruction to the Catechist how he should 
refute the opponents of Christianity, it is an apologetic work rather than a 
Catechism. S. Augustine's treatise De catechizandis rudibus is also 
addressed to the teacher, being an answer to Deogratias, a Deacon of 
Carthage, who on being appointed Catechist had written to Augustine for 
advice as to the best method of discharging the office. S. Augustine's single 
addresses to catechumens consisting of brief comments on a few chief 
articles of the Creed. Cyril's Lectures thus remain unique in character. 

After the Procatechesis, which is simply an introductory exhortation to 
the newly admitted Candidates, he devotes three Lectures to the need of a 
sincere purpose of mind, the efficacy of repentance, and the general nature 
and importance of Baptism. The fourth Lecture gives "a short summary of 
necessary doctrines," stating with admirable clearness and brevity ten chief 
points of the Faith, and the arguments on each point, which are to be 
developed in the remaining Catechetical Lectures v. — xviii. He thus 
traverses the whole ground of Theology as expressed in the Creed of 
Jerusalem, of which the exact language is given in the titles of the 



86 

successive Lectures. These instructions to the Tlluminandi' 
((pcoxi^o(j,evcov) were followed on Easter — day by the administration of 
Baptism, Chrism, and Holy Communion: and on the following days of 
Easter — week the ceremonies and doctrines proper to each of these 
Sacraments were explained in the five Lectures on the Mysteries 
(Mvaxaycoy'iai) to the newly — baptized (rcpcx; xohc, NeocpcoTiaxotx;). 
These Mystagogic Lectures thus form a most important record of the 
Sacramental Rites and Doctrines of the Eastern Church in the fourth 
Century, the most critical period of Ecclesiastical History. 



87 

CHAPTER 10 

The Creed of Jerusalem: Doctrine of The Holy Trinity. 



1. The Creed. The ancient Creed which was used by the church of 
Jerusalem in the middle of the fourth Century, and which Cyril expounded 
in this Catechetical Lectures, was recited by him to the Catechumens at 
the end of the fifth Lecture, to be committed to memory, but not to be 
written out on paper. Accordingly it is not found in any of the MSS., but 
instead of it the Nicene Creed with the Anathema is there inserted in 
Codd. Roe, Casaub. This could only have been added after Cyril's time, 
when the motives for secrecy had ceased. 

The Creed which Cyril really taught and expounded may be gathered from 
various passages in the Lectures themselves, and especially from the Titles 
prefixed to them. 

With the Creed of Jerusalem thus ascertained, it will be instructive to 
compare the Nicene formula, and for this purpose we print them in 
parallel columns. 



88 



CREED OF S. CYRIL OF JERUSALEM 

niaxeiSo(xev ei<; evoc 6ebv 
Ilaxepa IlavxoKpdxopa 
IIoir|xf|v crupavcru koci yf|<; 
Opaxrov xe rcavxcov koci aKopdxcov 

Kai ei<; eva Kupiov Ir|oo\)v Xpiaxbv 

xbv Yixo-u Qeoh 

xbv Movoyevf|, 

xbv eK xoh IIaxpb<; yevvr|9evxa 

6ebv d^r|9ivbv 

nob rcavxcov xcov a'icovcov 

81 oh xd rcdvxa eyevexo, 

xbv aapKcoGevxa Kai evavGpcojtfiaavxa 

axat)pco9evxa Kaixacpevxa 

Kai dvaaxdvxa eK veKpcov xf| xpixt] r\\iepa 

Kai dve^Gbvxa eiq xoix; ohpavohq 

Kai KaGiaavxa ek Se^kbv xo-u Ilaxpcx; 

Kai TtdXiv ep%bjj,evov ev 8b^r| 

Kpivai C,&\xaq Kai veKpotx; 

oh xf|<; fiaoiXeiaq ouk eoxai z'eXoc, 

Kai ei<; ev dyiov rive-uixa 

xbv napaKXr|xov, 

xb XaXf|aav ev xoic; Ttpocpiycaic; 

Kai e\q ev pdrcxiajxa (j,exavoia<; ei<; dcpeaiv d(j,apxicov 
Kai ei<; jxiav dyiav Ka9o^iKT|v eKK^r|oiav 
Kai ei<; aapKoq dvdoxaoiv 
Ka\e'i<; ^cof|v aicoviov 

CREED OF NICAEA 



From S. Athanasius, De Decretis Fidei Nicaenae. 



89 



niaxeiSo(xev ei<; eva 0ebv 
Ilaxepa TtavxoKpdxopa, 
Ttdvxcov bpaxcov xe 
koc\ dopdxcov 7toif|xr|v 

Kai ei<; eva Kupiov rnaoiiv Xpiaxov 

xbv Yibv xcu Qeov 

yevvnGevxa eK tov> IIaxpb<; jxovoyevf| 

xouxeaxiv eK xf|<; ovoiaq xot> IIaxpb<; 

0ebv ek ©ecu y&q eK (p&xoq. 0ebv dXnGivbv eK ©ecu 

dXnGivo'u 

yevvnGevxa ov> 7toir|9evxa, bjxoouaiov xcp Ilocxpi 

81 oi) xd rcdvxa eyevexo, 

xd xe ev xcp oupavcp Kai xd kn\ xr\q yf|<;, 

xbv Si r\\iaq xohq dvGpcorcoix; Kai Sid xf|v f|U.exepav 

Gcoxripiav 

KaxeXGbvxa Kai aapKcoGevxa evav0pco7tf|aavxa TtaGbvxa 

Kai dvaaxdvxa xf| xpixp. n.u.epa 

dveXGovxa eiq oupavoug 

Kai ep%6p,evov 

Kplvai ^covxa<; Kai veKpotx;, 



Kai ei<; xb dyiov ITve{)u.a. 

Toix; Se Xeyovxaq f|V rcoxe bxe ouk nv, Kai 7tp\v yevvr|0f|vai 
o\)K f|V Kai bxi k't, o\)K bvxcov eyevexo, n. e^ exepag 
tmoaxdaeax; r| ovaiaq cpdaKovxac; eivai rj Kxiaxbv r| xpercxbv 
r\ dXXoicoxbv xbv Yibv tov Qeov dvaGeuxxxi^ei r\ Ka6oXiKT| 
eKKXr|aia 



2. Doctrine of the Holy Trinity. The doctrinal position of S. Cyril is 
admirably described, and his orthodoxy vindicated by Cardinal Newman in 
the following passage of this Preface to the Lectures in the Library of the 
Fathers. "There is something very remarkable and even startling to the 
reader of S. Cyril, to find in a divine of his school such a perfect 
agreement, for instance as regards the doctrine of the Trinity, with those 
Fathers who in his age were more famous as champions of it. Here is a 
writer, separated by whatsoever cause from what speaking historically, 
may be called the Athanasian School, suspicious of its adherents, and 



90 

suspected by them; yet he, when he comes to explain himself, expresses 
precisely the same doctrine as that of Athanasius or Gregory, while he 
merely abstains from the particular theological term in which the latter 
Fathers agreeably to the Nicene Council conveyed it. Can we have a clearer 
proof that the difference of opinion between them was not one of 
ecclesiastical and traditionary doctrine, but of practical judgment? that the 
Fathers at Nicaea wisely considered that, under the circumstances, the 
word in question was the only symbol which would secure the Church 
against the insidious heresy which was assailing it, while S. Cyril, with 
Eusebius of Caesarea, Meletius and others shrank from it, at least for a 
while, as if an addition to the Creed, or a word already taken into the 
service of an opposite heresy, and likely to introduce into the Church 
heretical notions? Their judgment, which was erroneous, was their own; 
their faith was not theirs only, but shared with them by the whole 
Christian world." 

In regard to the doctrine of the Trinity in general the two great heresies 
which distracted the Church in S. Cyril's day were Sabellianism and 
Arianism, the one "confounding the Persons," the other "dividing the 
substance" of the indivisible Unity of the Godhead. Both these opposite 
errors Cyril condemns with equal energy: "Do thou neither separate the 
Son from the Father, nor by making a confusion believe in a Son — 
Fatherhood." Again he says: "Our hope is in Father, and Son, and Holy 
Ghost, we preach not three Gods: let the Marcionites be silenced: but with 
the Holy ghost through One Son we preach One God. the Faith is 
indivisible; the workshop inseparable. We neither separate the Holy 
Trinity, like some (that is the Arians); nor do we, as Sabellius, work 
confusion." "He says not, I am the Father but the Father is in Me, and I 
am in the Father. And again He said not, / and the Father am one, but / ad 
the Father are One, that we should neither separate them , nor make a 
confusion of Son — Father." 

In the sequel of this last passage Cyril proceeds to argue that this unity of 
the Father and the Son lies in their Nature, "since God begat God,: in their 
Kingdom, in their Will, and in their joint Creation, thus at each step 
rejecting some prominent heretical tenet. 



91 

The question, however, of Cyril's orthodoxy depends especially upon his 
supposed opposition to the Creed of Nicaea, of which no evidence is 
alleged except his attendance at the Council of Seleucia, and the absence 
from his Lectures of the word opoouoiov. 

The purpose of Cyril's attendance at Seleucia was to appeal against his 
deposition by Acacius, and there is apparently no evidence of his having 
taken part in the doctrinal discussions, or signed the Creed of Antioch. 
What is certain is that Cyril's bitterest enemies who refused to sit with 
him in the Council were Acacius and his Arian allies, who expressly 
rejected both opocuoioc, and opoicuaiof; and "altogether denied the 
Nicene formula and censured the Council, while the others, who were the 
majority, accepted the whole proceedings of the suspicion." It thus 
appears that Cyril's friends at Seleucia were partly those who approved 
the word "Co — essential," and partly those of whom Athanasius speaks 
as "brothers, who mean what we mean, and dispute only about the word." 
It needed in fact the profound insight of an Athanasius to foresee that in 
the end that word must triumph over all opposition, and be accepted by 
the universal Church as the one true safeguard of the Christian Faith. 
Meanwhile it was the standard round which debate, and strife, and hatred, 
and persecution, were to rage for fifty years with unexampled fury. 

Was Cyril to be blamed, ought he not rather to be commended, for not 
introducing such a war — cry into the exposition of an ancient Creed, in 
which it had no place, the Creed of his commissioned to teach to the 
young Candidates for Baptism? 

But if we compare his doctrine with that of the Nicene formula, we shall 
find that, as Dr. Newman says, "His own writings are most exactly 
orthodox, though he does not in the Catechetical Lectures use the word 
opooijoiov." 

The first point to be noticed in the comparison is the use of the title "Son 
of God." For this Eusebius in his Creed hand substituted "Word of God." 
Athanasius explains the significance of the change: "Uniting the two titles, 
Scripture speaks of 'Son' in order to herald the natural and true offspring 
as human, in again indicating His essence it calls Him Word, and Wisdom, 
and Radiance; for from this we infer that the generation was impassable 
(6c7toc9e<;), and eternal, and becoming to God." 



92 

Cyril is here in full accord with Athanasius: in his Creed he found "Son of 
God," and in his exposition he states that the Father is "by nature and in 
truth Father of One only, the begotten Son:" "One they are because of the 
dignity pertaining to the Godhead, since God begat God:" "The Son then 
is Very Go d , having the Father in Himself, not changed into the Father." 
When he says that the Son is in all things like (ouxuc; ev rcaaiv) to Him 
who begat Him; begotten Life of Life, and Light of Light, Power of Power, 
God of God, and the characteristics of the Godhead are unchangeable 
(aTtocpdcXXocKTOi) in the Son," he is using in all good faith the very words 
of the orthodox Bishops at Nicaea, ouxnov xe koci aTtocpaXXocKxov 
ambv koctoc Ttavxa x& IIocTpi." 

The further significance which Athanasius ascribes to the title "Logos," is 
also expressed fully and repeatedly by Cyril: "Whenever thou hearest of 
God begetting, sink not down in thought to bodily things, nor think of a 
corruptible generation, lest thou be guilty of impiety." 

The "passionless generation," to which so much importance was attached 
at Nicaea and by Athanasius, is also asserted by Cyril when he says that 
God "became a Father not by passion (ov ndQei norcrip yevopevoc)." 
The eternal generation is most emphatically declared again and again: the 
Son, he says, "began not His existence in time, but was before all ages 
eternally and incomprehensibly begotten of the Father; the Wisdom, and 
the Power of god, and His Righteousness personally subsisting:" 
"Throughout His being (e£ curcep f|v), a being by eternal generation, He 
hold His royal dignity, and shares His Fathers seat." "Believe that of One 
God there is One Only — begotten son, who is before all ages God the 
Word; not the uttered word diffused into the air, nor to be likened to 
impersonal words; but the Word, the Son, Maker of all who partake of 
reason, the Word who heareth the Father, and Himself speaketh." 

The importance of such language is better understood when we remember 
that Marcellus, "another head of the dragon, lately sprung up in Galatia," 
entirely rejected the word "Begotten," as implying a beginning, and 
"contradicting the eternity of the Logos, so distinctly proclaimed by S. 
John." An eternal generation, as stated by Athanasius and others, was to 
him unimaginable. The Logos in His pre — existence was unbegotten, and 
could not be called Son, but only the Logos invested with human nature 



93 

was Son of God and begotten." These heretical opinions of Marcellus had 
been condemned in several Councils within a few years preceding Cyril's 
Lectures. 

The next supposed proof of Cyril's opposition to the Nicene doctrine is 
that he has to adopted in his Lectures the phrases "of the essence 
(o\)oioc<;) of the Father," and "of one essence (opocuaoiv) with the 
Father." This omission is the chief ground of the reproaches cast upon the 
memory of Cyril by the writers of Ecclesiastical History; for his he was 
described by Jerome as an Arian, and by Rufinus as a waverer, while his 
formal acceptance of the terms used at Nicaea is called by Socrates and 
Sozomen an act of repentance. By others he was denounced as' 
Apeiocvocppcov because he had addressed his letter to Constantius as "the 
most religious king," and never used the word opoouaiov in his Lectures. 

We shall be better able to estimate the justice of these reproaches, if we 
consider first the history of these words ovoia and 6poo\>aio<;, and the 
reasons which Cyril may have had for not employing them in the 
instruction of youthful Candidates for Baptism. 

It is strange to find that seven hundred years before the great controversy 
at Nicaea on the introduction of the word Ouaioc into the Creed, it had 
been the war — cry of almost as fierce a conflict between rival schools of 
philosophy. 

"There appears," says Plato in the person of the Eleatic stranger, "to be a 
sort of war of the giants going on between them because of the dispute 
concerning (ouaioc). Some of them are dragging all things down from 
heaven and from the invisible to earth, grasping rocks and oaks in their 
hands; for of all such things they lay hold, in obstinately maintaining that 
what can be touched and handled alone has being (eivoci), because they 
define 'being' and 'body as one; and if any one else says that what is not a 
body has being, they altogether despise him, and will hear of nothing but 
body. . . . Therefore their opponents cautiously defend themselves form 
above out of some invisible world, mightily contending that certain 
intelligible and incorporeal ideas are the true essence (ouaiocv)." 

It is apparently to this passage of Plato that Aristotle refers in describing 
the ambiguity of the word ouaioc: "Now Ooaioc seems to belong most 



94 

manifestly to bodies: wherefore animals and plants and their parts we say 
are ouaiai, also natural bodies as fire and water and earth and all such 
things, and all either parts of these, or products either of parts or the 
whole, as the heaven and its parts, stars, moon, and sun. But whether 
these are the only ouaiai or there are others of a different kind, is a 
matter of inquiry. Some think that the boundaries of bodies, as a surface, 
and a line and a point and a unit (u.ova<;), are oua'iai, even more so than 
body and solid. Further, one class of persons thanks that besides things 
sensible there is no ovaia, and another that there are many things, and 
these more enduring (aiSioc), as Plato thinks that the ideas (ei8r|) and the 
mathematical elements are two kinds of ovaia, and that the ovaia of 
sensible bodies is a third." 

In proceeding to define the term. Aristotle says that ovaia is used in four 
senses if not more: the essential nature (to t'i r\\ eivoci), the universal (to 
kocGoXov) the genus, and a fourth the subject (to t>7toKeiu.evov). Under 
this fourth sense he proceeds to discuss the application of the term 
(ovaia) to the matter, the form, and the resulting whole. Without going 
further we may see that the use of the word in philosophy was full of 
difficulty and ambiguity. 

The ambiguity is thus expressed by Mr. Robertson: "We may look at a 
concrete term as denoting either this or that individual simply (ToSe ti), 
or as expressing its nature, and so as common to more individuals than 
one. Now properly (7tpcoTco<;) ovaia is only appropriate to the former 
purpose. But it may be employed in a secondary sense to designate the 
latter, in this sense species and genera are SeuTepai ouaiai, the wider 
class being less truly ouaiGai than the former." Perhaps the earliest use of 
ovaia in Christian writings is in Justin M., where he describes the Logos 
as "having been begotten from the Father, by His power and will, but not 
by abscission (oototoutiv), as if the ovaia of the Father were divided, as 
all other things when divided and cut are no longer the same as before." His 
example was fire, from which other fires are kindled, while it remains 
undiminished and unchanged. According to Dr. Newman, ovaia here 
means "substance, or being." 

In Clement of Alexandria, ovaia means a "nature" common to many, for 
he speaks of the Gnostic Demiurge as creating an irrational soul 



95 

opoouoiov with the soul of the beasts;" and again as implanting in man 
"something co — essential (6u.ooijgiov) with himself, inasmuch as he is 
invisible and incorporeal; his essence (ouaiocv) he called "the breath of 
life," but the thing formed (popcpcoGev) became "a living soul," which in 
the prophetic Scriptures he confesses himself to be. Again in 42 of the 
same Fragment, according to the Valentinians, "the body of Jesus is co — 
essential (6u.oot>aiov) with the Church." 

So Hippolytus speaks of the Son Incarnate as being "at one and the same 
time Infinite God and finite Man, having the nature (cuoiocv) of each in 
perfection:" and again, "There has been effected a certain inexpressible and 
irrefragable union of the two (the Godhead and the Manhood) into one 
subsistence ("UTtoaxaaiv)." 

In Origen we find the two words ovaia (essence, or substance) and 
vnbaxaaiq (individual subsistence) accurately distinguished, quoting the 
description of Wisdom, as being the breath (octuAc;) of the power of God, 
and pure effluence (omoppoioc) from the glory of the Almighty, and 
radiance (6c7taijyaa(j,a) of the Eternal Light," he says that "Wisdom 
proceeding from Him is generated of the very substance of God," and adds 
that "these comparisons most manifestly shew that there is community of 
substance between Father and Son. For in effluence appears to be 
6u.oo\>aio<;, that is, of one substance with that body from which it is an 
effluence of vapor." 

On the other hand he writes, "We worship the Father of the Truth, and 
the Son who is the Truth, being in subsistence (i;f| "UTtoGTOcaei) two." On 
this passage Bishop Bull remarks: "The words vnocTaaiq and ovoia in 
ancient times were variously used, at least by the Christians. That is to 
say, sometimes vnoaxaoiq was taken by them for what we call ova'ia, 
and vice versa, ovoia for what we cailuTtoGTOCGK;: sometimes the 
ancients even before the Council of Nicaea used vnoaiaaic, for what we 
now call 'person' or 'subsistence.'" This Bishop Bull presently explains 
again as "an individual thing subsisting by itself, which in rational beings is 
the same as person." 

For examples of these interchanges of meaning, we may notice that the 
Synod of Antioch ( a.d . 269), in the Epistle addressed to Paul of Samosata 
before his deposition, speaking of the unity of Christ's Person, says that 



96 

"He is one and the same in His ougioc." On this passage Routh remarks 
that "The words ova'ia and (pvcic, are sometimes employed by the 
ancients for a personal sub stance, (persona subsistente), as is plainly 
testified by Photius." 

In the earlier part of the same Epistle the Son is described as "being before 
all ages, not in foreknowledge, but in essence and subsistence (ev ouaioc 
kou vnociaoei)." 

The confusion arising from the uncertainty in the use of these two words 
is well illustrated in the account which Athanasius himself gives of this 
same Synod of Antioch: "They who deposed the Samosatene, took Co — 
essential (6poo\>aio<;) in a bodily sense, because Paul had attempted 
sophistry and said, 'Unless Christ has of man become God, it follows that 
He is Co — essential with the Father; and if so, of necessity there are 
three essences (ovoiai), one of the previous essence, and the other two 
from it;' and therefore guarding against this they said with good reason, 
that Christ was not Co — essential (6u.oo\>giov)." Athanasius then 
explains on what grounds the Bishops at Nicaea "reasonably asserted on 
their part, that the Son was Co — essential" Athanasius himself states 
that, in giving this explanation of the rejection of opocuaiov by the 
Bishops who condemned the Samosatene, he had not their Epistle before 
him; and his statement, that Paul used the term not to express his own 
view, but to refute that of the Bishops, is thought to be opposed to what 
Hilary says, "Male opoouaiov Samosatenus confessus est: sed numquid 
melius Ariani negaverunt?" 

That the statement of Athanasius himself is not free from difficulty is 
clear from the way in which so great a Theologian as Bishop Hefele 
endeavors to explain it: "Athanasius says that Paul argued in this way: If 
Christ is 'Ojj,ooijgio<; with the Father, then three subsistence (pcoaioci) 
must be admitted — one first substance (the Father), and two more recent 
(the Son and the Spirit); that is to say, that the Divine Substance is 
separated into three parts." The logical subtlety of Paul was better 
understood by Basil the Great: "For in truth they who met together about 
Paul of Samosata found fault with the phrase, as not being distinct; for 
they said that the word 6u.ooijgio<; gave the idea of an ova'ia and of those 
derived from it, so that the title 6(j,ooTjaiov assigned theouaioc separately 



97 

to the subjects to which it was distributed: and this notion has some 
reason in the case of copper and the coins made from it; but in the case of 
God the Father, and God the Son, there is no substance conceived to be 
antecedent and superior to both: for to say and to think this surpasses all 
bound of impiety." 

The confusion arising from the uncertainty in the use of these words had 
been the cause of strife throughout the Christian Church for more than 
twenty years before the date of Cyril's Lectures; and though it was 
declared at the Council of Alexandria (362) to be but a controversy about 
words, it had long been and long afterwards continued to be a fruitful cause 
of dissension between men who, when forced to explain their meaning, 
were found to be in substantial agreement. That Cyril abstained from 
introducing into his elementary teaching terms so provocative of dangerous 
controversy, is a reason for commendation, not for censure. But if it is 
alleged that he denied or doubted or failed to assert the essential Godhead 
of the Son, the suspicion is unfounded and easily refuted. To the many 
passages already quoted concerning the eternal generation of the Son, it 
will be enough to add one single sentence which ought to dispel all doubt 
of this orthodoxy. "The Only — begotten Son, together with the Holy 
Ghost, is partaker of the Godhead of the Father (xf|<; 9e6ir|To<; xf|<; 
riocTppiKr|<; Xoivcovo<;)." The word chosen by Cyril to express the Divine 
Essence (0eoTr|<;) common to the three Persons of the Godhead is at least 
as appropriate as ouaioc. 

If we now look at the particular errors mentioned in the Anathema of the 
Nicene Council, we shall find that every one of them is earnestly 
condemned by Cyril. 

"Once He was not (Hv noxe oxe oijk f|v). This famous Arian formula is 
expressly rejected in Cat. xi. 17: "Neither let us say, There was a time 
when the Son was not," The eternity of the Son is asserted again and again, 
in reference, for instance, to His generation, His Priesthood, and His 
throne. 

"Before His generation He was not" (rcpiv yevvr|9f|voci ouk f|v). 
Compare with this Cyril's repeated assertions that "the Son is eternally 
begotten, by an inscrutable and incomprehensible generation," "The Son of 



98 

God before all ages, without beginning," that "time intervenes not in 
the generation of the Son from the Father's." 

"He came to be from nothing" (e^ ouk ovtcov eyevexo). Cyril's language 
is emphatic: "As I have often said, He did not bring forth the Son from 
non — existence (eK xo-u ur| ovtoc,) into being, nor take the non — 
existent into Sonship." 

"That He is of other subsistence or esence" (e^ kxkpac, TJ7tooTOCGecoc; f^ 
ova'iaq). It is certain that Cyril has given no countenance to the error or 
errors condemned in this clause, but is in entire agreement with the 
Council. 

On the question whether vnzoaxaaiq and ovaia have in this passage the 
same or different meanings, see Bull, Def Fid. Nic. II. 9, 1 1, p. 314 (Oxf 
Ed.). Athanasius expressly states that they are perfectly equivalent: 
"Subsistence (vnooxaoiq) is essence (ovaia), and means nothing else but 
very being, which Jeremiah calls existence (vnap^ic,)." Basil distinguishes 
them, and is followed by Bishop Bull, whose opinion is controverted by 
Mr. Robertson in an Excursus on the meaning of the phrase, on p. 77 of 
his edition of Athanasius in this Series. The student who desires to pursue 
the subject may consult in addition to the works just named, and the 
authorities therein mentioned, Dr. Newman'sAraw of the Fourth 
Century, especially chap v. sect I. 3, and Appendix, note iv., on "the terms 
ova'ia and vnoaxaoic, as used in the early Church;" Mr. Robertson's 
Prolegomena, ch. ii 3 (b); and the Rev. H. A. Wilson's Prolegomena to 
Gregory of Nyssa, ch. iv., in this Series. 



99 



CHAPTER 11 



S. Cyril's Writings. 

1. List of Works. Besides the Catechetical and Mystagogic Lectures 
translated in this volume, the extant works of S. Cyril include 

(1.) the "Letter to the Emperor Constantius concerning the appearance 
at Jerusalem of a luminous Cross in the sky:" 
(2.) "The Homily on the Paralytic at the pool of Bethesda:" and 
(3.) Fragments of Sermons on the Miracle of the water changed into 
wine, and on John 16:28, "I go to My Father." 

Another work attributed by some authorities to Cyril of Jerusalem and by 
others to Cyril of Alexandria is a Homily De Occursu Domini, that is, On 
the Presentation of Christ in the Temple, and the meeting with Symeon, 
called in the Greek Church f| Y7toc7tocvT;r|. 

The other Fragments, and Letters mentioned in the Benedictine Edition 
have no claim to be considered genuine. 

2. Authenticity of the Lectures. The internal evidence of the time and place 
at which the Lectures were delivered has been already discussed in 
chapters viii. and ix., and proves beyond doubt that they must have been 
composed at Jerusalem in the middle of the fourth century. At that date 
Cyril was the only person living in Jerusalem who is mentioned by the 
Ecclesiastical Historians as an author of Catechetical Lectures: and S. 
Jerome, a younger contemporary of Cyril, expressly mentions the 
Lectures which Cyril had written in his youth. In fact their authenticity 
seems never to have been doubted before the seventeenth century, when it 
was attacked with more zeal than success by two French Protestant 
Theologians of strongly Calvinistic opinions Andrew Rivet {Critic. Sacr. 
Lib. iii. cap. 8, Genev. 1640), and Edmund Aubertin (De Sacramento 
Eucharistiae, Lib. ii. p. 422, Ed. Davent., 1654). Their objections, which 
were reprinted at full length by Milles at the end of this Edition, where 
directed chiefly against the Mystagogic Lectures, and rested on dogmatic 



100 

rather than on critical grounds. The argument most worthy of notice was 
that in a MS. of the Library of Augsburg the Mystagogic Lectures were 
attributed to John, Bishop of Jerusalem. This is admitted by Milles, who 
gives the title thus: MvoxaycoyiKai Kexr|%r|oei<; rcevxe Icoocvvoi) 
EmoKonov Iepooo^/uuxov, nep\ ^anTia\xaioq, %piajj,ocTO<;, gc6jj,octo<;, 
koci a'i\iaxoq Xpiaxo-u.. 

I do not find this Codex Augustinus mentioned elsewhere by any of the 
Editors under that name: but the Augsburg MSS. were removed to Munich 
in 1806, and in the older Munich MS. (Cod. Monac. I), the title of the first 
Mystagogic Lecture is Mvaxaycoyia Ttpcbxri Icodcvvoi) etziokotzov 
IepoaoXiSpcov. Also in Codd. Monac. 2, Ottobon. There is added at the 
end of the Title, to-u ouno-u RupiXXoi) koci Icodwoi) kmoKonov. 
Ottobon. there is added at the end of the Title. That John, Cyril's 
successor, did deliver Catechetical Lecture, we know from his own 
correspondence with Jerome: and this very circumstance may account for 
his name having been associated with, or substituted for that of Cyril. 

To Rivet's objection Milles makes answer that if the mistakes of a 
transcriber or the stumbling of an ignorant Librarian (imperiti Librarii 
caespitationes) have in one or two MSS. ascribed the Lectures to John or 
any one else, this cannot be set against the testimony of those who lived 
nearest to the time when the Lectures were composed, as Jerome and 
Theodoret. Also the internal evidence proves that the Lectures could not 
have been delivered later than the middle of the fourth century, whereas 
John succeeded Cyril about 386. 

Moreover it is quite impossible to assign the two sets of Lectures to 
different authors. In Cat xviii. 33 the author promises, as we have seen, 
that he will fully explain the Sacramental Mysteries in other Lectures to be 
given in Easter week, in the Holy Sepulchre itself, and describes the 
subject of each Lecture; to which description the Mystagogic Lectures 
correspond in al particulars. Other promises of future explanations are 
given in Cat. xiii. 19, and xvi. 26, and fulfilled in Myst. iv. 3, and ii. 6, and 
iii. 1. On the other hand the author of Myst. i. 9, after quoting the words, 
"I believe in the Father, and in the Son, and in the Holy ghost, and in one 
Baptism o repentance," adds, "Of which things I spoke to thee at length in 
the former Lectures. 



101 

By these and many other arguments drawn from internal evidence Touttee 
has shews convincingly that all the Lectures must have had the same 
author, and that he could be no other than Cyril. 

3. Early Testimony. Under the title "Veterum Testimonia de S. Cyrillo 
Hierosolymitano ejusque Scriptis," Milles collected a large number of 
passages bearing on the life and writings of which it will be sufficient to 
quote a few which refer expressly to his Lectures. 

S. Jerome, in his Book of Illustrious Men, or Catalogue of Ecclesiastical 
Writers, composed at Bethlehem about six years after Cyril's death, writes 
in Chapter 1 12: "Cyril, Bishop of Jerusalem, having been often driven out 
from the Church, afterwards in the reign of Theodosius held his Bishopric 
undisturbed for eight years: by whom there are Catechetical Lectures, 
which he composed in his youth." 

Theodoret, born six or seven years after the death of Cyril, in his 
Dialogues (p. 211 in this Series) gives the "Testimony of Cyril, Bishop of 
Jerusalem, from his fourth Catechetical Oration concerning the ten dogmas. 
Of the birth from a virgin, "Believe thou this, etc." 

Theophanes (575 circ.) Chronographia, p. 34, Ed. Paris, 1655, defends 
the orthodoxy of Cyril, as follows: "It was right to avoid the word 
6|j,ooijgioc;, which at that time offended most persons, and through the 
objections of the adversaries deterred those who were to be baptized, and 
to explain clearly the co — essential doctrine by words of equivalent 
meaning: which also the blessed Cyril has done, by expounding the Creed 
of Nicaea word for word, and proclaiming Him Very Go d o f Very God ." 

Gelasisus, Pope 492, De duabus in Christo naturis, quotes as form 
Gregory Nazianzen the words of Cyril, Cat. iv. 9: Ai7tXo-u<; r|v 6 Xpicnxx; 

K.T.X. 

Leontius Byzantinus (610 circ), Contra Nestor, et Eutychem, Lib. I. quotes 
the same passage expressly as taken "From the 4th Catechetical Oration of 
Cyril, Bishop of Jerusalem." 

Many other references to the Catecheses as the work of Cyril are given by 
Touttee, pp. 306-315. 

4. Editions. 



102 

1 . Our earliest information concerning the Greek text and translations 
of S. Cyril's Lectures is derived from John Grodecq, Dean of Glogau in 
Bohemia. 

From his statement it appears that Jacob Uchanski, Archbishop of 
Gnessen and Primate of Poland, had obtained from Macedonia a 
version of the Catecheses in the Slavonic dialect, and had translated it 
into the Polish language some years before 1560. 

2. In that year Grodecq himself published at Vienna an edition of the 
Mystagogic Lectures, thus described in the catalogue of the Imperial 
Library: — 

"S. Cyril's Mystagogic Lectures to the newly baptized, which now for 
the first time are edited in Greek and Latin together, that he who 
doubts the Latin may have recourse to the Greek, and he who does not 
understand Greek well may read the Latin, translated by John 
Grodecq." 

Nothing more is known of this edition: Fabricius, Milles, Touttee, and 
Reischl, all say that they have been unable to find any trace of it. 
Uchanski about this time sent to Grodecq his Slavonic and Polish 
versions, in order that they might be compared wit the Greek original. 
The result according to Grodecq was that the fidelity of both versions 
was clearly shewn, and "there could not possibly remain any doubt 
that these Lectures of Cyril are perfectly genuine." 

3. S. Cyrilli Hier, Catecheses ad Illuminandos et Mystagogicae. 
Interpretatus est Joannes Grodecius. Romae 1564. 8°. 

Grodecq had come to Rome in the suite of Stanislaus Hosius, Cardinal 
legate at the Council of Trent, who in the year 1562 had published in 
the Confession of Petricow the 4 th and part of the 3 rd Mystagogic 
Lectures from a Greek MS. belonging to Cardinal Sirlet. From this MS. 
Grodecq made his Latin translation, using also the work of Uchanski 
before mentioned. The preface is dated from Trent, on the 9 th of July, 
1563. the translation was published in the following year at Rome, 



103 

Cologne, Antwerp, and Paris, and often elsewhere until superseded by 
the new Latin Version of Touttee in the Benedictine Edition. 

4. In the same year, 1564, the Mystagogic Lectures and Catecheses iv., 
vi., viii. — x., xv., xviii. were published at Paris by William Morel, the 
King's Printer, under the following title: — 

"S. Cyrilli Hier. Catecheses, id est institutiones ad res sacras, Graece 
editae, ex bibliotheca Henrici Memmii, cum versione Latina. Cura Guil. 
Morellitt. Paris. G. Morel, 1464 4°min." 

The Greek text depending on de Mesme's one MS., and that mutilated 
and faulty, is said by Touttee to have many faults and omissions, but 
to have been nevertheless very useful to him in correcting the text. The 
MS. itself had entirely disappeared. The Latin version, appended to 
the copy in the Royal (National) Library at Paris, but not always 
attached to the Greek, is said by Touttee to be a careful and elegant 
version, independent of Grodecq's. 

A copy of Morel's Edition which formerly belonged to Du Fresne, 
containing various readings in the margin from two other MSS., was 
lent to Touttee from the Library of S. Genevieve (Genovef.). 

Reischl describes the MS. as "Cod. Mesmianus (Montf. I. 185). Sec. 
xi." 

5. "S. Cyrilli H. Catecheses Graece et Latine ex interpretatione Joan. 
Grodccii nunc primum editae, ex variis bibliothecis, praecipue 
Vaticana, studio et opera Joan. Prevotii. Paris. (Claude Morellus). 
1608." This was the first complete edition of the Greek text. Prevot, a 
native of Bordeaux, states in the Dedication to Pope Paul V., that by 
the help of MSS. "melioris notae" found in the Vatican, he had both 
corrected the text of the Lectures previously published by Morel, and 
carefully transcribed the rest. He made, according to Touttee, many 
useful emendations, but did not mention the number, age, nor various 
readings of MSS. employed. 



104 

"S Cyrilli Hier. Arch, opera quae supersunt omnia; quorum quaedam 
nunc primum ex Codd. MSS. edidit, reliqua cum Codd. MSS. contulit, 
plurimis in locis emendavit, Notisque illustravit Tho. Milles S.T.B. ex 
AEde Christi Oxoniae, e Theatro Sheldoniano, Impensis Richardi Sare 
Bibliopol. Lond. mdcciii." 

The author of this fine Edition gives us in his Preface the following 
description of his work: — 

"In the first place I wished to amend more thoroughly the text of J. 
Prevot, which, as I said, he himself largely corrected and supplied from 
M s s . in the Vatican, and which I have printed in this Edition: I have 
therefore compared it with all the other Editions that I could collect, 
and in this manner have easily removed many errors both of the 
printers and I could collect, and in this manner have easily removed 
many errors both of the printers and of Prevot himself. Afterwards I 
carefully compared all the Catecheses and the Epistle to Constantinus 
with two MSS. and some with three, namely iv., vi., viii., — x., xv., 
xvi., xviii. The first Codex, written on parchment apparently six 
hundred years ago, I found among those MSS. which Sir Tho. Roe, our 
first Codex, written on parchment apparently six hundred years ago, I 
found among those MSS. which Sir Tho. Roe, our first Ambassador 
from King James I. to the Great Mogul, brought from the east, and 
presented to the Bodleian Library. The second we owe to the diligence 
of Isaac Casaubon, who collated the Catecheses and epistle to 
Constantius with a MS. which he chanced to fine, I think, in some 
Library in France, and carefully noted all the various readings in the 
margin. This copy of Casaubon' s the Right Reverend Father in Christ, 
John Bishop of Norwich, very kindly lent to me out of his well — 
furnished Library, and of his great love for learning did not disdain to 
shew the highest favor to my slight endeavors." 

Touttee thinks that the MS. from which Casaubon drew his various 
readings was C. Roe itself, , or that one of the two Mss. had been 
copied form the other, or both from the same. 

7. :S. Cyrilli Arch. Hier. opera quae exstant omnia et ejus nomine 



105 

circumferuntur, ad Mss. codices necnon ad superiores Editiones 
castigata, Dissertationibus et Notis ellustrata, cum nova interpretatione 
et copiosis indicibus. Cura et studio Domni Antonii — Augustini 
Touttee, presbyteri et Monachi Benedictini e Congregatione S. Mauri. 
Paris. Typis Jac. Vincent. 1720, fol. (Recusa Venet. 1763)." 

Of the Greek text the Editor says, "I have collated it as carefully as I 
could with Grodecq's translation, Morel's and Prevot's Editions, and 
with MSS. to be found in this City. The various readings of the Roman 
Mss. I have obtained by the help of friends: those which Milles had 
collected from the English Codices I have adopted for my own use." 

8. "S. Cyrilli Hier. Arch. opp. quae supersunt omnia ad libros MSS. et 
impressos recensuit Notis criticis commentariis indicibusque 
locupletissimis illustravit Gulielm. Car. Reischl S. Th. D. et Reg. Lycei 
Ambergensis Professor. Vol. I. Monac. m dccc xlviil " 

The Editor says in his Preface that he has altered the Benedictine text 
only when the evidence was very weighty, and has then given all the 
various readings in the critical notes. The exegetical commentary was 
to be reserved for the 2 nd Volume, but this Dr. Reischl did not live to 
complete. 

The Prolegomena contain 

(1.) Touttee' s inordinately long "Life of Cyril," 

(2.) A Dissertation on the general character and authenticity of the 

Catecheses. and 

(3.) an "Apparatus Litterarius," to which I have been indebted. 

Vol. ii., containing Catecheses xii. — xviii., Myst. I. — v., and the other 
works, genuine and spurious, attributed to Cyril, was published by J. 
Rupp at Munich, 1860. 

The MSS used in revising the text of this, the best critical edition, will 
be noticed below. 

9. An Edition of the Catecheses only was published at Jerusalem in 



106 

1867, having been commenced in 1849 at the request of the 
Archbishop, Cyril II., by Dionysius Kleopas, Principal of the 
Theological School of Jerusalem, and, after his death in 1861, 
continued by his successor Photius Alexandrides, "Archdeacon of the 
Apostolic and Patriarchal See of Jerusalem, and Principal of the 
Theological School." 

The Editor gives in the Preface an interesting account of the life of 
Kleopas, and of the work which he left unfinished. 

5. Manuscripts. From the preceding account of the various Editions of S. 
Cyril we may obtain the following list of authorities which have been 
hitherto used in revising the Text. 

1. Codex Sirletianus, known only by Grodecq's Latin version, Rome, 
1564. Cf. 1.3. 

2. C. Mesmianus, known only in Morel's edition, Paris, 1564. Cf. 1. 4. 

3. Vatican MSS. used by Prevot. 1608, but not identified. Cf 1. 5. 

4. C. Roe, Bibl. Bodleian. Oxon. "Codex membranaceus in folio, ff. 
223, sec. xi., binis columnis bene exaratus;" [ol. 271]. 

5. C. Casaubon. On this and the preceding MS. see Milles as quoted 
above, 1. 6. 

6. C. Ottobonianus 

(1.) ol. Rom. iv. membran. sec. xi. "Continet Catecheses omnes et 
Epist. ad Constantium. Multas habet insignes ab editis 
varietates." C. Ottob. 
(2.), "Chartaceus et recens est, nihil fere ab editis discrepans." 

These are the Roman MSS. mentioned by Touttee. see above, 1. 7. 

7. C. Coislin. 227 (ol. 101). Membran. Saec. xi. circ. "From this came 
many important emendations" (Touttee, Notitia Codicum M.S.S.). 

In the descriptions of the following MSS. of the National Library at 
Paris there is so much discrepancy between Touttee and Reischl, that 
it is better to quote both. 

8. "Catecheses xii., xii., xiv., xv., comparavi cum Codice Reg. 
bibliothecae num. 2503 Scriptus est in bombycina charta an. 1231, 



107 

luam anni notam apposuit calligraphus" (Touttee, Not. Codd. MSS.). 
Reischl has no notice of a MS. at all answering to this description. 

9. Cod. Reg. alter, "ol. 1260, nunc 1824, qui S. Basilii opera 
complectitur, sub ejus nomine Procatechesin continet" (Touttee, Not. 
Codd. MSS.): aliter, "Cod. Reg. ol. 260, nunc 1284, pag. 254, 178 
duodecimi circiter est saeculi, in quo habetur Procatechesis haec sub 
nomine Procatechesin continet" (Touttee, Not. Codd. MSS.): aliter., 
"Cod. Reg. ol. 260, nunc 1284, pag. 254, qui duodecimi circiter est 
saeculi, in quo habetur Procatechesis haec sub nomine S. Basilii" (Id. 
Monit. in Procatechesin). 

"Cod. Reg. 467 (apud Toutteum, 1824) Fonteblandensis, chartac. fol. 
sec. x. Continet sub S. Basilii nomine Orationem de Baptismo, quae est 
S. Cyrilli Hier. Procatechesis. C. Reg. Touttei" (Reischl). 

10. "Cod. Reg. 969 (ol. Mazarin.) Epistolarum S. Basilii. 4°. Sec. xiv. 
Exhibet sub n. 7 Basilii homiliam quo (sic) ostenditur Deum ese 
incomprehensibilem, quae non S. Basilii, sed Cyrilli est Procatechesis" 
(Reischl). 

This description agrees in substance with Touttee' s. 

11. C. Colbert. "Catecheses iv., vi., viii., ix., x., xv., xviii., contuli cum 
cod. Colbert Biblioth. chartaceo et recenti 4863 notato ... In omnibus 
pene cum Morelliana editione consentit" (Touttee, Notitia Codd. 
MSS.). 

Reischl makes no mention of this MS. 

12. C. Colbert, alter, "membran, sign 1717, Sec. xiii. diversas Patrum 
homilias continet, et Cat. xiii. exhibet sub nomine Cyrillianae in 
Crucem et Porasceven homiliae" (Touttee. Notitia). 

This is described by Reischl as "Cod. Reg. 771 (ol. 1717) Colbertinus. 
Membran. fol. scculi xiii. — xiv." 



108 



The following MSS have been used in editions later than the 
Benedictine. 

13. "C. Monacensis I. 394 membran. fol., titulis et initialibus miniatis, 
f. 261 nitidissime unncialibus minutis circiter seculo decimo in Oriente 
scriptus." 

This was regarded both by Reischl and by Rupp as the most 
important authority for the text: it is much older than Codd. Roe, 
Casaub., and seems to be related to Codd. Ottobon. Coislin. 

C. Mon. 2 of the 16th Century is of little value. 

14. "C. Vindobonensis, 55, membran. fol antiquissimus, sed incerto 
saeculo" A full account is given by Rupp in the Preface to Vol. ii. It 
was collated by Joseph Muller, 1848, and contains all Cyril's 
Lectures, except the Procatechesis. 

15. Codex A, found by Kleopas in the Library of the Archbishop of 
Cyprus, and used as the basis of his text, sometimes stands alone in 
preserving the true reading. 

6. Versions. Besides the Latin Translations published with the Greek text, 
as mentioned above, Reischl mentions the first three of the following: — 

(a) Les catecheses de Sainct Cyrille. Traduit par Lousi Ganey. Paris, 
1564. 

(b) Cyrill's Schriften ubersetzt und mit Anmerkungen versehen von J. 
Mich. Feder Bamberg, 1786. 

(c) Cyrilli Hier Catecheses in Armen. Linguam versae. Viennae. 1832. 

(d) The Catechetical Lectures of S. Cyril, Archbishop of Jerusalem, 
Translated, with Notes and Indices (Library of Fathers of the Holy 
Catholic Church.) Parker, Oxford, 1838. See Preface. 

(e) S. Cyril on the Mysteries. (The five Mystagogic Lectures.) H. de 
Romestin. Parker, Oxford, 1887. 

(f) On Faith and the Creed. C. A. Heurtley, D.D., Margaret Professor 
of Divinity, and Canon of Christ Church, Oxford. Parker, 34d Ed., 



109 

1889. Contains, with other Treatises, the Fourth Catechetical Lecture 
of S.Cyril. 

In the present volume the translation given in the Oxford "Library of 
Fathers" has been carefully revised throughout. Where it has been found 
necessary to depart from the Benedictine text, the Editor has consulted the 
readings and critical notes of Milles, Reischl, and Rupp, and the Jerusalem 
edition of Kleopas and Anaxandrides. 

A few additions have been made to the Index of Subjects: the Indices of 
Greek Words and of Scripture Texts have been much enlarged, and 
carefully revised. For any errors which may have escaped observation the 
indulgence of the critical reader will not it is hoped, be asked in vain. 

E. H. G. 



110 
THE 

CATECHETICAL LECTURES 

OF 

S. CYRIL 

ARCHBISHOP OF JERUSALEM. 

CONTENTS 

Procatechesis, 
Or, Prologue to the Catechetical Lectures of our Holy Father, Cyril, 
Archbishop of Jerusalem. 

First Catechetical Lecture: — 
To those who are to be enlightened: with a Reading from Isaiah i 16. 

Lecture II. 
On Repentance and Remission of Sins, and Concerning the Adversary: 
Ezekiel xviii. 20-23. 

Lecture III. 
On Baptism: Romans 6:3, 4, 

Lecture IV. 
On the Ten points of Doctrine: Colossians 2:8. 

Lecture V. 
On Faith: Hebrews 11:1,2. 

Lecture VI. 
Concerning the Unity of God. On the words, I believe in one Go d . Also 
concerning Heresies: Isaiah 45:16, 17. (Sept.) 



Ill 

Lecture VII. 
The Father: Ephesians 3:14, 15. 

Lecture VIII. 
Almighty: Jeremiah 39:18, 19 (Sept.) 

Lecture IX.. 
On the words, Make of Heaven and Earth, and of all things visible 
and invisible: Job 38:2, 3. 
Appendix to Lecture IX. 

Lecture X. 
On the Words, And in one Lord Jesus Christ: 1 Corinthians 8:5, 6. 

Lecture I. 
On the words, The Only — Begotten Son of God, Begotten of the 
Father Very God before all ages, By Whom all things were 
made: Hebrews 1:1, 2. 

Lecture XII. 
On the words, Incarnate, and made Man: Isaiah 7:10-14. 

Lecture XIII. 
On the words, Crucified and buried: Isaiah 53:1-7. 

Lecture XIV. 
On the words, And rose again from the dead on the third day, and 

ASCENDED INTO THE HE A V EN S , AND SAT ON THE RIGHT HAND OF THE 

Father: 1 Corinthians 15:1-4. 

Lecture XV. 
On the words, And shall come in glory to judge THE quick and the 
dead; of whose kingdom there shall be no end: Daniel 7:9-14. 

Lecture XVI. 
On the words, And in one Holy Ghost, the Comforter , which spake 
inthe Prophets: 1 Corinthians 12:1-4. 

Lecture XVII. 
Continuation of the Discourse on the Holy Ghost: 1 Corinthians 12:8. 



112 

Lecture XVIII. 
On the words, And in One Holly catholic Church, And in the 
Resurrection of the Flesh, And the Life Everlasting: Ezekiel37:l. 

Lecture XIX. 
First Lecture on the Mysteries. With a Lesson from the First General 
Epistle of Peter 5:8-14. 

Lecture XX. 

On Baptism: Romans 6:3-14. 

Lecture XXI. 
On Chrism: 1 John 2:20-28. 

Lecture XXII. 
On the Body and Blood of Christ: 1 Corinthians 11:23. 

Lecture XXIII. 
On the Sacred Liturgy and Communion: 1 Peter 2:1. 

Indices: — Subjects. 

Greek Words. 
Texts of Scripture. 



113 

PROCATECHESIS, 

OR, 

PROLOGUE TO THE CATECHETICAL LECTURES 
OF OUR HOLY FATHER, 

CYRIL, ARCHBISHOP OF JERUSALEM 

1 . Already there is an odor of blessedness upon you, O ye who are soon 
to be enlightened: already ye are gathering the spiritual flowers, to weave 
heavenly crowns: already the fragrance of the Holy Spirit has breathed 
upon you: already ye have gathered round the vestibule of the King's 
palace; may ye be led in also by the King! For blossoms now have 
appeared upon the trees; may the fruit also be found perfect! Thus far 
there has been an inscription of your names, and a call to service, and 
torches of the bridal train, and a longing for heavenly citizenship, and a 
good purpose, and hope attendant thereon. For he lieth not who said, that 
to them that love God all things work together for good. God is lavish in 
beneficence, yet He waits for each man's genuine will: therefore the 
Apostle added and said, to them that are called according to a purpose. 
The honesty of purpose makes thee called: for if thy body be here but not 
thy mind, it profiteth thee nothing. 

2. Even Simon Magus once came to the Laver: he was baptized, but was 
not enlightened; and though he dipped his body in water, he enlightened 
not his heart with the Spirit: his body went down and came up, but his 
soul was not buried with Christ, nor raised with Him. Now I mention the 
statements of (men's) falls, that thou mayest not fall: for these things 
happened to them by way of example, and they are written for the 
admonition of those who to this day draw near. Let none of you be found 
tempting His grace, lest any root of bitterness spring up and trouble you. 
Let none of you enter saying, Let us see what the faithful are doing: let me 
go in and see, that I may learn what is being done. Dost thou expect to see, 
and not expect to be seen? And thinkest thou, that whilst thou art 
searching out what is going on, God is not searching thy heart? 



114 

3. A certain man in the Gospels once pried into the marriage feasts, and 
took an unbecoming garment, and came in, sat down, and ate: for the 
bridegroom permitted it. But when he saw them all clad in white, he ought 
to have assumed a garment of the same kind himself: whereas he partook 
of the like food, but was unlike them in fashion and in purpose. The 
bridegroom, however, though bountiful, was not undiscerning: and in going 
round to each of the guests and observing them (for his care was not for 
their eating, but for their seemly behavior), he saw a stranger not having on 
a wedding garment, and said to. him, Friend, how earnest thou in hither? In 
what a color! With what a conscience! What though the door-keeper 
forbade thee not, because of the bountifulness of the entertainer? what 
though thou weft ignorant in what fashion thou shouldest come in to the 
banquet? — thou didst come in, and didst see the glittering fashions of the 
guests: shouldest thou not have been taught even by what was before thine 
eyes? Shouldest thou not have retired in good season, that thou mightest 
enter in good season again? But now thou hast come in unseasonably, to 
be unseasonably cast out. So he commands the servants, Bind his feet, 
which daringly intruded: bind his hands, which knew not how to put a 
bright garment around him: and cast him into the outer darkness; for he is 
unworthy of the wedding torches. Thou seest what happened to that man: 
make thine own condition safe. 

4. For we, the ministers of Christ, have admitted every one, and 
occupying, as it were, the place of door-keepers we left the door open: and 
possibly thou didst enter with thy soul bemired with sins, and with a will 
defiled. Enter thou didst, and wast allowed: thy name was inscribed. Tell 
me, dost thou behold this venerable constitution of the Church? Dost thou 
view her order and discipline the reading of Scriptures, the presence of the 
ordained, the course of instruction? Be abashed at the place, and be taught 
by what thou seest. Go out opportunely now, and enter most 
opportunely tomorrow. 

If the fashion of thy soul is avarice, put on another fashion and come in. 
Put off thy former fashion, cloke it not up. Put off, I pray thee, 
fornication and uncleanness, and put on the brightest robe of chastity. 
This charge I give thee, before Jesus the Bridegroom of souls come in and 
see their fashions. A long notice is allowed thee; thou hast forty days for 
repentance: thou hast full opportunity both to put off, and wash, and to 



115 

put on and enter. But if thou persist in an evil purpose, the speaker is 
blameless, but thou must not look for the grace: for the water will receive, 
but the Spirit will not accept thee. If any one is conscious of his wound, 
let him take the salve; if any has fallen, let him arise. Let there be no Simon 
among you, no hypocrisy, no idle curiosity about the matter. 

5. Possibly too thou art come on another pretext. It is possible that a man 
is wishing to pay court to a woman, and came hither on that account. The 
remark applies in like manner to women also in their turn. A slave also 
perhaps wishes to please his master, and a friend his friend. I accept this 
bait for the hook, and welcome thee, though thou earnest with an evil 
purpose, yet as one to be saved by a good hope. Perhaps thou knewest 
not whither thou wert coming, nor in what kind of net thou art taken. 
Thou art come within the Church's nets: be taken alive, flee not: for Jesus 
is angling for thee, not in order to kill, but by killing to make alive: for thou 
must die and rise again. For thou hast heard the Apostle say, Dead indeed 
unto sin, but living unto righteousness. Die to thy sins, and live to 
righteousness, live from this very day. 

6. See, I pray thee, how great a dignity Jesus bestows on thee. Thou weft 
called a Catechumen, while the word echoed round thee from without; 
hearing of hope, and knowing it not; hearing mysteries, and not 
understanding them; hearing Scriptures, and not knowing their depth. The 
echo is no longer around thee, but within thee; for the indwelling Spirit 
henceforth makes thy mind a house of God. When thou shalt have heard 
what is written concerning the mysteries, then wilt thou understand things 
which thou knewest not. And think not that thou receivest a small thing: 
though a miserable man, thou receivest one of God's titles. Hear St. Paul 
saying, God is faithful. Hear another Scripture saying, God is faithful and 
just. Foreseeing this, the Psalmist, because men are to receive a title of 
God, spoke thus in the person of God: / said, Ye are Gods, and are all 
sons of the Most High. But beware lest thou have the title of "faithful" but 
the will of the faithless. Thou hast entered into a contest, toil on through 
the race: another such opportunity thou canst not have. Were it thy 
wedding-day before thee, wouldest thou not have disregarded all else, and 
set about the preparation for the feast? And on the eve of consecrating thy 
soul to the heavenly Bridegroom, wilt thou not cease from carnal things, 
that thou mayest win spiritual? 



116 

7. We may not receive Baptism twice or thrice; else it might be said, 
Though I have failed once, I shall set it right a second time: whereas if thou 
fail once, the thing cannot be set right; for there is one Lord, and one faith, 
and one baptism: for only the heretics are re -baptized, because the former 
was no baptism. 

8. For God seeks nothing else from us, save a good purpose. Say not, How 
are my sins blotted out? I tell thee, By willing, by believing. What can be 
shorter than this? But if, while thy lips declare thee willing, thy heart be 
silent, He knoweth the heart, who judgeth thee. Cease from this day from 
every evil deed. Let not thy tongue speak unseemly words, let thine eye 
abstain from sin, and from roving after things unprofitable. 

9. Let thy feet hasten to the catechizings; receive with earnestness the 
exorcisms: whether thou be breathed upon or exorcised, the act is to thee 
salvation. Suppose thou hast gold unwrought and alloyed, mixed with 
various substances, copper, and tin, and iron, and lead: we seek to have the 
gold alone; can gold be purified from the foreign substances without fire? 
Even so without exorcisms the soul cannot be purified; and these 
exorcisms are divine, having been collected out of the divine Scriptures. 
Thy face has been veiled, that thy mind may henceforward be free, lest the 
eye by roving make the heart rove also. But when thine eyes are veiled, 
thine ears are not hindered from receiving the means of salvation. For in 
like manner as those who are skilled in the goldsmith's craft throw in their 
breath upon the fire through certain delicate instruments, and blowing up 
the gold which is hidden in the crucible stir the flame which surrounds it, 
and so find what they are seeking; even so when the exorcists inspire 
terror by the Spirit of God, and set the soul, as it were, on fire in the 
crucible of the body, the hostile demon tees away, and there abide 
salvation and the hope of eternal life, and the soul henceforth is cleansed 
from its sins and hath salvation. Let us then, brethren, abide in hope, and 
surrender ourselves, and hope, in order that the God of all may see our 
purpose, and cleanse us from our sins, and impart to us good hopes of our 
estate, and grant us repentance that bringeth salvation. God hath called, 
and His call is to thee. 

10. Attend closely to the catechizings, and though we should prolong our 
discourse, let not thy mind be wearied out. For thou art receiving armor 



117 

against the adverse power, armor against heresies, against Jews, and 
Samaritans, and Gentiles. Thou hast many enemies; take to thee many 
darts, for thou hast many to hurl them at: and thou hast need to learn how 
to strike down the Greek, how to contend against heretic, against Jew and 
Samaritan. And the armor is ready, and most ready the sword of the Spirit: 
but thou also must stretch forth thy right hand with good resolution, that 
thou mayest war the Lord's warfare, and overcome adverse powers, and 
become invincible against every heretical attempt. 

11. Let me give thee this charge also. Study our teachings and keep them 
for ever. Think not that they are the ordinary homilies; for though they 
also are good and trustworthy, yet if we should neglect them today we 
may study them tomorrow. But if the teaching concerning the layer of 
regeneration delivered in a consecutive course be neglected today, when 
shall it be made right? Suppose it is the season for planting trees: if we do 
not dig, and dig deep, when else can that be planted rightly which has once 
been planted ill? Suppose, pray, that the Catechizing is a kind of building: 
if we do not bind the house together by regular bonds in the building, lest 
some gap be found, and the building become unsound, even our former 
labor is of no use. But stone must follow stone by course, and corner 
match with corner, and by our smoothing off inequalities the building must 
thus rise evenly. In like manner we are bringing to thee stones, as it were, 
of knowledge. Thou must hear concerning the living God, thou must hear 
of Judgment, must hear of Christ, and of the Resurrection. And many 
things there are to be discussed in succession, which though now dropped 
one by one are afterwards to be presented in harmonious connection. But 
unless thou fit them together in the one whole, and remember what is first, 
and what is second, the builder may build, but thou wilt find the building 
unsound. 

12. When, therefore, the Lecture is delivered, if a Catechumen ask thee 
what the teachers have said, tell nothing to him that is without. For we 
deliver to thee a mystery, and a hope of the life to come. Guard the 
mystery for Him who gives the reward. Let none ever say to thee, What 
harm to thee, if I also know it? So too the sick ask for wine; but if it be 
given at a wrong time it causes delirium, and two evils arise; the sick man 
dies, and the physician is blamed. Thus is it also with the Catechumen, if 
he hear anything from the believer: both the Catechumen becomes delirious 



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(for he understands not what he has heard, and finds fault with the thing, 
and scoffs at what is said), and the believer is condemned as a traitor. But 
thou art now standing on the border: take heed, pray, to tell nothing out; 
not that the things spoken are not worthy to be told, but because his ear is 
unworthy to receive. Thou wast once thyself a Catechumen, and I 
described not what lay before thee. When by experience thou hast learned 
how high are the matters of our teaching, then thou wilt know that the 
Catechumens are not worthy to hear them. 

13. Ye who have been enrolled are become sons and daughters of one 
Mother. When ye have come in before the hour of the exorcisms, let each 
one of you speak things tending to godliness: and if any of your number be 
not present, seek for him. If thou wert called to a banquet, wouldest thou 
not wait for thy fellow guest? If thou hadst a brother, wouldest thou not 
seek thy brother' s good? 

Afterwards busy not thyself about unprofitable matters: neither, what the 
city has done, nor the village, nor the King, nor the Bishop, nor the 
Presbyter. Look upward; that is what thy present hour needeth. Be still, 
and know that I am God. If thou seest the believers ministering, and 
shewing no care, they enjoy security, they know what they have received, 
they are in possession of grace. But thou standest just now in the turn of 
the scale, to be received or not: copy not those who have freedom from 
anxiety, but cherish fear. 

14. And when the Exorcism has been done, until the others who are being 
exorcised have come, let men be with men, and women with women. For 
now I need the example of Noah's ark: in which were Noah and his sons, 
and his wife and his sons' wives. For though the ark was one, and the door 
was shut, yet had things been suitably arranged. If the Church is shut, and 
you are all inside, yet let there be a separation, men with men, and women 
with women: lest the pretext of salvation become an occasion of 
destruction. Even if there be a fair pretext for sitting near each other, let 
passions be put away. Further, let the men when sitting have a useful 
book; and let one read, and another listen: and if there be no book, let one 
pray, and another speak something useful. And again let the party of 
young women sit together in like manner, either singing or reading quietly, 
so that their lips speak, but others' ears catch not the sound: for I suffer 



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not a woman to speak in the Church. And let the married woman also 
follow the same example, and pray; and let her lips move, but her voice be 
unheard, that a Samuel may come, and thy barren soul give birth to the 
salvation of "God who hath heard thy prayer;" for this is the 
interpretation of the name Samuel. 

15. 1 shall observe each man's earnestness, each woman's reverence. Let 
your mind be refined as by fire unto reverence; let your soul be forged as 
metal: let the stubbornness of unbelief be hammered out: let the 
superfluous scales of the iron drop off, and what is pure remain; let the 
rust of the iron be rubbed off, and the true metal remain. May God 
sometime shew you that night, the darkness which shines like the day, 
concerning which it is said, The darkness shall not be hidden from thee, 
and the night shall shine as the day. Then may the gate of Paradise be 
opened to every man and every woman among you. Then may you enjoy 
the Christ-hearing waters in their fragrance. Then may you receive the 
name of Christ, and the power of things divine. Even now, I beseech you, 
lift up the eye of the mind: even now imagine the choirs of Angels, and 
God the Lord of all there sitting, and His Only-begotten Son sitting with 
Him on His right hand, and the Spirit present with them; and Thrones and 
Dominions doing service, and every man of you and every woman 
receiving salvation. Even now let your ears ring, as it were, with that 
glorious sound, when over your salvation the angels shall chant, Blessed 
are they whose iniquities are forgiven, and whose sins are covered: when 
like stars of the Church you shall enter in, bright in the body and radiant in 
the soul. 

16. Great is the Baptism that lies before you: a ransom to captives; a 
remission of offenses; a death of sin; a new-birth of the soul; a garment of 
light; a holy indissoluble seal; a chariot to heaven; the delight of Paradise; a 
welcome into the kingdom; the gift of adoption! But there is a serpent by 
the wayside watching those who pass by: beware lest he bite thee with 
unbelief. He sees so many receiving salvation, and is seeking whom he may 
devour. Thou art coming in unto the Father of Spirits, but thou art going 
past that serpent. How then mayest thou pass him? Have thy feet shod 
with the preparation of the gospel of peace; that even if he bite, he may not 
hurt thee. Have faith in-dwelling, steadfast hope, a strong sandal, that thou 
mayest pass the enemy, and enter the presence of thy Lord. Prepare thine 



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own heart for reception of doctrine, for fellowship in holy mysteries. Pray 
more frequently, that God may make thee worthy of the heavenly and 
immortal mysteries. Cease not day nor night: but when sleep is banished 
from thine eyes, then let thy mind be free for prayer. And if thou find any 
shameful thought rise up in thy mind, turn to meditation upon Judgment 
to remind thee of Salvation. Give thy mind wholly to study, that it may 
forget base things. If thou find any one saying to thee, Art thou then going 
in, to descend into the water? Has the city just now no baths? take notice 
that it is the dragon of the sea who is laying these plots against thee. 
Attend not to the lips of the talker, but to God who worketh in thee. 
Guard thine own soul, that thou be not ensnared, to the end that abiding in 
hope thou mayest become an heir of everlasting salvation. 

17. We for our part as men charge and teach you thus: but make not ye our 
building hay and stubble and chaff, lest we suffer loss, from our work being 
burnt up: but make ye our work gold, and silver, and precious stonesl For 
it lies in me to speak, but in thee to set thy mind upon it, and in God to 
make perfect. Let us nerve our minds, and brace up our souls, and prepare 
our hearts. The race is for our soul: our hope is of things eternal: and God, 
who knoweth your hearts, and observeth who is sincere, and who a 
hypocrite, is able both to guard the sincere, and to give faith to the 
hypocrite: for even to the unbeliever, if only he give his heart, God is able 
to give faith. So may He blot out the handwriting that is against you, and 
grant you forgiveness of your former trespasses; may He plant you into 
His Church, and enlist you in His own service, and put on you the armor 
of righteousness: may He fill you with the heavenly things of the New 
Covenant, and give you the seal of the Holy Spirit indelible throughout all 
ages, in Christ Jesus Our Lord: to whom be the glory for ever and ever! 
Amen. 

(To The Reader) 

These Catechetical Lectures for those who are to be enlightened thou 
mayest lend to candidates for Baptism, and to believers who are already 
baptized, to read, but give not at all, neither to Catechumens, nor to any 
others who are not Christians, as thou shalt answer to the Lord. And if 
thou make a copy, write this in the beginning, as in the sight of the Lord. 



121 

FIRST CATECHETICAL LECTURE 

OF 

OUR HOLY FATHER CYRIL, 

ARCHBISHOP OF JERUSALEM, 

TO THOSE WHO ARE TO BE ENLIGHTENED, DELIVERED 

EXTEMPORE AT JERUSALEM, AS AN INTRODUCTORY 

LECTURE TO THOSE WHO HAD COME FORWARD FOR 

BAPTISM: 

WITH A READING FROM ISAIAH, 

Wash you, make you clean; put away your iniquities from your souls, from before 

mine eyes, and the rest. 

1. Disciples of the New Testament and partakers of the mysteries of 
Christ, as yet by calling only, but ere long by grace also, make you a new 
heart and a new spirit, that there may be gladness among the inhabitants of 
heaven: for if over one sinner that repenteth there is joy, according to the 
Gospel, how much more shall the salvation of so many souls move the 
inhabitants of heaven to gladness. As ye have entered upon a good and 
most glorious path, run with reverence the race of godliness. For the 
Only-begotten Son of God is present here most ready to redeem you, 
saying, Come unto Me all that labor and are heavy, laden, and I will give 
you rest. Ye that are clothed with the rough garment of your offenses, who 
are holden with the cords of your own sins, hear the voice of the Prophet 
saying, Wash you, make you clean, put away your iniquities from before 
Mine eyes: that the choir of Angels may chant over you, Blessed are they 
whose iniquities are forgiven, and whose sins are covered. Ye who have 
just lighted the torches of faith, guard them carefully in your hands 
unquenched; that He, who erewhile on this all-holy Golgotha opened 
Paradise to the robber on account of his faith, may grant to you to sing the 
bridal song. 

2. If any here is a slave of sin, let him promptly prepare himself through 
faith for the new birth into freedom and adoption; and having put off the 
miserable bondage of his sins, and taken on him the most blessed bondage 



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of the Lord, so may he be counted worthy to inherit the kingdom of 
heaven. Put off, by confession, the old man, which waxeth corrupt after the 
lusts of deceit, that ye may put on the new man, which is renewed according 
to knowledge of Him that created him. Get you the earnest of the Holy 
Spirit through faith, that ye may be able to be received into the everlasting 
habitations. Come for the mystical Seal, that ye may be easily recognized 
by the Master; be ye numbered among the holy and spiritual flock of 
Christ, to be set apart on His right hand, and inherit the life prepared for 
you. For they to whom the rough garment of their sins still clings are 
found on the left hand, because they came not to the grace of God which is 
given through Christ at the new birth of Baptism: new birth I mean not of 
bodies, but the spiritual new birth of the soul. For our bodies are begotten 
by parents who are seen, but our souls are begotten anew through faith: 
for the Spirit bloweth where it listeth: and then, if thou be found worthy, 
thou mayest hear, Well done, good and faithful servant, when thou art 
found to have no defilement of hypocrisy in thy conscience. 

3. For if any of those who are present should think to tempt God's grace, 
he deceives himself, and knows not its power. Keep thy soul free from 
hypocrisy, O man, because of Him who searcheth hearts and reins. For as 
those who are going to make a levy for war examine the ages and the 
bodies of those who are taking service, so also the Lord in enlisting souls 
examines their purpose: and if any has a secret hypocrisy, He rejects the 
man as unfit for His true service; but if He finds one worthy, to him He 
readily gives His grace. He gives not holy things to the dogs; but where He 
discerns the good conscience, there He gives the Seal of salvation, that 
wondrous Seal, which devils tremble at, and Angels recognize; that the one 
may be driven to flight, and the others may watch around it as kindred to 
themselves. Those therefore who receive this spiritual and saving Seal, 
have need also of the disposition akin to it. For as a writing-reed or a dart 
has need of one to use it, so grace also has need of believing minds. 

4. Thou art receiving not a perishable but a spiritual shield. Henceforth 
thou art planted in the invisible Paradise. Thou receivest a new name, 
which thou hadst not before. Heretofore thou wast a Catechumen, but 
now thou wilt be called a Believer. Thou art transplanted henceforth 
among the spiritual olive-trees, being grafted from the wild into the good 
olive-tree, from sins into righteousness, from pollutions into purity. Thou 



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art made partaker of the Holy Vine. Well then, if thou abide in the Vine, 
thou growest as a fruitful branch; but if thou abide not, thou wilt be 
consumed by the fire. Let us therefore bear fruit worthily. God forbid that 
in us should be done what befell that barren fig-tree, that Jesus come not 
even now and curse us for our barrenness. But may all be able to use that 
other saying, But I am like a fruitful olive-tree in the house of God: I have 
trusted in the mercy of God for ever, — an olive-tree not to be perceived 
by sense, but by the mind, and full of light. As then it is His part to plant 
and to water, so it is thine to bear fruit: it is God's to grant grace, but thine 
to receive and guard it. Despise not the grace because it is freely given, but 
receive and treasure it devoutly. 

5. The present is the season of confession: confess what thou hast done in 
word or in deed, by night or by day; confess in an acceptable time, and in 
the day of salvation receive the heavenly treasure. Devote thy time to the 
Exorcisms: be assiduous at the Catechizings, and remember the things that 
shall be spoken, for they are spoken not for thine ears only, but that by 
faith thou mayest seal them up in the memory. Blot out from thy mind all 
earthly care: for thou art running for thy soul. Thou art utterly forsaking 
the things of the world: little are the things which thou art forsaking, great 
what the Lord is giving. Forsake things present, and put thy trust in things 
to come. Hast thou run so many circles of the years busied in vain about 
the world, and hast thou not forty days to be free (for prayer), for thine 
own soul's sake? Be still, and know that I am God, saith the Scripture. 
Excuse thyself from talking many idle words: neither backbite, nor lend a 
willing ear to backbiters; but rather be prompt to prayer. Shew in ascetic 
exercise that thy heart is nerved. Cleanse thy vessel, that thou mayest 
receive grace more abundantly. For though remission of sins is given 
equally to all, the communion of the Holy Ghost is bestowed in 
proportion to each man's faith. If thou hast labored little, thou receivest 
little; but if thou hast wrought much, the reward is great. Thou art running 
for thyself, see to thine own interest. 

6. If thou hast aught against any man, forgive it: thou comest here to 
receive forgiveness of sins, and thou also must forgive him that hath sinned 
against thee. Else with what face wilt thou say to the Lord, Forgive me my 
many sins, if thou hast not thyself forgiven thy fellow- servant even his 
little sins. Attend diligently the Church assemblies; not only now when 



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diligent attendance is required of thee by the Clergy, but also after thou 
hast received the grace. For if, before thou hast received it, the practice is 
good, is it not also good after the bestowal? If before thou be grafted in, it 
is a safe course to be watered and tended, is it not far better after the 
planting? Wrestle for thine own soul, especially in such days as these. 
Nourish thy soul with sacred readings; for the Lord hath prepared for thee 
a spiritual table; therefore say thou also after the Psalmist, The Lord is my 
shepherd, and I shall lack nothing: in a place of grass, there hath He made 
me rest; He hath fed me beside the waters of comfort, He hath converted 
my soul: — that Angels also may share your joy, and Christ Himself the 
great High Priest, having accepted your resolve, may present you all to the 
Father, saying, Behold, I and the children whom God hath given Me. May 
He keep you all well-pleasing in His sight! To whom be the glory, and the 
power unto the endless ages of eternity. Amen. 



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LECTURE 2 

ON REPENTANCE AND REMISSION OF SINS, AND 
CONCERNING THE ADVERSARY. 

Ezekiel 18:20-23. 

The righteousness of the righteous shall be upon him, and the wickedness of the 
wicked shall be upon him. But if the wicked will turn from all his sins, etc. 

1 . A fearful thing is sin, and the sorest disease of the soul is 
transgression, secretly cutting its sinews, and becoming also the cause of 
eternal fire; an evil of a man's own choosing, an offspring of the will For 
that we sin of our own free will the Prophet says plainly in a certain place: 
Yet I planted thee a fruitful vine, wholly true: how art thou turned to 
bitterness, (and become) the strange vine? The planting was good, the fruit 
coming from the will is evil; and therefore the planter is blameless, but the 
vine shall be burnt with fire since it was planted for good, and bore fruit 
unto evil of its own will. For God, according to the Preacher, made man 
upright, and they have themselves sought out many inventions. For we are 
His workmanship, says the Apostle, created unto good works, which God 
afore prepared, that we should walk in them. So then the Creator, being 
good, created for good works; but the creature turned of its own free will 
to wickedness. Sin then is, as we have said, a fearful evil, but not incurable; 
fearful for him who clings to it, but easy of cure for him who by 
repentance puts it from him. For suppose that a man is holding fire in his 
hand; as long as he holds fast the live coal he is sure to be burned, but 
should he put away the coal, he would have cast away the flame also with 
it. If however any one thinks that he is not being burned when sinning, to 
him the Scripture saith, Shall a man wrap up fire in his bosom, and not 
burn his clothes? For sin burns the sinews of the soul, [and breaks the 
spiritual bones of the mind, and darkens the light of the heart] . 

2. But some one will say, What can sin be? Is it a living thing? Is it an 
angel? Is it a demon? What is this which works within us? It is not an 
enemy, O man, that assails thee from without, but an evil shoot growing 
up out of thyself. Look right on with thine eyes, and there is no lust. [Keep 



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thine own, and] seize not the things of others, and robbery has ceased. 
Remember the Judgment, and neither fornication, nor adultery, nor murder, 
nor any transgression of the law shall prevail with thee. But whenever 
thou forgettest God, forthwith thou beginnest to devise wickedness and to 
commit iniquity. 

3. Yet thou art not the sole author of the evil, but there is also another 
most wicked prompter, the devil. He indeed suggests, but does not get the 
mastery by force over those who do not consent. Therefore saith the 
Preacher, If the spirit of him that hath power rise up against thee, quit not 
thy place. Shut thy door, and put him far from thee, and he shall not hurt 
thee. But if thou indifferently admit the thought of lust, it strikes root in 
thee by its suggestions, and enthralls thy mind, and drags thee down into a 
pit of evils. 

But perhaps thou sayest, I am a believer, and lust does not gain the 
ascendant over me, even if I think upon it frequently. Knowest thou not 
that a root breaks even a rock by long persistence? Admit not the seed, 
since it will rend thy faith asunder: tear out the evil by the root before it 
blossom, lest from being careless at the beginning thou have afterwards to 
seek for axes and fire. When thine eyes begin to be diseased, get them 
cured in good time, lest thou become blind, and then have to seek the 
physician. 

4. The devil then is the first author of sin, and the father of the wicked: 
and this is the Lord's saying, not mine, that the devil sinnethfrom the 
beginning: none sinned before him. But he sinned, not as having received 
necessarily from nature the propensity to sin, since then the cause of sin is 
traced back again to Him that made him so; but having been created good, 
he has of his own free will become a devil, and received that name from his 
action. For being an Archangel he was afterwards called a devil from his 
slandering: from being a good servant of God he has become rightly named 
Satan; for "Satan" is interpreted the adversary. And this is not my 
teaching, but that of the inspired prophet Ezekiel: for he takes up a 
lamentation over him and says, Thou wast a seal of likeness, and a crown 
of beauty; in the Paradise of God wast thou born: and soon after, Thou 
wast born blameless in thy days, from the day in which thou wast created, 
until thine iniquities were found in thee. Very rightly hath he said, were 



127 

found in thee; for they were not brought in from without, but thou didst 
thyself beget the evil. The cause also he mentions forthwith: Thine heart 
was lifted up because of thy beauty: for the multitude of thy sins wast thou 
wounded, and I did cast thee to the ground. In agreement with this the 
Lord says again in the Gospels: I beheld Satan as lightning fall from 
heaven. Thou seest the harmony of the Old Testament with the New. He 
when cast out drew many away with him. It is he that puts lusts into 
them that listen to him: from him come adultery, fornication, and every 
kind of evil. Through him our forefather Adam was east out for 
disobedience, and exchanged a Paradise bringing forth wondrous fruits of 
its own accord for the ground which bringeth forth thorns. 

5. What then? some one will say. We have been beguiled and are lost. Is 
there then no salvation left? We have fallen: Is it not possible to rise again? 
We have been blinded: May we not recover our sight? We have become 
crippled: Can we never walk upright? In a word, we are dead: May we not 
rise again? He that woke Lazarus who was four days dead and already 
stank, shall He not, O man, much more easily raise thee who art alive? He 
who shed His precious blood for us, shall Himself deliver us from sin. Let 
us not despair of ourselves, brethren; let us not abandon ourselves to a 
hopeless condition. For it is a fearful thing not to believe in a hope of 
repentance. For he that looks not for salvation spares not to add evil to 
evil: but to him that hopes for cure, it is henceforth easy to be careful over 
himself. The robber who looks not for pardon grows desperate; but, if he 
hopes for forgiveness, often comes to repentance. What then, does the 
serpent cast its slough, and shall not we cast off our sin? Thorny ground 
also, if cultivated well, is turned into fruitful; and is salvation to us 
irrecoverable? Nay rather, our nature admits of salvation, but the will also 
is required. 

6. God is loving to man, and loving in no small measure. For say not, I 
have committed fornication and adultery: I have done dreadful things, and 
not once only, but often: will He forgive? Will He grant pardon? Hear 
what the Psalmist says: How great is the multitude of Thy goodness, O 
Lordl Thine accumulated offenses surpass not the multitude of God's 
mercies: thy wounds surpass not the great Physician's skill. Only give 
thyself up in faith: tell the Physician thine ailment: say thou also, like 
David: I said, I will confess me my sin unto the Lord: and the same shall be 



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done in thy case, which he says forthwith: And thou forgavest the 
wickedness of my heart. 

7. Wouldest thou see the loving-kindness of God, O thou that art lately 
come to the catechizing? Wouldest thou see the loving-kindness of God, 
and the abundance of Has long-suffering? Hear about Adam. Adam, God's 
first-formed man, transgressed: could He not at once have brought death 
upon him? But see what the Lord does, in His great love towards man. He 
casts him out from Paradise, for because of sin he was unworthy to live 
there; but He puts him to dwell over against Paradise: that seeing whence 
he had fallen, and from what and into what a state he was brought down, 
he might afterwards be saved by repentance. Cain the first-born man 
became his brother' s murderer, the inventor of evils, the first author of 
murders, and the first envious man. Yet after slaying his brother to what is 
he condemned? Groaning and trembling shalt thou be upon the earth. How 
great the offense, the sentence how light! 

8. Even this then was truly loving-kindness in God, but little as yet in 
comparison with what follows. For consider what happened in the days of 
Noe. The giants sinned, and much wickedness was then spread over the 
earth, and because of this the flood was to come upon them: and in the five 
hundredth year God utters His threatening; but in the six hundredth He 
brought the flood upon the earth. Seest thou the breadth of God's 
loving-kindness extending to a hundred years? Could He not have done 
immediately what He did then after the hundred years? But He extended 
(the time) on purpose, granting a respite for repentance. Seest thou God's 
goodness? And if the men of that time had repented, they would not have 
missed the loving-kindness of God. 

9. Come with me now to the other class, those who were saved by 
repentance. But perhaps even among women some one will say, I have 
committed fornication, and adultery, I have defiled my body by excesses 
of all kinds: is there salvation for me? Turn thine eyes, O woman, upon 
Rahab, and look thou also for salvation; for if she who had been openly 
and publicly a harlot was saved by repentance, is not she who on some 
one occasion before receiving grace committed fornication to be saved by 
repentance and fasting? For inquire how she was saved: this only she said: 
For your God is God in heaven and upon earth. Your God; for her own 



129 

she did not dare to say, because of her wanton life. And if you wish to 
receive Scriptural testimony of her having been saved, you have it written 
in the Psalms: / will make mention ofRahab and Babylon among them that 
know me. O the greatness of God's loving -kindness, making mention even 
of harlots in the Scriptures: nay, not simply / will make mention ofRahab 
and Babylon, but with the addition, among them that know me. There is 
then in the case both of men and of women alike the salvation which is 
ushered in by repentance. 

10. Nay more, if a whole people sin, this surpasses not the 
loving-kindness of God. The people made a calf, yet God ceased not from 
His loving-kindness. Men denied God, but God denied not Himself. These 
be thy gods, O Israel, they said: yet again, as He was wont, the God of 
Israel became their Savior. And not only the people sinned, but also Aaron 
the High Priest. For it is Moses that says: And the anger of the Lord came 
upon Aaron: and I prayed for him, saith he, and God forgave him. What 
then, did Moses praying for a High Priest that sinned prevail with God, 
and shall not Jesus, His Only-begotten, prevail with God when He prays 
for us? And if He did not hinder Aaron, because of his offense, from 
entering upon the High Priesthood, will He hinder thee, who art come out 
from the Gentiles, from entering into salvation? Only, O man, repent thou 
also in like manner, and grace is not forbidden thee. Render thy way of life 
henceforth unblameable; for God is truly loving unto man, nor can all time 
worthily tell out His loving kindness; nay, not if all the tongues of men 
unite together will they be able even so to declare any considerable part of 
His loving-kindness. For we tell some part of what is written concerning 
His loving-kindness to men, but how much He forgave the Angels we 
know not: for them also He forgives, since One alone is without sin, even 
Jesus who purgeth our sins. And of them we have said enough. 

11. But if concerning us men thou wilt have other examples also set before 
thee, come on to the blessed David, and take him for an example of 
repentance. Great as he was, he fell: after his sleep, walking in the eventide 
on the housetop, he cast a careless look, and felt a human passion. His sin 
was completed, but there died not with it his candor concerning the 
confession of his fault. Nathan the Prophet came, a swift accuser, and a 
healer of the wound. The Lord is wroth, he says, and thou hast sinned. So 
spoke the subject to the reigning king. But David the king was not 



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indignant, for he regarded not the speaker, but God who had sent him. He 
was not puffed up by the array of soldiers standing round: for he had seen 
in thought the angel-host of the Lord, and he trembled as seeing Him who 
is invisible; and to the messenger, or rather by him in answer to God who 
sent him, he said, / have sinned against the Lord. Seest thou the humility 
of the king? Seest thou his confession? For had he been convicted by any 
one? Were many privy to the matter? The deed was quickly done, and 
straightway the Prophet appeared as accuser, and the offender confesses 
the fault. And because he candidly confessed, he received a most speedy 
cure. For Nathan the Prophet who had uttered the threat, said 
immediately, The Lord also hath put away thy sin. Thou seest the swift 
relenting of a merciful God. He says, however, Thou hast greatly provoked 
the enemies of the Lord. Though thou hadst many enemies because of thy 
righteousness, thy self-control protected thee; but now that thou hast 
surrendered thy strongest armor, thine enemies are risen up, and stand 
ready against thee. 

12. Thus then did the Prophet comfort him, but the blessed David, for all 
he heard it said, The Lord hath put away thy sin, did not cease from 
repentance, king though he was, but put on sackcloth instead of purple, 
and instead of a golden throne, he sat, a king, in ashes on the ground; nay, 
not only sat in ashes, but also had ashes for his food, even as he saith 
himself, / have eaten ashes as it were bread. His lustful eye he wasted 
away with tears saying, Every night will I wash my couch, and water my 
bed with my tears. When his officers besought him to eat bread he would 
not listen. He prolonged his fast unto seven whole days. If a king thus 
made confession oughtest not thou, a private person, to confess? Again, 
after Absalom's insurrection, though there were many roads for him to 
escape, he chose to flee by the Mount of Olives, in thought, as it were, 
invoking the Redeemer who was to go up thence into the heavens. And 
when Shimei cursed him bitterly, he said, Let him alone, for he knew that 
"to him that forgiveth it shall be forgiven." 

13. Thou seest that it is good to make confession. Thou seest that there is 
salvation for them that repent. Solomon also fell but what saith he? 
Afterwards I repented. Ahab, too, the King of Samaria, became a most 
wicked idolater, an outrageous man, the murderer of the Prophets, a 
stranger to godliness, a coveter of other men's fields and vineyards. Yet 



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when by Jezebel's means he had slain Naboth, and the Prophet Elias came 
and merely threatened him, he rent his garments, and put on sackcloth. 
And what saith the merciful God to Elias? Hast thou seen how, Ahab is 
pricked in the heart before Mel I as if almost He would persuade the fiery 
zeal of the Prophet to condescend to the penitent. For He saith, / will not 
bring the evil in his days. And though after this forgiveness he was sure 
not to depart from his wickedness, nevertheless the forgiving God forgave 
him, not as being ignorant of the future, but as granting a forgiveness 
corresponding to his present season of repentance. For it is the part of a 
righteous judge to give sentence according to each case that has occurred. 

14. Again, Jeroboam was standing at the altar sacrificing to the idols: his 
band became withered, because he commanded the Prophet who reproved 
him to be seized: but having by experience learned the power of the man 
before him, he says, Entreat the face of the Lord thy God; and because of 
this saying his hand was restored again. If the Prophet healed Jeroboam, is 
Christ not able to heal and deliver thee from thy sins? Manasses also was 
utterly wicked, who sawed Isaiah asunder, and was defiled with all kinds 
of idolatries, and filled Jerusalem with innocent blood; but having been led 
captive to Babylon he used his experience of misfortune for a healing 
course of repentance: for the Scripture saith that Manasses humbled 
himself before the Lord, and prayed, and the Lord heard him, and brought 
him back to his kingdom. If He who sawed the Prophet asunder was saved 
by repentance, shall not thou then, having done no such great wickedness, 
be saved? 

15. Take heed lest without reason thou mistrust the power of repentance. 
Wouldst thou know what power repentance has? Wouldst thou know the 
strong weapon of salvation, and learn what the force of confession is? 
Hezekiah by means of confession routed a hundred and fourscore and five 
thousand of his enemies. A great thing verily was this, but still small in 
comparison with what remains to be told: the same king by repentance 
obtained the recall of a divine sentence which had already gone forth. For 
when he had fallen sick, Esaias said to him, Set thine house in order; for 
thou shall die, and not live. What expectation remained, what hope of 
recovery, when the Prophet said, for thou shalt die! Yet Hezekiah did not 
desist from repentance; but remembering what is written, When thou shalt 
turn and lament, then shalt thou be saved, he turned to the wall, and from 



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his bed lifting his mind to heaven (for thickness of walls is no hindrance to 
prayers sent up with devotion), he said, "Remember me, O Lord, for it is 
sufficient for my healing that Thou remember me. Thou art not subject to 
times, but art Thyself the giver of the law of life. For our life depends not 
on a nativity, nor on a conjunction of stars, as some idly talk; but both of 
life and its duration. Then art Thyself the Lawgiver according to Thy 
Will." And he, who could not hope to live because of the prophetic 
sentence, had fifteen years added to his life, and for the sign the sun ran 
backward in his course Well then, for Ezekias' sake the sun turned back 
but for Christ the sun was eclipsed, not retracing his steps, but suffering 
eclipse, and therefore shewing the difference between them, I mean 
between Ezekias and Jesus. The former prevailed to the canceling of God's 
decree, and cannot Jesus grant remission of sins? Turn and bewail thyself, 
shut thy door, and pray to be forgiven, pray that He may remove from 
thee the burning flames. For confession has power to quench even fire, 
power to tame even lions. 

16. But if thou disbelieve, consider what befell Ananias and his 
companions. What streams did they pour out? How many vessels of 
water could quench the flame that rose up forty-nine cubits high? Nay, but 
where the flame mounted up a little too high, faith was there poured out as 
a river, and there spoke they the spell against all ills: Righteous art Thou, 

Lord, in all the things that Thou hast done to us: for we have sinned, 
and transgressed Thy law. And their repentance quelled the flames. If thou 
believest not that repentance is able to quench the fire of hell, learn it from 
what happened in regard to Ananias. But some keen hearer will say, Those 
men God rescued justly in that case: because they refused to commit 
idolatry, God gave them that power. And since this thought has occurred, 

1 come next to a different example of penitence. 

17. What thinkest thou of Nabuchodonosor? Hast thou not heard out of 
the Scriptures that he was bloodthirsty, fierce, lion-like in disposition? 
Hast thou not heard that he brought out the bones of the kings from their 
graves into the light? Hast thou not heard that he carried the people away 
captive? Hast thou not heard that he put out the eyes of the king, after he 
had already seen his children slain? Hast thou not heard that he brake in 
pieces the Cherubim? I do riot mean the invisible beings; — away with 
such a thought, O man, — but the sculptured images, and the mercy-seat, 



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in the midst of which God spoke with His voice. The veil of the Sanctuary 
he trampled under foot: the altar of incense he took and carried away to an 
idol-temple: all the offerings he took away: the Temple he burned from the 
foundations. How great punishments did he deserve, for slaying kings, for 
setting fire to the Sanctuary, for taking the people captive, for setting the 
sacred vessels in the house of idols? Did he not deserve ten thousand 
deaths? 

18. Thou hast seen the greatness of his evil deeds: come now to God's 
loving-kindness. He was turned into a wild beast, he abode in the 
wilderness, he was scourged, that he might be saved. He had claws as a 
lion; for he was a ravager of the Sanctuary. He had a lion's mane: for he 
was a ravening and a roaring lion. He ate grass like an ox: for a brute beast 
he was, not knowing Him who had given him the kingdom. His body was 
wet from the dew; because after seeing the fire quenched by the dew he 
believed not. And what happened? After this, saith he, /, Nabuchodonosor, 
lifted up mine eyes unto heaven, and I blessed the Most High, and to Him 
that livethfor ever I gave praise and glory. When, therefore, he recognized 
the Most High, and sent up these words of thankfulness to God, and 
repented himself for what he had done, and recognized his own weakness, 
then God gave back to him the honor of the kingdom. 

