66 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
teeth and upper lip; into the vestibule between the lower teeth
and lower lip. Alternate these movements.
Groove the tongue by raising the lateral edges. Flatten the
tongue; groove it; flatten it; and so on.
Groove the tongue. While the tongue is in this position,
raise the point so that it forms a wall continuous with sides of
the tongue; lower the point of the tongue to its former posi-
tion ; raise it; lower it; and so on.
Protrude the tongue; compress it laterally; flatten it;
compress it; etc.
Depress the back of the tongue as far as possible; raise the
back of the tongue till it is in contact with the posterior part
of the hard palate; depress it; raise it; etc.
Groove the tongue; twist the whole tongue to the right, so
that the groove is lateral; twist to the left; etc.
Repeat la-la-la-la; na-na-na-na; etc.
Trill the lingual r.
Many of these tongue-exercises are quite difficult;
consequently the pupil is sometimes advised to assist
himself at first, where practicable, with a spatula.
He is often recommended to practise the exercises
for a time before a mirror.
Exercises for the velum, or soft palate, are now
and then encountered. The following exercises, from
three different sources, are typical:
Prefix a continuous m to words beginning with the con-
sonant b; e.g. m-Bristol, m-Boston. Note the sudden rise of
the velum with the change from m to b. Practise the m-b
combination on such words as timber, amber, ember, etc.
Prefix n to words beginning with d\ e.g. n-Dover, n-Derby.