158 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING A German teacher of stammerers has devised prac- tice-charts for syllabic reading, in which symbols for respiration, vocalization, etc., are employed. He at- taches considerable importance to the symbols: "These signs, though far from having or pretending to have the significance of notes, are, nevertheless, of the utmost im- portance to the student, for they show Mm the exact place where he must produce the voice, the sounding-consonant, the voiceless consonant (which is capable of prolongation), the explosive consonant; and, to a certain extent, they even show Mm the duration of all these. These signs arouse in the student the feeling for correct breatMng for production of sound and correct speech, syllabically as well as rhetorically. "The practice of ... a piece of poetry or of prose must be carried on in one tone (that is, on one pitch), the one which the student can produce without the slightest exertion." l Transcriptions of the exercises employed are given on pages 159 and i6o.2 There are, of course, numerous auxiliaries to the syllabic exercises. In some institutions the pupils practise while marching, pronouncing one syllable to a step, syllabicate words while performing dumb- bell exercises, and so on. In most schools where syllabication is employed as an exercise, the pupils progress from, syllabic reading to the normal reading of poetry and prose. But in some stammering-schools 1 The above passage Is taken from an English translation. 2 Symbols as formerly employed. The dotted line beneath a con- sonant of course denotes its surdal quality. A short vertical line beneath a vowel specifies direct attack.