112 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING succeeding vowel. He therefore suggested that the stammerer omit the initial consonant in difficult words and come to the vowel immediately. The word London would thus be 'Ondon, and Birmingham, Birmingham. Darwin further recommended that the stammerer practise difficult words in this manner^ and finally intercalate the consonants, giving them the lightest possible articulation.1 This principle of Darwin's has been incorporated in nearly every system for treating stammering that has been introduced in the last hundred years. (In many cases the system has been incorporated in the principle.) In most modern stammering-schools the pupils practise light articulation in formal exercises. The nature of the exercises employed is obvious enough. We give below, a few typical charts, which are self-explanatory: V 'ay CHART 'ay 1 >ay 'ay V aay day day day V day day day day 1 Darwin also recommended preceding the word by an aspirate; thus he probably introduced the indirect attack into the therapy of stammering.