MECHANICAL APPLIANCES, ETC. 223 etc., which will not be for long. Electrical treat- ments and gymnastic exercises are certainly not directed at the cause of abnormal utterance. * At this point it may be opportune to $ay a wor<J concerning surgical operations, — which &re,x)f course, intended to remove mechanical obstructions? J^^eech. The operating craze began in 1841, but, like its victims, it was shortly blessed with death. tunately a few of its illegitimate offsj^ng The parent operation consisted in sli wedge from the base of the tongue. The edge's of the gap were then brought and sewed toother;, and the tongue was in the much-wished-for H|* high position/' The filial operations consist in remov- ing adenoids, tonsils, elongated uvulas, and other - accessible material. An English teacher of stam- merers (apparently with no medical knowledge) finds seventy-nine stammerers in a hundred afflicted with various "obstructions/* These obstructions, it is true, are not represented as causes of stammering, culture, I should produce a more harmonious balance of brain and body, to the lasting benefit of the sufferer/* Ok, how scientific t And hera we have convincing proof that physical exercises are Injurious: "Besides the other remedies, she practised gymnastic exercises, and consequently lost her voice altogether, because gymnastics 'in- creased the peripheral strength.1* And so It goes.