RESPIRATION 5 "It is a muscular spasm, originating in a nervous weakness. The muscular spasm affects the breathing, the breathing affects the speech, for without breath there is no speech." x "Voice is breath converted into tone by the vibrations of the vocal ligaments or cords in the larynx; and it is in the incoordination of the breathing muscles with those of the vibrating element, delaying the production of tone, that the primary cause of stammering lies. . . . "Faults of breathing are the primary cause of stammering; the laryngeal faults being secondary." 2 "If the antagonistic action of both these groups of muscles is in equilibrium, a cessation of expiration takes place. This is the case with the stutterer where the diaphragm sometimes falls into a state of spasmodic contraction which cannot be over- come by the abdominal muscles." 3 "If the bellows of an organ can, for instance, by blowing too weak a stream of air, be the cause of the instrument not pro- ducing sound, in no less degree can the lungs be the cause of the speech-apparatus remaining toneless. They likewise can blow so weakly that the vocal cords wiH not vibrate, conse- quently will not make voice." 4 "The stammerer constricts the throat because the vocal organs, situated at the top of the windpipe, do not receive a strong enough current of breath from below — from the lungs; 1 Shuldham, "Stammering and its Rational Treatment," p. 31. 2Behnke, "On Stammering, Cleft-Palate Speech, Lisping," pp. 38,41- 8 Guttmann, "Gymnastics of the Voice for Song and Speech; also a Method for the .Cure of Stuttering and Stammering," p. 159. 4 "Kreutzer's Method," The Voice, Vol. Ill, p. 175.