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NUMEROUS persons engaged In treating speech-
defects hold the view that the primary cause of stam-
mering is faulty respiration:
"Respiratory disturbances are found in all stammerers."1
"There is scarcely a stammerer who knows how to breathe
"This difficulty is always accompanied by a disturbance or
vicious application of the rhythm of respiration during speech."3
"The muscles of respiration are almost as much at fault in
stammering as the organs of sound and articulation." 4
The respiratory disturbances are often attributed to
weak nerves or muscular spasms; and the disturb-
ances in breathing are frequently regarded as the
direct cause of the "failure of the voice ":
"But the immediate cause, and the nature of the defect itself,
is a spasm in the organs of speech.
1 Gutzmann, "Sprachheilkunde/* 2d ed., p. 407.
2 Prospectus of a professional elocutionist.
8 Chervin, "Du be"gaiement et de son traitement," p. 4.
4Findley, "Stammering," The Voice, Vol, VII, p. 54.