68 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING the kinaesthetic images of labial movements, and thus lead indirectly to greater dejoniteness of the motor images of the lip-movements associated with the pro- duction of vowels. If this should occur, the exercises might prove beneficial if employed purposefully and with discretion. The practice of reading with closed jaws would be likely to inculcate a pernicious habit; hence, should certainly be tabooed. — The tongue-exercises might prove valuable in improving one's consciousness of lingual movements and in inten- sifying the kinaesthetic imagery. They should prove valuable to the stammerer that is endeavoring to supplement his auditory images of vowels by kinaes- thetic images of the movements by which the vowels are produced. As the lingual exercises are employed at present — to facilitate the production of "refractory consonants" — they are certainly useless. We come now to the various exercises in articula- tion— represented occasionally as furnishing drill for the articulative organs, but usually as affording "practice" in the formation of consonants. We give below, a number of articulatory exercises, all of which are in use in different stammering-schools: Prefix each of the consonants of the alphabet (excepting c and x) to each of the vowels, a, e} i, o, u.1 Thus: 1 For other vowel-series employed, see footnote on p. 42.