i8 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING and I think you will find, though it will not cure you, yet it will relieve and literally comfort your breathing enough to give you confidence in my hints." The directions given by Kingsley are virtually a description of a popular exercise practised daily in a number of American institutions. Another respiratory exercise that one finds in many English, French, and German stammering-schools is reading in a whisper. As a simple breathing-exercise it is recommended by Bell in his " Principles of Speech ":l "A very useful exercise for strengthening the respiration consists in reading in a strong, loud WHISPER. This will be found laborious at first, but practice will make it more easy. It should not, however, be long continued, on account of the giddiness which it is apt to produce." Bell also recommends the following mode of practice :2 "A useful exercise for the regulation of the breath may be obtained in counting. Thus, to acquire facility of silent res- piration, count slowly and distinctly, with a free inhalation by mouth and nostrils before each number; carefully sub- duing the least tendency to audibility or suction in the act of inspiration, and heaving the chest naturally, without any up- ward action of the shoulders, or other bodily movement. "To gain power in retaining the breath and prolonging the expiration, count five, six, ten, twenty, fifty, or any greater practicable series of numbers, 'with each breath; and continue the exercise for several minutes, without allowing the chest to fall, or pausing longer than is necessary to inhale before each group of numbers." 1 "Principles of Speech," $th ed,, p. 9. z Loci cit., p. 241.