132 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING "The stammerer speaks without voice. Voice or sound is the first requisite for speech. The stammerer — who fears and stumbles over consonants — must always be accustomed to formmg the vowels in a strong, resonant voice. He must perform vocal exercises, but never exercises on consonants." Our author's discoveries are, then, that stammering is due t6 a failure of the voice; and that the voice goes out because the stammerer neglects to think about it. The remedies that he invents are — thinking about the voice and vocalizing strongly. (He also invents continuity of sound, and saying £ or m at the beginning of sentences.) These same vocal secrets may be purchased in a hundred other markets. We quote this particular "dull catalogue of common things" since it is rather typical of these modern books of revelations. The next measure that we have to consider is force- ful articulation,—recommended usually as a cure for stuttering (repetitive stammering), but occasionally as a remedy for stammering in any of its phases. One writer advises the stammerer to — "Adopt a strong, energetic manner of reading, and not go along lazily and listlessly, as is too often the case." Another writer avers that — "A case of simple Stuttering would need little more for its removal than the cultivation of a firm articulation and clearly sonorous voice,"