98 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING consisting of exercises from a large number of stam- mering-schools. WORD-EXERCISES One of the simplest word-exercises consists in "physiological spelling" or "word synthesis." This exercise is sometimes cautiously employed in making the transition from articulatory exercises to mono- syllabic reading. The exercise consists in dismember- ing words — usually monosyllables — into their com- ponent physiological consonants and vowels, and pronouncing these elements with a distinct pause between them. The pauses are gradually lessened, and finally omitted — when the word of course stands complete. The exercises may be diagrammed as on the preceding page.1 The next exercise to be considered is one that affords practice on simple words introducing dif- ferent combinations of consonants and vowels. The exercise is prescribed for various purposes — for affording practice on difficult consonants, prac- tice in maintaining continuity of voice, practice in respiration, or just practice. The following charts will illustrate the procedure:2 1 Symbols as in the vocal and articulatory exercises. Dotted lines appear beneath'surd consonants, since these cannot be vocalized. The length of the pauses between the speech-elements is proportional to the spaces between the lines. 2 Symbols as formerly employed.