182 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING by gesture we compel this muscle to act in the way that is nec- essary for producing perfect sound, that I could control the difficulty so as to converse tolerably under all circumstances." 1 Dr. Findley's theory concerning the action of the diaphragm is at variance with the commonly ac- cepted view. The theory in itself seems a little inconsistent. — If, during expiration, the diaphragm is performing its secondary contraction (i.e. is dimin- ishing its diameter), then it cannot arch itself till inspiration occurs. But during inspiration Dr. Find- ley has the primary contraction going on2 (i.e. the diaphragm is flattening), and the arching movement is in no way accounted for. But in any case, the precise connection between gesticulation and dia- phragmatic action is somewhat obscure. And if the connection were more patent, it would still be neces- sary to demonstrate a causal relation between speech- disturbances and indiscipline of the diaphragm. Thus the evidence in support of gesture is not very convincing. The ' older argument, that gesture diverts the speaker's attention from his impediment, may have some weight. But this would scarcely make gesture 1A third argument in favor of gesture is presented by Rouma ("La parole et les troubles de la parole," pp. 106 ££.), who holds that cerebral activity overflows from the arm-centres to the speech-centres. 2 "Both in breathing and in making sound, we inspire by contract- ing the diaphragm."