44 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
stress," of "tremor," "swell and stop," and of such
practices as " swelling " and " dilating " sound, etc.
Vocal exercises are often taught from charts. They
may then become exceedingly complex. We repro-
duce below, for illustration, four charts taken from
four different sources, with the symbols in each
case transformed to those of a common system.
The inspiration sign is that already employed (V).
A dotted line indicates whispered utterance, a solid
line continuous voice. Pauses are momentary unless
the length of the pause is indicated in seconds by
figures in parentheses.
1 Vowels are frequently placed at the extreme left of a line to
show that vocalization begins immediately upon exhalation. The
refinement is here disregarded.