32 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING and "indirect, attack" of the voice (glide of the glottis, etc.). Guttmann describes these two methods of vocalization in the following words:1 "In the 'direct attack' the vocal cords come into contact throughout their entire length, from the front backward, so that the lower part of the larynx is completely separated from the upper, and the approach of the vocal cords is rapid and decided; at the same time the vocal cords become shortened, and must, therefore, with the immediately following into- nation, alter their degree of tension, their shape, length, and thickness, according to the sound which is to be produced, and must separate somewhat. A tone thus produced will be marked and separated from other tones. "In the 'indirect attack/ on the contrary, the glottis is not completely closed by the approach of the vocal cords. Here their length, tension, shape, etc., are at once such as are re- quired for the production of the desired tone, and, consequently, the vibrations begin immediately after the approach of the vocal cords without any change in their length or tension, as is necessary in the 'direct attack.'" The practice of the glottis-stroke is described by another writer as follows:2 "Assume standing position with active chest; take full breath, and whisper forcibly the word 'who' three times. Re- peat the same. Now whisper 'who' twice, and speak it aloud the third time; then whisper 'who' once, and speak it aloud the second and third time; then speak 'who' aloud three times. Now speak 'who' twice, and the third time say eoo' 1 "Gymnastics of the Voice," 3d ed, pp. 60 f. 2 Fobes, "Handbook of Elocution Simplified," ppt 24 f.