PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS 239 a clicking of the tongue with every excitement. — A highly intelligent man is assisting the surgeons in stretching his brother's ankylosed hip. The patient is anaesthetized, and as the joint yields with a cracking sound, the man feels severe pain in his own hip, which symptom then continues for nearly a year; etc." l But usually there is complete "hysterical conver- sion," and the morbid symptoms bear no overt rela- tion to the emotion or thought "repressed." (Hence, of course, the need for psychoanalysis.) "If the original emotion has discharged itself not in the nor- mal, but in an ''abnormal reflex,1 then it is the latter reflex that is induced by recollection of the incident. The excitation pro- duced by the affectively-colored recollection is * converted" into a corporeal phenomenon, "If this abnormal reflex has become habitual through fre- quent repetition; then, it seems, the efficacy of the exciting recollection may be exhausted to the point where the emotion is reduced to a minimum or altogether disappears. The 1 hysterical conversion* is then complete* The mental repre- sentation (Vorstellung), having lost its psychic effect, is now overlooked by the individual; or its appearance in memory is $t once forgotten, as is the case with images that are not af- fectively colored,"a As examples of "abnormal reflexes" Breuer cites one's pacing the floor instead of groaning when he is suffering from toothache; and one's grasping the arms or back of a dentist's chair instead of screaming 1 Breuer and Freud, "Studien tiber Hysteric," pp. 2-3. s Breuer, in Breuer and Freud's "Studien tlber Hysteria," p* 180.