2 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING without necessary reference to the systems in which they occur.1 This will eliminate useless and endless repetition, and obviate propinquities of print that might of ten suggest personal criticism. An individual system is usually an arbitrary and adventitious thing : it is commonly a collection of exercises and resources whose assemblage is due to the chance associations of the person plying it; or it is a collection of exercises and expedients designed to remedy conditions that the person regards as the cause of the evil he is en- deavoring to combat. But in either case the coales- cence of different measures in a system is usually with- out great significance. In presenting theories and opinions and describing various "remedial" measures, the,writer will where feasible quote from works on stammering in order to avoid any possible suggestion of misinterpretation. Owing to the nature of the commentary, the source of the passages will in many cases not be given. All works, however, from which passages are excerpted are to be found in the Bibliography.2 The writers quoted will not always be contemporaneous, but the passages cited will have reference to theories and expedients at present accredited or countenanced in the therapy of stammering. 1 For illustration, a number of complete systems are given in the latter part of the book. 2 Appended to Vol. II.