8o SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING One French institution alone boasts more than three hundred of these articulatory and vocal drills. The examples given will suffice, however, to illustrate the general nature of the articula- tion-practice usually prescribed. There are, of course, such inventions as articulatory exercises combined with dumb-bell drill and marching; but any further exercises that might be described would, on the whole, be little more than variants of those already given. And what is it all good for ? More than half a century ago Klencke expressed himself on the matter as follows:l "Inasmuch as nearly every stutterer has certain consonants which give him more trouble than others — for example, d, t, n} &, p, m, —I, in the beginning of my practice, prepared special exercises of the difficult consonantal combinations, such as dat de, di, do, du, etc.; taught him how to use tongue and lips, and kept him at this drill until he was able not only to form the consonants physically correct, but also in their proper relation and in the most varied combinations. Such a course I deemed indispensable, because I saw how many a stutterer did not fulfil the conditions necessary to the production of a consonant in connection with a vowel. He would, for example, run out the tongue when attempting to articulate d or n, or squeeze the lips tightly together in p or I. However, I have dispensed with this practice (which is given in detail in my lUHeilung des Stotterns." Translation taken from The Voice, Vol. I, p. 121.