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50 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
the kinaesthetic and auditory imagery in some de-
gree.—-The practice of shouting or declaiming in a
loud voice would be quite likely to influence the
acoustic images.—Most of the general vocal exercises
probably have little virtue other than their ability
to intensify the auditory imagery for a period, and
to exert a temporary "moral" influence. The whis-
pered exercises may be dismissed as "fillers" — like-
wise the dumb-bell exercises, marching exercises, etc.
The various highly elaborated exercises are merely
So much for the exercises intended to cure stam-
mering by rendering the vocal organs pliable and
subordinate to the will.
We shall consider now the various related measures
that are supposed to obviate stammering when applied
during actual speech.
'An expedient that has been popular for more than
half a century is that of talking in a low-pitched voice.
This expedient is quite prevalent in Europe, but is
encountered only occasionally in America. The
argument usually advanced in support of the meas-
ure is that a low-pitched voice requires relaxation
and separation of the vocal cords, and that while
the vocal cords are relaxed and separated, "throat-
constriction" and "spasms" are less likely to super-
vene. The additional plea is sometimes adduced