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178 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING
times called " opposing movements/' and it is asserted
of them that they oppose or u counterbalance the
spasmodic tendency to stammer."
This gesticulatory measure is probably a century
old, for it was recommended by as early a writer as
Serre d'Alais.1 This investigator advised the stam-
merer to execute downward movements of the arms
at difficult syllables. Violette2 advised the stam-
merer to gesticulate before speaking. More recent
writers have recommended gesticulation at every
accented word in a sentence.
A few of the specific gestures prescribed by teachers
of stammerers are: nodding the head, throwing the
head back with a jerk, snapping the fingers, pulling
at a coat button, pressing the thumb against the chin
or larynx, waving the hand, raising a handkerchief
to the mouth, tapping with the foot, grasping and
releasing the back of a chair, winking the eyes,
fumbling a rolled newspaper, etc.
"'Prof.' Grady's secret is that the human mind contains
at the same time one thought and a half, and in the short space
of two hours he teaches the stutterer to banish this half thought,
which, according to St. Grady, is. the sole cause of the defect.
The means used to accomplish this end are jingling the watch-
chain, striking the hips, and other similar 'natural and grace-
1 "Memorial des h6pitauz du midi," 1829.
2 " Etudes sur la parole et ses d6fauts," Paris, 1862.
8 Potter, "Speech and its Defects," p. 93.