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Full text of "Stamering And Cognate Defects Of Speech Vol - Ii"

240    SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING

and repelling the dentist. As an example of "con-
version" he cites the fact that the recollection of
an unavenged wrong may give rise to invective
language.

These "hysterical symptoms" are "determined"
by the nature of the "psychic traumata." And the
"psychic trauma," according to Freud, is a "re-
pressed" wish:

"What were those forces, and what were the conditions of
this repression, in which we were now able to recognize the
pathogenic mechanism of hysteria? A comparative study
of the pathogenic situations, which the cathartic [or psycho-
analytic] treatment has made possible, allows us to answer this
question. In all those experiences, it had happened that a
wish had been aroused, which was in sharp opposition to the
other desires of the individual, and was not capable of being
reconciled with the ethical, aesthetic and personal pretensions
of the patient's personality. There had been a short conflict,
and the end of this inner struggle was the repression of the idea
which presented itself to consciousness as the bearer of this
irreconcilable wish. This was, then, repressed from con-
sciousness and forgotten. The incompatibility of the idea in
question with the 'ego' of the patient was the motive of the re-
pression, the ethical and other pretensions of the individual
were the repressing forces. The presence of the incompatible
wish, or the duration of the conflict, had given rise to a high
degree of mental pain; this pain was avoided by the repression.
This latter process is evidently in such a case a device for the
protection of the personality."1

1 Freud, "Lectures and Addresses on Psychology and Pedagogy at
Clark University," p. 13.