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PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS                245

which seem arbitrary, and the latent dream-thoughts, whose
presence in the unconscious we must assume. This distortion
of the dream (Tmumentstettung) is the same process which has
been revealed to you in the investigations of the creations
(symptoms) of hysterical subjects; it points to the fact that the
same opposition of psychic forces has its share in the creation of
dreams as in the creation of symptoms*

"The manifest dream-content is the disguised surrogate
for the unconscious dream thoughts, and this disguising is the
work of the defensive forces of the ego, of the resistances.
These prevent the repressed wishes from entering conscious-
ness during the waking life, and even in the relaxation of sleep
they are still strong enough to force them to hide themselves
by a sort of masquerading. The dreamer, then, knows just as
little the sense of his dream as the hysterical knows the relation
and significance of Ms symptoms. That there are latent dream-
thoughts and that between them and the manifest dream-con-
tent there exists the relation just described  of this you may
convince yourselves by the analysis of dreams, a procedure the
technique of which is exactly that of psychoanalysis. You must
abstract entirely from the apparent connection of the elements
in the manifest dream and seek for the irruptive ideas which arise
through free association, according to the psychoanalytic laws,
from each separate dream element. From this material the
latent thoughts may be discovered, exactly as one divines the
concealed complexes of the patient from the fancies connected
with his symptoms and memories. From the latent dream
thoughts which you will find in this way, you will see at once
how thoroughly justified one is in interpreting the dreams of
adults by the same rubrics as those of children. What is now
substituted for the manifest dream-content is the real sense of
the dream, is always clearly comprehensible, associated with
the impressions of the day before, and appears as the fulfilling