19. What then? When Nabuchodonosor, after having done such deeds, had 
made confession, did God give him pardon and the kingdom, and when 
thou repentest shall He not give thee the remission of sins, and the 
kingdom of heaven, if thou live a worthy life? The LORD is loving unto 
man, and swift to pardon, but slow to punish. Let no man therefore 
despair of his own salvation. Peter, the chiefest and foremost of the 
Apostles, denied the Lord thrice before a little maid: but he repented 
himself, and wept bitterly. Now weeping shews the repentance of the 
heart: and therefore he not only received forgiveness for his denial, but also 
held his Apostolic dignity unforfeited. 

20. Having therefore, brethren, many examples of those who have sinned 
and repented and been saved, do ye also heartily make confession unto the 
Lord, that ye may hath receive the forgiveness of your former sins, and be 
counted worthy of the heavenly gift, and inherit the heavenly kingdom 
with all the saints in Christ Jesus; to Whom is the glory for ever and ever. 



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Amen. 



135 



LECTURE 3 

ON BAPTISM 

Romans 6:3, 4 

Or know ye not that all we who were baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into 
His death? were buried therefore with Him by our baptism into death, etc. 

1. Rejoice, ye heavens, and let the earth be glad, for those who are to be 
sprinkled with hyssop, and cleansed with the spiritual hyssop, the power 
of Him to whom at His Passion drink was offered on hyssop and a reed. 
And while the Heavenly Powers rejoice, let the souls that are to be united 
to the spiritual Bridegroom make themselves ready. For the voice is heard 
of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord. For this is 
no light matter, no ordinary and indiscriminate union according to the 
flesh, but the All-searching Spirit's election according to faith. For the 
intermarriages and contracts of the world are not made altogether with 
judgment: but wherever there is wealth or beauty, there the bridegroom 
speedily approves: but here it is not beauty of person, but the soul's clear 
conscience; not the condemned Mammon, but the wealth of the soul in 
godliness. 

2. Listen then, O ye children of righteousness, to John's exhortation when 
he says, Make straight the way of the Lord. Take away all obstacles and 
stumbling-blocks, that ye may walk straight onward to eternal life. Make 
ready the vessels of the soul, cleansed by unfeigned faith, for reception of 
the Holy Ghost. Begin at once to wash your robes in repentance, that 
when called to the bride-chamber ye may be found clean. For the 
Bridegroom invites all without distinction, because His grace is bounteous; 
and the cry of loud-voiced heralds assembles them all: but the same 
Bridegroom afterwards separates those who have come in to the figurative 
marriage. O may none of those whose names have now been enrolled hear 
the words, Friend, how earnest thou in hither, not having a wedding 
garment? But may you all hear, Well done, good and faithful servant; thou 
wast faithful over a few things, I will set thee over many things: enter thou 
into the joy of thy Lord. 



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For now meanwhile thou standest outside the door: but God grant that 
you all may say, The King hath brought me into His chamber. Let my soul 
rejoice in the Lord: for He hath me with a garment of salvation, and a robe 
of gladness: He hath crowned me with a garland as a bridegroom, and 
decked me with ornaments as a bride: that the soul of every one of you 
may be found not having spot or wrinkle or any such thing; I do not mean 
before you have received the grace, for how could that be? since it is for 
remission of sins that ye have been called; but that, when the grace is to be 
given, your conscience being found uncondemned may concur with the 
grace. 

3. This is in truth a serious matter, brethren, and you must approach it 
with good heed. Each one of you is about to be presented to God before 
tens of thousands of the Angelic Hosts: the Holy Ghost is about to seal 
your souls: ye are to be enrolled in the army of the Great King. Therefore 
make you ready, and equip yourselves, by putting on I mean, not bright 
apparel, but piety of soul with a good conscience. Regard not the Layer as 
simple water, but rather regard the spiritual grace that is given with the 
water. For just as the offerings brought to the heathen altars, though 
simple in their nature, become defiled by the invocation of the idols, so 
contrariwise the simple water having received the invocation of the Holy 
Ghost, and of Christ, and of the Father, acquires a new power of holiness. 

4. For since man is of twofold nature, soul and body, the purification also 
is twofold, the one incorporeal for the incorporeal part, and the other 
bodily for the body: the water cleanses the body, and the Spirit seals the 
soul; that we may draw near unto God, having our heart sprinkled by the 
Spirit, and our body washed with pure water. When going down, therefore, 
into the water, think not of the bare element, but look for salvation by the 
power of the Holy Ghost: for without both thou canst not possibly be 
made perfect. It is not I that say this, but the Lord Jesus Christ, who has 
the power in this matter: for He saith, Except a man be born anew (and He 
adds the words) of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the 
kingdom of God. Neither doth he that is baptized with water, but not 
found worthy of the Spirit, receive the grace in perfection; nor if a man be 
virtuous in his deeds, but receive not the seal by water, shall he enter into 
the kingdom of heaven. A bold saying, but not mine, for it is Jesus who 
hath declared it: and here is the proof of the statement from Holy 



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Scripture. Cornelius was a just man, who was honored with a vision of 
Angels, and had set up his prayers and alms-deeds as a good memorial 
before God in heaven. Peter came, and the Spirit was poured out upon 
them that believed, and they spoke with other tongues, and prophesied: 
and after the grace of the Spirit the Scripture saith that Peter commanded 
them to be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ; in order that, the soul 
having been born again by faith, the body also might by the water partake 
of the grace. 

5. But if any one wishes to know why the grace is given by water and not 
by a different element, let him take up the Divine Scriptures and he shall 
learn. For water is a grand thing, and the noblest of the four visible 
elements of the world. Heaven is the dwelling-place of Angels, but the 
heavens are from the waters: the earth is the place of men, but the earth is 
from the waters: and before the whole six days' formation of the things 
that were made, the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the water. The 
water was the beginning of the world, and Jordan the beginning of the 
Gospel tidings: for Israel deliverance from Pharaoh was through the sea, 
and for the world deliverance from sins by the washing of water with the 
word of God. Where a covenant is made with any, there is water also. 
After the flood, a covenant was made with Noah: a covenant for Israel 
from Mount Sinai, but with water, and scarlet wool, and hyssop. Elias is 
taken up, but not apart from water: for first he crosses the Jordan, then in 
a chariot mounts the heaven. The high-priest is first washed, then offers 
incense; for Aaron first washed, then was made high-priest: for how could 
one who had not yet been purified by water pray for the rest? Also as a 
symbol of Baptism there was a layer set apart within the Tabernacle. 

6. Baptism is the end of the Old Testament, and beginning of the New. For 
its author was John, than whom was none greater among them that are 
born of women. The end he was of the Prophets: for all the Prophets and 
the law were until John: but of the Gospel history he was the first-fruit. 
For it saith, The beginning of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, etc.: John came 
baptizing in the wilderness. You may mention Elias the Tishbite who was 
taken up into heaven, yet he is not greater than John: Enoch was 
translated, but he is not greater than John: Moses was a very great 
lawgiver, and all the Prophets were admirable, but not greater than John. It 
is not I that dare to compare Prophets with Prophets: but their Master 



138 

and ours, the Lord Jesus, declared it: Among them that are born of women 
there hath not risen a greater than John: He saith not "among them that 
are born of virgins," but of women. The comparison is between the great 
servant and his fellow- servants: but the pre-eminence and the grace of the 
Son is beyond comparison with servants. Seest thou how great a man God 
chose as the first minister of this grace? — a man possessing nothing, and 
a lover of the desert, yet no hater of mankind: who ate locusts, and winged 
his soul for heaven: feeding upon honey, and speaking things both sweeter 
and more salutary than honey: clothed with a garment of camel's hair, and 
shewing in himself the pattern of the ascetic life; who also was sanctified 
by the Holy Ghost while yet he was carried in his mother's womb. 
Jeremiah was sanctified, but did not prophesy, in the womb: John alone 
while carried in the womb leaped for joy, and though he saw not with the 
eyes of flesh, knew his Master by the Spirit: for since the grace of 
Baptism was great, it required greatness in its founder also. 

7. This man was baptizing in Jordan, and there went out unto him all 
Jerusalem, to enjoy the first-fruits of baptisms: for in Jerusalem is the 
prerogative of all things good. But learn, O ye inhabitants of Jerusalem, 
how they that came out were baptized by him: confessing their sins, it is 
said. First they shewed their wounds, then he applied the remedies, and to 
them that believed gave redemption from eternal fire. And if thou wilt be 
convinced of this very point, that the baptism of John is a redemption 
from the threat of the fire, hear how he says, O generation of vipers, who 
hath warned you to flee from the wrath to cornel Be not then henceforth a 
viper, but as thou hast been formerly a viper' s brood, put off, saith he, the 
slough of thy former sinful life. For every serpent creeps into a hole and 
casts its old slough, and having rubbed off the old skin, grows young again 
in body. In like manner enter thou also through the strait and narrow gate: 
rub off thy former self by fasting, and drive out that which is destroying 
thee. Put off the old man with his doings, and quote that saying in the 
Canticles, / have put off my coat, how shall I put it on? 

But there is perhaps among you some hypocrite, a man-pleaser, and one 
who makes a pretense of piety, but believes not from the heart; having the 
hypocrisy of Simon Magus; one who has come hither not in order to 
receive of the grace, but to spy out what is given: let him also learn from 
John: And now also the axe is laid unto the root of the trees, Every tree 



139 

therefore that bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down, and cast into the 
fire. The Judge is inexorable; put away thine hypocrisy. 

8. What then must you do? And what are the fruits of repentance? Let him 
that hath two coats give to him that hath none: the teacher was worthy of 
credit, since he was also the first to practice what he taught: he was not 
ashamed to speak, for conscience hindered not his tongue: and he that hath 
meat, let hive do likewise. Wouldst thou enjoy the grace of the Holy Spirit, 
yet judges the poor not worthy of bodily food? Seekest thou the great 
gifts, and imparrest not of the small? Though thou be a publican, or a 
fornicator, have hope of salvation: the publicans and the harlots go into the 
kingdom of God before you. Paul also is witness, saying, Neither 
fornicators, nor adulterers, nor the rest, shall inherit the kingdom of God. 
And such were some of you: but ye were washed, but ye were sanctified. He 
said not, such are same of you, but such were some of you. Sin committed 
in the state of ignorance is pardoned, but persistent wickedness is 
condemned. 

9. Thou hast as the glory of Baptism the Son Himself, the Only-begotten 
of God. For why should I speak any more of man? John was great, but 
what is he to the Lord? His was a loud-sounding voice, but what in 
comparison with the Word? Very noble was the herald, but what in 
comparison with the King? Noble was he that baptized with water, but 
what to Him that baptizeth with the Holy Ghost and with fire! The Savior 
baptized the Apostles with the Holy Ghost and with fire, when suddenly 
there came a sound from heaven as of the rushing of a mighty wind, and it 
filled all the house where they were sitting. And there appeared unto them 
cloven tongues like as of fire: and it sat upon each one of them, and they 
were all filled with the Holy Ghost. 

10. If any man receive not Baptism, he hath not salvation; except only 
Martyrs, who even without the water receive the kingdom. For when the 
Savior, in redeeming the world by His Cross, was pierced in the side, He 
shed forth blood and water; that men, living in times of peace, might be 
baptized in water, and, in times of persecution, in their own blood. For 
martyrdom also the Savior is wont to call a baptism, saying, Can ye drink 
the cup which I drink, and be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized 
with? And the Martyrs confess, by being made a spectacle unto the world, 



140 

and to Angels, and to men; and thou wilt soon confess: — but it is not yet 
the time for thee to hear of this. 

1 1 . Jesus sanctified Baptism by being Himself baptized. If the Son of God 
was baptized, what godly man is he that despiseth Baptism? But He was 
baptized not that He might receive remission of sins, for He was sinless; 
but being sinless, He was baptized, that He might give to them that are 
baptized a divine and excellent grace. For since the children are partakers 
of flesh and blood, He also Himself likewise partook of the same, that 
having been made partakers of His presence in the flesh we might be made 
partakers also of His Divine grace: thus Jesus was baptized, that thereby 
we again by our participation might receive both salvation and honor. 
According to Job, there was in the waters the dragon that draweth, up 
Jordan into his mouth. Since, therefore, it was necessary to break the 
heads of the dragon in pieces He went down and bound the strong one in 
the waters, that we might receive power to tread upon serpents and 
scorpions. The beast was great and terrible. No fishing-vessel was able to 
carry one scale of his tail: destruction ran before him, ravaging all that met 
him. The Life encountered him, that the mouth of Death might henceforth 
be stopped, and all we that are saved might say, O death, where is thy 
sting? O grave, where is thy v/ctory?The sting of death is drawn by 
Baptism. 

12. For thou goest down into the water, bearing thy sins, but the 
invocation of grace, having sealed thy soul, suffereth thee not afterwards 
to be swallowed up by the terrible dragon. Having gone down dead in sins, 
thou comest up quickened in righteousness. For if thou hast been united 
with the likeness of the Savior's death, thou shall also be deemed worthy 
of His Resurrection. For as Jesus took upon Him the sins of the world, 
and died, that by putting sin to death He might rise again in righteousness; 
so thou by going down into the water, and being in a manner buried in the 
waters, as He was in the rock art raised again walking in newness of life. 

13. Moreover, when thou hast been deemed worthy of the grace, He then 
giveth thee strength to wrestle against the adverse powers. For as after His 
Baptism He was tempted forty days (not that He was unable to gain the 
victory before, but because He wished to do all things in due order and 
succession), so thou likewise, though not daring before thy baptism to 



141 

wrestle with the adversaries, yet after thou hast received the grace and art 
henceforth confident in the armor of righteousness, must then do battle, 
and preach the Gospel, if thou wilt. 

14. Jesus Christ was the Son of God, yet He preached not the Gospel 
before His Baptism. If the Master Himself followed the right time in due 
order, ought we, His servants, to venture out of order? From that time 
Jesus began to preach, when the Holy Spirit had descended upon Him in a 
bodily shape, like a dove, not that Jesus might see Him first, for He knew 
Him even before He came in a bodily shape, but that John, who was 
baptizing Him, might behold Him. For /, saith he, knew Him not: but He 
that sent me to baptize with water, He said unto me, Upon whomsoever 
thou shalt see the Spirit descending and abiding on Him, that is He. If thou 
too hast unfeigned piety, the Holy Ghost cometh down on thee also, and a 
Father's voice sounds over thee from on high — not, "This is My Son" 
but, "This has now been made My son;" for the "is" belongs to Him 
alone, because In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with 
God, and the Word was God. To Him belongs the "is," since He is always 
the Son of God: but to thee "has now been made:" since thou hast not the 
sonship by nature, but receivest it by adoption. He eternally "is;" but 
thou receivest the grace by advancement. 

15. Make ready then the vessel of thy soul, that thou mayest become a 
son of God, and an heir of God, and joint-heir with Christ; if, indeed, thou 
art preparing thyself that thou mayest receive; if thou art drawing nigh in 
faith that thou mayest be made faithful; if of set purpose thou art putting 
off the old man. For all things whatsoever thou hast done shall be forgiven 
thee, whether it be fornication, or adultery, or any other such form of 
licentiousness. What can be a greater sin than to crucify Christ? Yet even 
of this Baptism can purify. For so spoke Peter to the three thousand who 
came to him, to those who had crucified the Lord, when they asked him, 
saying, Men and brethren, what shall we do! For the wound is great. Thou 
hast made us think of our fall, O Peter, by saying, Ye killed the Prince of 
Life. What salve is there for so great a wound? What cleansing for such 
foulness? What is the salvation for such perdition? Repent, saith he, and be 
baptized every one Aryan in the name of Jesus Christ our Lord, for the 
remission of sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost. O 
unspeakable loving -kindness of God! They have no hope of being saved, 



142 

and yet they are thought worthy of the Holy Ghost. Thou seest the 
power of Baptism! If any of you has crucified the Christ by blasphemous 
words; if any of you in ignorance has denied Him before men; if any by 
wicked works has caused the doctrine to be blasphemed; let him repent 
and be of good hope, for the same grace is present even now. 

16. Be of good courage, O Jerusalem; the Lord will take away all thine 
iniquities. The Lord will wash away the filth of His sons and of His 
daughters by the Spirit of judgment, and by the Spirit of burning. He will 
sprinkle clean water upon you, and ye shall be cleansed from all your sin. 
Angels shall dance around you, and say, Who is this that cometh up in 
white array, leaning upon her beloved 1 ? For the soul that was formerly a 
slave has now adopted her Master Himself as her kinsman: and He 
accepting the unfeigned purpose will answer: Behold, thou art fair, my 
love; behold, thou art fair: thy teeth are like flocks of sheep new shorn, 
(because of the confession of a good conscience: and further) which have 
all of them twins; because of the twofold grace, I mean that which is 
perfected of water and of the Spirit, or that which is announced by the Old 
and by the New Testament. And God grant that all of you when you have 
finished the course of the fast, may remember what I say, and bringing 
forth fruit in good works, may stand blameless beside the Spiritual 
Bridegroom, and obtain the remission of your sins from God; to whom 
with the Son and Holy Spirit be the glory for ever. Amen. 



143 



LECTURE 4 

ON THE TEN POINTS OF DOCTRINE 

COLOSSIANS 2:8 

Beware lest any man spoil you through philosophy and vain deceit, after the 
tradition of men, after the rudiments of the world, etc. 

1. Vice mimics virtue, and the tares strive to be thought wheat, growing 
like the wheat in appearance, but being detected by good judges from the 
taste. The devil also transfigures himself into an angel of light; not that he 
may reascend to where he was, for having made his heart hard as an anvil, 
he has henceforth a will that cannot repent; but in order that he may 
envelope those who are living an Angelic life in a mist of blindness, and a 
pestilent condition of unbelief. Many wolves are going about in sheeps ' 
clothing, their clothing being that of sheep, not so their claws and teeth: 
but clad in their soft skin, and deceiving the innocent by their appearance, 
they shed upon them from their fangs the destructive poison of 
ungodliness. We have need therefore of divine grace, and of a sober mind, 
and of eyes that see, lest from eating tares as wheat we suffer harm from 
ignorance, and lest from taking the wolf to be a sheep we become his prey, 
and from supposing the destroying Devil to be a beneficent Angel we be 
devoured: for, as the Scripture saith, he goeth about as a roaring lion, 
seeking whom he may devour. This is the cause of the Church's 
admonitions, the cause of the present instructions, and of the lessons 
which are read. 

2. For the method of godliness consists of these two things, pious 
doctrines, and virtuous practice: and neither are the doctrines acceptable to 
God apart from good works, nor does God accept the works which are not 
perfected with pious doctrines. For what profit is it, to know well the 
doctrines concerning God, and yet to be a vile fornicator? And again, what 
profit is it, to be nobly temperate, and an impious blasphemer? A most 
precious possession therefore is the knowledge of doctrines: also there is 
need of a wakeful soul, since there are many that make spoil through 
philosophy and vain deceit. The Greeks on the one hand draw men away 



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by their smooth tongue, for honey droppethfrom a harlot's lips: whereas 
they of the Circumcision deceive those who come to them by means of the 
Divine Scriptures, which they miserably misinterpret though studying 
them from childhood to all age, and growing old in ignorance. But the 
children of heretics, by their good words and smooth tongue, deceive the 
hearts of the innocent, disguising with the name of Christ as it were with 
honey the poisoned arrows of their impious doctrines: concerning all of 
whom together the Lord saith, Take heed lest any man mislead you. This is 
the reason for the teaching of the Creed and for expositions upon it. 

3. But before delivering you over to the Creed, I think it is well to make 
use at present of a short summary of necessary doctrines; that the 
multitude of things to be spoken, and the long interval of the days of all 
this holy Lent, may not cause forgetfulness in the mind of the more simple 
among you; but that, having strewn some seeds now in a summary way, 
we may not forget the same when afterwards more widely tilled. But let 
those here present whose habit of mind is mature, and who have their 
senses already exercised to discern good and evil, endure patiently to 
listen to things fitted rather for children, and to an introductory course, as 
it were, of milk: that at the same time both those who have need of the 
instruction may be benefited, and those who have the knowledge may 
rekindle the remembrance of things which they already know. 

I. OF GOD. 

4. First then let there be laid as a foundation in your soul the doctrine 
concerning God that God is One, alone unbegotten, without beginning, 
change, or variation; neither begotten of another, nor having another to 
succeed Him in His life; who neither began to live in time, nor endeth ever: 
and that He is both good and just; that if ever thou hear a heretic say, that 
there is one God who is just, and another who is good, thou mayest 
immediately remember, and discern the poisoned arrow of heresy. For 
some have impiously dared to divide the One God in their teaching: and 
some have said that one is the Creator and Lord of the soul, and another of 
the body; a doctrine at once absurd and impious. For how can a man 
become the one servant of two masters, when our Lord says in the 
Gospels, No man can serve two masters'? There is then One Only God, 
the Maker both of souls and bodies: One the Creator of heaven and earth, 



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the Maker of Angels anti Archangels: of many the Creator, but of One 
only the Father before all ages, — of One only, His Only-begotten Son, 
our Lord Jesus Christ, by Whom He made all things visible and invisible. 

5. This Father of our Lord Jesus Christ is not circumscribed in any place, 
nor is He less than the heaven; but the heavens are the works of His 
fingers, and the whole earth is held in His grasp: He is in all things and 
around all. Think not that the sun is brighter than He, or equal to Him: for 
He who at first formed the sun must needs be incomparably greater and 
brighter. He foreknoweth the things that shall be, and is mightier than all, 
knowing all things and doing as He will; not being subject to any necessary 
sequence of events, nor to nativity, nor chance, nor fate; in all things 
perfect, and equally possessing every absolute form of virtue, neither 
diminishing nor increasing, but in mode and conditions ever the same; who 
hath prepared punishment for sinners, and a crown for the righteous. 

6. Seeing then that many have gone astray in divers ways from the One 
God, some having deified the sun, that when the sun sets they may abide 
in the night season without God; others the moon, to have no God by day; 
others the other parts of the world; others the arts; others their various 
kinds of food; others their pleasures; while some, mad after women, have 
set up on high an image of a naked woman, and called it Aphrodite, and 
worshipped their own lust in a visible form; and others dazzled by the 
brightness of gold have deified it and the other kinds of matter; — whereas 
if one lay as a first foundation in his heart the doctrine of the unity of 
God, and trust to Him, he roots out at once the whole crop of the evils of 
idolatry, and of the error of the heretics: lay thou, therefore, this first 
doctrine of religion as a foundation in thy soul by faith. 

OF CHRIST. 

7. Believe also in the Son of God, One and Only, our Lord Jesus Christ, 
Who was begotten God of God, begotten Life of Life, begotten Light of 
Light, Who is in all things likes to Him that begat, Who received not His 
being in time, but was before all ages eternally and incomprehensibly 
begotten of the Father: The Wisdom and the Power of God, and His 
Righteousness personally subsisting: Who sitteth on the right hand of the 
Father before all ages. 



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For the throne at God's right hand He received not, as some have thought, 
because of His patient endurance, being crowned as it were by God after 
His Passion; but throughout His being, — a being by eternal generation, — 
He holds His royal dignity, and shares the Father's seat, being God and 
Wisdom and Power, as hath been said; reigning together with the Father, 
and creating all things for the Father, yet lacking nothing in the dignity of 
Godhead, and knowing Him that hath begotten Him, even as He is known 
of Him that hath begotten; and to speak briefly, remember thou what is 
written in the Gospels, that none knoweth the Son but the Father, neither 
knoweth any the Father save the Son. 

8. Further, do thou neither separate the Son from the Father, nor by 
making a confusion believe in a Son-Fatherhood; but believe that of One 
God there is One Only-begotten Son, who is before all ages God the Word; 
not the uttered word diffused into the air, nor to be likened to impersonal 
words; but the Word the Son, Maker of all who partake of reason, the 
Word who heareth the Father, and Himself speaketh. And on these points, 
should God permit, we will speak more at large in due season; for we do 
not forget our present purpose to give a summary introduction to the 
Faith. 

CONCERNING HIS BIRTH OF THE VIRGIN. 

9. Believe then that this Only-begotten Son of God for our sins came 
down from heaven upon earth, and took upon Him this human nature of 
like passions with us, and was begotten of the Holy Virgin and of the 
Holy Ghost, and was made Man, not in seeming and mere show, but in 
truth; nor yet by passing through the Virgin as through a channel; but was 
of her made truly flesh, [and truly nourished with milk], and did truly eat 
as we do, and truly drink as we do. For if the Incarnation was a phantom, 
salvation is a phantom also. The Christ was of two natures, Man in what 
was seen, but God in what was not seen; as Man truly eating like us, for 
He had the like feeling of the flesh with us; but as God feeding the five 
thousand from five loaves; as Man truly dying, but as God raising him that 
had been dead four days; truly sleeping in the ship as Man, and walking 
upon the waters as God. 

OF THE CROSS. 



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10. He was truly crucified for our sins. For if thou wouldest deny it, the 
place refutes thee visibly, this blessed Golgotha, in which we are now 
assembled for the sake of Him who was here crucified; and the whole 
world has since been filled with pieces of the wood of the Cross. But He 
was crucified not for sins of His own, but that we might be delivered from 
our sins. And though as Man He was at that time despised of men, and 
was buffeted, yet He was acknowledged by the Creation as God: for when 
the sun saw his Lord dishonored, he grew dim and trembled, not enduring 
the sight. 

OF HIS BURIAL. 

1 1 . He was truly laid as Man in a tomb of rock; but rocks were rent 
asunder by terror because of Him. He went down into the regions beneath 
the earth, that thence also He might redeem the righteous. For, tell me, 
couldst thou wish the living only to enjoy His grace, and that, though most 
of them are unholy; and not wish those who from Adam had for a long 
while been imprisoned to have now gained their liberty? Esaias the 
Prophet proclaimed with loud voice so many things concerning Him; 
wouldst thou not wish that the King should go down and redeem His 
herald? David was there, and Samuel, and all the Prophets, John himself 
also, who by his messengers said, Art thou He that should come, or look 
we for another! Wouldst thou not wish that He should descend and 
redeem such as these? 

OF THE RESURRECTION. 

12. But He who descended into the regions beneath the earth came up 
again; and Jesus, who was buffed, truly rose again the third day. And if the 
Jews ever worry thee, meet them at once by asking thus: Did Jonah come 
forth from the whale on the third day, and bath not Christ then risen from 
the earth on the third day? Is a dead man raised to life on touching the 
bones of Elisha, and is it not much easier for the Maker of mankind to be 
raised by the power of the Father? Well then, He truly rose, and after He 
had risen was seen again of the disciples: and twelve disciples were 
witnesses of His Resurrection, who bare witness not in pleasing words, 
but contended even unto torture and death for the truth of the 



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Resurrection. What then, shall every word be established at the mouth of 
two of three witnesses, according to the Scripture, and, though twelve bear 
witness to the Resurrection of Christ, art thou still incredulous in regard to 
His Resurrection? 

CONCERNING THE ASCENSION. 

13. But when Jesus had finished His course of patient endurance, and had 
redeemed mankind from their sins, He ascended again into the heavens, a 
cloud receiving Him up: and as He went up Angels were beside Him, and 
Apostles were beholding. But if any man disbelieves the words which I 
speak, let him believe the actual power of the things now seen. All kings 
when they die have their power extinguished with their life: but Christ 
crucified is worshipped by the whole world. We proclaim The Crucified, 
and the devils tremble now. Many have been crucified at various times; 
but of what other who was crucified did the invocation ever drive the 
devils away? 

14. Let us, therefore, not be ashamed of the Cross of Christ; but though 
another hide it, do thou openly seal it upon thy forehead, that the devils 
may behold the royal sign and flee trembling far away. Make then this sign 
at eating and drinking, at sitting, at lying down, at rising up, at speaking, at 
walking: in a word, at every act. For He who was here crucified is in 
heaven above. If after being crucified and buried He had remained in the 
tomb, we should have had cause to be ashamed; but, in fact, He who was 
crucified on Golgotha here, has ascended into heaven from the Mount of 
Olives on the East. For after having gone down hence into Hades, and 
come up again to us, He ascended again from us into heaven, His Father 
addressing Him, and saying, Sit Thou on My right hand, until I make Thine 
enemies Thy footstool. 

OF JUDGMENT TO COME. 

15. This Jesus Christ who is gone up shall come again, not from earth but 
from heaven: and I say, "not from earth," because there are many 
Antichrists to come at this time from earth. For already, as thou base seen, 
many have begun to say, / am the Christ: and the abomination of 
desolation is yet to come, assuming to himself the false title of Christ. But 



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look thou for the true Christ, the Only-begotten Son of God, coming 
henceforth no more from earth, but from heaven, appearing to all more 
bright than any lightning and brilliancy of light, with angel guards attended, 
that He may judge both quick and dead, and reign in a heavenly, eternal 
kingdom, which shall have no end. For on this point also, I pray thee, 
make thyself sure, since there are many who say that Christ's Kingdom 
hath an end. 

OF THE HOLY GHOST. 

16. Believe thou also in the Holy Ghost, and hold the same opinion 
concerning Him, which thou hast received to hold concerning the Father 
and the Son, and follow not those who teach blasphemous things of Him. 
But learn thou that this Holy Spirit is One, indivisible, of manifold power; 
having many operations, yet not Himself divided; Who knoweth the 
mysteries, Who searcheth all things, even the deep things of God: Who 
descended upon the Lord Jesus Christ in form of a dove; Who wrought in 
the Law and in the Prophets; Who now also at the season of Baptism 
sealeth thy soul; of Whose holiness also every intellectual nature hath 
need: against Whom if any dare to blaspheme, he hath no forgiveness, 
neither in this world, nor in that which is to come: "Who with the Father 
and the Son together" is honored with the glory of the Godhead: of Whom 
also thrones, and dominions, principalities, and powers have need. For 
there is One God, the Father of Christ; and One Lord Jesus Christ, the 
Only-begotten Son of the Only God; and One Holy Ghost, the sanctifier 
and deifier of all, Who spoke in the Law and in the Prophets, in the Old 
and in the New Testament. 

17. Have thou ever in thy mind this seal, which for the present has been 
lightly touched in my discourse, by way of summary, but shall be stated, 
should the Lord permit, to the best of my power with the proof from the 
Scriptures. For concerning the divine and holy mysteries of the Faith, not 
even a casual statement must be delivered without the Holy Scriptures; 
nor must we be drawn aside by mere plausibility and artifices of speech. 
Even to me, who tell thee these things, give not absolute credence, unless 
thou receive the proof of the things which I announce from the Divine 
Scriptures. For this salvation which we believe depends not on ingenious 
reasoning, but on demonstration of the Holy Scriptures. 



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OF THE SOUL. 

18. Next to the knowledge of this venerable and glorious and all- holy 
Faith, learn further what thou thyself art: that as man thou art of a 
two-fold nature, consisting of soul and body; and that, as was said a short 
time ago, the same God is the Creator both of soul and body. Know also 
that thou hast a soul self-governed, the noblest work of God, made after 
the image of its Creator: immortal because of God that gives it 
immortality; a living being, rational, imperishable, because of Him that 
bestowed these gifts: having free power to do what it willeth. For it is not 
according to thy nativity that thou sinnest, nor is it by the power of 
chance that thou committest fornication, nor, as some idly talk, do the 
conjunctions of the stars compel thee to give thyself to wantonness. Why 
dost thou shrink from confessing thine own evil deeds, and ascribe the 
blame to the innocent stars? Give no more heed, pray, to astrologers; for 
of these the divine Scripture saith, Let the star gazers of the heaven stand 
up and save thee, and what follows: Behold, they all shall be consumed as 
stubble on the fire, and shall not deliver their soul from the flame. 

19. And learn this also, that the soul, before it came into this world, had 
committed no sin, but having come in sinless, we now sin of our free-will. 
Listen not, I pray thee, to any one perversely interpreting the words, But 
if I do that which I would not: but remember Him who saith, If ye be 
willing, and hearken unto Me, ye shall eat the good things of the land: but if 
ye be not willing, neither hearken unto Me, the sword shall devour you, 
etc:, and again, As ye presented your members as servants to uncleanness 
and to iniquity unto iniquity, even so now present your members as 
servants to righteousness unto sanctification. Remember also the Scripture, 
which saith, Even as they did not like to retain God in their knowledge: 
and, That which may be known of God is manifest in them; and again, their 
eyes they have closed. Also remember how God again accuseth them, and 
saith, Yet I planted thee a fruitful vine, wholly true: how art thou turned to 
bitterness, thou the strange vine? 

20. The soul is immortal, and all souls are alike both of men and women; 
for only the members of the body are distinguished. There is not a class of 
souls sinning by nature, and a class of souls practicing righteousness by 
nature: but both act from choice, the substance of their souls being of one 



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kind only, and alike in all. I know, however, that I am talking much, and 
that the time is already long: but what is more precious than salvation? Art 
thou not willing to take trouble in getting provisions for the way against 
the heretics? And wilt thou not learn the bye-paths of the road, lest from 
ignorance thou fall down a precipice? If thy teachers think it no small gain 
for thee to learn these things, shouldest not thou the learner gladly receive 
the multitude of things told thee? 

21. The soul is self -governed: and though the devil can suggest, he has not 
the power to compel against the will. He pictures to thee the thought of 
fornication: if thou wilt, thou acceptest it; if thou wilt not, thou rejectest. 
For if thou were a fornicator by necessity, then for what cause did God 
prepare hell? If thou were a doer of righteousness by nature and not by 
will, wherefore did God prepare crowns of ineffable glory? The sheep is 
gentle, but never was it crowned for its gentleness: since its gentle quality 
belongs to it not from choice but by nature. 

OF THE BODY. 

22. Thou hast learned, beloved, the nature of the soul, as far as there is 
time at present now do thy best to receive the doctrine of the body also. 
Suffer none of those who say that this body is no work of God: for they 
who believe that the body is independent of God, and that the soul dwells 
in it as in a strange vessel, readily abuse it to fornication. And yet what 
fault have they found in this wonderful body? For what is lacking in 
comeliness? And what in its structure is not full of skill? Ought they not 
to have observed the luminous construction of the eyes? And how the ears 
being set obliquely receive the sound unhindered? And how the smell is 
able to distinguish scents, and to perceive exhalations? And how the 
tongue ministers to two purposes, the sense of taste, and the power of 
speech? How the lungs placed out of sight are unceasing in their 
respiration of the air? Who imparted the incessant pulsation of the heart? 
Who made the distribution into so many veins and arteries? Who skillfully 
knitted together the bones with the sinews? Who assigned a part of the 
food to our substance, and separated a part for decent secretion, and hid 
away the unseemly members in more seemly places? Who when the 
human race must have died out, rendered it by a simple intercourse 
perpetual? 



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23. Tell me not that the body is a cause of sin. For if the body is a cause of 
sin, why does not a dead body sin? Put a sword in the right hand of one 
just dead, and no murder takes place. Let beauties of every kind pass 
before a youth just dead, and no impure desire arises. Why? Because the 
body sins not of itself, but the soul through the body. The body is an 
instrument, and, as it were, a garment and robe of the soul: and if by this 
latter it be given over to fornication, it becomes defiled: but if it dwell with 
a holy soul, it becomes a temple of the Holy Ghost. It is not I that say 
this, but the Apostle Paul hath said, Know ye not, that your bodies are the 
temple of the Holy Ghost which is in you! Be tender, therefore, of thy body 
as being a temple of the Holy Ghost. Pollute not thy flesh in fornication: 
defile not this thy fairest robe: and if ever thou hast defiled it, now cleanse 
it by repentance: get thyself washed, while time permits. 

24. And to the doctrine of chastity let the first to give heed be the order of 
Solitaries and of Virgins, who maintain the angelic life in the world; and let 
the rest of the Church's people follow them. For you, brethren, a great 
crown is laid up: barter not away a great dignity for a petty pleasure: 
listen to the Apostle speaking: Lest there be any fornicator or profane 
person, as Esau, who for one mess of meat sold his own birthright. 
Enrolled henceforth in the Angelic books for thy profession of chastity, 
see that thou be not blotted out again for thy practice of fornication. 

25. Nor again, on the other hand, in maintaining thy chastity be thou 
puffed up against those who walk in the humbler path of matrimony. For 
as the Apostle saith, Let marriage be had in honor among all, and let the 
bed be undefiled. Thou too who retainest thy chastity, wast thou not 
begotten of those who had married? Because thou hast a possession of 
gold, do not on that account reprobate the silver. But let those also be of 
good cheer, who being married use marriage lawfully; who make a marriage 
according to God's ordinance, and not of wantonness for the sake of 
unbounded license; who recognize seasons of abstinence, that they may 
give themselves unto prayer, who in our assemblies bring clean bodies as 
welt as clean garments into the Church; who have entered upon matrimony 
for the procreation of children, but not for indulgence. 

26. Let those also who marry but once not reprobate those who have 
consented to a second marriages: for though continence is a noble and 



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admirable thing, yet it is also permissible to enter upon a second marriage, 
that the weak may not fall into fornication. For it is good for them, saith 
the Apostle, if they abide even as I. But if they have not continency, let them 
marry: for it is better to marry than to burn. But let all the other practices 
be banished afar, fornication, adultery, and every kind of licentiousness: 
and let the body be kept pure for the Lord, that the Lord also may have 
respect unto the body. And let the body be nourished with food, that it 
may live, and serve without hindrance; not, however, that it may be given 
up to luxuries. 

CONCERNING MEATS. 

27. And concerning food let these be your ordinances, since in regard to 
meats also many stumble. For some deal indifferently with things offered 
to idols, while others discipline themselves, but condemn those that eat: 
and in different ways men's souls are defiled in the matter of meats, from 
ignorance of the useful reasons for eating and not eating. For we fast by 
abstaining from wine and flesh, not because we abhor them as 
abominations, but because we look for our reward; that having scorned 
things sensible, we may enjoy a spiritual and intellectual feast; and that 
having now sown in tears we may reap in joy in the world to come. 
Despise not therefore them that eat, and because of the weakness of their 
bodies partake of food: nor yet blame these who use a little wine for their 
stomach's sake and their often infirmities: and neither condemn the men as 
sinners, nor abhor the flesh as strange food; for the Apostle knows some 
of this sort, when he says: forbidding to marry, and commanding to 
abstain from meats, which God created to be received with thanksgiving by 
them that believe. In abstaining then from these things, abstain not as from 
things abominable, else thou hast no reward: but as being good things 
disregard them for the sake of the better spiritual things set before thee. 

28. Guard thy soul safely, lest at any time thou eat of things offered to 
idols: for concerning meats of this kind, not only I at this time, but ere 
now Apostles also, and James the bishop of this Church, have had earnest 
care: and the Apostles and Elders write a Catholic epistle to all the 
Gentiles, that they should abstain first from things offered to idols, and 
then from blood also and from things strangled. For many men being of 
savage nature, and living like dogs, both lap up blood, in imitation of the 



154 

manner of the fiercest beasts, and greedily devour things strangled. But do 
thou, the servant of Christ, in eating observe to eat with reverence. And so 
enough concerning meats. 

OF APPAREL. 

29. But let thine apparel be plain, not for adornment, but for necessary 
covering: not to minister to thy vanity, but to keep thee worth in winter, 
and to hide the unseemliness of the body: lest under pretense of hiding the 
unseemliness, thou fall into another kind of unseemliness by thy 
extravagant dress. 

OF THE RESURRECTION. 

30. Be tender, I beseech thee, of this body, and understand that thou wilt 
be raised from the dead, to be judged with this body. But if there steal into 
thy mind any thought of unbelief, as though the thing were impossible, 
judge of the things unseen by what happens to thyself. For tell me; a 
hundred years ago or more, think where wast thou thyself: and from what 
a most minute and mean substance thou art come to so great a stature, and 
so much dignity of beauty. What then? Cannot He who brought the 
non-existent into being, raise up again that which already exists and has 
decayed? He who raises the corn, which is sown for our sakes, as year by 
year it dies, — will He base difficulty in raising us up, for whose sakes 
that corn also has been raised? Seest thou how the trees stand now for 
many months without either fruit or leaves: but when the winter is past 
they spring up whole into life again as if from the dead: shall not we much 
rather and more easily return to life? The rod of Moses was transformed 
by the will of God into the unfamiliar nature of a serpent: and cannot a 
man, who has fallen into death, be restored to himself again? 

31. Heed not those who say that this body is not raised; for it is raised: 
and Esaias is witness, when he says: The dead shall arise, and they that 
are in the tombs shall awake: and according to Daniel, Many of them that 
sleep in the dust of the earth shall arise, some to everlasting life, and some 
to everlasting shame. But though to rise again is common to all men, yet 
the resurrection is not alike to all: for the bodies received by us all are 
eternal, but not like bodies by all: for the just receive them, that through 



155 

eternity they may join the Choirs of Angels; but the sinners, that they 
may endure for ever the torment of their sins. 

OFTHELAVER. 

32. For this cause the Lord, preventing us according to His 
loving-kindness, has granted repentance at Baptism, in order that we may 
cast off the chief — nay rather the whole burden of our sins, and having 
received the seal by the Holy Ghost, may be made heirs of eternal life. But 
as we have spoken sufficiently concerning the Layer the day before 
yesterday, let us now return to the remaining subjects of our introductory 
teaching. 

OF THE DIVINE SCRIPTURES. 

33. Now these the divinely-inspired Scriptures of both the Old and the 
New Testament teach us. For the God of the two Testaments is One, Who 
in the Old Testament foretold the Christ Who appeared in the New; Who 
by the Law and the Prophets led us to Christ's school. For before faith 
came, we were kept inward under the law, and, the law hath been our tutor 
to bring us unto Christ. And if ever thou hear any of the heretics speaking 
evil of the Law or the Prophets, answer in the sound of the Savior's voice, 
saying, Jesus came not to destroy the Law, but to fulfill it. Learn also 
diligently, and from the Church, what are the books of the Old Testament, 
and what those of the New. And, pray, read none of the apocryphal 
writings: for why dose thou, who knowest not those which are 
acknowledged among all, trouble thyself in vain about those which are 
disputed? Read the Divine Scriptures, the twenty-two books of the Old 
Testament, these that have been translated by the Seventy-two 
Interpreters. 

34. For after the death of Alexander, the king of the Macedonians, and the 
division of his kingdom into four principalities, into Babylonia, and 
Macedonia, and Asia, and Egypt, one of those who reigned over Egypt, 
Ptolemy Philadelphus, being a king very fond of learning, while collecting 
the books that were in every place, heard from Demetrius Phalereus, the 
curator of his library, of the Divine Scriptures of the Law and the 
Prophets, and judged it much nobler, not to get the books from the 



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possessors by force against their will, but rather to propitiate them by 
gifts and friendship; and knowing that what is extorted is often 
adulterated, being given unwillingly, while that which is willingly supplied 
is freely given with all sincerity, he sent to Eleazar, who was then High 
Priest, a great many gifts for the Temple here at Jerusalem, and caused him 
to send him six interpreters from each of the twelve tribes of Israel for the 
translation. Then, further, to make experiment whether the books were 
Divine or not, he took precaution that those who had been sent should not 
combine among themselves, by assigning to each of the interpreters who 
had come his separate chamber in the island called Pharos, which lies over 
against Alexandria, and committed to each the whole Scriptures to 
translate. And when they had fulfilled the task in seventy-two days, he 
brought together all their translations, which they had made in different 
chambers without sending them one to another, and found that they agreed 
not only in the sense but even in words. For the process was no 
word-craft, nor contrivance of human devices: but the translation of the 
Divine Scriptures, spoken by the Holy Ghost, was of the Holy Ghost 
accomplished. 

35. Of these read the two and twenty books, but have nothing to do with 
the apocryphal writings. Study earnestly these only which we read openly 
in the Church. Far wiser and more pious than thyself were the Apostles, 
and the bishops of old time, the presidents of the Church who handed 
down these books. Being therefore a child of the Church, trench thou not 
upon its statutes. And of the Old Testament, as we have said, study the 
two and twenty books, which, if thou art desirous of learning, strive to 
remember by name, as I recite them. For of the Law the books of Moses 
are the first five, Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy. 
And next, Joshua the son of Nave, and the book of Judges, including Ruth, 
counted as seventh. And of the other historical books, the first and second 
books of the Kings are among the Hebrews one book; also the third and 
fourth one book. And in like manner, the first and second of Chronicles are 
with them one book; and the first and second of Esdras are counted one. 
Esther is the twelfth book; and these are the Historical writings. But those 
which are written in verses are five, Job, and the book of Psalms, and 
Proverbs, and Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Songs, which is the 
seventeenth book. And after these come the five Prophetic books: of the 



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Twelve Prophets one book, of Isaiah one, of Jeremiah one, including 
Baruch and Lamentations and the Epistle; then Ezekiel, and the Book of 
Daniel, the twenty-second of the Old Testament. 

36. Then of the New Testament there are the four Gospels only, for the 
rest have false titles and are mischievous. The Manic haeans also wrote a 
Gospel according to Thomas, which being tinctured with the fragrance of 
the evangelic title corrupts the souls of the simple sort. Receive also the 
Acts of the Twelve Apostles; and in addition to these the seven Catholic 
Epistles of James, Peter, John, and Jude; and as a seal upon them all, and 
the last work of the disciples, the fourteen Epistles of Paul. But let all the 
rest be put aside in a secondary rank. And whatever books are not read in 
Churches, these read not even by thyself, as thou hast heard me say. Thus 
much of these subjects. 

37. But shun thou every diabolical operation, and believe not the apostate 
Serpent, whose transformation from a good nature was of his own free 
choice: who can over-persuade the willing, but can compel no one. Also 
give heed neither to observations of the stars nor auguries, nor omens, nor 
to the fabulous divinations of the Greeks. Witchcraft, and enchantment, 
and the wicked practices of necromancy, admit not even to a hearing. From 
every kind of intemperance stand aloof, giving thyself neither to gluttony 
nor licentiousness, rising superior to all covetousness and usury. Neither 
venture thyself at heathen assemblies for public spectacles, nor ever use 
amulets in sicknesses; shun also all the vulgarity of tavern-haunting. Fall 
not away either into the sect of the Samaritans, or into Judaism: for Jesus 
Christ henceforth hath ransomed thee. Stand aloof from all observance of 
Sabbaths, and from calling any indifferent meats common or unclean. But 
especially abhor all the assemblies of wicked heretics; and in every way 
make thine own soul safe, by fastings, prayers, almsgivings, and reading 
the oracles of God; that having lived the rest of thy life in the flesh in 
soberness and godly doctrine, thou mayest enjoy the one salvation which 
flows from Baptism; and thus enrolled in the armies of heaven by God and 
the Father, mayest also be deemed worthy of the heavenly crowns, in 
Christ Jesus our Lord, to Whom be the glory for ever and ever. Amen. 



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LECTURE 5 

OF FAITH 

HEBREWS 9:1,2. 

Now faith is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen. For 
by it the elders obtained a good report. 

1 . How great a dignity the Lord bestows on you in transferring you from 
the order of Catechumens to that of the Faithful, the Apostle Paul shews, 
when he affirms, God is faithful, by Whom ye were called into the 
fellowship of His Son Jesus Christ. For since God is called Faithful, thou 
also in receiving this title receivest a great dignity. For as God is called 
Good, and Just, and Almighty, and Maker of the Universe, so is He also 
called Faithful. Consider therefore to what a dignity thou art rising, seeing 
thou art to become partaker of a title of God. 

2. Here then it is further required, that each of you be found faithful in his 
conscience: for a faithful man it is hard to find: not that thou shouldest 
shew thy conscience to me, for thou art not to be judged of man's 
judgment, but that thou shew the sincerity of thy faith to God, who trieth 
the reins and hearts, and knoweth the thoughts of men. A great thing is a 
faithful man, being richest of all rich men. For to the faithful man belongs 
the whole world of wealth, in that he disdains and tramples on it. For they 
who in appearance are rich, and have many possessions, are poor in soul: 
since the more they gather, the more they pine with longing for what is 
still lacking. But the faithful man, most strange paradox, in poverty is rich: 
for knowing that we need only to have food and raiment, and being 
therewith content, he has trodden riches under foot. 

3. Nor is it only among us, who bear the name of Christ, that the dignity 
of faith is great: but likewise all things that are accomplished in the world, 
even by those who are aliens from the Church, are accomplished by faith. 

By faith the laws of marriage yoke together those who have lived as 
strangers: and because of the faith in marriage contracts a stranger is made 



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partner of a stranger's person and possessions. By faith husbandry also is 
sustained, for he who believes not that he shall receive a harvest endures 
not the toils. By faith sea-faring men, trusting to the thinnest plank, 
exchange that most solid element, the land, for the restless motion of the 
waves, committing themselves to uncertain hopes, and carrying with them 
a faith more sure than any anchor. By faith therefore most of men's affairs 
are held together: and not among us only has there been this belief, but 
also, as I have said, among those who are without. For if they receive not 
the Scriptures, but bring forward certain doctrines of their own, even these 
they accept by faith. 

4. The lesson also which was read today invites you to the true faith, by 
setting before you the way in which you also must please God: for it 
affirms that without faith it is impossible to please Him. For when will a 
man resolve to serve God, unless he believes that He is a giver of reward! 
When will a young woman choose a virgin life, or a young man live 
soberly, if they believe not that for chastity there is a crown thatfadeth 
not away! Faith is an eye that enlightens every conscience, and imparts 
understanding; for the Prophet saith, And if ye behave not, ye shall not 
understand. 

Faith stoppeth the mouths of lions, as in Daniel's case: for the Scripture 
saith concerning him, that Daniel was brought up out of the den, and no 
manner of hurt was found upon him, because he believed in his God. Is 
there anything more fearful than the devil? Yet even against him we have 
no other shield than faith, an impalpable buckler against an unseen foe. For 
he sends forth divers arrows, and shoots down in the dark night those that 
watch not; but, since the enemy is unseen, we have faith as our strong 
armor, according to the saying of the Apostle, In all thinks taking the 
shield of faith, wherewith ye shall be able to quench all the fiery darts of the 
wicked one. A fiery dart of desire of base indulgence is often cast forth 
from the devil: but faith, suggesting a picture of the judgment, cools down 
the mind, and quenches the dart. 

5. There is much to tell of faith, and the whole day would not be time 
sufficient for us to describe it fully. At present let us be content with 
Abraham only, as one of the examples from the Old Testament, seeing that 
we have been made his sons through faith. He was justified not only by 



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works, but also by faith: for though he did many things well, yet he was 
never called the friend of God, except when he believed. Moreover, his 
every work was performed in faith. Through faith he left his parents; left 
country, and place, and home through faith. In like manner, therefore, as he 
was justified be thou justified also. In his body he was already dead in 
regard to offspring, and Sarah his wife was now old, and there was no 
hope left of having children. God promises the old man a child, and 
Abraham without being weakened in faith, though he considered his own 
body now as good as dead, heeded not the weakness of his body, but the 
power of Him who promised, because he counted Him faithful who had 
promised, and so beyond all expectation gained the child from bodies as it 
were already dead. And when, after he had gained his son, he was 
commanded to offer him up, although he had heard the word, In Isaac 
shall thy seed be called, he proceeded to offer up his son, his only son, to 
God, believing that God is able to raise up even from the dead. And having 
bound his son, and laid him on the wood, he did in purpose offer him, but 
by the goodness of God in delivering to him a lamb instead of his child, he 
received his son alive. Being faithful in these things, he was sealed for 
righteousness, and received circumcision as a seal of the faith which he 
had while he was in uncircumcision, having received a promise that he 
should be the father of many nations. 

6. Let us see, then, how Abraham is the father of many nations. Of Jews 
he is confessedly the father, through succession according to the flesh. But 
if we hold to the succession according to the flesh, we shall be compelled 
to say that the oracle was false. For according to the flesh be is no longer 
father of us all: but the example of his faith makes us all sons of Abraham. 
How? and in what manner? With men it is incredible that one should rise 
from the dead; as in like manner it is incredible also that there should be 
offspring from aged persons as good as dead. But when Christ is preached 
as having been crucified on the tree, and as having died and risen again, we 
believe it. By the likeness therefore of our faith we are adopted into the 
sonship of Abraham. And then, following upon our faith, we receive like 
him the spiritual seal, being circumcised by the Holy Spirit through 
Baptism, not in the foreskin of the body, but in the heart, according to 
Jeremiah, saying, And ye shall be circumcised unto God in the foreskin of 



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your heart: and according to the Apostle, in the circumcision of Christ, 
having been buried with Him in baptism, and the rest. 

7. This faith if we keep we shall be free from condemnation, and shall be 
adorned with all kinds of virtues. For so great is the strength of faith, as 
even to buoy men up in walking on the sea. Peter was a man like 
ourselves, made up of flesh and blood, and living upon like food. But when 
Jesus said, Come, he believed, and walked upon the waters, and found his 
faith safer upon the waters than any ground; and his heavy body was 
upheld by the buoyancy of his faith. But though he had safe footing over 
the water as long as he believed, yet when he doubted, at once he began to 
sink: for as his faith gradually relaxed, his body also was drawn down with 
it. And when He saw his distress, Jesus who remedies the distresses of 
our souls, said, O than of little faith, wherefore didst thou doubt! And being 
nerved again by Him who grasped his right hand, be had no sooner 
recovered his faith, than, led by the hand of the Master, he resumed the 
same walking upon the waters: for this the Gospel indirectly mentioned, 
saying, when they were gone up into the ship. For it says not that Peter 
swam across and went up, but gives us to understand that, after returning 
the same distance that he went to meet Jesus, he went up again into the 
ship. 

8. Yea, so much power hath faith, that not the believer only is saved, but 
some have been saved by others believing. The paralytic in Capernaum 
was not a believer, but they believed who brought him, and let him down 
through the tiles: for the sick man's soul shared the sickness of his body. 
And think not that I accuse him without cause: the Gospel itself says, 
when Jesus saw, not his faith, but their faith, He saith to the sick of the 
palsy, Arisel The bearers believed, and the sick of the palsy enjoyed the 
blessing of the cure. 

9. Wouldest thou see yet more surely that some are saved by others' 
faith? Lazarus died: one day had passed, and a second, and a third: his 
sinews were decayed, and corruption was preying already upon his body. 
How could one four days dead believe, and entreat the Redeemer on his 
own behalf? But what the dead man lacked was supplied by his true 
sisters. For when the Lord was come, the sister fell down before Him, and 
when He said, Where have ye laid him! and she had made answer, Lord, by 



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this time he stinketh; for he hath been four days dead, the Lord said, If thou 
believe, thou shalt see the glory of God; as much as saying, Supply thou 
the dead man's lack of faith: and the sisters' faith had so much power, that 
it recalled the dead from the gates of hell. Have then men by believing, the 
one on behalf of the other, been able to raise the dead, and shale not thou, 
if thou believe sincerely on thine own behalf, be much rather profited? 
Nay, even if thou be faithless, or of little faith, the Lord is loving unto 
man; He condescends to thee on thy repentance: only on thy part say 
with honest mind, Lord, I believe, help thou mine unbelief But if thou 
thinkest that thou really art faithful, but hast not yet the fullness of faith, 
thou too hast need to say like the Apostles, Lord, increase our faith: for 
some part thou hast of thyself, but the greater part thou receivest from 
Him. 

10. For the name of Faith is in the form of speech one, but has two 
distinct senses. For there is one kind of faith, the dogmatic, involving an 
assent of the soul on some particular point: and it is profitable to the soul, 
as the Lord saith: He that heareth My words, and believeth Him that sent 
Me, hath everlasting life, and cometh not into judgment: and again, He that 
believeth in the Son is not judged, but hath passed from death unto life. Oh 
the great loving-kindness of God! For the righteous were many years in 
pleasing Him: but what they succeeded in gaining by many years of 
well-pleasing, this Jesus now bestows on thee in a single hour. For if thou 
shale believe that Jesus Christ is Lord, and that God raised Him from the 
dead, thou shale be saved, and shale be transported into Paradise by Him 
who brought in thither the robber. And doubt not whether it is possible; 
for He who on this sacred Golgotha saved the robber after one single hour 
of belief, the same shall save thee also on thy believing. 

11. But there is a second kind of faith, which is bestowed by Christ as a 
gift of grace. For to one is given through the Spirit the word of wisdom, 
and to another the word of knowledge according to the same Spirit: to 
another faith, by the same Spirit, and to another gifts of healing. This faith 
then which is given of grace from the Spirit is not merely doctrinal, but 
also worketh things above man's power. For whosoever hath this faith, 
shall say to this mountain, Remove hence to yonder place, and it shall 
remove. For whenever any one shall say this in faith, believing that it 



163 

cometh to pass, and shall not doubt in his heart, then receiveth he the 
grace. 

And of this faith it is said, If ye have faith as a grain of mustard seed. For 
just as the grain of mustard seed is small in size, but fiery in its operation, 
and though sown in a small space has a circle of great branches, and when 
grown up is able even to shelter the fowls; so, likewise, faith in the 
swiftest moment works the greatest effects in the soul. For, when 
enlightened by faith, the soul hath visions of God, and as far as is possible 
beholds God, and ranges round the bounds of the universe, and before the 
end of this world already beholds the Judgment, and the payment of the 
promised rewards. Have thou therefore that faith in Him which cometh 
from thine own self, that thou mayest also receive from Him that faith 
which worketh things above man. 

12. But in learning the Faith and in professing it, acquire and keep that 
only, which is now delivered to thee by the Church, and which has been 
built up strongly out of all the Scriptures. For since all cannot read the 
Scriptures, some being hindered as to the knowledge of them by want of 
learning, and others by a want of leisure, in order that the soul may not 
perish from ignorance, we comprise the whole doctrine of the Faith in a 
few lines. This summary I wish you both to commit to memory when I 
recite it, and to rehearse it with all diligence among yourselves, not writing 
it out on paper, but engraving it by the memory upon your heart, taking 
care while you rehearse it that no Catechumen chance to overhear the 
things which have been delivered to you. I wish you also to keep this as a 
provision through the whole course of your life, and beside this to receive 
no other, neither if we ourselves should change and contradict our present 
teaching, nor if an adverse angel, transformed into an angel of light should 
wish to lead you astray. For though we or an angel from heaven preach to 
you any other gospel than that ye have received, let him be to you 
anathema. So for the present listen while I simply say the Creed, and 
commit it to memory; but at the proper season expect the confirmation 
out of Holy Scripture of each part of the contents. For the articles of the 
Faith were not composed as seemed good to men; but the most important 
points collected out of all the Scripture make up one complete teaching of 
the Faith. And just as the mustard seed in one small grain contains many 
branches, so also this Faith has embraced in few words all the knowledge 



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of godliness in the Old and New Testaments. Take heed then, brethren, 
and holdfast the traditions which ye now receive, and write them on the 
table of your heart. 

13. Guard them with reverence, lest per chance the enemy despoil any 
who have grown slack; or lest some heretic pervert any of the truths 
delivered to you. For faith is like putting money into the bank, even as we 
have now done; but from you God requires the accounts of the deposit. / 
charge you, as the Apostle saith, before God, who quickeneth all things, 
and Christ Jesus, who before Pontius Pilate witnessed the good confession, 
that ye keep this faith which is committed to you, without spot, until the 
appearing of our Lord Jesus Christ. A treasure of life has now been 
committed to thee, and the Master demandeth the deposit at His 
appearing, which in His own times He shall shew, Who is the blessed and 
only Potentate, the King of kings, and Lord of lords; Who only hath 
immortality, dwelling in light which no man can approach unto; Whom no 
man hath seen nor can see. To Whom be glory, honor, and power for ever 
and ever. Amen. 



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LECTURE 6 

CONCERNING THE UNITY OF GOD ON THE ARTICLE, 
I BELIEVE IN ONE GOD. ALSO CONCERNING HERESffiS. 

ISAIAH 45:16, 17. (Sept.) 

Sanctify yourselves unto Me, O islands. Israel is saved by the Lord with an 

everlasting salvation; they shall not be ashamed, neither shall they 

be confounded for ever, etc. 

1. Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. Blessed also 
be His Only-begotten Son. For with the thought of God let the thought of 
Father at once be joined, that the ascription of glory to the Father and the 
Son may be made indivisible For the Father hath not one glory, and the 
Son another, but one and the same, since He is the Father' s Only-begotten 
Son; and when the Father is glorified, the Son also shares the glory with 
Him, because the glory of the Son flows from His Father's honor: and 
again, when the Son is glorified, the Father of so great a blessing is highly 
honored. 

2. Now though the mind is most rapid in its thoughts, yet the tongue 
needs words, and a long recital of intermediary speech. For the eye 
embraces at once a multitude of the 'starry quire;' but when any one 
wishes to describe them one by one, which is the Morning- star, and 
which, the Evening- star, and which each one of them, he has need of many 
words. In like manner again the mind in the briefest moment compasses 
earth and sea and all the bounds of the universe; but what it conceives in 
an instant, it uses many words to describe. Yet forcible as is the example I 
have mentioned, still it is after all weak and inadequate. For of God we 
speak not all we ought (for that is known to Him only), but so much as 
the capacity of human nature has received, and so much as our weakness 
can bear. For we explain not what God is but candidly confess that we 
have not exact knowledge concerning Him. For in what concerns God to 
confess our ignorance is the best knowledge. Therefore magnify the Lord 
with me, and let us exalt His Name together, — all of us in common, for 
one alone is powerless; nay rather, even if we be all united together, we 



166 

shall yet not do it as we ought I mean not you only who are here present, 
but even if all the nurslings of the whole Church throughout the world, 
both that which now is and that which shall be, should meet together, they 
would not be able worthily to sing the praises of their Shepherd. 

3. A great and honorable man was Abraham, but only great in comparison 
with men; and when he came before God, then speaking the truth candidly 
he saith, / am earth and ashes. He did not say 'earth,' 1 and then cease, lest 
he should call himself by the name of that great element; but he added 'and 
ashes,' that he might represent his perishable and trail nature. Is there 
anything, he saith, smaller or lighter than ashes? For take, saith he, the 
comparison of ashes to a house, of a house to a city, a city to a province, a 
province to the Roman Empire, and the Roman Empire to the whole earth 
and all its bounds, and the whole earth to the heaven in which it is 
embosomed; — the earth, which bears the same proportion to the heaven 
as the center to the whole circumference of a wheel, for the earth is no 
more than this in comparison with the heaven: consider then that this first 
heaven which is seen is less than the second, and the second than the third, 
for so far Scripture has named them, not that they are only so many, but 
because it was expedient for us to know so many only. And when in 
thought thou hast surveyed all the heavens, not yet will even the heavens 
be able to praise God as He is, nay, not if they should resound with a 
voice louder than thunder. But if these great vaults of the heavens cannot 
worthily sing God's praise, when shall 'earth and ashes,' the smallest and 
least of things existing, be able to send up a worthy hymn of praise to 
God, or worthily to speak of God, that sitteth upon the circle of the earth, 
and holdeth the inhabitants thereof as grasshoppers. 

4. If any man attempt to speak of God, let him first describe the bounds of 
the earth. Thou dwellest on the earth, and the limit of this earth which is 
thy dwelling thou knowest not: how then shalt thou be able to form a 
worthy thought of its Creator? Thou be-boldest the stars, but their Maker 
thou beholdest not: count these which are visible, and then describe Him 
who is invisible, Who telleth the number of the stars, and calleth them all 
by their names. Violent rains lately came pouring down upon us, and 
nearly destroyed us: number the drops in this city alone: nay, I say not in 
the city, but number the drops on thine own house for one single hour, if 
thou canst: but thou canst not. Learn then thine own weakness; learn from 



167 

this instance the mightiness of God: for He hath numbered the drops of 
rain, which have been poured down on all the earth, not only now but in 
all time. The sun is a work of God, which, great though it be, is but a spot 
in comparison with the whole heaven; first gaze steadfastly upon the sun, 
and then curiously scan the Lord of the sun. Seek not the things that are 
too deep for thee, neither search out the things that are above thy strength: 
what is commanded thee, think thereupon. 

5. But some one will say, If the Divine substance is incomprehensible, 
why then dost thou discourse of these things? So then, because I cannot 
drink up all the river, am I not even to take in moderation what is 
expedient for me? Because with eyes so constituted as mine I cannot take 
in all the sun, am I not even to look upon him enough to satisfy my 
wants? Or again, because I have entered into a great garden, and cannot eat 
all the supply of fruits, wouldst thou have me go away altogether hungry? 
I praise and glorify Him that made us; for it is a divine command which 
saith, Let every breath praise the Lord. I am attempting now to glorify the 
Lord, but not to describe Him, knowing nevertheless that I shall fall short 
of glorifying Him worthily, yet deeming it a work of piety even to attempt 
it at all. For the Lord Jesus encourageth my weakness, by saying, No man 
hath seen God at any time. 

6. What then, some man will say, is it not written, The little ones' Angels 
do always behold the face of My Father which is in heaven? Yes, but the 
Angels see God not as He is, but as far as they themselves are capable. For 
it is Jesus Himself who saith, Not that any man hath seen the Father, save 
He which is of God, He hath seen the Father. The Angels therefore behold 
as much as they can bear, and Archangels as much as they are able; and 
Thrones and Dominions more than the former, but yet less than His 
worthiness: for with the Son the Holy Ghost alone can rightly behold 
Him: for He searcheth all things, and knoweth even the deep things of God: 
as indeed the Only-begotten Son also, with the Holy Ghost, knoweth the 
Father fully: For neither, saith He, knoweth any man the Father, save the 
Son, and he to whom the Son will reveal Him. For He fully beholdeth, and, 
according as each can bear, revealeth God through the Spirit: since the 
Only-begotten Son together with the Holy Ghost is a partaker of the 
Father's Godhead. He, who was begotten knoweth Him who begot; and 
He Who begot knoweth Him who is begotten. Since Angels then are 



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ignorant (for to each according to his own capacity doth the Only-begotten 
reveal Him through the Holy Ghost, as we have said), let no man be 
ashamed to confess his ignorance. I am speaking now, as all do on occasion 
but how we speak, we cannot tell: how then can I declare Him who hath 
given us speech? I who have a soul, and cannot tell its distinctive 
properties, how shall I be able to describe its Giver? 

7. For devotion it suffices us simply to know that we have a God; a God 
who is One, a living, an ever-living God; always like unto Himself; who 
has no Father, none mightier than Himself, no successor to thrust Him out 
from His kingdom: Who in name is manifold, in power infinite, in 
substance uniform. For though He is called Good, and Just, and Almighty 
and Sabaoth, He is not on that account diverse and various; but being one 
and the same, He sends forth countless operations of His Godhead, not 
exceeding here and deficient there, but being in all things like unto Himself. 
Not great in loving-kindness only, and little in wisdom, but with wisdom 
and loving-kindness in equal power: not seeing in part, and in part devoid 
of sight; but being all eye, and all ear, and all mind: not like us perceiving in 
part and in part not knowing; for such a statement were blasphemous, and 
unworthy of the Divine substance. He foreknoweth the things that be; He 
is Holy, and Almighty, and excelleth all in goodness, and majesty, and 
wisdom: of Whom we can declare neither beginning, nor form, nor shape. 
For ye have neither heard His voice at any time, nor seen His shape, saith 
Holy Scripture. Wherefore Moses saith also to the Israelites: And take ye 
good heed to your own souls, for ye saw no similitude. For if it is wholly 
impossible to imagine His likeness, how shall thought come near His 
substance? 

8. There have been many imaginations by many persons, and all have 
failed. Some have thought that God is fire; others that He is, as it were, a 
man with wings, because of a true text ill understood, Thou shalt hide me 
under the shadow of Thy wings. They forgot that our Lord Jesus Christ, 
the Only -begotten, speaks in like manner concerning Himself to Jerusalem, 
How often would I have gathered thy children together even as a hen doth 
gather her chickens under her wings, and ye would not. For whereas 
God's protecting power was conceived as wings, they failing to 
understand this sank down to the level of things human, and supposed 
that the Unsearchable exists in the likeness of man. Some again dared to 



169 

say that He has seven eyes, because it is written, seven eyes of the Lord 
looking upon the whole earth. For if He has but seven eyes surrounding 
Him in part, His seeing is therefore partial and not perfect: but to say this 
of God is blasphemous; for we must believe that God is in all things 
perfect, according to our Savior' s word, which saith, Your Father in 
heaven is perfect: perfect in sight, perfect in power, perfect in greatness, 
perfect in foreknowledge, perfect in goodness, perfect injustice, perfect in 
loving-kindness: not circumscribed in any space, but the Creator of all 
space, existing in all, and circumscribed by none. Heaven is His throne, but 
higher is He that sitteth thereon: and earth is His footstool, but His power 
reacheth unto things under the earth. 

9. One He is, everywhere present, beholding all things, perceiving all 
things, creating all things through Christ: For all things were made by Him, 
and without Him was not anything made. A fountain of every good, 
abundant and unfailing, a river of blessings, an eternal light of never-failing 
splendor, an insuperable power condescending to our infirmities: whose 
very Name we dare not hear. Wilt thou find a footstep of the Lord? saith 
Job, or hast thou attained unto the least things which the Almighty hath 
made! If the least of His works are incomprehensible, shall He be 
comprehended who made them all? Eye hath not seen, and ear hath not 
heard, neither have entered into the heart of man, the things which God 
hath prepared for them that love Him. If the things which God hath 
prepared are incomprehensible to our thoughts, how can we comprehend 
with our mind Himself who hath prepared them? O the depth of the riches, 
and wisdom, and knowledge of God! How unsearchable are His 
judgments, and His ways past finding out\ saith the Apostle. If His 
judgments and His ways are incomprehensible, can He Himself be 
comprehended? 

10. God then being thus great, and yet greater, (for even were I to change 
my whole substance into tongue, I could not speak His excellence: nay 
more, not even if all Angels should assemble, could they ever speak His 
worth), God being therefore so great in goodness and majesty, man hath 
yet dared to say to a stone that he hath graven, Thou art my Godl O 
monstrous blindness, that from majesty so great came down so low! The 
tree which was planted by God, and nourished by the rain, and afterwards 
burnt and turned into ashes by the fire, — this is addressed as God, and 



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the true God is despised. But the wickedness of idolatry grew yet more 
prodigal, and cat, and dog, and wolf were worshipped instead of God: the 
man-eating lion also was worshipped instead of God, the most loving 
friend of man. The snake and the serpent, counterfeit of him who thrust us 
out of Paradise, were worshipped, and He who planted Paradise was 
despised. And I am ashamed to say, and yet do say it, even onions were 
worshipped among some. Wine was given to make glad the heart of man: 
and Dionysus (Bacchus) was worshipped instead of God. God made corn 
by saying, Let the earth bring forth grass, yielding seed after his kind and 
after his likeness, that bread may strengthen man 's heart: why then was 
Demeter (Ceres) worshipped? Fire cometh forth from striking stones 
together even to this day: how then was Hephaestus (Vulcan) the creator 
of fire? 

11. Whence came the polytheistic error of the Greeks? God has no body: 
whence then the adulteries alleged among those who are by them called 
gods? I say nothing of the transformations of Zeus into a swan: I am 
ashamed to speak of his transformations into a bull: for bellowings are 
unworthy of a God. The God of the Greeks has been found an adulterer, 
yet are they not ashamed: for if he is an adulterer let him not be called a 
God. They tell also of deaths, and falls, and thunder- strokes of their gods. 
Seest thou from how great a height and how low they have fallen? Was it 
without reason then that the Son of God came down from heaven? or was 
it that He might heal so great a wound? Was it without reason that the Son 
came? or was it in order that the Father might be acknowledged? Thou hast 
learned what moved the Only-begotten to come down from the throne at 
God's right hand. The Father was despised, the Son must needs correct 
the error: for He THROUGH WHOM ALL, THINGS WERE MADE 
must bring them all as offerings to the Lord of all. The wound must be 
healed: for what could be Worse than this disease, that a stone should be 
worshipped instead of God? 

OF HERESIES. 

12. And not among the heathen only did the devil make these assaults; for 
many of those who are falsely called Christians, and wrongfully addressed 
by the sweet name of Christ, have ere now impiously dared to banish God 
from His own creation. I mean the brood of heretics, those most ungodly 



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men of evil name, pretending to be friends of Christ but utterly hating 
Him. For he who blasphemes the Father of the Christ is an enemy of the 
Son. These men have dared to speak of two Godheads, one good and one 
evil! O monstrous blindness! If a Godhead, then assuredly good. But if not 
good, why called a Godhead? For if goodness is an attribute of God; if 
loving-kindness, beneficence, almighty power, are proper to God, then of 
two things one, either in calling Him God let the name and operation be 
united; or if they would rob Him of His operations, let them not give Him 
the bare name. 

13. Heretics have dared to say that there are two Gods, and of good and 
evil two sources, and these unbegotten. If both are unbegotten it is certain 
that they are also equal, and both mighty. How then doth the light destroy 
the darkness? And do they ever exist together, or are they separated? 
Together they cannot be; for what fellowship hath light with darknessl 
saith the Apostle. But if they are far from each other, it is certain that they 
hold also each his own place; and if they hold their own separate places, 
we are certainly in the realm of one God, and certainly worship one God. 
For thus we must conclude, even if we assent to their folly, that we must 
worship one God. Let us examine also what they say of the good God. 
Hath He power or no power? If He hath power, how did evil arise against 
His will? And how doth the evil substance intrude, if He be not willing? 
For if He knows but cannot hinder it, they charge Him with want of 
power; but if He has the power, yet hinders not, they accuse Him of 
treachery. Mark too their want of sense. At one time they say that the 
Evil One hath no communion with the good God in the creation of the 
world; but at another time they say that he hath the fourth part only. Also 
they say that the good God is the Father of Christ; but Christ the call this 
sun If, therefore according to them, the world was made by the Evil One, 
and the sun is in the world, how is the Son of the Good an unwilling slave 
in the kingdom of the Evil? We bemire ourselves in speaking of these 
things, but we do it lest any of those present should from ignorance fall 
into the mire of the heretics. I know that I have defiled my own mouth and 
the ears of my listeners: yet it is expedient. For it is much better to hear 
absurdities charged against others, than to fall into them from ignorance: 
far better that thou know the mire and hate it, than unawares fall into it. 
For the godless system of the heresies is a road with many branches, and 



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whenever a man has strayed from the one straight way, then he falls down 
precipices again and again. 

14. The inventor of all heresy was Simon Magus: that Simon, who in the 
Acts of the Apostles thought to purchase with money the unsaleable grace 
of the Spirit, and heard the words, Thou hast neither part nor lot in this 
matter, and the rest: concerning whom also it is written, They went out 
from us, but they were not of us; for if they had been of us, they would have 
remained with us. This man, after he had been cast out by the Apostles, 
came to Rome, and gaining over one Helena a harlot, was the first that 
dared with blasphemous mouth to say that it was himself who appeared 
on Mount Sinai as the Father, and afterwards appeared among the Jews, 
not in real flesh but in seeming, as Christ Jesus, and afterwards as the 
Holy Spirit whom Christ promised to send as the Paraclete. And he so 
deceived the City of Rome that Claudius set up his statue, and wrote 
beneath it, in the language of the Romans, "Simoni Deo Sancto," which 
being interpreted signifies, "To Simon the Holy God." 15. As the delusion 
was extending, Peter and Paul, a noble pair, chief rulers of the Church, 
arrived and set the error right; and when the supposed God Simon wished 
to shew himself off, they straightway shewed him as a corpse. For Simon 
promised to rise aloft to heaven, and came riding in a demons' chariot on 
the air; but the servants of God fell on their knees, and having shewn that 
agreement of which Jesus spoke, that If two of you shall agree concerning 
anything that they shall ask, it shall be done unto them, they launched the 
weapon of their concord in prayer against Magus, and struck him down to 
the earth. And marvelous though it was, yet no marvel. For Peter was 
there, who carrieth the keys of heaven: and nothing wonderful, for Paul 
was there, who was caught up to the third heaven, and into Paradise, and 
heard unspeakable words, which it is not lawful far a man to utter. These 
brought the supposed God down from the sky to earth, thence to be taken 
down to the regions below the earth. In this man first the serpent of 
wickedness appeared; but when one head had been cut off, the root of 
wickedness was found again with many heads. 

16. For Cerinthus made havoc of the Church, and Menander, and 
Carpocrates, Ebionites also, and Marcion, that mouthpiece of ungodliness. 
For he who proclaimed different gods, one the Good, the other the Just, 
contradicts the Son when He says, O righteous Father. And he who says 



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again that the Father is one, and the maker of the world another, opposes 
the Son when He says, If then God so clothes the grass of the field which 
today is, and tomorrow is cast into the furnace of fire; and, Who maketh 
His sun to rise on the evil and on the good, and sendeth rain on the just 
and on the unjust. Here again is a second inventor of more mischief, this 
Marcion. For being confuted by the testimonies from the Old Testament 
which are quoted in the New, he was the first who dared to cut those 
testimonies out, and leave the preaching of the word of faith without 
witness, thus effacing the true God: and sought to undermine the Church's 
faith, as if there were no heralds of it. 

17. He again was succeeded by another, Basilides, of evil name, and 
dangerous character, a preacher of impurities. The contest of wickedness 
was aided also by Valentinus, a preacher of thirty gods. The Greeks tell of 
but few: and the man who was called — but more truly was not — a 
Christian extended the delusion to full thirty. He says, too, that Bythus 
the Abyss (for it became him as being an abyss of wickedness to begin his 
teaching from the Abyss) begot Silence, and of Silence begot the Word. 
This Bythus was worse than the Zeus of the Greeks, who was united to 
his sister: for Silence was said to be the child of Bythus. Dost thou see the 
absurdity invested with a show of Christianity? Wait a little, and thou wilt 
be shocked at his impiety; for he asserts that of this Bythus were begotten 
eight Aeons; and of them, ten; and of them, other twelve, male and female. 
But whence is the proof of these things? See their silliness from their 
fabrications. Whence hast thou the proof of the thirty Aeons? Because, 
saith he, it is written, that Jesus was baptized, being thirty years old. But 
even if He was baptized when thirty years old, what sort of 
demonstration is this from the thirty years? Are there then five gods, 
because He brake five loaves among five thousand? Or because he had 
twelve Disciples, must there — also be twelve gods? 

18. And even this is still little compared with the impieties which follow. 
For the last of the deities being, as he dares to speak, both male and 
female, this, he says, is Wisdom. What impiety! For the Wisdom of God is 
Christ His Only-begotten Son: and he by his doctrine degraded the 
Wisdom of God into a female element, and one of thirty, and the last 
fabrication. He also says that Wisdom attempted to behold the first God, 
and not bearing His brightness fell from heaven, and was cast out of her 



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thirtieth place. Then she groaned, and of her groans begat the Devil, and as 
she wept over her fall made of her tears the sea. Mark the impiety. For of 
Wisdom how is the Devil begotten, and of prudence wickedness, or of 
light darkness? He says too that the Devil begat others, some of whom 
created the world: and that the Christ came down in order to make 
mankind revolt from the Maker of the world. 

19. But hear whom they say Christ Jesus to be, that thou mayest detest 
them yet more. For they say that after Wisdom had been cast down, in 
order that the number of the thirty might not be incomplete, the nine and 
twenty Aeons contributed each a little part, and formed the Christ: and 
they say that He also is both male and females. Can anything be more 
impious than this? Anything more wretched? I am describing their 
delusion to thee, in order that thou mayest hate them the more. Shun, 
therefore, their impiety, and do not even give greeting to a man of this 
kind, lest thou have fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness: 
neither make curious inquiries, nor be willing to enter into conversation 
with them. 

20. Hate all heretics, but especially him who is rightly named after mania, 
who arose not long ago in the reign of Probus. For the delusion began full 
seventy years ago, and there are men still living who saw him with their 
very eyes. But hate him not for this, that he lived a short time ago; but 
because of his impious doctrines hate thou the worker of wickedness, the 
receptacle of all filth, who gathered up the mire of every heresy. For 
aspiring to become preeminent among wicked men, he took the doctrines 
of all, and having combined them into one heresy filled with blasphemies 
and all iniquity, he makes havoc of the Church, or rather of those outside 
the Church, roaming about like a lion and devouring. Heed not their fair 
speech, nor their supposed humility: for they are serpents, a generation of 
vipers. Judas too said Hail! Master, even while he was betraying Him. 
Heed not their kisses, but beware of their venom. 

21. Now, lest I seem to accuse him without reason, let me make a 
digression to tell who this Manes is, and in part what he teaches: for all 
time would fail to describe adequately the whole of his foul teaching. But 
for help in time of need, store up in thy memory what I have said to former 
hearers, and will repeat to those now present, that they who know not 



175 

may learn, and they who know may be reminded. Manes is not of 
Christian origin, God forbid! nor was he like Simon cast out of the Church, 
neither himself nor the teachers who were before him. For he steals other 
men's wickedness, and makes their wickedness his own: but how and in 
what manner thou must hear. 

22. There was in Egypt one Scythianus, a Saracen by birth, having nothing 
in common either with Judaism or with Christianity. This man, who dwelt 
at Alexandria and imitated the life of Aristotle, composed four books, one 
called a Gospel which had not the acts of Christ, but the mere name only, 
and one other called the book of Chapters, and a third of Mysteries, and a 
fourth, which they circulate now, the Treasure. This man had a disciple, 
Terebinthus by name. But when Scythianus purposed to come into 
Judaea, and make havoc of the land, the Lord smote him with a deadly 
disease, and stayed the pestilence. 

23. But Terebinthus, his disciple in this wicked error, inherited his money 
and books and heresy, and came to Palestine, and becoming known and 
condemned in Judaea he resolved to pass into Persia: but lest he should be 
recognized there also by his name he changed it and called himself Buddas. 
However, he found adversaries there also in the priests of Mithras: and 
being confuted in the discussion of many arguments and controversies, and 
at last hard pressed, he took refuge with a certain widow. Then having 
gone up on the housetop, and summoned the demons of the air, whom the 
Manichees to this day invoke over their abominable ceremony of the fig, 
he was smitten of God, and cast down from the housetop, and expired: 
and so the second beast was cut off. 

24. The books, however, which were the records of his impiety, remained; 
and both these and his money the widow inherited. And having neither 
kinsman nor any other friend, she determined to buy with the money a 
boy named Cubricus: him she adopted and educated as a son in the 
learning of the Persians, and thus sharpened an evil weapon against 
mankind. So Cubricus, the vile slave, grew up in the midst of 
philosophers, and on the death of the widow inherited both the books and 
the money. Then, lest the name of slavery might be a reproach, instead of 
Cubricus he called himself Manes, which in the language of the Persians 
signifies discourse. For as he thought himself something of a disputant, he 



176 

surnamed himself Manes, as it were an excellent master of discourse. But 
though he contrived for himself an honorable title according to the language 
of the Persians, yet the providence of God caused him to become a 
self-accuser even against his will, that through thinking to honor himself in 
Persia, he might proclaim himself among the Greeks by name a maniac. 

25. He dared too to say that he was the Paraclete, though it is written, But 
whosoever shall blaspheme against the Holy Ghost, hath no forgiveness. 
He committed blasphemy therefore by saying that he was the Holy 
Ghost: let him that communicates with those heretics see with whom he is 
enrolling himself. The slave shook the world, since by three things the 
earth is shaken, and the fourth it cannot bear, — if a slave became a king. 
Having come into public he now began to promise things above man's 
power. The son of the King of the Persians was sick, and a multitude of 
physicians were in attendance: but Manes promised, as if he were a godly 
man, to cure him by prayer. With the departure of the physicians, the life 
of the child departed: and the man's impiety was detected. So the 
would-be philosopher was a prisoner, being cast into prison not for 
reproving the king in the cause of truth, not for destroying the idols, but 
for promising to save and lying, or rather, if the truth must be told, for 
committing murder. For the child who might have been saved by medical 
treatment, was murdered by this man's driving away the physicians, and 
killing him by want of treatment. 

26. Now as there are very many wicked things which I tell thee of him, 
remember first his blasphemy, secondly his slavery (not that slavery is a 
disgrace, but that his pretending to be free-born, when he was a slave, was 
wicked), thirdly, the falsehood of his promise, fourthly, the murder of the 
child, and fifthly, the disgrace of the imprisonment. And there was not 
only the disgrace of the prison, but also the flight from prison. For he who 
called himself the Paraclete and champion of the truth, ran away: he was 
no successor of Jesus, who readily went to the Cross, but this man was 
the reverse, a runaway. Moreover, the King of the Persians ordered the 
keepers of the prison to be executed: so Manes was the cause of the 
child's death through his vain boasting, and of the gaolers' death through 
his flight. Ought then he, who shared the guilt of murder, to be 
worshipped? Ought he not to have followed the example of Jesus, and 



177 

said, If ye seek Me, let these go their way? Ought he not to have said, like 
Jonas, Take me, and cast me into the sea: for this storm is because of me? 

27. He escapes from the prison, and comes into Mesopotamia: but there 
Bishop Archelaus, a shield of righteousness, encounters him: and having 
accused him before philosophers as judges, and having assembled an 
audience of Gentiles, lest if Christians gave judgment, the judges might be 
thought to shew favor, — Tell us what thou preachest, said Archelaus to 
Manes. And he, whose mouth was as an open sepulcher, began first with 
blasphemy against the Maker of all things, saying, The God of the Old 
Testament is the author of evils, as He says of Himself, / am a consuming 
fire. But the wise Archelaus undermined his blasphemous argument by 
saying, "If the God of the Old Testament, as thou sayest, calls Hire-self a 
fire, whose Son is He who saith, / came to send fire on the earthl If thou 
findest fault with Him who saith, The Lord killeth, and maketh alive, why 
dost thou honor Peter, who raised up Tabitha, but struck Sapphira dead? 
If again thou findest fault, because He prepared fire, wherefore dost thou 
not find fault with Him who saith, Depart from Me into everlasting fire? If 
thou findest fault with Him who saith, / am God that make peace, and 
create evil, explain how Jesus saith, / came not to send peace but a sword. 
Since both speak alike, of two things one, either both are good, because of 
their agreement, or if Jesus is blameless in so speaking, why blamest thou t 
Him that saith the like in the Old Testament?" 

28. Then Manes answers him: "And what sort of God causes blindness? 
For it is Paul who saith, In whom the God of this world hath blinded the 
minds of them that believe not, lest the light of the Gospel should shine unto 
them." But Archelaus made a good retort, saying, "Read a little before: But 
if our Gospel is veiled, it is veiled in them that are perishing . Seest thou 
that in them that are perishing it is veiled? For it is not right to give the 
things which are holy unto the dogs. Again, Is it only the God of the Old 
Testament that hath blinded the minds of them that believe not? Hath not 
Jesus Himself said, For this cause speak I unto them in parables, that 
seeing they may not seel Was it from hating them that He wished them not 
to see? Or because of their unworthiness, since their eyes they had closed. 
For where there is willful wickedness, there is also a withholding of grace: 
for to him that hath shall be given; but from hint that hath not shall be 
taken even that which he seemeth to have. 



178 

29. "But if some are right in their interpretation, we must say as follows 
(for it is no unworthy expression) — If indeed He blinded the thoughts of 
them that believe not he blinded them for a good purpose, that they might 
look with new sight on what is good. For he said not, He blinded their 
soul, but, the thoughts of them that believe not. And the meaning is 
something of this kind: 'Blind the lewd thoughts of the lewd, and the man 
is saved: blind the grasping and rapacious thought of the robber, and the 
man is saved.' But wilt thou not understand it thus? Then there is yet 
another interpretation. The sun also blinds those whose sight is dim: and 
they whose eyes are diseased are hurt by the light and blinded. Not that 
the sun's nature is to blind, but that the substance of the eyes is incapable 
of seeing. In like manner unbelievers being diseased in their heart cannot 
look upon the radiance of the Godhead. Nor hath he said, 'He hath blinded 
their thoughts, that they should not hear the Gospel:' but, that the light of 
the glory of the Gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ should not shine unto 
them. For to hear the Gospel is permitted to all: but he glory of the Gospel 
is reserved for Christ's true children only. Therefore the Lord spoke in 
parables to those who could not hear: but to the Disciples he explained the 
parables in private: for the brightness of the glory is for those who have 
been enlightened, the blinding for them that believe not." These mysteries, 
which the Church now explains to thee who art passing out of the class of 
Catechumens, it is not the custom to explain to heathen. For to a heathen 
we do not explain the mysteries concerning Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, 
nor before Catechumens do we speak plainly of the mysteries: but many 
things we often speak in a veiled way, that the believers who know may 
understand, and they who know not may get no hurt. 

30. By such and many other arguments the serpent was overthrown: thus 
did Archelaus wrestle with Manes and threw him. Again, he who had fled 
from prison flees from this place also: and having run away from his 
antagonist, he comes to a very poor village, like the serpent in Paradise 
when he left Adam and came to Eve. But the good shepherd Archelaus 
taking forethought for his sheep, when he heard of his flight, straightway 
hastened with all speed in search of the wolf. And when Manes suddenly 
saw his adversary, he rushed out and fled: it was however his last flight. 
For the officers of the King of Persia searched everywhere, and caught the 
fugitive: and the sentence, which he ought to have received in the presence 



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of Archelaus, is passed upon him by the king's officers. This Manes, 
whom his own disciples worship, is arrested and brought before the king. 
The king reproached him with his falsehood and his flight: poured scorn 
upon his slavish condition, avenged the murder of his child, and 
condemned him also for the murder of the gaolers: he commands him to be 
flayed after the Persian fashion. And while the rest of his body was given 
over for food of wild beasts, his skin, the receptacle of his vile mind, was 
hung up before the gates like a sack. He that called himself the Paraclete 
and professed to know the future, knew not his own flight and capture. 

31. This man has had three disciples, Thomas, and Baddas, and Hermas. 
Let none read the Gospel according to Thomas: for it is the work not of 
one of the twelve Apostles, but of one of the three wicked disciples of 
Manes. Let none associate with the soul-destroying Manicheans, who by 
decoctions of chaff counterfeit the sad look of fasting, who speak evil of 
the Creator of meats, and greedily devour the daintiest, who teach that the 
man who plucks up this or that herb is changed into it. For if he who 
crops herbs or any vegetable is changed into the same, into how many will 
husbandmen and the tribe of gardeners be changed? The gardener, as we 
see, has used his sickle against so many: into which then is he changed? 
Verily their doctrines are ridiculous, and fraught with their own 
condemnation and shame! The same man, being the shepherd of a flock, 
both sacrifices a sheep and kills a wolf. Into what then is he changed? 
Many men both net fishes and lime birds: into which then are they 
transformed? 

