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2 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
without necessary reference to the systems in which
they occur.1 This will eliminate useless and endless
repetition, and obviate propinquities of print that
might of ten suggest personal criticism. An individual
system is usually an arbitrary and adventitious thing :
it is commonly a collection of exercises and resources
whose assemblage is due to the chance associations of
the person plying it; or it is a collection of exercises
and expedients designed to remedy conditions that
the person regards as the cause of the evil he is en-
deavoring to combat. But in either case the coales-
cence of different measures in a system is usually with-
out great significance.
In presenting theories and opinions and describing
various "remedial" measures, the,writer will where
feasible quote from works on stammering in order to
avoid any possible suggestion of misinterpretation.
Owing to the nature of the commentary, the source
of the passages will in many cases not be given. All
works, however, from which passages are excerpted are
to be found in the Bibliography.2 The writers quoted
will not always be contemporaneous, but the passages
cited will have reference to theories and expedients at
present accredited or countenanced in the therapy of
1 For illustration, a number of complete systems are given in the
latter part of the book.
2 Appended to Vol. II.