6 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING and this upward current is wanting simply because the lungs are not sufficiently compressed or squeezed." l "Now, what are the causes? They are, first, defective, partial, irregular breathing; second,weak nerves, which produce the abnormal respiration. As soon as these causes are re- moved, their effect, which is stuttering, must disappear."8 Persons engaged in treating stammering usually endeavor to combat respiratory disturbances with breathing-exercises, which have for their object the strengthening of the respiratory muscles and the establishment of conscious control of the expiratory stream. Coen says of his system of treatment:8 "Inmy method for the cure of stuttering I remove the partial defective and irregular breathing by respiratory gymnastics. I then proceed with vocal reading and talking exercises. The respiratory gymnastics are as follows: I have the stutterer, with bare chest, assume a position against the wall, as has already been described, and while in this position breathe slowly and deeply. Before taking these breathing exercises, the organs of speech should assume the position of producing "ch" (as in the German icti). This is accomplished by bring- ing the back of the tongue up to the soft palate, leaving only a small passageway for the air. After the stutterer has been sufficiently exercised and can readily pronounce this exposition, he draws the air in slowly and deeply, until the lungs are fully 1 John Howard, "The Cure of Stammering," The Voice, VoL I, p. 114. 2 Coen, "Stuttering," The Voice, VoL VI, p. 204. 8 "Stuttering," The Voice, Vol. VII, pp. 8 f.