I 90 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING | . j, in accord with the theories of a number of able phone- !| ticians, are open to all kinds of criticism. The surd I thy for instance, is sometimes formed with the tip of i! the tongue not in contact with ineisor teeth, and the jj breath then passes over the tip of the tongue as well | as over the anterior lateral edges. The aspirate S[ sound of h} when this consonant is followed by long | e or u (as in heat and huge), is usually formed in the i forward part of the mouth as well as in the glottis. I G when followed by I (as in glass) is sometimes formed f with the lateral edges of the tongue. T when fol- I lowed by I (as in little) is always formed with the !; lateral edges of the tongue. T when followed by n | (in such words as mutton) is formed with the soft | palate; etc., etc. But even if the analysis of the | consonants were correct, a knowledge of the forma- [I tive processes would be useless, for the stammerer's I difficulty lies with the vowels. I A knowledge of the minor anatomy of the speech- \\ organs is likewise valueless. It is not an asset for \ the stammerer to know that the levator labii superioris altzqm nasi assists in raising the upper lip. A general knowledge of the physiology of speech may deter the stammerer from endeavoring to speak with occluded glottis and deflated lungs; but a detailed knowledge is likely to divert his attention from his verbal imagery to the organs on which this imagery should act.