/ PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS 227
the • vudding will be the presence or absence of
contrary procedure consists in speaking one's
Jbrds as they rise in the mind, and uttering them
fapidly to prevent the intrusion of " foreign ideas." x
In reading for practice, one covers the succeeding
words in order that they may not divert attention.
All of which seems like a roundabout and undesirable
method of obtaining a desirable end.
The stammerer is sometimes advised to visualize
!jiis words in print or script,. This expedient has
Already been discussed.2
The antipodal procedure consists in "darkening
th£ mental eye" for the purpose of excluding "letters."
It & difficult to criticize the procedure, for no specific
.instf'Uctions are given for accomplishing the feat,
and eSj-ch stammerer is left to discover his own means
of affixfcp.g an eye-flap to his organ of psychic vision.
Associated with the process of " darkening the
mental eye" is that of acquiring "phlegmatics."
"All of your force and energy, exerted hitherto in the wrong
direction, must be devoted to acquiring that which is essential,
viz.: — phlegmatics ["exaggerated calmness"]. . . . This we
bring about by placing ourselves in the state of a tired, sluggish,
or feeble individual."
1 This expedient seems to have been introdtlcedjby Moses Mendels-
2 Vol. I, pp. 350 £f. Concerning visualization of oral ifeqyjexnents,
see Vol. I, pp. 362 ff., and Vol. II, pp. 94 ff, \