122 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING A modern tendency in German stammering-schools is to require advanced pupils to prolong only the initial vowel of a sentence. The succeeding vowels are sometimes slightly lengthened, but they are not drawled and wailed to such an extent as formerly. The following in reference to the expedient : "The stammerer has his greatest difficulty in speech when he begins: the trouble occurs at the beginning of sentences. It is at this point that his fear and his dread of stammering rob Him, of his confidence; he stammers far less in finishing the sentence. It is therefore necessary to furnish the stammerer with some expedient that will tide him over his supposed diffi- culties at this particular point. The expedient is this: he must accustom himself to lengthening the initial vowel as much as possible. He must no longer say 'Right is always right/ but *Ri—ght is always right/ This method is thoroughly reliable, and the hearer will not find it in any way conspicuous or displeasing." Exercises practically identical with the following are employed in three of the leading German stam- mering-schools : habitually speak with painful rapidity, and at times almost breathless haste, until they are suddenly stopped in mid career of their impetuous speech by the impediment suddenly coming on. By a spasmodic effort, eventually they recover their power of articulation, and rattle on with their hurried words until they are once more arrested in the same way, in the very midst of a word, perhaps; and so they go on to the pain and distress of themselves and those whom they are address- ing." In an English stammering-school slow speaking is carried to the point where the pupils utter only one word on^ a breath at the begin- ning of treatment.