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PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS                 251

in, most cases seem to have been "negative." Dr.
Laubi admits that "psychoanalysis is no panacea
for stammering," 1 and he naively suggests that sim-
pler means, such as change of diet or environment, are
to be preferred. Probably these latter means would
be just as effective.

The main objection to the psychoanalytic theories
is that they are based on a superlatively superficial
psychology. The existence and activity of the sub-
conscious mind are taken as postulates;2 and the

1 Medininisch-pSdagogische Monatsschrift fttr die gesamte Sfrach-

mkunde, Vol. XXI, p. 118.

s The following performance of the subconscious mind is recorded
by Freud ("Psychopathologie des Alltagslebens," 3d ed., p. 126);

"In a letter to a friend 1 informed him that I had finished
correcting the 'Traumdeutung/ and would make no further changes
*even if the work should contain 3467 mistakes/ I tried at once to
explain this particular number j and I embodied the analysis in
a postcript to the letter. It will be well to cite the words that I
wrote at the time as 1 caught myself in the act.

"' Already a contribution to the " Psychopathologie des Alltags-
lebena." You find in this letter the number 2467 as a jocund and ar-
bitrary estimate of the number of mistakes I am to find in the Dream-
book, It means, of course, any large number, but this is the particular
number that appeared. Now, there is nothing arbitrary and unde-
termined in the psychic life; and you will rightly suppose that the
subconscious mind determined the number to which the conscious
mind gave expression. Now, I had just been reading in the paper
that a certain General E, M. had retired with the rank of Master of
the Ordnance. You must know that this man interests me. When I
was serving in the army as a medical el&ve, the colonel, as he was then,
came to the ward. .He said to the doctor, "You must have me
well in a week, for I have an important commission to fulfil for