32. Let those children of sloth, the Manicheans, make answer; who 
without laboring themselves eat up the laborers' fruits: who welcome with 
smiling faces those who bring them their food, and return curses instead of 
blessings. For when a simple person brings them anything, "Stand outside 
a while," saith he, "and I will bless thee." Then having taken the bread into 
his hands (as those who have repented and left them have confessed), "I 
did not make thee," says the Manichee to the bread: and sends up curses 
against the Most High; and curses him that made it, and so eats what was 
made. If thou hatest the food, why didst thou look with smiling 
countenance on him that brought it to thee? If thou art thankful to the 
bringer, why dost thou utter thy blasphemy to God, who created and 
made it? So again he says, "I sowed thee not: may he be sown who sowed 



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thee! I reaped thee not with a sickle: may he be reaped who reaped thee! I 
baked thee not with fire: may he be baked who baked thee!" A fine return 
for the kindness! 

33. These are great faults, but still small in comparison with the rest. Their 
Baptism I dare not describe before men and women. I dare not say what 
they distribute to their wretched communicants.... Truly we pollute our 
mouth in speaking of these things. Are the heathen more detestable than 
these? Are the Samaritans mote wretched? Are Jews more impious? Are 
fornicators more impure? But the Manichee sets these offerings in the 
midst of the altar as he considers it. And dost thou, O man, receive 
instruction from such a mouth? On meeting this man dost thou greet him 
at all with a kiss? To say nothing of his other impiety, dost thou not flee 
from the defilement, and from men worse than profligates, more detestable 
than any prostitute? 

34. Of these things the Church admonishes and teaches thee, and touches 
mire, that thou mayest not be bemired: she tells of the wounds, that thou 
mayest not be wounded. But for thee it is enough merely to know them: 
abstain from learning by experience. God thunders, and we all tremble; and 
they blaspheme. God lightens, and we all bow down to the earth; and they 
have their blasphemous sayings about the heavens. These things are 
written in the books of the Manichees. These things we ourselves have 
read, because we could not believe those who told of them: yes, for the 
sake of your salvation we have closely inquired into their perdition. 

35. But may the Lord deliver us from such delusion: and may there be 
given to you a hatred against the serpent, that as they lie in wait for the 
heel, so you may trample on their head. Remember ye what I say. What 
agreement can there be between our state and theirs? What communion 
hath light with darkness! What hath the majesty of the Church to do with 
the abomination of the Manichees? Here is order, here is discipline, here is 
majesty, here is purity: here even to look upon a woman to lust after her is 
condemnation. Here is marriage with sanctity, here steadfast continence, 
here virginity in honor like unto the Angels: here partaking of food with 
thanksgiving, here gratitude to the Creator of the world. Here the Father of 
Christ is worshipped here are taught fear and trembling before Him who 



181 

sends the rain: here we ascribe glory to Him who makes the thunder and 
the lightning. 

36. Make thou thy fold with the sheep: flee from the wolves: depart not 
from the Church. Hate those also who have ever been suspected in such 
matters: and unless in time thou perceive their repentance, do not rashly 
trust thyself among them. The truth of the Unity of God has been 
delivered to thee: learn to distinguish the pastures of doctrine. Be an 
approved banker, holding fast that which is good, abstaining from every 
form of evil. Or if thou hast ever been such as they, recognize and hate thy 
delusion. For there is a way of salvation, if thou reject the vomit, if thou 
from thy heart detest it, if thou depart from them, not with thy lips only, 
but with thy soul also: if thou worship the Father of Christ, the God of 
the Law and the Prophets, if thou acknowledge the Good and the Just to 
be one and the same God. And may He preserve you all, guarding you 
from falling or stumbling, stablished in the Faith, in Christ Jesus our Lord, 
to Whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen. 



182 



LECTURE 7 
The Father. 

EPHESIANS3:14, 15 

For this cause I bow my knees unto the Father,... of whom all fatherhood in heaven 

and earth is named, etc. 

1. Of God as the sole Principle we have said enough to you yesterday: by 
"enough" I mean, not what is worthy of the subject, (for to reach that is 
utterly impossible to mortal nature), but as much as was granted to our 
infirmity. I traversed also the bye-paths of the manifold error of the 
godless heretics: but now let us shake off their foul and soul-poisoning 
doctrine, and remembering what relates to them, not to our own hurt, but 
to our greater detestation of them, let us come back to ourselves, and 
receive the saving doctrines of the true Faith, connecting the dignity of 
Fatherhood with that of the Unity, and believing In One God The 
Father : for we must not only believe in one God; but this also let us 
devoutly receive, that He is the Father of the Only-begotten, our Lord 
Jesus Christ. 

2. For thus shall we raise our thoughts higher than the Jews, who admit 
indeed by their doctrines that there is One God, (for what if they often 
denied even this by their idolatries?); but that He is also the Father of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, they admit not; being of a contrary mind to their own 
Prophets, who in the Divine Scriptures affirm, The Lord said unto me, 
Thou art My Son, this day have I begotten thee. And to this day they rage 
and gather themselves together against the Lord, and against His 
Anointed, thinking that it is possible to be made friends of the Father apart 
from devotion towards the Son, being ignorant that no man cometh unto 
the Father but by the Son, who saith, / am the Door, and / am the Way. He 
therefore that refuseth the Way which leadeth to the Father, and he that 
denieth the Door, how shall he be deemed worthy of entrance unto God? 
They contradict also what is written in the eighty-eighth Psalm, He shall 
call Me, Thou art my Father, my God, and the helper of my salvation. And 
I will make him my first-born, high among the kings of the earth. For if 



183 

they should insist that these things are said of David or Solomon or any of 
their successors, let them shew how the throne of him, who is in their 
judgment described in the prophecy, is as the days of heaven, and as the 
sun before God, and as the moon established for ever. And how is it also 
that they are not abashed at that which is written, From the womb before 
the morning-star have I begotten thee: also this, He shall endure with the 
sun, and before the moon, from generation to generation. To refer these 
passages to a man is a proof of utter and extreme insensibility. 

3. Let the Jews, however, since they so will, suffer their usual disorder of 
unbelief, both in these and the like statements. But let us adopt the godly 
doctrine of our Faith, worshipping one God the Father of the Christ, (for 
to deprive Him, who grants to all the gilt of generation, of the like dignity 
would be impious): and let us Believe In One God The Father , in order 
that, before we touch upon our teaching concerning Christ, the faith 
concerning the Only-begotten may be implanted in the soul of the hearers, 
without being at all interrupted by the intervening doctrines concerning the 
Father. 

4. For the name of the Father, with the very utterance of the title, suggests 
the thought of the Son: as in like manner one who names the Son thinks 
straightway of the Father also. For if a Father, He is certainly the Father 
of a Son; and if a Son, certainly the Son of a Father. Lest therefore from 
our speaking thus, In One God, The Father Almighty, Maker Of 
Heaven And Earth, And Of All Things Visible And Invisible, and 
from our then adding this also, And In One Lord Jesus Christ, any one 
should irreverently suppose that the Only-begotten is second in rank to 
heaven and earth, — for this reason before naming them we named Go d 
The Father , that in thinking of the Father we might at the same time 
think also of the Son: for between the Son and the Father no being 
whatever comes. 

5. God then is in an improper sense the Father of many, but by nature and 
in truth of One only, the Only-begotten Son, our Lord Jesus Christ; not 
having attained in course of time to being a Father, but being ever the 
Father of the Only-begotten. Not that being without a Son before, He has 
since by change of purpose become a Father: but before every substance 
and every intelligence, before times and all ages, God hath the dignity of 



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Father, magnifying Himself in this more than in His other dignities; and 
having become a Father, not by passion, or union, not in ignorance, not by 
effluence, not by diminution, not by alteration, for every good gift and 
every perfect gift is from above, coming down from the Father of lights, 
with whom can be no variation, neither shadow of turning. Perfect Father, 
He begat a perfect Son, and delivered all things to Him who is begotten: 
(for all things, He saith, are delivered unto Me of My Father?) and is 
honored by the Only-begotten: for, / honor My Father, saith the Son; and 
again, Even as I have kept My Father's commandments, and abide in His 
love. Therefore we also say like the Apostle, Blessed be the God and 
Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Rather of mercies, and God of all 
consolation: and, We bow our knees unto the Father from whom all 
fatherhood in heaven and on earth is named: glorifying Him with the 
Only -begotten: for he that denieth the Father, denieth the Son also: and 
again, He that confesseth the Son, hath the Father also; knowing that Jesus 
Christ is Lord to the glory of God the Father. 

6. We worship, therefore, as the Father of Christ, the Maker of heaven and 
earth, the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; to whose honor the former 
temple also, over against us here, was built. For we shall not tolerate the 
heretics who sever the Old Testament from the News, but shall believe 
Christ, who says concerning the temple, Wist ye not that I must be its My 
Father's house? and again, Take these things hence, and make not my 
Father's house a house of merchandise, whereby He most clearly 
confessed that the former temple in Jerusalem was His own Father's 
house. But if any one from unbelief wishes to receive yet more proofs as 
to the Father of Christ being the same as the Maker of the world, let him 
hear Him say again, Are not two sparrows sold for a farthing, and not one 
of them shall fall on the ground without My Father which is in heaven; this 
also, Behold the fowls of the heaven that they sow not, neither do they reap, 
nor gather into barns; and your heavenly Father feedeth them; and this, 
My Father worketh hitherto, and I work. 

7. But lest any one from simplicity or perverse ingenuity should suppose 
that Christ is but equal in honor to righteous men, from His saying, / 
ascend to My Father, and your Father, it is well to make this distinction 
beforehand, that the name of the Father is one, but the power of His 
operation manifold. And Christ Himself knowing this has spoken 



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unerringly, / go to My Father, and your Father: not saying 'to our Father,' 
but distinguishing, and saying first what was proper to Himself, to My 
Father, which was by nature; then adding, and your Father, which was by 
adoption. For however high the privilege we have received of saying in our 
prayers, Our Father, which art in heaven, yet the gift is of 
loving-kindness. For we call Him Father, not as having been by nature 
begotten of Our Father which is in heaven; but having been transferred 
from servitude to sonship by the grace of the Father, through the Son and 
Holy Spirit, we are permitted so to speak by ineffable loving-kindness. 

8. But if any one wishes to learn how we call God "Father," let him hear 
Moses, the excellent schoolmaster, saying, Did not this thy Father Himself 
buy thee, and make thee, and create thee? Also Esaias the Prophet, And 
now, O Lord. Thou art our Father: and we all are clay, the works of Thine 
hands. For most clearly has the prophetic gift declared that not according 
to nature, but according to God's grace, and by adoption, we call Him 
Father. 

9. And that thou mayest learn more exactly that in the Divine Scriptures it 
is not by any means the natural father only that is called father, hear what 
Paul says: — For though ye should have ten thousand tutors in Christ, yet 
have ye not many fathers: for in Christ Jesus I begat you through the 
Gospel. For Paul was father of the Corinthians, not by having begotten 
them after the flesh, but by having taught and begotten them again after the 
Spirit. Hear Job also saying, / was a father of the needy: for he called 
himself a father, not as having begotten them all, but as caring for them. 
And God's Only-begotten Son Himself, when nailed in His flesh to the 
tree at the time of crucifixion, on seeing Mary, His own Mother according 
to the flesh, and John, the most beloved of His disciples, said to him, 
Behold! thy mother, and to her, Behold! thy Son: teaching her the parental 
affection due to him, and indirectly explaining that which is said in Luke, 
and His father and His mother marveled at Him: words which the tribe of 
heretics snatch up, saying that He was begotten of a man and a woman. 
For like as Mary was called the mother of John, because of her parental 
affection, not from having given him birth, so Joseph also was called the 
father of Christ, not from having begotten Him (for he knew her not, as the 
Gospel says, until she had brought forth her first-born Son), but because 
of the care bestowed on His nurture. 



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10. Thus much then at present, in the way of a digression, to put you in 
remembrance. Let me, however, add yet another testimony in proof that 
God is called the Father of men in an improper sense. For when in Esaias 
God is addressed thus, For Thou art our Father, though Abraham be 
ignorant of us, and Sarah travailed not with us, need we inquire further on 
this point? And if the Psalmist says, Let them be troubled from His 
countenance, the Father of the fatherless, and Judge of the widows, is it not 
manifest to all, that when God is called the Father of orphans who have 
lately lost their own fathers, He is so named not as begetting them of 
Himself, but as caring for them and shielding them. But whereas God, as 
we have said, is in an improper sense the Father of men, of Christ alone 
He is the Father by nature, not by adoption: and the Father of men in 
time, but of Christ before all time, as He saith, And new, O Father, glorify 
Thou Me with Thine own self, with the glory which I had with Thee before 
the world was. 

11. We believe then In One God The Father the Unsearchable and 
Ineffable, Whom no man hath seen, but the Only-begotten alone hath 
declared Him. For He which is of God, He hath seen God. whose face the 
Angels do alway behold in heaven, behold, however, each according to the 
measure of his own rank. But the undimmed vision of the Father is 
reserved in its purity for the Son with the Holy Ghost. 

12. Having reached this point of my discourse, and being reminded of the 
passages just before mentioned, in which God was addressed as the Father 
of men, I am greatly amazed at men's insensibility. For God with 
unspeakable loving-kindness deigned to be called the Father of men, — He 
in heaven, they on earth, — and He the Maker of Eternity, they made in 
time, — He who holdeth the earth in the hollow of His hand, they upon the 
earth as grasshoppers. Yet man forsook his heavenly Father, and said to 
the stock, Thou art my father, and to the stone, Thou hast begotten me. 
And for this reason, methinks, the Psalmist says to mankind, Forget also 
thine own people, and thy father's house, whom thou hast chosen for a 
father, whom thou hast drawn upon thyself to thy destruction. 

13. And not only stocks and stones, but even Satan himself, the destroyer 
of souls, have some ere now chosen for a father; to whom the Lord said as 
a rebuke, Ye do the deeds of your father, that is of the devil, he being the 



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father of men not by nature, but by fraud. For like as Paul by his godly 
teaching came to be called the father of the Corinthians, so the devil is 
called the father of those who of their own will consent unto him. 

For we shall not tolerate those who give a wrong meaning to that saying, 
Hereby know we the children of God, and the children of the devil, as if 
there were by nature some men to be saved, and some to be lost. Whereas 
we come into such holy sonship not of necessity but by choice: nor was 
the traitor Judas by nature a son of the devil and of perdition for certainly 
he would never have cast out devils at all in the name of Christ: for Satan 
casteth not out Satan. Nor on the other hand would Paul have turned from 
persecuting to preaching. But the adoption is in our own power, as John 
saith, But as many as received Him, to them gave He power to become the 
children of God, even to them that believe in His name. For not before their 
believing, but from their believing they were counted worthy to become of 
their own choice the children of God. 

14. Knowing this, therefore, let us walk spiritually, that we may be 
counted worthy of God' s adoption. For as many as are led by the Spirit of 
God, they are the sons of God. For it profiteth us nothing to have gained 
the title of Christians, unless the works also follow; lest to us also it be 
said, If ye were Abraham 's children, ye would do the works of Abraham. 
For if we call on Him as Father, who without respect of persons judgeth 
according to every man 's work, let us pass the time of our sojourning here 
in fear, loving not the world, neither the things that are in the world: for 
any man love the world, the love of the Father is not in him. Wherefore, my 
beloved children, let us by our works offer glory to our Father which is in 
heaven, that they may see our good works, and glorify our Father which is 
heaven. Let us cast all our care upon Him, for our Father knoweth what 
things we have need of. 

15. But while honoring our heavenly Father let us honor also the fathers of 
our flesh: since the Lord Himself hath evidently so appointed in the Law 
and the Prophets, saying, Honor thy father and thy mother, that it may be 
well with thee, and thy days shall be long in the land. And let this 
commandment be especially observed by those here present who have 
fathers and mothers. Children, obey your parents in all things: for this is 
well pleasing to the Lord. For the Lord said not, He that loveth father or 



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mother is not worthy of Me, lest thou from ignorance shouldest perversely 
mistake what was rightly written, but He added, more than Me. For when 
our fathers on earth are of a contrary mind to our Father in heaven, then 
we must obey Christ's word. But when they put no obstacle to godliness 
in our way, if we are ever carried away by ingratitude, and, forgetting their 
benefits to us, hold them in contempt, then the oracle will have place 
which says, He that curseth father or mother, let him die the death. 

16. The first virtue of godliness in Christians is to honor their parents, to 
requite the troubles of those who begot them, and with all their might to 
confer on them what tends to their comfort (for if we should repay them 
ever so much, yet we shall never be able to return their gift of life), that 
they also may enjoy the comfort provided by us, and may confirm us in 
those blessings which Jacob the supplanter shrewdly seized; and that our 
Father in heaven may accept our good purpose, and judge us worthy to 
shine amid the righteous as the sun in the kingdom of our Father. To 
whom be the glory, with the Only-begotten our Savior Jesus Christ, and 
with the Holy and Life-giving Spirit, now and ever, to all eternity. Amen. 



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LECTURE 8 

Almighty 

JEREMIAH 39:18, 19 (SEPTUAGINT). 

The Great, the strong God, Lord of great Counsel, and mighty in His works, the 
Great God, the Lord Almighty and of great name. 

1 . By believing in One God we cut off all misbelief in many gods, using 
this as a shield against Greeks; and every opposing power of heretics; and 
by adding, In One God The Father, we contend against those of the 
circumcision, who deny the Only begotten Son of God. For, as was said 
yesterday, even before explaining the truths concerning our Lord Jesus 
Christ, we made it manifest at once, by saying "The Father," that He is 
the Father of a Son: that as we understand that God is, so we may 
understand that He has a Son. But to those titles we add that He is also 
"Al mighty;" and this we affirm because of Greeks and Jews together, and 
all heretics. 

2. For of the Greeks some have said that God is the soul of the world: and 
others that His power reaches only to heaven, and not to earth as well, 
Some also sharing their error and misusing the text which says, "And Thy 
truth unto the clouds," have dared to circumscribe God's providence by the 
clouds and the heaven, and to alienate from God the things on earth; having 
forgotten the Psalm which says, If I go up into heaven, Thou art there, if I 
go down into hell, Thou art present. For if there is nothing higher than 
heaven, and if hell is deeper than the earth, He who rules the lower regions 
reaches the earth also. 

3. But heretics again, as I have said before, know not One Almighty God. 
For He is Almighty who rules all things, who has power over all things. 
But they who say that one God is Lord of the soul, and some other of the 
body, make neither of them perfect, because either is wanting to the other. 
For how is he almighty, who has power over the soul, but not over the 
body? And how is he almighty who has dominion over bodies, but no 



190 

power over spirits? But these men the Lord confutes, saying on the 
contrary, Rather fear ye Him which is able to destroy both soul and body in 
hell. For unless the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ has the power over 
both, how does He subject both to punishment? For how shall He be able 
to take the body which is another's and cast it into hell, except He first 
bind the strong man, and spoil his goods'! 

4. But the Divine Scripture and the doctrines of the truth know but One 
God, who rules all things by His power, but endures many things of His 
will. For He rules even over the idolaters, but endures them of His 
forbearance: He rules also over the heretics who set Him at nought, but 
bears with them because of His long-suffering: He rules even over the 
devil, but bears with him of His long-suffering, not from want of power; as 
if defeated. For he is the beginning of the Lord's creation, made to be 
mocked, not by Himself, for that were unworthy of Him, but by the 
Angels whom He hath made. But He suffered him to live, for two 
purposes, that he might disgrace himself the more in his defeat, and that 
mankind might be crowned with victory. O all wise providence of God! 
which takes the wicked purpose for a groundwork of salvation for the 
faithful. For as He took the unbrotherly purpose of Joseph's brethren for 
a groundwork of His own dispensation, and, by permitting them to sell 
their brother from hatred, took occasion to make him king whom He 
would; so he permitted the devil to wrestle, that the victors might be 
crowned; and that when victory was gained, he might be the more 
disgraced as being conquered by the weaker, and men be greatly honored as 
having conquered him who was once an Archangel. 

5. Nothing then is withdrawn from the power of God; for the Scripture 
says of Him, for all things are Thy servants. All things alike are His 
servants, but from all these One, His only Son, and One, His Holy Spirit, 
are excepted; and all the things which are His servants serve the Lord 
through the One Son and in the Holy Spirit. God then rules all, and of His 
long-suffering endures even murderers and robbers and fornicators, having 
appointed a set time for recompensing every one, that if they who have 
had long warning are still impenitent in heart, they may receive the greater 
condemnation. They are kings of men, who reign upon earth, but not 
without the power from above: and this Nebuchadnezzar once learned by 



191 

experience, when he said; For His kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, and 
His power from generation to generation. 

6. Riches, and gold, and silver are not, as some think, the devil's: for the 
whole world of riches is for the faithful man, but for the faithless not even a 
penny. Now nothing is more faithless than the devil; and God says plainly 
by the Prophet, The gold is Mine, and the silver is Mine, and to 
whomsoever I will I give it. Do thou but use it well, and there is no fault to 
be found with money: but whenever thou hast made a bad use of that 
which is good, then being unwilling to blame thine own management, thou 
impiously throwest back the blame upon the Creator. A man may even be 
justified by money: / was hungry, and ye gave Me meat, that certainly was 
from money. I was naked, and ye clothed Me: that certainly was by 
money. And wouldest thou learn that money may become a door of the 
kingdom of heaven? Sell, saith He, that thou hast, and give to the poor, and 
thou shalt have treasure in heaven. 

7. Now I have made these remarks because of those heretics who count 
possessions, and money, and men's bodies accursed. For I neither wish 
thee to be a slave of money, nor to treat as enemies the things which God 
has given thee for use. Never say then that riches are the devil's: for 
though he say, All these will I give thee, for they are delivered unto me, one 
may indeed even reject his assertion; for we need not believe the liar: and 
yet perhaps he spoke the truth, being compelled by the power of His 
presence: for he said not, All these will I give thee, for they are mine, but, 
for they are delivered unto me. He grasped not the dominion of them, but 
confessed that he had been entrusted with them, and was for a time 
dispensing them. But at a proper time interpreters should inquire whether 
his statement is false or true. 

8. God then is One, the Father, the Almighty, whom the brood of heretics 
have dared to blaspheme. Yea, they, have dared to blaspheme the Lord of 
Sabaoth, who sitteth above the Cherubim: they have dared to blaspheme 
the Lord Adonai: they have dared to blaspheme Him who is in the 
Prophets the Almighty God. But worship thou One God the Almighty, 
the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. Flee from the error of many gods, flee 
also from every heresy, and say like Job, But I will call upon the Almighty 
Lord, which doeth great things and unsearchable, glorious things and 



192 



marvelous without number, and, For all these things there is honor from 
the Almighty: to Whom be the glory for ever and ever. Amen. 



193 



LECTURE 9 

ON THE WORDS, MAKER OF HEAVEN AND EARTH, AND OF 
ALL THINGS VISIBLE AND INVISIBLE 

JOB 38:2-3. 

Who is this that hideth counsel from Me, and keepeth words in his heart, and 
thinketh to hide them from Me? 

1. To look upon God with eyes of flesh is impossible: for the incorporeal 
cannot be subject to bodily sight: and the Only begotten Son of God 
Himself hath testified, saying, No man hath seen God at any time. For if 
according to that which is written in Ezekiel any one should understand 
that Ezekiel saw Him, yet what saith the Scripture? He saw the likeness of 
the glory of the Lord; not the Lord Himself, but the likeness of His glory, 
not the glory itself, as it really is. And when he saw merely the likeness of 
the glory, and not the glory itself, he fell to the earth from fear. Now if the 
sight of the likeness of the glory brought fear and distress upon the 
prophets, any one who should attempt to behold God Himself would to a 
certainty lose his life, according to the saying, No man shall see My face 
and live. For this cause God of His great loving-kindness spread out the 
heaven as a veil of His proper Godhead, that we should not perish. The 
word is not mine, but the Prophet's. If Thou shalt rend the heavens, 
trembling will take hold of the mountains at sight of Thee, and they will 
flow down. And why dost thou wonder that Ezekiel fell down on seeing 
the likeness of the glory! when Daniel at the sight of Gabriel, though but a 
servant of God, straightway shuddered and fell on his face, and, prophet 
as he was, dared not answer him, until the Angel transformed himself into 
the likeness of a son of man. Now if the appearing of Gabriel wrought 
trembling in the Prophets, had God Himself been seen as He is, would not 
all have perished? 

2. The Divine Nature then it is impossible to see with eyes of flesh: but 
from the works, which are Divine, it is possible to attain to some 
conception of His power, according to Solomon, who says, For by the 
greatness and beauty of the creatures proportionably the Maker of them is 



194 

seen. He said not that from the creatures the Maker is seen, but added 
proportionably. For God appears the greater to every man in proportion 
as he has grasped a larger survey of the creatures: and when his heart is 
uplifted by that larger survey, he gains withal a greater conception of God. 

3. Wouldest thou learn that to comprehend the nature of God is 
impossible? The Three Children in the furnace of fire, as they hymn the 
praises of God, say Blessed art thou that beholdest the depths, and sittest 
upon the Cherubim. Tell me what is the nature of the Cherubim, and then 
look upon Him who sitteth upon them. And yet Ezekiel the Prophet even 
made a description of them, as far as was possible, saying that every one 
has four faces, one of a man, another of a lion, another of an eagle, and 
another of a calf; and that each one had six wings, and they had eyes on all 
sides; and that under each one was a wheel of four sides. Nevertheless 
though the Prophet makes the explanation, we cannot yet understand it 
even as we read. But if we cannot understand the throne, which he has 
described, how shall we be able to comprehend Him who sitteth thereon, 
the Invisible and Ineffable God? To scrutinize then the nature of God is 
impossible: but it is in our power to send up praises of His glory for His 
works that are seen. 

4. These things I say to you because of the following context of the Creed, 
and because we say, We Believe In One God, The Father Almighty, 
Maker Of Heaven And Earth, And Of All Things Visible And 

In v is ib l e ; in order that we may remember that the Father of our Lord 
Jesus Christ is the same as He that made the heaven and the earth, and that 
we may make ourselves safe against the wrong paths of the godless 
heretics, who have dared to speak evil of the All wise Artificer of all this 
world, men who see with eyes of flesh, but have the eyes of their 
understanding blinded. 

5. For what fault have they to find with the vast creation of God? — they, 
who ought to have been struck with amazement on beholding the vaultings 
of the heavens: they, who ought to have worshipped Him who reared the 
sky as a dome, who out of the fluid nature of the waters formed the stable 
substance of the heaven. For God said, Let there be a firmament in the 
midst of the water. God spake once for all, and it stands fast, and falls not. 
The heaven is water, and the orbs therein, sun, moon, and stars are of fire: 



195 

and how do the orbs of fire run their course in the water? But if any one 
disputes this because of the opposite natures of fire and water, let him 
remember the fire which in the time of Moses in Egypt flamed amid the 
hail, and observe the all- wise workmanship of God. For since there was 
need of water, because the earth was to be tilled, He made the heaven 
above of water that when the region of the earth should need watering by 
showers, the heaven might from its nature be ready for this purpose. 

6. But what? Is there not cause to wonder when one looks at the 
constitution of the sun? For being to the sight as it were a small body he 
contains a mighty power; appearing from the East, and sending forth his 
light unto the West: whose rising at dawn the Psalmist described, saying: 
And he cometh forth out of his chamber as a bridegroom. He was 
describing the brightness and moderation of his state on first becoming 
visible unto men: for when he rides at high noon, we often flee from his 
blaze: but at his rising he is welcome to all as a bridegroom to look on. 

Observe also his arrangement (or rather not his, but the arrangement of 
Him who by an ordinance determined his course), how in summer he rises 
higher and makes the days longer, giving men good time for their works: 
but in winter contracts his course, that the period of cold may be 
increased, and that the nights becoming longer may contribute to men's 
rest, and contribute also to the fruitfulness of the products of the earth. 
See also how the days alternately respond each to other in due order, in 
summer increasing, and in winter diminishing; but in spring and autumn 
granting equal intervals one to another. And the nights again complete the 
like courses; so that the Psalmist also says of them, Day unto day uttereth 
speech, and night unto night claimeth knowledge. For to the heretics who 
have no ears, they all but cry aloud, and by their good order say, that there 
is none other God save the Creator who hath set them their bounds, and 
laid out the order of the Universe 

7. But let no one tolerate any who say that one is the Creator of the light, 
and another of darkness: for let him remember how Isaiah says, / am the 
God who made the light, and created darkness. Why, O man, art thou 
vexed thereat? Why art thou offended at the time that is given thee for 
rest? A servant would have had no rest from his masters, had not the 
darkness necessarily brought a respite. And often after wearying ourselves 



196 

in the day, how are we refreshed in the night, and he who was yesterday 
worn with toils, rises vigorous in the morning because of the night' s rest? 
And what more helpful to wisdom than the night? For herein oftentimes 
we set before our minds the things of God; and herein we read and 
contemplate the Divine Oracles. And when is our mind most attuned to 
Psalmody and Prayer? Is it not at night? And when have we often called 
our own sins to remembrance? Is not at night? Let us not then admit the 
evil thought, that another is the maker of darkness: for experience shews 
that this also is good and useful. 

8. They ought to have felt astonishment and admiration not only at the 
arrangement of sun and moon, but also at the well-ordered choirs of the 
stars, their unimpeded courses, and their risings in the seasons due to each: 
and how some are signs of summer, and others of winter; and how some 
mark the season for sowing, and others shew the commencement of 
navigation. And a than sitting in his ship, and sailing amid the boundless 
waves, steers his ship by looking at the stars. For of these matters the 
Scripture says well, And let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for 
years, not for fables of astrology and nativities. But observe how He has 
also graciously given us the light of day by gradual increase: for we do not 
see the sun at once arise; but just a little light runs on before, in order that 
the pupil of the eye may be enabled by previous trial to look upon his 
stronger beam: see also how He has relieved the darkness of the night by 
rays of moonlight. 

9. Who is the father of the rain? And who hath begotten the drops of dew? 
Who condensed the air into clouds, and bade them carry the waters of the 
rains, now bringing golden-tinted clouds from the north, now changing 
these into one uniform appearance, and again transforming them into 
manifold circles and other shapes? Who can number the clouds in wisdom! 
Whereof in Job it saith, And He knoweth the separations of the clouds, and 
hath bent down the heaven to the earth: and, He who numbereth the clouds 
in wisdom: and, the cloud is not rent under Him. For so many measures of 
waters lie upon the clouds, yet they are not rent: but come down with all 
good order upon the earth. Who bringeth the winds out of their treasuries! 
And who, as we said before, is he that hath begotten the drops of dew? And 
out of whose womb cometh the ice? For its substance is like water, and its 
strength like stone. And at one time the water becomes snow like wool, at 



197 

another it ministers to Him who scattereth the mist like ashes, and at 
another it is changed into a stony substance; since He governs the waters 
as He will. Its nature is uniform, and its action manifold in force. Water 
becomes in vines wine that maketh glad the heart of man: and in olives oil 
that maketh man's face to shine: and is transformed also into bread that 
strengtheneth man 's heart, and into fruits of all kinds which He hath 
created. 

10. What should have been the effect of these wonders? Should the 
Creator have been blasphemed? Or worshipped rather? And so far I have 
said noticing of the unseen works of His wisdom. Observe, I pray you, the 
spring, and the flowers of every kind in all their likeness still diverse one 
from another; the deepest crimson of the rose, and the purest whiteness of 
the lily: for these spring from the same rain and the same earth, and who 
makes them to differ? Who fashions them? Observe, pray, the exact care: 
from the one substance of the tree there is part for shelter, and part for 
divers fruits: and the Artificer is One. Of the same vine part is for burning, 
and part for shoots, and part for leaves, and part for tendrils, and part for 
clusters. 

Admire also the great thickness of the knots which run round the reed, as 
the Artificer hath made them. From one and the same earth come forth 
creeping things, and wild beasts, and cattle, and trees, and food; and God, 
and silver, and brass, and iron, and stone. The nature of the waters is but 
one, yet from it comes the substance of fishes and of birds; whereby as the 
former swim in the waters, so the birds fly in the air. 

11. This great and wide sea, therein are things creeping innumerable. Who 
can describe the beauty of the fishes that are therein? Who can describe the 
greatness of the whales, and the nature of its amphibious animals, how 
they live both on dry land and in the waters? Who can tell the depth and 
the breadth of the sea, or the force of its enormous waves? Yet it stays at 
its bounds, because of Him who said, Hitherto shalt thou come, and no 
further, but within thyself shall thy waves be broken. Which sea also clearly 
shews the word of the command imposed upon it, since after it has run 
up, it leaves upon the beach a visible line made by the waves, shewing, as 
it were, to those who see it, that it has not passed its appointed bounds. 



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12. Who can discern the nature of the birds of the air? How some carry 
with them a voice of melody, and others are variegated with all manner of 
painting on their wings, and others fly up into mid air and float 
motionless, as the hawk: for by the Divine command the hawk spreadeth 
out his wings and floateth motionless, looking towards the south. What 
man can behold the eagle's lofty flight? If then thou canst not discern the 
soaring of the most senseless of the birds, how wouldest thou understand 
the Maker of all? 

13. Who among men knows even the names of all wild beasts? Or who can 
accurately discern the physiology of each? But if of the wild beasts we 
know not even the mere names, how shall we comprehend the Maker of 
them? God's command was but one, which said, Let the earth bring forth 
wild beasts, and cattle, and creeping things, after their kinds and from one 
earth, by one command, have sprung diverse natures, the gentle sheep and 
the carnivorous lion, and various instincts of irrational animals, bearing 
resemblance to the various characters of men; the fox to manifest the craft 
that is in men, and the snake the venomous treachery of friends, and the 
neighing horse the wantonness of young men, and the laborious ant, to 
arouse the sluggish and the dull: for when a man passes his youth in 
idleness, then he is instructed by the irrational animals, being reproved by 
the divine Scripture saying, Go to the ant, thou sluggard, see and emulate 
her ways, and become wiser than she. For when thou seest her treasuring 
up her food in good season, imitate her, and treasure up for thyself fruits 
of good works for the world to come. And again, Go to the bee, and learn 
how industrious she is: how, hovering round all kinds of flowers, she 
collects her honey for thy benefit: that thou also, by ranging over the Holy 
Scriptures, mayest lay hold of salvation for thyself, and being filled with 
them mayest say, How sweet are thy words unto my throat, yea sweeter 
than honey and the honeycomb unto my mouth. 

14. Is not then the Artificer worthy the rather to be glorified? For what? If 
thou knowest not the nature of all things, do the things that have been 
made forthwith become useless? Canst thou know the efficacy of all 
herbs? Or canst thou learn all the benefit which proceeds from every 
animal? Ere now even from venomous adders have come antidotes for the 
preservation of men. But thou wilt say to me, "The snake is terrible." Fear 
thou the Lord, and it shall not be able to hurt thee. "A scorpion stings." 



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Fear the Lord, and it shall not sting thee. "A lion is bloodthirsty." Fear 
thou the Lord, and he shall lie down beside thee, as by Daniel. But truly 
wonderful also is the action of the animals: how some, as the scorpion, 
have the sharpness in a sting; and others have their power in their teeth; 
and others do battle with their claws; while the basilisk's power is his 
gaze. So then from this varied workmanship understand the Creator's 
power. 

15. But these things perhaps thou knowest not: thou wouldest have 
nothing in common with the creatures which are without thee. Enter now 
into thyself, and from thine own nature consider its Artificer. What is 
there to find fault with in the framing of thy body? Be master of thyself, 
and nothing evil shall proceed from any of they members. Adam was at 
first without clothing in Paradise with Eve, but it was not because of his 
members that he deserved to be cast out. The members then are not the 
cause of sin, but they who use their members amiss; and the Maker 
thereof is wise. Who prepared the recesses of the womb child-bearing? 
Who gave life to the lifeless thing within it? Who knitted us with sinews 
and bones, and clothed us with skin and flesh, and, as soon as the child 
was born, brought streams of milk out of the breasts? How grows the babe 
into a boy, and the boy into a youth, and then into a man; and, still the 
same, passes again into an old man, while no one notices the exact change 
from day to day? Of the food, how is one part changed into blood, and 
another separated for excretion, and another part changed into flesh? Who 
gives to the heart its unceasing motion? Who wisely guarded the 
tenderness of the eyes with the fence of the eyelids? For as to the 
complicated and wonderful contrivance of the eyes, the voluminous books 
of the physicians hardly give us explanation. Who distributes the one 
breath to the whole body? Thou seest, O man, the Artificer, thou seest the 
wise Creator. 

16. These points my discourse has now treated at large, having left out 
many, yea, ten thousand other things, and especially things incorporeal 
and invisible, that thou mayest abhor those who blaspheme the wise and 
good Artificer, and from what is spoken and read, and whatever thou canst 
thyself discover or conceive,/ram the greatness and beauty of the 
creatures mayest proportionably see the maker of them, and bending the 
knee with godly reverence to the Maker of the worlds, the worlds, I mean, 



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of sense and thought, both visible and invisible, thou mayest with a 
grateful and holy tongue, with unwearied lips and heart, praise God and 
say, How wonderful are Thy works, O Lord; in wisdom hast Thou made 
them all. For to Thee belongeth honor, and glory, and majesty, both now 
and throughout all ages. Amen. 



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APPENDIX TO LECTURE 9 



Note. — In the manuscripts which contain this discourse under the name 
of "A Homily of S. Basil on God as Incomprehensible" some portions are 
changed to suit that subject: but the conclusion especially is marked by 
great addition and variation, which it is well to reproduce here. 
Accordingly in place of the words in 15: xi jxejXTtxov, "What is there to 
find fault with?" and the following, the manuscripts before mentioned have 
it thus: 

"What is there to find fault with in the framing of the body? Come forth 
into the midst and speak. Control thine own will, and nothing evil shall 
proceed from any of thy members. For every one of these has of necessity 
been made for our use. Chasten thy reasoning unto piety, submit to God's 
commandments, and none of these members sin in working and serving in 
the uses for which they were made. If thou be not willing, the eye sees not 
amiss, the, ear hears nothing which it ought not, the hand is not stretched 
out for wicked greed, the foot walketh not towards injustice, thou hast no 
strange loves, committest no fornication, covetest not thy neighbor's wife. 
Drive out wicked thoughts from thine heart, be as God made thee, and 
thou wilt rather give thanks to thy Creator. 

Adam at first was without clothing, faring daintily in Paradise: and after he 
had received the commandment, but failed to keep it, and wickedly 
stretched forth his hand (not because the hand wished this, but because his 
will stretched forth his hand to that which was forbidden), because of his 
disobedience he lost also the good things he had received. Thus the 
members are not the cause of sin to those who use them, but the wicked 
mind, as the Lord says, For out of the heart proceed evil thoughts, 
fornications, adulteries, envyings, and such like. In what things thou 
choosest, therein thy limbs serve thee; they are excellently made for the 
service of the soul: they are provided as servants to thy reason. Guide 
them well by the motion of piety; bridle them by the fear of God; bring 
them into subjection to the desire of temperance and abstinence, and they 
will never rise up against thee to tyrannize over thee; but rather they will 
guard thee, and help thee more mightily in thy victory over the devil, while 



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expecting also the incorruptible and everlasting crown of the victory. Who 
openeth the chambers of the womb? Who, etc." 

At the end of the same section, after the words "Wise Creator," this is 
found: "Glorify Him in His unsearchable works, and concerning Him 
whom thou art not capable of knowing inquire not curiously what His 
essence is. It is better for thee to keep silence, and in faith adore, according 
to the divine Word, than daringly to search after things which neither thou 
canst reach, nor Holy Scripture hath delivered to thee. These points my 
discourse has now treated at large, that thou mayest abhor those who 
blaspheme the wise and good Artificer, and rather mayest thyself also say, 
How wonderful are Thy works O Lord; in wisdom hast Thou made them 
all. To Thee be the glory, and power, and worship, with the Holy Spirit, 
now and ever, and throughout all ages. Amen." 



203 



LECTURE 10 

ON THE CLAUSE, AND IN ONE LORD JESUS CHRIST, WITH A 
READING FROM THE FIRST EPISTLE TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



For though there be that are called gods, whether in heaven or on earth; yet to us 

there is One God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we in Him; and One 

Lord Jesus Christ, through whom are all things, and we through Him. 

1. They who have been taught to believe Me, Thou art My Son. Heed not 
therefore 'In One God The Father Almighty," ought what the Jews 
say, but what the Prophets say. also to believe in His Only-begotten Son. 
For he that denieth the Son, the same hath not the Father. I am the Door, 
saith Jesus; no one cometh unto the Father but through Me. For if thou 
deny the Door, the knowledge concerning the Father is shut off from thee. 
No man knoweth the father, save the Son, and he to whomsoever the Son 
shall reveal Him. For if thou deny Him who reveals, thou remainest in 
ignorance. There is a sentence in the Gospels, saying, He that believeth not 
on the Son, shall not see life; but the wrath of God abideth on him For the 
Father hath indignation when the Only-begotten Son is set at nought. For 
it is grievous to a king that merely his soldier should be dishonored; and 
when one of his nobler officers or friends is dishonored, then his anger is 
greatly increased: but if any should do despite to the king's only-begotten 
son himself, who shall appease the father's indignation on behalf of his 
only-begotten son? 

2. If, therefore, any one wishes to shew piety towards God, let him 
worship the Son, since otherwise the Father accepts not his service. The 
Father spoke with a loud voice from heaven, saying, This is My beloved 
Son, in whom I am well pleased. The Father was well pleased; unless thou 
also be well pleased in Him, thou hast not life. Be not thou carried away 
with the Jews when they craftily say, There is one God alone; but with 
the knowledge that God is One, know that there is also an Only-begotten 
Son of God. I am not the first to say this, but the Psalmist in the person of 
the Son saith, The Lord said unto Me, Thou art My Son. Heed not 
therefore what the Jews say, but what the Prophets say. Dost thou 



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wonder that they who stoned and slew the Prophets, set at naught the 
Prophets' words? 

3. Believe thou In One Lord Jesus Christ, The Only-Begotten Son Of 
Go d . For we say "One Lord Jesus Christ," that His Son-ship may be 
"Only-begotten:" we say "One," that thou mayest not suppose another: 
we say "One," that thou mayest not profanely diffuse the many names of 
His action among many sons. For He is called a Door; but take not the 
name literally for a thing of wood, but a spiritual, a living Door, 
discriminating those who enter in. He is called a Way, not one trodden by 
feet, but leading to the Father in heaven; He is called a Sheep, not an 
irrational one, but the one which through its precious blood cleanses the 
world from its sins, which is led before the shearers, and knows when to 
be silent. This Sheep again is called a Shepherd, who says, / am the Good 
Shepherd: a Sheep because of His manhood, a Shepherd because of the 
loving-kindness of His Godhead. And wouldst thou know that there are 
rational sheep? the Savior says to the Apostles, Behold, I send you as 
sheep in the midst of wolves. Again, He is called a Lion, not as a devourer 
of men, but indicating as it were by the title His kingly, and steadfast, and 
confident nature: a Lion He is also called in opposition to the lion our 
adversary, who roars and devours those who have been deceived. For the 
Savior came, not as having changed the gentleness of His own nature, but 
as the strong Lion of the tribe ofJudah, saving them that believe, but 
treading down the adversary. He is called a Stone, not a lifeless stone, cut 
out by men's hands, but a chief corner-stone, on whom whosoever 
believeth shall not be put to shame. 

4. He is called Christ, not as having been anointed by men's hands, but 
eternally anointed by the Father to His High-Priesthood: on behalf of men. 
He is collect Dead, not as having abode among the dead, as all in Hades, 
but as being alone free among the dead. He is called Son of Man, not as 
having had His generation from earth, as each of us, but as coming upon 
the clouds To Judge Both Quick And Dead. He is called Lord , not 
improperly as those who are so called among men, but as having a natural 
and eternal Lordship. He is called Jesus by a fitting name, as having the 
appellation from His salutary healing. He is called Son, not as advanced by 
adoption, but as naturally begotten. And many are the titles of our Savior; 
lest, therefore, His manifold appellations should make thee think of many 



205 

sons, and because of the errors of the heretics, who say that Christ is one, 
and Jesus another, and the Door another, and so on, the Faith secures thee 
beforehand, saying well, In One Lord Jesus Christ: for though the titles 
are many, yet their subject is one. 

5. But the Savior comes in various forms to each man for his profit. For to 
those who have need of gladness He becomes a Vine; and to those who 
want to enter in He stands as a Door; and to those who need to offer up 
their prayers He stands a mediating High Priest. Again, to those who have 
sins He becomes a Sheep, that He may be sacrificed for them. He is made 
all things to all men, remaining in His own nature what He is. For so 
remaining, and holding the dignity of His Sonship in reality unchangeable, 
He adapts Himself to our infirmities, just as some excellent physician or 
compassionate teacher; though He is Very Lord, and received not the 
Lordship by advancement, but has the dignity of His Lordship from 
nature, and is not called Lord improperly, as we are, but is so in verity, 
since by the Father's bidding He is Lord of His own works. For our 
lordship is over men of equal rights and like passions, nay often over our 
elders, and often a young master rules over aged servants. But in the case 
of our Lord Jesus Christ the Lordship is not so: but He is first Maker, 
then Lord: first He made all things by the Father's will, then, He is Lord of 
the things which were made by Him. 

6. Christ the Lord is He who was born in the city of David. And wouldest 
thou know that Christ is Lord with the Father even before His Incarnation, 
that thou mayest not only accept the statement by faith, but mayest also 
receive proof from the Old Testament? Go to the first book, Genesis: God 
saith, Let us make man, not 'in My image,' but, in Our image. And after 
Adam was made, the sacred writer says, And God created man; in the 
image of God created He him. For he did not limit the dignity of the 
Godhead to the Father alone, but included the Son also: that it might be 
shewn that man is not only the work of God, but also of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, who is Himself also Very God. This Lord, who works together 
with the Father, wrought with Him also in the case of Sodom, according to 
the Scripture: And the Lord rained upon Sodom and Gomorrah fire and 
brimstone from the Lord out of heaven. This Lord is He who afterwards 
was seen of Moses, as much as he was able to see. For the Lord is loving 
unto man, ever condescending to our infirmities. 



206 

7. Moreover, that you may be sure that this is He who was seen of 
Moses, hear Paul's testimony, when he says, For they all drank of a 
spiritual rock that followed them; and the rock was Christ. And again: By 
faith Moses forsook Egypt, and shortly after he says, accounting the 
reproach of Christ greater riches than the treasures in Egypt. This Moses 
says to Him, Shew me Thyself. Thou seest that the Prophets also in those 
times saw the Christ, that is, as far as each was able. Shew me Thyself that 
I may see Thee with understanding. But He saith, There shall no man see 
My face, and live. For this reason then, because no man could see the face 
of the Godhead and live, He took on Him the face of human nature, that 
we might see this and live. And yet when He wished to shew even that 
with a little majesty, when His face did shine as the sun, the disciples fell 
down affrighted. If then His bodily countenance, shining not in the full 
power of Him that wrought, but according to the capacity of the 
Disciples, affrighted them, so that even thus they could not bear it, how 
could any man gaze upon the majesty of the Godhead? 'A great thing,' 
saith the Lord, 'thou desirest, O Moses: and I approve thine insatiable 
desire, and I will do this thing for thee, but according as thou art able. 
Behold, I will put thee in the clift of the rock: for as being little, thou shall 
lodge in a little space.' 

8. Now here I wish you to make safe what I am going to say, because of 
the Jews. For our object is to prove that the Lord Jesus Christ was with 
the Father. The Lord then says to Moses, / will pass by before thee with 
My glory, and will proclaim the name of the Lord before thee. Being 
Himself the Lord , what Lord doth He proclaim? Thou seest how He was 
covertly teaching the godly doctrine of the Father and the Son. And again, 
in what follows it is written word for word: And the Lord descended in 
the cloud, and stood with him there, and proclaimed the name of the Lord. 
And the Lord passed by before him, and proclaimed, The Lord, the Lord 
God, merciful and gracious, long-suffering, and abundant in goodness and 
truth, both keeping righteousness and shewing mercy unto thousands, 
taking away iniquities, and transgressions, and sins. Then in what 
follows, Moses bowed his head and worshipped before the Lord who 
proclaimed the Father, and said: Go Thou then, O Lord, in the midst of us. 

9. This is the first proof: receive now a second plain one. The Lord said 
unto my Lord, sit Thou on My right hand. The Lord says this to the Lord, 



207 

not to a servant, but to the Lord of all, and His own Son, to whom He put 
all things in subjection. But when He saith that all things are put under 
Him, it is manifest that He is excepted, which did put all things under Him, 
and what follows; that God may be all in all. The Only-begotten Son is 
Lord of all, but the obedient Son of the Father, for He grasped not the 
Lordship, but received it by nature of the Father's own will. For neither 
did the Son grasp it, nor the Father grudge to impart it. He it is who saith, 
All things are delivered unto Me of My Father, "delivered unto Me, not as 
though I had them not before; and I keep them well, not robbing Him who 
hath given them." 

10. The Son of God then is Lord: He is Lord, who was born in Bethlehem 
of Judaea, according to the Angel who said to the shepherds, / bring you 
good tidings of great joy, that unto you is born this day in the city of David 
Christ the Lord: of whom an Apostle says elsewhere, The word which 
God sent unto the children of Israel, preaching the gospel of peace by Jesus 
Christ: He is Lord of all. But when he says, of all, do thou except nothing 
from His Lordship: for whether Angels, or Archangels, or principalities, or 
powers, or any created thing named by the Apostles, all are under the 
Lordship of the Son. Of Angels He is Lord, as thou hast it in the Gospels, 
Then the Devil departed from Him, and the Angels came and ministered 
unto Him; for the Scripture saith not, they succored Him, but they 
ministered unto Him, that is, like servants. When He was about to be born 
of a Virgin, Gabriel was then His servant, having received His service as a 
peculiar dignity. When He was about to go into Egypt, that He might 
overthrow the gods of Egypt made with hands, again an Angel appeareth 
to Joseph in a dream. After He had been crucified, and had risen again, an 
Angel brought the good tidings, and as a trustworthy servant said to the 
women, Go, tell His disciples that He is risen, and goeth before you into 
Galilee; lo, I have told you: almost as if he had said, "I have not neglected 
my command, I protest that I have told you; that if ye disregard it, the 
blame may not be on me, but on those who disregard it." This then is the 
One Lord Jesus Christ, of whom the lesson just now read speaks: For 
though there be many that are called gods, whether in heaven or in earth, 
and so on, yet to us there is One God, the Father, of whom are all things, 
and we in Him; and One Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom are all things, 
and we through Him. 



208 

11. And He is called by two names, Jesus Christ; Jesus, because He saves, 
— Christ, because He is a Priest. And knowing this the inspired Prophet 
Moses conferred these two titles on two men distinguished above all: his 
own successor in the government, Auses, he renamed Jesus; and his own 
brother Aaron he surnamed Christ, that by two well-approved men he 
might represent at once both the High Priesthood, and the Kingship of the 
One Jesus Christ who was to come. For Christ is a High Priest like Aaron; 
since He glorified not Himself to be made a High Priest, but He that spake 
unto Him, Than art a Priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek. And 
Jesus the son of Nave was in many things a type of Him. For when he 
began to rule over the people, he began from Jordan, whence Christ also, 
after He was baptized, began to preach the gospel. And the son of Nave 
appoints twelve to divide the inheritance'; and twelve Apostles Jesus 
sends forth, as heralds of the truth, into all the world. The typical Jesus 
saved Rahab the harlot when she believed: and the true Jesus says, Behold, 
the publicans and the harlots go before you into the kingdom of God. With 
only a shout the walls of Jericho fell down in the time of the type: and 
because Jesus said, There shall not be left here one stone upon another, the 
Temple of the Jews opposite to us is fallen, the cause of its fall not being 
the denunciation but the sin of the transgressors. 

12. There is One Lord Jesus Christ, a wondrous name, indirectly 
announced beforehand by the Prophets. For Esaias the Prophet says, 
Behold, thy Savior cometh, having His own reward. Now Jesus in Hebrew 
is by interpretation Savior. For the Prophetic gift, foreseeing the 
murderous spirit of the Jews against their Lord, veiled His name, lest from 
knowing it plainly beforehand they might plot against Him readily. But He 
was openly called Jesus not by men, but by an Angel, who came not by 
his own authority, but was sent by the power of God, and said to Joseph, 
Fear not to take unto thee Mary thy wife; for that which is conceived, in her 
is of the Holy Ghost. And she shall bring forth a Son, and thou shall call 
His name Jesus. And immediately he renders the reason of this name, 
saying, for He shall save His people from their sins. Consider how He 
who was not yet born could have a people, unless He was in being before 
He was born. This also the Prophet says in His person, From the bowels 
of my mother hath He made mention of My name; because the Angel 



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foretold that He should be called Jesus. And again concerning Herod's plot 
again he says, And under the shadow of His hand hath He hid Me. 

13. Jesus then means according to the Hebrew "Savior," but in the Greek 
tongue "The Healer;" since He is physician of souls and bodies, curer of 
spirits, curing the blind in body, and leading minds into light, healing the 
visibly lame, and guiding sinners' steps to repentance, saying to the 
palsied, Sin no more, and, Take up thy bed and walk. For since the body 
was palsied for the sin of the soul, He ministered first to the soul that He 
might extend the healing to the body. If, therefore, any one is suffering in 
soul from sins, there is the Physician for him: and if any one here is of 
little faith, let him say to Him, Help Thou mine unbelief. If any is 
encompassed also with bodily ailments, let him not be faithless, but let 
him draw nigh; for to such diseases also Jesus ministers, and let him learn 
that Jesus is the Christ. 

14. For that He is Jesus the Jews allow, but not further that He is Christ. 
Therefore saith the Apostle, Who is the liar, but he that denieth that Jesus 
is the Christ? But Christ is a High Priest, whose priesthood passes not to 
another, neither having begun His Priesthood in time, nor having any 
successor in His High-Priesthood: as thou heardest on the Lord's day, 
when we were discoursing in the congregation on the phrase, After the 
Order of Melchizedek. He received not the High-Priesthood from bodily 
succession, nor was He anointed with oil prepared by man, but before all 
ages by the Father; and He so far excels the others as with an oath He is 
made Priest: For they are priests without an oath, but He with an oath by 
Him that said, The Lord sware, and will not repent. The mere purpose of 
the Father was sufficient for surety: but the mode of assurance is twofold, 
namely that with the purpose there follows the oath also, that by two 
immutable things, in which it was impossible for God to lie, we might have 
strong encouragement for our faith, who receive Christ Jesus as the Son of 
God. 

15. This Christ, when He was come, the Jews denied, but the devils 
confessed. But His forefather David was not ignorant of Him, when he 
said, / have ordained a lamp for mine Anointed: which lamp some have 
interpreted to be the brightness of Prophecy, others the flesh which He 
took upon Him from the Virgin, according to the Apostle's word, But we 



210 

have this treasure in earthen vessels. The Prophet was not ignorant of 
Him, when He said, and announceth unto men His Christ. Moses also 
knew Him, Isaiah knew Him, and Jeremiah; not one of the Prophets was 
ignorant of Him. Even devils recognized Him, for He rebuked them, and 
the Scripture says, because they knew that He was Christ. The 
Chief-priests knew Him not, and the devils confessed Him: the Chief 
Priests knew Him not, and a woman of Samaria proclaimed Him, saying, 
Come, see a man which told me all things that ever I did. Is not this the 
Christ? 

16. This is Jesus Christ who came a High-Priest of the good things to 
come; who for the bountifulness of His Godhead imparted His own title to 
us all. For kings among men have their royal style which others may not 
share: but Jesus Christ being the Son of God gave us the dignity of being 
called Christians. But some one will say, The name of "Christians" is new, 
and was not in use aforetime: and new-fashioned phrases are often 
objected to on the score of strangeness. The prophet made this point safe 
beforehand, saying, But upon My servants shall a new name be called, 
which shall be blessed upon the earth. Let us question the Jews: Are ye 
servants of the Lord, or not? Shew then your new name. For ye were 
called Jews and Israelites in the time of Moses, and the other prophets, 
and after the return from Babylon, and up to the present time: where then 
is your new name? But we, since we are servants of the Lord, have that 
new name: new indeed, but the new name, which shall be blessed upon the 
earth. This name caught the world in its grasp: for Jews are only in a 
certain region, but Christians reach to the ends of the world: for it is the 
name of the Only-begotten Son of God that is proclaimed. 

17. But wouldest thou know that the Apostles knew and preached the 
name of Christ, or rather had Christ Himself within them? Paul says to his 
hearers, Or seek ye a proof of Christ that speaketh in me? Paul proclaims 
Christ, saying, For we preach not ourselves, but Christ Jesus as Lord, and 
ourselves your servants for Jesus ' sake. Who then is this? The former 
persecutor. O mighty wonder! The former persecutor him self preaches 
Christ. But wherefore? Was he bribed? Nay there was none to use this 
mode of persuasion. But was it that he saw Him present on earth, and was 
abashed? He had already been taken up into heaven. He went forth to 
persecute, and after three days the persecutor is a preacher in Damascus. 



211 

By what power? Others call friends as witnesses for friends but I have 
presented to you as a witness the former enemy: and dost thou still 
doubt? The testimony of Peter and John, though weighty, was yet of a 
kind open to suspicion: for they were His friends. But of one who was 
formerly his enemy, and afterwards dies for His sake, who can any longer 
doubt the truth? 

18. At this point of my discourse I am truly filled with wonder at the wise 
dispensation of the Holy Spirit; how He confined the Epistles of the rest 
to a small number, but to Paul the former persecutor gave the privilege of 
writing fourteen. For it was not because Peter or John was less that He 
restrained the gift; God forbid! But in order that the doctrine might be 
beyond question, He granted to the former enemy and persecutor the 
privilege of writing more, in order that we all might thus be made believers. 
For all were amazed at Paul, and said, Is not this he that was formerly a 
persecutor? Did he not come hither, that he might lead us away bound to 
Jerusalem? Be not amazed, said Paul, I know that it is hard for me to kick 
against the pricks: I know that / am not worthy to be called an Apostle, 
because I persecuted the Church of God; but I did it in ignorance, for I 
thought that the preaching of Christ was destruction of the Law, and knew 
not that He came Himself to fulfill the Law and not to destroy it. But the 
grace of God was exceeding abundant in me. 

19. Many, my beloved, are the true testimonies concerning Christ. The 
Father bears witness from heaven of His Son: the Holy Ghost bears 
witness, descending bodily in likeness of a dove: the Archangel Gabriel 
bears witness, bringing good tidings to Mary: the Virgin Mother of God 
bears witness: the blessed place of the manger bears witness. Egypt bears 
witness, which received the Lord while yet young in the body: Symeon 
bears witness, who received Him in his arms, and said, Now, Lord, lettest 
Thou Thy servant depart in peace, according to Thy word; for mine eyes 
have seen Thy salvation, which Thou hast prepared before the face of all 
people. Anna also, the prophetess, a most devout widow, of austere life, 
bears witness of Him. John the Baptist bears witness, the greatest among 
the Prophets, and leader of the New Covenant, who in a manner united 
both Covenants in Himself, the Old and the New. Jordan is His witness 
among rivers; the sea of Tiberias among seas: blind and lame bear witness, 
and dead men raised to life, and devils saying, What have we to do with 



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Thee, Jesus? we know Thee, who Thou art, the Holy One of God. Winds 
bear witness, silenced at His bidding: five loaves multiplied into five 
thousand bear Him witness. The holy wood of the Cross bears witness, 
seen among us to this day, and from this place now almost filling the 
whole world, by means of those who in faith take portions from it. The 
palm-tree on the ravine bears witness, having supplied the palm-branches 
to the children who then hailed Him. Gethsemane bears witness, still to 
the thoughtful almost shewing Judas. Golgotha, the holy hill standing 
above us here, bears witness to our sight: the Holy Sepulcher bears 
witness, and the stone which lies there to this day. The sun now shining is 
His witness, which then at the time of His saving Passion was eclipsed: 
the darkness is His witness, which was then from the sixth hour to the 
ninth: the light bears witness, which shone forth from the ninth hour until 
evening. The Mount of Olives bears witness, that holy mount from which 
He ascended to the Father: the rain-bearing clouds are His witnesses, 
having received their Lord: yea, and the gates of heaven bear witness 
[having received their Lord], concerning which the Psalmist said, Lift up 
your doors, O ye Princes, and be ye lift up ye everlasting doors; and the 
King Glory shall come in. His former enemies bear witness, of whom the 
blessed Paul is one, having been a little while His enemy, but for a long 
time His servant: the Twelve Apostles are His witnesses, having preached 
the truth not only in words, but also by their own torments and deaths: 
the shadow of Peter bears witness, having healed the sick in the name of 
Christ. The handkerchiefs and aprons bear witness, as in like manner by 
Christ's power they wrought cures of old through Paul Persians and 
Goths, and all the Gentile converts bear witness, by dying for His sake, 
whom they never saw with eyes of flesh: the devils, who to this day are 
driven out by the faithful, bear witness to Him. 

20. So many and diverse, yea and more than these, are His witnesses: is 
then the Christ thus witnessed any longer disbelieved? Nay rather if there 
is any one who formerly believed not, let him now believe: and if any was 
before a believer, let him receive a greater increase of faith, by believing in 
our Lord Jesus Christ, and let him understand whose name he hears. Thou 
art called a Christian: be tender of the name; let not our Lord Jesus Christ, 
the Son of God, be blasphemed through thee: but rather let your good 
works shine before men that they who see them may in Christ Jesus our 



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Lord glorify the Father which is in heaven: To whom be the glory, both 
now and for ever and ever. Amen. 



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LECTURE 11 

ON THE WORDS, THE ONLY-BEGOTTEN SON OF GOD, 

BEGOTTEN OF THE FATHER VERY GOD BEFORE ALL AGES, 

BY WHOM ALL THINGS WERE MADE. 



HEBREWS 1:1. 



God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in times past unto the 
Fathers by the Prophets, hath in these last days spoken unto us by His Son. 

1. That we have hope in Jesus Christ has been sufficiently shewn, 
according to our ability, in what we delivered to you yesterday. But we 
must not simply believe in Christ Jesus nor receive Him as one of the 
many who are improperly called Christs. For they were figurative Christs, 
but He is the true Christ; not having risen by advancement from among 
men to the Priesthood, but ever booing the dignity of the Priesthood from 
the Father. And for this cause the Faith, guarding us beforehand lest we 
should suppose Him to be one of the ordinary Christs, adds to the 
profession of the Faith, that we believe In One Lord Jesus Christ, The 
Only-Begotten Son OfGod. 

2. And again on hearing of a "Son," think not of an adopted son but a Son 
by nature, an Only-begotten Son, having no brother. For this is the reason 
why He is called "Only-begotten," because in the dignity of the Godhead, 
and His generation from the Father, He has no brother. But we call Him 
the Son of God, not of ourselves, but because the Father Himself named 
Christ His Son: and a true name is that which is set by fathers upon their 
children. 

3. Our Lord Jesus Christ ere while became Man, but by the many He was 
unknown. Wishing, therefore, to teach that which was not known, He 
called together His disciples, and asked them, Whom do men say that I, the 
Son of Man, ami — not from vain-glory, but wishing to shew them the 
truth, lest dwelling with God, the Only-begotten of God, they should 



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think lightly of Him as if He were some mere man. And when they 
answered that some said Elias, and some Jeremias, He said to them, They 
may be excused for not knowing, lint ye, My Apostles, who in My name 
cleanse lepers, and cast out devils, and raise the dead, ought not to be 
ignorant of Him, through whom ye do these wondrous works. And when 
they all became silent (for the matter was too high for man to learn), Peter, 
the foremost of the Apostles and chief herald of the Church, neither aided 
by cunning invention, nor persuaded by human reasoning, but enlightened 
in his mind from the Father, says to Him, Thou art the Christ, not only so, 
but the Son of the living God. And there follows a blessing upon his 
speech (for in truth it was above man), and as a seal upon what he had 
said, that it was the Father who had revealed it to him. For the Savior 
says, Blessed art thou, Simon Barjona, for flesh and blood hath not 
revealed it to thee, but My father which is in heaven. He therefore who 
acknowledges our Lord Jesus Christ the Son of God, partakes of this 
blessedness; but he who denies the Son of God is a poor and miserable 
man. 

4. Again, I say, on hearing of a Son, understand it not merely in an 
improper sense, but as a Son in truth, a Son by nature, without beginning; 
not as having come out of bondage into a higher state of adoption, but a 
Son eternally begotten by an inscrutable and incomprehensible generation. 
And in like manner on hearing of the First-born, think not that this is after 
the manner of men; for the first-born among men have other brothers also. 
And it is somewhere written, Israel is My son, My first-born. But Israel is, 
as Reuben was, a first-born son rejected: for Reuben went up to his 
father's couch; and Israel cast his Father's Son out of the vineyard, and 
crucified Him. 

To others also the Scripture says, Ye are the sons of the Lord your God. 
and in another place, / have said, Ye are gods, and ye are all sons of the 
Most High. I have said, not, "I have begotten." They, when God so said, 
received the sonship, which before they had not: but He was not begotten 
to be other than He was before; but was begotten from the beginning Son 
of the Father, being above all beginning and all ages, Son of the Father, in 
all things like to Him who begot Him, eternal of a Father eternal, Life of 
Life begotten, and Light of Light, and Truth of Truth, and Wisdom of the 
Wise, and King of King, and God of God, and Power of Power. 



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5. If then thou hear the Gospel saying, The book of the generation of Jesus 
Christ, the Son of David, the Son of Abraham, understand "according to 
the flesh." For He is the Son of David at the end of the ages, but the Son of 
God Before All Ages , without beginning. The one, which before He had 
not, He received; but the other, which He hath, He hath eternally as 
begotten of the Father. Two fathers He hath: one, David, according to the 
flesh, and one, God, His Father in a Divine manner. As the Son of David, 
He is subject to time, and to handling, and to genealogical descent: but as 
Son according to the Godhead, He is subject neither to time nor to place, 
nor to genealogical descent: for His generation who shall declare? God is a 
Spirit, He who is a Spirit hath spiritually begotten, as being incorporeal, an 
inscrutable and incomprehensible generation. The Son Himself says of the 
Father, The Lord said unto Me, Thou art My Son, today have I begotten 
Thee. Now this today is not recent, but eternal: a timeless today, before all 
ages. From the womb, before the morning star, have I begotten Thee. 

6. Believe thou therefore on Jesus Christ, Son of the living God, and a 
Son Only -Begotten, according to the Gospel which says, For God so 
loved the world, that He gave His Only-begotten Son, that whosoever 
believeth on Him should not perish, but have everlasting life. And again, 
He that believeth on the Son is not judged, but hath passed out of death into 
life. But he that believeth not the Son shall not see life, but the wrath of God 
abideth on him. And John testified concerning Him, saying, And we beheld 
His glory, glory as of the only-begotten from the father, — full of grace and 
truth: at whom the devils trembled and said, Ah! what have we to do with 
Thee, Jesus, Thou Son of the living God. 

7. He is then the Son of God by nature and not by adoption, begotten of 
the Father. And he that loveth Him that begat, loveth Him also that is 
begotten of Him; but he that despiseth Him that is begotten casts back the 
insult upon Him who begat. And whenever thou hear of God begetting, 
sink not down in thought to bodily things, nor think of a corruptible 
generation, lest thou be guilty of impiety. God is a Spirit, His generation is 
spiritual: for bodies beget bodies, and for the generation of bodies time 
needs must intervene; but time intervenes not in the generation of the Son 
from the Father. And in our case what is begotten is begotten imperfect: 
but the Son of God was begotten perfect; for what He is now, that is He 
also from the beginning, begotten without beginning. We are begotten so as 



217 

to pass from infantile ignorance to a state of reason: thy generation, O 
man, is imperfect, for thy growth is progressive. But think not that it is 
thus in His case, nor impute infirmity to Him who hath begotten. For if 
that which He begot was imperfect, and acquired its perfection in time, 
thou art imputing infirmity to Him who hath begotten; if so be, the Father 
did not bestow from the beginning that which, as thou sayest, time 
bestowed afterwards. 

8. Think not therefore that this generation is human, nor as Abraham begat 
Isaac. For in begetting Isaac, Abraham begat not what he would, but what 
another granted. But in God the Father's begetting there is neither 
ignorance nor intermediate deliberation. For to say that He knew not what 
He was be-getting is the greatest impiety; and it is no less impious to say, 
that after deliberation in time He then became a Father. For God was not 
previously without a Son, and afterwards in time became a Father; but 
hath the Son eternally, having begotten Him not as men beget men, but as 
Himself only knoweth, who begat Him before all ages Very Go d . 

9. For the Father being Very God begot the Son like unto Himself, Very 
God; not as teachers beget disciples, not as Paul says to some, For in 
Christ Jesus I begat you through the Gospel. For in this case he who was 
not a son by nature became a son by discipleship, but in the former case 
He was a Son by nature, a true Son. Not as ye, who are to be illuminated, 
are now becoming sons of God: for ye also become sons, but by adoption 
of grace, as it is written, But as many as received Him, to them gave He the 
right to became children of God, even to them that believe on His name: 
which were begotten not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will 
of man, but of God. And we indeed are begotten of water and of the Spirit, 
but not thus was Christ begotten of the Father. For at the time of His 
Baptism addressing Him, and saying, This is My Son, He did not say, 
"This has now become My Son," but, This is My Son; that He might 
make manifest, that even before the operation of Baptism He was a Son. 

10. The Father begat the Son, not as among men mind begets word. For the 
mind is substantially existent in us; but the word when spoken is 
dispersed into the air and comes to an end. But we know Christ to have 
been begotten not as a word pronounced, but as a Word substantially 
existing and living; not spoken by the lips, and dispersed, but begotten of 



218 

the Father eternally and ineffably, in substance. For, In the beginning was 
the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God, sitting at 
God's right hand; — the Word understanding the Father's will, and 
creating all things at His bidding: the Word, which came down and went 
up; for the word of utterance when spoken comes not down, nor goes up; 
the Word speaking and saying, The things which I have seen with My 
Father, these I speak, the Word possessed of power, and reigning over all 
things: for the Father hath committed all things unto the Son. 

1 1 . The Father then begot Him not in such wise as any man could 
understand, but as Himself only knoweth. For we profess not to tell in 
what manner He begot Him, but we insist that it was not in this manner. 
And not we only are ignorant of the generation of the Son from the Father, 
but so is every created nature. Speak to the earth, if perchance it may teach 
thee, and though thou inquire of all things which are upon the earth, they 
shall not be able to tell thee. For the earth cannot tell the substance of Him 
who is its own potter and fashioner. Nor is the earth alone ignorant, but 
the sun also: for the sun was created on the fourth day, without knowing 
what had been made in the three days before him; and he who knows not 
the things made in the three days before him, cannot tell forth the Maker 
Himself. Heaven will not declare this: for at the Father's bidding the 
heaven also was like smoke established by Christ. Nor shall the heaven of 
heavens declare this, nor the waters which are above the heavens. Why 
then art thou cast down, O man, at being ignorant of that which even the 
heavens know not? Nay, not only are the heavens' ignorant of this 
generation, but also every angelic nature. For if any one should ascend, 
were it possible, into the first heaven, and perceiving the ranks of the 
Angels there should approach and ask them how God begot His own Son, 
they would say perhaps, "We have above us beings greater and higher; ask 
them." Go up to the second heaven and the third; attain, if thou canst, to 
Thrones, and Dominions, and Principalities, and Powers: and even if any 
one should reach them, which is impossible, they also would decline the 
explanation, for they know it not. 

12. For my part, I have ever wondered at the curiosity of the bold men, 
who by their imagined reverence fall into impiety. For though they know 
nothing of Thrones, and Dominions, and Principalities, and Powers, the 
workmanship of Christ, they attempt to scrutinize their Creator Himself. 



219 

Tell me first, O most daring man, wherein does Throne differ from 
Dominion, and then scrutinize what pertains to Christ. Tell me what is a 
Principality, and what a Power, and what a Virtue, and what an Angel: and 
then search out their Creator, for all things were made by Him. But thou 
wilt not, or thou canst not ask Thrones or Dominions. What else is there 
that knoweth the deep things of God, save only the Holy Ghost, who 
spoke the Divine Scriptures? But not even the Holy Ghost Himself has 
spoken in the Scriptures concerning the generation of the Son from the 
Father. Why then dost thou busy thyself about things which not even the 
Holy Ghost has written in the Scriptures? Thou that knowest not the 
things which are written, busiest thou thyself about the things which are 
not written? There are many questions in the Divine Scriptures; what is 
written we comprehend not, why do we busy ourselves about what is not 
written? It is sufficient for us to know that God hath begotten One Only 
Son. 

13. Be not ashamed to confess thine ignorance, since thou sharest 
ignorance with Angels. Only He who begot knoweth Him who was 
begotten, and He who is begotten of Him knoweth Him who begat. He 
who begot knoweth what He begat: and the Scriptures also testify that He 
who was begotten is God. For as the Father hath life in Himself so also 
hath He given to the Son to have life in Himself and, that all men should 
honor the Son, even as they honor the Father; and, as the Father 
quickeneth whom He will, even so the Son quickeneth whom He will. 
Neither He who begot suffered any loss, nor is anything lacking to Him 
who was begotten (I know that I have said these things many times, but it 
is for your safety that they are said so often): neither has He who begat, a 
Father, nor He who was begotten, a brother. Neither was He who begot 
changed into the Son, nor did He who was begotten become the Fathers. 
Of One Only Father there is One Only -begotten Son: neither two 
Unbegotten, nor two Only-begotten; but One Father, Unbegotten (for He 
is Unbegotten who hath no father); and One Son, eternally begotten of the 
Father; begotten not in time, but before all ages; not increased by 
advancement, but begotten that which He now is. 

14. We believe then In The Only-Begotten Son OfGod, Who Was 
Begotten OfThe Father Very God . For the True God be-getteth not a 
false God, as we have said, nor did He deliberate and afterwards beget; but 



220 

He begat eternally, and much more swiftly than our words or thoughts: for 
we speaking in time, consume time; but in the case of the Divine Power, 
the generation is timeless. And as I have often said, He did not bring forth 
the Son from non existence into being, nor take the non-existent into 
sonship: but the Father, being Eternal, eternally and ineffably begat One 
Only Son, who has no brother. Nor are there two first principles; but the 
Father is the head of the Son; the beginning is One. For the Father begot 
the Son Very Go d , called Emmanuel; and Emmanuel being interpreted is, 
God with us. 

15. And wouldest thou know that He who was begotten of the Father, and 
afterwards became man, is God? Hear the Prophet saying, This is our 
God, none other shall be accounted of in comparison with Him. He hath 
found out every way of knowledge, and given it to Jacob His servant, and 
to Israel His beloved. Afterwards He was seen on earth, and conversed 
among men. Seest thou herein God become man, after the giving of the law 
by Moses? Hear also a second testimony to Christ's Deity, that which 
has just now been read, Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever. For lest, 
because of His presence here in the flesh, He should be thought to have 
been advanced after this to the Godhead, the Scripture says plainly, 
Therefore God, even Thy God, hath anointed Thee with the oil of gladness 
above Thy fellows. Seest thou Christ as God anointed by God the Father? 

16. Wouldest thou receive yet a third testimony to Christ's Godhead? 
Hear Esaias saying, Egypt hath labored, and the merchandise of Ethiopia: 
and soon after, In Thee shall they make supplication, because God is in 
Thee, and there is no God save Thee. For Thou art God, and we knew it 
not, the God of Israel, the Savior. Thou seest that the Son is God, having 
in Himself God the Father: saying almost the very same which He has said 
in the Gospels: The Father is in Me, and I am in the Father. He says not, I 
am the Father, but the Father is in Me, and I am in the Father. And again 
He said not, I and the Father am one, but, / and the Father am one, that we 
should neither separate them, nor make a confusion of Son-Father. One 
they are because of the dignity pertaining to the Godhead, since God begat 
God. One in respect of their kingdom; for the Father reigns not over these, 
and the Son over those, lifting Himself up against His Father like Absalom: 
but the kingdom of the Father is likewise the kingdom of the Son. One 
they are, because there is no discord nor division between them: for what 



221 

things the Father willeth, the Son willeth the same. One, because the 
creative works of Christ are no other than the Father's; for the creation of 
all things is one, the Father having made them through the Son: For He 
spake, and they were made; He commanded, and they were created, saith 
the Psalmist. For He who speaks, speaks to one who hears: and He who 
commands, gives His commandment to one who is present with Him. 

17. The Son then is Very Go d , having the Father in Himself, not changed 
into the Father; for the Father was not made man, but the Son. For let the 
truth be freely spoken. The Father suffered not for us, but the Father sent 
Him who suffered. Neither let us say, There was a time when the Son was 
not; nor let us admit a Son who is the Father: but let us walk in the king's 
highway; let us turn aside neither on the left hand nor on the right. Neither 
from thinking to honor the Son, let us call Him the Father; nor from 
thinking to honor the Father, imagine the Son to be some one of the 
creatures. But let One Father be worshipped through One Son, and let not 
their worship be separated. Let One Son be proclaimed, sitting at the right 
hand of the Father before all ages: sharing His throne not by advancement 
in time after His Passion, but by eternal possession. 

18. He who hath seen the Son, hath seen the Father, for in all things the 
Son is like to Him who begat Him; begotten Life of Life and Light of Light, 
Power of Power, God of God; and the characteristics of the Godhead are 
unchangeable in the Son; and he who is counted worthy to behold 
Godhead in the Son, attains to the fruition of the Father. This is not my 
word, but that of the Only-begotten: Have I been so long time with you, 
and hast thou not known Me, Philip ? He that hath seen Me, hath seen the 
Father. And to be brief, let us neither separate them, nor make a 
confusion: neither say thou ever that the Son is foreign to the Father, nor 
admit those who say that the Father is at one time Father, and at another 
Son: for these are strange and impious statements, and not the doctrines of 
the Church. But the Father having begotten the Son, remained the Father 
and is not changed. He begat Wisdom, yet lost not wisdom Himself; and 
begot Power, yet became not weak: He begot God, but lost not His own 
Godhead: and neither did He lose anything Himself by diminution or 
change; nor has He who was begotten any thing wanting. Perfect is He 
who begat, Perfect that which was begotten: God was He who begot, God 
He who was begotten; God of all Himself, yet entitling the Father His own 



222 

God. For He is not ashamed to say, / ascend unto My Father and your 
Father, and to My God and your God. 

19. But lest thou shouldest think that He is in a like sense Father of the 
Son and of the creatures, Christ drew a distinction in what follows. For He 
said not, "I ascend to our Father," lest the creatures should be made 
fellows of the Only-begotten; but He said, My Father and your Father, in 
one way Mine, by nature; in another yours, by adoption. And again, to my 
God and your God, in one way Mine, as His true and Only-begotten Son, 
and in another way yours, as His workmanship. The Son of God then is 
Very Go d , ineffably begotten before all ages (for I say the same things 
often to you, that it may be graven upon your mind). This also believe, 
that God has a Son: but about the manner be not curious, for by searching 
thou wilt not find Exalt not thyself, lest thou fall: think upon those things 
only which have been commanded thee. Tell me first what He is who 
begat, and then learn that which He begat; but if thou canst not conceive 
the nature of Him who hath begotten, search not curiously into the manner 
of that which is begotten. 

20. For godliness it sufficeth thee to know, as we have said, that God hath 
One Only Son, One naturally begotten; who began not His being when He 
was born in Bethlehem, but Before ALL AGES. For hear the Prophet 
Micah saying, And thou, Bethlehem, house ofEphrata, art little to be 
among the thousands ofJudah. Out of thee shall come forth unto Me a 
Ruler, who shall feed My people Israel: and His goings forth are front the 
beginning, from days of eternity. Think not then of Him who is now come 
forth out of Bethlehem, but worship Him who was eternally begotten of 
the Father. Suffer none to speak of a beginning of the Son in time, but as a 
timeless Beginning acknowledge the Father. For the Father is the Beginning 
of the Son, timeless, incomprehensible, without beginning. The fountain of 
the river of righteousness, even of the Only-begotten, is the Father, who 
begot Him as Himself only knoweth. And wouldest thou know that our 
Lord Jesus Christ is King Eternal? Hear Him again saying, Your father 
Abraham rejoiced to see My day, and he saw it, and was glad. And then, 
when the Jews received this hardly, He says what to them was still harder, 
Before Abraham was, I am. And again He saith to the Father, And now, 
Father, glorify Thou Me with Thine own self, with the glory which I had 
with Thee before the world was. He says plainly, "before the world was, I 



223 

had the glory which is with Thee." And again when He says, For Thou 
lovedst Me before the foundation of the world, He plainly declares, "The 
glory which I have with thee is from eternity." 

21. We believe then In One Lord Jesus Christ, The Only-Begotten 
Son OfGod, Begotten Of His Father Very God Before All Worlds, 
By Whom All Things Were Made. For whether they be thrones, or 
dominions, or principalities, or flowers, all things were made through 
Him, and of things created none is exempted from His authority. Silenced 
be every heresy which brings in different creators and makers of the world; 
silenced the tongue which blasphemes the Christ the Son of God; let them 
be silenced who say that the sun is the Christ, for He is the sun's Creator, 
not the sun which we see. Silenced be they who say that the world is the 
workmanship of Angels, who wish to steal away the dignity of the 
Only-begotten. For whether visible or invisible, whether thrones or 
dominions, or anything that is named, all things were made by Christ. He 
reigns over the things which have been made by Him, not having seized 
another's spoils, but reigning over His own workmanship, even as the 
Evangelist John has said, All things were made by Him, and without Him 
was not anything made. All things were made by Him, the Father working 
by the Son. 

22. 1 wish to give also a certain illustration of what I am saying, but I 
know that it is feeble; for of things visible what can be an exact illustration 
of the Divine Power? But nevertheless as feeble be it spoken by the feeble 
to the feeble. For just as any king, whose son was a king, if he wished to 
form a city, might suggest to his son, his partner in the kingdom, the form 
of the city, and he having received the pattern, brings the design to 
completion; so, when the Father wished to form all things, the Son created 
all things at the Father's bidding, that the act of bidding might secure to the 
Father His absolute authority, and yet the Son in turn might have 
authority over His own workmanship, and neither the Father be separated 
from the lordship over His own works, nor the Son rule over things 
created by others, but by Himself. For, as I have said, Angels did not 
create the world, but the Only-begotten Son, begotten, as I have said, 
before all ages, BY Wh o m All Th in g s Were Made, nothing having been 
excepted from His creation. And let this suffice to have been spoken by us 
so far, by the grace of Christ. 



224 

23. But let us now recur to our profession of the Faith, and so for the 
present finish our discourse. Christ made all things, whether thou speak of 
Angels, or Archangels, of Dominions, or Thrones. Not that the Father 
wanted strength to create the works Himself, but because He willed that 
the Son should reign over His own workmanship, God Himself giving Him 
the design of the things to be made. For honoring His own Father the 
Only -begotten saith, The Son can do nothing of Himself, but what He seeth 
the Father do; for what things soever He doeth, these also doeth the Son 
likewise. And again, My Father worketh hitherto, and I work, there being 
no opposition in those who work. For all Mine are Thine, and Thine are 
Mine, saith the Lord in the Gospels. And this we may certainly know 
from the Old and New Testaments. For He who said, Let us make man in 
our image and after our likeness, was certainly speaking to some one 
present. But clearest of all are the Psalmist's words, He spake and they 
were made; He commanded, and they were created, as if the Father 
commanded and spoke, and the Son made all things at the Father's bidding. 
And this Job said mystically, Which alone spread out the heaven, and 
walketh upon the sea as an firm ground; signifying to those who 
understand that He who when present here walked upon the sea is also He 
who aforetime made the heavens. And again the Lord saith, Or didst Thou 
take earth, and fashion clay into a living beings'? then afterwards, Are the 
gates of death opened to Thee through fear, and did the door-keepers of 
hell shudder at sight ofTheel thus signifying that He who through 
loving-kindness descended into hell, also in the beginning made man out of 
clay. 

24. Christ then is the Only-begotten Son of God, and Maker of the world. 
For He was in the world, and the world was made by Him; and He came 
unto His own, as the Gospel teaches us. And not only of the things which 
are seen, but also of the things which are not seen, is Christ the Maker at 
the Father's bidding. For in Him, according to the Apostle, were all things 
created that are in the heavens, and that are upon the earth, things visible 
and invisible, whether thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers; 
all things have been created by Him and for Him; and He is before all, and 
in Him all things consist. Even if thou speak of the worlds, of these also 
Jesus Christ is the Maker by the Father's bidding. For in these last days 
God spake unto us by His Son, whom He appointed heir of all things, by 



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whom also He made the world. To whom be the glory, honor, might, now 
and ever, and world without end. Amen. 



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LECTURE 12 

ON THE WORDS INCARNATE, AND MADE MAN 

ISAIAH 7:10-14 



"And the Lord spoke again unto Ahaz, saying, Ask thee a sign, etc.:" and "Behold! 
a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call His name Emmanuel, 

1. Nurslings of purity and disciples of chastity, raise we our hymn to 
the Virgin-born God with lips full of purity. Deemed worthy to partake of 
the flesh of the Spiritual Lamb, let us take the head together with the feet, 
the Deity being understood as the head, and the Manhood taken as the 
feet. Hearers of the Holy Gospels, let us listen to John the Divine. For he 
who said, In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and 
the Word was God, went on to say, and the Word was made flesh. For 
neither is it holy to worship the mere man, nor religious to say that He is 
God only without the Manhood. For if Christ is God, as indeed He is, but 
took not human nature upon Him, we are strangers to salvation. Let us 
then worship Him as God, but believe that He also was made Man. For 
neither is there any profit in calling Him man without Godhead nor any 
salvation in refusing to confess the manhood together with the Godhead. 
Let us confess the presence of Him who is both King and Physician. For 
Jesus the King when about to become our Physician, girded Himself with 
the linen of humanity, and healed that which was sick. The perfect Teacher 
of babes became a babe among babes, that He might give wisdom to the 
foolish. The Bread of heaven came down on earth that He might feed the 
hungry. 

2. But the sons of the Jews by setting at nought Him that came, and 
looking for him who cometh in wickedness, rejected the true Messiah, and 
wait for the deceiver, themselves deceived; herein also the Savior being 
found true, who said, / am come in My Father's name, and ye receive Me 
not: but if another shall come in his own name, him ye will receive. It is 
well also to put a question to the Jews. Is the Prophet Esaias, who saith 
that Emmanuel shall be born of a virgin, true or false? For if they charge 



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him with falsehood, no wonder: for their custom is not only to charge with 
falsehood, but also to stone the Prophets. But if the Prophet is true, point 
to the Emmanuel, and say, Whether is He who is to come, for whom ye 
are looking, to be born of a virgin or not? For if He is not to be born of a 
virgin, ye accuse the Prophet of falsehood: but if in Him that is to come ye 
expect this, why do ye reject that which has come to pass already? 

3. Let the Jews, then, be led astray, since they so will: but let the Church 
of God be glorified. For we receive God the Word made Man in truth, not, 
as heretics say, of the will of man and woman, but Of The Virgin An d 
The Holy Ghost according to the Gospel, Made Man, not in seeming 
but in truth. And that He was truly Man made, of the Virgin, wait for the 
proper time of instruction in this Lecture, and thou shalt receive the 
proofs: for the error of the heretics is manifold. And some have said that 
He has not been born at all of a virgin: others that He has been born, not of 
a virgin, but of a wife dwelling with a husband. Others say that the Christ 
is not God made Man, but a man made God. For they dared to say that 
not He — the pre-existent Word — was made Man; but a certain man was 
by advancement crowned. 

4. But remember thou what was said yesterday concerning His Godhead. 
Believe that He the Only-begotten Son of God — He Himself was again 
begotten of a Virgin. Believe the Evangelist John when he says, And the 
Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us. For the Word is eternal, 
Begotten Of The Father Before All Worlds: but the flesh He took 
on Him recently for our sake. Many contradict this, and say: "What cause 
was there so great, for God to come down into humanity? And, is it at all 
God's nature to hold intercourse with men? And, is it possible for a virgin 
to bear, without man?" Since then there is much controversy, and the 
battle has many forms, come, let us by the grace of Christ, and the prayers 
of those who are present, resolve each question. 

5. And first let us inquire for what cause Jesus came down. Now mind not 
my argumentations, for perhaps thou mayest be misled but unless thou 
receive testimony of the Prophets on each matter, believe not what I say: 
unless thou learn from the Holy Scriptures concerning the Virgin, and the 
place, the time, and the manner, receive not testimony from man. For one 
who at present thus teaches may possibly be suspected: but what man of 



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sense will suspect one that prophesied a thousand and more years 
beforehand? If then thou seekest the cause of Christ's coming, go back to 
the first book of the Scriptures. In six days God made the world: but the 
world was for man. The sun however resplendent with bright beams, yet 
was made to give light to man, yea, and all living creatures were formed to 
serve us: herbs and trees were created for our enjoyment. All the works of 
creation were good, but none of these was an image of God, save man 
only. The sun was formed by a mere command, but man by God's hands: 
Let us make man after our image, and after our likeness. A wooden image 
of an earthly king is held in honor; holy much more a rational image of 
God? 

But when this the greatest of the works of creation was disporting himself 
in Paradise, the envy of the Devil cast him out. The enemy was rejoicing 
over the fall of him whom he had envied: wouldest thou have had the 
enemy continue to rejoice? Not daring to accost the man because of his 
strength, he accosted as being weaker the woman, still a virgin: for it was 
after the expulsion from Paradise that Adam knew Eve his wife. 

6. Cain and Abel succeeded in the second generation of mankind: and Cain 
was the first murderer. Afterwards a deluge was poured abroad because of 
the great wickedness of men: fire came down from heaven upon the people 
of Sodom because of their transgression. After a time God chose out Israel: 
but Israel also turned aside, and the chosen race was wounded. For while 
Moses stood before God in the mount, the people were worshipping a calf 
instead of God. In the lifetime of Moses, the law-giver who had said, Thou 
shalt not commit adultery, a man dared to enter a place of harlotry and 
transgress. After Moses, Prophets were sent to cure Israel: but in their 
healing office they lamented that they were not able to overcome the 
disease, so that one of them says, Woe is me! for the godly man is perished 
out of the earth, and there is none that doeth right among men: and again, 
They are all gone out of the way, they are together became unprofitable; 
there is none that doeth good, no, not one: and again, Cursing and stealing, 
and adultery, and murder are poured out upon the land. Their sons and 
their daughters they sacrificed unto devils. They used auguries, and 
enchantments, and divinations. And again, they fastened their garments 
with cords, and shade hangings attached to the altar. 



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7. Very great was the wound of man's nature;/rom the feet to the head 
there was no soundness in it, none could apply mollifying ointment, neither 
oil, nor bandages. Then bewailing and wearying themselves, the Prophets 
said, Who shall give salvation out ofSionl And again, Let Thy hand be 
upon the man of Thy right hand, and upon the son of man whom Thou 
madest strong for Thyself: so will not we go back from Thee. And another 
of the Prophets entreated, saying, Bow the heavens, O Lord and come 
down. The wounds of man's nature pass our healing. They slew Thy 
Prophets, and cast down Thine altars. The evil is irretrievable by us, and 
needs thee to retrieve it. 

