66 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING teeth and upper lip; into the vestibule between the lower teeth and lower lip. Alternate these movements. Groove the tongue by raising the lateral edges. Flatten the tongue; groove it; flatten it; and so on. Groove the tongue. While the tongue is in this position, raise the point so that it forms a wall continuous with sides of the tongue; lower the point of the tongue to its former posi- tion ; raise it; lower it; and so on. Protrude the tongue; compress it laterally; flatten it; compress it; etc. Depress the back of the tongue as far as possible; raise the back of the tongue till it is in contact with the posterior part of the hard palate; depress it; raise it; etc. Groove the tongue; twist the whole tongue to the right, so that the groove is lateral; twist to the left; etc. Repeat la-la-la-la; na-na-na-na; etc. Trill the lingual r. Many of these tongue-exercises are quite difficult; consequently the pupil is sometimes advised to assist himself at first, where practicable, with a spatula. He is often recommended to practise the exercises for a time before a mirror. Exercises for the velum, or soft palate, are now and then encountered. The following exercises, from three different sources, are typical: Prefix a continuous m to words beginning with the con- sonant b; e.g. m-Bristol, m-Boston. Note the sudden rise of the velum with the change from m to b. Practise the m-b combination on such words as timber, amber, ember, etc. Prefix n to words beginning with d\ e.g. n-Dover, n-Derby.