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Full text of "Stamering And Cognate Defects Of Speech Vol - Ii"

RESPIRATION                          ti

It is evident that countless combinations similar to
the above can be devised. In many schools these
exercises are taught from charts in which the direc-
tions are conveyed by symbols. Inspiration and
expiration are represented by vertical and horizontal
lines, or by dots and dashes, squares and circles, etc.
Periods during which the breath is held are usually
indicated by parentheses, figures in the parentheses
indicating the length of the pauses.

In the following charts (pp. 12 and 13), which are
quite typical, inspiration and expiration are indicated
by arrows pointing in the direction in which the breath
moves in the trachea. The downward-pointing arrow
thus indicates inspiration, and the upward-pointing
arrow expiration. The figures above or below the
arrows indicate the number of seconds through which
inspiration or expiration occurs. The figures in paren-
theses between the arrows indicate the number of
seconds for which the breath is held. When no fig-
ure occurs between two arrows pointing in the same
direction, the pause between the two inhalations or
exhalations is considered to be momentary.

Manifestly the directions can be conveyed much
more effectively through these charts than through
oral or written instructions. In many schools charts
are used exclusively, and are employed literally in
hundreds.

When pupils are instructed in classes, the time is