8. The Lord heard the prayer of the Prophets. The Father disregarded not 
the perishing of our race; He sent forth His Son, the Lord from heaven, as 
healer: and one of the Prophets saith, The Lord whom ye seek, cometh, and 
shall suddenly come. Whither? The Lord shall come to His own temple, 
where ye stoned Him. Then another of the Prophets, on hearing this, saith 
to him: In speaking of the salvation of God, speakest thou quietly? In 
preaching the good tidings of God's coming for salvation, speakest thou in 
secret? O thou that bringest good tidings to Zion, get thee up into the high 
mountain. Speak to the cities ofJudah. What am I to speak? Behold our 
God! Behold! the Lord cometh with strength! Again the Lord Himself 
saith, Behold! I come, and I will dwell in the midst of thee, saith the Lord. 
And many nations shall flee unto the Lord. The Israelites rejected salvation 
through Me: / came to gather all nations and tongues. For He came to His 
own and His own received Him not. Thou comest and what dost Thou 
bestow on the nations? / come to gather all nations, and I will leave on 
them a sign. For from My conflict upon the Cross I give to each of My 
soldiers a royal seal to bear upon his forehead. Another also of the 
Prophets said, He bowed the heavens also, and came down; and darkness 
was under His feet. For His coming down from heaven was not known by 
men. 

9. Afterwards Solomon hearing his father David speak these things, built a 
wondrous house, and foreseeing Him who was to come into it, said in 
astonishment, Will God in very deed dwell with men on the earth? Yea, 
saith David by anticipation in the Psalm inscribed For Solomon, wherein 
is this, He shall come down like rain into a fleece: rain, because of His 
heavenly nature, and into a fleece, because of His humanity. For rain, 



230 

coming down into a fleece, comes down noiselessly: so that the Magi, not 
knowing the mystery of the Nativity, say, Where is He that is born King 
of the Jew si and Herod being troubled inquired concerning Him who was 
born, and said, Where is the Christ to be born! 

10. But who is this that cometh down? He says in what follows, And with 
the sun He endureth, and before the moon generations of generations . And 
again another of the Prophets saith, Rejoice greatly, O daughter ofSion, 
shout, O daughter of Jerusalem. Behold! thy King cometh unto thee, just 
and having salvation. Kings are many; of which speakest thou, O 
Prophet? Give us a sign which other Kings have not. If thou say, A king 
clad in purple, the dignity of the apparel has been anticipated. If thou say, 
Guarded by spear-men, and sitting in a golden chariot, this also has been 
anticipated by others. Give us a sign peculiar to the King whose coming 
thou announcest. And the Prophet maketh answer and saith, Behold! thy 
King cometh unto thee, just, and having salvation: He is meek, and riding 
upon an ass and a young foal, not on a chariot. Thou hast a unique sign of 
the King who came. Jesus alone of kings sat upon an unyoked foal, 
entering into Jerusalem with acclamations as a king. And when this King is 
come, what doth He? Thou also by the blood of the covenant hast sent 
forth thy prisoners out of the pit wherein is no water. 

11. But He might perchance even sit upon a foal: give us rather a sign, 
where the King that entereth shall stand. And give the sign not far from the 
city, that it may not be unknown to us: and give us the sign plain before 
our eyes, that even when in the city we may behold the place. And the 
Prophet again makes answer, saying: And His feet shall stand in that day 
upon the Mount of Olives which is before Jerusalem on the cast. Does any 
one standing within the city fail to behold the place? 

12. We have two signs, and we desire to learn a third. Tell us what the 
Lord cloth when He is come. Another Prophet saith, Behold! our God, and 
afterwards, He will come and save us. Then the eyes of the blind shall be 
opened, and the ears of the deaf shall hear: then shall the lame man leap as 
an hart, and the tongue of the stammerers shall be distinct. But let yet 
another testimony be told us. Thou sayest, O Prophet, that the Lord 
cometh, and doeth signs such as never were: what other clear sign tellest 
thou? The Lord Himself entereth into judgment with the elders of His 



231 

people, and with the princes thereof. A notable sign! The Master judged by 
His servants, the eiders, and submitting to it. 

13. These things the Jews read, but hear not: for they have stopped the 
ears of their heart, that they may not hear. But let us believe in Jesus 
Christ, as having come in the flesh and been made Man, because we could 
not receive Him otherwise. For since we could not look upon or enjoy 
Him as He was, He became what we are, that so we might be permitted to 
enjoy Him. For if we cannot look full on the sun, which was made on the 
fourth day, could we behold God its Creator? The Lord came down in fire 
on Mount Sinai, and the people could not bear it, but said to Moses, 
Speak thou with us, and we will hear; and let not God speak to us, lest we 
die: and again, For who is there of all flesh that hath heard the voice of the 
living God speaking out of the midst of the fire, and shall live? If to hear 
the voice of God speaking is a cause of death, how shall not the sight of 
God Himself bring death? And what wonder? Even Moses himself saith, / 
exceedingly fear and quake. 

14. What wouldest thou then? That He who came for our salvation should 
become a minister of destruction because men could not bear Him? or that 
He should suit His grace to our measure? Daniel could not bear the vision 
of an Angel, and were thou capable of the sight of the Lord of Angels? 
Gabriel appeared, and Daniel fell down: and of what nature or in what 
guise was he that appeared? His countenance was like lightning; not like 
the sun: and his eyes as lamps of fire, not as a furnace of fire: and the voice 
of his words as the voice of a multitude, not as the voice of twelve legions 
of angels; nevertheless the Prophet fell down. And the Angel cometh unto 
him, saying, Fear not, Daniel, stand upright: be of good courage, thy 
words are heard. And Daniel says, / stood up trembling: and not even so 
did he make answer, until the likeness of a man's hand touched him. And 
when he that appeared was changed into the appearance of a man, then 
Daniel spoke: and what saith he? O my Lord, at the vision of Thee my 
inward parts were turned within me, and no strength remaineth in me, 
neither is there breath left in me. If an Angel appearing took away the 
Prophet' s voice and strength, would the appearance of God have allowed 
him to breathe? And until there touched me as it were a vision of a man, 
saith the Scripture, Daniel took not courage. So then after trial shewn of 
our weakness, the Lord assumed that which man required: for since man 



232 

required to hear from one of like countenance, the Savior took on Him the 
nature of like affections, that men might be the more easily instructed. 

15. Learn also another cause. Christ came that He might be baptized, and 
might sanctify Baptism: He came that He might work wonders, walking 
upon the waters of the sea. Since then before His appearance in flesh, the 
sea saw Him and fled, and Jordan was turned back, the Lord took to 
Himself His body, that the sea might endure the sight, and Jordan receive 
Him without fear. This then is one cause; but there is also a second. 
Through Eve yet virgin came death; through a virgin, or rather from a 
virgin, must the Life appear: that as the serpent beguiled the one, so to the 
other Gabriel might bring good tidings. Men forsook God, and made carved 
images of men. Since therefore an image of man was falsely worshipped as 
God, God became truly Man, that the falsehood might be done away. The 
Devil had used the flesh as an instrument against us; and Paul knowing 
this, saith, But I see another law in my members warring against the law of 
my mind, and bringing me into captivity, and the rest. By the very same 
weapons, therefore, wherewith the Devil used to vanquish us, have we 
been saved. The Lord took on Him from us our likeness, that He might 
save man's nature: He took our likeness, that He might give greater grace 

to that which lacked; that sinful humanity might become partaker of God. 
For where sin abounded, grace did much more abound. It behooved the 
Lord to suffer for us; but if the Devil had known Him, he would not have 
dared to approach Him. For had they known it, they would not have 
crucified the Lord of Glory. His body therefore was made a bait to death 
that the dragon, hoping to devour it, might disgorge those also who had 
been already devoured. For Death prevailed and devoured; and again, God 
wiped away every tear from off every face. 

16. Was it without reason that Christ was made Man? Are our teachings 
ingenious phrases and human subtleties? Are not the Holy Scriptures our 
salvation? Are not the predictions of the Prophets? Keep then, I pray 
thee, this deposit undisturbed, and let none remove thee: believe that God 
became Man. But though it has been proved possible for Him to be made 
Man, yet if the Jews still disbelieve, let us hold this forth to them What 
strange thing do we announce in saying that God was made Man, when 
yourselves say that Abraham received the Lord as a guest? What strange 
thing do we announce, when Jacob says, For I have seen God face to face, 



233 

and my life is preserved! The Lord, who ate with Abraham, ate also with 
us. What strange thing then do we announce? Nay more, we produce two 
witnesses, those who stood before Lord on Mount Sinai: Moses was in a 
clift of the rock, and Elias was once in a clift of the rock: they being present 
with Him at His Transfiguration on Mount Tabor, spoke to the Disciples 
of His decease which fire should accomplish at Jerusalem. But, as I said 
before, it has been proved possible for Him to be made man: and the rest 
of the proofs may be left for the studious to collect. 

17. My statement, however, promised to declare also the time of the 
Savior's and the place: and I must not go away convicted of falsehood, but 
rather send away the Church's novices well assured. Let us therefore 
inquire the time when our Lord came: because His coming is recent, and is 
disputed: and because Christ Jesus is the same yesterday, and today, and 
for ever. Moses then, the prophet, saith, A Prophet shall the Lord your 
God raise up unto you of your brethren, like unto me: but let that "like 
unto me" be reserved awhile to be examined in its proper place. But when 
cometh this Prophet that is expected? Recur, he says, to what has been 
written by me: examine carefully Jacob's prophecy addressed to Judah: 
Judah, thee may thy brethren praise, and afterwards, not to quote the 
whole, A prince shall not fail out of Judah, nor a ruler from his loins, until 
He come, for whom it is reserved; and He is the expectation, not of the 
Jews but of the Gentiles. He gave, therefore, as a sign of Christ's advent 
the cessation of the Jewish rule. If they are not now under the Romans, 
the Christ is not yet come: if they still have a prince of the race of Judah 
and of David, he is not yet come that was expected. For I am ashamed to 
tell of their recent doings concerning those who are now called Patriarchs 
among them, and what their descent is, and who their mother: but I leave it 
to those who know. But He that cometh as the expectation of the Gentiles, 
what further sign then hath He? He says next, Binding his foal unto the 
vine. Thou seest that foal which was clearly announced by Zachariah. 

18. But again thou askest yet another testimony of the time. The Lord 
said unto Me, Thou art My Son; this day have I begotten Thee: and a few 
words further on, Thou shalt rule them with a rod of iron. I have said 
before that the kingdom of the Romans is clearly called a rod of iron; but 
what is wanting concerning this let us further call to mind out of Daniel. 
For in relating and interpreting to Nebuchadnezzar the image of the statue, 



234 

he tells also his whole vision concerning it: and that a stone cut out of a 
mountain without hands, that is, not set up by human contrivance, should 
overpower the whole world: and he speaks most clearly thus; And in the 
days of those kingdoms the God of heaven shall set up a kingdom, which 
shall never be destroyed, and His kingdom shall not be left to another 
people. 

19. But we seek still more clearly the proof of the time of His coming. For 
man being hard to persuade, unless he gets the very years fear a clear 
calculation, does not believe what is stated. What then is the season, and 
what the manner of the time? It is when, on the failure of the kings 
descended from Judah, Herod a foreigner succeeds to the kingdom? The 
Angel, therefore, who converses with Daniel says, and do thou now mark 
the words, And thou shalt know and understand: From the going forth of 
the word for making answer, and for the building of Jerusalem, until 
Messiah the Prince are seven weeks and three score and two weeks. Now 
three score and nine weeks of years contain four hundred and eighty-three 
years. He said, therefore, that after the building of Jerusalem, four hundred 
and eighty-three years having passed, and the rulers having failed, then 
cometh a certain king of another race, in whose time the Christ is to be 
born. Now Darius the Mede built the city in the sixth year of his own 
reign, and first year of the 66th Olympiad according to the Greeks. 
Olympiad is the name among the Greeks of the games celebrated after four 
years, because of the day which in every four years of the sun's courses is 
made up of the three( supernumerary) hours in each year. And Herod is 
king in the 186th Olympiad, in the 4th year thereof. Now from the 66th to 
the 186th Olympiad there are 120 Olympiads intervening, and a little over. 
So then the 120 Olympiads make up 480 years: for the other three years 
remaining are perhaps taken up in the interval between the first and fourth 
years. And there thou hast the proof according to the Scripture which 
saith, From the going forth of the word that Jerusalem be restored and 
built until Messiah the Prince are seven weeks and sixty-two weeks. Of the 
times, therefore, thou hast for the present this proof, although there are 
also other different interpretations concerning the aforesaid weeks of years 
in Daniel. 

20. But now hear the place of the promise, as Micah says, And thou, 
Bethlehem, house ofEphrathah, art thou little to be among the thousands of 



235 

Judah? For out of thee shall come forth unto Me a ruler, to be governor in 
Israel: and His goings forth are front the beginning, from the days of 
eternity. But assuredly as to the places, thou being an inhabitant of 
Jerusalem, knowest also beforehand what is written in the hundred and 
thirty-first psalm, ho! we heard of it at Ephrathah, we found it in the 
plains of the wood. For a few years ago the place was woody. Again thou 
hast heard Habakkuk say to the Lord, When the years draw nigh, than 
shalt be made known, when the time is come, thou shalt be shewn. And 
what is the sign, O Prophet, of the Lord's coming? And presently he saith, 
In the midst of two lives shalt thou be known, plainly saying this to the 
Lord, "Having come in the flesh thou livest and diest, and after rising from 
the dead thou livest again." Further, from what part of the region round 
Jerusalem cometh He? From east, or west, or north, or south? Tell us 
exactly. And he makes answer most plainly and says, God shall come 
from Teman(now Teman is by interpretation 'south') and the Holy One 
front Mount Paran, shady, woody, what the Psalmist spake in like words, 
We found it in the plains of the wood. 

21. We ask further, of whom cometh He and how? And this Esaias tells 
us: Behold! the virgin shall conceive in her womb, and shall bring forth a 
Son, and they shall call His name Emmanuel. This the Jews contradict, for 
of old it is their wont wickedly to oppose the truth: and they say that it is 
not written "the virgin," but "the damsel." But though I assent to what 
they say, even so I find the truth. For we must ask them, If a virgin be 
forced, when does she cry out and call for helpers, after or before the 
outrage? If, therefore, the Scripture elsewhere says, The betrothed damsel 
cried, and there was none to save her, doth it not speak of a virgin? 

But that you may learn more plainly that even a virgin is called in Holy 
Scripture a "damsel," hear the Book of the Kings, speaking of Abishag the 
Shunamite, And the damsel was very fair, for that as a virgin she was 
chosen and brought to David is admitted. 

22. But the Jews say again, This was said to Ahaz in reference to 
Hezekiah. Well, then, let us read the Scripture: Ask thee a sign of the Lord 
thy God, in the depth or in the height. And the sign certainly must be 
something astonishing. For the water from the rock was a sign, the sea 
divided, the sun turning back, and the like. But in what I am going to 



236 

mention there is still more manifest refutation of the Jews. (I know that I 
am speaking at much length, and that my hearers are wearied: but bear 
with the fullness of my statements, because it is for Christ's sake these 
questions are moved, and they concern no ordinary matters.) Now as 
Isaiah spoke this in the reign of Ahaz, and Ahaz reigned only sixteen 
years, and the prophecy was spoken to him within these years, the 
objection of the Jews is refuted by the fact that the succeeding king, 
Hezekiah, son of Ahaz, was twenty-five years old when he began to reign: 
for as the prophecy is confined within sixteen years, he must have been 
begotten of Ahaz full nine years before the prophecy. What need then was 
there to utter the prophecy concerning one who had been already begotten 
even before the reign of father Ahaz? For he said not, hath conceived, but 
"the virgin shall conceive" speaking as with foreknowledge. 

23. We know then for certain that the Lord was to be born of a Virgin, but 
we have to shew of what family the Virgin was. The Lord sware in truth 
unto and will not set it aside. Of the fruit of body will I set upon thy throne: 
and again, His seed will I establish for ever, and his throne as the days of 
heaven. And afterwards, Once have I sworn by My holiness that I will not 
lie unto David. His seed shall endure for ever, and his throne as the sun 
before Me, and as the moon established for ever. Thou seest that the 
discourse is of Christ, not of Solomon. For Solomon's throne endured not 
as the sun. But if any deny this, because Christ sat not on David's throne 
of wood, we will bring forward that saying, The Scribes and the Pharisees 
sit in Moses ' seat: for it signifies not his wooden seat, but the authority of 
his teaching. In like manner then I would have you seek for David's throne 
not the throne of wood, but the kingdom itself. Take, too, as my witnesses 
the children who cried aloud, Hosanna to the Son of David, blessed is the 
King of Israel. And the blind men also say, Son of David, have mercy on 
us. Gabriel too testifies plainly to Mary, saying, And the Lord God shall 
give unto Him the throne of His father David. Paul also saith, Remember 
Jesus Christ raised firm the dead, of the seed of David, according to my 
Gospel: and in the beginning of the Epistle to the Romans he saith, Which 
was made of the seed of David according to the flesh. Receive thou 
therefore Him that was born of David, believing the prophecy which saith, 
And in that day there shall be a root of Jesse, and He that shall rise to rule 
over the Gentiles: in Him shall the Gentiles trust. 



237 

24. But the Jews are much troubled at these things. This also Isaiah 
foreknew, saying, And they shall wish that they had been burnt with fire: 
for unto us a child is born(not unto them), unto us a Son is given. Mark 
thou that at first He was the Son of God, then was given to us. And a little 
after he says, And of His peace there is no bound. The Romans have 
bounds: of the kingdom of the Son of God there is no bound. The Persians 
and the Medes have bounds, but the Son has no bound. Then next, upon 
the throne of David, and upon his kingdom to order it. The Holy Virgin, 
therefore, is from David. 

25. For it became Him who is most pure, and a teacher of purity, to have 
come forth from a pure bride-chamber. For if he who well fulfills the office 
of a priest of Jesus abstains froth a wife, how should Jesus Himself be 
born of man and woman? For thou, saith He in the Psalms, art He that 
took Me out of the womb. Mark that carefully, He that took Me out of the 
womb, signifying that He was begotten without man, being taken from a 
virgin's womb and flesh. For the manner is different with those who are 
begotten according to the course of marriage. 

26. And from such members He is not ashamed to assume flesh, who is 
the framer of those very members. But then who telleth us this? The Lord 
saith unto Jeremiah: Before I formed thee in the belly, I knew thee: and 
before thou earnest forth out of the womb, I sanctified thee. If, then, in 
fashioning man He was not ashamed of the contact, was He ashamed in 
fashioning for His own sake the holy Flesh, the veil of His Godhead? It is 
God who even now creates the children in the womb, as it is written in 
Job, Hast thou not poured me out as milk, and curdled me like cheese? 
Thou hast clothed me with skin and flesh, and hast knit me together with 
bones and sinews. There is nothing polluted in the human frame except a 
man defile this with fornication and adultery. He who formed Adam 
formed Eve also, and male and female were formed by God's hands. None 
of the members of the body as formed from the beginning is polluted. Let 
the mouths of all heretics be stopped who slander their bodies, or rather 
Him who formed them. But let us remember Paul's saying, Know ye not 
that your bodies are the temples of the Holy Ghost which is in you? And 
again the Prophet hath spoken before in the person of Jesus, My flesh is 
from them: and in another place it is written, Therefore will He give them 
up, until the time that she bringeth forth. And what is the sign? He tells us 



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in what follows, She shall bring forth, and the remnant of their brethren 
shall return. And what are the nuptial pledges of the Virgin, the holy 
bride? And I will betroth thee unto Me in faithfulness . And Elizabeth, 
talking with Mary, speaks in like manner: And blessed is she that believed; 
for there shall be a performance of those things which were told her from 
the Lord. 

27. But both Greeks and Jews harass us and say that it was impossible for 
the Christ to be born of a virgin. As for the Greeks we will stop their 
mouths from their own fables. For ye who say that stones being thrown 
were changed into men, how say ye that it is impossible for a virgin to 
bring forth? Ye who fable that a daughter was born from the brain, how 
say ye that it is impossible for a son to have been born frown a virgin's 
womb? Ye who falsely say that Dionysus was born from the thigh of your 
Zeus, how set ye at nought our truth? I know that I am speaking of things 
unworthy of the present audience: but in order that thou in due season 
mayest rebuke the Greeks, we have brought these things forward 
answering them from their own fables. 

28. But those of the circumcision meet thou with this question: Whether is 
harder, for an aged woman, barren and past age, to bear, or for a virgin in 
the prime of youth to conceive? Sarah was barren, and though it had 
ceased to be with her after the manner of women, yet, contrary to nature, 
she bore a child. If, then, it is against nature for a barren woman to 
conceive, and also for a virgin, either, therefore, reject both, or accept both. 
For it is the same God who both wrought the one and appointed the other. 
For thou wilt not dare to say that it was possible for God in that former 
ease, and impossible in this latter. And again: how is it natural for a man's 
hand to be changed in a single hour into a different appearance and restored 
again? How then was the hand of Moses made white as snow, and at once 
restored again? But thou sayest that God's will made the change. In that 
case God's will has the power, and has it then no power in this ease? That 
moreover was a sign concerning the Egyptians only, but this was a sign 
given to the whole world. But whether is the more difficult, O ye Jews? 
For a virgin to bear, or for a rod to be quickened into a living creature? Ye 
confess that in the case of Moses a perfectly straight rod became like a 
serpent, and was terrible to him who cast it down, and he who before held 
the rod fast, fled from it as from a serpent; for a serpent in truth it was: 



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but he fled not because he feared that which he held, but because he 
dreaded Him that bad changed it. A rod had teeth and eyes like a serpent: 
do then seeing eyes grow out of a rod, and cannot a child be born of a 
virgin's womb, if God wills? For I say nothing of the fact that Aaron's rod 
also produced in a single night what other trees produce in several year. 
For who knows not that a rod, after losing its bark, will never sprout, not 
even if it be planted in the midst of rivers? But since God is not dependent 
on the nature of trees, but is the Creator of their natures, the unfruitful, 
and dry, and barkless rod budded, and blossomed, and bare almonds. He, 
then, who for the sake of the typical high-priest gave fruit supernaturally 
to the rod, would He not for the sake of the true High-Priest grant to the 
Virgin to bear a child? 

29. These are excellent suggestions of the narratives: but the Jews still 
contradict, and do not yield to the statements concerning the rod, unless 
they may be persuaded by similar strange and supernatural births. 
Question them, therefore, in this way: of whom in the beginning was Eve 
begotten? What mother conceived her the motherless? But the Scripture 
saith that she was born out of Adam's side. Is Eve then born out of a 
man's side without a mother, and is a child not to be born without a father, 
of a virgin's womb? This debt of gratitude was due to men from 
womankind: for Eve was begotten of Adam, and not conceived of a 
mother, but as it were brought forth of man alone. Mary, therefore, paid 
the debt, of gratitude, when not by man but of herself alone in an 
immaculate way she conceived of the Holy Ghost by the power of God. 

30. But let us take what is yet a greater wonder than this. For that of 
bodies should be conceived, even if wonderful, is nevertheless possible: 
but that the dust of the earth should become a man, this is more 
wonderful. That clay molded together should assume the coats and 
splendors of the eyes, this is more wonderful. That out of dust of uniform 
appearance should be produced both the firmness of bones, and the 
softness of lungs, and other different kinds of members, this is wonderful. 
That clay should be animated and travel round the world self moved, and 
should build houses, this is wonderful. That clay should teach, and talk, 
and act as carpenter, and as king, this is wonderful. Whence, then, O ye 
most ignorant Jews, was Adam made? Did not God take dust from the 
earth, and fashion this wonderful frame? Is then clay changed into an eye, 



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and cannot a virgin bear a son. Does that which for men is more impossible 
take place, and is that which is possible never to occur? 

31. Let us remember these things, brethren: let us use these weapons in 
our defense. Let us not endure those heretics who teach Christ's coming as 
a phantom. Let us abhor those also who say that the Savior's birth was of 
husband and wife; who have dared to say that He was the child of Joseph 
and Mary, because it is written, And he took unto him his wife. For let us 
remember Jacob who before he received Rachel, said to Laban, Give me my 
wife. For as she before the wedded state, merely because there was a 
promise, was called the wife of Jacob, so also Mary, because she had been 
betrothed, was called the wife of Joseph. Mark also the accuracy of the 
Gospel, saying, And in the sixth month the Angel Gabriel was sent from 
God unto a city of Galilee, named Nazareth, to a virgin espoused to a man 
whose name was Joseph, and so forth. And again when the census took 
place, and Joseph went up to enroll himself, what saith the Scripture? And 
Joseph also went up from Galilee, to enroll himself with Mary who was 
espoused to him, being great with child. For though she was with child, yet 
it said not "with his wife," but with her who was espoused to him. For 
God sent forth His Son, says Paul, not made of a man and a woman, but 
made of a woman only, that is of a virgin. For that the virgin also is called 
a woman, we shewed before. For He who makes souls virgin, was born of 
a Virgin. 

32. But thou wonderest at the event: even she herself who bare him 
wondered at this. For she saith to Gabriel, How shall this be to me, since I 
know not a man? But he says, The Holy Ghost shall came upon thee, and 
the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee: wherefore also the holy 
thing which is to be born shall be called the Son of God. Immaculate and 
undefiled was His generation: for where the Holy Spirit breathes, there all 
pollution is taken away: undefiled from the Virgin was the incarnate 
generation of the Only-begotten. And if the heretics gainsay the truth, the 
Holy Ghost shall convict them: that overshadowing power of the Highest 
shall wax wroth: Gabriel shall stand face to face against them in the, day of 
judgment: the place of the manger, which received the Lord, shall put them 
to shame. The shepherds, who then received the good tidings, shall bear 
witness; and the host of the Angels who sang praises and hymns, and said, 
Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace among men of His good 



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pleasure: the Temple into which He was then carried up on the fortieth 
day: the pairs of turtle-doves, which were offered on His behalf: and 
Symeon who then took Him up in his arms, and Anna the prophetess who 
was present. 

33. Since God then beareth witness, and the Holy Ghost joins in the 
witness, and Christ says, Why do ye seek to kill me, a man who has told 
you the truthl let the heretics be silenced who speak against His humanity, 
for they speak against Him, who saith, Handle me, and see; for a spirit 
hath not flesh and bones, as ye see me have. Adored be the Lord the 
Virgin-born, and let Virgins acknowledge the crown of their own state: let 
the order also of Solitaries acknowledge the glory of chastity for we men 
are not deprived of the dignity of chastity. In the Virgin's womb the 
Savior's period of nine months was passed: but the Lord was for thirty 
and three years a man: so that if a virgin glories because of the nine 
months, much more we because of the many years. 

34. But let us all by God's grace run the race of chastity, young men and 
maidens, old men and children; not going after wantonness, but praising 
the name of Christ. Let us not be ignorant of the glory of chastity: for its 
crown is angelic, and its excellence above man. Let us be chary of our 
bodies which are to shine as the sun: let us not for short pleasure defile so 
great, so noble a body: for short and momentary is the sin, but the shame 
for many years and for ever. Angels walking upon earth are they who 
practice chastity: the Virgins have their portion with Mary the Virgin. Let 
all vain ornament be banished, and every hurtful glance, and all wanton 
gait, and every flowing robe, and perfume enticing to pleasure. But in all 
for perfume let there be the prayer of sweet odor, and the practice of good 
works, and the sanctification of our bodies: that the Virgin-born Lord may 
say even of us, both men who live in chastity and women who wear the 
crown, / will dwell in them; and walk in them, and I will be their God, and 
they shall be My people. To whom be the glory for ever and ever. Amen. 



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LECTURE 13 

ON THE WORDS, CRUCIFIED AND BURIED. 

ISAIAH 53:1,7 

Who hath believed our report? And to whom is the arm of the Lord revealed?... He 
is brought as a lamb to the slaughter etc. 

1 . Every deed of Christ is a cause of glorying to the Catholic Church, but 
her greatest of all glorying is in the Cross; and knowing this, Paul says, But 
God forbid that I should glory, save in the Cross of Christ For wondrous 
indeed it was, that one who was blind from his birth should receive sight in 
Siloam; but what is this compared with the blind of the whole world? A 
great thing it was, and passing nature, for Lazarus to rise again on the 
fourth day; but the grace extended to him alone, and what was it compared 
with the dead in sins throughout the world? Marvelous it was, that five 
loaves should pour forth food for the five thousand; but what is that to 
those who are famishing in ignorance through all the world? It was 
marvelous that she should have been loosed who had been bound by Satan 
eighteen years: yet what is this to all of us, who were fast bound in the 
chains of our sins? But the glory of the Cross led those who were blind 
through ignorance into light, loosed all who were held fast by sin, and 
ransomed the whole world of mankind 

2. And wonder not that the whole world was ransomed; for it was no mere 
man, but the only-begotten Son of God, who died on its behalf. Moreover 
one man's sin, even Adam's, had power to bring death to the world; but if 
by the trespass of the one death reigned over the world, how shall not life 
much rather reign by the righteousness of the One! And if because of the 
tree of food they were then east out of paradise, shall not believers now 
more easily enter into paradise because of the Tree of Jesus? If the first 
man formed out of the earth brought in universal death, shall not He who 
formed him out of the earth bring in eternal life, being Himself the Life? If 
Phinees, when he waxed zealous and slew the evil-doer, staved the wrath 



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of God, shall not Jesus, who slew not another, but gave up Himself for a 
ransom, put away the wrath which is against mankind? 

3. Let us then not be ashamed of the Cross of our Savior, but rather glory 
in it. For the word of the Cross is unto Jews a stumbling-block, and unto 
Gentiles foolishness , but to us salvation: and to them that are perishing it is 
foolishness, but unto us which are being saved it is the power of God. For 
it was not a mere man who died for us, as I said before, but the Son of 
God, God made man. Further; if the lamb under Moses drove the 
destroyer far away, did not much rather the Lamb of God, which taketh 
away the sin of the world, deliver us from our sins? The blood of a silly 
sheep gave salvation; and shall not the Blood of the Only-begotten much 
rather save? If any disbelieve the power of the Crucified, let him ask the 
devils; if any believe not words, let him believe what he sees. Many have 
been crucified throughout the world, but by none of these are the devils 
scared; but when they see even the Sign of the Cross of Christ, who was 
crucified for us, they shudder. For those men died for their own sins, but 
Christ for the sins of others; for He did no sin, neither was guile found in 
His mouth. It is not Peter who says this, for then we might suspect that he 
was partial to his Teacher; but it is Esaias who says it, who was not 
indeed present with Him in the flesh, but in the Spirit foresaw His coming 
in the flesh. Yet why now bring the Prophet only as a witness? take for a 
witness Pilate himself, who gave sentence upon Him, saying, I find no fault 
in this Man: and when he gave Him up, and had washed his hands, he said, 
I am innocent of the blood of this just person. There is yet another witness 
of the sinlessness of Jesus, — the robber, the first man admitted into 
Paradise; who rebuked his fellow, and said, "We receive the due reward of 
our deeds; but this man hath done nothing amiss; for we were present, 
both thou and I, at His judgment." 

4. Jesus then really suffered for all men; for the Cross was no illusion, 
otherwise our redemption is an illusion also. His death was not a mere 
show, for then is our salvation also fabulous. If His death was but a show, 
they were true who said, We remember that that deceiver said, while He 
was yet alive, After three days I rise again. His Passion then was real: for 
He was really crucified, and we are not ashamed thereat; He was crucified, 
and we deny it not, nay, I rather glory to speak of it. For though I should 
now deny it, here is Golgotha to confute me, near which we are now 



244 

assembled; the wood of the Cross confutes me, which was afterwards 
distributed piecemeal from hence to all the world. I confess the Cross, 
because I know of the Resurrection; for if, after being crucified, He had 
remained as He was, I had not perchance confessed it, for I might have 
concealed both it and my Master; but now that the Resurrection has 
followed the Cross, I am not ashamed to declare it. 

5. Being then in the flesh like others, He was crucified, but not for the like 
sins. For He was not led to death for covetousness, since He was a 
Teacher of poverty; nor was He condemned for concupiscence, for He 
Himself says plainly, Whosoever shall look upon a woman to lust after 
her, hath committed adultery with her already; not for smiting or striking 
hastily, for He turned the other cheek also to the stutter: not for despising 
the Law, for He was the fulfiller of the Law; not for reviling a prophet, for 
it was Himself who was proclaimed by the Prophets; not for defrauding 
any of their hire, for He ministered without reward and freely; not for 
sinning in words, or deeds, or thoughts, He who did no sins, neither was, 
guile found in His mouth; who when He was reviled, reviled not again; 
when He suffered, threatened not; who came to His passion, not 
unwillingly, but willing; yea, if any dissuading Him say even now, Be it far 
from Thee, Lord, He will say again, Get thee behind Me, Satan. 

6. And wouldest thou be persuaded that He came to His passion 
willingly? others, who foreknow it not, die unwillingly; but He spoke 
before of His passion: Behold, the Son of man is betrayed to be crucified. 
But knowest thou wherefore this Friend of man shunned not death? It was 
lest the whole world should perish in its sins. Behold, we go up to 
Jerusalem, and the Son of man shall be betrayed, and shall be crucified; 
and again, He steadfastly set His face to Jerusalem. And wouldest thou 
know certainly, that the Cross is a glory to Jesus? Hear His own words, 
not mine. Judas had become ungrateful to the Master of the house, and 
was about to betray Him. Having but just now gone forth from the table, 
and drunk His cup of blessing, in return for that drought of salvation he 
sought to shed righteous blood. He who did eat of His bread, was lifting up 
his heel against Him; his hands were but lately receiving the blessed gifts, 
and presently for the wages of betrayal he was plotting His death. And 
being reproved, and having heard that word, Thou hast said, he again went 
out: then said Jesus, The hour is come, that the Son of man should be 



245 

glorified. Seest thou how He knew the Cross to be His proper glory? 
What then, is Esaias not ashamed of being sawn asunder, and shall Christ 
be ashamed of dying for the world? Now is the Son of man glorified. Not 
that He was without glory before: for He was glorified with the glory 
which was before the foundation of the world. He was ever glorified as 
God; but now He was to be glorified in wearing the Crown of His 
patience. He gave not up His life by compulsion, nor was He put to death 
by murderous violence, but of His own accord. Hear what He says: / have 
power to lay down My life, and I have power to take it again: I yield it of 
My own choice to My enemies; for unless I chose, this could not be. He 
came therefore of His own set purpose to His passion, rejoicing in His 
noble deed, smiling at the crown, cheered by the salvation of mankind; not 
ashamed of the Cross, for it was to save the world. For it was no common 
man who suffered, but God in man's nature, striving for the prize of His 
patience. 

7. But the Jews contradict this, ever ready, as they are, to cavil, and 
backward to believe; so that for this cause the Prophet just now read says, 
Lord, who hath believed our report! Persians believe, and Hebrews believe 
not; they shall see, to whom He was not spoken of, and they that have not 
heard shall understand, while they who study these things shall set at 
nought what they study. They speak against us, and say, "Does the Lord 
then suffer? What? Had men's hands power over His sovereignty?" Read 
the Lamentations; for in those Lamentations, Jeremias, lamenting you, 
wrote what is worthy of lamentations. He saw your destruction, he beheld 
your downfall, he bewailed Jerusalem which then was; for that which now 
is shall not be bewailed; for that Jerusalem crucified the Christ, but that 
which now is worships Him. Lamenting then he says, The breath of our 
countenance, Christ the Lord was taken in our corruptions. Am I then 
stating views of my own? Behold he testifies of the Lord Christ seized by 
men. And what is to follow from this? Tell me, O Prophet. He says, Of 
whom we said, Under His shadow we shall live among the nations. For he 
signifies that the grace of life is no longer to dwell in Israel, but among the 
Gentiles. 

8. But since there has been much gainsaying by them, come, let me, with 
the help of your prayers, (as the shortness of the time may allow,) set 
forth by the grace of the Lord some few testimonies concerning the 



246 

Passion. For the things concerning Christ are all put into writing, and 
nothing is doubtful, for nothing is without a text. All are inscribed on the 
monuments of the Prophets; clearly written, not on tablets of stone, but 
by the Holy Ghost. Since then thou hast heard the Gospel speaking 
concerning Judas, oughtest thou not to receive the testimony to it? Thou 
hast heard that He was pierced in the side by a spear; oughtest thou not to 
see whether this also is written? Thou hast heard that He was crucified in 
a garden; oughtest thou not to see whether this also is written? Thou hast 
heard that He was sold for thirty pieces of silver; oughtest thou not to 
learn what prophet spake this? Thou hast heard that He was given vinegar 
to drink; learn where this also is written. Thou hast heard that His body 
was laid in a rock, and that a stone was set over it; oughtest thou not to 
receive this testimony also from the prophet? Thou hast heard that He 
was crucified with robbers; oughtest thou not to see whether this also is 
written? Thou hast heard that He was buried; oughtest thou not to see 
whether the circumstances of His burial are anywhere accurately written? 
Thou hast heard that He rose again; oughtest thou not to see whether we 
mock thee in teaching these things? For our speech and our preaching is 
not in persuasive words of man's wisdom. We stir now no sophistical 
contrivances; for these become exposed; we do not conquer words with 
words, for these come to an end; but we preach Christ Crucified, who has 
already been preached aforetime by the Prophets. But do thou, I pray, 
receive the testimonies, and seal them in thine heart. And, since they are 
many, and the rest of our time is narrowed into a short space, listen now 
to a few of the more important as time permits; and having received these 
beginnings, be diligent and seek out the remainder. Let not thine hand be 
only stretched out to receive, but let it be also ready to work. God gives all 
things freely. For if any of you lack wisdom, let him ask of God who 
giveth(bis), and he shall receive. May He through your prayer grant 
utterance to us who speak, and faith to you who hear. 

9. Let us then seek the testimonies to the Passion of Christ: for we are met 
together, not now to make a speculative exposition of the Scriptures, but 
rather to be certified of the things which we already believe. Now thou 
hast received from me first the testimonies concerning the coming of Jesus; 
and concerning His walking on the sea, for it is written, Thy way is in the 
sea. Also concerning divers cures thou hast on another occasion received 



247 

testimony. Now therefore I begin from whence the Passion began. Judas 
was the traitor, and he came against Him, and stood, speaking words of 
peace, but plotting war. Concerning him, therefore, the Psalmist says, My 
friends and My neighbors drew near against Me, and stood. And again, 
Their words were softer than oil, yet be they spears. Hail, Master; yet he 
was betraying his Master to death; he was not abashed at His warning, 
when He said, Judas, betrayest thou the Son of Man with a kissl for what 
He said to him was just this, Recollect thine own name; Judas means 
confession; thou hast covenanted, thou hast received the money, make 
confession quickly. O God, pass not over My praise in silence; far the 
mouth of the wicked, and the mouth of the deceitful, are opened against Me; 
they have spoken against Me with a treacherous tongue, they have 
compassed Me about also with words of hatred. But that some of the 
chief-priests also were present, and that He was put in bonds before the 
gates of the city, thou hast heard before, if thou rememberest the 
exposition of the Psalm, which has told the time and the place; how they 
returned at evening, and hungered like dogs, and encompassed the city. 

10. Listen also for the thirty pieces of silver. And I will say to them, If it be 
good in your sight, give me my price, or refuse, and the rest. One price is 
owing to Me from you for My healing the blind and lame, and I receive 
another; for thanksgiving, dishonor, and for worship, insult. Seest thou 
how the Scripture foresaw these things? And they weighed far My price 
thirty pieces of silver. How exact the prophecy! how great and unerring the 
wisdom of the Holy Ghost! For he said, not ten, nor twenty, but thirty, 
exactly as many as there were. Tell also what becomes of this price, O 
Prophet! Does he who received it keep it? or does he give it back? and 
after he has given it back, what becomes of it? The Prophet says then, And 
I took the thirty pieces of silver, and cast them into the house of the Lord, 
into the foundry. Compare the Gospel with the Prophecy: Judas, it says, 
repented himself, and cast down the pieces of silver in the temple, and 
departed. 

11. But now I have to seek the exact solution of this seeming discrepancy. 
For they who make light of the prophets, allege that the Prophet says on 
the one hand, And I cast them into the house of the Lord, into the foundry, 
but the Gospel on the other hand, And they gave them for the potter's field. 
Hear then how they are both true. For those conscientious Jews forsooth, 



248 

the high-priests of that time, when they saw that Judas repented and said, 
/ have sinned, in that I have betrayed innocent blood, reply, What is that to 
us, see thou to that. Is it then nothing to you, the crucifiers? but shall he 
who received and restored the price of murder see to it, and shall ye the 
murderers not see to it? Then they say among themselves, It is not lawful 
to cast them into the treasury, because it is the price of blood. Out of your 
own mouths is your condemnation; if the price is polluted, the deed is 
polluted also: but if thou art fulfilling righteousness in crucifying Christ, 
why receivest thou not the price of it? But the point of iniquity is this: 
how is there no disagreement, if the Gospel says, the potter' s field, and the 
Prophet, the foundry! Nay, but not only people who are goldsmiths, or 
brass-founders, have a foundry, but potters also have foundries for their 
clay. For they sift off the fine and rich and useful earth from the gravel, 
and separate from it the mass of the refuse matter, and temper the clay 
first with water, that they may work it with ease into the forms intended. 
Why then wonderest thou that the Gospel says plainly the potter' s field, 
whereas the Prophet spoke his prophecy like an enigma, since prophecy is 
in many places enigmatical? 

12. They bound Jesus, and brought Him into the hall of the High-priest. 
And wouldest thou learn and know that this also is written? Esaias says, 
Woe unto their soul, far they have taken evil counsel against themselves, 
saying, Let us bind the Just, for He is troublesome to us. And truly, Woe 
unto their soul! Let us see how. Esaias was sawn asunder, yet after this 
the people was restored. Jeremias was cast into the mire of the cistern, yet 
was the wound of the Jews healed; for the sin was less, since it was 
against man. But when the Jews sinned, not against man, but against God 
in man' s nature, Woe unto their soul! — Let us bind the Just; could He not 
then set Himself free, some one will say; He, who freed Lazarus from the 
bonds of death on the fourth day, and loosed Peter from the iron bands of 
a prison? Angels stood ready at hand, saying, Let us burst their bands in 
sunder; but they hold back, because their Lord willed to undergo it. Again, 
He was led to the judgment- seat before the Elders; thou hast already the 
testimony to this, The Lord Himself will come into judgment with the 
ancients of His people, and with the princes thereof. 

13. But the High-priest having questioned Him, and heard the truth, is 
wroth; and the wicked officer of wicked men smites Him; and the 



249 

countenance, which had shone as the sun, endured to be smitten by 
lawless hands. Others also come and spit on the face of Him, who by 
spittle had healed the man who was blind from his birth. Do ye thus 
requite the Lord? This people is foolish and unwise. And the Prophet 
greatly wondering, says, Lord, who hath believed our report! for the thing 
is incredible, that God, the Son of God, and the Arm of the Lord, should 
suffer such things. But that they who are being saved may not disbelieve, 
the Holy Ghost writes before, in the person of Christ, who says, (for He 
who then spake these things, was afterward Himself an actor in them,) / 
gave My back to the scourges; (for Pilate, when he had scourged Him, 
delivered Him to be crucified;) and My cheeks to smitings; and My face I 
turned not away from the shame of spittings; saying, as it were, "Though 
knowing before that they will smite Me, I did not even turn My cheek 
aside; for how should I have nerved My disciples against death for truth's 
sake, had I Myself dreaded this?" I said. He that loveth his life shall lose it: 
if I had loved My life, how was I to teach without practicing what I 
taught? First then, being Himself God, He endured to suffer these things at 
the hands of men; that after this, we men, when we suffer such things at 
the hands of men for His sake, might not be ashamed. Thou seest that of 
these things also the prophets have clearly written beforehand. Many, 
however, of the Scripture testimonies I pass by for want of time, as I said 
before; for if one should exactly search out all, not one of the things 
concerning Christ would be left without witness. 

14. Having been bound, He came from Caiaphas to Pilate, — is this too 
written? yes; And having bound Him, they led Him away as a present to 
the king ofJarim. But here some sharp hearer will object, "Pilate was not a 
king," (to leave for a while the main parts of the question,) "how then 
having bound Him, led they Him as a present to the king?" But read thou 
the Gospel; When Pilate heard that He was of Galilee, he sent Him to 
Herod; for Herod was then king, and was present at Jerusalem. And now 
observe the exactness of the Prophet; for he says, that He was sent as a 
present; for the same day Pilate and Herod were made friends together, for 
before they were at enmity. For it became Him who was on the eve of 
making peace between earth and heaven, to make the very men who 
condemned Him the first to be at peace; for the Lord Himself was there 



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present, who reconciles the hearts of the princes of the earth. Mark the 
exactness of the Prophets, and their true testimony. 

15. Look with awe then at the Lord who was judged. He suffered Himself 
to be led and carried by soldiers. Pilate sat in judgment, and He who sitteth 
on the right hand of the Father, stood and was judged. The people whom 
He had redeemed from the land of Egypt, and oftimes from other places, 
shouted against Him, Away with Him, away with Him, crucify Him. 
Wherefore, O ye Jews? because He healed your blind? or because He made 
your lame to walk, and bestowed His other benefits? So that the Prophet 
in amazement speaks of this too, Against whom have ye opened your 
mouth, and against whom have ye let loose your tongue! and the Lord 
Himself says in the Prophets, Mine heritage became unto Me as a lion in 
the forest; it gave its voice against Me; therefore have I hated it. I have not 
refused them, but they have refused Me; in consequence thereof I say, / 
have forsaken My house. 

16. When He was judged, He held His peace; so that Pilate was moved for 
Him, and said, Hearest Thou not what these witness against Thee! Not 
that He knew Him who was judged, but he feared his own wife's dream 
which had been reported to him. And Jesus held His peace. The Psalmist 
says, And I became as a man that heareth not; and in whose mouth are no 
reproofs; and again, But I was as a deaf man and heard not; and as a 
dumb man that openeth not his mouth. Thou hast before heard concerning 
this, if thou rememberest. 

17. But the soldiers who crowd around mock Him, and their Lord becomes 
a sport to them, and upon their Master they make jests. When they looked 
on Me, they shaked their heads. Yet the figure of kingly state appears; for 
though in mockery, yet they bend the knee. And the soldiers before they 
crucify Him, put on Him a purple robe, and set a crown on His bead; for 
what though it be of thorns? Every king is proclaimed by soldiers; and 
Jesus also must in a figure be crowned by soldiers; so that for this cause 
the Scripture says in the Canticles, Go forth, O ye daughters of Jerusalem, 
and look upon King Solomon in the crown wherewith His mother crowned 
Him. And the crown itself was a mystery; for it was a remission of sins, a 
release from the curse. 



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18. Adam received the sentence, Cursed is the ground in thy labors; thorns 
and thistles shall it bring forth to thee. For this cause Jesus assumes the 
thorns, that He may cancel the sentence; for this cause also was He buried 
in the earth, that the earth which had been cursed might receive the 
blessing instead of a curse. At the time of the sin, they clothed themselves 
with fig-leaves; for this cause Jesus also made the fig-tree the last of His 
signs. For when about to go to His passion, He curses the fig-tree, not 
every fig-tree, but that one alone, for the sake of the figure; saying, No 
more let any man eat fruit of thee; let the doom be canceled. And because 
they aforetime clothed themselves with fig-leaves, He came at a season 
when food was not wont to be found on the fig-tree. Who knows not that 
in winter-time the fig-tree bears no fruit, but is clothed with leaves only? 
Was Jesus ignorant of this, which all knew? No but though He knew, yet 
He came as if seeking; not ignorant that He should not find, but shewing 
that the emblematical curse extended to the leaves only. 

19. And since we have touched on things connected with Paradise, I am 
truly astonished at the truth of the types. In Paradise was the Fall, and in 
a Garden was our Salvation. From the Tree came sin, and until the Tree sin 
lasted. In the evening, when the Lord walked in the Garden, they hid 
themselves; and in the evening the robber is brought by the Lord into 
Paradise. But some one will say to me, "Thou art inventing subtleties; 
shew me from some prophet the Wood of the Cross; except thou give me a 
testimony from a prophet, I will not be persuaded. Hear then from 
Jeremias, and assure thyself; / was like a harmless lamb led to be 
slaughtered; did I not know if! (for in this manner read it as a question, as I 
have read it; for He who said, Ye know that after two days comes the 
passover, and the Son of Man is betrayed to be crucified, did He not 
know?) / was like a harmless lamb led to be slaughtered; did I not know 
it?(but what sort of lamb? let John the Baptist interpret it, when he says, 
Behold the Lamb of God, that taketh away the sin of the world.) They 
devised against Me a wicked device, saying — (He who knows the 
devices, knew He not the result of them? And what said they?) — Come, 
and let us place a beam upon His bread — (and if the Lord reckon thee 
worthy, thou shalt hereafter learn, that His body according to the Gospel 
bore the figure of bread;) — Come then, and let us place a beam upon His 
bread, and cut Him off out of the land of the living; — (life is not cut off, 



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why labor ye for nought?) — And His name shall be remembered no 
more. Vain is your counsel; for before the sun His Name abideth in the 
Church. And that it was Life, which hung on the Cross, Moses says, 
weeping, And thy, life shall be hanging before thine eyes; and thou shalt be 
afraid day and night, and thou shalt not trust thy life. And so too, what 
was just now read as the text, Lord, who hath believed our report 

20. This was the figure which Moses completed by fixing the serpent to a 
cross, that whoso had been bitten by the living serpent, and looked to the 
brazen serpent, might be saved by believing. Does then the brazen serpent 
save when crucified, and shall not the Son of God incarnate save when 
crucified also? On each occasion life comes by means of wood. For in the 
time of Noe the preservation of life was by an ark of wood. In the time of 
Moses the sea, on beholding the emblematical rod, was abashed at him 
who smote it; is then Moses' rod mighty, and is the Cross of the Savior 
powerless? But I pass by the greater part of the types, to keep within 
measure. The wood in Moses' case sweetened the water; and from the side 
of Jesus the water flowed upon the wood. 

21. The beginning of signs under Moses was blood and water; and the last 
of all Jesus' signs was the same. First, Moses changed the river into blood; 
and Jesus at the last gave forth from His side water with blood. This was 
perhaps on account of the two speeches, his who judged Him, and theirs 
who cried out against Him; or because of the believers and the unbelievers. 
For Pilate said, / am innocent and washed his hands in water; they who 
cried out against Him said, His blood be upon us: there came therefore 
these two out of His side; the water, perhaps, for him who judged Him; 
but for them that shouted against Him the blood. And again it is to be 
understood in another way; the blood for the Jews, and the water for the 
Christians: for upon them as plotters came the condemnation from the 
blood but to thee who now believest, the salvation which is by water. For 
nothing has been done without a meaning. Our fathers who have written 
comments have given another reason of this matter. For since in the 
Gospels the power of salutary Baptism is twofold, one which is granted 
by means of water to the illuminated, and a second to holy martyrs, in 
persecutions, through their own blood, there came out of that saving Side 
blood and water, to confirm the grace of the confession made for Christ, 
whether in baptism, or on occasions of martyrdom. There is another 



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reason also for mentioning the Side. The woman, who was formed from 
the side, led the way to sin; but Jesus who came to bestow the grace of 
pardon on men and women alike, was pierced in the side for women, that 
He might undo the sin. 

22. And whoever will inquire, will find other reasons also; but what has 
been said is enough, because of the shortness of the time, and that the 
attention of my hearers may not become sated. And yet we never can be 
tired of hearing concerning the crowning of our Lord, and least of all in this 
most holy Golgotha. For others only hear, but we both see and handle. Let 
none be weary; take thine armor against the adversaries in the cause of the 
Cross itself; set up the faith of the Cross as a trophy against the 
gainsayers. For when thou art going to dispute with unbelievers concerning 
the Cross of Christ, first make with thy hand the sign of Christ's Cross, 
and the gainsayer will be silenced. Be not ashamed to confess the Cross; 
for Angels glory in it, saying, We know whom ye seek, Jesus the Crucified. 
Mightest thou not say, O Angel, "I know whom ye seek, my Master?" 
But, "I," he says with boldness, "I know the Crucified." For the Cross is a 
Crown, not a dishonor. 

23. Now let us recur to the proof out of the Prophets which I spoke of. 
The Lord was crucified; thou hast received the testimonies. Thou seest 
this spot of Golgotha! Thou answerest with a shout of praise, as if 
assenting. See that thou recant not in time of persecution. Rejoice not in 
the Cross in time of peace only, but hold fast the same faith in time of 
persecution also; be not in time of peace a friend of Jesus, and His foe in 
time of wars. Thou receivest now remission of thy sins, and the gifts of 
the King's spiritual bounty; when war shall Come, strive thou nobly for 
thy King. Jesus, the Sinless, was crucified for thee; and wilt not thou be 
crucified for Him who was crucified for thee? Thou art not bestowing a 
favor, for thou hast first received; but thou art returning a favor, repaying 
thy debt to Him who was crucified for thee in Golgotha. Now Golgotha is 
interpreted, "the place of a skull." Who were they then, who prophetically 
named this spot Golgotha, in which Christ the true Head endured the 
Cross? As the Apostle says, Who is the Image of the Invisible God; and a 
little after, and He is the Head of the body, the Church. And again, The 
Head of every man is Christ; and again, Who is the Head all principality 
and power. The Head suffered in "the place of the skull." O wondrous 



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prophetic appellation! The very name also reminds thee, saying, "Think 
not of the Crucified as of a mere man; He is the Head of all principality and 
power. That Head which was crucified is the Head of all power, and has 
for His Head the Father; for the Head of the man is Christ, and the Head of 
Christ is God." 

24. Christ then was crucified for us, who was judged in the night, when it 
was cold, and therefore afire of coals was laid. He was crucified at the 
third hour; and from the sixth hour there was darkness until the ninth hour, 
but from the ninth hour there was light again. Are these things also 
written? Let us inquire. Now the Prophet Zacharias says, And it shall 
come to pass in that day, that there shall not be light, and there shall be 
cold and frost one day; (the cold on account of which Peter warmed 
himself;) And that day shall be known unto the Lord; (what, knew He not 
the other days? days are many, but this is the day of the Lord's patience, 
which the Lord made;) — And that day shall be known unto the Lord, not 
day, and not night what is this dark saying which the Prophet speaks? 
That day is neither day nor night? what then shall we name it? The Gospel 
interprets it, by relating the event. It was not day; for the sun shone not 
uniformly from his rising to his setting, but from the sixth hour till the 
ninth hour, there was darkness at mid-day. The darkness therefore was 
interposed; but God called the darkness night. Wherefore it was neither 
day nor night: for neither was it all light, that it should be called day; nor 
was it all darkness, that it should be called night; but after the ninth hour 
the sun shone forth. This also the Prophet foretells; for after saying, Not 
day, nor night, he added, And at evening time it shall be light. Seest thou 
the exactness of the prophets? Seest thou the truth of the things which 
were written aforetime? 

25. But dost thou ask exactly at what hour the sun failed? was it the fifth 
hour, or the eighth, or the tenth? Tell, O Prophet, the exact time thereof to 
the Jews, who are unwilling to hear; when shall the sun go down? The 
Prophet Amos answers, And it shall come to pass in that day, saith the 
Lord God, that the sun shall go down at noon (for there was darkness from 
the sixth hour;) and the light shall grow dark over the earth in the day". 
What sort of season is this, O Prophet, and what sort of day? And I will 
turn your feasts into mourning; for this was done in the days of 
unleavened bread, and at the feast of the Passover: then afterwards he 



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says, And I will make Him as the mourning of an Only Son, and those with 
Him as a day of anguish; for in the day of unleavened bread, and at the 
feast, their women were wailing and weeping, and the Apostles had hidden 
themselves and were in anguish. Wonderful then is this prophecy. 

26. But, some one will say, "Give me yet another sign; what other exact 
sign is there of that which has come to pass? Jesus was crucified; and He 
wore but one coat, and one cloak now His cloak the soldiers shared among 
themselves, having rent it into four; but His coat was not rent, for when 
rent it would have been no longer of any use; so about this lots are cast by 
the soldiers; thus the one they divide, but for the other they cast lots. Is 
then this also written? They know, the diligent chanters of the Church, 
who imitate the Angel hosts, and continually sing praises to God: who are 
thought worthy to chant Psalms in this Golgotha, and to say, They parted 
My, garments among them, and upon My vesture they, did cast lots. The 
"lots" were what the soldiers cast. 

27. Again, when He had been judged before Pilate, He was clothed in red; 
for there they put on Him a purple robe. Is this also written? Esaias saith, 
Who is this that cometh from Edom? the redness of His garments from 
Bosor; (who is this who in dishonor weareth purple? For Bosor has some 
such meaning in Hebrew.) Why are Thy garments red, and Thy raiment as 
from a trodden wine-press? But He answers and says, All day long have I 
stretched forth Mine hands unto a disobedient and gainsaying people. 

28. He stretched out His hands on the Cross, that He might embrace the 
ends of the world; for this Golgotha is the very center of the earth. It is 
not my word, but it is a prophet who hath said, Thou hast wrought 
salvation in the midst of the earth. He stretched forth human hands, who 
by His spiritual hands had established the heaven; and they were fastened 
with nails, that His manhood, which here the sins of men, having been 
nailed to the tree, and having died, sin might die with it, and we might rise 
again in righteousness. For since by one man came death, by One Man 
came also life; by One Man, the Savior, dying of His own accord: for 
remember what He said, / have power to lay down My life, and I have 
power to take it again. 

29. But though He endured these things, having come for the salvation of 
all, yet the people returned Him an evil recompense. Jesus saith, / thirst, 



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— He who had brought forth the waters for them out of the craggy rock; 
and He asked fruit of the Vine which He had planted. But what does the 
Vine? This Vine, which was by nature of the holy fathers, but of Sodom 
by purpose of heart;-(for their Vine is of Sodom, and their tendrils of 
Gomorrah;) — this Vine, when the Lord was athirst, having filled a 
sponge and put it on a reed, offers Him vinegar. They gave Me also gall for 
My meat, and in My thirst, they gave Me vinegar to drink. Thou seest the 
clearness of the Prophets' description. But what sort of gall put they into 
My mouth? They gave Him, it says, wine mingled with myrrh. Now myrrh 
is in taste like gall, and very bitter. Are these things what ye recompense 
unto the Lord? Are these thy offerings, O Vine, unto thy Master? Rightly 
did the Prophet Esaias aforetime bewail you, saying, My well-beloved had 
a vineyard in a hill in a fruitful place; and (not to recite the whole) I 
waited, he says, that it should bring forth grapes; I thirsted that it should 
give wine; but it brought forth thorns; for thou seest the crown, wherewith 
I am adorned. What then shall I now decree? / will command the clouds 
that they rain no rain upon it. For the clouds which are the Prophets were 
removed from them, and are for the future in the Church; as Paul says, Let 
the Prophets speak two or three, and let the others judge; and again, God 
gave in the Church, same, Apostles, and some, Prophets. Agabus, who 
bound his own feet and hands, was a prophet. 

30. Concerning the robbers who were crucified with Him, it is written, And 
He was numbered with the transgressors . Both of them were before this 
transgressors, but one was so no longer. For the one was a transgressor to 
the end, stubborn against salvation; who, though his hands were fastened, 
smote with blasphemy by his tongue. When the Jews passing by wagged 
their heads, mocking the Crucified, and fulfilling what was written, When 
they looked on Me, they shaked their heads, he also reviled with them. But 
the other rebuked the reviler; and it was to him at rebuked the reviler; and 
it was to him the end of life and the beginning of restoration; the surrender 
of his soul a first share in salvation. And after rebuking the other, he says, 
Lord, remember me; for with Thee is my account. Heed not this man, for 
the eyes of his understanding are blinded; but remember me. I say not, 
remember my works, for of these I am afraid. Every man has a feeling for 
his fellow-traveler; I am traveling with Thee towards death; remember me, 



257 

Thy fellow- wayfarer. I say not, Remember me now, but, when Thou 
comest in Thy kingdom. 

31. What power, O robber, led thee to the light? Who taught thee to 
worship that despised Man, thy companion on the Cross? O Light 
Eternal, which gives light to them that are in darkness! Therefore also he 
justly heard the words, Be of good cheer, not that thy deeds are worthy of 
good cheer; but that the King is here, dispensing favors. The request 
reached unto a distant time; but the grace was very speedy. Verily I say 
unto thee, This day shalt thou be with Me in Paradise; because today thou 
hast heard My voice, and hast not hardened thine heart. Very speedily I 
passed sentence upon Adam, very speedily I pardon thee. To him it was 
said, In the day wherein ye eat, ye shall surely die; but thou today hast 
obeyed the faith, today is thy salvation. Adam by the Tree fell away; thou 
by the Tree art brought into Paradise. Fear not the serpent; he shall not 
cast thee out; for he is fallen from heaven. And I say not unto thee, This 
day shalt thou depart, but, This day shalt thou be with Me. Be of good 
courage: thou shalt not be cast out. Fear not the flaming sword; it shrinks 
from its Lord. O mighty and ineffable grace! The faithful Abraham had not 
yet entered, but the robber enters! Moses and the Prophets had not yet 
entered, and the robber enters though a breaker of the law. Paul also 
wondered at this before thee, saying, Where sin abounded, there grace did 
much more abound. They who had borne the heat of the day had not yet 
entered; and be of the eleventh hour entered. Let none murmur against the 
goodman of the house, for he says, Friend, I do thee no wrong; is it not 
lawful for Me to do what I will with Mine ownt The robber has a will to 
work righteousness, but death prevents him; I wait not exclusively for the 
work, but faith also I accept. I am come whofeedMy sheep among the 
lilies, I am come to feed them in the gardens. I have found a sheep that was 
lost, but I lay it on My shoulders; for he believes, since he himself has 
said, / have gone astray like a lost sheep; Lord, remember me when Thou 
earnest in Thy kingdom. 

32. Of this garden I sang of old to My spouse in the Canticles, and spoke 
to her thus. / am come into My garden, My sister, My spouse; (now in the 
place where He was crucified was a garden;) and what takest Thou 
thence? / have gathered My myrrh; having drunk wine mingled with 
myrrh, and vinegar, after receiving which, He said, It is finished. For the 



258 

mystery has been fulfilled; the things that are written have been 
accomplished; sins are forgiven. For Christ being come an High-Priest of 
the good things to came, by the greater and more perfect tabernacle, not 
made with hands, that is to say, not of this creation, nor yet by the blood of 
goats and calves, but by His own blood, entered in once far all into the holy 
place, having obtained eternal redemption; for if the blood of bulls and of 
goats, and the ashes of an heifer, sprinkling the defiled, sanctifieth to the 
purifying of the flesh, how much more the blood of Christ? And again, 
Having therefore, brethren, boldness to enter into the holiest by the blood 
of Jesus, by a new and living way, which He hath consecrated for us, 
through the veil, that is to say, His flesh. And because His flesh, this veil, 
was dishonored, therefore the typical veil of the temple was rent asunder, 
as it is written, And, behold, the veil of the temple was rent in twain from 
the top to the bottom; for not a particle of it was left; for since the Master 
said, Behold, your house is left unto you desolate, the house brake all in 
pieces. 

33. These things the Savior endured, and made peace through the Blood of 
His Cross, for things in heaven, and things in earth. For we were enemies 
of God through sin, and God had appointed the sinner to die. There must 
needs therefore have happened one of two things; either that God, in His 
truth, should destroy all men, or that in His loving-kindness He should 
cancel the sentence. But behold the wisdom of God; He preserved both the 
t truth of His sentence, and the exercise of His loving-kindness. Christ 
took our sins in His body on the tree, that we by His death might die to sin, 
and live unto righteousness. Of no small account was He who died for us; 
He was not a literal sheep; He was not a mere man; He was more than an 
Angel; He was God made man. The transgression of sinners was not so 
great as the righteousness of Him who died for them; the sin which we 
committed was not so great as the righteousness which He wrought who 
laid down His life for us, — who laid it down when He pleased, and took 
it again when He pleased. And wouldest thou know that He laid not down 
His life by violence, nor yielded up the ghost against His will? He cried to 
the Father, saying, Father, into Thy hands I commend My spirit; I 
commend it, that I may take it again. And having said these things, He 
gave up the ghost; but not for any long time, for He quickly rose again 
from the dead. 



259 

34. The Sun was darkened, because of the Sun of Righteousness. Rocks 
were rent, because of the spiritual Rock. Tombs were opened, and the 
dead arose, because of Him who was free among the dead; He sent forth 
His prisoners out of the pit wherein is no water. Be not then ashamed of 
the Crucified, but be thou also bold to say, He beareth our sins, and 
endureth grief for us, and with His stripes we are healed. Let us not be 
unthankful to our Benefactor. And again; for the transgression of my 
people was He led to death; and I will give the wicked for His burial, and 
the rich for His death. Therefore Paul says plainly, that Christ died for our 
sins according to the Scriptures, and that He was buried, and that He hath 
risen again the third day according to the Scriptures. 

35. But we seek to know clearly where He has been buried. Is His tomb 
made with hands? Is it, like the tombs of kings, raised above the ground? Is 
the Sepulcher made of stones joined together? And what is laid upon it? 
Tell us, O Prophets, the exact truth concerning His tomb also, where He is 
laid, and where we shall seek Him? And they say, Look into the solid rock 
which ye have hewn. Look in and behold. Thou hast in the Gospels In a 
sepulcher hewn in stone, which was hewn out of a rock. And what 
happens next? What kind of door has the sepulcher? Again another 
Prophet says, They cut off My life in a dungeon, and cast a stone upon Me. 
I, who am the Chief corner-stone, the elect, the precious, lie for a little time 
within a stone — I who am a stone of stumbling to the Jews, and of 
salvation to them who believe. The Tree of life, therefore was planted in 
the earth, that the earth which had been cursed might enjoy the blessing, 
and that the dead might be released. 

36. Let us not then be ashamed to confess the Crucified. Be the Cross our 
seal made with boldness by our fingers on our brow, and on everything; 
over the bread we eat, and the cups we drink; in our comings in, and goings 
out; before our sleep, when we lie down and when we rise up; when we 
are in the way, and when we are still. Great is that preservative; it is 
without price, for the sake of the poor; without toil, for the sick; since also 
its grace is from God. It is the Sign of the faithful, and the dread of devils: 
for He triumphed over them in it, having made a shew of them openly; for 
when they see the Cross they are reminded of the Crucified; they are 
afraid of Him, who bruised the heads of the dragon. Despise not the Seal, 



260 

because of the freeness of the gift; out for this the rather honor thy 
Benefactor. 

37. And if thou ever fall into disputation and hast not the grounds of 
proof, yet let Faith remain firm in thee; or rather, become thou well 
learned, and then silence the Jews out of the prophets, and the Greeks out 
of their own fables. They themselves worship men who have been 
thunderstricken but the thunder when it comes from heaven, comes not at 
random. If they are not ashamed to worship men thunderstricken and 
abhorred of God, art thou ashamed to worship the beloved Son of God, 
who was crucified for thee? I am ashamed to tell the tales about their 
so-called Gods, and I leave them because of time; let those who know, 
speak. And let all heretics also be silenced. If any say that the Cross is an 
illusion, turn away from him. Abhor those who say that Christ was 
crucified to our fancy only; for if so, and if salvation is from the Cross, 
then is salvation a fancy also. If the Cross is fancy, the Resurrection is 
fancy also; but if Christ be not risen, we are yet in our sins. If the Cross is 
fancy, the Ascension also is fancy; and if the Ascension is fancy, then is 
the second coming also fancy, and everything is henceforth unsubstantial. 

38. Take therefore first, as an indestructible foundation, the Cross, and 
build upon it the other articles of the faith. Deny not the Crucified; for, if 
thou deny Him, thou hast many to arraign thee. Judas the traitor will 
arraign thee first; for he who betrayed Him knows that He was condemned 
to death by the chief-priests and elders. The thirty pieces of silver bear 
witness; Gethsemane bears witness, where the betrayal occurred; I speak 
not yet of the Mount of Olives, on which they were with Him at night, 
praying. The moon in the night bears witness; the day bears witness, and 
the sun which was darkened; for it endured not to look on the crime of the 
conspirators. The fire will arraign thee, by which Peter stood and warmed 
himself; if thou deny the Cross, the eternal fire awaits thee. I speak hard 
words, that thou may not experience hard pains. Remember the swords 
that came against Him in Gethsemane, that thou feel not the eternal sword. 
The house of Caiaphas will arraign thee, shewing by its present desolation 
the power of Him who was ere while judged there. Yea, Caiaphas himself 
will rise up against thee in the day of judgment, the very servant will rise 
up against thee, who smote Jesus with the palm of his hand; they also 
who bound Him, and they who led Him away. Even Herod shall rise up 



261 

against thee; and Pilate; as if saying, Why deniest thou Him who was 
slandered before us by the Jews, and whom we knew to have done no 
wrong? For I Pilate then washed my hands. The false witnesses shall rise 
up against thee, and the soldiers who arrayed Him in the purple robe, and 
set on Him the crown of thorns, and crucified Him in Golgotha, and cast 
lots for His coat. Simon the Cyrenian will cry out upon thee, who bore the 
Cross after Jesus. 

39. From among the stars there will cry out upon thee, the darkened Sun; 
among the things upon earth, the Wine mingled with myrrh; among reeds, 
the Reed; among herbs, the Hyssop; among the things of the sea, the 
Sponge; among trees, the Wood of the Cross; — the soldiers, too, as I have 
said, who nailed Him, and cast lots for His vesture; the soldier who 
pierced His side with the spear; the women who then were present; the 
veil of the temple then rent asunder; the hall of Pilate, now laid waste by 
the power of Him who was then crucified; this holy Golgotha, which 
stands high above us, and shews itself to this day, and displays even yet 
how because of Christ the rocks were then risen; the sepulcher nigh at 
hand where He was laid; and the stone which was laid on the door, which 
lies to this day by the tomb; the Angels who were then present; the 
women who worshipped Him after His resurrection; Peter and John, who 
ran to the sepulcher; and Thomas, who thrust his hand into His side, and 
his fingers into the prints of the nails. For it was for our sakes that he so 
carefully handled Him; and what thou, who wert not there present, 
wouldest have sought, he being present, by God's Providence, did seek. 

40. Thou hast Twelve Apostles, witnesses of the Cross; and the whole 
earth, and the world of men who believe on Him who hung thereon. Let 
thy very presence here now persuade thee of the power of the Crucified. 
For who now brought thee to this assembly? what soldiers? With what 
bonds wast thou constrained? What sentence held thee fast here now? 
Nay, it was the Trophy of salvation, the Cross of Jesus that brought you 
all together. It was this that enslaved the Persians, and tamed the 
Scythians; this that gave to the Egyptians, for cats and dogs and their 
manifold errors, the knowledge of God; this, that to this day heals 
diseases; that to this day drives away devils, and overthrows the juggleries 
of drugs and charms. 



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41. This shall appear again with Jesus from heaven; for the trophy shall 
precede the king: that seeing Him whom they pierced, and knowing by the 
Cross Him who was dishonored, the Jews may repent and mourn;(but they 
shall mourn tribe by tribe, for they shall repent, when there shall be no 
more time for repentance;) and that we may glory, exulting in the Cross, 
worshipping the Lord who was sent, and crucified for us, and worshipping 
also God His Father who sent Him, with the Holy Ghost: To whom be 
glory for ever and ever. Amen. 



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LECTURE 14 

ON THE WORDS, AND ROSE AGAIN FROM THE DEAD ON THE 

THIRD DAY, AND ASCENDED INTO THE HEAVENS, AND SAT 

ON THE RIGHT HAND OF THE FATHER, 

1 CORINTHIANS 15:1-4 

Now I make known unto you, brethren, the gospel which I preached unto you.... 
that He hath been raised on the third day according to the Scriptures, etc. 

Rejoice, O Jerusalem, and keep high festival, all ye that love Jesus; for He 
is risen. Rejoice, all ye that mourned before, when ye heard of the daring 
and wicked deeds of the Jews: for He who was spitefully entreated of 
them in this place is risen again. And as the discourse concerning the Cross 
was a sorrowful one, so let the good tidings of the Resurrection bring joy 
to the hearers. Let mourning be turned into gladness, and lamentation to 
joy: and let our mouth be filled with joy and gladness, because of Him, 
who after His resurrection, said Rejoice. For I know the sorrow of Christ's 
friends in these past days; because, as our discourse stopped short at the 
Death and the Burial, and did not tell the good tidings of the Resurrection, 
your mind was in suspense, to hear what you were longing for. 

Now, therefore, the Dead is risen, He who was free among the dead, and 
the deliverer of the dead. He who in dishonor wore patiently the crown of 
thorns, even He arose, and crowned Himself with the diadem of His 
victory over death. 

2. As then we set forth the testimonies concerning His Cross, so come let 
us now verify the proofs of His Resurrection also: since the Apostle 
before us affirms, He was buried, and has been raised on the third day 
according to the Scriptures. As an Apostle, therefore, has sent us back to 
the testimonies of the Scriptures, it is good that we should get full 
knowledge of the hope of our salvation; and that we should learn first 
whether the divine Scriptures tell us the season of His resurrection, 
whether it comes in summer or in autumn, or after winter; and from what 
kind of place the Savior has risen, and what has been announced in the 



264 

admirable Prophets as the name of the place of the Resurrection, and 
whether the women, who sought and found Him not, afterwards rejoice at 
finding Him; in order that when the Gospels are read, the narratives of 
these holy Scriptures may not be thought fables nor rhapsodies. 

3. That the Savior then was buried, ye have heard distinctly in the 
preceding discourse, as Isaiah saith, His burial shall be in peace: for in His 
burial He made peace between heaven and earth, bringing sinners unto 
God: and, that the righteous is taken out of the way of unrighteousness: 
and, His burial shall be in peace: and, / will give the wicked for His burial. 
There is also the prophecy of Jacob saying in the Scriptures, He lay down 
and couched as a lion, and as a lion 's whelp: who shall rouse Him up? 
And the similar passage in Numbers, He couched, He lay down as a lion, 
and as a lion 's whelp. The Psalm also ye have often heard, which says, 
And Thou hast brought me down into the dust of death. Moreover we took 
note of the spot, when we quoted the words, Look unto the rock, which ye 
have hewn. But now let the testimonies concerning His resurrection itself 
go with us on our way. 

4. First, then, in the 1 1th Psalm He says, For the misery of the poor, and 
the sighing of the needy, now will I arise, saith the Lord. But this passage 
still remains doubtful with some: for He often rises up also in anger, to 
take vengeance upon His enemies. 

Come then to the 15th Psalm, which says distinctly: Preserve Me, O 
Lord, for in Thee have I put my trust, and after this, their assemblies of 
blood will I not join, nor make mention of their names between my lips; 
since they have refused me, and chosen Caesar as their king: and also the 
next words, I foresaw the Lord alway before Me, because He is at My 
right hand, that I may not be moved: and soon after Yea and even until 
night my reins chastened me. And after this He says most plainly, For 
Thou wilt not leave My soul in hell; neither wilt Thou suffer Thine Holy 
One to see corruption. He said not, neither wilt Thou suffer Thine Holy 
One to see death, since then He would not have died; but corruption, saith 
He, I see not, and shall not abide in death. Thou hast made known to Me 
the ways of life. Behold here is plainly preached a life after death. Come 
also to the 29th Psalm, / will extol Thee, O Lord, for Thou has lifted Me 
up, and hast not made My foes to rejoice over Me. What is it that took 



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place? Wert thou rescued from enemies, or wert thou released when about 
to be smitten? He says himself most plainly, O Lord, Thou hast brought 
up My soul from hell. There he says, Thou wilt not leave, prophetically: 
and here he speaks of that which is to take place as having taken place, 
Thou hast brought up. Thou hast saved Me from them that go down into 
the pit. At what time shall the event occur? Weeping shall continue for the 
evening, and joy cometh in the morning: for in the evening was the sorrow 
of the disciplines, and in the morning the joy of the resurrection. 

5. But wouldst thou know the place also? Again He saith in Canticles, / 
went down into the garden of nuts; for it was a garden where He was 
crucified. For though it has now been most highly adorned with royal gifts, 
yet formerly it was a garden, and the signs and the remnants of this 
remain. A garden enclosed, a fountain sealed, by the Jews who said, We 
remember that that deceiver said while He was yet alive, After three days, I 
will rise: command, therefore, that the sepulcher be made sure; and further 
on, So they went, and made the sepulcher sure, sealing the stone with the 
guard. And aiming well at these, one saith, and in rest Thou shalt judge 
them. But who is the fountain that is sealed, or who is interpreted as being 
a well-spring of living water! It is the Savior Himself, concerning whom it 
is written, For with Thee is the fountain of life. 

6. But what says Zephaniah in the person of Christ to the disciples? 
Prepare thyself, be rising at the dawn: all their gleaning is destroyed: the 
gleaning, that is, of the Jews, with whom there is not a cluster, nay not 
even a gleaning of salvation left; for their vine is cut down. See how He 
says to the disciples, Prepare thyself, rise up at dawn: at dawn expect the 
Resurrection. 

And farther on in the same context of Scripture He says, Therefore wait 
thou for Me, saith the Lord, until the day of My Resurrection at the 
Testimony. Thou seest that the Prophet foresaw the place also of the 
Resurrection, which was to be surnamed "the Testimony." For what is the 
reason that this spot of Golgotha and of the Resurrection is not called, like 
the rest of the Churches, a Church, but a Testimony? Why, perhaps, it 
was because of the Prophet, who had said, until the day of My Resurrection 
at the Testimony. 



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7. And who then is this, and what is the sign of Him that rises? In the 
words of the Prophet that follow in the same context, He says plainly, 
For then will I turn to the peoples a language: since, after the Resurrection, 
when the Holy Ghost was sent forth the gift of tongues was granted, that 
they might serve the Lord under one yoke. And what other token is set 
forth in the same Prophet, that they should serve the LORD under one 
yoke? From beyond the rivers of Ethiopia they shall bring me offerings. 
Thou knowest what is written in the Acts, when the Ethiopian eunuch 
came from beyond the rivers of Ethiopia. When therefore the Scriptures 
tell both the time and the peculiarity of the place, when they tell also the 
signs which followed the Resurrection, have thou henceforward a firm 
faith in the Resurrection, and let no one stir thee from confessing Christ 
risen from the dead. 

8. Now take also another testimony in the 87th Psalm, where Christ 
speaks in the Prophets, (for He who then spoke came afterwards among 
us) : O Lord, God of My salvation, I have cried day and night before Thee, 
and a little, farther on, / became as it were a man without help, free among 
the dead. He said not, I became a man without help; but, as it were a man 
without help. For indeed He was crucified not from weakness, but willingly 
and His Death was not from involuntary weakness. / was counted with 
them that go down into the pit. And what is the token? Thou hast put away 
Mine acquaintance far from Me (for the disciples have fled). Wilt Thou 
shew wonders to the deadl Then a little while afterwards: And unto Thee 
have I cried, O Lord ; and in the morning shall my prayer came before 
Thee. Seest thou how they shew the exact point of the Hour, and of the 
Passion and of the Resurrection? 

9. And whence hath the Savior risen? He says in the Song of Songs: Rise 
up, come, My neighbor, and in what follows, in a cave of the rock\ A cave 
of the rock He called the cave which was erewhile before the door of the 
Savior's sepulcher, and had been hewn out of the rock itself, as is wont to 
be done here in front of the sepulchers. For now it is not to be seen, since 
the outer cave was cut away at that time for the sake of the present 
adornment. For before the decoration of the sepulcher by the royal 
munificence, there was a cave in the front of the rock. But where is the 
rock that had in it the cave? Does it lie near the middle of the city, or neat 
the walls and the outskirts? And whether is it within the ancient walls, or 



267 

within the outer walls which were built afterwards? He says then in the 
Canticles: in a cave of the rock, close to the outer wall. 

10. At what season does the Savior rise? Is it the season of summer, or 
some other? In the same Canticles immediately before the words quoted 
He says, The winter is past, the rain is past and gone; the flowers appear 
on the earth; the time of the pruning is come. Is not then the earth full of 
flowers now, and are they not pruning the vines? Thou seest how he said 
also that the winter is now past. For when this month Xanthicus is come, 
it is already spring. And this is the season, the first month with the 
Hebrews, in which occurs the festival of the Passover, the typical 
formerly, but now the true. This is the season of the creation of the world: 
for then God said, Let the earth bring forth herbage of grass, yielding seed 
after his kind and after his likeness. And now, as thou seest, already every 
herb is yielding seed. And as at that time God made the sun and moon and 
gave them courses of equal day (and night), so also a few days since was 
the season of the equinox. 

At that time God said, Let us make man after our image and after our 
likeness. And the image he received, but the likeness through his 
disobedience he obscured. At the same season then in which he lost this 
the restoration also took place. At the same season as the created man 
through disobedience was cast out of Paradise, he who believed was 
through obedience brought in. Our Salvation then took place at the same 
season as the Fall: when the flowers appeared, and the pruning was come. 

1 1 . A garden was the place of His Burial, and a vine that which was 
planted there: and He hath said, / am the vinel He was planted therefore in 
the earth in order that the curse which came because of Adam might be 
rooted out. The earth was condemned to thorns and thistles: the true Vine 
sprang up out of the earth, that the saying might be fulfilled, Truth sprang 
up out of the earth, and righteousness looked down from heaven. And 
what will He that is buried in the garden say? / have gathered My myrrh 
with My spices: and again, Myrrh and aloes, with all chief spices. Now 
these are the symbols of the burying; and in the Gospels it is said, The 
women came unto the sepulcher bringing the spices which they had 
prepared: Nicodemus also bringing a mixture of myrrh and aloes. And 
farther on it is written, / did eat My bread with My honey: the bitter before 



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the Passion, and the sweet after the Resurrection. Then after He had risen 
He entered through closed doors: but they believed not that it was He: for 
they supposed that they beheld a spirit. But He said, Handle Me and see. 
Put your fingers into the print of the nails, as Thomas required. And while 
they yet believed not for joy, and wondered, He said unto them, Have ye 
here anything, to eat? And they gave Him apiece of a broiled fish and 
honeycomb. Seest thou how that is fulfilled, / did eat My bread with My 
honey. 

12. But before He entered through the closed doors, the Bridegroom and 
Suitor of souls was sought by those noble and brave women. They came, 
those blessed ones, to the sepulcher, and sought Him Who had been raised, 
and the tears were still dropping from their eyes, when they ought rather 
to have been dancing with joy for Him that had risen. Mary came seeking 
Him, according to the Gospel, and found Him not: and presently she heard 
from the Angels, and afterwards saw the Christ. Are then these things also 
written? He says in the Song of Songs, On my bed I sought Him whom my 
soul loved. At what season? By night on my bed I sought Him Whom my 
soul loved: Mary, it says, came while it was yet dark. On my bed I sought 
Him by night, I sought Him, and I found Him not. And in the Gospels 
Mary says, They have taken away my Lord, and I know nowhere they 
have laid Him. But the Angels being then present cure their want of 
knowledge; for they said, Why seek ye the living among the deadl He not 
only rose, but had also the dead with Him when He rose. But she knew 
not, and in her person the Song of Songs said to the Angels, Saw ye Him 
Whom my soul loved? It was but a little that I passed from them(that is, 
from the two Angels), until I found Him Whom my soul loved. I held Him, 
and would not let Him go. 

13. For after the vision of the Angels, Jesus came as His own Herald; and 
the Gospel says, And behold Jesus met them, saying, All hail! and they 
came and took hold of His feet. They took hold of Him, that it might be 
fulfilled, / will hold Him, and will not let Him go. Though the woman was 
weak in body, her spirit was manful. Many waters quench not love, neither 
do rivers drawn it; He was dead whom they sought, yet was not the hope 
of the Resurrection quenched. And the Angel says to them again, Fear not 
ye; I say not to the soldiers, fear not, but to you; as for them, let them be 
afraid, that, taught by experience, they may bear witness and say, Truly 



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this was the Son of God; but you ought not to be afraid, for perfect love 
casteth out fear. Go, tell His disciples that He is risen; and the rest. And 
they depart with joy, yet full of fear; is this also written? yes, the second 
Psalm, which relates the Passion of Christ, says, Serve the Lord with fear, 
and rejoice unto Him with trembling.; — rejoice, because of the risen Lord; 
but with trembling, because of the earthquake, and the Angel who 
appeared as lightning. 

14. Though, therefore, Chief Priests and Pharisees through Pilate's means 
sealed the tomb; yet the women beheld Him who was risen. And Esaias 
knowing the feebleness of the Chief Priests, and the women's strength of 
faith, says, Ye women, who come from beholding, come hither; for the 
people hath no understanding; — the Chief Priests want understanding, 
while women are eye-witnesses. And when the soldiers came into the city 
to them, and told them all that had come to pass, they said to them, Say 
ye, His disciples came by night, and stole Him away while we slept? Well 
therefore did Esaias foretell this also, as in their persons, But tell us, and 
relate to us another deceit. He who rose again, is up, and for a gift of 
money they persuade the soldiers; but they persuade not the kings of our 
time. The soldiers then surrendered the truth for silver; but the kings of 
this day have, in their piety, built this holy Church of the Resurrection of 
God our Savior, inlaid with silver and wrought with gold, in which we are 
assembled; and embellished it with the treasures of silver and gold and 
precious stones. And it this come to the governor's ears, they say, we will 
persuade him. Yea, though ye persuade the soldiers, yet ye will not 
persuade the world; for why, as Peter's guards were condemned when he 
escaped out of the prison, were not they also who watched Jesus Christ 
condemned? Upon the former, sentence was pronounced by Herod, for 
they were ignorant and had nothing to say for themselves; while the latter, 
who had seen the truth, and concealed it for money, were protected by the 
Chief Priests. Nevertheless, though but a few of the Jews were persuaded 
at the time, the world became obedient. They who hid the truth were 
themselves hidden; but they who received it were made manifest by the 
power of the Savior, who not only rose from the dead, but also raised the 
dead with Himself. And in the person of these the Prophet Osee says 
plainly, After two days will He revive us, and in the third day we shall rise 
again, and shall live in His sight. 



270 

15. But since the disobedient Jews will not be persuaded by the Divine 
Scriptures, but forgetting all that is written gainsay the Resurrection of 
Jesus, it were good to answer them thus: On what ground, while you say 
that Eliseus and Elias raised the dead, do you gainsay the Resurrection of 
our Savior? Is it that we have no living witnesses now out of that 
generation to what we say? Well, do you also bring forward witnesses of 
the history of that time. But that is written; — so is this also written: why 
then do ye receive the one, and reject the other? They were Hebrews who 
wrote that history; so were all the Apostles Hebrews: why then do ye 
disbelieve the Jews? Matthew who wrote the Gospel wrote it in the 
Hebrew tongue; and Paul the preacher was a Hebrew of the Hebrews; and 
the twelve Apostles were all of Hebrew race: then fifteen Bishops of 
Jerusalem were appointed in succession from among the Hebrews. What 
then is your reason for allowing your own accounts, and rejecting ours, 
though these also are written by Hebrews from among yourselves. 

16. But it is impossible, some one will say, that the dead should rise; and 
yet Eliseus twice raised the dead, — when he was alive, and also when 
dead. Do we then believe, that when Eliseus was dead, a dead man who 
was cast upon him and touched him, arose and is Christ not risen? But in 
that case, the dead man who touched Eliseus, arose, yet he who raised him 
continued nevertheless dead: but in this case both the Dead of whom we 
speak Himself arose, and many dead were raised without having even 
touched Him. For many bodies of the Saints which slept arose, and they 
came out of the graves after His Resurrection, and went into the Holy City, 
(evidently this city, in which we now are,) and appeared unto many. 
Eliseus then raised a dead man, but he conquered not the world; Elias 
raised a dead man, but devils are not driven away in the name of Elias. We 
are not speaking evil of the Prophets, but we are celebrating their Master 
more highly; for we do not exalt our own wonders by disparaging theirs; 
for theirs also are ours; but by what happened among them, we win 
credence for our own. 

17. But again they say, "A corpse then lately dead was raised by the 
living; but shew us that one three days dead can possibly arise, and that a 
man should be buried, and rise after three days." If we seek for Scripture 
testimony in proof of such facts, the Lord Jesus Christ Himself supplies it 
in the Gospels, saying, For as Jonas was three days and three nights in the 



271 

whale's belly; so shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in the 
heart of the earth. And when we examine the story of Jonas, great is the 
force of the resemblance. Jesus was sent to preach repentance; Jonas also 
was sent: but whereas the one fled, not knowing what should come to 
pass; the other came willingly, to give repentance unto salvation. Jonas 
was asleep in the ship, and snoring amidst the stormy sea; while Jesus also 
slept, the sea, according to God's providence, began to rise, to shew in the 
sequel the might of Him who slept. To the one they said, Why art thou 
snoring? Arise, call upon thy God, that God may save us; but in the other 
case they say unto the Master, Lord, save us. Then they said, Call upon 
thy God; here they say, save Thou. But the one says, Take me, and cast 
me into the sea; so shall the sea be calm unto you; the other, Himself 
rebuked the winds and the sea, and there was a great calm. The one was 
cast into a whale's belly: but the other of His own accord went down 
thither, where the invisible whale of death is. And He went down of His 
own accord, that death might cast up those whom he had devoured, 
according to that which is written, / will ransom them from the power of 
the grave; and from the hand of death I will redeem them. 

18. At this point of our discourse, let us consider whether is harder, for a 
man after having been buried to rise again from the earth, or for a man in 
the belly of a whale, having come into the great heat of a living creature, to 
escape corruption. For what man knows not, that the heat of the belly is 
so great, that even bones which have been swallowed molder away? How 
then did Jonas, who was three days and three nights in the whale's belly, 
escape corruption? And, seeing that the nature of all men is such that we 
cannot live without breathing, as we do, in air, how did he live without a 
breath of this air for three days? But the Jews make answer and say, The 
power of God descended with Jonas when he was tossed about in hell. 
Does then the Lord grant life to His own servant, by sending His power 
with him, and can He not grant it to Himself as well? If that is credible, 
this is credible also; if this is incredible, that also is incredible. For to me 
both are alike worthy of credence. I believe that Jonas was preserved,/or 
all things are possible with God; I believe that Christ also was raised from 
the dead; for I bare many testimonies of this, both from the Divine 
Scriptures, and 1 from the operative power even at this day of Him who 
arose, — who descended into hell alone, but ascended thence with a great 



272 

company; for He went down to death, and many bodies of the saints which 
slept arose through Him. 

