94 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
The instruction is sometimes of such a nature
as to be practically worthless regardless of the
manner. There is, for example, a stammering-
school that uses Helmore's analysis of the vowels,
in which the shape of the labial orifice alone is
considered.1 Instruction of such a nature is virtu-
Then with regard to the manner: It is certain that
the most accurate instruction is worthless when it
results merely in the student's acquiring so much
abstract information. It does not benefit the stam-
merer to know that e is formed with the fore part of <
the tongue high in the mouth, if he is not able to
visualize or mentally feel the appropriate position or
action in his verbal imagery. The abstract knowl-
edge may be interesting, but it does not counter-
balance the amnesia.
In a few institutions the pupils are required to
practise the different consonants and vowels before
a mirror. This procedure is usually recommended j
for giving the pupil a better "knowledge" of the !
action of the speech-organs. Actual visualizing of '
the movements is rarely recommended to stammerers
even by teachers of the deaf and dumb. We be-
lieve, however, that if the stammerer could accu-
rately visualize the movements necessary to produce
1 See Helmore, "Speakers, Singers, and Stammerers."