PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS 233 occasionally a somnambulic) condition by suggestions of sleep, by passes, by being required to fixate an ob- ject, etc. He is then given suggestions of his con- fidence and ability to speak. If somnambulic, he may be required to converse with, or read to? the person conducting the treatment. A German teacher that places great reliance upon hypnotism writes thus of its efficacy : "The treatment of stammering by means of hypnotic sug- gestion commends itself as an exclusively psychological method; and as such, it offers essential advantages. First, sleep exerts so beneficial an influence on the nervous and excitable nature of the stammerer, and so counteracts his characteristic disquietude, haste, and fear, that speech-disturbances almost invariably vanish during hypnosis. And further, the influences em- ployed to combat the thought of stammering are usually ac- cepted without criticism in the deeper stages of sleep; and the auto-suggestive nature of the difficulty — the stammerer's belief in his inability to talk —• is removed more rapidly than would be the case with any other form of treatment. We have already noted what labor and pains the so-called *en- vironal stammerer*l occasions the teacher when other systems are employed* With such patients, hypnotic suggestion af- fords the only effective treatment; and, moreover, the work is greatly simplified for both pupil and teacher. The latter need no longer follow each step of the pupil, for the factors and sit- uations that the pupil fears can be attacked by suggestion."f l"Situatwns»$t0tterer"-~(>nt that speaks fluently in the Institu- tion and with friends, but stammers in certain difficult situations* 2 From the prospectus of a German stammering-school.