19. Death was struck with dismay on beholding a new visitant descend 
into Hades, not bound by the chains of that place. Wherefore, O porters of 
Hades, were ye scared at sight of Him? What was the unwonted fear that 
possessed your? Death fled, and his flight betrayed his cowardice. The 
holy prophets ran unto Him, and Moses the Lawgiver, and Abraham, and 
sane, and Jacob; David also, and Samuel, and Esaias, and John the Baptist, 
who bore witness when he asked, Art Thou He that should come, or look 
we for another! All the Just were ransomed, whom death had swallowed; 
for it behooved the King whom they had proclaimed, to become the 
redeemer of His noble heralds. Then each of the Just said, O death, where 
is thy victory? O grave, where is thy sting! For the Conqueror hath 
redeemed us. 

20. Of this our Savior the Prophet Jonas formed the type, when he prayed 
out of the belly of the whale, and said, / cried in my affliction, and so on; 
out of the belly of hell, and yet he was in the whale; but though in the 
whale, he says that he is in Hades; for he was a type of Christ, who was 
to descend into Hades. And after a few words, he says, in the person of 
Christ, prophesying most clearly, My head went down to the chasms of the 
mountains; and yet he was in the belly of the whale. What mountains then 
encompass thee? I know, he says, that I am a type of Him, who is to be 
laid in the Sepulcher hewn out of the rock. And though he was in the sea, 
Jonas says, / went down to the earth, since he was a type of Christ, who 
went down into the heart of the earth. And foreseeing the deeds of the 
Jews who persuaded the soldiers to lie, and told them, Say that they stole 
Him away, he says, By regarding lying vanities they forsook their own 
mercy. For He who had mercy on them came, and was crucified, and rose 
again, giving His own precious blood both for Jews and Gentiles; yet say 
they, Say that they stole Him away, having regard to lying vanities. But 
concerning His Resurrection, Esaias also says, He who brought up from 
the earth the great Shepherd of the sheep; he added the word, great, lest He 
should be thought on a level with the shepherds who had gone before Him. 

21. Since then we have the prophecies, let faith abide with us. Let them 
fall who fall through unbelief, since they so will; but thou hast taken thy 



273 

stand on the rock of the faith in the Resurrection. Let no heretic ever 
persuade thee to speak evil of the Resurrection. For to this day the 
Manichees say, that, the resurrection of the Savior was phantom- wise, and 
not real, not heeding Paul who says, Who was made of the seed of David 
according to the flesh; and again, By the resurrection of Jesus Christ our 
Lord from the dead. And again he aims at them, and speaks thus, Say not 
in thine heart, who shall ascend into heaven; or who shall descend into the 
deep I that is, to bring up Christ from the dead; and in like manner warning 
as he has elsewhere written again, Remember Jesus Christ raised from the 
dead; and again, And if Christ be not risen, then is our preaching vain, and 
your faith also vain. Yea, and we are found false witnesses of God; because 
we testified of God that He raised up Christ, whom He raised not up. But 
in what follows he says, But now is Christ risen from the dead, the first 
fruits of them that are asleep; — And He was seen of Cephas, then of the 
twelve; (for if thou believe not the one witness, thou hast twelve 
witnesses;) then He was seen of above five hundred brethren at once; (if 
they disbelieve the twelve, let them admit the five hundred;) after that He 
was seen of James, His own brother, and first Bishop of this diocese. 
Seeing then that such a Bishop originally saw Christ Jesus when risen, do 
not thou, his disciple, disbelieve him. But thou sayest that His brother 
James was a partial witness; afterwards He was seen also of me Paul, His 
enemy; and what testimony is doubted, when an enemy proclaims it? "I, 
who was before a persecutor, now preach the glad tidings of the 
Resurrection." 

22. Many witnesses there are of the Savior's resurrection. — The night, 
and the light of the full moon; (for that night was the sixteenth;) the rock 
of the sepulcher which received Him; the stone also shall rise up against 
the face of the Jews, for it saw the Lord; even the stone which was then 
rolled away, itself bears witness to the Resurrection, lying there to this 
day. Angels of God who were present testified of the Resurrection of the 
Only -begotten: Peter and John, and Thomas, and all the rest of the 
Apostles; some of whom ran to the sepulcher, and saw the burial-clothes, 
in which He was wrapped before, lying there after the Resurrection; and 
others handled His hands and His feet, and beheld the prints of the nails; 
and all enjoyed together that Breath of the Savior, and were counted 
worthy to forgive sins in the power of the Holy Ghost. Women too were 



274 

witnesses, who took hold of His feet, and who beheld the mighty 
earthquake, and the radiance of the Angel who stood by: the linen clothes 
also which were wrapped about Him, and which He left when He rose; — 
the soldiers, and the money given to them; the spot itself also, yet to be 
seen; — and this house of the holy Church, which out of the loving 
affection to Christ of the Emperor Constantine of blessed memory, was 
both built and beautified as thou seest. 

23. A witness to the resurrection of Jesus is Tabitha also, who was in His 
name raised from the dead; for how shall we disbelieve that Christ is risen, 
when even His Name raised the dead? The sea also bears witness to the 
resurrection of Jesus, as thou hast heard before. The drought of fishes also 
testifies, and the fire of coals there, and the fish laid thereon. Peter also 
bears witness, who had erst denied Him thrice, and who then thrice 
confessed Him; and was commanded to feed His spiritual sheep. To this 
day stands Mount Olivet, still to the eyes of the faithful all but displaying 
Him Who ascended on a cloud, and the heavenly gate of His ascension. For 
from heaven He descended to Bethlehem, but to heaven He ascended from 
the Mount of Olives; at the former place beginning His conflicts among 
men, but in the latter, crowned after them. Thou hast therefore many 
witnesses; thou hast this very place of the Resurrection; thou hast also the 
place of the Ascension towards the east; thou hast also for witnesses the 
Angels which there bore testimony; and the cloud on which He went up, 
and the disciples who came down from that place. 

24. The course of instruction in the Faith would lead me to speak of the 
Ascension also; but the grace of God so ordered it, that thou heardest most 
fully concerning it, as far as our weakness allowed, yesterday, on the 
Lord's day; since, by the providence of divine grace, the course of the 
Lessons in Church included the account of our Saviorfs going up into the 
heavens; and what was then said was spoken principally for the sake of 
all, and for the assembled body of the faithful, yet especially for thy sake. 
But the question is, didst thou attend to what was said? For thou knowest 
that the words which come next in the Creed teach thee to believe in Him 
"Who Rose Again The Third Day, And Ascended Into Heaven, And 
Sat Down On The Right Hand OfThe Father." I suppose then 
certainly that thou rememberest the exposition; yet I will now again 
cursorily put thee in mind of what was then said. Remember what is 



275 

distinctly written in the Psalms, God is gone up with a shout, remember 
that the divine powers also said to one another, Lift up your gates, ye 
Princes, and the rest; remember also the Psalm which says, He ascended 
on high, He led captivity captive; remember the Prophet who said, Who 
buildeth His ascension unto heaven; and all the other particulars mentioned 
yesterday because of the gainsaying of the Jews. 

25. For when they speak against the ascension of the Savior, as being 
impossible, remember the account of the carrying away of Habakkuk: for 
if Habakkuk was transported by an Angel, being carried by the hair of his 
head, much rather was the Lord of both Prophets and Angels, able by His 
own power to make His ascent into the Heavens on a cloud from the 
Mount of Olives. Wonders like this thou mayest call to mind, but reserve 
the preeminence for the Lord, the Worker of wonders; for the others were 
borne up, but He bears up all things. Remember that Enoch was translated; 
but Jesus ascended: remember what was said yesterday concerning Elias, 
that Elias was taken up in a chariot of fire; but that the chariots of Christ 
are ten thousand-fold even thousands upon thousands: and that Elias was 
taken up, towards the east of Jordan; but that Christ ascended at the east 
of the brook Cedron: and that Elias went as into heaven; but Jesus, into 
heaven: and that Elias said that a double portion in the Holy Spirit should 
be given to his holy disciple; but that Christ granted to His own disciples 
so great enjoyment of the grace of the Holy Ghost, as not only to have It 
in themselves, but also, by the laying on of their hands, to impart the 
fellowship of It to them who believed. 

26. And when thou hast thus wrestled against the Jews, — when thou 
hast worsted them by parallel instances, then come further to the 
pre-eminence of the Savior's glory; namely, that they were the servants, 
but He the Son of God. And thus thou wilt be reminded of His 
pre-eminence, by the thought that a servant of Christ was caught up to the 
third heaven. For if Elias attained as far as the first heaven, but Paul as far 
as the third, the latter, therefore, has obtained a more honorable dignity. Be 
not ashamed of thine Apostles; they are not inferior to Moses, nor second 
to the Prophets; but they are noble among the noble, yea, nobler still. For 
Elias truly was taken up into heaven; but Peter Has the keys of the 
kingdom of heaven, having received the words, Whatsoever thou shah 
loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. Elias was taken up only to 



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heaven; but Paul both into heaven, and into paradise (for it behooved the 
disciples of Jesus to receive more manifold grace), and heard unspeakable 
words, which it is not lawful far than to utter. But Paul came down again 
from above, not because he was unworthy to abide in the third heaven, but 
in order that after having enjoyed things above man's reach, and descended 
in honor, and having preached Christ, and died for His sake, he might 
receive also the crown of martyrdom. But I pass over the other parts of 
this argument, of which I spoke yesterday in the Lord's-day congregation; 
for with understanding hearers, a mere reminder is sufficient for 
instruction. 

27. But remember also what I have often said concerning the Son's sitting 
at the right hand of the Father; because of the next sentence in the Creed, 
which says, "And Ascended Into Heaven, And Sat Down AtThe 
Right Hand Of The Father." Let us not curiously pry into what is 
properly meant by the throne; for it is incomprehensible: but neither let us 
endure those who falsely say, that it was after His Cross and Resurrection 
and Ascension into heaven, that the Son began to sit on the right hand of 
the Father. For the Son gained not His throne by advancement; but 
throughout His being (and His being is by an eternal generation) He also 
sitteth together with the Father. And this throne the Prophet Esaias having 
beheld before the incarnate coming of the Savior, says, / saw the Lord 
sitting on a throne, high and lifted up, and the rest. For the Father no man 
hath seen at any time, and He who then appeared to the Prophet was the 
Son. The Psalmist also says, Thy throne is prepared of old; Thou art from 
everlasting. Though then the testimonies on this point are many, yet 
because of the lateness of the time, we will content ourselves even with 
these. 

28. But now I must remind you of a few things out of many which are 
spoken concerning the Son's sitting at the right hand of the Father. For the 
hundred and ninth Psalm says plainly, The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit 
Thou on My right hand, until I make Thine enemies Thy footstool. And the 
Savior, confirming this saying in the Gospels, says that David spoke not 
these things of himself, but from the inspiration of the Holy Ghost, 
saying, How then doth David in the Spirit call Him Lord, saying, The 
Lord said unto my Lord, Sit Thou on My right handl and the rest. And in 
the Acts of the Apostles, Peter on the day of Pentecost standing with the 



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Eleven; and discoursing to the Israelites, has in very words cited this 
testimony from the hundred and ninth Psalm. 

29. But I must remind you also of a few other testimonies in like manner 
concerning the Son's sitting at the right hand of the Father. For in the 
Gospel according to Matthew it is written, Nevertheless, I say unto you, 
Henceforth ye shall see the Son of Man sitting on the right hand of power, 
and the rest: in accordance with which the Apostle Peter also writes, By 
the Resurrection of Jesus Christ, who is on the right hand of God, having 
gone into heaven. And the Apostle Paul, writing to the Romans, says, It is 
Christ that died, yea rather, that is risen again, who is even at the right 
hand of God. And charging the Ephesians, he thus speaks, According to 
the working of His mighty power, which He wrought in Christ when He 
raised Him from the dead, and set Him at His own right hand; and the 
rest. And the Colossians he taught thus, If ye then be risen with Christ, 
seek the things above, where Christ is seated at the right hand of God. And 
in the Epistle to the Hebrews he says, When He had made purification of 
our sins, He sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high. And again, 
But unto which of the Angels hath He said at any time, Sit thou at My right 
hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool? And again, But He, when He 
had offered one sacrifice for all men, far ever sat down on the right hand of 
God; from henceforth expecting till His enemies be made His footstool. 
And again, Looking unto Jesus, the author and perfecter of our faith; Who 
for the joy that was set before Him endured the Cross, despising shame, 
and is set down an the right hand of the throne of God. 

30. And though there are many other texts concerning the session of the 
Only-begotten on the right hand of God, yet these may suffice us at 
present; with a repetition of my remark, that it was not after His coming 
in the flesh that He obtained the dignity of this seat; no, for even before all 
ages, the Only-begotten Son of God, our Lord Jesus Christ, ever possesses 
the throne on the right hand of the Father. Now may He Himself, the God 
of all, who is Father of the Christ, and our Lord Jesus Christ, who came 
down, and ascended, and sitteth together with the Father, watch over your 
souls; keep unshaken and unchanged your hope in Him who rose again; 
raise you together with Him from your dead sins unto His heavenly gift; 
count you worthy to be caught up in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the 
air, in His fitting time; and, until that time arrive of His glorious second 



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advent, write all your names in the Book of the living, and having written 
them, never blot them out (for the names of many, who fall away, are 
blotted out); and may He grant to all of you to believe on Him who rose 
again, and to look for Him who is gone up, and is to come again, (to come, 
but not from the earth; for be on your guard, O man, because of the 
deceivers who are to come;) Who sitteth on high, and is here present 
together with us, beholding the order of each, and the steadfastness of his 
faith. For think not that because He is now absent in the flesh, He is 
therefore absent also in the Spirit. He is here present in the midst of us, 
listening to what is said of Him, and beholding thine inward thoughts, and 
trying the reins and hearts; — who also is now ready to present those 
who are coming to baptism, and all of you, in the Holy Ghost to the 
Father, and to say, Behold, I and the children whom God hath given Me: 
— To whom be glory for ever. Amen. 



279 



LECTURE 15 

ON THE CLAUSE, AND SHALL COME IN GLORY TO JUDGE 
THE QUICK AND THE DEAD; OF WHOSE KINGDOM THERE 

SHALL BE NO END, 



DANIEL 7:9-14. 

/ beheld till thrones were placed, and one that was ancient of days did sit, 
and then, I saw in a vision of the night, and behold one like unto the Son of Man 

came with the clouds of heaven, 

1. We preach not one advent only of Christ, but a second also, far more 
glorious than the former. For the former gave a view of His patience; but 
the latter brings with it the crown of a divine kingdom. For all things, for 
the most part, are twofold in our Lord Jesus Christ: a twofold generation; 
one, of God, before the ages; and one, of a Virgin, at the close of the ages: 
His descents twofold; one, the unobserved, like rain on a fleece; and a 
second His open coming, which is to be. In His former advent, He was 
wrapped in swaddling clothes in the manger; in His second, He covereth 
Himself with light as with a garment. In His first coming, He endured the 
Cross, despising shame ; in His second, He comes attended by a host of 
Angels, receiving glory. We rest not then upon His first advent only, but 
look also for His second. And as at His first coming we said, Blessed is fire 
that cometh in the Name of the Lord, so will we repeat the same at His 
second coming; that when with Angels we meet our Master, we may 
worship Him and say, Blessed is He that cometh in the Name of the Lord. 
The Savior comes, not to be judged again, but to judge them who judged 
Him; He who before held His peace when judged, shall remind the 
transgressors who did those daring deeds at the Cross, and shall say, These 
things hast thou done, and I kept silence. Then, He came because of a 
divine dispensation, teaching men with persuasion; but this time they will 
of necessity have Him for their King, even though they wish it not. 

2. And concerning these two comings, Malachi the Prophet says, And the 
Lord whom ye seek shall suddenly come to His temple; behold one coming. 



280 

And again of the second coming he says, And the Messenger of the 
covenant whom ye delight in. Behold, He cometh, saith the Lord Almighty. 
But who shall abide the day of His coming ? or who shall stand when He 
appear eth? Because fire cometh in like a refiner's fire, and like fullers' 
herb; and fire shall sit as a refiner and purifier. And immediately after the 
Savior Himself says, And I will draw near to you in judgment; and I will be 
a swift witness against the sorcerers, and against the adulteresses, and 
against those who swear falsely in My Name, and the rest. For this cause 
Paul warning us beforehand says, If any man buildeth on the foundation 
gold, and silver, and precious stones, wood, hay, stubble; every man 's 
work shall be made manifest; for the day shall declare it, because it shall 
be revealed in fire. Paul also knew these two comings, when writing to 
Titus and saying, The grace of God hath appeared which bringeth 
salvation unto all men, instructing us that, denying ungodliness and 
worldly lusts, we should live soberly, and godly, and righteously in this 
present world; looking for the blessed hope, and appearing of the glory of 
the great God and our Savior Jesus Christ. Thou seest how he spoke of a 
first, for which he gives thanks; and of a second, to which we look 
forward. Therefore the words also of the Faith which we are announcing 
were just now delivered thus; that we believe in Him, who also Ascended 
Into The Heavens, And Sat Down On The Right Hand OfThe 
Father And Shall Come In Glory To Judge Quick And Dead; 
Whose Kingdom Shall Have No End. 



3. Our Lord Jesus Christ, then, comes from heaven; and He comes with 
glory at the end of this world, in the last day. For of this world there is to 
be an end, and this created world is to be remade anew. For since 
corruption, and theft, and adultery, and every sort of sins have been 
poured forth over the earth, and blood has been mingled with blood in the 
world, therefore, that this wondrous dwelling-place may not remain filled 
with iniquity, this world passeth away, that the fairer world may be made 
manifest. And wouldest thou receive the proof of this out of the words of 
Scripture? Listen to Esaias, saying, And the heaven shall be rolled together 
as a scroll; and all the stars shall fall, as leaves from a vine, and as leaves 
fall from a fig-tree. The Gospel also says, The sun shall be darkened, and 
the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven. Let 



281 

us not sorrow, as if we alone died; the stars also shall die; but perhaps rise 
again. And the Lord rolleth up the heavens, not that He may destroy them, 
but that He may raise them up again more beautiful. Hear David the 
Prophet saying, Thou, Lord, in the beginning didst lay the foundations of 
the earth, and the heavens are the work of Thy hands; they shall perish, 
but Thou remainest. But some one will say, Behold, he says plainly that 
they shall perish. Hear in what sense he says, they shall perish; it is plain 
from what follows; And they all shall was old as doth a garment; and as a 
vesture shalt. Thou fold them up, and they shall be changed. For as a man 
is said to "perish," according to that which is written, Behold, how the 
righteous perisheth, and no man layeth it to heart, and this, though the 
resurrection is looked for; so we look for a resurrection, as it were, of the 
heavens also. The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into 
blood. Here let converts from the Manichees gain instruction, and no 
longer make those lights their gods; nor impiously think, that this sun 
which shall be darkened is Christ. And again hear the Lord saying, Heaven 
and earth shall pass away, but My words shall not pass away; for the 
creatures are not as precious as the Master's words. 

4. The things then which are seen shall pass away, and there shall come 
the things which are looked for, things fairer than the present; but as to the 
time let no one be curious. For/? is not for you, He says, to know times or 
seasons, which the Father hath put in His own power. And venture not 
thou to declare when these things shall be, nor on the other hand supinely 
slumber. For he saith, Watch, for in such an hour as ye expect not the Son 
of Man cometh. But since it was needful for us to know the signs of the 
end, and since we are looking for Christ, therefore, that we may not die 
deceived and be led astray by that false Antichrist, the Apostles, moved 
by the divine will, address themselves by a providential arrangement to the 
True Teacher, and say, Tell us, when shall these things be, and what shall 
be the sign of Thy coming, and of the end of the world? We look for Thee 
to come again, but Satan transforms himself into an Angel of light; put us 
therefore on our guard, that we may not worship another instead of Thee. 
And He, opening His divine and blessed mouth, says, Take heed that no 
man mislead you. Do you also, my hearers, as seeing Him now with the 
eyes of your mind, hear Him saying the same things to you; Take heed 
that no man mislead you. And this word exhorts you all to give heed to 



282 

what is spoken; for it is not a history of things gone by, but a prophecy of 
things future, and which will surely come. Not that we prophesy, for we 
are unworthy; but that the things which are written will be set before you, 
and the signs declared. Observe thou, which of them have already come to 
pass, and which yet remain; and make thyself safe. 

5. Take heed that no man mislead you: for many shall come in My name, 
saying, I am Christ, and shall mislead many. This has happened in part: 
for already Simon Magus has said this, and Menander, and some others of 
the godless leaders of heresy; and others will say it in our days, or after us. 

6. A second sign. And ye shall hear of wars and rumors of wars. Is there 
then at this time war between Persians and Romans for Mesopotamia, or 
no? Does nation rise up against nation and kingdom against kingdom, or 
no? And there shall be famines and pestilences and earthquakes in divers 
places. These things have already come to pass; and again, And fearful 
sights from heaven, and mighty storms. Watch therefore, He says; for ye 
know not at what hour your Lord doth come. 

7. But we seek our own sign of His coming; we Churchmen seek a sign 
proper to the Church. And the Savior says, And then shall many be 
offended, and shall betray one another, and shall hate one another. If thou 
hear that bishops advance against bishops, and clergy against clergy, and 
laity against laity even unto blood, be not troubled; for it has been written 
before. Heed not the things now happening, but the things which are 
written; and even though I who teach thee perish, thou shalt not also 
perish with me; nay, even a hearer may become better than his teacher, and 
he who came last may be first, since even those about the eleventh hour 
the Master receives. If among Apostles there was found treason, dost thou 
wonder that hatred of brethren is found among bishops? But the sign 
concerns not only rulers, but the people also; for He says, And because 
iniquity shall abound, the love of the many shall wax cold. Will any then 
among those present boast that he entertains friendship unfeigned towards 
his neighbor? Do not the lips often kiss, and the countenance smile, and 
the eyes brighten forsooth, while the heart is planning guile, and the man is 
plotting mischief with words of peace? 

8. Thou hast this sign also: And this Gospel of the kingdom shall be 
preached in all the world for a witness unto all nations, and then shall the 



283 

end come. And as we see, nearly the whole world is now filled with the 
doctrine of Christ. 

9. And what comes to pass after this? He says next, When therefore ye see 
the abomination of desolation, which was spoken of by Daniel the Prophet, 
standing in the Holy Place, let him that readeth understand. And again, 
Then if any man shall say unto you, Lo, here is the Christ, or, Lo, there; 
believe it not. Hatred of the brethren makes room next for Antichrist; for 
the devil prepares beforehand the divisions among the people, that he who 
is to come may be acceptable to them. But God forbid that any of Christ's 
servants here, or elsewhere, should run over to the enemy! Writing 
concerning this matter, the Apostle Paul gave a manifest sign, saying, For 
that day shall not come, except there came first the falling away, and the 
man of sin be revealed, the son of perdition, who opposeth and exalteth 
himself against all that is called God, or that is worshipped; so that he 
sitteth in the temple of God, shewing himself that he is God. Remember ye 
not that when I was yet with you, I told you these things? And now ye know 
that which restraineth, to the end that he may be revealed in his own 
season. For the mystery of iniquity cloth already work, only there is one 
that restraineth now, until he be taken out of the way. And then shall the 
lawless one be revealed, whom the Lord Jesus shall slay with the breath of 
His mouth, and shall destroy with the brightness of His coming. Even him, 
whose coming is after the working of Satan, with all power and signs and 
lying wonders, and with all deceit of unrighteousness for them that are 
perishing. Thus wrote Paul, and now is the falling away. For men have 
fallen away from the right faith; and some preach the identity of the Son 
with the Father, and others dare to say that Christ was brought into being 
out of nothing. And formerly the heretics were manifest; but now the 
Church is filled with heretics in disguise. For men have fallen away from 
the truth, and have itching ears. Is it a plausible discourse? all listen to it 
gladly. Is it a word of correction? all turn away from it. Most have 
departed from right words, and rather choose the evil, than desire the good. 
This therefore is the falling away, and the enemy is soon to be looked for: 
and meanwhile he has in part begun to send forth his own forerunners, that 
he may then come prepared upon the prey. Look therefore to thyself, O 
man, and make safe thy soul. The Church now charges thee before the 
Living God; she declares to thee the things concerning Antichrist before 



284 

they arrive. Whether they will happen in thy time we know not, or 
whether they will happen after thee we know not; but it is well that, 
knowing these things, thou shouldest make thyself secure beforehand. 

10. The true Christ, the Only-begotten Son of God, comes no more from 
the earth. If any come making false shows in the wilderness, go not forth; 
if they say, Lo, here is the Christ, Lo, there, believe it not. Look no longer 
downwards and to the earth; for the Lord descends from heaven; not alone 
as before, but with many, escorted by tens of thousands of Angels; nor 
secretly as the dew on the fleece; but shining forth openly as the lightning. 
For He hath said Himself, As the lightning cometh out of the east, and 
shineth even unto the west, so shall also the coming of the Son of Man be; 
and again, And they shall see the Son of Man coming upon the clouds with 
power and great glory, and He shall send forth His Angels with a great 
trumpet; and the rest. 

11. But as, when formerly He was to take man's nature, and God was 
expected to be born of a Virgin, the devil created prejudice against this, by 
craftily preparing among idol-worshippers fables of false gods, begetting 
and begotten of women, that, the falsehood having come first, the truth, as 
he supposed, might be disbelieved; so now, since the true Christ is to 
come a second time, the adversary, taking occasion by the expectation of 
the simple, and especially of them of the circumcision, brings in a certain 
man who is a magician, and most expert in sorceries and enchantments of 
beguiling craftiness; who shall seize for himself the power of the Roman 
empire, and shall falsely style himself Christ; by this name of Christ 
deceiving the Jews, who are looking for the Anointed, and seducing those 
of the Gentiles by his magical illusions. 

12. But this aforesaid Antichrist is to come when the times of the Roman 
empire shall have been fulfilled, and the end of the world is now drawing 
near. There shall rise up together ten kings of the Romans, reigning in 
different parts perhaps, but all about the same time; and after these an 
eleventh, the Antichrist, who by his magical craft shall seize upon the 
Roman power; and of the kings who reigned before him, three he shall 
humble, and the remaining seven he shall keep in subjection to himself. At 
first indeed he will put on a show of mildness (as though he were a learned 
and discreet person), and of soberness and benevolence: and by the lying 



285 

signs and wonders of his magical deceit a having beguiled the Jews, as 
though he were the expected Christ, he shall afterwards be characterized 
by all kinds of crimes of inhumanity and lawlessness, so as to outdo all 
unrighteous and ungodly men who have gone before him displaying against 
all men, but especially against us Christians, a spirit murderous and most 
cruel, merciless and crafty. And after perpetrating such things for three 
years and six months only, he shall be destroyed by the glorious second 
advent from heaven of the only -begotten Son of God, our Lord and Savior 
Jesus, the true Christ, who shall slay Antichrist with the breath of His 
mouth, and shall deliver him over to the fire of hell. 

13. Now these things we teach, not of our own invention, but having 
learned them out of the divine Scriptures used in the Church, and chiefly 
from the prophecy of Daniel just now read; as Gabriel also the Archangel 
interpreted it, speaking thus: The fourth beast shall be a fourth kingdom 
upon earth, which shall surpass all kingdoms. And that this kingdom is 
that of the Romans, has been the tradition of the Church's interpreters. 
For as the first kingdom which became renowned was that of the 
Assyrians, and the second, that of the Medes and Persians together, and 
after these, that of the Macedonians was the third, so the fourth kingdom 
now is that of the Romans. Then Gabriel goes on to interpret, saying, His 
ten horns are ten kings that shall arise; and another king shall rise up 
after them, who shall surpass in wickedness all who were before him; (he 
says, not only the ten, but also all who have been before him;) and he shall 
subdue three kings; manifestly out of the ten former kings: but it is plain 
that by subduing three of these ten, he will become the eighth king; and he 
shall speak words against the Most High. A blasphemer the man is and 
lawless, not having received the kingdom from his fathers, but having 
usurped the power by means of sorcery. 

14. And who is this, and from what sort of working? Interpret to us, O 
Paul. Whose coming, he says, is after the working of Satan, with all power 
and signs and lying wonders; implying, that Satan has used him as an 
instrument, working in his own person through him; for knowing that his 
judgment shall now no longer have respite, he wages war no more by his 
ministers, as is his wont, but henceforth by himself more openly. And 
with all signs and lying wonders; for the father of falsehood will make a 
show of the works of falsehood, that the multitudes may think that they 



286 

see a dead man raised, who is not raised, and lame men walking, and blind 
men seeing, when the cure has not been wrought. 

15. And again he says, Who opposeth and exalteth himself against all that 
is called God, or that is worshipped; (against every God; Antichrist 
forsooth will abhor the idols,) so that he seateth himself in the temple of 
God. What temple then? He means, the Temple of the Jews which has 
been destroyed. For God forbid that it should be the one in which we are! 
Why say we this? That we may not be supposed to favor ourselves. For if 
he comes to the Jews as Christ, and desires to be worshipped by the Jews, 
he will make great account of the Temple, that he may more completely 
beguile them; making it supposed that he is the man of the race of David, 
who shall build up the Temple which was erected by Solomon. And 
Antichrist will come at the time when there shall not be left one stone 
upon another in the Temple of the Jews, according to the doom 
pronounced by our Savior; for when, either decay of time, or demolition 
ensuing on pretense of new buildings, or from any other causes, shall have 
overthrown all the stones, I mean not merely of the outer circuit, but of 
the inner shrine also, where the Cherubim were, then shall he come with all 
signs and lying wonders, exalting himself against all idols; at first indeed 
making a pretense of benevolence, but afterwards displaying his relentless 
temper, and that chiefly against the Saints of God. For he says, / beheld, 
and the same horn made war with the saints; and again elsewhere, there 
shall be a time of trouble, such as never was since there was a nation upon 
earth, even to that same time. Dreadful is that beast, a mighty dragon, 
unconquerable by man, ready to devour; concerning whom though we have 
more things to speak out of the divine Scriptures, yet we will content 
ourselves at present with thus much, in order to keep within compass. 

16. For this cause the Lord knowing the greatness of the adversary grants 
indulgence to the godly, saying, Then let them which be in Judaea flee to 
the mountains. But if any man is conscious that he is very stout-hearted, 
to encounter Satan, let him stand (for I do not despair of the Church's 
nerves), and let him say, Who shall separate us from the love of Christ and 
the rest! But, let those of us who are fearful provide for our own safety; 
and those who are of a good courage, stand fast: for then shall be great 
tribulation, such as hath not been from the beginning of the world until 
now, no, nor ever shall be. But thanks be to God who hath confined the 



287 

greatness of that tribulation to a few days; for He says, But for the elect's 
sake those days shall be shortened; and Antichrist shall reign for three 
years and a half only. We speak not from apocryphal books, but from 
Daniel; for he says, And they shall be given into his hand until a time and 
times and half a time. A time is the one year in which his coming shall for a 
while have increase; and the times are the remaining two years of iniquity, 
making up the sum of the three years; and the half a time is the six months. 
And again in another place Daniel says the same thing, And he swear by 
Him that livethfor ever that it shall be for a time, and times, and half a 
time. And some peradventure have referred what follows also to this; 
namely, a thousand two hundred and ninety days; and this, Blessed is he 
that endureth and cometh to the thousand three hundred and five and thirty 
days. For this cause we must hide ourselves and flee; for perhaps we shall 
not have gone over the cities of Israel, till the Son of Man be come. 

17. Who then is the blessed man, that shall at that time devoutly witness 
for Christ? For I say that the Martyrs of that time excel all martyrs. For 
the Martyrs hitherto have wrestled with men only; but in the time of 
Antichrist they shall do battle with Satan in his own person. And former 
persecuting kings only put to death; they did not pretend to raise the dead, 
nor did they make false shows of signs and wonders. But in his time there 
shall be the evil inducement both of fear and of deceit, so that if it be 
possible the very elect shall be deceived. Let it never enter into the heart of 
any then alive to ask, "What did Christ more? For by what power does 
this man work these things? Were it not God's will, He would not have 
allowed them." The Apostle warns thee, and says beforehand, And for this 
cause God shall send them a working of error; (send, that is, shall allow 
to happen;) not that they might make excuse, but that they might be 
condemned. Wherefore? They, he says, who believed not the truth, that is, 
the true Christ, but had pleasure in unrighteousness, that is, in Antichrist. 
But as in the persecutions which happen from time to time, so also then 
God will permit these things, not because He wants power to hinder them, 
but because according to His wont He will through patience crown His 
own champions like as He did His Prophets and Apostles; to the end that 
having toiled for a little while they may inherit the eternal kingdom of 
heaven, according to that which Daniel says, And at that time thy people 
shall be delivered, every one that shall be found written in the book 



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(manifestly, the book of life); and many of them that sleep in the dust of the 
earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and same to shame and 
everlasting contempt; and they that be wise shall shine as the brightness of 
the firmament; and of the many righteous, as the stars for ever and ever. 

18. Guard thyself then, O man; thou hast the signs of Antichrist; and 
remember them not only thyself, but impart them also freely to all. If thou 
hast a child according to the flesh, admonish him of this now; if thou hast 
begotten one through catechizing, put him also on his guard, test he receive 
the false one as the True. For the mystery of iniquity doth already work. I 
fear these wars of the nations; I fear the schisms of the Churches; I fear the 
mutual hatred of the brethren. But enough on this subject; only God forbid 
that it should be fulfilled in our days; nevertheless, let us be on our guard. 
And thus much concerning Antichrist. 

19. But let us wait and look for the Lord's coming upon the clouds from 
heaven. Then shall Angelic trumpets sound; the dead in Christ shall rise 
first, — the godly persons who are alive shall be caught up in the clouds, 
receiving as the reward of their labors more than human honor, inasmuch 
as theirs was a more than human strife; according as the Apostle Paul 
writes, saying, For the Lord Himself shall descend from heaven with a 
shout, with the voice of the Archangel, and with the trump of God: and the 
dead in Christ shall rise first. Then we which are alive and remain shall be 
caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air; and 
so shall we ever be with the Lord. 

20. This earning of the Lord, and the end of the world, were known to the 
Preacher; who says, Rejoice, O young man, in thy youth, and the rest; 
Therefore remove anger from thy heart, and put away evil from thy flesh;... 
and remember thy Creator... or ever the evil days come.... or ever the sun, 
and the light, and the moon, and the stars be darkened,.... and they that 
look out of the windows be darkened, (signifying the faculty of sight;) or 
ever the silver cord be loosed; (meaning the assemblage of the stars, for 
their appearance is like silver;) and the flower of gold be broken; (thus 
veiling the mention of the golden sun; for the camomile is a well-known 
plant, having many ray-like leaves shooting out round it;) and they shall 
rise up at the voice of the sparrow, yea, they shall look away from the 
height, and terrors shall be in the way. What shall they see? Then shall 



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they see the Son of man coming on the clouds of heaven; and they shall 
mourn tribe by tribe. And what shall come to pass when the Lord is come? 
The almond tree shall blossom, and the grasshopper shall grow heavy, 
and the caper-berry shall be scattered abroad. And as the interpreters say, 
the blossoming almond signifies the departure of winter; and our bodies 
shall then after the winter blossom with a heavenly flower. And the 
grasshopper shall grow in substance (that means the winged soul clothing 
itself with the body,) and the caper-berry shall be scattered abroad (that 
is, the transgressors who are like thorns shall be scattered.) 

21. Thou seest how they all foretell the coming of the Lord. Thou seest 
how they know the voice of the sparrow. Let us know what sort of voice 
this is. For the Lord Himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with 
the voice of the Archangel, and with the trump of God. The Archangel shall 
make proclamation and say to all, Arise to meet the Lord. And fearful will 
be that descent of our Master. David says, God shall manifestly come, 
even our God, and shall not keep silence; afire shall burn before Him, and 
a fierce tempest round about Him, and the rest. The Son of Man shall 
come to the Father, according to the Scripture which was just now read, on 
the clouds of heaven, drawn by a stream of fire, which is to make trial of 
men. Then if any man's works are of gold, he shall be made brighter; if any 
man's course of life be like stubble, and unsubstantial, it shall be burnt up 
by the fire. And the Father shall sit, having His garment white as snow, 
and the hair of His head like pure wool. But this is spoken after the 
manner of men; wherefore? Because He is the King of those who have not 
been defiled with sins; for, He says, / will make your sins white as snow, 
and as wool, which is an emblem of forgiveness of sins, or of sinlessness 
itself. But the Lord who shall come from heaven on the clouds, is He who 
ascended on the clouds; for He Himself hath said, And they shall see the 
Son of Man coming on the clouds of heaven, with power and great glory. 

22. But what is the sign of His coming? lest a hostile power dare to 
counterfeit it. And then shall appear, He says, the sign of the Son of Man 
in heaven. Now Christ's own true sign is the Cross; a sign of a luminous 
Cross shall go before the King, plainly declaring Him who was formerly 
crucified: that the Jews who before pierced Him and plotted against Him, 
when they see it, may mourn tribe by tribe, saying, "This is He who was 
buffeted, this is He whose face they spat on, this is He whom they bound 



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with chains, this is He whom of old they crucified, and set at nought. 
Whither, they will say, shall we flee from the face of Thy wrath?" But the 
Angel hosts shall encompass them, so that they shall not be able to flee 
anywhere. The sign of the Cross shall be a terror to His foes; but joy to 
His friends who have believed in Him, or preached Him, or suffered for 
His sake. Who then is the happy man, who shall then be found a friend of 
Christ? That King, so great and glorious, attended by the Angel-guards, the 
partner of the Father's throne, will not despise His own servants. For that 
His Elect may not be confused with His foes, He shall send forth His 
Angels with a great trumpet, and they shall gather together His elect from 
the four winds. He despised not Lot, who was but one; how then shall He 
despise many righteous? Come, ye blessed of My Father, will He say to 
them who shall then ride on chariots of clouds, and be assembled by 
Angels. 

23. But some one present will say, "I am a poor man," or again, "I shall 
perhaps be found at that time sick in bed;" or, "I am but a woman, and I 
shall be taken at the mill: shall we then be despised?" Be of good courage, 
O man; the Judge is no respecter of persons; He will not judge according 
to a man 's appearance, nor reprove according to his speech. He honors 
not the learned before the simple, nor the rich before the needy. Though 
thou be in the field, the Angels shall take thee; think not that He will take 
the landowners, and leave thee the husbandman. Though thou be a slave, 
though thou be poor, be not any whir distressed; He who took the form of 
a servant despises not servants. Though thou be lying sick in bed, yet it is 
written, Then shall two be in one bed; the one shall be taken, and the other 
left. Though thou be of compulsion put to grind, whether thou be man or 
woman; though thou be in fetters, and sit beside the mill, yet He who by 
His might bringeth out them that are bound, will not overlook thee. He 
who brought forth Joseph out of slavery and prison to a kingdom, shall 
redeem thee also from thy afflictions into the kingdom of heaven. Only be 
of good cheer, only work, only strive earnestly; for nothing shall be lost. 
Every prayer of thine, every Psalm thou singest is recorded; every 
alms-deed, every fast is recorded; every marriage duly observed is 
recorded; continence kept for God's sake is recorded; but the first crowns 
in the records are those of virginity and purity; and thou shalt shine as an 
Angel. But as thou hast gladly listened to the good things, so listen again 



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without shrinking to the contrary. Every covetous deed of thine is 
recorded; thine every act of fornication is recorded, thine every false oath 
is recorded, every blasphemy, and sorcery, and theft, and murder. All 
these things are henceforth to be recorded, if thou do the same now after 
having been baptized; for thy former deeds are blotted out. 

24. When the Son of Man, He says, shall came in His glory, and all the 
Angels with Him. Behold, O man, before what multitudes thou shalt come 
to judgment. Every race of mankind will then be present. Reckon, 
therefore, bow many are the Roman nation; reckon how many the 
barbarian tribes now living, and how many have died within the last 
hundred years; reckon how many nations have been buried during the last 
thousand years; reckon all from Adam to this day. Great indeed is the 
multitude; but yet it is little, for the Angels are many more. They are the 
ninety and nine sheep, but mankind is the single one. For according to the 
extent of universal space, must we reckon the number of its inhabitants. 
The whole earth is but as a point in the midst of the one heaven, and yet 
contains so great a multitude; what a multitude must the heaven which 
encircles it contain? And must not the heaven of heavens contain 
unimaginable numbers? And it is written, Thousand thousands ministered 
unto Him, and ten thousand times ten thousand stood before Him; not that 
the multitude is only so great, but because the Prophet could not express 
more than these. So there will be present at the judgment in that day, God, 
the Father of all, Jesus Christ being seated with Him, and the Holy Ghost 
present with Them; and an angel' s trumpet shall summon us all to bring 
our deeds with us. Ought we not then from this time forth to be sore 
troubled? Think it not a slight doom, O man, even apart from punishment, 
to be condemned in the presence of so many. Shall we not choose rather to 
die many deaths, than be condemned by friends? 

25. Let us dread then, brethren, lest God condemn us; who needs not 
examination or proofs, to condemn. Say not, In the night I committed 
fornication, or wrought sorcery, or did any other thing, and there was no 
man by. Out of thine own conscience shall thou be judged, thy thoughts 
the meanwhile accusing or else excusing, in the day when God shall judge 
the secrets of men. The terrible countenance of the Judge will force thee to 
speak the truth; or rather, even though thou speak not, it will convict thee. 
For thou shall rise clothed with thine own sins, or else with thy righteous 



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deeds. And this has the Judge Himself declared — for it is Christ who 
judges — for neither doth the Father judge any man, but he hath given all 
judgment unto the Son, not divesting Himself of His power, but judging 
through the Son; the Son therefore judgeth by the wills of the Father; for 
the wills of the Father and of the Son are not different, but one and the 
same. What then says the Judge, as to whether thou shall bear thy works, 
or no? And before Him shall they gather all nations: (for in the presence of 
Christ every knee must bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and 
things under the earth:) and He shall separate them one from another, as 
the shepherd divideth his sheep from the goats. How does the shepherd 
make the separation? Does he examine out of a book which is a sheep and 
which a goat? or does he distinguish by their evident marks? Does not the 
wool show the sheep, and the hairy and rough skin the goat? In like 
manner, if thou hast been just now cleansed from thy sins, thy deeds shall 
be henceforth as pure wool; and thy robe shall remain unstained, and thou 
shall ever say, / have put off my coat, how shall I put it on! By thy vesture 
shall thou be known for a sheep. But if thou be found hairy, like Esau, 
who was rough with hair, and wicked in mind, who for food lost his 
birthright and sold his privilege, thou shall be one of those on the left hand. 
I But God forbid that any here present should be cast out from grace, or 
for evil deeds be found among the ranks of the sinners on the left hand! 

26. Terrible in good truth is the judgment, and terrible the things 
announced. The kingdom of heaven is set before us, and everlasting fire is 
prepared. How then, some one will say, are we to escape the fire? And 
how to enter into the kingdom? / was an hungered, He says, and ye gave 
Me meat. Learn hence the way; there is here no need of allegory, but to 
fulfill what is said. / was an hungered, and ye gave Me meat; I was thirsty, 
and ye gave Me drink; I was a stranger, and ye took Me in; naked, and ye 
clothed Me; I was sick, and ye visited Me; I was in prison, and ye came 
unto Me. These things if thou do, thou shall reign together with Him; but if 
thou do them not, thou shalt be condemned. At once then begin to do 
these works, and abide in the faith; lest, like the foolish virgins, tarrying to 
buy oil, thou be shut out. Be not confident because thou merely 
possessest the lamp, but constantly keep it burning. Let the light of thy 
good works shine before men, and let not Christ be blasphemed on thy 
account. Wear thou a garment of incorruption, resplendent in good works; 



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and whatever matter thou receivest from God to administer as a steward, 
administer profitably. Hast thou been put in trust with riches? Dispense 
them well. Hast thou been entrusted with the word of teaching? Be a good 
steward thereof. Canst thou attach the souls of the hearers? Do this 
diligently. There are many doors of good stewardship. Only let none of us 
be condemned and cast out; that we may with boldness meet Christ the 
Everlasting King, who reigns for ever. For He doth reign for ever, who 
shall be judge of quick and dead, because for quick and dead He died. And 
as Paul says, For to this end Christ both died and lived again, that He 
might be Lord both of the dead and living. 

27. And shouldest thou ever hear any say that the kingdom of Christ shall 
have an end abhor the heresy; it is another head of the dragon, lately 
sprung up in Galatia. A certain one has dared to affirm, that after the end 
of the world Christ shall reign no longer; he has also dared to say, that the 
Word having come forth from the Father shall be again absorbed into the 
Father, and shall be no more; uttering such blasphemies to his own 
perdition. For he has not listened to the Lord, saying, The Son abidethfor 
ever. He has not listened to Gabriel, saying, And He shall reign over the 
house of Jacob for ever, and of His kingdom there shall be no end. 
Consider this text. Heretics of this day teach in disparagement of Christ, 
while Gabriel the Archangel taught the eternal abiding of the Savior; whom 
then wilt thou rather believe? wilt thou not rather give credence to Gabriel? 
Listen to the testimony of Daniel in the text; / saw in a vision of the night, 
and behold, one like the Son of Man came with the clouds of heaven, and 

came to the Ancient of days And to Him was given the honor, and the 

dominion, and the kingdom: and all peoples, tribes, and languages shall 
serve Him; His dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass 
away, and His kingdom shall not be destroyed. These things rather hold 
fast, these things believe, and east away from thee the words of heresy; for 
thou hast heard most plainly of the endless kingdom of Christ. 

28. The like doctrine thou has also in the interpretation of the Stone, which 
was cut out of a mountain without hands, which is Christ according to the 
flesh; And His kingdom shall not be left to another people. David also says 
in one place, Thy throne, O God, is far ever and ever, and in another place, 
Thou, Lord, in the beginning hast laid the foundations of the earth, etc., 



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they shall perish, but Thou remainest, etc.; but Thou art the same, and Thy 
years shall not fail: words which Paul has interpreted of the Son. 

29. And wouldest thou know how they who teach the contrary ran into 
such madness? They read wrongly that good word of the Apostle, For He 
must reign, till He hath put all enemies under His feet; and they say, when 
His enemies shall have been put under His feet, He shall cease to reign, 
wrongly and foolishly alleging this. For He who is king before He has 
subdued His enemies, how shall He not the rather be king, after He has 
gotten the mastery over them. 

30. They have also dared to say that the Scripture, When all things shall 
be subjected unto Him, then shall the Son also Himself be subjected unto 
Him that subjected all things unto Him, — that this Scripture shews that 
the Son also shall be absorbed into the Father. Shall ye then, O most 
impious of all men, ye the creatures of Christ, continue? and shall Christ 
perish, by whom both you and all things were made? Such a word is 
blasphemous. But further, how shall all things be made subject unto Him? 
By perishing, or by abiding? Shall then the other things, when subject to 
the Son abide, and shall the Son, when subject to the Father, not abide? 
For He shall be subjected, not because He shall then begin to do the 
Father's will (for from eternity He doth always those things that please 
Him), but because, then as before, He obeys the Father, yielding, not a 
forced obedience, but a self-chosen accordance; for He is not a servant, 
that He should be subjected by force, but a Son, that He should comply of 
His free choice and natural love. 

31. But let us examine them; what is the meaning of "until" or "as long 
as?" For with the very phrase will I close with them, and try to overthrow 
their error. Since they have dared to say that the words, till He hath put 
His enemies under His feet, shew that He Himself shall have an end, and 
have presumed to set bounds to the eternal kingdom of Christ, and to bring 
to an end, as far as words go, His never-ending sovereignty, come then, let 
us read the like expressions in the Apostle: Nevertheless, death reigned 
from Adam till Moses. Did men then die up to that time, and did none die 
any more after Moses, or after the Law has there been no more death 
among men? Well then, thou seest that the word "unto" is not to limit 
time; but that Paul rather signified this, — "And yet, though Moses was a 



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righteous and wonderful man, nevertheless the doom of death, which was 
uttered against Adam, reached even unto him, and them that came after 
him; and this, though they had not committed the like sins as Adam, by 
his disobedience in eating of the tree." 

32. Take again another similar text. For until this day... when Moses is 
read, a veil lieth upon their heart. Does until this day mean only "until 
Paul?" Is it not until this day present, and even to the end? And if Paul 
say to the Corinthians, For we came even as far as unto you in preaching 
the Gospel of Christ, having hope when your faith increases to preach the 
Gospel in the regions beyond you, thou seest manifestly that as far as 
implies not the end, but has something following it. In what sense then 
shouldest thou remember that Scripture, till He hath put all enemies under 
His fee ft According as Paul says in another place, And exhort each other 
daily, while it is called today; meaning, "continually." For as we may not 
speak of the "beginning of the days" of Christ, so neither suffer thou that 
any should ever speak of the end of His kingdom. For it is written, His 
kingdom is an everlasting kingdom. 

33. And though I have many more testimonies out of the divine Scriptures, 
concerning the kingdom of Christ which has no end for ever, I will be 
content at present with those above mentioned, because the day is far 
spent. But thou, O hearer, worship only Him as thy King, and flee all 
heretical error. And if the grace of God permit us, the remaining Articles 
also of the Faith shall be in good time declared to you. And may the God 
of the whole world keep you all in safety, bearing in mind the signs of the 
end, and remaining unsubdued by Antichrist. Thou hast received the 
tokens of the Deceiver who is to come; thou hast received the proofs of 
the true Christ, who shall openly come down from heaven. Flee therefore 
the one, the False one; and look for the other, the True. Thou hast learnt 
the way, how in the judgment thou mayest be found among those on the 
right hand; guard that which is committed to thee concerning Christ, and be 
conspicuous in good works, that thou mayest stand with a good 
confidence before the Judge, and inherit the kingdom of heaven: — 
Through whom, and with whom, be glory to God with the Holy Ghost, 
for ever and ever. Amen. 



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LECTURE 16 

ON THE ARTICLE, AND IN ONE HOLY GHOST, THE 
COMFORTER, WHICH SPAKE IN THE PROPHETS. 

1 CORINTHIANS 12:1, 4 

Now concerning spiritual gifts, brethren, I would not have you ignorant.... Now 
there are diversities of gifts, but the same Spirit, etc. 

1 . Spiritual in truth is the grace we need, in order to discourse concerning 
the Holy Spirit; not that we may speak what is worthy of Him, for this is 
impossible, but that by speaking the words of the divine Scriptures, we 
may run our course without danger. For a truly fearful thing is written in 
the Gospels, where Christ has plainly said, Whosoever shall speak a word 
against the Holy Ghost, it shall not be forgiven him, neither in this world, 
nor in that which is to come. And there is often fear, test a man should 
receive this condemnation, through speaking what he ought not concerning 
Him, either from ignorance, or from supposed reverence. The Judge of 
quick and dead, Jesus Christ, declared that he hath no forgiveness; if 
therefore any man offend, what hope has he? 

2. It must therefore belong to Jesus Christ's grace itself to grant both to us 
to speak without deficiency, and to you to hear with discretion; for 
discretion is needful not to them only who speak, but also to them that 
hear, lest they hear one thing, and misconceive another in their mind. Let 
us then speak concerning the Holy Ghost nothing but what is written; and 
whatsoever is not written, let us not busy ourselves about it. The Holy 
Ghost Himself spoke the Scriptures; He has also spoken concerning 
Himself as much as He pleased, or as much as we could receive. Let us 
therefore speak those things which He has said; for whatsoever He has not 
said, we dare not say. 

3. There is One Only Holy Ghost, the Comforter; and as there is One God 
the Father, and no second Father; — and as there is One Only-begotten 
Son and Word of God, who hath no brother; — so is there One Only Holy 



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Ghost, and no second spirit equal in-honor to Him. Now the Holy Ghost 
is a Power most mighty, a Being divine and unsearchable; for He is living 
and intelligent, a sanctifying principle of all things made by God through 
Christ.' He it is who illuminates the souls of the just; He was in the 
Prophets, He was also in the Apostles in the New Testament. Abhorred 
be they who dare to separate the operation of the Holy Ghost! There is 
One God, the Father, Lord of the Old and of the New Testament: and One 
Lord, Jesus Christ, who was prophesied of in the Old Testament, and 
came in the New; and One Holy Ghost, who through the Prophets 
preached of Christ, and when Christ was come, descended, and manifested 
Him. 

4. Let no one therefore separate the Old from the New Testament; let no 
one say that the Spirit in the former is one, and in the latter another; since 
thus he offends against the Holy Ghost Himself, who with the Father and 
the Son together is honored, and at the time of Holy Baptism is included 
with them in the Holy Trinity. For the Only-begotten Son of God said 
plainly to the Apostles, Go ye, and make disciples of all the nations, 
baptizing them into the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy 
Ghost. Our hope is in Father, and Son, and Holy Ghost. We preach not 
three Gods; let the Marcionites be silenced; but with the Holy Ghost 
through One Son, we preach One God. The Faith is indivisible; the 
worship inseparable. We neither separate the Holy Trinity, like some; nor 
do we as Sabellius work confusion. But we know according to godliness 
One Father, who sent His Son to be our Savior we know One Son, who 
promised that He would send the Comforter from the Father; we know the 
Holy Ghost, who spake in the Prophets, and who on the day of Pentecost 
descended on the Apostles in the form of fiery tongues, here, in Jerusalem, 
in the Upper Church of the Apostles; for in all things the choicest 
privileges are with us. Here Christ came down from heaven; here the Holy 
Ghost came down from heaven. And in truth it were most fitting, that as 
we discourse concerning Christ and Golgotha here in Golgotha, so also we 
should speak concerning the Holy Ghost in the Upper Church; yet since 
He who descended there jointly partakes of the glory of Him who was 
crucified here, we here speak concerning Him also who descended there: 
for their worship is indivisible. 



298 

5. We would now say somewhat concerning the Holy Ghost; not to 
declare His substance with exactness, for this were impossible; but to 
speak of the diverse mistakes of some concerning him, lest from ignorance 
we should fall into them; and to block up the paths of error, that we may 
journey on the King's one highway. And if we now for caution's sake 
repeat any statement of the heretics, let it recoil on their heads, and may 
we be guiltless, both we who speak, and ye who hear. 

6. For the heretics, who are most profane in all things, have sharpened 
their tongue against the Holy Ghost also, and have dared to utter impious 
things; as Irenus the interpreter has written in his injunctions against 
heresies. For some of them have dared to say that they were themselves 
the Holy Ghost; — of whom the first was Simon, the sorcerer spoken of 
in the Acts of the Apostles; for when he was cast out, he presumed to 
teach such doctrines: and they who are called Gnostics, impious men, have 
spoken other things against the Spirit, and the wicked Valentinians again 
something else; and the profane Manes dared to call himself the Paraclete 
sent by Christ. Others again have taught that the Spirit is different in the 
Prophets and in the New Testament Yea, and great is their error, or rather 
their blasphemy. Such therefore abhor, and flee from them who blaspheme 
the Holy Ghost, and have no forgiveness. For what fellowship hast thou 
with the desperate, thou, who art now to be baptized, into the Holy 
Ghost also? If he who attaches himself to a thief, and consenteth with him, 
is subject to punishment, what hope shall he have, who offends against the 
Holy Ghost? 

7. Let the Marcionists also be abhorred, who tear away from the New 
Testament the sayings of the Old. For Marcion first, that most impious of 
men, who first asserted three Gods, knowing that in the New Testament 
are contained testimonies of the Prophets concerning Christ, cut out the 
testimonies taken from the Old Testament, that the King might be left 
without witness. Abhor those above-mentioned Gnostics, men of 
knowledge by name, but fraught with ignorance; who have dared to say 
such things of the Holy Ghost as I dare not repeat. 

8. Let the Cataphrygians also be thy abhorrence, and Montanus, their 
ringleader in evil, and his two so-called prophetesses, Maximilla and 
Priscilla. For this Montanus, who was out of his mind and really mad (for 



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he would not have said such things, had he not been mad), dared to say 
that he was himself the Holy Ghost, — he, miserable man, and filled with 
all uncleanness and lasciviousness; for it suffices but to hint at this, out of 
respect for the women who are present. And having taken possession of 
Pepuza, a very small hamlet of Phrygia, he falsely named it Jerusalem; and 
cutting the throats of wretched little children, and chopping them up into 
unholy food, for the purpose of their so-called mysteries, — (wherefore 
till but lately in the time of persecution we were suspected of doing this, 
because these Montanists were called, falsely indeed, by the common 
name of Christians;) — yet he dared to call himself the Holy Ghost, filled 
as he was with all impiety and inhuman cruelty, and condemned by an 
irrevocable sentence. 

9. And he was seconded, as was said before, by that most impious Manes 
also, who combined what was bad in every heresy; who being the very 
lowest pit of destruction, collected the doctrines of all the heretics, and 
wrought out and taught a yet more novel error, and dared to say that he 
himself was the Comforter, whom Christ promised to send. But the Savior 
when He promised Him, said to the Apostles, But tarry, ye in the city of 
Jerusalem, until ye be endued with power from on high. What then? did the 
Apostles who had been dead two hundred years, wait for Manes, until 
they should be endued with the power, and will any dare to say, that they 
were not forthwith full of the Holy Ghost? Moreover it is written, Then 
they laid their hands on and they received the Holy Ghost; was not this 
before Manes, yea, many years before, when the Holy Ghost descended 
on the day of Pentecost? 

10. Wherefore was Simon the sorcerer condemned? Was it not that he 
came to the Apostles, and said, Give me also this power, that on 
whomsoever I lay hands, he may receive the Holy Ghost? For he said not, 
"Give me also the fellowship of the Holy Ghost," but "Give me the 
power;" that he might sell to others that which could not be sold, and 
which he did not himself possess. He offered money also to them who had 
no possessions; and this, though he saw men bringing the prices of the 
things sold, and laying them at the Apostles' feet. And he considered not 
that they who trod under foot the wealth which was brought for the 
maintenance of the poor, were not likely to give the power of the Holy 
Ghost for a bribe. But what say they to Simon? Thy money perish with 



300 

thee, thee, because thou hast thought to purchase the gift of God with 
money; for thou art a second Judas, for expecting to buy the grace of the 
Spirit with money. If then Simon, for wishing to get this power for a price, 
is to perish, holy great is the impiety of Manes, who said that he was the 
Holy Ghost? Let us hate them who are worthy of hatred; let us turn away 
from them from whom God turns away; let us also ourselves say unto 
God with all boldness concerning all heretics, Do not I hate them, O Lord, 
that hate Thee, and am not I grieved with Thine enemies'! For there is also 
an enmity which is right, according as it is written, I will put enmity 
between thee and her seed; for friendship with the serpent works enmity 
with God, and death. 

11. Let then thus much suffice concerning those outcasts; and now let us 
return to the divine Scriptures, and let us drink waters out of our own 
cisterns [that is, the holy Fathers], and out of our own springing wells. 
Drink we of living water, springing up into everlasting life; but this spake 
the Savior of the Spirit, which they that believe on Him should receive. For 
observe what He says, He that believeth an Me (not simply this, but), as 
the Scripture hath said (thus He hath sent thee back to the Old 
Testament), out of his belly shall flaw rivers of living water, not rivers 
perceived by sense, and merely watering the earth with its thorns and 
trees, but bringing souls to the light. And in another place He says, But the 
water that I shall give him, shall be in him a well of living water springing 
up into everlasting life, — a new kind of water living and springing up, 
springing up unto them who are worthy. 

12. And why did He call the grace of the Spirit water? Because by water 
all things subsist; because water brings forth grass and living things; 
because the water of the showers comes down from heaven; because it 
comes down one in form, but works in many forms. For one fountain 
watereth the whole of Paradise, and one and the same rain comes down 
upon all the world, yet it becomes white in the lily, and red in the rose, 
and purple in violets and hyacinths, and different and varied in each 
several kind: so it is one in the palm-tree, and another in the vine, and all in 
all things; and yet is one in nature, not diverse from itself; for the rain does 
not change itself, and come down first as one thing, then as another, but 
adapting itself to the constitution of each thing which receives it, it 
becomes to each what is suitable. Thus also the Holy Ghost, being one, 



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and of one nature, and indivisible, divides to each His grace, according as 
He will: and as the dry tree, after partaking of water, puts forth shoots, so 
also the soul in sin, when it has been through repentance made worthy of 
the Holy Ghost, brings forth clusters of righteousness. And though He is 
One in nature, yet many are the virtues which by the will of God and in 
the Name of Christ He works. For He employs the tongue of one man for 
wisdom; the soul of another He enlightens by Prophecy; to another He 
gives power to drive away devils; to another He gives to interpret the 
divine Scriptures. He strengthens one man's self-command; He teaches 
another the way to give alms; another He teaches to fast and discipline 
himself; another He teaches to despise the things of the body; another He 
trains for martyrdom: diverse in different men, yet not diverse from 
Himself, as it is written, But the manifestation of the Spirit is given to every 
man to profit withal. For to one is given through the Spirit the word of 
wisdom; and to another the word of knowledge according to the same 
Spirit; to another faith, in the same Spirit; and to another gifts of healing, 
in the same Spirit; and to another workings of miracles; and to another 
prophecy; and to another discernings of spirits; and to another divers 
kinds of tongues; and to another the interpretation of tongues: but all these 
worketh that one and the same Spirit, dividing to every man severally as 
He will. 

13. But since concerning spirit in general many diverse things are written 
in the divine Scriptures, and there is fear lest some out of ignorance fall 
into confusion, not knowing to what sort of spirit the writing refers; it will 
be well now to certify you, of what kind the Scripture declares the Holy 
Spirit to be. For as Aaron is called Christ, and David and Saul and others 
are called Christs, but there is only one true Christ, so likewise since the 
name of spirit is given to different things, it is right to see what is that 
which is distinctively called the Holy Spirit. For many things are called 
spirits. Thus an Angel is called spirit, our soul is called spirit, and this 
wind which is blowing is called spirit; great virtue also is spoken of as 
spirit; and impure practice is called spirit; and a devil our adversary is 
called spirit. Beware therefore when thou hearest these things, lest from 
their having a common name thou mistake one for another. For concerning 
our soul the Scripture says, His spirit shall go forth, and he shall return to 
his earth: and of the same soul it says again, Which formeth the spirit of 



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man within him. And of the Angels it is said in the Psalms, Who maketh 
His Angels spirits, and His ministers aflame of fire. And of the wind it 
saith, Thou shalt break the ships ofTarshish with a violent spirit, and, As 
the tree in the wood is shaken by the spirit; and, Fire, hail, snow, ice, spirit 
of storm. And of good doctrine the Lord Himself says, The words that I 
have spoken unto you, they are spirits, and they are life; instead of, "are 
spiritual." But the Holy Spirit is not pronounced by the tongue; but He is 
a Living Spirit, who gives wisdom of speech, Himself speaking and 
discoursing. 

14. And wouldest thou know that He discourses and speaks? Philip by 
revelation of an Angel went down to the way which leads to Gaza, when 
the Eunuch was coming; and the Spirit said to Philip, Go near, and join 
thyself to this chariot. Seest thou the Spirit talking to one who hears Him? 
Ezekiel also speaks thus, The Spirit of the Lord came upon me, and said 
unto me, Thus saith the Lord. And again, The Holy Ghost said, unto the 
Apostles who were in Antioch, Separate me now Barnabas and Saul for 
the work whereunto I have called them. Beholdest thou the Spirit living, 
separating, calling, and with authority sending forth? Paul also said, Save 
that the Holy Ghost witnesseth in every city, saying that bonds and 
afflictions await me. For this good Sanctifier of the Church, and her Helper, 
and Teacher, the Holy Ghost, the Comforter, of whom the Savior said, He 
shall teach you all things (and He said not only, He shall teach, but also, 
He shall bring to your remembrance whatever I have said unto you; for 
the teachings of Christ and of the Holy Ghost are not different, but the 
same) — He, I say, testified before to Paul what things should befall him, 
that he might be the more stout-hearted, from knowing them beforehand. 
Now I have spoken these things unto you because of the text, The words 
which I have spoken unto you, they are spirit; that thou mayest understand 
this, not of the utterance of the lips, but of the good doctrine in this 
passage. 

15. But sin also is called spirit, as I have already said; only in another and 
opposite sense, as when it is said, The spirit of whoredom caused them to 
err. The name "spirit" is given also to the unclean spirit, the devil; but 
with the addition of, "the unclean;" for to each is joined its distinguishing 
name, to mark its proper nature. If the Scripture speak of the soul of man, 
it says the spirit with the addition, of the man; if it mean the wind, it says, 



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spirit of storm; if sin, it says, spirit of whoredom; if the devil, it says, an 
unclean spirit: that we may know which particular thing is spoken of, and 
thou mayest not suppose that it means the Holy Ghost; God forbid! For 
this name of spirit is common to many things; and every thing which has 
not a solid body is in a general way called spirit. Since, therefore, the 
devils have not such bodies, they are called spirits: but there is a great 
difference; for the unclean devil, when he comes upon a man's soul (may 
the Lord deliver from him every soul of those who hear me, and of those 
who are not present), he comes like a wolf upon a sheep, ravening for 
blood, and ready to devour. His coming is most fierce; the sense of it most 
oppressive; the mind becomes darkened; his attack is an injustice also, and 
so is his usurpation of another's possession. For he makes forcible use of 
another's body, and another's instruments, as if they were his own; he 
throws down him who stands upright (for he is akin to him who fell from 
heaven; he twists the tongue and distorts the lips; foam comes instead of 
words; the man is filled with darkness; his eye is open, yet the soul sees 
not through it; and the miserable man gasps convulsively at the point of 
death. The devils are verily foes of men, using them foully and mercilessly. 

16. Such is not the Holy Ghost; God forbid! For His doings tend the 
contrary way, towards what is good and salutary. First, His coming is 
gentle; the perception of Him is fragrant; His burden most light; beams of 
light and knowledge gleam forth before His coming. He comes with the 
bowels of a true guardian: for He comes to save, and to heal, to teach, to 
admonish, to strengthen, to exhort, to enlighten the mind, first of him who 
receives Him, and afterwards of others also, through him. And as a man, 
who being previously in darkness then suddenly beholds the sun, is 
enlightened in his bodily sight, and sees plainly things which he saw not, 
so likewise he to whom the Holy Ghost is vouchsafed, is enlightened in 
his soul, and sees things beyond man's sight, which he knew not; his body 
is on earth, yet his soul mirrors forth the heavens. He sees, like Esaias, the 
Lord sitting upon a throne high and lifted up; he sees, like Ezekiel; Him 
who is above the Cherubim; he sees like Daniel, ten thousand times ten 
thousand, and thousands of thousands; and the man, who is so little, 
beholds the beginning of the world, and knows the end of the world, and 
the times intervening, and the successions of kings,- things which he never 
learned: for the True Enlightener is present with him. The man is within 



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the walls of a house; yet the power of his knowledge reaches far and wide, 
and he sees even what other men are doing. 

17. Peter was not with Ananias and Sapphira when they sold their 
possessions, but he was present by the Spirit; Why, he says, hath Satan 
filled thine heart to lie to the Holy Ghost? There was no accuser; there was 
no witness; whence knew he what had happened? Whiles it remained was 
it not thine own ? and after it was sold, was it not in thine own power? why 
hast thou conceived this thing in thine heart? The unlettered Peter, through 
the grace of the Spirit, learnt what not even the wise men of the Greeks 
had known. Thou hast the like in the case also of Elisseus. For when he 
had freely healed the leprosy of Naaman, Gehazi received the reward, the 
reward of another' s achievement; and he took the money from Naaman, 
and bestowed it in a dark place. But the darkness is not hidden from the 
Saints. And when he came, Elisseus asked him; and like Peter, when he 
said, Tell me whether ye sold the land for so much? he also enquires, 
Whence comest thou, Gehazi? Not in ignorance, but in sorrow ask I 
whence comest thou? From darkness art thou come, and to darkness shalt 
thou go; thou hast sold the cure of the leper, and the leprosy is thy 
heritage. I, he says, have fulfilled the bidding of Him who said to me, 
Freely ye have received, freely give; but thou hast sold this grace; receive 
now the condition of the sale. But what says Elisseus to him? Went not 
mine heart with thee? I was here shut in by the body, but the spirit which 
has been given me of God saw even the things afar off, and shewed me 
plainly what was doing elsewhere. Seest thou how the Holy Ghost not 
only rids of ignorance, but invests with knowledge? Seest thou how He 
enlightens men's souls? 

18. Esaias lived nearly a thousand years ago; and he beheld Zion as a 
booth. The city was still standing, and beautified with public places, and 
robed in majesty; yet he says, Zion shall be ploughed afield, foretelling 
what is now fulfilled in our days. And observe the exactness of the 
prophecy; for he said, And the daughter of Zion shall be left as a booth in a 
vineyard, as a lodge in a garden of cucumbers. And now the place is filled 
with gardens of cucumbers. Seest thou how the Holy Spirit enlightens the 
saints? Be not therefore carried away to other things, by the force of a 
common term, but keep fast the exact meaning. 



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19. And if ever, while thou hast been sitting here, a thought concerning 
chastity or virginity has come into thy mind, it has been His teaching. Has 
not often a maiden, already at the bridal threshold, fled away. He teaching 
her the doctrine of virginity? Has not often a man distinguished at court, 
scorned wealth and rank, under the teaching of the Holy Ghost? Has not 
often a young man, at the sight of beauty, closed his eyes, and fled from 
the sight, and escaped the defilement? Askest thou whence this has come 
to pass? The Holy Ghost taught the soul of the young man. Many ways 
of covetousness are there in the world; yet Christians refuse possessions: 
wherefore? because of the teaching of the Holy Ghost. Worthy of honor is 
in truth that Spirit, holy and good; and fittingly are we baptized into 
Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. A man, still clothed with a body, wrestles 
with many fiercest demons; and often the demon, whom many men could 
not master with iron bands, has been mastered by the man himself with 
words of prayer, through the power which is in him of the Holy Ghost; 
and the mere breathing of the Exorcist becomes as fire to that unseen foe. 
A mighty ally and protector, therefore, have we from God; a great Teacher 
of the Church, a mighty Champion on our behalf. Let us not be afraid of 
the demons, nor of the devil; for mightier is He who fighteth for us. Only 
let us open to Him our doors; for He goeth about seeking such as are 
worthy and searching on whom He may confer His gifts. 

20. And He is called the Comforter, because He comforts and encourages 
us, and helpeth our infirmities; for we know not what we should pray for as 
we ought; but the Spirit Himself maketh intercession for us, with groanings 
which cannot be uttered, that is, makes intercession to God. Oftentimes a 
man for Christ's sake has been outraged and dishonored unjustly; 
martyrdom is at hand; tortures on every side, and fire, and sword, and 
savage beasts, and the pit. But the Holy Ghost softly whispers to him, 

" Wait thou on the Lord, O man; what is now befalling thee is a small 
matter, the reward will be great. Suffer a little while, and thou shale be 
with Angels for ever. The sufferings of this present time art not worthy to 
be compared with the glory which shall be revealed in us." He portrays to 
the man the kingdom of heaven; He gives him a glimpse of the paradise of 
delight; and the martyrs, whose bodily countenances are of necessity 
turned to their judges, but who in spirit are already in Paradise, despise 
those hardships which are seen. 



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21. And wouldest thou be sure that by the power of the Holy Ghost the 
Martyrs bear their witness? The Savior says to His disciples, And when 
they bring you unto the synagogues, and the magistrates, and authorities, 
be not anxious how ye shall answer, or what ye shall say; for the Holy 
Ghost shall teach you in that very hour, what ye ought to say. For it is 
impossible to testify as a martyr for Christ's sake, except a man testify by 
the Holy Ghost; for if no man can say that Jesus Christ is the Lord, but by 
the Holy Ghost, how shall any man give his own life for Jesus' sake, but 
by the Holy Ghost? 

22. Great indeed, and all-powerful in gifts, and wonderful, is the Holy 
Ghost. Consider, how many of you are now sitting here, how many souls 
of us are present. He is working suitably for each, and being present in the 
midst, beholds the temper of each, beholds also his reasoning and his 
conscience, and what we say, and think, and believe. Great indeed is what 
I have now said, and yet is it small. For consider, I pray, with mind 
enlightened by Him, how many Christians there are in all this diocese, and 
how many in the whole province of Palestine, and carry forward thy mind 
from this province, to the whole Roman Empire; and after this, consider 
the whole world; races of Persians, and nations of Indians, Garbs and 
Sarmatians, Gauls and Spaniards, and Moors, Libyans and Ethiopians, and 
the rest for whom we have no names; for of many of the nations not even 
the names have reached us. Consider, I pray, of each nation, Bishops, 
Presbyters, Deacons, Solitaries, Virgins, and laity besides; and then behold 
their great Protector, and the Dispenser of their gifts; — how throughout 
the world He gives to one chastity, to another perpetual virginity, to 
another almsgiving, to another voluntary poverty, to another power of 
repelling hostile spirits. And as the light, with one touch of its radiance 
sheds brightness on all things, so also the Holy Ghost enlightens those 
who have eyes; for if any from blindness is not vouchsafed His grace, let 
him not blame the Spirit, but his own unbelief. 

23. Thou hast seen His power, which is in all the world; tarry now no 
longer upon earth, but ascend on high. Ascend, I say, in imagination even 
unto the first heaven, and behold there so many countless myriads of 
Angels. Mount up in thy thoughts, if thou canst, yet higher; consider, I 
pray thee, the Archangels, consider also the Spirits; consider the Virtues, 
consider the Principalities, consider the Powers, consider the Thrones, 



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consider the Dominions; — of all these the Comforter is the Ruler from 
God, and the Teacher, and the Sanctifier. Of Him Elias has need, and 
Elisseus, and Esaias, among men; of Him Michael and Gabriel have need 
among Angels. Naught of things created is equal in honor to Him: for the 
families of the Angels, and all their hosts assembled together, have no 
equality with the Holy Ghost. All these the all-excellent power of the 
Comforter overshadows. And they indeed are sent forth to minister, but 
He searches even the deep things of God, according as the Apostle says, 
For the Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God. For what 
man knoweth the thing of a man, save the spirit of the man which is in 
him? even so the things of God knoweth no man, but the Spirit of God. 

24. He preached concerning Christ in the Prophets; He wrought in the 
Apostles; He to this day seals the souls in Baptism. And the Father 
indeed gives to the Son; and the Son shares with the Holy Ghost. For it is 
Jesus Himself, not I, who says, All things are delivered unto Me of My 
Father, and of the Holy Ghost He says, When He, the Spirit of Truth, shall 
come, and the rest... He shall glorify Me; for He shall receive of Mine, and 
shall shew it unto you. The Father through the Son, with the Holy Ghost, 
is the giver of all grace; the gifts of the Father are none other than those of 
the Son, and those of the Holy Ghost; for there is one Salvation, one 
Power, one Faith; One God, the Father; One Lord, His only-begotten Son; 
One Holy Ghost, the Comforter. And it is enough for us to know these 
things; but inquire not curiously into His nature or substance: for had it 
been written, we would have spoken of it; what is not written, let us not 
venture on; it is sufficient for our salvation to know, that there is Father, 
and Son, and Holy Ghost. 

25. This Spirit descended upon the seventy Elders in the days of Moses. 
(Now let not the length of the discourse, beloved, produce weariness in 
you: but may He the very subject of our discourse grant strength to every 
one, both to us who speak, and to you who listen!) This Spirit, as I was 
saying, came down upon the seventy Elders in the time of Moses; and this 
I say to thee, that I may now prove, that He knoweth all things, and 
worketh as He will. The seventy Elders were chosen; And the Lord came 
down in a cloud, and took of the Spirit that was upon Moses, and put it 
upon the seventy Elders; not that the Spirit was divided, but that His grace 
was distributed in proportion to the vessels, and the capacity of the 



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recipients. Now there were present sixty and eight, and they prophesied; 
but Eldad and Modad were not present: therefore that it might be shewn 
that it was not Moses who bestowed the gift, but the Spirit who wrought, 
Eldad and Modad, who though called, bad not as yet presented 
themselves, did also prophesy. 

26. Jesus the Son of Nun, the successor of Moses, was amazed; and came 
to him and said, "Hast thou heard that Eldad and Modad are prophesying? 
They were called, and they came not; my lord Moses, forbid them." "I 
cannot forbid them," he says, "for this grace is from Heaven; nay, so far 
am I from forbidding them, that I myself am thankful for it. I think not, 
however, that thou hast said this in envy; art thou jealous for my sake, 
because that they prophesy, and thou prophesiest not yet? Wait for the 
proper season; and oh that all the Lord's people may be prophets, 
whenever the Lord shall give His Spirit upon theml "saying this also 
prophetically, whenever the Lord shall give; "For as yet then He has not 
given it; so thou hast it not yet." — Had not then Abraham this, and Isaac, 
and Jacob, and Joseph? And they of old, had they it not? Nay, but the 
words, "whenever the Lord shall give" evidently mean "give it upon all; as 
yet indeed the grace is partial, then it shall be given lavishly." And he 
secretly alluded to what was to happen among us on the day of Pentecost; 
for He Himself came down among us. He had however also come down 
upon many before. For it is written, And Jesus the son of Nun was filled 
with a spirit of wisdom; for Moses had laid his hands upon him. Thou 
seest the figure everywhere the same in the Old and New Testament; — in 
the days of Moses, the Spirit was given by laying on of hands; and by 
laying on of hands Peter also gives the Spirit. And on thee also, who art 
about to be baptized, shall His grace come; yet in what manner I say not, 
for I will not anticipate the proper season. 

27. He also came down upon all righteous men and Prophets; Enos, I 
mean, and Enoch, and Noah, and the rest; upon Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; 
for as regards Joseph, even Pharaoh perceived that he had the Spirit of God 
within him. As to Moses, and the wonderful works wrought by the Spirit 
in his days, thou hast heard often: This Spirit Job also had, that most 
enduring man, and all the saints, though we repeat not all their names. He 
also was sent forth when the Tabernacle was in making, and filled with 
wisdom the wise-hearted men who were with Bezaleel. 



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28. In the might of this Spirit, as we have it in the Book of Judges, Othniel 
judged; Gideon waxed strong; Jephtha conquered; Deborah, a woman, 
waged war; and Samson, so long as he did righteously, and grieved Him 
not, wrought deeds above man's power. And as for Samuel and David, we 
have it plainly in the Books of the Kingdoms, how by the Holy Ghost 
they prophesied themselves, and were rulers of the prophets; — and 
Samuel was called the Seer, and David says distinctly, The Spirit of the 
Lord spake by me, and in the Psalms, And take not thy Holy Spirit from 
me, and again, Thy good Spirit shall lead me in the land of righteousness. 
And as we have it in Chronicles, Azariah, in the time of King Asa, and 
Jahaziel in the time of King Jehoshaphat, partook of the Holy Ghost; and 
again, another Azariah, he who was stoned. And Ezra says, Thou gavest 
also Thy good Spirit to instruct them. But as touching Elias who was taken 
up, and Elisseus, those inspired and wonder-working men, it is manifest, 
without our saying so, that they were full of the Holy Ghost. 

29. And if further a man peruse all the books of the Prophets, both of the 
Twelve, and of the others, he will find many testimonies concerning, the 
Holy Ghost; as when Micah says in the person of God, surely I will 
perfect power by the Spirit the Lord; and Joel cries, And it shall come to 
pass afterwards , saith God, that I will pour out My Spirit upon all flesh, 
and the rest; and Haggai, Because I am with you, saith the Lord of Hosts; 
and My Spirit remaineth in the midst of you; and in like manner Zechariah, 
But, receive My words and My statutes which command by My Spirit, to 
My servants the Prophets; and other passages. 

30. Esaias too, with his majestic voice, says, And the Spirit of God shall 
rest upon Him, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of 
counsel and might, the spirit of knowledge and godliness; and the Spirit of 
the fear of God shall fill Him; signifying that the Spirit is one and 

undivided, but His operations various. So again, Jacob My servant, / 

have put My Spirit upon Him. And again, / will pour My Spirit upon thy 
seed; and again, And now the Lord Almighty and His Spirit hath sent Me; 
and again, This is My covenant with them, saith the Lord, My Spirit which 
is upon thee, and again, The Spirit of the Lord is upon Me, because He hath 
anointed Me, and the rest; and again in his charge against the Jews, But they 
rebelled and vexed His Holy Spirit, and Where is He that put His Holy 
Spirit within theml Also thou hast in Ezekiel (if thou be not now weary of 



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listening), what has already been quoted, And the Spirit fell upon me, and 
said unto me, Speak; Thus saith the Lord. But the words, fell upon me we 
must understand in a good sense, that is "lovingly;" and as Jacob, when he 
had found Joseph, fell upon his neck; as also in the Gospels, the loving 
father, on seeing his son who had returned from his wandering, had 
compassion, and ran and fell on his neck, and kissed him. And again in 
Ezekiel, And he brought me in a vision by the Spirit of God into Chaldaea, 
to them of the captivity. And other texts thou heardest before, in what was 
said about Baptism; Then will I sprinkle clean water upon you, and the 
rest; a new heart also will I give you, and a new spirit will I put within you; 
and then immediately, And I will put My Spirit within you. And again. The 
hand of the Lord was upon me, and carried me out in the Spirit of the 
Lord. 

3 1 . He endued with wisdom the soul of Daniel, that young as he was he 
should become a judge of Elders. The chaste Susanna was condemned as a 
wanton; there was none to plead her cause; for who was to deliver her 
from the rulers? She was led away to death, she was now in the hands of 
the executioners. But her Helper was at hand, the Comforter, the Spirit 
who sanctifies every rational nature. Come hither to me, He says to 
Daniel; young though thou be, convict old men infected with the sins of 
youth; for it is written, God raised up the Holy Spirit upon a young 
stripling; and nevertheless, (to pass on quickly,) by the sentence of Daniel 
that chaste lady was saved. We bring this forward as a testimony; for this 
is not the season for expounding. Nebuchadnezzar also knew that the 
Holy Spirit was in Daniel; for he says to him, O Belteshazzar, master of 
the magicians, of whom I know, that the Holy Spirit of God is in thee. One 
thing he said truly, and one falsely; for that he had the Holy Spirit was 
true, but he was not the master of the magicians, for he was no magician, 
but was wise through the Holy Ghost. And before this also, he interpreted 
to him the vision of the Image, which he who had seen it himself knew not; 
for he says, Tell me the vision, which I who saw it know not. Thou seest 
the power of the Holy Ghost; that which they who saw it, know not, they 
who saw it not, know and interpret. 

32. And indeed it were easy to collect very many texts out of the Old 
Testament, and to discourse more largely concerning the Holy Ghost. But 
the time is short; and we must be careful of the proper length of the 



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lecture. Wherefore, being for the present content awhile with passages 
from the Old Testament, we will, if it be God's pleasure, proceed in the 
next Lecture to the remaining texts out of the New Testament. And may 
the God of peace, through our Lord Jesus Christ, and through the love of 
the Spirit, count all of you worthy of His spiritual and heavenly gifts: — 
To whom be glory and power for ever and ever. Amen. 



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LECTURE 17 
Continuation of the Discourse on the Holy Ghost 

1 CORINTHIANS 12:8 
For to one is given by the Spirit the word of wisdom, etc. 

1 . In the preceding Lecture, according to our ability we set before you, our 
beloved hearers, some small portion of the testimonies concerning the 
Holy Ghost; and on the present occasion, we will, if it be God's pleasure, 
proceed to treat, as far as may be, of those which remain out of the New 
Testament: and as then to keep within due limit of your attention we 
restrained our eagerness (for there is no satiety in discoursing concerning 
the Holy Ghost), so now again we must say but a small part of what 
remains. For now, as well as then, we candidly own that our weakness is 
overwhelmed by the multitude of things written. Neither today will we 
use the subtleties of men, for that is unprofitable; but merely call to mind 
what comes from the divine Scriptures; for this is the safest course, 
according to the blessed Apostle Paul, who says, Which things also we 
speak, not in words which man 's wisdom teacheth, but which the Holy 
Ghost teacheth, comparing spiritual things with spiritual. Thus we act like 
travelers or voyagers, who having one goal to a very long journey, though 
hastening on with eagerness, yet by reason of human weakness are wont 
to touch in their way at divers cities or harbors. 

2. Therefore though our discourses concerning the Holy Ghost are divided, 
yet He Himself is undivided, being one and the same. For as in speaking 
concerning the Father, at one time we taught how He is the one only 
Cause; and at another, how He is called Father, or Almighty; and at 
another, how He is the Creator of the universe; and yet the division of the 
Lectures made no division of the Faith, in that He, the Object of devotion, 
both was and is One; — and again, as in discoursing concerning the 
Only-begotten Son of God we taught at one time concerning His Godhead, 
and at another concerning His Manhood, dividing into many discourses the 



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doctrines concerning our Lord Jesus Christ, yet preaching undivided faith 
towards Him; — so now also though the Lectures concerning the Holy 
Spirit are divided, yet we preach faith undivided towards Him. For it is 
one and the Self-same Spirit who divides His gifts to every man severally 
as He will, Himself the while remaining undivided. For the Comforter is 
not different from the Holy Ghost, but one and the self-same, called by 
various names; who lives and subsists, and speaks, and works; and of all 
rational natures made by God through Christ, both of Angels and of men, 
He is the Sanctifier. 

3. But lest any from lack of learning, should suppose from the different 
titles of the Holy Ghost that these are divers spirits, and not one and the 
self-same, which alone there is, therefore the Catholic Church guarding 
thee beforehand hath delivered to thee in the profession of the faith, that 
thou "Believe In One Holy Ghost The Comforter , Who Spake By 
The Pr o ph et s ;" that thou mightest know, that though His names be 
many, the Holy Spirit is but one; — of which names, we will now rehearse 
to you a few out of many. 

4. He is called the Spirit, according to the Scripture just now read, For to 
one is given by the Spirit the word of wisdom. He is called the Spirit of 
Truth, as the Savior says, When He, the Spirit of Truth, is come. He is 
called also the Comforter, as He said, For if I go not away, the Comforter 
will not came unto you. But that He is one and the same, though called by 
different titles, is shewn plainly from the following. For that the Holy 
Spirit and the Comforter are the same, is declared in those words, But the 
Comforter, which is the Holy Ghost; and that the Comforter is the same as 
the Spirit of Truth, is declared, when it is said, And I will give you another 
Comforter, that He may abide with you for ever, even the Spirit of Truth; 
and again, But when the Comforter is came whom I will send unto you from 
the Father, even the Spirit of Truth. And He is called the Spirit of God, 
according as it is written, And I saw the Spirit of God descending; and 
again, For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, they are the sons of 
God. He is called also the Spirit of the Father, as the Savior says, For it is 
not ye that speak, but the Spirit of your Father which speaketh in you; and 
again Paul saith, Far this cause I bow my knees unto the Father, and the 
rest;... that He would grant you to be strengthened by His Spirit. He is also 
called the Spirit of the Lord, according to that which Peter spoke, Why is it 



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that ye have agreed together to tempt the Spirit of the Lord? He is called 
also the Spirit of God and Christ, as Paul writes, But ye are not in the flesh, 
but in the Spirit, if so be that the Spirit of God dwell in you. But if any man 
have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of His. He is called also the Spirit 
of the Son of God. as it is said, And because ye are sons, God hath sent 
forth the Spirit of His Son. He is called also the Spirit of Christ, as it is 
written, Searching what or what manner of time the Spirit of Christ which 
was in them did signify; and again, Through your prayer, and the supply of 
the Spirit of Jesus Christ. 

5. Thou wilt find many other titles of the Holy Ghost besides. Thus He is 
called the Spirit of Holiness, as it is written, According to the Spirit of 
Holiness. He is also called the Spirit of adoption, as Paul saith, For ye 
received not the spirit of bondage again unto fear, but ye received the Spirit 
of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father. He is also called the Spirit of 
revelation, as it is written, May give you the Spirit of wisdom and 
revelation in the knowledge of Him. He is also called the Spirit of promise, 
as the same Paul says, In whom ye also after that ye believed, were sealed 
with the Holy Spirit of promise. He is also called the Spirit of grace, as 
when he says again, And hath done despite to the Spirit of grace. And by 
many other such-like titles is He named. And thou heardest plainly in the 
foregoing Lecture, that in the Psalms He is called at one time the good 
Spirit, and at another the princely Spirit; and in Esaias He was styled the 
Spirit of wisdom and understanding, of counsel, and might, of knowledge, 
and of godliness, and of the fear of God. By all which Scriptures both 
those before and those now alleged, it is established, that though the titles 
of the Holy Ghost be different, He is one and the same; living and 
subsisting, and always present together with the Father and the Son; not 
uttered or breathed from the mouth and lips of the Father or the Son, nor 
dispersed into the air, but having a real substance, Himself speaking, and 
working, and dispensing, and sanctifying; even as the Economy of 
salvation which is to usward from the Father and the Son and the Holy 
Ghost, is inseparable and harmonious and one, as we have also said before. 
For I wish you to keep in mind those things which were lately spoken, 
and to know clearly that there is not one Spirit in the Law and the 
Prophets, and another in the Gospels and Apostles; but that it is One and 



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the Self- same Holy Spirit, which both in the Old and in the New 
Testament, spoke the divine Scriptures. 

6. This is the Holy Ghost, who came upon the Holy Virgin Mary; for 
since He who was conceived was Christ the Only-begotten, the power of 
the Highest overshadowed her, and the Holy Ghost came upon her, and 
sanctified her, that she might be able to receive Him, by whom all things 
were made. But I have no need of many words to teach thee that 
generation was without defilement or taint, for thou hast learned it. It is 
Gabriel who says to her, I am the herald of what shall be done, but have no 
part in the work. Though an Archangel, I know my place; and though I 
joyfully bid thee All hail, yet holy thou shale bring forth, is not of any 
grace of mine. The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the 
Highest shall overshadow thee; therefore also that Holy Thing which shall 
be born of thee shall be called the Son of God. 

7. This Holy Spirit wrought in Elisabeth; for He recognizes not virgins 
only, but matrons also, so that their marriage be lawful. And Elisabeth was 
filled with the Holy Ghost, and prophesied; and that noble hand-maiden 
says of her own Lord, And whence is this to me, that the Mother of my 
Lord should come to me? For Elisabeth counted herself blessed. Filled 
with this Holy Spirit, Zacharias also, the father of John, prophesied, 
telling how many good things the Only-begotten should procure, and that 
John should be His harbinger through baptism. By this Holy Ghost also it 
was revealed to just Symeon, that he should not see death, till he had seen 
the Lord's Christ; and he received Him in his arms, and bore clear 
testimony in the Temple concerning Him. 

8. And John also, who had been filled with the Holy Ghost from his 
mother's womb, was for this cause sanctified, that be might baptize the 
Lord; not giving the Spirit himself, but preaching glad tidings of Him who 
gives the Spirit. For he says, / indeed baptize you with water unto 
repentance, but He that cometh after me, and the rest; He shall baptize you 
with the Holy Ghost and with fire. But wherefore with fire? Because the 
descent of the Holy Ghost was in fiery tongues; concerning which the 
Lord says joyfully, / am come to send fire on the earth; and what will I, if 
it be already kindled? 



