MODES OF ENUNCIATION, ETC. 187 given rise to a system of exercises to train the stammerer to keep the tongue always in the region of the palate." Haase gives the following summary of the Leigh method and theory: * "Madam Leigh observed that with stammerers the tongue lies deep in the mouth when the speech-defect is in evidence j whereas with normal-speaking persons the point of the tongue remains in contact with the hard palate. She therefore con- cluded that the speech-defect would disappear if the stammerer persistently raised the point of the tongue and pressed it against the palate. She required those afflicted to move the point of the tongue upward and backward, and to thrust the tongue rapidly from this rearward position far out of the mouth, then immediately to withdraw it. These movements were performed six or a dozen times, and the exercise was repeated at frequent intervals till the required dexterity was obtained. The fraenum was pulled and manipulated while the tongue was held in an elevated position. Mrs. Leigh further directed that the tongue should at all times be kept in contact with the front part of the hard palate or the upper gums. This rule was to be observed even when the pupil was not conversing. At night a roll of wet linen was kept under the tongue to prevent it from sinking to its low posi- tion." Frau Hagemann and a number of other European teachers employed the Leigh method. We quote Frau Hagemann:2 1 "Das Stottern," p. 84. 2 лг)ie UntruglicKe Heilung des Stotter- und Stammel-Uebels," pp. 12 f. and pp. 16 f.