178 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING times called " opposing movements/' and it is asserted of them that they oppose or u counterbalance the spasmodic tendency to stammer." This gesticulatory measure is probably a century old, for it was recommended by as early a writer as Serre d'Alais.1 This investigator advised the stam- merer to execute downward movements of the arms at difficult syllables. Violette2 advised the stam- merer to gesticulate before speaking. More recent writers have recommended gesticulation at every accented word in a sentence. A few of the specific gestures prescribed by teachers of stammerers are: nodding the head, throwing the head back with a jerk, snapping the fingers, pulling at a coat button, pressing the thumb against the chin or larynx, waving the hand, raising a handkerchief to the mouth, tapping with the foot, grasping and releasing the back of a chair, winking the eyes, fumbling a rolled newspaper, etc. "'Prof.' Grady's secret is that the human mind contains at the same time one thought and a half, and in the short space of two hours he teaches the stutterer to banish this half thought, which, according to St. Grady, is. the sole cause of the defect. The means used to accomplish this end are jingling the watch- chain, striking the hips, and other similar 'natural and grace- ful movements/"8 1 "Memorial des h6pitauz du midi," 1829. 2 " Etudes sur la parole et ses d6fauts," Paris, 1862. 8 Potter, "Speech and its Defects," p. 93.