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9. This Holy Ghost came down when the Lord was baptized, that the 
dignity of Him who was baptized might not be hidden; as John says, But 
He which sent me to baptize with water, the same said unto me, Upon 
whomsoever thou shall see the Spirit descending and remaining upon Him, 
the same is He which baptizeth with the Holy ghost. But see what saith the 
Gospel; the heavens were opened; they were opened because of the 
dignity of Him who descended; for, lo, he says, the heavens were opened, 
and he saw the Spirit of God descending as a dove, and lighting upon Him: 
that is, with voluntary motion in His descent. For it was fit, as some have 
interpreted, that the primacy and first-fruits of the Holy Spirit promised 
to the baptized should be conferred upon the manhood of the Savior, who 
is the giver of such grace. But perhaps He came down in the form of a 
dove, as some say, to exhibit a figure of that dove who is pure and 
innocent and undefiled, and also helps the prayers for the children she has 
begotten, and for forgiveness of sins; even as it was emblematically 
foretold that Christ should be thus manifested in the appearance of His 
eyes; for in the Canticles she cries concerning the Bridegroom, and says, 
Thine eyes are as doves by the rivers of water. 

10. Of this dove, the dove of Noe, according to some, was in part a figure. 
For as in his time by means of wood and of water there came salvation to 
themselves, and the beginning of a new generation, and the dove returned 
to him towards evening with an olive branch; thus, say they, the Holy 
Ghost also descended upon the true Noe, the Author of the second birth, 
who draws together into one the wills of all nations, of whom the various 
dispositions of the animals in the ark were a figure: — Him at whose 
coming the spiritual wolves feed with the lambs, in whose Church the calf, 
and the lion, and the ox, feed in the same pasture, as we behold to this day 
the rulers of the world guided and taught by Churchmen. The spiritual 
dove therefore, as some interpret, came down at the season of His 
baptism, that He might shew that it is He who by the wood of the Cross 
saves them who believe, He who at eventide should grant salvation 
through His death. 

11. And these things perhaps should be otherwise explained; but now 
again we must hear the words of the Savior Himself concerning the Holy 
Ghost. For He says, Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he 
cannot enter into the kingdom of God. And that this grace is from the 



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Father, He thus states, How much more shall your heavenly Father give 
the Holy Spirit to them that ask him. And that we ought to worship God in 
the Spirit, He shews thus, But the hour cometh and now is, when the true 
worshippers shall worship the Father in Spirit and in truth; for the Father 
also seeketh such to warship Him. God is a Spirit; and they that worship 
Him must worship Him in spirit and in truth. And again, But if I by the 
Spirit of God cast out devils; and immediately afterwards, Therefore I say 
unto you, All manner of sin and blasphemy shall be forgiven unto men; but 
the blasphemy against the Holy Ghost shall not be forgiven. And 
whosoever shall speak a word against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven 
him; but whosoever shall speak a word against the Holy Ghost, it shall not 
be forgiven him, neither in this world, neither in the world to come. And 
again He says, And I will pray the Father, and He shall give you another 
Comforter, that He may be with you for ever, the Spirit of Truth; whom the 
world cannot receive, because it seeth Him not, neither knoweth Him; but 
ye know Him, for He abideth with you, and shall be in you. And again He 
says, These things have I spoken unto you being yet present with you. But 
the Comforter, which is the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in My 
name, He shall teach you all things, and bring to your remembrance all 
things that I said unto you. And again He says, But when the Comforter is 
come, whom I will send unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of Truth, 
which proceedeth from the Father, He shall testify of Me. And again the 
Savior says, For if I go not away, the Comforter will not come unto you... 
And when He is come, He will convince the world or sin, of righteousness, 
and of judgment, and afterwards again. / have yet many things to say unto 
you, but ye cannot bear them now. Howbeit, when He the Spirit of Truth is 
come, He will declare unto you all the truth; for He shall not speak from 
Himself; but whatsoever He shall hear that shall He speak, and He shall 
announce unto you the things to come. He shall glorify Me, for He shall 
take of Mine, and shall announce it unto you. All things that the Father hath 
are mine; therefore said I, That He shall take of Mine, and shall announce 
it unto you. I have read to thee now the utterances of the Only-begotten 
Himself, that thou mayest not give heed to men's words. 

12. The fellowship of this Holy Spirit He bestowed on the Apostles; for it 
is written, And when He had said this, He breathed on them, and saith 
unto them, Receive ye the Holy Ghost: whose soever sins ye remit, they are 



318 

remitted unto them; and whose soever sins ye retain, they are retained. 
This was the second time He breathed on man (His first breath having 
been stifled through willful sins); that the Scripture might be fulfilled, He 
went up breathing upon thy face, and delivering thee from affliction. But 
whence went He up? From Hades; for thus the Gospel relates, that then 
after His resurrection He breathed on them. But though He bestowed His 
grace then, He was to lavish it yet more bountifully; and He says to them, 
"I am ready to give it even now, but the vessel cannot yet hold it; for a 
while therefore receive ye as much grace as ye can bear; and look forward 
for yet more; but tarry ye in the city of Jerusalem, until ye be clothed with 
power from on high. Receive it in part now; then, ye shall wear it in its 
fullness. For he who receives, often possesses the gift but in part; but he 
who is clothed, is completely enfolded by his robe. "Fear not," He says, 
"the weapons and darts of the devil; for ye shall bear with you the power 
of the Holy Ghost." But remember what was lately said, that the Holy 
Ghost is not divided, but only the grace which is given by Him. 

13. Jesus therefore went up into heaven, and fulfilled the promise. For He 
said to them, / will pray the Father, and He shall give you another 
Comforter. So they were sitting, looking for the coming of the Holy 
Ghost; and when the day of Pentecost was fully come, here, in this city of 
Jerusalem, — (for this honor also belongs to us; and we speak not of the 
good things which have happened among others, but of those which have 
been vouchsafed among ourselves,) — on the day of Pentecost, I say, they 
were sitting, and the Comforter came down from heaven, the Guardian and 
Sanctifier of the Church, the Ruler of souls, the Pilot of the 
tempest-tossed, who leads the wanderers to the light, and presides over 
the combatants, and crowns the victors. 

14. But He came down to clothe the Apostles with power, and to baptize 
them; for the Lord says, ye shall be baptized with the Holy Ghost not many 
days hence. This grace was not in part, but His power was in full 
perfection; for as he who plunges into the waters and is baptized is 
encompassed on all sides by the waters, so were they also baptized 
completely by the Holy Ghost. The water however flows round the 
outside only, but the Spirit baptizes also the soul within, and that 
completely. And wherefore wonderest thou? Take an example from 
matter; poor indeed and common, yet useful for the simpler sort. If the fire 



319 

passing in through the mass of the iron makes the whole of it fire, so that 
what was cold becomes burning and what was black is made bright, — if 
fire which is a body thus penetrates and works without hindrance in iron 
which is also a body, why wonder that the Holy Ghost enters into the 
very inmost recesses of the soul? 

15. And lest men should be ignorant of the greatness of the mighty gift 
coming down to them, there sounded as it were a heavenly trumpet, For 
suddenly there came from heaven a sound as of the rushing of a mighty 
wind, signifying the presence of Him who was to grant power unto men to 
seize with violence the kingdom of God; that both their eyes might see the 
fiery tongues, and their ears hear the sound. And it filled all the house 
where they were sitting; for the house became the vessel of the spiritual 
water; as the disciples sat within, the whole house was filled. Thus they 
were entirely baptized according to the promise, and invested soul and 
body with a divine garment of salvation. And there appeared unto them 
cloven tongues like as of fire, and it sat upon each of them; and they were 
all filled with the Holy Ghost. They partook of fire, not of burning but of 
saving fire; of fire which consumes the thorns of sins, but gives luster to 
the soul. This is now coming upon you also, and that to strip away and 
consume your sins which are like thorns, and to brighten yet more that 
precious possession of your souls, and to give you grace; for He gave it 
then to the Apostles. And He sat upon them in the form of fiery tongues, 
that they might crown themselves with new and spiritual diadems by fiery 
tongues upon their heads. A fiery sword barred of old the gates of 
Paradise; a fiery tongue which brought salvation restored the gift. 

16. And they began to speak with other tongues as the Spirit gave them 
utterance. The Galilean Peter or Andrew spoke Persian or Median. John 
and the rest of the Apostles spoke every tongue to those of Gentile 
extraction; for not in our time have multitudes of strangers first begun to 
assemble here from all quarters, but they have done so since that time. 
What teacher can be found so great as to teach men all at once things which 
they have not learned? So many years are they in learning by grammar and 
other arts to speak only Greek well; nor yet do all speak this equally well; 
the Rhetorician perhaps succeeds in speaking well, and the Grammarian 
sometimes not well, and the skillful Grammarian is ignorant of the subjects 
of philosophy. But the Holy Spirit taught them many languages at once, 



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languages which in all their life they never knew. This is in truth vast 
wisdom, this is power divine. What a contrast of their long ignorance in 
time past to their sudden, complete and varied and unaccustomed exercise 
of these languages! 

17. The multitude of the hearers was confounded; — it was a second 
confusion, in the room of that first evil one at Babylon. For in that 
confusion of tongues there was division of purpose, because their thought 
was at enmity with God; but here minds were restored and united, because 
the object of interest was godly. The means of falling were the means of 
recovery. Wherefore they marveled, saying, How hear we them speaking! 
No marvel if ye be ignorant; for even Nicodemus was ignorant of the 
coming of the Spirit, and to him it was said, The Spirit breatheth where it 
listeth, and thou hearest the voice thereof, but canst not tell whence it 
cometh, and whither it goeth; but if, even though I hear His voice, I know 
not whence he cometh, how can I explain, what He is Himself in 
substance? 

18. But others mocking said, They are full of new wine, and they spoke 
truly though in mockery. For in truth the wine was new, even the grace of 
the New Testament; but this new wine was from a spiritual Vine, which 
had oftentimes ere this borne fruit in Prophets, and had budded in the New 
Testament. For as in things sensible, the vine ever remains the same, but 
bears new fruits in its seasons, so also the self-same Spirit continuing what 
He is, as He had often wrought in Prophets, now manifested a new and 
marvelous work. For though His grace had come before to the Fathers also, 
yet here it came exuberantly; for formerly men only partook of the Holy 
Ghost, but now they were baptized completely. 

19. But Peter who had the Holy Ghost, and who knew what he possessed, 
says, "Men of Israel, ye who preach Joel, but know not the things which 
are written, these men are not drunken as ye suppose. Drunken they are, 
not however as ye suppose, but according to that which is written, They 
shall be drunken with the fatness of thy house; and than shall make them 
drink of the torrents of thy pleasure. They are drunken, with a sober 
drunkenness, deadly to sin and life-giving to the heart, a drunkenness 
contrary to that of the body; for this last causes forgetfulness even of 
what was known, but that bestows the knowledge even of what was not 



321 

known. They are drunken, for they have drunk the wine of the spiritual 
vine, which says, / am the vine and ye are the branches. But if ye are not 
persuaded by me, understand what I tell you from the very time of the 
day; for it is the third hour of the day. For He who, as Mark relates, was 
crucified at the third hour, now at the third hour sent down His grace. For 
His grace is not other than the Spirit' s grace, but He who was then 
crucified, who also gave the promise, made good that which He promised. 
And if ye would receive a testimony also, Listen, he says: "But this is that 
which was spoken by the prophet Joel; And it shall come to pass after this, 
saith God, I will pour forth of My Spirit — (and this word, / will pour 
forth, implied a rich gift; for God giveth not the Spirit by measure, for the 
Father loveth the Son, and hath given all things into His hand; and He has 
given Him the power also of bestowing the grace of the All-holy Spirit on 
whomsoever He will); — / will pour forth of My Spirit with all flesh, and 
your sons and your daughters shall prophesy; and afterwards, Yea, and on 
My servants and on My handmaidens I will pour out in those days of My 
Spirit, and they shall prophesy '." The Holy Ghost is no respecter of 
persons; for He seeks not dignities, but piety of soul. Let neither the rich 
be puffed up, nor the poor dejected, but only let each prepare himself for 
reception of the Heavenly gift. 

20. We have said much today, and perchance you are weary of listening; 
yet more still remains. And in truth for the doctrine of the Holy Ghost 
there were need of a third lecture; and of many besides. But we must have 
your indulgence on both points. For as the Holy Festival of Easter is now 
at hand we have this day lengthened our discourse and yet we had not 
room to bring before you all the testimonies from the New Testament 
which we ought. For many passages are still to come from the Acts of the 
Apostles in which the grace of the Holy Ghost wrought mightily in Peter 
and in all the Apostles together; many also from the Catholic Epistles, and 
the fourteen Epistles of Paul; out of all which we will now endeavor to 
gather a few, like flowers from a large meadow, merely by way of 
remembrance. 

21. For in the power of the Holy Ghost, by the will of Father and Son, 
Peter stood with the Eleven, and lifting up his voice, (according to the text, 
Lift up thy voice with strength, thou that bringest good tidings to 
Jerusalem), captured in the spiritual net of his words, about three 



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thousand souls. So great was the grace which wrought in all the Apostles 
together, that, out of the Jews, those crucifiers of Christ, this great number 
believed, and were baptized in the Name of Christ, and continued 
steadfastly in the Apostles ' doctrine and in the prayers. And again m the 
same power of the Holy Ghost, Peter and John went up into the Temple at 
the hour of prayer, which was the ninth hour, and in the Name of Jesus 
healed the man at the Beautiful gate, who had been lame from his mother's 
womb for forty years; that it might be fulfilled which was spoken, Then 
shall the lame man leap as an hart. And thus, as they captured in the 
spiritual net of their doctrine five thousand believers at once, so they 
confuted the misguided rulers of the people and chief priests, and that, not 
through their own wisdom, for they were unlearned and ignorant men, but 
through the mighty power of the Holy Ghost; for it is written, Then Peter 
filled with the Holy Ghost said to them. So great also was the grace of the 
Holy Ghost, which wrought by means of the Twelve Apostles in them 
who believed, that they were of one heart and of one soul, and their 
enjoyment of their goods was common, the possessors piously offering 
the prices of their possessions, and no one among them wanting aught; 
while Ananias and Sapphira, who attempted to lie to the Holy Ghost, 
underwent their befitting punishment. 

22. And by the hands of the Apostles were many signs and wonders 
wrought among the people. And so great was the spiritual grace shed 
around the Apostles, that gentle as they were, they were the objects of 
dread; for of the rest durst no man join himself to them; but the people 
magnified them; and multitudes were added of those who believed on the 
Lord, both of men and women; and the streets were filled with the sick on 
their beds and couches, that as Peter passed by, at least his shadow might 
overshadow some of them. And the multitude also of the cities round about 
came unto this holy Jerusalem, bringing sick folk, and them that were 
vexed with unclean spirits, and they were healed every one in this power of 
the Holy Ghost. 

23. Again, after the Twelve Apostles had been cast into prison by the 
chief priests for preaching Christ, and had been marvelously delivered 
from it at night by an Angel, and were brought before them in the judgment 
hall from the Temple, they fearlessly rebuked them in their discourse to 
them concerning Christ, and added this, that God hath also given His Holy 



323 

Spirit to them that obey Him. And when they had been scourged, they 
went their way rejoicing, and ceased not to teach and preach Jesus as the 
Christ. 

24. And it was not in the Twelve Apostles only that the grace of the Holy 
Spirit wrought, but also in the first-born children of this once barren 
Church, I mean the seven Deacons; for these also were chosen, as it is 
written, being/w// of the Holy Ghost and of wisdom. Of whom Stephen, 
rightly so named, the first fruits of the Martyrs, a man^// of faith and of 
the Holy Ghost, wrought great wanders and miracles among the people, 
and vanquished those who disputed with him; for they were not able to 
resist the wisdom and the Spirit by which he spake. But when he was 
maliciously accused and brought to the judgment hall, he was radiant with 
angelic brightness; for all they who sat in the council, looking steadfastly on 
him, saw his face, as it had been the face of an Angel. And having by his 
wise defense confuted the Jews, those stiff-necked men, uncircumcised in 
heart and ears, ever resisting the Holy Ghost, he beheld the heavens 
opened, and saw the Son of Man standing on the right hand of God. He 
saw Him, not by his own power, but, as the Divine Scripture says, being 
full of the Holy Ghost, he looked up steadfastly into heaven, and saw the 
glory of God, and Jesus standing on the right hand of God. 

25. In this power of the Holy Ghost, Philip also in the Name of Christ at 
one time in the city of Samaria drove away the unclean spirits, crying out 
with a loud voice; and healed the palsied and the lame, and brought to 
Christ great multitudes of them that believe. To whom Peter and John 
came down, and with prayer, and the laying on of hands, imparted the 
fellowship of the Holy Ghost, from which Simon Magus alone was 
declared an alien, and that justly. And at another time Philip was called by 
the Angel of the Lord in the way, for the sake of that most godly 
Ethiopian, the Eunuch, and heard distinctly the Spirit Himself saying, Go 
near, and join thyself to this chariot. He instructed the Eunuch, and 
baptized him, and so having sent into Ethiopia a herald of Christ, 
according as it is written, Ethiopia shall soon stretch out her hand unto 
God, he was caught away by the Angel, and preached the Gospel in the 
cities in succession. 



324 

26. With this Holy Spirit Paul also had been filled after his calling by our 
Lord Jesus Christ. Let godly Ananias come as a witness to what we say, 
he who in Damascus said to him, The Lord, even Jesus who appeared to 
thee in the way which thou earnest, hath sent me, that thou may est receive 
thy sight, and be filled with the Holy Ghost. And straightway the Spirit's 
mighty working changed the blindness of Paul's eyes into newness of 
sight; and having vouchsafed His seal unto his soul, made him a chosen 
vessel to bear the Name of the Lord who had appeared to him, before 
kings and the children of Israel, and rendered the former persecutor an 
ambassador and good servant, — one, who from Jerusalem, and even unto 
Illyricum, fully preached the Gospel, and instructed even imperial Rome, 
and carried the earnestness of his preaching as far as Spain, undergoing 
conflicts innumerable, and performing signs and wonders. Of him for the 
present enough. 

27. In the power of the same Holy Spirit Peter also, the chief of the 
Apostles and the bearer of the keys of the kingdom of heaven, healed 
Aeneas the paralytic in the Name of Christ at Lydda, which is now 
Diospolis, and at Joppa raised from the dead Tabitha rich in good works. 
And being on the housetop in a trance, he saw heaven opened, and by 
means of the vessel let down as it were a sheet full of beasts of every 
shape and sort, he learnt plainly to call no man common or unclean, though 
he should be of the Greeks. And when he was sent for by Cornelius, he 
heard clearly the Holy Ghost Himself saying, Behold, men seek thee; but 
arise and get thee down, and go with them, nothing doubling; for I have 
sent them. And that it might be plainly shewn that those of the Gentiles 
also who believe are made partakers of the grace of the Holy Ghost, when 
Peter was come to Cesarea, and was teaching the things concerning Christ, 
the Scripture says concerning Cornelius and them who were with him; 
While Peter yet spake these words, the Holy Ghost fell on all them which 
heard the word; so that they of the circumcision also which came with 
Peter were astonished, and when they understood it said that on the 
Gentiles also was poured out the gift of the Holy Ghost. 

28. And in Antioch also, a most renowned city of Syria, when the 
preaching of Christ took effect, Barnabas was sent hence as far as Antioch 
to help on the good work, being a good man, and full of the Holy Ghost, 
and of faith; who seeing a great harvest of believers in Christ, brought Paul 



325 

from Tarsus to Antioch, as his fellow-combatant. And when crowds had 
been instructed by them and assembled in the Church, it came to pass that 
the disciples were called Christians first in Antioch; the Holy Ghost, 
methinks, bestowing on the believers that new Name, which had been 
promised before by the Lord. And the grace of the Spirit being shed forth 
by God more abundantly in Antioch, there were there prophets and 
teachers of whom Agabus was one. And as they ministered to the Lord and 
fasted, the Holy Ghost said, Separate Me Barnabas and Saul for the work 
whereunto I have called them. And after hands had been laid on them, they 
were sent forth by the Holy Ghost. Now it is manifest, that the Spirit 
which speaks and sends, is a living Spirit, subsisting, and operating, as we 
have said. 

29. This Holy Spirit, who in unison with Father and Son has established 
the New Covenant in the Church Catholic, has set us free from the 
burdens of the law grievous to be borne, — those I mean, concerning 
things common and unclean, and meats, and sabbaths, and new moons, and 
circumcision, and sprinklings, and sacrifices; which were given for a 
season, and had a shadow of the good things to came, but which, when the 
truth had come, were rightly withdrawn. For when Paul and Barnabas 
were sent to the Apostles, because of the question moved at Antioch by 
them who said that it was necessary to be circumcised and to keep the 
customs of Moses, the Apostles who were here at Jerusalem by a written 
injunction set free the whole world from all the legal and typical 
observances; yet they attributed not to themselves the full authority in so 
great a matter, but send an injunction in writing, and acknowledge this: For 
it hath seemed good unto the Holy Ghost and to us, to lay upon you no 
greater burden than these necessary things; that ye abstain from things 
sacrificed to idols, and from blood, and from things strangled, and from 
fornication; shewing evidently by what they wrote, that though the 
writing was by the hands of human Apostles, yet the decree is universal 
from the Holy Ghost: which decree Paul and Barnabas took and confirmed 
unto all the world. 

30. And now, having proceeded thus far in my discourse, I ask indulgence 
from your love, or rather from the Spirit who dwelt in Paul, if I should not 
be able to rehearse everything, by reason of my own weakness, and your 
weariness who listen. For when shall I in terms worthy of Himself declare 



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the marvelous deeds wrought by the operation of the Holy Ghost in the 
Name of Christ? Those wrought in Cyprus upon Elymas the sorcerer, and 
in Lystra at the healing of the cripple, and in Cilicia and Phrygia and 
Galatia and Mysia and Macedonia? or those at Philippi (the preaching, I 
mean, and the driving out of the spirit of divination in the Name of Christ; 
and the salvation by baptism of the jailer with his whole house at night 
after the earthquake); or the events at Thessalonica; and the address at 
Areopagus in the midst of the Athenians; or the instructions at Corinth, 
and in all Achaia? How shall I worthily recount the mighty deeds which 
were wrought at Ephesus through Paul, by the Holy Ghost? Whom they 
of that City knew not before, but came to know Him by the doctrine of 
Paul; and when Paul had laid his hands on them, and the Holy Ghost had 
come upon them, they spake will tongues, and prophesied. And so great 
spiritual grace was upon him, that not only his touch wrought cures, but 
even the handkerchiefs and napkins, brought from his body, healed 
diseases, and scared away the evil spirits; and at last they also who 
practiced curious arts brought their books together, and burned them 
before all men. 

31. 1 pass by the work wrought at Troas on Eutychus, who being borne 
down by his sleep fell dawn from the third loft, and was taken up dead; yet 
was saved alive by Paul. I also pass by the prophecies addressed to the 
Elders of Ephesus whom he called to him in Miletus, to whom he openly 
said, That the Holy Ghost witnesseth in every city, saying — and the rest; 
for by saying, in every city, Paul made manifest that the marvelous works 
done by him in each city, were from the operative power of the Holy 
Ghost, by the will of God, and in the Name of Christ who spoke in him. 
By the power of this Holy Ghost, the same Paul was hastening to this 
holy city Jerusalem, and this, though Agabus by the Spirit foretold what 
should befall him; and yet he spoke to the people with confidence, 
declaring the things concerning Christ. And when brought to Cesarea, and 
set amid tribunals of justice, at one time before Felix, and at another before 
Festus the governor and King Agrippa, Paul obtained of the Holy Ghost 
grace so great, and triumphant in wisdom, that at last Agrippa himself the 
king of the Jews said, Almost thou persuadest me to be a Christian. This 
Holy Spirit granted to Paul, when he was in the island of Melita also, to 
receive no harm when bitten by the viper, and to effect divers cures on the 



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diseased. This Holy Spirit guided him, the persecutor of old, as a herald of 
Christ, even as far as imperial Rome, and there he persuaded many of the 
Jews to believe in Christ, and to them who gainsaid he said plainly, Well 
spake the Holy Ghost by Esaias the Prophet, saying unto your fathers, and 
the rest. 

32. And that Paul was full of the Holy Ghost, and all his fellow Apostles, 
and they who after them believed in Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, hear 
from himself as he writes plainly in his Epistles; And my speech, he says, 
and my preaching was not in persuasive words of man 's wisdom, but in 
demonstration of the Spirit and of power. And again, But He who sealed us 
for this very purpose is God, who gave us the earnest of the Spirit. And 
again, He that raised up Jesus from the dead shall also quicken your 
mortal bodies by His Spirit which dwelleth in you. And again, writing to 
Timothy, That good thing which was committed to thee guard through the 
Holy Ghost which was given to us. 

33. And that the Holy Ghost subsists, and lives, and speaks, and foretells, 
I have often said in what goes before, and Paul writes it plainly to 
Timothy: Now the Spirit speaketh expressly, that in later times some shall 
depart from the faith, — which we see in the divisions not only of former 
times but also of our own; so motley and diversified are the errors of the 
heretics. And again the same Paul says, Which in other generations was 
not made known unto the sons of men, as it hath now been revealed unto 
His Holy Apostles and Prophets in the Spirit. And again, Wherefore, as 
saith the Holy Ghost, and again, The Holy Ghost also witnesseth to us. And 
again he calls unto the soldiers of righteousness, saying, And take the 
helmet of salvation, and the sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God, 
with all prayer and supplication. And again, Be not drunk with wine, 
wherein is excess; but be filled with the Spirit, speaking to yourselves in 
psalms, and hymns, and spiritual songs. And again, The grace of the Lord 
Jesus, and the love of God, and the communion of the Holy Ghost be with 
you all. 

34. By all these proofs, and by more which have been passed over, is the 
personal, and sanctifying, and effectual power of the Holy Ghost 
established for those who can understand; for the time would fail me in my 
discourse if I wished to quote what yet remains concerning the Holy 



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Ghost from the fourteen Epistles of Paul, wherein he has taught with such 
variety, completeness, and reverence. And to the power of the Holy 
Ghost Himself it must belong, to grant to us forgiveness for what we have 
omitted because the days are few, and upon you the hearers to impress 
more perfectly the knowledge of what yet remains; while from the 
frequent reading of the sacred Scriptures those of you who are diligent 
come to understand these things, and by this time, both from these present 
Lectures, and from what has before been told you, hold more steadfastly 
the Faith in "One God The Father Almighty; And In Our Lord Jesus 
Christ, His Only-Begotten Son; And In The Holy Ghost The 
Comforter ." Though the word itself and title of Spirit is applied to Them 
in common in the sacred Scriptures, — for it is said of the Father, God is a 
Spirit, as it is written in the Gospel according to John; and of the Son, A 
Spirit before our face, Christ the Lord, as Jeremias the prophet says; and 
of the Holy Ghost, the Comforter, the Holy Ghost, as was said; — yet the 
arrangement of articles in the Faith, if religiously understood, disproves 
the error of Sabellius also. Return we therefore in our discourse to the 
point which now presses and is profitable to you. 

35. Beware lest ever like Simon thou come to the dispensers of Baptism in 
hypocrisy, thy heart the while not seeking the truth. It is ours to protest, 
but it is thine to secure thyself. If thou standest in faith, blessed art thou; if 
thou hast fallen in unbelief, from this day forward cast away thine 
unbelief, and receive full assurance. For, at the season of baptism, when 
thou art come before the Bishops, or Presbyters, or Deacons, — (forits 
grace is everywhere, in villages and in cities, on them of low as on them of 
high degree, on bondsmen and on freemen, for this grace is not of men, but 
the gift is from God through men,) — approach the Minister of Baptism, 
but approaching, think not of the face of him thou seest, but remember 
this Holy Ghost of whom we are now speaking. For He is present in 
readiness to seal thy soul, and He shall give thee that Seal at which evil 
spirits tremble, a heavenly and sacred seal, as also it is written, In whom 
also ye believed, and were sealed with the Holy Spirit of promise. 

36. Yet He tries the soul. He casts not His pearls before swine; if thou 
play the hypocrite, though men baptize thee now, the Holy Spirit will not 
baptize thee. But if thou approach with faith, though men minister in what 
is seen, the Holy Ghost bestows that which is unseen. Thou art coming to 



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a great trial, to a great muster, in that one hour, which if thou throw away, 
thy disaster is irretrievable; but if thou be counted worthy of the grace, 
thy soul will be enlightened, thou wilt receive a power which thou hadst 
not, thou wilt receive weapons terrible to the evil spirits; and if thou cast 
not away thine arms, but keep the Seal upon thy soul, no evil spirit will 
approach thee; for he will be cowed; for verily by the Spirit of God are the 
evil spirits cast out. 

37. If thou believe, thou shalt not only receive remission of sins, but also 
do things which pass man's power. And mayest thou be worthy of the 
gift of prophecy also ! For thou shall receive grace according to the measure 
of thy capacity and not of my words; for I may possibly speak of but 
small things, yet thou mayest receive greater; since faith is a large affair. 
All thy life long will thy guardian the Comforter abide with thee; He will 
care for thee, as for his own soldier; for thy goings out, and thy comings 
in, and thy plotting foes. And He will give thee gifts of grace of every 
kind, if thou grieve Him not by sin; for it is written, And grieve not the 
Holy Spirit of God, whereby ye were sealed unto the day of redemption. 
What then, beloved, is it to preserve grace? Be ye ready to receive grace, 
and when ye have received it, cast it not away. 

38. And may the very God of All, who spoke by the Holy Ghost through 
the prophets, who sent Him forth upon the Apostles on the day of 
Pentecost in this place, Himself send Him forth at this time also upon 
you; and by Him keep us also, imparting His benefit in common to us all, 
that we may ever render up the fruits of the Holy Ghost, love, joy, peace, 
long-suffering, gentleness, goodness, faith, meekness, temperance, in 
Christ Jesus our Lord: — By whom and with whom, together with the 
Holy Ghost, be glory to the Father, both now, and ever, and for ever and 
ever. Amen. 



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LECTURE 18 

ON THE WORDS, AND IN ONE HOLY CATHOLIC CHURCH, 
AND IN THE RESURRECTION OF THE FLESH, AND THE LIFE 

EVERLASTING 



EZEKIEL 37:1. 

The hand of the Lord was upon me, and carried me out in the Spirit of the Lord, 
and set me down in the midst of the valley which was full of bones. 

1. The root of all good works is the hope of the Resurrection; for the 
expectation of the recompense nerves the soul to good works. For every 
laborer is ready to endure the toils, if he sees their reward in prospect; but 
when men weary themselves for nought, their heart soon sinks as well as 
their body. A soldier who expects a prize is ready for war, but no one is 
forward to die for a king who is indifferent about those who serve under 
him, and bestows no honors on their toils. In like manner every soul 
believing in a Resurrection is naturally careful of itself; but, disbelieving it, 
abandons itself to perdition. He who believes that his body shall remain to 
rise again, is careful of his robe, and defiles it not with fornication; but he 
who disbelieves the Resurrection, gives himself to fornication, and misuses 
his own body, as though it were not his own. Faith therefore in the 
Resurrection of the dead, is a great commandment and doctrine of the Holy 
Catholic Church; great and most necessary, though gainsaid by many, yet 
surely warranted by the truth. Greeks contradict it, Samaritans disbelieve 
it, heretics mutilate it; the contradiction is manifold, but the truth is 
uniform. 

2. Now Greeks and Samaritans together argue against us thus. The dead 
man has fallen, and moldered away, and is all turned into worms; and the 
worms have died also; such is the decay and destruction which has 
overtaken the body; how then is it to be raised? The shipwrecked have 
been devoured by fishes, which are themselves devoured. Of them who 
fight with wild beasts the very bones are ground to powder, and consumed 
by bears and lions. Vultures and ravens feed on the flesh of the unburied 



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dead, and then fly away over all the world; whence then is the body to be 
collected? For of the fowls who have devoured it some may chance to die 
in India, some in Persia, some in the land of the Goths. Other men again 
are consumed by fire, and their very ashes scattered by rain or wind; 
whence is the body to be brought together again? 

3. To thee, poor little feeble man, India is far from the land of the Goths, 
and Spain from Persia; but to God, who holds the whole earth in the 
hollow of His hand, all things are near at hand. Impute not then weakness 
to God, from a comparison of thy feebleness, but rather dwell on His 
power. Does then the sun, a small work of God, by one glance of his 
beams give warmth to the whole world; does the atmosphere, which God 
has made, encompass all things in the world; and is God, who is the 
Creator both of the sun, and of the atmosphere, far off from the world? 
Imagine a mixture of seeds of different plants (for as thou art weak 
concerning the faith, the examples which I allege are weak also), and that 
these different seeds are contained in thy single hand; is it then to thee, 
who art a man, a difficult or an easy matter to separate what is in thine 
hand, and to collect each seed according to its nature, and restore it to its 
own kind? Canst thou then separate the things in thine hand, and cannot 
God separate the things contained in His hand, and restore them to their 
proper place? Consider what I say, whether it is not impious to deny it? 

4. But further, attend, I pray, to the very principle of justice, and come to 
thine own case. Thou hast different sorts of servants: and some are good 
and some bad; thou honorest therefore the good, and smitest the bad. And 
if thou art a judge, to the good thou awardest praise, and to the 
transgressors, punishment. Is then justice observed by thee a mortal man; 
and with God, the ever changeless King of all, is there no retributive 
justice? Nay, to deny it is impious. For consider what I say. Many 
murderers have died in their beds unpunished; where then is the 
righteousness of God? Yea, ofttimes a murderer guilty of fifty murders is 
beheaded once; where then shall he suffer punishment for the forty and 
nine? Unless there is a judgment and a retribution after this world, thou 
chargest God with unrighteousness. Marvel not, however, because of the 
delay of the judgment; no combatant is crowned or disgraced, till the 
contest is over; and no president of the games ever crowns men while yet 
striving, but he waits till all the combatants are finished, that then deciding 



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between them he may dispense the prizes and the chap lets. Even thus 
God also, so long as the strife in this world lasts, succors the just but 
partially, but afterwards He renders to them their rewards fully. 

5. But if according to thee there is no resurrection of the dead, wherefore 
condemnest thou the robbers of graves? For if the body perishes, and there 
is no resurrection to be hoped for, why does the violator of the tomb 
undergo punishment? Thou seest that though thou deny it with thy lips, 
there yet abides with thee an indestructible instinct of the resurrection. 

6. Further, does a tree after it has been cut down blossom again, and shall 
man after being cut down blossom no more? And does the corn sown and 
reaped remain for the threshing floor, and shall man when reaped from this 
world not remain for the threshing? And do shoots of vine or other trees, 
when clean cut off and transplanted, come to life and bear fruit; and shall 
man, for whose sake all these exist, fall into the earth and not rise again? 
Comparing efforts, which is greater, to mold from the beginning a statue 
which did not exist, or to recast in the same shape that which had fallen? Is 
God then, who created us out of nothing, unable to raise again those who 
exist and are fallen? But thou believest not what is written of the 
resurrection, being a Greek: then from the analogy of nature consider these 
matters, and understand them from what is seen to this day. Wheat, it may 
be, or some other kind of grain, is sown; and when the seed has fallen, it 
dies and rots, and is henceforth useless for food. But that which has 
rotted, springs up in verdure; and though small when sown, springs up 
most beautiful. Now wheat was made for us; for wheat and all seeds were 
created not for themselves, but for our use; are then the things which were 
made for us quickened when they die, and do we for whom they were 
made, not rise again after our death? 

7. The season is winter, as thou seest; the trees now stand as if they were 
dead: for where are the leaves of the fig-tree? where are the clusters of the 
vine? These in winter time are dead, but green in spring; and when the 
season is come, there is restored to them a quickening as it were from a 
state of death. For God, knowing thine unbelief, works a resurrection year 
by year in these visible things; that, beholding what happens to things 
inanimate, thou mayest believe concerning things animate and rational. 
Further, flies and bees are often drowned in water, yet after a while revive; 



333 

and species of dormice, after remaining motionless during the winter, are 
restored in the summer (for to thy slight thoughts like examples are 
offered); and shall He who to irrational and despised creatures grants life 
supernaturally, not bestow it upon us, for whose sake He made them? 

8. But the Greeks ask for a resurrection of the dead still manifest; and say 
that, even if these creatures are raised, yet they had not utterly moldered 
away; and they require to see distinctly some creature rise again after 
complete decay. God knew men's unbelief, and provided for this purpose 
a bird, called a Phoenix. This bird, as Clement writes, and as many more 
relate, being the only one of its kind, arrives in the land of the Egyptians at 
periods of five hundred years, shewing forth the resurrection, not in desert 
places, lest the occurrence of the mystery should remain unknown, but 
appearing in a notable city, that men might even handle what would 
otherwise be disbelieved. For it makes itself a coffin of frankincense and 
myrrh and other spices, and entering into this when its years are fulfilled, 
it evidently dies and molders away. Then from the decayed flesh of the 
dead bird a worm is engendered, and this worm when grown large is 
transformed into a bird; — and do not disbelieve this, for thou seest the 
offspring of bees also fashioned thus out of worms, and from eggs which 
are quite fluid thou hast seen wings and bones and sinews of birds issue. 
Afterwards the aforesaid Phoenix, becoming fledged and a full-grown 
Phoenix, like the former one, soars up into the air such as it had died, 
shewing forth to men a most evident resurrection of the dead. The Phoenix 
indeed is a wondrous bird, yet it is irrational, nor ever sang praise to God; 
it flies abroad through the sky, but it knows not who is the Only-begotten 
Son of God. Has then a resurrection from the dead been given to this 
irrational creature which knows not its Maker, and to us who ascribe glory 
to God and keep His commandments, shall there no resurrection be 
granted? 

9. But since the sign of the Phoenix is remote and uncommon, and men still 
disbelieve our resurrection, take again the proof of this from what thou 
seest every day. A hundred or two hundred years ago, we all, speakers and 
hearers, where were we? Know we not the groundwork of the substance of 
our bodies? Knowest thou not how from weak and shapeless and simple 
elements we are engendered, and out of what is simple and weak a living 
man is formed? and how that weak element being made flesh is changed 



334 

into strong sinews, and bright eyes, and sensitive nose, and hearing ears, 
and speaking tongue, and beating heart, and busy hands, and swift feet, 
and into members of all kinds? and how that once weak element becomes a 
shipwright, and a builder, and an architect, and a craftsman of various arts, 
and a soldier, and a ruler, and a lawgiver, and a king? Cannot God then, 
who has made us out of imperfect materials, raise us up when we have 
fallen into decay? He who thus flames a body out of what is vile, cannot 
He raise the fallen body again? And He who fashions that which is not, 
shall He not raise up that which is and is fallen? 

10. Take further a manifest proof of the resurrection of the dead, 
witnessed month by month in the sky and its luminaries. The body of the 
moon vanishes completely, so that no part of it is any more seen, yet it 
fills again, and is restored to its former state; and for the perfect 
demonstration of the matter, the moon at certain revolutions of years 
suffering eclipse and becoming manifestly changed into blood, yet recovers 
its luminous body: God having provided this, that thou also, the man who 
art formed of blood, mightest not refuse credence to the resurrection of the 
dead, but mightest believe concerning thyself also what thou seest in 
respect of the moon. These therefore use thou as arguments against the 
Greeks; for with them who receive not what is written fight thou with 
unwritten weapons, by reasonings only and demonstrations; for these men 
know not who Moses is, nor Esaias, nor the Gospels, nor Paul. 

11. Turn now to the Samaritans, who, receiving the Law only, allow not 
the Prophets. To them the text just now read from Ezekiel appears of no 
force, for, as I said, they admit no Prophets; whence then shall we 
persuade the Samaritans also? Let us go to the writings of the Law. Now 
God says to Moses, I am the God of Abraham, and of Isaac, and of Jacob; 
this must mean of those who have being and subsistence. For if Abraham 
has come to an end, and Isaac and Jacob, then He is the God of those who 
have no being. When did a king ever say, I am the king of soldiers, whom 
he had not? When did any display wealth which he possessed not? 
Therefore Abraham and Isaac and Jacob must subsist, that God may be 
the God of those who have being; for He said not, "I was their God," but / 
am. And that there is a judgment, Abraham shews in saying to the Lord, 
He who judgeth all the earth, shall He not execute judgment? 



335 

12. But to this the foolish Samaritans object again, and say that the souls 
possibly of Abraham and Isaac and Jacob continue, but that their bodies 
cannot possibly rise again. Was it then possible that the rod of righteous 
Moses should become a serpent, and is it impossible that the bodies of the 
righteous should live and rise again? And was that done contrary to nature, 
and shall they not be restored according to nature? Again, the rod of 
Aaron, though cut off and dead, budded, without the scent of waters, and 
though under a roof, sprouted forth into blossoms as in the fields; and 
though set in dry places, yielded in one night the flowers and fruit of 
plants watered for many years. Did Aaron's rod rise, as it were, from the 
dead, and shall not Aaron himself be raised? And did God work wonders 
in wood, to secure to him the high-priesthood, and will He not vouchsafe a 
resurrection to Aaron himself? A woman also was made salt contrary to 
nature; and flesh was turned into salt; and shall not flesh be restored to 
flesh? Was Lot's wife made a pillar of salt, and shall not Abraham's wife 
be raised again? By what power was Moses' hand changed, which even 
within one hour became as snow, and was restored again? Certainly by 
God's command. Was then His command of force then, and has it no force 
now? 

13. And whence in the beginning came man into being at all, O ye 
Samaritans, most senseless of all men? Go to the first book of the 
Scripture, which even you receive; And God formed man of the dust of the 
ground. Is dust transformed into flesh, and shall not flesh be again restored 
to flesh? You must be asked too, whence the heavens had their being, and 
earth, and seas? Whence sun, and moon, and stars? How from the waters 
were made the things which fly and swim? And how from earth all its 
living things? Were so many myriads brought from nothing into being, and 
shall we men, who bear God's image, not be raised up? Truly this course 
is full of unbelief, and the unbelievers are much to be condemned; when 
Abraham addresses the Lord as the Judge of all the earth, and the learners 
of the Law disbelieve; when it is written that man is of the earth, and the 
readers disbelieve it. 

14. These questions, therefore, are for them, the unbelievers: but the 
words of the Prophets are for us who believe. But since some who have 
also used the Prophets believe not what is written, and allege against us 
that passage, The ungodly shall not rise up in judgment, and, For if man go 



336 

down to the grave he shall come up no more, and, The dead shall not 
praise Thee, O Lord, — for of what is well written, they have made ill use 
— it will be well in a cursory manner, and as far as is now possible, to 
meet them. For if it is said, that the ungodly shall not rise up in judgment, 
this shews that they shall rise, not in judgment, but in condemnation; for 
God needs not long scrutiny, but close on the resurrection of the ungodly 
follows also their punishment. And if it is said, The dead shall not praise 
Thee, O Lord, this shews, that since in this life only is the appointed time 
for repentance and pardon, for which they who enjoy it shall praise the 
Lord, it remains not after death for them who have died in sins to give 
praise as the receivers of a blessing, but to bewail themselves; for praise 
belongs to them who give thanks, but to them who are under the scourge, 
lamentation. Therefore the just then offer praise; but they who have died 
in sins have no further season for confession. 

15. And respecting that passage, If a man go down to the grave, he shall 
come up no more, observe what follows, for it is written, He shall come 
up no more, neither shall he return to his own house. For since the whole 
world shall pass away, and every house shall be destroyed, how shall he 
return to his own house, there being henceforth a new and different earth? 
But they ought to have heard Job, saying, For there is hope of a tree; for if 
it be cut down, it will sprout again, and the tender branch thereof will not 
cease. For though the root thereof wax old in the earth, and the stock 
thereof die in the rocky ground; yet from the scent of water it will bud, and 
bring forth a crop like a new plant. But man when he dies, is gone; and 
when mortal man falls, is he no morel As it were remonstrating and 
reproving (for thus ought we to read the words is no more with an 
interrogation); he says since a tree falls and revives shall not man, for 
whom all trees were made himself revive? And that thou mayest not 
suppose that I am forcing the words, read what follows; for after saying 
by way of question, When mortal man falls, is he no morel he says, For if 
a man die, he shall live again; and immediately he adds, / will wait till I be 
made again; and again elsewhere, Who shall raise up on the earth my skin, 
which endures these things. And Esaias the Prophet says, The dead men 
shall rise again, and they that are in the tombs shall awake. And the 
Prophet Ezekiel now before us, says most plainly, Behold I will open your 
graves, and bring you up out of your graves. And Daniel says, Many of 



337 

them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall arise, some to everlasting life, 
and some to everlasting shame. 

16. And many Scriptures there are which testify of the Resurrection of the 
dead; for there are many other sayings on this matter. But now, by way of 
remembrance only, we will make a passing mention of the raising of 
Lazarus on the fourth day; and just allude, because of the shortness of the 
time, to the widow's son also who was raised, and merely for the sake of 
reminding you, let me mention the ruler of the synagogue' s daughter, and 
the rending of the rocks, and how there arose many bodies of the saints 
which slept, their graves having been opened. But specially be it 
remembered that Christ has been raised from the dead. I speak but in 
passing of Elias, and the widow's son whom he raised; of Elisseus also, 
who raised the dead twice; once in his lifetime, and once after his death. 
For when alive he wrought the resurrection by means of his own soul; but 
that not the souls only of the just might be honored, but that it might be 
believed that in the bodies also of the just there lies a power, the corpse 
which was cast into the sepulcher of Elisseus, when it touched the dead 
body of the prophet, was quickened, and the dead body of the prophet did 
the work of the soul, and that which was dead and buried gave life to the 
dead, and though it gave life, yet continued itself among the dead. 
Wherefore? Lest if Elisseus should rise again, the work should be ascribed 
to his soul alone; and to shew, that even though the soul is not present, a 
virtue resides in the body of the saints, because of the righteous soul 
which has for so many years dwelt in it, and used it as its minister. And 
let us not foolishly disbelieve, as though this thing had not happened: for 
if handkerchiefs and aprons, which are from without, touching the bodies 
of the diseased, raised up the sick, how much more should the very body 
of the Prophet raise the dead? 

17. And with respect to these instances we might say much, rehearsing in 
detail the marvelous circumstances of each event: but as you have been 
already wearied both by the superposed fast of the Preparation, and by 
the watching s, let what has been cursorily spoken concerning them suffice 
for a while; these words having been as it were sown thinly, that you, 
receiving the seed like richest ground, may in bearing fruit increase them. 
But be it remembered, that the Apostles also raised the dead; Peter raised 
Tabitha in Joppa, and Paul raised Eutychus in Troas; and thus did all the 



338 

other Apostles, even though the wonders wrought by each have not all 
been written. Further, remember all the sayings in the first Epistle to the 
Corinthians, which Paul wrote against them who said, How are the dead 
raised, and with what manner of body do they cornel And how he says, 
For if the dead rise not, then is not Christ raised; and how he called them 
fools, who believed not; and remember the whole of his teaching there 
concerning the resurrection of the dead, and how he wrote to the 
Thessalonians, But we would not have you to be ignorant, brethren, 
concerning them which are asleep, that ye sorrow not, even as the rest 
which have no hope, and all that follows: but chiefly that, And the dead in 
Christ shall rise first. 

18. But especially mark this, how very pointedly Paul says, For this 
corruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put on 
immortality. For this body shall be raised not remaining weak as now; but 
raised the very same body, though by putting on incorruption it shall be 
fashioned anew, — as iron blending with fire becomes fire, or rather as He 
knows how, the Lord who raises us. This body therefore shall be raised, 
but it shall abide not such as it now is, but an eternal body; no longer 
needing for its life such nourishment as now, nor stairs for its ascent, for it 
shall be made spiritual, a marvelous thing, such as we cannot worthily 
speak of. Then, it is said, shall the righteous shine forth as the sun, and the 
moon, and as the brightness of the firmament. And God, fore-knowing 
men' s unbelief, has given to little worms in the summer to dart beams of 
light from their body, that from what is seen, that which is looked for 
might be believed; for He who gives in part is able to give the whole also, 
and He who made the worm radiant with light, will much more illuminate a 
righteous man. 

19. We shall be raised therefore, all with our bodies eternal, but not all 
with bodies alike: for if a man is righteous, he will receive a heavenly body, 
that he may be able worthily to hold converse with Angels; but if a man is 
a sinner, he shall receive an eternal body, fitted to endure the penalties of 
sins, that he may burn eternally in fire, nor ever be consumed. And 
righteously will God assign this portion to either company; for we do 
nothing without the body. We blaspheme with the mouth, and with the 
mouth we pray. With the body we commit fornication, and with the body 
we keep chastity. With the hand we rob, and by the hand we bestow alms; 



339 

and the rest in like manner. Since then the body has been our minister in all 
things, it shall also share with us in the future the fruits of the past. 

20. Therefore, brethren, let us be careful of our bodies, nor misuse them as 
though not our own. Let us not say like the heretics, that this vesture of 
the body belongs not to us, but let us be careful of it as our own; for we 
must give account to the Lord of all things done through the body. Say 
not, none seeth me; think not, that there is no witness of the deed. Human 
witness oftentimes there is not; but He who fashioned us, an unerring 
witness, abides faithful in heaven, and beholds what thou doest. And the 
stains of sin also remain in the body; for as when a wound has gone deep 
into the body, even if there has been a healing, the scar remains, so sin 
wounds soul and body, and the marks of its scars remain in all; and they 
are removed only from those who receive the washing of Baptism. The 
past wounds therefore of soul and body God heals by Baptism; against 
future ones let us one and all jointly guard ourselves, that we may keep 
this vestment of the body pure, and may not for practicing fornication and 
sensual indulgence or any other sin for a short season, lose the salvation of 
heaven, but may inherit the eternal kingdom of God; of which may God, of 
His own grace, deem all of you worthy. 

21. Thus much in proof of the Resurrection of the dead; and now, let me 
again recite to you the profession of the faith, and do you with all diligence 
pronounce it while I speak, and remember it. 

22. The Faith which we rehearse contains in order the following, "And In 
One Baptism Of Repentance For The Remission Of Sins; And In One 
Holy Catholic Church; And In The Resurrection Of The Flesh; 
And In Eternal Life ." Now of Baptism and repentance I have spoken in 
the earliest Lectures; and my present remarks concerning the resurrection 
of the dead have been made with reference to the Article "In the 
resurrection of the flesh." Now then let me finish what still remains to be 
said for the Article, "In one Holy Catholic Church," on which, though one 
might say many things, we will speak but briefly. 

23. It is called Catholic then because it extends over all the world, from one 
end of the earth to the other; and because it teaches universally and 
completely one and all the doctrines which ought to come to men's 
knowledge, concerning things both visible and invisible, heavenly and 



340 

earthly; and because it brings into subjection to godliness the whole race of 
mankind, governors and governed, learned and unlearned; and because it 
universally treats and heals the whole class of sins, which are committed 
by soul or body, and possesses in itself every form of virtue which is 
named, both in deeds and words, and in every kind of spiritual gifts. 

24. And it is rightly named (Ecclesia) because it calls forth and assembles 
together all men; according as the Lord says in Leviticus, And make an 
assembly for all the congregation at the door of the tabernacle of witness. 
And it is to be noted, that the word assemble, is used for the first time in 
the Scriptures here, at the time when the Lord puts Aaron into the 
High-priesthood. And in Deuteronomy also the Lord says to Moses, 
Assemble the people unto Me, and let them hear My words, that they may 
learn to fear Me. And he again mentions the name of the Church, when he 
says concerning the Tables, And on them were written all the words which 
the Lord spake with you in the mount out of the midst of the fire in the day 
of the Assembly; as if he had said more plainly, in the day in which ye were 
called and gathered together by God. The Psalmist also says, / will give 
thanks unto Thee, O Lord, in the great Congregation; I will praise Thee 
among much people. 

25. Of old the Psalmist sang, Bless ye God in the congregations, even the 
Lord, (ye that are) from the fountains of Israel. But after the Jews for the 
plots which they made against the Savior were cast away from His grace, 
the Savior built out of the Gentiles a second Holy Church, the Church of 
us Christians, concerning which he said to Peter, And upon this rock I will 
build My Church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it. And 
David prophesying of both these, said plainly of the first which was 
rejected, / have hated the Congregation of evil doers; but of the second 
which is built up he says in the same Psalm, Lord, I have loved the beauty 
of Thine hour; and immediately afterwards. In the Congregations will I 
bless thee, O Lord. For now that the one Church in Judaea is cast off, the 
Churches of Christ are increased over all the world; and of them it is said 
in the Psalms, Sing unto the Lord a new song, His praise in the 
Congregation of Saints. Agreeably to which the prophet also said to the 
Jews, / have no pleasure in you, saith the Lord Almighty; and immediately 
afterwards, For from the rising of the sun even unto the going down of the 
same, My name is glorified among the Gentiles. Concerning this Holy 



341 

Catholic Church Paul writes to Timothy, That thou mayest know how thou 
oughtest to behave thyself in the House of God, which is the Church of the 
Living God, the pillar and ground of the truth. 

26. But since the word Ecclesia is applied to different things (as also it is 
written of the multitude in the theater of the Ephesians, And when he had 
thus spoken, he dismissed the Assembly), and since one might properly and 
truly say that there is a Church of evil doers, I mean the meetings of the 
heretics, the Marcionists and Manichees, and the rest, for this cause the 
Faith has securely delivered to thee now the Article, "And in one Holy 
Catholic Church;" that thou mayest avoid their wretched meetings, and 
ever abide with the Holy Church Catholic in which thou wast regenerated. 
And if ever thou art sojourning in cities, inquire not simply where the 
Lord's House is (for the other sects of the profane also attempt to call 
their own dens houses of the Lord), nor merely where the Church is, but 
where is the Catholic Church. For this is the peculiar name of this Holy 
Church, the mother of us all, which is the spouse of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
the Only-begotten Son of God (for it is written, As Christ also loved the 
Church and gave Himself for it, and all the rest,) and is a figure and copy 
of Jerusalem which is above, which is free, and the mother of us all; which 
before was barren, but now has many children. 

27. For when the first Church was cast off, in the second, which is the 
Catholic Church, God hath set, as Paul says, first Apostles, secondly 
Prophets, thirdly teachers, then miracles, then gifts of headings, helps, 
governments, divers kinds of tongues, and every sort of virtue, I mean 
wisdom and understanding, temperance and justice, mercy and 
loving-kindness, and patience unconquerable in persecutions. She, by the 
armor of righteousness on the right hand and on the left, by honor and 
dishonor, in former days amid persecutions and tribulations crowned the 
holy martyrs with the varied and blooming chaplets of patience, and now 
in times of peace by God' s grace receives her due honors from kings and 
those who are in high place, and from every sort and kindred of men. And 
while the kings of particular nations have bounds set to their authority, the 
Holy Church Catholic alone extends her power without limit over the 
whole world;/or God, as it is written, hath made her border peace. But I 
should need many more hours for my discourse, if I wished to speak of all 
things which concern her. 



342 

28. In this Holy Catholic Church receiving instruction and behaving 
ourselves virtuously, we shall attain the kingdom of heaven, and inherit 
Eternal Life ; for which also we endure all toils, that we may be made 
partakers thereof from the Lord. For ours is no trifling aim, but our 
endeavor is for eternal life. Wherefore in the profession of the Faith, after 
the words, "An d In Th e Re s u r r e c t io n Of The Fl e s h ," that is, of the 
dead (of which we have discoursed), we are taught to believe also "In Th e 
Life Eternal," for which as Christians we are striving. 

29. The real and true life then is the Father, who through the Son in the 
Holy Spirit pours forth as from a fountain His heavenly gifts to all; and 
through His love to man, the blessings of the life eternal are promised 
without fail to us men also. We must not disbelieve the possibility of this, 
but having an eye not to our own weakness but to His power, we must 
believe;/or with God all things are possible. And that this is possible, and 
that we may look for eternal life, Daniel declares, And of the many 
righteous shall they shine as the stars for ever and ever. And Paul says, 
And so shall we be ever with the Lord: for the being for ever with the Lord 
implies the life eternal. But most plainly of all the Savior Himself says in 
the Gospel, And these shall go away into eternal punishment, but the 
righteous into life eternal. 

30. And many are the proofs concerning the life eternal. And when we 
desire to gain this eternal life, the sacred Scriptures suggest to us the ways 
of gaining it; of which, because of the length of our discourse, the texts we 
now set before you shall be but few, the rest being left to the search of the 
diligent. They declare at one time that it is by faith; for it is written, He 
that believeth on the Son hath eternal life, and what follows; and again He 
says Himself, Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that heareth My word, and 
believeth Him that sent Me, hath eternal life, and the rest. At another time, 
it is by the preaching of the Gospel; for He says, that He that reapeth 
receiveth wages, and gather eth fruit unto life eternal. At another time, by 
martyrdom and confession in Christ's name; for He says, And he that 
hateth his life in this world, shall keep it unto life eternal. And again, by 
preferring Christ to riches or kindred; And every one that hath forsaken 
brethren, or sisters, and the rest, shall inherit eternal life. Moreover it is 
by keeping the commandments, Thou shall not commit adultery, Thou 
shalt not kill and the rest which follow; as He answered to him that came 



343 

to Him, and said, Good Master, what shall I do that I may have eternal 
life! But further, it is by departing from evil works, and henceforth serving 
God; for Paul says, But now being made free from sin, and become 
servants to God, ye have your fruit unto sanctification, and the end eternal 
life. 

31. And the ways of finding eternal life are many, though I have passed 
over them by reason of their number. For the Lord in His loving-kindness 
has opened, not one or two only, but many doors, by which to enter into 
the life eternal, that, as far as lay in Him, all might enjoy it without 
hindrance. Thus much have we for the present spoken within compass 
concerning The Life Eternal, which is the last doctrine of those 
professed in the Faith, and its termination; which life may we all, both 
teachers and hearers, by God's grace enjoy! 

32. And now, brethren beloved, the word of instruction exhorts you all, to 
prepare your souls for the reception of the heavenly gifts. As regards the 
Holy and Apostolic Faith delivered to you to profess, we have spoken 
through the grace of the Lord as many Lectures, as was possible, in these 
past days of Lent; not that this is all we ought to have said, for many are 
the points omitted; and these perchance are thought out better by more 
excellent teachers. But now the holy day of the Passover is at hand, and 
ye, beloved in Christ, are to be enlightened by the Laver of regeneration. 
Ye shall therefore again be taught what is requisite, if God so will; with 
how great devotion and order you must enter in when summoned, for what 
purpose each of the holy mysteries of Baptism is performed, and with 
what reverence and order you must go from Baptism to the Holy Altar of 
God, and enjoy its spiritual and heavenly mysteries; that your souls being 
previously enlightened by the word of doctrine, ye may discover in each 
particular the greatness of the gifts bestowed on you by God. 

33. And after Easter's Holy Day of salvation, ye shall come on each 
successive day, beginning from the second day of the week, after the 
assembly into the Holy Place of the Resurrection, and there, if God 
permit, ye shall hear other Lectures; in which ye shall again be taught the 
reasons of every thing which has been done, and shall receive the proofs 
thereof from the Old and New Testaments, — first, of the things done just 
before Baptism, — next, how ye were cleansed from your sins by the 



344 

Lord, by the washing of water with the word, — and how like Priests ye 
have become partakers of the Name of Christ, — and how the Seal of the 
fellowship of the Holy Ghost was given to you, — and concerning the 
mysteries at the Altar of the New Testament, which have taken their 
beginning from this place, both what the Divine Scriptures have delivered 
to us, and what is the power of these mysteries, and how ye must 
approach them, and when and how receive them; — and at the end of all, 
how for the time to come ye must behave yourselves worthily of this 
grace both in words and deeds, that you may all be enabled to enjoy the 
life everlasting. And these things shall be spoken, if it be God's pleasure. 

34. Finally, my brethren, rejoice in the Lord alway; again I will say, 
Rejoice: for your redemption hath drawn nigh, and the heavenly host of 
the Angels is waiting for your salvation. And there is now the voice of one 
crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord; and the Prophet 
cries, Ho, ye that thirst, come ye to the water, and immediately afterwards, 
Hearken unto me, and ye shall eat that which is good, and your soul shall 
delight itself good things. And within a little while ye shall hear that 
excellent lesson which says, Shine, shine, O thou new Jerusalem; for thy 
light is come. Of this Jerusalem the prophet hath said, And afterwards 
thou shalt be called the city of righteousness, Zion, the faithful mother of 
cities; because of the law which went forth out of Zion, and the word of the 
Lord from Jerusalem, which word has from hence been showered forth on 
the whole world. To her the Prophet also says concerning you, Lift up 
thine eyes round about, and behold thy children gathered together, and she 
answers, saying, Who are these that fly as a cloud, and as doves with their 
young ones to mel {clouds, because of their spiritual nature, and doves, 
from their purity). And again, she says, Who knoweth such things? or who 
hath seen it thus? did ever a land bring forth in one day? or was ever a 
nation barn all at once? for as soon as Zion travailed, she brought forth 
her children. And all things shall be filled with joy unspeakable because of 
the Lord who said, Behold, I create Jerusalem a rejoicing, and her people 
a joy. 

35. And may these words be spoken now again over you also, Sing, O 
heavens, and be joyful, O earth; and then;/or the Lord hath had mercy on 
His people, and comforted the lowly of His people. And this shall come to 
pass through the loving-kindness of God, who says to you, Behold, I will 



345 

blot out as a cloud thy transgressions, and as a thick cloud thy sins. But ye 
who have been counted worthy of the name of Faithful (of whom it is 
written, Upon My servants shall be called a new name which shall be 
blessed on the earth,) ye shall say with gladness, Blessed be the God and 
Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who hath blessed us with every spiritual 
blessing in the heavenly places in Christ: in whom we have our redemption 
through His blood, the forgiveness of our sins, according to the riches of 
His grace, wherein He abounded towards us, and what follows; and again, 
But God being rich in mercy, for His great love wherewith He loved us, 
when we were dead through our trespasses, quickened us together with 
Christ, and the rest. And again in like manner praise ye the Lord of all 
good things, saying, But when the kindness of God our Savior, and His 
love towards man appeared, not by works of righteousness which we had 
done, but according to His mercy He saved us, through the washing of 
regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost, which He shed on us 
abundantly through Jesus Christ our Savior, that being justified by His 
grace, we might be made heirs, according to hope, of eternal life. And may 
God Himself the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, give 
unto you a spirit of wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of Himself, the 
eyes of your understanding being enlightened, and may He ever keep you 
in good works, and words, and thoughts; to Whom be glory, honor, and 
power, through our Lord Jesus Christ, with the Holy Ghost, now and 
ever, and unto all the endless ages of eternity. Amen. 



346 

FIVE CATECHETICAL LECTURES 

OF 

THE SAME AUTHOR, 

TO THE NEWLY BAPTIZED. 

LECTURE 19 

FIRST LECTURE ON THE MYSTERIES 



WithALesson From The FirstGeneral Epistle Of Peter, Beginning 
At Be sober, be vigilant, to the end of the Epistle. 



1. 1 Have long been wishing, O true-born and dearly beloved children of 
the Church, to discourse to you concerning these spiritual and heavenly 
Mysteries; but since I well knew that seeing is far more persuasive than 
hearing, I waited for the present season; that finding you more open to the 
influence of my words from your present experience, I might lead you by 
the hand into the brighter and more fragrant meadow of the Paradise before 
us; especially as ye have been made fit to receive the more sacred 
Mysteries, after having been found worthy of divine and life-giving 
Baptism. Since therefore it remains to set before you a table of the more 
perfect instructions, let us now teach you these things exactly, that ye 
may know the effect wrought upon you on that evening of your baptism. 

2. First ye entered into the vestibule of the Baptistery, and there facing 
towards the West ye listened to the command to stretch forth your hand, 
and as in the presence of Satan ye renounced him. Now ye must know that 
this figure is found in ancient history. For when Pharaoh, that most bitter 
and cruel tyrant, was oppressing the free and high-born people of the 
Hebrews, God sent Moses to bring them out of the evil bondage of the 
Egyptians. Then the door posts were anointed with the blood of a lamb, 
that the destroyer might flee from the houses which had the sign of the 



347 

blood; and the Hebrew people was marvelously delivered. The enemy, 
however, after their rescue, pursued after them, and saw the sea 
wondrously parted for them; nevertheless he went on, following close in 
their footsteps, and was all at once overwhelmed and engulfed in the Red 
Sea. 

3. Now turn from the old to the new, from the figure to the reality. There 
we have Moses sent from God to Egypt; here, Christ, sent forth from His 
Father into the world: there, that Moses might lead forth an afflicted 
people out of Egypt; here, that Christ might rescue those who are 
oppressed in the world under sin: there, the blood of a lamb was the spell 
against the destroyer; here, the blood of the Lamb without blemish Jesus 
Christ is made the charm to scare evil spirits: there, the tyrant was 
pursuing that ancient people even to the sea; and here the daring and 
shameless spirit, the author of evil, was following thee even to the very 
streams of salvation. The tyrant of old was drowned in the sea; and this 
present one disappears in the water of salvation. 

4. But nevertheless thou art bidden to say, with arm outstretched towards 
him as though he were present, "I renounce thee, Satan." I wish also to say 
wherefore ye stand facing to the West; for it is necessary. Since the West 
is the region of sensible darkness, and he being darkness has his dominion 
also in darkness, therefore, looking with a symbolical meaning towards the 
West, ye renounce that dark and gloomy potentate. What then did each of 
you stand up and say? "I renounce thee, Satan," — thou wicked and most 
cruel tyrant! meaning, "I fear thy might no longer; for that Christ hath 
overthrown, having partaken with me of flesh and blood, that through 
these He might by death destroy death, that I might not be made subject to 
bondage for ever." "I renounce thee," — thou crafty and most subtle 
serpent. "I renounce thee," — plotter as thou an, who under the guise of 
friendship didst contrive all disobedience, and work apostasy in our first 
parents. "I renounce thee, Satan," — the artificer and abettor of all 
wickedness. 

5. Then in a second sentence thou art taught to say, "and all thy works." 
Now the works of Satan are all sin, which also thou must renounce; — just 
as one who has escaped a tyrant has surely escaped his weapons also. All 
sin therefore, of every kind, is included in the works of the devil. Only 



348 

know this; that all that thou sayest, especially at that most thrilling hour, 
is written in God's books; when therefore thou doest any tiring contrary 
to these promises, thou shalt be judged as a transgressor. Thou 
renouncest therefore the works of Satan; I mean, all deeds and thoughts 
which are contrary to reason. 

6. Then thou sayest, "And all his pomp." Now the pomp of the devil is 
the madness of theatres, and horse-races, and hunting, and all such vanity: 
from which that holy man praying to be delivered says unto God, Turn 
away mine eyes from beholding vanity. Be not interested in the madness of 
the theater, where thou wilt behold the wanton gestures of the players, 
carried on with mockeries and all unseemliness, and the frantic dancing of 
effeminate men; — nor in the madness of them who in hunts expose 
themselves to wild beasts, that they may pamper their miserable appetite; 
who, to serve their belly with meats, become themselves in reality meat 
for the belly of untamed beasts; and to speak justly, for the sake of their 
own God, their belly, they cast away their life headlong in single combats. 
Shun also horse-races that frantic and soul- subverting spectacle. For all 
these are the pomp of the devil. 

7. Moreover, the things which are hung up at idol festivals, either meat or 
bread, or other such things polluted by the invocation of the unclean 
spirits, are reckoned in the pomp of the devil. For as the Bread and Wine 
of the Eucharist before the invocation of the Holy and Adorable Trinity 
were simple bread and wine, while after the invocation the Bread becomes 
the Body of Christ, and the Wine the Blood of Christ, so in like manner 
such meats belonging to the pomp of Satan, though in their own nature 
simple, become profane by the invocation of the evil spirit. 

8. After this thou sayest. "and all thy service." Now the service of the 
devil is prayer in idol temples; things done in honor of lifeless idols; the 
lighting of lamps, or burning of incense by fountains or rivers, as some 
persons cheated by dreams or by evil spirits do [resort to this], thinking to 
find a cure even for their bodily ailments. Go not after such things. The 
watching of birds, divination, omens, or amulets, or charms written on 
leaves, sorceries, or other evil arts, and all such things, are services of the 
devil; therefore shun them. For if after renouncing Satan and associating 
thyself with Christ, thou fall under their influence, thou shall find the 



349 

tyrant more bitter; perchance, because he treated thee of old as his own, 
and relieved thee from his hard bondage, but has now been greatly 
exasperated by thee; so thou wilt be bereaved of Christ, and have 
experience of the other. Hast thou not heard the old history which tells us 
of Lot and his daughters? Was not he himself saved with his daughters, 
when he had gained the mountain, while his wife became a pillar of salt, set 
up as a monument for ever, in remembrance of her depraved will and her 
turning back. Take heed therefore to thyself, and turn not again to what is 
behind, having put thine hand to the plough, and then turning back to the 
salt savor of this life's doings; but escape to the mountain, to Jesus Christ, 
that stone hewn without hands, which has filled the world. 

9. When therefore thou renouncest Satan, utterly breaking all thy covenant 
with him, that ancient league with hell, there is opened to thee the paradise 
of God, which He planted towards the East, whence for his transgression 
our first father was banished; and a symbol of this was thy turning from 
West to East, the place of lights. Then thou weft told to say, "I believe in 
the Father, and in the Son, and in the Holy Ghost, and in one Baptism of 
repentance." Of which things we spoke to thee at length in the former 
Lectures, as God's grace allowed us. 

10. Guarded therefore by these discourses, be sober. For our adversary 
the devil, as was just now read, as a roaring lion, walketh about, seeking 
whom he may devour. But though in former times death was mighty and 
devoured, at the holy Layer of regeneration God has wiped away every 
tear from off all faces. For thou shalt no more mourn, now that thou hast 
put off the old man; but thou shall keep holy-day, clothed in the garment 
of salvation, even Jesus Christ. 

11. And these things were done in the outer chamber. But if God will, 
when in the succeeding lectures on the Mysteries we have entered into the 
Holy of Holies, we shall there know the symbolical meaning of the things 
which are there performed. Now to God the Father, with the Son and the 
Holy Ghost, be glory, and power, and majesty, forever and ever. Amen. 



350 

LECTURE 20 

(ON THE MYSTERIES II) 
OF BAPTISM. 

ROMANS 6:3-14. 



Know ye not, that so many of us as were baptized into Jesus Christ, were baptized 
into His death? etc for ye are not under the Law, but under grace. 

1. These daily introductions into the Mysteries, and new instructions, 
which are the announcements of new truths, are profitable to us; and most 
of all to you, who have been renewed from an old state to a new. 
Therefore, I shall necessarily lay before you the sequel of yesterday's 
Lecture, that ye may learn of what those things, which were done by you 
in the inner chamber, were symbolical. 

2. As soon, then, as ye entered, ye put off your tunic; and this was an 
image of putting off the old man with his deeds. Having stripped 
yourselves, ye were naked; in this also imitating Christ, who was stripped 
naked on the Cross, and by His nakedness put off from Himself the 
principalities and powers, and openly triumphed over them on the tree. For 
since the adverse powers made their lair in your members, ye may no 
longer wear that old garment; I do not at all mean this visible one, but the 
old man, which waxeth corrupt in the lusts of deceit. May the soul which 
has once put him off, never again put him on, but say with the Spouse of 
Christ in the Song of Songs, / have put off my garment, how shall I put it 
onl O wondrous thing! ye were naked in the sight of all, and were not 
ashamed; for truly ye bore the likeness of the first-formed Adam, who was 
naked in the garden, and was not ashamed. 

3. Then, when ye were stripped, ye were anointed with exorcised oil, from 
the very hairs of your head to your feet, and were made partakers of the 
good olive-tree, Jesus Christ. For ye were cut off from the wild olive-tree, 



351 

and grafted into the good one, and were made to share the fatness of the 
true olive-tree. The exorcised oil therefore was a symbol of the 
participation of the fatness of Christ, being a charm to drive away every 
trace of hostile influence. For as the breathing of the saints, and the 
invocation of the Name of God, like fiercest flame, scorch and drive out 
evil spirits, so also this exorcised oil receives such virtue by the invocation 
of God and by prayer, as not only to burn and cleanse away the traces of 
sins, but also to chase away all the invisible powers of the evil one. 

4. After these things, ye were led to the holy pool of Divine Baptism, as 
Christ was carried from the Cross to the Sepulcher which is before our 
eyes And each of you was asked, whether he believed in the name of the 
Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, and ye made that saving 
confession, and descended three times into the water, and ascended again; 
here also hinting by a symbol at the three days burial of Christ. For as our 
Savior passed three days and three nights in the heart of the earth, so you 
also in your first ascent out of the water, represented the first day of 
Christ in the earth, and by your descent, the night; for as he who is in the 
night, no longer sees, but he who is in the day, remains in the light, so in 
the descent, as in the night, ye saw nothing, but in ascending again ye were 
as in the day. And at the self- same moment ye were both dying and being 
born; and that Water of salvation was at once your grave and your mother. 
And what Solomon spoke of others will suit you also; for he said, in that 
case, There is a time to bear and a time to die; but to you, in the reverse 
order, there was a time to die and a time to be born; and one and the same 
time effected both of these, and your birth went hand in hand with your 
death. 

5. O strange and inconceivable thing! we did not really die, we were not 
really buried, we were not really crucified and raised again; but our 
imitation was in a figure, and our salvation in reality. Christ was actually 
crucified, and actually buried, and truly rose again; and all these things He 
has freely bestowed upon us, that we, sharing His sufferings by imitation, 
might gain salvation in reality. O surpassing loving-kindness! Christ 
received nails in His undefiled hands and feet, and suffered anguish; while 
on me without pain or toil by the fellowship of His suffering He freely 
bestows salvation. 



352 

6. Let no one then suppose that Baptism is merely the grace of remission 
of sins, or further, that of adoption; as John's was a baptism conferring 
only remission of sins: whereas we know full well, that as it purges our 
sins, and ministers to us the gift of the Holy Ghost, so also it is the 
counterpart of the sufferings of Christ. For this cause Paul just now cried 
aloud and said, Or are ye ignorant that all we who were baptized into 
Christ Jesus, were baptized into His death? We were buried therefore with 
Him by baptism into His death. These words he spoke to some who were 
disposed to think that Baptism ministers to us the remission of sins, and 
adoption, but has not further the fellowship also, by representation, of 
Christ's true sufferings. 

7. In order therefore that we might learn, that whatsoever things Christ 
endured, For Us And For Our Salvation He suffered them in reality and 
not in appearance, and that we also are made partakers of His sufferings, 
Paul cried with all exactness of truth, For if we have been planted together 
with the likeness of His death, we shall be also with the likeness of His 
resurrection. Well has he said, planted together. For since the true Vine 
was planted in this place, we also by partaking in the Baptism of death 
have been planted together with Him. And fix thy mind with much 
attention on the words of the Apostle. He said not, "For if we have been 
planted together with His death," but, with the likeness of His death. For in 
Christ's case there was death in reality, for His soul was really separated 
from His body, and real burial, for His holy body was wrapt in pure linen; 
and everything happened really to Him; but in your ease there was only a 
likeness of death and sufferings, whereas of salvation there was not a 
likeness but a reality. 

8. Having been sufficiently instructed in these things, keep them, I beseech 
you, in your remembrance; that I also, unworthy though I be, may say of 
you, Now I love you, because ye always remember me, and holdfast the 
traditions, which I delivered unto you. And God, who has presented you 
as if were alive from the dead, is able to grant unto you to walk in newness 
of life: because His is the glory and the power, now and for ever. Amen. 



353 

LECTURE 21 

(ON THE MYSTERIES III) 

ON CHRISM. 

1 JOHN 2:20-28. 

But ye have an unction from the Holy One, etc that, when He shall appear, we 

may have confidence, and not be ashamed before Him at His coming. 

1. Having been baptized into Christ, and/?w? on Christ, ye have been made 
conformable to the Son of God; for God having foreordained us unto 
adoption as sons, made us to be conformed to the body of Christ's glory. 
Having therefore become partakers of Christ, ye are properly called 
Christs, and of you God said, Touch not My Christ, or anointed. Now ye 
have been made Christs, by receiving the antitype of the Holy Ghost; and 
all things have been wrought in you by imitation, because ye are images of 
Christ. He washed in the river Jordan, and having imparted of the fragrance 
of His Godhead to the waters, He came up from them; and the Holy 
Ghost in the fullness of His being lighted on Him, like resting upon like. 
And to you in like manner, after you had come up from the pool of the 
sacred streams, there was given an Unction, the anti-type of that 
wherewith Christ was anointed; and this is the Holy Ghost; of whom also 
the blessed Esaias, in his prophecy respecting Him, said in the person of 
the Lord, The Spirit of the Lord is upon Me. because He hath anointed Me: 
He hath sent Me to preach glad tidings to the poor. 

2. For Christ was not anointed by men with oil or material ointment, but 
the Father having before appointed Him to be the Savior of the whole 
world, anointed Him with the Holy Ghost, as Peter says, Jesus of 
Nazareth, whom God anointed with the Holy Ghost. David also the 
Prophet cried, saying, Thy throne, O God, is far ever and ever; a scepter 
of righteousness is the scepter of Thy kingdom; Thou hast loved 
righteousness and hated iniquity; therefore God even Thy God hath 
anointed Thee with the oil of gladness above Thy fellows. And as Christ 
was in reality crucified, and buried, and raised, and you are in Baptism 



354 

accounted worthy of being crucified, buried, and raised together with Him 
in a likeness, so is it with the unction also. As He was anointed with an 
ideals oil of gladness, that is, with the Holy Ghost, called oil of gladness, 
because He is the author of spiritual gladness, so ye were anointed with 
ointment, having been made partakers and fellows of Christ. 

3. But beware of supposing this to be plait ointment. For as the Bread of 
the Eucharist, after the invocation of the Holy Ghost, is mere bread no 
longer, but the Body of Christ, so also this holy ointment is no more 
simple ointment, nor (so to say) common, after invocation, but it is 
Christ's gift of grace, and, by the advent of the Holy Ghost, is made fit to 
impart His Divine Nature. Which ointment is symbolically applied to thy 
forehead and thy other senses; and while thy body is anointed with the 
visible ointment, thy soul is sanctified by the Holy and life-giving Spirit. 

4. And ye were first anointed on the forehead, that ye might be delivered 
from the shame, which the first man who transgressed bore about with him 
everywhere; and that with unveiled face ye might reflect as a mirror the 
glory of the Lord. Then on your ears; that ye might receive the ears which 
are quick to hear the Divine Mysteries, of which Esaias said, The Lord 
gave me also an ear to hear, and the Lord Jesus in the Gospel, He that 
hath ears to hear let him hear. Then on the nostrils; that receiving the 
sacred ointment ye may say, We are to God a sweet savor of Christ, in 
them that are saved. Afterwards on your breast; that having put on the 
breast-plate of righteousness, ye may stand against the wiles of the devil. 
For as Christ after His Baptism, and the visitation of the Holy Ghost, 
went forth and vanquished the adversary, so likewise ye, after Holy 
Baptism and the Mystical Chrism, having put on the whole armor of the 
Holy Ghost, are to stand against the power of the adversary, and vanquish 
it, saying, / can do all things through Christ which strengtheneth me. 

5. Having been counted worthy of this Holy Chrism, ye are called 
Christians, verifying the name also by your new birth. For before you 
were deemed worthy of this grace, ye had properly no right to this title, 
but were advancing on your way towards being Christians. 

6. Moreover, you should know that in the old Scripture there lies the 
symbol of this Chrism. For what time Moses imparted to his brother the 
command of God, and made him High-priest, after bathing in water, he 



355 

anointed him; and Aaron was called Christ or Anointed, evidently from the 
typical Chrism. So also the High-priest, in advancing Solomon to the 
kingdom, anointed him after he had bathed in Gihon. To them however 
these things happened in a figure, but to you not in a figure, but in truth; 
because ye were truly anointed by the Holy Ghost. Christ is the beginning 
of your salvation; for He is truly the First- fruit, and ye the mass; but if the 
First-fruit be holy, it is manifest that Its holiness will pass to the mass 
also. 

7. Keep This unspotted: for it shall teach you all things, if it abide in you, 
as you have just heard declared by the blessed John, discoursing much 
concerning this Unction. For this holy thing is a spiritual safeguard of the 
body, and salvation of the soul. Of this the blessed Esaias prophesying of 
old time said, And on this mountain, — (now he calls the Church a 
mountain elsewhere also, as when he says, In the last days the mountain of 
the Lord's house shall be manifest;) — on this mountain shall the Lord 
make unto all nations a feast; they shall drink wine, they shall drink 
gladness, they shall anoint themselves with ointment. And that he may 
make thee sure, hear what he says of this ointment as being mystical; 
Deliver all these things to the nations, for the counsel of the Lord is unto all 
nations. Having been anointed, therefore, with this holy ointment, keep it 
unspotted and unblemished in you, pressing forward by good works, and 
being made well-pleasing to the Captain of your salvation, Christ Jesus, to 
whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen. 



356 

LECTURE 22 

(ON THE MYSTERIES IV) 
ON THE BODY AND BLOOD OF CHRIST. 

1 CORINTHIANS 11:23. 



/ received of the Lord that which also I delivered unto you, how that the Lord Jesus, 
in the night in which He was betrayed, took bread, etc. 

1. Even of itself the teaching of the Blessed Paul is sufficient to give you a 
full assurance concerning those Divine Mysteries, of which having been 
deemed worthy, ye are become of the same body and blood with Christ. 
For you have just heard him say distinctly, That our Lord Jesus Christ in 
the night in which He was betrayed, took bread, and when He had given 
thanks He brake it, and gave to His disciples, saying, Take, eat, this is My 
Body: and having taken the cup and given thanks, lie said, Take, drink, 
this is My Blood. Since then He Himself declared and said of the Bread, 
This is My Body, who shall dare to doubt any longer? And since He has 
Himself affirmed and said, This is My Blood, who shall ever hesitate, 
saying, that it is not His blood? 

2. He once in Cana of Galilee, turned the water into wine, akin to blood, 
and is it incredible that He should have turned wine into blood? When 
called to a bodily marriage, He miraculously wrought that wonderful work; 
and on the children of the bride-chamber, shall He not much rather be 
acknowledged to have bestowed the fruition of His Body and Blood? 

3. Wherefore with full assurance let us partake as of the Body and Blood 
of Christ: for in the figure of Bread is given to thee His Body, and in the 
figure of Wine His Blood; that thou by partaking of the Body and Blood 
of Christ, mayest be made of the same body and the same blood with Him. 
For thus we come to bear Christ in us, because His Body and Blood are 



357 

distributed through our members; thus it is that, according to the blessed 
Peter, we became partakers of the divine nature. 

4. Christ on a certain occasion discoursing with the Jews said, Except ye 
eat My flesh and drink My blood, ye have no life in you. They not having 
heard His saying in a spiritual sense were offended, and went back, 
supposing that He was inviting them to eat flesh. 

5. In the Old Testament also there was shew-bread; but this, as it belonged 
to the Old Testament, has come to an end; but in the New Testament there 
is Bread of heaven, and a Cup of salvation, sanctifying soul and body; for 
as the Bread corresponds to our body, so is the Word appropriate to our 
soul. 

6. Consider therefore the Bread and the Wine not as bare elements, for 
they are, according to the Lord's declaration, the Body and Blood of 
Christ; for even though sense suggests this to thee, yet let faith establish 
thee. Judge not the matter from the taste, but from faith be fully assured 
without misgiving, that the Body and Blood of Christ have been 
vouchsafed to thee. 

7. Also the blessed David shall advise thee the meaning of this, saying, 
Thou hast prepared a table before me in the presence of them that afflict 
me. What he says, is to this effect: Before Thy coming, the evil spirits 
prepared a table for men, polluted and defiled and full of devilish influence; 
but since Thy coming. O Lord, Thou hast prepared a table before me. 
When the man says to God, Thou hast prepared before me a table, what 
other does he indicate but that mystical and spiritual Table, which God 
hath prepared for us over against, that is, contrary and in opposition to 
the evil spirits? And very truly; for that had communion with devils, but 
this, with God. Thou hast anointed my head with oil. With oil He anointed 
thine head upon thy forehead, for the seal which thou hast of God; that 
thou mayest be made the engraving of the signet, Holiness unto God. And 
thy cup intoxicateth me, as very strong. Thou seest that cup here spoken 
of, which Jesus took in His hands, and gave thanks, and said, This is My 
blood, which is shed far many for the remission of sins. 

8. Therefore Solomon also, hinting at this grace, says in Ecclesiastes, Come 
hither, eat thy bread with joy (that is, the spiritual bread; Come hither, he 



358 

calls with the call to salvation and blessing), and drink thy wine with a 
merry heart (that is, the spiritual wine); and let oil be poured out upon thy 
head (thou sees he alludes even to the mystic Chrism); and let thy 
garments be always white, far the Lord is well pleased with thy works; for 
before thou earnest to Baptism, thy works were vanity of vanities. But 
now, having put off thy old garments, and put on those which are 
spiritually white, thou must be continually robed in white: of course we 
mean not this, that thou art always to wear white raiment; but thou must 
be clad in the garments that are truly white and shining and spiritual, that 
thou mayest say with the blessed Esaias, My soul shall be joyful in my 
God; far He hath clothed me with a garment of salvation, and put a robe of 
gladness around me. 

9. Having learn these things, and been fully assured that the seeming bread 
is not bread, though sensible to taste, but the Body of Christ; and that the 
seeming wine is not wine, though the taste will have it so, but the Blood of 
Christ; and that of this David sung of old, saying, And bread strengtheneth 
man's heart, to make his face to shine with oil, "strengthen thou thine 
heart," by partaking thereof as spiritual, and "make the face of thy soul to 
shine." And so having it unveiled with a pure conscience, mayest thou 
reflect as a mirror the glory of the Lord, and proceed from glory to glory, 
in Christ Jesus our Lord: — To whom be honor, and might, and glory, for 
ever and ever. Amen. 



359 



LECTURE 23 

(ON THE MYSTERIES V) 
ON THE SACRED LITURGY AND COMMUNION. 

1 PETER 2:1. 

Wherefore putting away all filthiness, and all guile, and evil speaking, etc. 

1. By the loving-kindness of God ye have heard sufficiently at our former 
meetings concerning Baptism, and Chrism, and partaking of the Body and 
Blood of Christ; and now it is necessary to pass on to what is next in 
order, meaning today to set the crown on the spiritual building of your 
edification. 

2. Ye have seen then the Deacon who gives to the Priest water to wash, 
and to the Presbyters who stand round God's altar. He gave it not at all 
because of bodily defilement; it is not that; for we did not enter the Church 
at first with defiled bodies. But the washing of hands is a symbol that ye 
ought to be pure from all sinful and unlawful deeds; for since the hands are 
a symbol of action, by washing them, it is evident, we represent the purity 
and blamelessness of our conduct. Didst thou not hear the blessed David 
opening this very mystery, and saying, / will wash my hands in innocency, 
and so will compass Thine Altar, O Lordl The washing therefore of hands 
is a symbol of immunity from sin. 

3. Then the Deacon cries aloud, "Receive ye one another; and let us kiss 
one another." Think not that this kiss is of the same character with those 
given in public by common friends. It is not such: but this kiss blends 
souls one with another, and courts entire forgiveness for them. The kiss 
therefore is the sign that our souls are mingled together, and banish all 
remembrance of wrongs. For this cause Christ said, If thou art offering thy 
gift at the altar, and there rememberest that thy brother hath aught against 
time, leave there thy gift upon the altar, and go thy way; first be reconciled 



360 

to thy brother, and then come and offer thy gift. The kiss therefore is 
reconciliation, and for this reason holy: as the blessed Paul somewhere 
cried, saying, Greet ye one another with a holy kiss; and Peter, with a kiss 
of charity. 

4. After this the Priest cries aloud, "Lift up your hearts." For truly ought 
we in that most awful hour to have our heart on high with God, and not 
below, thinking of earth and earthly things. In effect therefore the Priest 
bids all in that hour to dismiss all cares of this life, or household anxieties, 
and to have their heart in heaven with the merciful God. Then ye answer, 
"We lift them up unto the Lord:" assenting to it, by your avowal. But let 
no one come here, who could say with his mouth, "We lift up our hearts 
unto the Lord," but in his thoughts have his mind concerned with the cares 
of this life At all times, rather, God should be in our memory but if this is 
impossible by reason of human infirmity, in that hour above all this should 
be our earnest endeavor. 

5. Then the Priest says, "Let us give thanks unto the Lord." For verily we 
are bound to give thanks, that He called us, unworthy as we were, to so 
great grace; that He reconciled us when we were His foes; that He 
vouchsafed to us the Spirit of adoption. Then ye say, "It is meet and 
right:" for in giving thanks we do a meet thing and a right; but He did not 
right, but more than right, in doing us good, and counting us meet for such 
great benefits. 

6. After this, we make mention of heaven, and earth, and sea; of sun and 
moon; of stars and all the creation, rational and irrational, visible and 
invisible; of Angels, Archangels, Virtues, Dominions, Principalities, 
Powers, Thrones; of the Cherubim with many faces: in effect repeating 
that call of David's Magnify the Lord with me. We make mention also of 
the Seraphim, whom Esaias in the Holy Spirit saw standing around the 
throne of God, and with two of their wings veiling their face, and with 
twain their feet, while with twain they did fly, crying Holy, Holy, Holy, is 
the Lord ofSabaoth For the reason of our reciting this confession of God, 
delivered down to us from the Seraphim, is this, that so we may be 
partakers with the hosts of the world above in their Hymn of praise. 

7. Then having sanctified ourselves by these spiritual Hymns, we beseech 
the merciful God to send forth His Holy Spirit upon the gifts lying before 



361 

Him; that He may make the Bread the Body of Christ, and the Wine the 
Blood of Christ; for whatsoever the Holy Ghost has touched, is surely 
sanctified and changed. 

8. Then, after the spiritual sacrifice, the bloodless service, is completed, 
over that sacrifice of propitiation we entreat God for the common peace of 
the Churches, for the welfare of the world; for kings; for soldiers and allies; 
for the sick; for the afflicted; and, in a word, for all who stand in need of 
succor we all pray and offer this sacrifice. 

9. Then we commemorate also those who have fallen asleep before us, first 
Patriarchs, Prophets, Apostles, Martyrs, that at their prayers and 
intercessions God would receive our petition. Then on behalf also of the 
Holy Fathers and Bishops who have fallen asleep before us, and in a word 
of all who in past years have fallen asleep among us, believing that it will 
be a very great benefit to the souls, for whom the supplication is put up, 
while that holy and most awful sacrifice is set forth. 

