MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC 179 Many years ago Dr. Graves recommended an empirical measure, which Is, unfortunately, encoun- tered even at the present day. Respecting the ex- pedient he says:1 "I have recently discovered a method by which the most Inveterate stutterer may be enabled to obtain utterance for his words with tolerable fluency. It Is simply by compelling him to direct his attention to some object, m as to remove it from the effort he makes to speak. Thus, I direct him to hold a rale or a bit of stick in his right hand, and with it to strike the fore- finger of the left, in regular lime with the words [apparently not the syllables) he is uttering; the eye must be fixed, and all the attention directed to the finger he IH striking, and the time must be strictly kept. This method I have tried in several instances with complete success, and Dr. Ncligan informs me that, since I first mentioned it to him, he has found it com- pletely effectual in numerous cases* Although, of course, when thus employed, this plan can only be regarded m a means of affording temporary relief, I have no doubt, that if it were per- severingly followed out with young persons who stammer, both in reading and speaking, it would cure them permanently of the unpleasant affection,** The employment of gestures and minor bodily movements h usually prescribed an a means of divert- ing tilt stammerer's attention from his impediment. But one writer, Dr. Findley, has recommended gestic- ulation for another purpose. The following citation presents his theory;2 *" Clinical Lectures,'1 edited by Dr, Ndlgan; London, 1848, Quoted by Hunt, "Stammering and Stuttering," 7th eel, p* 159. * "Summering," Tke Voles, Vol. VII, pp. 73-74.