52 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING speak those sentences in a whisper in which difficult words occur, and so on. The theory is that, since the vocal cords are not closely approximated during whispered utterance, there must be less danger of the glottis undergoing spastic closure. The argu- ment, of course, is just as sound as the premises. It is true that stammering is often temporarily alleviated by recourse to whispering, just as it may be temporarily alleviated by any other unnatural measure that inspires confidence. The expedient operates by inhibiting secondary causes. But whis- pering is not usually efficacious, and it is seldom effi- cacious for any considerable period; hence, even if the measure were practicable, it would have to be condemned on purely empirical grounds. Another specific for stammering is speaking in a monotone. One argument in support of the procedure is that by avoiding rising inflection the stammerer avoids a close approximation of the vocal cords, and thus reduces the risk of sudden closure of the glottis. Another argument is that inflection itself is difficult for the stammerer owing to his "deficient control" of the vocal cords.1 In many institutions the pupils are required to drawl their words monotonously for xOne authority on elocution says: "These inflections are ex- tremely difficult to many. In the case of stammerers, they are sometimes the only stumbling-blocks in their way, as is proved by the absence of stammering in singing."