10. And I wish to persuade you by an illustration. For I know that many 
say, what is a soul profited, which departs from this world either with 
sins, or without sins, if it be commemorated in the prayer? For if a king 
were to banish certain who had given him of-fence, and then those who 
belong to them should weave a crown and offer it to him on behalf of those 
under punishment, would he not grant a remission of their penalties? In 
the same way we, when we offer to Him our supplications for those who 
have fallen asleep, though they be sinners, weave no crown, but offer up 
Christ sacrificed for our sins, propitiating our merciful God for them as 
well as for ourselves. 

11. Then, after these things, we say that Prayer which the Savior delivered 
to His own disciples, with a pure conscience entitling God our Father, and 
saying, Our Father, which art in heaven. O most surpassing 

loving -kindness of God! On them who revolted from Him and were in the 
very extreme at misery has He bestowed such a complete forgiveness of 
evil deeds, and so great participation of grace, as that they should even call 
Him Father. Our Father, which art in heaven; and they also are a heaven 
who bear the image of the heavenly, in whom is God, dwelling and 
walking in them. 



362 

12. Hallowed be Thy Name. The Name of God is in its nature holy, 
whether we say so or not; but since it is sometimes profaned among 
sinners, according to the words, Through you My Name is continually 
blasphemed among the Gentiles, we pray that in us God's Name may be 
hollowed; not that it comes to be holy from not being holy, but because it 
becomes holy in us, when we are made holy, and do things worthy of 
holiness. 

13. Thy kingdom come. A pure soul can say with boldness, Thy kingdom 
come; for he who has heard Paul saying, Let not therefore sin reign in your 
mortal body, and has cleansed himself in deed, and thought, and word, will 
say to God, Thy kingdom come. 

14. Thy will be done as in heaven so on earth. God's divine and blessed 
Angels do the will of God, as David said in the Psalm, Bless the Lord, all 
ye Angels of His, mighty in strength, that do His pleasure. So then in effect 
thou meanest this by thy prayer, "as in the Angels Thy will is done, so 
likewise be it done on earth in me, O Lord." 

15. Give us this day our substantial bread. This common bread is not 
substantial bread, but this Holy Bread is substantial, that is, appointed for 
the substance of the soul. For this Bread goeth not into the belly and is cast 
out into the draught, but is distributed into thy whole system for the 
benefit of body and soul. But by this day, he means, "each day," as also 
Paul said, While it is called today. 

16. And forgive us our debts as we also forgive our debtors. For we have 
many sins. For we offend both in word and in thought, and very many 
things we do worthy of condemnation; and if we say that we have no sin, 
we lie, as John says. And we make a covenant with God, entreating. Him 
to forgive us our sins, as we also forgive our neighbors their debts. 
Considering then what we receive and in return for what, let us not put off 
nor delay to forgive one another. The offenses committed against us are 
slight and trivial, and easily settled; but those which we have committed 
against God are great, and need such mercy as His only is. Take heed 
therefore, lest for the slight and trivial sins against thee thou shut out for 
thyself forgiveness from God for thy very grievous sins. 



363 

17. And lead us not into temptation, O Lord. Is this then what the Lord 
teaches us to pray, that we may not be tempted at all? How then is it said 
elsewhere, "a man untempted, is a man unproved;" and again, My brethren, 
count it all joy when ye fail into divers temptations! But does perchance the 
entering into temptation mean the being overwhelmed by the temptation? 
For temptation is, as it were, like a winter torrent difficult to cross. Those 
therefore who are not overwhelmed in temptations, pass through, shewing 
themselves excellent swimmers, and not being swept away by them at all; 
while those who are not such, enter into them and are overwhelmed. As 
for example, Judas having entered into the temptation of the love of 
money, swam not through it, but was overwhelmed and was strangled 
both in body and spirit. Peter entered into the temptation of the denial; 
but having entered, he was not overwhelmed by it, but manfully swam 
through it, and was delivered from the temptation. Listen again, in another 
place, to a company of unscathed saints, giving thanks for deliverance 
from temptation, Thou, O God hast prayed us; Thou hast tried us by, fire 
like as silver is tried. Thou broughtest us into the net; Thou layedst 
afflictions upon our loins. Thou hast caused men to ride over our heads; 
we went through fire and water; and thou broughtest us out into a place of 
rest. Thou seest them speaking boldly in regard to their having passed 
through and not been pierced. But Thou broughtest us out into a place of 
rest; now their coming into a place of rest is their being delivered from 
temptation. 

18. But deliver us from the evil. If Lead us not into temptation implied the 
not being tempted at all, He would not have said, But deliver us from the 
evil. Now evil is our adversary the devil, from whom we pray to be 
delivered. Then after completing the prayer thou sayest, Amen; by this 
Amen, which means "So be it," setting thy seal to the petitions of the 
divinely-taught prayer. 

19. After this the Priest says, "Holy things to holy men." Holy are the 
gifts presented, having received the visitation of the Holy Ghost; holy are 
ye also, having been deemed worthy of the Holy Ghost; the holy things 
therefore correspond to the holy persons. Then ye say, "One is Holy, 
One is the Lord, Jesus Christ." For One is truly holy, by nature holy; we 
too are holy, but not by nature, only by participation, and discipline, and 
prayer. 



364 

20. After this ye hear the chanter inviting you with a sacred melody to the 
communion of the Holy Mysteries, and saying, O taste and see that the 
Lord is good. Trust not the judgment to thy bodily palate no, but to faith 
unfaltering; for they who taste are bidden to taste, not bread and wine, but 
the anti-typical Body and Blood of Christ. 

21. In approaching therefore, come not with thy wrists extended, or thy 
fingers spread; but make thy left hand a throne for the fight, as for that 
which is to receive a King. And having hollowed thy palm, receive the 
Body of Christ, saying over it, Amen. So then after having carefully 
hollowed thine eyes by the touch of the Holy Body, partake of it; giving 
heed lest thou lose any portion thereof; for whatever thou losest, is 
evidently a loss to thee as it were from one of thine own members. For tell 
me, if any one gave thee grains of gold, wouldest thou not hold them with 
all carefulness, being on thy guard against losing any of them, and suffering 
loss? Wilt thou not then much more carefully keep watch, that not a 
crumb fall from thee of what is more precious than gold and precious 
stones? 

22. Then after thou hast partaken of the Body of Christ, draw near also to 
the Cup of His Blood; not stretching forth thine hands, but bending, and 
saying with an air of worship and reverence, Amen, hallow thyself by 
partaking also of the Blood of Christ. And while the moisture is still upon 
thy lips, touch it with thine hands, and hallow thine eyes and brow and 
the other organs of sense. Then wait for the prayer, and give thanks unto 
God, who hath accounted thee worthy of so great mysteries. 

23. Hold fast these traditions undefiled and, keep yourselves free from 
offense. Sever not yourselves from the Communion; deprive not 
yourselves, through the pollution of sins, of these Holy and Spiritual 
Mysteries. And the God of peace sanctify you wholly; and may your spirit, 
and soul, and body be preserved entire without blame at the coming of our 
Lord Jesus Christ: — To whom be glory and honor and might, with the 
Father and the Holy Spirit, now and ever, and world without end. Amen. 



365 



SELECT ORATIONS 

OF 

SAINT GREGORY NAZIANZEN, 

SOMETIME ARCHBISHOP OF CONSTANTINOPLE. 

TRANSLATED BY 

CHARLES GORDON BROWNE, M.A., 

RECTOR OF LYLIPSTONE, DEVON; 

AND 

JAMES EDWARD SWALLOW, M.A., 

CHAPLAN OF THE HOUSE OF MERCY, HORBURY. 



366 



CONTENTS 

DIVISION I. — The Life 
DIVISION II. — The Writings 
DIVISION III. — Literature 

ORATIONS 

1 . On Easter and his reluctance. 

2. In defence of his flight to Pontus, and his return, after his ordination to 
the priesthood 

with an exposition of the character of the priestly office. 

3. To those who had invited him, and not come to receive him. 

7. Panegyric on his brother, S. Caesarius. 

8. On his sister Gorgonia. 

12. To his father, when he had entrusted to him the care of the church of 

Nazianzus. 

16. On his father's silence, because of the plague of hail. 

18. On the death of his father. 

21. On the great Athanasius, Bishop of Alexandria. 

27. The first theoloaical oration — a preliminary discourse against the 
Eunomians. 

28. The second theological oration 

29. The third theological oration-on the Son. 

30. The fourth theological oration, which is the second concerning the Son. 

3 1 . The fifth theological oration-on the Holy Spirit. 

33. Against the Arians, and concerning himself.. 

34. On the arrival of the Egyptians. 

37. On the words of the gospel, ii When esus had finished these sayings," 
etc. — Matthew 19:1. 

38. On the Theophany, or birthday of Christ. 

39. Oration on the Holy Lights. 

40. The oration on Holy Baptism. 

41. On Pentecost. 

42. The Last Farewell. 



367 

43. The Panegyric on S. Basil. 
45. The second oration on Easter. 

LETTERS 

DIVISION I. — LETTERS ON THR APOLLINARIAN 
CONTROVERSY 

202. To Nectarius, Bishop of Constantinople. 

101. To Cledonius the Priest against Apollinarius. 

102. Against Apollinarius; the second letter to Cledonius. 
125. To Olympius. 

DIVISION II. — CORRRESPONDENCE WITH SAINT 
BASIL THE GREAT, ARCHBISHOP OF CAESAREA 

1. To Basil his comrade. 

2. To the same. 

4. In anslver to Epistle xiv., of Basil, about 361. 

5. Circa A. D. 361. 

6. Written about the same time, in a more serious 
8. To S. Basi; after his ordination as priest 

19. To Eusebius of C esarea. 

16. To the same. 

17. To Eusebius, Archbishop of Caesarea. 

18. To Eusebius of Cresarea. 

40. To the Great Basil. 

41. To the people of C esarea, in his Father's name 
43. To the Bishops 

42. To Eusebius, Bishop of Samosata. 

45. To Basil. 

46. To the same-. 

47. To the same. 

48. To the same. 

49. To the same, the praises of quiet. 

50. To the same. 

58. To the same. 

59. To the same. 

60. To the same 



368 
DIVISION III. — MISCELLANEOUS LETTERS. 

7. To his brother Cesarius. 
1. To S. Gregory of Nyssa. 

72. To the same. 

73. To the same. 

74. To the same. 
76. To the same. 
81. To the same. 
182. To the same. 

197. A letter of condolence on the death of his sister Theosebia. 
42. To Eusebius, Bishop of Samosata. 
44. To the same. 

64. To the same. 

65. To the same. 

66. To the same. 

21. To Sophronius, Prefect of Constantinople. 

22. To the same. 
29. To the same. 
37. To the same 
39. To the same 
93. To the same. 
135. To the same, 

9. To Amphilochius the Younger. 
13. To the same 

25. To the salne 

26. To the same 

27. To the same 

28. To the same 

62. To the same 

63. To Amphilochius the Elder 

171. To Amphilochius, Bishop of Iconium 

184. To the same. 

88. To Nectarius, Archbishop of Constantinople. 
91. To the same. 
151. To the same. 

185. To the same. 



369 

186. To the same- A letter of introduction for a relative. 

202. To the same. 

77. To Theodore, Bishop of Tyana. 

15. To the same. 

121. To the same. 

122. To the same. 

123. To the same. 

124. To the same. 

152. To the same. 

153. To Bosporius, Bishop of Colonia. 
157. To Theodore, Archbishop of Tyana. 
163. To the same. 

183. To Theodore of Mopsuestia. 

139. To Theodore. 
12. To Nlcobulus 

5 1 . To the same. 

52. To the same. 

53. To the same. 

54. To the same, on Laconicism. 

55. To the same, an invitation. 

104. To Olympius. 

105. To the same. 

106. To the same. 
126. To the same. 
131. To the same. 

140. To the same 

141. To the same. 

142. To the same. 

143. To the same. 

144. To the same. 

145. To Varianus. 

146. To Olympius. 

154. To the same. 



370 

PROLEGOMENA 

DIVISION I 

THE LIFE 

S. Gregory Nazianzen , called by the Ecumenical Council of Ephesus 
"The Great," and universally known as "The Theologian" or "The 
Divine," a title which he shares with S. John the Evangelist alone among 
the Fathers of the Church, was, like the great Basil of Caesarea and his 
brother Gregory, Bishop of Nyssa, by birth a Cappadocian. He was born 
at Arianzus, a country estate belonging to his father, in the neighborhood 
of Nazianzus. 

This latter, sometimes called Nazianzum, is a place quite unknown to 
early writers, and derives all its importance from its connection with our 
Saint. The Romans seem to have called it Diocaesarea. This would place it 
in the south-western portion of the district called Cappadocia Secunda, a 
sub-division of the Province, which had previously included the whole 
country of Cappadocia under the Prefect of Caesarea. The Emperor Valens 
made the division for financial purposes about A.D. 371, and assigned 
Tyana as its civil Metropolis, and, as we shall see, thereby caused an 
ecclesiastical quarrel which had considerable effect on the life of S. 
Gregory. Tyana was situated at no great distance south and east of 
Nazianzus, which place is usually identified with some interesting ruins 
about eighteen miles south-east of Ak Serai, on a rocky platform at the 
foot of the mountains called Hassan Dagh. Amongst other ruined buildings 
here are the remains of three Byzantine churches of great age, but more 
recent than the rest of the town. 

His father, who bore the same name with himself, had originally belonged 
to an obscure sect called Hypsistarians or Hypsistians, of whom we know 
little except what we learn from Gregory of Nazianzus and his namesake 
of Nyssa. They seem to have held a sort of syncretist doctrine, containing 
elements derived from heathen, Christian, and Jewish sources. They were 
very strict monotheists, rejecting both polytheism and the doctrine of the 



371 

Trinity, and worshipping the One Supreme Being under the names of The 
Most High and The Almighty, and the emblems of Fire and Light, but 
with no external cultus; for they rejected sacrifice and every outward form 
of worship, holding adoration to be an exclusively interior and spiritual 
act. With singular inconsistency, however, they adopted the observance of 
the Jewish Sabbath, and the Levitical prohibition of certain kinds of food. 
They were but few in number, and their influence was insignificant even in 
Cappadocia, which was the headquarters of the sect. From this form of 
error the elder Gregory was converted by the influence of his wife, Nonna; 
and soon after his conversion was consecrated to the bishopric of 
Nazianzus. 

Nonna, the mother of our Saint, was the daughter of Christian parents, and 
had been very carefully brought up. Like S. John Chrysostom and S. 
Augustine, Gregory had the in estimable advantage of being reared at the 
knee of a mother of conspicuous holiness. There were three children of the 
marriage — a sister, Gorgonia, probably somewhat older than Gregory, 
who was devotedly fond of her; and a brother, Caesarius, perhaps 
younger, who was a distinguished physician, and occupied a post of 
confidence at the Court of Constantinople. Gregory was certainly born at 
a late period of the life of his mother. He tells us that, like so many other 
holy men of whom we read both in the Bible and outside its pages, he was 
consecrated to God by his mother even before his birth. The precise date 
is uncertain. There are two lines in his poem on his own life which seem to 
indicate clearly that it took place after his I father' s elevation to the 
Episcopate, or at any rate after his ordination to the Priesthood. Speaking 
of the great desire of the elder Gregory to see his son ordained to the 
Priesthood, in order that he might have him as a coadjutor and aid to his 
own declining years and failing I strength, he gives the arguments by which 
the old man sought to persuade him to take upon himself a burden which 
he dreaded; and among them we find the father saying to the son:, "You 
have not been yet so long in life as I have spent in sacrifice." And though 
the Roman Catholic writers on the subject strain every nerve to get rid of 
the obvious meaning, by ingenious manipulation of the text or by 
far-fetched interpretations, yet the conclusion remains I unshaken, and is 
supported also by another passage, to be cited presently, that he was at 
any rate born during the Priesthood of his father. He tells us that he left 



372 

Athens in or about his thirtieth year, and also that the Emperor Julian was 
his contemporary there. Now Julian I was at Athens in 355; so that we 
must place Gregory's birth not earlier than 325; and if we give its natural 
meaning to the first passage quoted, not earlier than 330, the latest date 
available for his father's consecration as Bishop. This is not inconsistent 
with the Athenian I chronology of his life, as he certainly spent many 
years there, and probably did not leave the place till 357 
As soon as the children's age permitted, Gregory and his brother Caesarius 
were sent to school at Caesarea, under the care of a good man named 
Carterius, who as long as he lived retained a great influence over the mind 
of his elder pupil. This is perhaps the same Carterius who afterwards 
presided over the monasteries of Antioch in Syria, and was one of the 
instructors of S. John Chrysostom. The following is a free rendering of one 
of four funeral epigrams written in later years by our Saint in honor of his 
old friend and tutor: 

"Whither, Carterius, best beloved of friends, 
O whither hast thou gone, and left me here 
Alone amid the many toils of earth? ! 
Thou who didst hold the rudder of my youth, 
When in another land I learned to weigh 
The words and stories of a learned age; 
Thou who didst bind me to the uncarnal life. 
Truly the Christ, whom thou possessest now, 
Took thee unto Himself, the King thou lov'st. 
O thou bright lightning of most glorious Christ, 
Thou best protection of my early days, 
Thou charioteer of all my younger life; 
Remember now the Gregory whom erst 
Thou trainedst in the ways of virtuous life, 
Carterius, master of the life of grace." 

It was probably at Caesarea that the acquaintance between Gregory and S. 
Basil the Great began, which was afterwards to ripen into a lifelong 
friendship. But their association did not last long at this period, for Basil 
soon went to Constantinople to continue his education, while Gregory and 
his brother removed to the Palestinian Caesarea; probably as much for the 
sake of making a pilgrimage to the Holy Sepulcher, as for the advantage of 



373 

the schools of that learned resort. Caesarius soon went on to Alexandria; 
but Gregory was tempted by the flourishing Palestinian school of rhetoric 
to remain a while and study that art. One of his fellow- students here was 
Euzoius, the future heresiarch. From Palestine he too went on to 
Alexandria, where he found his brother enjoying an excellent character, and 
highly distinguished among the students of the University. S. Athanasius 
was at this time the Bishop, and Didymus head of the famous Catechetical 
School; but as Gregory, though one of his orations is a panegyric on S. 
Athanasius, does not mention having ever met either of these two great 
men, we must suppose that the former was at this time suffering one of 
his many periods of exile — his second banishment lasted from 340 to 
347. Gregory does not seem to have remained very long at Alexandria; the 
fascination exercised on his mind by a yet more famous seat of learning — 
Athens soon drew him thither. He could not even wait for a favorable time 
of year, but must start at once. He took passage in the month of 
November in a ship bound for Aegina, with some of whose crew he was 
acquainted. They had a prosyerous voyage until they were in sight of 
Cyprus, when they were assailed by a tremendous storm, and the ship, 
swept by the heavy seas, became waterlogged, and would not answer her 
helm. At the same time the violence of the sea burst the water-tanks, and 
the ship's company were left in dire distress. Gregory, who was not yet 
baptized, was thrown into terrible distress at thus finding himself in peril 
of death while yet outside the Covenant of God. In earnest prayer he 
renewed his self-dedication, and vowed to give himself wholly to the 
service of God, if his life might be spared to receive Holy Baptism. He 
tells the story at some length and with great graphic power in his long 
poem on his own life, from which we subjoin a cento, and also in his 
oration spoken at his father's funeral (Orat. XVIII, c. 31, p. 352 Ed. Ben.). 
It is, however, uncertain whether he was baptized immediately after this 
deliverance, or whether he waited till his return to Nazianzus. At any rate 
he reached Athens in safety, and shortly afterwards was joined there by 
Basil; when the early acquaintance which was now renewed soon 
deepened into an intimacy of brotherly affection, which, though often 
sorely tried, never grew cold in Gregory's heart. In the funeral oration 
which he pronounced over his friend, Gregory has left us a most 
interesting account of University life in the middle s of the fourth century, 
of which we give a summary here, referring the reader for details to the 



374 

oration itself, which will be found in the present volume. Basil's 
reputation, he says, preceded him to Athens, where he was received with 
much enthusiasm. Many of the silliest students there are mad upon 
Sophists, and are divided upon the respective merits of their teachers with 
as much excitement as is shown by the partisans of the various chariots in 
the Hippodromes. And so a new-comer is laid hold of by them in this 
fashion. First of all, he is entertained by the first who can get hold of 
him-either a relation or a friend or a fellow countryman, or a leading 
Sophister, who is in favor with his master, and touts for him. There he is 
unmercifully chaffed, and with more or less of rough horseplay, by 
everybody, to take down his pride; and is then escorted processionally 
through the streets to the Baths; after which process he is regarded as free 
of the students' guild. Basil, however, through the good offices of his 
friend Gregory, was spared this trial of his nerves, out of respect for his 
great attainments; and this kind action was the beginning of their long and 
affectionate intimacy. Among the students, however, were a number of 
young Armenians, some of whom had been at school with Basil, and were 
very jealous of him. These young men, with the object of destroying his 
reputation if possible, were continually harassing him with disputations 
upon hard and sophistical questions. Basil was quite able to hold his own 
against them; but Gregory, jealous for the honor of his University, and not 
at first perceiving the malice of these young men, sided with them and 
made the conflict more equal. As soon, however, as he began to see their 
real purpose, he forsook them and took his stand by his friend, whose 
victory was thus made not only assured but easy. The young gentlemen 
naturally did not like this, and Gregory became, much to Basil's distress, 
very unpopular among them, as they chose to regard his conduct in the 
matter as treason against his University, and especially against the 
students of his own year. 

The city of Athens at this time was full of dangerous distractions for 
young men; feasts, theaters, assemblies, wine parties, etc. Gregory and his 
friend resolved to renounce all these, and to allow themselves to know 
only two roads-one, that which led to the Church and its holy teachers; 
the other, that which took them to their University lectures. Amongst 
other famous students of Gregory's day was Prince Julian, afterwards the 
Emperor who apostatized and endeavored to restore the ancient 



375 

heathenism, and galvanize it into something like a new life. Gregory claims 
even at this early period to have foreseen and dreaded the result of Julian's 
accession. "I had long foreseen," he says, "how matters would be, from 
the time that I was with him at Athens. He had come there shortly after 
the violent measures against his brother, having asked permission of the 
Emperor to do so. He had two reasons for this sojourn-the one more 
honest, namely, to visit Greece and its schools; the other more secret and 
known only to a few persons, namely, to consult with the heathen priests 
and charlatans about his plans; because his wickedness was not as yet 
declared. Even then I made no bad guess about the man, although I am not 
one of those skilled in such matters; but I was made a prophet by the 
unevenness of his disposition and the very unsettled condition of his 
mind. I used these very words about him: 'What an evil the Roman State is 
nourishing,' though I prefaced them with a wish that I might prove a false 
prophet." 

(Orat. V. 23, 24.) Gregory must have been a long time at Athens. He 
seems to have gone there at about the age of eighteen, and not to have left 
till he was past thirty. Basil left before him and returned to Cappadocia; 
and as soon as he could follow he went to Constantinople, where he met 
his brother, who had just come there to practice as a Court Physician, but 
resolved to throw up his practice and return with his brother to 
Nazianzus. They found their parents still living and their father occupying 
the Episcopal Throne. From this time onward Gregory divided his time 
between his parents and his friend; living partly at Arianzus and partly 
with Basil in Pontus, in monastic seclusion. At his Baptism, which it 
seems most probable took place at this period, he made a solemn vow 
never to swear, and to devote his whole energies and powers solely to the 
glory of God, and the defense and spreading of the faith. Cesarius did not 
remain long in the retirement of home, but soon returned to the Capital, 
where a brilliant career seemed opening before him. Gregory, whose mind 
was strongly impressed with the dangers and temptations of a life at 
Court, did not altogether approve of this step, yet he does not very 
severely blame it. He himself, however, felt very strongly drawn to the 
monastic life; but as retirement from the world did not seem to him to be 
his vocation, he resolved to continue to live in the world, and to be a help 
and support to his now aged parents, an I especially to his father in the 



376 

duties of his Episcopate, but at the same time to live under the strictest 
ascetic rule. He had, however, always a secret hankering after the Solitary 
life, which he had once (Ep. i.) promised Basil to share with him; and he 
did find himself able for some years to spend part of his time with his 
friend in his retirement in the wilds of Pontus. They portioned out their 
days very carefully between prayer, meditation and study, and manual 
labor, on the principles laid down by Basil in a letter to his friend, which 
afterwards were developed into the celebrated Rule still observed by the 
entire body of the Religious of the Eastern Church. Retirement, he says, 
does not consist in the act of removal from the world in bodily presence, 
but in this, that we tear away the soul from those bodily influences which 
stir up the passions; that we give up our parental city and our father's 
house, our possessions and goods, friendship and wedlock, business and 
profession, art and science, and everything, and are quite ready to take into 
our hearts nothing but the impressions of the divine teaching. 
In solitude, Basil thinks, it is possible altogether to tame the passions, like 
wild beasts, by gentle treatment; to lull them to sleep, to disarm them. By 
turning away the soul from the enticements of sense, and withdrawing into 
one's self for the contemplation of God and of Eternal Beauty, it is 
possible to raise man to a forgetfulness of natural wants, and to a spiritual 
freedom from care. The means to this spiritual elevation are in his view the 
reading of Holy Scripture, which sets before us rules of life-but especially 
the pictures of the lives of godly men; Prayer which draws down the 
Godhead to us, and makes our mind a pure abode for It; and an earnest 
silence, more inclined to learn than to teach, but by no means morose or 
unfriendly. At the same time Basil desires that the outward appearance of 
one who thus practices solitude shall be in keeping with his inner life; with 
humble downcast eye, and disheveled hair, in dirty untidy clothes he must 
go about, neither lazily loitering nor passionately quick, but quietly. His 
garment, girt upon his loins with a belt, is to be coarse, not of a bright 
color, suited for both summer and winter, close enough to keep the body 
warm without additional clothing; and his shoes adapted to their purpose, 
but without ornament. For food, let him use only the most necessary, 
chiefly vegetables; for drink, water — at least in health. For mealtime, 
which begins and ends with prayer, one hour is to be fixed. Sleep is to be 
short, light, and never so dead as to let the soul be open to the impressions 
of corrupting dreams. 



377 

They gave themselves especially to the study of Holy Scripture, and to 
the practice of devotional exercises. In their study their great principle was 
to interpret the holy writings not by their own individual judgment, but on 
the lines laid down for them by the authority of ancient interpreters. Of 
uninspired commentators they had the greatest respect for Origen, whose 
errors, however, they happily avoided. From his exegetical writings they 
compiled a book of Extracts, which they published in twenty-seven 
books, to which they gave the name of Philocalia, i.e., what in modern 
language is called a Christology. This is happily still extant, and is valuable 
as preserving for us many passages otherwise lost, or existing only in a 
Latin translation. Gregory sent a copy of this work to his friend and 
subsequent companion at Constantinople, Theodore, Bishop of Tyana, as 
an Easter gift many years afterwards, and accompanied it with a letter, in 
which he speaks of the work as a memorial of himself and Basil, and as 
intended for an aid to scholars; and begs that his friend will give a proof of 
its usefulness, with the help of diligence and the Holy Spirit. Socrates It 
says that this careful study of Origen was of the greatest service to the 
two friends in their subsequent controversies with the Arians; for these 
heretics quoted him in support of their errors, but the two Fathers were 
enabled to confute them readily, by showing that they were completely 
ignorant of the meaning of Origen' s argument. 

But Gregory does not appear to have stayed long in Basil's Monastery; 
although Ruffinus speaks of a sojourn of thirteen years. This cannot for 
chronological reasons have been a continuous stay, although it is true that 
Basil's monastic life in Pontus, and Gregory's various visits to him there 
extended over a period of about that length, from his first retirement in 357 
to his consecration to the Episcopate in 370. It was after about three years 
that Gregory returned to Nazianzus (360), possibly, as Ullmann suggests, 
because of circumstances which had arisen at his home, which seemed to 
call imperatively for his presence in the interests of the peace of the 
Diocese, and for the assistance which he might, though a layman, be able 
to give to his aged Father, who had got into trouble through a piece of 
imprudent conduct. 

The Emperor Constantius, who was an Arian, had in 359 assembled at 
Ariminum (the modern Rimini) a Council of 400 Western Bishops, and 
these, partly duped, partly compelled by the Imperial Officers, had put 



378 

out a Creed, which, while acknowledging the proper Deity of the Son, and 
confessing Him to be LIKE the Father, omitted to say Like IN ALL 
POINTS, and refused the word CONSUBSTANTIAL; thus, while 
condemning the extreme followers of Arius, favoring the views of the 
Semi-Arian party. At the same time another Synod, of 150 Eastern 
Bishops, was assembled under Court influence at Seleucia, and 
promulgated a similar formula. The Bishop of Nazianzus, though still as 
always a staunch upholder of Nicene orthodoxy, was in some way induced 
to attach his signature to this compromising Creed; and this action led to 
most important consequences. The monks of his Diocese took the matter 
up with the usual earnestness of Religious, and, with several also of the 
Bishops, withdrew from Communion with their own Bishop. This may 
have been the reason for his son's return. He induced his Father to 
apologize for his involuntary error and to put out an orthodox Confession, 
and so he healed the schism. To this period belongs his first Oration on 
Peace; in which, after an eloquent encomium on the Religious life, he sets 
forth the blessings of peace and concord, and contrasts them with the 
misery of discord; begging the people to be very slow indeed on this 
account to sever themselves from the Communion of those whom they 
think to be erring brethren; and thanking God for the restoration of peace. 
He concludes the whole with a splendid setting forth of the Catholic 
doctrine concerning the Trinity, in the following terms: 

"Would to God that none of us may perish, but that we may all abide in 
one spirit, with one soul laboring together for the faith of the Gospel, of 
one mind, minding the same thing, armed with the shield of faith, girt about 
the loins with truth; knowing only the one war against the Evil One, and 
those who fight under his orders; not fearing them that kill the body but 
cannot lay hold of the soul; but fearing Him Who is the Lord both of soul 
and body; guarding the good deposit which we have received from our 
fathers; adoring Father, Son, and Holy Ghost; knowing the Father in the 
Son, and the Son in the Holy Ghost-into which Names we were baptized, 
in Which we have believed; under Whose banner we have been enlisted; 
dividing Them before we combine Them, and combining before we divide; 
not receiving the Three as one Person (for They are not impersonal, or 
names of one Person, as though our wealth lay in Names alone and not in 
facts), but the Three as one Thing. For They are One, not in Person, but in 



379 

Godhead, Unity adored in Trinity, and Trinity summed up in Unity; all 
adorable, all royal, of one throne and one glory; above the world, above 
time, uncreated, invisible, impalpable, uncircumscript; in Its relation to 
Itself known only to Itself; but to us equally venerable and adorable; 
Alone dwelling in the Holiest, and leaving all creatures outside and shut 
off, partly by the First Veil, and partly also by the Second; — by the first, 
the heavenly and angelic host, parted from Godhead; and by the second, 
we men, severed from the Angels. This let us do; let this be our mind, 
Brethren; and those that are otherwise minded let us look upon as diseased 
in regard to the truth, and as far as may be, let us take and cure them; but if 
they be incurable let us withdraw from them, lest we share their disease 
before we impart to them our own health. And the God of Peace that 
passeth all understanding shall be with you in Christ Jesus our Lord. 
Amen. " 

Gregory the Elder was now aged and infirm, and began to feel his need of a 
Coadjutor in his pastoral duties. So, by the great desire of the people of 
Nazianzus, he ordained his son to the Priesthood, much against the will of 
the said son. This Ordination took place at some great Festival, probably 
at Christmas of the year 361. Gregory the Younger was much aggrieved at 
this gentle violence, which even in after years he describes as an act of 
tyranny, and says he cannot bring himself to speak of it in other terms, 
though he asks pardon of the Holy Spirit for his language. Immediately 
after his Ordination he made his escape to Pontus, apparently reaching 
Basil about Epiphany, 362. Here he had time for reflection on the 
obedience he now owed to his father, not only as son to father, but as 
Priest to Bishop; and with a truer view of his duty he returned to 
Nazianzus, where he was present in the Church on Easter day 362, and 
preached his first Sermon as a Priest, in apology for his reluctance. Strange 
to say, though it was so great a Festival, and though the preacher was so 
well known and so much beloved in Nazianzus, the congregation was very 
small;-probably many refrained from going to Church in order to mark 
their feeling about Gregory's flight to Pontus. Anyhow he felt the 
discourtesy keenly, and in his next sermon took occasion to reprove them 
severely for their inconsistency in receiving him so badly after having 
compelled him for their sakes to finally renounce the solitude he loved so 
well. Of this discourse the Abbe Benolt speaks as follows: 



380 

"It is not very long, and it seems to us a model of the tact and art which a 
Minister of the Gospel ought to use in his speech when just grievances 
compel him to address deserved reproaches to the faithful. It would be 
impossible to blame with greater force, to complain with 

more frankness, and yet to do it in a way less offensive to the hearers. 
Praise, indeed, is so mingled with blame in this discourse, and there is in its 
tone something so earnest and affectionate, that the audience, though 
sharply reprimanded, not only could not take offense, but was compelled 
to conceive a yet greater affection and admiration for him who so reproved 
them." 

Gregory took the opportunity to write another very long Oration as his 
apology for his flight. In it he sets forth at great length his conception of 
the nature and responsibilities of the Priestly Office, and justifies himself 
both for having shrunk from such a charge, and for having so soon returned 
to take it up. It is very improbable that this Oration, numbered II. in the 
Benedictine Edition, was ever delivered viva voce; but it was published, 
and is a complete Treatise on the Priesthood, used both by S. John 
Chrysostom as the foundation of his Six Books on the Priesthood, and by 
S. Gregory the Great as the basis of his Treatise on the Pastoral Rule. It 
has also furnished material to many of the best Ecclesiastical writers of all 
ages. 

Julian had now succeeded to the Empire, and had entered Constantinople 
in 361. He 1 had by this time completely broken with the Church, and 
renounced even the outward semblance of Christianity. He persuaded 
Caesarius, however, to retain his position at Court; hoping perhaps that he 
might succeed in perverting him. This was a matter of deep regret to his 
father and brother, and they felt, the latter says, obliged to keep the fact 
from the knowledge of his mother. Gregory wrote his brother a letter of 
most affectionate though earnest remonstrance; with the result that 
Cesarius soon made up his mind to retire; and put his resolution in 
practice on the opportunity afforded by the departure of the Emperor 
from Constantinople to assume the direction of his campaign against the 
Persians. Nazianzus was not allowed to remain without attempts being 
made against its Christianity, for the Prefect of the Province was sent with 
an armed escort of considerable strength to demand possession of the 
Church. But the aged Bishop, supported by his son and by his people, 



381 

boldly refused to comply with the Imperial commands, and there seemed 
such a probability of powerful resistance that the Prefect felt compelled to 
withdraw his force, and never came to Nazianzus again on such an errand. 
The Gregory's, father and son, frequently came into collision with Julian 
during his stay in Cappadocia on his way to Persia; and indeed it is not 
too much to say that the firm stand which they made on behalf of the right 
was, under God, the means of diverting the Emperor from his purpose of 
making a vehement assault upon the faith and rights of the Church in that 
Province. As the Abbe Benoitt remarks, Julian saw that he must be careful 
in dealing with a province where Christian faith was such a living power, 
and where a simple village Bishop could dare to make so stout a stand 
against Imperial Authority; but he declared his intention of avenging 
himself upon his opponents on his return from his expedition. The 
Providence of God, however, interfered, and he never did return, but was 
defeated and killed. 

In 363 or 364 Basil, like Gregory, was ordained Priest much against his 
will. The Bishop of Cesarea, Metropolitan of Cappadocia, was Eusebius. 
He had been elected in 362 by a popular clamor, while yet only a 
Catechumen, and was very unwillingly consecrated by the Bishops of the 
Province. He felt it necessary to have at hand a Priest who by his skill in 
Theology would be a help to him in the controversies of the times, and he 
selected Basil. But for some unknown reason, possibly no more than a 
certain jealousy of Basil's superior reputation and influence, within a very 
short time Eusebius quarreled with him, and endeavored to deprive him. 
This might easily have led to a serious schism, had Basil been a 
self-seeking man, but as it was, he quietly retired to his Community in 
Pontus, accompanied by his friend Gregory, who, however, was not able 
to remain long in that congenial society, as his presence was still much 
needed by his father. On the succession of Valens, an Arian, to the Throne 
of the Empire, Eusebius wrote to Gregory, entreating him to come to 
Caesarea and give him the benefit of his advice. Gregory, however, 
respectfully declined the invitation on the grounds of his sense of the 
wrong which his friend had suffered; and after some correspondence he 
succeeded in effecting a reconciliation between the latter and his 
Metropolitan, in the year 365. 



382 

Caesarius meantime had returned to the Court and had received from 
Valens a valuable piece of preferment in Bithynia; but in the end of 368 or 
beginning of 369, having been terrified by a great earthquake, during which 
he had been in considerable danger, he was arranging matters for his final 
retirement, when he was seized with illness, and very soon died, leaving all 
his property, which must have anointed to a considerable sum, to his 
brother in trust for the poor. He was buried at Nazianzus, and on the 
occasion of his funeral his brother preached the Sermon which is numbered 
VIII. in the Benedictine Edition. About the same time, but a little later, 
Gorgonia also departed, and he preached a funeral sermon on her too. 
Eusebius of Caesarea died in 370, and Basil at once wrote an urgent letter 
to Gregory, begging him to come to Caesarea, probably in order to get him 
elected Archbishop. Gregory, however, declined to go, and he and his 
father exerted themselves to the utmost of their power to procure the 
election of Basil; the elder Gregory writing through his son two letters, one 
addressed to the people of Caesarea, the other to the Provincial Synod, 
urging Basil's claims very strongly. Though ill at the time, he managed to 
convey himself to the Metropolis in time for the meeting of the Synod; 
and Basil was elected and consecrated. Gregory wrote him a letter of 
congratulation; not, however, a very warm one; but when troubles began to 
arise he spoke out with all the fervor of their early friendship in support 
of the Archbishop. About this time Valens divided the civil Province of 
Cappadocia into two, one of which had Caesarea, the other Tyana, for its 
Metropolis. Anthimus, Bishop of the latter See, thereupon claimed to be 
ipso facto Metropolitan of the new Province; a claim which Basil 
strenuously resisted, as savoring of what we call Erastianism. A long 
dispute followed, in the course of which Basil, to assert his rights as 
Metropolitan, and to strengthen his own hands, erected several new 
Bishoprics in the disputed Province; and to one of these, Sasima, a 
miserable little village he consecrated his friend Gregory, almost by force. 
Gregory was, not unnaturally, indignant at this treatment; while Basil, 
whose great object had been to strengthen himself against Anthimus. took 
it as unkind of Gregory to be so reluctant to comply with his friend's 
wishes. So the two were for a long time in very strained relations to one 
another. Although, however, Gregory ultimately yielded to the earnest 
wish of his father, and submitted to the authority of the Archbishop, yet 
he did not disguise his reluctance; and in the Sermons which he preached 



383 

on the occasion (Or. ix. x.) he spoke very strongly on the point. Anthimus, 
however, occupied the village of Sasima with troops, and prevented 
Gregory from taking peaceable possession of his See, which it is probable 
he never actually administered, for his father begged him to remain at 
Nazianzas and continue his services as coadjutor Bishop. The contest 
about the Metropolitanate of Tyana went on for some time, but in the 
end, mainly by Gregory's mediation, it was amicably settled. In 374 
Gregory the elder died, and his wife also, and thus our Saint was set free 
from the charge of the diocese. He spoke a panegyric at his father's 
funeral, and wrote a number of little "In Memoriam" poems to his 
mother's memory; and out of respect for his father continued to 
administer the See of Nazianzus for about a year, making great efforts 
meanwhile to secure the appointment of a Bishop. But, perceiving that his 
efforts would be fruitless, because of the devotion of the people to 
himself, he at length withdrew, after a very serious illness, to Seleucia in 
Isauria (375,) where he lived three or four years, attached to the famous 
Church of S. Thecla. Very little is known of his life there; but it must have 
been at this period that he heard of the death of Basil, upon whom two 
years later in the Cathedral of Caesarea he pronounced a splendid 
panegyric. 

In 379 the Church at Constantinople, which for forty years had been 
oppressed by a succession of Arian Archbishops, and was well nigh 
crushed out of existence by the multitude of other heresies, Eunomian, 
Macedonian, Novatian, Apollinarian, etc., which Arian rule had fostered, 
besought the great Theologian to come to their aid. Theodosius the new 
Emperor, who was a fervent Catholic, backed their entreaty, as did also 
numerous Bishops. Gregory resisted the call for a long time; but at last he 
came to see that it was the will of God that he should accept the Mission, 
and he consented to go and fill the gap, until such time as the Catholics of 
the Capital might be able to elect an Archbishop. 

The following account of the religious condition of Constantinople at this 
time is condensed from Ullmann: 

"Religious feeling like everything else had become to the idle and empty 
mind a subject of joke and amusement. What belonged to the theater was 
brought into the Church, and what belonged to the Church into the theater. 
The better Christian feelings were not seldom held up in comedies to the 



384 

sneer of the multitude. Everything was so changed by the 
Constantinopolitans into light jesting, that earnestness was stripped of its 
worth by wit, and that which is holy became a subject for banter and 
scoffing in the refined conversation of worldly people. Yet worse was it 
that the unbridled delight of these men in dissipating enjoyments 
threatened to turn the Church into a theater, and the Preacher into a play 
actor. If he would please the multitude, he must adapt himself to their 
taste, and entertain them amusingly in the Church. They demanded also in 
the preaching something that should please the ear, glittering declamation 
with theatrical gesticulation; and they clapped with the same pleasure the 
comedian in the holy place and him on the stage. And alas there were 
found at that d period too many preachers who preferred the applause of 
men to their souls' health. At this period the objects of the faith excited, 
particularly in Constantinople, a very universal and lively interest, which 
was entertained from the Court downwards, though not always in the 
most creditable manner; but it was in great part not the interest of the 
heart, but that of a hypercritical and disputatious intellect, where it was 
not something far lower, to which the dispute about matters of faith 
served only as a pretext for attaining the exterior aims of avarice or 
ambition. While the sanctifying and beatifying doctrines of the Gospel, 
which are, directed to the conversion of the whole inner man were let lie 
quiet, everyone from the a Emperor to the beggar busied himself with 
incredible interest about a few questions concerning which the Gospel 
communicates only just so much as is beneficial to the human spirit a and 
necessary to salvation, and whose fuller expression at any rate belongs 
rather to the A school than to practical life. But the more violently these 
doctrinal disputes were kindled, disturbing and dividing States, cities, and 
families, so much the more people lost sight of the practical essentials of 
Christianity; it seemed more important to maintain the Tri-unity of God 
than to love God with all the heart; to acknowledge the Consubstantiality 
of the Son, than to follow Him in humility and selfdenial; to defend the 
Personality of the Holy Spirit, than to bring forth the fruits of the Spirit, 
love, peace, righteousness.... In addition to these religious disputes came 
also political struggles, namely, the hard-fought wars of the Roman 
Empire with the Goths; so that the Empire at large presented the picture 
of a sea, tossed by violent storms. But the unhappy schisms which at this 
time were severing Christians everywhere, shewed themselves in a 



385 

particularly discouraging form in the Capital. Under the late reigns several 
parties had been favored; but especially those which, though again divided 
among themselves by differences of opinion, yet agreed in this that they 
all rejected the Nicene system of doctrine. Constantius had bestowed his 
favor on the Arians; Julian during his short reign on all parties, at least in 
appearance,-to crush them all. After Jovian' s early death Valens succeeded 
to power in the East, and with him, even more than with Constantius, 
Arianism, which he not only protected, but also sought to make 
predominant by horrible atrocities against the friends of the Nicene 
Decrees. These had now been forbidden the use of all Churches and 
Church property; and the Arians had been put in possession of them. But 
Constantinople still remained the scene of ecclesiastical strifes and 
partizanships. Here where with a little good so much evil flowed from all 
three parts of the world, all opinions had their adherents; but the following 
parties in particular shewed themselves: -The Eunomians, professing an 
intellectual theology, which claimed to be able completely to explore the 
Being of God by logical definitions, and maintained in strict Arian fashion 
the Unlikeness of the Son to the Father, were very numerous in 
Constantinople (as is shewn by the fact that most of Gregory's polemical 
utterances were directed against them), and injured earnest religious 
thought principally by this, that they used the doctrines of the faith 
exclusively as subjects for an argumentative dialectic. The Macedonians, 
addicted to the SemiArian dogma of the Like Substance, and thereby 
somewhat more nearly approaching the Orthodox, and distinguished 
besides by an estimable earnestness of demeanor, and a monklike 
strictness of manner, were indeed themselves excluded by the pure Arians 
from the property of the Church, but were ever being abundantly 
multiplied, partly in Constantinople itself, partly in the neighboring 
regions of the Hellespont, Thrace, Bithynia, and Phrygia. The Novatians, 
who even overstepped the Macedonians in the strictness of their practical 
principles, had somewhat earlier been on the point of uniting themselves 
with the Orthodox, from whom they did not differ on the chief doctrine in 
dispute, and with whom they found themselves under like oppression 
from the Arians; but the malevolent disposition of a few of the party 
leaders had stood in the way, and so they remained separate, and swelled 
the number of. the opponents of Orthodoxy. Lastly the Apollinarians too 
began to establish themselves there. Their teaching was opposed to the 



386 

acknowledgment of true and perfect Manhood in Jesus (for true Manhood 
lies in the reason especially); and there was at that time, as Gregory 
informs us, a report that an assembly of Apollinarian bishops was to be 
held at Constantinople, with a view of raising their teaching as to Christ 
into general notice, and forcing it upon the Churches. 
In such a crisis Gregory came most unwillingly to the Capital. At first he 
lodged in the house of a relation of his own, part of which he arranged as a 
Chapel, and dedicated under the title Anastasia, as the place where the 
Catholic faith was to rise again. There he began at once to carry out the 
rule of the Church as to daily service, to which he added his own splendid 
preaching. 

His constant theme was the worship of the Trinity. After two Sermons in 
deprecation of religious contentiousness, he preached those famous Five 
Orations which have won for him the title of the Theologian. To analyze 
these belongs to another portion of this work; it will be enough in this 
place to say, that after warning his audience against the frivolity with 
which the Arians were dragging religious subjects of the most solemn kind 
into the most unsuitable places and occasions, he proceeds in four 
magnificent discourses to set forth the Catholic doctrine of the Trinity, 
showing carefully the difference between Sabellian confusion of Persons 
and Tritheistic division of Substance. The Arians, however, persecuted 
him bitterly; even, on one occasion at least, hiring an assassin to murder 
him; and their persecution was all the more bitter because of the wonderful 
success which attended Gregory's preaching. S. Jerome, who came to 
Constantinople at this time, has left on record the pleasure with which he 
listened to and conversed with the great Defender of the Faith. 
Unfortunately Gregory now let himself be taken in by a plausible 
adventurer named Maximus, who had come to Constantinople in the hope 
of obtaining the Bishopric for himself. He attached himself to Gregory and 
won his confidence, the latter even going so far as to deliver a panegyric 
upon him as a sufferer for the Faith. After a short time, however, 
Maximus managed to procure his own consecration secretly from some 
Egyptian Bishops, who during an illness of Gregory enthroned him at 
night in the Church. In the morning, when the people discovered what had 
been done, they were very indignant, and Maximus and his friends were 
driven out of the Church and forced to leave the City. Meanwhile the rank 



387 

and fashion of Constantinople began to dislike Gregory, who would not 
condescend to the arts of the popular preacher, and whose simple retiring 
life and gentle demeanor were made matter of reproach to him. Gregory 
was quite willing to retire, and was only prevented from doing so by the 
earnest remonstrances of his friends, who solemnly assured him that if he 
went away the Faith would depart with him; so he consented to remain till 
a fitter man could be found. Late in 380 Theodosius came to 
Constantinople, where almost his first act was to deprive the Arians of the 
Churches, and to put Gregory in possession of the Cathedral of S. Sophia. 
The next year the great Council of Eastern Bishops, which ranks as the 
Second Ecumenical Council, met at the Capital, under the presidency of 
Meletius of Antioch. Its first care was to sanction the translation of 
Gregory from the See of Sasima to that of the Metropolis of the Empire, 
and to enthrone him in S. Sophia, and thus he became the recognized 
Archbishop of the Imperial City. Meletius shortly afterwards died, and 
Gregory assumed the Presidency of the Council. He failed in his endeavors 
to heal the schism which was troubling the Church of Antioch; and when 
the Egyptian Bishops on their arrival shewed a disposition to take up the 
case of Maximus, and were determined at any rate to oust Gregory from 
the Patriarchal Throne on the ground of a Nicene canon forbidding 
translations, which had virtually been rescinded by the act of the Council, 
he made up his mind to resign. He obtained a reluctant assent to this 
course from the Emperor, and then took leave of the Synod in one of the 
most magnificent of all his Orations, in which he gives a graphic account of 
his work in the Metropolis. Nectarius, Prefect of the City, who was only 
a catechumen, was elected in his place, and Gregory went home to 
Nazianzus. He administered the affairs of the Church there for a little 
while, and then, having procured the election of Eulalius as Bishop, he 
retired to Arianzus, where he passed the few remaining years of his life in 
seclusion, but still continued to take an active interest in the affairs of the 
Church. His own city was greatly disturbed by Apollinarian teachers, 
whose efforts to establish themselves within the Church were very 
persevering. Apollinarius, or as he is frequently called in the West, 
Apollinaris, was a Bishop of Laodicea in the latter half of the Fourth 
Century, and was at one time greatly respected for his learning and 
orthodoxy by S. Athanasius and S. Basil. He was even an instructor of S. 
Jerome in 374, but he seceded from the Church in the next year, owing to 



388 

views which he had come to hold about the nature of our Lord; these really 
prepared the way for various forms of the Monophysite heresy. He fell 
into the error of a partial denial of our Lord's true Humanity, attributing to 
Christ a human body and a human soul, but not a reasoning spirit, whose 
place, according to him, was supplied by the Divine Logos. This view had 
first appeared in 362, when it, came before a Council at Alexandria. Those 
who were accused of holding it denied it, and expressed their sense of the 
absurdity of such a view, pointing out that our Lord could not be said to 
be really incarnate if He had no human mind; but about 369 it assumed a 
definite form (though even then it was not known to be the teaching of 
Apollinarius). Arguing from the Divinity of Christ that He cannot have 
had a human mind, for if he had He would have had sinful inclinations, and 
the one Christ would have been two persons, Apollinarius and his 
followers went on to maintain that the Incarnation only meant a certain 
converse between God and Man; and that Christ's Body was not really 
born of Mary, but was a part of the Godhead converted into flesh. S. 
Athanasius wrote two Books against these two propositions, but did not 
name Apollinarius, most probably because he did not believe him to be 
committed to them. The fundamental error of the system was the idea that 
the Incarnation was, not the Union of the two Natures, but only a 
blending so close, that in the mind of these teachers all the Divine 
Attributes were transferred to the human nature, and all the human ones to 
the Divine, and the two were merged in one compound being. 

In 377 a Roman Synod excommunicated Apollinarius and his adherents, 
and S. Damasus wrote a letter containing twenty-five anathemas, which he 
sent to Paulinus of Antioch and others. This condemnation is in almost the 
identical words used by S. Gregory in the first of two letters on the 
question which he wrote to Cledonius, a Priest of Nazianzus, and which 
were adopted as symbolic at the Councils of Ephesus and Chalcedon. Of 
these letters Canon Bright says that they belong to that class of 
documents of the Fourth Century which refuted by anticipation the 
heresies of the Fifth. Gregory affirmed True Godhead and True Manhood 
to be combined in the One Person of the Crucified, Who was the adorable 
Son, Whose Mother was the Mother of God, and Who assumed, in order 
to redeem it, the entire nature that fell in Adam. In his seclusion, says Mr. 
Crake, his sole luxuries were a garden and a fountain. He spent his last 



389 

days in continual devotion. His knees were worn with kneeling, and his 
whole thoughts and aspirations had gone before to the long home to which 
he was hastening. After the manner of the Saints, he was very rigorous in 
his self-denial. His bed was of straw with a covering of sackcloth, and a 
single tunic was all the outward clothing of him who had been Bishop of 
Constantinople. Yet his glory was only in the Lord. "As a fish cannot 
swim without water, and a bird cannot fly without air, he said, so a 
Christian cannot advance a single step without Christ." He died in 391, 
and in the same year that he passed from the roll of the earthly episcopate 
Augustine was ordained Priest at Hippo Regius in Africa. 
Ulmann gives the following description of his character and personal 
appearance: 

"Gregory was of middle height and somewhat pale; but his pallor became 
him. His hair was thick and blanched by age, his short beard and 
conspicuous eyebrows were thicker. On his right eye he had a scar. His 
manner was friendly and attractive; his conduct simple. The keynote of his 
inner being was piety; his soul was full of fiery strength of faith, turned to 
God and Christ; a lofty zeal for divine things led him all his life. This zeal 
manifested itself above all in a steadfast adherence to and defense of 
certain dogmas which that age held to be specially important; as well as in 
lively conflicts, not always free from partisanship, with opposing 
convictions; hut not less in a hearty and living apprehension of practical 
Christianity, the establishment and enlargement of which in men's minds 
was to him all important. His asceticism was overdone; it injured his 
health; yet it did not degenerate into hypocrisy; it was to him the means 
for elevating and liberating the mind, but not in and for its own sake a 
higher virtue. An inborn and inbred love of solitude hindered him from 
turning all his powers to a publicly useful activity. His seclusion did not 
allow him to become familiar with the knowledge of men and of the world; 
lacking in knowledge of men, carelessly confident, sometimes distrustful 
and bitter in his judgment of others, he demanded from others much, but 
from himself most. Susceptible of great resolves, and full of fiery zeal for 
all good, he was not always steadfast and persevering in carrying them out. 
In endurance and conflict he was noble and high-minded; in victory 
moderate; in prosperity humble; never flattering the great, but an ever 
ready helper to the oppressed and persecuted, and to the poor a loving 



390 

father. The most excellent qualities were in Gregory mingled with faults; 
he was not quite free from vanity; he was very irritable and sensitive, but 
also readily forgave and cherished no grudges. He was a man feeling after 
holiness, and striving after the highest good, but not perfect, as no man 
upon earth is. " 

Before leaving Constantinople he made his will, in which he bequeathed all 
his property to the Deacon Gregory for life, with reversion to the poor of 
Nazianzus. 



391 

DIVISION II 

THE WRITINGS 

I. The Orations . — These forty-five in number-raise him to equality with 
the best Orators of antiquity. 

a. The Five Theological Orations. — These won him the title of The 
Theologian. They were delivered in Constantinople, in defense of the 
Church's faith in the Trinity, against Eunomians and Macedonians. In the 
First and Second he treats of the existence, nature, being, and attributes of 
God, so far as man's finite intellect can comprehend them. In the Third and 
Fourth the subject is the Godhead of the Son, which he establishes by 
exposition of Scripture, and by refutation of the specious arguments 
brought forward by the heretics. In the Fifth he similarly maintains the 
Deity and Personality of the Holy Ghost. 

b. The Two Invectives against Julian. — These were delivered at 
Nazianzus after the death of the Emperor, and present us with a very dark 
picture of his character. The orator dwells upon his attempt to rebuild the 
Temple at Jerusalem, and its failure, and his overthrow in the campaign 
against Persia. From these facts he demonstrates the power of God's 
Justice, and sets forth the Christian doctrine of the Divine Providence 
inculcating a lesson of trust in God. 

c. Moral Orations. — 

(1.) The Apology for his flight. As was said above, it is most probable that 
this discourse was never actually spoken; if it was, it certainly must have 
been considerably enlarged afterwards. In it Gregory dwells on the motive 
of his flight and his return after his forced ordination; he speaks of his love 
of retirement, but most of all lays stress upon the difficulty of the Priestly 
Office, its heavy responsibilities and grave dangers, and upon his own 
sense of unworthiness. His return, he says, was prompted by respect for 
his hearers and by care for his aged parents: by the fear of losing his 
father's blessing; and by the recollection of what befel the Prophet Jonas 
on account of his resistance to the; will of God. The remainder of the 
Oration is practically a treatise on the Priesthood, and was made use of by 



392 

S. Chrysostom and S. Gregory the Great in their books on the subject. 

(2.) The Farewell Oration at Constantinople, containing an account of his 

work there. 

(3.) On Love of the Poor. 

(4.) On the Indissolubility of Marriage, the only Sermon of S. Gregory on 

a definite text which has come down to us. 

(5.) Three Orations on Peace. 

(6.) One on Moderation in theological discussion. 

d. The Festal Orations. — On Christmas, Epiphany (on the Baptism of 
Christ in the river Jordan, followed up next day by a long one on Holy 
Baptism), two on Easter (one of these his first sermon, the other almost if 
not quite his last). On Low Sunday, and on Pentecost. 

e. Panegyrics on Saints. — The Maccabee Brothers and their Mother; S. 
Cyprian of Carthage (in which there is evidence of the cultus of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary and of the practice of invocation of the Saints); and 
on S. Athanasius. 

f. Funeral Orations on Eminent People. — On his Father, preached before 
his Mother and S. Basil. On Caesarius, in presence of his parents, 
consoling them by the picture of his brother's virtue, especially in having 
withstood Julian's efforts to pervert him, and in resigning his post at 
Court and leaving the Capital. On Gorgonia, whom he praises as a model 
Christian Matron, and whose wonderful cure before the Altar he relates. 
On S. Basil. 

g. Occasional Orations, of which we mention three: 
(1.) On a plague of hail. 

(2.) On the consecration of Eulalius of Doara. 
(3.) On his own consecration to Sasima. 

II. The Letters , of which two hundred and forty-three are extant, are 
characterized by a clear, concise, and pleasant style and spirit. Some of 
them treat of the theological questions of the day, as for example the two 
to Cledonius, and one to Nectarius his Successor in the See of 
Constantinople; these deal with the Apollinarian errors. Most of them 
however are letters to private friends; sometimes of condolence or 
congratulation, sometimes of recommendation, sometimes on mere general 



393 

subjects of interest. To this section must be ascribed his Will, which is 
probably genuine. 

III. The Poem s , five hundred and seven in number, are in various metres. 
While leaving much to be desired, these verses show much real poetic 
feeling, and at times rise to genuine beauty. Thirty-eight are dogmatic, on 
the Trinity, on the works of God in Creation, on Providence, on Angels 
and Men, on the Fall, on the Decalogue, on the Prophets Elias and 
Elissaeus, on the Incarnation, the Miracles and Parables of our Lord, and 
the canonical Books of the Bible. Forty are Moral; two hundred and six 
Historical and Autobiographical; one hundred and twenty-nine are 
Epitaphs, or rather funeral Epigrams; ninety-four are Epigrams. 
There is also a long Tragedy, called Christus Patiens which is the first 
known attempt at a Christian drama; the parts are sustained by Christ, 
The Blessed Virgin, S. Joseph, S. Mary Magdalene, Nicodemus, Pontius 
Pilate, Theologus, Nuntius, and others. The Benedictine Editors however 
doubt the genuineness of this Tragedy and Caillau, who published the 
second volume of this Edition after the troubles of the French Revolution, 
thinks it is to be ascribed to another Gregory, Bishop of Antioch in the 
Sixth Century, and relegates it to an Appendix. None of The Theologian's 
Odes or Hymns have, however, found a place in the liturgical poetry of 
the Church. 



394 

DIVISION m 

LITERATURE. 

There are perhaps more MSS. of the works of Gregory than of any other 
Father. The great Benedictine Edition of his works contains long lists of 
MSS., and of Versions, and previous Editions. The most famous of these 
is that of the Abbat Jacobus Billius in 1589, which was accompanied by 
the Scholia of Nicetas, etc. In 1571 Leuvenklavius published an edition at 
Basle containing the Scholia of Elias Cretensis and others. In 1778 
appeared the first volume of the great Edition of the Benedictine Fathers 
of the Abbey of S. Maur near Paris, which had been in preparation ever 
since 1708. But the Monks were driven away by the French Revolution, 
and the second volume did not appear till 1842. It has been reprinted in 
Migne's "Patrologia Graeca;" vols. 35-38. Of modern works on the life 
and writings of our Saint, the best are those of Dr. Ullmann, and that of 
the Abbe Benoit. A valuable comparison of Gregory and Basil is to be 
found in Newman's "Church of the Fathers," and last, but not least in 
value, may be mentioned the long biographical article by Professor 
Watkins in Smith's "Dictionary of Christian Biography," and a useful 
short summary in Schaff's Church History (311-600, vol. ii.). 



395 

GREGORY N AZIANZEN 
ORATION 1 

On Easter and His Reluctance, 



I. It is the Day of the Resurrection, and my Beginning has good auspices. 
Let us then keep the Festival with splendor, and let us embrace one 
another. Let us say Brethren, even to those who hate us; much more to 
those who have done or suffered aught out of love for us. Let us forgive all 
offenses for the Resurrection's sake: let us give one another pardon, I for 
the noble tyranny, which I have suffered (for I can now call it noble); and 
you who exercised it, if you had cause to blame my tardiness; for perhaps 
this tardiness may be more precious in God's sight than the haste of 
others. For it is a good thing even to hold back from God for a little while, 
as did the great Moses of old, and Jeremiah later on; and then to run 
readily to Him when He calls, as did Aaron and Isaiah, so only both be 
done in a dutiful spirit; — the former because of his own want of strength; 
the latter because of the Might of Him That calleth. 

II. A Mystery anointed me; I withdrew a little while at a Mystery, as 
much as was needful to examine myself; now I come in with a Mystery, 
bringing with me the Day as a good defender of my cowardice and 
weakness; that He Who today rose again from the dead may renew me also 
by His Spirit; and, clothing me with the new Man, may give me to His 
New Creation, to those who are begotten after God, as a good modeller 
and teacher for Christ, willingly both dying with Him and rising again with 
Him. 

III. Yesterday the Lamb was slain and the door-posts were anointed, and 
Egypt bewailed her Firstborn, and the Destroyer passed us over, and the 
Seal was dreadful and reverend, and we were walled in with the Precious 
Blood. To-day we have clean escaped from Egypt and from Pharaoh; and 
there is none to hinder us from keeping a Feast to the Lord our God — the 
Feast of our Departure; or from celebrating that Feast, not in the old 



396 

leaven of malice and wickedness, but in the unleavened bread of sincerity 
and truth, carrying with us nothing of ungodly and Egyptian leaven. 

IV. Yesterday I was crucified with Him; today I am glorified with Him; 
yesterday I died with Him; today I am quickened with Him; yesterday I 
was buried with Him; today I rise with Him. But let us offer to Him Who 
suffered and rose again for us — you will think perhaps that I am going to 
say gold, or silver, or woven work or transparent and costly stones, the 
mere passing material of earth, that remains here below, and is for the most 
part always possessed by bad men, slaves of the world and of the Prince 
of the world. Let us offer ourselves, the possession most precious to God, 
and most fitting; let us give back to the Image what is made after the 
Image. Let us recognize our Dignity; let us honor our Archetype; let us 
know the power of the Mystery, and for what Christ died. 

V. Let us become like Christ, since Christ became like us. Let us become 
God's for His sake, since He for ours became Man. He assumed the worse 
that He might give us the better; He became poor that we through His 
poverty might be rich; He took upon Him the form of a servant that we 
might receive back our liberty; He came down that we might be exalted; He 
was tempted that we might conquer; He was dishonored that He might 
glorify us; He died that He might save us; He ascended that He might draw 
to Himself us, who were lying low in the Fall of sin. Let us give all, offer 
all, to Him Who gave Himself a Ransom and a Reconciliation for us. But 
one can give nothing like oneself, understanding the Mystery, and 
becoming for His sake all that He became for ours. 

VI. As you see, He offers you a Shepherd; for this is what your Good 
Shepherd, who lays down his life for his sheep, is hoping and praying for, 
and he asks from you his subjects; and he gives you himself double instead 
of single, and makes the staff of his old age a staff for your spirit. And he 
adds to the inanimate temple a living one; to that exceedingly beautiful and 
heavenly shrine, this poor and small one, yet to him of great value, and 
built too with much sweat and many labors. Would that I could say it is 
worthy of his labors. And he places at your disposal all that belongs to 
him (O great generosity! — or it would be truer to say, O fatherly love!) 
his hoar hairs, his youth, the temple, the high priest, the testator, the heir, 
the discourses which you were longing for; and of these not such as are 



397 

vain and poured out into the air, and which reach no further than the 
outward ear; but those which the Spirit writes and engraves on tables of 
stone, or of flesh, not merely superficially graven, nor easily to be rubbed 
off, but marked very deep, not with ink, but with grace. 

VII. These are the gifts given you by this august Abraham, this honorable 
and reverend Head, this Patriarch, this Restingplace of all good, this 
Standard of virtue, this Perfection of the Priesthood, who today is bringing 
to the Lord his willing Sacrifice, his only Son, him of the promise. Do you 
on your side offer to God and to us obedience to your Pastors, dwelling in 
a place of herbage, and being fed by water of refreshment; knowing your 
Shepherd well, and being known by him; and following when he calls you 
as a Shepherd frankly through the door; but not following a stranger 
climbing up into the fold like a robber and a traitor; nor listening to a 
strange voice when such would take you away by stealth and scatter you 
from the truth on mountains, and in deserts, and pitfalls, and places which 
the Lord does not visit; and would lead you away from the sound Faith in 
the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, the One Power and Godhead, 
Whose Voice my sheep always heard (and may they always hear it), but 
with deceitful and corrupt words would tear them from their true 
Shepherd. From which may we all be kept, Shepherd and flock, as from a 
poisoned and deadly pasture; guiding and being guided far away from it, 
that we may all be one in Christ Jesus our Lord, now and unto the 
heavenly rest. To Whom be the glory and the might for ever and ever. 
Amen. 



398 
INTRODUCTION TO 

ORATION 2 

It is generally agreed that this Oration was not intended for oral delivery 
Its object was to explain and defend S Gregory's recent conduct, which 
had been severely criticized by his friends at Nazianzus He had been 
recalled by his father probably during the year AD 361 from Pontus, 
where he had spent several years in monastic seclusion with his friend S 
Basil His father, not content with his son's presence at home as a support 
for his declining years, and feeling assured of his fitness for the sacred 
office, had proceeded, with the loudly expressed approval of the 
congregation, in spite of Gregory' s reluctance, to ordain him to the 
priesthood on Christmas Day A D 361 S Gregory, even after the lapse of 
many years, speaks of his ordination as an act of tyranny, and at the time, 
stung almost to madness, as an ox by a gadfly, rushed away again to 
Pontus, to bury in its congenial solitude, consoled by an intimate friend's 
deep sympathy, his wounded feelings Before long the sense of duty 
reasserted itself, and he returned to his post at his father's side before 
Easter AD 362 On Easter Day he delivered his first Oration before a 
congregation whose scantiness marked the displeasure with which the 
people of Nazianzus had viewed his conduct Accordingly he set himself to 
supply them in this Oration with a full explanation of the motives which 
had led to his retirement At the same time, as the secondary title of the 
Oration shows, he has supplied an exposition of the obligations and 
dignity of the Priestly Office which has been drawn upon by all later 
writers on the subject S Chrysostom in his well-known treatise, S Gregory 
the Great in his Pastoral Care, and Bossuet in his panegyric on S Paul, 
have done little more than summarize the material or develop the 
considerations contained in this eloquent and elaborate dissertation 



399 

ORATION 2 

IN DEFENSE OF HIS FLIGHT TO PONTUS, AND HIS RETURN, 

AFTER HIS ORDINATION TO THE PRmSTHOOD, WITH AN 

EXPOSITION OF THE 

CHARACTER OF THE PRIESTLY OFFICE. 

1. 1 have been defeated, and own my defeat. I subjected myself to the 
Lord, and prayed unto Him. Let the most blessed David supply my 
exordium, or rather let Him Who spoke in David, and even now yet speaks 
through him. For indeed the very best order of beginning every speech and 
action, is to begin from God, and to end in God. As to the cause, either of 
my original revolt and cowardice, in which I got me away far off, and 
remained away from you for a time, which perhaps seemed long to those 
who missed me; or of the present gentleness and change of mind, in which 
I have given myself up again to you, men may think and speak in different 
ways, according to the hatred or love they bear me, on the one side 
refusing to acquit me of the charges alleged, on the other giving me a hearty 
welcome. For nothing is so pleasant to men as talking of other people's 
business, especially under the influence of affection or hatred, which often 
almost entirely blinds us to the truth. I will, however, myself, unabashed, 
set forth the truth, and arbitrate with justice between the two parties, 
which accuse or gallantly defend us, by, on the one side, accusing myself, 
on the other, undertaking my own defense. 

2. Accordingly, that my speech may proceed in due order, I apply myself 
to the question which arose first, that of cowardice. For I cannot endure 
that any of those who watch with interest the success, or the contrary, of 
my efforts, should be put to confusion on my account, since it has pleased 
God that our affairs should be of some consequence to Christians, so I will 
by my defense relieve, if there be any such, those who have already 
suffered; for it is well, as far us possible, and as reason allows, to shrink 
from causing, through our sin or suspicion, any offense or stumbling-block 
to the community: inasmuch as we know how inevitably even those who 
offend one of the little ones will incur the severest punishment at the 
hands of Him who cannot lie. 



400 

3. For my present position is due, my good people, not to inexperience 
and ignorance, nay indeed, that I may boast myself a little, neither is it due 
to contempt for the divine laws and ordinances. Now, just as in the body 
there is one member which rules and, so to say, presides, while another is 
ruled over and subject; so too in the churches, God has ordained, according 
either to a law of equality, which admits of an order of merit, or to one of 
providence, by which He has knit all together, that those for whom such 
treatment is beneficial, should be subject to pastoral care and rule, and be 
guided by word and deed in the path of duty; while others should be 
pastors and teachers, for the perfecting of the church, those, I mean, who 
surpass the majority in virtue and nearness to God, performing the 
functions of the soul in the body, and of the intellect in the soul; in order 
that both may be so united and compacted together, that, although one is 
lacking and another is pre-eminent, they may, like the members of our 
bodies, be so combined and knit together by the harmony of the Spirit, as 
to form one perfect body, really worthy of Christ Himself, our Head. 

4. 1 am aware then that anarchy and disorder cannot be more advantageous 
than order and rule, either to other creatures or to men; nay, this is true of 
men in the highest possible degree, because the interests at stake in their 
case are greater; since it is a great thing for them, even if they fail of their 
highest purpose — to be free from sin — to attain at least to that which is 
second best, restoration from sin. Since this seems right and just, it is, I 
take it, equally wrong and disorderly that all should wish to rule, and that 
no one should accept it. For if all men were to shirk this office, whether it 
must be called a ministry or a leadership, the fair fullness of the Church 
would be halting in the highest degree, and in fact cease to be fair. And 
further, where, and by whom would God be worshipped among us in 
those mystic and elevating rites which are our greatest and most precious 
privilege, if there were neither king, nor governor, nor priesthood, nor 
sacrifice, nor all those highest offices to the loss of which, for their great 
sins, men were of old condemned in consequence of their disobedience? 

5. Nor indeed is it strange or inconsistent for the majority of those who are 
devoted to the study of divine things, to ascend to rule from being ruled, 
nor does it overstep the limits laid down by philosophy, or involve 
disgrace; any more than for an excellent sailor to become a lookout-man, 
and for a lookout-man, who has successfully kept watch over the winds, 



401 

to be entrusted with the helm; or, if you will, for a brave soldier to be 
made a captain, and a good captain to become a general, and have 
committed to him the conduct of the whole campaign. Nor again, as 
perhaps some of those absurd and tiresome people may suppose, who 
judge of others' feelings by their own, was I ashamed of the rank of this 
grade from my desire for a higher. I was not so ignorant either of its divine 
greatness or human low estate, as to think it no great thing for a created 
nature, to approach in however slight degree to God, Who alone is most 
glorious and illustrious, and surpasses in purity every nature, material and 
immaterial alike. 

6. What then were my feelings, and what was the reason of my 
disobedience? For to most men I did not at the time seem consistent with 
myself, or to be such as they had known me, but to have undergone some 
deterioration, and to exhibit greater resistance and self-will than was right. 
And the causes of this you have long been desirous to hear. First, and 
most important, I was astounded at the unexpectedness of what had 
occurred, as people are terrified by sudden noises; and, losing the control 
of my reasoning faculties, my self-respect, which had hitherto controlled 
me, gave way. In the next place, there came over me an eager longing for 
the blessings of calm and retirement, of which I had from the first been 
enamored to a higher degree, I imagine, than any other student of letters, 
and which amidst the greatest and most threatening dangers I had promised 
to God, and of which I had also had so much experience, that I was then 
upon its threshold, my longing having in consequence been greatly kindled, 
so that I could not submit to be thrust into the midst of a life of turmoil by 
an arbitrary act of oppression, and to be torn away by force from the holy 
sanctuary of such a life as this. 

7. For nothing seemed to me so desirable as to close the doors of my 
senses, and, escaping from the flesh and the world, collected within 
myself, having no further connection than was absolutely necessary with 
human affairs, and speaking to myself and to God to live superior to 
visible things, ever preserving in myself the divine impressions pure and 
unmixed with the erring tokens of this lower world, and both being, and 
constantly growing more and more to be, a real unspotted mirror of God 
and divine things, as light is added to light, and what was still dark grew 
clearer, enjoying already by hope the blessings of the world to come, 



402 

roaming about with the angels, even now being above the earth by having 
forsaken it, and stationed on high by the Spirit. If any of you has been 
possessed by this longing, he knows what I mean and will sympathize 
with my feelings at that time. For, perhaps, I ought not to expect to 
persuade most people by what I say, since they are unhappily disposed 
to laugh at such things, either from their own thoughtlessness, or from the 
influence of men unworthy of the promise, who have bestowed upon that 
which is good an evil name, calling philosophy nonsense, aided by envy 
and the evil tendencies of the mob, who are ever inclined to grow worse: so 
that they are constantly occupied with one of two sins, either the 
commission of evil, or the discrediting of good. 

8. 1 was influenced besides by another feeling, whether base or noble I do 
not know, but I will speak out to you all my secrets. I was ashamed of all 
those others, who, without being better than ordinary people, nay, it is a 
great thing if they be not worse, with unwashen hands, as the saying rims, 
and uninitiated souls, intrude into the most sacred offices; and, before 
becoming worthy to approach the temples, they lay claim to the 
sanctuary, and they push and thrust around the holy table, as if they 
thought this order to be a means of livelihood, instead of a pattern of 
virtue, or an absolute authority, instead of a ministry of which we must 
give account. In fact they are almost more in number than those whom 
they govern; pitiable as regards piety, and unfortunate in their dignity; so 
that, it seems to me, they will not, as time and this evil alike progress, 
have any one left to rule, when all are teachers, instead of, as the promise 
says, taught of God, and all prophesy, so that even "Saul is among the 
prophets," according to the ancient history and proverb. For at no time, 
either now or in former days, amid the rise and fall of various 
developments, has there ever been such an abundance, as now exists 
among Christians, of disgrace and abuses of this kind. And, if to stay this 
current is beyond our powers, at any rate it is not the least important duty 
of religion to testify the hatred and shame we feel for it. 

9. Lastly, there is a matter more serious than any which I have mentioned, 
for I am now coming to the finale of the question: and I will not deceive 
you; for that would not be lawful in regard to topics of such moment. I did 
not, nor do I now, think myself qualified to rule a flock or herd, or to have 
authority over the souls of men. For in their case it is sufficient to render 



403 

the herd or flock as stout and fat as possible; and with this object the 
neatherd and shepherd will look for well watered and rich pastures, and 
will drive his charge from pasture to pasture, and allow them to rest, or 
arouse, or recall them, sometimes with his staff, most often with his pipe; 
and with the exception of occasional struggles with wolves, or attention to 
the sickly, most of his time will be devoted to the oak and the shade and 
his pipes, while he reclines on the beautiful grass, and beside the cool 
water, and shakes down his couch in a breezy spot, and ever and anon 
sings a love ditty, with his cup by his side, and talks to his bullocks or his 
flock, the fattest of which supply his banquets or his pay. But no one ever 
has thought of the virtue of flocks or herds; for indeed of what virtue are 
they capable? Or who has regarded their advantage as more important than 
his own pleasure? 

10. But in the case of man, hard as it is for him to learn how to submit to 
rule, it seems far harder to know how to rule over men, and hardest of all, 
with this rifle of ours, which leads them by the divine law, and to God, for 
its risk is, in the eyes of a thoughtful man, proportionate to its height and 
dignity. For, first of all, he must, like silver or gold, though in general 
circulation in all kinds of seasons and affairs, never ring false or alloyed, or 
give token of any inferior matter, needing further refinement in the fire; or 
else, the wider his rule, the greater evil he will be. Since the injury which 
extends to many is greater than that which is confined to a single 
individual. 

11. For it is not so easy to dye deeply a piece of cloth, or to impregnate 
with odors, foul or the reverse, whatever comes near to them; nor is it so 
easy for the fatal vapor, which is rightly called a pestilence, to infect the 
air, and through the air to gain access to living being, as it is for the vice of 
a superior to take most speedy possession of his subjects, and that with 
far greater facility than virtue its opposite. For it is in this that wickedness 
especially has the advantage over goodness, and most distressing it is to 
me to perceive it, that vice is something attractive and ready at hand, and 
that nothing is so easy as to become evil, even without any one to lead us 
on to it; while the attainment of virtue is rare and difficult, even where 
there is much to attract and encourage us. And it is this, I think, which the 
most blessed Haggai had before his eyes, in his wonderful and most true 
figure: — "Ask the priests concerning the law, saying: If holy flesh borne 



404 

in a garment touch meat or drink or vessel, will it sanctify what is in 
contact with it? And when they said No; ask again if any of these things 
touch what is unclean, does it not at once partake of the pollution? For 
they will surely tell you that it does partake of it, and does not continue 
clean in spite of the contact." 

12. What does he mean by this? As I take it, that goodness can with 
difficulty gain a hold upon human nature, like fire upon green wood; while 
most men are ready and disposed to join in evil, like stubble, I mean, ready 
for a spark and a wind, which is easily kindled and consumed from its 
dryness. For more quickly would any one take part in evil with slight 
inducement to its full extent, than in good which is fully set before him to 
a slight degree. For indeed a little wormwood most quickly imparts its 
bitterness to honey; while not even double the quantity of honey can 
impart its sweetness to wormwood: and the withdrawal of a small pebble 
would draw headlong a whole river, though it would be difficult for the 
strongest dam to restrain or stay its course. 

13. This then is the first point in what we have said, which it is right for 
us to guard against, viz.: being found to be bad painters of the charms of 
virtue, and still more, if not, perhaps, models for poor painters, poor 
models for the people, or barely escaping the proverb, that we undertake 
to heal others while ourselves are full of sores. 

14. In the second place, although a man has kept himself pure from sin, 
even in a very high degree; I do not know that even this is sufficient for 
one who is to instruct others in virtue. For he who has received this 
charge, not only needs to be free from evil, for evil is, in the eyes of most 
of those under his care, most disgraceful, but also to be eminent in good, 
according to the command, "Depart from evil and do good." And he must 
not only wipe out the traces of vice from his soul, but also inscribe better 
ones, so as to outstrip men further in virtue than he is superior to them in 
dignity. He should know no limits in goodness or spiritual progress, and 
should dwell upon the loss of what is still beyond him, rather than the gain 
of what he has attained, and consider that which is beneath his feet a step 
to that which comes next: and not think it a great gain to excel ordinary 
people, but a loss to fall short of what we ought to be: and to measure his 
success by the commandment and not by his neighbors, whether they be 



405 

evil, or to some extent proficient in virtue: and to weigh virtue in no small 
scales, inasmuch as it is due to the Most High, "from Whom are all things, 
and to Whom are all things." 

15. Nor must he suppose that the same things are suitable to all, just as all 
have not the same stature, nor are the features of the face, nor the nature of 
animals, nor the qualities of soil, nor the beauty and size of the stars, in all 
cases the same: but he must consider base conduct a fault in a private 
individual, and deserving of chastisement under the hard rule of the law; 
while in the case of a ruler or leader it is a fault not to attain to the highest 
possible excellence, and always make progress in goodness, if indeed he is, 
by his high degree of virtue, to draw his people to an ordinary degree, not 
by the force of authority, but by the influence of persuasion. For what is 
involuntary apart from its being the result of oppression, is neither 
meritorious nor durable. For what is forced, like a plant violently drawn 
aside by our hands, when set free, returns to what it was before, but that 
which is the result of choice is both most legitimate and enduring, for it is 
preserved by the bond of good will. And so our law and our lawgiver 
enjoin upon us most strictly that we should "tend the flock not by 
constraint but willingly." 

16. But granted that a man is free from vice, and has reached the greatest 
heights of virtue: I do not see what knowledge or power would justify him 
in venturing upon this office. For the guiding of man, the most variable and 
manifold of creatures, seems to me in very deed to be the art of arts and 
science of sciences. Any one may recognize this, by comparing the work 
of the physician of souls with the treatment of the body; and noticing that, 
laborious as the latter is, ours is more laborious, and of more consequence, 
from the nature of its subject matter, the power of its science, and the 
object of its exercise. The one labors about bodies, and perishable failing 
matter, which absolutely must be dissolved and undergo its fate, even if 
upon this occasion by the aid of art it can surmount the disturbance within 
itself, being dissolved by disease or time in submission to the law of 
nature, since it cannot rise above its own limitations. 

17. The other is concerned with the soul, which comes from God and is 
divine, and partakes of the heavenly nobility, and presses on to it, even if 
it be bound to an inferior nature. Perhaps indeed there are other reasons 



406 

also for this, which only God, Who bound them together, and those who 
are instructed by God in such mysteries, can know, but as far as I, and 
men like myself can perceive, there are two: one, that it may inherit the 
glory above by means of a struggle and wrestling with things below, being 
tried as gold in the fire by things here, and gain the objects of our hope as a 
prize of virtue, and not merely as the gift of God. This, indeed, was the 
will of Supreme Goodness, to make the good even our own, not only 
because sown in our nature, but because cultivated by our own choice, and 
by the motions of our will, free to act in either direction. The second 
reason is, that it may draw to itself and raise to heaven the lower nature, 
by gradually freeing it from its grossness, in order that the soul may be to 
the body what God is to the soul, itself leading on the matter which 
ministers to it, and uniting it, as its fellow- servant, to God. 

18. Place and time and age and season and the like are the subjects of a 
physician's scrutiny; he will prescribe medicines and diet, and guard 
against things injurious, that the desires of the sick may not be a hindrance 
to his art. Sometimes, and in certain cases, he will make use of the cautery 
or the knife or the severer remedies; but none of these, laborious and hard 
as they may seem, is so difficult as the diagnosis and cure of our habits, 
passions, lives, wills, and whatever else is within us, by banishing from 
our compound nature everything brutal and fierce, and introducing and 
establishing in their stead what is gentle and dear to God, and arbitrating 
fairly between soul and body; not allowing the superior to be overpowered 
by the inferior, which would be the greatest injustice; but subjecting to the 
ruling and leading power that which naturally takes the second place: as 
indeed the divine law enjoins, which is most excellently imposed on His 
whole creation, whether visible or beyond our ken. 

19. This further point does not escape me, that the nature of all these 
objects of the watch-fullness of the physician remains the same, and does 
not evolve out of itself any crafty opposition, or contrivance hostile to the 
appliances of his art, nay, it is rather the treatment which modifies its 
subject matter, except where some slight insubordination occurs on the 
part of the patient, which it is not difficult to prevent or restrain. But in 
our case, human prudence and selfishness, and the want of training and 
inclination to yield ready submission are a very great obstacle to advance 
in virtue, amounting almost to an armed resistance to those who are 



407 

wishful to help us. And the very eagerness with which we should lay bare 
our sickness to oar spiritual physicians, we employ in avoiding this 
treatment, and shew our bravery by struggling against what is for our own 
interest, our skill in shunning what is for our health. 

20. For we either hide away our sin, cloaking it over in the depth of our 
soul, like some festering and malignant disease, as if by escaping the notice 
of men we could escape the mighty eye of God and justice. Or else we 
allege excuses in our sins, by devising pleas in defense of our falls, or 
tightly closing our ears, like the deaf adder that stoppeth her ears, we are 
obstinate in refusing to hear the voice of the charmer, and be treated with 
the medicines of wisdom? by which spiritual sickness is healed. Or, lastly, 
those of us who are most daring and self-willed shamelessly brazen out 
our sin before those who would heal it, marching with bared head, as the 
saying is, into all kinds of transgression. O what madness, if there be no 
term more fitting for this state of mind! Those whom we ought to love as 
our benefactors we keep off, as if they were our enemies, hating those who 
reprove in the gates, and abhorring the righteous word; and we think that 
we shall succeed in the war that we are waging against those who are well 
disposed to us by doing ourselves all the harm we can, like men who 
imagine they are consuming the flesh of others when they are really 
fastening upon their own. 

21. For these reasons I allege that our office as physicians far exceeds in 
toilsomeness, and consequently in worth, that which is confined to the 
body; and further, because the latter is mainly concerned with the surface, 
and only in a slight degree investigates the causes which are deeply hidden. 
But the whole of our treatment and exertion is concerned with the hidden 
man of the heart, and our warfare is directed against that adversary and foe 
within us, who uses ourselves as his weapons against ourselves, and, most 
fearful of all, hands us over to the death of sin. In opposition then, to 
these foes we are in need of great and perfect faith, and of still greater 
co-operation on the part of God, and, as I am persuaded, of no slight 
countermaneuvring on our own part, which mast manifest itself both in 
word and deed, if ourselves, the most precious possession we have, are to 
be duly tended and cleansed and made as deserving as possible. 



408 

22. To turn however to the ends in view in each of these forms of healing, 
for this point is still left to be considered, the one preserves, if it already 
exists, the health and good habit of the flesh, or if absent, recalls it; though 
it is not yet clear whether or not these will be for the advantage of those 
who possess them, since their opposites very often confer a greater 
benefit on those who have them, just as poverty and wealth, renown or 
disgrace, a low or brilliant position, and all other circumstances, which are 
naturally indifferent, and do not incline in one direction more than in 
another, produce a good or bad effect according to the will of, and the 
manner in which they are used by the persons who experience them. But 
the scope of our art is to provide the soul with wings, to rescue it from the 
world and give it to God, and to watch over that which is in His image, if it 
abides, to take it by the hand, if it is in danger, or restore it, if ruined, to 
make Christ to dwell in the heart by the Spirit: and, in short, to deify, and 
bestow heavenly bliss upon, one who belongs to the heavenly host. 

23. This is the wish of our schoolmaster the law, of the prophets who 
intervened between Christ and the law, of Christ who is the fulfiller and 
end of the spiritual law; of the emptied Godhead, of the assumed flesh, of 
the novel union between God and man, one consisting of two, and both in 
one. This is why God was united to the flesh by means of the soul, and 
natures so separate were knit together by the affinity to each of the 
element which mediated between them: so all became one for the sake of 
all, and for the sake of one, our progenitor, the soul because of the soul 
which was disobedient, the flesh because of the flesh which co-operated 
with it and shared in its condemnation, Christ, Who was superior to, and 
beyond the reach of, sin, because of Adam, who became subject to sin. 

24. This is why the new was substituted for the old, why He Who 
suffered was for suffering recalled to life, why each property of His, Who 
was above us, was interchanged with each of ours, why the new mystery 
took place of the dispensation, due to loving kindness which deals with 
him who fell through disobedience. This is the reason for the generation 
and the virgin, for the manger and Bethlehem; the generation on behalf of 
the creation, the virgin on behalf of the woman, Bethlehem because of 
Eden, the manger because of the garden, small and visible things on behalf 
of great and hidden things. This is why the angels glorified first the 
heavenly, then the earthly, why the shepherds saw the glory over the 



409 

Lamb and the Shepherd, why the star led the Magi to worship and offer 
gifts, in order that idolatry might be destroyed. This is why Jesus was 
baptized, and received testimony from above, and fasted, and was 
tempted, and overcame him who had overcome. This is why devils were 
cast out, and diseases healed, and the mighty preaching was entrusted to, 
and successfully proclaimed by men of low estate. 

25. This is why the heathen rage and the peoples imagine vain things; why 
tree is set over against tree, hands against hand, the one stretched out in 
self indulgence, the others in generosity; the one unrestrained, the others 
fixed by nails, the one expelling Adam, the other reconciling the ends of the 
earth. This is the reason of the lifting up to atone for the fall, and of the 
gall for the tasting, and of the thorny crown for the dominion of evil, and 
of death for death, and of darkness for the sake of light, and of burial for 
the return to the ground, and of resurrection for the sake of resurrection. 
All these are a training from God for us, and a healing for our weakness, 
restoring the old Adam to the place whence he fell, and conducting us to 
the tree of life, from which the tree of knowledge estranged us, when 
partaken of unseasonably, and improperly. 

26. Of this healing we, who are set over others, are the ministers and 
fellow-laborers; for whom it is a great thing to recognize and heal their own 
passions and sicknesses: or rather, not really a great thing, only the 
viciousness of most of those who belong to this order has made me say so: 
but a much greater thing is the power to heal and skillfully cleanse those of 
others, to the advantage both of those who are in want of healing and of 
those whose charge it is to heal. 

27. Again, the healers of our bodies will have their labors and vigils and 
cares, of which we are aware; and will reap a harvest of pain for 
themselves from the distresses of others, as one of their wise men said; 
and will provide for the use of those who need them, both the results of 
their own labors and investigations, and what they have been able to 
borrow from others: and they consider none, even of the minutest details, 
which they discover, or which elude their search, as having other than an 
important influence upon health or danger. And what is the object of all 
this? That a man may live some days longer on the earth, though he is 
possibly not a good man, but one of the most depraved, for whom it had 



410 

perhaps been better, because of his badness, to have died long ago, in order 
to be set free from vice, the most serious of sicknesses. But, suppose he is 
a good man, how long will he be able to live? Forever? Or what will he gain 
from life here, from which it is the greatest of blessings, if a man be sane 
and sensible, to seek to be set free? 

28. But we, upon whose efforts is staked the salvation of a soul, a being 
blessed and immortal, and destined for undying chastisement or praise, for 
its vice or virtue, — what a struggle ought ours to be, and how great skill 
do we require to treat, or get men treated properly, and to change their life, 
and give up the clay to the spirit. For men and women, young and old, rich 
and poor, the sanguine and despondent, the sick and whole, rulers and 
ruled, the wise and ignorant, the cowardly and courageous, the wrathful 
and meek, the successful and failing, do not require the same instruction 
and encouragement. 

29. And if you examine more closely, how great is the distinction between 
the married and the unmarried, and among the latter between hermits and 
those who live together in community, between those who are proficient 
and advanced in contemplation and those who barely hold on the straight 
course, between townsfolk again and rustics, between the simple and the 
designing, between men of business and men of leisure, between those who 
have met with reverses and those who are prosperous and ignorant of 
misfortune. For these classes differ sometimes more widely from each 
other in their desires and passion than in their physical characteristics; or, 
if you will, in the mixtures and blendings of the elements of which we are 
composed, and, therefore, to regulate them is no easy task. 

