94 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING The instruction is sometimes of such a nature as to be practically worthless regardless of the manner. There is, for example, a stammering- school that uses Helmore's analysis of the vowels, in which the shape of the labial orifice alone is considered.1 Instruction of such a nature is virtu- ally wasted. Then with regard to the manner: It is certain that the most accurate instruction is worthless when it results merely in the student's acquiring so much abstract information. It does not benefit the stam- merer to know that e is formed with the fore part of < the tongue high in the mouth, if he is not able to visualize or mentally feel the appropriate position or action in his verbal imagery. The abstract knowl- edge may be interesting, but it does not counter- balance the amnesia. In a few institutions the pupils are required to practise the different consonants and vowels before a mirror. This procedure is usually recommended j for giving the pupil a better "knowledge" of the ! action of the speech-organs. Actual visualizing of ' the movements is rarely recommended to stammerers even by teachers of the deaf and dumb. We be- lieve, however, that if the stammerer could accu- rately visualize the movements necessary to produce 1 See Helmore, "Speakers, Singers, and Stammerers."