i88 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING "Investigation has revealed the fact that the stammerer's tongue is usually (and especially when he is not engaged in speech) far removed from the position it occupies with normal- speaking persons: the tongue lies in the lower part of the mouth, in the lower jaw, in fact. The result is that the tongue- ligaments (Zungenb&nder) * gradually become relaxed, so that the tongue often fails to perform its function. . . . "The remedy in its entire simplicity but splendid efficacy is this: Always to keep the point of the tongue directed toward the upper part of the mouth and in contact with the palate; and during silence to keep the whole tongue to the palate with the point in contact with the upper incisors, or better still, in contact with their roots. The point of the tongue must never leave this position.2 To explain better the normal position of the tongue, one might say that it occupies the position required for swallowing saliva." The foregoing paragraphs should make plain the nature of the expedient. The procedure has been somewhat modified by different teachers. According to Colombat:3 " Malebouche modified the American method by requiring the stammerer to apply the entire upper surface of the tongue to 1 Probably meaning Zungeriband (fr&num)* 2 If the point of the tongue were not to leave the palate, the speaker would be unable to pronounce the linguals. The author is apparently striving for emphasis. .The version of Malebouche, Haase, and most other writers is that the stammerer must keep the tongue to the "in imitation of the normal speaker." The tongue must start the palate, and manoeuvre in the upper part of the mouth. '"Orthophonie, oder Physiologic und Therapie des Stott|ms,"?v p. 51- ' *'