30. As then the same medicine and the same food are not in every case 
administered to men's bodies, but a difference is made according to their 
degree of health or infirmity; so also are souls treated with varying 
instruction and guidance. To this treatment witness is borne by those who 
have had experience of it. Some are led by doctrine, others trained by 
example; some need the spur, others the curb; some are sluggish and hard 
to rouse to the good, and must be stirred up by being smitten with the 
word; others are immoderately fervent in spirit, with impulses difficult to 
restrain, like thoroughbred colts, who run wide of the turning post, and to 
improve them the word must have a restraining and checking influence. 



411 

31. Some are benefited by praise, others by blame, both being applied in 
season; while if out of season, or unreasonable, they are injurious; some 
are set right by encouragement, others by rebuke; some, when taken to 
task in public, others, when privately corrected. For some are wont to 
despise private admonitions, but are recalled to their senses by the 
condemnation of a number of people, while others, who would grow 
reckless under reproof openly given, accept rebuke because it is in secret, 
and yield obedience in return for sympathy. 

32. Upon some it is needful to keep a close watch, even in the minutest 
details, because if they think they are unperceived (as they would contrive 
to be), they are puffed up with the idea of their own wisdom: Of others it 
is better to take no notice, but seeing not to see, and hearing not to hear 
them, according to the proverb, that we may not drive them to despair, 
under the depressing influence of repeated reproofs, and at last to utter 
recklessness, when they have lost the sense of self-respect, the source of 
persuasiveness. In some cases we must even be angry, without feeling 
angry, or treat them with a disdain we do not feel, or manifest despair, 
though we do not really despair of them, according to the needs of their 
nature. Others again we must treat with condescension and lowliness, 
aiding them readily to conceive a hope of better things. Some it is often 
more advantageous to conquer — by others to be overcome, and to praise 
or deprecate, in one case wealth and power, in another poverty and failure. 

33. For our treatment does not correspond with virtue and vice, one of 
which is most excellent and beneficial at all times and in all cases, and the 
other most evil and harmful; and, instead of one and the same of our 
medicines invariably proving either most wholesome or most dangerous in 
the same cases — be it severity or gentleness, or any of the others which 
we have enumerated — in some cases it proves good and useful, in others 
again it has the contrary effect, according, I suppose, as time and 
circumstance and the disposition of the patient admit. Now to set before 
you the distinction between all these things, and give you a perfectly exact 
view of them, so that you may in brief comprehend the medical art, is 
quite impossible, even for one in the highest degree qualified by care and 
skill: but actual experience and practice are requisite to form a medical 
system and a medical man. 



412 

34. This, however, I take to be generally admitted — that just as it is not 
safe for those who walk on a lofty tight rope to lean to either side, for 
even though the inclination seems slight, it has no slight consequences, but 
their safety depends upon their perfect balance: so in be case of one of us, 
if he leans to either side, whether from vice or ignorance, no slight danger 
of a fail into sin is incurred, both for himself and those who are led by him. 
But we must really walk in the King's highway, and take care not to turn 
aside from it either to the right hand or to the left, as the Proverbs say. For 
such is the case with our passions, and such in this matter is the task of 
the good shepherd, if he is to know properly the souls of his flock, and to 
guide them according to the methods of a pastoral care which is fight and 
just, and worthy of our true Shepherd. 

35. In regard to the distribution of the word, to mention last the first of 
our duties, of that divine and exalted word, which everyone now is ready 
to discourse upon; if anyone else boldly undertakes it and supposes it 
within the power of every man's intellect, I am amazed at his intelligence, 
not to say his folly. To me indeed it seems no slight task, and one 
requiring no little spiritual power, to give in due season to each his portion 
of the word, and to regulate with judgment the truth of our opinions, 
which are concerned with such subjects as the world or worlds, matter, 
soul, mind, intelligent natures, better or worse, providence which holds 
together and guides the universe, and seems in our experience of it to be 
governed according to some principle, but one which is at variance with 
those of earth and of men. 

36. Again, they are concerned with our original constitution, and final 
restoration, the types of the truth, the covenants, the first and second 
coming of Christ, His incarnation, sufferings and dissolution, with the 
resurrection, the last day, the judgment and recompense, whether sad or 
glorious; I, to crown all, with what we are to think of the original and 
blessed Trinity. Now this involves a very great risk to those who are 
charged with the illumination of others, if they are to avoid contracting 
their doctrine to a single Person, from fear of polytheism, and so leave us 
empty terms, if we suppose the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit to 
be one and the same Person only: or, on the other hand, severing It into 
three, either foreign and diverse, or disordered and unprincipled, and, so to 
say, opposed divinities, thus falling from the opposite side into an equally 



413 

dangerous error: like some distorted plant if bent far back in the opposite 
direction. 

37. For, amid the three infirmities in regard to theology, atheism, Judaism, 
and polytheism, one of which is patronized by Sabellius the Libyan, 
another by Arius of Alexandria, and the third by some of the 
ultra-orthodox among us, what is my position, can I avoid whatever in 
these three is noxious, and remain within the limits of piety; neither being 
led astray by the new analysis and synthesis into the atheism of Sabellius, 
to assert not so much that all are one as that each is nothing, for things 
which are transferred and pass into each other cease to be that which each 
one of them is, of that we have an unnaturally compound deity, like those 
mythical creatures, the subject of a picturesque imagination: nor again, by 
alleging a plurality of severed natures, according to the well named 
madness of Arius, becoming involved in a Jewish poverty, and introducing 
envy into the divine nature, by limiting the Godhead to the Unbegotten 
One alone, as if afraid that our God would perish, if He were the Father of 
a real God of equal nature: nor again, by arraying three principles in 
opposition to, or in alliance with, each other, introducing the Gentile 
plurality of principles from which we have escaped? 

38. It is necessary neither to be so devoted to the Father, as to rob Him of 
His Fatherhood, for whose Father would He be, if the Son were separated 
and estranged from Him, by being ranked with the creation, (for an alien 
being, or one which is combined and confounded with his father, and, for 
the sense is the same, throws him into confusion, is not a son); nor to be 
so devoted to Christ, as to neglect to preserve both His Sonship, (for 
whose son would He be, if His origin were not referred to the Father?) and 
the rank of the Father as origin, inasmuch as He is the Father and 
Generator; for He would be the origin of petty and Unworthy beings, or 
rather the term would be used in a petty and unworthy sense, if He were 
not the origin of Godhead and goodness, which are contemplated in the 
Son and the Spirit: the former being the Son and the Word, the latter the 
proceeding and indissoluble Spirit. For both the Unity of the Godhead 
must be preserved, and the Trinity of Persons confessed, each with His 
own property. 



414 

39. A suitable and worthy comprehension and exposition of this subject 
demands a discussion of greater length than the present occasion, or even 
our life, as I suppose, allows, and, what is more, both now and at all times, 
the aid of the Spirit, by Whom alone we are able to perceive, to expound, 
or to embrace, the truth in regard to God. For the pure alone can grasp. 
Him Who is pure and of the same disposition as himself; and I have now 
briefly dwelt upon the subject, to show how difficult it is to discuss such 
important questions, especially before a large audience, composed of every 
age and condition, and needing like an instrument of many strings, to be 
played upon in various ways; or to find any form of words able to edify 
them all, and illuminate them with the light of knowledge. For it is not 
only that there are three sources from which danger springs, 
understanding, speech, and hearing, so that failure in one, if not in all, is 
infallibly certain; for either the mind is not illuminated, or the language is 
feeble, or the hearing, not having been cleansed, fails to comprehend, and 
accordingly, in one or all respects, the truth must be maimed: but further, 
what makes the instruction of those who profess to teach any other 
subject so easy and acceptable — viz. the piety of the audience — on this 
subject involves difficulty and danger. 

40. For having undertaken to contend on behalf of God, the Supreme 
Being, and of salvation, and of the primary hope of us all, the more fervent 
they are in the faith, the more hostile are they to what is said, supposing 
that a submissive spirit indicates, not piety, but treason to the truth, and 
therefore they would sacrifice anything rather than their private 
convictions, and the accustomed doctrines in which they have been 
educated. I am now referring to those who are moderate and not utterly 
depraved in disposition, who, if they have erred in regard to the truth, 
have erred from piety, who have zeal, though not according to knowledge, 
who will possibly be of the number of those not excessively condemned, 
and not beaten with many stripes, because it is not through vice or 
depravity that they have failed to do the will of their Lord; and these 
perchance would be persuaded and forsake the pious opinion which is the 
cause of their hostility, if some reason either from their own minds, or 
from others, were to take hold of them, and at a critical moment, like iron 
from flint, strike fire from a mind which is pregnant and worthy of the 



415 

light, for thus a little spark would quickly kindle the torch of truth within 
it. 

41. But what is to be said of those who, from vain glory or arrogance, 
speak unrighteousness against the most High, arming themselves with the 
insolence of Jannes and Jambres, not against Moses, but against the truth, 
and rising in opposition to sound doctrine? Or of the third class, who 
through ignorance and, its consequence, temerity, rush headlong against 
every form of doctrine in swinish fashion, and trample under foot the fair 
pearls of the truth? 

42. What again of those who come with no private idea, or form of words, 
better or worse, in regard to God, but listen to all kinds of doctrines and 
teachers, with the intention of selecting from all what is best and safest, in 
reliance upon no better judges of the truth than themselves? They are, in 
consequence, borne and turned about hither and thither by one plausible 
idea after another, and, after being deluged and trodden down by all kinds 
of doctrine, and having rung the changes on a long succession of teachers 
and formula, which they throw to the winds as readily as dust, their ears 
and minds at last are wearied out, and, O what folly! they become equally 
disgusted with all forms of doctrine, and assume the wretched character of 
deriding and despising our faith as unstable and unsound; passing in their 
ignorance from the teachers to the doctrine: as if anyone whose eyes were 
diseased, or whose ears had been injured, were to complain of the sun for 
being dim and not shining, or of sounds for being inharmonious and feeble. 

43. Accordingly, to impress the truth upon a soul when it is still fresh, like 
wax not yet subjected to the seal, is an easier task than inscribing pious 
doctrine on the top of inscriptions — I mean wrong doctrines and dogmas 
— with the result that the former are confused and thrown into disorder 
by the latter. It is better indeed to tread a road which is smooth and well 
trodden than one which is untrodden and rough, or to plough land which 
has often been cleft and broken up by the plough: but a soul to be written 
upon should be free from the inscription of harmful doctrines, or the 
deeply cut marks of vice: otherwise the pious inscriber would have a 
twofold task, the erasure of the former impressions and the substitution of 
others which are more excellent, and more worthy to abide. So numerous 
are they whose wickedness is shown, not only by yielding to their 



416 

passions, but even by their utterances, and so numerous the forms and 
characters of wickedness, and so considerable the task of one who has 
been intrusted with this office of educating and taking charge of souls. 
Indeed I have omitted the majority of the details, lest my speech should be 
unnecessarily burdensome. 

44. If anyone were to undertake to tame and train an animal of many forms 
and shapes, compounded of many animals of various sizes and degrees of 
tameness and wildness, his principal task, involving a considerable 
struggle, would be the government of so extraordinary and heterogeneous a 
nature, since each of the animals of which it is compounded would, 
according to its nature or habit, be differently affected with joy, pleasure 
or dislike, by the same words, or food, or stroking with the hand, or 
whistling, or other modes of treatment. And what must the master of such 
an animal do, but show himself manifold and various in his knowledge, and 
apply to each a treatment suitable for it, so as successfully to lead and 
preserve the beast? And since the common body of the church is 
composed of many different characters and minds, like a single animal 
compounded of discordant parts, it is absolutely necessary that its ruler 
should be at once simple in his uprightness in all respects, and as far as 
possible manifold and varied in his treatment of individuals, and in dealing 
with all in an appropriate and suitable manner. 

45. For some need to be fed with the milk of the most simple and 
elementary doctrines, viz., those who are in habit babes and, so to say, 
new-made, and unable to bear the manly food of the word: nay, if it were 
presented to them beyond their strength, they would probably be 
overwhelmed and oppressed, owing to the inability of their mind, as is the 
case with our material bodies, to digest and appropriate what is offered to 
it, and so would lose even their original power. Others require the wisdom 
which is spoken among the perfect, and the higher and more solid food, 
since their senses have been sufficiently exercised to discern truth and 
falsehood, and if they were made to drink milk, and fed on the vegetable 
diet of invalids, they would be annoyed. And with good reason, for they 
would not be strengthened according to Christ, nor make that laudable 
increase, which the Word produces in one who is rightly feel, by making 
him a perfect man, and bringing him to the measure of spiritual stature. 



417 

46. And who is sufficient for these things? For we are not as the many, 
able to corrupt the word of truth, and mix the wine, which maketh glad the 
heart of man, with water, mix, that is, our doctrine with what is common 
and cheap, and debased, and stale, and tasteless, in order to turn the 
adulteration to our profit, and accommodate ourselves to those who meet 
us, and curry favor with everyone, becoming ventriloquists and chatterers, 
who serve their own pleasures by words uttered from the earth, and 
sinking into the earth, and, to gain the special good will of the multitude, 
injuring in the highest degree, nay, ruining ourselves, and shedding the 
innocent blood of simpler souls, which will be required at our hands. 

47. Besides, we are aware that it is better to offer our own reins to others 
more skillful than ourselves, than, while inexperienced, to guide the course 
of others, and rather to give a kindly hearing than stir an untrained tongue; 
and after a discussion of these points with advisers who are, I fancy, of no 
mean worth, and, at any rate, wish us well, we preferred to learn those 
canons of speech and action which we did not know, rather than undertake 
to teach them in our ignorance. For it is delightful to have the reasoning of 
the aged come to one even until the depth of old age, able, as it is, to aid a 
soul new to piety. Accordingly, to undertake the training of others before 
being sufficiently trained oneself, and to learn, as men say, the potter' s art 
on a wine-jar, that is, to practice ourselves in piety at the expense of 
others' souls seems to me to be excessive folly or excessive rashness — 
folly, if we are not even aware of our own ignorance; rashness, if in spite 
of this knowledge we venture on the task. 

48. Nay, the wiser of the Hebrews tell us that there was of old among the 
Hebrews a most excellent and praiseworthy law, that every age was not 
entrusted with the whole of Scripture, inasmuch as this would not be the 
more profitable course, since the whole of it is not at once intelligible to 
everyone, and its more recondite parts would, by their apparent meaning, 
do a very great injury to most people. Some portions therefore, whose 
exterior is unexceptionable, are from the first permitted and common to all; 
while others are only en-trusted to those who have attained their 
twenty-fifth year, viz., such as hide their mystical beauty under a 
mean-looking cloak, to be the reward of diligence and an illustrious life; 
flashing forth and presenting itself only to those whose mind has been 



418 

purified, on the ground that this age alone can be superior to the body, and 
properly rise from the letter to the spirit. 

49. Among us, however, there is no boundary line between giving and 
receiving instruction, like the stones of old between the tribes within and 
beyond the Jordan: nor is a certain part entrusted to some, another to 
others; nor any rule for degrees of experience; but the matter has been so 
disturbed and thrown into confusion, that most of us, not to say all, 
almost before we have lost our childish curls and lisp, before we have 
entered the house of God, before we know even the names of the Sacred 
Books, before we have learnt the character and authors of the Old and 
New Testaments: (for my present point is not our want of cleansing from 
the mire and marks of spiritual shame which our viciousness has 
contracted) if, I say, we have furnished ourselves with two or three 
expressions of pious authors, and that by hearsay, not by study; if we 
have had a brief experience of David, or clad ourselves properly in a 
cloaklet, or are wearing at least a philosopher' s girdle, or have girt about us 
some form and appearance of piety — phew! how we take the chair and 
show our spirit! Samuel was holy even in his swaddling-clothes: we are at 
once wise teachers, of high estimation in Divine things, the first of scribes 
and lawyers; we ordain ourselves men of heaven and seek to be called 
Rabbi by men; the letter is nowhere, everything is to be understood 
spiritually, and our dreams are utter drivel, and we should be annoyed if 
we were not lauded to excess. This is the case with the better and more 
simple of us: what of those who are more spiritual and noble? After 
frequently condemning us, as men of no account, they have forsaken us, 
and abhor fellowship with impious people such as we are. 

50. Now, if we were to speak gently to one of them, advancing, as follows, 
step by step in argument: "Tell me, my good sir, do you call dancing 
anything, and flute -playing?" "Certainly," they would say. "What then of 
wisdom and being wise, which we venture to define as a knowledge of 
things divine and human?" This also they will admit. "Are then these 
accomplishments better than and superior to wisdom, or wisdom by far 
better than these?" "Better even than all things," I know well that they 
will say. Up to this point they are judicious. "Well, dancing and 
flute-playing require to be taught and learnt, a process which takes time, 
and much toil in the sweat of the brow, and sometimes the payment of 



419 

fees, and entreaties for initiation, and long absence from home, and all else 
which must be done and borne for the acquisition of experience: but as for 
wisdom, which is chief of all things, and holds in her embrace everything 
which is good, so that even God himself prefers this title to all the names 
which He is called; are we to suppose that it is a matter of such slight 
consequence, and so accessible, that we need but wish, and we would be 
wise?" "It would be utter folly to do so." If we, or any learned and 
prudent man, were to say this to them, and try by degrees to cleanse them 
from their error, it would be sowing upon rocks, and speaking to ears of 
men who will not hear: so far are they from being even wise enough to 
perceive their own ignorance. And we may rightly, in my opinion, apply 
to them the saying of Solomon: There is an evil which I have seen under 
the sun, a man wise in his own conceit; and a still greater evil is to charge 
with the instruction of others a man who is not even aware of his own 
ignorance. 

51. This is a state of mind which demands, in special degree, our tears and 
groans, and has often stirred my pity, from the conviction that imagination 
robs us in great measure of reality, and that vain glory is a great hindrance 
to men's attainment of virtue. To heal and stay this disease needs a Peter 
or Paul, those great disciples of Christ, who in addition to guidance in 
word and deed, received their grace, and became all things to all men, that 
they might gain all. But for other men like ourselves, it is a great thing to 
be rightly guided and led by those who have been charged with the 
correction and setting right of things such as these. 

52. Since, however, I have mentioned Paul, and men like him, I will, with 
your permission, pass by all others who have been foremost as lawgivers, 
prophets, or leaders, or in any similar office — for instance, Moses, 
Aaron, Joshua, Elijah, Elisha, the Judges, Samuel, David, the company of 
Prophets, John, the Twelve Apostles, and their successors, who with 
many toils and labors exercised their authority, each in his own time; all 
these I pass by, to set forth Paul as the witness to my assertions, and for 
us to consider by his example how important a matter is the care of souls, 
and whether it requires slight attention and little judgment. But that we 
may recognize and perceive this, let us hear what Paul himself says of 
Paul. 



420 

53. 1 say nothing of his labors, his watchings, his sufferings in hunger and 
thirst, in cold and nakedness, his assailants from without, his adversaries 
within. I pass over the persecutions, councils, prisons, bonds, accusers, 
tribunals, the daily and hourly deaths, the basket, the stonings, beatings 
with rods, the traveling about, the perils by land and sea, the deep, the 
shipwrecks, the perils of rivers, perils of robbers, perils from his 
countrymen, perils among false brethren, the living by his own hands, the 
gospel without charge, the being a spectacle to both angels and men, set in 
the midst between God and men to champion His cause, and to unite them 
to Him, and make them His own peculiar people, beside those things that 
are without. For who could worthily detail these matters, the daily 
pressure, the individual solicitude, the care of all the churches, the 
universal sympathy, and brotherly love? Did anyone stumble, Paul also 
was weak; did another suffer scandal, it was Paul who was on fire. 

54. What of the laboriousness of his teaching? The manifold character of 
his ministry? His loving kindness? And on the other hand his strictness? 
And the combination and blending of the two; in such wise that his 
gentleness should not enervate, nor his severity exasperate? He gives laws 
for slaves and masters, rulers and ruled, husbands and wives, parents and 
children, marriage and celibacy, self-discipline and indulgence, wisdom and 
ignorance, circumcision and uncircumcision, Christ and the world, the flesh 
and the spirit. On behalf of some he gives thanks, others he upbraids. 
Some he names his joy and crown, others he charges with folly. Some who 
hold a straight course he accompanies, sharing in their zeal; others he 
checks, who are going wrong. At one time he excommunicates, at another 
he confirms his love; at one time he grieves, at another rejoices; at one time 
he feeds with milk, at another he handles mysteries; at one time he 
condescends, at another he raises to his own level; at one time he threatens 
a rod, at another he offers the spirit of meekness; at one time he is haughty 
toward the lofty, at another lowly toward the lowly. Now he is least of 
the apostles, now he offers a proof of Christ speaking in him; now he 
longs for departure and is being poured forth as a libation, now he thinks it 
more necessary for their sakes to abide in the flesh. For he seeks not his 
own interests, but those of his children, whom he has begotten in Christ 
by the gospel. This is the aim of all his spiritual authority, in everything to 
neglect his own in comparison with the advantage of others. 



421 

55. He glories in his infirmities and distresses. He takes pleasure in the 
dying of Jesus, as if it were a kind of ornament. He is lofty in carnal 
things, he rejoices in things spiritual; he is not rude in knowledge, and 
claims to see in a mirror, darkly. He is bold in spirit, and buffets his body, 
throwing it as an antagonist. What is the lesson and instruction he would 
thus impress upon us? Not to be proud of earthly things, or puffed up by 
knowledge, or excite the flesh against the spirit. He fights for all, prays for 
all, is jealous for all, is kindled on behalf of all, whether without law, or 
under the law; a preacher of the Gentiles, a patron of the Jews. He even 
was exceedingly bold on behalf of his brethren according to the flesh, if I 
may myself be bold enough to say so, in his loving prayer that they might 
in his stead be brought to Christ. What magnanimity! what fervor of 
spirit! He imitates Christ, who became a curse for us, who took our 
infirmities and bore our sicknesses; or, to use more measured terms, he is 
ready, next to Christ, to suffer anything, even as one of the ungodly, for 
them, if only they be saved. 

56. Why should I enter into detail? He lived not to himself, but to Christ 
and his preaching. He crucified the world to himself, and being crucified to 
the world and the things which are seen, he thought all things little, and too 
small to be desired; even though from Jerusalem and round about unto 
Illyricum he had fully preached the Gospel, even though he had been 
prematurely caught up to the third heaven, and had a vision of Paradise, 
and had heard unspeakable words. Such was Paul, and everyone of like 
spirit with him. But we fear that, in comparison with them, we may be 
foolish princes of Zoan, or extortioners, who exact the fruits of the ground, 
or falsely bless the people: and further make themselves happy, and 
confuse the way of your feet, or mockers ruling over you, or children in 
authority, immature in mind, not even having bread and clothing enough to 
be rulers over any; or prophets teaching lies, or rebellious princes, 
deserving to share the reproach of their elders for the straitness of the 
famine, or priests very far from speaking comfortably to Jerusalem, 
according to the reproaches and protests urged by Isaiah, who was purged 
by the Seraphim with a live coal. 

57. Is the undertaking then so serious and laborious to a sensitive and sad 
heart — a very rottenness to the bones o of a sensible man: while the 
danger is slight, and a fall not worth consideration? Nay the blessed Hosea 



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inspires me with serious alarm, where he says that to us priests and rulers 
pertaineth the judgment, because we have been a snare to the watchtower; 
and as a net spread upon Tabor, which has been firmly fixed by the 
hunters of men's souls, and he threatens to cut off the wicked prophets, 
and devour their judges with fire, and to cease for a while from anointing a 
king and princes, because they ruled for themselves, and not by Him. 

58. Hence again the divine Micah, unable to brook the building of Zion 
with blood, however you interpret the phrase, and of Jerusalem with 
iniquity, while the heads thereof judge for reward, and the priests teach for 
hire, and the prophets divine for money — what does he say will be the 
result of this? Zion shall be plowed as a field, and Jerusalem be as a lodge 
in a garden, and the mountain of the house be reckoned as a glade in a 
thicket. He bewails also the scarcity of the upright, there being scarcely a 
stalk or a gleaning grape left, since both the prince asketh, and the judge 
curries favor, so that his language is almost the same as the mighty 
David's: Save me, O Lord, for the godly man ceaseth: and says that 
therefore their blessings shall fail them, as if wasted by the moth. 

59. Joel again summons us to wailing, and will have the ministers of the 
altar lament under the presence of famine: so far is he from allowing us to 
revel in the misfortunes of others: and, after sanctifying a fast, calling a 
solemn assembly, and gathering the old men, the children, and those of 
tender age, we ourselves must further haunt the temple in sackcloth and 
ashes, prostrated right humbly on the ground, because the field is wasted, 
and the meat-offering and the drink-offering is cut off from the house of 
the Lord, till we draw down mercy by our humiliation. 

60. What of Habakkuk? He utters more heated words, and is impatient 
with God Himself, and cries down, as it were our good Lord, because of 
the injustice of the judges. O Lord, how long shall I cry and Thou wilt not 
hear? Shall I cry out unto Thee of violence, and Thou wilt not save? Why 
dost Thou show me toil and labor, causing me to look upon perverseness 
and impiety? Judgment has been given against me, and the judge is a 
spoiler. Therefore the law is slacked, and judgment doth never go forth. 
Then comes the denunciation, and what follows upon it. Behold, ye 
despisers, and regard, and wonder marvelously, and vanish away, for I 
work a work. But why need I quote the whole of the denunciation? A little 



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further on, however, for I think it best to add this to what has been said, 
after upbraiding and lamenting many of those who are in some respect 
unjust or depraved, he upbraids the leaders and teachers of wickedness, 
stigmatizing vice as a foul disorder, and an intoxication and aberration of 
mind; charging them with giving their neighbors drink in order to look upon 
the darkness of their soul, and the dens of creeping things and wild beasts, 
viz.: the dwelling places of wicked thoughts. Such indeed they are, and 
such teachings do they discuss with us. 

61. How can it be right to pass by Malachi, who at one time brings bitter 
charges against the priests, and reproaches them with despising the name 
of the Lord, and explains wherein they did this, by offering polluted bread 
upon the altar, and meat which is not firstfruits, which they would not 
have offered to one of their governors, or, if they had offered it, they 
would have been dishonored; yet offering these in fulfillment of a vow to 
the King of the universe, to wit, the lame and the sick, and the deformed, 
which are utterly profane and loathsome. Again he reminds them of the 
covenant of God, a covenant of life and peace, with the sons of Levi, and 
that they should serve Him in fear, and stand in awe of the manifestation 
of His Name. The law of truth, he says, was in his mouth, and 
unrighteousness was not found in his lips; he walked with me uprightly in 
peace, and turned away many from iniquity: for the priest's lips shall 
keep knowledge, and they shall seek the law at his mouth. And how 
honorable and at the same time how fearful is the cause! for he is the 
messenger of the Lord Almighty. Although I pass over the following 
imprecations, as strongly worded, yet I am afraid of their truth. This 
however may be cited without offense, to our profit. Is it right, he says, to 
regard your sacrifice, and receive it with good will at your hands, as if he 
were most highly incensed, and rejecting their ministrations owing to their 
wickedness. 

62. Whenever I remember Zechariah, I shudder at the reaping-hook, and 
likewise at his testimony against the priests, his hints in reference to the 
celebrated Joshua, the high priest, whom he represents as stripped of 
filthy and unbecoming garments and then clothed in rich priestly apparel. 
As for the words and charges to Joshua which he puts into the angel's 
mouth, let them be treated with silent respect, as referring perhaps to a 
greater and higher object than those who are many priests: but even at his 



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right hand stood the devil, to resist him. A fact, in my eyes, of no slight 
significance, and demanding no slight fear and watchfulness. 

63. Who is so bold and adamantine of soul as not to tremble and be 
abashed at the charges and reproaches deliberately urged against the rest of 
the shepherds. A voice, he says, of the howling of the shepherds, for their 
glory is spoiled. A voice of the roaring of lions, for this hath befallen them. 
Does he not all but hear the wailing as if close at hand, and himself wail 
with the afflicted. A little further is a more striking and impassioned strain. 
Feed, he says, the flock of slaughter, whose possessors slay them without 
repentance, and they that sell them say, "Blessed be the Lord, for we are 
rich:" and their own shepherds are without feeling for them. Therefore, I 
will no more pity the inhabitants of the land, saith the Lord Almighty. 
And again: Awake, O sword, against the shepherds, and smite the 
shepherds, and scatter the sheep, and I will turn My Hand upon the 
shepherds; and, Mine anger is kindled against the shepherds, and I will 
visit the lambs: adding to the threat those who rule over the people. So 
industriously does he apply himself to his task that he cannot easily free 
himself from denunciations, and I am afraid that, did I refer to the whole 
series, I should exhaust your patience. This must then suffice for 
Zechariah. 

64. Passing by the elders in the book of Daniel; for it is better to pass 
them by, together with the Lord's righteous sentence and declaration 
concerning them, that wickedness came from Babylon from ancient judges, 
who seemed to govern the people; how are we affected by Ezekiel, the 
beholder and expositor of the mighty mysteries and visions? By his 
injunction to the watchmen not to keep silence concerning vice and the 
sword impending over it, a course which would profit neither themselves 
nor the sinners; but rather to keep watch and forewarn, and thus benefit, at 
any rate those who gave warning, if not both those who spoke and those 
who heard? 

65. What of his further invective against the shepherds, Woe shall come 
upon woe, and rumor upon rumor, then shall they seek a vision of the 
prophet, but the law shall perish from the priest, and counsel from the 
ancients, and again, in these terms, Son of man, say unto her, thou art a 
land that is not watered, nor hath rain come upon thee in the day of 



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indignation: whose princes in the midst of her are like roaring lions, 
ravening the prey, devouring souls in their might. And a little further on: 
Her priests have violated My laws and profaned My holy things, they 
have put no difference between the holy and profane, but all things were 
alike to them, and they hid their eyes from My Sabbaths, and I was 
profaned among them. He threatens that He will consume both the wall 
and them that daubed it, that is, those who sin and those who throw a 
cloak over them; as the evil rulers and priests have done, who caused the 
house of Israel to err according to their own hearts which are estranged in 
their lusts. 

66. 1 also refrain from entering into his discussion of those who feed 
themselves, devour the milk, clothe themselves with the wool, kill them 
that are fat, but feed not the flock, strengthen not the diseased, nor bind up 
that which is broken, nor bring again that which is driven away, nor seek 
that which is lost, nor keep watch over that which is strong, but oppress 
them with rigor, and destroy them with their pressure; so that, because 
there was no shepherd, the sheep were scattered over every plain and 
mountain, and became meat for all the fowls and beasts, because there was 
no one to seek for them and bring them back. What is the consequence? As 
I live, saith the Lord, because these things are so, and My flock became a 
prey, behold I am against the shepherds, and I will require My flock at 
their hands, and will gather them and make them My own: but the 
shepherds shall suffer such and such things, as bad shepherds ought. 

67. However, to avoid unreasonably prolonging my discourse, by an 
enumeration of all the prophets, and of the words of them all, I will 
mention but one more, who was known before he was formed, and 
sanctified from the womb, Jeremiah: and will pass over the rest. He longs 
for water over his head, and a fountain of tears for his eyes, that he may 
adequately weep for Israel; and no less does he bewail the depravity of its 
rulers. 

68. God speaks to him in reproof of the priests: The priests said not, 
Where is the Lord, and they that handled the law knew Me not; the 
pastors also transgressed against Me. Again He says to him: The pastors 
are become brutish, and have not sought the Lord, and therefore all their 
flock did not understand, and was scattered. Again, Many pastors have 



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destroyed My vineyard, and have polluted My pleasant portion, till it 
was reduced to a trackless wilderness. He further inveighs against the 
pastors again: Woe be to the pastors that destroy and scatter the sheep of 
My pasture! Therefore thus saith the Lord against them that feed My 
people: Ye have scattered My flock, and driven them away, and have not 
visited them: behold I will visit upon you the evil of your doings. 
Moreover he bids the shepherds to howl, and the rams of the flock to 
lament, because the days of their slaughter are accomplished. 

69. Why need I speak of the things of ancient days? Who can test himself 
by the rules and standards which Paul laid down for bishops and 
presbyters, that they are to be temperate, soberminded, not given to wine, 
no strikers, apt to teach, blameless in all things, and beyond the reach of 
the wicked, without finding considerable deflection from the straight line 
of the rules? What of the regulations of Jesus for his disciples, when He 
sends them to preach? The main object of these is — not to enter into 
particulars — that they should be of such virtue, so simple and modest, 
and in a word, so heavenly, that the gospel should make its way, no less 
by their character than by their preaching. 

70. 1 am alarmed by the reproaches of the Pharisees, the conviction of the 
Scribes. For it is disgraceful for us, who ought greatly surpass them, as we 
are bidden, if we desire the kingdom of heaven, to be found more deeply 
sunk in vice: so that we deserve to be called serpents, a generation of 
vipers, and blind guides, who strain out a gnat and swallow a camel, or 
sepulchers foul within, in spite of our external comeliness, or platters 
outwardly clean, and everything else, which they are, or which is laid to 
their charge. 

71. With these thoughts I am occupied night and day: they waste my 
marrow, and feed upon my flesh, and will not allow me to be confident or 
to look up. They depress my soul, and abase my mind, and fetter my 
tongue, and make me consider, not the position of a prelate, or the 
guidance and direction of others, which is far beyond my powers; but how 
I myself am to escape the wrath to come, and to scrape off from myself 
somewhat of the rust of vice. A man must himself be cleansed, before 
cleansing others: himself become wise, that he may make others wise; 
become light, and then give light: draw near to God, and so bring others 



427 

near; be hallowed, then hallow them; be possessed of hands to lead others 
by the hand, of wisdom to give advice. 

72. When will this be, say they who are swift but not sure in every thing, 
readily building up, readily throwing down. When will the lamp be upon 
its stand, and where is the talent? For so they call the grace. Those who 
speak thus are more fervent in friendship than in reverence. You ask me, 
you men of exceeding courage, when these things shall be, and what 
account I give of them? Not even extreme old age would be too long a limit 
to assign. For hoary hairs combined with prudence are better than 
inexperienced youth, well-reasoned hesitation than inconsiderate haste, 
and a brief reign than a long tyranny: just as a small portion honorably 
won is better than considerable possessions which are dishonorable and 
uncertain, a little gold than a great weight of lead, a little light than much 
darkness. 

73. But this speed, in its untrustworthiness and excessive haste, is in 
danger of being like the seeds which fell upon the rock, and, because they 
had no depth of earth, sprang up at once, but could not bear even the first 
heat of the sun; or like the foundation laid upon the sand, which could not 
even make a slight resistance to the rain and the winds. Woe to thee, O 
city, whose king is a child, says Solomon. Be not hasty of speech, says 
Solomon again, asserting that hastiness of speech is less serious than 
heated action. And who, in spite of all this, demands haste rather than 
security and utility? Who can mold, as clay-figures are modeled in a single 
day, the defender of the truth, who is to take his stand with Angels, and 
give glory with Archangels, and cause the sacrifice to ascend to the altar on 
high, and share the priesthood of Christ, and renew the creature, and set 
forth the image, and create inhabitants for the world above, aye and, 
greatest of all, be God, and make others to be God? 

74. 1 know Whose ministers we are, and where we are placed, and whither 
we are guides. I know the height of God, and the weakness of man, and, on 
the contrary, his power. Heaven is high, and the earth deep; and who of 
those who have been cast down by sin shall ascend? Who that is as yet 
surrounded by the gloom here below, and by the grossness of the flesh can 
purely gaze with his whole mind upon that whole mind, and amid unstable 
and visible things hold intercourse with the stable and invisible? For hardly 



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may one of those who have been most specially purged, behold here even 
an image of the Good, as men see the sun in the water. Who hath measured 
the water with his hand, and the heaven with a span, and the whole earth 
in a measure? Who hath weighed the mountains in scales, and the hills in a 
balance? What is the place of his rest? and to whom shall he be likened? 

75. Who is it, Who made all things by His Word, and formed man by His 
Wisdom, and gathered into one things scattered abroad, and mingled dust 
with spirit, and compounded an animal visible and invisible, temporal and 
immortal, earthly and heavenly, able to attain to God but not to 
comprehend Him, drawing near and yet afar off. I said, I will be wise, says 
Solomon, but she (i.e. Wisdom) was far from me beyond what is: and, 
Verily, he that increaseth knowledge increaseth sorrow. For the joy of 
what we have discovered is no greater than the pain of what escapes us; a 
pain, I imagine, like that felt by those who are dragged, while yet thirsty, 
from the water, or are unable to retain what they think they hold, or are 
suddenly left in the dark by a flash of lightning. 

76. This depressed and kept me humble, and persuaded me that it was 
better to hear the voice of praise than to be an expounder of truths beyond 
my power; the majesty, and the height, and the dignity, and the pure 
natures scarce able to contain the brightness of God, Whom the deep 
covers, Whose secret place is darkness, since He is the purest light, which 
most men cannot approach unto; Who is in all this universe, and again is 
beyond the universe; Who is all goodness, and beyond all goodness; Who 
enlightens the mind, and escapes the quickness and height of the mind, 
ever retiring as much as He is apprehended, and by His flight and stealing 
away when grasped, withdrawing to the things above one who is enamored 
of Him. 

77. Such and so great is the object of our longing zeal, and such a man 
should he be, who prepares and conducts souls to their espousals. For 
myself, I feared to be cast, bound hand and foot, from the bride-chamber, 
for not having on a wedding-garment, and for having rashly intruded among 
those who there sit at meat. And yet I had been invited from my youth, if 
I may speak of what most men know not, and had been cast upon Him 
from the womb, and presented by the promise of my mother, afterwards 
confirmed in the hour of danger: and my longing grew up with it, and my 



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reason agreed to it, and I gave as an offering my all to Him Who had won 
me and saved me, my property, my fame, my health, my very words, 
from which I only gained the advantage of being able to despise them, and 
of having something in comparison of which I preferred Christ. And the 
words of God were made sweet as honeycombs to me, and I cried after 
knowledge and lifted up my voice for wisdom. There was moreover the 
moderation of anger, the curbing of the tongue, the restraint of the eyes, 
the discipline of the belly, and the trampling under foot of the glory which 
clings to the earth. I speak foolishly, but it shall be said, in these pursuits I 
was perhaps not inferior to many. 

78. One branch of philosophy is, however, too high for me, the 
commission to guide and govern souls — and before I have rightly learned 
to submit to a shepherd, or have had my soul duly cleansed, the charge of 
caring for a flock: especially in times like these, when a man, seeing 
everyone else rushing hither and thither in confusion, is content to flee 
from the malice and escape, in sheltered retirement, from the storm and 
gloom of the wicked one: when the members are at war with one another, 
and the slight remains of love, which once existed, have departed, and 
priest is a mere empty name, since, as it is said, contempt has been poured 
upon princes. 

79. Would that it were merely empty! And now may their blasphemy fall 
upon the head of the ungodly! All fear has been banished from souls, 
shamelessness has taken its place, and knowledge and the deep things of 
the Spirit are at the disposal of anyone who will; and we all become pious 
by simply condemning the impiety of others; and we claim the services of 
ungodly judges, and fling that which is holy to the dogs, and cast pearls 
before swine, by publishing divine things in the hearing of profane souls, 
and, wretches that we are, carefully fulfill the prayers of our enemies, and 
are not ashamed to go a whoring with our own inventions. Moabites and 
Ammonites, who were not permitted even to enter the Church of the Lord, 
frequent our most holy rites. We have opened to all not the gates of 
righteousness, but, doors of railing and partisan arrogance; and the first 
place among us is given, not to one who in the fear of God refrains from 
even an idle word, but to him who can revile his neighbor most fluently, 
whether explicitly, or by covert allusion; who rolls beneath his tongue 
mischief and iniquity, or to speak more accurately, the poison of asps. 



430 

80. We observe each other's sins, not to bewail them, but to make them 
subjects of reproach, not to heal them, but to aggravate them, and excuse 
our own evil deeds by the wounds of our neighbors. Bad and good men are 
distinguished not according to personal character, but by their 
disagreement or friendship with ourselves. We praise one day what we 
revile the next, denunciation at the hands of others is a passport to our 
admiration; so magnanimous are we in our viciousness, that everything is 
frankly forgiven to impiety. 

81. Everything has reverted to the original state of things before the world, 
with its present fair order and form, came into being. The general 
confusion and irregularity cry for some organizing hand and power. Or, if 
you will, it is like a battle at night by the faint light of the moon, when 
none can discern the faces of friends or foes; or like a sea fight on the 
surge, with the driving winds, and boiling foam, and dashing waves, and 
crashing vessels, with the thrusts of poles, the pipes of boatswains, the 
groans of the fallen, while we make our voices heard above the din, and not 
knowing what to do, and having, alas! no opportunity for showing our 
valor, assail one another, and fall by one another's hands. 

82. Nor indeed is there any distinction between the state of the people and 
that of the priesthood: but it seems to me to be a simple fulfillment of the 
ancient curse, "As with the people so with the priest." Nor again are the 
great and eminent men affected otherwise than the majority; nay, they are 
openly at war with the priests, and their piety is an aid to their powers of 
persuasion. And indeed, provided that it be on behalf of the faith, and of 
the highest and most important questions, let them be thus disposed, and I 
blame them not; nay, to say the truth, I go so far as to praise and 
congratulate them. Yea! would that I were one of those who contend and 
incur hatred for the truth's sake: or rather, I can boast of being one of 
them. For better is a laudable war than a peace which severs a man from 
God: and therefore it is that the Spirit arms the gentle warrior, as one who 
is able to wage war in a good cause. 

83. But at the present time there are some who go to war even about small 
matters and to no purpose, and, with great ignorance and audacity, accept, 
as an associate in their ill-doing, anyone whoever he may be. Then 
everyone makes the faith his pretext, and this venerable name is dragged 



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into their private quarrels. Consequently, as was probable, we are hated, 
even among the Gentiles, and, what is harder still, we cannot say that this 
is without just cause. Nay, even the best of our own people are 
scandalized, while this result is not surprising in the case of the multitude, 
who are ill-disposed to accept anything that is good. 

84. Sinners are planning upon our backs; and what we devise against each 
other, they turn against us all: and we have become a new spectacle, not to 
angels and men, as says Paul, that bravest of athletes, in his contest with 
principalities and powers, but to almost all wicked men, and at every time 
and place, in the public squares, at carousals, at festivities, and times of 
sorrow. Nay, we have already — I can scarcely speak of it without tears 
— been represented on the stage, amid the laughter of the most licentious, 
and the most popular of all dialogues and scenes is the caricature of a 
Christian. 

85. These are the results of our intestine warfare, and our extreme 
readiness to strive about goodness and gentleness, and our inexpedient 
excess of love for God. Wrestling, or any other athletic contest, is only 
permitted according to fixed laws, and the man will be shouted down and 
disgraced, and lose the victory, who breaks the laws of wrestling, or acts 
unfairly in any other contest, contrary to the rules laid down for the 
contest, however able and skillful he may be; and shall anyone contend for 
Christ in an unchristlike manner, and yet be pleasing to peace for having 
fought unlawfully in her name. 

86. Yea, even now, when Christ is invoked, the devils tremble, and not 
even by our ill-doing has the power of this Name been extinguished, while 
we are not ashamed to insult a cause and name so venerable; shouting it, 
and having it shouted in return, almost in public, and every day; for My 
Name is blasphemed among the Gentiles because of you. 

87. Of external warfare I am not afraid, nor of that wild beast, and fullness 
of evil, who has now arisen against the churches, though he may threaten 
fire, sword, wild beasts, precipices, chasms; though he may show himself 
more inhuman than all previous madmen, and discover fresh tortures of 
greater severity. I have one remedy for them all, one road to victory; I will 
glory in Christ namely, death for Christ's sake. 



432 

88. For my own warfare, however, I am at a loss what course to pursue, 
what alliance, what word of wisdom, what grace to devise, with what 
panoply to arm myself, against the wiles of the wicked one. What Moses 
is to conquer him by stretching out his hands upon the mount, in order 
that the cross, thus typified and prefigured, may prevail? What Joshua, as 
his successor, arrayed alongside the Captain of the Lord's hosts? What 
David, either by harping, or fighting with his sling, and girded by God with 
strength unto the battle, and with his fingers trained to war? What Samuel, 
praying and sacrificing for the people, and anointing as king one who can 
gain the victory? What Jeremiah, by writing lamentations for Israel, is fitly 
to lament these things? 

89. Who will cry aloud, Spare Thy People, O Lord, and give not Thine 
heritage to reproach, that the nations should rule over them? What Noah, 
and Job, and Daniel, who are reckoned together as men of prayer, will 
pray for us, that we may have a slight respite from warfare, and recover 
ourselves, and recognize one another for a while, and no longer, instead of 
united Israel, be Judah and Israel, Rehoboam and Jeroboam, Jerusalem and 
Samaria, in turn delivered up because of our sins, and in turn lamented. 

90. For I own that I am too weak for this warfare, and therefore turned my 
back, hiding my face in the rout, and sat solitary, because I was filled with 
bitterness and sought to be silent, understanding that it is an evil time, that 
the beloved had kicked, that we were become backsliding children, who are 
the luxuriant vine, the true vine, all fruitful, all beautiful, springing up 
splendidly with showers from on high. For the diadem of beauty, the 
signet of glory, the crown of magnificence has been changed for me into 
shame; and if anyone, in face of these things, is daring and courageous, he 
has my blessing on his daring and courage. 

91.1 have said nothing yet of the internal warfare within ourselves, and in 
our passions, in which we are engaged night and day against the body of 
our humiliation, either secretly or openly, and against the tide which 
tosses and whirls us hither and thither, by the aid of our senses and other 
sources of the pleasures of this life; and against the miry clay in which we 
have been fixed; and against the law of sin, which wars against the law of 
the spirit, and strives to destroy the royal image in us, and all the divine 
emanation which has been bestowed upon us; so that it is difficult for 



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anyone, either by a long course of philosophic training, and gradual 
separation of the noble and enlightened part of the soul from that which is 
debased and yoked with darkness, or by the mercy of God, or by both 
together, and by a constant practice of looking upward, to overcome the 
depressing power of matter. And before a man has, as far as possible, 
gained this superiority, and sufficiently purified his mind, and far 
surpassed his fellows in nearness to God, I do not think it safe for him to 
be entrusted with the rule over souls, or the office of mediator (for such, I 
take it, a priest is) between God and man. 

92. What is it that has induced this fear in me, that, instead of supposing 
me to be needlessly afraid, you may highly commend my foresight? I hear 
from Moses himself, when God spake to him, that, although many were 
bidden to come to the mount, one of whom was even Aaron, with his two 
sons who were priests, and seventy elders of the senate, the rest were 
ordered to worship afar off, and Moses alone to draw near, and the people 
were not to go up with him. For it is not everyone who may draw near to 
God, but only one who, like Moses, can bear the glory of God. Moreover, 
before this, when the law was first given, the trumpet-blasts, and 
lightnings, and thunders, and darkness, and the smoke of the whole 
mountain, and the terrible threats that if even a beast touched the mountain 
it should be stoned, and other like alarms, kept back the rest of the people, 
for whom it was a great privilege, after careful purification, merely to hear 
the voice of God. But Moses actually went up and entered into the cloud, 
and was charged with the law, and received the tables, which belong, for 
the multitude, to the letter, but, for those who are above the multitude, to 
the spirit. 

93. 1 hear again that Nadab and Abihu, for having merely offered incense 
with strange fire, were with strange fire destroyed, the instrument of their 
impiety being used for their punishment, and their destruction following at 
the very time and place of their sacrilege; and not even their father Aaron, 
who was next to Moses in the favor of God, could save them. I know also 
of Eli the priest, and a little later of Uzzah, the former made to pay the 
penalty for his sons' transgression, in daring to violate the sacrifices by an 
untimely exaction of the first fruits of the cauldrons, although he did not 
condone their impiety, but frequently rebuked them; the other, because he 
only touched the ark, which was being thrown off the cart by the ox, and 



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though he saved it, was himself destroyed, in God's jealousy for the 
reverence due to the ark. 

94. 1 know also that not even bodily blemishes in either priests or victims 
passed without notice, but that it was required by the law that perfect 
sacrifices must be offered by perfect men — a symbol, I take it, of 
integrity of soul. It was not lawful for everyone to touch the priestly 
vesture, or any of the holy vessels; nor might the sacrifices themselves be 
consumed except by the proper persons, and at the proper time and place; 
nor might the anointing oil nor the compounded incense be imitated; nor 
might anyone enter the temple who was not in the most minute particular 
pure in both soul and body; so far was the Holy of holies removed from 
presumptuous access, that it might be entered by one man only once a 
year; so far were the veil, and the mercy-seat, and the ark, and the 
Cherubim, from the general gaze and touch. 

95. Since then I knew these things, and that no one is worthy of the 
mightiness of God, and the sacrifice, and priesthood, who has not first 
presented himself to God, a living, holy sacrifice, and set forth the 
reasonable, well-pleasing service, and sacrificed to God the sacrifice of 
praise and the contrite spirit, which is the only sacrifice required of us by 
the Giver of all; how could I dare to offer to Him the external sacrifice, the 
antitype of the great mysteries, or clothe myself with the garb and name of 
priest, before my hands had been consecrated by holy works; before my 
eyes had been accustomed to gaze safely upon created things, with wonder 
only for the Creator, and without injury to the creature; before my ear had 
been sufficiently opened to the instruction of the Lord, and He had opened 
mine ear to hear without heaviness, and had set a golden earring with 
precious sardius, that is, a wise man's word in an obedient ear; before my 
mouth had been opened to draw in the Spirit, and opened wide to be filled 
with the spirit of speaking mysteries and doctrines; and my lips bound, to 
use the words of wisdom, by divine knowledge, and, as I would add, 
loosed in due season: before my tongue had been filled with exultation, and 
become an instrument of Divine melody, awaking with glory, awaking 
right early, and laboring till it cleave to my jaws: before my feet had been 
set upon the rock, made like hart's feet, and my footsteps directed in a 
godly fashion so that they should not well-night slip, nor slip at all; before 
all my members had become instruments of righteousness, and all 



435 

mortality had been put off, and swallowed up of life, and had yielded to 
the Spirit? 

96. Who is the man, whose heart has never been made to burn, as the 
Scriptures have been opened to him, with the pure words of God which 
have been tried in a furnace; who has not, by a triple inscription of them 
upon the breadth of his heart, attained the mind of Christ; nor been 
admitted to the treasures which to most men remain hidden, secret, and 
dark, to gaze upon the riches therein? and become able to enrich others, 
comparing spiritual things with spiritual. 

97. Who is the man who has never beheld, as our duty is to behold it, the 
fair beauty of the Lord, nor has visited His temple, or rather, become the 
temple of God, and the habitation of Christ in the Spirit? Who is the man 
who has never recognized the correlation and distinction between figures 
and the truth, so that by withdrawing from the former and cleaving to the 
latter, and by thus escaping from the oldness of the letter and serving the 
newness of the spirit, he may clean pass over to grace from the law, which 
finds its spiritual fulfillment in the dissolution of the body. 

98. Who is the man who has never, by experience and contemplation, 
traversed the entire series of the titles and powers of Christ, both those 
more lofty ones which originally were His, and those more lowly ones 
which He later assumed for our sake — viz.: God, the Son, the Image, the 
Word, the Wisdom, the Truth, the Light, the Life, the Power, the Vapor, 
the Emanation, the Effulgence, the Maker, the King, the Head, the Law, 
the Way, the Door, the Foundation, the Rock, the Pearl, the Peace, the 
Righteousness, the Sanctification, the Redemption, the Man, the Servant, 
the Shepherd, the Lamb, the High Priest, the Victim, the Firstborn before 
creation, the Firstborn from the dead, the Resurrection: who is the man 
who hearkens, but pays no heed, to these names so pregnant with reality, 
and has never yet held communion with, nor been made partaker of, the 
Word, in any of the real relations signified by each of these names which 
He bears? 

99. Who, in fine, is the man who, although he has never applied himself to, 
nor learnt to speak, the hidden wisdom of God in a mystery, although he 
is still a babe, still fed with milk, still of those who are not numbered in 
Israel, nor enrolled in the army of God, although he is not yet able to take 



436 

up the Cross of Christ like a man, although he is possibly not yet one of 
the more honorable members, yet will joyfully and eagerly accept his 
appointment as head of the fullness of Christ? No one, if he will listen to 
my judgment and accept my advice! This is of all things most to be feared, 
this is the extremest of dangers in the eyes of everyone who understands 
the magnitude of success, the utter ruin of failure. 

100. Let others sail for merchandise, I used to say, and cross the wide 
oceans, and constantly contend with winds and waves, to gain great 
wealth, if so it should chance, and run great risks in their eagerness for 
sailing and merchandise; but, for my part, I greatly prefer to stay ashore 
and plough a short but pleasant furrow, saluting at a respectful distance 
the sea and its gains, to live as best I can upon a poor and scanty store of 
barley-bread, and drag my life along in safety and calm, rather than expose 
myself to so long and great a risk for the sake of great gains. 

101. For one in high estate, if he fail to make further progress and to 
disseminate virtue still more widely, and contents himself with slight 
results, incurs punishment, as having spent a great light upon the 
illumination of a little house, or girt round the limbs of a boy the full armor 
of a man. On the contrary, a man of low estate may with safety assume a 
light burden, and escape the risk of the ridicule and increased danger which 
would attend him if he attempted a task beyond his powers. For, as we 
have heard, it is not seemly for a man to build a tower, unless he has 
sufficient to finish it. 

102. Such is the defense which I have been able to make, perhaps at 
immoderate length, for my flight. Such are the reasons which, to my pain 
and possibly to yours, carried me away from you, my friends and 
brothers; yet, as it seemed to me at the time, with irresistible force. My 
longing after you, and the sense of your longing for me, have, more than 
anything else, led to my return, for nothing inclines us so strongly to love 
as mutual affection. 

103. In the next place there was my care, my duty, the hoar hairs and 
weakness of my holy parents, who were more greatly distressed on my 
account than by their advanced age — of this Patriarch Abraham whose 
person is honored by me, and numbered among the angels, and of Sarah, 
who travailed in my spiritual birth by instructing me in the truth. Now, I 



437 

had specially pledged myself to become the stay of their old age and the 
support of their weakness, a pledge which, to the best of my power, I 
have fulfilled, even at the expense of philosophy itself, the most precious 
of possessions and titles to me; or, to speak more truly, although I made it 
the first object of my philosophy to appear to be no philosopher, I could 
not bear that my labor in consequence of a single purpose should be 
wasted, nor yet that blessing should be lost, which one of the saints of old 
is said to have stolen from his father, whom he deceived by the food which 
he offered to him, and the hairy appearance he assumed, thus attaining a 
good object by disgraceful trickery. These are the two causes of my 
submission and tractability. Nor is it, perchance, unreasonable that my 
arguments should yield and submit to them both, for there is a time to be 
conquered, as I also think there is for every purpose, and it is better to be 
honorably overcome than to win a dangerous and lawless victory. 

104. There is a third reason of the highest importance which I will further 
mention, and then dismiss the rest. I remembered the days of old, and, 
recurring to one of the ancient histories, drew counsel for myself therefrom 
as to my present conduct; for let us not suppose these events to have been 
recorded without a purpose, nor that they are a mere assemblage of words 
and deeds gathered together for the pastime of those who listen to them, as 
a kind of bait for the ears, for the sole purpose of giving pleasure. Let us 
leave such jesting to the legends and the Greeks, who think but little of the 
truth, and enchant ear and mind by the charm of their fictions and the 
daintiness of their style. 

105. We however, who extend the accuracy of the Spirit to the merest 
stroke and tittle, will never admit the impious assertion that even the 
smallest matters were dealt with haphazard by those who have recorded 
them, and have thus been borne in mind down to the present day: on the 
contrary, their purpose has been to supply memorials and instructions for 
our consideration under similar circumstances, should such befall us, and 
that the examples of the past might serve as rules and models, for our 
warning and imitation. 

106. What then is the story, and wherein lies its application? For, 
perhaps, it would not be amiss to relate it, for the general security. Jonah 
also was fleeing from the face of God, or rather, thought that he was 



438 

fleeing: but he was overtaken by the sea, and the storm, and the lot, and 
the whale's belly, and the three days' entombment, the type of a greater 
mystery. He fled from having to announce the dread and awful message to 
the Ninevites, and from being subsequently, if the city was saved by 
repentance, convicted of falsehood: not that he was displeased at the 
salvation of the wicked, but he was ashamed of being made an instrument 
of falsehood, and exceedingly zealous for the credit of prophecy, which 
was in danger of being destroyed in his person, since most men are unable 
to penetrate the depth of the Divine dispensation in such cases. 

107. But, as I have learned from a man skilled in these subjects, and able to 
grasp the depth of the prophet, by means of a reasonable explanation of 
what seems unreasonable in the history, it was not this which caused 
Jonah to flee, and carried him to Joppa and again from Joppa to Tarshish, 
when he entrusted his stolen self to the sea: for it was not likely that such 
a prophet should be ignorant of the design of God, viz., to bring about, by 
means of the threat, the escape of the Ninevites from the threatened doom, 
according to His great wisdom, and unsearchable judgments, and according 
to His ways which are beyond our tracing and finding out; nor that, if he 
knew this he would refuse to co-operate with God in the use of the means 
which He designed for their salvation. Besides, to imagine that Jonah 
hoped to hide himself at sea, and escape by his flight the great eye of God, 
is surely utterly absurd and stupid, and unworthy of credit, not only in 
the case of a prophet, but even in the case of any sensible man, who has 
only a slight perception of God, Whose power is over all. 

108. On the contrary, as my instructor said, and as I am myself convinced, 
Jonah knew better than any one the purpose of his message to the 
Ninevites, and that, in planning his flight, although he changed his place, he 
did not escape from God. Nor is this possible for any one else, either by 
concealing himself in the bosom of the earth, or in the depths of the sea, or 
by soaring on wings, if there be any means of doing so, and rising into the 
air, or by abiding in the lowest depths of hell, or by enveloping himself in 
a thick cloud, or by any other of the many devices for ensuring escape. For 
God alone of all things cannot be escaped from or contended with; if He 
wills to seize and bring them under His hand, He outstrips the swift, He 
outwits the wise, He overthrows the strong, He abases the lofty, He 
subdues rashness, He represses power. 



439 

109. Jonah then was not ignorant of the mighty hand of God, with which 
he threatened other men, nor did he imagine that he could utterly escape 
the Divine power; this we are not to believe: but when he saw the falling 
away of Israel, and perceived the passing over of the grace of prophecy to 
the Gentiles — this was the cause of his retirement from preaching and of 
his delay in fulfilling the command; accordingly he left the watchtower of 
joy, for this is the meaning of Joppa in Hebrew, I mean his former dignity 
and reputation, and flung himself into the deep of sorrow: and hence he is 
tempest-tossed, and falls asleep, and is wrecked, and aroused from sleep, 
and taken by lot, and confesses his flight, and is cast into sea, and 
swallowed, but not destroyed, by the whale; but there he calls upon God, 
and, marvelous as it is, on the third day he, like Christ, is delivered: but 
my treatment of this topic must stand over, and shall shortly, if God 
permit, be more deliberately worked out. 

1 10. Now however, to return to my original point, the thought and 
question occurred to me, that although he might possibly meet with some 
indulgence, if reluctant to prophesy, for the cause which I mentioned — 
yet, in my own case, what could be said, what defense could be made, if I 
longer remained restive, and rejected the yoke of ministry, which, though I 
know not whether to call it light or heavy, had at any rate been laid upon 
me. 

111. For if it be granted, and this alone can be strongly asserted in such 
matters, that we are far too low to perform the priest' s office before God, 
and that we can only be worthy of the sanctuary after we have become 
worthy of the Church, and worthy of the post of president, after being 
worthy of the sanctuary, yet some one else may perhaps refuse to acquit 
us on the charge of disobedience. Now terrible are the threatenings against 
disobedience, and terrible are the penalties which ensue upon it; as indeed 
are those on the other side, if, instead of being reluctant, and shrinking 
back, and concealing ourselves as Saul did among his father's stuff — 
although called to rule but for a short time — if, I say, we come forward 
readily, as though to a slight and most easy task, whereas it is not safe 
even to resign it, nor to amend by second thoughts our first. 

112. On this account I had much toilsome consideration to discover my 
duty, being set in the midst betwixt two fears, of which the one held me 



440 

back, the other urged me on. For a long while I was at a loss between them, 
and after wavering from side to side, and, like a current driven by 
inconstant winds, inclining first in this direction, then in that, I at last 
yielded to the stronger, and the fear of disobedience overcame me, and has 
carried me off. Pray, mark how accurately and justly I hold the balance 
between the fears, neither desiring an office not given to me, nor rejecting it 
when given. The one course marks the rash, the other the disobedient, both 
the undisciplined. My position lies between those who are too bold, or 
too timid; more timid than those who rush at every position, more bold 
than those who avoid them all. This is my judgment on the matter. 

113. Moreover, to distinguish still more clearly between them, we have, 
against the fear of office, a possible help in the law of obedience, inasmuch 
as God in His goodness rewards our faith, and makes a perfect ruler of the 
man who has confidence in Him, and places all his hopes in Him; but 
against the danger of disobedience I know of nothing which can help us, 
and of no ground to encourage our confidence. For it is to be feared that we 
shall have to hear these words concerning those who have been entrusted 
to us: I will require their souls at your hands; and, Because ye have 
rejected me, and not been leaders and rulers of my people, I also will reject 
you, that I should not be king over you; and, As ye refused to hearken to 
My voice, and turned a stubborn back, and were disobedient, so shall it be 
when ye call upon Me, and I will not regard nor give ear to your prayer. 
God forbid that these words should come to us from the just Judge, for 
when we sing of His mercy we must also by all means sing of His 
judgment. 

1 14. 1 resort once again to history, and on considering the men of best 
repute in ancient days, who were ever preferred by grace to the office of 
ruler or prophet, I discover that some readily complied with the call, 
others deprecated the gift, and that neither those who drew back were 
blamed for timidity, nor those who came forward for eagerness. The 
former stood in awe of the greatness of the ministry, the latter trustfully 
obeyed Him Who called them. Aaron was eager, but Moses resisted, Isaiah 
readily submitted, but Jeremiah was afraid of his youth, and did not 
venture to prophesy until he had received from God a promise and power 
beyond his years. 



441 

1 15. By these arguments I charmed myself, and by degrees my soul 
relaxed and became ductile, like iron, and time came to the aid of my 
arguments, and the testimonies of God, to which I had entrusted my whole 
life, were my counselors. Therefore I was not rebellious, neither turned 
away back, saith my Lord, when, instead of being called to rule, He was 
led, as a sheep to the slaughter; but I fell down and humbled myself under 
the mighty hand of God, and asked pardon for my former idleness and 
disobedience, if this is at all laid to my charge. I held my peace, but I will 
not hold my peace for ever: I withdrew for a little while, till I had 
considered myself and consoled my grief: but now I am commissioned to 
exalt Him in the congregation of the people, and praise Him in the seat of 
the elders. If my former conduct deserved blame, my present action merits 
pardon. 

1 16. What further need is there of words. Here am I, my pastors and 
fellow-pastors, here am I, thou holy flock, worthy of Christ, the Chief 
Shepherd, here am I, my father, utterly vanquished, and your subject 
according to the laws of Christ rather than according to those of the land: 
here is my obedience, reward it with your blessing. Lead me with your 
prayers, guide me with your words, establish me with your spirit. The 
blessing of the father establisheth the houses of children, and would that 
both I and this spiritual house may be established, the house which I have 
longed for, which I pray may be my rest for ever, when I have been passed 
on from the church here to the church yonder, the general assembly of the 
firstborn, who are written in heaven. 

1 17. Such is my defense: its reasonableness I have set forth: and may the 
God of peace, Who made both one, and has restored us to each other, Who 
setteth kings upon thrones, and raiseth up the poor out of the dust and 
lifteth up the beggar from the dunghill, Who chose David His servant and 
took him away from the sheepfolds, though he was the least and youngest 
of the sons of Jesse, Who gave the word to those who preach the gospel 
with great power for the perfection of the gospel, — may He Himself hold 
me by my right hand, and guide me with His counsel, and receive me with 
glory, Who is a Shepherd to shepherds and a Guide to guides: that we may 
feed His flock with knowledge, not with the instruments of a foolish 
shepherd, according to the blessing, and not according to the curse 
pronounced against the men of former days: may He give strength and 



442 

power unto his people, and Himself present to Himself His flock 
resplendent and spotless and worthy of the fold on high, in the habitation 
of them that rejoice, in the splendor of the saints, so that in His temple 
everyone, both flock and shepherds together may say, Glory, in Christ 
Jesus our Lord, to Whom be all glory for ever and ever. Amen. 



443 



ORATION 3 

TO THOSE WHO HAD INVITED HIM, AND NOT COME TO 

RECEIVE HIM 



(About Easter A.D. 362.) 

I. How slow you are, my friends and brethren, to come to listen to my 
words, though you were so swift in tyrannizing over me, and tearing me 
from my Citadel Solitude, which I had embraced in preference to 
everything else, and as coadjutress and mother of the divine ascent, and as 
deifying man, I had especially admired, and had set before me as the guide 
of my whole life. How is it that, now you have got it, you thus despise 
what you so greatly desired to obtain, and seem to be better able to desire 
the absent than to enjoy the present; as though you preferred to possess 
my teaching rather than to profitby it? Yes, I may even say this to you: "I 
became a surfeit unto you before you tasted of me, or gave me a trial" — 
which is most strange. 

II. And neither did you entertain me as a guest, nor, if I may make a 
remark of a more compassionate kind, did you allow yourselves to be 
entertained by me, reverencing this command if nothing else; nor did you 
take me by the hand, as beginning a new task; nor encourage me in my 
timidity, nor console me for the violence I had suffered; but — I shrink 
from saying it, though say it I must — you made my festival no festival, 
and received me with no happy introduction; and you mingled the solemn 
festival with sorrow, because it lacked that which most of all would have 
contributed to its happiness, the presence of you my conquerors, for it 
would not be true to call you people who love me. So easily is anything 
despised which is easily conquered, and the proud receives attention, 
while he who is humble before God is slighted. 

III. What will ye? Shall I be judged by you, or shall I be your judge? Shall I 
pass a verdict, or receive one, for I hope to be acquitted if I be judged, and 



444 

if I give sentence, to give it against you justly? The charge against you is 
that you do not answer my love with equal measure, nor do you repay my 
obedience with honor, nor do you pledge the future to me by your present 
alacrity — though even if you had, I could hardly have believed it. But 
each of you has something which he prefers to both the old and the new 
Pastor, neither reverencing the gray hairs of the one, nor calling out the 
youthful spirit of the other. 

IV. There is a Banquet in the Gospels, and a hospitable Host and friends; 
and the Banquet is most pleasant, for it is the marriage of His Son. He 
calleth them, but they come not: He is angry, and — I pass over the 
interval for fear of bad omen — but, to speak gently, He filleth the 
Banquet with others. God forbid that this should be your case; but yet 
you have treated me (how shall I put it gently?) with as much haughtiness 
or boldness as they who after being called to a feast rise up against it, and 
insult their host; for you, though you are not of the number of those who 
are without, or are invited to the marriage, but are yourselves those who 
invited me, and bound me to the Holy Table, and shewed me the glory of 
the Bridal Chamber, then deserted me (this is the most splendid thing 
about you) — one to his field, another to his newly bought yoke of oxen, 
another to his just-married wife, another to some other trifling matter; you 
were all scattered and dispersed, caring little for the Bridechamber and the 
Bridegroom. 

V. On this account I was filled with despondency and perplexity — for I 
will not keep silence about what I have suffered — and I was very near 
withholding the discourse which I was minded to bestow as a 
Marriage-gift, the most beautiful and precious of all I had; and I very 
nearly let it loose upon you, whom, now that the violence had once been 
done to me, I greatly longed for: for I thought I could get from this a 
splendid theme, and because my love sharpened my tongue — love which 
is very hot and ready for accusation when it is stirred to jealousy by grief 
which it conceives from some unexpected neglect. If any of you has been 
pierced with love's sting, and has felt himself neglected, he knows the 
feeling, and will pardon one who so suffers, because he himself has been 
near the same frenzy. 



445 

VI. But it is not permitted to me at the present time to say to you 
anything upbraiding; and God forbid I ever should. And even now perhaps 
I have reproached you more than in due measure, the Sacred Flock, the 
praise-worthy nurslings of Christ, the Divine inheritance; by which, O 
God, Thou art rich, even wert Thou poor in all other respects. To Thee, I 
think, are fitting those words, "The lot is fallen unto Thee in a fair ground: 
yea Thou hast the goodliest heritage." Nor will I allow that the most 
populous cities or the broadest flocks have any advantage over us, the 
little ones of the smallest of all the tribes of Israel, of the least of the 
thousands of Judah, of the little Bethlehem among cities, where Christ was 
born and is from the beginning well-known and worshipped; amongst 
those whom the Father is exalted, and the Son is held to be equal to Him, 
and the Holy Ghost is glorified with Them: we who are of one soul, who 
mind the same thing, who in nothing injure the Trinity, neither by 
preferring One Person above another, nor by cutting off any: as those bad 
umpires and measurers of the Godhead do, who by magnifying One 
Person more than is fit, diminish and insult the whole. 

VII. But do ye also, if you bear me any good will — ye who are my 
husbandry, my vineyard, my own bowels, or rather His Who is our 
common Father, for in Christ he hath begotten you through the Gospels 
— shew to us also some respect. It is only fair, since we have honored 
you above all else: ye are my witnesses, ye, and they who have placed in 
our hands this — shall I say Authority, or Service! And if to him that 
loveth most is due, how shall I measure the love, for which I have made 
you my debtors by my own love? Rather, shew respect for yourselves, 
and the Image committed to your care, and Him Who committed it, and the 
Sufferings of Christ, and your hopes therefrom, holding fast the faith 
which ye have received, and in which ye were brought up, by which also 
ye are being saved, and trust to save others (for not many, be well assured, 
can boast of what you can), and reckoning piety to consist, not in often 
speaking about God, but in silence for the most part, for the tongue is a 
dangerous thing to men, if it be not governed by reason. Believe that 
listening is always less dangerous than talking, just as learning about God 
is more pleasant than teaching. Leave the more accurate search into these 
questions to those who are the Stewards of the Word; and for yourselves, 
worship a little in words, but more by your actions, and rather by keeping 



446 

the Law than by admiring the Lawgiver; shew your love for Him by fleeing 
from wickedness, pursuing after virtue, living in the Spirit, walking in the 
Spirit, drawing your knowledge from Him, building upon the foundation of 
the faith, not wood or hay or stubble, weak materials and easily spent 
when the fire shall try our works or destroy them; but gold, silver, 
precious stones, which remain and stand. 

VIII. So may ye act, and so may ye honor us, whether present or absent, 
whether taking your part in our sermons, or preferring to do something 
else: and may ye be the children of God, pure and unblamable, in the midst 
of a crooked and perverse generation: and may ye never be entangled in the 
snares of the wicked that go round about, or bound with the chain of your 
sins. May the Word in you never be smothered with cares of this life and 
so ye become unfruitful: but may ye walk in the King's Highway, turning 
aside neither to the right hand nor to the left, but led by the Spirit through 
the strait gate. Then all our affairs shall prosper, both now and at the 
inquest There, in Christ Jesus our Lord, to Whom be the glory for ever. 
Amen. 



447 



ORATION 7 

PANEGYRIC ON HIS BROTHER S. CAESARIUS 



The date of this Oration is probably the spring of A.D. 369. It is placed 
by S. Jerome first among S. Gregory's Orations. Caesarius, the Saint's 
younger brother, was born probably about A.D. 330. Educated in his early 
years at home, he studied later in the schools of Alexandria, where he 
attained great proficiency in mathematics, astronomy, and, especially, in 
medicine. On his return from Alexandria, he was offered by the Emperor 
Constantius, in response to a public petition, an honorable and lucrative 
post at Byzantium, but was prevailed upon by Gregory to return with 
him to Nazianzus. After a while he went hack to Byzantium, and, on the 
accession of Julian, was pressed to retain his appointment at court, and 
did so, in spite of Gregory's reproaches, until Julian, who had long been 
trying to win him from Christianity, at last invited him to a public 
discussion. Caesarius, in spite of the specious arguments of the Emperor, 
gained the day, but, having now distinctly declared himself a Christian, 
could no longer remain at court. On the death of Julian, he was esteemed 
and promoted by successive Emperors, until he received from Valens the 
office of treasurer of Bithynia. The exact character of this office and its 
rank are still undecided by historical writers, some of whom attribute to 
him other offices not mentioned by S. Gregory, which most probably were 
filled by a namesake. On the 1 1th of October A.D. 368 the city of Nicaea 
was almost entirely destroyed by an earthquake and Caesarius 
miraculously escaped with his life. Impressed by his escape, he received 
Holy Baptism, and formed plans for retiring from office and (as it seems) 
devoting himself to a life of ascetic discipline, which were dissipated by 
his early and sudden death. 

1 . It may be, my friends, my brethren, my fathers (ye who are dear to me 
in reality as well as in name) that you think that I, who am about to pay 
the sad tribute of lamentation to him who has departed, am eager to 
undertake the task, and shall, as most men delight to do, speak at great 



448 

length and in eloquent style. And so some of you, who have had like 
sorrows to bear, are prepared to join in my mourning and lamentation, in 
order to bewail your own griefs in mine, and learn to feel pain at the 
afflictions of a friend, while others are looking to feast their ears in the 
enjoyment of my words. For they suppose that I must needs make my 
misfortune an occasion for display — as was once my wont, when 
possessed of a superabundance of earthly things, and ambitious, above all, 
of oratorical renown — before I looked up to Him Who is the true and 
highest Word, and gave all up to God, from Whom all things come, and 
took God for all in all. Now pray do not think this of me, if you wish to 
think of me aright. For I am neither going to lament for him who is gone 
more than is good — as I should not approve of such conduct even in 
others — nor am I going to praise him beyond due measure. Albeit that 
language is a dear and especially proper tribute to one gifted with it, and 
eulogy to one who was exceedingly fond of my words — aye, not only a 
tribute, but a debt, the most just of all debts. But even in my tears and 
admiration I must respect the law which regards such matters: nor is this 
alien to our philosophy; for he says The memory of the just is 
accompanied with eulogies, and also, Let tears fall down over the dead, and 
begin to lament, as if thou hadst suffered great harm thyself: removing us 
equally from insensibility and immoderation. I shall proceed then, not only 
to exhibit the weakness of human nature, but also to put you in mind of 
the dignity of the soul, and, giving such consolation as is due to those who 
are in sorrow, transfer our grief, from that which concerns the flesh and 
temporal things, to those things which are spiritual and eternal. 

2. The parents of Caesarius, to take first the point which best becomes 
me, are known to you all. Their excellence you are eager to notice, and hear 
of with admiration, and share in the task of setting it forth to any, if there 
be such, who know it not: for no single man is able to do so entirely, and 
the task is one beyond the powers of a single tongue, however laborious, 
however zealous. Among the many and great points for which they are to 
be celebrated (I trust I may not seem extravagant in praising my own 
family) the greatest of all, which more than any other stamps their 
character, is piety. By their hoar hairs they lay claim to reverence, but 
they are no less venerable for their virtue than for their age; for while their 



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bodies are bent beneath the burden of their years, their souls renew their 
youth in God. 

3. His father was well grafted out of the wild olive tree into the good one, 
and so far partook of its fatness as to be entrusted with the engrafting of 
others, and charged with the culture of souls, presiding in a manner 
becoming his high office over this people, like a second Aaron or Moses, 
bidden himself to draw near to God, and to convey the Divine Voice to the 
others who stand afar off; gentle, meek, calm in mien, fervent in spirit, a 
fine man in external appearance, but richer still in that which is out of 
sight. But why should I describe him whom you know? For I could not 
even by speaking at great length say as much as he deserves, or as much as 
each of you knows and expects to be said of him. It is then better to leave 
your own fancy to picture him, than mutilate by my words the object of 
your admiration. 

4. His mother was consecrated to God by virtue of her descent from a 
saintly family, and was possessed of piety as a necessary inheritance, not 
only for herself, but also for her children — being indeed a holy lump from 
a holy firstfruits. And this she so far increased and amplified that 
some,(bold though the statement be, I will utter it,) have both believed and 
said that even her husband's perfection has been the work of none other 
than herself; and, oh how wonderful! she herself, as the reward of her 
piety, has received a greater and more perfect piety. Lovers of their 
children and of Christ as they both were, what is most extraordinary, they 
were far greater lovers of Christ than of their children: yea, even their one 
enjoyment of their children was that they should be acknowledged and 
named by Christ, and their one measure of their blessedness in their 
children was their virtue and close association with the Chief Good. 
Compassionate, sympathetic, snatching many a treasure from moths and 
robbers, and from the prince of this world, to transfer it from their sojourn 
here to the [true] habitation, laying up in store for their children the 
heavenly splendor as their greatest inheritance. Thus have they reached a 
fair old age, equally reverend both for virtue and for years, and full of 
days, alike of those which abide and those which pass away; each one 
failing to secure the first prize here below only so far as equaled by the 
other; yea, they have fulfilled the measure of every happiness with the 
exception of this last trial, or discipline, whichever anyone may think we 



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ought to call it; I mean their having to send before them the child who was, 
owing to his age, in greater danger of falling, and so to close their life in 
safety, and be translated with all their family to the realms above. 

5. 1 have entered into these details, not from a desire to eulogize them, for 
this, I know well, it would be difficult worthily to do, if I made their 
praise the subject of my whole oration, but to set forth the excellence 
inherited from his parents by Caesarius, and so prevent you from being 
surprised or incredulous, that one sprung from such progenitors, should 
have deserved such praises himself; nay, strange indeed would it have 
been, had he looked to others and disregarded the examples of his kinsfolk 
at home. His early life was such as becomes those really well born and 
destined for a good life. I say little of his qualities evident to all, his 
beauty, his stature, his manifold gracefulness, and harmonious disposition, 
as shown in the tones of his voice — for it is not my office to laud 
qualities of this kind, however important they may seem to others — and 
proceed with what I have to say of the points which, even if I wished, I 
could with difficulty pass by. 

6. Bred and reared under such influences, we were fully trained in the 
education afforded here, in which none could say how far he excelled most 
of us from the quickness and extent of his abilities — and how can I recall 
those days without my tears showing that, contrary to my promises, my 
feelings have overcome my philosophic restraint? The time came when it 
was decided that we should leave home, and then for the first time we 
were separated, for I studied rhetoric in the then flourishing schools of 
Palestine; he went to Alexandria, esteemed both then and now the home of 
every branch of learning. Which of his qualities shall I place first and 
foremost, or which can I omit with least injury to my description? Who 
was more faithful to his teacher than he? Who more kindly to his 
classmates? Who more carefully avoided the society and companionship 
of the depraved? Who attached himself more closely to that of the most 
excellent, and among others, of the most esteemed and illustrious of his 
countrymen? For he knew that we are strongly influenced to virtue or vice 
by our companions. And in consequence of all this, who was more 
honored by the authorities than he, and whom did the whole city (though 
all individuals are concealed in it, because of its size), esteem more highly 
for his discretion, or deem more illustrious for his intelligence? 



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7. What branch of learning did he not master, or rather, in what branch of 
study did he not surpass those who had made it their sole study? Whom 
did he allow even to approach him, not only of his own time and age, but 
even of his elders, who had devoted many more years to study? All 
subjects he studied as one, and each as thoroughly as if he knew no other. 
The brilliant in intellect, he surpassed in industry, the devoted students in 
quickness of perception; nay, rather he outstripped in rapidity those who 
were rapid, in application those who were laborious, and in both respects 
those who were distinguished in both. From geometry and astronomy, that 
science so dangerous to anyone else, he gathered all that was helpful (I 
mean that he was led by the harmony and order of the heavenly bodies to 
reverence their Maker), and avoided what is injurious; not attributing all 
things that are or happen to the influence of the stars, like those who raise 
their own fellow- servant, the creation, in rebellion against the Creator, but 
referring, as is reasonable, the motion of these bodies, and all other things 
besides, to God. In arithmetic and mathematics, and in the wonderful art of 
medicine, in so far as it treats of physiology and temperament, and the 
causes of disease, in order to remove the roots and so destroy their 
offspring with them, who is there so ignorant or contentious as to think 
him inferior to himself, and not to be glad to be reckoned next to him, and 
carry off the second prize? This indeed is no unsupported assertion, but 
East and West alike, and every place which he afterward visited, are as 
pillars inscribed with the record of his learning. 

8. But when, after gathering into his single soul every kind of excellence 
and knowledge, as a mighty merchantman gathers every sort of ware, he 
was voyaging to his own city, in order to communicate to others the fair 
cargo of his culture, there befell a wondrous thing, which I must, as its 
mention is most cheering to me and may delight you, briefly set forth. Our 
mother, in her motherly love for her children, had offered up a prayer that, 
as she had sent us forth together, she might see us together return home. 
For we seemed, to our mother at least, if not to others, to form a pair 
worthy of her prayers and glances, if seen together, though now, alas, our 
connection has been severed. And God, Who hears a righteous prayer, and 
honors the love of parents for well-disposed children, so ordered that, 
without any design or agreement on our part, the one from Alexandria, the 
other from Greece, the one by sea, the other by land, we arrived at the 



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same city at the same time. This city was Byzantium, which now presides 
over Europe, in which Caesarius, after the lapse of a short time, gained 
such a repute, that public honors, an alliance with an illustrious family, 
and a seat in the council of state were offered him; and a mission was 
despatched to the Emperor by public decision, to beg that the first of 
cities be adorned and honored by the first of scholars (if he cared at all for 
its being indeed the first, and worthy of its name); and that to all its other 
titles to distinction this further one be added, that it was embellished by 
having Caesarius as its physician and its inhabitant, although its brilliancy 
was already assured by its throngs of great men both in philosophy and 
other branches of learning. But enough of this. At this time there happened 
what seemed to others a chance without reason or cause, such as 
frequently occurs of its own accord in our day, but was more than 
sufficiently manifest to devout minds as the result of the prayers to 
God-fearing parents, which were answered by the united arrival of their 
sons by land and sea. 

9. Well, among the noble traits of Caesarius' character, we must not fail to 
note one, which perhaps is in others' eyes slight and unworthy of 
mention, but seemed to me, both at the time and since, of the highest 
import, if indeed brotherly love be a praiseworthy quality; nor shall I ever 
cease to place it in the first rank, in relating the story of his life. Although 
the metropolis strove to retain him by the honors I have mentioned, and 
declared that it would under no circumstances let him go, my influence, 
which he valued most highly on all occasions, prevailed upon him to listen 
to the prayer of his parents, to supply his country's need, and to grant me 
my own desire. And when he thus returned home in my company, he 
preferred me not only to cities and peoples, not only to honors and 
revenues, which had in part already flowed to him in abundance from 
many sources and in part were within his reach, but even to the Emperor 
himself and his imperial commands. From this time, then, having shaken 
off all ambition, as a hard master and a painful disorder, I resolved to 
practice philosophy and adapt myself to the higher life: or rather the 
desire was earlier born, the life came later. But my brother, who had 
dedicated to his country the firstfruits of his learning, and gained an 
admiration worthy of his efforts, was afterwards led by the desire of fame, 
and, as he persuaded me, of being the guardian of the city, to betake 



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himself to court, not indeed according to my own wishes or judgment; for I 
will confess to you that I think it a better and grander thing to be in the 
lowest rank with God than to win the first place with an earthly king. 
Nevertheless I cannot blame him, for inasmuch as philosophy is the 
greatest, so is it the most difficult, of professions, which can be taken in 
hand by but few, and only by those who have been called forth by the 
Divine magnanimity, which gives its hand to those who are honored by its 
preference. Yet it is no small thing if one, who has chosen the lower form 
of life, follows after goodness, and sets greater store on God and his own 
salvation than on earthly luster; using it as a stage, or a manifold ephemeral 
mask while playing in the drama of this world, but himself living unto God 
with that image which he knows that he has received from Him, and must 
render to Him Who gave it. That this was certainly the purpose of 
Caesarius, we know full well. 

10. Among physicians he gained the foremost place with no great trouble, 
by merely exhibiting his capacity, or rather some slight specimen of his 
capacity, and was forthwith numbered among the friends of the Emperor, 
and enjoyed the highest honors. But he placed the humane functions of his 
art at the disposal of the authorities free of cost, knowing that nothing 
leads to further advancement than virtue and renown for honorable deeds; 
so that he far surpassed in fame those to whom he was inferior in rank. By 
his modesty he so won the love of all that they entrusted their precious 
charges to his care, without requiring him to be sworn by Hippocrates, 
since the simplicity of Crates was nothing to his own: winning in general a 
respect beyond his rank; for besides the present repute he was ever 
thought to have justly won, a still greater one was anticipated for him, 
both by the Emperors themselves and by all who occupied the nearest 
positions to them. But, most important, neither by his fame, nor by the 
luxury which surrounded him, was his nobility of soul corrupted; for 
amidst his many claims to honor, he himself cared most for being, and 
being known to be, a Christian, and, compared with this, all other things 
were to him but trifling toys. For they belong to the part we play before 
others on a stage which is very quickly set up and taken down again — 
perhaps indeed more quickly destroyed than put together, as we may see 
from the manifold changes of life, and fluctuations of prosperity; while the 
only real and securely abiding good thing is godliness. 



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11. Such was the philosophy of Caesarius, even at court: these were the 
ideas amidst which he lived and died, discovering and presenting to God, in 
the hidden man, a still deeper godliness than was publicly visible. And if I 
must pass by all else, his protection of his kinsmen in distress, his 
contempt for arrogance, his freedom from assumption towards friends, his 
boldness towards men in power, the numerous contests and arguments in 
which he engaged with many on behalf of the truth, not merely for the 
sake of argument, but with deep piety and fervor, I must speak of one 
point at least as especially worthy of note. The Emperor of unhappy 
memory was raging against us, whose madness in rejecting Christ, after 
making himself its first victim, had now rendered him intolerable to others; 
though he did not, like other fighters against Christ, grandly enlist himself 
on the side of impiety, but veiled his persecution under the form of equity; 
and, ruled by the crooked serpent which possessed his soul, dragged down 
into his own pit his wretched victims by manifold devices. His first 
artifice and contrivance was, to deprive us of the honor of our conflicts 
(for, noble man as he was, he grudged this to Christians), by causing us, 
who suffered for being Christians, to be punished as evil doers: the second 
was, to call this process persuasion, and not tyranny, so that the disgrace 
of those who chose to side with impiety might be greater than their danger. 
Some he won over by money, some by dignities, some by promises, some 
by various honors, which he bestowed, not royally but in right servile 
style, in the sight of all, while everyone was influenced by the witchery of 
his words, and his own example. At last he assailed Caesarius. How utter 
was the derangement and folly which could hope to take for his prey a 
man like Caesarius, my brother, the son of parents like ours! 

12. However, that I may dwell awhile upon this point, and luxuriate in my 
story as men do who are eyewitnesses in some marvelous event, that 
noble man, fortified with the sign of Christ, and defending himself with 
His Mighty Word, entered the lists against an adversary experienced in 
arms and strong in his skill in argument. In no wise abashed at the sight, 
nor shrinking at all from his high purpose through flattery, he was an 
athlete ready, both in word and deed, to meet a rival of equal power. Such 
then was the arena, and so equipped the champion of godliness. The judge 
on one side was Christ, arming the athlete with His own sufferings: and on 
the other a dreadful tyrant, persuasive by his skill in argument, and 



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overawing him by the weight of his authority; and as spectators, on either 
hand, both those who were still left on the side of godliness and those who 
had been snatched away by him, watching whether victory inclined to 
their own side or to the other, and more anxious as to which would gain 
the day than the combatants themselves. 

13. Didst thou not fear for Caesarius, lest aught unworthy of his zeal 
should befall him? Nay, be ye of good courage. For the victory is with 
Christ, Who overcame the world. Now for my part, be well assured, I 
should be highly interested in setting forth the details of the arguments and 
allegations used on that occasion, for indeed the discussion contains certain 
feats and elegances, which I dwell on with no slight pleasure; but this 
would be quite foreign to an occasion and discourse like the present. And 
when, after having torn to shreds all his opponent's sophistries, and thrust 
aside as mere child's play every assault, veiled or open, Caesarius in a loud 
clear voice declared that he was and remained a Christian — not even thus 
was he finally dismissed. For indeed, the Emperor was possessed by an 
eager desire to enjoy and be distinguished by his culture, and then uttered 
in the hearing of all his famous saying — O happy father, O unhappy 
sons! thus deigning to honor me, whose culture and godliness he had 
known at Athens, with a share in the dishonor of Caesarius, who was 
remanded for a further trial, (since Justice was fitly arming the Emperor 
against the Persians), and welcomed by us after his happy escape and 
bloodless victory, as more illustrious for his dishonor than for his 
celebrity. 

14. This victory I esteem far more sublime and honorable than the 
Emperor's mighty power and splendid purple and costly diadem. I am 
more elated in describing it than if he had won from him the half of his 
Empire. During the evil days he lived in retirement, obedient herein to our 
Christian law, which bids us, when occasion offers, to make ventures on 
behalf of the truth, and not be traitors to our religion from cowardice; yet 
refrain, as long as may be, from rushing into danger, either in fear for our 
own souls, or to spare those who bring the danger upon us. But when the 
gloom had been dispersed, and the righteous sentence had been 
pronounced in a foreign land, and the glittering sword had struck down the 
ungodly, and power had returned to the hands of Christians, what boots it 
to say with what glory and honor, with how many and great testimonies, 



456 

as if bestowing rather than receiving a favor, he was welcomed again at the 
Court; his new honor succeeding to that of former days; while tithe 
changed its Emperors, the repute and commanding influence of Caesarius 
with them was undisturbed, nay, they vied with each other in striving to 
attach him most closely to themselves, and be known as his special friends 
and acquaintances. Such was the godliness of Caesarius, such its results. 
Let all men, young and old, give ear, and press on through the same virtue 
to the same distinction, for glorious is the fruit of good labors, if they 
suppose this to be worth striving after, and a part of true happiness. 

15. Again another wonder concerning him is a strong argument for his 
parents' piety and his own. He was living in Bithynia, holding an office of 
no small importance from the Emperor, viz., the stewardship of his 
revenue, and care of the exchequer: for this had been assigned to him by 
the Emperor as a prelude to the highest offices. And when, a short time 
ago, the earthquake in Nicaea occurred, which is said to have been the most 
serious within the memory of man, overwhelming in a common destruction 
almost all the inhabitants and the beauty of the city, he alone, or with very 
few of the men of rank, survived the danger, being shielded by the very 
falling ruins in h