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Full text of "Stamering And Cognate Defects Of Speech Vol - Ii"

58        SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING

(rarely) at the larynx, when the glottis being affected, phona-
tion itself becomes impeded.

"By the continuance of any of these forms of spasm, a spas-
modic habit is acquired, which becoming more or less auto-
matic in course of time, passes more and more from under the
control of the will, and eventually produces confirmed dysialia;
perhaps by the vicious automatism of some nerve-centre not
yet located, which may preside over the coordination of the
movements of speech alone." x

"The most frequent cause of stammering is the imperfect
education or training of the organs of articulation, and a
deficiency in that sympathetic association which ought to sub-
sist between the articulating and vocal organs."2

'Tar more serious than any of the elementary defects hitherto
noticed are those affections of speech which create an impedi-
ment to utterance. These are known by the names of stutter-
ing, stammering, spasmodic hesitation, etc. Their common
characteristic is involuntary action of the organs, which are
not obedient to the will. In stuttering, the articulating organs
 the lips and tongue  rebound again and again before the
equent vowel can find egress." 3

"If the contraction stops at the glottis, only the vowels
d,re hindered; but if it extends, as it usually does, to the lips
and the tongue, the consonants also are affected." 4

"The seat of the former affection, stammering, is chiefly
at the larynx, or the back part of the mouth; the latter, stutter-

1 Potter, "Speech and its Defects," pp. 76-77.

2 Bishop, " On Articulate Sounds; and on the Causes and Cure of
Impediments of Speech," p. 67.

8 Alexander Melville Bell, "The Faults of Speech," 5th ed., p. 9-
4 Thorpe, "Speech-Hesitation," p. 30.