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PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS                235

tranquil mood by hypnotic suggestion, and that the stammerer
will speak relatively well under these conditions; but he may
with good reason question the fact that this tranquil mood will
continue. Thus we see hypnotic treatment — treatment
intended merely to remove the stammerer's fear—prove abor-
tive though continued for years.1'

Hypnotic treatment, even though it were poten-
tially efficacious, would almost surely fail because of
the extremely general nature of the suggestions; Yet
if both patient and physician possessed an intelligent
comprehension of the malady, and the patient could
himself diagnose the case; then it seems not at all
improbable that specific suggestions might be given
that would prove effective.

In a few European stammering-schools, suggestions
are given to the pupil "in the waking state/' This
form of treatment, its votaries are ardent to emphasize,
is not hypnotism. But hypnosis itself does not neces-
sarily involve unconsciousness or sleep. The com-
mendation of "I^adteuggestlonen" is commonly a
quibble intended to circumvent popular ignorance
and prejudice regarding hypnotism.

Psychoanalysis has recently been employed in
the treatment of stammering by persons holding the
view that the disturbance is a fear-neurosis or
an "obsession" (Angstneurose, Angsthysterie, Wahn-
vorstettung, etc.). The purpose of the analysis is
to ascertain the cause of the obsessing fear, which