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Full text of "Stamering And Cognate Defects Of Speech Vol - Ii"

236    SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING

is usually taken to be an emotion or desire that has
at some time been voluntarily " repressed" (ver-
drangf) from the conscious into the (hypothetical)
subconscious mind. It is somewhat difficult to give
a concise summary of the psychoanalytic theories,
for these theories are vaporous even in the minds of
their propounders, and writers that have treated
the subject have given us little more than immethodi-
cal discussions with arguments based largely on anal-
ogyA We will, however, attempt a resum.6, quoting
psychoanalyists where feasible in order to avoid any
possible misinterpretation.

First, the distinction between psychoanalysis and
hypnotic suggestion:

"I notice that this method is often mistaken for the hyp-
notic suggestive treatment. I notice this by the fact that quite
frequently colleagues whose confidant I am not by any means,
send patients to me, refractory patients of course, with the
request that I should hynotize them. Now, for eight years I
have not practised hypnotism (individual cases excluded) as
a therapeutic aim, and hence I used to return the patients with
the advice that he who relies on hypnosis should do it himself.
In truth, the greatest possible contrast exists between the sug-
gestive and the analytic technique, that contrast which the
great Leonardo da Vinci has expressed for the arts in the for-
mulae per via di porre and per via di levare. Said Leonardo,l The
art of painting woiks per via di porre, that is to say, places
little heaps of paint where they have not been before on the
uncolored canvas; sculpturing, on the other hand, goes per
via di levare, that is to say, it takes away from the stone as